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Full text of "Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution"

TWENTY-SIXTH 
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

BUREAU OF 
AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



1904-1905 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENr PRINTING OFFICE 

1908 



.AV»oi4in Insttti 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of Aimerican Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, June 1, 1906. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Twenty- 
sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
The preliminary portion comprises an account of the oper- 
ations of the Bureau during the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1905, and this is followed by two memoirs, The Pima Indians, 
by Frank Russell, and Social Condition, Beliefs, and Lin- 
guistic Relationship of the Tlingit Indians, by John R. 
Swanton. 

Permit me to express my appreciation of your aid in the 
work under my charge. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

W. H. Holmes, Chief. 
Mr Richard Rathbun, 

Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



CONTENTS 



REPORT OP THE CHIEF 

Page 

Introduction IX 

Research work xii 

Handliook of American Indian Languages xxi 

Handbook of American Indians xxin 

Arcludlogical map xxvi 

Exixwition work xxvii 

St udy of Indian delegations xxviii 

Collections xxvin 

Publications xxix 

Editorial work xxix 

Illustrations xxx 

Library xxx 

Clerical work xxxi 

Property xxxi 

ACCOMPANYING PAPERS 

The Pima Indians, by Frank Riissell (plates i-xlvii, figures 1-102) '.i 

Social Condition, Beliefs, and Linguistic Relationship of the Tlingit Indians, 

by John R. Swanton (plates xi,viii-LViii, figures 103-117) 391 

Index 487 

V 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



W. H. Holmes, Chief 



INTRODUCTION 

Ethnologic researches have Ijeen conducted by the Bureau 
of American Ethnology for the fiscal year ending Jinie 30, 
1905, in accordance with the act of Congress making provi- 
sion "for continning ethnological researches among the 
American Indians, imder the direction of the Smithsonian 
Institution," approved April 28, 1904. 

The work of the Bureau has been conducted in confoiTnity 
with the plan of operations approved by the Secretaiy June 
17, 1904. The systematic researches have been carried for- 
ward by the eight members of the Bureau's scientific staff, 
assisted by a large number of associates and collaborators 
who have been called on to prepare papers on special sub- 
jects or to conduct investigations for which their ciualifica- 
tions especially fitted them. Diu'ing the year seven mem- 
bers and associates of the Bureau have made researches in 
the field, the regions visited including Maryland, \'irginia, 
Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, 
and Mexico. 

The amomit of field work has been somewhat ciu-tailed by 
the necessity of detaining a number of the ethnologists in the 
office to assist in the completion of the Handbook of American 
Indians (hitherto refeiTed to as the Cyclopedia or Diction- 
ary^ of Indian Tribes), which was designed to be submit- 
ted to the Secretar}' at the close of the year. The enlarge- 



X BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGT 

merit of the scope of the work to inchide not only descrip- 
tions of the tribes and their settlements, but also poj^iilar 
articles covering the whole range of ethnological and archeo- 
logical research relating to them, greatly increased the 
amount of investigation required, but the value of the 
Handbook as a work of reference has been more than pro- 
portionately increased. With the view of revising and uni- 
fying the great number of articles designed for introduction 
into the Handbook a committee of revision was organized, 
consisting of members of the Bureau and all available resi- 
dent anthropologists, fourteen in all, who met three times 
each week to discuss the papers presented. The meetings of 
this committee proved both interesting and profitable, and 
suggested the advisability of holding similar meetings here- 
after for the discussion of current researches of the Bureau. 

As a residt of the preparation of the papers for the Hand- 
book, covering, as they do, the entire range of Indian ethnol- 
ogy, the researches conducted m the office during the year 
have been exceptionally comprehensive; every branch of 
anthropology, including somatology, psychology, linguistics, 
sociology, religion, technology, and esthetics, has received 
such consideration as the comprehensive though necessarily 
brief articles for the Handbook required. Besides the arti- 
cles treating of these primaiy departments of research, man)- 
others have been prepared, on the various phases of the 
history, archeology, biography, and education of the Indians 
and the administration of their affairs. With the exception 
of the bibliography and index, which were retained for refer- 
ence in proof reading, the manuscript for the Handbook, 
accompanied with about 800 illustrations, was submitted to 
the Secretary July 1. 

Under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution the 
Chief visited Europe for the piu'pose of attending the Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists, held at Stuttgart, Ger- 
many, beginning August 18, 1904. In addition to repre- 
senting the Smithsonian Institution, he served as delegate 
of two other scientific organizations, and was also designated 
by the Department of State as the official representative at 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XI 

the congress of the United States Government. As a mem- 
ber of the scientific staff of the National Museum he was 
intrusted with the additional commission of visiting a nimiber 
of the principal museums of Europe for the purpose of acquir- 
ing information to be utilized in the erection and furnishing 
of the new National Museum building. On Juty 26 the 
Chief sailed from New York in company with Mr J. R. Mar- 
shall, of the firm of Hornl^lower & Marshall, architects of the 
new building, and reached Plymouth, England, August 1. 
Nine days were spent in visiting the museums of London, 
Oxford, and Cambridge, and eight days in similar observa- 
tions in Paris, and on August 18 Stuttgart was reached. 
The opening session of the Congress of Americanists was held 
in the forenoon of that day and was attended by a large num- 
ber of members and other prominent persons, including His 
Majest}' King William II of W'lU'ttemberg, who, in response 
to the address of the president of the congress. Prof. Karl 
von den Steinen, expressed at length his appreciation of the 
aims and work of the congress, and his pleasure at having 
the session held in his capital city. 

A report of the last meeting of the congress, held at New 
York City in 1902, was presented by Dr Franz Boas, honor- 
ary philologist of the Bureau, and other routine business was 
transacted. Members of the congress were invited to take 
luncheon with the King at his suburban palace, which was 
followed by a reception in the palace gardens. The King's 
interest was highly appreciated and contributed much to the 
success of the occasion. During the presence of the Ameri- 
canists receptions were held also by Count von Linden, vice- 
president of the congress, and by Mr Edward N. Ozmun, 
United States consul at Stuttgart. Sessions were held on 
August 19, 20, 22, 23, and 24, and a large number of papers, 
dealing in the main with questions of American histoiy, 
ethnology, and archeology, were read. On the 20th the 
Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology delivered an 
address on "Contributions of American Archeology to 
Human History," and at its close he presented to the con- 
gi'ess a set of 75 bound volumes, relating chiefly to American 
archeology and ethnology, published by the Smithsonian 



XII BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOCxY 

Institution and two of its bureaus — the National Museum 
and the Bureau of American Ethnology — for which the 
president extended the thanks of the congi-ess. The Chief 
presented also a series of 66 photogi-aphs of American 
Indians, representing delegations which visited Washington 
during the winter of 1903-4, the series having been taken 
conjointh^ by the Bureau of American Ethnology and the 
National Museum. Various excursions were made to points 
of interest, the principal being to Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 
to visit the sites of Dr J. Nuesch's recent explorations of 
the famous lake-dwelling stations at Schweizerbild and 
Koenigsbau. 

After the adjournment of the congress the Chief proceeded 
to Dresden, where, under the guidance of Dr A. B. Meyer, 
director of the Royal Zoological and Anthropological Museum 
of Saxony, the various museums of that city were examined. 
After leaving Dresden, a number of cities in Germany, Hol- 
land, and Belgium were visited with a view to museum study, 
and on September 12 he returned to Paris, and on the 25th 
sailed from Cherbourg, en route for New York. Between the 
date of his arrival in Plymouth, August 1, and his departure 
from Paris, September 25, the Chief of the Bureau visited 
and made studies of about 50 museums. The observations 
made are embodied in a separate report submitted to the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

RESEARCH WORK 

Shortly after his return from Europe, in September, the 
Chief found it necessary to undertake the preparation of a 
number of articles relating to aboriginal art and archeology 
for the Handl^ook of American Indians. Among the subjects 
treated at some length are antiquity, archeology, architec- 
ture, art, bonework. Bureau of American Ethnology, catlin- 
ite, cliff-dwellings, copper, engraving, graphic art, mines and 
quarries, metal work, ornament, pottery, sculpture, shell 
heaps, shellwork, and stonework. The only field work under- 
taken by the Chief during the year was a brief visit to Cave- 
town, Md., for the purpose of observing the exploration 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XIII 

there being conducted by Dr Charles Peabody and Mr W. K. 
Moorehead in the well-known cave near that village. Mr 
J. D. McGuire had l)egun the exploration of this cave for the 
Carnegie Institution in 1903 and had obtained valuable evi- 
dence of its former occupancy by Indians. The present 
work, which consisted of extensive excavations within the 
outer chamber of the cavern, yielded much additional mate- 
rial of the same general character. 

During the first few weeks of the j'ear Mr James Mooney, 
ethnologist, was in St Louis supervising the final installation 
of the Kiowa heraldry exhil^it in the Smithsonian section of 
the Clovernment building, Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 
This exhibit comprised about 120 articles, filling 50 linear feet 
of wall case, together with one floor case, and consisted of 90 
small shield models, 4 original shields, 5 tipi models, 6 paint- 
ings on buckskin, with several ceremonial lances and smaller 
oljjects. On the completion of this work, after a brief leave 
of absence, Mr Mooney returned to Mount Scott, in the Kiowa 
country, Oklahoma, where he continued his researches, 
including the preparation of models and the collection of 
ethnological material. A number of Cheyenne tipi models 
were also made for the Field Columbian Museum, of Chicago, 
with funds provided by that institution, as authorized by 
joint arrangement with the Bureau. At the end of October 
Mr Mooney returned to Washington and was engaged in 
writing a preliminary paper on Kiowa heraldry until about 
the end of the calendar year, when he was called on to coop- 
erate in the preparation of the Handbook of American Indians, 
for which work the following articles were furnished: Ara- 
wakan colony, Calusa tribe, Cheyenne tribe, Kiowa tribe, 
military societies, peyote, population, shields, signals, sign 
language, skin-dressing, and Timucua tribe. Besides these 
about 100 minor articles were prepared, treating of tribes, 
biographies of noted Indians, and other subjects. In connec- 
tion with this work the available information relating to the 
ancient tribes of Florida and the Gulf states generally was 
found to be so deficient and confused that Mr Mooney under- 
took an investigation of the subject from original sources. 



XIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

A portion of the results has been embodied in the Handbook of 
American Indians, and the foundation has been laid for an 
extended paper on the ethnology of this region, to form a 
complement to his previous studies of the Siouan tribes of 
the East and the Cherokee. In the meantime he also super- 
vised the photographing of the large series of shield models 
and other portions of the heraldry collection made ])y him 
during previous years, and prepared catalogues and labels 
for such portions of this material as were required for the 
Bureau exhibit at the Lewis and Clark Exposition held at 
Portland, Oreg. 

Dr J. Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, spent the first six months 
of the year in the completion of the text of his monograph 
on the Aborigines of Porto Rico. He left Washington on 
January 7, 1905, for an extended archeological trip to the 
Republic of Mexico, imder a grant from the Smithsonian 
Institution, and returned on the loth of May. About three 
weeks were spent by Doctor Fewkes in the City of Mexico 
making arrangements with Government officials for letters to 
those who could aid him in the prosecution of his studies. 
While not thus engaged at the capital his time was profitably 
employed in studying the collections in the Museo Nacional 
and one or two private collections and in making several excur- 
sions to places of archeological interest in the neighborhood of 
the city, including several of the niins near Lake Tezcoco, as 
well as those at Iztapalapa and at San Juan Teotihuacan. 
While awaiting letters of introduction from the President to 
the governors of Veracruz and Tamaulipas, Doctor Fewkes 
visited Cuernavaca, where he photographed the so-called 
"Victory stone," the pictograph of the eagle, and the famous 
stone lizard, and made a trip also to the ruins of Xochicalco 
and Tepoztlan. From the ruin known as Casa del Tepozteco 
he obtained copies of inscriptions on the raised seat in the 
inner room. 

After receiving the necessaiy letters through the courtesy 
of President Diaz, Doctor Fewkes proceeded to Xalapa, in 
the State of Veracruz, which he made the base of operations 
during February, March, and a part of April. While in 
the city of Veracruz, considerable time was devoted to an 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XV 

examination of the fine collection of Governor Dehesa, as well 
as to the collection of Seiiora Estafania and others. The vicin- 
ity of Xalapa was found to be particularly rich in ruins and 
mounds, among which are those at Coatepec, Bandarilla, 
and Xalapa Viejo. An excui"sion was made also to Texolo, 
where there are thirteen or more large mounds, some of 
which are evidently the remains of temples of an old Totonac 
city. Xico Viejo, an imdescribed ruin of a Nahuatl gamson 
town mentioned by Bernal Diaz and Gomara, was also 
visited in the mountains near the trail taken by Cortes 
from the coast to the City of Mexico in 1519. Instructive 
photographs of this ruin were taken, and notes made on the 
idols and pottery found in the neighborhood. 

Doctor Fewkes made two visits to the ruins of Cempoa- 
lan, about 20 miles from the city of Veracruz. On the first 
visit he was accompanied by an official representative of 
Governor Dehesa, 1iy the alcalde of San Carlos, a neighbor- 
ing town, and Ij}' the inspector and owner of the ruins. On 
the second trip, when he spent a week at the ruins. Governor 
Dehesa kindly permitted him to employ the services of the 
State photographer, Senor Ximenes. 

At the close of March Doctor Fewkes visited the old city 
of Villa Rica de la Veracruz, now called Antigua, founded 
by Cortes. In the neighborhood of this city, but on the 
opposite side of the river, he found many mounds indicating 
the site of a large prehistoric city. Other niins were observed 
at Santa Fe. 

Doctor Fewkes examined some of the antiquities about 
Cordova and Orizaba; he also visited the pyramid of Cho- 
lula, near Puebla, and near the middle of April proceeded 
to the state of Tamaulipas, spending about three weeks at 
Tampico in a study of the numerous ruins along the Panuco 
and Tamesi rivers and on the adjacent lagoons, and in visit- 
ing the extensive shell heaps and temple mounds a mile east 
of Tampico and others not far from the site of the old town, 
Tampico Viejo. Doctor Fewkes found numerous antiquities 
at Altamira and mounds on the banks of the Champayan 
lagoon. Many other evidences of former occupancy, as 
idols, pottery, stone weapons, and ornaments, were seen in 



XVT BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

this region. The old city of Chila, destroyed by Cortes, 
situated about 10 miles west of Tampico, was found to be 
hidden in a forest. Evidences of temples and biu'ial mounds 
also occur abundantly in this locality. About 50 photo- 
graphs of bowls, jars, and idols found in the neighborhood 
of Panuco, Tampico, and the lagoons along the banks of the 
Tamesi river, were made. Of more than usual interest are 
those of large stone idols at Altamira and in the courtyard 
of a house in Tampico. 

On his return to Washington, Doctor Fewkes continued 
the study from his notes and photographs and prepared a 
general account of his visit to C'empoalan and Xicochimalco, 
which was transmitted for publication by the Smithsonian 
Institution. The illustrative material brought back includes 
about 200 large photographic negatives, numerous smaller 
views, tracings of pictographs, and many drawings, plans, 
and maps. 

Dr Cyrus Thomas, ethnologist, was engaged dming the 
year largely on the Handbook of American Indians, assisting 
Mr Hodge in the lal^orious task of preparing the manuscripts 
for publication. Among the articles writ ten by Doct or Thomas 
during the year for this work are agriculture, calendar, count- 
ing. Five Civilized Tribes, fortifications, habitations, maize, 
migrations, mortuary customs, movmds and mound builders, 
population, reservations, and treaties, besides a nimil^er of bio- 
gi'aphical sketches and certain archeological articles of a more 
special character. The work of reading the proofs of Bulle- 
tin 28, which required especial acquaintance with the arche- 
ology and glyphic systems of the ancient Mexicans, was also 
intrusted to Doctor Thomas, and was completed before the 
end of the year. He was also frequently called on for data 
required in official correspondence relating to his special 
branches of research. 

Mr J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnologist, at the beginning of the 
year began the preparation of various articles for the Hand- 
book of American Indians, and continued the correction and 
elaboration of the material pertaining to the Iroquoian stock 
for the same work. Among the articles in hand are those 



ADMINISTRATIVK REPORT XVII 

on adoption, chiefs, clans and gentes, confederations, govern- 
ment, niytholog}-, scalping, ^^'am])vun, and women. The work 
of cataloguing the collection of linguistic manuscripts, of 
which Mr Hewitt is custodian, was completed as far as 
copying the old cards in duplicate, when the work was laid 
aside for that of the Ihuidhook. He also gave material assist- 
ance in furnishing data requu-ed in the correspondence of 
the Bui-eau relating to tribes and languages. 

Mrs M. C. Stevenson, ethnologist, spent the month of July 
m New Mexico, where she had ])een for some months making 
a study of the arts, industries, religion, and social customs 
of the Zuili tribe. It was observed that the Zuiii pantheon 
is largely similar to that of the Hopi and the Rio Grande 
pueblos. Although the Zuhi worship numerous deities which 
take both human and Ijestial form, they believe also in a 
supreme power without form, yet embrading all form, the 
breath of life — life itself. These beliefs indicate that the 
Ziuli have reached a higher stage of culture than has previ- 
ously been supposed, although it can not yet be said to what 
extent this may be attriinited to the Spanish influence to 
which the tribe was more or less subjected for three centuries. 
Various details relating to Zuhi life were investigated, and 
valuable information regarding mortuaiy customs was 
obtained through the death and Inuial of Naiuchi, a cele- 
brated priest-chief, whose demise occurred dining Mrs 
Stevenson's stay in Zuhi pueblo. Native plants entering into 
the medicine and dietary of the Zuhi were also studied ; the 
arts of preparing and dyeing wool, which have not been 
practised for many years, were observed, and specimens of 
the native materials and devices employed in the process, as 
well as of the dyed wool, were collected. Studies of symljol- 
ism as embodied in Zmli iextile and ceramic art, and investi- 
gations into the everyday life, and especially the child life, 
of the pueblo were likewise made. 

Early in August a day was spent by Mrs Stevenson with 
the Santa Clara Indians in making a series of photogi-aphs 
of their annual fiesta. The month was occupied princij)ally, 
however, in a study of the Sia Indians, a few days being given 

26 ETH— OS -2 



XVIII BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

to the neighboring Jemez pueblo. On the 27th Mrs Steven- 
son reached Cochiti, whence a visit was made to the great stone 
carving of cougars on the mesa 10 miles distant. In Mrs 
Stevenson's comparative studies these sculptures are of 
special interest, as they are referred to in some of the most 
sacred myths of the Zuni. The first part of September was 
employed in a visit to the cavate and mesa ruins about 12 
miles from Santa Clara and in making observations among 
the Tewa people of San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, and San Juan 
pueblos. The religious beliefs, rituals, and daily customs of 
these people were found to be closely allied to those of the 
Zuiii, difference in language alone indicating that distinct 
peoples are involved. In October Mrs Stevenson I'eturned to 
Washington, where she has since been engaged in the revision 
of proofs of her memoir on the Zinli Indians, in the Twenty- 
third Annual Report, and, as opportunity afforded, in the 
elaboration of her several studies on Zuni religious beliefs, 
on the edible and medicinal plants of the Zvuii, on symbol- 
ism as embodied in the textile and ceramic arts, and on the 
dyeing of textile fabrics. 

Dr J. R. Swanton, ethnologist, was engaged during the 
year in copying and preparing for the press material obtained 
by him among the Tlingit Indians of Alaska during the win- 
ter of 1903-4. This work, as completed, consists of 137 
pages treating of the general ethnology of the Tliagit peo- 
ples, 20 native texts with interlinear anfl free translations, 
the words of about 100 songs, with translations, together 
with English versions of 88 stories obtained at Sitka and 
Wrangell — altogether making 900 typewritten pages. Doc- 
tor Swanton has prepared also grammatical accounts of the 
Dakota, Haida, and Tlingit languages for introduction into 
the Handbook of American Indian Languages now in course 
of preparation imder the direction of Dr Franz Boas, honorary 
philologist of the Bureau; and he has also been called on to 
contribute several articles for the Handbook of American 
Indians, including kinship, names and naming, priests and 
priesthood, secret societies, social organizations, thunderbird, 
totem poles, and numerous tribal articles. 



APMINISTRATIVK REPORT XIX 

Dr A. S. Gatschet, ethnologist, continued his work on 
certain unfinished linguistic studies which it was hoped could 
be completed for publication before his failing health made 
further progress impossil:)lc, l:)ut in Januarj- he was compelled 
practically to relinquish his efforts, and on March 13 was 
placed on furlough. 

Early m the year arrangements were made with the United 
States National Museum to have Dr AleS HrdliCka, curator 
of phj'sical anthropology in the Museum, visit Ai'izona and 
New Mexico in l^ehalf of the Bureau for the purpose of mak- 
ing physical, physiological, and medical observations among 
the Apache and the Pima Indians. Leaving Washington 
on Januar\' 20, Doctor Hrdlifka Ijegan his studies five days 
later on the San Carlos Apache reservation, where he 
remainefl until Februaiy 8, when he visited a group of 
Apache residing near what is known as the Sawmill, in the 
Black River region. From this point he returned to San 
Carlos, and on Fel:)ruan' 13 reached the Rice Station Apache 
school and district, situated farther northeast on the reser- 
vation. On February 26 Doctor HrdliCka endeavored to 
reach the White Mountain branch of the Apache, but was 
prevented from doing so l\v exceptionally heaw rains. On 
Alarch 1 he was al)le to proceed to Sacaton, Ai'iz., where 
studies of the Pima tribe were made. From March 12 to 
16 he was at Casa Blanca. On the latter date he returned 
to Casa Grande, and thence proceeded to El Paso, Tex., 
reaching the resen^ation of the Mescalero Apache in New 
Mexico on the 19th. After remaining six days with the 
Mescaleros, Doctor Hrdli(*ka began his return journey, reach- 
ing Washington March 31. 

Doctor HrdliCka's researches were conducted with the 
object of supplementing his former investigations among 
the same tribes. As much attention as possible was devoted 
to the children, from birth onward, the number examined 
being nearly 1,000. Other important subjects to which 
study was especially devoted were fecimdity, mortality, 
native foods, hygiene, disease, and curative means and 
methods. These studies were greatly facilitated by the 



XX BUREAU OF AMERICAT^ ETHNOLOGY 

officials of tlie Indian Office, and met with little objection 
on the part of the Indians. 

In addition to his dii'e(;t anthropologic investigations, 
Doctor Hrdlicka succeeded in gathering specimens of about 
150 medicinal and food plants and a number of ethnological 
objects. He procured one Apache skull and five complete 
Apache skeletons, and in addition to making observations of 
value among the ancient ruins of the general region, obtained 
many archeological specimens from hitherto imexplored 
ruins in the San ("arlos valley. 

In April Mr E. L. Hewett, who was engaged during the 
winter months in preparing for the Bureau an archeological 
map of Colorado and New Mexico, was commissioned to ])ro- 
ceed to New Mexico for the purpose of making extended 
researches among the ancient ruins of the so-called Pajarito 
Plateau district. His first work was the investigation of 
numerous deserted and ruined pueblos of the Tewa tribes. 
This was followed by excavations of ancient mounds in Otowi 
canyon, which yielded results of exceptional interest. Upward 
of 175 burials were uncovered, and the osseous remains of more 
than 100 individuals were collected and forwarded for study in 
the National Museum. The art remains comprise numerous 
entire earthenware vessels and many fragments, with a fair 
complement of implements of bone and stone. Mr Hewett 
was fortunate in reaching this arid spot in an exceptionally 
wet season, as he found water always within easy reach. 
At the close of the year he had completed his studies within 
the bovmdaries of Pajarito plateau and was preparing to ex- 
plore the plateaus and mountains to the west and the Jemez 
valley beyond. 

In June a report reaching the Bureau that important finds 
of i^rehistoric remains of man and art had Ijeen made on the 
.site of the forthcoming Jamestown Exposition, near Norfolk, 
Va., Mr J. D. McGuire was commissioned to visit the locality 
and report on the character of the discoveries made. Mr 
McGuire si:)ent one day on the exposition grounds collecting 
such information as was available, and later reported that 
although traces of human remains had l)een exposed in the 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXI 

oxcavatioiis of the exposition company, the reports had been 
fireatly exaggerated, the discoveries being meager and uni- 
form in character with the reUcs of countless other sites in 
the Chesapeake-Potomac region. 

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES 

The work of Dr Franz Boas, honorary philologist, was con- 
fined to the prej)aration of the Handbook of American Indian 
Languages, which has been under way for several years. 
The main part of the field work for the first part of the Hand- 
])ook was closed during the present year and some field work 
designed to l)e emijodied in the second part was taken uj). 
Doctor Boas also furnished the article on languages for the 
Handbook of American Indians. 

In the course of the fiscal year" the following manuscripts 
for the Handljook of American Indian Languages have Ijeen 
submitted: 

1. Dr P. E. Goddard: (irammatical notes on the Hupa 
(Athapascan stock). 

2. Dr A. L. Kroeber: Grammatical notes on the Yuki 
(Yukian stock). 

3. Dr Roland B. Dixon: Grammatical notes on the Maidu 
(Pujunan stock). 

4. Dr William Jones: Grammatical notes on the Sauk and 
Fox (Algonquian stock). 

5. Dr John R. Swanton: (irammatical notes on the Dakota 
( wSiouan stock) . 

6. Dr John R. Swanton: Grammatical notes on the Haida 
(Skittagetan stock). 

7. Dr John R. Swanton: Grammatical notes on the Tlingit 
( Koluschan stock) . 

8. Dr Franz Boas: Grammatical notes on the Kwakiutl 
( Wakashan stock) . 

9. Dr Franz Boas: Grammatical notes on the Chinook 
(Chinookan stock). 

The following manuscripts are still outstanding: 
\. Mr J. N. B. Hewitt: Grammatical notes on the Iro- 
quois (Iroquoian stock). 



XXII BUREAU OF AMKRICAN ETHNOLOGY 

2. Dr Franz Boas: Grammatical notes on the Eskimo 
(Eskimaiian stock). 

3. Dr Franz Boas: Grammatical notes on the Tsimshian 
(Chimmcsyan stock). 

During the year the grammatical notes on the Shoshoni, by 
Mr H. H. St Clair, 2d, have been revised. 

The general plan of the Handbook of American Indian Lan- 
guages has undergone no material change, except in so far as 
it was deemed advisable to add briefer articles on the gram- 
mar of others of the remaining languages of the northern part 
of the continent. These are the Tlingit, the Salish, the Kute- 
nai, and the Chimakum. It is deemed advisable to add also 
a sketch of one of the coast languages of Oregon which was 
collected during the year 1904-5 by Mr St Clair, who sub- 
mitted his material on the Coosa and Takclma of Oregon 
during the present year. 

It was considered desirable to add also certain data relat- 
ing to the formation of the noun in Chinook, which seemed 
of importance, in order to elucidate some questions relating 
to the fundamental traits of that famil}^ of languages. Since 
all our information on this stock is derived from one inform- 
ant, it was deemed essential to obtain additional material 
from other sources and from another dialect. For this rea- 
son preparations were made to send Mr E. Sapir to the 
upper Columbia river to make a study of the Wasco. In the 
preparation of this work the Kathlamet dictionar}^, based on 
Bulletin 26, was arranged and copied. 

The work on the Southei'ii group of languages will require 
long and energetic field work. So far only one of the lan- 
guages of the Gulf states, the Yuchi, has been taken up, this 
tribe being selected because it seems most likely to furnish 
material that will be not only of linguistic value, but will 
afford knowledge of the early history and customs of the 
Southeast. This work has been intrusted to Mr Frank G. 
Speck, who spent the summer of 1904 among the Yuchi tribe 
and who retiu'ned to this field at the close of the fiscal year. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXIII 

HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN INDIANS 

Work oil the Handbook, hitherto freciuently referred to as 
the "Dictionary of Indian Tribes," has been vigorously 
prosecuted during the year under the immediate supervision 
of Mr F. W. Hodge, of the Smithsonian Institution, who, with 
the approval of the Secretarj^, has devoted most of his time 
thereto. Mr Hodge has had the almost undivided assistance 
of Dr Cyrus Thomas, and, as occasion required, nearly the 
entire scientific staff of the Bureau has aided both in the 
preparation of the anthropologic and kindred articles and in 
the revision and elaboration of the tribal descriptions found 
to be necessary by reason of recently acquired knowledge. 
So far as the funds of the Bureau afforded, the aid of eth- 
nologists not officially connected with the Bureau was also 
enlisted. The services generously rendered b)^ these, either 
gratuitously or for a merely nominal consideration, are 
highly appreciated. 

As outlined in former reports, it was originally the plan of 
Major Powell to classify the linguistic families, tribes, and 
settlements north of Mexico and to identifj^ the various 
names by which these had been known in the vast literature 
of the subject, with a brief description of each such group. 
This material, recorded on many thousands of cards, became 
known as the "Cyclopedia of Tribes, with Synonymy." 

In 1903 the Secretary altered the scope of the work by 
directing the incorporation of brief separate articles pertain- 
ing to the habits, customs, arts, and industries of the Indians 
and of their dealings with the Government, together with 
biographies of noted individuals and a list of words of north- 
ern Indian origin that have been incorporated into the Eng- 
lish language. No work so com23rehensive in its scope had 
hitherto been attempted, consequently in making plans for 
the new departure it became necessarj' to begin at the foun- 
dation. The popular style of treatment was ever kept in 
mind, and considerable time was consumed in correspond- 
ence with experts best qualified for the preparation of many 
of the special articles called for by the enlarged plan. For 
these reasons it has not been possible to complete the work 



XXIV BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

at an earlier date. Owing to the fact that many of the spe- 
ciaUsts do not reside in Washington, it was difficiUt, within 
a Hmited time, to arrange for entire consistency in treatment 
and to prevent repetition through encroachment of one sub- 
ject on another when. written by many hands. On this 
account, and for the purpose of obtaining the views and 
criticisms of as many experts as possible, conferences were 
held, as already mentioned, three times each week, which 
were faithfully attended by the ethnologic staffs of the 
Bureau and the National Museum, as well as by other resi- 
dent ethnologists; and ethnologists from elsewhere, while 
visiting Washington, often gave this committee of revision 
the benefit of their criticism. 

As the articles prepared both b>- llie regular attendants 
and by others were read at the conferences, and thus were 
accorded opportunity for criticism, the value of the meet- 
ings in promoting the authoritativeness of the forthcoming 
Handbook is inestimable. New subjects were constantly 
suggested, and in some instances much new light was shed 
on others, after having been written, by reason of the per- 
sonal knowledge of one or another of the critics present. 

In addition to the special articles elsewhere mentioned in 
this report as prepared by members of the Bureau, the fol- 
lowing are among the more important of those that have been 
furnished by specialists not officially connected with it: 

By Dr A. F. Chamberlain: Armor, Bas(iue influence, Chi- 
nook jargon, Dutch influence, Eliot's Bible, English influ- 
ence, fur trade, German influence, Hawaiian influence, 
Kutenai, linguistic families, "Lost Ten Tribes," maple sugar, 
Melungeons, Negro and Indian, race names, Scandinavian 
influence, Spanish influence, wild rice, and many articles 
pertaining to words of Indian origin incorporated into the 
English language. 

By Mr Stewart Ciilin : Games. 

Bj' Dr William H. Dall: Russian influence. 

By Miss Anna Dawes: Commission to the Five Civilized 
Tribes. 

By Dr G. A. Dorsey: Ceremony, Sun dance. 



ADMINISTRATIVE RKPORT XXV 

By Mr Wilberforce Eames: Bible translations, dictiona- 
ries, periodicals. 

By Dr Livingston Farrand: Marriage, and many articles 
descriptive of some of the lingnistic families and tribes of 
the Northwest. 

By ]\Iiss Alice C. Fletcher: Adornment, agency system, 
buffalo, camping and camp circles, civilization, dramatic 
representation, dreams and visions, earth lodge, etiquette, 
fasting, feasts, furnitiu'e, governmental polic}-, gi-ass lodge, 
land tenure, masks, music and musical instruments, ora- 
tory, orientation, poetry, property and property rights, quill- 
work, soldiers, tattooing, totems, trading posts, war and war 
discipline, and articles descriptive of the Caddoan tribes. 

B}- Mr Gerard Fowke: "Lansing man," and many articles 
on technological subjects. 

By Dr George Bird Griimell : Horses. 

By Mr H. W. Henshaw: Atlantis, exchange, pictography, 
popular fallacies, slavery, and sweating and sweat houses. 

By Mr F. W. Hodge : Adobe, Casa Grande, irrigation, kiva, 
and many tribal articles, especially those pertaining to the 
Southwestern Lidians. 

By Dr Walter Hough : Altar, clothing, collecting and exca- 
vating, dyes and pigments, fire making, food, illumination, 
preservation of specimens, and Snake dance, in addition to a 
large number of brief articles on various implements, utensils, 
materials used in manufacturing processes, etc. 

By Dr Ales Hrdlicka: Anatomy, artificial head tleforma- 
tion, cannibalism, health and disease, mixed bloods, and 
physiology. 

By Mr J. D. McGuire: Drilling, fishing, pipes, smoking, 
storage and caches, tobacco, and trails and trade routes. 

By Dr Otis T. Mason : Arrows, bows, and quivers ; arts and 
industries, basketry, beadwork, boats, commerce, domestica- 
tion of animals, education, environment, featherwork, hunt- 
ing implements, invention, needlework, traps, travel and 
transportation, weapons, and weaving. 

By Dr Washington Matthews: Color symbolism, dry paint- 
ing, ethics, family, magic, measurements, medicine, and 
mourning. 



XXVr BUREAU OF AMKRICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The Bureau was also fortunate enough to have the services 
of Dr A. L. Ivroeber, of the University of Cahfornia, who gen- 
erously revised the accumulated material pertaining to manj^ 
of the linguistic families of California, and in addition gave 
much valuable information respecting the Shoshonean and 
Yuinan families and the Mission Indians. The remaining 
Californian stocks were reviewed or revised by Dr P. E. 
Goddard and Mr S. E. Barrett, also of the Universitj' of 
California, and by Dr Roland B. Dixon, of Harvard University. 

With the exception of a few articles that had not been quite 
finished by those to whom the subjects were assigned, the 
manuscript of the body of the Handbook, recorded on more 
than 40,000 cards, together with about 800 illustrations, was 
submitted to the Secretary for transmittal to the Public 
Printer on July 1, 1905, for publication in two octavo vol- 
umes as Bulletin 30 of the Bureau. These cards do not 
include about 37,000 cross-references to the tribal synonyms, 
nor the bibliography, which are retained for use in reading 
the proofs of the text. After serving this purpose thej' will 
be ready to be put in type to appear at the close of the work. 

ARCHEOLOGKAL MAP 

The work of compiling an archeological map of the United 
States, which had received some attention in previous years, 
was carried forward with all possible dispatch diu'ing the last 
year. The departments of the Government having control 
of the public lands have undertaken to protect the archeolog- 
ical remains of these lands from despoliation b}' commercial 
relic hunters and unskilled and unauthorized explorers, and 
excellent progress in this direction has been made, especially 
l)y llie Department of the Interior. For j^eai's the Bureau 
has been collecting data relating to these remains, and when- 
ever called on has furnished all available information for the 
use of the departments in carrying out this laudable enter- 
prise. During the winter months Mr J. D. McGuu-e was 
engaged in collecting and collating data relating to the 
antiquities of Arizona and Utah, and in platting these on 
topographical maps fui'nished by the United States Geo- 



ADMINISTRATIVK liEPORT XXVII 

logical Survey ; and Mr E. L. Howett has cari'ied forward i)rac- 
tically to completion a corresponding AVf,rk in Colorado and 
New Mexico. The several maps have l)pen completed so far 
as the data are at hand. Accompanying the maps is a card 
catalogiie of the various sites, giving information regarding 
location, character of remains, and explorations previously 
carried on. These maps and catalogues are at the disposal 
of the departments when called for. 

In New Mexico the following sheets embrace 512 sites of 
sufhcient interest to be catalogued: Santa Ve, Santa Clara, 
San Pedro, Pajarito park, Bernal, Las Vegas, Chaco canyon. 
Mount Taylor, Largo, Lamy, Wingate, Jemez, Taos, Tierra 
Amarilla, Quemado, Acoma, Manzano, Pinos Wells, Tularosa, 
Chloride, San Marcial, Fort Stanton, Big Hatchet, Chama, 
El Paso, Fort Baj'ard, Las Cruces, San Juan, Albucjuerque, 
and Tres Hermanos. In Colorado the Mesa Verde sheet alone 
includes 54 sites. On the 21 Arizona sheets (Tusayan, Fort 
Defiance, San Francisco mountain, Echo cliff, St Johns, Pres- 
cott, Verde, Florence, Holbrook, Canyon de Chelly, Solo- 
monsville, CJlobe, Phoenix, Casa Grande, Fort Apache, Dia- 
mond creek, Chino, Marsh pass. Tombstone, and Tucson) 270 
sites are recorded, and on the Utah sheets (Ashley, Beaver, 
Escalante, Fish lake, Henry mountain, Kanab, Manti, Salt 
lake, San Rafael, St George, Price river, Uinta, La Salle, 
Abajo, and Utah) are noted 122 sites. The 1,008 archeo- 
logical sites thus catalogued are scattered over an immense 
teri'itoiy and come under the jiu'isdiction of the Interior, 
Agricultiu'al, and War Departments. 

EXPOSITION WORK ' 

The exhibit of the Bureau installed in the Smithsonian 
section of the Government building of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition at St Louis during 1904, and descril)ed in 
the report for that year, was dismantled at the close of the 
exposition and a large part of it transferred to Portland, 
Oreg., where it has been installed as a part of the Insti- 
tution's exhibit at the Lewis and Clark Exposition. The 
remainder of the material has been returned to Washington 
and deposited in the National Musevmi. 



XXV m 



BUREAU OF AMKRICAN ETHNOLOGY 



STUDY OF INDIAN DELEGATIONS 

The systematic study of visiting Indian delegations has 
been continued with success. During the year 23 delega- 
tions, representing 21 tribes, have been conducted, through 
the agency of Mr Andrew John, to the Bureau and the Na- 
tional Museum laboratories. About 280 portrait negatives 
have been made, and casts and measurements of a number 
of individuals have been obtained. Few Indians of the 
higher type, however, are willing to submit to the experience 
of having the face encased in plaster. The tribes repre- 
sented are as follows: 



Tribe. 


Photo. 


Cast. 


Measure- 
ment. 


Tribe. ' Photo. 


Cast. 


Measure- 
ment. 




3 
1 
1 
1 
5 
3 
3 
.2 
4 
1 
4 






Oneida 1 




Catawba 


1 


1 


Onondaga 1 






Cherokee 


Osage 1 

Pawnee 4 ! 

Pueblos U 

Seneca 3 . 2 

Stockbridgo.s ... 1 ' 


o 








4 








11 


Colvillps 






I 


Creeks 




3 


1 








11 


Menominee 


1 


2 


Wyandot 2 


















Total ... 68 6 


37 


Omaha 


1 


1 


1 






1 







COLLECTIONS 

The ethnological collections obtained during the year fall 
considerably short of those of previous years, owing to the 
reduced amount of field work undertaken. This condition 
was due, as already explained, to the necessity of keeping 
most of the scientific staff in Washington to aid in the com- 
pletion of the Handbook of American Indians. The acces- 
sions are a valuable collection made by Mrs M. C. Steven- 
son at Zufii, a series of archeological objects obtained l^y 
Doctor Hrdlicka in Arizona and New Mexico, and several 
minor collections, all of which have l^een deposited in the 
National Museum. 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT XXIX 

PUBLICATIONS 

The distribution of publications has continued as in formei" 
years. The great increase in the number of Hbraries in the 
countiy and the mult iphcat ion of demands from the public 
generally have resulted in an almost immediate exhaustion 
of the quota of vohmies allotted to the Bureau, few copies of 
any of the reports remaining six months after the date 
of issue. Part II of the Twenty-second Annual Report 
was issued in January. During the j^ear 1,591 copies of the 
Twent}'-first and Twenty-second Annual Reports werie sent 
to regular recipients, and 2,000 volumes and pamphlets were 
ti-ansmitted in response to special requests, presented largely 
l)y Members of Congress. The proof reading of the Twenty- 
third Annual Report and of Bulletin 28 was practically com- 
pleted at the close of the year, and it is expected that the 
presswork of these publications will soon be begun. The 
Twenty-foui'th Annual Report was in the hands of the printer 
before the close of the .year, and Bulletins 29 and 30, the latter 
being the Handbook of American Indians, were ready to be 
submitted to the Secretary on June 30, 1905, while the 
manuscript of the Twenty-fifth Annual Report was com- 
pleted, with the exception of a small number of illustrations. 

EDITORIAL WORK 

The editorial work of the year has presented features of 
exceptional difficulty, on account of the large number of 
papers dealing with linguistics and technical subjects. The 
Bureau has had the services of Mr Frank Huntington for 
the greater part of the year, and Mr J. P. Sanborn, jr, received 
a probational appointment as editor in May. The reading 
of the proofs of Mrs Stevenson's monograph on the Zuni 
Indians for the Twenty-third Annual Report, a work of 
much technical difficulty, was intrusted mainh' to Mr E. G. 
Farrell. 



XXX BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The work of preparing illustrations has continued in 
charge of Mr De Lancy Gill, who has been assisted, as here- 
tofore, by Mr Henry Walther. The photographic work has 
included the making of portraits of members of 21 Indian 
delegations which visited the capital during the year. Three 
views of each individual were taken, besides several group 
views, the negatives numbering 298. In preparing illus- 
trations for the publications of the Bureau upward of 200 
negatives were made, and 156 films exposed in the field by 
members of the Bureau were developed in the laborator3^ 
During the ,year about 2,350 prints were made, mainly for 
immediate use in illustrating the Bureau publications. 
Illustrations prepared for the Twent3^-fourth Annual Report 
number 45; for the Twenty-fifth Annual Report, 128; for 
Bulletin 30, 800. Illustrations transmitted with reports 
submitted to the Secretary for publication are: For the 
Twenty-fourth Annual Report, 1,103; for Bulletin 30, 871. 
Illustrations edited for the Twenty-third Annual Report 
number 25; for the Twenty-fourth Annual Report, 1,102. 
The printed editions of 48 colored plates submitted by the 
engravers for the Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Annual 
Reports, numbering about 450,000 prints, were individually 
examined and approved or rejected. 

LIBRARY 

The library has been in immediate charge of Miss Ella 
Leary, who has had the assistance of Mrs Ella Slaughter. The 
accessioning and cataloguing of the books, pamphlets, and 
periodicals I'eceived during the year have been kept up to 
date, and the cataloguing of the publications of scientific 
societies has been commenced. Owing to the crowded con- 
dition of the library and their questionable place in an eth- 
nological library, about 400 publications relating to natural 
history, received through exchange, have been transfen'ed 
to the National Museum. During the year there have been 
received and recorded 398 volumes, 500 pamphlets, and the 



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT ZXXI 

current issues of upward of 500 periodicals; 120 volumes have 
been bound at the Government Printing Office. The libraiy 
now contains about 12,563 bound volumes, 7,000 pamphlets, 
and a large number of periodicals bearing on ethnology and. 
kindred topics. Purchase of books for the library has been 
restricted to those that bear, on the subject of anthropology, 
with special reference to the American Indians, and only 
indispensable works have been obtained by this means. 

CLERICAL WORK 

The clerical force of the Bureau consists of four regular 
employees — Mr J. B. Clayton, head clerk; Miss Emilie R. 
Smedes and Miss Maj^ S. Clark, stenographers; and Miss 
Ella Leary, clerk and acting librarian. During the year the 
compilation of the Handbook of American Indians neces- 
sitated the employment of additional clerks with special 
training in dealing with cyclopedic material and in biblio- 
graphic work. In this the services of Mrs F. S. Nichols, Mrs 
Gertrude L. Rogers, and Miss Laura W. Steever have proved 
invaluable. 

PROPERTY 

The property of the Bureau is comprised in seven classes, 
as follows : Office furniture and appliances ; field outfits ; lin- 
guistic and ethnological manuscripts and other documents; 
photographs, drawings, paintings, and engravings; a work- 
ing library; collections held temporarily by collaborators 
for use in research ; and undistributed residue of the editions 
of Bureau publications. 

The additions to the property of the Bureau for the year 
mclude a typewriter and a few necessary ai'ticles of fiu'ni- 
ture. The only improvement made in the offices was the 
changing of the electric-light wiring, which was done under 
the du-ection of the District authorities, at a cost of $116.55. 



AC^COMPANYING PAPERS 



26 ETH— 08 S 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



BY 



PRANK IITTSSELL 



Introiluclimi. 



CONTENTS 

Paee 
17 

History - ^^ 

Name ^^ 

Villages -° 

Prphistoric ruins 

("onluct with Spaniards -'' 

Relations with Americans 30 

Civil and military expe<litions 30 

Agents 33 

Schools 34 

Annals ^* 

Chronological records 

The Pima calendar. 36 

Nature of the events 37 

The narrative 38 

Technology 66 

The fond supply *^6 

Preparation of food "° 

Plants used for food 69 

Medicinal plants '" 

Animals used for food "0 

Domestication of animals °4 

Agriculture ^6 

Methods ^6 

Irrigation °'* 

Division of labor °" 

Products - ®* 

Cereals 90 

Vegetables 91 

Trade 92 

92 



Standards of valiu 



Measures "^ 

Barter : 93 

Artifacts 95 

Wood 95 

Weapons 95 

Agricultural iin])liiTii-nts "' 



6 CONTENTS 

Tcclinology — C'ontimiod. P„p 
Artifacts — Continued. 
Wood — Continued. 

Household utensils 99 

Miscellaneous 10;i 

Stone i(),S 

Metate 108 

Muller ]09 

Pestle 109 

Ax 110 

Arrowhead.'* Ill 

Arrow-.shaft .'^traigliteiu'r Ill 

Hammer stones HI 

Firestones 1 1 1 

Crystals HI 

Magic lalilets 112 

Turquoise 112 

Pipe 112 

Fiber and leather 1 13 

; Saddle 113 

Saddlebag II3 

Head rings 113 

Rope 114 

Halters 115 

Bridles 115 

Fetish 115 

War headdress 110 

Hairbru.sh 116 

Skin dressing 117 

Firebag 118 

Tobacco pouches 118 

Sling 120 

Shield 120 

Sandals' 122 

Yoke straps 122 

Lariat : 122 

Horned toad etiigy ] 23 

Pottery 124 

Material 124 

Implements 126 

Method 126 

Finished products 127 

Basketry 131 

Materials 131 

Implements I35 



CONTENTS ' 

Technology— Contimiod. "^® 

Art ifacts — Cont iiuicd. 

Basketry— Continued. 

„ •, , 1H5 

Method 

Basket bowls 

136 
Description of plates 

,...,. 140 

Kiaha 

1 1;' 

Storage baskets 

„. , 145 

Minor t\i)es 

• " . ... 147 

Sleepiiif; mats 

^ ., 148 

Textiles 

. . 148 

Spinning 

' . 149 

W eaving 

Implements and methods 

. ^. ' 153 

Architecture 

„ 154 

Types 

_, , . 157 

Clothing 

Materials and types 

158 

Esthetic arts 

„ , , . 158 

Personal decoration 

„ . 158 

Hair 

„ ., 160 

ISails 

„ , 160 

Teeth 

_ . .. 160 

Painting 

„ . 161 

Tattooing 

I6:i 

Ornaments 

163 
Ornamentation 

Musical instruments 

™ , 166 

Flute 

„ 167 

Drum 

. , 167 

Scraping stick 

Rattles ^'^^ 

^ . 170 

Dancing 

Festivals ''' 

. ,, . . 171 

Athletic sports 

172 
Aldft 

,..,.,„ 172 

Kicking-i)all race.s 

„ , 173 

Relay races 

Swimming 

„ 174 

Games 

KiHs ''' 

„ 176 

Haeyo 

Vapatai ^^6 

,,. .. 177 

Vaputta 

1"8 
Vatamnmiilitc li iknA.ilnvia 



8 CONTEKTS 

Esthetic arts — Continued. Page 

Games — Continued. 

Papaifttitakut 178 

Okmaitceke 178 

Naof towe knkrsa 178 

Kanrsa 179 

Kwaitusiwikut 179 

Mekfit toakut 179 

Ka-amlsakut _ . . 179 

Tcnlikiwikut 180 

Cup stone 181 

Ring stone 181 

Sociology 182 

Family organization 182 

Relations befori' marriage 182 

Pubfrty dance 182 

Marriage 183 

Duration of union 184 

Children 185 

Ceremony of purification 187 

Baptism 188 

Names 189 

Education 190 

Old persons and their treatment 192 

Views concerning death 193 

Mode of burial 193 

Funeral rites 194 

Mourning 195 

Social organization 195 

Officers 195 

Gentes 197 

Slaves 197 

Social morals 197 

Formidas of politeness 199 

Intertribal relations 200 

.Vlliances 200 

Warfare 200 

Raids 200 

Lustration 204 

Dance in celebration of victory 205 

Sophiology 206 

Myths 206 

Tcn-ftnnyikita, the creation myth 206 

Coyote 230 



CONTENTS 9 

Sophiology — Continued. Page 
Myths — Continued. 

Another version of the creation myth 237 

Chihlreii of Cloud 239 

Skull and his magic 241 

Origin of the horse 241 

Nursery tales 242 

The^five little orphans and tlieir aunt 242 

Coyote and the quails 243 

The woman and Coyot e 244 

The Pima l)oy and the Apaches 244 

The birds and the flood 245 

Death of Coyote 245 

Coyote and the bluebird 245 

The boy and the beast 246 

The thirsty ([uails. . .' : , 247 

The naughty grandchildren 247 

Abstracts of myths 247 

The creation myth 247 

Coyote 248 

Children of Cloud , 249 

Skull and his magic 249 

Origin i if the horse 249 

Abstracts of nursery tales 249 

The five little orphans and their aunt 249 

Coyote and the quails 249 

The woman and Coyote 249 

The Pima captive and her son 250 

Coyot e and the bluebird 250 

The boy and the beast 250 

The naughty grandchildren 250 

Religion 250 

Deities ' 250 

The soul and its destiny 252 

Dreams 253 

Sacred places 254 

Medicine-men 250 

Legerdemain 258 

Cause and treatment of disease 260 

Prevalent diseases 267 

Linguistics 269 

Vocabularies 269 

Songs 270 

Classification 270 



10 CONTENTS 

Linguistics — Continued. Page 
Songs — Continued . 

Archaic songs 272 

Creation songs by Earth Doctor 272 

Tho creation of the earth 272 

The creation of the sun 273 

The creation of the mocin 273 

The creation of the stars 273 

Flood songs by Earth Doctor 274 

The warning of the flood. 274 

The people climbing Superstition mountain 274 

Flood songs by South Doctor 275 

On Superstition mountain before the flood 275 

Before the people turned to stone on Superstition mountain. . 275 

Flood songs by Elder Brother 275 

In his olla before the flood 275 

The flood 276 

Coming fi-om his olla after the flood 27(i 

Post-flood songs by Elder Brother 277 

At the central part of the earth 277 

Climbing the cliffs to attack Eagle 277 

Elder Brother as a fly 278 

Destruction of Ha-ak 278 

In the nether world 279 

On emergence from the nether wurld ^ 280 

On approaching pueblos 281 

Festal songs 283 

Middle run .song 283 

Name song 285 

Circling songs 289 

Eagle song 289 

Basket-beating song 291 

Swallow song 292 

Butterfly song 295 

Game songs 297 

Takal song 297 

Football song 298 

Lay song 299 

Children play song 299 

Hunting songs 299 

Datura song 299 

Pihol song 301 

Medicine songs ■ 302 

( 'ure song . , 302 

Turtle song 30G 

Horned toad song 307 



CONTKNTS 



11 



Linguistics— Continued. ''"6'' 

Songs — Continued. 

Medicine songs — Continued . 

Gila monster song ■ ^^' 

Black lizard song ^"8 

Rattlesnake song •"^'' 

Owl song ^'^ 

Quail song '' 

Roadrunner soug ■"^■' 

Mouse song ^^^ 

Hare song •'''* 

Dog song ^^^ 

Coyote song ■ •'^^ 

Black-tailed deer song ■*! ' 

Bear song ^^^ 

Gopher song "^^ ' 

Beaver song "^-" 

Badger song "'^^ 

Lightning song ^-^ 

Wind song ^"'^ 

Fetish song ^-^ 

Navitco song ■'-'' 

Maguian song •'-' 

Down song ■'"° 

Q9Q 

Demon song •'-" 

Puberty song ^^^ 

Rain songs ^^^ 

Hoahihiul" song ^^^ 

Corn song ^^^ 

War .songs ^^^ 

Straight song ^^'^ 

Tie song -^^^ 

Scalp song ' 

Olla song ^^^ 

Speeches ^^^ 

Elder Brother a-^ h<' restored himself to life 339 

Opening of rain ceremony ■''*' 

Going to war 353 

Wa-- chief urging the people to go on the warpath against the Apaches. 357 

First night on the warpath, first speech •^fi-^ 

First night on the warpath, second speech 366 

The warpath, first speech 369 

The warpath, Beci>ii<l speecli 37o 

The warpath, third speech 380 

The warpath, fourth speech 385 



ILLrSTRATIONS 



Plate I. Sacaton. 

II. Three of the author's Pima informants. 

III. Casa Grande ruin. 

IV. Three prehistoric Pima ruins. 

V. Casa Blanca and ruins of first schoolhouse. 
VI. Pima liread, kitchen, and fireplaces. 
VII. Ironwood and cat's claw. 
VIII. Two varieties ot cactus. 
IX. Characteristic desert vegetation. 
X. Mesquite and palovcrde. 
XI. Fields and village in Pimeria. 
XII. ('holla cactus. 

XIII. Pima weapons. 

XIV. A'mina. 

XV. Riding .«a<lcile and cinch. 
XVI. Clay pits. 
XVII. Pima woman making pultcry. 
XVIII. Pottery — pols and canteens. 
XIX. Pottery — pan, plates, vases, cup. 
XX. Potteiy — spoons and bowls. 
XXI. Characteristic desert vegetation. 
XXII. Baskets decorated with the fret. 

XXIII. Baskets decorated with the fret. 

XXIV. Baskets. 
XXV. Baskets. 

XXVI. Baskets. 
XXVII. Baskets. 
XXVIII. Baskets decorated with flower-like jialterns. 
XXIX. Baskets, upright forms. 
XXX. Baskets, upright forms. 
XXXI. Baskets, upright forms. 
XXXII. Baskets, variants of upright forms. 

XXXIII. Yavapai baskets. 

XXXIV. Woman with kiaha. 
XXXV. Houses and sheds. 

XXXVI. Arrow-bush kitchen an<l Pima woman. 
XXXVII. Pima man, showing costume worn in hot weather. 
XXXVIII. Pima women, showing modes of hair dressing and face painting. 
XXXIX. Cemeteries and grave. 
12 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate XL. Objects from Hahalesumiehin shrine. 
XLI. Ceremonial hill and shrines. 
XI. II. Pima men and boy. 
XLIII. Elderly Pima men. 
XLIV. Pima men. 
XLV. Pima boys. 
XLVI. Pima boy and women. 
XLVII. Pimagirb. 

Figure 1 . Map ul Pima reservation 



13 



Page 

99 



2. Fat Louisa '^' 

3. Dried saguaro fruit '"^ 

4. Sheds with caches on roofs '•* 

5. Men and women in modern costume, and jiintn p. my 85 

6. Burden bearer °^ 

7. Gourd canteen ^'■ 

8. Gourd rattle ^1 

9. War clubs ^"^ 

10. -Agricultural implements, a, Digging stick; b, shovel; c, hur-; 

d. dibble ^" 

IL Wooden plow ^** 

12. Yoke 98 

13. o, 6, Mortars; c, wooden pestle; d, bread tray 99 

14. (I, Doughnut fork; 6, ladle ; c, unfinished ladle 100 

15. Pottery paddle 1"^ 

IG. a, Hanging shelf 1^^ 

6, Door 10- 

17. Bird cage l*^- 

18. a, Fire drill; 5, saguaro hook; r. ha'num tweezers 103 

19. a, Cradle frame ^0* 

6, Cradle ^^ 

20. Calendar sticks, a. From Casa Blanca; 6, from Gila Crossing; 

c, from Blackwater 105 

21. Wooden spiu- lOo 

22. Awls, a, Wooden handle; b, gum liandh- 106 

23. Rope twister 1°^ 

24. A'mlna with reed cloud blower and attached feathers 107 

25. a, Horned toad effigy 107 

6, Lizard effigy 107 

26. Navitco mask 108 

27. Ceremonial wands '. 108 

28. Grinding wheat on metate lO" 

29. Stone pestle 'Oil 

30. Arrowheads "0 

31. Arrow -shaft straightener HO 



14 ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

Figure 32. Crystals from medicine basket Ill 

33. a, b, c, Magic tablets , 112 

34. Stone pipe 112 

35. Saddlebag 113 

36. Head rings. », Willow bark; 6, agave leaf; c, cloth 114 

37. a, Horsehair halter; 6, maguey rope 1 14 

38. Maguey fiber 115 

39. a, Fetish; 6, hair ornament 1 Hi 

40. War headdress 117 

41. Hairbrushes, a, Sacaton grass roots; 6, maguey fiber 118 

42. Fu-e bag 118 

43. a, b, c, Tobacco pouches 119 

44. Sling 1 20 

45. a, Shield ; i, reverse of shield 121 

46. «, 6, Models of shields 121 

47. Shield 122 

48. Sandals 122 

49. Yoke straps 123 

50. (I, Horned toad effigy, of deerskin 123 

h, Living horned toad 124 

51. Sala Hiua 124 

52. The burning 128 

53. a, b, Water coolers 129 

54. OUa found hidden in Ihe hills 130 

55. 011a, with whitish designs on ro»d ground 130 

56. Willow tree 131 

57. a, Willow splints; /), martynia; c, inl loTiwood 132 

58. Bundles of martynia puds 132 

59. Martynia pod 133 

60. Stripping martynia 134 

61. Basket with scroll ilecoration 138 

62. Basket with scroll-feet decoration 138 

63. Kiaha 140 

64. Helping .stick. 141 

65. Mending kiaha net 142 

66. Storage baskets 143 

67. Small storage basket, showing weave 144 

68. a, Trinket basket 145 

b, Medicine basket 145 

69. a, Old sieve; b, modern sieve 146 

70. Sleeping mat 146 

71. Detail of sleeping mat 147 

72. Model of loom 148 

73. Spindle 149 



ILLUSTRATIONS 15 

Pago 

Figure 74. Col Ion balls, native spinning 150 

75. n, Old bolt hoaiUiand; l>, now belt headband •. 152 

7(i. Diagram of house 154 

77. Paint bags, n, Deerskin; 6, cloth IfiO 

78. Tattooing outfit. <j, Mesquito charcoal; /;, willow clnucoal: 

c, noodles 162 

79. Runner's hair ornament 163 

80. Flutes 166 

81. Scraping sticks 167 

82. Gourd rattle 168 

8Z. Disk rattle •- HiS 

84. Belt rattle 1()9 

85. Cocoon rattle 169 

86. a. Alder stick; h, double ball 172 

87. Kicking balls, n, Wood covered with gum; /). without covering. . 173 

88. Kicking balls, a, Stone covered with gum; /i, without covering. . 17:5 

89. Ki-'tskQt 175 

90. Diagram used in ki"ts 176 

91 . Canes used in vapfltai 1 76 

.92. Diagram used in vaputia 177 

93. Pottery disks '. 177 

94. Gaming stones 179 

95. Staves used in game of ka-aml.'sakut 180 

96. Dart-and-ring g-ame 180 

97. Diagram u.-*ed in tcl.iikiwikut 181 

98. Cup stone 181 

99. Ring stone 181 

100. Eagle feather aspergills 1 87 

101 . Funeral cache south of ( 'asa Blanca 194 

102. Ha-ak altar 255 



PIMA SOUNDS AND THEIR SYMBOLS 



a as in father. 

a as in law. 

a aj^ in what. 

a as in hat. 

" indeterminate sound between a 

and a. 

e as sh in shall, a rare sound: occurs 

in vi-slmk (hawk). 

d as in dread. 

e as in they. 

e as in then. 

f as in fife. 

J as a mere breathing. 

as in good; occurs in foreign word.s. 

between k and g. 

h as in he. 

1 as in pique. 

1 as in pick. 

k as in kick. 

1 as in lull. 

I as with a faint ] following. 

m as in mum. 



. .as in nun. 
.as ng in sing, 
.as in note. 

.as in whole, (German soil), 
.as in pipe. 

16 



I an initial uvular r. 

s as in sauce. 

t as in touch. 

td ....heard now as t.now as d. or be- 
tween. ' 

u as in rule. 

u as in pull. 

ft as in but. 

n like the German o in Oolhe. 

V as in valve. 

A a synthetic sound, v+w. 

w as m wish. 

y as in you. 

hy. . . .as in hue. 

ng . . . .as in finger. 

ny as ny in canyon. 

tc as ch in church. 

t" an exploded breathing. 

d' ... .an exploded breathing. 

k" an exploded breathing. 

p' an exploded lirealhing. 

X a k sound with an expulsion of 

breath before sounding it. 

t an m with lips closed. 

'=exploded breathing. 

'=laryngeal closure. 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



By Frank Russell 



INTRODUCTION 

From November,. 1901, until June, 1902, the writer made his head- 
quarters at Sacaton (see pi. i),on the Gila River reservation, in south- 
ern Arizona, where he was engaged in a study of the Pima tribe. With 
the aid of five native interpreters information was obtained from ten 
Pima men and women, ° selected because of their intelligence and 
special aptitude in certain Imes. With so many persons engageil in 
the investigations, the work of one frequently overlapped and served 
as a check on that of another. This made it possible to obtain a quite 
full account of Piman etlmology for the time employed. A house-to- 
house canvass of the villages, week after week, month after month, led_ 
to personal contact with nearly every household on the reservation 
and visits were made also to the Salt River Pimas and tlie desert 
Kwahadk's. One valuable result was the collection of more than 300 
specimens illustrative of nearly all Piman arts, gathered from among 
a people w^hom poverty had induced to dispose of so many of their 

o The name and a brief sketch of each of the author's informants and interpreters are here given: 

Informants. Ka'maltkak. Thin Leather (pi. xuv, 6), an old man, is said to be the most popular of the 
few remaining narrators of myths and spcHMjhes. or " speakers." lie is an intimate friend of the head 
chief, Antonio Azul (pi. ii.o', and hjis alwaysoccupiedaprominent place in the councils of the tribe. In 
his prime he exceeded feet in stature and was strong and sturdy of frame. Indeed, his hand grasp 
is yet vigorous enough to make his silent and friendly greeting somewhat formidable. Intelligent. 
patient, dignified, his intluence must have been helpful to those youths who formerly came to him for 
instruction. From him was obtained the cosmogonical myth of the tribe, many speeches, songs, and 
much general information. He also made a model of a loom and a fewother specimens for the collection 
of material pertaining to the Pimas. 

Sala Ilina. Sarah Fish, or Ilina (fig. '»!), as she was called by her people, was recommended as one of 
the most intelligent of the older women. An earnest Christian, she had no scruples about relating all 
that she knew concerning the religious beliefs of the tribe. She had undergone a long and exacting 
training in practical botany which rendered her a valuable assistant in gathering information concern- 
ing the economic plants of the region. Taught by gaunt Hunger, she and her kind had learned to know 
and use a large numl^er of vegetal products. She inherited through her father some of the Kwahadk' 
potters' skill, which enabled her to impart valuable knowledge of the art and to furnish specimens. 

Sika'tcu, Dry. an old woman, is the half sister of .Vntonio Azul and is one of the best known nurses 
and midwives about the Sacatoft settlement. Though unable to speak English, after a few interviews 
with an interpreter she was ipuck to understand by means of signs and a few Pima words when to pose 
for photographs and the like. Among her earliest recollections was the sight of the covered wagons of 
the emigrant trains that followed the Gila route in such numbers during the early years of the California 
gold excitement. Her memory therefore extends over a quarter of a century of the period of bitterest 

26 ETH— 08 4 17 



18 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. .ixx. 26 

old belongings that for a month or two after going into their midst 
there seemed but little opportunity of securing anything approacliing 
a representative series. Several specimens that were finally discov- 
ered are believed to be the very last of their kind among the Pimas, 
though of course such a statement must be made with reserve. Prof. 
J. J. Thomber, of the University of Arizona, accompanied the party 
on a' round trip of 80 miles along the Gila river and to him the 
collection is indebted for about 50 herbarium specimens, represent- 
ing the larger portion of the economic plants of the Pimas that are 
susceptible of preparation in this way. To him also is due the credit 
of examining and identifying the mass of material gathered by the 
persons engaged at Casa Blanca and Gila Crossing. As complete a 
list as possible of the plants used for food, medicine, and the. like was 
made, after which the services of both men and women were enlisted 
to point out the plants in the course of a trip through the river bottoms 
or on the hills. Furthermore, a number of sets of seeds was obtained, 
a portion of which were planted during the summer of 1902 for the 
purpose of raising plants that could not otherwise be identified. 
Unfortunately, the season proved too dry for them to germinate and 
the list is consequently less complete than it should be. The Pima 
name is given in all cases. 

The American people owe the Pimas a lasting debt of gratitude. 
The California pioneers that traversed the southern route before the 

warfare between the Pimas and the Apaches. After several months acquaintance with tUs old woman 
Mrs Russell obtained from her much information concerning the Pima woman's views of warfare as 
well as knowledge of facts pertaining to various customs, especially those peculiar to her sex. 

Antonio Azul (see pi. II, a) was the head chief of the tribe, and from hi:n much information concerning 
war customs and recent liistory was obtained. 

Ki'satc, Cheese, an old Santan pariah, had employed such wit as grudging nature had endowed him 
with in pr.actising the arts of the medicine-man. His contributions, while of a minor character, proved 
to be of interest. 

William Blackwater, an elderly Pima, had taken an active part in the later history of the village of 
Blackwater. which is situated at the eastern end of the reservation. He was employed but a short time 
and gave information concerning history and customs. 

Ha'hali, or Juan Thomas, a Christian Pima who was formerly a medicine-man, contributed much val- 
uable information concerning the " occult." He also furnished a calendar record and made a number 
of specimens illustrating the medicine-man's paraphernalia. 

Tco'kflt Nak. Owl Ear (pl.ii, !)i,anold man, lived at the Salt River village and was the first from 
whom a calendar record was obtained. 

Benjamin Thompson, so far as could be learned, kepttheonlycalendar in the central group of villages 
about Casa Blanca, and he related the events that are commemorated by it. 

KaemE'i-a. Rattlesnake Head (pi. ii. c), a cliief, is known to the whites as Joseph Head. He gave 
an excellent specimen of a calendar record and stick. 

Interpreters. The principal interpreter, who was employed by the month during the entire period of 
the writer's stay, was Jose Lewis, a Papago who had lived from childhood among the Pimas. He had 
once been engaged by the Bureau of .Vmerican Ethnology to write a vocabulary of his own language 
and to supply other information, so that he was acquainted with the phonetic alphabet and other 
approved methods of procedure. He was engaged in linguistic work the greater part of the time. 

Melissa Jones, the olficial interpreter at the a.gency, was employed to interpret the statements of 
Stka'tcu, her mother, known to the whites as " Old Mary, " and also at intervals on the calendars. 

Jacob L.^ Roberts spoke quite as good English as the average white man of the country and was em- 
ployed to secure Tco'kut Nak's calendar (pi. ii, &) and for the final revision of the linguistic material. 

Carl Smart, of Sacaton. and Thomas .Vllison. of Blackwater, were occasionally engaged as tempo- 
rary interpreters. In addition to these there were half a dozen others who were employed for from 
one to three days each at the lower villages. 



RUSSELL] NAME 1 9 

(lays of transcontinental railroads often owed their lives to the friendly 
bnnvn-skinned fanners whom they met upon the Gila." This tribe 
rendered notable assistance as scouts in the long contest with the 
Apaches. Even had tlu'\- remainetl neutral, they would have deserved 
friendly consideration on the part of the wliit(>s, l)ut ns tli(\v fought 
bravely in the latter's behalf justice rc(|uires that their services be 
accoriled proper recognition. 

The Pimas live in two river valleys that are strewn with the ruins of 
prehistoric buildings and other evidences of the presence of a consider- 
able population that had attained probal)lythe liighest degree of civil- 
ization or culture to be found north of Mexico. The present race has 
been variously regarded as the descendants of the one that has disa|)- 
peared, as having anuilgamated with it, and as being entirely inde- 
pendent of it. The determination of the exact relationsliip of the two 
groups has been held constantly in mind during the course of these 
investigations. Clo.sely connected with this principal problem are 
those problems of the extent and chrection of the migrations of men 
and culture toward the Sierra Madre, the Rio Grande, the Pacific, and 
the plateau to the northward. Was this a center of culture or was it 
a halting place in the march of clans? 

HISTORY 

Name 

The tribe knoA\'n as the Pimas was so named by the Spaniards 
early in the liistory of tlie relations of the latter with them. The 
oldest reference to the name witliin the writer's knowledge is that by 
Velarde: "The Pima nation, the name of wliich has been adopted t)y 
the Spaniards from the native idiom, call themselves Otama or in the 
plural Ohotoma; the word pima is repeated by them to ex])rcss 
negation."* Tliis "negacion" is expressed by such words as pia, 
"none," piatc, "none remaining," pimatc, "I do not know" or "I 
do not understand." In the last the .soimd of tc is often reduced to a 
faint click. The Americans comipted this to "Pimos," and while this 
form of the word is now used only by the illiterate living in the neigh- 
borhood of the tribe, it is fairly common in the literature referring to 
them. They call themselves A'-a'tam, "men" or "the people," and 
when they wish to distinguish themselves from the Papago and other 



o Sylvester Mowry, lieutenant in the Third .\rtiUery, in an address before the American Geographical 
Society, in New York, February .3, 1859 (Arizona and Sonora. .Id ed., 30). said: "Much as we pride our- 
selves upon our superior government, no measures [the I'nited States Government have [sic] since, 
under urgent pressure of the writer, made some small appropriations for the Pima Indians] have I>een 
taken to continue our friendly relations with the rinios; and to our shame l>e it said, it is only to the 
forbearance of these Indians that we owe the safety of the life of a single American citizen in central or 
western .\rizona. or the carriage of the mails overland to the Pacific." 

6 ''La nacion pima.cuyo nonibre han tornado los espafioles en su nativo idioma, se llama Otama y en 
plural Ohotoma, de la palabra Pima repctida en ellos per ser su negacion." Documentos para la 
Historic de Mexico, 4th ser., i, 345. 



20 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



divisions of the same linguistic stock they add the word a'iviintilt, 
' ' river. ' ' ' ' River people' ' is indeed an apt designation, as evidenced by 
their dependence on the Gila. 

Gatschet has thus defined the Pima linguistic stock in an article 
entitled "The Indian languages of the Pacific," which was published 
in the Magazine of American History: ° 

Pima. Dialects of this stock are spoken on the middle course of the Gila river, and 
south of it on the elevated plains of southern Arizona and northern Sonora (Pimen'a 
alta, Pimerfa baja). The Pima does not extend into California unless the extinct, 
historical Cajuenches, mentioned in Mexican annals, spoke one of the Pima (or Pijmo, 
Pimo) dialects. Pima, on Pima reserve, Gila river, a sonorous, root-duplicating idiom ; 
Nevome, a dialect probably spoken in Sonora. of which we possess a reliable Spanish 
grammar, published in Shea's Linguistics; 6 Papago, on Papago reserve, in southwest- 
ern Arizona. 

Villages 

During the early part of the nineteenth centurj- there were eight 
Pima villages on the Gila, according to statements made by Ka'mal tkak 
and other old men of the tribe. The numerous accounts by travelers 
and explorers contain mention of from five to ten pueblos or villages. 
The names are usually those bestowed by the Spanish missionaries or 
unrecognizable renderings of the native terms. The villages were 
principally upon the south bank of the river, along which they 
extended for a distance of about 30 miles.'' Some have been aban- 
doned; in other cases the name has been retained, but the site has 
been moved. The first villages named by Kano were Equituni, 
Uturituc, and Sutaquison. The last two were situated near the 
present agency of Sacaton (pi. i). The first may have been the 
village of Pimas and Kwahadk s, which was situated west of Picacho 
on the border of the sink of the Santa Cruz river (fig.l), which was 
abandoned about a century ago and was known as Akfitciny, Creek 

Vol. I, 15C. 

>> The most valuable publication relating to the Puna language is the " Granunar ol the Pima or 
Nevome, a language of Sonora, from a manuscript of the XVIII Century." This was edited by Buck- 
ingham Smith, and IGO copies were issued in 1862. It is in Spanish-Nevome, the latter differing slightly 
from the true Pima. The grammar has 97 octavo pages with' 32 additional pages devoted to a ■' Doc- 
trina Cristiana y Confesionario en Lengua Nevome. 6 sea la Pima." 

c The Rudo Ensayo states that '■ between these Casas Grandes, the Pimas, called Gilefios, inhabit 
both banks of the river Gila, occupying ranches on beautiful bottom land for 10 leagues farther down, 
which, as well as some islands, are fruitful and suitable for wheat. Indian corn, etc." Records of the 
American Catholic Historical Society, v, 128. 

*' The most important of these ranches are, on this side, Tusonimd, and on the other, Sudacson or 
the Incarnation, where the principal of their chiefs, called Tavanimi5, lived, and farther down, Santa 
Theresa, where there is a very copious spring." (Ibid., 129.) This ■' spring" was probably above the 
present Gila Crossing where the river, after running for many miles underground in the dry season, 
rises with a strong flow of water that supplies extensive irrigating ditches. 

Whipple, Ewbank, and Turner, writing in I.S5.5, enimierate the following Pima \Tllages: San Juan 
Capistrano, Sutaquison, Atison, Tubuscabor, and San Seferino de Napgub (see Pacific Railroad 
Reports, in, pt. 3, 123). 

In 1858 Lieut. A. B. Chapman, First Dragoons, U. S. Army, completed a census of the Pimas and 
Maricopas. The names of the villages, leaders, and the population of both tribes are here reprinted 



Rl-SSKLL] 



VILLAGES 



21 



Mouth. The site of this settlement was visited })y the writer in 
April, 1902. It is marked by several acres of pot.sherds that are 
scattered about the sand dunes on the south side of tlie dry river 
bottom that is scarcely lower than the level of the plain. A few 
Mexican families have lived in the ^^cinity for many years, punipiii<^ 
water from a depth of a hundred feet and depending upon crops of 
corn and beans raised in the summer when a few showers fall upon 
their fields. These Mexicans plow out stone implements and bit.s 
of pottery, but have never found any burial places." There are two 
medium-sized adobe ruins on the flat river bottom : one of these has 
walls of the same pise type that is exhibited hx the Casa Grande 
ruin (pi. Ill), situated 25 miles to the northward. 

from S. Ex. Doc. 1, pt. 1, 559, 35th Cnng.. 2d sess.. 18.59. The number of Maricopas is included that the 
comparatively small importance of that trihe may Iw appreciated. 

MARICOPAS 



[Head chief, Juan Chevereah.] 



Villaeea. 


Chiefs. 




W 


arriors. 


Women 

and 
children. 


Total. 


ElJuez Tarado 


[juan Jose 




( 
\ 


116 
76 


198 
128 


314 


Sacaton 


> 




204 






192 


326 


518 


I'IMAS 
[Head chief, Antonio Soule [Azul].] 




Ojo de Buro and Yiehi <li'l .Vris 
Miguel and Xa\ier 


pe 


132 
140 
37 
110 
102 
105 
235 
291 


259 
503 
175 
425 
210 
158 
535 
700 


391 


Ormejera No. 1 

Ormejera No. 2 


643 


Calieza del Aquila 

Chehm 

Tabacaro 

Cadrillo del Mimdo and .\riba 

Francisco 

La Manu del Mimilo 


.Vqua Bolando . . . 


212 
535 


Cheniisez *. . 


312 


El .Inez Tarado 

Arizo del Aqua 

Aranca No. 1 


263 
770 
991 


ArancH No. 2 


Boca Dulee 












_ 










1,152 


2,965 


•1,117 



Mr Browne, a momlior of Commissioner I'oston's party that visited the villages in .January, 1864, 
wrotx': ''The numlx-T of I'ima villages is 10: Maricopas, 2: separate inciosures, 1,000." (.1. Ross 
Browne, .Ydvcnturos in tlie Apache Coimtry, 110.) On a later page (290) he gives the population by 
villages, of which he names but seven: 

Aqua Baiz 533 , Ilerringuen "lU 

Cerrito 2.59 ! Llano 392 

Arenal 016 — 

Cachimilla 438 Total 3,067 

Casa Ulanca 315 

■' There are 1,200 laboring Pimas and 1.000 warriors." 

James F. Rusling (The Great West and the Pacific Coast. :«»), who visited tlie Pimas in l.si'.7. also 
states that there were then ten Pima villages. 
"Font mentionsa Pima-Papago village in this vicinity, culled •■< iiitini." Miinuseripl Diary. Ji-I. 



22 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 2G 



Tlip villages known to the oldest Pimas are as follows: 

1. Pet-i'ikuk, Where the Petai (ash tree?) Stands. 

2. Tcupatak, Mortar Stone. 

3. Tcu'wutrkawutuk, Earth Hill. 

4. Os Ka'kurauk Tio'tcikam. Arrow-bush Standing. 

6. Ko'-okup Van'sik, Medicine Paraphernalia. 
(). Ka'mit, Back. 

7. Tco'utik Wu'tcik, Charcoal Laying. 

8 and 9. Akutciny, Creek Mouth. One 5 miles west of Picacho and another south- 
west of Maricopa station. Both depended upon flood waters. 



#^ 



112° West from Orecnwich 



•Jo/tfr S. Tor6ert. 




Fig. 1. M;ip of Pimfi roser\'ation. 

There are two Marifopa villages: lli'nania, Ilina Head (hina, a 
kind of fish) and Tco'iitcik Wu'tcik, which is included among the 
Pima villages, as it was occupied by them after the Maricopas moved 
down the river to their present location below (lila Crossing. The 
Ili'nama people now reside on the south bank of the Salt, east of 
the Mormon settlement of T^ehi. 



RUSSELL] PREHISTORIC RUINS 23 

The Pimas have a tradition relating the circumstances of the 
coming of tlie band of Sobaipuris," whom they call Rsa'rsavina, Spot- 
ted, from the San Pedro. They are said to have drunk na'vait or 
cactus liquor together with a village of Pimas of forgotten name, on 
the north side of the Gila, near the present Blackwater and the Pica- 
cho village of Akutciny, before the time when the Apaches forced 
them to leave their homes on the San Pedro. 

Since the settlement of the Gila an<l Salt river valleys by the 
whites and the establishment of peace with the Apaches, the Pimas 
have again manifested a disposition to extend their settlements, 
principally owing, however, to the scarcity of water on the Gila 
River reservation. The present villages are as follows: 

Os Kuk, Tree Standing, known as Blackwater. 

We'tcu(r)t, Opposite, North Blackwater. 

Ha'rsanykuk, Saguaro Standing, Sacaton Flats. 

S'a'oprk, Many Trees, The Cottonwoods. 

Tat'sitftk', Place of Fright, the settlement about Cruz's store. 

Ku'-u Ki, Big House, Sacaton. 

^o'pohiilm, (?), Santan. 

Hv'tcilttclk, Round Clearing, village below Santan on north liank of river. 

Va'-aki, Ruin or Ancient House. Casa Blanca. 

Sta'tann^ik, Many Ants, a village Ijetween the two last preceding, on snuth bank 
of Oila. 

Pr-i-[)'tcilt'k'. Concave (from a family with noses of that shape), northeast of Casa 
Blanca. 

Rso'tdk', Water Standing, northwest of Casa Blanca. 

Ska'kaik, Many Rattlesnakes, on north side of Gila, opposite Rso'tuk'. 

Rsa'nilk, Beginning, about a mile east of Sacaton station on Maricopa an<l Phoenix 
railroa<l. 

Ka'woltflk' Wutca, Hill Below, west of railroad. 

Hi'atam. Sea Sand Place, from Hi'akatcik, where the people of this village fnrmerly 
lived. Hi'atam was just north of Maricopa station. 

Ka'matiik Wu'tca. Kil'matflk Below, Gila Crossing. Ka'matuk is the Pima name 
of the Sierra Estrella. 

Herm'ho. Once, or A'mfl A'kimfllt, Salt River, known by last name. This is the 
settlement on the north side of the river, :! miles from Mesa. 

Prehistoric Ruins 

The Pimas have long since grown accustomed to being interro- 
gated concerning the builders of the great stone and adobe pueblos 
that now lie in ruins on the mesas of the Gila and Salt river valleys. 
However ready they may have been in the past to claim relationship 



""The most warlilce among all the Pimas are those we call the Sobiarpuris, for they are bom and 

reared on the harder of the .Vpaches; but they have become tired of living in constant warfare, and have, 
during the prciont year of 17ti2. abandoned their bt'uutiful and fcrtiio valley, retiring, some to Santa 
Maria .'^oanca. and aonie to San Xavier del Bao and to Tucson, thus leaving to the enemies a free en- 
trance to the high region of the IMmas." Kudo Ensayo, translated by Eusebio Guit^ras, Records of the 
American Catholic Uistorical Society, v, 192. 



24 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

with the Hohokam" or relate tales of the supernatural origin of the 
pueblos, they now frankly admit that they do not know anything 
about the matter.* As early as the time of Kino and Mange men- 
tion is made of the chief of the former pueblo of Casa Grande, who 
was called "Siba." Mange in his Diary of November, 1697, trans- 
lates this word as "bitter" or "cruel." The present pronunciation 
is sivan'' and the same name is given to all Hohokam chiefs; no one 
now knows the meaning of the word. The query arises, Is the simi- 
larity of this term to the native name for the Zuiiis a mere coinci- 
dence? Mr Cushing states that "Cibola equals the 'Chi-vo-la' of 
Fray Marcus, of Nizza, equals the Zuni name for themselves, namely, 
Shiwona, or Shiwina.'"'^ 

Each ruin is called va-aki, ancient house, and in tiie myths a 
name is added to distinguish it from other rums and to it si'van>' to 
identify him from other chiefs. 

Following is the list of the best»kn'own places, with their chiefs: 

Tco'-oltuk, Corner, Casa Grande. Ruled Ijy Sia'-al Tcu-vtaki, Morning Blue. 
A-at'kam Va-aki, Sandy Ancient House, Santan. Ruled by Ivla'-atak, Handle. 
S'o'am Nyu'i Va-aki, Yellow Vulture Ancient House. Name of chief not known 
to my informants. 

The following names of chiefs are preserved iii the myths, but the 
ruins are referred to simply as va-aki: 

Tcuf'haowo-o, Dipper, was the sivany at tlie ruin situated about 4 miles northwest 
of Santan. (PI. iv. a, b.) 

Ta'-a, Flying, lived at the Sweetwater pueblo. (PI. iv, c.) 

Tco'-otcok Ta'tai, Black Sinew, at Casa Blanca.<2 

Tcu'narsat, Lizard, at Gila Crossing. 

A'-an Hi'tupaki, Feather Breathing, at Mesa. 

Vi'-ik I'alt Ma'kai, Soft Feathers Rolling, ruled the puelilo between Tcmpe and 
Phoenix that is now being excavated by the Arizona Antiquarian Society. 

When a single chief is referred to, he is usually called Si'van^", and 
when the full name is given, Si'van^ is always added, .so that it is 
not surprising that Mange, Bandelier/ and others should have sup- 

a The term ITohokam, That which has Perished, is used by the Pimas to designate the race that occu- 
pied the pueblos that are now rounded heaps of ruins in the Salt and Gila river valleys. .\s there is 
no satisfactory English term, the Pima name has Ijccn adopted throughout this memoir. 

''•'I made frequent inquiries of the Pimos and Coco-Maricopas as to the builders of these iSalt 
River ruins) and the ruins on the Gila, but oould obtam no other than the ever ready, Qu en sabe? 
These, as well as the ruins above the Ptmo villages, are known among the Indians as the 'houses of 
Montezuma,' an idea doulitless derived from the Mexicans, rather than from any tradition of their 
own. We asked our Indian guide who Monteziuna was. He answered, ' Nobody knows who the 
devil he was: all we know is. that he built these houses." " Bartlett, Personal Narrative. 1S'J4. ll, 248. 

cCongr^s International des .Vm^ricanistes, 7"^ sess., 1S90, 155. 

d The ruin at Casa Blanca (pi. v, a) is one of the largest south of the Gila. The adobe walls yet show 
at the level of the surface of the mound. Sedelmair states in his Relaci<5n that there were two houses 
standing at Casa lilanca in 1744. This and the ruin in Santan are the only ones near which the modem 
villages are built. Casa Grande is 6 miles from the nearest Pima village, which was, furthermore, 
quite recently established by families from points farther down the river. 

e '• While in New Mexico the chain of traditional information appears almost unbroken as far down 
as San Marcial, in .Arizona the folk-lore of the Zuiii terminates, according to Mr Cushing. with the north- 
em folds of the Escudilla and of the Sierra Blanca. The remarkable architecture prevalent on the 



RissKLL] PREHISTORIC RUINS 25 

posed that the Casa Grande pueblo was under the control of "Siba" 
or "Si'van';" indeed it is now frp<iuently designated "Si'van*' Ki" 
by the Pimas. Fifteen miles southeast of the Casa Grande ruin is 
the mountain ridge that rises abruptly from the nearly level plains 
which is known as Ta-a'tCikam or Picaclio mountain. Picacho is an 
isolated peak south of the mountain. The pass between them, 
through which the main trail ran from the Pima villages to Tucson, 
and tlirough which the railroad has been built, was one of the most 
dreaded portions of the overland trail when the Apaches were "out," 
as they were most of the time. To the northeast of the mountain is 
a small pueblo ruin that lies about 15 miles from the river, wliich is 
apparently the nearest water. It was prol)al)ly occupied during a ])art 
of the 3'ear only. East of the mountain is a niin called Kis'tcoit 
Vatclk', Table Tank; on tiie nortii is one known as Mo'-ok' Vatcik', 
Sharp Tank; and at the foot of Ta-a'tukam, on the west, is A'-alt 
Vap'tck', Small Tanks. Southwest of the mountain were situated the 
Pima ■^'illage of Akiitclny and the two pueblo ruins previously men- 
tioned. There is another small puel)lo ruin a few miles northwest of 
the site of AkCltcIny, but no others of similar type are known to the 
writer at any point in Arizona south of Picacho. A personal examina- 
tion of all the ruins of the southeastern part of the Territory has siiown 
them to be of a different type from those of the upper and lower 
Gila and the Salt river valleys. The nuns along the San Pedro, it is 
true, e.xtend to the soutiiward of the parallel of Picacho, and it is 
believed to be desirable that some of them be explored. Superfi- 
cially they resemble the ruins about Solomonsville, where cremation 



Salado. Gila, and Verde has no light shed upon it by their folk-lore tales. Here the statements of the 
Pimas, which Mr Walker has gathered, are of .special value: and to him I owe the following details: 
The I'imas claim to have been created where they now reside, and after passing through a disastrous 
flood — out of which only one man, Cl-ho, was saved — they grew and multiplied on the south bank of 
the Gila until one of their chiefs. Ci-vA-n'i, built the Casa Grande. They call it to-day ' Ci-vil-nft-qi ' 
(house of Ci-vi-nO): also 'VjU-qi' (ruin), \ son of Ci-vil-nn settled on lower Salt river, and built 
the \-iilages near Phoenix and Tempe. .\t the same time a tribe with which they were at war occupied 
the Kio Verde; to that tribe they ascribe the settlements whose ruins I have \isited, and which they 
call 'OH^t-gftra-viStqi' (gravelly ruinsi. The Casa Blanca and all the ruins south of the Gila were 
the abodes of the forefathers of the Pimas. designated by them as "Vl-pl-sef (great-grandparents^, 
or ■ lIo-ho-q6m' (the extinct ones). (Ci-vd-nft had twenty wives, etc. ['Each of whom wore on her 
head, tike a headdress, the peculiar half-hood, half-basket contrivance called Ki'-jo.' Papers Archeol, 
Inst., IV, 403. ]i .\t one time the Casa Grande was beset by enemies, who came from the east in 
several bodies, and who caused its abandonment: but the settlements at Zacaton. Casa Blanca. etc., 
still remained, and there is even a tale [' It is even said that the people of Zacaton made war upon their 
kindred at Casa Blanca and blockaded that settlement by constructing a thorny hedge around it. 
Through the artifices of the medicine-men the hedge turned into a circle of snakes.' Papers .\rchco!. 
Inst.. IV. 464] of intertribal war between the Pimas of Zacaton and those of Casa Blanca after the 
ruin of Casa Grande. Finally, the pueblos fell one after the other, until the Pimas, driven from their 
homes, and moreover decimated by a fearful plague, became reduce<l to a sniiill tribe. .\ iiortitm of 
them moved south into Sonora, where they still reside, but the main body remained on the site of their 
former prosperity. I asked particularly why they did not again build houses with solid walls like 
those of their ancestors. The reply was that they were too weak in numbers to attempt it, and had 
accustomed themselves to their present mode of li\ing. But the construction of their winter houses — 
a regular pueblo roof bent to the ground over a central scalToM— their organization ancl arts, all War 
testimony to the truth of their sad tale, that f>f a powerful sedentary tribe reduced to distress and 
deca<ience in architecture long before the advent of the Spanijirds,'' Bandclier in Fifth .Vnn. Rep. 
Archnol. Inst. .\m., 1883-84, 80, 81. 



26 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

was the prevailing mode of disposing of the dead, as it was also on the 
lower Gila and the Salt river. Nothing was learned to indicate that 
the Sobaipuris of the San Pedro practised incineration. If some of 
the clans of the Hopis or Zuiiis are to be identified with the Hohokam 
of the Gila, as is maintained by some of the most able authorities 
upon Southwestern archeology," how is the total disappearance of 
this primal custom to be explained? 

There is a strong belief among the Pimas that they came from the 
east. It is in that quarter that the abode of their dead is located. 
Their gods dwell there. Their beliefs do not seem to have been 
influenced in this respect in the least through contact with the tribes 
of Yuman stock who have sought a paradise in the opposite direc- 
tion. There are vestiges of a tradition that the Pimas were once 
overwhelmed by a large force of warriors who came from the east 
and destroyed nearly all the people and devastated the entire Gila 
valley. This does not appear to be another version of the account 
of the invasion by the underworld clans. While the majority of the 
Pimas declare that their people have always lived where they now 
are, or that they came from the east, there are some who say that 
the Ilohokam were kiUed by an invasion from the east before the 
Pimas came. 

The Pimas formerly regarded the ruins with the same reverence or 
aversion wliich they felt toward their own burial places. After the 
excavations made by the Hemenway Expedition on the Salt river, 
as no disasters followed the disturbance of the dead, they grew less 
scrupulous and can now readily be hired as workmen to excavate 
the ruins or ancient cemeteries. 

Contact with Spaniards 

From the meager records of the Coronado Expedition of 1.540-1542 
it has been surmised that C'hichilticalli was the Casa Grande, but this 
statement lacks verification. After traversing the entire southern 
and eastern part of Arizona the writer can not but believe that it is 
extremely improbable that Coronado saw the Casa Grantle and the 

"The earliest mention of the Gila origin of the Hopi theory is that of Garcfis; "Also they knew that 
I was padre mlnistro of the Pimas, who likewise are their enemies. This hostility had been told mc 
by the old Indians of my mission, by the GUe"ios,and Coco-Maricopas, from which information I have 
imagined (he discurridoi that the Moqui nation anciently extended to the Rio Gila itself. I take my 
stand (fundome. ground myself i in this matter on the ruins that are found from this river as far as ■ 
the land of the Apaches, and that I have seen between the Sierras do la Florida and San Juan Nepo- 
muzeno. Asking a few years ago some Subaipuris Indians who were living in my mission of San Xavier 
if they knew who had built those houses whose ruins and fragments of pottery (losa for loza) are still 
visible — as, on the supposition that neither Pimas nor Apaches knew how to make (such) houses or 
pottery, no doubt it was done by some other nation — they replied to me that the Moquis had built 
them, for they alone knew how to do such things, and added that the .\paches who are about the mis- 
sions are neither numerous nor valiant; that toward the north was where there were many powerful 
people; "there went we.' they said, "to fight in former times (antiguamente); and even though we 
attained unto their lands we did not surmount the mesas whereon they lived.' " Diary in Coues, On 
the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, New York, 1900, ii, 380, 387. 



BussELL] CONTACT WITH SPANIARDS 27 

neijjhboring Pima villages. For a century and a half after that inva- 
sion no white man is known to have reached the territory of the 
Pimas Giienos. 

The earliest as well as the most imj)ortant explorer in the history 
of Pimeria Alta was Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, who, between 
the years 1687 and 1710, journej-eel many a dusty, thirsty league in 
the eager search for souls. In 1694 he reached the Casa Grande in 
company with native guides who had informed him of the existence 
of the ruin. Absolutely nothing is known about this expedition 
except that a mass was said within the walls of Casa Grande. How- 
ever, it may be safely inferred that Kino visited the near-by Pima vil- 
lages. As the Pajmgos were at that time also called Pimas it is some- 
times difficult to determine what part the true Pimas played in the 
events chronicled by the padres. Yet it is probable that they are 
referred to in the account of the religious festival which was observed 
in 1698 at Remedies, in Pimeria Baja. Among the visitors were 
' 'native chieftains from as far north as the Gila valley." Then as now 
the Pimas and Papagos were on a friendly footing, and the character 
and movements of the Spaniards must have been made known to the 
Pimas before the latter saw Kino or any other white man. 

Kino diligently strove to establish missions among the many tribes 
that he visited, but was much hampered by lack of fimds. He suc- 
ceeded in interesting the authorities sufTiciently to induce them to 
send a military expedition to the Gila in 1697 for the ])urpose of ascer- 
taining the disposition of the Pimas. The party included 20 soldiers, 
with .3 officers. Juan ^lateo JIange was sent with Kino to write the 
official reports of the expedition. On the upper San Pedro river 
30 Sabaipuris joined the party, which followed that stream to the 
Gila. They reached the Pima villages on the 21st of November, vis- 
iting and for the first time describing the Gasa Grande. The return 
was by the more direct route of the Santa Cruz valley. It was by 
this route also that Kino in Sejitember, 169S, again descended to the 
Pimas with a small partj' of native guides. lie returned by way of 
Quijotoa (0 and the Gulf. 

Early in 1699 Kino, in company with Mange, made his fourth jour- 
ney to the Pimas by way of Sonoita and the lower Gila. The return 
was by way of the Santa Cruz. 

A year later Kino again reached the Gila by a new route. From a 
point above the I5entl, and hence doubtless among the Pimas, he 
descended to the mouth and returned to Sonora by waj^ of Sonoita. 

In 1702 he made his sixth and last journey to the Pimas, going bv 
way of Sonoita and the lower Gila. Among the "40,000 gentiles" 
whom he is said to have baptized there were quite a number of Pimas, 
but as his sojourn among them was never of more than a few days' 
duration his influence could not have been very great. Nevertheless, 



28 THE PIMA INDIANS (eth. ann. 26 

he gave away great quantities of beads, and as the people already 
valued highly those of their own manufacture it is probable that they 
readily accepted Kino's statement that magic power resided in the 
new beads of glass. At any rate, the writer has found very old glass 
beads on all Piman shrines and has no doubt that some of them were 
brought by Kino. The first horses, also, to reach Pimeria were brought 
by these expeditions. There is no record of any cattle being brought 
so far north, though they wcr(> generally distributed to the Papago 
rancherias in Kino's time. 

After the death of Kino, in 1711, no Spaniard is known to have 
reached the Gila or even to have entered Arizona for a period of more 
than twenty years. In 1731 two missionaries, Father Felipe Segres- 
ser and Juan Bautista Grashoffer, took charge of the missions of San 
Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi and became the first per- 
manent Spanish residents of Arizona. In 1736-37 Padre Ignacio 
Javier Keller, of Suamca, made two trips to the Pima villages on the 
Gila, where he found "that many of the rancherias of Kino's time 
had been broken up." ° Again in 1743 Keller went up to the Pimas 
and endeavored to penetrate the Apache country to the northward. 
Communications by means of native messengers indicated a desire on 
the i)art of the Hopis to have Jesuit missionaries come to them from 
Sonora. The point of greatest interest to us is that any communica- 
tion should have existed at all. Keller failed in his attempt on 
account of the hostility of the Apaches, and Sedelmair, who tried to 
make the journey in the following year, was unable to induce the 
Pimas or Maricopas to accompany him. In 1748 Sedelmair reached 
the Gila near the mouth of the Salt river and journeyed westward. 
Of his trip to the Gila in 1750 little is known. 

Accounts of these earliest missionaries of course preceded them by 
means of Papago messengers, who doubtless made clear the distinc- 
tion between the slave-hunting Spanish adventurers and the Jesuits 
and Franciscans. Fortunately for the Pimas they were cjuite beyond 
the reach of the former and were so remote from the Sonoran settle- 
ments that only the most devout and energetic friars ever reached 
them. 

The first military force to be stationed in Arizona was a garrison of 
60 men at Tubac, on the Santa Cruz. This presidio was moved to 
Tucson about 1776, and in 1780 the garrison was increased to 75 men. 
Even when at Tucson the influence of this small force on the Pimas 
could not have been very great. Between 1 768 and 1776 Padre Fran- 
cisco Garces matle five trips from San Xavier del Bac to the Pimas 
and beyond. The fifth entrada was well described in Garces's Diary 
(admirably translated and edited by Elliott Coues under the title ''On 
the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer"), though he exliibited a pitiful waste 



o Bancroft, .wii, 362. 



RL'SSELL] CONTACT WITH SPANIARDS. 29 

of opportunities for etlinological observation while among the Pimas." 

From this time forward until the American occupancy of the Gadsden 
Purchase in 1853 the Spanish and Mexican population of Tucson 
varied from 500 to 2,000, and there was more or less trade with the 
Pimas either at the post or tlirougli small trailing parties that went 
from Tucson to the Gila villages. 

a Pfefferkorn, who published his Beschreibung der Landschaft Sonora in 17&4-95, gives a ver>* full 
account of the southern Vima-speaking tribes, but dismisses the "unconverted Pimas" in the follow- 
ing words: 

"Uieraiif folgen den Gila hinunter die noch unbekehrten Pimas, welche sich auf beyden Seiten des 
Flusses ausbri'iten. Dieses Volk ist in drey zahlreiche Gemeindcn getheilet: woven die starkeste ein 
anmiithiges mit Baumen wohl liesetzes Land von 14 Meilcn bewohnet; welchesdurch Wasserleitungen, 
die sich wegen dera ebenen Boden mit geringer MUhe aus dem Flusse auf das uniliegcnde Land fiihren 
lassen, Ijt-feuchtet, und fruchtliargemacht werden kann." (Vol. i. p. (1.) 

Padre Pedro Font, who accompanied Garc^s in 1775, wrote an extended diary of the journey, in which 
he devotes a few pages to the I'imas. Following is a translation from a copy of the original manuscript, 
pages 4S-52: 

■' First of November: Wednesday. — I said mass, which was attended by some Gilefios Indians who 
happened to be there and whogaveevidence of consideral^le attention, gr»od behaviour, and silence. They 
sought to imitate the Christians in crossing theniselves, which they did awkwardly enough, and in 
other things. We left the Laguna (Lagoon i at half-past nine in the morning, and at one o'clock in the 
afternoon we reached the town of San Juan Capistrano de Uturituc, after having travelled four leagues 
towards the west-northwest. This town consists of small lodges of the kind that the Gilenos use. We 
were received by the Indians, whom I estimated to be about a thousand in numlier. They were drawn 
up in two rows, the men on one side and the women on the other. After we had dismounted they all 
came in turn to salute us and offered their hand to the Commander and the three Fathers, men and 
women, children and adults. Indeed they all gave token of much satisfaction at seeing us, touching 
their breast with their hand, naming God. and using many other expressions of benevolence. In short, 
their salutation was most lengthy, foralmost every one of them bowed to us, saying: "Diosatom' busi- 
boy," as do the Pimas Christians of Pimeria alta, which signifies "May God aid us." We, on our part, 
must needs return their salutations. They lodged us in a large hut, which they constructed to that end, 
and in front of it they placed a large cross. Pagans though they were. The river being somewhat dis- 
tant, the Governor ordered his \\ives to bring water, which they straightway carried to his lodge for 
the people. These Pimas Gilenos are gentle and kind-hearted Indians. In order to fete our arrival 
they sought pennission of the Commander to dance, and soon the women were moving from mess to 
mess, dancing after their fashion with hands clasped. In short, the whole people gave token of great 
pleasure at seeing us in their country, and some of them even offered us their little ones to be l>aptized. 
This we did not do, being desirous of proceeding with circumspection, although we sought to comfort 
them with good hopes. In the afternoon I went to the town with Father Garc^s and the Governor, 
Papago de Cojat, to see the fields. These milpas are enclosed by stakes, cultivatpd in sections, with 
five canals or draws, and are excessively clean. They are close by the town on the banks of the river, 
which is large only in the season of the Ireshets. At that time its water was so low that an Indian who 
entered and crossed it had the water but halfway up his leg. P'rom what they have told me, this is the 
reason thej' had not yet made their sowing, for inasmuch as the river was so low the water could not 
enter the canals. They alsotoldraethat to remedy this need they were all anxious to come together for a 
council, and had already thought of sinking many stakes and branches into the river to raise the water 
80 that it might enter the drains; this industry on their part is a proof of their devotion to toil and 
shows that they are not restless and nomad like other races, for to maintain themselves in their towns 
with their fields they themselves have contrived to hold and control the river. I also saw how they 
wove cloaks of cotton, a product which they sew and spin; and the greater number of them know 
how to weave. They own some large-sized sheep whose wool is good, and also Castilian fowl. These 
Indians are somewhat heavy in build, very ugly and dark, the women much more so than the men. 
Moreover, perchance on account of their excessive eating of pechita, which is the husk of the crushed 
mesquite made into a gruel, of screw bean, grass seed, and other coarse foods, a very foul odor may be 
noticed when they are gathered in groups. This evening the Commander presented them all with 
tobacco, beads, and glass trinkets, where\vith they were highly plejised. The distribution of these 
things lasted until night. 

2nd Day: Thursday.— We began to aay mass very early in the morning, and with the sacred vestments 
I carried with me and with those which Father Garc^s brought from Tubac to use in Colorado river, 
wo erected two altars. It being ,Vll-Souls day, we three Religious said nine masses. It was, moreover, 
a most notable and unheard of thing that in the river Gila so many masses should be .said. They were 
attended by a goodly number of Indians, who preser\-ed the utmost decorum and silence. We left the 
town of Uturituc at eleven o'clock in the morning, and about three in the afternoon we hailed on the 



30 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. L'6 

Relations with Americans 
CIVIL and military expeditions 

Earlj^ in the nineteenth century American beaver trappers began 
to penetrate through the Apache-infested mountains that bordered 
Pimeria on the north and east. Beaver were then fairl}- alnindant in 
the moimtain streams and down the t'olorado Grande to the very end 
in the burning lowlands. The amials of the Pimas make no mention 
of these earliest visitors from the United States, but it is known that 
several parties reached the "Pimos Gilenos," who were found uni- 
formly friendly. The Patties, father and son, journeyed from the 
Rio Grande to trap beaver in the Gila coimtry between 1825 and 1828, 
and in the latter year pushetl on to California." Kjt Carson, with a 
party of trappers, returned from his first trip to California by this 
route during the winter of 1829-30. The famous trapper, Paul 
Weaver, inscribed his name on the walls of Casa Grande in 1833.'' 

Besides the self-reliant and well-armed trappers, a few parties of 
settlers made their way to California tlu-ough the Gila valley while it 
was yet in the possession of the Mexicans, though the best-known 
route was then north of the Colorado canyon. With the opening of 
the new era of American ownersliip began the journeys of surveyors 
and explorers. The first military invasion was by General Kearney, 
with a party of 200 troopers, in 1846. Emory's excellent Notes of a 
Military Recomioi.ssance and Johnston's Journal give details of this 
journey with the first reliable information concerning the Pimas. 
Kearney was followed Ijj- Lieutenant-Colonel Cooke in command of 
the Mormon battalion, which opened a practicable wagon road to 
California by way of Tucson and the Pima villages. In Ids ollicial 
report Colonel Cooke states : 

I halted one day near the villages. of this friendly, guileless, and singularly inno- 
cent and cheerful people, the Pimos. They were indeed friendly, for they refused 
to surrender supplies that had been left at the villages to be held for the Moi-nion 
battalion, and they thi-eatened armed resistance to the Mexicans who demanded the 
mules and goods. 

banks of the river Gila near the towii of the Incarnation of Sutaquison, having journeyed more than 
four leagues towards the west and a quarter northwest. The Indians of the town came out to receive 
us and saluted us with tokens of great joy. Their number I estimated to be five hundred souls. On our 
way we passed through two other small towns. In this limited territory liesalmost all the land occupied 
by the tribe of the Pimas (iilenos. The soil here is very poor and raises a very sticky dust , on account of 
which and their wretched food the Indians are very ugly, dirty, and repulsive. The river Gila was dry 
in this region, so they obtained their water by digging wells in the sand. It is only during the season of 
freshets that the river is of any service for the seed lands and fields of the Indians. The banks of the 
river are covered with a grove of undersized Cottonwood trees. In the evening tobacco was distrib- 
uted among the Indians and glass beads were promised the women for the following day. We asked 
the Indians why they lived so far from the river, for formerly they had their town on its banks. They 
replied that they had changed its site because on account of the groves and woods on its banks they 
could defend themselves but ill against the Apaches, but that by living apart from the river they were 
able to have a clear field for pursuing and killing the Apaches when they came against their town." 

<■ Pattie's Personal Narrative. 

» J. R. Browne, .\dventures in the Apache Country. New York, 18C9, 118. 



RUSSELL] RELATIONS WITH AMERICANS 31 

A battalion of dragoons under Maj. L. P. Graham marched west- 
ward to Cahfornia by way of the Pima villages in 1848. Bancroft 
states that he has a manuscript diary from Capt. Cave J. Coutts, of 
this battalion, in wliich it is recorded that the Pimas were very hos- 
pitable and exhibited conspicuous signs of tlu-ift." 

The parties of the Boimdary Sm-vey Commissioners passed do\\ii 
the Gila in 1851, and the accoimt of the Pimas by J. R. Bartlett, the 
American commissioner, is by far the best that has been published 
thus far.' Bartlett's party returned eastward through the Pima 
villages in 1852. 

In 1S54 Lieuts. J. G. Parke ^ and George Stoneman began at the 
Pima villages the survey for a railroad which was destined to pass 
through just a quarter of a century later. In 1855 Lieutenant Parke, 
with another party, made a second survey and again visited the villages. 

From the time of the discovery of gold in California, in 1840, 
parties of gold seekers, numbering in all many thousand persons each 
vear, followed the Gila route, meeting with hospitality from the Pimas 
and almost equally miiform hostility from the Apaches. The loca- 
tion of the Pimas in the midst of the 280-mile stretch between Tucst)n 
and Yuma was a peculiarly fortunate one for the travelers, who could 
count \ipon supplies and if need be protection at a point where their 
journey otherwise must have been most perilous. "^ 

Tlie I'nited States Government first recognized the value of the 
assistance rendered by tlie Pimas when by act of Congress of Feb- 
ruary 28, 1859, iSljOOO was appropriated for a survey of their lands 
and S10,000 for gifts.' 

o History of Arizona and New Mexico, 479. 

b Personal Narrative, 1854. 2 vols. 

c ■• Their chiefs and old men were all eloquent in professions of friendship for the .\jnericans and were 
equally desirous that we should read thecertiiicates of good offices rendered various parties while passing 
through their country." Pacific Hailroad Report, ii, 5. 

J •■ Since the year 1849 (they) have acted in the capacity of and w-ith even more efficiency than a frontier 
military. They have protected .\merican emigrants from molestation by Apaches, ami when the latter 
have stolen stock from the emigrants, the I'inios and Maricopas have punished them and recovered their 
animals. Yet in all this time [ten yearsl nothing has lieen done for them by our Govermnent." Extract 
from a letter in the .\lta California, June 28, 1S.5S, quoted in S. Ex. Doc. 1, pt. 1, 55ti, 3.ith Cong., 2d 
sess., 1859. 

"A company of nearly one hundred of their best warriors was enlisted into the United States serrice in 
the latter part of 1865. which served one year with great credit to themselves and did much good serv- 
ice in quelling our common enemy. Seventy of them have just been mustered out [ISBT] of the United 
States service, after having performed six months' duty as spies and scouts, for which service they are 
invaluable." Report of Commissioner of Indian .VUairs, 1807, 163. 

' Following is a Ust of the articles distributed among the Ilmas and Maricopas, as reported by Mowrj-: 
444 axes. 36 hammers. 3 pairs tongs. 

018 shovels. 48 rakes. 1 set stock and dies. 

31 hand saws. 48 trowels. 12 file handles. 

706 butcher knives. 12 screw-drivers. 30 hatchets. 

516 hoes. 1 " carpenter shop." 1'20 picks. 

240 sickles. 15 plows. 7 kegs nails. 

48 files. 15 sets plow harness. 9 gross screws. 

270 harrow teeth. 1 forge. 1,400 needles. 

48 mattocks. 1 an^•il. 1 box sheet tin. 

72 whetstones. 1 vise. 4,000 pounds baricy. 

15 grindstones. 1 set sledges. 1 pint turnip seed. 

30 hay forks. 1 cast-steel hand hammer. 

Mowry explains that a larger number of plows would have been included in tills lot of tools and imple- 



32 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Maricopa Wells, near the lower villages, became an important stage 
station when the overland mails began to pass late in the fifties." 

With the advent of the stage, the emigrant and the military trains 
began the breaking down of the best that was old and the building 
up of the worst that was new. For a period of thirty years, or from 
1850 to 18S0, the Pimas were visited by some of the vilest specimens 
of humanity that the white race has produced. Until 1871 the tribe 
was without a teacher, missionary, or, to judge from their own story 
and the records of the Government, a competent agent. Bancroft 
has thus summarized the conditions prevailing during that perioil: 

In many respects there has been a sad deterioration diu-ing forty years of contact 
with civilization, notably by acquiring habits of intemperance, prostitution, and pil- 
fering; yet they are still vastly superior to most other tribes. For several years, from 
1868, serious troubles with them seemed imminent. Presuming on their military 
services and past immunity from all restraint, they became insolent and aggressive, 
straying from the reservation, robbing travelers, refusing all satisfaction for inroads 
of their horses on the setdei-s' fields, the young men being beyond the chiefs' control. 
Swindling traders had established themselves near the villages to buy the Indians' 
grain at their own prices, and even manipulate Government goods, the illegal traffic 
receiving no check, but rather apparently protection from the Territorial authorities. 
\\'hiskey was bought from Adamsville or from itinerant Mexicans; the agents were 
incompetent, or at least had no influence, the military refused support or became 
involved in profitless controversies. Worst of all, white settlers on the Gila used so 
much of the water that the Pimas in dry years had to leave the reservation or starve. 
General Howard deemed the difficulties insurmountable, and urged removal. Had 
it not been for dread of the Pima numbers and valor, the Apaches still being hostile, 
very likely there might have been a disastrous outljreak.'' 

As early as 18.59 Lieut. Sylvester Mowiy, special agent, Indian 
Bureau, foresaw danger threatening the interests of the Pimas and 
wrote: 

There are .some fine lands on the Gila and any extensive cultivation above the 
Indian fields will cause trouble about the water for irrigation and inevitably bring 
about a collision between the settlers and the Indians. <^ 

Again in 18612 Poston gave additional warning: 

If in the eager rush for farms or embryo cities tlic land al)ove them shcmld lie 
occupied liy Americans, and their supply of water lie reduced, it might ijroduce 
discontent.<i 



ments had not the Indian Department distributed a few plows a short time pre\'iously. (S. Ex. 
Doc. 2, 723, 36th Cong., 1st sess., 1859.) The gifts were d'stributed by Lieut. Mowry and the survey 
was made under his direction by Col. A. B. Gray. 

This original survey contained 64,000 acres— much loss than the Itmas claimed and actually required 
for their fields and grazing lands. The commissioners who negotiated with them assured the tribe 
that the present boundaries were but temporary limits to protect the people in their rights, and that 
the Government would enlarge the reservation later. This promise was made good by a survey in 1869, 
which added 81.140.10 acres (U. S. Statutes at Large, 1869, n, 401). In 1876 9,000 acres about the 
village of Blackwater were added to the eastern end of the reservation. 

a " In August and September, 1857, the San Antonio and San Diego semimonthly stage line, under the 
direction of I. C. Woods, was established, James Burch acting as contractor. This continued till the 
Butterfield semi weekly line was put upon the route, in August, 1858, under a contract of six years with 
the Postmaster-General, at $600,000 a year." J. R. Browne, Adventures in the Apache Country, IS). 
The journey of nearly 2,500 miles was made in from twenty to twenty-two days. 

6 Bancroft's Works, xvn, 548. 

c S. Ex. Doc. 2, 727,. 36th Cong.. 1st sess., 1859. 

d Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs 1863, 386, 1864. 



RUSSELL] RELATIONS WITH AMERICANS 33 

Agent R. G. Wheeler protested against the diversion of the water 
of the Gihi from the Pima reservation at the time the Florence canal 
was j)rojected in 1886 and succeeded in gaining the attention of the 
Department of the Interior which instructed the Director of the Geo- 
logical Survey to investigate the matter. As a result of the investi- 
gation the followino; facts were established: 

(1) That the water supply of the Pima and Maricopa reservations under present 
conditions is no more than suflTicieut fur the wants of the Indians. 

(2) That the construction of a dam by the Florence Canal Company of the character 
represented in the correspondence will give the control substantially of all the waters 
of the Gila river. 

(4) That if till' water supply from the river be shut off, the Indian reservation would 
become uninhabitable. 

Other facts were presented, but these are the essential ones that 
directly concern us here." Notwithstanding the above finding, no 
eftective efforts were made to prevent the water from being diverted 
from the reservation, and the result was nearly as predicted — a result 
that shoidd bring a blush of shame to every true American. A thrifty, 
industrious, and peaceful people that had been in effect a friendly 
nation rendering succor and assistance to emigrants and troops for 
many years when they sorely needed it was deprived of the rights 
inhering from centuries of residence. The marvel is that the starva- 
tion, despair, and dissipation that resulted did not overwhelm the 
tribe. 

AGENTS 

In 1857 John Walker was appointed Indian agent for the territory 
embraced in the Gadsden Purchase, with headquarters at Tucson. 
The Pimas were of course within liis territorj-, though his control 
over them could not have been very great with the agency separated 
from the callages by a 90-mile stretch of desert in the scarcelj- dis- 
puted possession of the Apaches. W^alker presented no report to his 
superior at Santa Fe in 1858, but in 1859 gave some account of the 
condition of the Pimas. 

In 1864 Charles D. Poston was appointed superintendent of Indian 
afl'airs for Arizona, but he resigned that year. He was succeeded by 
four others during the next eight years, at the end of which period 
the office was abolished. Abraham Lyons was appointed agent for 
the Pimas in 1862, and he also lived at Tucson. Ammi M. White, 
appointed in 1864, was a resident trader. He had built a mill at Casa 
Blanca, which was destroyed by the flood of September, 1868. Levi 
Ruggles, appointed in 1866, administered affairs from Tucson. Dur- 
ing 1867 C. II. Lord acted as deputy agent. Fairh' adequate adobe 
buildings were erected for the agent at Sacaton in 1870, and the agents 

a U. S. Gcol. Surv., Water-Supply and Irrigation Papers, no. 33, p. 10. 
26 ETH— 08 5 



34 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

thereafter resided at that place. The present commodious dwelling 
was erected in 1883. Following is a list of the later agents, with the 
dates of their appointment: 



Capt. F. E. Grossman, 1869. 

J. H. Stout, 1871-1875, 1877-78. 

Charles Hudson, 1876. 

A. B. Ludlam, 1879. 

E. B. Townsend, 1881. 

R. G. Wheeler, 1881. 

A. H. Jackson, 1882. 



R. G. \\Tieeler, 1885. 
C. M. Johnson, 1888. 
C. W. Crouse, 1889. 
J. R. Young, 1893. 
Henry J. Cleveland, 1897. 
Elwood Hadley, 1898. 
J. B. Ale.\ander, 1902. 



SCHOOLS 



The first school (pi. v, i) among the Pimas was opened by Rev. 
C. H. Cook, in the employ of the Government, February 18, 1871, in 
an adobe building about 2 miles west of the present agency of 
Sacaton. This day school had a good attendance from the first, and 
much of the ])resent beneficial influence of the missionary may be 
ascribed to the connnand over the children which he obtained during 
the seven yea,TS tliat he occupied the position of teacher. The change 
to a boarding school located at the agency was made in 1881, and a 
Mr Armstrong was the first superintendent. The school l)uildings 
were destroyed by fire in November, 1888, and the mission church 
was occupied during the remainder of that year. The capacity of the 
school is now 225, though during our stay at Sacaton more than 300 
were crowded in. Two and three children were apportioned to sleep 
in narrow single beds and even in the hospital the beds were over- 
crowded. For years the accommodations have been inadequate to 
receive all the children that desired education. Day schools at Gila 
Crossing and Salt River take care of a few, and three or four new build- 
ings for day schools have been erected at Blackwater, Lehi, Mari- 
copa, and Casa Blanca. 

Annals 

chkonological records 

Three chronological records have thus far been preserved from 
among the many that are supposed to have existed among the 
American tribes. The first of these to be published was the Walum 
01am of the Delawares, the definitive edition of which was published 
by D. G. Brinton." In 1877 Col. Garrick Mallery brought to light 
the "Lone-dog winter count" of the Sioux and subsequently secured 
several other records from the same tribe. '' Recently James Mooney 

tt The Lenape and their Ij(!g(mds, Brinton's Library of Aboriginal .Vinerican Literature, V, 1885. 
I>A Calendar ot the Dakota Nation, Bulletin U. S. Geol. Surv., ni, no. 1; also Fourth and Tenth 
Annual Reports of the Bureau of Ethnology. 



RUSSELL] 



ANNALS 35 



has published a series of Kiowa calendars that resemble those of the 
Sioux, but are more distinctl_y calendric." 

In addition to these published records we have references to yet 
others that have wholh' disappeared; references that can not now be 
verified. For example, the Iroquois are said '' to have maintained 
a record of their exploits in war bj^ means of war posts on which 
notches indicated the occurrence of campaigns and conventional 
characters denoted the number of scalps and captives taken. Events 
of a certam class were thus recorded in chronologic order. Among 
the Santee Sioux Clark " found a notched stick which he was assured 
represented the history of the tribe for more than a thousand years. 
Mooney suggests that this nmst have been used in connection with a 
chant similar to that accompan\dng the Walum 01am. However, it 
seems extremely improbable that any record should have survived 
the vicissitudes of an Indian camp for so long a period. The use of 
notched sticks for mere numeration is common enough in all cultures 
and among all peoples, but such a use as that made by the Santees is 
not, so far as known, mentioned elsewhere in the literature. 

The writer was therefore greatly interested to discover no fewer 
than five notched calendar sticks among the Pimas. Two sticks 
were "told" to him by their possessors. The record covers a period 
of seventy years, dating from the season preceding the meteoric 
shower of November 13, 1833, as do the oldest of those discovered 
among the Kiowa. There are traditions of older sticks that have 
been lost or buried with their keepers. Juan Thomas, of the village 
of Blackwater, had lost his stick in some inexplicable manner, but he 
was continuing the history with pencil and paper, thus rendering it 
more nearly comparable to the calendars of the Plauis tribes. It is 
noteworthy that the change from stick to paper introduced a ten- 
dency to use pictorial symbols rather than merely mnemonic char- 
acters, such as are most easily incised on the surface of a stick having 
clearly marked grain. Among the sticks there is an evident increase 
in the number and elaboration of characters wliich may l^e attributed 
to contact with the wliites, though not to their direct influence, as 
the existence of the calendars has been almost entirely imknown to 
them. 

The year begins with the .saguaro harvest, about the month of June. 
At that time, also, the mcsquite beans are ripening, as well as the 
cultivated crops. It is the season of feasting and rejoicing. No 
other annual occurrence can compare in importance with these fes- 
ti\'ities, so that it is not surjirisiug that the years should i)e counted 
by harvests. The Lower California tribes, as described by Baegert 

c Calendar History ol the Kiowa, Seventeenth .\nnual Report of the Bureau of .\mericttn Ethnology. 
* J. E. Seaver, A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jeniison, 70: cited by Mallery. 
c The Indian Sign Language, 2U, 18S5; cited by Mooney. 



36 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



(ETTI. ANN. 26 



more than a century ago, similarly numbered the years. A space of 
tliree years would be expressed by the term "tliree pitahayas," 
" yet they seldom make use of such phrases." ° 



THE PIMA CALENDAR 

It is said that when Elder Brother was leaving Pimeria for the last 
time he told the people to count the tail feathers of the little bird, 
Gisap, which are twelve in nundser, and that they should divide the 
year into that number of parts. He gave them names for these 
parts, except for the coldest and the hottest months. The writer is 
disposed to regard the recognition of the "moons" as of recent origin. 
Not many have any names for them and these do not agree even in 
the same village. For example, the list of months given by the chief is 
quite different from that fimiished by Ka'nu'd tkak, and also contains 
references to wheat, which is of course modem. 



The months according to K&'mdl tk&k. 

1. Harsany paihitak inarsat, Saguaro 

harvest moon. 

2. Tcokiapik, Rainy. 

3. Rsopol usaplk, Short planting. 

4. Varsa kakatak, Dry grass. 

5. Huhokiapk', Winter begins. 
C. 0am, Yellow. 

7. Ka-amak, Leaves falling. 

8. Aufpa hiasik, Cottonwood flowers. 

9. Aufpa i-ivakitak, Cottonwood leaves. 

10. Koi i-ivakitak. Mesquite leaves. 

11. Koi hiasik, Mesquite flowers. 

12. Kai tcokollk. Black seed.s on sagiiaros. 



Th( months according to Anto7iio A:ul. 

1. Pejkany paihitak marsat, Wheat har- 

vest moon. 

2. Har.sany paihitak, Saguaro harvest. 

3. Tcokiapik, Rainy. 

4. Rsopol usapik, Short planting. 

5. Varsa kakatak. Dry grass. 

6. Vi-ihainjik, Windy. 

7. Ovalik, Smell. 

8. Ku-utco s'hupitcik, Big winter. 

9. Kamaki, Gray. 

10. TcL-rtaki, Green. 

11. 0am, Yellow. 

12. Ka-ak, Strong. 



As they have no winters the Pimas naturally do not have a "winter 
cotmt." As there are, two rainy seasons and neither is of any con- 
se([uence as a general rule, wliile both are sometimes wanting alto- 
gether, they could not be expected to mark the flight of 3'ears by the 
recurrence of the rains. There are but two seasons in the Gila valley, 
one of torrid heaf* and one of ideal weather throughout the remainder 
of the year. The onset of the former coincides with the harvest season 
and the new year is therefore adapted, albeit unwittingly, to seasonal 
change. The year mark is invariably a deep notch across the stick. 

The records of the early years are memorized and there are few 
minor notches to aid in recalling them. The year notches are exactly 
alike, yet on asking a narrator to go back and repeat the story for 
a certain year the writer found that he never made a mistake. Tak- 
ing the stick in hand he would rake his thumb nail across the year 



1 The aboriginal inhabitants of the Califorman ri-mnsiila in Smithsonian Report, 18114. 38S. 
(> Maximum temperature recorded for a period of nineteen years at Phoenix was 119° F. 
of Cliief of Weather Bureau, 1900-1901, i. 



Report 



RUSSELU] ANNALS 37 

notcli luidbc'i^in: "Tlial notch means," etc. The interpreter, either 
thn)ii<;li imitation or because of tlie same mode of thought, would tlien 
take tlie stick and dig liis thumb into the same notch before repeating 
the story in Enghsh. Botli seemed to endow tlie stick and the par- 
ticular notch with a definite personality in their minds. That notch 
looked exactly like its neighbors but it stood for something different, 
which was apparently recalled as much by the sense of touch as by 
that of sight. 

Dots or shallow circular pits and slu)rt notches are the most com- 
mon symbols on the sticks. These have no <listinctive meaning, and 
are used for recording a great variety of events. The human figure 
is freely used, and may signify that a man killed Apaches or was killed 
by them, that he was bitten by a rattlesnake, struck by lightning, or, 
in short, any event relating to a man in any manner may ])e denoted 
by this symbol. The date of building railways was recorded by an 
ideogram, representing rails and ties. Only one sjanbol had come 
arbitrarily to designate a single event. This is the T wliich was used 
to record the ''tizwin drunks,"' or festivals at which saguaro or agave 
liquor was brewed and freely imbibed. 

NATURE OF THE EVENTS 

It has been fre(|ucntly observed that the records of the .Vnicrican 
Indians contain much that is trivial and oftentimes omit that which 
is important. There are obvious reasons for this that have lieen 
adequately set forth by ilallery," and it must also be borne in mind 
that the relative importance of an event differs according as it is 
viewed by Caucasian eyes or by those of the ^Vmerican Indian. Judg- 
ing by the early portions of the records, the conclusion might be 
reached that the purpose was to secure chronologic secjuence, though 
the Pinuis are not known to have liad ceremonies that by their in fre- 
cjuent recurrence would require calendric regulation. However, tlie 
later years are so filled with events that the primary purpose is clearly 
narrative. They are therefore to be designated annals, rather tlian 
calendars. Moreover, the j-ears are never named. "In this 3'ear 
the crops failed;" "In this year the floods overspread the whole val- 
ley," etc., but never, "This is the famine year" or "This is the flood 
year." Upon analysis the events recorded are found to be distrib- 
uted as follows: 

Battles or skirmishes 66 

Iiil"ri-(iuc>nt pheiiuinona, eclipses, floods, earlhtiuakes, etc 14 

Famines and years of abundance 5 

Epidemics 11 

Accidents, rattlesnake bite, lightning stroke, etc 13 

Events relating to whites, but not to Pimas 19 

o Tenth ,\nnujil Report ot the Bureau of Ethnology, 271. 



38 THE PIMA INDIANS [kth, ann. 26 

Relations witli whites, l)uil(ling cliurches, etc 21 

Number of sorcerers killed 18 

Changes of village sit es 2 

Races, relay, kicking ball, and horse races 7 

Festivals in which liquor was brewed 25 

Trivial events, including those of personal interest 13 

Number of persons kUled during drinking bouts 24 

THE NAKKATIVE 
1833 34 

*V ^"ife Crossing, Salt River. Duriii<j tlie moon preceding the 
*. * meteoric shower the Yiinaas, armed with ohibs, l)ows, and arrows, 
attacked the Maricopa village. The Yumas surprised the Maricopas 
and captured their women, whom they surrounded and tried to take 
away with them. They were aliout to cross the Gila with theu' cap- 
tives when the Pimas arrived and attacked them. The women took 
advantage of the confusion to escape into the chaparral. The "i'unias 
fought bravel}', but they were overpowered by numbers and few 
escaped to tell of their defeat. 

In the early whiter" the meteoric shower took place. This event 
was followed by heavy rains that caused floods in the Salt and Gila 
rivers. The spectacle of falling stars was to the Pimas an augury of 
disaster, and the succeeding floods were regarded as a punishment 
for sins which the}' had committed. What the sins might hv they 
did not know, but concluded that they must have ofl'ended some 
medicine-man who possessed great magic power. Many thought it 
must l)e the medicine-man Kaku who brought this calamity upon 
them because they had not shown him the respect that he thought 
was due him. It is said that when the flood was at its height he 
climbed a cottonwood tree and thence proclaimed in a loud voice that 
he would perform certain miracles that would jjrove disastrous to 
them if they did not listen to him and show him respect. 

Others declared that the floods were caused by the two sons of an 
old goddess, Takwa-artam. When she saw the flood threatening to 
overwhelm the Pimas and Maricopas she said to her sons: "Give me 
back my milk and then you can drown my people. The land is yet 
wdiat it was when it was new.' ' This puzzled the two brothers. They 
knew that they could not return the milk that had nourished them 
in infancy, so they did not allow the flood to rise anj' higher, but 
cau-sed it to go down. 

1834:-35 

Salt River. This year was long remembered because of the jxuin- 
tiful crops of wheat, corn, squashes, pumpkins, and watermelons that 
were raised. The desert mesas were carpeted with flowers and the 

o November 13, 13.33. 



RUSSELL] ANNALS 39 

bloom of cacti further transformed tliem into gardens. "Our people 
worshiped the gods in grateful recognition for their protection; we 
(lanced unmolested by the murderous Apaches; we looked after the 
welfare of our households.'' 

1835-36 

GHa Crossing, Salt River. One summer aftemoon when only 
women and old men were at home, the Apaches came and killed two 
Pimas, a man who was irrigating his field and a boy who was hunting 
doves. That morning the j-ounger men of the village of Rsanfik had 
plamied to have a rabbit himt toward the north, but when the crier 
gave the final announcement it was to hunt toward the south. Thus 
it was that one side of the village had been left unjirotected, and when 
the fightmg men returned it was too late to follow the raiders and the 
revenge was postponed. 

1836 3V 

Salt River. At the begmniiig of this year the fruit of the giant 
cactus was gathered and a large quantity of liquor prepared from it. 
All the men liecame intoxicated— too drunk to be on their guard 
against an attack from the Apaches. Early in the morning a ^\•()man 
started toward the hills to gather cactus fruit. She had not gone far 
when she saw a man moimt a horse and start toward her. She 
susj>ected danger and walked backward for some distance liefore 
turning to flee. She got halfway to the village before she was over- 
taken by the Apache, with whom she struggled so desperatelj' as to 
raise a cloud of dust. Those who were somewhat sober hastened 
toward the place, but too late to rescue the woman from being roped 
and dragged to death. However, they overtook the party of Apaches 
and killed five of them. Upon examuiuig the dead Apaches it was 
found that their bodies were protected with rawhide armor: then the 
Pimas understood why their arrows had glanced off or jumped l)uck. 

Gila Crossing, Salt River. A year passed without a visit from the 
marauding Apaches. "We tilled our fields, danced our war dances, 
sang songs, ke])t up target practice, and exercised m the use of the 
shield." 

183V-38 

Gila Crossing, Salt River. One cold night in the spring a Pima 
at Kso'tHk was irrigating his wheat field by moonlight. Without 
thought of enemies he biult a fire to warm himself. This the A]iaches 
saw and came about Iiim m the thicket. Hearing the twigs cracking 
under their feet, he ran to the village and gave the alarm. The Pimas 
gathered in sufficient numbers to surround the Apaches, who 
attempted to reach the hills cm their horses. Two horses stumbled 
into a gully, and their riders were killed before the}' could extricate 



40 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

themselves. The others were followed and all killed. "This was 
the only event of the year, and t)Hr j^eople were undisturbed further 
in the practice of their customs." 

1838-39 

^^ Salt River. Late in the sj>ring a party of Pimas went to Tucson 
^ to buy clothing and other needed supplies. On their return they 
were ambushed and barely escaped massacre. The Apaches had con- 
cealed themselves on either side of the trail, and when the attack was 
suddenly made the Pimas were at first panic-stricken, but recovered 
sufficiently to repel their assailants, -w-ith the loss, however, of two 
men killed and a boy captured. Tliis youth is said to have been a 
very handsome fellow, skillful in the use of the bow and arrow. 
Fearing a renewal of the confhct, the Pimas hastened home. 

A few months later they obtained their revenge upon a party of 
Apaches who came to the villages to steal horses. The enemy were 
seen and chased across the river. On the way they were met by a 
party of Pimas, returning from a council, who called out to the 
approaclung horsemen to ask who they were; on receiving no 
answer they shot one of them. An Apache called "Slender Leg" 
was pushed off his mule and two Pimas jumped off their horses and 
tried to hold him, but he was too strong for them and tliey had to 
tie him. He was taken to the well-swept plaza of the village, accord- 
ing to the Salt River calendar, or to an open alkali flat near the vil- 
lages, as stated by the Gila Crossing annalist, where the people gath- 
ered and danced and sang around him. Two widows of men killed 
in an ambuscade earlier m the season walked four times around the 
outside of the circle of dancers, and then ])assed inside as an avenue 
was opened for them. They carried long clubs of mesquite, with 
which they beat the captive into insensibility. 

183Q— il 

There are no events recorded for these two years on either of the 
two sticks that date back thus far. 

134=1-42 

• Gila Crossing, Salt River. The Maricopas of the village of Masa- 
e kunCilt, accompanied by one Pima, went on a campaign against the 
Yumas. The enemy gatliered to meet them and sent a messenger 
to tell them that they shoidd leave aside tlieir knives and bows and 
fight only with sticks. The ihiricopas agreed to this, but the Pima 
said he had made his bow and arrows to use on the enemy and he 
would keep them in his own hands. The Yuma messenger showed 
the Maricopas where to cross the Colorado river and conducted 
them to the assembled Yumas on the farther side. It was agreed 



RL'SSELL] ANNALS 41 

that four from each side should eu<;!ige m the combat, usuig sharj) 
sticks about 6 feet long (lances) instead of the customary war club. 

Four times eacli sciuiid ran in a semicircle near the enemy's line; 
four times they approached each other before the light began. At 
the first onslaught tliree Maricopas and two Yumas were killed; the 
Yumas killed the surviving Maricoj)a and retired to their line. 

Then Pautatidv, "bravest of the Muricojias," ran his horse through 
the entire party of Yumas, striking many with his lance before being 
caught in the line of women behind the warriors. Kaiitci Pai, 
llawk-tail, also rode through the Yuma lines, and is living to-day 
(1902). 

Tcuwut Ilakfitiiny, Earth-crack, challenged a Yuma to single com- 
bat and was wounded, but recovered. 

Then the fight became general, most of the. Maricopas being killed, 
^lany Yumas were also killed. The Pima killed so many with his 
arrows that thej' could not reach Mm with their lances, and he 
escaped, as did some Maricopas, and they reached home in safety. 
Aiipap Anton, Maricopa Antoinc (pi. xliii, h) also kept his bow and 
arrows, and when closely jiresscd by the Yiunas exclaimed in the 
Pima language: "You can not catch me!" wliich somewhat con- 
fused his enemies and enabled him to escape. 

1842^3=3 

Salt Rivtr. In the autumn the Yumas again came to attack the 
Maricopa village, but did not attempt to surprise it. They fcjrmed 
in line of battle ojiposite the line of Maricopas, who were eciually 
courageous. The war cliiefs stood between thf lines. Each man was 
armed with a' club only. The Yuma chief said to liis opponent: "I 
am read}' to have you strike me first if you can." The Maricopa 
chief answered: " It is for me to let you try your club on me, because 
you want to kill me, and you have traveled far to satisfy j'our heart." 
In the personal combat which ensued the Yuma was killetl, the sharp 
end of his opponent's chd) piercing liis side. Then the fight became 
general, each attacking the man opposite him m the line. There 
were some Mohave Apaches with the Yumas who fought with bows 
and arrows. Wlien they saw the line of Yumas wavering, they de- 
serted them. The Yumas retreated some distance and again maile 
a stand, and the light ended in an indecisive mamier, witii perhaps 
a greater loss to the Maricopas than to the Yumas. After the light 
the Mohaves wanted to scalp the tlead enemy, but the Yuma chief 
said no, they might scalp some Yunuis b}- mistake, and they must 
wait until these had been leathered from the fiekl. 



42 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

1843-44 

Salt River. In the spring the Maricopas, Pimas, and Cocopas went 
on a campaign against the Apaches. They were scouting through 
the Verde valley west of the Four Peaks one afternoon when they 
saw a small l)and of the enemy. They were unable to overtake the 
Apaches, who kept sending up signal smokes. The next morning 
the numljer of Apaches had increased and formed a circular line, 
which attacked the allies, who lost two men, father and son. 

Four days later a woman went with her daughter to gather cactus 
fi-uit for drying. She was accom])ani(Hl by her husband, who went 
as a guard. While she was busy gathering the spiny cactus, she heard 
a step and, turning, saw an Apache. She screamed for help and told 
her daugliter to run to the village antl give the alarm. The husband 
was hunting near at hand, but was too far away to rescue his wife. 
The little girl brought the men of the village, but they cimld tind no 
trace of the enemy. 

A few tlays later the Apaches killed a party of Pimas who had gone 
to the mountains to gather mescal. The Pimas had planned to go 
to the Kwahadk' camp, but changed their minds and camped oppo- 
site them. The Apaches sent down scouts from the hills to see liow 
many there were at the place where the smoke from the mescal pits 
was seen. It was a night attack and many Pimas never wakened 
to see another day; only one escaped to tell the Kwahadk s of the 
massacre. They followed the trail of the Apaches but did not over- 
take them. The dead were buried thei'e bj' the Kwahadk's, who Ivuew 
the Pinuxs well. 

In the summer, when the watermelons were ripe, a large force of 
Yiunas came to attack the Pimas and Maricopas. Their coming was 
heralded by messengers, who saitl they were advancing in great 
numbers as gaily as for a dance. The Maricopas were ready to meet 
them, but the Pimas were not. The Maricopas went out to engage 
the enemy and check their advance while the women got out of the 
way. The Yumas were driven })acl\, but the Maricopas lost two of 
their bravest warriors. 

Salt River. The next year the Yumas and Mohaves came to attack 
the Maricopa village. The fight was undecided, but the enemy re- 
treated. One Pima and several Maricopas were killed. 
• Gila Crossing, Salt River. A plague swept tlirough all the tribes 
1 durmg this year. Those stricken with it usually died within twenty- 
four hours, but if they recovered they were well again in three days. 
Froni 4 to 10 died each day. The people of Akutciny came to the 
Gila and the Gila villagers fled into the desert. The [cholera or] 



RUSSELL] ANNALS 43 

tcoko vihaslk, "black vomit,"" as it was called, brought all the meili- 
cine-men not in the best reput« under suspicion. Four were killed, 
and the survi%ang medicine-men were kept busy guarding the camps 
agauast the plague. 

fl Gila Crossing. During the winter, when ice was on the water and 
' snow was evenh' sprinkled on the lowlands, the Apaches came to 

tthe village of Rsanftk, where one of the marauders was killed. 
The Apaches, accompanied by the Piisina tribe from the north, 
attacked the Papagosat Kihotoak (Quijotoa) in April as the mesquites 
were changing from bud to leaf. The Apaches advanced with drums 
beating and with cries like the howl of the coyote. The Papagos were 
few in number, so they concealed their women in a cave and sought 
to protect them by fighting outside, but the enemy had firearms and 
all the Papagos fell in the futile attempt to preserve their loved ones 
from slavery. There yet lives a Pima who was shot tlu-ough the 
leg anil left for dead on the field of tliis battle. Many Apaches were 
wounded but none were killed. 

184=5-48 

O Gila Crossing. A party of Apaches was encamped on Mo'hatfdc 

*' mountain, and two of them came to steal corn from the fields 

at Gila Cro.ssing. The theft was discovered and tlnee Pimas lay in 

wait for the thieves. Wlien they again entered the field those lying 

in wait sprang upon them and killed one; the other escaped. 

Salt River. During the winter the Pimas went on a campaign 
against the Apaches, several of whom were killed. The attacks were 
made at night and the enemy were killed before the}' could defend 
themselves. One Pima was killed and one wounded so severely that 
he died after returning home. 

In the spring the Apaches waylaid a party of Pimas who were 
returning from a mescal-gathering expedition in the mountains. 
Nearly all the party were killed and two girls were made prisoners. 
The Apaches were followed, most of them killed, and the girls rescued 
by a party from the villages. 

1848^7 

fl Gila Crossing. Three Apaches were going toward the Papago vil- 
lage near Maatcpiit, or Table mountain, wheii a Pima, coming to 
the Gila river, crossed it and discovered their trail. A })arty went in 
pursuit and succeeded hi killing all three. Ka'mal tkak's bR)ther was 
in this party of Punas and was himself killed a few days later in an 

a"AqueIlas genles y sus iiilnistros gozan por lo general do buena salud: entre los naturalos pasan 
iimcho^ tie cien afios, excepto los pimas altos que segiin se cree per razon de las aguas y soniljrio caiice 
de sus arroyos, son espuestos 4 divcrsos achaquea. E! mas lomihle entre ellos es, el que llanian saguai- 
dodo 6 v6mito amariUo." Alegre, Historia dc la Compa&Ia de Jesus en Nueva-Espiifla, II, 213. 



44 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

ambush into wliich the Piinas were hired in the Santan lulls. One 
other Pima was killed m this engagement and many were wounded, 
but no injury was mflicted on the Apaches. 

The Pima Kwakrsan was surrounded by the enemy, who clung 
to him and to his horse and sought to pull him down; but he had 
spurs on his feet and striking them deeply into his horse's flank he 
caused the anunal to rear and throw the man who was holding its 
head, high in the air. In the confusion he escaped. 

SaJf River. The Apaches came one moonlight night to steal horses. 
Leavhig their owai mounts tied ui the brush, they crejit toward the 
houses near which were the Pima ponies. They were discovered and 
pursued to the river, where all were killed in a ruiming fight. 

1847 48 

t Gila Crosdng. The Rsaniik villagers went to Ka'matHk to hunt 
deer. They were seen coming b}- the Apaches, who lay ui wait 
at the spring, and two were shot before they could reach cover. 

Salt River. The Apaches came to Santan early one morning and 
killed four Pimas. They were chased, overtaken, and five of them 
killed before pursuit was abandoned. 

1 848-4=0 

There is no record for this year upon either calendar stick. 

1849-50 

<<> Gila Crossing. Three Apaches were discovered approaclfing the 
villages and a party was sent out on horseback to attack them. 
They fled to a hill near Tempe, where they hastily built up a wall of 
stone, behind which they maintahied themselves until nearly sunset, 
when a Pima led his party inside the Apache breastwork and the 
enemy were killed. 

1850 SI 

>Gila Crossing. The Yiunas came again to attack the Maricopas 
They surprised the village, killed several, and carried their prop- 
erty to a hill near by, where they sang and danced, saying that 
they were waiting for the Maricopas to bring their friends, the Pimas, 
to be defeated next. But they underestimated the number and valor 
of the Pimas, who soon put them to flight, leaving many of their dead 
upon the field. One of their chiefs, known to the Punas as Vlsaki- 
kitoAa[(t), when he saw most of his men fallen, came back saying 
he did not wish to escape alone. He had but a Imife m his hand and 
was killed with arrows. 

The renmant of the party took refuge in a tliicket near the Estrellas, 
where the pursuers rushed in upon them with horses and lulled all. 
Many Pimas were wounded but none killed. A strand of hair was 



SDSSBLL] ANNALS 45 

cut from the head of oach fallen Yuma, hut these have since heen lost 
or huried. There were 139: Yumas killed; their l)odies were left on 
the field. 

1851-52 

^ P GUa Crossing. Two Apaches were discovered near the Mari- 
copa village hy Wlivenanavim, a Maricopa warrior, who killed one 
of them before they could escape. 

The Pimas went on a campaijjn against the Apaches on Salt river, 
near where the present reservation is located, and one of their num- 
ber was killed. 

Blachwater. In this year the Apaches raided a Papago village 
near Quijotoa, called Kol Tatk' (mesquite root)." 

1852-53 

For three 3'ears the Gila Crossing calendar has nothing but the 
year marks on it, and the keeper could recall no event for that period. 
^^■^ Blachwater. At the hill shaped "like a nose," in the Santans, 

"^ the Apaches ambushed a party of Pimas and Maricopas. They 
sent .six men to the Maricopa village, near which the}' discovered and 
killed some women. The Maricopa and Pima warriors pursued the 
Apaches, who retreated slowly, thus luring them within reach of the 
arrows of the waiting Apaches, who killed four Maricopas and one 
Pima. The survivors retreated to tlieir supports, who were coming 
up in such numbers that the Apaches withdrew. The dead were 
burned that day north of the Santan hills. 

At about the same tune the Pimas killed four Apaches south of 
the villages.'' ■ 

Wlaen the wheat was rijie [June] the Ajiaches were pursued north 
of the Santan hills and four of tliem killed. Three men are yet 
living who killed Apaches in this fight. 

1853 54 

BlacJcwater. The Apaches came to steal horses and brought 
a live vulture with them. Thev were discovered and several 
killed. 

1854: 55 



„ (1/ Blackwater. The Apache.- 
lifyXi be stealing hor.ses in theii 



The Apaches were reported by t lie Papagos to 
leir territory and the Pimas were 
requested to aid in driving the enemy out of the country. 
In the Rincon mountains, at T&va Kosuwa, Turkey Neck, the honse 
thieves were overtaken and many of them killed. The horse's head 
indicates the purpose of the Apaches. 

oThe figure on the Blackwater slick is intemied to represent a mesquite root. 

6 .\t a point atjout 15 miles Irom the Gila where the Southern I'aciQc now runs— just south of the 
reservation. 



46 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

lS55-5e 

Gila Crossing. Skaakolk was approached one evening by seven 
Apaches, who were discovered and surrounded. Six escaped in the 
darkness, but one was tracked into the arrow bushes, where he dropped 
his bow. He was soon found to liave secreted himself in a hole washed 
deep in the sand. The Pinias could not see or reach him, so they 
shook live coals down upon the fugitive, which caused him to yell 
and suddenly leap out among them. The apparition so startled 
everyone that no move was made to detain him. As he was passing 
through their line some asked those around them, "Can we catch 
him?" but he was such a giant and the peculiar manner of his 
appearance among them so unnerved for a moment the courage of 
the men whose deepest instinct was to crush out the life of the 
Apache, that he made his escape. 
n o Blackwater. The Apaches, whom the Pimas attacked during 
a raid of this year, were grinding out mesquite beans from the 
dry pods when the arrows began to fall into their camp. A 
blind Apache was killed as his companions fled. 

lS5e-57 

/jjv BlacTcwater. The Pimas and Maricopas joined the white sol- 
/^, dicrs in a campaign against the Apaches under Wiiite Hat. 
^ Two Pimas were killed and two wounded, l)ut no Apaches were 
injured. While the Pimas were on their way home still another of 
their party was killed. The Pimas burned their dead. Later they 
killed several Apaches who were raising corn on Salt river. 

1857 58 

Salt River. About the end of the j'ear a band of Apaches came to 
the Pima villages one morning. They were discovered and chased 
30 miles to Tempe butte, where they were surrounded. They hid 
themselves at the summit of the butte, but were all killed except one, 
who escaped into the brush. 

In the summer the Yumas came again, accompanied by the Mohaves. 
They sent scouts ahead, who found the Maricopa women gathering 
mesquite beans. They killed all the women except one, Mhom thej' 
kept to act as a guide. She was the sister of a well-known ^laricopa 
warrior, and they compelled her to lead them to her brother's home. 
When they reached it she was killed with a club and the man was 
chased, but he was as good a runner as he was lighter and they could 
not catch him. A Yuma told him to stop and die like a man, but 
he answered that if they could overtake him he would show them 
how to die like a man. The Maricopas fled from their village and 
the Yumas burned it. Messengers went to all the villages that day 
and under cover of the night the Pimas and Maricopas gathered. 
They kept coming until late the next forenoon. Thej- found the 



BDSSELL] 



ANNALS 47 



Yumas encamped near the river at a spot where they had assaulted 
some women and a Pima had been killed while defending; them. 
The Yumas had spent the nifjht in singing their war songs. Now 
and again a medicine-man would come forward to puff whiffs 
of smoke in order that their cause might find favor with the gods. 
The Pinui-Maricoj)a council ended about noon and it was decided to 
surround the Yiunas and to make special effort to prevent them from 
reaching the river to obtain water. Formed in a semicircle, the 
Pinias and Maricopas shot down the Yumas upon three sides. Soon 
the Yumas began to waver and become exhausted from thirst in the 
heat of the day. They made several attempts to break through the 
line, but failed, and finally gathered in a compact bodj' to nuxke a last 
attempt to reach the river. At that moment the Pimas and Mari- 
copas who were on horseback rushed in upon the enemy and rode 
them down. ^\fter a hand-to-hand combat the Yumas were all 
killed except one, who was stunned b}' the blow of a club and lay 
unconscious under a heap of dead. During the night he recovered 
his senses and escaped. This was the bloodiest fight known, and the 
Yumas came here to fight no more." 

Blackwater. During the 3*ear Pimas were killed in two 

places by the Apaches; three south of the river and one 

north.* 

1858-5Q 

BJaclcwater. The meteor of 1859 was ob.served by the 
Pimas, who called it pai-ikam ho-o. During a raid into the 
Apache country three of the enemy were killed and also one 
Pima. 

a •' In 1857, with Mohave. Cocopa. and Tonto allies, they (the Yumas] attacked the Pimas and Papa- 
gos up the river, and in a grejit battle were almost annihilated." Bancroft, .\rizona and New Mexico, 
501. 

Cremony visited the Pimas as a captain in the California Column in 1862. In his Life Among the 
Apaches, 148, he mentions this conflict of the Pimas \\ith their old enemies, saying: "The grazing 
ground to which we resorted during our stay near the Maricopa villages had been the scene of a des- 
perate conflict between that tribe and the Pimos, on one side, and the Yumas, Chimehuevis. and 
Amohaves on the other. Victory rested with the Maricopas and Pimos, who slew over 400 of the allied 
tribes, and so humiliated them that no effort has ever been made on their part to renew hostilities. 
This battle occurred four years before our advent, and the ground was strewed with the skulls and 
bones of the slaughtered warriors." 

For the Yuma sideof the story see Lieutenant Ives's Report upon the Colorado River of the West, p. 45. 

In a letter from an unnamed correspondent living among the Yumas or at Fort Yuma, to Sylvester 
Mowry, it is stated that the tribes engaging in this battle were the Yiunas, Yarapais, Mohavos, and 
Tonto Apaches, with one or two Dieganos [Dieguenos], against the Pimas, Maricopas, and I'apagos. 
One thousand five hundred men were engaged on each side. The Yumas " lost not less than 20O of the 
flower of their chivalry." See S. Ex. Doc. 11, .tS8, 35th Cong., 1st sess., 1858. 

The Blackwater annalist could give but little information concerning the \ietory over the Yumas. 
but he had recorded it upon the calendar stick by a fringed line, in itself meanijigless. 

*> The two men in the figure are not meant to represent two killed, but that the events occurred in 
two places. 




48 THE PIMA INDIANS Ieth. ann. 26 

1S59-SO 

Blacl'water. The Pimas attacked a party of Apaches and 
• killed a man and a boy. A white man who accompanied 
the Pimas was slightly wounded with an arrow. 

iseo-ei 

Gila Crossing, A plague which killed its victims in a single day 
prevailed tliroughout the villages. Three medicine-men who were 
suspected of causing the disease by their magic were killed, ''and 
nobody was sick any more.'' 

|ip j) Blaclcwater. The one-armed trader sold his store to Ammi 
^ M. Wliite during this 3^ear and for some reason unknown to 

the Pimas tlirew away his grain sacks." 

/^ Two Pimas were killed by Apaches, but the details concerning 
the event are beyond recall. 

18ei-S2 

^ Gila Crossing. The trader, Ammi M. Wliite, was captured by 
the "soldiers from the east,"^ 



a Probably to avoid contagion. 

6 " Early in 1862 a force of two or three hundred Texans, under Captain Hunter, marched westward 
from Mesilla and in February took possession of Tucson for the Confederacy. There was, of course, 
little opposition, Union men, if there were any left, fleeing across the line into Sonora. Not much is 
really known of Hunter's operations in Arizona so far as details are concerned, even the date of his 
arrival being doubtful. Besides holding Tucson, driving out men suspected of Union sympathies, con- 
fiscating a few mines belonging to Northerners, and fighting the Apaches to some extent, he sent a 
detachment to the Pima \ailages, and possibly contemplated an attack on Fort Yuma. But — to say 
nothing of the recent floods, which had greatly increased the difiTiculties of the route, destrojing Gila 
and Colorado cities — the news from California was not reassuring, and Hunter deemed it best to retire. 

" This news was to the effect that California troops were on the march eastward. These troops, 
about 1,800 strong, consisted of several volunteer regiments or parts of regiments organized at the 
beginning of the war, and which, on receipt of intelligence that Arizona had Iieen invaded, were ordered 
to Yuma and Tucson, constituting what was known as the California Colunin, under the command 
of Colonel James II. Carleton, The main body of this army in detachments, whose exact movements 
now and later I do not attempt to follow in detail, left Los Angeles and was concentrated at Yuma 
in April, and in May followed the Gila route to Tucson. But pre\-ious]y Lieutenant-Colonel West, 
commanding the advance, had sent out some parties from Yuma, and these were the only troops that 
came in contact with the Confederates. Jones, in February, was sent with dispatches to Tucson and 
fell into the hands of Hunter, who released and sent him back bj' another route, bearing the first defi- 
nite news that Tucson had been occupied. Captain William McCleave, of Company A, First Cavalry, 
being sent out to look for Jones, was captured, with three men, at the Pima \illages on the 0th of April 
and was carried to Mesilla, where he was soon exchanged. Captain William 1'. Calloway was next 
sent up the Gila with a stronger force to rescue McCleave. At the Pima villages he heard of a Confed- 
erate detachment of 16 men, under Lieutenant Jack Swilling, and sent Lieutenant James Ban'ctt with 
12 men to cut them off. Pursuing the enemy into a chaparral, Barrett was killed, with two of his men, 
one or two of the foe being also killed and three taken prisoners. This was the only skirmish of the 
campaign with Confederates, and it occurred on the 15th of April at a spot kno\v7i as El Picacho." 
Bancroft, xvn, 514. 

Both the Gila Crossing and the Blackwater calendars mention the capture of White, but the cal- 
endrists can give no definite information concerning the events related by Bancroft. The trader was 
of vastly more interest and importance to the Pimas than the whole Confederate or I'nion anny. lie 
was agent for the Pimas, an office which he held until 1805. The writer has not found any account of 
his capture in the records of the period, but it is proliable he was soon released. As soon as he was 
taken away, the Pimas took possession of his store and quarreled over the distribution of the stock 
of wheat on hand. 



RUSSELL] 



ANNALS 49 



\ 



'■'^ <\ Blachwater. A man named Thomas [whether given name 
'^^■'~^ or surname could not be ascertained], wlio hail been trad- 
ing at (lila Crossing, took charge of White's store after the 
latter left. The soldiers from the west fought the soldiers from the 
east at Picacho and were defeated. Then a white man known to 
the Pimas as Has Viakam cam(> from the east and traded with th(>m. 
[John] Walker" came from the west with the California Colunm 
and learned the Pima language at the same time that Thomas learned 
the ^laricopa. 

1862—83 

Gila Crossinrj. The men of Rso'tClk went to the mountains about 
Prescott in search of Apaches during the summer of 1862. As they 
were following a mountain trail they caught sight of a man Ij'ing on 
his coat asleep. From his dress they could not be sure if he were 
an Apache or a Pima, so two men went to waken him. "'How did 
you sleep?" said they. On hearing tliis the man sprang up and they 
saw that he was an Apache. One struck him on the head with his 
club, but he jmnped and would have escaped had not the other 
shot him. Soon afterwards two Apaches came to the village of 
Aktitciny and their trail was discovered by two Pimas who were 
hunting for their horses. They followed the Apaches, who ran 
toward the Estrellas. The elder Pima was some distance ahead of 
the other when the leading Apache climbed the mountain and the 
other turned back to light. The two men used their bows, each 
endeavoring to protect himself behind a clump of bushes. Finally, 
as they were chasing each other around the same clump of bushes, 
the Apache getting the better of the conflict, having woumled the 
Pima in the el'bow and side, the other Pima came up and killetl the 
Apache, who was called by the Pimas Whaiemaa. 

Two Maricopas dragged the body of the Apache to a hill near Gila 
Crossing and tied it to a post, where it remained for some time. A 
friend of the ilead Apache led a party of six to the place where he 
had fallen and followed the trail of the dragged body to where it 
stood tied. The friend wept and went away without attempting to 
remove the body. As the party returned up the river they entered 
an isolatetl house in which there were two old Maricopa men. They 
warmed themselves at the fire, but did not molest the old men. 

Salt River. Two Apaches came near the villages and were seen by 
a man working in the fields; he calleil to his friends to help him and 
at once set off after the enemy. Wlien the Apache who was farthest 
away saw that his companion was in danger he turned back and 
attacked the first pursuer. The other Apache escaped, but the braver 
one was killed. The Pimas returned home, but the Maricopas dragged 



26 ETH— <)8- 



o See p. 33 for list of Fima agents. 



50 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

the body to the buttes at the point where the Maricopa and Phoenix 
railroad now crosses the Gila and left it tied to a post. The Apache 
who ran away led a party of his people to recover the body, but it 
was afterwards ascertained from the tracks that they turned back 
just before reaching the spot. 

A Pima was killed by the Apaches while the California Column was 
at the villages and a squad of sokliers accompanied the pursuing party 
of Piinas as far as the Estrellas, but the enemy escaped. The raid was 
in the saguaro fruit season "as shown by the red on the dead Pima" 
[or the month of June, 1862]. 

6 J^>'^%^ Blackwater. Two medicine-men, father and son, were 
" " " A Ai killed during the year because of their supposed machin- 
ations against the people. 

1883-84 

j), j) Gila Crossing, Salt River. For a short time there was peace 
between the Pimas and Apaches. During this period the Mari- 
copas killed two old men and captured a boy from a pariy of Apaches 
who came to the Maricopa village. The boy was sold to a half- 
brother of the trailer A. M. White [named Cyrus Lennan], known to 
the Pimas as Satciny Va, Chin Beard. 

This man took the boy with him on an expedition against the 
Apaches. There was a Mexican in the party who understood the 
Apache language, so that communication was openetl with the enemy 
as soon as they were discovered. The whites placed flour, sugar, and 
other rations on blankets, and the Apaches, believing that the food 
was intended as a peace offering, came up to them. The soldiers 
were accompanied by three Pimas, but the}" had concealed them 
imder blankets. They had stacked their guns, but retained their 
side arms concealed. At a signal from the leader of the party the 
Apaches were fired upon and nearly all of them were killed. Lennan 
was killed while following the escaping Apaches, but the Pimas killed 
the man who had tlu-ust a lance into his breast." The place has since 
been known as Yatiikit ku Kakfita, Place where the snare was set.'' 

oOwl Ear states that Lennan shot the man who struck him and they fell dead together. 

6 As we have independent white testimony, it is inten'sting to compare it with the Piman account. 
In his Adventures in the Apache Country J. Ross Browne describes the engagement in which Cyrus 
Lennan was killed. It was at the "Bloody Tanks" and is known in history as King Woolsey's 
(infamous) "pinole treaty." A party of 20 whites had been pursuing a band of Apaches with stolen 
stock for several days until they ran out of provisions and sent to the Pima viUages for supplies. They 
were joined by 14 Maricopas under the leadership of Juan Chivaria and Cyrus Lennan. The entire 
party under the command of King Woolsey camped on the Salt river in a smaU valley which could 
not have Ijeen far from the upper end of the Salt River canyon. .A.S soon as the smoke of their camp 
fire arose they were approached by Apaches to whom "Woolsey sent Tonto Jack, an interpreter, to 
learn what they had to say. and at the same time to tell them it was not the wish of his party to fight 
them; that he wanted them to come down and he would give them some pinole." The .\paches were 
finally prevailed upon to enter the camp to the number of 30 or 35. After the display of some insolence 
on the part of the Apache chief Woolsey drew his pistol and shot him dead. "This was the signal 
for the signing of the treaty. Simultaneously the whole party commenced firing upon the Indians, 
slaughtering them right and left. Leiman stood in advance of the Maricopas and was warned by 



RUSSELL] ANNALS 51 

Salt River. Wliilo peace |)rov!vile(l between tlie trilx's ii |)Mrly of 
Apaches came to the Pimas to trade ^oods for ponies. ^Vll('n near 
tlie vilhisjes they divided into two parties, one of wliich came on to 
tratle and the otlier went around to try to steal horses. The thieves 
were followed and when it was found that their tracks joined those 
of the party at the villajjes the Pinias went hack and killed many of 
those who were trading;. Some of the Pima warriors overlook the 
horse thieves and killed several of them. 

Blachrater. A Pima was killed ])y Apaches while lookinjj 

for his horses near Ka'matuk, the hill between Blackwater 

and the Sacatons. 

lS64r-65 

JL Gila Crossing, Salt River. This was the first year in whidi the 
Pimas were supplied with firearms (by* order of General Carleton) 
anil aided tlie United States soliliers." 

Salt River. The Pimas and Maricopas went on a campaiirn aj^ainst 
the Apaches and met a band that had probably and)ushe(l some 
American soldiers, for they had arms and other army j)roperty. The 
allies rushed the camji of the enemy and capturctl all that had been 
taken from the soldiers. When they returned with their spoils to 
the villages some whites accused them of liaving killed the soldiers. 
They told how they obtained the things, but the whites would not 
believe them. '"That is why I do not think tlae white man is good 
enough to trust us," said Owl Ear. ^\nien several guides took the 
whites to the battle ground they were satisfied when they saw the 
dead Apaches there. 

YjOS Blackwater. In a rai<l in this year two Apaches were killed 
j' )( and their ears cut olf and nailed on a stick. 

In an effort to establish peace with the Apaches, the soldiers and 
Pima scouts took a wagon loaded with rations to the Superstition 
mountains. The Apaches took it to be a hostile move and attacked 
the party, killing the driver of the wagon. The Apaches were pur- 
sued and several were killed before the trail was lost. 

Woolsey to make sure of a lame Indian with a lance, who was eyeing him suspiciously. 'I'lllook 
out for him.' was Lennan's n-ply. and the slaughter became general. * * * The fight, if such it could 
be called, lasted seven or eight mimites. U'nnan had incautiously closed upon and shot an Indian 
near him. forgetting the lame one against whom he had been cautioned, who the next moment ran 
him through the bocly with his lance. Dye (a rancher) coming up. killed this Indian. The only person 
wounded was Tonto Jack, who was shot in the neck with an arrow. * * • Twenty Tontos and 
four Finals lay dead upon the ground. f)ther8 w<'re seen running oIT with the blood streaming from 
their wounds, and it is supposed some of them died." (F*. 121.) 

1 John Walker, thi- first agent for the Pimas. in his report for the year 1800 stated that the trilw 
petitioned for more guns, as theirs were " few and old." See Report of Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs 1860, 168. In the report of J. L. Collins, superintendent of Indian allairs in New Mexico, 
it is stated that 100 muskets and 10,000 rounds of ammunitioQ had just been given the Pimaa. In 
ibid., 1862, 239, 1863. 



52 THE VIUPl INDIANS (eth. anx. liG 

ises-ee 

Gila Crossing, Salt River. The Pimas went on a campaign 
against the Apaches and one of their numVier was killed. His fel- 
lows burned the corpse witli the bow and war gear. Dry ironwood 
was used in the cremation." 

In the same engagement another Pima was wound('(l and came 
home to die. 

Gila Crossing. The Punas soon afterwards went to the moun- 
tains nortli of Tempe to seek Apaches. Tv. o of their party 
were killed and a third came home mortally wounded. 
•o""o BlacJcwater. Another war party attacked an Apache camp, 
described as the one at which the children were })laying and 
piling up gourds, and killed several of the enemy. 

isee-ev 

Gila Crossing. Many died this year of a sickness characterized by 
shooting pains that resembled needle and knife pricks. One day the 
three medicine-men who were accused of having caused the disease 
came home drimk from the Gila Bend stage station and were set upon 
by their fellow-villagers. Two were killed and the other was seriously 
but not fatally wounded. 

Gih. Crossing, Salt River. This year was marked by a devastating 
fever at Rso'tftk and three medicine-men were killed there in the hope 
■of stopping it. 

JBlachwater. A party of Pimas accompanied the soldiers to 
the Verde region and there killed a number of Apaches, among 
whom was a man with a very l(jng foot. 

isev-es 

A^ Gila Crossing. l)\u-ing this year a tlisease prevailed that from 
the description would seem to have been malaria. Many died, 
and the medicine-men were blamed, as usual, for the calamity. Two 
were killed before the disease abated. 

Blackwater. The Pimas went raiding in the Superstition 
Mountain region and killed one Apache who was running 
away with his shield but who stumbled and fell. 

ises-es 
Gila Crossing. A heavy rain caused a flootl which destroyed the 
store at Casa Blanca.* 

This was known as the Vamati Tcoki, Snake ram. 




o This custom of burning tlie dead is occasionally referred to in these annals, though my informants 
always insisted that this method was never resorted to by their people except in the case of thos.' killed 
in war. 

b The store was more than 2 miles south of the channel of the river, but it had been built at the foot 
of a little rise upon which the present village is located and was within the reach of the flood. This 
is but one of many instances where the white settlers of Arizona have not profited \>y the experience 



RCSSELI.] ANNALS 53 

BlackwaUr. The Pinias went on a rampaif^n against the 
Apaches with the Papagos, hut the parties quarreled and 
separated. The Pinias killed an Apache woman near Salt 
river while on their way home. 

18SQ-70 

^ (Tila Crossing. A man at Kso'tfik was killed hy the accidental 
discharge of a revolver in the hands of a companion. 

(£^ o Blaclcwater. An unusually heavy ram occurred during the 
<^ °° winter, which gullied the hills deeply. 

The Apaches were making tizwin when the soldiers and Pima 
scouts attacked them; they took the alarm and escaped, leaving the 
liquor in the hands of the allies. 

18VO-71 

Crila Crossing. The first canal " at Tempe was huilt by the Mormon 
settlers [1870]. 

yLy2 Bluckwater. The A])aches had come to the river at Santan 
t] A for water and some Pimas discovered their trail and set off 
^ " in pursuit. They failed to inflict any injury upon the enemy 
and retired with one of their own number mortally wounded. 

At this time a Pima was killed at Ta-atiikam l)y the Apaches. 
These two corpses were burned. 

Another Pima was killed during the year at Tempe by the Apaches, 
and his body was buried. 

1871 72 

Gila Crossing. An epidemic of measles prevailed in all the villages 
during this year. The Indians knew absolutely nothing al)out treat- 
ing the di.sease, and many died.'' 

Salt River. In the winter the Kwahadk's went on the warjjath 
against the Apaches and were accompanied by Na-aputk t'. They 
tried to surprise the enemy at a tank near Picacho, but found no one 
there. They followed the trail, however, until they came to a j)oint 
near the present station of Ked Rock, where they .sent out scouts in 
the. night, who discovered the whereabouts of the enemy by hearing 
one of them cough. The}' surrounded the camp and attacked it at 

ot the natives, ancient and modem, who have located their homes beyond the reach ol the freshets 
thai triinsforni the shallow beds of blistering sand into irresistible torrents that ovornin the bottom 
ianii.'i which may have lieon untouched by Hood (or many years, "The flood cif .Sci)tcmber, ISfiS. was 
ix'rhaps the most destructive ever known, destroying three of the Pima \illages and a largo amount 
of property on the lower Gila." Bancroft. .Wll. rM. 

« The main canal is less than 2 miles in length. It has been enlarged several times, so that its capac- 
ity is now 325 cubic feet per second, irrigating over :iO,000 acn-s. 

&The experience of the agency physicians in after years show that the high rate of mortality from 
this disease has not been due to the lack of acquired inmumity, but to the ignorance of the I'imas as 
to the proper care of patients. and espit-ially th<)sc convalescing. The youth who was the only victim 
at Sacaton in 18JI0 took a cold water shower bath ay soon as he was able to be about and paid the fM-nalty 
for his rashness. 




54 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

daylight. The Apaches ran confusedly about without their weapons ; 

fifteen were killed and many guns, bows, and quivers were captured. 

Blaclwatcr. At the hill, Ka'raatftk, somewhat detaclied 

from the Sacatons on the northeast, a man was bitten by a 

rattlesnake and died. 

At about the same time the Pimas killed an Apache who was known 

as Vakoa, Canteen, near the Superstition mountains. 

1872 V3 

Gila Crossing, Salt River. For several years the Pinaas had had little 
water to irrigate their fields and were beginning to siifi'er from actual 
want when the settlers on Salt river mvited them to come to that val- 
ley. During this year a large party of Rso't<ik Pimas accepted the 
invitation and cleared fields along the river bottom south of their 
present location. Water was pientifid in the Salt and the first year's 
crop was the best that they had ever known. The motive of the Mor- 
mons on the Salt was not wholh' disinterested, as they desired the 
Pimas to act as a buffer against the assaults of the Apaches, who were 
masters of the country to the north and east." 

Salt River. It was during this winter that the United States sol- 
diers and the Pima, Maricopa, and Apache scouts surrounded the 
Superstition Mountain Apaches at the "Tanks" and rained bullets 
into their ranks imtil not a single man remamed alive. "It was a 
sight long to be remembered," said Owl Ear, in narratmg the cir- 
cumstances.* 

1873 74 

Vj« Gila Crossing. Ku-ukamCikam, the Apache chief, and his band 
^ were killed by the soldiers and Pima scouts. 

KamClk Wutca A-atam, People-under-Ka'matftk, or the village at 
Gila Crossing, was settled durmg this year.'' 

"'Tp=jpjpr==- Gila Crossing, Salt Riwr. The telegraph line was 
" w I » run through from west to east during the winter.'' 



a By Executive order of June 14, 1879, the land occupied by the Pimas on Salt river was set apart as 
the Salt River reservation. It embraces about three townships on the north side of the river about 
30 miles north of the original Pima villages. There are several largo ruins and at least one large 
canal upon the reservation that were built by the Hohokam. By an arrangement with the canal com- 
panies the I'imas have insured for themselves a constant supply of water, and the Salt Rivercommanity 
is regarded as the most prosperous among the Pimas. 

i> This sharp engagement took place on the 28th of December, 1872, in the canyon of the Salt river, 
south of the Mazatzal mountains. It has been graphically described by C'apt. John G. Bourke in his 
On the Border with Crook, 191-200. He states that 70 Apaches were kiUed and 18 captured. One 
wounded man was overiooked and made his escape. "Lead poured in l)y the bucketful" and an 
avalanche of liowlders was hurled down hundreds of feet from above upon the enemy. 

c There is an unfailing supply of water at this place; the Gila, after flowing 75 miles Ijeneath the sur- 
face, rises to fonn a stream large enough to irrigate several hundred acn>s. 

d This was a military telegraph l)uilt from funds obtained l)y special appropriations from Congress. 
Arizona was fairly well provided with telegraph lines by the time the railroad reached Yuma, in 1877, 
as then; wen^ more than 1,000 miles in operation in the Territory. 



RISSEI.I.] 



ANNALS 55 




The Pinias went on a campaign against the Salt River 
Apaches soon after a licavy rain. Wlien they reached the 
SaU river it was too high to be safely forded, so tliey built 
a raft and tried to take their saddles and blankets across 
upon it. The raft sank and they lost all their effects. 
Some of the party who had not engaged ui the raft enter- 
prise fountl a safe ford and contumed on their raid, in -which they 
killed several of the enemy, and near Four Peaks captured an 
Apache lad." 

1874-75 

t _ ri Gila Crossing. A man trying to catch his pony approached 
11 from the rear so that he coidd reach its tail, which he probably 
thought it ad^^sable to lay hold on until he could fasten the rope 
around the animal's neck. One end of the lariat was attached to his 
waist, the other he tied to the horse's tail. The animal broke away 
and dragged him to death.'' 

Blackwater. The Apache White Hat killed a Pima. 

1875-78 

(Gila Crossing. In tliis year sickness prevailed in the village of 
Rsanftk, apparently the same as in 1866. when the principal symp- 
tom of the disease was shooting pains through tiie bodj'. Two medi- 
cine-men were suspected of having caused the trouble by magic means, 
and they were killed to stop the plague. 

e ft I Blachwater. For a short time the Pimas were free from 
" " ' Apache attacks, and they ventured into the mountains to 
gather mescal. While there, a race took place between a man and a 
woman, in which the woman won. 

Later in the season there was a general gathering of the villages 
to witness a race with the kicking-ball. 

1876-77 

/Gila CrossiiKj. There was an Apache village called Havany 
Kas at the junction of the Gila anil Salt rivers while a truce 
existed between the Pimas and Apaches. During this year an epi- 
demic of smallpox prevailed in that village, as well as in all those of 
the Pimas and Maricopas. 

« He afterwards became known as Doctor Montezuma, now a prosperous physician practising in 
the city of Chicago. 

1) This, tho only event of the year in the Gila Crossing record, is unimportant in itself, and yet it lllu.'*- 
trates a phase of Pima character that is worthy of notice. In handling horses they exhi)>it a i)atient 
subtlety resembling that of the snake creeping upon its prey, until they have gotten a rope or halter 
on the animal, when their gentleness disappears. Yet in all their harnessing or saddling they mani- 
fest an innate tendency toward canHessness. They always work up on the right instead of the left 
side of a horse, and they also mount from that side. 



56 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

In the si)ring of 1877 the Gila Crossing Pinias and the Gila Mari- 
copa villagers were pitted against each other in a relay race, the first 
between the two tribes." 

^^^M BlacTiivafer. While a party was gathering mescal just 
J iyTf ^ before the wheat ripened a mare gave birth to twin 
fn^ colts. 

1877-78 

> - — (rila Crossing, Salt River. During the winter a man who had 
''sr^ gone a long distance to search for his horses perished from 
the cold, and his body was found in a sitting position under a tree.'' 

(iiJa Crossing. A party of Pimas wont to the Kwahadk' village to 
drink tizwin, and in the quarrel which ensued the Casa Blancas 
killed two men of Santan. 

Some time afterwards the Gila Crossing people drank tizwin, and 
one of their number was killed by a man from Salt River. 

Blackwater. A man of Blackwater who was with a party that 
went to gather mescal sickenetl from some unknown cause, and 
died. The corpse was brought back to the village. 

1878-70 

/^ (iila Crossing, Salt River, BlacTcwater. The principal event 
jCt 'jf the year was the building of the Southern Pacific railroad 
^^ niong the southern border of the Gila River reservation. 

Salt River (a), Blackwater (b). A feud that had originated 
in the cjuarrel at the Kwahadk' village during the preced- 
ing year reached an acute stage in February, 1879. The 
majority of the people of Blackwater and the lower villages, 
which were then known as Santan, conspired to kill the 
men of a certain faction during a night determined uj)on 
several days in advance. A guard was set at Blackwater, 
who was to watch tlieir movements without giving them 
any hint of his purj)ose. One of those who were prepar- 
ing for the attack at Blackwater had a brother at Casa Blanca, and 
he feared that this brother might be included in the list of victims 
at the lower villages, so he went one night to warn him or to get 
him to return with him to Blackwater. The next day the brother's 
conscience began to act, and he finally decided that if these men 
were Idlled and he ditl not warn them he would be answerable for 
their death. He therefore sent a runner to Blackwater, who told 
one of the intended victims of the conspiracy formed against them. 

1 Tc6rlldls, one of the Maricopa runners, afterwards won a six-day race in San Francisco and was a 
close second in a similar endurance race in New York. 

& The Pimas believe that he froze to death, and if this be true it indicate.*^ an unusually low tempera- 
ture and that one man at least had very slight power of resistance to cold. The lowest temperature 
recorded at the Phoenix meteorological station for a period of sixteen years is 11" F. Eept. oi 
Chief of Weather Bureau, 1900-1901. 1. 




RtssKi.i.] ANNALS 57 

The i'c'<ii)iont ol' the news sent one of liis family to inform another 
of his party, and so the news was spread so quietly tiiat (he <:;uard 
seareely noticed what was j^oiiifi on until the men heyan slipping 
one hy one into the mesquite thickets. Before he could reach his 
friends, who were out in tiie fields, the whole proscrihed party had 
escaped and were on their way toward Santan, where they and 
their friends attacked their Santan opjjonents early the next morning. 

Juan Thomas, his two hrothers, father, and uncle were in the party 
attacked. The old man. Has, was the hravest, and fought openly 
with how and arrows until they succeeded in driving ofl" their assail- 
ants. He was slightly wounded with a hullet in the ahdomen and 
an arrow in the arm, hut no one was killed. One of the l)rothers 
was irrigating his field when a runner came with the news that his 
family was being killed and that he was in danger also. lie lan 
toward the Double buttes and soon saw another man running in a 
coiu-se parallel to his own. The other saw him, and both began 
(Uidging to escape from the two clumps of mesquite behind which 
they had halted. Then they discovered that they were brothers, 
anil the}" debated long as to what they should do. It is also said that 
they shed tears at the peril of tlu'ir iclatives, to whose aid they could 
not go without weapons. It was also a cause of grief that their fel- 
lows should ri.se against them. They decided to return to the village, 
but by that time the fight had ended. 

Has had come out of his hou.se and chaseil those wlio were trying 
to shoot him. They fired several shots and some arrows at him, 
but when he came near tliey ran away. He called his enemies by 
name, inviting them to come and get satisfaction if they were bent on 
kilhng him. When the attacking party withdrew, the Tlumias family 
went to the Double buttes, and on finding that they were not pur- 
sued they went to Blackwater, where their story so art)usetl their 
friends that an expedition was organized to seek revenge. They 
secured two boxes of cartridges from the trader at Blackwater and 
came down the river. 

They formed a skirmish line as they approached the lower settle- 
ment and met their opponents at the Government school building. 
The Santan party hastily knocked a few loopholes in the adobe walls 
and gathered in and anmnd the buihling, to withstand an attack. 
The Blackwater men killed three among those outside the school- 
house and could have killed many more with their superior weapons, 
but their thirst for revenge seemed to l)e satisfied with that munber, 
and they did not pursue those wlio fled across the mesa like fright- 
ened rabbits. 




58 THE PIMA INDIANS Iethann. 26 

187Q-80 

Gila Crossiruj. During this winter there was a heavy fall of snow." 

^y^ Blacl-wafer. At an abandoned store above Casa Blanca, the 

/uA walls of which are yet standing, a w^iite man was killed by 

/^ two young men, who were caught before they secured the 

money of the victim, robbery bemg the motive for the deed. The 

one w^ho did the shooting was taken to the county jail at Florence. 

1880-81 

Gila Crossin;/. At the beginning of the year a man was bitten 
nd killed by a rattlesnake at Gila Crossing. 

Blackwater. The murderer mentioned in the record of the 
preceding year was hanged at Florence. 

1881-82 

Gila Crossing. During a tizwin drunk at Salt River two young 
men killed each other. The Casa Blanca people went to Gila 
Crossing to participate in a feast and dance. 

Blackwater. The Pima police were sent from Sacaton to 
arrest some Kwahadk's living at their village about 50 miles 
south of the agency. Two were killed.'' 

1882 83 

Gila Crossing (a), Blackwater (b). An epidemic of measles 
prevailed among the Pimas and Maricopas, causing the death 
of many persons. 

a An event of such rarity that it is mentioned but twice in these records of seventy years. 

fcThe Kwahadk's had been drinking tizwin, and as they had never been interfered with bj' the agent 
they were not conscious of having trangressed any laws. Furthermore, drunkenness was the rule among 
the few whites with whom they came in contact, and it was a privilege that the Kwahiidk's indulged in 
but once or twice a year. Old inhabitants at Sacaton tell me that the agent was working prisoners 
upon a reservation farm and selling the crop for his own profit. The Pimas had been conmiitting no 
misdemeanors or crimes that offered any excuse for imprisoning them and the crops needed attention, 
l)Ut nevertheless he ordered his poUce to bring in the Kwahadk's dead or ahve. One of th(^ young Kwa- 
hadk's frankly declared his innocence of any intentional transgression and defied the police to take him 
from his home. He was promptly shot. .Vs the police were returning to Sacaton they were overtaken 
Ijy the father of the murdered man, who told them that he had nothing to hve for, as they had killed his 
son and they might as well kill him. The police obligingly complied with his request. "Innocent and 
unoffending men were shot down or bowie-knifed merely for the pleasure of witnessing their death 
agonies. Men walked the streets and pubhc squares with double-barreled shotguns, and hunted each 
other as sportsmen hunt for game. In the graveyard of Tucson there were 47 graves of white men in 
181)0, and of that numlier two had died natural deaths, all the rest having been murdered in bar-room 
quarrels." I<ife Among the Apaches, by John C. Cremony, 117. 



/ 

(.a) 



EUSSELL] ANNALS 59 

1S83 84 

T* Gila Crossing. The vSalt River Pimas went to a fiesta at (Jila 

' Crossing. 
/f\ Blachraier. A diiiiiken Pima w liilc ri(lin<r <>ii a box car on 

l\^ the Southern Pacifie was run over and killed.' 

1884 85 

^ (iUa Crossing. An epidemic during this year among the Kwa- 
"^ hadk's caused the execution of two medicine-men who were sus- 
pected of bringing the visitation upon the tribe.'' 
rg\__^ BhichwaUr. The first wagons issued by the Government 
^'■^'~^ to the Blackwater people were received this year. 

X885 88 

Gila Crossing. Hwela, named for the agent Wheeler, was bap- 
tized this year as the first Christian convert among the Pimas.' 
\\ Two youths were thrown from their horses during a rabbit hunt 
and killed.'' 
/jN /|K Blackvmter. Two prominent men of Blackwater died. 

1886 87 

A (iila Crossing. Tizwin was made at Gila Crossing in such quan- 
^ titles that it was passed around in bowl-shaped baskets. One 

man was killed. 

\^ The first adobe houses were built at Gila Crossing, and then- 
^ owners were thereby entitled to one wagon each.'' 
/\ A man at' Salt River was shot by a white man; the particulars 
were not known to K§,ema-a. ^ 

' a The practice of aUowing the Indians to ride Iree upon freight trains was estaljlishod when the road 
was first built and is vet continued. The ol.ject of this generosity is said to be the procurement of the 
Kood will of the n.itives. wh.. .n return would give warning of washouts, or obstructions intentionally 
placed on the track and, perhaps, give concessions of rights of way across the resen-ations '"the even 
of future extensions, .\gent .lackson in hi.s report for 1883 stated that six Punas had been killed that 
year by falling from trains when drunk. ^ . . .u i 

" b It will be noticed that such common events as this among the Kwahadk's are recorded by the calen- 
drists thus showing how closely related the tribe is to the Punas. 

e Mr C H Cook a Ci\nl War veteran, had come as a teacher and missionarj- among the Pimas at the 
close of the year 1870. A sincere and devout Christian, he labored for nearly fifteen years before the peo- 
ple to whom he has devoted his life b,.gan to understand the message that he brought to them. I e 
informs the writer that three or four other men had accepted his teaching before Hwela, but it is prob- 
able that this year marks the beginning of the conversion, which thereafter advanced very rapidly. 
Mr Cook has descriU-,! his exp<.riences among the Pimas and Apaches in a small volume of U6 pages, 
entitled. Among the Pimas, ISflli. The chapter on '•The I'ima Indians, their manners and cus- 
toms " by Rev. Isaac T. Whittemore. is inaccurate and inadequate. . 

<! These hunts were frequently made and resulted in the destruction of large numbers of hares and 
rabbits, two species of the fonner an<l one of the latter. They were simply dnve^s by a company of 
mounted men who surrounded the an-a to be beaten over and then advanced toward the center, where 
the animals were shot with arrows or killed with clubs. .Such hunts are yet continued. 

. These wagons were issued to such m.-n as were wiUing to cut their long hair, build adobe houses of 
reasonable si7.e, and proNide suitable sheds to shelter the wagons from the scorching heat of summer, 
which is exceedingly severe on vehicles. 



60 THE PIMA INDIANS [kth. axx. 26 

y GUa Crossing, Salt river. The Maricopa and Phoenix railroad 
F was built during this year, and thus coiinection was established 

between the fertile districts of the Salt river and the Southern 
Pacific railroad." 

Salt River. The medicine-man Staups gave a great dance at vSan- 
tan, which was accompanied by races and other ceremonies wiiicli 
attracted man}- visitors, among whom were a Yuma and his wife, 
e o o o BlacJcwater. Juan Thomas was employed as a scout l)y 

S 6 e iiip troops who pursued Geroniino during his last flight into 
Mexico. The eight dots on Juan's stick represent the soldiers wliom 
the Pimas accompanied. The minor leaders of the Apaches had 
entered the Pima camp thinking that they were friends, and had been 
captured, except seven who broke away. The commanding ofiicer 
having ordered a fresh party of Pimas who had come up, to pursue the 
escaping Apaches, thirty-one Pimas and eight soldiers tracked the 
Apaches for two months, until they doultled liack to the White moun- 
tains, where they were captured by the wliite soldiers before the 
Pimas overtook them. 

1887-88 

^^ Gila Crossing, Salt river. Special mention is made by two 
annalists of the severe earthquake of May 3, 1887.' Owl Ear 
declared that "it was noticed by many of our people, if not by all, 
who wondered why the earth shook so." 

V| Gih, Crossing. The stage station at Gila Crossing, no longer 
needed after the railroad was built from the Southern Pacific to 
Phoenix, was moved during this year to Maricopa junction. 

The Gila Crossing settlement was prosperous, and the Casa 
Blanca people went dowai to dance and share the, products of 
their brothers' industry. 

1 1 During a tizwin carousal which took place later in the year, two 
Gila Crossing men killed each other. 
/!^ It was at this time that "a Mexican (sic) counted the bones of 

the people." '^ 

/ The Maricopas were all living together at Mo'hatiik mountain 

when a Cjuarrel arose in which a medicine-man was killed. Ilis 

friends retaliated by killing a medicine-man of the opposite faction. 

This resulted in a division of the tribe, some going to the Pima settle- 

n The road was completed July 2, 1887. 

^ This is known as the ' " Sonora earthquake. ' ' The shocks were so severe in that state as to be destruc- 
tive to property and human life. At Tombstone, Ariz., the severe shocks lasted ten seconds, and the 
vibrations continued for a full minute. The earthquake was felt throughout the southern part of the 
Territory, and many ranchmen firmly believe that the drought of the last few years, which has trans- 
formed the grassy mesas into a desert waste, is due to that earthquake. See Goodfellow in Science, 
New York, Aug. 12, 1887. 

c This is the Pima -view of the somatological investigations of Dr Herman F. C. ten Kate, who meas- 
ured 312 Pimas, besides many others among the Maricopas, Papagos. Zunis. etc. His results are briefly 
summarized in the Journal of .American Ethnology and Archjeology, ill, 119. 



1 



\ Blaclwater. A Papago who knew the bluebird series of songs 
sang for the Santan people during the festival held by them. 



BDSSDLL] ANNALS 61 

ment on Salt river and the roniaindcr going to (licir j)resent location 
on the Gila below the crossing. 

Salt River. A white man killed an unknown PiiUa some time after 
the earthquake for some unknown reason. 

1888-89 

^ Gila Crossing. The American settlers at Tempe invited the Salt 
^ River Pimas to a feast. 

^ An eclipse of the moon was observed by the Pimas, and as usual 
was spoken of as the "time when the moon died."" 

TA prosperous season enabled the Salt River jieople to hold a 
dance festival. 
O Tizwin was made at Gila Crossing, but no one was killed in the 
resulting debauch. 

•0,0. . The captain of the native police and the calendrist went 
^ ^ to Fort McDowell with three t)t]ier men to act as scouts for 
the soldiers stationed there. 
During the year an epidemic curried away three prominent men at 
Blackwater. 

1889-90 

/\ Gila Crossing. Two tramps killed a man near the Maricopa 
and Phoenix railroad. 

Q The Salt River people made tizwin, and during the carousal 
wliich followed a man was shot and killed. The murderer was sent 
to Yuma. 

(> The Hi'atam villagers who formerly lived at Aktatcinj-, south of 
Maricopa station, went to Gila Crossing to join in the dance 
festival held there. 

TSalt River. In a tizw in drunk at Salt River Santco was killed. 
Soon afterwards another general debauch resulted in the death 
of Hitiraki. These events caused the order i)r()hibiting the Pimas 
from making tizwin. 



HI 



Blackwater. The wife of tlie head chief died. 

1890-91 



1 GUa Crossing. During a tizwin drunk at Gila Crossing a man 
put poison into the liquor of an enemy, who died in great agony 
after drinking it. 

a Notwithstanding the fact that several score of partial and total eclipses of the moon were visible 
in Pimerla during the period covered by these annals, which in that clear atmosphere must have been 
seen, they are mentioned but twice, and that in recent limes. .\s it is known from American testi- 
mony that the Pimas were profoundly impressed by such phenomena, the failure of the annalists 
to note them can be accounted for only by their aversion to even a mention of supernatural events 
supposed to be threatening in character. 



62 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

\^ At the Salt River settlement a Mexican under the influence 
of wliisky killed a Pima, but the Indians "were good enough not 

to want to kill" the nmrderer. 
KJ Gila Crossing (a) , Salt River, Blackwater (b) . In the spring of 
(a) 1891 occurred the last and most disastrous of the Gila floods. 

j55_2, The Maricopa and PhoenLx Railroad bridge was swept away and 

<-;!_7 the channels of both the Gila and Salt rivers were changed in 
'*') many places. The destruction of cultivated lands led to the 

change of the Salt River Pimas from the low bottoms to the mesas. 

1SQ1-Q2 

TTH Gila Crossing. A boarding school " for Indian children was 
established at Phoenix. 

1 1 Two men died at Gila Crossing during the autumn, and it was 
' ' supposed that they were poisoned by the tizwin which they had 
been drinking. 

V— In a tizwin drunk on the Salt River reservation a Papago 
shot a Pima and fled to escape the consequences, leaving his 
wife at the village. 

Blacli-water. The chief and one of the headmen at Black- 
water died during the year. 

18Q2-93 

Gila Crossing. Two friends went to Maricopa and got drunk 
on whisky. One cut the other's throat; he then went to the 
villages on the river above Gila Crossing and in maudlm tones said he 
thought he saw himself striking someone under him.* 
fryr The schoolhouse was moved out of Phoenix to a point 3 miles 
north of the cit}' during the summer of this year (1892). 
^ A woman was struck by lightning at Hi'atam, the village above 
Gila Crossing. 

A dance at Salt River occurred in wliich two men, drunk 
with whisky, killed each other. 
I In the spring of 1892 the Gila Crossing chief, Ato'wfi,kam, died. 

I I The Government issued barbed wire for fencing at Gila Ci'oss- 
1 I mg, and directed the people to make a road across the fields, which 
should be fenced to form a lane. 

Blackwater. A woman was gored to death at Blackwater by 
a cow. 

W The chief, who had been bitten some years before by a rattle- 
snake but had recovered, died m the spring of 1893. 

a It was opened in a leased hotel building in September, 1891. Owing to lack ol facilities only boys, to 

the number of 42, were admitted. 

t> The pjtssion for distilled liquor had arisen within the last quarter of a century. Lieutenant Emory 
wrote, in November, 184G, "Aguardiente (brandy t is known among their chief men only, and the abuse 
of this and the vices which it entails are vet unknown." 



BCSSBLL] ANNALS 63 

1893-Q4 

^^ Gila Crossing. Tlie villago of Hi'atani and the Gila Maricopas 
had a dance together, but no one was Icilled. 
Tizwm was made secretly at Gila Crossing, but no fatalities occurred. 
I The "prettiest woman in the village" died at Gila Crossing, and 
her husband was suspected of having caused her death. 

y A man was shot by anotlier, who was dnuik with whisky. 

K 

^■f Blaclvmtrr. This year the first horse race ever held by 
the Piiiias look place at Blackwater." 




1894-95 

(iila Crossing. The Gila Crossing Presbyterian Church was 
built at the beginning of the year — that is, during the sununer 
of 1894. It was dedicated in December of tliat year.'' 
A woman was found dead on the Phoenix road. It is sup- 
posed that she had been killed by a Maricopa or a Chinaman. 
* The Gila Crossing people held a dance festival. 



/ 



The Santa Fe railway reached Phoenix. 



^ 




There was an eclipse of the moon during tliis year. 
Blacl-ivater. The chief at Gila Crossing favored tizwin drinking 
and resisted the progress that was beginning to manifest itself. 
He died in jail at Sacaton. 

In a horse race between animals owned by the 
Sacaton flats and Blackwater villages, that of the 
former won. 

1S95 98 

■^ Gila Crossing. The ilaricopas living on tlie Gila came to Gila 

Crossing to attend a dance festival. 
}? Kaema-a was elected a chief at the Gila Crossing village. The 
\S line is drawn "crooked because I was crooked in my mind whether 
' or not I should accept the responsibility." 

Salt River. Two brothers-in-law got drunk together and in the 
quarrel that ensued one was seriou.sly injured. 

Soon afterwards Juan made some wine and invited a number of his 
friends to come and drink with him. All became drunk and I^uigi 
killed a man whose name was not known to the calendrist. Luigi 
was sent to the Territorial prison at Yunui, where he died a year later. 

o However, this sport has not become popular among them, partly owing to their poverty, which 
prevents them Irom feeding a horse well enough to enable it to run and from accumulating property 
mth which to bet on the race, and perhaps partly owing to the growing influence of the church party 
in the community. 

6 This church was established by the veteran missionary, Mr C. U. Cook, who successfully awakened 
an interest in Christianity among the Oila Crossing villages and had a number of converts at the time 
when it was considered that, owing to its isolation, the settlement should have a resident missionary. 



64 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

Blackwater. Two Christians diod in this year, one at Blackwater 
and the other at the Cottonwoods." 

■4^ During this _vear a Blackwater yoiitli at the Phoenix school 
K committed suicide hv shootino; himself. 

ly Gila Crossing. The Kvvahadk's indulged in a tizwin drunk in 
J^ which one man was killed. 

i\ Gila Crossing, Salt Birer. The Gila Crossing chief fell dead in 
the prisoner's chair when on trial at Sacaton for selling whisky. 

1808 QV 

c-H Gih. Crossing. An epidemic of smallpox prevailed and the 
V whites established a Cjuarantine which the calendrist interprets 
as, "the Pimas w'ere ordered to stay at home." 

11 Blackwater. Square indicates the Gila Crossing church. 

Salt River. The Maricopa and Phoenix railroad was extended 
from Tempe to Mesa [a distance of about S miles] during this year. 

18Q7 98 

.Ir^ Gila Crossing. At the beginning of this year the Gila 

^^^^ Crossing Catholic and the Casa Blanca Presbyterian churches 
were being built. 

Y/ A Papago chief was killed at Maricopa by a companion who 
/A was drunk with whisky. 

TThe Rsanikam people went to Akutciny to dance and run a 
relay race. 

In various ways the Spanish-American war was brought to 
the notice of the Pimas and Kiiema-a made a record of the 
event by the sign which might be supposed to be a bush or a yucca 
plant. 

Blaclcwater. Juan's brother "and anotlier man" died. 



t 



1898-Q9 

Gila Crossing. Manj- children died this year of measles at the 
Phoenix Indian boarding school.'' 



oProfessing Christians among the Pimas were not so rare at this time that the death of two need have 
been recorded. This was the time when the long labors of the missionary were beginning to take effect 
and the converts numbered hundreds each year. 

'' The disease also prevailed at Sacaton. Nearly all the children in the school, about two hundred, were 
sick, but the indefatigiible elTorts of the agency physician saved all but one, who disobeyed his orders. 



RissELL] ANNALS 65 

There was a heavy fall of snow that could be rolled into great balls 
as it was melting. 

Blackwater. There was no crop this year." 

1899 IQOO 

Gila Crossing. During the summer of 1899 a Catholic 
mission school was established at Gila Crossing. 

A Papago was killed by lightning at Gila Crossing. 




Barbed wire was issued from the agency at Sacaton.'' 

©The Indian Department established a day school at Gila Cross- 



L 




ing at this time. 

Victor Jackson was struck by lightning as he was returning 
to Sacaton on the stage road from Casa Grande.' 

Blaclcwater. A woman at Blackwater was fatally bitten 
by a rattlesnake.'' 

o The water of the Gila had been so far utilized by white settlers above the resen-ation, for the most 
part more than a hundird miles above, that there was none left for the Pimas. It is difficult to obtain 
accurate iiifonnationat this tune of the number who perished either directly or indirectly l)y starvation. 
During this and the following year Ave persons a re known to have died from this cause, and it is probable 
that there were others. Most of the rimas will not beg, however desperate their need maj'be, so that 
not all cases were reported. 

In one case a wood chopper tried during the hot season to cut mesquite forsale, but he was too weak 
to withstand the heat an<l the exertion and was found dead in the chaparral. .-Vn old couple were found 
dead in their house with no food of any kind in their storehouse, and it is supposed that they preferred 
to starve rather than l)eg. .V man riding to Salt River was too weak from hunger to keep his saddle 
and fell and perished. 

<> The agent wisely stipulated that if they received free wire they must leave a lane for a road through 
the fields. The width was not prescribed and they made the lane so na rrow that two teams can scarcely 
pass each other in it. and it becomes churni^d into mud when the adjoining land is flooded for pur- 
poses of irrigation. The Pimas have not manifested any striking road-building instinct that would 
lead an enthusiastic admirer to rrlnte them to the .\ztecs or Incas. Year after year they plodded 
through the slough between the agency and the river without making an etfort to put in a bridge or 
filling. When one of the Government employees was building a bridge for them several passing team- 
sters preferred risking their teams and wagons in the sea of nmd to assisting for a few minutes to put 
the bridge in place. 

The soil of the reservation is well adapted for road making, and a little care would make the thorough- 
fares as hard and smooth as those to be foimd anywhere. However, those upon the tillable lands of 
river silt readily cut into light dust that rises in clouds when disturbed. In a few places this condition 
has Ijeen n'lnedied liy resorting to the temporary and shiftless expedient of the whiti> settlers, whoeover 
the road with straw or corral refuse. The mesa roads, wliich include all those leading any distance 
from tlK' I'rila, pass alternately over loose soil containing coarsc> sand that gradually aceunuilates in the 
ruts and renders the road "heavy," and over '■adobo"soil which is hard and firm in dry seasons, and 
which makes an ideal roadbed. Hill roads are unknown and there are very few traveling sand dunes 
to be crossed near thi» n?servation. 

c His horse was killed and its bones are certain to be pointed out to the stage traveler by the loqua- 
cious driver, .lohn McCoy. 

Jit may be presmned that such occurrences are rale or they would not be deemed worthy of rword. 
This woman had gone fa r out on the desert to search for mesquite beans, as she was without foorl; indet^d 
the whole community was starving because of the failure of the crops owing to the lack of water in 
the river for their ditches. Rattlesnakes sometimes make their way into the houses and bite the occu- 
pants. Repeated inquiries failed to elicit information that would indicate that any remedies weie used 
for snake bites. .\ common weed (golondrina?) is called snakeweed by a few whites, and is supposed to 
1)6 used as a remedy by the Pimas, but 1 have not yet found a native whoever heard of Its being so used. 
26 ETH — 08 7 



66 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

1Q00-1901 

Gila Crossing. It was during this year that the President came to 
Phoenix." 

H B Gila Crossing, Salt River. During the spring the man employed 
to carry the mail between Phoenix and Scottsdale became insane 
and shot a white man and a Pima youth whom he met on the road 
near the latter place. 

isoi 2 

■- Gila Crossing. In September, 1901, the day school was 

•^ started at Masa'kimfilt, the Gila Maricopa village. 

TECHNOLOGY 
The Food Supply 

The Pimas subsist upon a mixed diet in wliich vegetable food pre- 
dominates. In the past it would seem probable that the proportion 
of meat was greater than at present, though they have long been tillers 
of the soil. Certain articles of their cUet appear to be markedly flesh 
producing, and this tendency is at least not diminished by the habits 
of life resulting from the semitropical climate of the Gila valley. 
They are noticeably heavier than uidividuals belonging to the tribes 
on the Colorado plateau to the north and northeast, and many old 
persons exhibit a degree of obesity that is in striking contrast with 
the "tall and sinewy" Indian conventicmalized in popular thought. 
(Fig. 2.) 

About every fifth year Ln primitive times the Gila river failed in 
midwinter, the flow diminishing day by day until at length the last 
dr(ip of water that could not gam shelter beneath the santls was 
licked up by the ever-tliirsty sun. The fish gathered in the few pools 
that were maintained by the underflow, the ducks and other water 
birds took flight, but the deer and antelope could the more readily be 
stalked because of their resorting to known watering places. With- 
out water in the river and canals there could be no crops, and neces- 
sity drove the people to seek far afield for the native plants that in 
some degree produce fruits or seeds even in dry seasons. The fruit 
of the saguaro and the seed or bean of the mesquite were the most 
abundant and accessible resources. When even these failed the 
Pimas were driven to make long journeys into the Apache country — 

a The visit of President McKinley to Phoemx, in May, 1901, made a profound impression upon the 
Pimas. Kkemk-6, lives hut 20 miles south of the Arizona capital, and was present at the time of the 
President's visit. lie made no mark upon the calendar stick to commemorate the event, but related 
the circumstances as a part of the liistory. 

It is not surprising that the Pimas, who hud hcii rd for ma ny you rs of the Great Chiefs in Wasliington, 
should be desirous of seeing one in the flesh when the opportunity presented itself. The official interpre- 
ter at the agency frequently, during the winter of 1901-2, expressed her desire to obtain a good biography 
of the late President, .\fter commenting upon the hideous crime of the assassin at Buffalo she made 
the truthful and suggestive remark that ' no Pima would do such a thing: he would never kill his chief." 



RUSSELL] 



THE FOOD SUPPLY 



07 



anil whenever they got a mile from their owji villages they were in the 
land of the Apache — in search of animal food, roots, berries, and 
especially the edible agaves. 

At other times the very abundance of water proved disastrous; 




floods destroyed the canals and swept away the crops. As early as 
1697 Padre Kino reported that owing to the fields having been over- 
flowed the Pimas could offer liim no pinole," but gave mesquite meal 
instead.' The re.sort to uncultivated products such as theii- Papago 

o Manuscript, Hemenway Collection, x. p. 6, copy by Bandelier from Doc. His. Mex. 

b Made by grinding parched com into meal and mixing it with water to form a thin gruel; wheat is 
now similarly treated. TfelTerkom gives the following appreciative description of pinole in his Beschrei- 
bung der Landschaft Sonora, the second volume of which was published in 1795: ".Vuch auf dem Felde, 
und auf der Keise. wo keine Bequemlichkeit zum Kochen ist. ha ben die Snnorer ihre Xahrung von dem 
Mais. Sic nehmen den nothigen Vorrath niit: dieser bestelu't in dem Pinole, den ihnen die \N'eiher auf 
folgende Art bereiten. Nachdem der Mais im Wasser etwas geweicht.und hcrnach getrocknet ist ; rosten 
sie denselben in einer irdenen Schiisscl. vmd riihren ihn bestandig heruin, damit er nicht anbrenne. 
Wiihrendem Rosten, springen die Korner auf; und das Mark bricht. gleich einer sohneeweissen Blume, 
hervor. Dieses wird Ksquita genant und ist nicht unangenehm zu essen. Der auf diese -\rt genistete 
Mais wird auf dem Mrlale gemahlen; und bekomnit alsdann den Xamen Pinole. Diese Fold und 
Reisckost fiihrt der Sonorer in dem Balge von einer wilden Katze. oder cinem andern Thiere, mit .sich. 
Sogar rile Soldaten. und andere Spanier, haben auf der Reise keine andere Nahrung. Wenn sie essen 
wolien; so werfen sie zwei oderdrei handvoll Pinole in eine Corita, welcbe ihnen zu 'lem Ende allezeit 
zur Seite hangt; schiitten Wasser dazu, riihren beides dnreheinander; und nehmen also aus einem 
Geschiere, zur selbigen Zeit, Speise und Trank. So sehr der Pinole von den Amerikanem geschatzet 
wird; so wenigen Beifall flndet sein C.eschmack bei dem Europaer; nur Zimmet, unii Zucker, konnen ihm 
denseibeu angenehm nucben." (Vol. ii, p. i;j2.i 



68 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

cousins to the southward wholly subsisteil upon did not prevent the 
Pimas from attaining proficiency in agricultiu-e, as will be seen later, 
and it must manj- times have preserved them from total extinction. 
With what success they sought for edible plants may be judged from 
the subjoined list, which is believed to be fairly complete. It con- 
tains 22 plants of wliich the stems, leaves, or flowers were eaten, 4 
that furnished roots or bulbs, 24 with seeds or nuts, and 15 that 
supplied fi'uits or berries. And this in a region that appears to the 
casual visitor to be a desert with but a few thorny slu-ubs and but one 
tree that he would deem worthy of the name. 

PREPARATIOX OF FOOD 

Very few articles of Pima diet are eaten raw, and many of them are 
of such a nature as to necessitate thorough cooking; thus the agave 
and the fruit of some of the cacti are baked for many hours. It may 
be well, therefore, to describe the methoils, so far as they could be 
ascertained, of preparing the various jilants for use. The art of 
cooking is not well developed among these ])eople ; no such elaborate 
preparations as Mr Cushhig found at Zufii tempt the Pima palate. 

In tlie olden time maize was ground upon the flat metates and 
foruied into loaves, which must have been "sad" indeed, to judge 
from their modern counterparts. With the advent of the wliites 
came the introduction of a new and ([uickly accepted cereal, wheat; 
and the bread made from it also, without leavening agent, is heavy 
and indigestible. One loaf was obtained (pi. vi, a), said to be a com- 
paratively small one, that weighed 14 pounds and yet was only 3 inches 
thick and 20 inches in diameter. No knowledge of the pueblo wafer 
breads exists among the Pimas, who confine their treatment of mes- 
quite, com, wheat, and other flour to baking as tortillas or as loaves 
in the ashes, frying in suet, or boiling, either in water to form a gruel 
or mush, or witli other foods in the shape of dum]ilings. 

A large part of the cereal food of the Pimas is parched before it is 
ground. 

The process of parching on, or rather among, the coals is dex- 
terously carried out. The coals are raked into the parchuig pan (pi. 
XIX, a) and after the grain has been thrown upon them it is given a 
series of tosses with a (luarter-turn to each which redistributes the 
light but bulky coals and the heavier grain. A frequent puff of 
breath carries away the ((uickly gathering flakes of ashes. The con- 
tents of the pan are separated by a fe\\- short jerks that carry the 
coals in a mass to the edge of the dish, whence the larger particles are 
scraped oH" and the smaller blowni out. Another method of parching 
seeds is to place over the fire an olla that has Ijcen broken so that at 
least one side is wanting, thus admitting the hand to stu- the contents 
as they are browned. 



RUSSELL] THE I'OOD SUPPLY 69 

Meat is roasted on the coals, a favorite metluul of cooking dried 
meat or that of small rodents, or it is boiled imtil nvcII done. In the 
latter method, according to one informant, it is put on the lire in cold 
water. The hrolh is then thrown away lest it cause consumption. 
A coarse-grained Hour is sometimes l)oiled with the meat to make what 
a Canadian voyageur woulil term ruhabu. 

Occasionally a housewife will l)e met with among the Pimas who is 
scrupulously neat and clean in cooking and in the care of the home, 
ilost of the women, however, carry traces of dried dough on their 
fuigers from week's end to week's end, and the cookhig vessels know 
no cleansing except the scraping that seeks the last particle of food 
that may cling to them, the rasping tongue of the starving dog, or the 
hasty sloppmg of a little cold water hito them just before u.su>g again. 
The evil effects of slovenliness are reduced, however, by the peculiar 
conditions, such as the drj' air, which saps the moisture from all 
organic matter, even in the shade; the outdoor cooldng place expo.sed 
to a sim that withers all germs; and the habit of eating all the food 
prepared for each meal, which includes the rule of eticpiette prescrib- 
ing that one must eat all that is set before Mm. 

The kitchen is an arrow-bush inclosiire, about 4 or 5 meters in diam- 
eter (pi. VI, b), containing its set of half a dozen pottery ves.sels. 
In the center are the three stones on wliich the cooking pot rests. 
Such an inclosure is <[uite common at the present day, though many 
have adoped the oval fireplaces of adobe (pi. vi, c), some obtain inm 
kettle stands from the agency blacksmith, and a few (chiefly those 
who live in adobe houses) are using modem stoves. 

PLANTS USED FOR FOOD 

A'tiUJc i'avak, Atriplex bracteosa var. ; A. coronata Wats. ; A. elegans 
Dietrich. These saltbushes, with a few others as yet unidcntilied, 
are sometimes boiled with other food because of their salty flavor. 
They are cooked in pits with the fruit of the cactus, Opuntia arbo- 
rescens, the method of roasting them being described below. The 
young shoots of .some of them are crisp and tender. Conunonly 
known as "sagebrush," the.se saltbushes are among the most abun- 
dant plants in that region. There are both herl)aceous and woody 
species, the former being eaten by stock and the latter being useful 
for fuel. 

A'opa M'aslk, Populus deltoidcs Marsh. The cottonwood occurs in 
a thin fringe, with here and there a grove along the Gila and Salt 
rivers. In February and March the women send some of the bare- 
foot boys into the tree tops to throw down the catkins, which are then 
gathered in baskets and carried home to be eaten raw by stripping 
them off the stem between the teeth. 



70 THE PIMA INDIANS iEth. axx. L'G 

Aot, Agave americana Liiin. (possibly a few related species also). 
Mescal was gathered in times of famine, and it would have been 
much more extensively used had it not been for the danger from " the 
enemy," the Apaches, that attended even the shortest journey away 
from the villages. The plant has ever been a favorite, not only 
among the Pimas but also with the Papagos, the Apaches, and a 
score of other tribes. The fu-st day's work after reaching the hills 
where tills plant grows was to seek suitable wood and make digging 
sticks. Then the men gathered the mescal heads by prying them 
out with the sticks, and trimmed off the leaves with a knife, leaving 
one or two, so that the heads might be tied in pairs and slung on a 
rope for carrjang. Thin-leaved specimens were rejected, inasmuch 
as they not only contain little nourishment, but blister the mouth 
when eaten. While the men were bringing in the mescal, the women 
gathered wood for fuel. Pits were dug, and after the fire built in 
thena had died down small stones were placed on the coals. The 
mescal was then placed on the stones and the whole covered with 
earth. Wlien it had roasted for twenty-four hours, a small opening 
was made in the pit and its contents examined; if the cooking was 
not yet complete, the opening was closed and the pit left undisturbed 
twelve hours longer. If the roasting was not done when the pit was 
first opened, it was believed that the incontinence of some members 
of the party was the cause. The heads of the fruit were opened by 
removing the envelope on one side; the center was cut out and dried 
in the sun, when it was ready for use or for storing awaj\ 

Mescal is now obtained from the Papagos. It is eaten by chewing 
until the juice is extracted and rejecting the fiber. It is used alone 
or together with pinole. Sirup is extracted from the prepared mescal 
by boiling imtil the juice is removed, which is then thickened by pro- 
longed boiling until it becomes a black sirup, somewhat similar to 
sorghum. It is inferior to saguaro sirup. 

A'pan, Monolepis chenopoides. The roots are washed, boiled in 
an olla, and cooled in a basket. The water is scjueezed out, and the}' 
are again put into the olla with a little fat or lard and salt. After 
cooking for a few moments they are ready to serve with tortillas. 
This plant is also used in a similar manner by the Mexicans, who are 
suppased to have learned its value from the natives. The seeds are 
boiled, partially dried, parched, ground on the metatc, and eaten as 
pinole. 

A'taftiik, Cucurbita fcetidissima H. B. K. The seeds of this wild 
gourd are roasted and eaten. 

E'iJcdfi. The root of tliis small plant is gathered, boiled, and eaten 
without peeling. 

Ilaif'Tiam, Olneya tesota. The nuts of the ironwood tree (pi. vii, a) 
are parched in an olla, or, what is more usual, the broken half of one, 



RissELLl THE FOOD SUPPLY 71 

and eaten without further preparation. The tree grows on tlic iiiosas 
on all sides of the villages, where it is very conspicuous for a few days 
in May, when it is covered with a mass of purple flowers. 

Ila'kowat, Phoradendron calif ornicum. The berries of the mistletoe 
that grows on the niesciuite are gathered and boiled without strip- 
ping from the stem. They are taken in the lingers, and the berries 
stripped ofl" into the mouth as eaten. \'arious species of mistletoe 
are very abundant on tiie trees along the Gila, but tliis one only is 
eaten. 

Halt, Cucurbit a pepo Linn. The common species of pumpkin 
grown by the Pinias, as well as by the whites and Mexicans, is cut in 
strips and dried, when it is known by a number of different names, 
according to the manner of cutting and the particular variety. Tliis 
species includes the pumpkins proper, the bush scallop scjuashcs, the 
summer crook-necks, and the white or yellow warty squashes. The 
club-shaped, pear-shaped, or long-cylindrical smooth squash is Cucur- 
bita moscliata Duchesne. It is extensivelj- grown by the Piinas. The 
seeds of the pumpkin are parched and eaten. When the dried ])umi)- 
kin is used, it is softened in water and boiled. 

Ila'n'dm. Opuntia arborescens. The fruit of this cactus (pi. viii, a) 
is gathered with an instrument that resembles an enlarged wooden 
clothespin. It is collected in large cpiantities and carried home in 
the kiaha, or carrjnng basket. A pit is dug and a fire built in it, on 
which stones are heated. As the fire dies down the stones are removed 
and a layer of the saltbush, Suseda arborescens, is placed over the 
coals; above this is placed a layer of cactus fruit, then hot stcmes, 
and so alternately to the top, over which a thick laj'er of saltbush is 
laid with earth outside. The pit is left undisturbed over one night, 
then its contents are spread out, dried, and the fruit stirred with a 
stick until the thorns are rubbed off, whereupon it is ready to store 
away for future use. In its final preparation it must be boiled. It is 
then salted and eaten with pinole. The acid flavor is usually relieved 
hj the addition of various plants cooked as greens. 

Ila'rsany, Cereus giganteus Engelm. The fruit of the giant cac- 
tus, or, as it is more generally known in the Southwest, the saguaro 
(pis. VIII, h, and ix, c, d), is gathered in June, and so important is 
the harvest that the event marks the beginning of the new year in 
the Pima calendar. The supply is a large one and only industry is 
required to make it available throughout the entire year, as both the 
seeds and the dried fruit may be preserved. Seeds that have passed 
through the body are sometimes gathered from the dried feces, 
washeil, and treated as those obtained ilirectl}' from the fruit, though 
there would seem to be some special value ascribed to them as in the 
case of the "second harvest" of the Seri." 

a Cf . W J .McGee in Seventeenth Annual Report of Bureau ot American Ethnoiogyi 21Z 



72 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ans. 26 

The fruit is eaten without preparation when it ripens. It is of a 
crimson color and contains many black seeds about the size of those 
of the fig, wliich fruit it resembles in taste. By a process of boiling 
and fermentation an intoxicating liquor is obtained from the fresh 
fruit which has been more highly esteemed than the nutritious food 
and has rendered tliis new-year a season of debauchery." 

The fruit is dried and preserved in balls 15 or more centimeters 
in diameter (fig. 3). From either the fresh or dried fruit sirup is 
extracted by boiling it "all day." The residue is ground on the 
metate into an oily paste wliich is eaten without further preparation. 
The seeds may be separated from the pidp at the time of drying the 
fruit ami may be eaten raw or ground on the metate and treated as 
any meal — put into water to form a pinole or combined ^vith other 
meal to bake into bread. 

Ila'valt, Yucca liacatta. The fruit is boiled, dried, ground on the 
mealing-stone, and boiled with flour. It is also eaten raw as a cathar- 
tic. The stems are reduced to pulp and used as soap. Y. elata is 
also used as soap. 

llo'ny, Zea Mays. Corn, the most important crop of the Pueblo 
tribes, has, in recent years at least, been of less value to the Pimas 
than wheat. The numerous varieties are all prepared in about the 
same manner. As the husked corn is brought in by the women, it is 
piled on a thin layer of brush and roasted by burning the latter, after 
which it Ls cut from the cob, dried, and stored away for future use. 

o " I arrived at the Pimas Gileiios, accompanied by the governor of the Coco-Maricopas. There was 
great rejoicement, for there had spread thus far the report that they {the Moquis) had me kiiled. The 
governor of the l%nas told me that all the relatives were well content, and wishing to make a fcayt, 
all the pueblos together. I agreed to this, hut on condition that it should be apart from me. foreseeing 
in this what would come to pass. In a little while I heard that they were singing 'a heap' [de vionton) ; 
this was stopped presently, but was followed by a great uproar of discordant voices, and shouting, in 
which tlioy said, 'We are good! We are happy! We know Cod! We are the fellows to fight the 
vVpaches! We are glad the old man (as they call me) has come, and not been killedl' This e:-trava- 
gant shouting {cxorbilante grileria), a thing foreign to the seriousness of the Pimas, I knew came from 
drinking, which produced various effects. Some came and took me by the hand, saluting me. One 
said, 'I am padre de Pedro.' Another said to me, 'Thou hast to baptize a child.' Another, 'This is 
thy home— betake not thyself to see the king, nor to Tucson.' Others made the sign of the cross, partly 
in Spanish, so that though I felt very angry at such general drunkenness, there did not fail me some 
gusto to 1 ear the good expressions into which they burst, even when deprived of reason. The ne,xt 
day I complained of these excesses to the governor, who told me that it only happened a few times and 
in the season of saguaro, and adding that it made his people vomit yellow and kept them in good health. 
What most pleased me was to see that no woman got drunk; instead of which saw many of them leading 
by the bridle the horse upon which her husband was mounted, gathering up at the same time the clothes 
and beads that the men scattered about, in order that none should be lost," (Garcfis's Diary, 438.) 
" The three pitahaya months," says Father Salva-Tierra [describing the saguaro harvest in Cali- 
fornia], " resemble the carnival in some parts of Europe, when the men are in a great measure stupi- 
fied or mad. The natives here also throw aside what reason they have, giving themselves up to feast- 
ings, dancings, entertainments of the neighboring rancherias, buffooneries, and comedies, such as they 
are; and in these, whole nights are spent to the high diversion of the audience. The actors are 
selected for their talent of imitation; and they execute their parts admirably well." (Venegas, His- 
tory of California, i, 82.) "The gathering of this fruit may be considered as the harvest of the 
native inhabitants. They can eat as much of it as they please, and with some this food agrees so 
well that they become corpulent during that period, and for this reason I was sometimes unable to 
recognize at first sight individuals otherwise perfectly familiar to me, who visited me after having fed 
three or four weeks on these pltahayas." (Jacol* liaegert, The .\boriginal Inhabitants of the CaU- 
fornian Peninsula, in Smithsonian Report, 1S03, 3t>3.) 



BUSSELL] 



THE FOOD SUPPLY 



73 



The shelled corn is ground on the nietate and baked in large cakes 
in the ashes. Corn is also boiled with ashes, dried, and the hulls 
washed off, then thoroughly dried and parched with coals or over 
the fire. It is then made into a gruel, but is not so highly regarded 
as the wheat pinole. 

I'savlk. The thorns of this cactus are removed as soon as gathered, 
and it is eaten without further preparation. 

I'tany, Atriplex sp. The heads of tliis saltbush are pounded up 
in the mortar and screened to separate the hulls. The seeds are 
washed, spread to dry, parched in a piece of olla, and ground on the 
metate. They are then ready to be eaten as pinole, or ilry, in the 




Fig. 3. Dried saguaro fruit. 

latter case a pinch of the meal being taken alternately with a sip of 
water. 

Ka'lfsa, Cicer arietinum Linn. The cliick-pea is raised in small 
quantities and is also purchased from the traders. Tliis is the gara- 
banzo of Mexico. The name chicos is sometimes applied to tliis pea 
as it is to anything small, especially to small or. rather, sweet corn 
that is just old enough for roasting. 

Kaf, Clu'uopodium murale. The seed is gathered early in the .sum- 
mer and prepared by parcliing and grinding, after which it may be 
eaten as pinole or combined with other meal. 

Kd'me&vat. After the August rains this seed is gathered, parched 
over coals in the parching pan, ground on the metate, and eaten as 
pinole. 



74 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 20 



Kan'yo, Sorghum vulgare Pers. Sorghum is cuhivated when tlie 
water supply permits. It has been obtained recently from the wlaites, 
who raise it extensively in the Southwest. 

Ki'ak. The heads of this annual are gathered and the seeds beaten 
out with the kiaha stick used as a flail. The seeds are moistened, 
parched, wliich makes it resemble pop corn, ground on the metate, 
and eaten by taking alternately pinches of meal and sips of water. 

Kol, Prosopis velutina. j\[osquite beans" formed nearly if not 
quite the most important article of diet of the Pimas in primitive 
times (pi. X, a). They are still extensively used, though the supply 
is somewhat curtailed by the live stock which feed avidly upon 
them. As already stated, the crop sometimes fails, "especially in 




Fig. 4. Sheds with caches on roofs. 



hard times," as one of our informants naively remarked. The mes- 
quite harvest takes place somewhat later than that of the saguaro. 
The beans are gathered and stored in the pod in cylindrical bins on 
the roofs of the hou.ses or sheds (fig. 4). While yet on the trees, the 
bean pods are bored by larvag of the family Bruchidse. ^ 



o Analysis ol mesquite beans, including the pod: 

Per cent. 

Moisture 5. 96 

Dry matter 94.04 

Crude ash 5. 20 

Crude tat 5. 12 



Per cent. 

Crude cellulose 32 53 

Albuminoids 14.03 

Nitrogen-free extract 37. 13 

Nutritive ratio 1:5.8 



" The amount of cellulose, or woody fiber, is very much larger in the bean, and the amount of nitrogen- 
fi-ee extract considerably smaller: but the albuminoids and fats compare very well indeed. The bean 
pod is 4 to 8 inches in length, and grows in bunches from six to eight pods to the bunch." Third Amiual 
Report, hSSS, Texas .\gricultural Experiment Station. Reference kindly supplied by Mr Ewell, Bureau 
of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. 

<> '■ There are two species of Bruchus which are especially common in mesquite seeds in .\rizona— both 
the common mesquite and the screw bean, namely, Bruchus prosopis Lee. and Bruchus desertorum 
Lee. Occasionally other species breed in the seeds." Dr L. O. Howard, Department of Agriculture, 
letter. 



RUSSELL] THE FOOD SUPPLY 75 

Tiio beans are prepared for use 1)}' being pounded up in a mortar 
with a stone pestle, or, if a large quantity is required, wdth a large 
wooden one. The pods may be ground with the beans. Another 
method of preparation is to separate the beans from the pods, parch 
them by tossing them up in a pan of live coals, and reduce them to 
meal by grinding, whereupon tliej' may be eaten as pinole. Tliis 
has a sweetish taste and is reputed to be very nourishing. 

The catkins of the mesquite are eaten witliout preparation by strip- 
ping from the stem lictween the teeth. 

Tlie white gum which exudes from the mesquite limbs is used in 
making candy. 

Tlie inner bark is emploj-ed as a substitute for rennet. 

Ko'kih-ihiitali, Parkinsonia microphylla (in tlie footliills) ; P. tor- 
reyana (on the mesas) (pi. x, h). The paloverdc bean was formerly 
eaten either as gathered or after being poimded in the mortar. It 
was not eaten as pinole, but was sometimes mixed with mesquite 
meal. 

Ko'mHIf. The heads are gathered and washed, sometimes twice, 
then boiled in an olla with a little water. AMieat flour and a sea- 
soning of salt are added and the whole is stirred until the heads fall to 
pieces. 

Ko'-okwpaltHk. According to tradition the seeds were eaten in prim- 
itive times, but no one now knows how they were prepared. The 
plant is now boiled with meat as greens. 

Ko'Htnlt, Pros()]iis pubescens. Screw beans are abundant along 
the banks of the Gila. They are cooked in pits wliich are lined with 
arrow bushes set on end. The beans are placed in layers alternating 
with cocklcbur leaves, the whole covered with earth and loft to stand 
three or four days, after which they are taken out and spread to dry. 
They are then ready to use or store away in the arrow-bush basket 
bins on the house tops. They are further prepared for food by ])ound- 
ing up in a mortar, the fine flour then being read}'' to be eaten as 
pinole. The coarser portion is taken up in the hands with water, 
the juice sucked through the fingers, and the remainder rejected. 

Kim'aolf, Licium fremontii var. The red berry is boiled and eaten. 

Ma-aUMl: . Tliis is described as resembling asparagus. The stems 
may be eaten raw or boiled or roasted in the ashes. 

Me'ln, Citrullus vulgaris Shrad. Watermelons are among the most 
important crops of the Pimas aiid are eaten during at least six months 
of the 3^ear. 

Naf , Opuntia engelmamii. The thonis are brushed off the fruit 
of the prickly pear before it is gathered. It is then peeled and eaten, 
the seeds being thrown away. The Papagos make a sirup from the 
fruit (which is said to cause fever in those not accustomed to its use) 



76 THK PIMA INDIANS [eth. a.nn. 26 

and dry the fruit as they do that of the sagiiaro, but the Pmias make 
no further use of it than to eat it raw. 

Nyi'atam, Malva sp. This plant is boiled and the liquid used in 
maidng pinole in times of famine. 

O'-opat, Acacia greggii. The beans of the cat's-claw (pi. vii, b) 
were eaten in primitive times, but no one of the present generation 
knows how they were prepared. 

Ositcu'uuipat, Zizj-phus lycioides. The black berry of this thorny 
bush is gathered in the basket bowls after it has been beaten down 
with sticks. It is eaten raw and the seeds are thrown away. 

Pap' hint. The heads are tied in bunches and dried in the sun. 
They are then shelled, screened, the seeds parched, groimd on the 
metate, and eaten as pinole. They are "not sweet." 

Pavf{i), Phaseohis vulgaris Linn. At least one variety of the com- 
mon kidney bean, pole bean, bunch bean, etc., was known to the 
natives before the advent of tJie Spaniards. Venegas states" that 
"red frLxoles, or kidnej' beans" [Phaseolus sp.], were cultivated by the 
natives of lower California, and tliis may have been the variety knu\ni 
in Pimeria.'' 

Pel'tHlany, Triticum sativum Lam. Wheat is the principal crop 
of the Pimas, and four varieties are known to them. It is ground 
on the metate to make the flour used m cooking the great loaves 
that weigh from 10 to 20 pounds. Tortillas resembling those of 
the Mexicans are now more commonly used than the heavy loaves of 
former days. A light and toothsome doughnut is fried in bubbling 
hot suet (pi. VI, «). One of the commonest methods of preparing 
wheat is to parch it, grmd it on the metate, and eat it as a sort of thin 
gruel called hak(i) tcoi; or the wheat maybe boiled before parchuig, 
in which case the product is known as pars&[ tcoi. Both are known to 
the whites by the Mexican term "pmole." 

Rsat. The bulb of the wild onion is eaten. It is common on the 
slopes at the foot of the Estrellas. 

Rso'-owdi. The fine reddish seed is boiled with flour as a nuish. 

Rsur^su-uHJi. This is used as greens with similar plants. 

<• History of Calilomia, 45. 

6 The entire region occupied by tribes of tlie Pinmn stocli, extending over the larger part of Sonora 
as far northward as the Rio Gila, was known to the Spanish as Pimeria. That portion between the 
Yaquis and the Gila was called Pimeria Alta. The Papagos occupy nearly all this territory, and of 
late it is commonly called Papagueria. For an undetermined mmiber of centuries the Pimas proper 
have occupied the middle Gila di.strict. Their habitat differs, therefore, from that of the other tribes 
of the stock, and for convenience their territory will be here designated by the term Pimeria. 

Buschmann states in Die Pima-Sprachethat " Duflot dfMoiras (explorationdulerriloiredeVOrigon, 
des Cahfornies et de la mer vermeUU T. I., Par. 1844. p. 208) setzt die Pimeria aim von den Flussen Colo- 
rado und Gila an bis zur Stadt lUrmosUlo und zum rio dc los Vrcs: Aie Pimeria baia \onitSb anbiszum 
Tio del Fnerte. welcher die Granze von Sonora und Cinaloa bildet. Er setzt beidc, zu grosse Pimerias 
gleich Ober- und Nieder-Sonora: 'io Sonore se divise en haule et basse, el prend aussi, ti cause des 
Indiens Pimas, le nam de Pimeria alta y baja.' Arricivlta (p. 390) bestimmt die Pimeria alta so: ■ Die 
ganze Pimeria alta dehnt sich aus vora Presidio de Terruite bis zu den ptayas de Cnborea, fiber 100 leguas; 
und von der Mission S. Igmieio von S nach N bis zum Gi7a-Flusse, wieder 100 leguas: ihr grosster Theil 
liegt unter dem 30ten Breitcngrade. Toda la Pimeria (39"i eslli habitada de Indios.' " P. 321, 322. 



RUSSELL] THE FOOD SUPPLY ( I 

Sai'tHkam iavilc. The leaf of this tliorny plant is eaten raw or 
boiled. 

Si'eti'it, Ciicumis melo Linn. The muskmelon is extensively raised 
by the Pinias. 

Si'vitcUt, Runiex hyinenosepalus. The canaigre is cultivated by 
the whites in the Gila valley for tannin, yet it is eaten by the Pimas. 
The stem is roasted in the ashes or, recently, stewed with sugar. We 
have seen the children greedily devouring the raw roots in March. 
Doctor Palmer states that the roots are used to tan deerskin and 
also as soap. 

So'-odot, Sophia pinnata (Walt) Britton. The seeds are parched, 
ground, and mixed with water to form puiole. The Mexicans of 
Arizona use the leaves of this plant in preparing a drink. An infu- 
sion made from the leaves is also employed as a remedj- for sores. 

Tdlci. Gosypitma sp. The cotton plant is no longer raised, but from 
pre-Spanish ilays tlown to the last quarter of a century it was culti- 
vated both for the fiber and the seeds. The latter were pounded up 
with mesqnite beans in the mortar or they were sometimes ])ar(hed 
and eaten without grinding." 

Tuple'. These seeds resemble those of flax in appearance. They 
are eaten either raw or boiled and are yet extensively used. 

Tapkalt. This is one of the varieties of squash that is cultivated 
by the Pimas at the present time. 

Td'ta d'n'Hl-, Atriplex nuttallii. The stems of this saltbush are 
boiled with wheat. They are cut in short lengths and iised some- 
times as a stuffing for roast rabbit. 

Tcia, Salvia columbaria Benth. The seeds when infused in water 
form a pleasant nuicilaginous beverage, very popular with the 
Pimas. 

Tci'dldi. The fruit of this cactus is brought l)y the Pa[)agos and 
traded to the Pimas. It is cooked in the same manner as Opuntia 
arborescens. 

Tciaaolt, Echinocactvis wislizeni. The pulp of the visnaga is con- 
sidered valuable in lieu of water to those sufl'ering from thirst. It is 
also eaten after being cut in strips and boiled all day. It is some- 
times boiled with mesquite beans, a layer each in the cooking olla. 
It is occasionally boiled with sugar. It is qiute a popular confection 
among the whites, who, in some ])laccs, obtain the raw material from 
the Papagos. 

Tci'-ithwatak, Lithospermum sp. The leaves are eaten without 
preparation. 

o r. D. Poston .stated in I?G4 that he had recently furnished the Pimas with. 500 pnnnds of cntton seed, 
though he did not give any reason for doing so. It is fair to presume that the Pimas had suUlcient seed 
from the plant that they had raised from time immemorial. 



78 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Tcil'tipin (Sp.)- This pepper is raised by the Papagos and brought 
to the Pimas. 

Tco'Jiolcia. The leaves are gathered in sprmg and sometimes baked 
ia tortillas. In summer the seeds are gathered, ground on the metate, 
mixed with meal or squash, or they may be parched and ground to 
be eaten dry. 

Tco'tvik a'ndlc, Suseda arborescens; S. suflfrutescens. These are 
added to greens or cactus fruit to give flavor. 

To'a, Quercus oblongifolia. The acorns of this oak are traded 
from the Papagos. After the hidls have been removed they are 
parched and grovmd into meal. 

lirtam, Atriplex lentiformis. The seed of this saltbush is cooked 
in pits which are lined with Suseda arborescens and the papery inner 
bark of the cottonwood moistened and mixed together. The roasting 
recjuu-es but one night, then the seeds are taken out, dried, parched, 
and laid away for future use. When eaten, it is placed in a cup and 
water added until a thick gruel is produced. 

Vakwai'hai-ind^m, Solanum elseagnifolium. The berries are put in 
the milk from which cheese is made to serve as a substitute for rennet. 

Vak'wavdam, Rumex berlandieri. This plant is used with the 
cactus fruit, Opuntia arborescens, in the same manner as the saltbush, 
Suaeda arborescens. 

Vi'phwi, Opuntia versicolor. The fruit is sometimes eaten raw, 
but it is usually prepared in the same manner as Opuntia arborescens. 

Dr Edwai'd Palmer, who collected among the Pimas in 1885, 
obtained some nuts of the "cjuinine jilant," Simmondsia californica 
Nutt., which he says are eaten either raw or parched. Professor 
Thornber states that the Mexicans use the oil as a hair tonic. He also 
describes an "Indian potato," Iloffmanseggia falcaria Cav., which, 
when roasted, tastes like the cultivated Irish potato. However, this 
is a member of the pea family and not a potato. A true Solanum 
is foimd native to Arizona, but we have not learned that the Pimas 
know of it. 

At least three kinds of chewing gum are in use. That most highly 
esteemed is called vi-ipam, ''milky ; " it is obtained from a plant which 
somewhat resembles a sweet-potato vine. The pointed pods are 
gathered, their milk poured into a squash stalk and heated in the 
ashes, whereupon it is ready to chew. A bush, Encelia farinosa, 
called tohaj's, exudes a clear gum; and that on the stems of some of the 
Compositae is sometimes gathered and chewed by children. 



ROSSBLL] ■ THE FOOD SUPPLY 79 

MEDICINAL PLANTS 

A'taftak. The root of the wikl gourd " is pounded up in mortars, 
boiled, and the extracted juice put into the ear to cure earache. It is 
poured into a liollow toolli to stop aching. "It kills maggots in open 
sores." 

Ha'tam, Sphseralcea angustifolia. The leaves are boiled and used 
as a remedy for diarrhea. Anotlior informant states that the root 
is boiled and the liquitl extracted is used as a remedy for biliousness. 

Ka'l-aitco v-us, '"quail plant," Heliotropium curassavicum. The 
upper part of the light yellowish root is dried and ground in mortars, 
dried again, and grountl very tine upon the metate, when it is ready 
to be applied to sores or wounds after they have been washed. 

Kdl.pildin. The leaves of this bush are boiled and the extract used 
as an emetic. 

Koi, Prosopis velutina. The black gum of the mesquite is boiled 
and the dilute liquid used as a wasii for sore eyes and open woiuids. 
The inner bark of the ines(iuile is boiled and the liquid used as an 
emetic and cathartic. 

KoUillt, Prosopis pubesc(>ns. The bark of the root of the screw 
bean is pounded up in mortars, dried, and again ground into a line 
powder on the metate; or it may be boiled without pounding or 
gi'inding and the liquid used as a dressing for wounds. After a few 
days, as the wound heals, the dry powder is substituted. 

OsikakamMc, Pluchea borealis. The bark of the arrow-bush root 
is separated by pounding between stones and then placed in water 
for a few hours to extract a liquid for waslung the face and for sore 
eyes. 

O'sitcLW'dtjx.'f, Zizyphus lycioides. The root of this bush is pounded 
up in mortars and boiled, the liquid extracted being used as a rem('<J3' 
for sore eyes. 

PiJioi. An evil spirit that lives in the east is called Pilio|. lie 
causes certain diseases, which have their appropriate songs. One 
informant declared that a tree that grows near the Maricopa village 
on the Gila was also called pihoj, and from it a medicine stick is 
made that will cure diseases of the throat. The writer was unable 
either to verify or to disprove this statement. 

Rsios. Two unidentified species of Bigelovia are used as a dress- 
ing for scarified wounds. The bruised leaves are applied to bleeding 
surfaces that have been cut with broken glass. 

Bsvk-ail;o]i-ul, Larrea niexicana. The leaves of the creosote bush 
(pi. IX, a) are boiled and the licpior is allowed to cool a little, when it 
is drunk as an emetic. The boiled leaves are also used as a poultice. 



o In pioneer days the whites used the rocits of two species of wild gourds. Cucurhita palinata 
and r. digitata, as a cathartic, Doctor Palmer stating that they were " very much beliked by the 
soldiers." 



80 THE PIMA INDIANS [bth. anx. 2G 

SivitcUt, Kumex h^anenosepalus. The root of the canaio^re is 
dried, ground and the powder applied to sores. 

So'am hi'dseil-lam, "yellow flower." An infusion made from the 
flowers of this plant is used as a remedy for sore eyes. 

firtam, Atriplex lentiformis. The root is powdered and applied to 
sores. 

J2rto, Krameria parvifolia. Used in the same manner as the 
preceding. 

Vai'ewa, Xanthium canadense. Cocklebiir pulp is combined with 
soot as a remedy for sore eyes. 

Va'vaish, Houttu}Tiia californica, called "yerba mansa" by the 
Mexicans. The roots are crushed and boiled. The extract is used 
as a tea for consumptives, according to one informant, and as an 
emetic according to another. 

VipHkain, Alba marginata. The root is chewed as an emetic. 

Teamsters' Tea, Ephedra antisyphilitica Berland, is a native of 
Arizona, and is used by the Pimas in making a beverage. It is also 
used by both the Pimas and Mexicans as a remedy for syphilis. 

A composite, Perezia wrightii, is used as a styptic. 

Thamnosma montanum is said to be used as a decoction for the 
cure of gonorrhea by the Pimas and Apaches. (Dr Edward Palmer, 
manuscript.)" 

ANIMALS USED FOR FOOD 

y 

Kd'-atci, or tdsi'-iMlt, Tayassu angulatum sonoriense. The peccary 
is yet found in the larger mountain chains that were formerly reached 
by the luniters of Pimeria, though the Gila river is about the north- 
ern Imiit of the range of this animal in the West. It could never 
have been an important article of diet, and is practically unknown 
to the younger generation. 

Kaf, Taxidea taxus (subspecies ?) . The badger is occasionally seen 
along the Gila, but is not abundant and is no longer eaten. It is 
one of the animals that cause disease among men, and a badger tail 
is an essential part of the medicine-man's equipment. 

Ka'l-atco, Lophortyx gambeli. The handsome topknot quail is the 
most abundant of the feathered inhabitants of the Gila thickets. It 
is tabued to the women, though no explanation for this could be 
discovered. 

Kd'son. A "rat" was formerly eaten, but it was found impossi- 
ble during my stay to get specimens for identification.'' 

oThis is similar to, but not identical with, the "cordoncillo" ol the Arizona Mexicans, from which 
an iniusion is made that if! used as a tonic and blood purifier. (Thomber.) 

6 Mr Fisher, of the Biological Survey, lists the following species of mice and rats for Pimeria: Mu.i 
alcxandrinus, introduced; Mus musculus, introduced; Mus norvegieus, introduced; Orychoniys tor- 
ridus; Peromyscus, 2-3 species; Sigmodon hispidus arizonse; Relthrodontomys (sp.?l; Neotoma (sp.?); 
Fiber zibethicus pallidas. 



RCSSELL] THE FOOD SUPPLY 81 

Ka'vi, Castor canadensis frondator. The beaver was common along 
the Gila, and was esteemed highly for food." 

Ka'nyo, Eqiiiis cabalhis. The horse is seldom eaten by thePimas. 
In times of famine, however, liorses are sometimes used, aUhoiigli the 
more than half-starved condition of the animals suggests anything 
but nourishuig viands. 

Ko'-orU-, Antilocapra americana mexicana. The antelope is now 
unknown in Pinieria, but the hunters of former centuries success- 
fully stalked these animals upon the mesas, particidarly upon the 
higher grassy plains to the eastward. 

Ma'kUm . These unidentified worms ( ?) are plentiful when a rainy 
season insures a heav^- crop of desert plants. They are gathered in 
large quantities, their heads pulled off, and intestines removed. The 
women declare that their hands swell and become sore if they come 
in contact with the skin of the worms. The worms are then put into 
cooking pots fined with branches of saltbush and boiled. Tlie skins 
are braided together while yet soft and dried a day or two in the sun. 
The dry and brittle sticks are eaten at any time without further 
preparation. 

Ma'vit, Felis hippotestes aztecus. The puma is yet abundant in 
the mountain ranges of Arizona, and in former times one was occa- 
sionally secured by the Pimas when in quest of other game. 

Rsu'ltk. There are at least six species of ground sqiurrels in this 
region,'' but m the absence of specimens the writer could not learn 
if the Pimas distinguished among them. "\Mien water was obtaiii- 
able it was poured into the burrows of these squirrels until they were 
driven out, whereupon they were killed with clubs or shot with arrows. 
They were tabued to the women under penalt}' of nosebleed or 
deficiency in flow of milk for their babies. 

Si'-%k, Odocoileus couesi. Wliite-tail deer are yet fairly common in 
the mountains and two deerskins were seen among the Pimas during 
the period of six months spent with them. Perhaps one in two or 
three j'ears woidd be an excessive estimate of tlie number killed by 
the men of the Gila River reservation. The deer figures largely in 
their traditions and religion. 

Ta'matdlf. During the winter months these birds are caught at 
nearly every house by means of traps. The trap commonly used is 
described on page 101. 

a The earliest American invaders of Pimeria were beaver trappers who descended the Gila early in 
the lust century. One of the first .Vmerieans that the oldest li\ing I*imas remember was KS'vi 
V&'namam, " Beaver Hat," who told the Pimas that the buildings now in ruins along the Gila and 
Suit rivers were destroyed by waterspouts. lie lived several years among the Pimas. and was 
finally killed near Preseott by Apaches. 

b Eutamias dorsalis (?i, Sperniophilus canoscens, S. granimurus, S. harrisi. S. spllosoma macrospi- 
lotus (Oracle), S. tereticaudus (Fort Yuma). 

26 ETH— 08 8 



b2 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Tajn, Lepus arizonas. The small cottontail is fairly common in 
river bottoms and on the mesa throughout the Pima country. It is 
shot wdth arrows made Avith a straight point without stone or metal 
head. It is included in the list of victims that result from rabbit 
drives in which the hares, Lepus texianus and L. alleni, are the prin- 
cipal desiderata. 

Tcirsany, Ovis nelsoni. The mountam sheep has served as food 
when obtainable, though it has been many years since they have 
been abundant." 

Tcok tcof, Lepus texianus. There are two species of large hares 
along the Gila, where they are termed "jack rabbits" by the whites, 
very few of whom distinguish them apart. The Pimas, however, 
recognize the difference and call this species the daik or gray, and 
the other the white, tcof. 

Tcu'tcult, Gallus domesticus. During the late Spanish and the 
Mexican regime a small breed of fowl was introduced, probably by 
the Papagos, which in turn gave way to the large varieties brought 
by the Americans m the last half century. Hens' eggs are eaten 
either fried or boiled. One of the interpreters confided to Mrs Russell 
that she economized time and labor by boiling the eggs in the coffee. 

To'a tcof, Jjepus alleni. These are common and utilized for food to 
a considerable extent. There seems to be no j)reference for one 
species of hare over the others, but "none are so good as beef." The 
stomachs of this hare and of Lepus texianus are used in making 
cheese. 

Va'owdk, Procyon lotor. The raccoon is said to be used for food, 
though the writer did not see any of the animals or any of their 
skins during a staj' of a year and a half in Arizona. 

Vd'prsa, Thomonys cervinus. Gopher hunts are occasionally 
arranged in a manner similar to those in which the hares are driven. 
The animals are poked out of their retreats with sticks and without 
preparation thrown upon the coals to roast. 

a " Having traversed 4 leagues, we arrived at a town, Tusoninion, which is so named from a great 
heap of horns, from the wild or sylvan sheep, which appears like a hill, and from the numbers that 
there are of the animals, they make the common subsistence of the inhabitants." (Juan Matio Mange: 
Diary extract translated for Schoolcraft, ill. 303.) This visit of Mange to the Pima towns was in 
Noveml>er, 1697. The discovery of this statement by Mange and also a letter of inquiry from Mr 
Hodge directed the writer's attention to the significance attaehing to the horns of the mountain sheep 
after he had returned from his sojourn among the Pimas. Inquiry was then made of a number of 
Pima correspondents and of Mr C. 11. Took, at Sacaton. The latter ascertained from .\ntonio .\zul, 
the head chief, that the horns of the mountain sheep were never brought home by hunters, which does 
not agree with Mange's statement. Each man had a place set apart where he deposited them in 
order that they might exert no eWl influence upon the winds or rains. .Vt times the Papagos held 
rain ceremonies, during which the medioine-men deposited the tails of mountain sheep together with 
eagle feathers at springs. The same tribe at one time sacrificed some children in their efforts to increase 
the supply of water, but "instead of bringing them water this dried up all the springs." A few 
mountain sheep remain in the Superstition mountains and in the other high ranges near and on 
the reservation. When eUmbingtho Sierra Estrolla, in March, 1902, the writer saw a flock of five 
which did not manifest any such fear at the sight of man as do the mountain sheep of British Colum- 
bia and the more northern Rockies. Indeed, the Pima chief at the foot of the niotmtams expiamed 
the reason for their indifference very adequately when he declared the sheep were game fit only for the 
Papagos, who had no fields to look after. 



RUSSELL] THE FOOD SUPPLY 83 

Vatop. There are occasional references to fish in the traditions of 
the Pimas and the notes of Spanish and American travelers sometimes 
mention them. It is certain that at times they caught large num- 
bers of fish, but in seasons of drought the river, then as now, becomiiig 
wholly dry near the villages, could not be relied upon to furnish 
such a convenient supply of food. Either the long series of dry 
years and the absence of fish have caused the peojile to forget former 
classifications or else they never distinguished one species from 
another, for they now have but one name for all fresli fish. How- 
ever, there were several species in the Gila and adjoining streams that 
were large enough for food." 

Wh'ai, Odocoileus hemionus (subspecies?). Information concern- 
ing this species was very vague ami unreliable, though it seems cer- 
tain that the black-tail deer was sometimes killed by the Pimas, at 
least before the growing power of the Apaches prevented the former 
from roaming through the mountams that border Pimeria on the 
north and east. 

Wo'poldo, Equus asinus.'' The burro (donkey) is not in liigh repute 
among the Pimas, where the distances to the wliite settlements and 
between villages necessitate a more speedy animal for draft or riding 
purposes. Few in number, they could not be very important as an 
article of diet. They have been eaten in the past, but are rarely so 
used at present. 

Snakes are not eaten, even in times of famine, and the idea of eating 
lizards is repudiated with scorn. 



<• Oarers, who traversed the Pima country in 1775, wrote: "There is foond in this river no other 
fish than that which they call matalo'te, which is so very savory to the taste, but is troublesome on 
account of the many bones that it has." (On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, n, 142.) Jordan says: 
"Garc(''s's remarks settle the matalo'te. There art no large fish in the Gila except the two large, bony 
chubs called, by Baird and Girard, Gila robusta and Gila elegans. In the very mouth of the river 
there is also a big, rawboned sucker of the same build, called Xyrauchen c>T>ho, the Razor-back or 
Hump-back Sucker. The Oija is a hump-back chub, about a foot and a half long, with a low, large 
mouth and a long, broad tail. It is popularly known as Bony-tail, Gila Trout, and Round-tail, and 
is about as poor eating as a fish can be." The Land of Sunshine, xiii, 43fi. 

In The Fishes of the Colorado Basin, Evermann and Rutter enumerate several species that must 
have been accessible to the Pimas. Their names and the localities where they were collected are as 
follows; 

Pantosteus arizona; Gilbert. Salt river, Tempe. 

Pantosteus clarkii (Baird and Girard). Gila river. Fort Thomas. 

Catostomus latipinnis (Baird and Girard). Rio San Pedro and Fort Thomas. 

Catostomus gila Kirsch. Fort Thomas. 

Catostomus insignis Baird and (Jirard. Rio San Pedro and Fort Thomas. 

Xyrauchen cjTJho (Locklngton). Mouth of Gila and Fort Thomas. 

Ptychocheilus lucius Girard. Various stations on the Gila. Called Gila trout by Emory in 1M8. 

Gila elegans Baird and Girard. Taken from several places along the Gila by coUex-tors. 

Gila robusta Baird and Girard. Also described from several (Jila stations under various names. 

Cj'prinodon raacularius Baird and Girard. '• Rio Gila." 

In addition to these may be included the species collected in the San Pedro and Santa Cruz rivers, 
which are both tributaries of the Gila above Pimeria and within reach of Pima hunting parties: I.,eu- 
ciscus niger (Cope), Tiaroga cobitis Girard, .\goaia oscula (Girard), .\gosia chrysogaster Girard, and 
Meda fulgida Girard. 

'' It is unci'rtain whether the burro of the Southwest is a descendant of the .Vsiatic species of wild 
asses, Equus hemionus, E. hcniihippus, and E. onager, or of the .\frican, E. africanus and E. soniaticus. 



84 THE I'IMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

Domestication of Animals 

Dogs. The only domesticated animal wliich there is any certainty 
that the Pimas possessed at the time of the discovery is the dog. 
The old people say that in their youth the dogs were all alike and 
resembled coyotes. At present there are many small mongrels, 
obtained principality from the Mexicans (pi. vi, c). The dogs have 
shared with their masters the misfortunes of the last few years. 
Scarcity and want has left them gaunt and weak. The}- formerly 
served a useful purpose in giving warning of the presence of enemies 
about the villages. There are now no enemies and little witliin to 
tempt the thief to enter and steal. Dogs are called by the word 
"toot," "toot," "toot," uttered rapidly in a falsetto voice, the indi- 
vidual at the same time holding out a morsel of food to lure the 
animal within reach. A dog that has been bitten by a mad dog 
is saved by having a cross burned on its head. 

Horses. The horse may have been seen by the Pimas in the 
sixteenth century, but it is doubtful if they obtained tliis animal 
before the seventeenth. They have been known so long that their 
origin has become accounted for by myths without a shadow of 
historic truth in them. The only individual who ventured to dis- 
pute the commonly accepted mytliical origin assured me that they 
came from the West. Font, who visited the Gila in 177.5, stated 
that his party was met by 1 8 mounted Pimas ; so that the horse was 
evidently in use at that time. 

There were very few horses among the Pimas until the last cjuarter 
of a century. The statements of the old persons agree with the calen- 
dar records, which make it evident that there were horses enough for 
but a small proportion of the warriors who engaged in conflicts with 
the Apaches. Hoi'ses stolen in Mexico were sold to the Papagos, 
who in turn sold them to the Pimas at much less than their true 
value. As the munber in Pimeria increased, the thieves began to 
operate in both tlirections, selling Sonoran horses on the Gila and 
Piman mounts in Sonora. However, this practice has been aban- 
doned, and the tribe has quite as many horses as are needed. They 
are rather untlersized animals, as may be seen from the jjinto pony 
in figure 5. As the fields now yield an insufficient supply of food 
for their owners, it follows that there is little grain for the horses, 
which grow poor and thin in winter; indeed, many die of starvation. 
Their principal food during that season is saltbushes." 

The once famous grassy plains that made the Pima villages a 
haven of rest for cavalry and wagon-train stock are now barren, 

o Professor Thomber says that ■' the native saltbushes, arranged in the order of their import- 
ance, that are eaten hy range stoclc are as follows: Woody species, Atriplex canescens, A. nuttallii, 
A. polycarpa, A. lentiformis, .\. confertifolia. The herbaceous species that are grazed by stoelc are: 
Atriplex eoronata, A. elegans. A. bracteosa. The tniegreasewood. Sarcobatus vermicularis.a species 
closely allied to the saltbushes, is also browsed to u considerable extent. 



RUSSELL] 



DOMESTICATION OF AXIM.VLS 



85 



and it is not until the mesquite leaves appear in April that the 
horses can browse upon food sufiiciently nourishing to i)ut them in 
good condition. As the mesquite beans ripen, in June and July, live 
stock fattens rapidly. A few owners gather and store the beans for 
stock feed. Very few are able to buy hay or rolled barley. 

Cattle." Sala Jlina declared that her father and liis brother, two 
Kwahadk's, brought the first cattle to the Pimas about 1820. The 
Spanish missionaries throughout Papagueria brnuglit live stock to 
their stations for at least two centuries before the date given, so that 



^ 












■ 


f: „ 




1 




«f' 




^-fr*^^ r^ 




J4 


lV, 


^'^ 


m^^ 


1 J^ 


A 


k 


> ■ 




\W^ , \\M 


L 








^mM^' 



Fig. 5. Men and women in modem costume, and pinto pony. 

the Pimas were at least aware of the value of cattle for a long time. 
The custom of killing and eating the cattle at the death of their 
owners contributed materially toward preventing increase in Pima 
herds. Oxen were very scarce for half a century after their intro- 
duction, and the old men and women speak sadly of the weary 
waiting for their turn to use the single ox that dragged the wooden 
plow for perhaps a whole village. Oxen are now no longer used; 
with their head j'okes and the wooden plows they are of the past, 

o In 1846 Emory found that "they have liut lew cattle, which are used in tillage, and apparently all 
steers, procured from the Mexicans, Their horses and mules are not plenty, and those they possessed 
were priced extravagantly high." Notes, 84. 



86 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an.x. 26 

and of that period of the Pimas' past that it is best for them to 
forget. 

Cattle are driven and "ropeil" with the lariat, but no conventional 
mode of calling them is in vogue. Like the horses, they are branded 
and run at large. Their range is almost unlimited in some directions, 
but the entire absence of water away from the river prevents them 
from straying. With horses, cattle formed a great attraction to the 
Apaches during the last century vmtil peace was declared in 1879, 
and the Pimas suffered frequent losses, for some of wliich, it must be 
adtled, the marauders paid dearly. To guard against the thieves it 
was customary to corral all stock within the village at night. When 
it strayed away across the mesas during the day it was sought by 
tracking or by waiting at the water holes, and while so engaged the 
men had many encounters with the enemy, who were ever on the look- 
out for such an opportunity to attack. 

Mules. A few mules are raised, but, like the horses, they are small 
and of little value. 

Donkei/s. While the burro has been used for some time, it is not 
a popular animal among the Pimas. It is too slow for traveling 
across the wide, waterless plains of Pimeria and is not adapted for 
farm work. 

Poultrif. Until the recent introduction of large American breeds a 
small breed of jioultrv had been ke])t for several years." Tliis had 
been obtained from the ^lexicans, from whom also the manner of 
calling "pul," "pul," "pul" was derived. With the new breeds 
came the American custom of calling "peep," "peep." 

Eagles and red-tailed hawks were kept for their feathers. All the 
inhabitants of a village assisted in catching lizards and in furnishing 
other suitable food for the village bird. The feathers were regularly 
plucked for the paraphernalia of the medicine-men. 

Sonora doves were and are yet confined in log-cabin cages built up 
of arrowwooil rods. 

Agriculture 

METHODS 

Irrigation 

The Gila river carries an unusually large amount of suspended 
matter when in flood. As shown by the tests made during the sur- 
veys for the dam which is intended to supply Pimeria with water, it 
carries on an average 10.5 per cent of mud, with a maximum of 20 
per cent.'' The entire bottom land upon which the fields are located 
has been built of this material. It is so light that wagons cut readily 
into it during the dry seasons and work it into fluffy dust several 

a " A few chickens and dogs were seen." Emory, Notes, S5. 
b Water-Supply and Irrigation I'apers, no. 33, p. 3ti. 



BDSSELL] AGEICULTUKE 87 

inches in depth. The Pimas tlo not practise rotation of crops, the 
soil being so rich from silt which is ])erio(lically deposited by the 
river at flood stage that the idea of exhausting it has never occurreil 
to them. 

Irrigation was practised for unknowTi centuries by the Ilohokam, 
and the course of their great canals can yet be traced for miles," not 
only along the river bottoms, but also across the mesas where the 
large water-worn pebbles bound together with caliche'' or deposited 
lime must have recpiired iniinite labor for their construction. At 
the first appearance of the Pimas it may be presumed that they used 
the canals already constructeil by their predecessors, hence they 
would be dull indeed if they could not maintain irrigation systems 
suilicient for their needs. The testimony of the early writers is to 
the effect that they ])ossessed canals larger than they required and 
that the water flowed away from the fields in volume scarcely dimin- 
ished from that at the head gates. The Gila has a uniform fall of 
8 feet to the mile at this place, while the canals need not have more 
than 2. 

As the water of the Gila and Salt rivers is strongly impregnated 
with alkali it tends under certain conditions to deposit salts in such 
quantities that the land is rendered unfit for use. The alkali rises to 
the surface in an efflorescence that resembles snow in appearance. 
From early descriptions of the country we learn that alkaline de])osits 
were known while the tribe was yet under j)urely aboriginal con- 
ditions." 

The Pimas knew, however, how to deal with this dilliculty — they 
flooded the tract repeatedly and in this way washed the alkali out 
of it. They declare that they never abandoned a piece of ground 
because of it. 

No very reliable estimate of the total amount of land cultivated 
by this people has been made.'' Each family cultivates from 1 to 
5 acres. With an abundance of water and the new needs of the 
tribe it is probable that the size of the individual holdings will rap- 
idly increase. The farms are rectangular, arranged with reference 

a "The mode of canal construction employed by these puelilo builders [Ilohokam] was another indi- 
cation of their patience and industrj'. Their canals are models for the modem fanner to imitate: yet 
they could have been dug in no conceivable manner save by the laborious process of hand excavation 
with stone or wooden implementa^ the earth l^ing home away by means of blankets, baskets, or rude 
litters. Notwithstanding this, the outUnes of at least a hundred and fifty miles of ancient main irri- 
gating ditches may be readily traced, some of which meander southward from the .Salt riv<'r a distance 
of fourteen miles." F. W. Hodge, "Prehistoric irrigation in -Vrizona," -Vmerican Anthropologist, vi, 
324. 

6 For an account of this formation see P. Blake, "The caliche of southern .\rizona: an example of 
deposition by vadose circulation." in The Genesis of Ore Deposits, 710. 

c" We continued [fromCusa Grande] toward the west, over sterile plains. On all the grounds about 
these buildings there is not a single pasture; but appear as if they had been strewn with salt." Mange's 
Diary, in Schoolcraft, in, 303. 

d Garc6s. writing in 1775. stated that "Todos estos pueblos hacengrandes siembras de trigo, algunas 
de maiz, algodon, calabazas y otras semillas, para cuyo riego tienen fonnadas buenas acequias, cercades 
las milpas con cerco comun, y divididas las dc distintos duenos, con cercos particulares." I)oc. His. 
Mex., 2d ser., i, 235. 



88 THE PIMA INDIAKS [eth. axn. 26 

to the suppl}'ing canal, and are always fenced with some care (pi. 
XI, fl). Before the Pimas obtained barbed wire from the Government 
the fences were of willow wattling or the tops of mesquite trees and 
various kinds of brush. Wlien a tract was newly brought under irri- 
gation a committee of six men was chosen to make allotments to 
those who hatl assisted in digging the ditches. They chose the best 
land for themselves, which seems to have been taken as a matter of 
course, in a measure compensating for their trouble. The plots were 
from 100 to 200 "steps" (see p. 93) in width, according to the number 
in the family to whom they were allotted. The brush was not diffi- 
cult to remove even with the primitive implements at their command; 
the mesquite trees were not cut down, but their lower branches were 
trimmed so that they did not shade the ground to any considerable 
extent. 

The canals were dug with the digging stick and shovel (fig. 10, 
a, b), the former being also used to prepare the easily pulverized 
ground and to plant the seed. In addition to the digging stick and 
shovel the pi'imitive agriculturists also used a wooden imj)lement 
which served the purpose of a hoe, though it resembled a weaver's 
batten in appearance (fig. 10, c). In comparatively recent times the 
wooden plow (fig. 11) was added to the list of implements. From 
the Mexicans they also obtained a hybrid implement (fig. 10, d) that 
combined the functions of spade and hoe. At the present time the 
tribe is supplied with modern agricultural implements by the Gov- 
ernment. The crops, however, are stored in much the same way 
that was followed in prehistoric times, in circular bins of willow, 
arrow bush, and wheat straw, the last having been used since the 
introduction of wheat. 

One of the Pima villages (pi. xi, h) situated southwest of the Mari- 
copa wells was too far from the river to obtain water from it and 
depended, as do their kinsfolk and neighbors, the Kwahadk's, alreadj' 
referred to, on flood irrigation. To secure the benefit of tlus, they 
cleared fields on mesa slopes, over which water from the surround- 
ing hiUs might be conducted whenever there were summer rains. 
Ai'ound the lower sides of the diminutive fields low dikes were raised 
to catch and retain the water. On the slopes of the San tan hiUs north 
of the present Pima village of Santan there are several hundred acres 
of stony mesa that have been cleared and cultivated (pi. iv, a, h). The 
rocks have been gathered in rows that inclose rectangular areas of but 
a few scjuare yards in extent. There are about six clumps of creosote 
bush inclosed in it." This locality adjoins a large ancient canal and 

a At various places in the Southwest the writer has seen extensive areas over which the loose bowlders 
thiit were originally thickly scattered on the surface had been gathered in rounded heaps or in rows 
that divided the ground into rectangles that average about 5 meters to the side. The largest of these 
'• fields " personally inspected is north of the town of Pima, nearly 200 miles cast of the Pima rescr\-a- 
tion. On a lava-strewn mesa that is too high to be irrigated and too far from the hills to be flooded 



RCSSBLL] 



AGRICULTURE 



89 



an extensive ruin of a stone pueblo. Learnino; tliat the cliief had 
declared that these fields had been cultivated within the memory of 
livino; men, the writer sent for him, but learned on questioning that 
neither he nor any other Pima knew aught about them. All the 
fields, canals, and cleared 
roads over the lava hills that 
appear in plate xi, c were 
the work of the Hohokam. 

Division of Labor 

The work of clearing the 
fields, planting, and irrigating 
devolved upon the men. The 
women harvested the crops, 
carr^dng the products in their 
kiahas. The men thrashed 
the wheat — with horses after 
those animals were intro- 
duced. Prior to that time, 
and even now when the crop 
is small, the women beat out 
the grain with straight sticks. 
As it was thrashed, the women 
winnowed it in baskets and 
piled it on a cotton cloth, the 
comers of which were tied 
together, forming a sort of 
sack that was thrown upon a 
horse and taken by the men 
to the storehouse or brought 
in sacks on their heads by the 
women (fig. 6). Pumpkins 
and all crops except wheat 
were carried hj the women in 
their kiahas. Con.sidering the 
fact that the Pimas were constantly harassed by the Apaches, so 
that the men could not safel}' lay aside their bows during any 
waking moment, this distribution of labor was not discreditable 
to them. 




!• iG. ti. luirdi'ii iT.trrr- 



there are a half dozen of these tracts. The largest is a little more than half a mile in length by nearly 
a quarter in width. There are no signs of human occupation on the surface other than the disposition 
of the stones. Five miles east of Solomonsville there is a similar field and on the Prielo plateau 40 
miles northeast of the last is another among the pines. These fields are distinctly different from the 
terraces that one sees on the north slope of Mount G raham and elsewhere. 



90 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

PRODUCTS 

Possessed of the foremost Anierican cereal, maize, at least one 
variety of legume, and the cotton plant, as well as species of Cucur- 
bitacete and other plants, the agriculture of the Pimas was well 
beyond the initial stages before the arrival of the whites." 

Cereals 

The Pimas distinguished half a dozen varieties of maize, to which 
they have now added the large corn brought by the Americans. The 
first crop is planted in April and the second in July, the first being 
gathered in June and July and the second in October. When gath- 
ering corn the women lay aside the best ears for seed; they are stuck 
in pairs on sticks and carried in the hand. Wlieat is now the prin- 
cipal crop, and when a wet season insures sufficient water several 
million pounds are raised. It is sowed in December and reaped 
with hand sickles in June. Of the .several varieties "Sonora" and 
"Australian" are favorites. One called skaofkutco was raised before 
Ka'mal tkak's father was born. Wheat is ground for the Pimas at 
the Government mill at Sacaton (pi. i), but a great deal of it is yet 
parched and ground on the metates to be made into pinole. 

There have been at least half a dozen trading stores on th(> (iila 
River reservation for a number of years whose principal traile has 
been in wheat. The traders have naturally encouragetl the growmg 
of this cereal as much as possible and assisted in the introduction of 
suitable varieties. They have also profited in a legitimate way from 
the contracts awarded by the Government ui times of famine for the 
support of the natives. 

" In the year 1858, the first year of the Overland Mail Line, the surplus crop of wheat was IWWXX) 
pounds, whieh was purchased by the company: also a large quantity of hcans called taprris. and a 
vast quantity of piuni)k.ns, squashes, and melons. In ls.v.(Mr St John was sent among them as a special 
agent with a supply of seeds and some agricultural implements. That year they sold 250,000 pounds of 
wheat and a large supply of melons, pumpkins, and beans. In IStiO they sold 400.000 pounds of wheat — 
all the Mail Company would purchase. They had more, and furnished the Government and private 
teamsters all that was necessary for transportation from Fort Yuma to Tucson. Beyond this they 
had no market, except for about 40,000 pounds of wheat which Mr White purchased for the supply of Fort 
Breckenridge. In 1861 they sold to Mr White :J00,000 pounds of wheat, 50,000 pounds of com, 20.000 
pounds of beans, and a large amount of dried and fresh piunpkins, which was all intended for the sup- 
port of the California Coliman. The greater part of this crop was destroyed or given back to the Indi- 
ans by the Texans under the guerrilla. Hunter, who arrived at the Pimo ^■iIIages that year, robbed 
Mr White of his property, and took him prisoner in their flight to the Rio Grande. The Timos sold, 
during the same year, tlOO chickens and a large amoimt of other stuff, showing a gradual increase of 
production under the encouragement of an increased demand. In 1862 they sold to the Government 
over a million pounds of wheat, included in which was a portion of the previous year's crop, returned 
to them by the Texans. They furnished pinole, chickens, green peas, green com, pumpkins, and melons 
for the entire California Column, subsistingnearly a thousand men for many months." (J. R. Browne, 
Adventures in the -\paehe Country, 110.) Browne's statements about the Pimas, though not 
grossly inaccurate, are not generally reliable, but as he was intimately acquainted with .\,M, White, 
with whom he traveled from California, it is probable that the above estimates are as nearly correct 
as circumstances pennitted. 



RlSSKt-L] 



AGRICULTURE 



91 



Oats are seldom raised in that region. They are called "white 
tassels" by the Pimas. Barley is the universal grain feed of Arizona, 
anil there is a ready market for the small ([iiantity the Pimas raise. 

Vegetables 

Watermelons, mu-skmelons, pumpkins, and sciua.shes are exten- 
sively cultivated. The watermelons are pre.served until after the 
1st of January l)y l)ur}Tng them in the sands of the river l)ed. The 
punijikins, s(|uashes, and muskmelons are cut 
in stri|)s and dried, the best-keeping varieties 
being left in the storehouses until midwinter 
(pi. XXXV, /"). According to tradition the 
first pumpkins, called rsa.s'katfik, were ob- 
tained from the Yumas and Maricopas." 
There are tliree species of wild gourds 
that are C(uite common 
along the Gila, namely: 
Cucurbita fcetidissima 
H. B. K., C. digitata 
Graj', and Apodanthera 
imdulata Gray. Culti- 
vated gourds have been 
kno^\ii to the Pimas for 
a long period — how long 
it is impossible to say. 
The Papagos have a tra- 
dition that this plant was 
introduced liy Xavitco, a 

deity who is honored by ceremonies at intervals 
of eight years — or, if crops are bountiful, at the 
eml of every four years — at Santa Kosa. The 
gourd is used as a canteen (fig. 7), and if it 
liecomes cracked a rabbit skin is stretched over 
it whicli shrinks in drying and renders the vessel 
water-tight agam. Dippers and canteens are 
occasionally made of gourds, ])ut the chief use of 
gourds seems to be in the form of rattles (fig. S) which contain a little 

o when Garc<^s was among the Yumas in ma they were raising •• coimtless" calabashes and melons— 
•• calabazaf u melones. perhaps better translated squashes and cantaloupes, or piunpkins and musk- 
melons. The Piman and Vuman tribes cultivated a full assortment of cucurbitacoous plants, not 
always easy to identify by their old Spanish names. The sandia was the watermelon invariably; the 
melon, usually a muskmelon. or cantaloupe; the calnhiiza. a calabash, gourd, pumpkin, or squash of 
some sort, including one large rough land Uke our crook-neck squash. * * » Major Heintzelman says 
oi the Yumans. p. 3(i of his Report already cited [II. U. Ex. Doc. 7(j, 34th Cong.. 3d sess.. 1857]: 
■They cultivate watermelons, muskmelons, piunpkins, corn, and beans. The watermelons are small 
and in<lillerent, muskmelons large, and the pumpkins good. These latter they cut and dry for winter 
use [they were brougnt to Pimeria before the Maricopas came to Gila Bend].' ' Note in Coui-s' On 
the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer. New York. 1900. i. 170. 





Fig. 7. Gourd canteen. 



Fig. 8. Gourd rattle. 



92 THE PIMA INDIANS (eth. anx. 26 

gravel and are mounted on a handle. Gourds are never used as 
forms over wliich to mokl pottery. 

At least five varieties of beans are now cultivated. The first 
known, the tatcoa pavfi, " wliite bean," is said to have been brought in 
some forgotten time from the valley of the great "Red river,'' the 
Colorado. Considerable quantities are raised and the tlirashing is 
done by horses driven in a circle on the same hard floor that is prepared 
for the wheat thrashing. 

Not with the withering drought alone has the Gileno planter to con- 
tend, but also with the mjTiads of crows that are extravagantly fond 
of a corn tliet, and with the numerous s([uirrels and gophers that 
thrive apace where protected in a measure from the coyotes, wliich are 
themselves a menace to the fields. From the birds and pretlatory 
animals the fields are guarrled during the day by the boys, who amuse 
themselves meanwliile by a dozen games that develop skill in run- 
ning, and shooting with the bows and arrows which scarcely leave their 
hands during their waking hours. Scarecrows, "men artificial," are 
used, but a lluttermg rag was never as effective as a feathered shaft 
hurtlmg from a well-drawn bow. Night marauders were in oklen 
times kept at a distance by the rings of the terrible cholla cactus, 
Opuntia bigelovii Engelm., that were laid up around the indivitlual 
plants. Plate xii illustrates this cactus as it grows on the liills about 
Sacaton. It is recognized as the most efl^octually armed of the many 
cacti and is the symbol in Pima lore of impenetrability. 

Trade 

standards of value 

For purposes of trade or in gambling tlie following values were 
recognized: A gourd was equivalent to a basket; a metate, a small 
shell necklace, or the combination of a basket and a blanket and a 
strand of blue glass l)eads was equivalent to a horse; a string of blue 
glass beads 4 j^ards long was equivalent to a bag of paint; and a basket 
fidl of beans or corn to a cooking pot. 

MEASURES 

The principal linear measurement was the humak^ os, "one stick," 
equal to the distance from the center of the breast to the finger tips. 
The ^vTiter is Lnclmed to regard tlus as a primitive Pima measurement, 
notwithstanding its resemblance to the yard of the invading race. 
This corresponds with the Aztec cenyollotli, the Cakchiquel ru vach qux, 
and the Ma3'a betan." It was the ba.sis of a sort of decimal s^-stem, as 
follows: Ten "sticks" madeone "cut" of calico, equivalent to a "load" 
of wheat, or about 150 pounds. Ten cuts or loads were equivalent to 

o D. G. Brinton, The Lineal Measures of the Semi-civiUzcd Nations of Mexico and Central America. 



RISSELL) TRADE 93 

one horse in value. Twt) units wore employed in measurement of 
{listanees. One of these is an ancient measurement wliich it will be 
of interest to apply to the Hohokam rums of the region. It is 
hrmaka krirspa, "one step" — that is, one step with the same foot, 
equal to al)out 5 feet. Land is divided into plots 100 or 200 "steps" 
in width, accordinii to the size of the family. Long distances were 
measured in terms of a day's journey on foot ; thus it is said to be seven 
days to Zufii. The term " step " is also applied to the English mile, but 
thev have had as yet little opportunity to acquire a definite knowledge 
of the meaning of the latter term. 

BARTER 

For a long period prior to 1833 the ilaricopas lived at Gila Bend 
and came at harvest time to trade with, the Pimas. Soon after that 
time they settled beside tlie Pimas, liAdng upon such intimate terms 
with them tliat barter between the tribes was of no more conseciuence 
than between two Pima viUages." With all other tribes they were per- 
petuaUy at war, except with their Papago kinsfolk to the southward. 
These people live in a vast territory of cactus-covered plains, liere and 
there interrupted by up-thrust barren peaks that, with striking out- 
lines, form good landmarks and yet oifer little to those that hunger 
and are athirst. The Papagos are a desert tribe, and yet so well had 
they mastered their all but hopeless environment that the trade which 
they carried on with the Pimas was by no means one-sided, as may 
be seen from the following list of products that were formerly brouglit 
to the Gila at the time of the June harvest. Of vegetable products 
there were saguaro seeds, the dried fruit and sirup; tci'aldi, a small 
hard cactus fruit; agave fruit in flat roasted cakes; agave su'up; rsat, 
an imidentified plant that grows at Santa Rosa; prickly pear sirup; 
wild gourd seeds; a small pepper, called tcil'tipin: acorns of Quercus 
oblongifoha; baskets of agave leaf; sleeping mats; kiahas and iiber 
to make them; maguey fiber for picket lines. They brought the 
dried meat of the mountain sheep, deer meat, deer tallow in small 
ollas, buckskins, dried beef, tallow, cheese, and cords of human hair. 
Cattle were formerly traded "sight unseen," but the modern "educa- 
tion" of the Papagos led them to exaggerate the good (lualities of 
their stock and even to deal in "fictitious values," or cattle that the 
new Pima owner sought in vain to find, until fuially the Pimas would 
consider no proposition to trade stock unless the animals were exhib- 
ited. Of mineral products they brought red and yellow ocliers for 
face and body paint, and the buff beloved by Pima weavers. They 

o The author of the Rudo Ensayo, who wrote in 1702. stated that "these vcrj- numerous nations 
[Opas and Maricopas) inhabit both sides for a distance of 36 leagues down tlie river, and at the far end 
of their territory there is a verj' abundant spring of hot water a short distance from the river to the 
north." This spring is now known as Ojo Calionte; it is at the southern end of the Bighorn mountains. 
Guit^ras translation in Kecords of the American CathoUo Historical Society, v, 129. 



94 THE PIMA INDIANS |f.th. anx. 2(> 

made religious pilgrimages to the salt lakes below the Mexican bound- 
ary to obtain the sacred salt. Tliey lived on pinole during the 
journey and walked wath their eyes fixed upon the trail, looking 
neither to the right nor to the left. 

As they approached the shore of the lagoon in wliich the Great 
Spirit resided they ran at topmost speed and circled four times around 
the salt deposits before those who understood the proper ritual began 
to collect the salt. Even on the homeward journey there was magic 
power in the salt, and if a horse died the whole load was thrown away. 
As the salt gatherers approached the home village they were given a 
noisy welcome but were compelled to remain outside for four days, 
and for a long time thereafter they must abstain from certain acts 
that need not be detailed here. For four days those who remained 
at home sang for those who journeyed, and then all might eat the salt 
and were free to bring it to the Pimas." The latter sometimes made 
journeys to the lake for salt, being two days on the way to Quijotoa 
and two days on the trail beyond. 

In exchange for the objects of barter brought to them the Pimas 
gave wheat, which was also given the Papagos for aid in harvesting 
it; corn; beans; mesc[uite beans; mesquite meal, roasted in mud-lined 
pits; cotton blankets and cotton fiber, with the seed; dried squash, 
pumpkin, and melon; rings of willow splints and of devil's claw for 
baskets; besides articles of lesser consequence. 

In recent years there has been some trade carried on in colored 
earths and salt with the once hostile Yumas and Mohaves. 

From the seventeenth century the Pimas sent well-armed bands 
through the Apache cordon to trade at the Spanish and Mexican set- 
tlements of Sonora. The latter also sent trading parties from Tucson 
and other towns to barter with the Gileiios. Lastly, American 
traders appeared about 1850, and for mauA* years there have been 
half a dozen stores on the reservation. These are under bond to limit 
their profit to a maximum of 25 per cent, though it is supposed that 
this rule was never enforced until the present year. Some Pimas 
sometimes try to turn the tables on the traders by offering damp wheat 
that of course overweighs. More frequentl^y they put a ([uantity of 
sand in the middle of tiie wheat sacks, which are furnished by the 
trader and not ordinarily emptied when the wheat is brought in. 
Rarely, the best wheat is put on top and an inferior c[uality lies 
concealed beneath. 

» "These Papagos regularly visit a salt lake which lies near the coast and just across the line of 
Sonora, from which they pack large quantities of salt, and find a ready market at Tubac and Tucson. 
Mr. Lathrop, superintendent of the Sonora Mining Company, told me that he had bought some twenty 
thousand pounds annually from them." (John Walker in S. Ex. Doc. 2, 720, .3(ith Cong., 1st sess., 
1800.) It would seem from this rather extensive traffic that the Papagos did not allow their religious 
scruples to interfere seriously with trade. 



eussbll] artifacts 95 

Artifacts ' 

The manufactures of the Piinas were few in number and simple in 
character. It is interesting to compare the number of implements 
and weapons that are of wood with those made of stone, as this is a 
people classed as belongiiif^ to the Stone A^e. It will be noticed 
that the articles of stone are of little consequence in point of number 
as compared with those of wood, but the stone objects are of the utmost 
importance from a cultural standpoint. The metate admits of no 
wooden substitute, and without it the full food value of maize could 
not have been utilized nor could wheat raising have been so readily 
taken up as an agricultural pursuit. Without the stone ax and 
knife there could have been little done in wood working; architecture 
would have l)een modified; agriculture, dependent upon irrigation, 
would have been all but impossible. In short, these three simple 
implements, made by striking one stone against another, have sufficed 
to transform the Pimas from the slaves of a harsh environment, com- 
pelled to rend their prey with tooth and nail, into an agricultural 
people who adapt the environment to their needs and make some 
provision, however slight, for the future. 

WOOD 
Weapons 

Bow. First in importance among weapons must be placed the 
bow and the arrow. Pima bows are simple, imdecorated, and not 
very carefully made. Those which exhibit weakness through split- 
ting or otherwise are bound with fresh sinew in bands which shrink 
around the arms at the point where reenforcement is needed. War- 
riors made their bows of mulberry wood " obtained in the Superstition 
and Pinal mountains. A bow that has been long used, especially in 
successful warfare, becomes a highly prized possession with which its 
owner is loath to part. The writer was so fortunate as to secure 
such a specimen (pi. xiii, a) which has the gracefid compound curve of 
the conventional bow; it is of mulberry wood and has a neatly 
twisted, two-strand sinew string.' Hunting bows'' (pi. xiii, h) are fre- 
quently made of osage orange wood, a material that is now obtain- 
able from the whites along the Salt river. When mulberry wood 
was not available willow was used, and most of the hunting bows 
which men as well as boys continue to make for hunting hares and 
similar small game are of that wood. The primary type of arrow 
release prevails, the bow being held as in plate vn, h. 

a "The mulberry plays an importiint part in the domestic economy of the Apaches; the branches 
are made into bows, and the small twigs an- used in the fabrication of baskets." John G. Bourke, 
Jour. Am. Folk-Lore, ill, 210. 

>> Length 1.3.50 m., width at grip 2ti mm., thickness 18 mm. 

c Length 1.366 m., width at grip 2« mm., thickness 22 mm. 



96 



THK PIMA INDIANS 



[ETU. ANN. 20 



A7ro'Ws. The arrows of the Pimas are made from tlie straight 
stem of the arrow bush. The Kwahadk's and Papagos sometimes 
sold arrows of jnicca stem to the Gilefios, but these were scarcely 
equal in (juality to those made of wood. The hunting arrows " 
(pi. XIII, c) have two split feathers, two hand's breadths in length. 
War arrows'' have three feathers, less than half as long and slightly 

curved. All arrow shafts are measured 

Hand cut the length from tip of forefinger 
to nipple of breast of the maker. Both 
l)ows and arrows are sometimes stained 
with the blood of the jack rabbit, and 
war arrows may be dyed at the ends with 
the cochineal which makes its home on the 
Opuntias. The quiver is made of wild-cat 
skin (pi. XIII, d). 
War club. The club was of scarcely less 
importance than the bow, and it was cus- 
tomary for a portion of each band of war- 
riors to fight with shield and club alone. •■ 
Lance. A short sharpened stick was some- 
times used by the Pimas, who adopted it 
from the Yumas and Maricopas after the 
Spaniartls supplied steel heads for the weapon. The sticks were colored 
red with mineral paint.'' 

« There are eleven hunting arrows in the collection; length 0.785 m., sharpened to blunt points but 
haWng neither head nor foreshaft. There are 3 bands of sinew 4 cm. apart, the first at the point- 
The seizing at the forward end of the feathers is 5 cm. long. The feathers vary from 12 to 22 cm. in 
length between the seizing at ends. They project 1 cm. from the shaftment. There are 10 hands of 
sinew very neatly laid on to hold the feathers in place. The notches are 4 mm. deep. 

t The single war arrow in the collection is unusually long. 0.S50 m. It is stained with cochineal for a 
distance of 0.117 m. from the point. It carries a small obsidian point 2 cm. in length, with the sinew 
seizing continued from the point 3 cm. along the shaft. The feathers are 0.10 cm. long and project 
7 nun. from the shaftment. The butt is stained for a distance of 5 em. 

c Bartlett, usually an admirable observer, failed to notice that the war club was a popular Pima 
weapon. He saj's: "The only weapon used by these tribes is the bow and arrow. The short club of 
the Yumas and the long lance of the Apaches I never saw among them." (Personal Narrative, ii, 237.) 
The clubs were made of mesquite root or of ironwood. weighed about 2 pounds, and in general appear- 
ance resembled the old style potato mashers of New England kitchens. (Fig. 9.) The handle was 
brought to a sharp point, which was almost as efleetive as a dagger in a back-handed Itlow. The club 
was carried thrust point downward through the I>elt. One club was obtained from its owner and 
another found in a cache of personal property that had been made in the hills at the death of the owner. 
The former is 42 cm. long, the head 10 cm. long and 9 cm. in diameter: the point is 9 cm. long. A 
club in the National Museum, (no. 27S46) that was collected some years ago at Sacaton is 0.385 m. 
long. 7 cm. in diameter. Doctor Palmer secured three in 1885 and beUeved that none remained 
among the Pimas. These clubs, now in the Museum, are of the following lengths: no. 7(3023, 48 
cm.; 70024, 44 cm.; and 76025, 46 cm. 

dThe collection contains a wooden lance, made from a giant cactus rib, that was carried in sham 
battles near the Double buttes. It is 1.595 m. long, the larger end colored black to represent the 
iron head, which is represented as 0.265 m. long, 24 mm. wide, and 10 mm. thick. The handle is 
stained a light red. 



Fig. 9. War clubs. 



BUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



97 



Agricultural Implements 



Digging sticJc. The earliest agricultural implement was the dig- 
ging stick. It was used in planting maize and other crops, as a lever 
to pry out bushes when clearing the ground, as a pick when digging 
irrigating ditches, and in case of surprise it made an efi'ective weapon 
of defense. It was made of ironwood or from the spiny tree, Zizyphus 
lycioides." The short handle necessitated a crouching or sitting 
position by the operator. (Fig. 10, a. ) 

Shovel. Wooden shovels were used to throw out the earth that 
usuallj' required loosening by the digging stick when constructing 
the irrigating canal. They were of cottonwood, in the case of the 
larger, lighter ones, or of mesquite. 
The handle and blade were in one 
piece, the former being very short 
and the latter having the natural 
curve of the trimk from which it 
came.* (Fig. 10,6.) 

Hoe. Another implement of 
early adoption by the Pimas com- 
bined the functions of spade and 
hoe. It was used to loosen the soil 
around plants and to cut awaj^ 
weeds. It was made of ironwood 
and was tliin, hard, and heavy. 
As it was quite short and curved 
but slightly it could be used only 
when the workman was in a kneel- 
ing or sitting position. It was 
sharpened along the convex curve 
at the wider end. The entire im- 
plement was so thin that it must 
have chafed the hands. But one specimen was found on the reserva- 
tion (fig. 10, c).' 

Dibble. The implement described above was superseded by one 
obtained from the Mexicans who frequently came to trade with the 
Pimas. The new implement more nearly resembled the primitive 
digging stick than it did the fiat "hoe" (fig. 10, d). It was furnished 

o No genuine specimen being now obtainable, the writer had a digging stick (fig. 10, o) made, which 
measures 1.140 m. in length. It is 40 mm. in diameter, and is flattened at the lower end. 

6 The old people yet remember how the wooden shovels were made. Whether the Pimas have 
directly descended from the Hoholcam or not, it is very probable that the former have used the 
same form of shovel that was used by the latter when constructing the great irrigating canals of that 
region. The specimen figured here (fig. 10,6) may tlierefore he accepted as a representative of the 
shovel that was probably the instrument that made those canals a possibihty. It is 0,850 m, long; 
the blade i.s 0.276 m. long and 0.167 m. wide. 

c It is O.Om m. long and 0.083 m. wide; the cutting edge is 17 cm. long. 

26 ETH— 08 9 



LI 




Fig. 



10. Agricultural implements, a, Digging 
sticJc; 6, shovel: c. hoe: d, dibble. 



98 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



with a steel blade that was straight on one side and rounded on the 
other." 

Plow. Of comparatively modern introduction, the wooden plow is 
of but passing interest in our present researches. It is a survival of 
European culture that effectively influenced tlie Pimas for but one 
generation, or from 1850 to ISSO, when the influx of Americans cre- 
ated a demand for wheat which the Pimas were able to supply in part 
as they could not have done without this implement. By the end of 




Fig. 11. Woodtn jilow. 

that period they received steel plows. The wooden plow was made 
of mesquite or ironwood with a cottonwood tongue that extended to 
the ox yoke. The rear end of the tongue was beveled underneath to 
an edge wliich engaged with a transverse notch in tlie hanille. The 
bottom dragged at a considerable angle, so that the point alone came 
in contact with tlie soil. The cutting face was usually supplied with 
an iron or steel covering resembling the single-shovel cultivator of 
the Americans. The bottom and single handle were of one piece, the 




Fig. 12. Yoke. 

latter being a branch that set at a convenient angle, about 70 degrees, 
with the trunk of the tree from which the bottom of the plow was 
cut (fig. 11).'' The tongue was held in place by a mesquite pin 
passing through the bottom and a slot iia the butt of the tongue and 
tightened by two wedges which were adjusted by means of a mes- 
quite mallet carried for the purpose.' 

o Length, 1.090 m.; length of blade, 0.215 m. to top of socket; width, 0.115 m. 

^ Two specimens were collected; only one other was seen or hoard of on the reservation. The larger 
one is complete, with tongue. It is 0.900 m. long; handle. 0.850 m.. antl tongue 3.490 m. 
c A mallet in the collection measures 0.380 m. in length and 5 cm. in diameter. 



RlSSErX] 



ARTIFACTS 



99 



Yoke. With (he introduction of cattle the Pimas obtained their 
first draft animal. They were used principally in plowing and were 
fitted with yokes (fifj. 12) of cottonwood or willow which were attached 
to the horns of the animals as in southern Eun)pe to the present tlay. 
The yokes themselves are the best evidence that the burden upon the 
animals was light, for these small sticks of brittle wood would snap 
at the first strain if on the shoulders of an ox team with a lieav}- load. 
There are a few yokes yet to be found, though they have not been 
used for several years. The specimens collecteil are fairly well made, 
straiirht, but with sections hollowed to fit the necks of the team." 





Household Utensils 

Mortar. Perhaps the mor- 
tar should be placed first -in 
importance among the utensils 
of tliis class. There are two 
forms, one (fig. 13, a) with the 
hole sunk in the end of the 
log, and wliich may be either 
sharpened at the other end 
and set permanently in the 
ground or cut flat at the op- 
posite end so that it will stand 
uj^right and may be moved 
about. The other style (fig. 
13, h) lies horizontal, with the 
hole in the side of the log. 
This is always portable.'' 

Two or three stone mortars, 
rounded and well shaped, were 
seen; they had been obtained 
from the ruins and were little 
used. At the Double butters, 
near the center of the Gila Itiver reservation, there are a few 
mortar cavities in the solid rock ledges. There is also one in a large 
bowlder wliich is regardctl with sui>crstitious reverence. Mortars 
in solid stone are not uncommon in Arizona. The writer saw a row 
of them at the end of a cliff ruin of eight or ten rooms in Aravaipa 
canyon. There are several in a rough hillock in Ilarshaw canyon, 
Patagonia mountains. The base of the conical hill at Tucson is well 

a There are two specimens in the collection. The larger is 1.450 m. long: 10 cm. in diameter at the 
middle, with notches for nocks: 30cm. wide. The second specimen is I.IMO m. long. 

fr The mortar of the horizontal type in the coU'XJtion is perhaps a trifle smaller than the average. 
It measures 40 cm. in length. 27 cm. in height, and 22 cm. in thickness. X heavy specimen of this 
type in the collection measures 37 cm. in height, ;i2 cm. in diameter; the cavity is 17 cm. deep. 




Fig. 13. a, 6, Mortars: c. wooden pestle: (/, liread tray. 



100 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[eth. axx. 26 



pitted with tliem. They are occasionally met with almost anj"- 
wliere in the eastern half of the Territory. With that portion west 
of the Kio Verde the writer is unacquainted. Reference to the pages 
devoted to a description of the plants that furnish food for the Pimas 
will show how extensively the mortar is used in srindins seeds. 

Pestle. For pounding- up mesquite beans in the mortar a large 
wooden pestle is sometimes used. It is simply a mesquite club with 
rounded head (fig. 13, c)." 









Fig. 14. a. Doughnut fork; 6. ladle; c, unfinished ladle. 

Bread tray. Neatly made trays of mesquite, rarely of cottonwood, 
are used, and appear to be among the most prized of the household 
utensils (fig. 13, d). They are employed for a variety of purposes be- 
sides that of mixing bread. '' Smaller trays and plates — circular, ellip- 
tical, and rectangular — are sometimes obtainetl from the Papagos. 

a One specimen, the only one seen, was secured. It is 1.210 m. long and the head is 0.335 m. in 
diameter. 

i> The specimen collected is 0.615 m. long, 0.355 m. wide, and 0.071 m. deep. The legs are 24 cm. 
long; they are three in number and ol the same piece of wood as the body of the tray. There is one 
round shallow tray, no. 76051, in the NationaJ Museum that is 46 cm. in diameter. 



sdssell] 



ART! FACTS 



101 





Fork. In frying doughnuts it is necessary to have some inst rument 
with which to remove them from the fat. A slender sharpened rod 
of arrowwood is used for tliis purpose (fig. 14, «)." 
Ladh . Latlles are said to he of recent intro- 
(hiction, the Pimas liaving obtained them from 
the Papagos, who in turn liad derived tlie art of 
mailing them from the Mexicans. They are com- 
monly made of mescjuite, though the Papagos 
make them of paloverde wood. The bowls are 
not rounded, ])ut are made in the shape of a flat- 
tened cone, as they 
can be more readily 
worked into that 
form with astraight- 
l)laded knife. ** 

Pottery pcMMle. A F'^- i- Pottery pnddio. 

paddle of cottonwood is used to shape 
the outer surface of pottery. It is 
hollowed to fit the convex surface of 
the vessel, and is now frequently made 
from a barrel stave, which has the 
proper curvature. The paildles are of 
varying sizes, according to the sizes of 
the vessels on which they are used, but 
tlie handles are always proportionately 
short.' 

Shelves. There is a class of objects 
that are used indifferently for doors'' 
of sheds and houses, for shelves « that 
are suspended in the arbors, and for 
bird traps./ They are usually made 
of large arrowbush rods, which are 
c[uite straight and of uniform diameter. 
The rods are tied to cross pieces, as shown in figure 16, a, or are held 
by twisted cords of hide, as in figure 16, h. The latter specimen was 

a The specimen collected is 45 cm. long. 

l> The Qnished specimen in the coUection is rather smaller than the average (fig. 14, 6) . It is 0..3!I4 m. 
long. The bowl is 94 nmi. in diameter and 42 mm. deep. The unfinished specimen (fig. 14, c) is a large 
one, measuring 0..">70 m. in length. The National Museum contains a specimen, no. 7(J050. which 
measures .50 era. in length, with bowl 1.5 cm. in diameter. 

c The collection contains one which is 0.2(18 m. long and 0.112 m. wide (fig. 15). 

dThe door (fig. 10, b) is 1 m. long and 0.850 m. wide. The rods are from 1 to 2 centimeters in 
diameter and are held by 5 hide strands, 2 at each end and 1 in the middle. The stiSening of the 
rawhide has warped the upper portion. 

e The shelf (fig. 10, a) is 1.0.Wm. long and ,Wcm. wide. 

/When used as traps they are tilted at an angle of 20° or 30° from the ground and supported in 
that position by a short stick to which a long cord is attached. Wheat strewn under the tntp lures 
small birds, which are caught when a jerk on the line removes the supporting stick. One of these 
traps was seen at nearly every house during the winter of 1901-2. 



Hanging shelf. 



102 



THE PIMA INDIAN^S 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



serving as a door when purchased, and the fact that a "Melicano" 
wanted it caused its owners great astonishment and amusement. 
Indeed, the Pimas manifested a lively interest in our purchases of 

liouseiiold articles and never 
I'ailed to laugh at the spec- 
tacle presented by the little 
wagon half buried beneath 
its load of unassorted 
objects. 

Bird cage. The cages 
made by the Pimas are 
all of the same character, 
whether they are made for 
tlie large eagle or for the 
snuiU Sonora dove, as in the 
case of the specimen" figured 
(fig. 17). They are of arrow- 
wood, laid up in log-cabin 
style or tied to transverse 
bars, as in the house doors. 
KidJid frame. It is to be 
remembered that the pecu- 
Har form of carrying basket 
is made possible by the use 
of the wooden frame. It is 
fully d(>scribed on page 140. 
Fire drill. In primitive times fire was kindled by the Pimas by 
means of a two-part drill (fig. 18, «),* the simplest and most wide- 
spread form of fire drill. The operator knelt upon the ends of the 
hearth stick and twirled the upright stick Itetween his palms. The 
hearth was of saguaro wood or of 
any other soft wood if that were not 
obtainable. Tinder was not used, 
the flame being developed in any 
infiannnable material as soon as the 
smoke began to arise from the dust 
accumulated at the point of the drill. 
Witli the advent of the whites 
flint and steel were used to kindle fire. 
The men carried these, with a little *'"'•"• birdcage 

cotton for tinder, in leather pouches (fig. 42). Fire was preserved 
at eacli "vallage or camp in an old stump whenever practicable. 

a This sppciraen has an arched top and a single piece of pine board for a floor. It is 32 cm. long Ijy 
23 cm. wide and 15 cm. high. 

b The drill hearth in the collection is 0.313 m. long and 21 mm. wide. The spindle is OS cm. long and 9 
mm. in diameter. 




Fig. lU, h. Ho 




RDS8BLI.] 



ARTIFACTS 



108 



Miscellaneous 



Saguaro hoolc. The fruit of the giant cactus grows at so great a 
height" that it can not be reached without the aid of some long- 
handled implement for dislodging it. Hooks'' are made by attach- 
ing, by means of maguey fiber, a straight piece of wood to the end 
of a long cactus rib. Doctor McGee has called the writer's atten- 
tion to the fact that the angle at which the hook stands is of great 
ceremonial importance among the Papagos, but there would seem to 
be no significance attached to it by the 
Pimas, who have not been so dependent 
upon the cactus in the past as have their 
nomadic neighbors. 

Tweezers. The spiny fruit of Opuntia 
arborescens is picked V)y means of willow 
tweezers (fig. lS,c). The arms are flexible 
and sufficiently elastic to spring back into 
place readily."" 

Tree. It was formerly the custom to 
erect a branched post in the space before 
the house door, on wliich to hang vessels 
or bags containing food. Of late a few 
(three were seen) "tree animals" are set 
in the ground near the buildings to serve 
as seats and for the children to play upon. 
They are sections of mes([uite trees that 
have each a branch perpendicular to the 
plane of the trunk at a point where tiie 
latter bends in the opposite direction 
slightly, so that when the branch is set in 
the ground the trunk is horizontal with 
the exception of the end which curves 
upward in a manner somewhat resembling 
a vaulting horse. 

Cradle. The frame of the cradle is of 
willow, in the form of a narrow bow 

with from 5 to 10 cross bars (fig. 19, a). It closely resembles 
the Mohave trellis frame, but is more rudely made.'' The frame 
was formerly covered with shredded willow bark to a depth of 3 or 
4 inches and a bit of cotton cloth covered the whole. Now the 
willow bark is not so thick, and much more cloth, no longer of native 
make, is used. The cradle (fig. 19, h) is provided with a detachable 



Fig. 18. 



1 
I 
I 



Fire firill; b. saguaro 



hook: r, lui'nOm tweezers. 



"Sec pi. IX, o. where the saguaro appears in flower in the background. 

fc The sp(x;imen illustrated in fig. IS, 6 was cut short (or convenience of carrying. The handles vary 
in length from 2 to 5 rn. The hnok is Uio mm. long and s mm. in diameter. 
<■ The specimen coUecled i.s 31 em. long; natural spread of jaws, 65 mm. 
dSfle Mason in Report National Museum, 1894, 624. 



104 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 




Fig. 19, o. Cradle frame. 



hood made of willow bark in the checker style of weaving, the sur- 
face being ornamented in geometric patterns colored black and red. 
Over the hood a loose piece of cloth may be thrown to protect the 
occupant from flies. The babies when strapped closely in the cradles 
are frequently carried on the heads of their mothers, who may at the 

same time have no insignifi- 
cant burdens in their hands. 
Wlaen the children are al)out 
a year old they are carried 
astride the hip, unless upon 
a journey, when they are 
shifted around to the back, 
still astride," and there sup- 
ported by a shawl or large cloth bound around the waist.'' The 
writer has seen women with children of 2 or 3 years on their backs, 
each carrying a sack of wheat on her head and lighter bimdles in 
her hands. "^ 

Pai7H brush. The lines of pigment with which the face was for- 
merly ornamented were applied by means of slender bits of arrow- 
wood two or tliree inches long. The Kwahadk's were accustomed to 
gather the tufted ends of the 
arrow - bush branches and 
carry them southward into 
Papagueria to be used as 
paint brushes. 

Calendar sticks. The Pi- 
mas keep a record of pass- 
ing events by means of 
sticks carved with arbitrary 
mnemonic symbols. There 
are five such records in the 
tribe to-day — or were a year 
ago. The oldest of these 
sticks bears the history of i'K.i'i.b. cradie. 

seventy years. There were other sticks before these, but the vicis- 
situdes of war, fire, and the peculiar burial customs of the people 
made away with them.** There are three sticks in the collection, 
which have been designated Gila Crossing, Blackwater, and Casa 
Blanca calendars,* from the names of the villages whence they 
came. The Casa Blanca stick (fig. 20, a) is of willow, peeled, 

o Doctor Palmer says that as soon as a child is old enough to stand alone the mother carries it on an 
immense cincture of bark worn on her bacic. The author saw no such cinctures in use and beheves 
that their use has been abandoned. 

fc Mason, Cradles, in Report National Museum, 1887, 184. 

cThe frame of the cradle figured is 67 cm. long by 20 cm. wide. The hood is 38 cm. high. 

dSee p. 35. They are mentioned here merely for the purpose of describing the sticks as pro<iucts 
of the woodworker's skill. 

«The Casa Blanca calendar is not recorded in " The Narrative," p. 38. 




RUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



105 



slitrhtly flattened, but otherwise bearing no signs of ])reparation 

for the symbols tliat occupy tlie greater part of one side." The 

Gihi Crossing calenihir (fig. 20, h) is a pine stick on whicli tlie rec- 

onl was copied several years ago from a stick yet in the same 

viHage. The record liegins on the back, 

passes over the lower end in the figure, 

and extends again to the back over th(> 

upper end.* The Blackwater stick (fig. 

20, c) is of saguaro wood smoothed and 

carved for the writer ])y the keeper of the 

record, who lost the original some years 

ago and who has since been using paper 

and pencil, but the same symbols." 
Spurs. Wooden spurs were made from 

crotched limbs of mesquite of suitable 

size. They were attached to the foot 

by a deerskin thong fastened to form 

two loops of equal size, one passing 

over the instep and the other under the 

heel of the foot. So rare have they now 

become that the writer spent six months 

on the Gihi River reservation without 

discovering 
a n y, a n il 
t here fore 
hired an 
old man to 
make a pair 
for the col- 
lection. 
Soon after- 

Avards a single old Spur was found, which 
iliffers from those made to order only in 
having deerskin instead of maguey fiber 
fastenings (fig. 21).'' 

SmhlJe. Wooden saddletrees are some- 
times made, both for riding and pack 
saddles. The former are covered with 
rawhide, slu-unk on, and provided with 
stirrups of mesquite or wallow wood. 

They are not common and are at best but crude imitations of the 

saddles made by the whites. Saddle blankets for use with them 

are of matted grass or maguey fiber. 





Fig. 20. Calendar stick.s. a, From 
Casa Blanca; 6, from Gila Crossing; 
c, from Blackwater. 



1. Woodt'H spur. 



« Length, 93 cm.; diameter, 10 mm. 
6 Length, 90 cm.; diameter. 18 mm. 



c Length, 1.395 m.; diameter. 20 mm. 

i Length, 0.152 m.; spread across fork, 9 cm. 



106 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



I KTII. ANN. 26 



Fig. 22. Awls, a, Wooden 
handle; h, gum handle. 



Awl. There would seem to be no tradition of the former use of 
bone awls among the Pimas. They declare that awls of mesquite 
wood were used in making baskets before the introduction of steel. 
At present the points are of pieces of umbrella rib set in wooden 
handles of native manufacture (fig. 22, a)." It will be observed that 
the up]>er end of the handle is provided with a button, so that it 
may be held between the tliird and fourth fingers while 
the thumb and other fingers are engaged in the manipula- 
tion of the basket splints. Handles of round balls of 
creosote gum* are also used (fig. 22, h)." 

Rope twister. This apparatus is probably 
of European origin. It consists of a pin or 

I handle of hard wood, such as mesquite or wal- 

j low, which is thrust through a hole near the 

^^^ end of another stick, which acts as a spindle 
^^^B whorl. The latter piece has a button at the 
^^^V short end, to which arc attached the maguey 
fibers or horse hairs (fig. 23). The t>perator, 
by a slight rising and falling motion of the 
handle, causes the spindle to revolve rapidly, 
thus twisting the fibers into a cord which 
lengthens as he steps backward. A second person meanwhile adds 
fresh fibers to the other end."* 

A'minu. Among the most important of the sacred objects in the 
paraphernalia of the medicine-men were the a'mina , or medicine sticks. 
They are usually of 
arrowwood ; a 1 w a y s 
bound together with 
cotton twine of native 
spinning, either with 
or without feathers 
attached to each sep- 
arate stick. There 
are six a'mina bundles 
in the ccdlection. One 
was made by Ka'nial 
tkak, to be used ex- 
clusively in the exor- 
cism of the Tcu'nyim, a spirit of disease. The bundle contains four 
groups of sticks: Two pairs, one bundle of 4, and one of 6. All are 
plain, being unmarked in anyway (fig. 24).* 

1 Length of specimen (fig. 22, a) 0.103 m., of which 56 mm. is handle. 

i> Deposited on the branches of the creosote bush by the minute scale insect. Carteria larrete. 

f Length, 3 cm.; diameter of handle, 24 mm. 

d Length of pin, 0.254 m.; diameter. 8 ram.; length of spindle, 32 cm. 

f Length, 0.1t>7 m.; diameter, ti mm. 




Fig. 23. Kopo twister. 



RfSSKLLl 



ARTIFACTS 



107 




Fig. 24. A'mlna with reed 
clou'l blower and attached 
fcathcr.s. 



The second bundle is painted <jreen. Each stick i.s wliittled to a 
blunt point at one end and has two short, (h)\vny turkey feathers 
attached (pi. xiv, b)." 

The tliird bundle contains two sets of 4 
sticks each, wliich were originally painted blue. 
They are sharpened to tapering points at one 
end. To each stick is tied two of the tail 
feather.s of some small bird (pi. xiv, «).'' 

The fourth bundle contains three sets of 4 
sticks each and the remains of another set 
which probably contained 4, though it is so 
old tliat it is in a fragmentary condition (pi. 
XIV, d)/ A bundle of feathers attached by 
strings is bound in with the a'mina, each one 
of which also bears two feathers, all the 
feathers being from a red-colored bird. 

The fifth bundle contains three sets of 4 
sticks each, but they are so old and broken 
that their original length can not be deter- 
mined. They also have red feathers bound to them (pi. xiv, c). 

The sixth buntlle is very small and very old and it is probable 
that the unusual number of sticks — 5 — is due to the fact that a por- 
tion of the bundle has crumbled with 
age (pi. XIV, e). 

Animal ejfigies. Wooden images of 
reptiles and the like are used in the 
medicine-men's efl'orts to cure certain 
diseases. Two such specimens were 
collected. One is intended to repre- 
sent a horned toad (fig. 25, a),'' the 
other a lizard (fig. 25, b) / They are either carelessly or clumsily made. 
Mask. During his stay among the Pimas the writer heard of l)ut 
two wooden nuisks be- 
ing in their possession. 
One of these was col- 
lected and is here de- 
picted in figure 26.^ 
Doctor Hough called his 
attention to the fact 
that it resembles those made by the ^ aquis of Sonora, and it 




Fig. 25, a. Horned toad etligy. 




Fig. 2o, 6. Lizard elhgy. 



a Length. O.loS m.: diameter, 21 nun. The feathers are a trifle shorter than the sticks. 

b Length, 0.136 in.; diameter, 10 mm. 
^Length of -sticks, 17 cm.; diameter. 7 nun. 
d Length, 10 cm.; width, 42 mm. 
'Length. 28 em.; width, 4 cm. 
/Length, 0.208 m.: width, 0.153 m. 



108 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANX. 26 



is probable that the conception, if not the mask itseh', was im- 
ported fi-om the southward along with the masked Xavitco cere- 
monies, desjiite the assertion of its former owner to the contrary', 
because it represents a higher degree of skill in wooilworking 

than any piece of carving that the 
writer has seen done by a Pima. 
It is of Cottonwood, perforated for 
the insertion of horsehair eye- 
brows, chin wliisker, and two tufts 
< >n the center of each cheek, and is 
ornamented by an interrupted 
scroll and other lines unmistak- 
ably intended to be decorative. 
The mouth contains a half dozen 
pegs, giving a very realistic rep- 
resentation of teeth. 

WaitiJ. There are two wands or 
ceremonial sticks in the collection 
(fig. 27)." The longer is of grease- 
wood, Sarcobatus vermicularis, the 
material prescribed for ia'kita, or 
ceremonial paraphernalia of this 
class. It is spotted with black 
and red paint. The shorter wand is of willow, spotted with red. 
Both were made to be held in the hand during ceremonies intended 
to bring rain, to cure disease, and for kindred purposes. 




Fig. 26. Navitco mask. 



STONE 

Met.\te 



The metate is the most abundant of the stone implements of the 
Southwest, or, if arrow points exceed them in numbers, the former is at 




Fig. 27. Ceremonial wands 



least the most noticeable. About nearly every ruin one sees the frag- 
ments of broken metates, in some cases to the number of several score, 
as at the ruin near Patagonia, in the Sonoita valley, where sixty 



o Length of the longer figure, 76 cm.; of the shorter, 28 cm. 



ntSSF-LL] 



ARTIFACTS 



109 



metates were counted on the iriound (every one had been intention- 
ally broken), and there must have l)een a much hirjjjer number beneath 
the siu'face. Some of those found in the Ilohokam ruins arc of lava 
and have legs several inches in length. Most of these are hollowed 
out, as are thode of the Hopis, whereas the metates of the Pimas are 




Fiii. 2>i. Grinding wlieut on niL'tutc. 

perfectly fiat on the top from side to siile, being slightly concave 
form end to end (fig. 28). They are of coarse-grained rock from the 
surrounding hills and never carved or provided with legs. Tliey varj^ 
in weight from 20 to 200 pounds and are carried about the premises 
as needed, never being set in bins, as among the Pueblo tribes. Their 
grinding surface is sharpeneil or roughened by pecking with a stone 
ax, or with a similarly shaped stone if an ax is not o])tainable. 

MULLER 

The muller is of lava or of 
stone similar to that of the 
metate itself. It is longer than 
that used by the Ilohokam, so 
that the entire upper siu'face 
of the metate is worn down. 
It is not shaped into a rectangular liar, as is that found in the ruins. 
Indeed, the writer saw few that showed any evidence of having been 
shaped in any manner except through use. 

Pestlk 

The stone pestle" is used in every Pima household to crusli tlie 
mesfjuite bean and other seeds in the wooden mortars. The pestle 
varies in size from the small stone the size of one's fmger to the great 




Fig. 2S). Stonu pi'stlo 



An average-sized specimen in the collection weighs 4} pounds; it is 253 mm. long and 76 mm. in 
diameter (fig. 29). 



110 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 2(5 



cylinder weighing 20 pounds that requires both hands to wield it. 
Many of these are obtained from the ruins, but some are shaped by 
pecking. Tliis is not all done at once, but, a suitable stone having 
been selected, it is shaped little by little, day by day, as the owner has 
leisure for the work. This suggests that much of the stonework of 
primitive peoples which excites our admiration for their patience has 
been done in this manner, the implement being in use continually and 

the task of pecking it 
into more convenient or 
more pleasing shape be- 
ing taken up fi'om time 
to time as "knitting 
work." 



kkkkklk 

kkkl 



Ax 



I'll... .TO. .Arrowheads. 



The stone axe.s of the 
Pimas were ()})tained 
from the ruins that are 
far more extensive than 
the Pinui villages in the Gila and Salt River valleys, ^fost of these 
axes liave each a single blade, man}' are doul)le-bitted, and some are 
of the adz form. Others are so large and finely polished as to render 
plausible the supposition that they were intended for ceremonial use. 
All are of hard, fine-grained igneous rock called hatovik by the 
Pimas, some of whom assert that the material comes from near the 
Gulf of California, where they have seen it when on journeys after 
salt. Others declare that there is no such s.one on the surface of 
the earth, and that all the axes we find now were niatle from 
material that was l)rought from the underworld when Elder Brother 
letl the nether-world peojile up to conquer those 
then living above. However, no particular religious 
significance is attached to the axes, as might be 
expected, considering their origin. They are sold 
readily enough, though when a suitable ax is kept 
for sharpening the metate of the household it is 
sometimes difficult for a collector to secure it. 
There is an abundance of suitable stones along the Salt river below 
where it breaks through the Superstition mountains, and it is jirobalile 
that all the axes in the valley were obtained from that inunediate 
locality. The few that were seen hafted were fastened with sinew in 
the fork of a limb of suitable size. 




FiG- 31. .\rrow-shal't 
.'itraightener. 



RISSKLL] 



AETT FACTS 



111 



Aruonviieads 

A great portion of those used by the Pimas were made by the Hoho- 
kam. However, the Pimas always had a few arrowhead makers who 
worked in obsidian, sliale, or Hint. They j)ro(hiced small heads vary- 
ing from 1 to 2i cm. in length by 1 in breadth. Those represented in 
figure oO are old jioiiits. The lieads are stemless, sometimes having 
shoulders for the sinew seizing. One man was found who continues 
to make arrowheads, which he sells to the whites. 

AUUOW-.^HAIT SriiAKiHTENER 

Tlie Pimas had very little need for grooved stones for straightening 
arrows as the arrow^vood is naturally as straight as could l)e desired. 
It is probalde that the stones of this kind found in the ruins were 
used merely for polishing. The Pimas used them scarcety at all." 

II.VMMEU Stones 

These are frequently seen around the ruins of Arizona, })ut the 
Pimas seem to have little use for them. 




Fig. 32. Crystals from medicine basket. 
FiRESTONBS 

Three stones, each about 1.5 cm. in diameter, were used to support 
the cooking pots over the fire. They have been largely supplanted 
by an iron frame obtained from the agency blacksmith. These 
stones were jiicked up when needed and little effort made to preserve 
them. 

Crystals 

CrA'stals and curiously shaped stones of all kinds were preserved in 
the outfits of the medicine-men. Several such specimens were pur- 
chased and some were found in a cache among the hills (fig. 32).* 

a A specimen ( Uohokam) in the coUeetion ffig. ;il) bus been shaix'd to represent some animal (?). It 
is 92 mm. long and (iO mm. wide. 

f> Compare Cushing: "In this connection it is interesting to add as of possible moment suggestively 
that associated with the ultra mural remains [in the Salt River valley], both house- and pyral-. 
were found small, peculiar concretion-stones and crystals e\idently once used as personal fetiches or 
amulets, as is the case at Zufii to-day." Cougrfis International des .Vm^ricanistes, vii™** sess., 1890, \~*.\. 



112 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ KTir. ANN. 26 





Magic Tablets 

The collection contains two tablets which were obtained from 
medicine-men and half of one which was found in the cache above 
referred to (fiij. 33, a, h, c). Two have ornamental borders, while 

the tliird is quite smooth to the rounded 
margin ; it has the figure of a horse scratched 
on one side and that of a man on the other." 

Turquoise 

This stone, which is so common in some 
parts of the Southwest that every Indian has 
it hanging from ears, 
neck, or arms, seems to 
be rare in Pimeria. 
But one pair of ear 
pendants was seen. It 
was somewhat more 
abundant in early days. 
It was believed that if 
a man lost a turcjuoise 
the mishap was due to 
magic, and as a result he would be afflicted with some mysterious ail- 
ment which could ])e cured only by a medicine-man skilled in the 
cure of the "doctor's disease." He would use another piece of tur- 
quoise or a slate or a crystal, placing the stone in 
water and giving the latter to the patient to drink. 

Pipe 

A stone cylinder (fig. 34),'' probalily a pipe, was 
obtained from a Pima, who said that lie had " found 
it long ago." It seems short for such a purpose, yet 
it is longer than a cane cylinder the writer found in 
actual use. The smoke is blown outward in certain 
ceremonies and in others drawn in. These tubes were also 
the Pimas in sucking and blowing the bodies of the sick 
purpose of expelling disease. 

" The last tablet is 122 mm. long by 56 mm. wide; it is 6 mm. thick at one side and tapers to 2 mm. 
at the other. The largest specimen is 161 mm. long hy 94 mm. wide and 10 mm. thick; the border is 10 
mm. wide, marked thus: XXXX. The broken specimen is 87 mm. wide; its length can not be deter- 
mined. The X pattern at the margin runs over to the surface of the reverse side. 

' Length, 48 mm.; internal diameter, 16 mm.; ma.ximum external diameter, 28 mm. 



Fio. 33, a, 6, c. Magic tablets. 




Fig. 34. Stone pipe. 

used by 
for the 



BCSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



113 



FIBER AND LEATHER 

8.\nni.K 

In addition to the wooden saddletrees already mentioned the 

Pimas made them each of two rolls of grass or straw, inclosed in blue 

denim or canvas and bound with a network of rawhide. A specimen" 

in the collection (pi. xv, rr, h) has two such rolls fastened together with 

both horsehair and maguey cords. The top is covered v;ith leather 

taken from two old boot legs. One 

stirrup is wanting; tlie one that 

remains is of native manufacture. 

The accompam-ing cinch (pi. xv,c)'' 

is of horsehair neatly twisted and 

quite strong and serviceable. \Vlien 

used, it was passed over the saddle 

instead of being attached to it. A 

Pima is rarely seen riding bareback, 

and most have good saddles of 

American manufacture. Bartlett 

states that those who rode bareback 

at the time of his visit in 1S50 thrust 

one foot under a loosely fastened 

surcingle.'^ 

Saddlebag 

A coarse net of maguey fiber is 
made to carr^' bulky objects upon 
either pack or riding saddles. The 
fibers are twisted into two strands, 
which are united to form a rope .5 mm. 
in diameter; with this the meshes, 
are made about 12 cm. in length b.v 
an interlocking knot of the simplest 
character. The bag in the collection 
is about 1 m. in length (fig. 3."i). 

Head Rings 

The round-bottomed water jars and many similar heav;y' l)urdens 
besides were borne upon the heads of the women with the aid of the 
rings of willow bark in the early days, and now with rings of rags 
wrapped with cotton cloth.'* Of less common use are the agave- 
leaf rings, which should be classed as twined basketry.* They are 

olx-ngth. 60 cm.: dianiPtor of rolls at Iho middle. lOcni. Thfy are thickeni'il slightly at Ihn ends to 
form pommel and cantlc. 

I' Length, 75 cm.; width. 7 cm. 

<■ Narrative, ii, 237. 

dThe bark head ring (fig. 3G. a) is 155 mm. in diameter and the opening in the center is 42 mm. in 
diameter. 

« Diameter of specimen collected, 10 cm.; height. 165 nun. 
26ETI1— 08 10 




Fig. 3o. Saddkba, 



114 



THK PIMA INDIANS 



[ETII. ANN. 26 



folded at each margin so that a riiii; is made up of three thicknesses 
of matting. Tliis ring is smaller than the other types ant! is used 
for lighter burdens (fig. 36, h). Almost any cloth (fig. 36, c) may be 
improvised into a head ring, and aprons are especially convenient for 
such use. 




Fig. 31). Hfjid rings, a, Willow bark; b, agaVR leaf; f, cloth. 

Rope 

Picket ropes of magiiej' fiber (figs. 37, h and 38) are brought by 
the Papagos to trade to the Pimas. They are about 10 m. long and 
1 cm. in diameter, made of four 2-ply strands. They are strong, but 




Fig. 37. a, Horsehair halti>r; 6, maguey rope. 



the harsh and coarse fiber renders them disagreeable to the touch of 
any but a hardened hand. The prepared fibers for rope making in 
this collection measure 60 cm. in length. With such material and a 
rope twister tlie process of manufacturing rope is a rapid one. 



BDSSELL] 



- art: FACTS 



115 



Human hair is both twi.steil and braided into cords for ti<;htening 
kiaha frames. Tlie cords are usually made of four strands of 2-ply 
twisted threads. They are about 5 nun. in diameter when finished. 

Halters 

Horsehair is quite popular as a material for the manufacture of 
halters. The halter here illustrated (fig. 37, a) has a loop of light 
cord, 45 cm. in length, to be passed over the horse's head. The rope 




Flo. 38. Miiguey fiber. 

has a loop 26 cm. long that passes over the nose. The length of the 
rope from the knot of this loop is 3.150 m. It is of four strands of 
4-pl}^ tlireads, one of the strands l)eing wliite. 

Uridlks 

Bridles are also made of horsehair, vicious looking bits being sold 
by the traders for them. 

Fetish 

The collection contains a fetish (fig. 39, a) and a hair omani(>nt 
made of seven wing feathers of a hawk (fig. 39, b) whicli have been 
joined by laying a strip of cotton cloth on the ([uill of each feather 



116 



THK I'IMA INDIANS 



|KTH. ANN. 2G 



and binding it there with sinew, then braiding the loose ends of the 
strips together into a cord 15 cm. h)ng. In this way tl»e featliers 
are permanently fastened to one another and may lie easily attached 
when it is desired to wear them as a fetish, or they may be readily 
attached to the hair to form a portion of the headdress. 

Wau Headdress 

At Gila Crossing we were so fortunate as to .secure a specimen of 
an old Pima headdress made from the hair of an Apache and the wing 

feathers of three species of large raptorial 
birds (fig. 40). The hair is about 45 
cm. long and is gathered in strands 1 
cm. in thickness, which are held by 
two strips of cotton tliat are twisted or 
twineil on each other a half turn between 
each pair of hair strantis." Viewing the 
headdress from the rear there are on 
the left four owl feathers, symbolizino- 
keenness of vision by night; next are 
three liawk, then one owl, and again 
hawk feathers to the number of five, 
symbolizing keenness of vision by day; 
on the right are two eagle feathers, the 
■symbol of swiftness. Thus the wearer 
of tliis headdress possessed tlie cour- 
" " age and cunning of the hated cneniA', 

Fig. 39. a. Fetish; b, hair ornament. ,i~ i • i a i i i i . i ' n 

the keen sight by da_v and bv night of 
the birds that have great magic power, according to Pima belief, and 
the swiftness as a trailer of the king of birds, which occupies a 
prominent place in Piman inythology. 

Hairbrush 

Using tlieir fingers as combs, the women become very skillful in 
straightening out tangled locks. They frequently smooth the hairwith 
a brush wliich was formerly made of the roots of the " Sacaton grass," 
Sporobolus wrightii (fig. 41, a),' but as this no longer grows along tlie 
river, where the majority of the villages are situated, they now make 
use of maguey fiber, Agave lecheguea. Yucca paccata, etc. (fig. 41, b).'^ 

" The general use of human hair for cords and in headdresses hy the Pimas suggests Lower Califomian 
affinities, as we are told by Vcnegas that the natives of that peninsula were aeeustomed to adorn them- 
selves on ceremonial occasions w.th "a large cloak cover ng them from their head to their feet, and 
entirely composed of human hair." II. story of Calitom a, i, 99. 

>> Length of spe?imen figured. 22 cm.; diameter. 3~ mm. 

c Length of specimen figuied, 17 em.; diameter, 18 nmi. 




KISSKLI.] 



ARTIFACTS 



117 



These iibers make ven' satisfactory Inrushes, but they are not so stiff 
as brushes made of bristles. The fibers are not set in a iiandie but 
are tied in a round bundle a little below the middle, then folded out- 
ward from the center so that tlie upper end or handle is round and 
smooth while the lower end includes all the free fd^er ends. Twine 
is then wrapped in a coil around the upper end downward imtil the 
brush end remains just long enoui^h to give the fibers play in passing 
through the hair. The wrapping maj^ be either of fdjer or of horse- 
hair; in the latter case pleasing geometric patterns are often worked 
out with contrasted black and white threads. The specimen illus- 




FlG. 40. War headdress. 

trated in figure 41 , 6 is bound witii maguey fiber whicli luis lieen deco- 
rated with three lines of pui-ple dye, put on after tlie wrapping has 
been completed. 

Skin Dressing 

The use of leather in the manufacture oi clothing was reduced to a 
minimum among the Pimas. For sandals, rawhide sufficetl, and if 
tlus was not to be had there was an abundance of }iicca fiber, which 
made a fair substitute. For the shields, with the use of which they 
became adept througli trainini; from childliood, rawhide wasemploved. 
So the needs wliich dressed leather alone could satisfy were but few, 



118 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



(ETH. ANN. 20 



and it is probable that Gilefid women did little more than enough 
skin dressing to keep the art alive among them. At present there are 

very few who know anything about 
it. and this is the method which 
they say "long ago make it." 

A skin was soaked in water for 
two or three days to soften it ; then 
it was laid on an inclined log and 
the hair scraped ofl' with a deer's 
rib. Two tanning nieilia were 
used — brains and saguaro .seeds. 
The former were kept dried into a 
cake with dry grass until they were 
needed, when they were softened 
in water. The seeds were avail- 
able at any time, as they were 
always kept in store as an article 
of food. 

The roots of the plant known 
as urto, Krameria parvifolia, were 
used to dve leather red. 




Fig. 41. Hairbrushes, a, Sacaton grass roots 
b, maguoy fiber. 



Fire Bag 



Leather bags were iised to carry 
flint and steel, and a specimen of these comparatively modern arti- 
cles is shown in figure 42. It is ornamented with tin l)angles and 
glass beads. 

Tobacco Pouches 

Tobacco was not recognized 1)y 
the Pimas as a narcotic that would 
stunt the growth in youth or injuri- 
ously affect the heart as age ad- 
vanced, nor yet as a solace for 
leisure moments. It was to them 
a plant of divine origin that in its 
death (burning) released a spirit 
(odor and smoke) that was wafted 
by the breeze to the home of the 
magic beings that shape man's 
destiny. Throughout Pimeria one 
may find sacred places where large numl)ers of cane cigarettes have 
been deposited by worshipers. It is uncertain how far this form of 




Fig. 4-. Fin* bag. 



BUSSBLL] 



ARTIFACTS 



iiy 



cigarette was in use by (he Pimas. Most of those found were made 
by the Ilohokain." 

To carry this sacred powder it was necessary- to have something 
more than an ordinary receptacle, and so pouches were made of buck- 
skin, ornanienteil in vivid colors with symbols of the sun and pro- 
vided with rattles that tinkled with every motion of the wearer. 
Both in shape and in ornament they closely resemble the tobacco 
pouches of the Apaches. There are two specimens in the National 
Museum. No. 27840 (fig. 43, a) is of buckskin,'' doubled so that 
the opening of the pouch on the unornamented half is covered 
by the fold. The margin is ornamented by a fringe of short strings 
of buckskin passed through holes along the edge of the pouch, most 






Fig. 4.'^, n, h, c. Tobacco pouches. 

of them having cylinders of tin, slightly bell-shaped, arranged in 
pairs and pinched into place around the thongs by pounding. The 
front bears a conventional symbol of the sun m red and blue. There 
is a short loop with which to suspend the pouch from the belt or to 
hang it up when not in use. 

Another pouch, no. 27839 (fig. 43, h, c), is of soft deerskin, with 
a red fringe made by parallel cuts along the edge. There are a few 

o At the present time most men and some women smoke cigarettes rolled in corn husks or paper, 
obtained, as is much of the tobacco, from the whiles. The native tobaccos a re: Nicotiana trigonophylla. 
known as vi'opal vi'ofO, "like tobacco." gathered near Babcquivari by the Papagos and brought 
to the Pimas; X. bigelo\ii, known as pan vi'ofCi, '"coyote tobacco." and N. attenuata. billed 
rsi'kai .\u'tc4 vi'ofil, - undcr-the-creosote-bush tobacco." Boys learn to smoke at an early age, 
though the use of tobacco is not encouraged. The father's favorite saj-ing in reply to a request for 
tobacco is, ■■ I will give you some when you kill a coyote." 

t> Length, 10cm.; wiiith. 11cm.; 114 bangles. 



120 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETII. ANN. 26 



tin bangles at the bottom. Tlie margin is ornamented inside the 
fringe with a herring-bone pattern burned on. One side of the pouch 
has a human figure and the other bears two sun symbols. These are 
very similar to some seen by the writer upon the walls of caves in the 
Chiricahui mountains, an old Apache stronghold." The pouch is 
sewed with cotton thread and secured at the top by an American 
button. The cord for suspension has 4 clusters of 6 bangles each 
upon it. 

Slinc 

Slings were used by Pima youths before the advent of the whites. 
They were of the usual elongated oval shape. The National Museum 
contains a sling, no. 760ol, that was obtainol from 
the Pimas half a century ago. It is of leather, prol)- 
ably cut from a boot leg, with strings 68.5 cm. long. 
The imjierforate center is 18 by 7 cm. (fig. 44). 

Shield 

The fighting men were divided into two parties — 
those who used the 1)0W and those who fought with 
ilub and shield. AVhen advancing upon the enemy, 
the warrior crouched so that the comparatively 
small shield protected his entire body. He also 
leaped from side to side for the double purpose of 
presenting a more difficult target, and of bewildering 
the enemy and thus unsteadying their nerves through 
the suggestion of magic, which plays a larger 
part in the warfare of the American Indian than is 
generally known. The preparation for a war expe- 
dition is an invocation to the gods and the cere- 
monies during the journey are incantations for the 
development of magic power that shall not only 
render the party invincible but shall induce its magic 
power, on its own account, to overwhelm the magic 
power of the enemy. It is not the strength nor the intelligence 
of the Apache that they fear, nor his arrow with its sting, but his 
magic — a creation of their own imagination. And so the shield, 
with its ma-gic symbols in brilliant colors, is kept in rapid motion 
not only from side to side but also revolving by the reciprocal 
twist of the bearer's forearm. 

A long and careful search failed to disclose the presence of a single 
old shield among the Pimas, but there is a specimen in the National 
Museum, no. 27830, that was obtained several years ago (fig. 45, «, b). 
It is a rawhide disk 49 cm. in diameter, provided with a cottonwood 




Fig. 44. Sling. 



a Length, 17 cm.; width, 16 cm. 



KUSSELI.] 



ARTIFACTS 



121 



hum lie of convenient size for ijrasping. The handle is slightl}^ concave 
on the side next to the shield. It is attached by means of thongs, 
which pass through two holes for each end of the handle, at the center 
of the disk. When not in use, it was carried by a sling strap that 







Fig. 45. a, Shield: b, reverse of shield. 



passed through tw(j holes at the border 24 cm. apart. It is orna- 
mented by an ogee swastika in blue, red, and white. 

There are also two models of Pima shields in the National Museum. 
One is a small ])ainted di.sk of rawhide: the other is a hoop with 





Fig. -U', a . h. Models of shields 



muslin stretched over it. The former, no. 70073 (fig. 46, h), is orna- 
mented with a cross in white, blue, red, and yellow. The latter, no. 
7fi028 (fig. 46, a), is 225 iiiiii. in diameter, or about one-third the full 
size. The <lesi<rn in red and yellow is also in the form of a cross. 



122 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 



A similar shield decorated with swastika in red and white (fig. 47) 
was collected in 1SS7 by Mr F. W. Hodge, of the Hemenway Expedi- 
tion, and by him presented to the Free Museum of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

Sandals 

Some protection for the feet was necessary when on journeys across 
the stony mesas and mountains that surround the Pima villages. 

Rawhide was the most widely used ma- 
terial and the sandal was the form of foot 
gear. It was kept in place b}' a single 
thong, which passed through two holes in 
the fi'ont of the sandal, so as to go between 
the first and second and the fourth and 
J -' / fifth toes, then backward obliquely across 

the foot, so that the two parts crossed each 
other over the instep, down through a hole 
in the end of a heel plate and around be- 
hind the heel, where it was doubled back 
Fig. 47. Shield. and forth two or three times before passing 

through the hole in the opposite end of the 
heel plate, and so on forward again. The heel plate passes transversely 
through two longitudinal slits in the heel of the sandal and is of the 
same hard and stiff rawhide. The doubled thongs behind the heel 
are usually wound with softer material to prevent chafing (fig. 48). 



^1 



Yoke Straps 

Ox yokes were bound to 
the horns of the animals by 
long strips of hide that had 
been roughly dressed without 
removing the hair. The two 
straps collected were the only 
ones seen. It is some years 
since they were last used for 
this purpose, and it is not sur- 
prising that most such straps 
should have been employed 
for other needs (fig. 49) . 




Fig. 4s. tiandals. 



L.VUIAT 



The u.se of the lariat was, of course, learned from the whites and 
was developed gradually with the tardy introduction of live stock. 
The "rope." as it is universally knt)\vn in the Southwest, is of rawhide 



BUSSELL.) 



ARTIFACTS 



123 




Fig. 49. Yoke straps 



made in a 4-ply braid, rounded by povindinjj; when wet. The .sHp 

noose at the outer end i.s supplied witli an ingenious loop made by 

foldinij; a heavy piece of 

rawhide three or four 

times and bringing the 

ends together to form 

an oval ring. The end 

of the rope is passed 

through a longitudinal 

slit in one end of the ring 

and by a braided en- 
largement prevented 

from beuig pulled out 

again. Astrip of rawhide 

about 1 em. in width is 

rolled in the interior of 

the ring, and passing 

through a transverse 

cut close to one end it 

is cont inued around the 

outside, being itself slit 

where the rope enters 

the ring, and also pass- 
ing under two loops made by catching up the outer layer of hide 

on the ring it then passes through a 
transverse slit in the outer and over- 
lapping end of the ring and is knotted. 
It therefore passes twice around the 
ring and is the only means of vmiting 
the ends of it. When hardened the 
ring is large enough to permit free play 
of the rope through it." 

Horned To.mj Effic.v 

Among the most highly prized objects 
made of leather by the Pimas, found 
by the writer, was a life-sized efligy of a 
horned toad. It is of deerskin, orna- 
mented with white beads, as shown in 
figure .'SO, a. It was useil in the cure 
of the toad disease by being passed 
over the affected j)art. This act and 
the singing of the toad songs effected a complete cure, our informant 
believed. Figure 50, h, is a photograph of a living horned toad. 

Length of lariat, 13.93 m.: diameter, 9 mm. Length ol loop ring, 6 cm.: width, 4 cm. 




Fig. 51), a. Hornt'd loadelBgy.of dci-r.skin. 



124 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



POTTERY 



As a tribe the Piraas are 



^^^D 




■ 


■ 




H 


1 




1 



Fig. 60. b. Living horned toad. 



sirup to exchange for grain. 



not skillful potters. Their work is 
decidedly inferior to that of the 
Kwahadk's, which in turn appears 
to be impro^■ing as a result of a mod- 
ern demand for it. It is probable 
that the l)est potters among the Pi- 
mas are of Kwahadk descent, or have 
learned tiie art from that tribe. A 
great i)art of the Pima ceramic ware 
is plain and undecorated. The cool- 
ing ollas in which water is kept about 
their homes are the only vessels that 
are generally decorated. The pot- 
ters aver that the designs are copied 
from the Iltjhokam potsherds that 
bestrew the mesas and that the sym- 
bolism is absolutely unknown to them. 
Furthermore, many of the smaller 
decorated pieces are traded from both 
the Kwahadk's and the Papagos, the 
latter bringing them fdled with cactus 
The vessels here illustrated were made 



by Sala Hina (fig. 51), one of the best pottc-s on the Gila. 



M.\TERI.\L 

The common ware that 
is intended to be subjected 
to heat is generally made 
from clay obtained among 
the Skasowalik hills, which 
lie on the southern border 
of the Gila River reserva- 
tion. The material is a dry 
granular clay combined 
with quartz pebbles and 
feldspathic detritus. The 
])lace where it occurs looks 
much more like a stone 
Cjuarry than like a clay pit 
(pi. XVI, a). Indeed, a 
great part of the mass is sharp, angular stone, which must be win- 
nowed out by hand in the shallow baskets. 




Fig. si. Sala Hina. 



BISSKI-L] 



ARTIFACTS 



U^} 



Tlio process is well illustrated in plate xvi, h." 

Another woll-known clay pit is situated on MeClellen's branch, at 
the northeastern base of the Saoaton hills (])1. xvi, c), whence a 
whitish clay is obtained. The villages about the Casa Blanca ruin 
ol)tain elay from pits within a stone's throw of the ruin itself and 
from the river bottom near the village of Kso'tuk. 

The tempering materials used in the clays last mentioned are sand 
and ground potsherds. The clay from the Skftsfiwallk hills is so 
coarse that it requires no tempering. 

Red ocher is employed as a slip, which is applied to the surface of 
the common utensils just before the drying that precedes burning. 
The water coolers are u.sually made without this coating of ocher. 

Black gum is used for decoration. Tills Is obtained by boiling in 
a small earthen pot, or in a segment of a large one, mesquite chips 

a Samples of this clay were submit ted toDoctor Wiley, Chief of the Bureau of Chemistrj- of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, who ascertained the percentage composition of the material to be as follows; 



Per cent 
Combined water, organic matter, and other 

volatile constituents (loss on ignition). . . 4. 94 

Sulphuric acid, SO3 4,'* 

Carbon dioxide, COj Trace 



99.90 



Per cent 

Silica, SiOa 59. 64 

Alumina, .VlsOa 18. 55 

Ferric oxide, FejOj 6. 72 

Manganous oxide, MnO Trace 

Lime, CaO 2.35 

Magnesia, MgO 1. 44 

Alkalies, K2O and NajO 5. 81 

He also explains the general method of determination. 

For industrial purposes an attempt is made to separate the proximate constituents of a elay by 
what is Killed a ■■ rational analysis." For this purpose the clay is treated with sulphuric acid, which 
is supposed to dissolve the clay substance proper and leave insoluble quartz sand and sand composed 
of feldspar or other minerals. 

In order that the composition of this clay might be compared with analyses of other clays made upon 

this plan, a detennination was made of the matter insoluble in sulphuric acid in sample 248S1, with the 

following results: 

Per cent 

Clay substance 35. 33 

Quart?, sand, feldspathic detritus, etc .' 04.57 

99.90 
The sand insoluble in sulphuric acid is composed approximately as follows: 

Per cent 

Feldspathic detritus, etc 28. 57 

Quartz sand 36. 00 

Comparison of these results with analyses given by Langenbeck indicate that the material represented 
by sample 24.SSI resembles the clays used for the production of so-called " reel ware" mon' than any 
other class of clays use<l in pottery manufacture by civilized peoples. The following analysis of a 
typical clay used for making '• red wan'" is quoted from Langenbeck for purposes of comparison (The 
Chemistry of I'ottery, 1895. (30): 



Total analysis 

Per cent 

Silica 74.75 

Alumina 12. 55 

Ferric oxide 5.28 

Lime 1.28 

Magnesia 85 

Alkalies 2. 27 

Combined water 3. 23 

ica21 



national analysis 

Per cent 

Clay substance 39. 12 

Quartz 52. 54 

Feldspathic detritus 8. 55 

ion. 21 



12r) THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

from pin'tions oi the tree on wliich black gum has ih'ieil into hard 
scales. After Ixiiling, tliis dye is in the form of a very tliin li(|uid 
which is so pale that it is scarcely distinguishal)le on the dark clay, 
Init after the vessel has been given a slight burning the pattern 
appears in deep black. 

Implements 

As the new vessel is built up the outside is struck with a paddle 
(pi. XVII, &),and the inside is supported by a flat circular stone about 
10 cm. in diameter. A smaller stone is used to polish the outer 
surface. Long, smooth, fuiger-shaped stones are used in polishing 
the necks of vessels or in places where there are sharp curves. 

Method 

The fictile ware of the Pimas is made by coiling. The clay is first 
thoroughly dried , a condition that is easily and ((uickly brought about 
by spreading it on blankets in the sun. It is then sifted to remove the 
larger particles of stone. It is next mixed with water and kneaded 
a few minutes, formed into lumps the size of the fist, and laid aside 
to "ripen" over night. The base of the new vessel is begun by 
spreading a layer of clay over the bottom of an old vessel of suitable 
size and smoothing it down with the paddle until it extends out several 
centimeters from the center (see pi. xvii, a, where the vessel shown 
in the jiotter's lap has just been taken from the olla over which it 
was molded). The new bottom is alloweil to dry an hour m the 
sun before it is removed and the process of coiling begun. Dipping 
the fingers in water, the operator moistens the edges of the new ves- 
sel, which has dried enough to retain its shape. Then taking one of 
the prepared balls of clay she rapidly rolls it between the palms 
uJitil it is lengthened into a cylinder about 20 cm. long, wliich is 
laid on the margm of the vessel ami piuchetl into shape. One or 
perhaps two more rolls are laid on to comjjlete the circuit and then 
the paddle is applied with the right hand in (juick taps to the out- 
side while the circular stone is held on the inside with the left (pi. 
xvii, h). The handle of the paddle is held downward so that the trans- 
verse concavity of the instriunent is adapted to the horizontal con- 
vexity of the growing vessel, wluch is helil in the lap and the coils 
applied only so fast as they dry sufficiently to cause it to hold its 
shape. For this reason it is customary for a potter to model three 
or four vessels at the same time so there need be no delay l)y waiting 
for the last layer to dry. As each coil is fuiished it is placed where 
the sun can shine upon it and the work progresses much faster than it 
could in a less arid climate. As soon as the vessel has been built up 
a little way so there is room for the paddle to be used above the j)laiie 



Rl-ssELL] ARTIFACTS 127 

of the bottom it is placetl on the ground and a httle loose soil is 
drawn up to serve as a support and in this it is turned slowly with 
the hands as re(|uireil (pi. xvii, c). As the lower coils become dry 
they are smoothed with a polishing stone with strokes made from 
l)ol()W upward; if a part has l)econie too hard to be easily rubbed 
downi the hand is dipped into the vessel of water that is within reach, 
and applied to the spot. 

When the last coil has been shaped a dark red shale is ground in 
water imtil the liquid has ])ecome (|uite thick; this is a])plicd to the 
outer surface with the hands. As the slip dries it is rubbeil with the 
polishing s'lone until it becomes hard and smooth. 

After drying over night the vessel is ready for burning. A very 
shallow pit is dug and a fire is kept in it for some time to dry the 
earth thoroughly, then a little dry mesquite or decayed willow wood 
is spread in the depression, and the vessel is laid on its side upon the 
wood and entirely covered with sticks laid up "log-cabin fashion." 
In the specimen shown in figure 52 the wood liad burned away in 
about twenty minutes. The photograph was taken as the burning 
brands fell from the sides. 

The final step, if the vessel is to be decorated, is to apply the black 
mesquite pigment with a sharpened stick (pi. x\u,d), made from 
Baccharis glutenosa, which has a large pithy center. The vessel is 
again subjected to heat for a few minutes until the decoration has 
assumed a deep black color, when it is finished. 

Finished Products 

Water reservoirs or coolers (fig. 53, a, b) are the largest and finest 
pieces of fictile ware made by the Pimas and Papagos. The latter 
carry on a tlu-iving trade with the whites by supplying each house 
with one or more of these big round-bottomed pots, which are so 
porous that the evaporation from the outside measurably cools the 
water within. Altliough the term "olla" is applied to all Indian 
pottery in the Southwest, the word generally refers to this particular 
class of vessels. One will be found set in a three-forked post under 
the arbor at every Pima home." An olla was secured which had been 
hidden away among the rocks in the hills for many years (fig. 54). 
It is among the smallest of those used for water coolers, and may 
well serve here to illustrate the minimum size and also a variation 
in decoration.'' 

Ollas with angular profile are not uncommon (fig. 55). 

Cooking pots (pi. xviii, a) are more numerous than the water 



<■ The larger specimen (fig. 53. b) collected is 0..'W7m. high, 0.27.5 m. in diameter at the top. and l.ir,i m. 
in its maximum cinimiference. The decoration is derived from the llohokam pottery oJ theCasa 
Blanca district. 

6 Height, 0.3^ III.; diameter at top, 0.17.'> ni.; iTia-xinium circninference, O.y.'iO m. 



128 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. L'O 



coolers. Every kitchen contains several; some of them broken in 
halves or smaller fragments, yet retained for use in parching wheat or 
corn over the fire, or for other purposes. They are undecoratcd and 
not carefully smoothed and polished "because they would be shppery 
to handle when they became wet." " 




Fig. 52. The burning. 

Bean pots are made with handles as represented in pi. xviii, h. 
They form a distinct t^l^e unlike any other aboriginal ware known to 
the writer.' 

Canteens were formerly made of pottery, but they have been 

a The specimen siiowTi in pi. xvm, a, is 0.285 m. high, 0.255 ra. in diameter at the top, 0.&50 ra. in 
maximum circiunfcrcnce. 

' Pl.xviii, b. represents one of these vessels, which is 0.159 m. high, 0.195 m. in diameter at the top, 
0.748 m. in ma.\iinum eiremnferenc-e. 



BDSSBLL] 



AETIFACTS 



129 



superseded by the cheap and scarcely less fragile metal ones of 
American manufacture. They were globuhir in form, and not pro- 
videtl with projections or loops for the attachment of straps. In 
fact, they were intended to be carried in the woman's kiithS,; men on 
the warpath or traveling far from water hiust learn to endure thirst, 
but the women when compelled to go far for wood or cactus fruit were 
accustomed to carry water in these canteens. The vessels were 
sometimes broken, and Sala Hina told us of such an experience in 
which she nearly perished of thirst before she reacheil the river, 
though she had gone but a few miles from home. Canteens were 
decorated in a variety of patterns, including human figures." 

T\Tiat may be termed a parching pan (pi. xix,«) is made for roasting 
grains preparatory to grinding them for pinole. It is a large oval 
shallow dish with margin extended at ends for handles.* 





^^ 


4 


^Hk 


w 


-• '^^^ ) M 


ib 


^Jj^! M 




^^i^jJJJIW 


■^ 


^w 




Fig. 53. rt, h. Water coolers. 

A tortilla baking plate (pi. xix, h) is sometimes seen. It is nothing 
more than a slightly concave undecorated disk."^ 

Cuj)s were seldom made of clay; dippers of gourd or bowls of 
basketry were lighter and less perishable. It is probable that most 
of the few cups of Indian manufacture now to be found among the 
Pimas wore obtained from the Kwahadk s or the Papagos. They are 
so highly polished as to appear to be glazed and are usually decorated 
with geometric designs to which no meaning can be ascribed by their 
makers.'' 



o There are three specimens in the collection. I'l. xviii, c is 0.19.5 m. high, 0.600 m. in circumfer- 
ence, with an opening at the top 31 mm. in diiuueter. Pi. xviii. d is 0.13.5 in. high, 0.3i>.5 in. in circum- 
ference, and has an opening 29 mm. in diameter. I'l. xvii:. f is a doul>Uvnecked canteen. 

^ RepR'sents a pan that 18 0.445 m. long. 0.354 m. wide, 0.117 m. high. 

c The collection contains one of these plates, which is O.yjOm. in diameter and stands 03 mm. high. 

d PI. XIX. f. represents a cup whicli was made by the Kwahadk's and traded to the Pimas. It is 84 
ram. high and 84 mm. in diainoter. 

26 ETii— 08 11 



130 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 




Fig 



54. Olla found liidden in 
the hills. 



Plates (pi. XIX, c, f) are now obtained from the Kwahadk's, but it is 

doubtful if the latter made them before the advent of the whites. 

Tliey are polished and decorated in a manner similar to the cups. " 

• Fanciful figures of a variety of shapes are made by the Kwahadk's in 

imitation of American crockery, and the like, 

and are traded to the Pimas, who sometimes 

sell to gratify the ilesires of tourists for 

souvenirs, the seller being as ignorant of the 

fact that the buyer wishes to get specimens 

of Pima handiwork as the latter is of the fact 

that the ware is packed on the heads of 

women from the villages of another tribe 30 

to 50 miles to the southward. 

Two specimens (pi. xix, d) were obtained 
from a Pima woman at Casa Blanca, who had 
"made them to sell," which have not the 
characteristic polish and the decoration of 
Kwahadk' ware. They are of interest because they show the Pima 
method of treatment of the human figure in clay modeling, and also 
the manner in which the face was painted. The larger efRgy'' has 
light brown lines on the body, both front and back, wliich repre- 
sent a necklace, belt," 
skirt (perhaps), and 
what would seem to be 
the V-shaped opening 
at the neck of an up- 
per garment. The face 
is painted in vertical 
stripes of red and 1)lue, 
as was the custom with 
this tribe a few years 
ago. The front hair 
is represented on the 
forehead by prominent 
ridges. 

The smaller effigy '" 
has fewer lines on the 
face, and the body is 
imdecorated. 

From the ruins pottery spoons or ladles are sometimes taken which 
have apparently acquired magic import from the character of their 
source. These spoons are used in feeding the sick, and for no other 




Fig. 55. Olla with whitish designs on red ground. 



a The larger specimen figured is 264 nun. in diameter and 73 mm. high. The smaller is 212 mm. in 

diameter and 43 mm. high, 
ii Height. 212 mm. 
c Height, 20 cm. 



RrssKi.i,] 



ARTIFACTS 



131 



purpose, so far as the writer is aware. The collection contains one 
very old spoon of Pima manufacture," which is practically an elon- 
gated bowl (pi. XX, a). Another specimen'' was made for us to illus- 
trste the t^-pe, which, though rare, is well recognized (pi. xx, h). The 
collection contains also a bowl (pi. xx,r), two coiled bowls (pi. xx,f/), 
and two decorated bowls (pi. xx, (). 

Pottery was mended with gum from the creosote bush, Larrea, 
niexicana(pl. ix, «). This busli grows abundantly on the driest plains 
of the (lila watershed, but its leaves are so bitter that it is not touched 
by stock, however extreme may be their hunger. 

BASKETRY 

The art of basket making is practi.sed in nearly every Pima liome. 
The more skillful basket makers produce wares that are useful, dur- 
able, and handsome. 
The work, which is 
done by the women, 
requires much time and 
patience. Owing to the 
poverty of the tribe 
.since the river water has 
been taken from them, 
some women have been 
induced to begin the 
manufacture of baskets 
without having re- 
ceived the necessary 
training in girlhood and 
without an}- pride in 
the fmished jirotluct, as 
it is possible to ilispose 
of them at once at a 
fair price, no matter 
how wretchedly bad 
they may be. 

Materi.\l.s 

There are three materials which surpass all others in imjjortance, 
and quite a number that play a minor part. First of all should be 
named the willow, Salix nigra (fig. 56), twngs of which are gathered 
in March just before the leaves app(>ar. The Yava|)ais wlio now 
live at old Fort McDowell use the willow for the white part of the 
outside of baskets and for the iimer coil as well; but the Pimas 
employ the willow for the weft only. The twigs are about 50 cm. in 




KlG. .V), Willow trf(>. 



"Length. 115 mm.: width, 74 mm.: depth. 25 ram. 
I' Length, 130 nun.: width, ai mm.: depth, :» mm. 



132 



TI[K PIMA INDIANS 



I KTH. ANN. 26 



lengtli. Tlip hark is removed by catchinj; it at the mi(hllo of tiie 
twig in tlie teeth and raising it far enough to insert the thumbs of 
botii hands between the bark and the wood, and then running tlie 
thumbs outward to the ends of the twig. Two such movements 




a b <i 

Fig. 57. n, Willow splints: h, niartynia: c. Cottonwood. 

sirffice to strip the twig, wliich is then sj)ht into three or four strips 
at the smaller end with the teeth and the splitting carried to the other 
end of the twig by carefiil manipulation with both hands, so that the 




Fig. 58. Bundles of martynia pods. 



strips may be as even as possible. These strips are kept in coils, 
which are fTom 10 to 15 cm. in diameter (fig. 57, a). Willow bark is 
also used in basketry, both alone (cradle shields) anil in conjunction 
with other materials (grain baskets). 



Rl'SSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



133 



The stems of the cat-tail, Typlia angustifoHa Linn., are used as 
founchititin in the common baskets. Thc_y are gathered in July when 
green, and are split and tlried. The stalks curl inward along the split 
surface while drpng, so that thej' have the ajipearance of round 
stems vdth a mere line running along one side to show where they 
were split. These stalks are from 1 to 2 m. long and are kept in 
bundles, sometimes 25 cm. in tiiameter, but usually much less. 

The ]iods of the devil's claw, Martjmia fragrans Lindl., furnish the 
third material necessary for the ordinary basket. The supply of 
wild plants is not large enough, and a few mart^mia seeds are planted 
each year by the basket makers. These are gathered in the autumn 
at any time after the plant has dried. They are made into buntUcs 
(fig. 58) for storing or for 
barter by tying a few hooks 
together and then pushing 
other hooks down into the 
center and allowing the 
pods to ciu-ve over one 
another. Each half of a 
pod is provided with one of 
these long recurved hooks, 
from 15 to 20 cm. in length 
(fig. 59). They are black 
on the surface, and hence 
desired for the purpose of 
contrasting with the wliite 
willow to form the designs. 
Their central portion is 
pithy, but the outside is 
very tough and woody. To 
prepare for use, the devil's 
claw is soaked over night 
and then buried in moist 
earth for a day or more. It is then dug out, usually by a party of 
women, who make a "bee" of it, ami the outer fiber of each claw is 
removed by breaking the hooked eml and holding it in the teeth 
while the split fiber is pulled off with the fingers. Figure 60 shows 
such a party stripping the fibers, which appear in a coil at the knees 
of the second figure from the right. In the foreground is a heap of 
strip|)ed pods. A small board in front of each woman is to lay the 
s])lint on when tliinning and shaping it. Instead of soaking and 
burying the devil's claw, some have begun to hasten the process by 
pouring hot water over it and proceeding at once to strip off the 
fiber. The strips arc kept in coils (fig. 57, b) similar to those of willow. 
The}' are valued somewhat more highly than the willow splints, and 




Fig. 59. Martynia pod. 



134 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. AXX. lie 



hence a higher price is sometimes demanded for baskets in which a 
large amount of devil's claw is used. 

Leaves of the agave are sometimes used, but baskets of this mate- 
rial are obtained chiefly fxom the Papagos. Wood from the slender 
branches of cottonwood is sometimes used to take the place of willow, 
but it is less durable and soon becomes yellow. It is prepai'ed in 
the same manner and kept in the same sort of coils as the willow 
(fig. 57, c). 

Wheat straw is extensively used in the manufacture of the jar- 
shaped grain baskets. It is of modern introiluction, and has not fully 
supplanted the ancient style of grain bin. 




Fig. 60. Stripping martyiiia. 

The arrow bush (Pluchea borealis) was the principal material 
employed in the construction of storage bins or baskets. It is 
everywhere abuntlant along the river, and is one of the few shrubs of 
Pimeria that is not armed with thorns, its slender, graceful stalks 
being easily mani])ulated (pi. xxi, a). 

Reeds, Phragmitis communis, were formerly common along the 
Gila, but continuous seasons of drought caused them to disappear. 
Sleeping mats were made from them, but such mats are now rarely 
seen, agave leaf being used instead. 

Plate XXI, c illustrates the crucifixion thorn, Holocantha onioryi, 
surrounded by saltbushes. 



RissKLL] ARTIFACTS 135 

Implements 

Tho only implements used in the niunufacture of the common 
l)a.skpts are awls and knives. The awl was formerly of hone or 
mesquite wood. Now it is of steel with a wooden or gum handle 
(fig. 22, a, b). Common ease knives or light huteher knives, well 
sharpened, are used to trim the strips of willow at the time of use. 

Method 

The ordinary haskets are made hy the process knowTi as coiling. 
The center is of devil's claw, which is generally started as a coil, hut is 
sometimes made by the process called checker weaving for a few cen- 
timeters before beginning the coil. The half stalks of the cat-tail are 
again split before being used and about a dozen of these splints are 
taken to form a foundation. The other two materials, willow and 
devil's-claw splints, are kept in water at the time of use to render 
them flexible. One end of each splint is held in the teeth while the 
knife is rapidly scraped along the rough side and while the edges are 
trinnned smooth ami made parallel, l^pon this part of the operation 
depends much of the evenness and fineness of the finished basket. 
The details of the work do not differ from those of coiled basketry 
everywhere, which have been so fully and entertainingly described by 
Professor Mason. The margin was left with the splint wrapped 
smoothly around it until a few years ago when "some man," supposed 
to have been a Papago,"t()ld them to braid it;" the tops t)f baskets 
are therefore usually finished by passing a single devil's-claw splint in 
and out and backward and forward over the margin, to which it gives 
a braided appearance. W^en the weaving is completed the ends of 
the splints project on the exterior surface, making it very rough. It 
is also soiled and stained from having been lying about during the 
intervals when it was not in the maker's hands for the weeks or 
months that have elapsed since it was begun. By means of a knife 
the longer and tougher ends are cut away, while the others are broken 
and the stains are removed by thoroughly rubl)iiig the surface with 
leaves and twigs of the saltbushes, Atriplex leuliformis, A. canescens, 

A. polycarpa, etc. 

Basket Bowls 

This term may be accepted in lieu of a better one, for the tray- or 
bowl-shaped baskets, which arc shallow and have their sides sloping 
at a low angle from the horizontal. They range from a perfectly flat 
<lisk to a bowl with rounded bottom having a depth of 20 cm. 

The designs upon these old-style baskets are often very pleasing 
and even remarkably good. When ([uestioned as to the meaning of 
the elements of these patterns, the basket makers invariably re})lieil: 
"1 don't know; the old women make them in this way. They copied 



136 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. L>6 

the patterns long ago from the Hohokam pottery." Wliile these state- 
ments are true in the main, some of the elements will be seen to be of 
wide distribution and some are peculiar to the Pacific coast. Tliero 
are three common designs: Those embodying tlie fret, the equal-armed 
cross, and tlie spiral. Nearly all that do not represent these directly 
are more or less evident modifications of tliem. The fret, whicli the 
Pimas probably with trutii called tlie oklest motive, leads almost 
directly into the swastika and suavastika pattern, as sho\ni in tlie 
illustrations. The flower design based upon the cross is apparentlv 
the same as that on the necks of water jars made by the Hohokam, 
and such vessels are similarly decorated to the present day by both 
Pimas and Papagos. On the potter}^ the design is laid upon a ((mvex 
surface, while in the baskets it is worked upon the interior, or concave, 
side. The elements of the design are, first, a series of four radiating 
arms of black separating the petal-like areas wliich are usually in 
the shape of spherical triangles. The second element is a series of 
encircling lines that lie parallel to the radiating bars and follow their 
outline entirely around the basket, having also rectangular enlarge- 
ments w^here they change direction to cross the ends of the bars or to 
follow along their sides. It is just such a design as might easily 
originate in pottery decoration where a complete line may ])e traced 
continuously, but it is not one that can be easily explainetl if it is 
assumed that it originated in basketry, especially when it is remem- 
bereil that these people prepare no pattern whatever beforehand, but 
develop the designs upon the baskets as pre\aously conceived in the 
mind. 

The volute, or whorl, is a common motive in primitive art, and is 
especially fi-ecjuent in Southwestern basketry. As the angular weav- 
ing necessitates irregularities in the lines of curvature, they are not 
infre({uently modified by terrace-like enlargements. Terraces are used 
in combination with nearly all the otiier elements known to the basket 
maker. 

It will be observed that tlie decoration of Pima baskets is in Idack 
on a white ground for the most part, yet the proportions vary greatly. 
Brown, and more rarely some otiier (^olor, may be seen in perhaps one 
basket in a thousand. Occasionally a basket is made with a dozen or 
more blue glass beads fastened on the bonier at equal intervals by 
weft splints passing through them. Rarely, work or trinket baskets 
are made to sell that have open spaces in their sides. 

Description of Plates 

The fret is a common motive in Pima basketn,^ In the small — and 
usually badly inade — baskets it is commonly single and of uniforni 
width. In the first of our series (pi. xxii, a) it appears as a double 
line with five folds. Had there been but four the effect of the whole 



HCSSELLJ ArtTIFACTS 137 

would have suggested tlie swastika. The large basket, i, has three 
parallel lines, a larger number of folds, and an unusually large center 
of unrelieved black. Baskets c, d, and e exliibit slight modifications 
of the fret, in c the parts of thg iimer circle being four in number and 
in e five. The design in /is a fret of four folds, and the fret is the 
principal motive also in some of the upright baskets show'n in plates 
XXIX and xxx. Basket gr shows an equal-armed cross in white and a 
series of fourliroken linesthatpass, in the form of a whorl, fi'om near 
the center to the margin after each taking one and a half turns around 
the basket. Basket h combines the fret and whorl, there being seven 
radiating lines that reach the margin after half a turn each. 

In plate xxin, a, is shown a rare form — a liat disk, ornamented 
with a whorl of six broken lines, an intermediate form between the 
fret and the whorl. In h there is an unusual treatment of the dark 
center, elsewhere invarial)ly a solid disk of black. It looks as if the 
maker had changed the design after starting the six rather irregular 
bars of black from the center. In c the six radiating lines advance 
toward the periphery by the interpolation of an independent motive 
that will be seen later in upright shapes. Baskets d and e are orna- 
mented with five pairs of whorled lines that contain scpiares of black, 
which may also l)e regarded as an independent motive. In / the 
number .5 again reappears and also the simple motive of c, but this 
time in white on a black ground. This is called b}^ some the "coyote 
track." It is well siiown in plates xxix and xxx. 

Plate XXIV, a, illustrates a combination of the broken whorled 
lines of the preceding plate with a pattern obtained by the chil- 
dren at school in an early stage of their instruction in drawing. .\t 
the margin is the diamond pattern that has the effect of netting. 
In h, although the lines do not radiate from the center, they have 
something of the whorled effect, and they unite with the fret of the 
preceding illustrations a new element — the terrace — which is so com- 
mon on the ancient pottery of Arizona. The parts are in five, there 
being two reduplications of the unit in the outer row to one in the 
inner. In c the parts are again in six. The central portion is difli- 
cult to analyze, but the outer repeats the terrace, together with a fret 
that by its breadth of line at the center suggests the form of the 
cross known as the swastika. Basket d has the fret combined with 
the terrace, being similar to the first basket in the last figure. The 
parts of the design in tiiis plate ai'c in four, five, and six. 

Plate XXV, a, depicts a form of ecpial-armed cross that we shall 
later see passes into another type of design that is complicated, yet 
pleasing, namelj', the llower pattern. Baskets with the design shown 
in a are cjuite common. In b the attenuated arms may be likened to 
the limbs of some giant spider. They will be seen to be nearly the reverse 
of the white arms of the design in basket c. Basket d represents a 



188 



THE VIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 20 




Fig. 01. Bnskot with scroll decoration. 



variant that was seen in a few shallow l)askets and which occasionally 
appears in the upripjht forms, as in plate xxx, j. It resembles a gigan- 
tic pictograph upon an ancient altar near Sacaton, the largest picto- 
graph the writer has seen in Arizona. Baskets e and/, and also a, h, 
and c, plate xxvi, contain designs that are perhaps the most abundant 

to be found in Pima basketry. The 
patterns are who rled fretswith many 
modifications. The decorative effect 
is enhanced by the addition of the 
triangular element, to which the same 
name, mi)'Clmvitcka, "triangle," is 
applied as to the terrace. It is seen 
to be an independent element com- 
pleted by an extended hook. In 
plate XXVI, a, c, the triangle at the 
margin is relieved with white, but in h 
it appears in its more common form. 
In plate xxv, /, the mode of origin 
of the triangle is seen in the termi- 
nal enlargement of a segment of the terrace. The triangle gives color 
balance to the whole, as in 6, and also fills space due to the elements 
of the main figure being carried as a whole nearly straight to form 
an ecjual-armed figure on a spherical surface. These designs are 
iisually in fours, though sometimes in threes and fives. Figure 61 
includes two designs with dissimilar elements which adapt equally 
well rectangular designs to a hemi- 
spherical surface. The design, while 
clumsily made and unsymmetrical, 
is 3^et pleasing by the at least par- 
tial harmonj- of design and form. 
The motive in tlfis design will Ix' 
recognized by students of Califoi- 
nian basketry. The basket shown 
in figure 62 is a rarelj'^ beautiful one. 
having simplicity of design pleasing 
by its rhythm or repetition and colors 
well proportioned. 

Plate XXVII contains several exam- 
ples of good baskets. The seconil 
has many triangles, those along the margin suggesting a mode of 
origin of what is known as tlie " top-knot'' design. The outer band 
on this basket has the appearance of having been added as an after- 
thought, but such was not the case, as the device is not uncoimnon 
and occurs in the unusually fine basket shown in c. The latter is the 




Fig. 02. Basket with scroll-feet decoration. 



RissEr.i.j ARTIFACTS 139 

largest basket in the collection, yet it is so well proportioned, iiot- 
witlistandini;; the reduction of the ninnber oi repetitions to three, that 
an artistic design is produced. The warp coils iriow successively 
narrower from the center, thus makinj; the walls tliin and flexible. 
Figures (? and ( contain modifications of the equal-armed cross, witl> 
an apparently new element in d, which is shown in c to be a derivation 
of the trianijle. These two baskets are examples of one of the oldest 
de.siirns. It is also seen in the upiicjht basket, plate XXXII, c. The 
white in /suggests the rattlesnake rattle design. 

Plate XXVIII introduces a new design which the Pimas call si'sitcut- 
ci-flk, "very much figured" or "complicated." Analysis shows c and 
d to be much simpler than they appear at first sight. The elements 
in d are an equal-armed cross and parallel lines around it, with enlarge- 
ments wherever they change direction. The effect of the whole is 
suggestive of a flower with four petals. In a the petals appear largely 
in white. This flower design is said to be of recent origin. Sala 
Hina, who is perhaps 70 years of age, declares that it was unknown 
in her girlhood days. 

Plates XXIX, xxx, xxxi, and xxxii include a series of baskets from 
photographs representing basket collections in Sacaton. Many have 
the upright waste-paper basket form, and are recent. Nearly all the 
Pima baskets made during the winter of 1901-2 were of these 
shapes. Many are decorated with simple motives that depend for 
their effect upon repetition. A notable feature of the ornament is 
the introduction of badly executed human figures. Certain traders 
urged the basket makers to put as many human and animal figures as 
possible on the baskets. Truly we need a society for the protection of 
American art. The most successfid of these designs seen by the writer 
is the Gila monster shown in plate xxx, n. However, it is but a sorry 
substitute for the old-time simple motives. These baskets serve 
also to illustrate the varied treatment of the geometric elements met 
with in the shallow baskets as applied to the convex surfaces of the 
upright forms. 

In conclusion, it is believed to be advisable to add the names of the 
elements of the designs which the Pima basket makers regard as dis- 
tinct. But two in the list refer to natural objects, namely, numbers 3 
and 7 below. It is worthy of note that the continued inquiries of 
visitors have arou.sed the interest of the natives to such a degree that 
they have begun to devise plausible interpretations to symbols the 
meaning of which is absolutely imknown to them. 

1. Atc'rta, the black center of all baskets. 

2. Ka'kiopins, "crossed lines" (pi. xxii). 

.3. Kam'ketcit, "turtle," applied to a square design (pi. xxii). 

4. Mav'spitchita, "h)cked together, "the interrupted fret (pi. XXVI, p). 

5. Mo'ilmvitcka, "triangular," all triangles and terraces. 



140 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETll. ANN. L'rt 



6. O'pilniusult, " parallel lines doubled on themselves" (pi. xxiii). 

7. Pan ika'kita, "coyote tracks" (pi. xxix). 

S. Sa'-ai, "figured," plain design witii radiating black l)ars 
(pi. xxviii, e). 

9. Si'hitaldrwutcim, "spiral," w.horled or spiral designs (pi. xxiii). 

10. Si'sitci'tcrfik, "very much figured," the flower pattern 

(pi. XXVIII). 

11. Stoa, "wliite," having a few narrow lines. 

12. StJp'epHtchn kakaitoa, "striped with black and white," a 
general term for designs in alternating black and white lines. 

1,3. Ta'sita, "set" or "prearranged," the swastika and suavastika. 
14. Tco'ho-otcilt, "crooked lines," the fret. 




Fig. 63. Ki 



In tlie Golden Age of Pimeria all Inirdens were borne by the women, 
either upon their heads with the aid of the head ring or upon their 
backs with the unique contrivance wliicli they call kiaha (fig. 6.3), 
a name that it may be well to retain for tlie purpose of precise descrip- 
tion, as the term "carrying basket" suggests the conical receptacle 
of other tribes, which is an entirely different affair. The kiaha, 
though unwieldy in appearance, is very light and strong, and heavy 
loads of wood and other bulky articles may ])e jiiled upon the frame- 
work, as may be seen in the series of pictures (pi. xxxiv a, b, c, d), 
which illustrate the manner in which the kifdia is loaded while set 
on the ground with the two long front frame sticks and a separate 
helping stick (fig. 64), forming a tripod. After loading the kiaha, 
the old dame is seen in h rising to her feet with tiie aid of the help- 
ino' stick. Had she had to carry a baby in its cradle she would have 



KCSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



141 



placed it in a horizontal position on the top of the heap of mesquite 
wood; as it was, her load weijjhed nearly lUO pounds, yet she knelt 
down, engaged her head inider the carrvinu; strap, and struggled to 
her feet without assistance (r). The method of iniloading is shown 
in d, where, hy bending forward, the entire burden is thrown off 
clear of the head. Figure 65 illustrates the manner in which a kiidia 
net is mended. 

As the kiaha is distinctively a woman's utensil, so is it closely 
associated with her life history. The young girls of 8 or 10 begin to 
use small kiahas made especially for them or that have 
been cut down from old ones. The_v learn the methods 
of loading so that the burden may be stable and of 
proper bulk, they acfjuire the necessary nerve and muscle 
coordinations that enable them in later years to lift 
loads weighing more than do they themselves, they 
become inured to the fatigue of long journej's, and they 
learn to preserve their kiilhas with care from rain. The 
maiden must have long and gaily-spotted frame sticks 
at the front of her kiaha, which are wound with long 
hair cords. She uses a helping stick that is orna- 
mented mth a long deerskin fringe pendent from the 
binding at the crotched end (fig. 64). As she walks 
along wdth the sharpened end of the stick thrust into 
the load the fringe hangs above and forward of her 
head, swinging at every step or fluttering with every 
breeze. It is indeed a conspicuous object, and it is not 
surprising that it should have caught the attention of 
ever}' passing traveler, whose illustrations of it are 
uniformly bad." 

As the age of the o\vner advances she becomes care- 
less of the appearance of her kiaha, the spots on the 
frame are less frec[uently renewed, the cordage grows 
sliort and worn, and the foresticks of the frame are cut 
down in length. However, her burdens do not diminish, 
and the woman here photographed, though her age 
exceeds the scriptural allotment, is yet able to carry more tlian lUU 
pounds at a load. 

The kiaha is of entirely different materials from the ordinary Pima 
baskets. Wood is used for tiio four frame sticks, two at llie fi'ont 
and two at the rear. Saguaro ribs are invariabl}' used for tlie pur- 
pose, as they are very light, .symmetrical, straight, and sufficiently 
strong. The hoop is a double band of wiUow. 

<i"They are highly prized by their owners, as they are very useful to them, and are m,-ide with 
much labor. For the only specimen I could obtain 1 was obliged to give goods to the value of SIO." 
Bartlett, Personal Narrative, u, 236. 



Fig. 04. Helping 
stick. 



142 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[KTH. ANN. 'Jli 



Agave leaf serves for the front matting or apron that rests agamst 
the back. Between the front and the frame a roll of bark or cloth 
is usually placed to prevent chafuig. The headband is of the same 
material as the apron. It is really a circular band that is flattened 
out and doubled across the forehead. 

Human hair is used to attach the hoop to the frame sticks. It is 
of 2-ply 4-strand cord, which is made fast to the hoop and, after 
drawing the hoop as high as possible to tighten the net, wound from 
10 to 50 times around the frame sticks. 

The maguey, Tasylirioni wheeleri, furnishes the fiber for the net 
(fig. 38). Yucca elata is also a valuable fiber plant and it is prob- 
able that the Papagos obtain netting material from Agave hetera- 
cantha. The first two of these plants are found ou the higher liills 




Fig. 05. Mending ki&h& net. 

and mountains of Pimeria, whence they are gathered by parties who 
go especially for them. Pits are dug and fires are built in them as 
the maguey is gatiiered. After the fire has died down it is cleared 
out and the pits are lined with small stones. The maguey is spread 
on these, covered with earth, and allowed to roast over night. After 
it has been removed from the pit the pulp of the roasted plants is 
scraped away with a deer's scapula, leaving the fibers a foot or two 
in length. These are dried, and when they are long a roU 6 inches 
in diameter will be sufficient for a kialia net. Such a roll of fiber is 
easily transported, and is a recognized article for barter between 
Pimas and Papagos. The spinning of kiaha tliread is a social event, 
and the women gather for the purpose and gossip merrily as they 
twist tile 2-ply twine, which is rolled into balls that may also be bar- 



iirssi:i.i,] 



ARTIFACTS 



143 



tered or kept for some time Ix'fore beiiifj made iiit(» the nets of con- 
ventional pattern (ficr. 63)." 

After the net has been bound to tlie lioop by a spirally wound cord 
that completely covers the latter, it is colored with red and blue dyes 
in sucli a manner as to emphasize the outlines of the pattern. 

Majjuev iihcv, or horsehair, may be used for the cord w hich extends 
from the headband to the frame. It is about 8 mm. in diameter. 
Wlien of mague^y, it is often so well made as to pass readily for 
machine-made cordaoje imtil we examine it closely.'' 




Fig. tiO. Storage baskets. 

Storage Haskets 

The use of large baskets made especially for storing grain and ot-lier 
supplies was widespread in America. They were and are yet of the 
highest utility to the Pimas, who have raised an abundance of com 
and later of wheat to supjily all their o\\^l needs and more. Two 
types prevail: A circular bin of arrow bush covered with buslies and 
earth (fig. 66), and a globular basket of wheat straw built up by 
coiling (fig. 67). 

<• For detail of the wea\'lng see Mason's Origins of Primitive Culture, 251: also Report National 
Museum, 1S94, 471, where Professor Mason makes the statement that the kiaha net, worked in what 
is "commonly called the Ijuttonhole or half-hitch stitch, finds its most northern extension among the 
Piman stock. Nowhere in the Pueblo tribes is it found, iUMJording to the collections in the U. S. Naticmal 
Museum. But south of the Piraan it occurs in Centnil .\merica. in Latin South .\mericii as far south 
as Tierradel Fuego, where it will be found to be the only attempt at textiles." This is another link in 
the chain of evidence that separates the Pimas from the Ilohoknm and other Pueblo peoples. 

f' The collection contains an old woman's kiiihil. the foresticks of which are 1.. '540 m. hmgandacm. in 
diamc*er at the butt. The shorter .sticks are 70 cm. long. The hoop is 05 cm. in diameter. The apron 
is .W cm. long by 2.S cm. wide. The headlumd is 35 em. long and K cm. wide. The accompanjlng 
helping stick is 1.90 ra. long and 22 mm. in diameter; the notch is 6 cm. long and .IS em. wide at the 
op<'ning. 



144 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



The former type is furnished with a bottom of willow branches. 
The sides are built up by twisting rolls of arrow bush with the butts 
thrust into the coil beneath to bind the whole together." This type 
is used for storing mesquite beans on the tops of the houses or sheds 
(fig. 4). They are also built on the ground in groups, which are 
inclosed by a low fence to protect them from stock. They are made 
before the harvest begms, and as the coils are large and there is no 
close work required a large bin may be built up ui half a day. 

The straw baskets have their coils fastened with strips of willow 
bark about 5 mm. in width. The stitches pass tlirough the upper 
marghi of tlie last coil and are about 20 nmi. apart. The coils are 
from 1 to 2 cm. in diameter. The baskets are from one-half to IJ 





■^L 






.(3sS7^>*^ '-.-■* tt £ yvwi 


2««S»||^ 


1 


^^^M 


mk 


^^P^^,5??? 


4 


^» 


* J 




""^^11^: 


.' » '"^ 



Fig. 67. Small storage buskot. showing woave 

meters hi height. They are covered by a circular disk of the same 
material or, more frequently, by a section of the bottom of an old 
worn-out basket. 

In makuig these baskets two rolls are carried around at once, but 
as they are made with some care it takes much longer than to make a 
bin of arrow bushes. The baskets are made after the harvest, when 
the straw is available. 



o The remains of a basket of this type were found by the writer in June, 1901, when examining the two 
large clia-houses about 4 miles south of the Salt river, opposite the mouth of the Tonto. Bandelier 
gives the ground plan of these structures La Papers of Archeol. Inst.. .\m. ser., iv, pt. ii, 42ii. This 
would suggest rclationsliip with the Pueblo cliff-dwellers (assuming that the place had not been 
occupied recently by Apaches or .other invaders', were it not for the fact that this tyiie of bins, as 
well as the arbors on which they are built, prevails among the southern California tribes. 



KDSSBLL] 



ARTIFACTS 



145 



Minor Types 

Rectangular trinket baskets (fifj. 6S, a) are made of ag;ave leaves, 
but nearlj' all are obtained from the Papagos, as the Pima women 
seldom make them. They are deeper than broad, somewhat enlarged 
at the bottom, and are provided with lids." They are of the twined 
style of weaving. At a distance 
of 1 cm. from the interior margin 
of the lid the warp splints (so 
termed for the sake of clearness 
in description — they are exactly 
like the weft) are cut and the 
ends show on the inside of the 
lid. The weft is cbntmued to 
the margin, turned back on it- 
self at right angles to form what 
looks like a separate ring around 
the lid; at a height of 5 or 6 cm. 
it is again folded in and the ends 
of the splints are cut about 1 
cm. from the last fold, so as to 
be concealed from view. 

"Medicine" baskets (fig. 68, b) 
are of the same material and 
style of weaving as the trinket baskets. They have a characteristic 
shape — long, square cornered, with rounded margin. They are made 
in two nearly equal parts, one of which slips over the other as a lid.'' 




Fig. 08. n. Trinket basket. 




Fig. 08, 6. Modirine basket. 



Food bowls of remarkably fine workmansliip and graceful shape 
were carried by warriors on the warpath. They were used to mix 

a The collection contains a specimen of average size, which measures 19 cm. in height, 17 by 18 cm. at 
the base, and 10 cm. square at the top. 

& The collection contains one very old medicine basket which is 29 cm. long, 10 cm. wide, and 9 cm. 
deep. 

26 ETH— OS 12 



146 



THE I'IMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



piiiole in and also served as drinkint; cu]is. They were light and 
indestructible. They are no longer made aiid hut two were seen on 
the reservation. 




Fig. 69. a, Olil sieve: b, modem sieve. 



Head rings of agave leaf (fig. 36, h) are occasionally seen, but they 
are supposed to have been adopted from the Papagos (see p. 113). 




Fig. to. sleeping mat. 



Oval sieves were made of willow rods, and were very usefid in clean- 
ing seeds, and in separating juice from j)ulp hi a variety of plants 



nrssELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



147 



(fie. 69, a). Tliey liiiv<' been sumilantod by a wire sieve" made by 
building: a coiled basket rim around a j^iece of wire netting that has a 
mesh of 1 mm. ((ig. 69, h).'' 

Bird traps, house doors, shelves, bird cages, and the like verge 
upon basketry, but these have all been described in connection witli 
otlier objects oi wood. 

The hoods of cradles (described on p. lO.S) must be included in the 
list of articles of basketry in use by tliis jjeople. They are of willow 
bark cut into strips about 5 mm. wide and woven in the simplest 
checker style. They are light and flexible, and thus l)etter adapted 
for their purpose than if made of willow and devil's-claw s]ilints. 
At tlie bottom of this hood or shield the strips are gatliered into two 
wrapped bundles, which 
slip into )>lace on each side 
of the first transverse bar 
beneath the baby's head 
The convexity of the rolls 
prevents the hood froni 
slipping past the bur and 
the weight upon tlieni in- 
sures stability, while at 
the same time the hood 
may be readily detached. 

Sleeping Mats 

Mats were formerly niad(> 
by the Pimas of the cane, 
Phragmitis communis, that 
grew in abundance along 
the Clila until the water 
supply became too scant 
for the maintenance of this plant. They are now made of agave 
leaves by the Papagos, who barter them to the Pimas (fig. 70). 
They are woven in a diagonal pattern, each splint passhig under 
tliree others before appearing agaui, and the wrong side being rough."^ 
The splints are softened by soakuig at the time of weaving and 
become somewhat stifi' wJieii dried. The warp and woof are alike, 

o Twenty-six cm. in diameter at the tcip and 22 at tlie bottom. There are 7 coils in the rim, maldng 
it 4 cm. deep. 

!> The willow sieve in the collection was made on request by Sala 1 1 imi . us t here a re now none of the old 
style to lie found. It is 3Jcm. long, the ends of the rods proji>cting3ci]i. heyond the hoop to form a sort 
of handle. The hoop is 2(1 cm. wide. There are 4 cross-tnisted strands to hold the rods in place. The 
willow rods are 2 mm. apart and 2 mm. in dijiineter. 

c Fig. 71 shows the detail of this, with the ends of the spliTits that have been doubled back.showijig 
at a. a. a. Thus the warj) splints continue as such to the margin and double back to o as weft. The 
under or what may be called weft splints, similarly treated, appear in the figure at b, b, b. The length 
of the mat collected is 2.100 m.; width, 1.4K0 in. 




Fig. T1. Detail of sleeping mat. 



148 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



and extend in a direction oblique to the sides of the mat. At a 
distance of about 7 cm. from the margjin of both sides and ends the 
warp and weft splints are woven separately to form a double border, 
which is held together by single splints occurring at mtervals of 
about 15 cm. 

TEXTILES 

Spinning 

The Pimas no lon<jer spin and weave ; the art is djang with the pass- 
ing of the older generation. It was with difiicuitv that enough raw 




2. Md.lrl of loom 



cotton of Pima raising was secured to make the beginning of a piece 
of cloth on the small model loom shown m figure 72. This loom was 
made by the writer's old friend Ka'nud tkak, who, though an adept m 
weaving, could not spin and had to engage a woman to do that por- 
tion of the work. She removed the seeds by iirst spreading out the 
cotton and Ideating it with a switch. 

Ka'mal tkak succeeded in finishing the spinnmg (see spindle, fig. 
73) before the writer had an opportunity to witness the process. 
However, it has been well described by others." 

a Lieutenant Emory thus describes the manner in which it was done in 1846: "A woman was 
seated on the ground under the shade of the cotton sheds [arbors on which the cotton was spread to 
dry]. Her left leg was tucked under her seat and her foot turned sole upwards. Between her big toe and 



RUSSELL] 



ARTIFACTS 



149 



Fortimately, Doctor Palmer obtained in 1885 a complete loom with 
sample balls of cotton thread (fij;. 74) from the Piiiias. The warp is 
smoothly and evenly spun into a thread about 1 nun. in (Maineter. 
The woof tlireaiis are softer and are about 3 mm. in diameter; the ball 
(Museum no. 7601 2) is 61 cm. in circumference. 

Sinew from the l)ack and legs of deer was made into 
thread and was used in tying cradle bars', sliield han- 
dles, arrows, kitiha frames, and even tat to()ing needles. 

An unidentified .species of grass, called a'kivik b}- 
the Pimas, is said to have been spun into tliread in 
ancient times. According to the myth, it supplied 
the s<m of Corn Woman with material for his bow- 
string. W^ien there is sufficient rain, this grass 
grows on the Mo'hatflk hills, north of Gila Crossing. 

Weavino 

The art of weaving was not highly ileveloped 
among the Pimas, yet the few simple fabrics of cot- 
ton which they produced sufficed to satisfy their 
needs for clotliing and adornment." Unlike their 
neighbors, they have all but abandoned the art of 
weaving; at no time in their history have they ad- 
vanced as far as the Pueblo tribes. Where they 
learned the art or if they developed it themselves we 
may not know. We can only hazard the guess that 
they had the ingenuity to imitate the fabrics wliich 
the Hohokam left behind or which the Pimas actu- 
ally saw them using. 

Early accomits of the Pimas '' contain references to their fields of 



Fig. 73. Spindliv 



the next was a spindle about 18 inches long, with a single fly of four or six inches. Ever and anon she 
gave it a twist in a dexterous manner, and iit its end was drawn a coarse cotton thread." (Notes, 85.) 

" The implements used by these tribes for spinning and wea\nng are of the most primitive character. 
.\ slender stick about 2 feet long passing through a block of wood, which serves to keep up the 
momentum imparted to it, constitutes the spindle. One end of this rests on a wooden cup inserted 
between the toes and the other is held and twirled by the fingers of the right hand, while the left hand 
Is occupied in drawing out the thread from a supply of cotton which is coiled on the left arm in loose 
rolls." (Bartlett, Personal Narrative, ii, 225.) 

The spindle collected is of arrowwood. the cross bar is of cactus rib. Length, 730 mm.; diameter, 
7 mm.; length of bur. 175 mm.; width, .'il mm. (Fig. 73.) 

a '• I suppose that all are proWded with cotton blankets; but, owing to the almost incessant heat of 
the day. they seldom wear them," writes Bartlett (Per.sonal Narrative, II. 221) i; but in fact there were 
many poor Pimas who had no blankets and in winter they must have been miserable, indeed, despite the 
mildness of the cUmate. Those who were unalile to weave but were well to do obtained blankets by 
bartering corn, beans, and other produce, or horses at the rate of one horse for two blankets. 

t Bartlett describes the I'iina method of wearing as follows: *■ Inweaving, the warp is attached to two 
sticks, and stretched upon thegrnun<i by means of stakes. Each alternate thread of the warp is passed 
round a piece of cane, which, being lifted, opens a pas.sage for the shuttle in the manner of a sley. The 
operator sits in the fashion of a tailor, and, raising the sley with one hand, with the other passes the shut- 
tle, which is simply a pointe<l stick with the thread wound upon it, between the threads of the warp. 
The work is beaten up after the passage of each thread by the use of a sharp smooth-edged instrument 
made of hard wood. The operation of course progresses slowiy, and from the length of time consumed 
in spinning and wearing they seta high price upon their lilankets, asking for them ten or twelvedollars 
innioney,ora new woolen blanket of equal size. The wearing is generally done by the old men." (Per- 
sonal Narrative, ii, 225.) 



150 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



fETH. AXX. 26 



cotton, which was picked and spreatl on the roofs of their arbors to dry 
in the pod. When dried and separated from the pods it was stored in 
large ollas, where, if covered, it would keep for an inilefinite period in 
that dry climate. Usually, however, it was stored until winter, when 
there was time for the women to spm it into threads and for the men 
to weave it" into squares of cloth wliich served as robes for protecting 
the body by day and as blankets by night, girdles for the waist, and 
similar but smaller bands for the head. In later times it is said that 
bolts of cloth of considerable length were woven to be bartered with 
adjoining tribes, but this woukl seem not to have been in accordance 
with primitive custom. 

Accounts of the Pimas that were written in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries contain references to the use of wool as well as 
native cotton, but very little information is obtainable concerning the 




Fig. 74. Cotton balls, nativo spinning. 

use of wool, and there was not a single sheep on the reservation at the 
time of the writer's visit. 

No dyes were used except a dark bull' oclicr'' bartered from the 
Papagos, into which the cotton was dipped. \o mordant was used and 
the resulting color was neither brilliant nor i)orman('nt. However, it 
was applied only to the selvage threatl. Bayeta was unraveled to 
obtain scarlet thread for belts after the inauguration of trade relations 
with tlie ^le.xicans. 

Sewing was unknown, and holes were ])atched l)y weaving in a new 
piece. 

Implements and methods. The loom was simpler than that used by 
the surrounding tribes and was spread horizontally instead of being 
set upright. Four stakes were first driven firmly in the ground out- 

o It is of interest to note that this di\ision of labor differs from that of the nopis and the Ziifiis. 
6 A sample of the mineral used was found upon analysis to contain 30.52 per cent ferric oxide. 



BPSSELL] ARTIFACTS 151 

lining a rcctan<jular space the exact size of the j>rojpcted fal)ric. A 
deep layer of clean white sand from the river bed was spread between 
the stakes to prevent the under surface of the fabric from becoming 
soiled. The end or yarn ])eams were of saj!;uaro ribs of suitable size, 
held in place across the end stakes by cords which were stretched taut 
at the sides. The beams were about 6 inches from the around, tlms 
perniittin<^ the warp to pass freely around them as it was wound over 
one and under the other in a continuous thread. A heavy double 
binding thread, usually dyed buff, was passed through the loops at the 
ends of the war]) and was given a half turn as each loop was caught up. 
The yarn beams were then removed, leaving a lease rod of arrowwood 
in place of one of them. The binding thread was next bound to the 
yarn beams by a heavy thread wound in a spiral from end to end. 
The warp could then i)e stretched in place !))• again putting the beams 
outside the stakes and pulling the side cords taut. The heald rod was 
also of arrowwood put in i)lace by passing a loop from a thread that 
had been slipped through the open shed from the right imder each 
lower warp thread and pushing the rod through the loop from the left. 

The weaver sat upon his haunches on the ground or on the cloth 
when it was finished too far for him to reach frt)m the end. He low- 
ered the lease rod beyond the heddle and gathered the upper threads 
in front of the heddle on a slender sharpened rod, which enabled him 
to lift them higli enough to pass the shuttle through. The shuttle was 
an arrowwood stick to one end of which the weft thread was tied and 
then passed to the other in a slightly sjiiral direction; there it was 
wound twice around and then j)asseil back; thus it was wound from 
end to end of the shuttle until the latter carried many yards of thread. 
After the shuttle was j)assed through the shed the thread was struck 
home with a flat batten of mesquite wood. If the war]) threads were 
irregular, thej' were adjusted with a short peg which took the place of 
the comb used by the other tribes that weave in the Southwest." Two 
heavy selvage threads lay at the side of the warp, and as the shuttle 
was passed through the shed it was brought between them and they 
were given a half turn to engage the woof thread before it ])assed back 
in the other shed which was ojjened by raising the heddle. 

The width of the cloth was not well maintained, as there was a strong 
tendency for it to become narrower, but by the aid of a stretcher or 
tem])le this was ])artially overcome. The temjile had two longitudinal 
grooves separated by a distance equal to the w idth of the clotii. In 
eacli groove was ])laced a s(>ction of willow or arrowwood stem an inch 
in length, bound with a heavy thread around the stretcher. The outer 
end of the short stick was sharpened so that it might be ])ushed 



a Length of the specimen collected. U cm. U is shown in fig. 72 at the margin of the finished cloth, 
where it was pushe<i under u few threads to hold it in position for photographing. 



152 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ ETn. Axx. 26 



through the cloth under the selvage, thus rendering the temple readily 
adjustable." 

The collection contains one old headband'' or belt (fig. 75, o), which 
its owner had laid away wrapped around his long hair which he had 
been induced to cut off. It is woven from tiglitly twisted cotton yarn, 
the colors being bhick, white, green, and yellow, arranged in a zigzag 
pattern, as shown in the figure. The reverse side is without pattern 
and not intended to be seen. Another headband"^ (fig. 75, b) was made 





Fig. 75. a. Old belt headband; b, new b<'lt hi-iidband. 

to order and is of a much simpler design and style of weaving. The 
colors are black, white, and red. 

There are two belts or headbands in the Xational ^luseum that 
were collected by Bartlett in 1850. One of these, no. 178911, is a 



a Doctor Palmer collected a Pima loom in 1885, which is now in the National Museum, no. 76008. The 
beams are of cactus wood, l.410m. long, 6 cm. in diameter. Theheddleis of arrowwood, the same length 
as the beams, and is 8 mm. in diameter. The blanket, which is about half finished, is 57 cm. wide and 
1.100 m. long. The selvage is notdyed, but there is a red weft thread 29 cm. from the end and a second 
one near it which passes across the middle third of the oloth. The batten is 91 cm. long, 25 mm. 
wide, and the shuttle 92 cm. The cloth is smoothly and evenly woven, having 8 warp and 11 wool 
threads to the inch. 

i Length. 1.900 ra.: width, 05 mm. • 

c T^ength, 2.270 m.; width, 57 nun. 



BCSSBLLJ ABTIFACTS 153 

fine specimen of double weaving." It is of tightly twisted cotton 
thread in dark blue, red, yellow, and white. The fringe 1 breads are 
braided togetiier so that two colors are united in each strand. 

The other belt, no. 178910, is also double, and woven in dark blue, 
light blue, buff, red, and white.* 

The a]>andoninent of the art of weaving these simple fabrics with 
their tasteful patterns is unfortunate. Their loss is relieved by no 
compensatory improvement in other directions." 

ARCHITECTURE 

In their natural state the Pimas built dwellings of four different 
types besides a storehouse. First in importance is the round, flat- 
roofed ki, which resembles an overturned wash basin in shape. 
Notwithstanding the fact that some have declared that the Piman 
ki suggests the pueblo style of architecture and should therefore be 
admitted as eWdence of rehitionship between the Ilohokam and 
Pimas, the author must confess that he has been unable to detect 
the remotest resemblance to the pueblo type. On the contrary, 
analogies may be found with the dwellings of tribes nuich farther 
distant from Pimeria. The ki is built by the men, who gather in 
parties of ten or fifteen for the purpose — a custom which affords 
another instance of a different division of labor from that in vogue 
among the Pueblos, as with them the house building is the work of 
women.'' Though the Pimas have had an example of pueblo struc- 
ture at their very doors ever since they have inhabited the Gila 
valley, in the noble Casa Grande, the walls of which yet rise 30 feet 
above the plain, and have seen the adobe buildings of the Spaniards 
and Mexicans for three hundred and hfty years, nevertheless they 
have continued to construct houses of the simplest type that are but 
little better than temporary shelters. The first Piman adobe house 
was built by the head chief, Antonio Azid, twenty-two years ago, 
and since that time the people have made very commendable prog- 
ress. Some villages — such, for example, as Blackwater — now contain 
few dwellings that are not of adobe. However, there are others, 
such as Ska'kaik, that retain the old-time ki. As an inducement 
toward progress, the Indian Department or its authorized agent has 
stipulated that a man nuist cut off his long hair and build an adobe 
house before he may receive a wagon from the Government. The 

" Length. 2 m.; width. Gcin.; length of fringe, 1.5cm. 

*> Length, 2.0.'t m.: width, 05 mm. The fringe is 20 cm. in length and neatly braided. 

<^ Frobel, who \isited the Pimas half a century ago. .says of their \vea\'ing. ■■ Man wiirde sieh alierirren 
wean man glaubte, dass diese Kiinste durch die Bekehrung zum Chri.stenthum befordert worden seien. 
Im Gegentheile sind sie dadurch in Verfall gerathen. denn bei den heidnischen Pimas findet man die- 
selben in einem hoheren Grade von Vollknrnmenheit." -Viis .\merika, ii. 440. 

d It is worthy of note that the southern California Coahuilla [Kawia] similarly differ from other 
American Indi ins. In that tribe, also, the houses (jacals) are built by the men. See D. P. Bar- 
rows in American Anthropologist, n. 8., 1901, HI, 755. 



154 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. '26 



old custom of destro}"ing the tniildiii<^s at the death of their owners 
has practically disappeared, but its retardinj^ influence upon archi- 
tectural development continued throughout the aboriginal period. 

Usually but one family occupies a single dwelling, though some- 
times two and even three related families live together. If there 
are two, their sleeping mats are placed on each side of the entrance, 
so that in sleeping the heads may be toward the east, the door being 
on that side in order that the inmates may rise early to greet the 
Day god as he appears over the distant summits of the Sierra Tor- 
tilla. A more practical motive for placing the doors on the east 
side is to avoid the southwest winds which blow in the afternoon 
during nearly the entire year and which are especially strong during 
the montli of March. The wind usually begins to blow at about 10 
in the morning and increases to a velocity of 10 miles an hour by mid- 
afternoon, after which it decreases 
until midnight. 

Types 

The general plan of the liouse 
is shown in the accompanying 
diagram (fig. 76). The central 
sup])<)rting framework is usually 
entirely of cottonwood, though 
other timber is sometimes used. 
The lighter framework shown in 
plate XXXV, a, is of willow, on 
which is laid the arrowwood, cat- 
tail reeds, wheat straw, cornstalks, 
or similar material that supports 
the outer layer of earth. 
The roof is supported by four crotched posts set in the ground 
3 or 4 m. apart, witl. two heavy beams in the crotches." Lighter 
cross poles are laid on the last, completing the central framework. 
Ijight willow poles are set half a meter in the ground around the 
j)eriphery of the circle, their tops are bent in to lap over the central 
roof poles, and horizontal stays are lashed to tlicm with willow bark. 
The frame is then ready for the covering of brush or straw. Although 
cartli is heaped upon the roof to a depth of 15 or 20 cm. it does not 
rciulci- it entirely waterproof. When finished tlie ki is very strong 
and capal)le of withstanding heavy gales or supporting the weight of 
the people who may gather on the roof during festivals. 




Fig 



Diagram of house, 
feet. 



Scale: 1 inch ^ 



o " For the larger dwellings nine are used— three on each side and one in the center.' 

Bonal Narrative, ii, 233. 



Bartlett, Per- 



RUSSELL] ARTIFACTS 155 

Lieutenant Eniorv estimated tlie -size of the ki at from 25 to SO 
feet in diameter," wliirli is nuidi too high. From 10 to 25 feet 
would have heen nuuli nearer the true diameter. Tlie average 
dimensions are as foHows: 

MPltTS 

riri'Uiufcrcnre 18. 59 

Inti'rior diameter 5. 48 

Interior height 1- "2 

Distance between main .«iipporling posts 2. 28-2. 43 

Distance between posts and walls 91-1. 60 

Diameter of rafters .08 

Distance between rafters .30 

Distance between horizontal ribs '. .30 

Distance between arched willow rilis .20 

Height of door .81 

Width of door . (>1 

The absence of a smoke hole is noteworthy, as it is almost univer- 
sally present in primitive dwellin^rs. Its absence can not be explained 
by the fact that the mildness of the climate permits the Pimas to 
spend most of their time in the open air and build their fires out- 
side, because in winter fires are maintained within to such an extent 
that the roofs become loaded with masses of soot. It would seem 
probable that the roofs were not provided with openings in order 
that the hou.ses might be as little open to the attack of the Ai)a(hes 
as possible were it not for the fact that the Cocopas and others 
living southwest of the Pimas build huts similarh' devoid of smoke 
vents, which suggests that the Pimas have come from that (juarter 
where the torrid heat renders indoor fires unnecessary' at any season. 
The doorways were low and narrow for the same reason (60 l)y 90 cm. 
in size). They were clo.sed by pieces of old blankets (pi. xxxv, h), 
by slats woven together with rawhide, or by loose sticks of wood 
(pi. xxxv, e,f). 

In each village a low rectangular council house afforded a meeting 
place for the men and at times the women also of the conumuiit}-. 
Rev. C. H. Cook informs the writer that he has addressed an audi- 
ence of as man}- as 80 persons in one of these houses, all bending low 
to avoid the smoke. The last coiutcil house was destroyed at 
Pe-eptcilt in January, lit()2. 

Another form of dwelling ])lace was the woman's menstrual lodge, 
which was a mere shelter of branches to afford protection from 
the sun. 

The fourth type of dwelling is the arbor, or, as some of the early 
writers termed it, "the bower." It is a cotttmwood framework sup- 
ported by crotched posts, roofed with arrowwood and earth, afford- 
ing a shade from the sun, from which protection is desirable during 

" Notes, p. 85. 



156 THK PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

the greater part of the year. The roof furnishes a convenient place 
for dmng squashes, melons, fruit, and, in the old days, cotton, 
wliere the dogs and poultn,- can not disturl) them. Under its shade 
the oUa of drinking water is set in a crotched post or is suspended 
from above by a maguey fiber net. Here two parallel ropes may be 
hung and a cloth folded back and forth upon itself across them, thus 
forming an impromptu hammock in which to swing the baby. Here 
the metate and mortar are usually seen, and here the women sit and 
weave l)askets or perform such otiier labor as may be done at lionie. 
It is the living room throughout the day the year aroimd, and now 
that the fear of Apaches lias gone it is becoming the sleeping place 
as well. From a hygienic point of view it is a great pity that the 
Pimas are learning to build adobes, for the tendency is for them 
to live indoors and to abandon the healthful arbors, every inch of 
whose floors is purified by a burning sun that throws its sterilizing 
rays well under the arbor during the morning and afternoon. Tuber- 
culosis is present in nearly every family, and it is difficult, if not 
impossible, for the agency physician to induce those stricken witli 
it to remain out of doors; they invariably confine themselves within 
the bacilli-laden dwellings. The arbor is kept well swept and clean, 
as is the entire yard al)out the house, so that a more healthfid iiabi- 
tation could not be devised. Occasionally one or more sides of it 
maj^ be inclosed with arrowwood througii which the cool lireezes 
readily iind tlicir way. 

Beside each dwelling will be found a rectangular storehouse built 
with a framework of about the same shape and size as the arbor, 
but witli walls of upright okatdla trunks or cactus ribs. The large 
bush, Baccharis glutenosa, is often used for this purpose. It is .seen 
in its natural state in plate xxi. b; also surrounding the imit figure 
in plate xxxvi and forming the walls of the storehouse in plate 
XXXV, /. Plate IX, 5, illustrates the okatilla, Fouquiera splendens, 
as it grows on the mesas within 2 miles of Sacaton. Each stem is 
crowned with a brilliant spray of scarlet flowers. Plate xxxv, d, 
shows the framework of a storehouse at the right and the finished 
wall of arrow bush in the center. Plate xxxv, e, is a complete store- 
house with arrowwood bins for mescjuite beans on the roof. Some- 
times mud or adobe is added to thewaUs, which renders the structure 
equivalent to the Mexican jacal. The most noticeable feature is the 
door, made by piling up a great heap of unwieldy logs before the 
opening. 

While not to be dignified by the name of house or dweUing, the 
Pima kitchen is an extremely practical aff'air, as wiU be reahzed by 
anyone who attempts to cook on an open fire exposed to storms. 
Plates VI, h, and xxxvi show the manner of arranging these wind- 
breaks, for they are nothing more. In exposed situations the sand 



ensSELL] ARTIFACTS 157 

in time accumulates in a drift of sufficient heio;ht to require a change 
of location. Not all families have such a kitchen, and there is reason 
to believe that it has been adopted from neighboring tribes in recent 
years. 

CLOTHING 

The description of Pima clothing need not be long. Throughout 
fidly three-fourths of the year clothing for protection is quite unnec- 
essary in that region, and that worn in winter was of the simplest 
character. The history of Pima clothing maj' be divided into four 
periods, namely: The first, in which natural products, little modified, 
were employed; the second, in which native textiles were introduced; 
the third, in which more or less remote imitations of Mexican cos- 
tumes were in vogue; and the present period, when verj^ plain and 
serviceable clothing is purchased from the whites. 

Materials and Types 

In primitive times the men wore l)reech-cloths (pi. xxxvii, a, h) 
and the women kilts that fell to the knee, both made of the soft and 
flexible inner bark of the willow, which is used by some among the 
Colorado River tribes to the present day. During the brief season 
when the temperature approached the freezing point at night the 
men wore deerskin shirts, and when abroad upon stony trails 
encased their feet in red-dyed moccasins, also of deerskin. For pro- 
tection at home both sexes wore rawhide sandals, which appear to 
Caucasian eyes all too scant protection for the feet where nature arms 
most species, animate or inanimate alike, with tooth and claw." 

After the adoption of the art of weaving, the cotton blanket was 
worn in winter, and in summer also by the women, who girded it, 
doubled, around their waists with maguey cords, neatly woven belts, 
or merely tucked one edge witliin the other. When the winds from 
the sacred caves blew cold upon their shoulders they were sliiclded 
by the outer fold of blanket, wliicli was drawn up around the neck; 
at least by all save the widow, who dared not raise the blanket above 
the armpits during the jM-riod of mourning. Plate xxxvi illustrates 
the mode of wearing this garment. As the blanket hung to the knees 
it might be converted by tlio men into baggj' trou.scrs bj' looping a 
cord from the girdle behind down ])etween the legs and drawing it 
up in front. Some there were too poor or too strongly beset by the 
passion for gambling long to retain the single fabric that served for 
clothing by day and bedding by night, and they were compelled to 
resort to the bark garments of the ancients. Another material avail- 

a .\s an example of this tendency of desert plants to clothe themselves with armor, mention may be 
appropriately made of the crncillxion thorn, Holocantha emoryi, as it grows abundantly nptm the 
mesas betwe<'n the Gila \^lages and the Salt River Pima settlement, 30 miles northward. It becomes 
a small leafless tree that is a tangle of thorny spikes, each a hand's breadth in length (pi. xxi, <). 



158 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. i!6 

able for winter blankets was rabbit skins, which were cut in strips 
and braided tocjether in the manner customary among so many 
American tribes. 

During the Spanish and Mexican regime the sombrero found favor, 
and even yet the steeple crown of this head gear may occasionally 
be seen. The women adopted a sleeveless chemise, which they wear 
to some extent to-day; it is shown in plate xxxviii, h, though usually 
no longer worn by a woman so yoimg. A few women also follow the 
Mexican fashion of covering their heads with improvised mantillas — 
usually tow-els or aprons — as shown in figure 5, where the costumes 
of a group of both sexes are well shown. This view was taken at 
the agency, and as thej" were imaware of the author's presence with 
the camera, which was kept concealed, the posing was perfectly natural. 
When tlie summer heat begins to be felt the older men strip to the 
breechcloth, as shown in plate xxxvii, a, b, when they are about 
their homes. 

ESTHETIC ARTS 

Personal Decoration 

The Pimas of to-day are rapidly adopting the personal adornments 
of tlieir civilized neighbors. With the exception of the manner of 
treating the hair, the old methods of enhancing personal beauty have 
been almost entirely abandoned. Judging from the statements made 
by the old people, this art could never have reached the development 
among the Pimas that it did among the Pueblos. Their status recalls 
that of the Yuman tribes on the great river to the westward. 

Pride of person manifested itself among the men in the care of 
the liair and the elaboration of the designs painted upon the skin. 
Feathers and beads were also worn in alnmdance. When through 
uncleanly habits a man became too filthy his associates said " skulof," 
"He smells like an old man." But the whole tribe has a charac- 
teristic odor that is easily detected by the nasal organs of the whites; 
even the school children who are regularly bathed and well clothed 
exhibit this characteristic. 

, HAIR 

Men wore their hair long (see pi. xliii, c) ; that of the old chief 
Tialiiatam reached to his heels when he stood upright, but usually 
the liair fell al)out to the waist. At the age of 20 the young men 
began to braid or twist their hair into skems, which retained the 
hairs shed — and other things besides — a marvelously convenient 
abiduig place for microbes. It was the fashion to wear the skeins 
cut sc(uarely across at the bottom, and they tlid not scruple to piece 
out their shorter locks with hair from the tails of their horses. Some- 
times, indeed, they even added the hair of their women, who trimmed 



BOSSELL] PERSONAL DECORATION 159 

their hair in iiiouming for lost relatives. The skeins were from 1 
to 2 cm. in diameter; the hair of one old man, purchased from him, 
is 1.1 m. long; one of the skeins has been broken in the middle 
and tied in a hard knot. Such flowing locks could not, of course, 
be worn unconfuied at all times; they were usually wound around 
the head and inclosed beneath a headliand or })y a cord of varie- 
gated colors (pi. XLiii, a; see also fig. 75). The earlocks that are the 
pride of so many tribes were sometimes braiiled by the Pimas and 
ornaments of shell, bone, and, later, tin and scarlet cloth, were tied 
to them. The front hair was cut scjuarely across the forehead. 

The ej-elashes and eyel)rows were not tampered with, l)ut the scanty 
beard was plucked out with tweezers. The hair of cliildren was for- 
merly "cut" with a burning brand whenever it reached their shoul- 
ders, in order that it might grow more abundantly. The portion cut 
off was mixeti with mud and plastered on the heatl again for a few 
hours that it might improve the growth of the new liair. It was an' 
e^^l omen if the child should cliance to touch the hair just cut from 
his head, for was it not a sign that he would steal the sacred salt? 

Women wore their hair long, but not twisted into skeins as was 
tliat of the men, and, furthermore, they were accustomed to cut it in 
mourning to a much greater extent than the men, so that it never 
attained extreme length. When at work it was twisted up on the 
head in a temporary coil that was confined by any convenient cord or 
bit of cloth. Unless engagcil m vigorous exerci.se, as grunling with the 
metate, the older women allowed their hair to hang loose (pi. xxxviii,a, 
XLVi, c). The front liair was trimmed to fall just clear of the eyes, 
as in same plate, b. Lncidentalh', it thus protected the eyes from 
the Sim, though it is questionable how far the originators of the fashion 
were conscious of this usefi'l purpose. Above all else the hair was the 
pride of Pima women; twice at least each day it was brushed until it 
shone in smooth, ebony waves that were ever luxuriantly abuntlant. 
"Every once in a while," or aI)out once a week, the liair was treated 
to a nmd bath made by mixing black river mud with mes(|uite gum 
and allowing the plaster to remain over night (pi. xxxviii, c). Some- 
times the ginn was dilutcil with warm water and applied as a wasli 
before the nuid was laid on. The mud killetl the vermin and clean.seil 
the hair as does soap The gum is believed to darken the hair and 
prevent it from growing gray. The Pimas declare that when wi<lows 
mourn for four years without washing their hair it becomes a rusty red 
from being burned by tlie sun. The method of cleaning the hair 
above described is still practised, even by the yoimger generation. 



160 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



I ETH. ANN. 26 



NAILS 



Finger nails were bitten off when they readied a troublesome 
length. The nails of the toes received little attention, and in old per- 
sons to-day they are seen of inordinate length, curled over the ends 
of the toes. 

TEETH 

Many browai teeth were seen, 
but no satisfactory information 
was obtained as to the cause. 
-Ul agreed that the red berry 
of Licium fremontii would tem- 
porarily blacken the teeth, but 
as the Kwahadk's and Papagos, 
who do not eat tliis berry, have 
the darkened teeth, some other 
cause must be sought. Rumex 
berlandieri, Rumex hymen ose- 
palus, and a thorny weed called 
by the Pimas sdifiikam iavdic 
are also said to blacken the 
teeth. Charcoal was used to 
clean the teeth before the ad- 
vent of the wliites, and the prac- 
tice is still contmued. 

PAINTING 

In bags of deerskin or cloth 
(fig. 77, a, i) bright-hued ocliers 
and other minerals were kept 
with wliich to paint the face and 
body." Baby Pima had liis face 
painted immediately after birth 
with red ocher mixed with his 
mother's milk "to improve his skin." Thereafter the paint was 
mixcil with grease or the grease was applied to the skin first and the 
paint was added. In cold weather the grease and color were applied 
to prevent chapping and even for the sake of warmth. Usually the 

c Upon the four samples of face paint that were collected at Sacaton and submitted for analysis the 
foUowiiig report was received; "It was found that with the exception of traces of manganese in 24884 
and 24887 the color of these substances is due to varying amounts of iron as modified by the pres- 
ence of and combination with other substances which by themselves possess practically no coloring 
power. 

''The percentages of iron (calculated as ferric oxide) found in these samples are as follows: 

No 24883 0. 13 No. 24885 13. 87 

No.24884 1.28 N0.248S7... 9.62 




Flu. 77. I'aint bags, a, Drcrskin: l>. cloth. 



BUSSELL] PEBSONAL DECORATION 161 

face alone was painted, but during festivals and on other special 
occasions the entire body was painted. On dress occasions the lines 
on the face were made much narrower, ami instead of being applied 
with the hands the color was laid on with a splinter or twig of arrow- 
wood 2 mm. wide by SO mm. long. Both men and women painted 
their bodies and both used the same colors on their faces, but in dif- 
ferent proportions. The men used more black and were especially 
careful to intensify the tattoo marks. The women also emphasized 
the tattooing, ami there were black lines, therefore, under the eyes of 
both sexes, showing that the permanent embellishment was regarded 
as especially significant. 

The designs were simple vertical and transverse lines, as shown in 
plate XXXVIII, d. The paint was not often washed off, but addi- 
tional lines were added as the design became effaced. Each person 
painted his own face and usetl an olla of water as a mirror. The men 
painted the hair of the frontal region either wliite or red in preparing 
for a dance, and never both colors at the same time. The women 
painted their hair in spots and bantls of white. 

Besides the yellow ocher obtained from the Skasowallk hills (pi. 
XVI, a), the 3^ellow pollen of the cat-tail, Typha angustifoliaLinn., was 
used. Red was obtained from the Mohaves, and in recent years from 
the Yumas. From the latter also was bartered the bluish black 
specular iron ore that glistened on the warrior's cheeks. Red and white 
were brought h\ the Papagos from out of the vast desert to the south- 
ward, the mineral resources of which are yet scarcelj^ kno\\'n to the 
invading race. Lastly, diamond dyes were used to some extent, but 
their day was short, for now no Pima paints at all. Indeed, it was 
with difficulty that two persons could be hired to paint their faces 
that the writer might photograph them. 

If in the pristine periotl of Pimerian history the lines upon the rich 
brown skins were meant to synabolize the thought or fancy of the 
artists, no knowledge of the fact has survived the vicissitudes of war 
and strife tlirough the centuries. To-day thej^ are meaningless and 
to-morrow will have been forgotten. 

TATTOOING 

A few lines were tattooed on the faces of both men and women. 
Thorns and charcoal were used in the operation. The thorns were 
from the outer borders of the prickly-pear cactus; from two to four 
were tied together with loosely twisted native cotton fiber to 
enlarge the lower portion to a convenient size for grasping, wliile the 
upper end was neatly bound with sinew. The charcoal, from either 
willow or mes(|uite wood, was pulverized and kept in balls 2 or 3 cm. 
in diameter (fig. 78). 
26 ETu— 08 13 



162 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



Both men and women did the work, but the female artist was pre- 
ferred, as "she was more careful." Their fees were small and uncer- 
tain, as the operation was not one calculated to expand the heart of 
the victim and induce him to pay generously. The lines were drawn 
on the face first in dry charcoal, then some of the powdered charcoal 
was mixed with water, and the thorns were dipped into this and 
pricked into the skui along the outlines. As the operation pro- 
gressed the face was freciuently washed to see if the color was being 
well pricked in. Two operations were necessary, though it some- 
times took more; one operation occupied an entire day. For four 
days thereafter the face remained swollen, and tliroughout that 
period the wound was rubbed with charcoal daily. At the end of that 
time a wash of scjuash seetls macerated in water was applied. Some- 
times the lips were slow in healing and the individual was compelled 
to subsist upon pinole, as the swollen lips and chin forbade partaking 
of solid food; during this time the squash applications were continued. 

The men were tattooed along the margin 
of the lower eyelid and in a horizontal Ime 
across the temples. Tattooing was also 
carried across the forehead, where the pat- 
^^^ ^ tern varied from a wavy transverse line to 

^^^B ^^^ Jr short zigzag vertical lines in a band that 
^^^H ^^K fn was nearly straight from side to side. Oc- 

^^^V ^^V 7 li casionally a band was also tattooed around 
^^^ ^^^ '1 the wTist. 

The women had the line under the lids, 
as did the men; but instead of the Imes 
upon the forehead they had two vertical 
lines on each side of the chin, which ex- 
tended from the lip to the inferior margin of the jaw and were united 
by a broad bar of tattooing, wliich included the whole outer third of 
the mucous membrane of the lip on either side. 

The tattooing was done between the ages of 15 and 20; not, it 
would seem, at the time of puberty, but at any time convenient to the 
individual and the operator. Oftentimes a bride and groom were tat- 
tooetl just after marriage. All the older Pimas are tattooed, but the 
young people are escaping this disfigurement. As in the case of 
painting, the practice of the art is passing away and the meaning of the 
designs is unknown. The Pimas aver that the lines prevent wrinkles; 
thus fortified they "retain their youth." The purely apocryphal 
theory that the women about to be married have their lower eyelids 
tattooed, that they may thereafter "look at no man except their 
husband," is untenable, as we shall see when we come to study their 
marriage customs. 



a be 

Fig. 78. Tattooing outfit, a, Mes 
quite charcoal; b, willow chaf' 
coal: c, needles. 



RDSSELL] 



ORNAMENTATION 



103 



ORNAMENTS 

Both sexes, but especially the men, wore strands of beads sus- 
pended from their ear li)l)es and necks. The lieads and iiorjjets were 
of disks cut from seashells, stone, more or less wrouijht, Iione carved 
and decorated, small deer bones without other manipulation (lian 
drilliuir, and tur(|uoise, which was usually rubbed into (lat rectani,ndar 
pendants. I'pon the arms of the women and on the rii,dit arm of the 
men were bracelets of similar materials. The men wore on the left 
arm a soft coyote skin ^\Tist guard or one of rawhitie for the bo\\strinc. 
Larije beads of blue ^'eIu^tian irlass were brought by the earliest Sjianish 
missionaries, and are now to l)e found scattered about the sacred 
places of the Pimas. 

"A verj' brave man" pierced the septum of liis nose and wore 
therein a skewer of neatly polished bone, or else suspended from it a 
bit of turquoise or a shell. Two men yet livin,<r in the Santan villajje 
have pierced noses, though they long ago 
abandoned the practice of wearing anj'tliing 
in them. Indeed, all the old-time orna- 
ments have been abandoned, and the Pimas 
exliibit a marked contrast to the bead- 
covered Navahos and other tribesmen. 

The men ornamented their long rope-like 
locks with the soft breast feathers of the 
eagle, turkey, or other large bird. The war 
headdresses were of eagle, hawk, and owl 
wing feathers. We secured one that con- 
tained the hair of an Apache warrior in 
addition to the feathers (fig. 40). 

Contestants in the relay and distance 
races wore an ornament in their hair that suggests those of the 
Yumas, which in turn resemble the "eyes"' of the Iluichols." 

The women twined in their hair coronets of sunflowers or of corn 
husks, in recent years colored red or blue by boiling with calico. 




Fig. 



Ruimcr's hair ornament. 



Ornamentation 

We have .seen that the Pimas, by means of paint, tattooing, ami 
ornaments, had developed the art of personal decoration to a consid- 
erable extent. When we examine their implements and weapons it 
soon becomes evident that their ta^ite for ornamentation was more 
rudimentary. Indeed, their desire for embellishment seldom reached 
expression in carving; it was confined chiefly to painting, as in the 
case of shields, or to the smooth linish given to their bows. Paint- 



o Such nn ornament was made for the writer's collection by Sika'tcu of arrowwooci with four liooks 
of devils' claw attached to it with sinew. The hooks are arranged in the same plane and curved 
downward as shown in figure "y. The upper pair are wound with blue strings terminating with 
b'lil at the tips. Total length, 237 mm.; spread of hooks, 170 mm. 



164 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

ing upon shields, cradle hoods, kiahas, and tobacco pouches was of a 
crude sort and manifestly inferior to that upon the person. The 
moderately smooth finish given to all weapons, to trays, ladles, pot- 
tery paddles, fire-drills, awls, pestles, axes, basketry, and some 
pottery was of course based upon utilitarian motives, though the 
gratification of esthetic needs must have been subsidiary thereto 
and concomitantly developed. That the desire for embellishment 
was less consciously felt is evident from the fact that the other 
articles made by the Pimas that may be equally efl'ective, when 
smoothness and symmetry are lacking are coarse and rough. The 
metate, for examjile, is unhewn and angular except upon the grinding 
surface and presents a striking contrast to the symmetrical metates 
of the Hohokam. Not only do the Pimas not give a pleasing finish 
to all artifacts, but they exhibit so dull an esthetic sense in their 
treatment of the beautiful j)olished axes that they find about the ruins 
that we are moved alike by pity anil indignation. There are tons 
of stones within easy reach of the villages suitable for roughening the 
grinding surfaces of metates, yet the Pimas take the axes that are 
almost perfect in symmetry and polish and batter them into shapeless 
masses for the purpose. To the writer this afl'ords an argument 
stronger than all the surmises of the early Spanish writers to the con- 
trary that the Pimas are not the descendants of the Hohokam. 
Furthermore, the poverty of design and the absence of symbolism 
are a verj- strong indication of relationship with the C'alifornia tribes 
rather than with the Pueblos. 

One of the most striking examples of the poverty of esthetic 
resource among the Pimas is seen in their textiles. The wonderfid 
possibilities of this art were almost unknown. True, after the whites 
brought bayeta to them their weavers produced a very creditable 
belt by closely copying the oi'namentation from the Hohokam relics 
and from their southern congeners. But the principal pieces, the 
blankets, the weaving of which kept the art of making textile fabrics 
alive, were ornamented with nothing more elaborate than a dingy 
border of doubled selvage threads. After the red thread was imported 
we find scant trace of it in the blankets. However, we must credit 
the Pimas with the rudimentary esthetic sense that found expression 
in the, smoothness and evenness of weaving in these plain white 
blankets. 

The arts of basketry and pottery making do not furnish much 
evidence of a well-developed esthetic sense in the Pimas. The 
former art is recent and borrowed; at best it is in a mediocre state. 
If the baskets of the Pimas are compared with those of the Yavapais 
(pi. XXXIII, a, h, c, d), who have also begun to use similar motives 
very recently, we see that the latter tribe manifests superior taste. 
The Yavapai baskets were the only ones at the Fort McDowell 



RLssELLj ORNAMENTATION l(i5 

camps at the time of the writer's visit, so that they were certainly 
not selecteil specimens, wiiereas the Pima baskets, and particularly 
the upright forms, which the writer did not collect himself, were better 
than the average Pima product. The Yavapai baskets command 
just double the price in the open market that is ])aid for Pima baskets 
of equal size. The principle of rhythm is well understood by the Pima 
basket makers, as the illustrations show. Both the simple elements, 
such as the so-called coyote tracks, or plain triangles, and the more 
complex, such as the flower pattern, or the scroll fret, are frequently 
repeated. But the principle of symmetry is not so well developed 
and it is rare that a basket exhibits it. The specimen in figure 62 
shows that its maker possessed this faculty. 

It is rare that the descent of pottery making from basketry is 
reversed, but among the Pimas this is true to some extent; that is, 
the basketry designs are in part copied from the pottery of the 
Hohokam. In part they were adopted from the Maricopas. The 
pottery designs likewise are copied, so that the credit due to the 
Pima decorators is reduced to a minimum. Their wares are mostly 
unornamented, as we have seen, and the decorations that are used 
are applied with indifferent taste. Though they have abundant 
examples of fictile ware scattered over their fields, much of which 
is embellished by indented coils, they seem never to have conceived 
the idea of utilizing this simple though elTective form of ornamenta- 
tion. The pottery illustrated in this memoii- is rather better than 
the average Pima ware. The Kwahadk' pottery, while superior to 
the Piman, is yet lacking in symmetry. It is pleasing by reason of 
the rich brown color and the polish that almost equals a glaze, but 
the ornamentation is crude and vastly inferior to that of the ancient 
Hohokam. 

We can not explain the inferiority of Piman ornamentation by 
saying that the Pimas had degenerated because they were harried 
by the Apaches and Yumas until they had no energy or inclination 
left for indulgmg their esthetic tastes, for this is not true. They 
whipped the Yumas until the latter were ready to accept peace upon 
any terms, as appears from the calendar records, which are well 
authenticated by white testimony. They kept the Apaches in whole- 
some fear of their clubs and arrows and made fi'equent raids into 
the enemy's territory. They never hesitated to attack the Apaches 
in ecjual numbers and fight hand to hand. In short, the}' were not 
the degenerates that some have considered them, an error that the 
records of Pima scouts accomjianying the United States army in 
Apache campaigns would do much to dispel." Their backw-ardness 

" Early accounts of the Pimas uniformly testify to their ability to fight their enemies. They "have 
ever been numerous and brave," wrote Garcf'.-i a century and a quarter ago (.Schoolcraft, ui, 2(i9), 
and in 18.59 Mown.' declared. ''The Pimas and Apaches wage hereditary' and fierce war, in which the 
Pimas are generally the victors." .\rizonu and Sonora, third edition, p. 'JO. 



166 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 20 



can not be explained by their environment, because the same sur- 
roundings produced the superior culture of the Ilohokam, which 
there is no reason to believe was not indigenous. It may be 
surmised that the Pimas would have accomplished more in recent 
years in the art of ornamentation if they had adopted the curved 
knife that has become so widespread among other American Indians 
since the advent of the whites. A full discussion of the factors that 
have influenced their culture would })etter be deferred until after an 
examination of the evitlence furnished by social organization (which 
through the absence of totemism has not directly influenced their 
art), 1)V history, and by religion. 

Musical Instruments 



The Pimas have four kinds of musical 
instruments — the flute or flageolet, the bas- 
ket drum, the scraping stick, and the rattle, 
the last having many forms. They say 
that the first two instruments were adopt- 
ed from the Maricopas within a century or 
two. If this be true Pima attainments in 
instrumental music must have been of a 
very modest character indeed. There are 
few flutes to be found and the drum is 
never heard except in ceremonies which are 
themselves becoming increasingly rare. 
The gourd rattle is the commonest form of 
the last class of instruments. 

FLUTE 




Fig. so. Fliiti' 



The Pima or Maricopa flute is of cane 
cut of such a length that it includes two entire sections and about 
4 cm. of each of the two adjoining. It therefore contains three 
diaphragms, of which the two end ones are perforated, while the 
midiUe one is so arranged that the air may pass over its edge from 
one section into the other. This is done by burning a hole through 
the shell of the cane on each side of the diaphragm and joining them 
by a furrow. With such an opening in the upper section the instru- 
ment can not be played unless a piece of bark or similar material be 
wrapped over all but the lower portion of the furrow to direct the air 
into the lower section. The forefinger of the left hand is usually 
employed as a stop if no permanent wrapping directs the current of 
air so that it may impinge upon the sharp margin of the opening into 



BL'SSELL] 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 



167 



the second section." As there are but three fln<;er holes the range 
of notes is not great and they are very low and plaintive. 

These instruments are usually ornamented with geometric designs 
having no symbolic significance at the present time among the Pimas. 
A bit of cloth or ribbon is sometimes attached to the middle of the flute, 
as in specimen c, figure SO.' 



DRUM 



Any shallow basket of suflTicient size, such as are in common use 
in every household for containing grain or prepared food, may be 
transformed into a drum by simply turning it bottom up and beating 
it with the hands. In accompanying 
certain songs it is struck with a stick 
in rapid glancing blows. 

SCRAPING STICK 

The notched or scraping stick is in 
very general use to carry the rhythm 
during the singing of ceremonial songs. 
When one end of the stick is laid on 
an overturned basket and another 
stick or a deer's scapula is drawn 
quickly over the notches the result- 
ing sound from this compomid instru- 
ment of percussion may be compared 
with that of the snare drum. How- 
ever, it is usually held in the hand and 
rasped with a small stick kept for 
the purpose. So important are these 
instruments in Pima rain ceremonies that they are usually spoken of 
as "rain sticks." 

There are four scraping sticks in the collection. One of these 
(fig. 81, a), is smoothly cut, tapering, and evidently very old. The 
wood has not been identified, though it resembles ironwood. There 
are six small notches at the side of the handle, possibly fulfilling 
some mnemonic purpose. At the base of the series of notches is a 
broad X; there is another at the middle, and evidences of a third 
appear at the tip, which is broken away. There are 36 deep transverse 

o"The prinoiplo of its construction is lielieved to lie diltorent from any knomi among other trilies or 
nations. These instruments are common vdth the Coco-Maricopas, and Yumas or Cuchiians, and 
among the tril>es on the Colorado. Young men serenade their female friends with them." A\'hlpple, 
Pae. n. R. Rep., n, .52. 

i> I.ength ol flute n (ng.S0).3ii4mm.: diameter, 22 mm.; 6, length, 518 mm,; diameter, 23 nmi.; f, length, 
512 mm.; diameter, 22 mm. Flute r has an old pale yellow necktie tied around the middle as an orna- 
ment and to direct the air paat the diaphragm. 




b c d e f 

Fig. SI. Scraping sticks. 



168 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. AXN. 26 



notches on the lower part and 49 on the upper." This stick was 
used for the cure of the piholt disease (p. 265) and was probably 
obtained from the Yacjuis. The other three sticks (c, e,f) are much 
rougher and are undoubtedly of Pima make. The two large ones 
(c, e) have deep notches, which are few in number.* 



RATTLES 

The gourd rattle is used in most Pima ceremonies. It is made by 

fitting a wooden handle to a gourd in which gravel have been placed. 
The handle passes through the center and, re- 
duced in diameter, projects slightly from the 
larger end, as shown in figure 82,'^ which also 
illustrates the distribution of the perforations, 
which are said to be for the purpose of "letting 
the sound out." It will be observed that the 
sacred number 4 is represented by the principal 
lines of holes extending longitudinally. About 
a dozen specimens were seen and none were 
decorated in any way except in the arrange- 
ment of the perforations; the 
handles were invarial)ly rudely 
made. 

A disk rattle that has been 
used in the Navitco ceremo- 
nies was secured at the village 
of Pe'-eptcilt. It is not a 
Pima instrument, but whether 
Pap ago or Yaqui the writer 
can not say. It contains two 

sets of four tin disks loosely held by wires passing 

through a wooden handle. The sound emitted 

resemliles that of tambourine rattles (fig. S.'?).'' 
From the same individual who used the disk 

rattle the writer obtained a rattle that luid been 

used as a belt during the Navitco ceremonies. 

It is made of successive layers of canvas, reil 

cotton cloth, oilcloth, and an old braided hatband, to which are 

attached by leather strings 21 brass cartridge shells (fig. 84). 

There are two sets of cocoon rattles in the collection that were worn 

on the calves of the legs in certain ceremonies. The cocoons were 

o Length, 675 mm.; width, 25 mm.; thickness, 15 mm. The accompanying stick (6) used to scrape 
mth is 494 mm, long. 

6 Scraping stick (flg. 81, c), is 630 mm. long, 19 imn. in diameter, and has 11 notches; e is 625 mm. long, 
26 mm, in diameter, «ith 12 notches; / is 555 mm. long, 11 mm. in diameter, and is provided with 35 
shallow notches. 

c Length, 332 mm.; diameter, 90 mm.; diameter of handle, 25 mm. 

i Length, 247 mm.; diameter, 36 mm.; diameter of disks, 40 mm. 




Fig. 



Gourd rattle. 



Fig. 83. Disk rattle. 



RUSSELL] 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 



169 



obtained from the Papagos or Yaquis of Sonora. They are of a 
species of bombvcid moth ; their outer coverings have been removed," 
and a few gravel liav(^ tlien been sewed in each cocoon. There are 




Fig. 84. Bi'lt riittlo 



70 pairs of cocoons in one strand antl 66 in the other (fig. 85). The 
rustling st)und given out by this number of rattles is not milike the 
warning of the rattlesnake.'' 




Fig. 85. Cocoon rattle. 

At the village of Sacaton Flats at least one turtle-shell rattle is 
still used in the treatment of the "turtle disease," although no speci- 
men of such rattle was seen. 

""The Huichols use the cocoons of A ttacua Orizaba lor necklaces." Lumholtz, Sjnnbolism ol the 
Uuichol Indians. 189. 

ti Each cocoon now measures 30 mm. in length by 25 mm. in bteadth. The entire strands are 1.900 m. 
long. 



170 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ans. 26 

Hoof rattles, usually of dcwclaws, were of universal distribution 
among the American Indians and were common among the Pimas, 
though none are to be found at the present day. Bartlett hgures 
such a rattle in his Personal Narrative (ii, 223). 

Dancing 

Dancing was frequently indulged in by both sexes and was accom- 
panied by song, together with instrumental music furnished by the 
basket drum and the rattle. The dancers stood in a circle with arms 
extended across the shoulders of those adjoining. This position did 
not permit much freedom, and movements were confined to stamp- 
ing the feet and bending the body. When food was plentifid dances 
might occur at any time. Their number increased and their moral 
character sadly deteriorated as the men relaxed their vigilance after 
peace was made with the Apaches. The energy formerly expended 
on the warpath was then wasted in debauchery. The dances began 
in the morning and lasted all day. Both men and women came with 
freshly painted faces and bodies, the women with their hair neatly 
dres.sed. Each woman brought a contribution of food in the form of 
mesquite dumplings, corn and wheat pinole or tortillas, meat, and 
the like. Throughout the day a few at a time stopped to eat, so that 
the dancing and the feasting both proceeded without interruption. For 
an account of the war dances, see page 205; puberty dance, page 182. 

Festivals 

Of course all festivals partook somewhat of the nature of sacred 
ceremonies, but when this element was at a nunimum, as in the 
saguaro harvest festival, its description may properly appear here 
with the arts of pleasure. These festivals were of annual occurrence, 
except during the occasional seasons when the fruit failed. The 
leaduig feature of these gathermgs was the preparation and drinking of 
navait or saguaro liquor, and they became drunken orgies in which, 
since the introduction of knives and firearms, men were sometimes 
killed. The Government has prohibited "tizwin drunks," as they 
are called by the whites, though they are still surreptitiously held. 

The sirup of the sagtuiro fruit is boiled for two days in the prepa- 
ration of the liquor, and in the meantime the people gather and 
dance hi the plaza nearest to the spot where the large ollas are sim- 
mering. During the final carousal all the men and some of the women 
become uitoxicated. Through the influence of the missionaries, 
the native police under the agent's orders, and the actively exerted 
influence of the more intelligent men in the tribe, the custom is d^ing 
out. The subchief, Kaema-a (pi. ii, c), at Gila Crossing has been a 
zealous advocate of temperance for a number of years, and it is 
not unlikely that tlie folly of such debaucheries was apparent to 



itissF.1.1.! ATHLETIC SPORTS 171 

some members of tlic Pima comniunity during preceding generations 
before outside iufliicuees were brought to bear upon them. Indeed, 
some measure of ]U'U(h»nce was enforced by the fact that tlie Apaclies 
were hovering upon tlic outskirts of the villages watching for an oppor- 
tunity to attack when the warriors were incapacitated for resistance. 

Tlie "Name song" is a social device that accomplishes the ends of 
organized charity, together with those of the ordinary festival. If a 
\allage suffers from a scarcity of food, it visits one where the croj)s 
have been plentiful and .shares in the boiintifid harvest in the following 
manner: The vi-sitors camp outside the village and come in during the 
evening to leani the names of the residents and to arrange these names 
hi the song, which -provides places for two names in each stanza. 
There are seventy stanzas in the song, and if there are more than 
twice that number of visitors it may be repeated and other names 
substituted. Each visitor assumes the name of a resident of the vil- 
lage as a seal of fellowship and for the purpose of contributing to the 
pleasure of the festivities of the morrow, when the strangers come 
into the village to sing. As the song is .sung and a name is called the 
wife or daughter of the person of that name runs witli some light 
object, and the wife or daughter of the person who has as.sumed the 
name for the day pursues the other woman to take it away from her. 
If she is imable to catch her, some of the other visiting women aid in 
capturing the nmner, and she leads her captors to where "the value 
of her luisband's name," in the form of corn, wheat, beans, or other 
foodstuffs, is ready to be presented to the visitor. 

When there are many ptirticipants in the ceremony nearly tlie 
entire day may be consumed in its performance. When some of the 
resident villagers are destitute, only the names of those who have 
plentiful crops are u.sed. The visitors give notliing but their serv- 
ices us singers, and they receive very substantial rewards. Kticjuette 
requires that the visit be returned within a reasonable time hite 
the same season or during the following year. However, w hen the 
nomadic Papagos come to give the Pimas entertainment the visit can 
so seldom be returned that the gifts are more of the nature of ex- 
changes by barter, with the advantages in favor of the Papagos. 
The Pimas always received the Papagos cordially, though rarely 
returning their visits — so rarely that in the last fifty years the Pimas 
hiive .sung the name song but twice in Papagueria, the two visits 
being to Suijotoa. 

Athletic Sports 

The men received thorough training in speed and endurance in 
running during their raids into the Apaclie country, but they had few 
sports that tended toward physical improvement except the foot 
races. Sometimes a woman ran in a contest against a man, she 



172 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



throwing a double ball by means of a long stick, wliile he kept a kick- 
ing ball before him. But the women seldom ran in foot races, though 
their active outdoor life, engaged in the various tasks that fell to 
them, kept them in fit condition. However, they had an athletic 
game which corresponded in a measure to the races of the men and 
developed skill in running. This game was played as follows: 

ALDU 

Two of tlie swiftest runners among the women acted as leaders 
and chose alternately from the players until all were selected in two 
groups. Two goals were fixed about 400 yards apart, one side say- 
ing, "To the trail is where we can beat you," while the other jiarty 
declared, "To that mesquite is where we can beat J'ou." Two lines 
were formed about 25 yards apart, and the ball was put in jjlaj- by 




Fig. 86. o, Alder stick; ft. (ioublc ball. 



being tossed up and started toward tlic ojjponent's goal. It was 
thrown with sticks imtil some one drove it beyond the goal and won 
the game." To touch the ball with the hands debarred the person 
from further play. This game was abandoned about 1S8.5. 



KICKING-BALL RACES 

These races were frequently intertribal, and in their contests with 
the Papagos the Pimas nearly always won. The use of these balls 
in foot races is very widespread in the Southwest, and even yet we 
hear of races taking place that exceed 20 miles in length. 

The kicking ball, when of wood, resembles a croquet ball in size, 
but it is usually covered with a coating of creosote gum. These balls 

» The stick in the collection is of willow, 1.230 m. long, with a niaximiun diameter of 18 mm. The balls 
are in pairs, 15 cm. apart, connected by a 4-strand 2-ply leather thong, the balls being mere knotty 
enlargements of the thong (fig. 86, a, 6). 



BUSSELL] 



ATHLETIC SPORTS 



173 



are made of mesquite or paloverde wood (fig. 87, a, b). Stone balls 
about 6 cm. in iliameter are also used, covered with the same black 
gum (fig. SS, a, h). 

Each contestant kicks one of these balls before him, doing it so 
skillfull}' that his progress is scarcely delayed; indeed, the Pinias 
declare that they can run faster with than without the balls, which 
in a sense is true. Perhaps 
the occurrence of the stone 
balls in the ruins gave rise to 
the idea that they possessed 
magic power to "carry" the 
runner along, for all things 
pertaining to the Hohokam 
have come to have more or 
less supernatural significance. 
Two youths will sometimes 
run long distances together, 
first one and then the other 

kicking the ball, so that it is almost constantly in the air. The cus- 
tom of using these balls is rapidly disappearing, as, it is to be regretted, 
are the other athletic games of the Pimas. 




Fig. 87. Kicking balls, a. Wood covorod with gum: 
b. without covering. 



REL.W RACES 

At various points in Arizona the writer has found what appear to 
have been ancient race tracks situated near the ruins of buildings. 
One of these was seen on the south bank of the Babacomari, ;^ miles 

above the site of old Fort Wallcn. It 
is 5 m. wide and 275 m. long. It is lev- 
eled by cutting down in places and the 
rather numerous bowlders of the mesa 
are cleared away. In the Sonoita val- 
ley, '_' miles east of Patagonia, there is 
a small ruin with what may have l)een a 
race track. It is 6 m. wide and ISOm. 
long. At the northern end stands a 
sejuarc stone '37 cm. above the surface. 
These will serve as examples of the 
tracks used by the Sobaipuris, a tribe 
belonging to the Piman stock. The dimensions are about the same 
as those of the tracks that the wTiter has seen the Jicarilla Apaches 
using in New Mexico. The tracks prepared by the Pimas opposite 
Sacaton Flats and at Casa Blanca are nmch longer. 

The relay races of the Pimas did not differ materially from those 
among the Puelilo tribes of the Rio Grande or the Apaches and others 
of the Southwest. When a village wished to race with a neighboring 




Fig. S8. Kicking halls, o, Stone covered 
with gum: b. without covering. 



174 THE PIMA INDIANS [kth. a.nn. 26 

one they sent a messenger to convey the information that in four or 
five days, according to the decision of their council, they wisiied to 
test tlieir fortunes in a relay race, and tliat in the meantime the}- were 
singing the bluebird (or, as the case might be, the humming-bird) 
songs and dancing in preparation. Both had the same time to prac- 
tise and the time was short; in this preparation the young men ran 
in groups of four or five. There were 40 or 50 runners in each village, 
and he who proved to be the swnftest was recognized as the leader 
who shoidd run first in the iinal contest. It was not necessary that 
each village should enter exactly the same number of men in the race ; 
a man might run any number of times that his endurance permitted. 
When the fuaal race began each village stationetl half its runners at 
each end of the track; then a crier called three times for the leaders, 
and as the last call, wliich was long drawn out, closed the starter 
shouted "Ta'wai!" and they were oil" on the first rela3^ Markers 
stood at the side of the track and held willow sticks with rags attached 
as marks of the position of the opposing sides. Sometimes a race was 
ended by one part}' achnitting that it was tired cnit, but it usually was 
decided when the winners were so far ahead that their runner met the 
other at the center where the markers also met. 

The women encouraged their friends with shouts in concert that 
were emitted from the throat and ended in a trill from the tongue. 
At the clo.se of the race the winning village shouted continuously for 
some time; after which the visitors would go home, as there was no 
accompanying feast. 

SWIMMING 

Mention is made in the calendar records of parties of Pimas or 
Maricopas being engaged in swimming and diving to catch fish with 
their naked hands, and Mr Cook assures the writer that he has seen 
them do both. 

Games 

The Pimas were deeply imbued with the passion for gambling, and 
many games were played for the gratification of that desire. The 
old games are now practically abandoned and those who have the 
means and the desire to gamble employ a deck of filthy Mexican cards. 
Beads, paint, blankets, and any and all personal or family property 
were wagered. The women were quite as fond of gaming as the men, 
and staked their blankets when all else was lost, makhig shift to get 
along with a smaller piece of cloth m lien of a skirt. When every- 
thing was gone the loser might win some stipulated article from her 
opponent if she could beat her in a foot race. A woman might gamble 
away the family sleeping mat, the metate, in fact any household 
property, although she hesitated to wager the drmkin^ gourd, prob- 



rissell] 



GAMES 



175 



ably owing to tlie fear of provoking Navitco, the deity who gave the 
gourd to man. 

In common with other American Indians the Pima laiew naught 
of "hick" or "chance." He felt himself aided or opposed by super- 
natural beings, whose assistance he sought by gifts of beads and other 
sacrifices deposited on altars in the recesses of the liills, which will be 
described later. A favorite place of prayer for gamblers was the 
ceremonial hill northeast of Casa Blanca, near the center of Pimeria. 
The following games were played by the men : 




Icljfel-j 



Fig. S9. Ki»tskQt. 



KI^TS 

Under the name of " ghing-skoot " this game has been described 
as played bj' the Papagos." The Pima name of the game is ki"ts, of 
the sticks ki°tsktit. Four sticks are used in playing. The set col- 
lected (fig. 89) '' is of giant cactus wood. The 
sticks are not named "old man," "old woman," 
etc., as among the Papagos, but are designated as 
follows : 

No. 1 — Ki-ik, "finir. '' 

No. 2— Tco-otp', -'si.x. " 

No. 3 — Si-Ika, meaning of word unknown to informants. 

No. 4 — Ki''t8, meaning also unknown. 

The players sit about 10 feet apart and put the 
sticks m play by striking from below with a flat 
stone held in the left hand. The sticks are held 
nearly vertical, but are inclined a little forward so 
that they will fall in the center of the space between the players, 
who rake them back with a long stick after each tlirow. 

The count is similar to that described for the Papago game, if we 
substitute the Pima names for the pieces, as follows: 

2 backs and 2 faces count 2. 

1 liack and 3 faces count 3. 

Ki-ik facing up and others down count 4. 

All faces up count 5. 

Tco-otp' facing up and others down count 6. 

All faces down count 10. 

Si-ika facing up and others down count 14. 

Ki"ts facing up and others down count 15. 

The counts are kept upon a rectangle marked upon the ground 
usually approximating 12 by 8 feet, having 10 holes or pockets, 
counting the corners each tijne, along each side. At two alternate 
corners are 2 quadrants called ki, "houses," of 5 holes each, not 

o Culin ill Report National Museum, 1896, 738. His description is from notes and material collected 
by McGee. 

fe Length, 222 mm.; widtli, 17 mm.: tbidcness, 7 mm.; hemispherical in .seetion; not eolon^d on 
either side. 



176 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



counting the comer holes, called ut'pa, "doors."" The stick used 
by each player or side to mark its throw is called rsaika, "slave" or 
"horse." "Wlien a player is "coming; home" and his count carries 
his "slave" only to the last hole of his house it is said to be "in 
the fire" and remains "burnt" imtil he throws a number less than 
14 or 15. 

The comer hole of the rectangle is called tcoltit, 
• •• "liip;" the second, tco-olrsan, "near the corner;" 

the third, rsa-akit, " middle ; " the fourth, ko'ketam, 
"above the end;" the fifth, ko-ok, "last;" the fu-st 
hole of the house, tco'-oletam, "above the hip;" 
the second, ki-ik vak' utra, "four-hole end;" the 
third, vai-Ik vak' utra, "tlu-ee-hole end;" the 
fourth, sap'k' utra, "right end" or "place;" the 
fifth, tai-i utra, "fire end" or "in the fire." (See 
diagram, fig. 90.) 



Fig. 90. Diagram used 
in ki^ts. 



HAEYO 



This game afi'ords considerable amusement for the spectators as 
■well as the participants. Four men provide themselves with moder- 
ateh' large stones, hayakut, wliicli they throw between two holes set 
about 50 feet apart. All stand at one hole and try successively to 
throw into the other. If but one succeeds in throwing into the hole 
he and his partner are carried on the backs of their opponents across 
to the opposite goal. If both partners throw into the hole, they are 
carried across and returned to the first hole, 
the "horses" who carrj- them attempting tu 
imitate the gallop of the horse. 

VAPUTAI 

A guessing game in which a niunber of 
players act as assistants to two leaders. A 
small bean*" is used by the Papagos and a 
ball of black mesquite gum by the Pimas. 
It is placed in one of four joints of reed. 
The reeds are then filled with sand, all being 
concealed under a blanket, and the oppo- 
nents guess which reed contains the ball. 

The reeds are called v^ptitakiit (vaptitai, laj-), "laying imple- 
ments" (fig. 91).'^ Reed a, called kuh, "old man," has 17 longitudinal 
rows of 8 spots each; reed h, §,ks, "old woman, " is unmarked; reed c, 

" Culin in Report National Museum, 189(i, p. 739. 

6 Oljtainoii from Sonora from the tree called paowl liy the Pimas and chilicotl liy the Mexicans. 

cThe collection contains one set of reeds which are 27 em. long and 22 mm. in diameter. 




a bed 

Fig. 91. Canes used in vipfltai. 



BDSSELL] 



GAMES 



177 



Fig. 92. Diagram used in viipiitta. 



hota stcok, "iniddle black," has 6 longitudinal rows; reed d, ma- 
atcoAolt, has 5 rows around the open end. 

One hundred grains of corn are placed between the j)layers in a 
hole, from which they are taken as won and placed in a hole in front 
of each player. ^Vlien a player wins all tlie corn, he puts up a stick 
in the sand. The number of sticks may be from 1 to 10, as deter- 
mined beforehand. Each player cancels one of his opponent's sticks 
when he wins one himself. 

Two players confine their attention to the guessing; one on each 
side fills the reeds; one on each side watches the counting. Four 
men, one at each corner, hold the 
blanket, under which the fdling is done, 
and sometimes offer suggestions to the 
leaders. The "old people," the plain 
reeds, and the marked reeds, are kept together and the "young 
people'' are used by the opponents. When the two pairs are filled 
with sand and a bean or ball is concealed in each pair, the blanket 
is dropped and the reeds are laid in the center, each filler handing 
his pair over to the side of his opponent. If A guesses wrong and B 
right, four grains of corn are forfeited to the winner. If neither 
guesses right, they exchange reeds and begin again. If both guess 
right, there is no count. 'WTien one guesses right, he takes the four 
reeds and places his ball in one and the opponent tlien decides 
wliich pair it is in by laying one reed across the other in the pair 
which he thinks does not contain it. Then he pours out the sand 
of first one then the otlier. If he has guessed right, he does not 

score, but continues the 
play by filling and offer- 
ing to his opponent. If 
he guesses wrong, the 
opponent scores 4 and 6 
additional if the ball is 
in the under reed, 10 if it 
is in the upper. 

Cheating is done in 
various ways, but there is reason to believe that this practice has 
arisen since the Pimas have come in contact mth the wliites. 




Fig. 93. Pottery disks 



VAPUTTA 

-Vny number of players may participate, but they are under two 
leaders who are selected by toss. Each draws up his men in line so 
that they face their opponents (fig. 92). A goal about 50 yards 
distant is marked out and the game begins. A small object, usually 
a circular ])iece of pottery, one of those so conunon about the ruins 
of the Southwest (fig. 93), is carried around behind the line by a 

26 ETH— OS 14 



178 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

leader and placed in the hands of one of his men. The opposite 
leader guesses which man holds the object. If he guesses wrong, 
the man at the end of the line in which the object is held who stands 
farthest from the goal runs and jum|)s over the upheld leg of the 
nuvn at the opposite end of his own line. This moves the winning 
line the width of one man and the length of a jump toward the goal. 
If the first guess is correct, the object is passed to him and there is 
no jumping until a guess fails." 

The boys play several simple games which develop skill in shoot- 
ing the arrow or in running In the former class may be included 
the following game: 

VATAMi1M;1IJtC U.lKOAOl-IWIA 

The players stand in a circle while a l)oy nms around outside, 
dragging at the end of a string a bundle of rags. WTion the play 
begins each boy deposits an arrow in a heap and the one who trans- 
fixes the bundle as it flies past is entitled to the pile of arrows. At 
the end the best marksman may have nearly all the arrows. The 
same runner continues throughout the game and receives a few arrows 
as compensation for his services. 

PAPAIETCITAKUT 

The name of this game signifies "cooking place." Several boys 
play in the game. A rag ball the size of one's fist is tossed up and 
the one nearest where it falls tries to throw it against another, using 
a slightly curved stick called henyusika. The one hit has to stand 
with his head down to protect his face while the others throw the 
ball at him. After all throw, the game begins anew. 

OKMAITCEKE 

A bundle of grass, called woliwikke, is tied with willow bark so 
tliat it is about 125 mm. long and 50 mm. in diameter. The player 
tosses the bundle upward with his left hand while holding the bow 
in his right, ready to shoot the bundle before it can strike the earth. 

When the bundle is thrown forward instead of upward it is called 
tcomiilt maitceke, "to shoot the bundle low." 

XAOF TOWE K.IKRSA 

The title given above signifies "prickly-pear standing opposite." 
There are usually four players, though sometimes two engage in 
this shooting game. Prickly-pear leaves are set up opposite each 
other at a distance of about .30 yards. The game is to pierce the 

oThe objert is called rsaika, " slave." U is 40 or .'lO mm. in diameter, is pitted in tiie center "to 
prevent cheating," and may be of either pottery or stone. 



RissEix] GAMES 170 

leaf with an arrow, and wlicn four are plajnng the two partners 
share eijuall}' the winninjis oi- h)sses. Arrows, bows, and such similar 
property as these ra<i<^etl ureliins possess are wagered. A bow is con- 
sidered worth from 10 to 20 arrows, according to quality. 

K.IORSA 

Either two or four may play. The game consists in sliooting an 
arrow so that it will lie on the ground at a distance of about 100 
feet and then shooting two more arrows with tlie intention of cast- 
ing them across the first. 

KWAITUSiWIKUT 

The children sometimes amuse themselves by tossing into the air 
corncobs in which from one to three feathers have been stuck. 
They do not shoot arrows at them. 

There are three games in addition to the athletic game of aldil 
which were played exclusively by the woinen. 

MEKUT TOAKUT 

Two women play this game. Five stones that have been carefidly 
selected from rounded pebbles 3 to 4 cm. in diameter (fig. 94). are 
used. The first player 



•#•#• 



Fig. 94. Gaming stones. 



calls one of these ''my 
stone" and tosses it 
into the air, keeping 
her eyes fixed upon it 
while she snatches up 
one of the other four 
stones before the first falls. After all are picked up in this way she 
begins again and picks up two at a time, then three and one, then 
all at once. If she proceeds thus far without mistake she wins the 
game. The next game is more difficidt. The named stone is to.ssed 
up as before, but those remaining are shoved under an arch formed 
by the thumb and middle finger with the first finger crossed over 
the middle one. The stones are pushed imder the arch in the same 
order as in the first game. In the one-plus-three combination the 
player selects one stone which she calls her opponent's and saj^s she 
will not pick that one up first. 

KA-AMISAKt'T 

This stave game is played with eight sticks in two sets of four each, 
which are colored black on the rounded side in one set and on the 
flat side in the other, the opposite side being stained red (fig. 05). 
Two play, each using her own set of sticks, but exchanging them 



ISO 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



alternately, so that first one set is in use and then the other. They 
arc held loosely in the right liand and are thrown fron\ the end of the 
nietate or any other convenient stone. If all fall red side up one 

point is scored by a mark in the sand. 
If all are black two are counted. Win- 
ning four points completes the game." 

TCILIKIWIKUT 



t 


H 1 11 ^H ^B ^m ^ 



Tliis is the Gileho form of the wide- 
spread dart -and -ring game. It is 
not exclusively a woman's game, but 
was sometimes played by them. The 
younger generation knows nothing 
about it. The apparatus consists of 
a series of rings cut from cultivated 
gourds (fig. 96). They vary in di- 
ameter from 3 to 12 cm., and are 
strung on a 2-ply maguey fiber 
cord 50 cm. long. They are kept from slipping olT at one end by 
a rectangular piece of gourd a little larger than the opening in the 
smallest ring, which is at that end. At the other end of the string 
is fastened a stick 20 cm. long, the outer end of which is sharp- 



FiG. 95. Staves used in game of ka-amlsakQt. 




KiG. 96. Dart-and-ring game. 



ened. The game is to toss the rings up by a swing and, while holding 
the butt of the stick, thrust the dart through as many of them as jios- 
sible. If the thrower fails she hands the apparatus to her opponent, 
but she continues throwing as long as she scores, and counts the num- 
ber of rings that are caught on the dart.. In the specimen collected 



o This is similar to the game described in Report National Museum, 1896, 742. 



RUSSELL] 



GAMES 



181 



Fig. 97. Diagram 
used in tcxiliki- 
wlkut. 



there are 14 rinojs, but only a few may be caught at a single throw. 
A certain nuinbor of marks, 2, 3, or 4, agreed upon in advance, con- 
stitute the game. These marks are made upon a diagram laid out in 
the sand in tlie form of a whorl (fig. 97). The scoring 
commences in the center, called the tcunni ki,"' council • •. '. ." .* 

house," and runs out to the last hole, called hoholdega . • *•.*•.*•■. 
ki, "menstrual house," wliich is on the west side of the • ' ';':'. 
diagram: then the score returns to the center before 
the player is entitled to one point toward game. 
If the player who is behind throws a number that 
brings her counter to the same hole as that of her opponent she 
"kills"' the latter and sends back her counter to the beginning point, 
but this is not done if she passes her opponent's position. 

Two specimens were obtained at Sacaton which were probably 
used in games Ijy the Ilohokam, illustrations of which are here pre- 
sented for the benefit of those engaged in special researches concern- 
ing gaming devices. 

CUP STONE 

One of these objects is a cup-shaped stone of lava 
wMch was obtained from a Pima who had found it 
in one of the Gila Valley ruins west of the Casa 
Grande (fig. 98). Doctor Fewkes has called the 
writer's attention to the fact that it resembles the 
wooden cups used by the Hopis in a game not un- 
like the European "shell game."" 

RING STONE 




Fig. 98. Cup stone. 




Fig. 99. King stone. 



A few rings of porous lava have been found about 
the ruins which have been called "head rings" 
because of their resemblance to the ordinarj' head 
rings of cloth or bark in common use among the Pimas 
(fig. 99). However, as most of them are too small 
and the material is extremely imsuited for such a purpose it is 
much more probable that they were employed in some game with 
wliich the present race is unacquainted.* 

<■ It is 90 mm. long, 53 mm. in diameter, with cavity 20 mm. in diameter and 42 mm. in depth. 
6 Diameter of ring, U5 imn.: Internal diameter, 43 mm.; thickness, 55 mm. 



182 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

SOCIOLOGY 

Family Organization 

relations before marriage 

Accurate information concerning the relations between the sexes 
before niarriap;e can only be obtained from the oldest persons among 
the Pimas, as the moral atmosphere has been heavily clouded since 
the advent of the Americans and since the peril from the Apaches has 
ceased to exist. With all their surjilus energies expended in war- 
fare, the young men formerly lived exemplary lives as compared with 
the youths of the last generation, who would chase and even lasso 
any girl that the}' could catch. Xevertheless, the conditions were 
never as bad as among the Yumas of that period." Before the Pimas 
came in contact with "civilization" chastity was the rule among the 
young women, who were taught by compelling precept, though ever 
witnessing the demoralizing example of free and easy divorce. 

PUBERTY DANCE 

A girl reached the age of puberty at 11 or 12, sometimes as early 
as 10. The acquirement by a young woman of the (to them) wholly 
mysterious functional characteristics of the age of puberty ren- 
dered her an object of concern and distrust to the elders. When 
the fact was discovered her mother selected some favorite woman 
friend, not a relative, in whose charge she placed the girl for a period 
of four days. During this time the preceptress taught her how to 
perform such household tasks as she may not already have learned; 
also the principles of industry, honesty, chastity, and the like. They 
cooked their meals and ate together apart from their families. When 
not otherwise engaged the gu'l occupied her time in making a basket 
which must be given as a present to the elder woman. She talked 
little; if she wished to scratch her head she used a stick — to use the 
fingers at this critical period would cause lice. She dared not blow 
the fire or her teeth would come out. 

There was "danger" in the girl that must be breathed oat by songs 
ere she, the members of her familj^, and the community as a whole 
were exempt from the hazard of the lightning stroke and other 
perils. Woe to the girl who concealed her condition, for the medicine- 
man's magic would enable him to discover the culprit and shoidd 
accident befall he would ascribe it to her. As a matter of fact, how- 
ever, some gh"ls avoided the "coming-out" ceremonies as long as 
possible and when the parents were poor no dance was held. When 
the parents had a sufficient supply of food on hand to entertain with 
becoming hospitality they invited friends and neighbors to participate 

Compare Rusling, The Great West and the Pacific Coast, 361. 



Ri-ssKi.i.l FAMILY ORGANIZATION 183 

in !i (iance tliat occupied four nii;hts. The father and motlier did not 
dance, but they took care to select the best girls to dance with theii' 
daughter "for their good influence." The men and Avonien formed 
two lines facing each other on the hardened and well-swept plaza 
outside the house; their arms were extended to embrace those 
adjoining, and the blankets were stretched along the line to cover as 
many I'.s they would reach over instead of being wrapped around 
each individual. The lines advanced and retreated rhythmically 
while the puberty songs were sung. These songs were in sets that 
were retained in the memories of certain persons and the set for the 
niglit was generally determined by the chance that brought the first 
leader to the spot when all was ready to begin. It was an exhausting 
dance, as there was no stopping for rest or food during the niglit. In 
the morning all returned to then- homes to spend the day in sleep. 

During the menstrual period all women were secluded for four days, 
during which they lived in the liushes near the village, making little 
slielters to shade them from the sun and occupying their time in 
making baskets. They lived on pinole, which was brought each 
morning and left at a short distance from their camp. Sometimes 
there were several together. They always bathed in the river before 
returning to their homes. 

MAURIACiE 

The youth of Pinien'a marry "early and often." In the majority 
of cases the choice is made by the girl who seeks to avoid an alliance 
with a lazy man. A handsome fellow is of course desiretl, but when 
she "knows in her heart" that he is the right man even tlie homely 
youth is chosen. As to what is the ideal of physical ])eauty, f[ues- 
tioning naturally elicited only general information. For example, 
he must be tall and strong; dark, because he will not wTinkle as soon 
as the lighter colored: he must not be too fat. The woman must not 
be fat nor yet thin; "she must have good liair and a good face." 
The writer's informant %()lunteered information that a stranger 
might distinguish between the married and the unmarried women 
by the fact that the latter kept their hair in much l)etter condition 
than the former. No peculiar style of hair dressing such as that fn 
vogue among the Hopis serves to distinguisli the unmarried girls 
(see pi. xi.vii) ; with the change of state they simply "let themselves 
go " in a very human way, though even at the worst their hair receives 
probably more attention than that of the A'ast majority of their white 
sisters. 

When a youth selects a bride he visits her home in company with 
a young married friend who pleads his cause while he sits in the 
background. After several niglits of wooing by proxy, if his cause 
is favored he remains and is accepted as a husl)and without furtlier 
ceremonv. For four davs thev remain at her home anil on the evenintj 



184 THE PIMA INDIANS [etii. axn. 26 

of the fourth day they go to the lioine of his parents. At dawn the 
next morning the mother-in-law gives the hride a hirge basket of 
wheat to grind on the metate. She is expected to have completed 
the grinding by sunrise. In the quaint language of the interpreter 
we were informed that "if she ran away and left part of it unground 
it was a sign that she would not be a very good wife. 'When she 
finished her work she went quietly into the house and sat talking 
with those around her until slie got acquainted with her new home." 
The groom presented the bride with a new blanket and his parents 
gave her presents, but there was no idea of purchase and no gifts 
were made to the bride's parents. 

Occasionalh' a man possessed such a character that no woman 
would marry liim, and more rarely a woman would remain unmarried. 
There is one such at Casa Blanca and one at Blackwater at the present 
time, the latter being regarded as possessed of supernatural powers 
because of her spinsterhood. 

A rejected suitor might appeal to the medicine-man for assistance. 
If he stole a hair from her head and the medicine-man buried it the 
girl would die. How like the folklore of the Caucasian is this bit of 
superstition that savors more of vengeance than of love. But that 
the divine passion does take strong hold upon the Pinias there can be 
no doubt, as disappointed hopes have been known to lead to suicide. 

Polygamy was practised to some extent, but the division of labor 
was such that no great economic advantage resulted. There were 
seldom more than two or three wives, though a chief's son in recent 
years had six. The plural wives lived in separate houses, the husband 
spending most of his time with the first. When a youth married lie 
brought his wife to the home of his parents if there was room for 
them; if not, a house was built near by and the families ate together. 

It was the custom for a widower to wed the sister of his deceased 
wife. " Supposing that she does not like the man and does not wish 
to marry him?" the writer inquired. Whereupon the answer was 
given with an air of superior wisdom, " She always wants to." Uncles 
and nieces are not permitted to marry and cousins do not marry 
"out of respect of the parents for each other." The most careful 
search failed to discover any trace of groups within the tribe between 
which marriage was prohibited. 

DURATION OF UNION 

Separation was lightly regarded and easily effected. The woman 
usually took the initiative, by either going to the home of her parents 
or going away with another man. Sometimes such remarks as " Rain- 
bow Leaves is trying to get Sand Cloud's husband away from her," 
"Dawn Tinkle has changed husbands," were heard. Notwithstand- 



BDSSELLj KA.MILV OKCiANMZATION 185 

ing the natural independence of the women, they made an effort to 
retam tlie affection of wortliy luisliands, and even resorted to suicide 
when deserted. Moreover, the desirability of lastinjj unions was rec- 
ognized by some, as, for example, by the father of wise old Sala 
Hina. "Work well at home," he told her, "Go not to others for the 
morsel they must needs in hospitality bestow, and then when you 
serve faithfiilly your husband he will provide well for you. If the 
husband you choose proves to be lazy do not desert him; work in the 
held with hiin; help and encourage him." 

CHILDREX 

Further evidence in support of the fact that the Pimas were not 
a degenerate race at the time of the introduction of the white man's 
whisky and diseases is found in the size of their families. As many 
as twelve children have been known in a single family, and twins are 
received with general rejoicing. Every inhabitant of the village 
brings gifts and the mother feels assured that she will henceforth be 
a fortunate woman. Male children were preferred, because "they 
woidd grow up to fight Apaches." With the consent of the parents 
deformed infants were taken by the midwife, who watched them until 
tliey died of exposure and want of nourishment. So strong was the 
feeling of the Pimas against the abnormal that they tried in recent 
years to kill a grown man who had six toes. 

Tribal pride is sufficiently strong to induce the Pimas to destroy 
infants of American or Mexican fathers in the same manner as those 
which are deformed. The writer learned of but two persons who had 
escaped such a fate. Incjuiries concerning albinos met with the reply 
that "there never were any." Probably such a child would share 
the same fate as that accorded any other exhibiting abnormal 
characteristics. 

A pregnant woman was not allowed to eat anything that an animal 
had touched. For example, if a gopher had cut a vine on which a 
melon was ripening, she might not eat the fruit; or, if the mice 
nil)])led at a basket of wheat she might not eat of the tortillas made 
therefrom. She dared not go where Apaches had been killed, or the 
baby would die. If her husband killed a rattlesnake at that time, 
her child's stomach woidd swell and it would die soon after birth. 
She must not eat liver or her child would be disfigured by birthmarks. 

During confinement the husband absented himself from the home 
and women friends attended the patient, who sat over a hole in the floor 
in which a cloth had been spread. The placenta was buried in a hole 
and covered with ashes. The mother bathed in the river immediately 
after deliverA', and until the umbilicus of the child was healed she 
dared not eat salt. At times much pain was suffered, and some died 



186 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 2G 

in labor, in wliich case, if the child lived, it was taken in charge by 
the niiiternal grandmother. 

Babies were nursed until the next child was born. Sometimes a 
mother nursed a child until it was 6 or 7 years old and if she became 
pregnant in the meantime she inchiced abortion by ]:)ressure upon 
the abdomen. The unborn was sacriiiced because it was believed 
to be prejudicial to the welfare of the nursing child, which the 
mother loved the more "because she could see it." Illegitimate 
children were aborted at three or four months. One case of abor- 
tion at seven months was reported, but it was done with the aid of 
the medicine-man. These operations were usually successful, but in 
a small percentiige of cases they caused the death of the woman. 

No attempt was made by any of the Pimas to explain the cause of 
sterility. 

The tribe has been large enough to prevent ill effects from close 
inbreeding, and there has been a constant addition of foreign blood. 
Sala Hina (fig. 51), who is perhaps 65 or 70 years old, recalled the 
names of three Apache women who had been married by Pimas. One 
of these had "many children." She had also known two Maricopa 
men married to Pima women and two Pimas married to Maricopa 
women. How lasting these unions had been she was luiable to say. 
There is a Hare-eater from Sonora and a Yaqui who have married 
Pima women at one of the upper villages. Intermarriage with the 
desert-dwelling Kwahadk's has been fairly common. The father of 
Sala Hina was a Kwahadk' and prominent in Piman history as the 
man who brought the first cattle to the tribe. The few Kwahadk' 
women among the villages make the peculiar potteiy that is char- 
acteristic of their tribe, and which should not be confounded with 
that of the Pimas. Detecting a slight dialectic difference in the 
speech of one of the temporary interpreters the author learned upon 
inquiry that his mother had been a Kwahadk. Another interpreter 
said that his people called him "mLxed," which is not surprising, as 
in his veins flowed the blood of Pimas, Maricopas, Papagos, and 
Apaches, peoples of three distinct linguistic stocks. The greatest 
influx of foreign blood has been from the related Papago tribe whose 
caravans annually made their appearance at the harvest season. 
Some Papago families have alwaj's lived with the Pimas, at one 
time forming an outpost on the north by maintaining a village on 
the Salt river. 

In the past there was also some intermari'iage with the So})aipuris, 
and there is both traditional and historical evidence of the final 
amalgamation of the remnants of that tribe with the Pimas. Some 
were captured by the Apaches, as shown by Bourke in his researches 
upon the clans of that tribe. "The Apaches have also among them 



BtSSKM-l 



FAMILY ORGANIZATIOK 



187 



Tze-kinno, or Stonc-liDiusc people, descendants of the clifF-d welling 
Sobavpiiiis, whom they ilrove out of ^Vra^^'pa Canon and forced to 
flee to the Pimas for refusje about a century ago." " 



CERE.MDNV OI" riRIKICATION' 



As soon as a child l)cgaii to creep al)ou( it was taken ]>y the parents 
some afternoon to the nH>dicine-man in order that the rite of purifica- 
tion might he administered and the child's future he renderetl free 
from harmful magic influences. Putting 
a sacred pehhle and an owl feather into 
a seashell containing water, the medi- 
cine-man waved an eagle feather (fig. 100) 
ahout, while the parents and the child 
drank the water and ate some white ashes 
or a Httle mud. Tliis simple ceremony 
was suflicient to thwart the nnilice of all 
evil demons; lightning would not strike 
the child, and the possibility of accidents 
of all kinds was thus j)recluded. As a 
further precaution the mother must not 
eat salt for four days thereafter. 

This appears at first glance to be a 
modification of the Christian rite of bap- 
tism. Further investigation seems to 
show that it is similar to that and also to 
a purely aboriginal ceremony that in the 
opinion of the WTiter was practised before 
the advent of the friars. The Pimas 
declare that their "medicine-men got 
it up themselves." Cushing found "tluit 
the Zuni of to-day are as eager as were 
their forefathers for baptism and for bap- 
tismal names additional to tlieir own 
But it must be remembered," iu> continues, "that baptism — the 
purification of the heatl by .sj)rinkling or of the face by wasiiing with 
medicine water — was a very old institution with tliis people even 
before the Spaniards found them."'' He also ascribes the readiness of 
various other tribes to receive baptism to the existence of their own 
similar custom. This readiness is otherwi.se difficult to accoiuit 
for, as the zeal, and, at times, lack of judgment, of the priests led 
them to baptize as man}- of the Indians as the\- were able to con- 




FiG. liH). Eagli' fi'iitlUT aspurgills. 



u Capt. John G. Bourke. Journni of American Folk-Lore, IX, Hi. 

l> Cashing in Thirteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 335. 



188 THE PIMA INDIANS [kth. ann. i;6 

trol for the purpose; this procedure must have caused trouble very 
soon had the ceremony been wholly unknown to tlie natives." 

BAPTISM 

Before a child is a year old it is named by friends of the parents in 
the followiuf; manner: The friends, or godparents, accompanied by 
other \4sitors, come for four successive mormngs and seat themselves 
just before sunrise on the ground before the house in which the child 
lives. First one and then another of the company holds the child for 
a moment, but if it is a boy the kompalt, godfather, repeats a cere- 
monial speech, passes his hands across the hmbs of the infant and 
holds it aloft to receive the first rays of the rising sun ; then he bestows 
upon the boy the name by wliich he shall be known throughout life — 
though nicknames are common and often supplant the baptismal 
name to some extent. If it is a girl, the kamvilt, godmother, delivers , 
the speech and gives the name. Beads were formerly held up to 
receive the first rays of sunlight, and were then placed about the 
child's neck. Gifts of clothing, food, baskets, and the like were also 
made by the godparents, who "tliink as much of tlie child afterwards 
as its own father and mother," said one of our informants. The 
parents in their turn reciprocate by naming the children of the couple 
that acts as godparents to their own.'' 

The names assumed by the men during later life are very frequently 
derived from the sexual organs, particularly those of the female, but 
such names are never bestowed at the time of baptism. Any unusual 
event or physical pecuharity may impose a name upon an indi\ndual. 
For example, a man wlio worked several weeks for the missionary 
was so well fed that he began to lay on flesh. Ever afterwards he was 
known as Preacher's Fat. One is known as Uvaatuka, Spread Leg, 
from his peculiar gait. 

From the age of 10 until about the time of marriage neither boys nor 
girls are allowed to speak their ovvaa names. The penalty is bad luck 
in losing arrows in the case of the l)oys, in losing the rsa'lika, or kiiiha 
stick in the case of the girls. The name of a deceaseii person is not 
used; he is alluded to as the brother of So-and-so. The word or 
words in the name, however, are not dropped from the language. 

aWhipple, Ewbank, and Turner in the Pacific Railroad Reports, in. ;^, mention tiie occurrence of 
the custom of baptism among the Cherolcees when the infants arc 3 days old. "They believe that 
without this rite the child can not live. They have a custom of sacrifices and burnt offerings." 

''"Cada nino tiene un peri, que es unaespecie de padrino, que convidan sus padres. Este.despues de 
habcrle hecho un largo discurso al recien nacido sobre las obligaciones propias de su se.xo. le va tentando 
por todo el cuerpo, estir^ndole los brazes y piemas, y lucgo le impone un apeliido 6 nombre de su lengiia, 
no sigmficativo. Despues de la ceremonia, el peri y l1 niiio sc rcputan en lo civil como una misma persona, 
y tienen con sus respectivos parientes la misma relacion. Lo mismo hacen las mugeres en su proporcion 
con las mtias." .\legre, Historia de la Compaiiia de Jesus en Nueva-Espaiia, II, 217. 



RUSSELL] 



FAMILY ORGANIZATION 



189 



NAMES 



The names of the Pinias proved so interesting to the present investi- 
gator that a number of examples were recorded, as follows: 



Rainliow 

Rainli(i\v-Bow 

Stick-Uainliow 

Cloiul-Kainljow 

Bear-Rainbow 

Apache-Bark 

Sand-Anns 

Clijud-Tluindering 

Cl.iud-Heart 

Aiit's-Cry 

Ml lun- Fragment 

Big-M(iim 

Scared-Eagle 

Tail-Shed 

Fog 

Shining-Star 

Coyote-Footprint 

Coyotc-Shecf 

Coyote-Dust 

Coyote-Lightning 

Coyote-Skin 

Coyote- Flower 

Coyote- Running- Races 

Coyote- Runner 

Coyote-Howl 

Coyote's-Quiver 

Bear 

Bear's-Body 

Bear's- Paws 



Cloud-Flower 

Cloud-Peak 

Cloud-Curve 

Flowers 

Sun-Flower 

Flowers-Flying 

Flowers-Running 

Sun's- Rays 

Sun-Flying 

Morning-Rays 

Morning- Running 

Morning-<'louds 

Ml ini i ng-\Vaving-Hands 

Bluisli 

Singing-Rattle 

Pleasing-Mirage 

Snowflakes 

Wat I r- Fern-Leaves 

Foam-Rolling 

Ancient-House-Shining 

Ancient-House- Drops 

Anrii'nt-Hi>usc-S|)arks 

Rainliow-DispiUed 

Rainbow-Leaves 

Leaves- Flyinf 

Bows-Spotted 

Water-Fern-Topa 

Song-Flower 



Names of men 

Bird-Eves 

Black-Wheat 

Frozen-Beans 

Bean-liarter 

Greas>--Eagle 

Big-Eagle 

Evening-Murmuring 

Evening-Come 

Closing- Twilight 

Light-Shines 

Wind-Milky-Way 

Wind-Bow 

Speaking-Bow 

Evening-Hands 

Running-Wind 

Evening-Roaring 

Soft- Feathers-Morning 

Sun-Sparks 

Eagle-Sparks 

Hawk-Bow 

Milky-Way-Bow 

Sun-i5ow 

Foam-Bow 

Sticking-Feathers 

Hawk-Shield 

Telling-Shooting 

Raven 

Brown-Eagle 

Coyote's-Hair 

Names of women 

Morning-Disappearing 

Morning-Beat ing 

Clouds-Passing 

Darkness- Passing 

Darkness- Lixisened 

Morning- Loosened 

Morning-Kneading 

Willow 

Sing-Tinkle 

Bird- Down-Flowers 

Bird- Down-Sprinkle 

Rainbow-Water-Grass 

Cloud-Tinkle 

Gray-Leaves 

Morning-Dew 

Big-Leaves 

Sunflower 

Night-Wind 

Dawn-Tinkle 

West -End 

Spring- Lea^'es 

ilorn ing- Water-Grass 

Morning-Leaves 

Sun- Leaves 

'{ow-End 

Morning-Trail 

West-S|)rinkle 

Quivenng-lleat-Waves 



Si|uash-Steni 

Shields-in-Line 

Eagle-Head 

LiglU-Biril-Down 

Shield- Light 

Riit-Skin 

Ralllesnake-Rattle 

Thin-Leather 

Hide-Bucket 

Bad-Bow 

Running-Noise 

Red-Corn 

Scorpion's-Stomach 

Drum-Stomach 

Hawk - Boginning-To-Lay- 

Eggs 
Shining-Nose 
Coyote 
Centiped 
Centiped 's-Rattle 
Beaver's-Mouth 
Ducks 

Birds-Feather 
Bird-Sharp 
Cliff-Rainliow 
Many-Shields 
Round-Frog 
Shining-Back 



Foam-Tinkle 

Morning-End 

Morning-Ti issing-Up 

Morning-Shadow 

Cloud-Rolling 

A\'at er-Grass-Growing 

Night-Twinkle 

Many-Leaves 

Sand-Cloud 

Night-Flower 

First -Flower 

Red-Flower 

Vellow-Flower 

Singing-Noise 

Two-Flowers 

Basket-Leaves 

They-< 'ome 

Sun-Mirage 

Mirage-End 

Salty 

Raw 

Soft 

Alone 

Crooked-Knife 

Dew-Woman 

Butterfly 



190 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. :.'C 

EDUCATION 

In addition to the education that every Pima child received by the 
method of imitation and apprenticeship, careful oral instruction in 
moral, relicjious, and other matters was also oriven l)y the ciders. 
Wiile yet cjuite youngj the Pima lad was taken up in his father's arms 
at daylareak and held there while he was told sometlung of tlie mys- 
teries of the great Sun god that nearly everj' mornmg in the year rises 
bright and free from clouds above the Sierra Tortilla. As he grew too 
big to be held hi arms he had to sit up very straight and pay strict 
attention while his father or guardian lectured to Mm on the proj^er 
conduct of a Pima warrior and citizen: or, in other words, soldier 
and gentleman. If he was not fully awake and paid indifferent heed 
to what was told him, the father's stiffened middle finger would 
suddeidy strike the side of his nose, bringing his face around until he 
looked straight into his father's eyes. (See pi. xlii, c, xlv, xlvi.) 

He learned that he must be ever alert and ready with bow and 
arrows to repel the attacks of Apaches. Day by day this lesson was 
taught by precept and example until it became the strongest instinct 
of the youth to be ready and watchful. He was taught to go on scout 
duty in the morning or to look after the live stock before he partook 
of his morning meal. It was well for him to accustom hunself to cold 
food and to that which remained after the family had satisfied their 
hunger, for it was only by practising abstemiousness that he could 
hope to be fit for the long war trail into the barren Apache stronghold. 
"If you are wounded in battle," said the father, "don't make a great 
outcry about it like a child. Pull out the arrow and slip away; or, 
if hard stricken, die with a silent throat. Go on the war trail with 
a small blanket. It is light and protection enough for one aided by 
the magicians. Inure yourself to the cold while yet a boy. Fight 
not at all with your comrades; preserve your strength for the combat 
with the Apaches. Then, if brave, will come to you high honor. Be 
unselfish or you will not be welcome at the fire of the friendly. The 
selfish man is lonely and his untended fire dies. Keep your peace 
when a foolish man addresses the people. Join not in his imprudent 
councilings. Above all, talk not foolishly yourself. Bathe in the 
cold water of the early morning, that you may be prepared for the 
purification ceremony after killing an enemy." 

Thus the lad was taught fortitude, courage, forbearance, unselfish- 
ness, industry — qualities that might well be adapted to the changed 
conditions and incorporated m the system of instruction of the white 
man's "Indian schools." As time went on he learned tliat if he 
profited by the advice given him he would l)econie a desirable jiarty 
for some soft-voiced home keeper, and with his marriage his education 
ceased. 



BCSSELL] FAMILY ORGANIZATION 101 

As a hunter he made his debut by giving awa}" all the first deer 
that he killed. ^Vfterwards he took his choice of the meat before 
sharing with his fellows. 

Everj- youth when about 20 years old was told the ancient tra- 
ditions, or Ha-ak Aga, Story of Ha-ak. For four days and four 
nights he remained with the keeper of the legends, who was u.sually 
a man selected as tribal historian because of possessing a good mem- 
ory. Durmg that period he was not allowed to eat salt. This and 
similar tabus with reference to salt nuiy have been due to contact 
with the Papagos or to survival from the period when the Pimas 
lived by the sea. 

The advice given Sala Hina by her father may be taken as an 
example of the kind of instruction given the girls. Sala's mother 
was careless and uidifferent, so that the responsibility of her traming 
fell upon the father, as often happens. "Stay at home with your 
mother," he told her. "Watch and help her handle the cooking 
pots, the mortar, and metate, that j'ou may know how to ]jrepare the 
seeds of Pimeria. Keep the fire alive and have wood ever ready. 
See that the drinking olla is never empty. If j'ou do these things 
well, 3'ou will not gad about after you are married and leave your 
hearth vacant so that your husband may come home to fuid the fire 
out or to put it out to your discomfiture; for it is the office of man to 
kindle the fire but the part of woman to keep it burning." 

As in the case cited, one parent may neglect the trainmg of the 
children. It rarely happens that both are wholly indifferent. They 
are inclined to punish the children more than do the members of any 
other tribe with which I am acquainted. The youngsters are seldom 
whipped, but thej' may be scolded, slapped, or shaken for their mis- 
demeanors until they become 10 or 12 years old. If a girl stum- 
bles and breaks an olla when going for water, her elders take some 
of the broken pieces and scratch her naked arm. The girls begin 
to assist in the cooking at 7 or 8 and at 9 or 10 they begin to make 
baskets. Some are lazy and are allowed to idle away their time, never 
making more than the single basket required during their puberty 
ceremonies. 

The j'ounger girls make very realistic rag dolls, which they carry 
tlu"ough the drama of life with as great seriousness and "make- 
believe" as their white sisters. The writer once came upon them 
when they had twenty or more figures variously posed around them 
as spectators of the burial of a whole family, with accompanying 
destniction of (' ' make-believe ") property. In addition to " funerals," 
they had parties for which they ground wheat for pinole, though an 
adult observer would have said that they were grinding up weed 
seed. The "dishes" were molded with mud on their little brown 
elbows and were ready for use after scarcelj- more than a minute's 



192 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an.n. 26 

drying in the sun. One form of mischievous activity was to play 
hide-and-seek in the wheat fields, but such a game was brief and apt 
to be attended with unpleasant consequences. In the evenings they 
played "puberty dances" or listened to the wonderfid tales of prowess 
of their elders or of the adventures of the mythic animals of ancient 
Pimeria. The boys practise day after day, year after year, until it 
is not surprismg that they become such accurate shots with the bow. 
Woe to the birds and squirrels that cross their path. Unlike the 
pueblo lads, they are not prohibited from killing the rattlesnake, but 
they must not use the same arrow agam. If the rattles are desired 
for ornament, they must be taken from a living snake. We have 
seen them teasmg a Gila monster, but this and the horned toad are 
exempt from their arrows. Fish offered a splendid target for them 
when there was any water in the river and anj^ fish were to be seen. 
There was no parental prohibition against destro}-ing birds' nests, 
though the warning "If you touch quail eggs you will go blind" 
served most effectually to protect one species at least. The owl was 
not so much a bird of evil as of mystery and death, and its feathers 
were sought for their magic potency in medicine and other ceremo- 
nies. If a lad shot one, he had to pluck the feathers from the bird 
before it died or the magic power of the plumes was lost. Besides 
the bow and arrows the Pima youngsters possessed the sling of raw- 
hide, which, by the usual process of evolution, came to be made in later 
years of boot leg. From the scanty Mexican population with which 
they came in contact they learned to use stilts, but none were seen 
in use diiring the ^\Titer's stay among them. As they grew older 
they were cautioned not to eat from an olla, else when they had to 
run away from superior numbers of Apaches the olla would get 
between their legs and obstruct their movements. 

OLD PERSON.S AND THEIR TREATMENT 

Favored by the mildness of the clinuite, the lot of the aged among 
the Pimas was less unenviable than among most of the other Indian 
tribes. As they were a sedentary people, the custom of abandoning 
the aged on the march could not prevail. As a matter of fact, the old 
and helpless were not killed hj the active members of the community, 
though they were sometimes neglected until they starved to death and 
sometimes they set fire to their houses to commit suicide. The heart- 
lessness of youth sometimes manifested itself in such acts as throw- 
ing stones at aged persons, merely "to see them act like children." 

One case observed may be mentioned — that of an old man at 
Sacaton dragging out a miserable existence. Totally blind and 
scarcely able to walk, he lived in a brush shelter about 8 feet square 
that contained a little straw and the single blanket that served to cover 
him. When he ventured al)roail into the world the hmits of liis jour- 



BDSSELL] FAMILY ORGANIZATION 193 

neys were prescribed by the lengtli of the rope wliich was attached by 
one end to liis doorpost. His food was cooked by some of Ids adult 
grandcliildroii wlio occui)ied a iiouse near at hand. His time was 
spent absohitely alone in the shelter, which was as devoid of utensils or 
furnishin<rs as any dog kennel. And yet, with a pride that is deatli- 
less in the human soul, lie boasted of the time when he was a man 
among men and overcame the ferocious Apaches on the latter'sown 
ground. 

VIEWS CONCERNING DEATH 

The usual primitive views of death — that it was not a natural event, 
but a result of magic influences brought to bear by enemies, human or 
superhuman — prevailed among the Pimas. In the legends the first 
death that occurred in the history of the human race is attributed to 
the venom of Soft Child, the rattlesnake, who was given the power of 
death to protect lumself from unmerited abuse by man. The legends 
also indicate a disposition to view the Destroyer philosophically, 
inasmuch as the predecessors of the present race are regarded with 
commiseration on account of their becoming so crowded because of 
none dying to give place to the oncoming generation. 

Again and again the information was elicited that those who died 
during the day were killed by the Sun, while those who died during 
the hours of darkness were killed by Night. This the author inter- 
prets to mean that the prayers that were regularly addressed to Sun 
and Night were for preservation, and that death resulted from some 
lapse or inattention on the part of these two deities. This agrees 
with the e([ually emphatic statements that "death is always due to 
magic, to animals, or to neglect of tlie ceremonies or tabus." 

MODE OF BtTKIAL 

At the moment of death the friends of the d_\-ing flee from them as 
if to avoid tlie magic that nuiy not be satisfied witli one victim. The 
near relatives cover the face of the corpse and l)ind tlie l)ody in a 
bundle, with the legs drawn up. Before the Pimas obtained horses 
tlie l)ody was borne to the grave on a litter. With ])rimitive tools the 
graves were not dug as deep as at the present time, and to tiiis burial in 
shallow graves is attributed the cause for covering the graves with the 
timbers of the sheils or storeln)u.ses of the deceased (see pi. xxxix, 
a, b, c). Now a round hole is dug to a depth of o or 6 feet, then a 
small chamber is scooped out on the west side, in which the body is 
extended, with the head to the south. Billets of wood are tlien 
placed so as to lean against the roof over tlie body, so that in filling 
the grave no earth falls u]ion it. Medicine-men are buried in a sit- 
ting position, and in several instances have been buried in isolated 
places which have accjuired special sacredness. 
26 ETii — 08 15 



194 



THK PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. AXN. 26 



The dead are never cremated, as they are by the adjoining tribes on 
the west. There is an apparent exception to this rule in the occasional 
cremation practised while on the warpath. The writer is unable to 
account for tins, unless it be due either to the influence of the Mari- 
copas or to a survival pointing toward western affinities of the Pinian 
stock. So far as ascertained, no disinterment for removal had ever 
been made by the Pimas. They never buried beneath the floors, as 
did the Ilohokam. 

FUNERAL RITES 

Water and pinole are placed on the grave for the use of the soul in 
the other world, not on the journey thither, as that takes but a 




Fk;. 1111 Fimrriil Ciiclii' ,-niitli (ii I'^i-.i 1 



moment's time. In order that the soul may betake itself to the proper 
abiding place and not disturb the survivors, the latter are accustomed 
to say at the grave, " We put you here. Go to your home in the 
East. Do not come back." Ghosts are uncanny things to have 
about and are liable to touch sleeping persons, tliis meaning that the 
one touched must accompany the visitor back to the land of shades. 

When a householder died his ki was formerly burned — an excellent 
hygienic precaution, but detrimental to the development of architec- 
ture. The other structures about the premises were either burned or 
piled on the grave. Personal property was similarly destroyed, and 
if there was any live stock, it was killed and eaten by anyone who 
chanced to be on hand, though the immediate relatives never partook 



RtssKi.1.] SOt'IAL ORGANIZATION 195 

of sucli food." When a luisliaiul was so fortunate as to possess two 
blankets, liis widow sometimes kept one of tiiem. The name of the 
deceased was not mentioned thereafter, and all things possible were 
done to obliterate his memory from the minds of the survivors except 
that the rites of mourning were practised for st)me time. 

The death of a pauper who had nothing to leave at the grave 
released a vexed soul to wander about until some one in charity placed 
an offering on the grave. Sometimes the paraphernalia of a medicine- 
man, when it was not handed down to a successor in the famil}-, was 
concealed in an olla in the hills instead of being destroyed. More 
rarely these caches were nuide of the property of ordinarj- men. Fig- 
ure 101 shows such a cache, wliich was found in a rugged granite iiill 
about 4 miles south of Casa Blanca. The olla was covered with a 
bowl, and as neither was broken it was perfectly water-tight. Among 
the contents of the cache (pi. xl) were a number of crystals and 
concretions, a neatty carved stone rattlesnake, three seashells for use 
in medicine, and a war club. The last was too large to be placed 
in the olla, and, being exposed outside, it was somewhat gnawed by 
rodents. 

MOURNING 

In mourning for near relatives the men cut their hair so that it 
does not fall below the middle of the back. The women cut theirs 
to the level of the ear lobes for husband, child, etc., and an aged 
widow cropped her hair close to the head " because she felt the worst." 
In all cases the cut hair was buried in the sand of the river bed; if 
it were burned it woidd cause headache and death. Aiid yet when 
blankets were destroyed at the death of their owner they were 
burned. 

Very few widows mourned for the full period of four years. 
During that time they were compelled to remain at home, to refrain 
from wasliing their hair, and to cry aloud the name of the deceased 
every morning at daybreak. Thej^ were allowed to bring their blank- 
ets up around luider the armpits, but not over the shoulders, even in 
the coldest weather. When the chemise was adopted, as the blankets 
went out of use, it was customary to revert to the blankets duruig 
the period of mourning. 

Social Organization 

officers 

The Pimas are governed by a head chief and by a chief for each 
village. These men are assisted by village coimcils, which do not, 
the author believes, appoint any representatives to the tribal coun- 

oCompare Bourke, " When a Mohave <lie.s, there Is a feast made o( some of his horses and other 
edibles; but none of his clansmen will eat of It." .rournal of American F()lk-Lore . u. 184. 



196 THE PIMA INDIANS [etii. an\. ;G 

cils. The office of head cliief is not hereditary, tlioii^h the present 
incum])ent succeeded his father. He is elected l)y tlie village chiefs. 

The present head cliief is Antonio Azul (pi. ii, a), known among his 
people as Uva-a't6ka, Spread Leg, from a peculiarity in his gait; 
also as Ma'vit Ka'wutam, Puma Shield, and by other names less ele- 
gant. The calendar records are silent u])on this, and as to the date 
of his accession, reference to it in contemporarj- literature has been 
seen. He became chief before 1SG4, as Poston mentions in his report 
as special commissioner in that j-ear that Antonio had just had his 
commission revoked for bad conduct." 

Antonio's father had been the preceding head chief. He was known 
as Culo Azul, also as Ti'ahiatam, Urine. His predecessor was llsan'tali 
Vi'akam, who was killed by Apaches before Kamal tkak, who is prob- 
ably TT) years old, was born. His jiredece.ssor was named O'sivf, 
Joseph. No recollection of any earlier chief remains. In the Kudo 
Ensayo Tavanirao is named as the chief about the year 1757,'' and 
it is possible that he was the predecessor of O'sh'f. 

The decrees of the councils are announced from a house top by 
the village crier, who is selected because of possessing the loudest and 
clearest voice. There are sometimes two of these officials in a village. 

In each village there was also a ''ceremonj' talker," or master of 
ceremonies, whose duty it was to arrange and control the details of 
the festivals and general ceremonies not especially jirovided for by 
the religious fraternities. 

At the command of each council was a messenger wlio miglit he 
sent to summon tlio.se required by that body. 

Any man of acknowledged courage might, with the apjiroval of 
his fraternity (the information obtained at this point was some- 
what vague — perhaps " neighbors " or " the community" is the better 
term), organize a war party. He was then called Tcunyim or 
Tcu'ymyim, Smoker, or War Speaker. His name and authority ended 
upon returning from tlie camjiaign. 

It is important to note that the tril)c acted as a unit against the 
Apaches. With their compact territory antl well-developed agri- 
culture they niiglit well have easily develojjed yet further their 
division of labor and established a warrior class. Then, with their 
increasing numbers under the stimulus of material well-being, they 
might have easity extended their power. No neighboring tribes 
except the Apaches and Papagos surpassed them in nundiers; the 
former were without resources, the latter were related and friendly. 
The advantages of confederation had ])een learned from more than 
half a century's experience with the Maricopas, a tribe of alien speech 
and blood. 



"Sec Report of Commissionor of Indian .4.ftairs 1864, 153, 1865. 
6 Records American Catholic Historical Society, v, 129'. 



RUSSELL] 



SOCIAL ORGANTZATION 197 



GENTES 



Descent is traced in the male line and there are five groups that 
may be calletl gentes, thouj^h they exert no influence upon marriage 
laws nor do they manifest any evidences of organization so far as 
ascertained. Tiie names of these groups iiave lost all meaning. 
They arc called A'kol, A'pap, A'piikl, Ma'-am, and Va'-af. 

The first three are known as the Vulture or lied People, the last 
two as the Coyote or White People. However, they are spoken of 
as the S6wti'ki O'himal and Sto'am O'himal, or Red iVnts and White 
Ants." In the Pima creation myth presented in full in tliis memoir 
reference is made to black ants, tcotclk tatany, and to the termite, 
hiapltc, but no connection is supposed to exist between them and 
the o'himal. 

The Red Peojjle are said to have been in possession of tlie country 
when Elder Brother brought the White People from tlie nether worltl 
and conquered them as described on page 22G. There were more 
than two gentes of the White People, but Coyote laughed too soon 
at them and the earth closed before the others got through. The 
author suspects that this division signifies that the tribe was formed 
by the junction of two peoples, the only trace of the original groups 
being the names and the maintenance of the laws of vengeance. 

SLAVES 

The slaves taken by the Pimas were chiefly from the ranks of the 
Apaches or their allies.'' Though war was wageil for many years 
against the Yumas it was not of a character to enable them to capture 
many Yuma children. When captured, Apache children were not 
killed; they were soon forwarded to Tucson, Altar, or Guaymas and 
sold to the Spaniards or Mexicans. These captives were well treated, 
but their origin was never forgotten and the fear and suspicion of the 
tribe found expression at times in the decrees of the medicine-men 
that certain misfortunes were caused })y the presence of the aliens. 
Somewhat rarely the girls were married into the tribe and an appre- 
ciable amount of foreign l)lood was introduced in tliis way which 
doubtless had its effect upon tlie vigor of tlie race. 

SOCIAL MORALS 

It would be a more agreeable task to write of tiie morality of primi- 
tive Pimas than of that which developed as a result of contact with 
Spaniards and Americans. To the honesty and virtue of the tril)e a 

"The same divisions oxist among the Papagos. and Jos6 Lewis, the Papago who interproteii for 
Professor McGeo, submitted specimens of the ant as exampies of tlie insect refi-rred to as " o'himal." 

ft '• Que los Coconiarffopas apressan loe muehachos Nijoras (que todos son gentiles) y los venden piT 
eficlavos a los mas, y estos & los Espafiolis, que los compran en cortas cantidadcs." Villa-Seflor, y 
Sanchez, Theatre jVjnericano, 17^8, pt. 2, i, 396. 



198 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

score of wTiters have testified, leading to the belief that moral stand- 
ards in Pimeria at least equaled if they did not resemble our own. 
Life and property were secure. By their industry they had mas- 
tered the difficulties of their environment. The relations of the 
sexes and the division of labor had been adjusted in a mamier credit- 
able to them." 

The law of vengeance operated to prevent homicide. "Speak not 
foolisldy," said the elders; "do not (luarrel and kill your neighlior, fur 
that leads to retaliation." Thus tlie yontii were instructed and the 
abhorrence of bloodshed grew deep and lasting. Within the tribe 
there was but one exceotion to tliis — to kill the convicted sorcerer was 
meritorious. 

No odium attached to the crime of suicide. The body was buried in 
the usual manner and the property was similarly divided or destroyed. 
Several instances of self-destruction were ascertained. A l^lind old 
man had shot liimself and a yoimg man had ended his career because 
his father would not let him sell some jiiece of personal property. 
Another man had shot himself because his wife had deserted him and 
their family of small children. A woman had starved herself and 
baby in the hills of the desert because lier luis})and had left her. 

The crime of arson was unknown, though dwellings were frequently 
burned by accident. 

Adultery was jninished ])y turning the woman away from the home. 
Sometimes tiie husband shot the horse of the offending man and " then 
he felt all right." 

Prostitution with its train of di.seases has not depleted the numbers 
of the Pimas as it has the population of so numy surrounding trilies. 
Loose women are said by the old people to have been rare in the old 
days. Independent testimony of the whites accords with tlus. 
^'They are exceedingly jealous of their females; and their chastity, 
as far as outside barbarians are concerned, remains, with a few excep- 
tions, unimpeachable." '' One informant assured the writer's party 
that the infant daughter of a prostitute by an unknown father was 
always destroyed lest she "grow up to be as bad as her mother." 

o "The Indians, although they were crowding about our tents, and everything was exposed to them, 
made no effort to steal anything." Captain Johnston, Journal, COO. 

" Um das Biid dieses indianischen Volksstammcs zu vervollstiindigen, nuiss ich nur noch hinzufiigen 
dass derselbe mit soinen Iriedlichen und liebenswiirdigen Eigcnschaften eine unbestrittene Tapferkeit 
verbindet, die selbst dem wilden Apachen Hochaehtimg einllosst. Ich glaube nicht dass sich bei irgend 
einem anderen'noch erhaltenen Stamme der Charalrter der amerikanischen Urbevolkerung auf eine 
vortheilhaftere Weise darstellt." Julius Frobel, Aus .\merikn. ii, 448. 449. 

Emory fo\md them 'surpassing many of the Christian nations in agriculture, little behind them in 
the useful arts, and immeasuraljly before them in honesty and virtue." 

■■ The heathen Indians received us with jubilee, giving of their provision to the soldiers, and we counted 
two hundred persons, who were gentle and affable." Mange's Diary, from an extract translated by 
Buckinghara Smith in Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, III, 303. 

" These Gila Pimas are gentle and comely." Ibid., 301, from Diary of I'edro Font. 

'C. D. Toston, in report as special Indian commissioner, in Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
1864, 152, 180S. 



iiissELL] SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 1 *,»',) 

Theft hi'caino a common crime witli tlie increasing vagabondage 
arising from deprivatit)n due to the whites. An extensive system of 
horse and cattle steahng grew up, wiiereby the Pa]>agos stol(> in 
Soiiora and sold to tlie Pimas, and the latter stole from one anoth(>r 
and solil to the Papagos, who bought or stole to sell again in Mexico. 

During the worst period of their demoralization they stole wheat 
from each other and sold it to l)uy whisky. It is to be reniendx'red 
that by far the greater j)art of the tril)e disapproved of such deeds, 
and the few that engaged in such enterprises hatl not the sup])ort of 
public opinion, which even in an Indian village is an autocratic power. 

Thus intoxication was always regarded as reprehensible, though a 
distinction was made between the persons guilty of drinking the 
white man's whisky and those who followed the inunemorial custom 
of getting drunk on native-brewed liquors during tlie saguaro harvest. 

Laziness was condemned, and boys and girls were taught to spin 
and delve — how w-ell may be judged from the fact that the tribe pro- 
duced a large surplus crop year after year during the early period of 
American occupancy of the region and at the same time fought back 
the Apaches antl aided the soldiers materially, while the Americans 
anti Mexicans with all their soldiers and outside resources were 
driven into the shelter of the forts. 

Cleanliness is learned by imitation. The floors of the hou.ses are 
kept free of such objects as can he picked up with the hands and 
the yards are swept with bundles of arrow bushes or mescjuite 
branches. Bathing was a daily practice. 

Public opinion strongly condemned l.ying. Stinginess coidd not be 
more abhorred. The chiefs, especially, were expected to liestow 
hberally all gifts within their control. The present chief has had a 
canny sense of thrift and possesses a large bank account, which ren- 
ders liim much less popular than he might otherwise be. 

FORMUI.A.S OK POLITENESS 

No conventional words of greeting were in use before the intro- 
duction of the Spanish and American forms. Tciars tarn wu'sahain, 
"the god sends his regards," were the closing words of any speech. 
Ha'iku-ult, "good-bye," was the usual response of the listeners. 
Sometimes in finishing astory thenarratorexclaimed atoa'ttlk, "anus," 
at wliich those present said the word expressing the degree of their 
relationsliip to the speaker, or if they were not related they said 
na'wotc," friend." The same expressions are used in accepting a gift. 

Hand shaking was unknown until introduced b}' the whites, though 
it is now universally practised." It is said that the custom of kissing 

a ".Vntonio and his son hail tipped fingnrs and gnmted in token of joy." wrote J. R. Browne, in 
describing the meeting of the chief and his son after a long separation. Adventures in the Apache 
Country, 84. 



2(H) THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ajjn. 26 

was confined to mothers and infants. Accurate information of the 
primitive custom can not now be obtained. Formerly, when long- 
separated fi'iends met they expressed their joy in tears. The terms 
expressing their degrees of relationship or simply "friend" were 
sometimes used. 

Guests were offered pinole upon arrival if it were not near meal- 
time. Pinole was easily prepared without cooking and staved hun- 
ger. At meals guests were helped to fotxi in a dish apart from the 
common bowl out of which the family ate. 

Intertrib.\l Relations 

alliances 

The relations of the Pimas to their neighbors had a profound in- 
fluence upon their social organization and general cultural develop- 
ment. They held possession of the best agricultural lands in their 
section of the Southwest, and were compelled to fight for the privilege. 
Their alliance with the Maricopas entailed a long and sanguinary 
struggle with the Yumas, wliich resulted in what Bancroft has termed 
"the almost total annihilation" of the latter tribe. From the Mari- 
copas they received, however, efficient aid against their principal 
enemy, the Apaches. Thus the Pimas learned the advantages of con- 
federation, and there is reason to believe that their culture, based 
on a tlirifty system of agriculture, in time might have surpassed 
that of the Hohokam. The Yavapais were sometimes hostile, but do 
not appear to have been very formidable opponents." In the Annals 
there are references to a few tribes of minor importance that it is 
almost impossible to identify from their Pima names, but they were 
always allied with either the Yumas or the Apaches. Aside from 
the Maricopas, the tribes friendly to the Pimas were their congeners, 
the Papagos and Kwahadk's and the ,Sol)aipuris of the Santa Cruz 
and San Pedro valleys. 

WARFARE 

ItAIDS 

A better understanding of the division of labor prevailing among 
these people may be had by studying the conditions imposed upon 
them by the presence of the aggressive Apaches. The men may be 
forgiven for allowing the women to perform certain tasks in the 
cultivation of the crops that are usually considered the portion of the 
stronger sex when it is learned that this plan was necessary in order 
to maintain pickets constantly for long periods, and that an armed 
guard was the sole guaranty of safety to the villages. Every three 

o Garcfis relates in his Diary that the "Yabipais Tpjua." |Yavapai.s] have "in some way remained 
enemies of the Pimas and Cocomaricopas GUenos." Cones', On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, u. 449. 



BUSSELL] INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS 201 

or four days small parties of five or ten would come to steal live 
stock or to kill any individual tliat might have gone some little dis- 
tance from the villages. Larger war parties came once or twice a 
month, though longer periods sometimes elapsed without a visit 
from tlie Ajnvches. Chief Antonio declares that tlie Apaches formerly 
lived farther away from the Pimas, and hence their raids were less 
frequent than they were during the middle portion of the last century. 
At all events tlie activity of tlie enemy became sufficient to cause the 
al)andoiiment of the outlying villages east of the present agency of 
Sacaton and the concentration of the tribe into seven villages upon 
the Gila plain. On stormy winter nights, when the noise of the ele- 
ments might afford cover for the approach of the enemy, sentinels 
were posted about the camps. These men were accustomed to build 
little shelters of brush and leave smoldering fires in tlieni, then con- 
ceal themselves in the darkness near by and watch for marauders that 
might attempt to steal toward the light . In this way the main trails 
were guarded, and the coyote-like curs at the houses afforded addi- 
tional securitj^ from surprise. They supposed that the Apaches 
always guarded their own camps. 

When a chief "felt in his heart" that he would like to avenge his 
people for some particularly flagrant outrage, or that he desired the 
honors thai reward the successful warrior, he went from settlement 
to settlement making an appeal for followers by repeating conven- 
tional speeches of magic character. The arrangements for the cam- 
paign were speedily made. The preparation of the roasted meal for 
pinole required much le.ss time than the ceremonies necessary to 
secure the requisite amount of magic power to insure victory. The 
extra supplies of food were carried, before the introduction of the 
horse, by one or more women. These women were chosen from those 
who had recentlj- lost kinsmen in battle and they were invarial)ly 
accompanied by a male relative. At night the party was surrounded 
by pickets, who came in to report at intervals. During the evening 
a set speech was repeated liy a man whose office it was to keep appro- 
priate speeches in memory. These were arranged in order, as "first 
night," "second nigiit," etc., and were "adapted" for the occasion, 
though based upon the supposed speeches of the gods at the time of 
the creation. The valor of the party was roused by the recital of deeds 
performed, but tiie primary oliject was to compel the attention of 
supernatural beings and secure magic power that would not only 
enable them to overcome but would also attack the magic power of 
the enemy. Then, of course, if the magic power of the enemy were 
defeated, the Pimas could easily overpower the Apaches." After the 
speech the warriors sang the magic war songs, a'-atan nyui, while the 

a "The Pima^, though not an aggressive, are a brave and warlike raoe. They am the dread of the 
Apache, who always avoids them." Sylvester Mowry in S. Ex. Doc. 11, pt. 1, 587, 3Jth Cong., 1st 
Bess.. 18.58. 



202 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

makai, or magician, swung an owl feather over them. At the close of 
the songs he foretold the number of the enemy that would be killed. 
Thus they fared forth, carrying a little roasted meal and a snuill but 
shapely basket bowl from which to eat it, provided with a little 
tobacco for the ceremonial smokes that wafted their individiuil 
prayers to the Sun god. A portion of each band was armed with 
bows and arrows; the former of the elastic mulberry wood from the 
same mountains in which the enemy found refuge, the latter of the 
straight-stemmed arrow bush, whose tufted tips waved in billowy 
masses on the Pimerian lowlands. When a conu-ade fell in battle his 
bow was broken and his arrow shafts were snapjjed and left upon tlie 
spot. Oftentimes the body of a man killed in battle was burned, 
though this method of disposal of the body was never employed at 
the villages. It may have been a survival from the time when the 
Pimas lived on the Colorado or it may have been recently adopted 
from the Maricopas, who habitually cremate their dead. On the 
homeward journey no fires were allowed for cooking or warmth, though 
with due precautions they might be built on the outward trail. 
Another portion of the war party was provided with circular shields 
of rawhide and short but heavy clubs of mesquite and ironwood. 
Their appeal to the God of War was expressed by the sun symbols 
that decorated the shields, and the latter were kept swiftly rotating 
upon the supjile forearms of their bearers as the advance was made 
for hand-to-hand conflict. The frequent use of the figure, "like pred- 
atory animals or birds of prey," in the ceremonial speeches imbued 
all with the spirit of agility and fierceness that manifested itself in the 
leaps from side to side and the speed of their onward nish. Crouch- 
ing low, springing quickly mth whirling shield that concealed the 
body, in feather headdress and battle colors, they must have jire- 
sented a terrifj'uig spectacle." Their courage can not be questioned, 
and in some conflicts, of which there is independent white testimony, 
thej^ killed several hundred warriors. But these were rare occasions, 
and their raids usually terminated with the loss of a man or two and 
the destruction of an Apache camp, with perhaps a half dozen of the 
enemy killed and a cliild taken prisoner. 

The head chief, Antonio Azul, thus described to the author the 
circumstances of his first campaign : With 30 friendly Apaches from 
the San Xavier settlement, 200 Papagos, and about 500 Pimas he 
went up the Gila a distance of about 50 miles and encoinitered the 
enemy in the rough country around Riverside. The Apaches tied 
the bushes together to prevent the mounted warriors from getting 

a "In battle the Indians are not quiet for a moment, but, with constantly bended knees, leap rapidly 
from side to side, waving their shield and its long sireainers, !ot the purpose of dazzling the eyes of 
their adversaries. Apaches are said to oil their joints Ijefore going to battle, in order to make them 
supple." Whipple, Ewbank, and Turner. Report upon the Indian Tribes, in Pacific Railroad Reports, 
m, 30. 



BLSSELL] INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS 203 

through, so that the Punas fought on foot. Without the advantage 
of surprise the ardor of the hitter soon cooled, and being of divided 
opmion as to the ad\asability of pursuit, they permitted the enemy to 
escape with a loss of but 6. Tlieu this by no means inconsiderable 
body of warriors marched bravely home again. Further accounts of 
more sanguinary struggles arc given in The Narrative, in the present 
paper, page 38. 

Three Pima women kuowii to Sika'tcu went out on the mesa to 
gather cactus fruit. Another woman was asked to accompany them, 
but at first she refused to go because slie had had a bad dream. 
After the others had started she set out to follow them and ran into 
a trap set for them at the hills south of the villages. The four cap- 
tives were forced to walk naked before their enemies. Two were 
soon killed bj' the wayside. That night two Apaches were detailed 
to watch the other two women. These men relaxed their vigilance 
toward morning, whereupon the captives gathered all the bows and 
arrows of the party and tlirew them over the cliff. They also tried 
to strangle their captors and partially succeeded. They then made 
their escape. One of these brave \vomen is yet living. 

It was customary for the Pimas to attack the Apaches at night or 
at the earliest dawn. This required carefvil scouting during the pre- 
ceding da}^ in order to locate the position of the enemy, who were 
always at least equally alert and wary, without betraying their ()\\^l 
presence. 

On one of their raids toward the east a war party came upon a 
young Apache and liis wife in the Sierra Tortilla. The man escaped, 
but the woman, named Ilitalu'l, was captured and brought to the 
villages, where she was questioned tlu-ough La'lall, an Apache woman 
who had been captured in childhood. The chief asked about the 
attack that had recently been made iipon a party of Pimas at Ta-a'tft- 
kam. She replied, "I shall tell you the truth about that. I shall 
never take my life to my people again. I am here to my death." 
She was soon led to the open ground east of the Double buttes, where 
a death dance was held with the captive in the center of a group of 
old women, for it was not dangerous for them to touch the Apache. 
Outside the old women the other members of the community danced 
until at length the victim was killed by an old man who stejiped upon 
her tlu-oat. The body was tied to a pole m an upright position and 
left as a warning to Apache })rowlers. 

These raids were not infrequent, but they could hope to reap no 
better reward for their efforts than revenge for past injuries, whereas 
the Apaches were spurred on to constantly renewed attacks for the 
sake of the plunder that they might secure. Thus the feral pauper 
preyed upon the sedentary toiler, but paid dearly in blood for his 
occasional prize of grahi or live stock. The effect upon the two tribes 



204 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

of SO strenuous a life was beginning to manifest itself in an inter- 
esting manner at the tiiue of the intervention of the Americans. 
The Spaniards and Mexicans had shown their utter incapacity to 
cope with the Apaches, and their presence in Sonora was rather an 
aid to the enemy than otherwise. Tlie Pimas were compelled to 
light their own battles. In doing so they learned the advantage of 
concentrating their fields. They perfected a system of attack, 
appointed runners for bringing m assistance, and organized a fairly 
satisfactory method of defense. They never used smoke signals 
except to announce the victory of an incoming war party. They 
kept themselves constantly in fit condition by their campaigns, and 
even engaged in sham battles for the practice. These have been held 
within the last decade at the lower villages on the reservation. Their 
daily duties were ordered with reference to the possibility of attack. 
Their arts were modified by the perpetual menace. Their mj'ths were 
developed and their religion tinged by the same stress. In short, 
the Pimas were building up a war cult that in time might have led 
them from the lethargic state in which the natural envu'oument 
tended to fix them. 

Lustration 

There was no law among the Pimas observed with greater strict- 
ness than that which required purification" and expiation for the deed 
that was at the same time the most lauded — the killing of an enemy. 
For sixteen days the warrior fasted in seclusion and observed mean- 
while a number of tabus. This long period of retirement immediately 
after a battle greatly chminished the value of the Pimas as scouts and 
allies for the United States troops operating against the Apaches. 
The bravery of the Pimas was praised by all army officers having any 
experience with them, but Captain Bourke and others have complained 
of their unreliability, due solely to their rigid observance of this 
religious law. 

Attended by an okl man, the warrior who liad to expiate the crime 
of blood guilt retired to the groves along the river bottom at some dis- 
tance from the villages or wanderetl about the atljoining liills. Dur- 
ing the period of sixteen days he was not allowed to touch his head 
witii his fingers or liis hair would turn white. If he touchetl Ins face 
it would become wrinkled. He kept a stick to scratch his iiead witli, 
and at the end of every four days this stick was buried at the root and 



a*' All savages have to undergo certain ceremonies of lustration after returning from the war-path 
where any of the enemy have lieen liiller".. With the Apaches these are baths in the sweat-lodge, accom- 
panied with singing and other rites. With the Pimas and Maricopas these ceremonies are more elabo- 
rate, and necessitate a seclusion from the rest of the tribe for many days, fasting, bathing, and singing. 
The Apache ' bunches ' all his religious duties at these times, and defers his bathing until he gets home, 
but the Pima and Maricopa are more punctilious, and resort to the rites of relig.on the moment a single 
one, either of their own numbers or of the enemy, has been laid low." John G. Bourke, On the Border 
with Crook, New York, 1891, 203. 



RDSSELL] INTERTRIBAL RELATIONS 205 

on tlio west side of a oat's claw tree and a new stick was made of 
greiusewood, arrow bush, or any other convenient shrub. He then 
bathed in the river, no matter how cold tlie tem])erature. The feast 
of victor}' which liis friends were obser^nng in the meantime at the vil- 
lages lasted eiglit days. At the end of that time, or when his period 
of retirement was half completed, the warrior might go to his home to 
get a fetish made from the hair of the Apache whom he had killed. 
The hair was wrapped in eagle down and tied with a cotton string and 
kept in a long medicine l)asket. lie drank no water for the first two 
days and fasted for the first four. After that time he was supplied 
with pinole by his attendant, who also instructed him as to his future 
contiuct, telling him that he nmst henceforth stand back until all 
others were served when partaking of food and drink. If he was a 
married man his wife was not allowed to eat salt during his retirement, 
else she would suffer from the owl disease which causes stilT limbs. 
The explanation offered for the observance of this law of lustration 
is that if it is not obeyed the warrior's limbs will become stifl'ened 
or paralyzed. 

Dance in Celebration of Victory 

Upon the return of a victorious war party the emotions of those wlio 
had remained at home in anxious waiting and those who had returned 
rejoicing were given vent in ^^gorous shouting and dancing. It is 
interesting to observe tliat tlie abandonment of these occasi(ms was 
not wholly approved liv the leaders, as is shown by the invariable 
formula that closed every war speech tliat was delivered while the 
party was on the campaign: " You may think tliis over, my relatives. 
The taking of life brings serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration 
of \'ictory may become impleasanth' riotous." Throughout the cere- 
monies the women of the trilx' play a prominent part, particularly 
in mourning for relatives if any have fallen victims to the attacks of 
the Apaches. 

The dance was held on tlie low rounded liill near the Double buttes 
(see pi. xi.i, fi). or on a hiil near tlie railway siding called Sacattui, or 
upon some alkali fiat wliicii the deposits of the rainy season leave as 
level and tlie sun bakes nearly as hard as a floor. Sometimes the 
dance was held on any open ground about the villages. Four basket 
drums were beaten in the center, while either four or ten singers 
formed a close circle around them. Within a larger circle numerous 
appointed dancers stamped and swayed their bodies, moving ever 
in a sinistral circuit. Sometimes the crowd danced within the circle 
of sel(H'te<i dancers, in wiiicii case they danced as individuals witliout 
holding hands; but usually they remained outside the circle. Outside 
the circle of s]>ectators twent}' men and two or more j'oung women, 



206 THE PIMA INDIANS |eth. ann-. 26 

according to the number of female relatives of tiiose killed in battle 
kept running. In addition to these forty horsemen also circled from 
left to right about the whole gathering. 

SOPHIOLOGY 

Myths 

The traditions of the Pinias are kept by those who show special 
aptitude in remembering them and who gradually become recognized 
as the tribal liistorians. To them the boys are regularly sent that 
they may listen for four nights to the narrative of how the world was 
made and peopled; whence the Pimas came and how they struggled 
with demons, monsters, and savage enemies. These tales are not 
usually told in the presence of the women, and consequenth- they 
know only imperfect fragments of them. 

The myths are not related in the summer because of the fear of 
being bitten by rattlesnakes, which of course liibernate. No informa- 
tion was obtainable that the Pimas believe that the snakes then carry 
venom, nor why the snakes should bite tho.se wlio disregard the tabu. 
The Pimas do not hesitate to kill rattlesnakes except in certain cases. 

TCn-UNNYIKITA,° THE CREATION MYTH 

In the beginning there was nothing where now are earth, sim, moon, 
stars, and all that we see. Ages long the darkness was gathering, 
until it formed a great mass in which developed the spirit of Earth 
Doctor, who, like the fluffy wisp of cotton that floats upon the -wind, 
drifted to and fro without support or place to fix himself. Con- 
scious of his power, he determined to try to build an abiding place, 
so he took from his breast a little dust and flattened it into a cake. 
Then he thought within himself, "Come forth, some kind of plant," 
and there appeared the creosote bush. Placing this in front of him, 
he saw it turn over as soon as his grasp upon it relaxed. Advancing 
toward it, he again set it upright, and again it fell. A third ami yet 
a fourth time he placed it, and then it remained standing. When 
the flat dust cake was still he danced upon it, singing: 

Earth Magician shapes this world. 

Behold what he can do! 
Round and smooth he molds it. 

Behold what he can do! 

Earth Magician makes the mountains. 

Heed what he has to say I 
He it is that makes the mesas. 

Heed what he has to say. 



a -Snioke t:ilk," from teu-rtc. smoke, and nyiak.talk. This myth isalsocalled lla-ak Akita, ■■ Hfi-iik 
Telling." 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 207 

Earth Magirian shapes this -n-drld; 

Earth Magician makes its mountains; . 
Makes all larger, larger, larger. 

Into the earth the magician glance.-:; 
Into its motmtains he may see. 

Next Earth Doctor (•reat(Ml some black in.sects, tcotclk tat&ny, 
which made black gum on the creosote bush. Then he made hia- 
pitc, the termite," which worked upon and increased the small begin- 
ning until it grew to the proportions of our present earth. As he 
sang and danced the wonderful world developed, and then he made 
a sky to cover it, that was shaped like the round house of the Pimas. 
But the earth shook and stretched so that it was unfit for ha])ita- 
tion. So Earth Doctor maile a gray s{)ider, which he commaniled to 
spin a web around the unconnected edges of earth and sky. When 
this was done the earth grew firm and solid. 

All that we now see upon the land — water, mountains, trees, grass, 
and weeds — was made, and then he maile a dish, poured w^ater into 
it, and the water became ice. Taking this block of ice he threw it 
toward tiie north, where it fell at the place where earth and sky 
forever meet. At once the ice shone forth as the brilliant disk we 
now know as the sun. For a certain <listance the sun rose into the 
sky and then fell back again. Earth Doctor took it and threw it 
toward the west, where earth and sky are sewn together, and again 
it rose and slid back into the ground. And in the south it behaved 
in a similar manner, but when he threw it to the east it rose higher 
and higher, until it reached the zenith, and then went on to sink in 
the west, and thus it has ccmtinued to do until this day. As the 
evening glow grew dim the darkness fell in inky blackness. So 
Earth Doctor poured more water into the disliand it became ice, and 
he sang: 

I have made the sun! 

I have made the sun! 
Hurling it high 

In the four directions. 
To the east I threw it 

To nm its appointed course. 

Then to the north he threw the ice imtilit dropped at the edge where 
the earth and sky are woven together. It became the shining circle 
which we call the moon. The moon rose in the sky, but soon fell 
back as the sun had done, so he threw it to the west, and then to 
the south, and finally to the east before it rose and pursued its course 
across the sky as it does to the present time. 

" Termes flavipes Koll. It was formerly believed that if anyone ate food prepared from grain that 
was contained In anything upon which this insect lived that person's teeth would fall out. 



208 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. L'6 

'riu'ii he sang: 

I have mado the moon! 

I have made the moon! 
Hurling it high 

In the four directions. 
To the east I threw it 

To run its appointed course. 

Earth Doctor saw that while the moon was yet above the horizon 
there was suflicient light, but when it disappeared the darkness was 
intense, so he took some of the water in liis mouth and blew it into 
the sky in a spray, wliich formed the stars, but the night was still 
dark. Then he took liis magic crystal and, after breaking it, threw 
it also into the sky to form the larger stars, so the darkness was 
less intense. Then he sang: 

I have made the stars! 

I have made the stars! 
Above the eartli I threw them. 

All things above I've made 
And placed them to illumine. 

Next he took his walking stick, and placing ashes on the end he 
drew it across the sky to form the milky way. 

When the earth was thus prepared for habitation. Earth Doctor 
created all manner of birds and creeping things. Next he formed 
images of clay, which he commanded to become animate human 
beings, and they obeyed him. For a time they increased and over- 
spread the earth until it became so populous that food became scarce 
antl there was not sufficient water to supply their needs. Of sick- 
ness and death they knew nothing, and their numbers grew apace. 
Hiuigering, they began to kill one another and to eat himian flesh. 
Earth Doctor pitied them in their extremity, but could devise no 
plan for relieving their distress, except to destroy all, and this he at 
length felt forced to do. 

Earth Doctor said: "I sliall unite earth and sky: the earth shall 
be as a female and the sky as a male, and from their imion shall be 
born one who will be a helper to me. Let the sun be joined with 
the moon, also even as man is wedded to woman, and their offspring 
shall be a helper to me." Then he caught the hook of his staff into 
the sky and pulled it down, crushing to ileath the people and all 
other living things. Thrusting his stick through the earth. Earth 
Doctor went through the hole and came out alone on the other side. 
He called upon tlie sun and moon to come forth from the wreck 
of world and sky, antl they obeyed him. But there was no sky for 
them to travel through, no stars nor milky way, so he created all 
these anew. Then he called for the offspring of earth and sky, but 
there was no response. Then he created a race of men, as lie had 
done before; these were the Rsasanatc. 



uissELLl MYTHS 209 

Out ill the west beneath the toahafs bush the moon gave birth to 
Coyote and then wont down. Coyote grew apace, and when large and 
strong he came to the land where lived the Pima nation. 

After a time the earth gave birth to one who was afterwards known 
as Itany and later as vSiurhft, EUler Brother. He came to Earth 
Doctor and spoke roughly to him, and Earth Doctor trembled before 
his power. The people increased in numbers, but Elder Brother 
shortened their lives, and they did not overrun the earth as they 
had done before. But this did not satisfy Elder Brother, who 
announced to Earth Doctor that he would destroy the latter's peo- 
ple, and this is how he accomplished the second destruction of the 
world : 

Elder Brother created a handsome j^outh, whom he directed to go 
among the Pimas, where he should wed whomsoever he wished. 

He must live with her mitil liis first cliild was bom, then leave her 
and go to another, and so on until liis purpose was accomplished. 
His first wife gave birth to a child four months after marriage and 
conception. The youth then went and took a second wife, to whom 
a child was bom in less time than the first. The period was yet 
shorter in the case of the third wife, and with her successors it grew 
shorter still, until at last the cliild was bom from the young man at the 
time of the marriage. This was the child that caused the flood which 
destroyed the people and fvdfilled the plans of Elder Brother. Several 
years were necessarj' to accomplish these things, and during this time 
the people were amazed and frightened at the signs of Elder Brother's 
power and at the deeds of his agent. At the time of the commence- 
ment of these strange events Elder Brother began to make a jar or olla 
of some substance, either bush or gum. Wlien this should be finished 
the flood would come. How? This is the way in which it came: 
The handsome 3'oung man, wht)m Elder Brother sent about among 
the people to marrj^ and beget children in so short a period of time, 
came at last to the home of Vakolo Makai, South Doctor, who 
lived somewhere in the south, and who had power similar to that of 
Elder Brother. South Doctor was noted for liis knowledge of all 
things and his skill in reading signs. He declared that he would 
put an end to Elder Brother's schemes. One da}- South Doctor 
asked his beautiful young daughter why she cried all the time. She 
replied tluit she was afraid of tlie handsome young man who went 
al)out marrying tlie j'oung women and begetting sons and daughters. 
Her father told her that it was her tluty to marry the young man in 
oriler that a divine plan iniglit be accomplished. But .she continued 
crying, so her father told lier to fetch some of the topmost thorns of a 
cholla cactus. Wlien she had obeyed him he placed the thorns upon 
her, telling iier not to be afraid of the young man, but that when he 
26 Eiii— 08 16 



210 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



came she should take good care of his bow, arrows, shield, war club, 
spear, or any other weapon he might bring. At this the maiden 
dried her tears and awaited with pleasure the bridegroom's coming. 
Wlien he came she took Ms bow and arrows and carefidly put tliem in 
a safe place. After exchanging good wishes for health and liappiness, 
they went to the dwelling prepared for them. Soon the screams of 
a child aroused old South Doctor and his wife, who came rimning, 
desirous of seeing their grandcliild. The old woman took up the babe 
and tried to present it to her daughter, but she refused to accept it, 
saying, "I am not the mother. He gave birth to the child. Give it 
to him." So the young man took the child away and returned to 
Elder Brother, but as he was very much ashamed of himself, he thd 
not bring the baby, but left it by the wayside. Elder Brother knew 
what was happening, for he was finishing his olla. As the youth 
approached he asked, "How does it happen that you come alone and 
do not bring the young child that is born of you? Go bring it hitlier, 
and we will take care of it. We have been outwitted antl our plan 
defeated, but that is the best we can do." The young man went after 
the child, the screams of which shook the earth and could be heard for 
a great distance. Earth Doctor then called his people together and 
told them there would be a great flood. After describing the calam- 
ity that would befall them, he sang: 

Weep, my unfortunate people! 

All this you will see take place. 
Weep, my unfortunate people! 

For the waters will overwhelm the land. 
Weep, my unhappy relatives! 

You will learn all. 
Weep, my unfortunate relatives! 

You will learn all. 
The waters will overwhelm the mountains. 

He thrust liis staff into the ground, and witli it bored a hole quite 
through to the other side of the earth. Some of the people went into 
the hole, while others appealed to Elder Brother. Their appeals 
were not heeded, but Coyote asked his assistance, and he was told to 
find a big log and sit upon it. This would carry liim safely on the 
surface of the water along with the driftwood. Elder Brother got into 
his olla and closed the opening by which he entered, singing in the 
meantime: 

Black house! Black house! Hold me safely in; 

Black house! Black house! Hold me safely in, 
As I journey to and fro, to and fro. 

As he was borne along by the flood he sang: 

Running water, running water, herein resounding, 

As on the clouds I am carried to the sky. 
Running water, running water, herein roaring. 

As on the clouds I am carried to the sky. 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 211 

When he finally emerged from the olla he sang: 

Here I come forth! Here I come forth! 

With magic powers I emerge. 
Here I come forth! Here I come forth! 

With magic i)owera I emerge. 

I stand alone! Alone! 

Who will accompany me? 
My staff and my crystal 

They shall l)i<le with me. 

The young man went to the place where he had left the child and 
found that its tears were welling up in a great torrent that cut a gorge 
before it. He bent over the child to take it up, but at that moment 
they both became birds and flew above the earth over which the 
floods were spreading. It is said that five birds in all were saved 
from all those that had been previously known. These were Ivoli- 
vitciikam' Ilikivik (flicker), Vipisimal, Kisopi, and Nyui (vulture). 
They clung by their beaks to the sky to keep themselves above the 
waters, but the tail of the flicker was washed by the waves, and that 
is why it is stiff to this day. Finally, as they were threatened with 
destruction, the god Vikiirskam took pity on them and gave them 
power to make "nests of down" from their own breasts which 
floated on the surface of the waters ami so enabled them to survive 
the flood. If anyone harms the little Vipisimal to this day the flood 
may come again. Accidental injuries to the bird must be atoned 
for; if it be killed, its tail feathers must be kept for a time to avert 
disaster; if it is found lying dead, it must be buried and appropriate 
gifts must be placed upon its grave. 

When the chiKl had l)een taken from them. South Doctor called 
the people to him and announced that a flood was coming to destroy 
the earth and all things thereon. Then he sang: 

The waters dissolve the land. 

The waters dissolve the land. 
The mighty magician tests his strength. 
The waters dissolve the mountain. 

The waters dissolve the mountain. 
Nasi foresees what is coming. 

Some of the people came to him and were saved from the flood by 
passing through to the other side of the earth by means of the hole 
which he had made with his cane. He told the others to go with 
him to Earth Doctor and hear what he might say to them. Earth 
Doctor told them that they were too late in coming, that he had 
already sent all that he could save to the other side of the earth. 
However, there was yet hope for them if they would climb to the 
summit of the Crooked mountain. He gave power to South Doctor 
and directed him to aid the people to the extent of liis ability, so the 



212 THE PIMA INDIANS Ieth. ann. 26 

latter conducted the people to the top of (lie Crooked mountain, 
and as they went away Earth Doctor sang: 

Haiya! Haiya! Flood! Flood! Hai-iya! 

See the doom awaiting them! 
Haiya! Haiya! Flood! Flood! Ilai-iya! 

Here are my iloomcd people before me. 

As tlie flood rose toward the to]i of the mountain, South Doctor 
sang a song vvliicii caused the mountain itself to rise higher and 
ever higher alxtve the waters which raced toward them as if on the 
level plain. These are the words that lifted the mountain upward: 

On the Crooked mmmtain I am .■standing, 

Trying to disperse the waters. 
On the Crooked mountain I am standing, 

Trying to disperse the waters. 

Wlien he ceased singing he traced a line around the mountain and 
this marked the limit of the flood for a time, but it soon rose again 
and tlireatened to overflow the summit. Again South Doctor sang: 

On the Crooked mountain top I'm standing. 

Trying to disperse the waters. 
On the Crooked mountain top Fm standing. 

Trying to disperse the waters. 

Four times he sang and raised the mountain above the rising waters 
and then declared that he could do so no more, for liis power was 
exhausted. Tie could do but one more tiling for them, and holding 
his magic crystal in his left hand he sang: 

Powerless! Powerless! 

Powerless is my magie rrystal! 
Powerless! Powerless! 

I shall become as stone. 

Then he smote with his right hand and the thunder peal rang in all 
directions. He threw his staff into the water and it cracked with a 
loud noise. Turning, he saw a dog near him, and this animal he 
sent to see how high the tide had risen. The dog turned toward the 
people and said, "It is very near the top." When the anxious 
watchers heard the voice they, were transfixed in stone; and there 
to this day we see them as they were gathered in groups, some of the 
men talking, some of the women cooking, and some crying." 



a Pedro Font has given the following version of this myth in his Diary, pages 2,3 to 24a of original 
manuscript: " He further said that after the old man, there came to that land a man called El Bebedor 
(the Drinker), who became incensed with the people dwelling there and sent so much wjiter that it 
covered all the land. lie then set out for a mountain ridge, which may be seen from that place, called 
the Ridge of Foam, whither he brought with him a little dog and a coyote. This ridge is called the 
Ridge of Foam. l>ecause at its summit, which ends gradually and. accessible after the fashion of the edge 
of a bastion, may be descried near the very top a white crest like a clilT. which follows horizontally 
along the ridge for a good space. The Indians say that this is a mark of the foam of the waters which 
re-ichefi that height. The Bebedor remained above and left the dog below, so that he might warn him 
wlien the waters reached that height. When the waters rose to the crest of foam, the beast warned 
the Bebedor (for in those days animats could speak} and the latter raised him up from below. A few 



RLSSKM.] MYTHS 213 

Coyote was carried southward by the drifting log to the phwe 
where ail the driftwood of the flood was coiiefted. To this day the 
plate is referreil to as Driftwood mountain, though its exact location 
is not known. Covote came out of the drift after the water had 
fallen. 

Earth Doctor escaped destruction by inclosing himself in his reed 
staff, which floated upon the surface of the water. We do not know 
what adventures befell him, but suppose that his stafl' came to rest 
somewhere in the east, as he is next heard from in that quarter. 

Elder Brother was rolled along on the ground under the waters in 
his olla and finally came to rest beyond Sonoita, near the mouth of 
the Colorado river. The olla, now called Black mountain, niav be 
seen there to this day. It is black because the gum from which the 
vessel was made was of that color. After the waters disapj)eared 
Elder Brother came out and went about until he had visited nearly 
all parts of the land. At length he met Coyote and Earth Doctor. 
Each claimed to have been the first to appear after the flood, but 
finally Elder Brother was admitted to have been the first, and 
he became the rider of the work!, and is accepted as such by many 
to this ilay. Elder Brother on becoming the chief ruler told his sub- 
ordinates to search for the center of the land, which is known as hik, 
navel. He sent Earth Doctor to the east and Coyote to the west. 
The latter returned first, and a long time afterwards Earth Doctor 
came in. They all went some distance east and again the messengers 
were sent out — Coyote east and Earth Doctor west. This time 
Earth Doctor returned first, so they all journeyed yet farther cast 
before sending out the messengers. Coyote was sent west this time 
and again returned first. Then all moved east a little farther, and 



days later the Bebedor sent the llumming-blrd (Sheparosas) and the coyote to liring him mud. and 
when it was brought he made from it various men, some of whom turned out good and others liad. 
These men spread over the land up and down the river. Not long afterwards he sent some of his men 
to see if those who dwelt up the stream could speak. They set forth and shortly returned, saying that 
although they spoke, they could not understand what they sjii<l. At this the Bebedor was greatly 
incensed, namely, that those men should speak without having received his permission. Thereupon 
he sent other men downstream to look after those who were there. They returned, saying that they 
had been well received and that the people there spoke another language, which, however, they had 
been able to understand. Then the Bebedor told them that the men who dwelt downstream were the 
good men, who extended as far as the Opas, with whom they were friendly; and that the others who 
dwelt upstream were the bad men and were the Apaches, their enemies. The BeI)edor once grew wrath- 
ful with the people and slew many of them, converting them into Saguaros in that land. The Saguaros 
is a green trunk, aqueous, of fair height, of uniform circumference, and perfectly straight from its Jjase 
to its top, with rows of thick thorns which e.xtend idong its whole length and usually with two or three 
branches of the same shape which lr>ok like arms. Once again did tlie Bebedor become wratllful against 
men and caused the smi to descend to burn them. Thus they were on the point of being destroyed when 
the men entreated him earnestly not to burn them. Then the Bebedor said he should not now burn 
them, and ordered the sun to ascend once more, l>ut not to such a distance as before, 8a>ing that he 
left it lower down in order that he might burn them with it if they should again anger him. For this 
rejison it is so hot in that land during the sunuiier. .\t this point he added that he knew other stories 
which he could not relate because the time did not pennit, and he agreed to relate them to us an()ther 
day. Hut inasmuch as we ma<ie some fun of his stories, which he told quite seriously, we could not 
afterwards persuade him to tell us anything else; for he kept saying that he knew no more. .\ll this 
.story 1 have related in the phraseology you have doubtless noticed in order better to adapt it to the 
fashion iii which the Indians explain it." 



214 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

from that point both returned at the same time, so they knew they 
were at the middle of the land. 

This is the song that Elder Brother sang when they reached the 
middle : 

Here I have come to the center of the earth; 

Here I have come to the center of the earth. 
I see the central mountain; 

I see the central mountain. 

He then l)ont down and scratcliod his head. The lice that dropped 
became ants, which dried up that particular spot in a very short 
time, for the earth had been everywhere wet and muddy. Then they 
all sat down to create the various animals that had lived before the 
flood. Elder Brother sat facing the west, for, said he, "I came out 
upon the earth in the west and I am going to face that way." Coyote 
sat facing the south, for "I came out in the south and I am to face 
that way." Earth Doctor seated himself facing the east, for, said 
he, ''I came out in the east and I am going to face that way." Each 
agreed not to look at what the others were making nor to tell what 
he was doing until all was finished, and then all that they had made 
should be showed at once. A moment later Elder Brother said he 
was ready and asked the others to show what they had made. So 
Coyote and Earth Doctor l^rought their work before him. Coyote 
had made all the web-footed animals, snakes, and birds. Earth Doc- 
tor had made creatures resembling human beings, but they were 
deformed — some having but one leg, others immense ears, some with 
imperforate ])odies, others with flames of iire in their knees." 

Elder Brother told Coyote to throw the animals which he had cre- 
ated into the water. He told Earth Doctor to place his creatures 
in the west. Both obeyed. After throwing his Ijeings into the west 
Earth Doctor sank into the earth, but while his body was yet half- 
way down Elder Brother jumped and tried to grasp it. He was not 
successful, and Earth Doctor disapjieared. Elder Brother in trying 
to hold Earth Doctor got his hands covered with dirt and blood, 
like those of a man killing an animal. He shook his hands and the 
blood sprinkled over all the earth. That is what causes ail kinds of 
sickness among us now, for the diseases were scattered over the land 
and in the water. 

Elder Brother and Coyote were left in possession of the land. 
After the images which the former had made had been kept for four 
days, one of the Apache group (they were divided into equal groups) 
came to life and said, "It's very cold," and liegan to sway its body 
back and forth. Earth Doctor said, " Oh, I didn't think you would 
be the first to awake!" and he was so angry he took all the Apaches 

o There is no generic name for these monsters. Earth Doctor is supposed to have created them thus 
in order that they might not become rivals to his underworld people tor the possession of the earth. 



ECSSELL] MYTHS 215 

up in his hand and tlirow thorn over the mountain. That made tlieni 
angry, anil that is wliy they have always been so fierce. 

These were the Indian people of which there were four tribes: 
Tlie Wii-aki Ap," the Apaches, the Maricopas, and, lastly, the Pinias, 
though they were given superior qualities — such as a knowledge of 
the seasons, the power to bring down rain from the sky, the ability 
to cure sickness, and the like. 

These people occujiied this country from that time forward and 
multiplied in numliers. The Yimias and Maricopas were at first 
united, but the Maricopas left the Yumas and joined the Pimas, 
finally settling in the Salt Kiver valley, where they formed perma- 
nent settlements. They tried to build canals, but were not successfid, 
on account of the hard rocks and soil. 

The Maricopas asked Elder Brother for advice or assistance. He 
caused the ground to become soft for a while, but it hardened again, 
and upon being a])pcaled to a second time he said he could do no 
more for them, but told them to go and see Toa'koa-atam Aks, 
White-eater-old-woman, Elder Brother's sister, who also had great 
power. She finished all the work in a single night, but Elder Brother 
refused to do anything more for the people. From that time on he 
began to do mischief, such as marrying the young women and then 
deserting them for others. The people began to be jealous of him 
and planned to destroy him. 

For a time after the creation of the four tribes of men and the 
animals they were confined in a great house together. Rattlesnake 
was there, and was known as Ma'ik Sol'atc, Soft Child. The people 
liked to hear him rattle, and little rest or peace could he obtain because 
of their continual prodding and scratching. Unable to endure it 
longer, he went at last to Elder Brother to ask help of him. Elder 
Brother took pity upon him and pulled a hair from his own lip to cut 
in .short pieces to serve as teeth for Soft Child. "Now," said he, "if 
anyone bothers you again, bite him." In the evening TS,-api, Rabbit, 
came to Soft Child as he sat at the door and scratched him as he had 
so often done before. Soft Child raised his head and bit his tor- 
mentor as Elder Brother had instructed him to do. Feeling the bite, 
Rabbit scratched SoftCliild again, and again was bitten; then he ran 
about telling that Soft Child was angry and had bitten him twice. 
Again he went to him and again he was bitten twice. During the 
night his body swelled and the fever came upon him. All through 
the dark hours he suffered and throughout the next day; often he 
called to those around him to prepare a place that might give him 
rest. No bed that they could make brought any ease to his stricken 
frame. He asked for sea sand that he might lie upon it and cool his 

a " Go in Ap." An unknown tribe that is believed by the Pimas to have lived somewhere in the 
northw^est, perhaps the lluahipis [Walapai.] 



21(i THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. L'6 

fevered body. Coyote was sent to the sea to fetch the cooHng sand, 
but it gave no relief. Rabbit asked for a shade of bushes that the 
cooling breeze might blow beneath them upon him, but this, too, 
failed to help him. The traveling shade likewise brought no relief. 
His agony increased until death came to give him peace. 

For this first loss of life the people blamed Elder Brother, because he 
had given Soft Child the teeth that made him a menace to all who 
approached him. The disposal of Rabliit's body formed a serious 
problem to the tribes, for they feared tlie interference of Coyote. 
Said one, "If we bury him Coyote will surely dig him out." "If we 
hide him,'' said another, "Coyote will surely find him." "If we put 
him in a tree," said a third, "Coyote will surely climb up." Finally 
the Maricopas proposed that he be burned, and in order to get Coyote 
out of the way during the ceremony he was sent to Sun to get some 
fire, for he always kept the flame lighted in his house." 

As soon as Coyote had gone the people called upon Tcu-utak(i) 
MoAajt, Blue Fly, to help them, and this is how the first fire drill was 
made. Taking a stick like an arrow, he twirled it to and fro between 
his hands, the lower end restmg in a socket at the margin of a flat stick 
that lay upon the ground. Soon smoke ascended, and the first fire 
began to glow. Gathering fuel, they proceeded to burn the corpse. 

Wlien Coyote left them he was suspicious of their mtentions, and 
said to himself, "I think they have some purpose in sending me 
away." So he looked Ijack fretjuently as he went along, and .soon 
saw the smoke ascending. With excited heart he turned and ran 
back as fast as he could go. When he made his appearance the 
people formed a circle and tried to shut him away from the burning 
body. "Let me see my brother! Let me see with one ej-e!" he 
cried as he rolled upon the ground. No one would listen to hmi, so 
he ran round and round the circle seeking an opening. There was a 
weak spot in the cordon where two short men were standing, and he 
jumped over their heads, bit out the heart of the burning body, and 
ran away with it. The peo])le pursued, but Coyote outsiri])|)cd 
them. South of the Sierra Estrella Coyote stopped and laid the heart 
upon the an bush, but the people came up and he fled again. To this 
day that halting place is called Anfikam Tcukwoanyik, Place of the 

«"When Matyavela died, Mustam-ho, by his direction, started in to cremate him. The Coyote wanted 
to eat the corpse. At that time there was no fire on earth. The Blue Fly put ii star in the slty: ' Go 
over there and get me some of that fire,' he said to the Coyote. The Coyote was fooled, and scampered 
olT to bring in the star. lie didn't Icnow that the Blue Fly hud learned the art of rubi)ing sticks together 
and making fire. While he was gone the Blue Fly made a big fire and Matyavela was burnt up. 

"The Coyote happened to look back; he saw the blaze, and knew that something was up. lie came 
back on the full run. .Ml the animals were present at the funeral; they saw the Coyote returning, and 
formed a ring round the fire to keep him away from the corpse. 

" The Coyote ran round the ring until he came to the Badger, who was very short. The Coyote 
jimiped over him, seized the heart of Matyavela, which was the only part not burnt up, and made off 
with it. He burnt his mouth in doing this, and it's l)lack to this day."' John G. Bourke, Notes on the 
Cosmogony and Theogony of the Mohave Indians of the Kio Colorado, ,\rizona. Journal of American 
Folk-Lore, ii, 188. 



RI-SSELL] MYTHS 217 

Uprooted An Bush. Near Kihatoak' h(> stopped again upon a 
mountain to eat the heart, but he saw that it was covered with ashes, 
so he shook it and the ashes fell and covered the mountain, so that it 
is white to this day, and is called Gray mountain. Agaui the people 
overtook Coyt>te, and he ran northward across the Gila, where he ate 
the heart, and as he did so the grease fell upon every stone of the 
mountain, which accounts for its appearance and the name it bears 
to this day — Mo'liatiik, Greasy mountain. From that place Goyote 
ran to live in the sea in the south. 

Now the tribes of men began to learn how they shoidd provide for 
themselves, how they niiglit gather footl, hunt, and till the soil. 
Mavit, Puma, and Rsu-u-d. Wolf, joined their fortunes and went 
hunting together. One day Wolf said, ''I wonder where is our 
brother, Goyote; suppose I call him." So he took the kidney of a deer 
and roasted it and the wind carried the appetizing odor toward the 
south. When Goyote smellcd it he said, "Surely, these are my broth- 
ers, who wish me to return." So he ran to the place where Puma 
and Wolf were living. When he reached them he was in great dis- 
tress, for when he ate fooil it fell from him as wheat falls from the 
broken sack. Finally, Puma and Wolf stitched his skin until it 
retained the food he ate. Then they all went in search of wives. 
Goyote found a woman and called to the others, who came to see her. 
She became the wife of Puma, but Goyote said he would take her home. 
On the way he fell and pretended to be in great pain. The woman 
was frightened and knew not what to do. Coyote said, "I shall not 
get well unless you strip o\\ my clothing and your own antl carry me 
on your back for a few yards. That is the way my brothers treated 
me when I was in this condition before." So she obeyed and made 
their clothing into a l)undle, which she carried on her head, as is the 
Pima custom. Goyotem humeris sustulit, sed cum paucos modo 
passus ingressa esset, ''Siste! Siste!" exclamavit Goyote, "Doleo; 
paulum me dimitte." Ubi c[uod poposcit fecerat, copulare potuit. 
Mulierem turpiter tlum domum iebant Coyote egit. This was the 
cau.se of much trouble, for she belonged to a tribe that had great magic 
power. They tried to induce her to return, but she woukl not. P\u'- 
t her more, Puma refused to restore her to her friends. Then the Rsar- 
sdkatc A-atam," magicians, revenged thcMnselves by driving the deer, 
the antelope, and every animal that is swift of foot and soft of fur and 
useful to human kind into a cave in the Aloam or Yellow mountain, 
which lies south of the jiresent Pimeria and northeast of Baboquivari. 
This deprived the tribes of men of their chief support, and messengers 
were sent to see if some means could not be foimd by which the impris- 
oned animals could be liberated. One by one these agents failed to 

a The mirage that distorts tile early morning landscape in Pimeria is called rsarsOkatc, and it is 
believed tiiat it is the spirits of the ancient magicians returned to earth . 



218 THE PIMA INDIANS ' [eth. ANN. 20 

accomplish the task assigned to them. Year after year they returned 
without success. At last Coyote was sent to liberate the inhabitants 
of the cave, who exclaimed as they saw him coming, ' ' Now, we have 
a visitor who will do us harm." They thought to appease his appe- 
tite by offering a piece of meat in the hope that he would eat it and go 
away. When Coyote had roasted the meat in the fire and looked 
about him, he saw the gate of the cave and this is what happened: 
' ' Where shall I put this meat ? It is hot. Where shall I put it « It is 
hot," he said, and then ran straight to the door of the cave. Before 
the occupants could recover fi"om their alarm he threw open the door 
and out swarmed the deer and other game animals as pour forth the 
bees from a newly opened hive. 

Coyote ran for his life and the people pursued him, but he escaped 
and went to live in the water in the west. 

When A-anhitiipaki Si'van'', Feather-breathing Si' vans', was a boy 
he was mischievous and troid^led his grandmother. He went to the 
cave of the Wmds and saw the bow. He made one like it and showed 
it to his fellows, but they handled it and so took away its power. He 
made several bows, but the people ruined them by looking at them 
or handling them. At last they ceased trou])ling him and he was able 
to kill rabbits and give them away. 

Seeing that he was a good shot, the people told him to take his stand 
at the two hills and close the gap. He went as directed, but instead 
of shooting the deer as they were driven past he paid no attention to 
them, Imt occupied himself in building a fence of brush fi-om one hill 
to the other. 

Again they told him to perch in a tree above a game trail and watch 
for anything that might pass under him. He did so and saw the game 
running, but did not shoot. 

A third time they drove the animals toward him and instructed him 
to shoot the pregnant ones, as they would be fat. He took his place 
and shot a pregnant woman instead of a doe. 

The fourth time they told him to shoot an old one (meaning a deer 
with large antlers), and he killed an old man. 

Then he showed that he had magic power, for he was able to go out 
and bring in deer without taking days of time like other hunters. He 
built a house (Va'-aki, now one of the ruins of Salt river), married, and 
settled down. Viintre was a thief, gambler, liar, and profligate who 
came to the house of A-anhittipaki Si'van'', who, knowing his char- 
acter, did not wish to see him. Viintre brought four reeds filled with 
tobacco, lighted one, and smoked it. A-anhitupaki Si'van>' would 
not speak to him and Vantre finally went away. This happened three 
nights, but not a word was spoken until the fourth night, when 
A-anhitupaki told Viintre he would be his friend if Viintre would stop 
lying, stealing, antl the like. He would make the sticks called 



BUSSELL] MYTHS 219 

ki"tcs, and with them Vantre mif^lit win if he wished to gaml>le. He 
phiced such maf;ic power in the markin<;s on tiie sticks that no one 
could win from Vantre. Eltler Brother recognized the power in the 
sticks and told the people that they were powerless to win from Viin- 
tre. Elder Brother told the man at whose house Vantre fjambleil 
that if he would let his son and dau<;hter work for him (Elder Brot her) , 
he would arrange it so that Vantre could not win from others. The 
man agreed. Elder Brother sent the son to a roosting place of large 
birds to get feathers. The boy brought the feathers to the house. 
The girl was told to singe the feathers, grind them into a powder, and 
mix them with some pinole. 

The next day Vantre came to the same place to gamble. Elder 
Brother said to the young woman, "Go to the pool with your kiaha 
and ollas. Take the pinole and make it ready when Vantre goes 
there." She followed Elder Brother's directions and went 4o get 
the water. A'antre said to the man with whom he had been ])laying 
on pre\'ious days, "I am going to the pool to get a drink of water 
before we begin playing." The others told liim to go into the house 
to get the drmk, but he went off, saying that he wished to sec the 
young woman. When he came to her he said he wantetl her for 
his wife, but she replied that she would not make any promises 
milcss he drank her pinole. So Vantre was glad to take the drink. 
The first swallow seemed sour or bitter, but he took a second, a 
third, and a fourth drink. The moment he took the fourth tlrink 
feathers began to appear upon his bod}^; these grew out at once 
and he became a large eagle. The young woman took her basket, 
returned to the village, and told what had happened. The people 
then took their bows and arrows, went to the pool, and there ft)und 
the eagle sitting on the bank. They surrounded liini, but he flew 
away and found refuge in the mountains, whence he came from 
time to time to caiTy away men and women to his hiding place. 
As their numbers decreased the people cried out for help to Elder 
Brother, who said he would kill the eagle after four days. He told 
the people to watch a sharp-pointed moimtain after his departure 
and if a cloud appeared at the left of the peak they woukl know 
that he had been killed; if the cloud appeared at the right theAr 
would know that he had thme some great thing. Eagle was so large 
antl strong that when he sat on the momitain top it broke beneath 
his weight. It used to be all flat and smooth, but it was his sitting 
on it that made the peaks and rough places. When arrows were shot 
at him he caught them in his hand. (Tliis must be a true story, for 
there is a picture of him with the arrows in liis hand, on the dollar. 
So the Americans must have known about lum.) 



220 THE PIMA INDIANS [ktii. ann. 26 

Wlion Eagle was away Earth Doctor climbed the cliO's to his 
house, singiiig as he ascended : 

Up the cliff, steep and smuolli. 

Up the cliff, steep and snuioth. 
Up the cliff, steep and smooth, 

Climbs Elder Brother. 
With his shining power, 

Up the cliff, steep and smootli. 
Up the cliff, steep and smooth. 

He climbs, step by step. 

He then carried on the following conversation with Eagle's wife: 

"Can tliisbaby talk?" 

"No; he doesn't say very much atul doesn't seem to know any- 
tliing; he's too small." 

"Does Eagle ever sleep in the daytinio?" 

"No, not very often; but sonietinies, if I sit dowii with him and 
scratch his head, he will go to sleep." 

"Do that next time I come." 

At that moment Eagle was again heard approacliing with a roar 
that shook the mountain like a tree in the wind. He brought four 
living men, wliom he threw from a distance upon the rock, where 
they lay groaning for a time before breathing their last. Eagle 
asked his wife if anybody had been there and she saitl no t)ne was 
about. He declared that he smelled some one, but finally concluded 
that he had been mistaken. After he liad eaten he lay do%\Ti, and 
as she sang the following song and rubbed his head he (piickly went 
to sleep: 

Haya yakahai yahai mo! llaya yakahai mo! 

I am sleepy, I am sleepy. 
Haya yakahai yahai mo! 1 am sleejiy. 

When Eagle returned, the baby tried to tell him what had haj)- 
pened, and his father mquired, "What made him say that? He 
never talked that way before; besides, I smell somebody. Someone 
must have been here." 

" No, nobody ; we have been here alone." 

Then in the form of a Ry Earth Doctor concealed himself among 
the dead bodies that were corded up like wood and sang: 

Himovali! Die fly! Himovali! Die fly! 

1 shall sleep! I shall sleep! 
Himovali! Let die! I am drowsy. 

I will sleep! Buzz-z! 

When he had gone to sleep she began to whistle. He awoke and 
said : 

"What made you whistle like that?" 

"Oh, notliing; I was just playing with the baby; that's all." 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 221 

So he went to sleep a.^ain and a,<j;ain slie whistled; he awoke again 
and asked: 

"Wliy did j'ou whistle r' 

"Oh, I was just playing with the bahy." 

So the third time he went sound asleep, and she whistled softly, 
but he did not awake. Then she whistled louder and Elder 
Brother came out and resumed his natural form. He heat the 
head of Eagle until it was flat. He cut Eagle's throat and that of 
his son, sprinkleil their blood upon the dead bodies, whereon they 
all regain(>d their lives. He asked them where they belonged, and 
on finding where each lived he sent him home. When he came to 
the last bodi(>s he found that they spoke a different tongue, so lie sent 
them to a distant land, where they practised their peculiar customs. 
The Pimas suppose that these were the whites, who became white 
from lying under the others until decayed." 

Elder Brother tlien went home and told the people how to conduct 
themselves when they had killed an enemy, such, for exam])le, as 
the Apaches. On his return he found the people singing and dancing. 
He arranged four periods, and each period contained four days. So 
to this day the man who kills an Apache must live sixteen days in 
the woods and subsist upon pinole. 

Wliile these events were occurring here the people about Baboqui- 
vari wished to have Elder Brother come to them. 

At the time when Elder Brother transformed Vantre into an eagle 
strange things happened to the peoi)le of Casa Grande. There is a 
game called tilkal ])layed by the women. One day the women were 
playing takal, and among them was the daughter of Si'al Tcr'-rtak 
Si'van''. Suddenly a strange little green lizard dropped in front of 
her while she was standing among the other women. The earth 
about the sp(3t l)ecame like the green part of the rainl)o\v. The}- dug 
there and found some green stones (stcu'-uttilk h^'tai'), which became 
very useful for necklaces and ear pendants. 

There were jieople living at some tanks on the east side of the 
mountains (Ta'-atftkam) north of Picacho, and among them was a 
man named Tarsnamkani, Meet the Sun. He saw the beautiful stones 
used at Casa Grande and wished to get some of them; but how was 

o" Mr J. B. Walker, an old resident of the vicinity of Casa Grande, who has been to me personally 
an excdlont friond and viiluahle informant, told me this talr: 

'" Tho Crila I'imas claim to have been created on the banks of the river. After residing there for .soriie 
time a great flood came that destroyed the tribe, with the exception of one man. called Ci-ho. lie was 
of small stature and bwame the ancestor of the present I'imas. The tribe, beginning to grow in num- 
Iiers. built the \illages now in ruins and also spread to the imrt h bank of the river. But there appeared 
a monstrous eagle, which, occasionally assuming the shape of an old woman, \isited the pueblos and 
stole women and children, carrjdng them to his abode in an inaccessible clifl. On one occasion the 
eagle seii:ed a girl with the intention of making of her his wife. Ci-ho thereupon went to the clitl, but 
found it impossible to climb. The girl, who was still alive, shouted down to him the way of making 
the ascent. When the eagle came back Ci-ho slew him with a sword, and thus liberated his people 
from the scourge.' " .\. F. Bandelier. Papers .\rcheol. Inst., ser. iv, pt. ii, 4(i2-463. 



222 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

he to do it? He made a fine green bird, stcu-utftk o'-oflk, parrot, and 
sent it to Casa Grande, telling it to swallow all the green stones it 
could find about the houses. The parrot went to Casa flrande and 
was found one day by the daughter of Si'al Tcu'-utak Si'van''. The 
bird was kept several days, but it would not eat, so it was turned 
loose. It Avent about until it found a piece of turquoise, which it 
swallowed. The daughter of Si'al Tcu'-utak Si'van'' saw tliis and 
told her father, who directed her to give the bird all the turquoises 
she could fuid in the house. The people gathered to see the bird 
that ate stones, but as soon as it had eaten until it was full to the 
mouth it flew away. Tarsnamkam was glad to see it come safely 
home. The parrot vomited the stones, which its owaier gave to the 
people to use, and there were plenty for all. Si'al Tcu'-utak Si'van^' 
was angry when he learned that the bird had been sent to steal all 
his turquoises. He sent the rain for four periods, or sixteen days, to 
destroy Tarsnamkam, but the latter also possessed magic power and 
was not injiu-ed. At the end of tbe sixteen days Tarsnamkam sent 
a man with a fuie football (rso'nyikivol), directing him to give it to 
Si'al Tcu'-utak Si'van^'s daughter, whose name was Pia Konikam 
Of'(i). The messenger went near the woman's house as she was at 
work and kicked the ball so that it rolled close to her. She took it 
up and liid it imder her dress and told the man there had been no ball 
there when he came up to inquire about it. He declared that it 
stopped close by her, but she again said no, she had seen no football. 
The man went off, but the yoimg woman called to him to come and 
get his football. Wlien he came back she searched for the ball, but 
it was not to be found. It had gone uito her womb and become a 
child. Wlien tliis child was born it was a strange-looking creature. 
The people wanted to destroy it, but the mother said it was her child 
and she wished to care for it. 

The people wished to destroy the child, because it had long claws 
instead of fingers and toes; its teeth were long and sharp, like those 
of a dog. They gave it the name of Ha-ak, meaning something 
dreadful or ferocious. This female cliild grew to maturity ui three 
or four years' time. She ate anj-thing she could get her hands on, 
either raw or cooked food. The people tried to kill her, because she 
killed and ate their cliildren. She went to the moimtain Ta'-atfikam 
and lived there for a wliile in a cave. Then she went to Baboquivari 
for a time and then to Poso Verde, where she was killed by Elder 
Brother. As Elder Brother and the people were preparing to over- 
come the magic power of Ha-ak they sang together: 

Dazzling power has Elder Brother, 

Mastering the winds with song. 
Swiftly now we come together, 

Singing to gain control. 



EDSSBLL] MYTHS 223 

Kovakova, kovakova, 

Kovakova, kovakova. 
Singing on the summit 

Of great Mo'hatuk mountain, 
Anayokuna. anayokuna. hayokuna. 
Sacred pipe of Tru-unarsat, 

Sleep-inducing sacred pipe, 
Anayokuna, anayokuna, liayokun;u 

Ha-ak flees from her pursutTs, 
But her spring and mortar stay. 

Throw a great stone! 
Throw a great stone! " 

The blue owl is brightest. 
Throw a great stone! 

The blue owl is brightest, 
Throw a great stone. 

When he killed Ha-ak a great feast was made, just as when Eagle 
was killed, and to this day the cave remains there where Hti-ak was 
killed, and 2 or 3 miles distant is a stone inclosure, Ha-ak moakkdt, 
Place where Ha-ak was killed. The people formerly placed offer- 
ings within the inclosure to hrmg them good luck. 

Another version of the same story states that Vaktcuktclthap, the 
mosquito hawk, wished to marry the virgin at Casa Blanca, who had 
many suitors. He went to the Sun, who gave him a many-colored 
ball, wluch he took to the woman Pia Konikam Of'(i). When near 
her he kicked it as the Pimas do the kicking ball, so that it rolled 
near her. , She placed it in the fold of her blanket and became 
pregnant. 

After Ha-ak was killed the people were invited to come and partake 
of the feast which had been cooked there. One old woman and her 
two grandsons were not in\'ited to come. When the feast was over 
she told her grandsons to go and see if they could find any of Ha-ak's 
blood, and if so to bring it to her. After the boys had brought the few 
drops of blood which they found among the rocks she put it into a 
dish and told them to look at it after four days. Wlien they did so 
they found two eggs in the dish. On reporting this to their grand- 
mother she told them to look again after four more days. When they 
looked they saw two little birds, at which their grandmother told them 
to look again at the end of four days. When they came to look they 
found two very beautifid birds. After four days the people came and 
tried to destroy the grandmother and the boys in order to get the 
birds. The old woman told her grandsons that after another four 
days the people would come and take their birds away. So they must 
take them at night to a distant land and set them free there. She said 
that when the\' returned they would fuid her dead, as the people 
would have killed her. 

a The stone referred to is the one thrown against the cave walls by H&-&k when she was entrapped. 
In proof of the story we iimy see the stone there to the present day. 



224 THE PIMA INDIANS tETH. ann. 26 

After the people had killed Ila-ak tiiey followed the tracks of the 
boys, who liad (jjone toward the (>ast with their parrots. Tlio ])ur- 
suers raised a cloud of dust as they went along, which betrayed theu- 
presence on the trail to the boys, who exclaimed, "What shall we do!" 
At lengtli they set free the parrots, which flew up into the mountains, 
where they concealed themselves in the forest. Following their ex- 
ample, the boys hastened to the same place, where they successfully 
eluded the pursuers. After the people had abandoned the search the 
boys went back to their former home and foimd that their grand- 
mother had been killed. She had left directions which they carried 
out. They gave the body proper liurial in the sand. At the end of 
four-day periods she had told them to visit her grave imtil they saw a 
plant growing out of it; four days after it appeared they were to 
gather the leaves, and in time tiiey would learn what was to be done 
with them. The boys obeyed her commands and obtained tobacco, 
which they learned to use through the instruction of Elder Brother. 

After killing Ha-ak Elder Brother made his home at Balxxpiivari 
for some time. Hearing of the fact that the boys were living alone at 
their old home, he visited them. He inquired about their welfare and 
seemed to be disposed to befriend them. Finding the tobacco leaves, 
he incjuired if they had been used yet, and was assured tliat tiiey had 
not been. Elder Brother then revealed the purpose for \\hich the 
leaves had been intended. "These are to be rolled in corn husks and 
smoked," said he; "I will give you, also, earth flowers" to mix with 
the tobacco when you smoke if you desire to gain the favor of the 
women." He showed them how to collect the bark of the tree which 
induces sleep.'' "Make this into a powder," said he, "and wlien you 
wish to overpower anyone just shake this before them." Then Elder 
Brother left the youths, who followed his instructions and found the 
love philter and the sleeping powder to be irresistible. But tlie peo- 
ple were incensed at their use of the charms and finally killed them. 

Elder Brother continued to live in the cave at Babof[uivari for 
some time. He went about the country from village to \allage seeking 
to do mischief. He sang the song of the menstrual period and accom- 
panied it by reviling the family of the young girls. At last the people 
could endure his pranks no longer and drove Mm away. He went to 
Mo'hattik mountain, north of the Gila, and the people there gathered 
to destroy him. 

Elder Brother went into his house and the people came and clubbed 
him to deatli. They pounded his head until it was flat, then dragged 

o Tcuwut hi&sik, a wliitish lichen gathered by the I'imiia and kept in little bags or in hollow roods 
3 or 4 inches long. 

hKa'sitakiit ("to make sloop"), said by the Papago.s to stand on a mountain about 40 miles south- 
west of Peso Verde. So powerful is it supposed to be that those who go to gather the bark are overcome 
with sleep if they do not hasten when cutting it. 



RDSSELL] MYTHS 225 

Mm into the woods and left liini thore. The news was spread about 
tlie coinitrv tliat lie was dead, hut the next day he reappeared among the 
people. They were afraid, but gathered together and killed him again. 
After carrying liim to the woods they cut his flesh and scattered the 
pieces, pounded his bones into powder and cast it to the winds, but 
the next day at the same hour he was about among them again. 
Again they killed him, and this time his body was burned to ashes. 
Yet he was among them the next day as before. Then a great coimcil 
was called and they discussed plans for getting rid of Elder Brother. 
Some declared that if they did not kill him the fourth time they would 
never kill him. So they called on Vulture, who had been saved with 
Elder Brt)ther at the time of the flood, thinking that he must have 
magic power or he would not have survived the flood. 

Vidture was a man who transformed himself into a bird with his 
own magic power and had gone through the openings in tlie sky and 
thus saved himself from destruction during the flood. After he 
came down from the sky he wandered about the country and finally 
built a va'-aki, magic house, the ruins of which yet remain, south of 
where Phoenix now stands, between the Gila and Salt rivers. 

Vulture was li\'ing in this va'-akI when the people came to him 
with their complaints concerning Elder Brother. They asked if he 
could do anytliing to help them. Vulture said he had never used 
his magic power, but he would test it. lie asked the people to come 
to liis va'-alvl and he would make the trial in their presence. 

After the people had gathered in the house and the doors had been 
closed he brought on darkness with his magic power while it was 
yet daytime. The darkness was so heavy that the people could .see 
nothing. A beam of light arose which grew stronger and stronger 
until during the second night of their sojourn in the house it became 
as brilliant as sunlight. There were four colors, four threads of 
light, that extended upward until they reached the sun. 'Wilture 
then ascended each thread in turn, telling the people that he must 
have magic power (jr lie could not have done so. He told the people 
that in four days Elder Brother would fall dead. On the fourth 
night he reached the sun and remained there. All the people who 
were in the va'-aki saw these miracles performed. 

Vulture told the sun to spit on the house of Elder Brother," on the 
four pools of water at the va'-aki where Elder Brother kept his 
magic power, on his dwelling places so that heat might fall upon him 
and smother him. The sun did as he requested. Toward the end 
of the foiu- days Elder Brother acted like a lunatic. The heat 
became so inten.se that the cool fountains became boiling water and 
he was finally suffocated. 



1 Said by Thin Leather to be in the Estrella mountains. Antonio thinlis it is in Baboquivarl 
mountain. 

26 ETH— 08 17 



226 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

After his death his skeleton was exposed for a long time, until one 
day some boys were playing near where it lay. Tliey heard a strange 
noise like thunder that shook the earth, though there were no clouds 
in the sky. The boys saw that Elder Brother was regaining Kfe and 
power. He sat up and rocked back and forth like a drunken person. 
The boys ran and told their story to the people, who were perplexed 
and alarmed. They gathered together, bringing all their weapons, 
and finally surrounded Elder Brother, who was by this time in fidl 
possession of his power. As the people came about him with their 
bows and arrows in hand he began to sink down into the earth, and 
in spite of their outcry he disappeared before their eyes. 

Elder Brother sank through the eartli and found the people that 
Earth Doctor had assisted to reach that side in order to escape the 
flood. Elder Brother told the people there of his ill treatment and 
asked them to come through and fight witli him and to take the land 
away from the Indians. After four months' preparation they set 
out upon their journey, first singing the following song: 

We go; we go; we go; we go. 

Happy, we leave our homes. 
We go; happily we go. 
We run; we run; we run; we run. 

Happy, we leave our land. 
With pleasiu-e hence we hasten. 

Elder Brother told Gopher (Tcu'ohS) to bore a hole for the people 
to come through. Gopher made a hole through the earth like a 
winding stair. 

Coyote learned that these people were coming out in our country 
and he went about looking for the place of their emergence. He 
fuially discovered them coming through like ants from their lulls. 
Elder Brother told Coyote not to go near them until all had come 
forth. Coyote did not heed the caution, but went and looked down the 
hole and laughed, wliich caused the opening to close. Five gentes" 
had come out, and it is supposed that those that were shut in belonged 
to yet other gentes. Upon their emergence Elder Brother and his fol- 
lowers danced and sang as follows: 

Together we emerge with our rattles; 
Together we emerge with om- rattles, 
Bright-hued feathers in oiu' headdresses. 

With our nyfinyirsa we went down; 
With our nyiinjarsa we went down, 
Wearing Yoku feathers in our headdresses. 

This is the White Land, we arrive singing, 

Headdresses waving in the breeze. 
We have come! We have come! 

The land trembles with our dancing and singing. 

oSeep. 197. 



BCSSBLL] MYTHS 227 

On those Black mountains all are singing, 

Headdresses waving, headdresses waving. 
We all rejoice! We all rejoice! 

Singing, dancing, the mountains trembling. 

About half of these people came out and followed Elder Brother'.s 
leadership until they had killed all liis enemies and captured young 
and old that did not resist. 

Elder Brother's orreatest enemies were the people living in the large 
puehlos, the ruins of which ^-et remain scattered about the (iila and 
Salt river valleys. He and liis supporters approached one of the 
easternmost of these pueblos on the Gila, which is now known as Casa 
Grande, singing: 

Yonder stands the doomed habitation. 

-Vbout the i)uel)lo runs its friglitened chieftain 
In yellow garment with hand-print ih'Coration. 

They attacked and defeated the forces of Morning-Blue Si'van^", 
and then moved about 18 miles northwestward to Santan, where they 
sang: 

In their house of adobe they are staying; 
Their chief with magic power fears me. 
In their house of adobe we see their chief. 

The chief of this extensive pueblo was Kia-atak Si'van''. His 
forces were defeated and his pueblo overrun by Elder Brother's war- 
riors, who next movefl to the \'illages about 4 miles west of Santan, 
where they sang: 

Some will truly see; 
Some will truly see; 
Will see their house 
Behind the okatilla stockade. 

The chief of this place was called Tcuf Baowo Si'van^, and after he 
had been overcome the con(|uerors moved across the Gila toward the 
ptjeblo of Sweetwater, .singing as they approached: 

There is the land of many beads. 

There is the land of many Ijeads. 
Some one comes forth. 

He knows what will befall him. 

Tlie leader, Ta'-a Si'van'', was easily defeated, whereon the victors 
moved upon tlie pueblo of Casa Blanca, singing: 

It will be diflicult, 

It will bedidicult. 
To capture this pueblo 

With its magic jHiwer. 

They then attacked Tco'tcClk TiVtai vSi'van' , who was the most 
powerfid of all the chiefs who ventured to oppo.se them. 



228 THE PTMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

He knew that they would defeat him, yet he struggjled bravely to 
save his people and at the last to save liiniself. lie first took some 
soot from iiis chimney, powdered it in tlie palm of iiis hand, blew it 
into the air, and darkness immediately fell so dense that Elder Brother's 
warriors could see nothing. Tco'tcftk Ta'tai Si'van>' then threw down 
his dwelling and made his way through the midst of his enemies. 
But the god of darkness dispelled the night and the escaping leader 
was seen in the distance. Elder Brother's warriors succeeded in 
getting ahead of him and were about to surround and kill him when 
he wiped the tears from his eyes and ])lew the drops among the men 
about him. This produced a mirage which concealed him from ^^ew. 
But the god of the mirage caused the veil to lift and again he was seen 
fleeing in the distance. Again Tco'tctik Ta'tai Si'van^ was headed 
and in danger; but this time he t(iok out his reed cigarette and blew 
pufi's of smoke, which settled down upon his pursuers like a heav-y 
fog tlirough which he continued his flight. The god of the fog drove 
it into tlie sky and he was seen escaping. He now realized that he 
had but one more chance for liis life. When the fog had formed 
clouds in the skj^ he took liis belt and threw it upward and climbed 
up and laid himself against the clouds as a rainbow. It was impo-ssi- 
bie for the god of the rainbow unaided to bring him down; he made 
several unsuccessful attempts before he hit upon the expedient of 
making some spiders which he sent after the rainbow. They formed 
a web over the bow and Ijrought it to tlie earth and destruction. 

Elder Brother's warriors were so astonished at the prowess of 
Tco'tcilk Ta'tai Si'van*' that they thought he must have a strange 
heart, so they cut it open to see and, sure enough, they found within 
it a round green stone about the size of a bullet. The stone is kept 
to this day in a medicine basket whicli they captured with his grand- 
son. Before he had undertaken his (light he had told the boy, 
Ka'kanyip, to go with his basket and hide under a bush ; after the 
grandfatlier should be killed the lad should come, touch him, and 
swallow the odor of the body and he would ac(iuire the power of 
the Si'van* . But a warrior named S hohany discovered the little 
Ka'kanyip and after a time sold him to the Papago chief, Kak 
Si'siveliki, Two-Whirlwinds. The box is yet kept by the Papagos 
living 30 miles south of Gila Bend. If it is disturbed a severe storm 
is produced and cold weather prevails in Pima Land. 

After capturing tlie pueblo at Sweetwater and destroying its chief 
the invaders moved against Vidture's puelilo, (i miles west of where 
they fought the last battle. 

The J' then sang: 

Chilli i.f the Raven! Child of tlu- Raven! 

You of the dazzling power. 
See my magic power shining like the mirage. 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 229 

Elder Brother told his army to capture Vulture alive. ' 'How can 

we identify him? We di) not know him," said they. Elder Brother 
told them to capture tlie warrior with white legorintrs; they were 
the distinguishinor mark of Vulture. They obeyed and brought the 
defeated leader to Elder Brother, who scalped him; this accounts 
for the naked head of the vulture of to-day. 

Moving on to Gila Crossing, Elder Brother and his party sang: 

I am the magician who with the sacrcU pipe 

Of Tcu-inaitsal increase my magic power. 
I am the magician of tlie downy feathers. 

With the sootliing sacred pipe 
I l)ring sleep upon my enemy. 

In the battle which ensued Tcu-unarsat Si'van>' was defeated, 
whereon the victors proceeded to Mesa; and before the pueblo of 
A'-an Ili'tupaki Si'van>' they sang: 

The small Blue Eagle alights; 

The small Blue Eagle alights. 
After emerging from the middle of I he land. 

To and fro he moves before me 
As my staff already has foretold. 

After caj)turing tiiis pueblo the coiuiuerors moved against the 
Vi'-iki-ial Ma'kai .Si'van'' near Tempe, singing: 

Look for him! Look for him! 

Poor distracted enemy; take him! 
Poor fear-slricken enemy: take him! 

They then proceeded westward against other j)ueblos, whicli tiiey 
destroyed, and afterwards rettirned to take j)ossession of the Gila 
valley. 

While the war raged along the Gila .some of the inhabitants of the 
Salt River pueblos sought safety in flight toward the Colorailo. Tliey 
descended that stream to the Gulf of California, the east coast of which 
they followed for some distance, then turned eastward and finally 
northeastward, where they settled, and their descendants are the Rio 
Grande pueblo tribes of to-day. 

Ka'kanyip married Kold Ila-akam, the daughter of Kak Si'sivellkl, 
and hved with his father-in-law in the Salt River valley near where 
Phoenix now stands. There his mie became pregnant and would eat 
notliing but green plants and game found in the mountains. So one 
day Ka'kanylj) went to the mountains to search for provisions for his 
wife. He killed a deer which it took him some time to dress. In the 
meantime the A]>aches surrounded him. lie fought bravely, but tliey 
succeeded in killing him. His fatlier-in-law awaited his coming dur- 
ing the evening and through the night ; then he called the f)eo]ile 
together and told them that his .son-in-law had disa|)j)eared. All 
searched until liis body was found. This they burned to a.shes before 



230 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

returning to their homes. After this event the people moved south- 
ward as far as Santa Rosa. There Ka'kanylp's son was bom. He 
was named Pat' A'-antikam, and imder his mother's care became a 
brave and noted man. W-liile yet a boy he one day accompanied the 
people on a hunting expedition. Some of the hunters asked him many 
questions to learn if his mother thought about marrying them. He 
told his mother about these inquiries, which caused her to weep bit- 
terly. She told him how his father had been killed. After hearing 
tliis sad story he went into the council house and told the people that 
he wished to see the sprmgs and other places where the Apaches 
obtained drinking water, and also to see the trails they used. His 
fiirther adventures are related in the texts, page 353. 

COYOTE 

At the time of the destruction of the earth, Coyote was saved in the 
mamier already described, and he again appeared at the emergence of 
the underworld Pimas that Elder Brother brought up to fight his owai 
battles. Then it was that Coyote looked do\m the opening to see the 
humans struggling upward like a long line of ants ascending a tree, and 
the sight provoked him to laughter, an act that caused the earth to 
close up and prevent many people from reaching Pima Land. After 
that Coyote disappeared again. Now we are to hear the story of his 
subsequent life. 

Coyote wandered about alone somewhere in the West after we last 
heard of him, until one day he made two other coyotes from his image, 
which he saw reflected from the water ; one he called the elder brother 
or Sandy Coyote, and the other younger brother or Yellow Coyote. 
He told each to fetch a log. When they brought the logs he told them 
to embark upon the sea and seek for land beyond it. They followed 
his directions and sailed for days and nights across the water, the 
younger always behind the other. One day the elder said: 

"Younger brother, why are you always behind? 'Wliy don't you 
come faster ? ' ' 

"My log will not go any faster, that is why I am not with you," 
replied Yellow Coyote. 

"How are you traveling, with your eyes wide open or with them 
closed?" 

"My eyes are closed," answered Yellow Coyote. 

"Oh, that is why you are so slow. Look up and open your eyes and 
your log will travel fast." 

Yellow Coyote opened his eyes, but when he looked upon the water 
the wind blew the foam into his face and blinded him. " I am blind," 
he cried. 

Sandy Coyote stopped and tried to restore his sight, but without 
success, fuially concluding that they had better return to their father 



anssELL] MYTHS 231 

Coyote for assistanco. Aflor thov had returned to land and Coyote 
had restored the sight of Yellow Coyote the two brothers went to 
dwell in the land lying het\\een the Pima country and the Mohave 
territory, near the mouth of the Grand Canyon. There they built a 
house with the doorway toward the east, as is the Pima custom. 
When it was finished Sandy Coyote said, "Go in and take your choice 
of sides. You need only half the house, and I will take the other half." 

Yellow Coyote said, "You take your choice sind I will take what is 
left." 

And so they continued telling each other to go in and take the first 
choice until the house grew old and fell down. They built a second 
house, and again their dispute lasted until it fell. The same result 
was reached with the third liouse, but when the fourth was built the 
elder brother went in and chose the south side of the house, leaving 
the north side for the yoimger. 

Wlien they went to gather the screw bean the elder brother took the 
beans on the south side of the trees and the younger brother took those 
on the north side. One day the elder said to the younger, " How do 
the beans taste on that side of the tree." 

"They are very good," replied the younger, but when they returned 
home in the evening he was taken sick. 

" It is caused by the beans you ate," said Sandy Coyote. " The beans 
on the north side are not ripened by the sun as are those on the south 
side. To-morrow you shall see the difference." And so the next day 
they went again and found the screw beans sweeter on the south side 
of the trees. 

Every evening they sat and split sticks with which to build bins, 
log cabin fashion, for the screw beans that they gathered. One day 
the elder brother said, "Let us play some kind of a game and bet our 
screw beans, and then we will not sleep too soon." So they made some 
ki°tsk1it." The younger lost all his screw beans that night and the next 
day the elder said, "We will not go for beans to-day." So that day 
the younger went Irangry, and for many days thereafter, for the game 
of ki°ts continued until the beans were rotten and not fit to eat. Then 
they wagered their arrows and other property. Sandy Coyote won 
the arrows, bow, sinew, and feathers belongmg to Yellow Coyote and 
then went out and brought in all the large and fierce animals, but 
Yellow Coyote without a weapon could get nothing but the small 
creatures which were of little use to him. 

In these straits Yellow Coyote sought the aid of Finish, who lived 
in the West. "I need your help, for I am losing a great deal," said he. 
Finish accompanied ^'ellow Coj^ote to the latter's home. When they 
reached the house Yellow Coj^ote went in first, but when the stranger 
tried to enter he was caught by sticks and held fast in the doorway. 

a See p. 175. 



232 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 2«5 

He saw that the house was divided into two parts before him; even 
the fireplace was divided, and no one said a word to indicate which 
side he should enter. For a loner time he was silent. Then he said: 
"What kind of people are you that you do not speak to me I It is 
the custom to ask a stranger 'Where are you fromr or, if they come 
at night, ' Where were you when the sun went down?' Why are you 
not thus courteous? Am I a thief, a murderer, or a ghost that iriakes 
you speechless with fright?" 

After the stranger had spoken, Mountain Lion got up, took his 
tobacco, rolled and lighted a cigarette. 

"Ha, you are here also,'' said the stranger, "and have said nothing 
to me." But Mountain Lion put away his tobacco without ofl'ering 
any to the other, who exclaimed: "Do you think I have no tobacco? 
Don't you see that I am caught here in the door because I have so 
much tobacco in m}^ bundle that it will not go through?" Then 
Yellow Coyote invited him to come to the south side of the house. 

F'or many nights they played different games, but Yellow Coyote 
continued to lose at all of them. At last he told Finish that he had 
hit upon a game that he believed they could win with. So he called 
Tco'kokoi, or Black Beetle, and told him that they wanted him to 
run a football race with Vap'kai-iki, Duck. When Black Beetle 
heard that the south division of the house wanted him to run a race 
he said, "While j^ou people were planning for this I had a dream. I 
dreamed that I had in my right hand a green ball, which 1 tlirew or 
kicked with my right foot toward the east. After I Jiad kicked four 
times I reached the place where the sun comes up. When I turned 
around the darkness came behind me, but I kicked the ball four 
times and reached the place where the sim goes down, and the dark- 
ness did not catch me." 

All his party were glad to hear of Black Beetle's dream, saying that 
it was a sign of good luck. So the next day Yellow Coyote said to 
his brother, "We will di'aw a line here for the starting place. If 
your man kicks his ball back over this line first he will be the winner 
and if my man kicks his ball first over the line I shall be the winner." 
They agreed that whoever won should have the privilege of marrjang 
at the end of four days. 

Duck and Black Beetle started off and ran for miles, and after a 
long time the latter came in, kicking his l)all iirst over the line, 
thus winning the race for Yellow Coyote. At the end of the four 
days Sandy Coyote acted in bad faith, for he went away in the evening 
and toward midnight returned with a wife whom he had taken among 
the Va-aki A-ap, who lived northwest of the Coyote home. Her name 
was Itany Of'i." Yellow Coyote said, "I am going to build a fire 
and see what kind of looking woman my elder brother's wife is." 

"Itany is the nama given a saltbush, Atriplex ap., the seed o£ which is eaten by the Pimas. 



RUSSELL] MYTHS 233 

But the fire would not burn, and he got angry, exclaiming, "^^"liat 
shall I do? Here is that dirty syphilitic woman. I know her. I have 
])assed her house many times, and I never thought she was to be my 
brother's wife. When she came in I smelled her breath, and the 
odor filled the house. What a lunatic my brother is to bring such a 
woman into the house." Then he covered the embers of the smol- 
dering fire and laid down to sleep. 

After four days "i'ellow Coyote went awaj' in the evening toward 
the southeast and came home with a wife at midnight. She belonged 
to the people living on the Gila river supposed to be the ancestors of 
the Pimas, and her name was Ilo-ony Of'i," Com Woman. When 
they entered the house Sandy Coyote said, "I am going to build a 
fire and see what kind of looking woman my younger brother's 
wife is." But the fire would not burn, and he became angry, ex- 
claiming, "What shall I do? Here is that dirty syphilitic woman. 
I know her. I have passed her house many times, and I never 
thought she was to be my brother's wife. When she came in I 
smelled her breath, and the odor filled the house. What a lunatic 
my brother is to bring such a woman into the house." Then he 
covered the embers of the fire and lay down to sleep. 

After a time they began to play ki°ts again, and Yellow Coyote 
lost as before. After he had lost all his property he wagered liis body 
and soul, which Sandy Coyote won. Then the latter killed him and 
ate his flesh. Yellow Coyote's wife was pregnant at that time and 
later gave birth to a boy. When this boy was about nine years old 
he went out one day and met Sandy Coyote, who was bringing in a 
deer on his shoulders. A piece of the deer fat fell, and the boy picked 
it up, concealing it in his armpit. Sandy Coyote asked him if he had 
seen anything of the fat, but the boy said he had not. Sandy Coyote 
searched him and found the fat, which vexed him so that he thought 
to treat the lad as he had his father. "Let us play ki"ts together," 
said he. The boy told his mother about it, and she cautioned him 
not to gamble, as that was the cause of liis father's death. For fear 
that he might do so she took him that night away toward the east. 
It was raining, but she carried fire with her in a small olla. She took 
up her residence in the Superstition mountains, where they lived upon 
herbs and grass seed. One day wliile the mother was away gathering 
seed the boy killed a bird with his little bow and arrows. When she 
returned he declared that he had killed a bird, but she would not 
l)elieve that he had done it. But they buried the bird in tiie ashes 
and ate it. .Vfter that the boy killed many birds, rats, cottontails, 
and large hares. From time to time his mother made larger arrows 
and a iieavier bow for him. One day he came running to his mother 
asking for a yet larger bow that he might kill a mule deer. She told 

There is a conflict of opinion as to wbicb of these two women was married by Sandy Coyote. 



234 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

him that only a grown man and not even he single handed coidtl kill 
a mule deer. But he insisted, sajang that he could kill it. So .she 
made the large bow, and he went away with it. When he reached 
the place where the deer was and was creeping close upon it a soft 
wliistle reached his ear. He looked aroimd and saw Mountain Lion 
coming toward him. Wlien ilountain Lion came up he said, "Wait 
here and I will kill the deer for you." He was as good as his word 
and brought the deer and also gave the boy his bow, arrows, quiver, 
and clothing, at the same time telling him not to let his mother know 
who had killed the deer, but to tell her that a man had given him the 
other things. The mother went with the boy and tried to find a 
track, but she could find notlfing. After that the boy killed plenty 
of deer. One day he shot a deer which escaped with an arrow in him. 

One day as Vulture was returning to his home near Marico])a he 
saw a dead deer with a strange arrow in it. He took both deer's 
meat and arrow home with him and showed it to the people who 
gathered according to their custom about him. He asked whose 
arrow it was, but no one could tell him. Sandy Coyote was in the 
company and recognized the arrow, but was too much ashamed to 
speak. Then Vulture said, "I think I know the arrow. I have 
heard of a boy living in the west who was ill treated, so that he and 
his mother were driven away to the mountains. I think they must 
have found a home somewhere in this country, for this is his arrow." 

Sandy Coj^ote admitted that it was his son's [nephew's] arrow. 
"Give it to me, and I will some day go there and give it to him," he 
said. The next day Sandy Coyote searched for and found his broth- 
er's ■widow and her son. When he reached their house he went in 
and saw them eating a dish of meat. "Here, take your arrow," 
said he. "You shot a deer, which carried it awaj^ and your father's 
brother found it, brought it to his home, and inquired whose it was. 
At last they said it was yours, so I bring it to you." The boy said 
nothing, but took the arrow and put it away. After the boy and 
his mother were through eating they put away the remaining food 
mthout a word. 

Sandy Coyote turned to leave, makuig an attempt to whistle to 
show his indifference to the coldness manifested toward him, but he 
only succeeded in sheddmg tears. "\'\Tiat is the matter with j'ou 
that you cry so?" said the boy; "when I was younger and lived 
with you, you never gave me meat, but I did not cry." 

A long time after that the Woman said to her son, "I am going 
home to my own people, where I may get sometliing to bring to you, 
and then you may go and play ki°ts with Sandy Coyote, who lulled 
yourfiither; I think you are clever enough to beat liim now. " For 
many days he waited for his mother to return, and at last he went 



ROSSELL] MYTHS 235 

after her. On the way he saw two attractive girls approaching him. 
Tiimuig aside, lie lay dowTi beside the trail and l)egan to sing a 
pleasing song just after the girls had passed him. Surprised at hear- 
ing a voice beliind them, they looked back to see whence it came, 
but could find no one. They saw nothing except a dead body that 
was well advanced with decay. Wlieii thej' started on they heard 
the singing again, but when they renewed the search they could find 
no ]i%-ing person. The younger said, "It nmst be this decajdng 
corpse that is singmg. " 

"Let us go," said the elder; but the younger refused, sajang, "I 
am going to take that dead body, for I can see it winking." So she 
took it to her home and loft it while she went to gather grass seed. 
Soon the younger girl wanted to return to the house. 

"You want to go back to that putrid corpse," said the elder; 
"you crazy thmg!" 

"Well, I am going; and if you are going to stay here, stay as long 
as you like." So the younger woman got ready to go home, but the 
other also got ready and accompanied her. ^Vhen they reached the 
house the younger went in and found a handsome young man, to 
whom she went without a word. The elder girl called her several 
times, asking her to come aiad help cook some food. At hist the 
elder girl came and discovered the young man, and she also came to 
him. But the younger said, "You scolded me for bringing him here; 
now you may go out and leave him to me. " 

Finally the young man said, "Go out, both of you, and cook some- 
tliing for me to eat; I am hungry." So they both went to do as he 
wished. The next day the husband of the two young women came 
home, and was very angry at finding the 3'oimg man there. 

"Put lip one of your wives, " said he, "and we will have a game. " 

The young man said, "I have nothing to wager." But the hus- 
band replied, "Put up one of your wives." Then the young man 
said, "You must put up your shirt." And it was the turn of the 
husband to reply, "I have no sliirt." 

"Yes, you have." 

"No, this is my skin," he answered, scratching his breast until 
the blood came. 

"It is not your skhi; it is your sliirt. If you do not believe me, 
I will take it off you and then I shall win the wager from you." "I 
agree," said the other. So the young man took the husband of the 
women up by the hands and shook him, and he dropped dead out of 
his skin. 

At tliis time the young man's mother came, and they took the two 
young women with them to their home. Soon he went to play ki^ts 



236 THE PIMA. INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

with Sandy Coyote, taking with him beads, deerskins, and other 
things to wager. As he jovirneyed he sang: 

Vasohona, vasohona, aikinynamiiginu yangai ku-uli. 

Vasohona-a, vasohona. 
Over there, over there, yoii pay me my father old. 

Over there, over there. 

As he went along he took some white stones, which he made to 
resemble white birds' eggs. These he put in a little nest wliich he 
made. 'Wlien he reached his uncle's house he told Sandy Coyote 
that he had come to play ki°ts with him. They got ready to play 
and put up their wagers, but the yovnig man said, "It is about time 
the birds laid their eggs.'' 

"No," said Sandy Coyote, "it will be two- or tliree months from 
now before they begin to build their nests." 

"As I came along I saw that the dove had already laid her eggs." 

"No; you are IjTiig to me." 

Then the yoimg man said, "Well, if I go and bring tho.se eggs to 
you and show j'ou that I was telling the tiiith I shall win our wager, 
if I do not bring them yoii shall win. " So the young man went out 
and brought the eggs. After the wager had been paid they pre- 
pared for another game and another wager was laid. When they 
were ready the yoimg man cut his toe nail and threw it uito the 
west, where it hung, looking like the rim of the new moon. 

"Look at tlie moon there in the west," said he. 

"No; we are having a full moon now," said Sandy Coyote, "it is 
in the east; you are hang to me. How could the full moon be in 
the west in the evening?" 

"Well, suppose you look. If you fuid any moon you shall pay 
me the wager, and if you do not then I shall pay you. " So Sandy 
Coyote looked and saw the supposed moon and came back and said, 
"You win." 

Again and again they played and again and again the young man 
won. 

\Mien they were read}' to play ki°ts Sandy Coyote said, "Sit there; 
it is your father's place." 

But the young man answered, "No; I shall sit here and _you may 
sit there. If you wish me to sit there you must carry me there. If 
you can carry me there you will win all we have wagered this game; 
if you can not, then I shall win. ' ' 

So Sandy Coyote thought he coidd do it easily, and took hold of 
the young man to carry him to the other side, but he found the man 
so heavy that ho could not move him. So Sandy Coyote lost again, 
and was compelled to admit that he had lost all that he had. The 
yoimg man said he woidd like to have Sandy Coyote wager liim- 
self, if he had notliing else, and the other agreed to tliis. 



RCSSBLL] MYTHS 237 

WTieu they were ready to throw tlio ki"ts the youiifj man said, 
"Your eano is lookini; at me very sharply: I wotild Hke to liave it 
turned the other way. " 

Sandy Coyote replied, ''No one can move it in any way. I can 
not, nor can you." 

"Well, suppo.se J pull it out ami turn it the otiier way, then I 
shall wm the wager: and if I can not, then you shall win." 

The other agreed : so he got nyi and moved the cane around as he 
wi.shed, thus winning the final wager. Then the young man grasped 
Sandy Coj'otc by the hair and shook liim until he dropped down 
dead. Taking all that he had won, the young man went home. 

,\fter a time his mother said she would like to go to where her 
people were living. After some preparation they started on their 
journey. At the end of the first day they camped. During the 
night the mother turned henself into a gray spider. Tlie second day 
they went on again and camped in the evening. That night the 
elder wife turned herself into a black spider. At the end of the next 
day's journey they camjied again, and that night the remaining wife 
turned herself into a yellow spider. The young man was left alone 
the next day, but he hoped to reach his mother's peoi)le, aiid so jour- 
neyed on until nightfall, when he camped. During the night he 
turned lumself into a rough black lizard. 

Even to this day Coyote is known as the wise one. It is dan- 
gerous to kill or harm him, for he will avenge himself by stealing or 
doing worse mischief. He knows well the house of the one who tries 
to injure him, no matter where tlie deed may have been perfornu'd. 
-Vnd yet lie is not always unfriendly, for if he is heard to cry out as 
if jumping it is a warning that the Apaches are nvav and danger 
menaces. 

AXOTHEK VERSION" OK THE f'RE.lTIOX M'iTH " 

l)ef()re the earth was made notiiing but darkness. It lias l)(>en found 
only wind blows came I'oliing from one place to another, nothing but 
wind, at the time tiiere was a man in the darkness alone, and has told 
that this man was wandering from point to point. 
This has been for (juite awhile, and no pleace for to rest on. So the 
man feel himself and know that he was a num by himself, and more of 
he found a push called (Shi(|uia) '" and after he found this, and he call 
(Shi(iuia) 
Anil also he made the earth, and so he call himself a God. now at the 



" It si'eras worth while to present here the version of the cosmogonieal myth which wa.i written 
for the author by a young Pima who had learned to write EnglLsh during the term of several years 
which he spent at a Government .school, rt illustrates the confusion existing in the minds of the younger 
generation; to some extent, also, the order ol words in the I'ima sentence, as well as the dilliculties that 
must s|>eedily beset the ethnological investigator as soon as the older people shall have gone. 

i> Rsukoi. 



238 THE PIMA INDIANS [kth. ann. L'6 

time tliis darkness was still on yet. so the first he made water, when 

he had done this work, he took the water and throught up in Heaven. 

wliich means stars, also he made the moon and mialk-way. to give 

more light, he also made the sun. which is greater then what he made. 

now in those day's there, at a ceatan day. He sitted himself to made 

a first man out of a very hard mud. and there was another man name 

(Sis Hia.) and (Gia- (via mack) 

These two men begain too make all kinds of living creaters. and when 

these two men made men out of hard mud the pleaced at a house to 

see what will he, in a day or two. 

now when these men pleaced at. they want a little way to 

see what will be done with they work, so the haerd sone one speacking 

in that house, but could not understand, next there was another one 

speacldng in our Lounger and Sie Hia) said that he imderstantl that 

will be great wares to all natliion, not very long after tliis poeple at 

Jlesa trying to make a ditch, so they gather one day saking each other 

of way to get water. 

And one of these pearty said that there was man name Cea-gens who 

knows much about ditch, so the send for, when this Cea-vens) came 

to there camp, and told them that the must make a spath out of a 

tree call (Oie a came) so they work on for cjuite a wliile. 

while the working this man Cea-ven went away for some reason, 

while he way. these poeple at mesa had a great trouble anong them- 

self. 

there where begain they war. 

so they call a day, which these poeple to make Bows and arrows. 

Sho-jiak," (Caveid) * 

and so these poeple start way down near Florince and then come to 

Casa great Rounen, and so on to Casa Planco. 

A mowan who's name (Stoke qui tham) his two son's one of them 
name (Parhane) another (Par-lrad) 

one day when the were at home, thire mother told about an eagle of 
there owne. and one day these boy's wanted to go and see what there 
mother been told them. So the start for there Eagle, 
when the were at the plaece. the j-oungest said to his brother, tliat 
he may try first, to clime up for the birds, he tryd But could not 
make, then the oldest one. got them, and bring them down, the 
youngest brother took the oldest bird, and there begain to quirral 
about these two birds, the oldest saifl to his brother that he might 
have the yoimgest becouse he was the yoimgest. 

and the oldest might have the oldest too. But the yoimgest woidd 
not let his oldest bird go. becouse he was the first one that he took, 
and would not let his brother give what he got first. 

a Club. b Shield. 



RLSSELLl MYTHS 239 

CHILDREN OF CLOUD 

[Told by Inasa] 

Wlu'ii the riohokain dwelt on the Gila and tilled their farms about 
the Great Temple that we call (^isa Grande there was eliajj;rin among 
the young men of that people, for the prettiest woman would not 
receive their attentions. She would accept no man as her hus- 
hanil, but Cloutl came out of the east and saw her and determined tc 
marry her. The maiden was a skillful mat maker, and one day she 
fell asleep when fatigued at her labor. Then Cloud sailed through the 
skies above anil one large rain drop fell upon her; immediately twin 
boys were born." 

Now all the men of the pueblo claimed to be the father of the.se 
children. After enduring their clamors for a long time the woman 
told her people to gather in a council circle. When they had come 
she placed the children witliin the circle and said, "If they go to any- 
one it will ])rove that he is their father." The babies crawled about 
within the circle but climbed the knees of no one of them. And so it 
was that the woman silenced them, saving, "I wish to hear no one of 
you say, 'these are my cliildren," for they are not." 

Wlicn the boys had reached the age of 10 the}" noticed that their 
comraiies had fathers and they inquired of their mother, "^^^^o can 
we call father? Who can we rim to as he returns from the hunt and 
from war and call to as do our playmates?'' 

And the mother answered: "In the morning look toward the east 
and you will see wliite Cloud standing vertically, towering heaven- 
ward; he is your father."' 

"Can we visit our father?" they incjuired. 

"If you wish to see him, my children, you may go, but you nuist 
journey without stopping. You will first reach Wind, who is your 
father's elder brother, and beiiind liim you will find your father." 

They traveled for four days and came to the home of Wind. "Are 
you our father?" they incpiired. 

"No; I am your uncle. Your father lives in the next house; go 
on to liim." They went to Cloud, but he drove them back, saying: 
"Go to your uncle and he will tell you something." Again the uncle 
sent them to the father, and four times they were turned away from 
the home of each before their father would acknowledge them. 



» Bourke mentions this myth in his notes upon the Mohaves: ' ' This Earth is a woman; the Sky is a 

man. The Earth was sterile and barren and nothing grew upon it; but by conjunction with the Sky 
(here he repeated almost the very same myth that the Apaches and Pimas have to the effect that the 
Earth was asleep and a drop of rain fell upon her, causingconception) two gods were born in the west, 
thousands of miles away from here." Journal of American Folk-Lore, ii, 178. 

f> -\mong the Navahos Sun is the father of the twins who grow to manhood in four days and then set 
out to find their parent. See Washington Matthews, The Navajo Mythology, in American Antiqua- 
rian, V, 21G. 1883. 



e 



240 THE PTMA INDIANS Ieth. an.n. 26 

"Show me that 3^011 are my chiklren," said he; "if you are, you can 
do as I do." Then the younger sent the chain hghtning with its 
noisy peal across the sky. The older sent the heat lightning with its 
distant diapason tones. "You are my cliildren," exclaimed Cloud, 
"you have power like unto mine." As a further test he placed them 
in a house near by where a flood of rain had drowned the inmates. 
"If they are mortals," thought he, "they will be drowned like the 
others." Unharmed by the waters about them, the cliildren demon- 
strated their power to survive, and Cloud then took them to his homo, 
where they remained a long time. 

"WHien tliey longed to see their mother again. Cloud made a Ixiw 
and some arrows different from any that they had ever known and 
save to them. He told them tluit he would watch over them as thev 
journeyed, and admonisheil them against speaking to anyone that 
they might meet on the way. As the boys were traveling toward 
the westward, they saw Kaven coming toward them, but (hey 
remembered their father's injunction against speaking and turned 
aside so as not to meet him. They also turned aside to escape meet- 
ing Roiidrunner, Hawk, and Eagle. Eagle said: "Let's scare those 
childriMi." So lie swooped (hiwn over their heads, causing the boys 
to cry from fright. "Oil, we just wanted to tease you, that's all; 
we don't mean to do you any harm," said Eagle. 

Thus they journeyed on until they met Coyote. They tried to 
turn aside in order to avoid him, ])ut lie ran around and put himself in 
their way. Cloud saw their predicament and sent down thunder 
and lightning, and the boys by their magic power added to the bolts 
that flashed before the eyes of Coyote until lie turned and fled. 

It was on the mountain top that the boys were halted by Coyote, 
and one stood on each side t)f the trail at the moment when they were 
transformed mto the largest mescal that was ever known. The place 
was near Tucson. 

This is the reason why mescal yet grows on the mountamsand why 
the thunder and lightning go from place to place — because the chil- 
dren did. This is why it rains when we go to gather mescal." 

o A similar version of thi.s m>'th was related to Lieutenant Emory by the interpreter of tlic Cliief .Tuan 
Antonio Llunas. This man siiid: •■ That in bygone days a woman of surpassing lieauty resided in a 
green spot in the mountains near the place where we were encamped. All the men admired and paid 
court to her. She received the tributes of their devotion— grain, skins, etc. — but gave no love or other 
favor in return. Iter virtue and her detennination to remain unmarried were equallj; Arm. There 
came a drouth which threatened the world with famine. In their distress the people applied to her, 
and she gave corn from her stock, and the supply seemed to be endless. ITer goodness was unbounded. 
One day as she was lying asleep with her body exposed a drop of rain fell on her stomach, which pro- 
duced conception. A son was the issue, who was the founder of a new race which built all these houses." 

When he was asked if he beheved the story he replied: " No; but most of the Pimos do. We know, 
in truth, nothing of their origin. ' It is all enveloped in mystery." W. H. Emory, Notes of a Military 
Reconnoissance, S. Ex. Doc. 41. 83. 30th Cong., first sess., 1848. 



Ri-ssELL] MYTHS 241 

SKUI.L ANU HIS MAGIC 

Onoe there was a pretty <;irl wlio was unwilliiiL!; to marrv anvono. 
All the yoiinix m(>n hrou^lit iirescnts of Ljanie to her ))arents, l)tit iiont- 
found favor in the eyes of tlie critical maiden. At last to the surprise 
of neifjhhors and kinsmen she chose for her husl)aiid one who was a 
man ])v ni<;;ht and a skull hy day. Then all lau<ihed at the marriage, 
saying, ''One man in this valley has a hone for a son-in-law." 

One morning the crier of the village made this ])roclamation: 
"To-day we hunt deer in the mountains to the northward!" Skull 
went ahead of the party and hid in a delile in the mountains. When 
the hunters came driving the game before them the deer all fell dea<l 
at the sight of gruesome Skull: so the people had an abundance of 
venison without the trouble of trailing and killing. Thus it was that 
Skull rose in their regard and ridiiule was no longer heaped upon him. 

The next day had been appointed for the foot race in whi<h the 
nmners would kick the ball. Skidl entered as one of the contestants, 
though his neighbors laughed and said: "IIow can one ball manage 
another?" But when ho reached the goal a winner the last voice of 
contumely was silenced. 

ORIOIN OK THE HORSE 

Two brothers who lived apart from their kinsfolk were skillful deer 
hunters. Day by day they followed the deer and antelope, and when 
their chase was successful they carried the game home on their shoul- 
ders. This was heavy work, and at last the elder in the goodness of 
his heart took pity on his younger brother, saying: "You must help 
me to carry out my ])lans and I shall become transformed into some- 
thing that will be useful to you. Shoot an arrow through my body 
from front to back and another from side to side; cut me transversely 
into four pieces and throw them into the water. In four days you 
may come back and see what has happened." 

When the younger man, sorrowing and wondering, had obeyed he 
returned to find four strange animals which we now call horses, two 
males and two females, colored black, white, bay, and yellow or 
"buckskin." lie was not frightened, for his brother had given him 
warning, and he had provided himself with a rope, which he tied around 
the neck of one of the horses, took a half hitch in its mouth, and rode 
it home, driving the others. 

Thereafter horses multi])lie(l in Pimeri'a and in time all were pro- 
vided with moimts, though had it not been for the sacrifice of the 
good brother we should never have had any. 
26 KTH— 08 18 



242 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Another %Jcrsion 

At the time when the RsarsGkatc A-atam confmed the game animals 
in the cave at Aloam mountain" our people were living between Casa 
Grande and Tucson. Among them were two unliappy brothers, one 
blind and the other lame. One day as the elder was lamenting, 
crying, "Wliy am I lame?" and the other was saying, ''Wliy am I 
blind?" they suddenly heard a peal of thunder and a voice said, 
"Take care! Take care!" At this they were frightened, and the 
yoimger opened his eyes to see and the elder sprang to his feet and 
walked. 

Then they went to hunt for game, but the Rsarsljkatc A-atam had 
cleared the ranges of every living thing that could supply the Pimas 
with food, so that the brothers wandered over movmtain and mesa 
without success until they were gaunt with hunger. Then the elder 
told his brother that he would die for the latter's sake and that after 
a time the younger brother should return to see what had been the 
result of his sacrifice. When the young man returned he found two 
horses, a male and a female. 

NuKSERY Tales 

THE FIVE LITTLE ORPHANS AND THEIR AUNT 

Five little Indians (not Pimas) were once left orphans because their 
parents had been killed by Apaches, and they got their aunt (their 
mother's younger sister) to come and live with them. She hat! no 
man, and it was very hard for her to take care of them. One day the 
children all went away to hunt, and they were met by five little rabbits 
(cottontails) in the mountains. The oldest of the rabbits came run- 
ning to the children and crying, "Don't shoot me; I have something 
to tell you." So the children stood still and the rabbit said, "The 
Apaches have come to your phice and burned down all the houses; 
you had better go home now." But the children surrounded the 
rabbit and kille<l it with an arrow and took it home. 

When they reached home, they saw their aunt lying outsiile the ki 
in the shade, and something bloody near her. The oldest boy said, 
"Just look what auntie has been doing! She's been eating our paint 
and poisoned herself." But it was blood they saw coming out of her 
mouth, for the Apaches had come and killed her. When they came 
closer, they saw that a bunch of her hair had been cut off, and she 
looked so unnatural in death that they thought it was somebotly else, 
and that their aunt had gone away. They had never seen a dead 
person before. So they said, "Let us dig a big hole and make afire all 
day long and put hot stones in it, for she has gone to the mountains to 

oTwenty-flve miles southwest of Tucson. 



BussKLL] NURSERY TALES 243 

get some mescal." So they did, and waited all day lonji; till simset, 
when she usuall}' came, but she did not come. Then they said, "She 
has gone far and has a heavy load and is waiting for u.s to come and 
help her; let us go." But the oldest boy said, "No, she will come 
anj'way, she always does, even if she has a heavy load." So they 
waited till night, and gave her up, and went into the house to sleep; 
but they kei)t their sandals on, as the Fimas always ditl, so they coidd 
start oir quickly if there were danger. 

In their sleep they heard her coming in her sandals, groaning and 
murmuring, so they all got uj) and went outtloors. They heard her 
go and look into the fire pit, and then come and stand in their midst. 
One said, "I think it is a ghost; " so they turned to the right and ran 
arountl the ki, and she followed them around and around. Finally 
the}' all went inside, still pursued, and the cliildren stooil on each side 
of the door and turned into stone. And the woman went away. 

COYOTE AND THE QUAILS 

Once Coyote was sleeping very soundly and a great number of quails 
came along and cut pieces of fat meat out of him; then they went on. 
Just as they were cooking the meat Coyote overtook them and said, 
"Oh, where did you get that nice fat meat? Give me some.". They 
gave him some, and after he had eaten all he wanted he went on. 
When he had gone a little way, the quails called after him, "Coyote, 
you ate j^our own meat." 

■'What tlid you say? " 

"Oh, nothing; we heard something calling behind the mountains." 

Presently they called again, "Covote, you ate your own meat." 

"What?"" 

"Oh, nothing; we heard somebody pounding his grinding stone." 

So Coyote went on; but finally he felt his loss, and then he knew 
what the quails meant. So he said he would eat them up, and turned 
around after them. The quails flew above ground, and Coyote ran 
under them. Finally the quails got tired, but Coyote tlid not, for he 
was angry and did not feel fatigue. 

By and by they came to a hole, and one of the smartest quails picked 
a cholla cactus branch and pushed it into the hole, and they all ran in 
after it. Coyote dug out the hole, and when he came to the first quail 
he said, "Was it you that told me I ate my own meat? " "No," said 
the quail, so he let him go, and he flew away. The next one he asked 
the same question and received the same reply, and let him go; and 
so on till the last quail was gone, and he came to the cactus branch. 
Tlus was so covered with feathers that it looked like a (piail, and the 
Coyote asked it the same question. There was no answer, and Coyote 
said, "I know it was you, becau.se you do not answer." So he bit 
into it very hard and it killed him. 



244 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 2G 

THE MOMAN AND COYOTE 

Once the river rose very high and spread over the land. An Indian 
woman was going along with tortillas in a basket on her head, and 
she waded in the water up to her waist. 

C'oyote was afraid of the water, so he was up in a cottonwood tree. 
When he saw the woman he said, "Oh, come to this tree and give me 
some of those nice tortillas." 

"No," said the woman, "I can not give them to you; they are for 
somebody else." 

"If you do not come here I will shoot J^ou," said Coyote, for he was 
supposed to have a bow. So she came to the tree and said, "You 
must come down and get them, for I can not climb trees." Coyote 
came down as far as he daretl, but he was afraid of the water. Then 
the woman said, "Just see how shallow it is, only up to my ankles." 
But she was standing on a big stump. Coyote looked and thought it 
was shallow, so he jumped down and was drowned. Anil the woman 
went on. 

THE PIMA BOY AND THE APACHES 

An old woman once lived with her grandson. The boy's father had 
been killed by the Apaches and his mother taken captive. They had 
treated the woman very badly and burned her arms with hot ashes and 
coals and made big scars. The boy had heard these stories about his 
mother. 

The boy and the okl woman had a very hard time getting along, and 
he used to go where certain persons were grinding corn and brush a 
few grains as they fell from the metate into his blanket antl carry them 
home and the grandmother would make soup of them, and that was 
the way they lived. But by and by these people went away and when 
the boy went to get some corn there was none there and he had nothing 
to take home. The grandmother scolded him and told him to go back ; 
and when he refused she whipped him. Then he said, "I know where 
my mother is, and I am going to her." The old woman said, ' ' No, you 
must not; the Apaches will kill you." But he said, "I am going; my 
mother will not let them harm me." So he went. His grandmother 
trailed him to the mountains, and finally from the very liighest peak 
she saw him going along toward the camp. She also saw his mother, 
her daughter-in-law, out alone gathering seeds. She recognized her 
at a distance by the shining of her scars. The old woman ran after 
the boy, but when she caught up with him he stepped aside and turned 
into a saguaro. Then after she had turned around and gone back he 
resumed liis form and went on to his mother. 

When she saw him she cried out, "Don't come near me, the Apaches 
will kill you; you know what the}' did to me, ami they will kill you." 

"What can I do?" he said, "What do the Apaches hke?" 



RUSSELL] NURSERY TALES 245 

"They like little doves." 

"Then I will turn into a little dove." 

He did this and she eanied him iiome in her basket. The Apaches 
asked, "What is that?" and .she replied, "The young of a dove; so I 
brought it hom(>." But when the Apaches left the room they could 
hear her talking to it, and when they came in she would be still. They 
could not understand the words but knew she was speaking her own 
language,so they said, "This thing belongs to her tribe. Let us kill it." 

So they went in and the chief took it in one hand and smashed it 
haril with the other and the pieces came through between his fingers. 
These pieces tlien flew up out of the smoke hole and turned into a flock 
of hawks, and tliey fell upon the Apaches and beat them all to death 
with their wings. 

Then they turnetl back into the boy again and he and his mother 
started hom(>. But when they reached the place where the gran<l- 
mother had turned back they could go no farther. They turned into 
saguaros, one on each side of the road. 

THE BIRDS AND THE FLOOD 

\Vlien the waters covered all the earth two birds were hanging 
onto the sky with their beaks. The larger was gray with a long 
tail and beak; the smaller was the tiny bird that builds its nest like 
an olla, with only a very .small opening to get in. The larger one 
cried and cried, but the other just held on tight and said, "Don't 
cry. You see that I'm littler than you, but I'm very brave. I 
don't give up so easily as you do. I trust in God; He will take care 
of those in danger if they trust in Him."" 

DEATH OF Cf)YOTE 

After the waters had gone down Elder Brother said to Coyote, 
"Don't touch that black bug, and do not eat the mesc(uite beans; it 
is dangerous to harm anything that came safe through the ilood." 
So Coyote went on, but presently he came to the bug, and he stopped 
and ate it up. Then he went on to the mcscpiite beans and looked 
at them and said, "I will just taste one, and that will be all." But 
he stood there and ate and ate till they were ail gone. And the 
beans swelled up in liis stomach and killed him. 

THE BLUEBIRD AND COYOTE 

The bluebird was once a very ugly color. But there was a lake 
where no river flowed in or out, and the bird bathed in this four 
times every morning for four mornings. Every morning it sang: 

Ga'to setcu'anon ima rsonga. 

Gunaiiursa, 
Wus'sikS. fivany Icctcrnona. 



a This sentence is clearly inspired by Christian teachings. 



246 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

(There's a blue water, it lies there. 

I went in, 
I am all blue, i 

On the fourth morning it shed all its feathers and came out in its 
bare skin, but on the fifth morning it canie out with blue feathers. 

All this while Coyote had been watching the bird; he wanted to 
jump in and get it, but was afraid of the water. But on that morn- 
ing he said, "How is tliis all your ugly color has come out of you, 
and now you are all blue and gay and beautiful? You are more 
beautiful than anything that fhes in the air. I want to be blue, too." 
Coyote was at that time a bright green. "I only went in four times," 
said the bird; and it taught Coyote the song, and he went in four 
times, and the fifth time he came out as blue as the little bird. 

That made him feel very proud, because he turned into a blue 
coyote. He was so proud that as he walked along he looked about 
on every side to see if anyone was noticing how fine and blue he was. 
He looked to see if liis shadow was blue, too, and so he was not 
watclung the road, and presently he ran into a stump so hard that 
it threw him down in tlie cUrt and he became dust-colored all over. 
And to this day all coyotes are the color of dirt. 

THE BOY AND THE BEAST 

Once an old woman lived WTth her daughter, son-in-law, and grand- 
son. They were following the trail of the Apaches. Whenever a 
Pima sees the track of an Apache he draws a ring aroimd it with a 
stick, and then he can catch him sooner. But at night while they 
were asleep the Apaches came and grasped the man and woman by 
the hair and shook them out of their skins as one would shake com 
out of a sack, and the old woman and the boy were left alone. They 
had to live on berries, but in one place a strange beast, big enough 
to swallow people, camped by the bushes. The grandmother told 
the boy not to go there, but he disobeyed her; he took some very 
sharp stones in his hands and went. As he came near the animal 
began to breathe and the boy just went inside of him and was swal- 
lowed all up. But with his sharp stones he cut the intestines of the 
beast so that he died. Wlien the grantlmother came to hunt for 
the boy he came out to meet her and said, "I have killed the animal." 

"Oh, no; such a little boy as you are to kill such a dangerous 
beast!" 

"But I was inside of him; just look at the stones I cut him with." 

Then she went up softly and saw the holes and believed. And 
after that they moved down among the berries and had all they 
wanted to eat. 



BCSSBLL] NURSERY TALES 247 

THE TIIIUSTY QUAILS 

A quail had more than 20 chililren and witli tht'm she wandered 
over the wliole country in search of water and could not find it. It 
was very hot and they were all crying, " Wliere can we get some water? 
Wliere can we get some water?" but for a long time they could find 
none. At last, away in the north, under a mesquite tree, they saw 
a pond of water, but it was very muddy and not fit to drink. But 
they had been wandering so many days and were so tired that they 
st()|)pe(I in tlie shade, and by and by they went down one by one 
and drank the water, although it was so bad. But when they had 
all had enough it made them sick and they died. 

THE NAUGHTY fJRANDCHILDREN 

An old woman liad two bright grandchildren. wShe ground wheat 
and corn every morning to make porridge for them. One day as 
she put the olla on the fire outside the house, she told the children 
not to fight for fear they would upset the water. But they soon 
began quarreling, for they did not mind as well as they should, 
and so spilled the water, and the grandmother had to whip them. 
They became angry antl said they were going away. She tried to 
make them imderstand wiiy she had to whip them, but they would 
not listen and ran away. She ran after them, but could not catch up. 
She heanl them whistling and followed the sound from place to j)lace, 
until finally the oldest boy said, "I will turn into a saguaro, so I 
shall last forever, and bear fruit every sunmier." And the younger 
said, "Well, I will turn into a palo verde and stand there forever. 
These mountains are so bare and have nothing on them but rocks, 
so I will make them green." The old woman heartl the cactus wliis- 
tling and recognized the voice of her granilson; so she went up to it 
and tried to take it into her arms, and the thorns kilknl lier. 

And that is how the saguaro and palo verde came to be. 

Abstracts of Myths 

the creation myth 

Out of primeval darkness spirit of Earth Doctor developed. He 
first created creosote bush from dust. Next created black ants and 
termites; these caused the world to develop and Earth Doctor cre- 
ated the sk}'. Then made gray spider and commanded it to spin 
web connecting edges of earth and sky. Threw blocks of ice into 
the sky for sun and moon and s])ray of water for stars; large stars 
made from magic crystal, and milky way by walking stick dipped in 
ashes. All living things then created and human beings from images 
of clay. Earth became overpopulated, as there was no death yet, 



248 THK PIMA INDIANS [eth. a.vn. 26 

SO Earth Doctor pulled the sky down on the earth and crushed every- 
thing to death. But he came througii a hole to the other side and 
made a new creation. After a time Elder Brother, a rival to Earth 
Doctor, arose and threatened to' destroy the people again. This 
accomplished, through the child of Elder Brother's agent and South 
Doctor's daughter, who was the last of the youth's many wives. 
Child was ahandoned and its tears caused a flood that overwhelmed 
the earth. Elder Brother was saved in his olla. Coyote on a log, 
father and child by turning into birds. Earth Doctor by hiding in his 
staff, and some people by going into a hole in the earth nuide l)y Earth 
Doctor. 

After the flood Elder Brother was the ruler and Earth Doctor and 
Coyote his subordinates. When they found the middle of the land 
they all took part in a new creation. First death caused by Rattle- 
snake biting Rabbit. Burning corpse stolen by Coyote; afterwards 
he abused the woman and in retaliation the magicians concealed all 
the useful animals in a cave; these released by Coyote. 

Vantre supplied with magic gambling sticks by Feather-breathing 
Si'van^. Elder Brother interfered and caused Vantre to be turned 
into an eagle. Eagle lived on mountain and preyed on the people 
until killed by Elder Brother. 

Tarsnamkam sent his parrot to steal turquoises at Casa Grande; 
sent football to daughter of Si' van'' there; child born from tlois 
became the monster Ha-ak, who killed and ate children until destroyed 
by Elder Brother. Tobacco plant grew from grave of old woman 
who had stolen Ha-ak' s blood. 

Elder Brother fell into disfavor with the people, who killed him 
several times, but he alwaj^s came to life again, until the magic power 
of Vulture was invoked, who killed him through the agency of the 
sun. Came to life once more, but sank through a hole to the imder- 
world, where the survivors of the flood lived. Some of these came 
above under his leadership and conquered the people there. 

COYOTE 

After closing up by his laughter the hole through which the under- 
world people were coming up, Coyote wandered to the west, and one day 
made two other coyotes from his image in the water, Sandy Coj'ote 
and bellow Coyote. They sailed on logs across the water, but Yellow 
became blind and they turned back and went to live near the Grand 
Canyon. Gambled with each other and Sandy won; Yellow a.ssisted 
by Finish, who causes Duck and Black Beetle to run a race, in which 
latter won for Yellow. Sand}' finally won "fellow's body and soul 
and killed him. Death finally avenged by liis son, who won from 
Sandy by stratagem. 



RISSELL] ABSTliACTS OF >;UKSEKV TALES 249 

ClIILDUEN OF CLOUU 

Twin boys iinniediato rosult of marriafje of Clovid and tlip boaiitiful 
mat maker, who had refused all suitors. Boj's grow up, inquire for 
father, sent to the east to find him. Meet Wind, their uncle, and 
Cloud, their father. Tested by rain, thunder, and liijjiituinfj;, and 
accepted. ^\iter lonj^ visit start for home; encounter Kaven, Hawk, 
Eagle, and Coyote; stand on each side of trail to avoid latter and are 
transformed into mescal. 

SKULL AND HIS MAGIC 

Man by night and Skull by day, he married maiden who liad 
refused other suitors. Successful himter because deer fell dead at 
sight of him. Winner in football race, thus silencing all ridicule. 

ORIGIX OF THE HORSE 

Two brothers burdened with heavy game. One conceives plan of 
relief and asks other to help him. I_,atter cuts body of former into 
four pieces and throw's them into a lake; in foiu- days returns and 
finds four horses. 

Abstracts of Nursery Tales 

THE FIVE LITTLI: ORPHANS AND THEIR AUNT 

Parents killed by Apaches and unmarried aunt supported children. 
While hunting one day warned by cottontail rabbit that Apaches had 
been at their house. On return find aunt dead, but never having seen 
a corpse did not recognize her. With mescal kept fire against her 
return; at night frightened and pursued bj' her ghost until all turned 
to stone. 

COYOTE AND THE QUAILS 

Quails cut pieces of fat from Coyote as he slept; he awakened iind 
overtook them in camp; asketl for refreshment and w-as given of his 
own flesh; starting on he was taunted about it by the quails. Tiu-ncd 
to pursue them and almost ran them down when they ran into a hole, 
tiie foremost carrying a cholla stem. Coyote asked each in turn if 
she were guilty; on denial, let them go; finally asked cholla, and 
receiving no reply, bit it hard and it killed jiim. 

THE WOMAN AND COYOTE 

Coyote in cottonwood tree asked woman wading in river to give 
him some of her tortillas; siie refused, l)ut on being threatened went 
up to tree ami told him to jumj) down, as the water was shallow; but 
she was standing on a stump; when he jumped he was drowned in 
the deep water. 



25U THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

THE PIMA CAPTIVE AND HER SON 

Boy whose mother captured by Apaches Hved with his grand- 
mother. Quarreletl with lier aiul started to find liis mother, lleach- 
ing her he turned into a dove, and she carried him home; Apaches 
heard her talking in her hinguage to it, so the chief crushed it in his 
hand; pieces flew up through the smoke hole and turned into flock 
of hawks, who beat the Apaches to death. Mother and son started 
home, but turnetl into saguaros on the way. 

COYOTE AND THE BLUEBIRD 

Bird became blue by bathing in lake. Taught Coyote how, and 
he became blue, too. So proud that he gazetl at himself as he went 
along and ran into a stump, fell into the dust, and became gray, as he 
is to-day. 

THE BOY AND THE BEAST 

Parents killetl by Apaches and boy lived with grandmother. 
Frightened from berry bushes by terrible beast. Boj- took some 
sharp stones and approached the beast, who swallowed him; cut his 
way out with the stones and tluis killed the beast. 

THE NAUGHTY GRANDCHILDREN 

Quarreled with grandmother and ran away; when pursued the 
boy turned into a saguaro and the girl into a palo verde. Old woman 
grasped the cactus and it killed her. 

Religion 

DEITIES 

The Pimas are far less given than their pueblo neighbors to the 
outward show of religion, such as is seen in the varied and freciuent 
ceremonies of the liopis and Zufiis. On the contrary, they ajipcar 
to have no other than an occasional "rain dance," the navitco (see 
p. 326), and other ceremonies for the cure of disease. So far as 
could be ascertained in a comparatively brief sojourn among them 
their religion comprised a belief in the supernatural or magic power of 
animals, and especially in the omnipotence of the Sun. When in 
mourning, sick, or in need, the Pima addressed his prayers to the Sun in 
the morning : Tars ! Oek i'up sinlui-ikii-itfik iup in'yimak kirv'kutfdvi ! 
"Sun! Kindly help me through the day!" Or at nightfall his peti- 
tion was raised : Stcoho'komam ! Oek iup sinhii'ikul-ittik iup inyimak 
kukutflki! "Darkness! Kandly help me through the night!" The 
following form of suppUcation was often employed: Tars! Pa'pfltitcG 
sinha'I-iku[ldi], contracted from Tars! Pa'ptlt itcok'si sinha'lkult, 
"Sun! There, have mercy on me." When weary upon a journey, the 



ECSSELL] EELIGTON 251 

Sun was appealed t<i, and the first wliift' of ('it;arette smoke was piid'ed 
toward him. The ilisk was not regarded as the "sliield" or "head- 
dress," but as the veritable person of the god. He moves unceasingly 
around the flat earth, going beneath the western rim and passing 
across below to rise in the east. 

It is Sun that, by means of magic power, kills tho.se who die during 
the day. It is Night who kills those who die during the hours of 
darkness. Moon is Sun's wife, but she is not accredited with the 
power that is given to Darkness. Coyote is the child of Sun and Moon, 
and figures largely in the myths. His character, by its bufToonery 
and trickery, much resembles that of the culture heroes of some other 
tribes. 

At the present time two deities are recognized, Tcu'wrt Makai, 
Earth Magician (medicine-man or doctor), and Si'dii, Elder Brother. 
They live in the east, dividing the control of the universe between 
them. The former governs the winds, the rains, etc.; sometimes he 
is called Tciors, Dios [Spanish]. Their names are pronounced when 
a person sneezes, or, he may simply exclaim "pity me," referring 
tacitly to one or the other of these two deities. There is a puzzling 
mingling of the old and the new in the myths, though it seems prob- 
able that the greater part of them have been of ancient origin with 
recent adaptation of Earth Doctor and Elder Brother from the Chris- 
tian religion. Among the Pimas themselves opinion is divided as to 
whether the myths have been largely adopted from the Papagos. 

At the solstitial point in the northeast lives Tcopiny Makai, Sink- 
ing Magician, who also has a "house" in the northwest. In the 
southeast lives Vakolif Makai, South Magician, who also occupies 
the corresponding point in the southwest. Along the Sun's path are 
the houses of the four minor gods: 

Wupuki Makai, Lightning Magician, is the southernmost, and when 
the Sun is in his neighborhood we have lightning that is not accom- 
panied by thunder. 

Toahim Makai, Thunder Magician, causes the thunders that are 
heard during the .second month. 

Ilrwrlt Makai, Wind Magician, produces the strong winds that 
blow so continuousl)' in the spring. 

Tatrsaki Makai, Foam Magician, causes the river to ri.se and bear 
foam upon its waves in the month succeeding the month of wind. 

It is difficult to determine the exact position of Coyote in the Pinui 
pantheon, though he is classed with the leading deities in the myths, 
and his modern but degenerate descendants are regarded as ver^^ 
wise. 

When a coyote comes by moonlight and sees the shadow of a 
chicken he can pounce upon the shadow and so bring down the bird 
within reach. He has been known to steal a baby from between its 



252 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

sleepino; parents, an informant declared. Considering the manner 
in wliich tlie moon is supposed to have originated, it is strange that 
it should contain the figure of a co3'ote. No explanation of this 
belief was found. 

The stars are living beings: Morning Star is the daughter of a 
magician; her name is Su'mas Ho'-o, Visible Star. Polaris is the Not- 
walking Star, but is otherwise not distinguished from his fellows. 
Possibly this term has been adopted since the advent of the whites. 
Once a mule with a pack load of flour was going along in the sky, 
but he was fractious and not gentle, as is the horse. He bucked off 
the load of flour, which was spilled all along the trail. A part of it 
was eaten by Coyote, but some remains to form the Milky Way. 

TUE SOIL AND ITS DESTINY 

The soul is in the center of the breast. It makes us breathe, but 
it is not the breath. It is not known just what it is like, whether 
it is white or any other color. 

The views of the Pimas concerning the destiny of the soul varied 
considerably. Some declared that at death the soul passed into 
the body of an owl. Should an owl happen to be hooting at the time 
of a death, it was believed that it was waiting for the soul. Referring 
to the diet of the owl, dying persons sometimes said, "I am going 
to eat rats." Owl feathers were always given to a dying person. 
They were kept in a long rectangular box or basket of maguey leaf. 
If the family had no owl feathers at hand, they sent to the medicine- 
man, who always kept them. If possible, the feathers were taken 
from a living bird when collected; the owl might then beset free 
or killed. If the short downy feathers of the owl fell upon a person, 
he would go l)lind. Even to-day the educated young people are 
very chary about entering an abandoned building tenanted by an 
owl." 

By some it is said that after death souls go to the land of the 
dead in the east.' All souls go to Si'alik Rsan, Morning Base, or 

o " Having been asked what information they possessed of their ancestors ^antepasadoif), they told 
me about the same things as (lo mismo poco mas 6 menos que) the (Pimas [Maricopas?Ji Gilenos said 
to the senor comandante. and Padre Font put in his diary, concerning the deluge and creation; and 
added, that their origin was from near the sea in which an old woman created their progenitors: that 
this old woman is still somewhere (guien sabe fn dondr), and that she it is who sends the corals that 
come out of the sea: that when they die their ghost (corazon) goes to live toward the western sea; 
that some, after they die, live like owls (tecol6tes: and finnlly they said that they themselves do not 
understand such things well, and that those who know il all are those who live in the sierra over 
there beyond the Uio Colorado." Oarers' Diary in Coues, On the Trail of a Si)anish Pioneer. I. 122. 

*'.\fter death Mohaves become spirits; then they die again and beeonu' a. kind of an owl; a second 
time they turn into a different kind of an owl. and a third time into still another; fourthly, they iiecome 
water beetles; after that they turn into air. 

■' n an>^hing is left of their bodies, the arms, the muscles of the upper arms become one kind of an 
owl, and the heart another." J. G. Bourke, Journal of American Folk-Lore, II, 181. 

''Compare the Navaho belief, as recorded by Matthews: "For is it not from the west that the snow 
conies in the winter, the warm thawing breezes in the spring, and the soft rains in the summer to nour- 



BCssELL] RELIGION 2f)3 

place where tlie sun rises. The East Land is separated from the 
land of the living by the chasm called Tcu'wut Hi'ketany, Earth 
Crack. When one of the writer's interpreters had gone to school at 
Hampton, Ya., her associates said that she had gone to the abode of 
spirits. All Ls rejoicing and ghidness in that other world. There 
they will feast antl dance, consequently when one dies his best cloth- 
ing must be put on and his hair must l)e dressed with care, as is the 
custom in preparing for an earthly ceremony. No idea of spiritual 
reward or punishment for conduct in this life exists. 

Again, the souls of the dead are supposed to hang about and per- 
form unpleasant pranks with the living. They are liable to jjresent 
themselves before the living if they catch the right person alone at 
night. The ghost never speaks at such times, nor may any but 
medicine-men speak to them. If one be made sick l)y thus seeing 
a ghost, he must have the medicine-man go to the grave of the 
offending soul and tell it to be quiet, "and they always do as they 
are bid." Old Kisatc, of Santan, thought that the soul continued 
to reside in the l)ody as that was "its house." During his youth 
he had accompanied a medicine-man and a few friends to the grave 
of a man who had been killed near Picacho, about 40 miles south- 
east of Sacaton. The medicine-man addressed the grave in a long 
s{)eech, in which he e.xpressed the sorrow and regret of tlio relatives 
and friends that the corpse should thus be buried so far from liome. 
Kisatc avers that the spirit within the grave replied to the speech by 
saying that he did not stay there all the time, but that he occasion- 
ally went over to hang about the villages, and that he felt unhappy 
in the state in which he found himself. Of course the medicine-men 
claim to be in communication with tlie spirits of the departed as well 
as with supernatural beings capable of imparting magic power. 

DRE.\MS 

Dreams are variously regarded as the result of evil doing, as a 
natural and normal means of communication with the spirit world, 
and as being caused by Darkness or Night. During the dream the 
soul wanders away and passes through adventures as in the waking 
hours. The young men never slept in the comicil ki for fear of bad 
dreams. 

To dream of the dead causes siclaiess in the dreamer and if he 
dream of the dead for several nights in succession he wall die. Dreams 
are not consulted for information concerning future action except in 



ish the com in the valleys and the grass on the hills? Therefore it is that when we are in need we 
pray lo Estsanaitehi, the Goddess of the Sunset Land. 

" Hut first nian and first woman wen* angry hecauso they were banished to th<' east, and befon! 
Ihey left they swore undying hatred and eiunity to our people. And for this reason all evils eome 
from tlie east— smallpox and other diseases, war, and the white intruder." The Navajo Mythology, 
in American Antiquarian, v, 224, 1883. 



254 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. 26 

the case of the would-be medicine-nian who may be called to liis 
profession by means of persistent dreams. Since Night may cause 
one to dream as he wishes it is fair to presume that it is that o;od 
who oversees the destinies of the medicine-men. 

Many years ago Kisatc, in either a swoon or trance, believed that 
he went far away to a place where a stranger gave him a magnificent 
bow and a set of beautiful arrdws. On regaining consciousness lie 
asked for tlie things that had been given him wliile he was away and 
became quite indignant when they assured him that he had not been 
out of their sight. To this day he believes that tliey deceived him. 

SACRED PLACES 

Hahatesumieliin or Hahatai s'maihisk, Stones Strike, is a large 
block of lava located in the eastern Santan hills (see pi. XLi, b). 
The largest pictograph ever seen In* the writer in the Southwest is 
cut upon it and 2 or 3 tons of small angular stones foreign to the 
locality are piled before it. There are also many pictographs on 
the bowlders round about. This was probably a Hohokam shrine, 
though it is regarded with reverence by the Pimas, who still place 
offerings of beads, bits of cloth, and twigs of the creosote bush at the 
foot of the large pictograph. There is a tradition that a young man 
was lying asleep upon the flat rock and was seen by two young w"omen 
who were passing along the opposite hilLside. They tried to awaken 
him by tossing the pebbles which are yet to be seen. Pima maids 
thus awaken their lovers to the present day. 

Ha-ak A^x-ak, Ha-ak Lying, is a crude outline (if a human figure 
sitiuited about 5 miles north of Sacaton. It was made by scraping 
aside the small stones with which the mesa is there thickly strewn 
to form furrows about 50 cm. wide (fig. 102). The body furrow is 
35 m. long and has a small heap of stones at the head, another 
at a distance of 11 m. from the first, and another at the junction of 
body and legs. The latter are 11 m. long and 1 m. apart. The 
arms curve outward from the head and terminate in small pyra- 
mids. In all the piles of stone, which have a temporary and modem 
appearance, are glass beads and rags, together with fresh creosote 
branches, showing that the place is yet visited. The beads are 
very old and much weathered. Beside the large figure is a smaller 
one that is 4.5 m. long, the body being 2.7. Ha-ak is supposed to 
have slept one night at this place before reaching IIi\-ak Tcia 
Hak, a cave in the Ta-attikam mountains, where she remained for 
some time. 

I'aksk, Place of Sacrifice, is a heap of stones on a knoll near Black- 
water where it is probable that a Hohokam or Pima uiedicine-man 
has been buried. 



RISSl'.I.I.l 



RELIGION 



255 



Pat'anlkiim. Place of the Bad One, is the name of a gjrave at Gila 
Crossing. It seems prol)al)le that the grave of some Ilohokam medi- 
cine-man has been taken for that of the son of Kakanyp. 

There is another similarly inclosed but unnamed grave at Gila 
Crossing, also one between Sweetwater and Casa Blanca, and there 
are tlu-ee at Blackwater. Such inclosures are called o'namOksk, 
meaning unknown. Beads are to be found strewn about all of them. 

Ma'vit Vii-ak, Puma Lying, or Tci'apatak, Place of the Mortar, is a 
heap of small stones (pi. xi.i, c) between the Double buttes, 10 miles 
west of Sacaton. Stones are there piled over a shallow mortar in 
wliich beads have been placed and partly broken. Bunches of fresh 
creosote branches were mingled with the decaying fragments of arrow 
shafts at the time of the writer's visit, showing that while the shrine 




FIO. 102. ni-ik allar. 



is yet resorted to it is of considerable antiquity, for wood does not 
decay rapidly in that climate. 

E\-il spirits dwell in the Picacho and Estrella mountains, but tills 
belief may be presumed to be an inheritance from the Apache period. 
The writer has not learned of any shrines being located in those 
ranges. 

It is said that in the Santa Rosa mountains there was once a tightly 
covered medicine basket wiiich was kept on a mountain top by a 
Papago medicine-man who carried offerings to it. All others were 
forbidden to toucli it: but .someone found it and when he lifted tiie 
cover all the winds of heaven rushed forth and blew awa^- all the 
people thereabout. 



256 THE PIMA INDIANS lETH.ASN.li6 

Near the summit of one of the lava-formed Santan hills is a small 
cave in wliich the Hohokam placed sacrifices. A number of articles 
were discoveretl there a quarter of a century ago and sent to some 
eastern museum. Since that time the Pimas tleposited the body of a 
child and some other things in the cave, which were secured by an 
jVi-izona collector in 1 901 . The cave is known as Va'rsa Ya'-ak, Basket 
Lying, because it contained a basket such as the Pimas use for their 
medicine paraphernalia. It was discovered by two Pima warriors, 
who were serving their sixteen-day period of lustration for having killed 
Apaches. The basket contained sinew from the legs of deer, and sticks, 
which the finders assumed to be for the same purpose as those with 
which they were scratclung their own heads at the time. 

When a medicine-man dies his paraphernalia, if not transmitted to 
his descendants, may be placed in an olla and hidden under a heap t>f 
stones in the hills. He may also sacrifice a part of his stock in a simi- 
lar way during his lifetime. The property of warriors is sometimes 
similarly cached. 

Such places were formerly respected by the tribe, but they are now 
robbed with impunity to get ''relics" to sell. A man at Pe-e'plJtciltk' 
informed the author's interpreter, Jose Lewis, of the location of one 
of thest' caches in the low hills south of Casa Blanca. We found that 
a number of concretions, crystals, shells, a bird carved from stone, 
and a war club had been deposited in an olla with a bowl turned over 
it, rendering it water-tight. The whole had been hidden under a heap 
of stones at the summit of a spur of the hill about 4 miles from the 

villages. 

Medicine-men 

There are three classes of medicine-men among the Pimas. Those 
who treat disease by pretended magic are known as Si'atcokam, Exam- 
ining Physicians. As many women as men belong to this order, 
to wliich entrance is gained chiefly through heredity. This is the 
most powerful class in the community, though its members pay for 
their privileges at imminent risk. How great this risk is may be .seen 
from the calendar records, page 38. The Si'atcokam were more 
numerous than the other classes. Those who have power over the 
crops, the weather, and the wars are called Makai, Magicians. 
Only one or two women were ever admitted to this order among the 
Pimas. There were usually about five Makai in each village. 
These two classes were the true rulers of the tribe, as their influence 
was much greater than that of the chiefs. Their combined strength 
was for years turned against the missionary. Rev. C. 11. Cook, but 
their influence is now fast waning and several medicine-men have 
become avowed Christians. From these converts information was 
obtained that in all probability could not have otherwise been secured. 



EiLssKLL] MEDICINE^MEN 257 

Yet another class of persons, incliiiliuLC lioth men and women, and 
few in number, mi<j;lit l)e termed medicine-men. The)' are called 
riai'-itcottani, S()metliin<i given to drink. They are not highly 
esteemed, however skilled they may become in the use of roots and 
simple remedies, yet they are the true pliysicians of the Pimas. It 
may be that among the many empiric remedies which they employ 
some will he found to possess true therapeutic qualities. 

The traditional history of the tribe tells of many families of medi- 
cine-men, and the profession was very generally handed down from 
father to son. Those receiving magic power in this maimer were 
somewhat more highly regarded than others. A seconii method by 
whicli a person might secure j)ower was by what might be termed a 
process of natural selection; anyone who recovered from a rattle- 
snake bite on the hand or near the heart might become a medicine- 
man or medicine-woman. A third method was by dreams and 
trances. Kisatc said tliat during iiis yoifth he had dreamed every 
night that he was visited by some one who endowed him with magic 
power. Under the inlluence of these dreams he decided to become a 
medicine-man, but as soon as he began to practise the dreams ceased. 
These dreams are not sought by fasting or other unusual conditions, 
nor does the person to whom the)' come seclude himself from his 
fellows. 

Several informants declared that "any man who received instruc- 
tion from a metlicine-man and learned to do some little tricks could 
become a medicine-man." The process of acquiring power was called 
va'ikita, "getting power" (literally, "pouring inolla"). The novice 
was tested, either alone or along with one or more fellow-a.spirants, 
by the medicine-man, who had the 3'outh kneel before him on all fours, 
and then threw four sticks, each about S inches long, at him. If 
the novice fell to the groinid during the throwing he was "shot" with 
tiie power and could then take tiie next degree. This was admin- 
istered by the instructor, who "coughed up" tcu'tcaka (word of 
unknown meaning), wliite balls the size of mistletoe berries, and 
rubbed them "into" the breast of the novice. Another informant 
said that the novice swallowed the balls. Four or five balls were thus 
administered, though the "power began to work" in some ca.ses 
where only one or two balls were used. One informant thought that 
the medicine-man had a sort of "nest of power" wherein the balls 
<leveloped as in the ovary of a hen. No matter how nniny were given 
off the supply continued undiminished. 

Sometimes the doctor wished to teach the youth, in which case the 
latter paid nothing for his instruction." But the usual fee was a 

« "The Indians of the nation of Loretto liad schools, whereby these professors instructed their youths 
in theal>ove opinions, anrl some other needless puerilities: but recommended to them as truths of great 
importance. In order to this, their pupils jittended them to caves or solitary places, at a distance 
26 ETH— OK 19 



258 THE PIMA INDIANS Ieth. ann. 26 

horse, "a piece of calico," or the hkc. Throujjhout the period of his 
initiation the novice was not permitted to go near a woman's men- 
strual lodge nor might he allow anyone to know that he was learning ; 
that implied that he should not practise until the end of the novitiate 
period, usually two years, sometimes four. \Mien at length he began 
to practise his success depended on his ability to develop dreams 
and visions. 

While the Si'atcokam can induct any young man into the mysteries 
of the order, that man's son can not inherit his father's profession. 

Legerdemain 

The Makai were intrusted with the important duty of securing 
supernatural aid to insure good crops. One method of procedure 
was to gather the people in the large lodge and have some one bring 
in an olla fillod with earth. This the Makai stirred with a willow 
stick and placed before a clear fire, where it stood all night while 
rain songs were being sung. At dawn the olla was emptied and was 
found to contain wheat instead of earth. Four grains were given 
to each one present, to be buried at the corners of the fields or the 
four grains together at the center. 

For a consideration the Makai would go to a wheat field and per- 
form rites which he assured the owner would result in a heavy yield 
of wheat. After rolling and smoking a cigarette at each corner of 
the field, he would go to the center of it and bury a stick (a'mlna) 
3 or 4 inches long. 

To cause an abundance of melons and squashes, the Makai entered 
the field and took from his mouth — or, as his followers supposed, 
from the store of magic power in his body — a small melon or squash. 
The object was partially covered with hardened mud, symbolic of 
the productive earth. The rite was performed at a time when no 
melons or squashes had yet appeared, and it is supposed that he 
obtained the ''magic" melon by stripping the outer leaves from the 
growing end of young vines. This was buried at the root of a 
growing plant to insure a prolific yield. 

Again, the germination and growth of wheat were sometimes 
imitated by concealing several grains of wheat in the hair and shaking 
them down upon the soil. Then by a dextrous manipulation of a 
previously prepared series of young wheat shoots the growth was 
represented up to the point where a stalk 2 feet in length was 

from the woods: and there they taught them to form certain figures on tablets, and when perfect in 
these, they were taught others, as children in our .schools are taught to write. . . . But their 
most usual device was to hold up in their hjinds some little tablets of wood made with great labour, for 
want of iron tools of mesquite, or another hard wood called Una de Gato, on which were painted 
some grotesque figures, affirmed to be the true copy of the table, which the visiting spirit left with them 
at his departure to heaven: and these figures were the same which the Loretto professors [medicine-menj 
taught the boys at their private academy." Venegas, History of California, i, 98, 100. 



EDSSBLLl LEGERDEMAIN 259 

slipped from tlie long coils of hair at the operator's shoulders and shown 
to the awe-stricken spectators as a fully developetl plant. 

A favorite trick was to have young men chew mescjuite leaves, 
which on being ejected from the mouth were seen to be wheat or corn. 

During the rain ceremonies, when the Makai were at the height of 
their glory, one of their most impressive acts was to pour dry earth out 
of a reed until it was half empty ami then it would be seen that the 
remainder was filled with water. "Then it rained right away." 
If the Makai j)ut one of the magic slates in a cup of water. at the time 
the rain songs were being sung antl also dug a shallow trench to 
show the rivulets how they should cut their way, it would rain in 
four days. 

Another device of the Makai was to conceal reeds filled with 
water and then wliile standing on a house top to direct the singers 
to stand in a close circle arountl below him. Exhibiting a handfid 
of eagle down or eagle tail feathers and throwing tlust on them to 
show how dry they were, he would then sweep his hanil about and 
scatter water over the spectators and singers, apparently from 
feathers but in reality from the reeds. 

During the season when rain is especially needed any one may 
petition for it by means of the small gray fly that has a large head. 
Rubbing soot from the roof or chimney in the fly's eyes the person 
must say", "Go quickly, little fly, tell your grandmother to send the 
rain." 

Some Si'atcokam arouse the wonder and ailmiration of their fellows 
by placing hot coals in their mouths (where they hold them between 
the teeth), or by holding them in their hands (taking care to have a 
thin layer of ash or mud beneath them). 

When the exigencies of the case demand it, the Si'atcokam sink small 
pointed pieces of wood, an inch in length and flat at the larger end, 
into the flesh of their patients. The bits of wood are "twisted back 
and forth between the thumb and forefinger as one would twist a 
thread until the wooil disappears." The great grandmother of 
Jacob Ij. Roberts, a young man of Apache-Maricopa and Pima- 
Kwahadk lineage, thus treated him during a temporary attack of 
sickness in his infancy. She sank two pieces of creosote bush into 
liis breast and j)redicted that he would not be ill as would other 
cliildren. She also said that she would die within the year — and 
she did. Strange to say, Jacob also escaped the epitlcmic di.seases 
that alHicteil his playmates. 

The Si'atcokam jjrize certain crystals very highly and claim to obtain 
them in the following manner: The person possessing the necessary 
power may be going along in some quiet place when all of a sudilen 
a man will be seen approaching. The stranger never reaches him 
but will be seen to disappear; then if the Si'atcokam searches about 



260 THE I'IMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

tlie spot where the man was last seen, he will find a transparent 
crystal, ha'tai tau'tam, stone white, which contains a spirit that will 
aid him in all his subsequent undertakings and wliich will desert the 
stone at the death of the holder." 

The Si'atcokam treats a woundetl man by sucking the evil from 
the wound. He shows a strand of green that resembles a roll of 
water plants about 8 inches long. The wounded man sucks this 
crosswise four times and the Si'atcokam pretends to swallow it. 
"This insures complete recovery." 

Cause and Treatment cif Disease 

The Si'atcokam carries his tcaekut or staff in hand when called to 
treat the sick. He begins by singing the "cure songs" or causing 
them to be sung for the purpose of aiding him in correctly diagnosing 
the case. Then he puffs out cigarette smoke over the body of the 
patient in order that he may ''see" the disease. Most common ail- 
ments are attributed to certain definite causes and the diagnosis is 
easy. When he is well paid for his services he may sing more than 
one night before announcing the name of the disease. If he is too 
hasty he may '"see" the bear when it is really the deer that is causing 
trouble. However, he can not sing more than four nights; then, if he 
fails, he must call in a fellow-practitioner. The case of Sala Hina is 
an interesting and instructive one and will illustrate very adequately 
these peculiar methods. Several years ago Sala carelessly ate some 
weed which poisoned her and she had barely strength enough to reach 
home. As close relatives are not allowed to treat a patient, a neigh- 
boring medicine-man was called in. Her husband rolled a cigarette 
for the learned doctor, who smoked it, but however skillfully he 
spread the smoke cloud over the groaning patient he could not "see" 
the cause of the trouble. Then another Si'atcokam was called in and 
a cigarette was rolled for him and he peered through the veil suffi- 
ciently to see "something." But he coulil not tell just what it was 
and advised senrling for another medicine-man who was a specialist 
in intangible shapes. Sala was suffering the greatest agony in the 
meantime. If she moved she "felt full of pins inside." Those about 
her expected her to die at any moment. Number three at length 
arrived and smoked his cigarette, blowing the smoke across the 
patient from a distance to dispel the unusually heavy ilarkness. He 
said he must have his gourd rattle and magic feathers brought before 
he could see clearly. Meanwhile the husband had brought in a fourth 
medicine-man. Number ft)ur then smoked a cigarette and pro- 

o " Small rock crystals, supposed to be produced by the sbamans, are thought to be dead or even 
living— a itind of astral bodies of the Theosophists. Such a rock crystal is called tevali (plural 
tevali'r) or 'grandfather'— the same name as is given to the majority of the gods. But it may, 
however, represent any person or relative, in accordance with the directions of the shaman." Lum- 
holtz. Symbolism of the Iluichol Indians, 63. 



BDSSEix] CAUSE AND TREATMKNT OF DISEASE 261 

nouiKH'd the verdict of death. Poor Sala had l)een compelled to lie 
quiet to avoiil the torture from the "pins" hut her mind was active 
and she imderstood every word that was said in her presence. Deter- 
mined to do what they could, the last two arrivals set to work sin<;inf;;. 
Number three san<; four songs, followed by four more songs from 
number four. Then number three sang four more, and so they 
alternated all night. Toward morning they put ashes into a cup of 
water, sweeping eagle feathers across the dish meanwhile. They 
then announced that they would get the evil out soon. Number 
four sprayed water from his mouth over the patient and declared 
that he had found her to be sufl'ering from the presence of the luirn 
of a homed toad in her heart. Falling on his knees beside her he 
sucked with all his might until he hiid removed the offending object. 
As it flew into his mouth it gagged him and he hastened to withdraw 
it. Calling for a piece of cotton he put the hot and burning horn 
into it and told the Itrother of the patient to throw it into the river. 
Then the two Si'atcokam sang twice and later in the day sang twice 
through their set of four songs for the homed toad. This faithfxd 
treatment brought about a recovery. 

Sala's brother fell ill of some throat disease over which the doctors 
sang, sucked, and smoked for a month before he died. 

It will be seen from the cases described that the songs play an 
important part in the treatment, and they are sung with endless 
repetitions. After the cause of the affliction has been decided upon 
the songs of that animal or object are sung. An image or a part of 
the animal or ol)ject is pressed upon or waved over the part affected 
and then the farce of sucking out the evil is gone through. Juan 
Thomas informed the \\Titer that he had frequently concealed under 
his thiunl) nail the objects which he pretended to suck from his 
patients. 

Sometimes ashes are rubbed upon the skin of the sick person. No 
matter what the disease may be, the ashes are administered with light 
rubbing. No explanation could be given for this treatment. For 
any disease, also, pledgets of cotton might be burned on the skin, and 
as these were half an inch in diameter and two or three might be 
burned in one place, the effect must have been very painful. 

The female Si'atcokam never treated children; they confined their 
labors to the treatment of abdonunal troul)ies not necessarily peculiar 
to sex. They treated men for abdominal difficulties and men treated 
women for all diseases. 

Payment is promised to the Si'atcokam when they are called in. It 
may be a horse, cow, some wheat, a basket, or similar property. If 
he contracts to sing three nights and to receive a horse in payment. 
he will not receive the horse if the patient dies after he has sung two 



262 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

nights, but >vill receive some compensation. The death of the patient 
does not annul the obHgation under any circumstances. 

In addition to the animals, birds, and reptiles that cause disease, 
the variety of human ailments and the fertility of the native's imagi- 
nation necessitated the invention of yet other causes. These were 
sometimes superhuman, but only too often the tribe merely descended 
to the level of the African savage, and accused some medicine-man of 
the crime of causing disease. There would seem to be some reason 
in this if the medicine-man who had the case in hand were the one 
accused, l)ut that was not the custom; it was a rival practitioner who 
bore the onus and frequently })aid the penalty with his life, as maybe 
seen from the accompanying annals. It would seem that every epi- 
demic of any extent that ever afflicted the Pimas caused an almost 
wholesale destruction of medicine-men. In individual cases of malice 
on the part of the medicine-man the treatment is to sing the medicine 
song and afterwards to place four magic stones in a cup of water, 
taking out one at a time and holding it under the nose of the patient, 
that he may inhale its power; then he must drink the water. 

If a person believes that a medicine-man has brought sickness upon 
his household he calls in another doctor to find the charm. The one 
consulted takes four assistants and searches day and night until some 
object is foiuid which they can safely assume was hidden in the vicinity 
by the malicious medicine-man. Wlien found the object must not be 
touched, for fear of death, but the mere discovery renders it harmless 
to the person against whom it was aimed. 

Sometimes the medicine-man causes sickness by "shooting" char- 
coal, made from the burned body of an enemy, into some one who 
does not notice it at the time, but whose body burns in consequence. 
If it is sucked out before it is entirely consumed the charcoal loses 
its power and the patient recovers. 

The badger causes a severe throat disease, which, however, is con- 
sidered to be of rare occurrence. The remedy is to sing the badger 
song (p. 321) and to press the tail of the badger on the patient's neck. 

The bear causes swellings upon the body, headache, and fever. 
The remedy is to sing the bear songs, of wliich there are several 
(p. 318); the singing is sometimes continued throughout the entire 
day. No part of the animal is used in the treatment. The bear is 
friendly to the Pimas. If a man meets one he must say, "I'm red," 
and then the bear will not touch him, though he is free to kill the 
animal. 

The black-tailed deer causes diseases of the throat and lungs. The 
remedy is to sing the deer song (p. 317) and to press the tail of the 
deer on the affected part. 



BDSSELL] CAUSE AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE 263 

The coyote causes sickness in children; some believing that he 
brings on the dysenten' when the mother eats melons before the birth 
of the child, others thinking that he causes rash and blisters on the 
baby's tongue. The remedy is to sing the coyote song (p. 316) and 
swing the tail of the coyote over the child. 

The dog, a very near relative of the coj'ote in Pimeria, also causj's 
trouble for the children. Wlien a child a month or two old is fretful 
and sleepless the medicine-man is pretty certain to diagnose the case 
as "dog disease." He does not treat it in any manner, but some one 
who knows the dog song (p. 315) is called in to sing, and as he sings 
he sways a stick that has some of a dog's vibrissse tied to it, to and 
fro over the child. 

The gopher causes stomach trouble, particularly in cliildren. The 
remedy is to sing the gopher song (p. 319) and to press moistened 
earth from a gopher hill upon the affected part. At Gila Crossing 
were obtained two snuill deerskin bags containing tufts of eagle's dowTi 
and two or three twigs that had been cut by a gopher. These were 
to be pressed upon the stomach of the child. 

The jack rabbit causes open sores. The remedy is to sing the rabbit 
song (p. 314), and during the singing to swing over the patient the 
tail of the hare to which the animal's vibrissa^ have been tied. 

The mouse, kuwakawapakam, causes constipation in cliildren. This 
is cured by singing the mouse song (p. 314), and pressing the tail of 
the mouse on the abdomen. If no prepared tail is available a dead 
mouse is used. 

The ground squirrel of the mesas causes nosebleed. 

There are but four birds that cause disease. There appears to have 
been no conscious classification in the minds of the Pimas in attribut- 
ing certain afflictions to the birds. These diseases are all of a different 
nature, and are similar to those assigned to mammals and reptiles. 

The eagle causes hemorrhage. The remedy is to sing the eagle song 
(p. 289) and to pass the down of the eagle over the part. 

The eagle is also blamed for the lice that find refuge in the hair of the 
Pimas. The remedy is to blow cigarette smoke over the head. 

The hawk causes hemorrhage in grown persons only. The disease 
is cured by singing the hawk song and passing the wing feathers of 
the bird over the patient. If one touches a hawk he nmst be secluded 
for four days. 

The owl throws people into trances and fits. They are restored by 
having the owl song (p. 311) .sung while six owl feathers mounted on 
a stick are swung over them. The crj- of the small owl, kokovol(t), 
in the night is a bad sign. WTien the large owl utters a sound re- 
sembling human speech sickness may be expected. 

The vulture or turke}^ buzzard causes sores, especiallj^ syphilis, and 
sore eyes on the baby if the parent eat a dead animal just before the 



264 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

child is born. The remedy is to sing the buzzard song and pass the 
wing feathers of the buzzard over the child. 

A Gila monster if killed by the father just before the birth of 
a child causes the baby's body to become red and feverish. The 
remedy is to sing the Gila monster song (p. 307). Such a disease 
must be of rare occurrence and no other treatment is prescribed. 

The horned toad causes rheumatism and hunchback. The remedy 
is to sing the horned toad song (p. 307), and press an image of the 
creature upon the patient (fig. 2.5, a). If one accidentally steps on 
a horned toad he must tie a red string around its neck and let it go, 
saying, " nyu u-ut hok," my blood eat. This is to cause the subtle 
toad to eat the bad blood that may cause disease in the person. 

The large lizard, tcosokalt, is responsible for a fever in children, the 
most prominent symptom of which is the whitening of the skin. If 
any one who knows the lizard song (p. 308) is available he comes and 
presses an image of a lizard (fig. 25, b) on the child as he sings; if not, 
a lizard is killed and fat from its body is rubbed upon the cliild. 

The rattlesnake causes kidney and stomach troubles in children. 
These are cured by singing the rattlesnake song (p. 309) and pressing 
the parts affected with an image in wood or stone of the rattlesnake. 

The ])ite of the rattlesnake is cured by sucking the wound every 
morning lor four tlays. Others suck it one or two days, and also 
ligature the limb with horsehair, or draw a circle around it with char- 
coal to define the limit of the swelling. The Papagos and Mexicans 
use the plant Euphorbia marginata to poultice snake bites, and it is 
possible that some Pimas use it also, though the writer was unable to 
find anyone who knew of its being so used. 

While the rattlesnake is dreaded and imder circumstances previ- 
ously mentioned is regarded as possessing magic power, he occupies a 
far less important place in Pima thought than in that of the Ilopis. 
It is said to be unlucky to come upon two rattlesnakes, one soon 
after the other, when engaged in searching for anything. If a child 
puts its foot through an olla head ring that is commonly left l.ving 
about the premises, the mother warns him that the rattlesnake will 
bite him. The same fate is threatened if he puts liis foot into the 
mortar in which the mesquite beans and other articles of food are 
ground. The rattlesnake is accredited with wisdom that directs it to 
the place where the best mesquite beans are to be had, though why 
such a locality has anj' attractions for it was not explained. 

The turtle cau.ses large sores on the body or cripples the legs. 
The treatment is to sing the turtle song (p. 306) and shake a rattle 
over the patient. The rattle is made by killing a river turtle and 
placing the boiiy in an ant-liill until the ants have thoroughly cleaned 
out the shell, which is then mounted on a handle, and some gravel 
put into it. 



RUSSELL] CATJSK AND TREATMENT OF DISEASE 265 

A butterfly with striped wings causes internal pains. The treat- 
ment consists in sinfjing the butterfly song (p. 295) and pressing the 
body of tlie patient with four or five images of the butterfly cut from 
deerskin. 

The worm, kS,mm&lt, when found dead and ih'icd is ground up in 
the mortar and the powder used to ciu-e sores around the baby's 
moutii. 

One's teeth will fall out if he eats food over which .some caterpillars 
have crawled. 

The nausea of pregnancy is caused by unfaithfulness on the part 
of the woman. It is cured by singing the proper songs and striking 
two sticks a foot long over the patient afterwards. 

The remolinos, or whirlwinds, that are so common in Pimerfa, cause 
pains in the legs, but not swellings. The remedy is to sing the wind 
song (p. 324) and to rub the limlxs with the black gum of the okatilla, 
Fouquiera splendens. 

The sini may cause disease for which there wouUl seem to be no 
special song. However, a small colored image of the sun with feather 
rays attached is used by the medicine-man. 

A captured Ai)ache child might cause lameness in some member of 
the family ])y whom he was kept. It was cured by some on(> who liad 
killeil an Apache singing over the patient. Then the child must be 
sold to the Mexicans or Americans. It was also supposed that the 
touch of an Apache woman might cause paralysis. 

Piholt was once a man, but is now an evil spirit living in the east, 
and causing a disease which has its songs. 

The Xyavolt, an evil sjiirit, may induce a horse to tlirow liis rider 
and injure him. The j)aticnt is cured by singing the Xyavolt song 
(p. 329) and swinging a pair of crossed sticks over the injured part. 

A certain (Hsease of the throat is called wheita, and the same name 
is given to a stick made from mesciuite root, which is thrust down the 
patient's throat four times and then pas.sed four times over the heart 
to cure him. 

Tcunylm is an evil spirit that causes sickness in cliildren. The 
most characteristic symptom is fretfulness. The Tcunyim song 
is sung and the child's body is pressed with a strand of hair taken in 
war from an Apach(>'s head. The hair is cleaned and washed by 
some okl person, then the ends are glued together with the gum of 
the creosote bush before it is ready to use. A'mlna sticks tied with 
bluebirtl and redbird feathers are also used. 

Ka'mal tkik (pi. xliv, b), who was accustomed to assist the 
doctors, states that this name is applied to a disease of the tliroat 
which causes the victim to lose flesh. The treatment consists in 
placing a'mlna in an olla of water to soak while the doctor or his 
assistant blows through a tube, called the tcunylm cigarette, upon 



26B THE PIMA INDIANS f etii. an-x. 26 

the forehead, cliin, breast, and stomach of the patient. The tube 
has a bunch of feathers attached caUed a-an kiatftta, and these are 
next swept in quick passes downward over the body. Tlie a'mina 
are then taken and sucked four times by tJie patient, after which the 
end of the bundle is pressed against the patient's body, then hiid 
flat upon his breast and rubbed. Finally, the assistant rejicats the 
speech of Siu-u at the time when that deity restored himself to life, 
at the same time making passes toward the patient. 

Magic influence exerted by evilly disposed persons, especially medi- 
cine-inen, may cause a particular ailment, called "doctor's disease," 
in the ctire of which the slate tablets found in the ruins are believed 
to be most eflicacious. The information was given that no marking 
was made on the slates; they were simply placed in a vessel of water 
and the patient drank the water. 

Sometimes the sickness of a child was believed to be due to the fact 
that some person tlesired to take it away from its parents. If they 
went to the covetous one ami accused him of the crime the child 
immeiliately recovered. 

Navitco (fig. 26) is an evil spirit adopted from the Papagos. His 
home is in the mountain called Papak, Frog." This spirit causes 
the knees to swell and the eyes to become inflamed. It may safely 
be inferred that this disease has been a common one, as it is the prac- 
tice to treat several at one time in a somewhat more elaborate cere- 
monial than is usual in the treatment of other diseases. One medi- 
cine-man personates Navitco, another known as Kakspakam accom- 
panies him; both are masked. At a signal from Navitco, given by 
throwing corn meal on the baskets, 1.5 or 20 persons appointed for 
the purpose sing the Navitco song (p. 326) , accompanied by the notched 
sticks, after which Navitco goes to each patient and pats him with 
eagle feathers until he has presumably drawn out all disease. He then 
tlu-ows away the feathers. He is followed by Kakspakam, who seats 
himself before each patient to give him an opportunity to touch the 
mask and then the swollen knees. When the singers have finished, 
they rub the notched sticks over their own bodies to prevent conta- 
gion. All concerned in the ceremony must not eat salt for four days 
thereafter. 

The Navitco medicine-men also claim to possess the power to bring 
rain. 

The treatment of a cliild afflicted with dysentery mingles the new 
order with the old in an interesting manner, combining Christian 
baptism with pagan sun worship and magic medical practice. 

A man and his wife who are close friends of the parents come early 
in the morning and wash the baby. If it is a boy, it is taken up at sun- 

" Santa Catalinas, north ol Tucson; altitude, 10,000 feet. 



BissF.L[.] PREVALENT DISEASES 267 

rise by the man, who breathes upon a cross and holds it toward the sun 
four times. If it is a ^\v\, it is taken by the woman, who breathes upon 
a medal and holds the objeet toward the sun four times. Whichever 
object is used is next passed in the form of the cross over the face and 
again over the body of the infant by both the man and the woman. 
Each then holds the child four times in his or her arms before handing 
it to the parents. A name is given the child by the godfather and 
godmother. No child except one thus ill or another in the same 
family of a naming age at the time is ever clu-istened thus. The 
godparents must give the chikl some wheat or corn each year until it 
grows up, and the parents give a basket each year in return. 

Even horses may become sick through the evil influence of mali- 
cious medicine-men, who, it is said, "shoot" live coals into them — 
coals that have been taken from an Apache fire. The remedy is of 
a similar magic character. A reputable medicine-man is called in, 
who diagnoses the case and decides from what direction the coal was 
"shot." He does not sing, but after smoking a cigarette and blowing 
puffs of smoke about the premises and upon the horse he determines 
the place to suck out the coal from the distressed animal. When he 
gets the coal into his mouth he makes a pretense of being burned by it 
and immediately fdls his mouth with water, after which he casts out 
the coal. 

The transparent trick of sucking a hair from the body is resorted to 
in veterinary practice in a manner similar to that pursued when treat- 
ing human ailments. 

Prevalent Diseases" 

Consumption is the most frequent and fatal disease, due to poverty 
of diet and contagion. The Pimas do not attempt to prevent infec- 
tion. Their former treatment was a diet of mountain turtle and 
sun-dried beef. 

Dysentery is common in summer because of the peculiar habit, by 
no means confined to the Pimas, of eating unripe melons. 

Impetigo contagiosa is the worst skin disease, and is principally 
confined to the children. 

Children are intentionally exposed to smallpox and measles, that 
they may have the diseases in lighter form. Smallpox was regarded 
as an evil spirit of which they did not dare to show fear. They said 
"I like Smallpox," thinking that he would be thus placated. At one 
time they attempted inoculation from persons that had light attacks, 
but the experiment resulted in many deaths. From 1870 until the 
Government sent a physician to the agency, the missionary. Rev. C. H. 

oFrom 1892 until 1893 Dr A. E. Marden held the position of agency physician at Saeaton and from 
1900 until the time of the writer's risit to the Pimas in HK)L' continued his practice as missionary phy- 
sician among the Pimas. The writer is indebted to him for the greuter portion of the infonuation 
relating to the degree of prevalence of disease. 



2()8 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. ;-'li 



Cook, supplied the Pimas with vaccine. They retainetl some of their 
old dread of the demon and continued to place the bandages with 
which the arm had been dressed upon a certain mescjuite tree, not 
daring to burn them for fear of offending. Smallpox has usually 
been brought to the Pimas by the Papagos from Mexico. Measles 
appears every three or four years, but does not seem to be any mcire 
fatal than among the whites, though it is more likely to be followed 
by consumption. 

Rheumatism of the chronic articular type is fairh' common and is 
treated like many other pains by scarifj'ing the part affected with 
bits of broken glass. 

There are a few cases of acquired syphilis among the Pimas and a 
few due to hereditary taint, but they are fairly free from the disease, 
considering their habits, and are much more exempt from it than their 
allies, the Maricopas. 

Diarrhea was supposed to be due to toucliing ripe wheat in the 
fields, and it was considered necessary for a medicine-man to walk 
about in the standing grain and blow the danger away with .smoke. 

Bleeding wounds were bandaged; burns were plastered with wet 
mud; broken limbs were set wdth skill and inclosed in light and 
strong splints made of reeds. 

Melancholia sometimes afflicts "a man who has killed Apaches" 
so that he wanders about without clothing and refuses to talk. No 
treatment is attempted, and the victim dies of neglect. 

Massage is a common form of treatment of almost any disease and 
of itself is enough to endanger the patient, for it sometimes happens 
that the operator administers a vigorous pommeling to the abdomen. 

Table of diseases 



Rare 


Occasional 


Common 


Acne 


Asthma 


Bronchitis 


Epilepsy 


Cataract 


Caries 


Dementia 


Eczema 


Conjunctivitis 


Lupus 


Favus 


Consumption 


Melancholia 


Heart disease 


Dian-hea 


Typhoid 


Neuralgia 


Dysentery 




Pleurisy 


Impetigo contagiosa 




Scabies 


Measles 




Smallpox 


Pneumonia 




Syphilis 


Rheumatism 




Urticaria 


Toothache 



BUSSELL] VOCABULARIfc;S 269 

LIXGUISTICS 

Vocabularies 

There are four short vocabularies of the Pima language in manu- 
script in the ])ossession of the Bureau of American Ethnology: 

Words 

Dr C. C. Parry, under orders of Maj. W. H. Emory, 1852 154 

Amini M. Wliite. Pima trader at Casa Blanea 191 

John D. Walker. Company I. Fifth Infantry Colored Volunteers, Tucson 197 

F. W. Hodge. In Ciishing's party on Salt river. 1887 53 

The first is published in Schoolcraft, volume in, page 461 , and forms 
the basis of the English-Pima vocabulary i)ublished in Die Pima- 
Sprache by Buschmann in 1S57 (p. 36"). Doctor Parry employed a 
Maricopa interpreter. Buschmann's vocabulary also includes words 
obtained by Doctor Coulter, which were ])ublished by Gallatin in 
Tran.'^actions of the American Ethnological Society, volume ii, page 
129, and by Scouler in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of 
London, volume xi, page 24S. Buschmann further drew from Pfefifer- 
korn's Beschicilning dcr Landschaft Sonora, volume ii, passim; three 
words from .Miihlenfordt's Schilderung der Republik Mejico, volume 
II, page 22.5; and words from the Lord's Prayer in Pima as given by 
Hervas in Saggio Practico Delle Lingue (p. 124-12.5). There are 182 
w^ords, in all, in Buschmann's list. Fewer than half the 53 pages of 
his paper are devoted to the language of the Pimas. 

Lieutenant ^Yhipple obtained a vocabulary of 67 Pima words, which 
was published in liis Rei)ort upon the Indian Tribes, Pacific Railroad 
Reports, volume in (pt. in, p. 94). 

In the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society for 1841, page 248, 
there is a Pima vocabulary of 38 words that was collected by a Doctor 
Coulter; where, it is not stated. The orthograjjhy is not explained. 

In his Opuscula. page 3.51, R. G. Tjatham has ])ublished a vocab- 
ulary of 27 words, stating neither from whom it was derivetl nor where 
it was written. In his Natural History of the Varieties of Man, 
Latham devotes tliree pages to quotations from Lieutenant Emory 
descriptive of the "Pimos." 



270 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



As examples of the orthography and extent of these vocabularies, 
two are republished below. 

Vocabularies 



English 


Coulter 


Latham 


English 


Coulter 


Latham 


Man 


tiuot 


huth 


Salt 


ona 




Woman 


uba 


hahri 


Light 


tai 




Indian 




huup 


Day 


tashim^t 




Boy 


andi 




Night 


stuiikum 




Chief 


capit 




Cold 


scapit 




Father 


niook 




Hot 


ston 




Mother 


intui 




Stone 


jote 




Body 


nionh 




Mountain 


toak 




Head 


nemoh 


mouk 


White 


sttjxa 




Hair 




ptniuk 


House 


nihki 




Ear 


naank 


ptnahauk 


Door 


pualit 




Nose 




tahnk 


Bow 


iiikat 




Mouth 




chinits 


Arrow 


napot 




Tongue 




neuen 


I 




ahan 


Tooth 




ptahan 


He 




yeutah 


Beard 




chinyo 


One 




yumako 


Hand 


noh 


mahahtk 


Two 




kuak 


Foot 




tetaght 


Tliree 




vaik 


Heart 


ipotuk 




Four 




kiik 


Sky 




ptchuwik 


Five 




puitas 


Sun 


tash 


tahs 


Nine 


humukt 




Moon 


maskat 


mahsa 


Ten 


huistemam 




Star 




non 


Eleven 


maato 




Snow 




chiah 


Twelve 


koohk 




Fire 




tahi 


Brave 


tiout 




Water 


shontik 


suntik 


Bad 


miimko 




Sea 


kakatchck 




Good 


skukit 




River 


akSmuli 




Great 


vohovakuitch 




Lake 


v6 











SoNG.S 



CLASSIFICATION 

During a stay of seven months among the Pimas not a single native 
song was ever heard from a man, woman, or child. This is in striking 
contrast with the writer's experience among most other tribes that 
have not been longer in contact with the whites. Not half a dozen 
individuals can be found in the upper villages who know any con.sid- 
erable number of the old songs. And yet the munl>er of these songs 
is very great and most of them are by no means unpleasing even to a 
Caucasian ear. The songs are in series that are known to different 
indivitluals. Thus, the songs sung at the puberty dances are in series 
that are started by the first singer to arrive upon the scene in the even- 
ing. If another singer arrives first during the next evening the series 
of songs for the night is changed; though all belong to the general 
class of "menstrual songs." Sometimes a festival is inaugurated 



BUSSELL] SONGS 271 

because of the aeciilental presence of some one who knows a group, as 
the "Bluebird songs" or the "Swallow songs." Examples of all the 
principal groups of songs are here recorded. They include: 

Archaic songs: includetl in the cosmogonical myth; they are known 
as "Emergence songs," and contain a few words of a meaning 
imknown, owing either to age or to borrowing. 

Festal songs; including "Circling," "Basket boating," "Middle 
run," "Name," etc. 

Game songs; these are short, not numerous, and often borrowed. 

Hunting songs ; there are a few songs that appear to have once been 
used in the ceremonial preparations for hunting, ])ut wliich are now 
employed in the magical treatment of disease. 

Medicine songs; this is the largest class; every conceivable ailment 
has its appointed song, ascribed to some animal or natural phenome- 
non or even supernatural agency. Many of these are from the Papagos. 

Puberty songs ; some are especially for this ceremony, though any 
festal songs may be sung at this time. 

Rain songs; these contain interesting references to deities not else- 
where mentioned. So far as known, their source has not yet been 
ascertained. 

War songs; these were numerous and of great importance in the 
ceremonies. 



272 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 20 

ARCHAIC SONGS 

[Told by Kft'm&l tkak, Thin Leather] 

Creation Songs by Earth Doctor 

the creation of the eakth 



Tcuwutu Makai tcuwutu nata miakuka iiyuita hasitco-ony: ! 

Enrth Magician. earth make come. " see what ycm iiitt'iid : 

(Repeat) 

*Siktilamu nata miakuka nyuita hasitco-onyi ! (D. C. to *) 

Round make come, * see what you intend ! 

t Tcuwutu Makai taAaku nata miakuka, nyuita hasiyana ! 

Earth Magician mountain make come, see what you tell ! 

Tapinyimii nata miakuka, nyuita hasij'afia ! (D. C. tof) 

Smooth make cimic, ' see what you tell ! 

II 

Tcuwutu Makai tcuwutu nata; Tcuwutu Makai tcuwutu nata, himlo. 

Earth Doctor earth make; Earth Magician earth make. Koing. 

himlo, himlo, himutco-o. (Repeat) 

going, going, going (causal). 

*Tcuwutu Makai tav'a ku nata; Tcuwutu INlakai tavaku 

Earth Doctor mountain kind of make; Earth Doctor mountaiit 

nata, himlo, himlo, himlo. himutco-o. (D. C. to*) 

make, going, going, going, going. 

Ill 

Tcuwutu tapa sihaitconyoka-ana: 

Earth open magician 

Tavafiofi tapa sitco mamatcu-u. 

Mountain open magic powers knows. 

Translation 

Earth Magician i^hapes this world. 

Behold what he can do! 
Roinid and smooth he molds it. 

Behold what he can do! 
Earth Magician makes the mountains. 

Heed what he has to say! 
He it is that makes the mesas. 

Heed what he has to say. 
Earth Magician shapes this world; 

Earth Magician makes its mountains; 
Makes all larger, larger, larger. 

Into the earth the Magician glances; 
Into its mountains he may see. 



KissELL] AKCUAIC SOXGS 273 

IV 

THE CREATION IH' THE BVr 

Vanyifigi Tarsaiwu iiiitakabi: vaiiyingi Tar.sai natiikahi, hiyanyi 

film Sun iiiiulf; lam Sun nmdt*: here uk* 

tuniai ya-aliai punaiiaitco-o. (lli-peut) 

jibovi' ' hotlx tlirecti(pns throw. 

*Si-iyaldi takio wopahiinu kaliowi taitcunycku sapava inununa-a. 

Ka'si (iireetiou throw llien- rise ruuiling right ruuuiug back. 

(D. C. to*) 

TrfinxlKtion 

I liavf iiuuU' the Suiil 

I have iiuiili- the Siiii! 
Hurling it liigh 

III the four direction,-^. 
To tlie East I threw it 

To run its appointed course. 



THE IKEATIO.N Ol' THE MOO.N 

Vaii.vifigi Marsati'i iiatakahi: vanyifiiji Maisatu natakahi: hiyaiiyi 

I'am Moon make; I'aiii Moon make: liere liie 

tamai ya-ahai punanaitco-o. (Repeat) 

above ' both directions throw. 

*Si-iyaldi takio wopahiinu kahowa tcur.sanyuku sapava himuna-a. 

Kast direction throw there came lip correct come. 

(D. C. to*\ 

Triitu^lalian 

1 have made the Mooul 

I have made the Moon! 
Hurling it lugh 

In the t'liur direction^'. 
To the East 1 threw it 

To run its aiiiioiuted course. 

y 

VI 

THE CRE.4T10N OK THE tlTAKS 

Vanyingi Yo-ohowu nata: vanyiiigi Yo-ohowu iiata, taniaiwu nafigita 

I am Stars make: 1 am Stars make, above throw 

tcuwuti nianiasi-i. (Repeat! 

earth light. 

*V'anyifigi wls aitco nata tauiaiwu iiangita tcufhuti: tanali-i. 

I am all things make above throw land sbiiie.s. 

(i). C. to *) 

I have made the Stars! 

1 have made the Stars! 
Above the earth I tlirew them. 

-Vll tilings atjove I've made 
.\tid placed them to illumine. 
26 ETn— OS 20 



274 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

Flood Songs by Earth Doctor 
the warning of the flood 

Haj'a, rsa-ahifigu nyhu-umatcihi tcomufiga wu-uwusi nyuinahi-imu; 

Weep, pitiable me people you will all * see happen ; 

haya, rsa-ahiiigu nyhu-umatcita tcoiuDng'a wu-uwusi nyuiuahi-imu. 

weep, pitiable me people you will all ^ see happeu. 

Kosi'na rso-otaki kosina tcutcuwu^u vamohai-i. (Repeat) 

That water that land dissolve. 

"Hay a, rsa-ahiiigu nyha-atconyi tcomungil wu-uwusi mamatcu-u; 

Weep, pitiable " my relatives you will all learning: 

haya, rsa-aliifig-u nyha-atconyi tcomuiiga 'wu-uwusi mamatcu-u. 

weep, pitiable my relatives you will all learning. 

Ko.sina rso-otaki kosiua tatavaku vamohai-i. (Repeat to *) 

That water that mountain dissolve. 

Traitslation 

"A'eep my unfortunate people! 

All this you will see take jjlace. 
Weep my uufortunati! peojjle! 

For the waters will cover the land. 
Weep my unhappy relatives! 

You will learn all. 
Weep my unhappy relatives! 

You will learn all. 
The waters will cover the mountains. 

THE PEOPLE (.'LIMBING SUPERSTITION .MOUNTAIN 

Haiya! haiya! vina, vina, hai-iya! Punha rsahika tconyihi-i, 

,^ha! Aha! Flood, flood, Ahaf Remember pitiable making. 

haiya! haiya! vina, vina, hai-iya! Punha I'sahika tconvihi-i. Hamai 

Aha! Aha! Flood, flood, Aha"! Remember pitiable mailing. Here 

pa-apaitcomhi nyhu-umatcita reahilva himuna-a. (Repeat) 

belore me me people ])itiable going. 

Haiya! Haiya! Flood! Flood! Hai-iya! 
See the doom awaiting them ! 
Haiya! Haiya! Flood! Flood! Hai-iya! 
Here are my doomed people before me. 



RUSSELL] ARCHAIC SONGS 275 

Flood Soxos by Socth Doctor 
on superstition' mountain before the flood 
Rsonangi truwuiu vaiuohai-i ; rsonaiigi iiyuwctu vamohai-i, 

Water limti dissnlve ; water " larul dissolve. 

kundangu makiiiva sihaitco-o rsonaiigi uauaka tconyihi-imu. 

in luaKieiaii powerful water experimeiitiii;^ miikint;. 

Rsonangi tavaku vanioliai-i ; rsonangi tavaku vaniohai-i, kundangu 

Water mountain dissolve: water mountain dissolve, in 

Na.siavil sitco-oiiiai-i rsonaiigi iianaka wowoi-hi-mu. (Repeat) 

Xasi iniderstand water experimenting toward-going. 

Kakanda ku tatavafigu ta-atiima iianyolinaka rso-otaki j'omahi- 

Crooked kind of mountain top i stay water "disperse. 

lull'. (Repeat) 

Ta-atuuia nayoilnaka nso-otsiki yoiualii-iiiii:. (Repeat) 

Top * I st;(v water ' disperse. 

7VanstotiOJ» 

The waters flissolve the land I 

Thf waters dissolve the land 1 
The iiii<;lity magician tests his strength. 

The waters dissolve the mountains ! 
The waters dissolve the mountains ! 

Nasi foresees what is coming. 

On Crooked mountain I am standing, 

Trying to disperse the waters. 
On Crooked iiioiintain I am standing, 

Trying to disj>ei'se the waters. 

BEFORE THE PEOPLE TURNED TO STONE ON" SfPEH.sl'lTION MOUNTAIN 

Sihaitcohii! Sihaitcohiil Xyhanaka wuwuma siliaitcoiiii! Wuwunia 

Powerless! I'owerless! Sly magic crystal with powerless! With 

siamiiu nyhataitco. (Repeat) 

ri^ht "^ petrify. 

And again lie sang l)(>fore tlicy liecame petritied: 

Traiiglalion 

Powerless ! Powerless ! 

Powerless i.s my magie crystal. 
Powerless ! Powerless ! 

I shall become as stone. 

Flood Soncs By Elder Brother 

IN HIS OLI.A liEl-'ORE THE FLOOD 
1 

Tcokoi vavahaki! tcokoi vavahaki! Ku-cn^a nvi yolina. Ku?a nyi 

Black housel black house! In f hold. In i 

yolinha-a wu-umatxji yahai nyiuiitco-o. (Repeat) 

stay with to and fro " I go. 

Translation 

Black house! Black house! Hold me safely in; 

Black house! l!la<k house! Hold me safely in. 
As 1 journey to and fro, to and fro. 



276 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. 26 

II 



Rsotaki mutu-u! rsotaki luutukal Miiuva putanyii. taiiuiiAT;katciiiia 

Water running! water nnining: In sounrting, top Iiiying 

tcuv^aki parsa pa-anyhimitco. 

cloud near by on lliere I borne. 

Rsotaki inutu-ul rsotaki mutuka! MLiava rsarsavai. tamaiAukatciiiia 

Water running; water running! In rnarilvi^. top laying 

Lononyi parsa pa-anyhiiiiitco. (Repeat) 

evening near by on there I borne. 

Translulioii 

Running waterl Ruuuiug waterl Herein lesounding, 

As on the clouiis I am carried to tlie sli\'. 
Running water! Running water! Herein roaring, 

As on tlie clouds I am carried to tlie sliy. 

Ill 

COMING FKO.M HIS OLL.\ .^l-TER THE FLOOD 

Hianyai worsunyu; hianyai worsunyu-u, sihai nyoka hiayai 

Here" I came out; here'l came out, magicia'n here I 

worsunyu sihai tcoka-a. Hianyai worsunyu; Hianyai worsunyu-u, 

came out magician. Here^l came out: Here I came out, 

sitco matcu hianyai worsunyu sitco matcu-u. 

magical powers here I came out magical powers. 

Hianyai worsunyu-u sihai nyoka; hianyai worsunyu sihai tcoka-a. 

Here' I came out magicran; here^I came out magician. 

Hianyai woi"sunyu-u sitco niatcu liianyai worsunyu sitco matcu-u. 

Here I came out magical kno^v here I came ou*t magical knnw. 

(Repeat ) 

Tanvo wumu; tanvo wuuia kukiAa. Sundai wumu, sundai wumfi 

Who" I with; wh(i I with stand. Who with. wli.. with 

tahiwa. 

sit. 

Itaiigu nyo-osihaka wunia kukiwa. Itaiigu nya-atahaka wumu 

This my cane with stand. This " my crystal with 

tahiwa. (Repeat) 

sit. 

TriiiiKltitiim 

Here I come fortli! Here I come fortli! 

With magic powers I emerge. 
Here I come fortli! Here I come t'orthl 

Witli magic powers I emerge. 

1 stand alniie! Alone! 

Who will accompany me? 
My staff aiul my crystal 

Thev shall liide with me. 



RCSSELL] AKCUAIC SONGS 277 

PoST-FlmiiIi SdXi.s IIV Kl.DKK Bkother 

\T rilK I KNTKAI PVHI' UK TIIK l-MKTll 

Kaju nyitvii \voi>a hiku iiyi'wLiKlfi vaiiyciiia; katii nyutva worsa 

There * 1 eame navel * Ijind I see; there I eume 

hikCi nyrwLiidu vanyriiia. (Wopoat) 

navel laud I see. 

* Ka4U nvi'tva worsa liikil iiavarijiu \aiiyuina; katu nyutva worsa 

There ' 1 ejime navel niouiUain 1 see; there I Cftme 

hiku navarij>u vanyirina. (Repeat to *) 

navel uiounlaia I m-.-. 

Trnniilatioii 

Here I have come to the center of the earth; 

Here I have come to the center of the earth. 
I i-ee the central mountain; 

I see the central inoinitain. 

CLIMBINO THK CMrKS Ti i ATl'ACK KAOI.E 

Kaiid vavai tapiiivmii, kaml vavai tapinymu. Kand vavaita piny mil, 

I'p steep bank smooth, up sleep bank smooth. T'p steep l>ank smooth 

kand vavai tapinymu. Viipat tcotcoa kainatca himuna. (Kepoat) 

up bank smooth. Points stiek after fjoing. 

Kand vavai napitivmu, kand vavai napinymu, vapat tcotcoa kainatca 

Up stone suionlh; np stom- smooth. points stick after 

himuna. (Repeat) 

goinj;. 

Tan^i tiihai 1 itiii. tanyi tahai I-itai, 

I ani white Elder I ain white Klder 

Brother. lirotlter. 

Tanyi tahai Litiii. tanyi tTdiai Litai. 

1 ain white Elder I ain white Elder 
Brother. Brother. 

Va-a.sif tcotcoa kainaka himuna. (Repeat) (Repeat both lines 

Leafless stick after walking. 

twice) 

r|) the cHff, Htecp and s^niooth, 

I'p the cUff, steep and smooth. 
Up the cliff, steep and smooth, 

Climbs Elder Brother 
With hi.s shining power. 

I'p the cliff, steep and smooth, 
V\) the cliff, sleep and smooth, 

He climbs step by step. 



278 THE PIMA INDIANS (eth. ax.n. 26 

ELDER BROTHER AS A FLY 

Song sung hij Elder Brother as he concealed himself in the form of tijlg 
Hiuiovali movali moko, hituovali movaliiuoko. Hivanyttisikitsiimo, 

(?) fly file, (?) fly die. I will sleep, 

hivanyta .sikasiiiiio. (Reyjeat) 

I will sliH-p. 

Himovali iiioko. liiviuivta sikasiiiiio. Iiivunytu sikusiiino. (Repeat) 

(?) Uii', I will' sleep, 1 will sleep. 

Tcinyny. 

BuzV,-z.' 

Tidiis/iillon 

Himovali! Die fly! Himovali! Die fly! 

I shall sleep! I shall sleep! 
Himovali! Let die! I am drowsy. 

I will sleep! Buzz-S!. 

,S'i))»/ Sling hij the Eaglets ntife to pvt liini to sleep 

Haya vakahai vahai mo, haya vakahai mo, hovanyta .sikslsiimo, 

(?) ■ (?) ' (?) (?) C") ■ (■•■) (?)■ I sleep. 

hovanyta .■^ikasiimo. Haya vakahai mo, hovanvtfi sikasiimo, hovanyta 

I ■ sleep. (?) " (•') (?). I '^'eep, I 

sikasiimo. (Repeat) 

sleep. 

Tmnslalion 

Haya yakahai yahai mo! Haya yakahai mo! 

I am sleepy, I am sleepy. 
Haya yakahai yahai mo! I am sleepy. 

Destruction of HA-ak 

As tlieg ])repare to destrog the female monster, Ud-iU, Elder Brother and the people 

sing together 

I 

Ta-anunama Litai hnwuli voponak nyuhiina. Amuiiyrta 

Dazzling power Elder Brother winds tie .singing. Then sing 

mulivak \vu-umanv voponak iiyu-uhuna'. 

came swiftly togetlier " tie, singing. 

II 

Kovakovi:, kovakovi*, kovakovi:. kovakovTJ. lyali Moahanafi- 

|.,, (..) (?) (?) Great Jlo'hatiikii 

inamnyu-una. Korakovn, kovakovn. 

top singing. (?) (?) 

Traralation 

Dazzling power has Elder Brother, 

Mastering the winds with song. 
Swiftly now we come together, 
Singing to secure control. 

KovakovK, kovakovB, 

KovakovB, kovakovB. 
Singing on the summit 

Of great Mo'hati'ik moimtain. 



aMo'hatak, Greasy mountain, between the Gila and Salt rivers near their confluence. It is 
supposed to he the home of Elder Brother. 



BlssELL] ARCHAIC SONGS 279 

III 

Anayokuna, anayokilna, hayokuiiii. Tcu-unarsat ," ySvatcuki; 

(?i ' r") ('") ('.') ' cigarette; 

kasinakon yiivatcuki. Anayokuna. anayokuna, hayokuna. 

sleep-iiKluciiig ' riernrette. (?) (?) (?) 

IV 

Ala wus nio'-omok tatavaka tci'pia mi'ak ilrajiaiia nii'ak iit'cupaua. 

This all sharps mountains movinir near their well near having mortar 



Va.f wi'taina vopahirau. Vaj wutama vopahiiml. Vaj wctaiua 

steep blink on thrciw. (Repeats 

vopahinul. 
Tcutcmoni ko'kovoli sis'vilnuka-a. Va.; wutama vopahimu. 

Blue (or green) out ha\nng brightest. Steep bank unaer throw. 

Vaj wutama vopahinul. 

(Repeat) 

Traitiilalioii 

Anayokuna, anayokiina, hayokiina. 

Sacred pipe of Tcu-unarsat', 
Sleep-inducing sacred pipe. 

Anayokuna, anayokAna, liayokiina. 

Ha-ak flees from Iter pursuers. 

But Iter spring and mortar stay. 
Throw a great stone! 

Throw a great stone! 

The blue owl is brightest, 

Thruw a great stone! 
The blue owl is brightest. 

Throw a great stone. 

Somp xiinri hij Khli-r I'rritlier and liis foUowfru in the Nether World 

Ix THE XeTHEH WoKI.I) 

I 
Vatcikia himu; vatcikia hiniu; vatcikia himu; vatcikia liimu. 

We go; we go; we go; we go. 

Huk iisinvu apv^ ka'na. Hita tuvavak! ahiya wunanita. Vatcikia 

That nie pleases ('i. Tliis liome liefe we leave. we 

himu; vatcikia himu; huk asinyu apu ka'na. 

go; we go; that me pleases (?) 

Translation 

We go, we go, we go, we go, 

Happy we leave onr homes. 
\Ve go Iiaj)pily we go. 

<"Tec-i"mirsat' is the name of a former Pueblo chief who lived near Mo'hatOk inountAiu. 



280 TH£ PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 2G 

II 

Vatci'ki inutdu; vatciki mutdr. Vateiki niutdu; vatciki mrtdu. 

Wo run; \\r run. \Vi' run: Kv run. 

Vatciki iiiuiiu: vatciki rauiir. IlLicasinyanui kana. Hita tuyaitaka 

Wo run: v.e run. That me yi'leiises (?1. This our i-ountry 

hiya. Vavoyok vatciki munr. Hukasinyainu kana. 

hiTc. To Iciive we hasten. Thiit me pleases C.'). 

We run, we run, we run, we iiiii. 
Happy we leave our land; 

With pleasure hence we hasten. 

On Emergence from the Nethkr WoRi.n 

On their cmergcnco upon the .-surface of the earth the Nether-workl • 
people danced tog-ether and with Elder Brother sang- the following: 

Itavany nyi rsavikut dawuwum aworsanyi.'. (D- C.) 

We thing iiur rattle with together. 

Inu yatdii niBmai giiigin viiiku. 

This' "parrot tails waving (?). 

Itavanv nvi nj^lnyirsa awuwuni anyopinyu. (D. C.) 

We thing oiir I?)' with we' went down. 

In a yoku mamai iyinyin vaiku. 

This (?) tails 'waving (?). 

Kusi tahai tcutcuwuta(r) tamai tcitciviaka nyuhunatci. 

Kind of white countries on come singing. 

Vapanania huwutda-a. Kotca wus tcitciviaka. (D. V.) 

Ilead-ilresses moving. We all come. 

Nyuhunatci tconanyuka tcutcuwutda tcuna nyu-U-u. 

.Singing dancitig lands shakes (?) 

Kusi tcokwe tatavaku tamait' a-ahuka nyuhunatci sisivata 

Kind of black mountains on all come * singing head-dre.sses 

mofiuva-a 

waving. 

Kotca wDs sita-ahuka; kotca wus sita-ahuta. 

We all cherished; we all cherished. 

Nyuhunatci, tconayuka, tatavaku kavanyu-u. 

.singing. danc'ing, mountains rtnubling. 

Triinslntiiiii 

Together we eir.erge with onr rattli'.'^; 

Together we emerge with our rattles, 
Bright-hued feathers in our head-dresses. 

With our nynnylrsa we went down; 
With our nynnylrsa we went down, 

Wearing Yoku feathers in our head-dresses. 
This is the white land; we arrive singing. 

Head-dresses waving in the breeze. 
We have come! We have come! 

The land trembles with our dancing and singing. 
On these black mountains all are singing, 

Head-dresses waving, head-dresses waving. 
We all rejoice! We all rejoice! 

Singing, dancing, the mountains trembling. 



Ki-ssKLi.] ARCHAIC SONGS '281 

SiyiK/g of EMer Bmlher and liis uinliTii»irl'l .inpjiorlem us iIki/ npproached Cnsa (irntule 

1 
K:iii(d)iik;ii inoki va-uki ku-ukii :iiii:l Vii-aki ta-aniiii sivaiiy 

Yonder li.-ml luiliiliition staiuiiiiK. TluTi' hiiliiliiiiiin iil Ihiit plac'e lie runs 

Ilium uda-a". Sa-ahamu inaopaiiu kaiiia iUo-osi-i-i." 

about, Yellow hjimis having fabric. 

Yonder .staii(l.'< tlie doouied liahitation. 

About the pueblo runs its fri<ilitened chieftain 
In yellow jjarment with hand print deroratinn. 

On Ai'I'ki) AcniNd PrEH[.<is 

.l.s' Ihf iniili'riiofhl iieiiph' iijiprdai'lirrl Smitaii 

Pipinii havavahaki kctda haiiio-oliiia. pipiiiil liavavaliaki. 

Mild tlieir liiiuse in they stay. niiui their house. 

Kitda maka hitci. kotdona sinyu-ipiiitaka kutda ahanio-olina. 

In one hav- .see. ho was nie afraid in thev ^lav 

ing power 

Pipiiiu havavahaki kitda niaka hitcu. 

Mud their houM' in oni' hav- see. 

ing power 

Translation 

In their house of adobe tliev are staying;; 
Their chief with magic power feats nie. 
In their house of adobe we see their trliief. 

-I.v Ihii) ii/ijirintrlir,l III,' rillaiji' hi'loir Siiiilini 

Aiiiuka VI -uhanyui-ita : aimka vi:-uhan\-uita-a ; hamanvti-i-i'. 

Some will irnly <ec: si, me will irnly'.see; some will see. 

Kihiyu hukivu iiu -liihakf r.sa-anuka puva-aki nvui-i". 

That old <ikalill.'i fenee their house 'see. 

TniiislalloH 

Soine will truly .see, 

Some will truly see, 
AVill see their house 

Behind the okatilla stockade. 

,l.s' thifi ii/ijiniai-lted Snrchralrr 

Katdu kaiiyuvr-untdtii sikamuiiiali; katdi: katcuvu-utdai 

There lanil plenly heads; there eartli 

sikamt:mali. Ki -c naiiyuta-a wo-orsai-i'. (Kopeat fioiii l)p<rimiin<r) 

plenty beads. The somebody come out. . '^ 

place 

Haniiva yuiia-a nuta-tt-i'' wo-or.sai-i' kr iivi-iiuiita-a Kutiliiali-i. 

ThiTe plaee .somebody cameonl his " sonl shini's 

(Repeat) 

Translirtititt 

There is the land of many beads. 

There is the land of many beads. 
Some one comes forth; 

He knows what will befall him. 



" Iko-osi-i-i' is tor iks, meaning almost any textile fabric. 



282 



THE PIMA INDIANS 

As ihi'ii (ippriiaclii'd Oisii Hlaiira 



[F.TII. ANN. 26 



Kuisi kavuhuka: kui.si kavvrliuku, vavaliaki kutda niakalii 



Very 

tcU-F'. 

see. 



difficult: 



diffiouU, 



Translation 



house 



there 



iimgK* 
power 



It will be diffic-ult, 

It will be (liflicult, 
Ti.) ca])ture this pueblo 

With its niajiic power. 

.Is Ijif'i/ approached ^'nlhiri''n home 

Hava'nyi yali nyanga, Hava'nyi yali nya-aka, tiinilliki'i iiaiiavaii. 

Raven "child saying, Raven ' "child "nie call. l)riglitncss glitter. 

(D. C.) 

*Hi3'anyi yaniukii nyuita tanaliku konyonyoi. (D. C. to *) 

Here me there " .see brightnc-^s mirage". 

Ahaie (rihi i'roiitiiiif] 
Nanyiki va-iiho auikai hiyanyi wor.sanyuk himuna Tcunaisan 

I am ? magician here me aro.sc went Tcniasat 

yavatcuk! yoahana hukatci naiiiaiina siamu kokoniaiAoaki-i. 

cigarette holding with my enemy correct incantation. 

Naiiyiki vi-ikiho innkai hiyanyi worsanyuk lilinuna kasikun 

lam soft feather magician here me arose went sedative 

yavatcuki yotihana hukatci iiamaiinsi siamii kakanasi-i. 

cigarette holding with my enemy right make sleep. 

Hiyanyi woi-sanyirlv himuna Tcunarsan vavatcuki j-oahana 

Here me arose" went Tcunasat cigarette ^ holding 

hukatci naniaiinti .sianiu kokomaiAoaki-i. Hiyanyi wor.sanyuk himuna 

witli my enemy correct incantation. He're me arose* went 

ka.sikfm avwatcuki yoahana hukatci namaiina siiimu kaka-a.si-i. 

sedative cigarette " holding with my enemy correct make sleep. 

At Mesa 



Halisi tcu-unaki paliaka pahivwoa. Htiii.si tcr-uiiaki pahafigu 

Small Ijlue eagle puts tail on. Small hhie eagle' 

paliivwoa tcuvwuna 8-utpava worsanu-u. (D. ('. ) 

I>nt tail on land middle came out. 

Hiyanyi paiitcomi yahaiiAa kukivwa tavan^'i yosiiifioti hukio 

Here me l)cfore me 'to and fro stand it was * mv cane already 



simamatcu-u. 

know. 



Between Tempe and Phoenix 



Hamuka vanyuitaliimu htunanyu tiltahivwoiikti 

Some will you look for there me sit 

hamuka nyuinahi. (D. C.) 

you will yon look for. 

RsahiliU n:'i])ain!i tunataku-u hamukti pumuihi-i. 

Pitiable cm-iny crazj \ou will take. 

llsahiku napaliui tunavamo-o hamuka pumuihi-i. 

Pitiable enemy drunken you \vill take. 



nyuitahiinu 

yon look for 



EUSSELL] FESTAL SONGS 283 

FESTAL SONGS 

X1--1.I.A Vafai Nyai, Middle Run Song 

[By Ki-iwa, Bitten] 

I 

Makai kik(i) nyuitcoUi. *Makai kik(i) nvuitcotii itany tanulikanv 

Mnsii-mn houses siiiKiiiK to. Magicinn houses "sinKiiiK to this"^ my shining" 

rsursui tootcoa koiiy sun nvii tco. (Kopcjit. Then ioi)eat twice 

my straight stand I tlu-re singing to. ' • 

from *) 

II 
Tcutcrpavti yohovfi wupuno-u vuitiniiia; * tcutcupa\li voliovli 

Prostitute Honnn lirsi came runnini;: prostitute " w.imen 

wupriigu valfinHma. tcLti-rtangi viasinjra vokatc. A'aitimfma 

first enme luiiiiiug, bine " flowers " liolili.ig. Tame running. 

siyalifigu tatafigio vavaiivifiangi tconvopitci iivunvakimr. (Repeat 

en.st direclion fiiiiig VIoh ' talliing. 

stanza; then repeat twice from *) 

(At the beginning of thi.s .-^tanza the appointed singers appear in two 
files, men and women apart) 

III 

Vanylngi nyonyria himchrna: *\anvingi nvonvLia himuhuna 

I '"" crooked going: 1 am 'croolJed going 

honrnyngr. vriuAriva himrkai kikivanu kahatc manc^rvak 

"■^■^'- ToHard going to rainbows with swing tlie'iirms 

gamonya himihrna. (Repeat same as above) 

there 1 going. 

Tranitl(ilitn) 

Siiigiiio; In the gods in supplication; 

Singing to flie gods in siii>plicatiiiii, 
Tims niy magic ])o\ver is uplifted. 

My power is uplifted as I sing. 

I'rostitutes hither running ooiiie; 

Prostitutes hither running come. 
Holding lilue flowers an they run. 

Talkinj; in whispers they lilc along. 

Along the crooked trail I'm going, 

Along the crooked trail going west. 
To the land of rainbows I'm going, 

Swinging my arms as 1 journey mi. 



284 THE PIMA INDIANS ' Ietii. ann. :;r. 

IV 

Tsvnanania sialik varsatc-a imrna; * tanrmaiiia sialik varsatca iuirkik 

Sliiiiing morning up there come: sliitiiiit; morning up there come 

nyailiiiTH tiu yoipikot. Ainiina niarsuta iiniiia tarsaiAa tcursatciiiiu 

me reai-liinK pK-ijule^. Come union come sun appear 

sisiAil} \-()vava pvihiiiirna. (Repeat stanza; tlioii repeat twice from *) 

rises " higli' lilting. 

V 
Huvatcondir vaifimuna * luoinoi yoholi; vaitimuna tcuvangi maniatak; 

Khiehirti eiime running many wcmien; came nnining clouds licails carrying; 

valtiim iia wi sat inaniunama tcuAahaiigi yongunyi iiak vat vaiigu 

came running' all tliere tup of heads clouds shjiKing' it that shaking 

n^'ihina-a. (Repeat as above) 

us. 

VI 

Ajiwus kamafigi takriuid niakai ■ tarsal; wopoiidak iiiarsat yaliliiiiuna 

Kind of gray spider nuigieian svui: tie mi'on * roll 

liamukai kukiwoak yopam hvsiimukain. jnyuina tci nafigi tcialkond 

tliere stand turn go. See green cane 

katc yovaya puihiinun:i-a. (Repeat as a)>ove) 

with raising higlier. 

Tr'titslatidii 

The bright dawn appears in the heavens; 

The lirisrlit dawn ajipears in tlie heavens, 
And the paling pleia<les grow dim. 

The niDon is lost in the rising snn. 

Witli tlie women Blucliinl came running; 

With the women lUneliird came nmiiing; 
All came carrying clonds on their lieads, 

And these were seen shaking as they danced. 

See there the (xray Spider magician; 

See there the Gray Spider magician 
Wild ties the Sun while the Moon rolls on. 

Turn back, the green staff raising higher. 



iiissKLi.] FESTAL SONGS 285 

TcnTCiiKA Nv.ii, Namk Soxg 

[By Vlrsak VAII, Hawk FlyiliKl 

There are weveiity jstanza-s in this sony. 'I'wo names are ealied in 
each, a name i)einfr inserted in place of tlie words here in i)raci<ets. 
The sontf may heoin with any stanza, l>ut tlie name of the place where 
the dani'e is held must i)e inserted as the first name: thus, in the stanza 
below, the name of the village would lie substituted for "Ma-akahi." 

I 

HalaUoit namaiu- vapaka worsanyidv mahiiinania tcuAuli. (Repeat) 

(?l top rueds arose" iilariiin increase in 

height. 

HitaAU (Ma-akahi) nioa-akatc yiihakaha lirkatcai pawrsika kopatc 

This [ 1 l;il|s willi " imiiiliMl with it all over hair 

maitcu-u. 

knock down. 

Hitavu Hivayomi pukatc yahakaha liLkatcai pawusika katiitc 

This [ ' ] eatoh * ptiinleti witli it all over how 

maitcu r. (Repeat) 

knock down. 

II 

Halakoit, ma-akahi wuma worsahi; lialakoit (ma-akahi) wuma 

(■.') magician with came np; ("i niagit-ian with 

worsamu. 

came np. 

HukaitcuAu Ma-akahi kopatc maitcu-u: hukaitcuAu Hivayomi 

That long [ ] hair knockdown; that long [ "" ] 

katiitc maitcu-u. 

bow knock down. 

Trimsldtion 

The ceremonial reeds are lifted; 

The ceremonial reeds are lifted. 
Ma-akahi has killed an Apache, 

.\n(l we meet together here in war paint 
To'coUect hair trophies with their power. 

Hivayomi has taken a captive, 
An<i the mafric of his bow dies with him. 

Ma-akahi has come to our festa; 

Ma-akahi has come to our festa. 
Ma-akahi ties the enemy's hair; 

Ilivavomi kills the enemy's how. 



286 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

III 

Siyal wutcaka huniii-akahi yahandak niaitcu-u. 

East under magician "^ .colored knock down. 

Honony wutcaka humaakahi va-apaku yaliaiiclak maitcu-u. 

West ' under magician reed ' colored knock down. 

Ma-akahi sapaAuhu nya-aku ko-opatc niaitt-u-u; Hivayomi sapaAuhu 

[ ] correct ' talk han- knock down : [ " ] correct 

tcohi ka-atatc niaitcu-tr. 

do bow knock down. 

IV 

luiovali kaviihaiki, kavahaiki. kaivaya, niokovaya taniahi, (Repeat) 

Near to rumbling, rumbling, pas.'iing, waving top go, 

tamanihu. 

top go. 

Hitavu Ma-akahi pahangu Aupuhtlva kavaiidaimu ua-aka worsabi; 

This [ ] eagle like shield grasp arose; 

hitava Hivayomi virsafiga vupuhava rffiinvitcuki muka wor.samu. 

this [ ] hawk like club grasping arose. 

Kamonya imuka nyuwunda nj-uitahi .sikunga kop maitcu-u. 

There going " land 'looking good hair knock down. 

Konionyi munduku navafiga iiyuitamiiu .sikufigu, kata maitcu-u. 

There" run mountain seeing run good, bow knock down. 

Ma-akahi wumatc nj'uitahi sikufiga kop maitcu-u; Hivayomi 

( ] with looking good Iiair knockdown; [ ] 

wumatc iiyuitahi .sikufigu katti maitcu-u. 

with seeing good bow knock down. 

Trandatioii 

On this side the East Land the magifiaii 

The sacred colored object has knocked down. 
On this side the West Land the niasician 

The sacred colored reed has overthrown. 
Ma-akahi wisel}' talks, tying hair; 

Hivayomi wisely acts, killing bnw. 

The scout hears with trembling the sounds of night; 

The scout hears with trembling the sounds of night. 
Ma-akahi eagle-like grasps his shield; 

Hivayomi hawk-like comes with his clulj. 

Well-seeming is the land to the warrior 

As he goes to collect an enemy's hair; 
And its mountains, as he kills the bow. 

Ma-akahi sees clearly as he ties the hair; 
tlivayouii sees clearly as he kills tlie bow. 



RUSSKt.L] 



FESTAL SONGS 



287 



VI 

Kakatak taiuai paliafiou naiwo-orsa, Yakiimii tania 



tO], 



lai virsaii<«-u 

liawk 



(YookL'fi top ~ eagle" 

iiaiwo-oi'.sa. 

arose. 

Hifavu :\Ia-akalii pahanfji" wuun' nvahakikaAu handa taiiffu 

^'"'' I ) '-•"K'e witli lalk shield grasi) 

kauoisahi. 

nrise and go. 

Hitiivc Hivayoiiii vir,sarii;a wniiu nvahaka r.sanvi-itcuki puhuka 

This [ ] hawk wiih mlk llub grasp arise 

wor.samu. 

and rvin. 

VII 

'rcLiiakiiua kopanya ikitcu iva vawoAapa. 

Blue hair cut" here brought. 

Sivakiiiui katanyi luuhuka iya vawovapa. 

FuUleaved bow cateh here brought, 

•Ma-akahi moaka hi-iya vr-uniifiiriiiga vovapa; Hivavomi niipulii 

_ _ [ 1 "^''l '"'■'•<^' dizzy brought: ( * ] ^'u-i^ 

hi-iya vunaviiinofigi vovapa. 

here drinik brought. 



VIII 
Garaonya imuna; gainonya iuiuna; gamonya imuhuna. 

There I going; there 1 going; there I " go. 

Gamonvi 



_ munuiia; giinionyi mununa; j-ainonvi inunuhuna. 

There I run: there I nin; there l' run. 

Itovu Ma-akahi paha yonanda liak tanlimuiia; hitava Hivavoma 

Th's [ 1 eagle arrow feathers that shining: this [ ' 1 

vir.sika voiiianda liak 



hawk arrow leathers that 



iiyunvuvaiku. 

air waves. 

Tra7>slation 



From tlie Superstition mountain rose the Eagle; 

From tlie shiggish-moviiiK OiUi rose the Hawk. 
Ma-akahi talked with the Kagle, then 

Aro.«e, grasped his shield, and went his way. 
Hivayomi talked with the Hawk and then 

Arose, grasped his elul), and journeyed forth. 

With hair trophies our courage is renewed. 

Many of the enemy's bows we've captured. 
Ma-akahi bravely endures fasting; 

Hivaycjmi bravely endures all thirst. 

There I am going; there I am going. 

There I am running; there I am running, 
^la-akahi's eagle-feathered arrows! 

Hivayomi's strong hawk-feathered arrows! 



288 THE PIMA INDIANS [kth. ann. I'l! 

IX 

HaliAuta sihuni na-anaka kainuiiiu nyakiia yoviva sipi liiiiio 

Brotln-T oilier ineoherfnt sounds 'talk ivoman tuki- 

kaiyavi' nyakna hatcyahami. 

here 'tftlk accomplish, 

HaliAuta sihuni na-anaku kainaiiia iiyuhrna yaliva siprliiuu) 

Brother oliler incoherent sounds " sing " child take 

kaiyava iiyuhuna iiatcyaliaiiii. 

here sing ai/coniitlish. 

Itavu Ma-akahi na-auaka kainauii iiyuktia yoviva sipuhiiiio kaiyavr 

This [ ) incoherent sounds talk woman take here 

nyakna hatcyahami. 

talk accomplish. 

Itavu Hivavomi na-anaka kainaina nyuhuna yaliva sipLliinio 

This [ " ] incoherent sounds ".sing child take 

kaiyava nyuhuna hatcyahami. 

here * sing accomplish. 

X 

Hi-i-i volivii hi-ivoliva va vivoli-iva hi; (Repeat) mhr. 

(■.') ■ (■.') ("Vi (?) ■ (?) go: run. 

Hihita-vu Ma-akahi ipoitatc tcutanyu lii-i-iyoliva yaviyoli-ivahi. 

This [ ] hard beating' ;?) (?) 

Hihitava Hivayorai hc^a tatc kiivanyu hi-i-iyoliva yaviyoli-ivanihu. 

This [ ■ ] mind (?) rattling (?) (?) 

XI 
Panumand katcokatc vihili hana viii vawu-upa vatcohiiia. 

Coyote cub there it is (?) on (?) like appearance. 

(Repeat) 

Hukaitcufu Ma-akahi pahaka wu-upa vatcohiiia; hukai tcufu 

That long [ 1 eagle like appearance; that long 

Hivayomi virsaka wu-upa vatcohiiia. 

L ' ] hawk like appearance. 

Tr'HiKhition 

Miler Brother mumbling caught the woman; 

Elder Brother crooning caught the child. 
Ma-ahaki mumbling takes the woman; 

Hivayomi crooning takes the child. 

Hi-i-i yoliva! Hi yoliva! 

Hi-i-i ya viyoli-iva mhu! 
Ma-ahaki's heart trembles on the war i)ath; 

Hivayomi'.s soul shivers with its fear. 

There's the Coyote cub, Coyote cul)! 

There's the Coyote cub, Coyote cub! 
Ma-ahaki resembles the Eagle; 

Hivavomi resembles the Hawk. 



RissHLLl CIRCLING SONGS 289 

XII 

Yaviihinu' ysivuhiiuL' yiivahi. (Repeat) 

Yavahiniu yavalii. 

Yavahiim yavahiniu yavamhr. (Repeat) 

Yavahiniu yuvanihu. 

Nafiu suku Ma-akai tai\vonyi:k ivavandai paimitco yavahiniu 

I guess that [ ] arose runniiip shield ' (".') 

yavahiniu yavahiniu yavalii, naiiu suka Ilivayoiiii taiwonyuk 

(?) ' (■') ' (?) I guess tliiit [ " ) arose 

rsiinyitcuki niulitco, yavahiniu yavauihu. 

club make run, ' (?) ' (?) 

Translation 

Yavahiniu, yavahimr, yavalii! 

Yavahimu, yavaliimi', yavahi! 
Ma-akahi rose and ran with Iiis s-liieM; 

Hivayomi rose and ran with liis club. 

CIRCLING SONGS" 

Pa-ak Nvai, Eaole Song 
[romposed by VArsd Akam, Rat-Back. Told by Ki-iwa] 

Accompanied by dancing and the l>eating of baskets. The dancers 
move in a circle made up of men and women alternately. "It looks 
bad for two men to be toffether." 



Tarsaii craraai yononyimuta kun(d)a iniinanahiwoakai tamaikfi 

Sun there go down in sit there 

pahaka nyunyui kop iyu rsanawoitco. (Repeat) 

Eagle * song^ yon here commence. 

Makai ki tava worsanyhu kanio nyi paitci teuwu^u katcimhu. 

Magician hon.se arises before me in front land lays. 

Taniaiku pahaka nyunyui kop iyu rsanawoitco. (Repeat) 

There Eagle songs * you here commence. 

Translation 

As the Sun sinks to the westward 

We begin .-iinging the eagle songs. 
The home of the magician rises, 

Standing before me in the land. 
We begin singing the eagle songs. 



1 .SifcAlhIm Nyil; called also Basket-beating songs, Hoa RsfirsClna. 
26 ETH— 08 21 



290 



THE PIMA INDIANS 
II 



[ETH. AXX. 26 



Yai 

Now 

worsa 

arises. 



kapi 

order 

(Repeat) 



worsa, 

arises. 



yai 

now 



kapi 

order 



woiisa: llatcuwuju Makai, 

arises: lie Karth Dncior. 



yai kapi 

now order 



Yai kapi worsa, hinavat 

Now order arises, hidden 



tcuwo^u 

land 



arises, 

3'ainukama 

after 



:iwutca 

below 

tcoatcoai 

planted. 



tcut 

from 

(Repeat) 



nyuiij'vi 

songs 



tfoma 

there 



worsana 

arise 



III 



Tcuwmu sapanyiki nyul, tcuwu^u sapanyiki nyii, siyaiino-u 

Land riglit'l see, land right I *see, east 

tiingio tcu^ Itsii yahai tcuwuju sapanyiki nyci. (Repeat) 

direetion fn»m Elder "^ehild land right I see. 

Brother 

Tcuwu^u sapiinyiki nyui siyalifigu taiigio tcut Itiii yaha] tcuwuiu 



direction from Elder chil<l 
Brother 



.sapanyiki nyui. (Repeat) 

right I see. 



IV 



direetion from. 



White-Eater 



Tsivafigu niai-i, tavangu mai-i; hononyiku tafigio tcu^, Toakoatam 

Mountain win, mountain win; \ves 

havivihi tavukii mai-i. (Repeat) 

she remained mountain win, 

Tavangu mai-I, honoiij'iku tangio 

Mouiilahi win, west" direction 

tavuku niai-i. (Repeat) 



teu?, 

from, 



Toakoatam 

White-Eater 



liavivibi 

^lie remained 



Tritmtlation 

Earth 3Ia{;ician now comes hither; 

Earth Magician now comes hither. 
From the depths the songs are rising, 

And by liim are here established. 

As now tlie land is prosperous ; 

As now the land is prosperous 
Elder Brother comes from the East; 

He comes here as a child might, 
The land prospers with his coming. 

It was in the western mountains 
That White-Eater Woman dwelt. 

It was in the western mountains 
That White-Eater Woman dwelt. 



ECSSELL] CIRCLING SONGS 291 

V 

Hononyi ikanioisi iwuii'lom kriiu ku-ayotikii hawus luiyivia 

West there refidisli in iIktc bird llicy all came 

hananyi wrfiy-a nyl. 

there* around me. 

Pahaka hanyunyaki ivaAiuia hiyaiiyi iiiiai)ai imaAoaka anyuina. 

Eagle his voic*e stretelu'ii liere T in ymi to touch to see. 

haiya ha aiya haya hava ha-a! Ilainika iivuita. (Repeat) 

haiya (?) (?) (?) (?") (?) You ' see. 

Hiva nyi iuiapai imavoaka anyuina, haiya ha aiva haya haya ha-a! 

Here i to you to touch see, (?) (?) (?") (?) (?) (?) 

Ilamukil iiyuita. (Repeat) 

You see. 

TranslaiioH 

The eveninj; j^lows ri'il in the West, 

Aim! tlie birds here gather about me. 
Xow I hear the screama of the Eagle. 

Haiya ha aiya haya haya ha-a! 
Xow I meet and see you. Haiya ha ! 

Ho.\ Rs.\.si>N.\ Nvni B.vsket-Be.vtixo Sonu 

(Ky Virsak Val-l] 
I 

Kanu \avai kokoana i\-aimu. (Repeat) 

Y'onder cliff end * roll. 

Vavaki yuwiliinu. (Repeat) 

Steep house "" windy. 

Hitu ma-akahi yuwulikatoi opaiuana vitana. kanu vavai kokoana 

This magician windy with turn back wind borne, yonder cliff end 

ivaiiuu. 

" roll. 

Vavaki yuwulimu. (Repeat) 

Steep house " windy. 



II 

Siyai tanundiika niuhuka tiiu^una .siko[i kamhovatcokahi yaiiana 

M<irning dawn far rutniinK younger brother preceding feathers 

rsolifiifahiniu. (Repeat) 



throwing. 



TninslalioH 

Rull frniu diff eu.l tocHff end, 

Roll, Winds, from the steep house walls. 
Tlius the growing excitement 

Gathers like the win<ls that blow 
From the house of Wind Magician. 

In the East, my younger brothers. 
We are preceded b}- the bearers 

Of the sacred eagle feathers. 
In the East, my younger brothers, 

We are preceded by the bearers 
Of the sacreil eagle featliers. 



292 



THE PIMA INDIANS 

HI 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



Pahaku yaitanga inutanvunu. (Repeat) 

Eiigle ' field thud. 

Sahapa kainania mutsmyimu tcoisa|i pumunaikmu-u. (Repeat; 



Agreeable sounding 

then sing all twice) 



thini 



rolling 



Trrnidatioii 



thun<ler. 



Ill the distant land of Eagle, 

In the distant land of Eaf:;le 
Sounds the harmonious rolling 

Of reverberating thunder. 

KiKiTAVAL Nvni, Swallow Sono 
[By Ki-iwrt] 

A yono- for tiesta.s that i.s accompanied by dancing. 

1 
Kikitavali yofingu hiyany wuwuma nyunyui ivamii rsarsanfitco 

Swallow birds here" with me songs more commence 

liiyaiu}' wuwuQia nyuhuta-a. (Repeat) 

Kere ' with me " singing. 

Rsaingama so-ofi yumapim olina-a hiyany wuwuma nyuhuta-a. 

Poor women together stay here with me singing. 

(Repeat) 

II 
Vavai.sa ninitavali nam kuka-a, vavaisa niiiitavali nam kuka-a; 

Rocks swallows meet standing, rocks swallows meet standing: 

kuiamii nyovapa-a, ku^ama nyovapa-a, haniiny wuwukan\' tcutania 

there me brought, there me brought, there me around blue 

kikihyatii woyakimhu. (Repeat) 

rainbows appeared. 

Vavaisa iiifiitavali nam kuka-a ku'jaraa nyovapa-a hanany wuwukany 

Eocks swallows meet standing there me brought there me around 

tcutiiiigia kikihyaiii wovakimhu. (Repeat) 

blue " rainbows appeared. 

Translation 

Now the Swallow begins his singing; 

Now the Swallow begins his singing. 
And the women who are with me, 

The poor women commence to sing. 

The Swallows met in the standing cliffs ; 

The Swallows met in the standing cliffs. 
And the rainbows arched above me, 

There the blue rainbow arches met. 



RissKLL] CIKCLING SONGS 293 

III 

Teotcoka kiniti'iAa[d hiatavtuAuka, hiatuvaiAuka monyi vanyiniu?a 

Black swallows (they ) here mil- (thcv ) luTt' run- took lea'diiiK me 

uiiigeame, inng came 

kaiiiu kai-iuy vaiiyimu^a. (Repeat) 

tlu're me ' brought me. 

HiataviiiAukahi kamu kai-inj- vaiiyiraina kaniu kai-iny vanyiniuia. 

Here running eame there me leading nie tliere me leatling me. 

(liopeat) 

IV 

Haiya! Ksaiiiga tcuAuiigi pi yunaiigita-a kahosiyali Auputculia 

Alas! I'dor clouds not discoverahle far ill the east under 

tiiAanga itcu-uiaa hamu katcu konya-am liiniulivuka-a. (Repeat) 

mountain in there lay I there arrivccl running. 

TcuAungi pi yunaiigitii-a kaho siyali Auputcaha tiiAanga itcu-uta-a 

clouds not aiscoverable far in tile east under mountain in there 

hainu katcu konya-am hiniuIlAuka-u. (Repeat) 

lay I there arrived running. 

V 

Vatciki liyoata pungii liihivaka ii^^uhuiia, vateiki yoa tapunga 

We are basket scraping singing, we are basket 

hihivaka nyuhuiia; hodony uiu^a vahaiiu tanyu konyungu kiiitconga 

-scraping ' singing; evening in thud * i am listening 

hitanyi yahana kokana tcufa kianu r.saitconga. (Repeat) 

this nfy "feathers tips clouds there hanging. 

Vatciki hyoata punga hihivaka nyuhuna; hodony luu^a vahainutiinyu 

We are basket scraping singing: evening in thud 

konyuiigu kaitconga hitanyi yahana kokana tcufa kianu rsaitconga. 

i am listening this my 'feathers tips clouds there hanging. 

(Repeat) 

Translatidii 

The Black Swallows running; hither; 

The Black Swallows niiming hither, 
Running hither came to lead iiie, 

Lead me there, lead me there. 

Haiya! Far in the distant east 

Lie the clouds hidden under the mountain. 

Far in the east direction 
To the hidden clouds come running. 

We are beating the basket dnuus ; 

We are beating the basket drums. 
I am singing, I am listening; 

From my feathers clouds are shaking. 



294 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. 26 

VI 

Vanyu tiinunadufigu kamudukai vapainoi(d) rsorsonaki; namha 

I am dizzy run bog water; tliore 

naiiyiiwivilia ki'^a uk makafa; nyuta-a vapaaka ngifioi rsa-aka ihya 

I came in there tadpole singing reeds bark girdle here 

vanyuta. (Repeat) 

singing. 

Vapamo|(d) r.sorsonaki namha nanyinyiviha ktia uk makufa^ nyuta-a 

Bog water there 1 came in there tadpole 'singing 

vapa-aka ligifigi rsa-aka ih3'a vanyuta. (Repeat) 

reeds bark girdle here singing. 

Yll 
Hodony kanyunyuAund katcu tamai sitcuna-aki vafigitcud yaimu^a 

Evening land lay top very l)lue dragon tly ' going 

rsona-aki nanaiiiai. Auaiigihya hunyul mamai kany rsotaiigi tcoakana. 

water top, hanging* his tail with water stick in. 

(Repeat) 

Kony hya-auia nyinyiviha kanyuita hunyul mamai kan\- rsonaiigi 

I * there * fa'me see his tail witli water 

tcoakana yanakuAi rsamhonyu. 

stick in flapiiing rustling. 

VIII 
Himouyi munu-una, himonyi munu-una; tcokangia sisikimu, 

There I run, there I run; darkness rattling, 

tcokaiigia sisikimu-U, tciavoid hyasinga koiiy hunga sifanatcama 

darkness rattling, visnaga 'flowers I ' that wear in hair 

nyuimulhimiT. (Repeat) 

singing place going to. 

Himonyi munu-una. tcokangia .sisikimu, tcokangia sisikimu-u, 

There I run, darkness rattling, darkness rattling, 

tciavoid hyasifiga kony hunga sifanatcama nyuimulhimu. (Repeat) 

visnaga 'flowers I ' that wear in hair singing place going to. 

Trdndalio)! 

I raa into the swamp confused ; 

There I heard the Tadpoles singing. 
I ran into tlie swamp confused, 

Where the liark-elotlied Tadpoles sang. 

In the West the Dragonfly wanders, 

Skimming the surfaces of the |»ools, 
Touching only with his tail. He skims 

With flapping and rustling wings. 

Thence I run as the darkness gathers, 

Wearing cactus flowers in my hair. 
Thence I run as the darkness gathers. 

In fluttering darkness to the singing place. 



BDSSEH,] CIRCLING SONGS 295 

IX 

Silcilla iiuuta vanyi kinvonvoi vawupii nyiwoata-a. hai-ival 

Ri.imil Koins I viUiun- like " I mi.ke, liaiya! 

TamaiAr katciinr parsa vanyoliiia kanvrita-a itavanva ipiiiianoa 

Top laying nwir by to I sliiy "s,t this" breath'" 

tcutcrnaiigu-u. (Repeat) 

blue. 

Tamaixr katcimu parsii vanyolina kanvrita-a itiivanya ipuinano-a 

Tiip laying nearby to 1 slay "m-,- this breath'' 

tcutcunafigu-v. (Repeat) 

blue. 

X 

AUngihomi nakamula. Auii<,nhoiiii luikaiaula; liiaAat nyuihuncla 

Reddish bat, reddish bat; here " song end 

AakauiL-nanahakimr pahafiga vivingi liLkanvi .sivanatconaha Aakamu- 

rejoices eagle down that l" put in head dre.<is re- 

nanahakimu pawoi yasi-iiiiu. 

joices pawoi (tfee> flower. 

I'rdndiilioit 

I am cirfliiij; like the Vulture, 

Stayiui.', Hying near the lilue. 
I am eircling like the Vulture, 

Breathing, flying near the blue. 

Now the RetWisli Bat rejoices 

In the songs which we are singing ; 
He rejoices in the eagle down 

With wliicli we ornament our headdress. 

HlH.iKiM.vT Nvni, Bitterfly Song 

[By Virsak VaI-1] 
I 

YSkimap nyunyui rsanatco, vakiiiia|i nyunyui r.sanatco; *vata 

Butterfly song eoininenee, " butterfly " song eommence : they 

tcotconaku yahaipu vapaki(f)wa komoinariyi yovaiva pumuhiniu-u. 

danee either side to and fro smoke " " raise" higher. 

(Repeat all; then repeat four times from *) 

II 
Yakimaj yofinu, yakimaji yofifiu. *mohomoi nvuhiAu r.'^aiiatco 

Butterfly bird, butterfly bird, many " song eoinmenee 

wrhuwui nyi ncduna kita r.sarsitnuk koimhi. (Repeat all; 

toward I run house elose to dust. 

then repeat twice from *) 

Tyanslalioii 

The Butterfly song we now commence; 

The Butterfly song we now commence. 
Dancing on sides to and fro 

Until the dust arises. 

The Butterfly Bird, the Butterfly Bir<l 
Commences to sing his many songs. 
I rini to where the dust arises, 
Clo.-^e to the walls of the house. 



296 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

III 

Vanyiki yumotci nyunyuiAu rsanatco. (Repeat) 

I am now po'ng commence. 

*Koi]yami kakayak wuhuAui nyi mudukai konyka wumaika 

I there heard toward me run I that with 

wuraanyi rsanawoitco. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *) 

with him commence. 

IV 

Yonofafigu yahaka ruohofi *yakaii3hi wuwumu rsanawoitco, 

Cat-tail * leaf wonian here me with commence, 

liiiihovat wuganya himihimu iakoiiga nyi iovaha havany 

in there round going here my taking liere ^ 

imaiuarsaku mawoihimuna-a. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *) 

my breast touch. 



Matcipand unilvangu moi tcuAangi katci wtrma iiyuna. 

Ma-atcpat mountain toward cloud lay with s'inging. 

(Repeat) 

*Kamundak Unilvangu pia kiaya tcuAaiigi katci wumu nyuhuna-a. 

Kfi'matOk mountain not have cloud lay with ' singing. 

(Repeat all; then repeat twice from*. Sing four times) 

VI 

Mokali navaiigu kuhuka, mokali tavangu kuhuka ; * yaififigia 

Dead mountani standing, dead mountain standing; " hurry 

imukama tciviyaka nyuitana sikoli kakiwonda j'uwuhulitc 

run arrive see younger brother I guess wind his 

an avaiyu iigagaiva munduhuiia-a. (Repeat as above) 

there pass across run. 

Translation 

I commence the sonij, I commence the song. 

I heard the s^ingiii^ as I ran; 
I lieard the sint;ii;g as I ran. 

I join in with the singing. 

The Cat-tail Woman commences singing; 

The Cat-tail Woman commences singing. 
I join the circling dancers, 

Striking my breast and singing. 

I sail in the clouds to Table mountain; 

1 sail in the clouds to Table mountain, 
And I sing with Ka'matiik mountain 

Upon which there are no clouds. 

Hurry to the Dead Standing mountain; 

Hurry to the Dead Standing mountain. 
See there, my Younger Brother, 

How the winds there run their course. 



RL.SSKI.I.] 



GAME SONGS 



297 



VII 



Mayai Navafigr, 

Ma-ayal iiioiintain. 

tx^Twu; unakiomaiin 

land sirip 

(Kcpoat us above) 



Miivai 

Ma aval 


Navaiigu, 

iiiniiutaiii, 


* hanavaiiyi wutconia 

vomliT ' befdre 


hamavaki 

house 


ymdafiifa 

in 


yohof(T) yuhumuna-a. 

woman laughing. 



VIII 



(Repeat) 



Kakandaku Navaiigu yalikapa iiyuiia. 

Kakotuk mountain 'downhill singitig. 

*Tatar8aki ngingikoatci iuu|iva kiuwi'si tcunangi rsonangitco-o. 



F'oam heaif band 

(Repeat a.s above) 



came running kind that 



Translation 



blue 



At the clearing of Ma-ayal niotiiitaiu; 

At the clearing of ila-ayal nnuintain, 
Before the house of tlie Magician, 

There stands the woman laughing. 

Here on the slopes of Crooked mountain; 

Here on the slopes of Crooked mountain, 
Around whose crest the foam remains, 

We have run for blue water. 

GAMK SONGS 

TAk.\t(i)) Xv.ii, TAk.u. Song" 
[By Virsak Val-l) 



Takalimhu, takalimhu, *taita wiva yuwuli niulitco-o. (Repeat all; 

Takalimhn, takalimhu, our held toward ' wind make rvni. 

then repeat twice from *) 

Ti-diislatlan 

Takalimhu, takalimhu, 

The wind helps us with our ala 
When we play the game of takal(d). 

Takaliinliu, takalimhu, 
The wind hel]is us with our ala 

When we play the game of takal(d). 
The wind helps us with our ala 

When we play the game of takal(d). 
The wind helps us with our ala 

When we play the game of takal(d). 



"This song is sung in the evening, and during tin- ne.xt duy the women play the game called 
Takai(d). 



298 THE PIMA INDIANS (eth. anx. 26 

II 

Huwuli mulitcomi, * huwuli mrlitcona hukanyki takalimu wusi 

Wind, make it run, wind makr it run that I with takal(d) all 

kukuhuva-a. (Repeat a« above) 

win. 

Translation 

Wind, swiftly make our ala run 

That I may win at takal((l). 
Wind, swiftly make our ala run 

That I may win at takal(d), 
That I may win at takal(d), 

That I may win at takal(d). 

WolTCOTA OR R,'<ANYKI Nv.li, FoOTDALL SoNG <• 
[By Virsak Vnl-1] 

I 

Momoi yanama humiaki nyiakimu. (Repeat) *Konyu simii 

Many ^ people together tjilking. That I tliere 

kukiwak yosi kawonaku naitcona kitiivali yofiiigu nyaptWanuiigu 

stand stick l)aU throw swallow bird me flappiUK 

viniu. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *) 

(■■) 

II 

Tcokoikamu tiinavaiigr *kaiiiova hoiidoiiyiiigu parsava kukimuta 

Black mountain far west* this side stand 

samuka wuwui pamumulimu tarsal _yunda nyoka wufigany naipimu. 

toward run sun ' in iniddle round run. 

(Repeat as above) 

III 

Tawot yatamu *komus siny wunatti-aku vany niulitco kamova 

who man you me with me run there 

tcokama nyuitainif hinavany nyofigi ta nuuiamanguvi yukaiuiu 

goal looking there me in frotU of waving tlie hands 'bis shadow? 

(Repeat as above) 

Ti'finfflaiioii 

Many people have gattiered together, 

I am ready to start in the race. 
And the Swallow with beating wings 

Cools me in readiness for the word. 

Far in the west stands the Black moimt^iin 

Around which our racers ran at noon. 
Who is this man running with me. 

The shadow of whose hands I see? 



"Sung the evening before the day of the foot race. 



RtssKLL] HUNTING SONGS 299 

VAputai Nvai, Lay Sox.:^ « 
[By Virsak VM-1] 

I 

Yaadundo itcaya, yandundo itcaya. (Sing three times) 

II 

Yiindcndo iya-andundo. (Sing three times) 

Iloiio kiiviyo ffiid, aiiia aiiuivakavi yo fund; ova, ova, vo wiyanhi 
hila atcoviiyo nimiya no kiyaho. Hoho kaviyo fund ama, ainiva 
kaviyo fund. (Ropoated until the opponents guess where the sticks 
are) 

A-AL Hatcitcivitak Xy.u, Children Play Song 

[By Sika'tcu, Dry] 

A.uk'imtllolo tak \aiwana. (Repeat indefinitely) 

The children clasp hands and dance and sing this song. They are 
divided into two parties, one leader saying a'numatcit and the other 
kil'siya. 

HUNTING SONGS 

Kat.itapi Nymi, Datira Song * 

[By Virsiik Vul-I] 



Taliaiva siyali kukim, *tahaiva siyali kukim; kuta nyi worsanvuk 

Wliite morning stand, white morning stand; in 1 arose ' 

hi-iiu. (Repeat from*) 

go- 

Tcutiingi yondany kuiTgusini, * tcutangi vondany kungusin; kuta nvi 

Bine ■'evening ' falls, bine " evening fiUls; in 1 

woi'sanyiik hi-im. (Repeat from*) 



go- 



Translation 

At the time of the White Dawn; 

At the time of the White Dawn, 
I arose and went away. 

At Blue Nightfall 1 went away. 



« Derived from another tribe, but from whieh is not known. The meaning of the words is not 
known to the Piinas. 

b This and the Pihol song are .sung to bring success when setting out on a deer hunt. This song is 
principally depended upon in cases of siekneas where the characteristic symptoms are vomiting and 
dizziness. 



300 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ax.v.26 

11 

Katundami" ya-ahangu, *lv!ituiidami ya-ahangu ; konyitcoma 

Thoniapple ' leaves, thunifiiiplo leaves; ' I that 

hoiTgi3'ak namahangu r.sakali mumulihimu. (Repeat all; theu repeat 

eat dizzy stagger nin. 

from *) 

Katundami yasingu, * kritundaiui yiisifigu ; tcoma hiyaku navahamo 

Thoniapple ' flowers, tliornapple * flowers; that (irink druuk 

rsakali mumulihimu. (Repeat from *) 

.stiigger run. 

Ill 

Kakatii kuviholi yanamu uyaita-a, * hiyava nyiahu vatany, mumoak 

Bows great remaining man following, here overtook heme, killed 

inyi, wopa hitaiiy yahafiga hikomiaka rsolifiga-a. (Repeat from *) 

me, left this " " my horns eut olT throw away. 

Vapaka kuviholi yanamu nyaita-a, * hiyava n3'iahu vatany, 

Reeds great remaining man following, here overtook he me'^ 

mumoak inyi, wopa hituny nanhavia hikomiaka rsoliiiga-a. (Repeat 

killed me, left this my feet cut off throw away. 

from *) 

IV 

Momovali natakimu, * momovali natakimu, ka^oho miawaka hama 

Fly erazy, fly crazy. there droj) there 

yanaki taimhu-u. (Repeat from *) 

flap. 

* Yakimalinavakahi, yakimali navakahi, ka^oho miawaka hamsi tapai 

Butterfly drunk. Butterfly druuk, tliere drop there open 

kimu-u. (Repeat from *) 

and shut wings. 

Tra7islation 

I ate the tliornapple leaves 

And the leaves made me dizzy. 
I <lrank thoniapple flowers 

And the drink made nie stagger. 

The hunter, Bow-remaining, 

He overtook and killed me, 
Cut and threw my horns away. 

The hunter, Reed-remaining, 
He overtook and killed me. 

Cut and threw my feet away. 

Now the flies beeome crazy 

And they drop with flapjiiiig wings. 

The drunken butterflies sit 

With opening and shutting wings. 

rt .\ native thornapple, Datura meteloides D. C. It is popularly believed that if one eat an undi- 
vided root it will render him temporarily insane, but if the root be divided or branching it is 
innocuous. There is a tradition that a man at Blackwater ate of the root and directed that he be 
locked in an empty house until the effects should wear ofl. He was locked in at noon and toward 
evening he was seen running through the thickets toward the river a couple of miles distant. He 
recovered his senses when in the middle of a thorny thicket of mesquites. His limbs were scratched 
and bruised, yet he bad been unconscious of any Injury until the moment of recovering his wits. 



K'ssKt-L] HUNTING SONGS 3f)l 

PiHo-i Ny.ii, PinoL Song 

[By Virsnk VAl-l] 
I 

Yali tcovr makai tcokak ut iiujutatc yoai tcokak voapa 

lounger hare magicinii hlackiiuss in running black-tailed mciu " bring 

deer 

sialiin anta yoapa, sialiin aiita voapa-a. Yali ka.\u makai tcokak ut 

monnng I will bring, morning 1 will bring. Vminger badger magieiaii blaekness in 

mujutatc yoai tatat yoapa, .sialiin anta voaka. sialiin atita voana-a 

running black-tailed feet bring. morning 1 will " bring, morning 1 will ' bring. 

(Repeat four times) 

II 

Nanv pia hyuwuiik. nany pia yuwulik, nanv pia hayuwuli-ika-a. 

Had I no wind. had 1 no wind. ha<l i no wind. 

Nanv pia hatcu.vakik, nanv pia tcuvakik. nanv iiatcuva ki-ika-a 

Had I no clouds, had I no clouds. had I no cdond.s. 

Kahova siyali vvutca sahaina Ikoj kukatc vamiia nyu vaita, nanv uia 

Distant east under yellow (?) standing " there me calling, had 1 no 

yuwulik, nany pia hayuwuli-ika-a. Kanihova hondonv wutca .Silhama 

wind. had I no wind. Tbi.ro „...=i " ,.„.)..,. .. .ii„... 



"ind. There west " under 



yellow 



Ikoi kukatf yaiiiha nyv vaita. nanv pia yuwulik. nanv pia 

(■) standing there me calling. had! no " wind, had I no 

hayuwuli-ika-a. Kamhova liondonv wutca sahamti Ikoi kukatc 

»'">d- There west under yellow (?) standing 

yaniliu nyu vaita, nany pai tcuwukik. nanv pia hatcuwuki-ika-a. 

there me calling, had I no clouds, had I no clouds, 

Trtwshilinti 

Young Hare Magician running 

Brings black-tailed deer veni.'Jon. 
And young Badger Magician 

Brings the feet of Ijlack-tailed deer. 

Had 1 neither winds or clouds? 

In the east the Yellow Ikoi, 
In the west the Yellow Ikoi 

Called me. I had no wind.^^ or clouds. 



302 THE PIMA INDIANS lETn.Ax.N.26 

MEDICINE SONGS 

ToATciTA Nyiii, Cure Song^" 
[By Juan Thomas] 

I 

Hodony Aungiomiuia kiiihowa nyopiiiyima, hodony Aungiominia 

Evening red noS yet ' sink, evening' red 

kaihowa nyopiiiyima; * kony sufia yuna tcomu nahivaka nyuina 

not yet ' sink*: me ' I 'in there sit see 

itanyi rsavikona sika| munukai muia sisinyi hikimr. 

my gourd rt)und run in rattling hikimu. 

Hodony Aungioniima kaihowa nyopinyima, hodony Aungiomima 
kaihowa -nyopinyima; ** kony sufia yuna tcomu nahivaka nyuina 
itanyi matcuowina sika| munukai mu'ja pupunai hikimu. (Repeat 

feathers rumbling 

to*) 

Kony suna yuna tcomu nahivaka nyuina itanyi rsiivikona sika( 

I I in there sit ' see tliis my gourd - (?) 

munukai mu^a sisinvi, hikimu. (Sing from **) 

(?) (?) (?)" (?) 

Kony suna yuna tcomu nahivaka nj'uina itanyi matcuowina .siksi[ 

(?) ■ (?) (?) (?) (?) (V) (?)■ feathers 

munukai mu?a pupunai hikimu. (Repeat all four times) 

II 
Kus .sitcona muAany vaninyi taiima. (Repeat) 

Kind of all night heme shaking. 

Kaho makai kiyundavam nyoapaimu kus sitcona muAany viifiinyi 

Up there magieiau's house me brought kind of all night he me 

in there 

taiima. (Repeat .second line; then repeat all four times) 

shaking. 

Tniiixkilion 

The evening glow yet lingers; 

The evening glovv' yet lingers, 
And I sit with my gourd rattle 

Engaged in the sacred chant. 
As I wave the eagle feathers 

We hear the magic sounding. 

Puissant Night is shaking me 

Just as he did at the time 
When I was taken up in spirit 
To the great Magician's house. 

<i This song was sung by a Blackwater medicine-man when making his diagnosis of a case. In 
this connection read the history of Sala Hina's treatment when poisoned (p. aiO). 



RfssELL] MEDICINE SONGS 303 

in 

Alisi yoa-amu vavatcosi hutcuj ya-ana yopanaka yukatc vanyi 

Kin<l ' of yellow wren himself 'fenthors ' pull out with it mukr fue 

ti'ipaftcona *hiyanyi inauiatainu maAursapailniv tcuwunda wisika 

prostitute here' my head eliisp hands land all over 

iiiuinLhuUtnu. (Repeat; then repeat twice from*; repeat all four 

run. 

times) 

IV 

Alisi tcutcunafii kaliikamu * tcuwunda lonitan(c) tcutafii yuwulhula 

Kind of blue kakakaniu land edge blue ' wind 

vausapaiiniu tata yuwulbi la vipiahimu vatsii hcAundak t^-unyi wuna 

lyin;^ on white wind left make wind land 

kopanyima. (Kepeat as above) 

dust. 



Mamursanil tanali kia nyuja vifii kL'kion_vut. ^Amuka valnyuihita 

Moons shine liere me in here stand. You men will see 

nalo-oji tcutafii vapukanyi kohona varsoi muk nyi nanamu. (Kepeat 

women blue reed me " blow far distant me meet. 

as above) 

VI 

Haiya! Haiya! Rsavikohot man si.sikimu. (Repeat) 

Uai.va! Haiya! tionrd there rattling:. 

Konyu vvuwuiAa himuk am nyuita hiiuan vaitcokimu r.^iivikohot 

That I toward go there "see laying gourd 

man sisikimu. (Repeat; then repeat all four times) 

there rattling. 

Triiiixlatlon 

Yellow Bird placed Insi featlifi>ii 

Where they fell on the head of the woman; 

."\Iakin>; of her a harlot who ran about 
With her hands cUwped before her. 

Bluebird drifted at the edge of the world, 
. Drifted along upon the blue wind. 
White Wind went down from his dwelling 
And raised dust upon the eartli. 

The moonshine abides in me; 

And soon you men anil women will see 
The reed that 1 now am blowing 

Bring the Moon down to meet me. 

Haiya! The gourd is rattling; 

Haiya! The gourd in rattling. 
When I go to see it there 

I .surely find it rattling. 



304 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 2G 

VII 

Kotc yumoiva lo^ony taimu, kotc yuinoiva lo^ony taimu; ha 

We now evening taimu, we ' ni»\v evening taimu; our 

rsursupinyimu * kusu tata niiiliiunaiim kini titvali niatcuwoeiia nln^i 

younger bni'tliers liind of white heatied .swallow (bird) wing feathers four 

kaya putunyinaha kiya lojony taiiiiiu. (Repeat; then repeat twice 

there rattling liere evening tailmu. 

from *. Sing all four times) 

VIII 
Litai Makai * vapaka likotcuku kamo nyi paitcomi vopa 

Elder Brotlier reed magician cut yonder me before in front throw 

kuirsapaiimu kumak tcuAani kaitafiima. (Repeat from *. Sing all 

step on in clouds sounding. 

four times) 



IX 



Alisi kakaniaki Wumukali * viiviki s'oam aiiteo tcoiiyitcokimu 

Kind of gray ('oyote he is yellow something making 

p mumus huk vamilt an kiwonatcona. (Repeat all; then repeat twice 

meddler that snake there belt. 

from *) 

X 

Aliwusi tcutani papat lohoji nainktik vai'so nj'i nanamuk kamhony 

Kind of blue frog woman meet there me meet somewhere 

puitcokiniu * kaho sialinu. Marsa .sutata tcuAakia piiitcotco hamunu 

carry me yonder east. Front white clouds there stand there 

yainuka painy pin tcokimu. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from *) 

after me ^ carry me. 

Tnnialation 

It is evening, it i.s evening. 

And four times at evening 
Calls tlie white-headed Swallow 

As he plucks out his feathers. 

Elder F>rother cuts his reed, 

Yonder before me now he throws it. 
Stepping upon it so tliat the 

Clouds loudly repeat the sound. 

Gray Coyote is a dirty meddler, 

He wears a belt of snake skin. 
Gray Coyote is a dirty meddler, 

He wears a belt of snake skin. 

Blue Frog-woman met and carried me 

To the cloud land in the East. 
Blue Frog-woman met and carried me 

To where the clouds are standing. 



RUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 305 

XI 

Kokaki momoviny tcufuhulimu * kunia kus kiimaki Wunirkali. 

Wood triangle * rising in kind of gray Coyote, 

naiwonvimu ivanu kaiAu inatcuowina hukanyai nj'i trinalhitaimu. 

arose at one side of the baek wing feathers with it me shine. 

XII 

Yainupani' t:ttavtiri!i * kmafui Litai tcunyuwunda tcopolitaiiniu 

Deail til-Id mountain in Elder land ructangtilar 

Brother 

k6n\a' huiiu yunda niiivavaka iiyrina konyi* hunu ny uita-inu. 

1 in that ' in enter tlu-re see I in that ' saw. 

XIII 
Alwus yoa-aiu vavatcosi * kahamova inuhumuka tcutcakaniu 

Kind of * yellow wren yonder distant caves 

tatavanu woeka punyi puitcokiinu kamodanyi luamaitcoinhi 

mountain toward there me carry me before me close to 

pakunyim tcukahima. 

thump so far. 

XIV 

AlwtJSTj kakamani Ta^rai wotu makaikarahu mamajatc piohokimr 

Kind of gray Road-runner he magician he young his hungry 

tcom rsoakimonha *hia tataiwonyk tcutcuwuna tcutcumaka 

then cry here arose ' lands everywhere 

muinuhulima alAapavoli inunioahak kuAar.satc kahi van inatai 

running milfipe'ds killed approaching across 'there i-arry 

tcona. 

on back. 

TVamlation 

Gray Coyote stood in the forest, 

From his shmiMers he plucked feathers 
That gave nie shining power, 

Plucked wing feathers bearing power. 

I entered Ydlnupanu mountain 

And saw Elder Brother's land 
Marked off with its scjuare corners, 

Markeil as in a rectangle. 

Yellow Bird carries nie to the caves. 

To the distiint caves of the niotintaiii. 
And we hear the sound of his footsteps 

As he moves upon his way. 

Gray Koad-runner, the magician, 

As his young cried out witli hunger, 
Kan about engaged in killing 
Millipeds that he carried home. 
2H ETH— OS 22 



306 THE PIMA INDIANS (eth. anx. 26 

XV 

Alwusu tcotcok kamkitcuina *teokani niopondak varsatt: 

Kind of black turtle darkness made a belt toward 

vaitcokiuiu am kai pan^vumunda tcokaki yoiiu nyitaimu. 

laying there make 'shake darkness shaking nyitaimu. 

XVI 

Icupaf yohoti iiaiwonyk *aiii1vaiiy wuwukany inumuhuliinu j'ilvany 

HanoL ' woman arose and run around me me ' ran here me 

pamarsaipu luamakuAa. 

breast beat the air. 

XVII 
Aifia smamatcun rsur.supiiiyi *inanu tarsai kaho toconyihima 

Hurry know younger brothers around son up there come tip 

yaina .smamatcun rsur.supinyi kasikaj'any mamaka himu. 

hurry know my younger brothers drowsiness ' gave himu. 

The Black Turtle now approaches us, 

Wearing and shaking his belt of night. 
The Black Turtle now approaches us, 

Wearing and shaking his belt of night. 

The harlot arose and ran about, 

Beating her breast and the air. 
The harlot arose and ran about, 

Beating her breast anil the air. 

Understand, my younger brothers, 

That it is the Sun that gives me 
The trance vision that I see. 

The Sun gives magic iiower. 

KamkiwciIt Nvni, Turtle Song 

[By Virsak VaM] 

Sivanv lahai, sivany lahai, sivaiiy lahai, sivany lahai. (Repeat) 

Chief' told, chief" told, chief" told, chief" told. 

Kuwusi kuhufiga siyali worsa kundaiigu pahaka wuwumia nj'ukai, 

Kind of good mo'rniug rise at the same lime eagle with sung, 

sivany lahai, .sivany lahai. Kuwusi kuhunga hondony tcopi kundanga 

chief told, chief told. Kind of good evening sank at the .same time 

virsaka wuwumia nyukai, sivany lahai, sivany lahai. (Repeat four 

hawk with "sang, chief"' told, chief' told. 

times) 

Translation 

Tell their leader, tell their leader; 

With their leader sings the Eagle 
When the morning dawn is here; 

Hawk sings with him at even. 



BOSSELL] MEDICISE SONGS 307 

Kamkutcut, kamkutcut, papt vatcivi varso huteui rsotk ut vatcivf. 

Turtle, turtle, where swim there pond water in swim 

kosta, kosta, ko.sta, kosta, kosta, kosta. (Repeat four times) 

■ (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (■.') 

Ti'diinltit'ion 

Turtle, Turtk', where are you? 

Where is the iiuml in which you swim? 
Kosta, kosta, liosta, liosta, 

Where is the water you swim in? 

TriMAMAiKi Nvii, Horned Toad Song 

[By Virsiik \M-\\ 

I 

Siyalika njrnyuwuta vasitu mahaitaiiiu tcohinga. (Repeat) 

East direction' Innil pleasant looks." 

*Kon_yuka wuhuwuiva himukii iiyuita vasitu nialiaitaiiia tcohing-a. 

1 that toward go ' see pleasant looks. 

(Repeat as above) 

II 

Hondonyika nyunyuwutu vasita mupiritama tcohiiiga. (Repeat) 

West direction land very tearful lofiks. 

*Samuka wuhuwuiva mundu ka nyuita vasita mupuitama tcoiiiga. 

There toward run 'see very fearfil looks 

(Repeat as above) 

Tratmhiliiiii 

Tlie East Land seems very pleasant. 

I jro toward it and I see 
Hfiw pleasant it seems to be. 

I go toward the Pleasant Land. 

AVest Land is most terrible. 

I go toward it an<i I see 
How terril)le the Land is. 

I go toward the fearful Land. 

TriATAKi Ny.ii, tiii.A Monster Song 

[By Sitatk(iK Prepare] 

I 

Rsaingali tcupati yohof, *kaihovu yon(d)onyiii)a nyi moitaku 

Pitiable jirostituti- 'woman. not ycl ' evcnin'g niu soul 

yahasimu kahova iiyiiiiiaka teupatia iiyi moitaku yiihasimu. 

flower up ' after prosiituic me heart ' flower. 

(Repeat; then repeat from*. Sing all four times) 

Translatwn 

Pitiable harlot though I am. 

My heart glows with the singing 
While the evening yet is young. 

My heart glows with the singing. 



308 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx, 26 

II 

Ya-aj vavaitcotfoni lianslvany Auiigiinyi iigangaki nytrkai *hami 

That stone slanding there "" around ' two sing there 

tamai tcokangi huwun(d)aku noahimu kainaku yahai yananguhu-va. 

tup black wind roaring after back and " forth flutter. 

(Repeat as above) 

III 

Ya-aj tahai %jiwolik, *harai taiiiai sutcunafigl iiiamahat iiyu-uhuna 

That wliite Ngiwolik, there lop green frcj; ' singing 

ku.su tcunangi tcuvaki kahatc moinoi iiyuhuna. (Repeat as above) 

kind of blue clouds lay many ' singing. 

Translatiuii 

Where the two stones were standing, 

Black Wind roared in fearful blasts, 
Driving the birds before him 

Fluttering back and forth. 

On the summit of white Sgiwolik 

There the green frogs are singing. 
Lying near the blue storm clouds 

There many frogs are singing. 

Tcoso-oKA'i Nyni, Black Lizahd Song 

[By Ha-ata, Finished Olla ) 

I 

Makai ki wupuku nyuitco, *makai ki wupuko nyuitco, sikoj tarsal 

Magician house first sing to, magician house hrst Ving t^), round sun 

tcursunying tarsai sisvan huwuwum haimhuna-a. (Repeat ; then 

arose sun rays ' with go. 

repeat from*. Sing all four times) 

II 
Teutcupavi yohoti kaka wondu Aaitimuiia, *tcutcupavi yohofi 

Prostitute 'women group <-<»nie running, prostitute 'women 

kakawondu .\aitimuna. teutcupavi Aalfununa hikiinoli yiisika 

group come running, prostitute come running (a plant) 'flower 

fjgingikoatci Aaifimuna-a. (Repeat as above) 

crowns come running. 

TntnMaliou 

We first sing at the Magician's; 

We first sing at the Magician's, 
The round disk of the Sun arose, 

Accom])anied with its rays. 

Harlots came running in a grou]); 

Harlots came running in a group. 
Harlots carue with hikimoli. 

Flower crowns up<in their heads. 



RissELL] MEDICINE SONGS 309 

III 

Huli \viT5!iT tcotcok tcosokali *Hitai mulkoii ksiinak tata tcuAahaiigi 

Tlial kind i>f lilack liznnl Elder of running fnllowins,' white clouds 

Brother trail 

nyuyapa lumavitc aiiuik kuliuvvus tatam rsorsoiigimi;. (Repeat as 

t'anu* out arms following kind of white pools. 

above) 

IV 

Yali va.vungain uavaiigu *t:imai tcokaki yoiiduuyihimu, wukanyi 

That stony mountain t<ip darkness ' go down, round 

minyumu tataip yoakoiiginiu. (Repeat as above) 

going backward ' scatter. 



Hali wusu Aupuiigiom vapaiiiandu takunandu vinyina tcoikatc 

That kind of reddish snakes spider string like 

yoiidunyu, kamoviiigi yoiidoiiyika va.vana takunandu vinyina tcoika 

came down west 'iireetiou stretched spider string like 

there, 

yahai ptvaopana-a. 

opposite sides stretching. 

Translation 

Black Lizard found the trail where 

Elder Brother had been running, 
And he came out from the clouds 

With water upon his arms. 

Darkness settles on the summit 

Of the great Stony mountain. 
There circling round it settles 

On the great Stony mountain. 

The ruddy lieams like spider threads 

Across the sky came streaming. 
The reddish snakes like spider's weh 

To the opposite side came flaming. 

KAkAi Ny.ii, Rattlesn.\ke Song 

[By Ki-iwa] 

I 

Yalova yondonaa kanyi'huta, *yalova yondonaa kanyuhuta; 

Early ' evening 1 sing, ' early ' evening I sing; 

kaniodanyl maniatconii nyimyui Aumamatakaimu konyhuiiga 

ahead of nie in front songs open I that 

wuhuAunui monioiva nyihi-una. (Repeat from beginning; then 

with uumy singing. 

repeat twice from *) 

Translalimi 

In the early evening, 

In the early eveinng 
We begin to sing many songs; 

And 1 join in singing many. 



310 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ ETH. ANN. : 



II 

Kamundakr nanavaka worsanyimu, *hamali mamarsaka likorsapi 

KiVmatflk mountain came forth, there near low clouds 



nyuyupakimu-L'. 

cume out. 

nyuyapakimu. 

came out. 



Kamundaku udnavaku 

Kii'matOk mountain 

(Repeat as above) 
III 



miapitaiiuu 

closer 



kokougama 

top 



Tawoudu yahauama iyatcom xjmasi, * tuwondi' yalianama iyatcom 

Who man here appe^ir, who ' man * here 

umasi^ Konyi tcoma yafigamu kakaiva yuliiia j)iaviki yungai 

appear? I " there horned snake ' think not ' lilm 

wonda tciyatcomi' luamasiiiiu? (Repent as above) 

here appear? 



IV 



Tcotcoku yakiinaii uyu-una, tcotcoku yukiniaii nyu-una; *va-aki 

Black 'buttertlie-s ^ sing, black ^ huttertlies sing; ruins 

rsarsananu ya-ana ko-onyuiigu mar.saviki nyo-onyi yahimxj-una, 

below 'marked I that front pa.ssing' * going. 

(Repeat a.s above) 

Translation 

It was near Kil'matuk mountain 

That this Rattlesnake came forth; 
And he saw the low clouds lying 

Near the summit of the mountain. 

Who is this, who is this? 

la it not Horned Rattlesnake? 
Is it not Horned Rattlesnake 

Who now apiieiirs liefore lis? 

The Butterflies are singing; 
' The Butterflies are singing, 
As I go jiast the foundations 
Below, of the ancient house. 



BUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 311 

TcoKoT Nv.ii, Owi. Song 

[Hy Virsiik VmM] 
I 

Yahali Kiimrndak nuiiiivangu. * nioiva hondoiiiiiga kongana 

Large KA'miituk mountain. many fveuings Mnnmit 

Aupungiohonii kony huiiga wuwui nyuinutiduk imukai, inoiiioi 

rudilish I that toward " to sing going, many 

nj'Unyui wuwusi namukimi*. (Repeat from beginning; then repeat 

songs all meet. 

twice from *) 

II 

Teokot ya-atama muumuka nyuhuna kony kaitcongatci wuwuiny 

Owl ' man far singing I " hearing toward 

haimiuhuna. * Momoi yo-ofi mamatama tcupafinga-a amifaiAuku 

going liack and Many 'women lop prostitute there come 

forth. 

kayuliinui kainakimu-i. (Repeat a.s above) 

funning sounding, 

laughing 

III 

Tcokot yofingu kokowo|(d) ya-atama tcoma .sinyi wupavingi 

Owl " bird small owl " man try me like 

tcohikami- va-ahana kony yudanyi amuAulhangi taimu hano 

cla.s.s " feathers I " " w ith " to make ivind there 

kokonganu kukamaiwakinui. (Repeat as above) 

points ashy. 

IV 

^\ungihomi i-.sonaiigi *tcomunga.si mamangia nyi-itcoho-ona; 

Reddish water" you slowly 'me make drink; 

pianvingi papaki navahamo kani siyalika wohoirsakal 

niit I slowly drunk there east toward 

himumrihiuiL'-u. (Repeat as above) 

wobble run. 

Trajtslalioii 

Toward great Kii'iiiatiik inniiiitain 

I go to join the singing, 
During the glow of evening. 

I meet all the singers there. 

Owl is singing in the distance, 

I hear him moving back and forth. 
Many harlots came here running; 

Here came running and came laughing. 

Small Owl resembles Tcokot; 

The winds rise from Owl's feathers. 
AVith their a.^hy tips he starts them. 

Small ( )w 1 is like the Large Owl. 

Owl makes me drink the reildisli water; 

Rapidly intoxicated 
I try ti> wnlk straiirht toward the east, 

And tiiid Miy footsteps staggering. 



312 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. 26 

Kakaitco Nviil, Quail Song 
[By srtatki] 

I 

Kakamatlgi kakaitcovu kakawo}a miyanyita. ^cmrrngali mulivak 

Gray quails bunehefl grimijiiig. Coyote came running 

tatai panyuinahimu. (Repeat four times) 

above looking. 

II 

Tcutcunangi kakaitcova kakawo;u vaLvukai, ^umungali nj'rinakii 

Blue <i\iails bunched ran together, Coyote ^ saw 

kakai vanyuinahiniu-i'. (Repeat four times) 

sidewise looking. 

The Gray quailn were Tmnched togetlier, 

Coyote ran to look upon them. 
The Bhie quails were bunched together; 

Coyote looked sidewise at them. 

Tatai Nvni, Roadri'Nner Song 

[By A-an TjUrsaki, Feathers Foam] 

I 

Tatai, Tatai, sivillik ma-aka, Tatai, Tatai, .sivalik ma-aUa 

Roadrunner, Roadrunner, bushy head, Roadrunncr. Roadrunner, bushy head 

kita Aungafiy rsursulu, poi! poi! poi! (Repeat four times) 

house rouiul always, poi ! poi ! poi ! 

II 

Tatun(d)ai, Tatuii(da)i piwopilsa; TatiTn(d)ai, Tati'n(d)ai, pivvopusa, 

Roadrunners, Roadrunners unattended; Kuadrunners, Knadrunners, unattencK-d, 

masika Iiohotcut utciawa. (Repeat fnur times) 

Uiornillg lizards he devours. 

'J'rttiifltrtion 

Roadrunner with the bushy liead 

Is always crying, poi! poi! 
As he runs around the house. 

Poi! poi! poi! around the hcuise. 

Here is the lonely Roadrunner; 

Here is the lonely Roadrunner. 
He eats lizards in the morning; 

He eats solitary lizards. 



Rt^'ssELL) MEDICINE SONGS 313 

III 



Alisi Aupufigi wopuikani ^itan(d)ai, iilisi .\upungi wopcikam 

Kind of reddish eyed Iliiil Ki)adruriiier. reddish cj^d tliiU 

fltjin(d)ai hiiiafigr yakuwanda tcunga tcoviny! tcovinyl Alisi 

KoadruiuiiT Hljdut misiklm' see limilative) Kind of 

Aupi figi woptikam itaii(d)ai. (Kepoat four times) 

reddish eyed tliat Rondriiiiner. 



IV 
Konyi kaiuo j-angitaka mutnuliliiiiiu, konyi kaino yangitaka 

I there hide had riinniiiK'. I tliere " Iiide 

mumililiimu kamafigi tcowka|i nioakai vakatc ki-iiua lio-o. (Repeat 

had runniDK gray li/ard l;ill slomach fat eat. 

four times) 

V 

Kajo tcuof koi kuka kciigauii kialnisi haopai mat ta? tcoi-ika 

Over yciider Utun mesciuite stand to'iis basket hawk yoiiuK talon like 

kofiganu kiahasi. (Repeat four times) 

tops basket. 

VI 



Konyi ugamo rsahika uiumuliliimu ama aitcovasi n3Taikuita ama 

I there pitiable had running there .something lueky there 

aitcovasi nyiiikuita liiya vany mosi yuii(d)a sivialiawa. (Repeat four 

something liieky hero my vulva in put penis. 

times) 

Vll 

Moi ya-iitama, moi j-a-atamaka; .siAungivia, siAufigivia uia-atama 

Many people, many peoi.k : red penis, cnnvn 

ikitanyi bivami nyum(d)a r.soUiki vitciwanvu. (Repeat four times) 

cut from there water whirli)oof. 



I pen 

ivai 

iirlj)oof. 
Translaliun 



Here is the red-eyeil Roailniiiiier; 

Here is the red-eyed Koadriuiiier, 
Who runs about the mistletoe. 

This is the red-eyed Roadrunner. 

I run and hide! I run and liide! 

Now I kill the Gray Lizard 
And I eat his fat body. 

I run and hide! I run and hide. 

Over yonder in the iiiesquite 
Stands the Hawk's nest with its branches 

Wliii-li rise like ki:iha frame sticks, 
Over yonder in the inescniite. 

(Translation of sixth and seventh stanzas omitted) 



314 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. a.nx. 26 

Nahakia NyiiI, Mouse Song 

[By Virsak Val-I] 

I 

Halapita nyuitaraokam ofiiiga "^hilwavat tatamaiya limunatci hvana 

Sometliing ' Iniiccessiljle birfi here top wiilkiHK li'iitliers 

kuviuy kainhikiinu am tgai kukiAakai tatai luiimatcuka tconyopiny 

wave sounding there you stand up head slow 

kaihama. (Repeat; then repeat twice from *) 

listen. 

II 

Vanyiiigi rsahingu hyatata vinaka tcunytrwutu rsarasinu vamhoikimu 

I am pitiable here we flooded land bases caving in 

haya-ava hanyi supunyu, kamova siyalika iiaifonyima haya-ava hanyi 

cry see afraid. there before east came out "cry see 

supunyu kamova hondonyika nait'onyima hayava hanyi ssupunyu. 

afraid there west direction came 'out cry see afraid. 

(Repeat) 

Trdiislation 

Wings of birds invisible 

Are now fliitteriiiu; aliove you. 
Yoti stand with face uplifted 

And quietly listen there. 

Our land was unfortunate; 

The floods came rolling westward, 
Then they came flowing eastward, 

And I cried out much afraid. 

ToCFU Nvni, Hare Song 

[By Virsak V41-1] 

I 

Rsursu[ tcotanyuk nyuhutu, * r,sursu[ tcotanyuk nyuhuta: hiya nvi 

straight danced 'singing, straight dance'd "singing: hc're me 

tamai yuwuli mutakimu-u. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from*) 

top wind roaring, 

II 

Kakai tcotanyuk nyuhuta, *kakai tcotanyuk nyuhuta; hiya nyi 

Horizontal danced "singing, horizontal danc'ed 'singing; here nie 

tamai tcuvafigi muttikiniu-u. (Repeat as above) 

top clouds roaring, 

Traiislullun 

Hare is jumiiingand singing; 

Hare is iunijaiig and .-iinging. 
While the wind is roaring, 

While the wind is roaring. 

Hare is dancing and singing; 

Hare is dancing and singing. 
While the clouds are roaring, 

While the clouds are roaring. 



KtssF.LL] MEDICIXE SONGS 315 

III 

Tcokondu va-ana vamutfini .sesivaiiatco, * tcokondfi yana vamutSm 

Owl "^fathers flop headdress, owl feathers flop 

sesivanatco; inrmuka tcunjTwuta tanuinanu kakata imnukinu . 

headdress; far country top bow made. 

(Repeat as above) 

IV 

Kiikamaki Nahakia *hondonvi simainatcima kuhunda mataiwony vkai 

Cray Mouse evening very know in enme out running 

tcokaiigifiga inoiwa. (Repeat as aliove) 

darkness Dreath. 

y 

Vata masi, vata niasi, siamu, taiiy kokopaiiuu; *vata raasi, 

1 Koess morning, 1 guess morning, right I ' sliut; I guess morning, 

vata masi. siilmu tany kokopainiu; vata nuisi, vata masi, siiimu 

I guess morning, right l" slnit; I guess morning, I guess morning, right 

tiinv kokopaimu-u. (Rept-at as ahove) 

1 ■ shut. 

With hcadilress of owl feathers- 

With heaildreas of owl feathers, 
He comes to my far emiiitry; 

He comes bringing lieiice hin liow. 

The Gray Mouse came at nightfall; 

The Gray Mouse came at nightfall, 
Came running in tlie darkness; 

Came breathing in the darkness. 

I am shut in at day dawn; 

I am shut in at day dawn, 
All night I am free to run 

But am shut in at day dawn. 

KAks NYni, I)o(i Song« 
[By Viraak VAMl 
I 

Hodonv kit nyunyui r,sarsaii. *kati'im tangio tcrt yrwi;hTi](t) 

Kveuing' at songs eommenee. laying direfti<in from wind 

nu'iidikai vata mumiinama nundikai vata yoiigiiiAT tcopina wufui 

rnni]ing was terrible running was ' shaking' north toward i 

nyi pahiva viyohon(d)a. 

me tail wind blew over. 



Translation 



The songs commence at nightfall, 

And the winds blow toward the north. 

The winds are blowing strongly. 
Blowing my tail toward the north. 



aSung rapidly while the side of a ba."iket is beaten to carry the rliythm. 



316 



THK PIMA INDIANS 



[ETn. ANN. L'l; 



II 

Yakimali yahanu, *yakimali yahanu; hiya vaiiy nanamana kopali 

Butterfly ' wings, "butterfly wings; here I " above fiioe 

iTguiigursu hama huka iiyuina nyi ipoina sivahamii tcoinga-a. (Repeat 

flown fall there you see me soul more appearance. 

all; then repeat twice from*) 

III 

Yahalr gafigas simuliwuka, rsaiiigali gafigas muliwuka, vapukiall 

Small dogs came running, pitiable dogs came running, riders 

iiiiuiiaka wovakiiuu haluliumimakuinangu-u. 

alter came up laughing s<iuiidiug. 

• Translation 

Butterfly wings are falling; 

Butterfly \viiig.s are falling, 
Falling upon and harming; 

My suffering ia greater. 

See the small dogs come running; 

See the poor dogs come running. 
See the horsemen coming after; 

See the horsemen coming laughing. 

Pan Nyhi, Coyote Song 
[By Virsak V,'!!-!] 

I 



Panai kukiwaka nyunyui rsarsanutcona-a. (Repeat) *Tco\'afiga 

Coyote stands 'songs' commence. Girl at puberty 

iiioliofi yaikaj)! worsanyiniu Panai nyunyui vaAunahimu. (Repeat 

woman ' hurry came Coyote ' songs stretching. 

all; then repeat twice from *) 

II 



vanani 

hat 



Pahafigu yahanu, *Pahangu \'ahanu koniu.s huku A'aiiy 

Kagle " feathers. Eagle " feathers y<iu that that my 

hatconu-!i, komus huku vany vanam liatcona-a vahamu tcoikama, nyi 

made, you that that my hat made more looks, nie 

iiiioitaku vahaniil tcoiiiga. 

heart more looks. 

Ti'aiialation 



Coyote commences sin^;iiig; 

Coyote commences singing. 
The young woman hurries forth 

To hear the Coyote songs. 

A hat of eagle feathers; 

A hat of eagle feathers, 
A headdress was maile f<ir nie 

That made my heart grow stronger 



Ri-ssELL] MEDICINE SONGS 317 

III 

Sikali rsoiiukama, *sikali rsonukania: kinafigu Panai sitcunakiiiiu 

Around water, urnniid wjiter: there in Coyote blue 

nianiafiiiia konyunga wrwii vapaimuna. (Repeat as above) 

dyed i in townrd nni. 

'I'ririislirfiDn 

Coyotr ran an mm I il ; 

Coyote ran arotiiul it, 
Ran into the blue water, 

Changed the color of hii^ hair. 

HoAi Nv.ii, Black-Taii.eo Deek 8ong 
[By Ki-iwa] 



Vavaki yuwria. vavaki yuwuVii; ■■ konyuka wutcaina yukahiiiniia, 

Kiiiiis wiiidv, ruins windy: I that under put in tlie shiidc of 

wutcama yiksiliiiiRtia: kufigr iiyaliailga yuwujuiia. kuiiyu 

inider "put in the stnide ot; hirtje ' hr>rns ' windy. that 

nahaiiakii yiwiduna. (Repeat; tlicn icpoiit twice ffoiii *) 

my ears windy. 

II 

Hama niija n\'ongitt'U, haiua iiu.(a tiyofigitcr; kungamatcoiiir 

Over there run "sliakinp. over there run ' slial<iug: ahead 

vapariiii"liu *kaLio iiyaiiiak kafigata tatanulihi kaiya iiaka nyailiimiia. 

run many up 'after liows shining liefe far me reaeh. 

(Repeat as iibove) 

Trttriiflatloii 

Down from the houses of ina^ic; 

Down from the liouses of magic, 
Blow the winds and from my antlers, 

And my ears tliey stronger gather. 

Over there I ran trembling; 

Over tliere I ran trembhng, 
For bows and arrows punsued ine. 

Many bows were on mv trail. 



318 THK PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 2G 

III 

T:lwoinu kaviyo, tawoinu kaviyo; hiya mukava puny namrkiniuna 

What horse, what horse; Jie're far in ' meet me 

hanii nyaina, hauii iiyiuna, .siyonyoena, siyouyoena; rsahavasi 

there after. there after, trying to catch tip, trynig to'eatehup; how 

inamangia himu kunyi yaihiinuna. (Repeat) 

slowly going I ' ' reaching. 

*Ho-o koakaui kavij'o hiya mukava puny namukimuna hanii 

star forehead horse he're far me ' meeting me there 

nyaina. h;uiii nyaina, siyonyoena, .sijonyoena; rsahava.si 

*^after. tliiTe "afler, trying tti'eatch lip, tryi'ng to'catch up; how 

mamafigia himu kunyiyaihimuna. (Repeat from *) 

slowly going reaching me. 

IV 

Atcimtcia pakaitcuna, yateimtcia pakaitcuna. (Repeat) 

We liere .sit, " we here sit. 

Siyallka vavanyima nj'unyui kotcungu wus am yanga, yateimtcia 

Ea.st'direetion there songs we are all there ' sing, we here 

pakaitcuna. Hondonyika vavanyima nyunyui koteungU wus am 

sit. West directinn there songs" we are all there 

yanga, yateimtcia pakaitcuna. 

sing, we here sit. 

Tmnslation 

AV'hat horse is trying to catch me? 

What horse is trying to catch me? 
The horse witli the star forehead 

Now slowly gains upon me. 

We are sitting liere together; 

^\'e are sitting here together, 
Singing the song of the east, 

Singing the song of the west. 



TCOTOM NY:li, BeAK SoNG « 
[By Virsak VfU-l] 

I 

Nanyi woiida tcotcoka tcodohom, *hiyavany tamai kakayu vaopa 

W'as*! hlack bear. here me top across stretclied 

siksidaka himu kamhil nyuita yanakuvia sima hanyu-u. (Repeat all; 

around going there *see ' waving dew falling. 

then repeat twice from *) 

Trdiishillon 

I am the Black Bear. Aronnil me 

You see the ligiit clouds extending. 
I am the Black Bear. Around me 

You see the light dew falling. 

a Sometimes used as a rain song. 



RUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 319 

II 

Haliwusi Aungihonii rsotaiioi *konvama ihyoki"; kamo nva inuliai 

Kind of reddifih Matt-r I tiuTe dVink; Iherr I fioiiiK 

nyi}a vamoniokiiur vany tirisumuhunyu-v. (Repeat as above) 

mv in dead I ' iifriiid. 

Ill 

NyuuyuiAu rsavsilua: *wuvvri uya liiuiLHiihany iiya sikoli nyLiiyui 

Songs commence: tnward 1 going cry *I ynvingcr * songs 

brother 

siiuamatcimu-u. (Repeat as above) 

know. 

Tranflatioii 

I drink the reddish liquor 

Wliiili kills the spirit in me. 
1 drink the reddisli liijuor 

Which kills the s[)irit in me. 

Kow the singing has conamenced, 

Now the singing has commenced. 
I go with my younger brother; 

I know the songs we're singing. 

TciiFHA Ny.ii, Gopher Sonq 
[By Sutatki] 
I 

Hon(cl)ony siAXjpungiomi kony ainatca ihimrna-a: itanyinioina 

Evening ' reddir-h 1 aftt-r go; this my many 

Aupuiigiomi ivasi yasimutia-a wL'wui nyokai Aapanganvi nyuwi"n(d)u 

reddish makes flowers toward go holes latid 

yaihimvna. , (Repeat four times) 

reacfiing. 

II 

Pahangr matcuwiina iiglngikava yuwun(d)a, pahangv matcuwuina 

Eagle's wing feathers fulir ' windy, eagle'.s" wing feathers 

iigingikava yuwrn(d)a; yakavany woa kaviki nyrina tanalifiga 

four windy; here me turn to' see shining 

nyiiiioi kayukayaniiiia. (Repeat four tinie.s) 

soul crossed. 

Traitaldftim. 

In the reddish glow of nightfall. 

In the re<Mish glow of nightfall 
I return to my hurrow, 

About whicli the Howers bloom. 

With the four eagle feathers, 

With the four eagle feathers 
I stir the air. When I turn 

My magic jiower i.s crossed. 



320 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. Axx. 2G 

HI 

Tcuwunda nyi moata-a, iniiikaAa tcuwunda iiyi nioata-a: maikawa 

Liind my hill, soft land niy hill: sni'i 

mofigiiiaiUT tiiniilifiga hinioiwehiniu kamo ndanyi maitcomi rsahiiig-a 

in Iriint (if shining cxlifilc tlu-ro me' before pitiable 

tcohifioaimu-u. (Repeat four times) 

appearance. 

TnnidtftuHi 

And I make hills of soft earth; 

And I make hilly of soft earth. 
My l:)reath witliers all before it; 

My breath withers all before it. 

Kavi Nyx)!, Beaver So.vii 
tBy St'tatki] 

T 
Namifigi vii.siin' upinyi, namiiigi va.siny i])inyi: moi Auvapamandi' 

Say me about truly afraicf, say me al»out truly afrairi: many snakes 

n^'i moitta mohiwa r.sonaki nainanha nyonyul ha himuhuna. (Repeat 

I iiaveiiower of exhale water top 'zigzag going, 

transfor- 
nuition 

foiif times) 

II 

Vapi yaivikia liimu kunyi nyuina him, vapi yaivikia himv kunyi 

\n\i 'notquiek go l' see go, you 'notquiek go I 

nytiiia lum; ku.si tarsai kam hayo-o.'*i worsanyinihu api maniar.saka 

see go: kind of sun there trees • growing there tame 

kufiga mipoita ka nuAuna-a. (Repeat fi)ur times) 

that breath windy. 

Ill 

Sikoll, tanyi kttvi, tan\'i kavi; humirs Aliteoikatei iiahaka. hanavany 

Younger l' beaver, l' beaver: humus! Appearance car, there I 

brother, 

wuntrafiyi. yo-osa kiyolhimu hanavany wui'iganyi; yo-osa kopait 

roiuul,' ' trees ' biting there I ' round;* ' trees facedown 

iiiiawihimuiiii-a. (Repeat four times) 

overthrown. 

You talk about and fear me; 

You talk about and fear me. 
As like the sinuous snake 

I go upon the water. 

I see that you go slowly; 

I see that you go slowly. 
Strong as the Sun among the trees, 

You leave your nuirk upon them. 

Younger brother, I am Beaver, 

I am tlie quick-eared Beaver 
That gnaws the trees of the forest, 

'Tis I who overthrow iheni. 



BDSSBLL] 



MEDICINE SONGS 



821 



Kaf(C) Ny.ii, Badger Song 
|By Sutatki] 

I 

Vanyi rssuka vanyunyui pimauiatcima; * tarsal vayon(d)onyu, 

I pitiable those suiigs not know; sun ' set, 

m'unyui piinatcivaiyanga. (Repeat; then repeat twice from*. Sing 

songs not know'sing. 

thus four times) 

II 

Tarsai yon(d)onyikon(d)a nyunyuwun(d)a, tarsai von(d)onyikon(d)a 

Sun sets "land, sun ' sel.s 

nyunyuwun(d)a; am miyun(d)an8a * kusukamaiiij-i tcokon(d)a 

land; there in tliere kiniiotgra}- owl 

nyinyivimu hanii vany wufiganyi nyongorsa-ali kohota itala 

came ndiiress there me around" " Tow hooting tliis 

nyimoinanga kayovaiya prihimu. (Repeat as above) 

my heart ' higher lifting. 



Ill 



Kan(d)onga nyiiAiun(d)a .siAapawany, konyufigu ainaka imuna 

There land sleeping, I there after going 

tanalingu kakavitci vavanlia, hayanyi ! Maman(d)a vamiiigi 

shiniUK narrow stretch, haya ! My young you 

rsalnganhi teomali kopanyu. (Repeat eight times) 

pitiable making dust. 

IV 
Tarsaiiigamu kavai *kahova yon(d)ony tatania kukiwaku yaitco 

Sun there up there up there ' west " direction stand so'niethiug 

krwusi tununamu rsavikon(d)a hon(d)onyi tatafiia 

kind of shining gourd rattle west " direction 

(Repeat: then rojx'at twice from*. Sing all four 



nvani 

"tell 



tt'omr 

there 

Aukainakimu. 

sounding. 

times) 



Here am I iiiil'nrtiiiiate; 

Here am I uiifortimate, 
Not fo know the snugs to sing; 

The song.i we sing at sunset. 

There came a (iray Owl at sunset, 
There came a (iray Owl at sunset 

Hofiting softly around me, 

He brouglit terror to my heart. 

The lanil lay (|uietly sleeping; 

The land lay (juietly sleeping. 
My young stretch, i-rying, haya! 

Pity them digging in the dust. 

You Sun out there in the We«t; 

You 8un out there in the West, 
You now are talking to me. 

\o\x are sounding your gourd rattle. 



26 ETn— OS- 



-23 



322 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ans. 26 



Tcuwun(d)a muihhnu, tcuwun(d)ii muihimu ; konyika yuja tcoma 

Land burning, land bnriiin^: i in there 

worsanyimu, konyu yu^a hapanyuniihungu- hanavany Aung-anyitc(i) 

rise go, I in there I looliing aronnd me' behind me 

m'uinahafigu hauavata vuno-anyi tcu\vun(d)a kakavitc tcama 

looking many around land narrow there 

tcunakiniu. (Repeat eight times) 

green. 

VI 

Vanyu pinyi mamatcuka vama nyiwahana, *vanyu pinyi 

I not know surely more ' I make, I not 

mamatcuka vama nyiwahana ; kusi tcopafi kama aiiyitaka 

know surely more I make ; very prostitute hold feel 

siamaiij'i mamukaha kony hunga imoitaka tcama yon(d)onyinga 

right give I that take in there " west ' 

wuwui tcutcuma. (Repeat; then repeat from *. Sing all four 

toward reached. 

time.s) 

VII 

Vikamu 5i^akan(d)ak nj'oninanu movinyama yukaimuna *vikamu, 

Remaining Crooked mountain me before pointed shadow remaining, 

S^gakiui(d)aku nyoiiinanu naiiakali yukaimuna ku^iafia nyunyui 

Crooked mountain, "me before curved ' shadow in songs 

Aukaiva nakimu rsaikala nyimoitailga tcupafi tcona. (Repeat; then 

sound pitiable " my heart prostitute. (?) 

repeat from *. Sing four times) 

VIII 
KakaitcoAU yahala hon(d)on3^inga vungioma maku natiiimhu 

liiuiils small evening glow arrive make 

hapaviiii nyonyopitci nyunyukamu tcokaiigingu tangiomakai 

there ' slowly " fly darkness stripped 

mamanamu tafiitiiimu. (Repeat eight times) 

crown throw on. 

Tmndaliiiii 

The laud i.s parched and burning, 

The land is parched and burning. 
Going and looking about nie 

I l^ee a narrow strip of green. 

Yet I do not know surel}-, 

Yet I do not know surely. 
The harlot is here among us. 

I go away toward the west. 

The shadow of Crooked mountain, 

The curved and pointed shadow. 
'Twas there that I heard the singing; 

Heard the songs that harmed my heart. 

The light glow of evening; 

The light glow of evening 
Comes as the quails fly slowly, 

And it settles on the young. 



BCSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 323 

Weham Nvni, Liciitning Song 

[By Sutetki] 

I 

Weyiima himunatcia himunania kaiyam kaiyany, sikoli, inumuka 

Wfham went going lij-fcn here, younger fiir 

brother 

yohosi inumoalii [tataka f<itana-a]. (Sing four times, alternating the 

tree kill half split. 

last two words with the one preceding) 

II 
Rsiii kauya sikoli kaiuo nyimuitcoka, karao nvimuitcoka, hantl nyi 

Pitiahle I ' younger there me carry, there me earry, there me 

brother 

wuwuiigatci tanavanga tcotc-im parsa nyoAana. (Repeat four times) 

around mountain stand nearby there carry. 



Ill 

^upufigiomi vapamand tconiaiya weyami, tcomaiya weyami, 

Reddish snakes tries to make lightning. tries to make lightning, 

kahova yosi tapa kukiwopa pivanyi nakaka. (Repeat four times) 

there up 'tree on stand notl"^ do. 

IV 

Rsiii kanya sikoli tcokaiigi noahimtconakia vapahimu vanyu 

Pitiable I ' younger darkness roaring going running I 

brother 

pina-akuk tamai Aukahatcimu })arsapr katawu. (Repeat four times) 

not do top sky near by shoot. 

Traiidaliijii 

See the destructive lightning 

Going to kill the distant tree. 
It is going, my younger brother, 

To split the distant tree. 

Around the mountain I carry 

My poor younger brother; 
Carry him around the mountain 

And then I stand before it. 

The lightning like reddish snakes 

Tries to lash anil shiver the trees. 
The lightning tries to strike them, 

But it fails and they yet stand. 

(Translation of fourth stanza omitted) 



324 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

Hnw.ni) Nyai, Wixd Song 
[By Ha-ata] 

I 

Yuwuidi nyuhuma. *hiyawu rsanahatco, kamo danyimamaitconia 

WilKi ' sing. here commence, there my in front 

tcunyuwuta iiyonyoahafig-u-u. (Repeatall; then repeat twice from*) 

land streteliing. 

II 

Yuwuhuld ki-iki iiiuinunaiku, *yuwuhuld ki-iki mumunaiku; 

Wind hi;mse thuniler. ' wind liunse thunder; 

konyi kanilio imuna teuwuma tcutcumsika niuiuunaiku-U. (Repeat 

I ' tliere going land covered thniider, 

as above) 

III 

Hinio tiitavaka yuwuhu^a. '■ hiino tatavaka yuwuhuja, hiino 

There mountain windy. there nu)untain windy. there 

tavuvaka y L'wihuia: wu.sika .sinuiihangiiidangu tciya niuliva-a. 

mouutuiii ' windy, all over centipeds liei^; came running. 

(Repeat a.s above) 

IV 

'I'eotcok vapainaiida huwuling *tt'otcok vapaniandii liuwuling; 

Black snake wind, black snake wind: 

fiyai hiyata nyiiiyuta muliva kuiigata iiyuiyut piinihivi. (Repeat 

that here ' song iu came running that song *in(ie around. 

as al)ove) 

Wind HOW commenres to sing; 

Wiml now coininent-es to sing. 
The land stretches before me, 

Before me stretches away. 

Wind's house now is thnnderinn; 

\Vind'.s liouse now is tliundering. 
I go roaring o'er the land, 

The land covered with thunder. 

Over the windy mountains ; 

Over the windy niountain.'j, 
Came the myriad-legged wind; 

The wind came running hither. 

The Black Snake Wind came to me ; 

The Black Snake Wind t^ame to me, 
Came and wrapped it.self about, 

Came here running with its song. 



RUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 325 



Vanyi naiwonyim *viisipi muhuk luiiwonyuka iiii-itco vsinyiUl 

I am ciiine out cup of water hold came sw'iftly make tirink I 

iiiuiiiku naiwonyuka sisikali imundiiiuna-a. (Repeat as above) 

crazy camesw"iftly round running. 

VI 
Tata j'anauii ivakimu, tata yanaini ivakimu; kiiida nyi niulivukai 

White ^ cactus leaves, white * cactus leaves; in l came running 

rsaiiiofU uiiimiihi-i. {Rej)('at as ahovi-) 

poor running. 

Trannlation 

Swiftly with a oup of water 

I f-aine riinning tu make you drink. 
I make ynu drink the water 

And turn dizzily around. 

Among the white cactus leaves ; 

Amon": the white cactus leaves, 
] came running to that place; 

I came running to that place. 

KoKHU Nvni, Fetish Song<i 

[By Virs.ik VgH] 

1 

Kokopu nyunyui rsarsan, *kokopu nj'unyui gando viiigi r.sar.san; 

F; tish >ong commence. fetish song there commence; 

woivanj'a imuna piiivat niatcimaka rsar.siin, tcokaiigi niu^a sigi 

toward going not know commence, night in very 

konj'iniuna-a. (Repeatall: then ropeat twice from*. Sing four times) 

noisy. 

II 

Kokopu nyunyui tcotcoaiiimu, * kokopu, nyunyui tcotcoahimu; 

Fetisfi song stood, fetish ' song stood; 

kaiyak wuwui vapa himuia sitcupatinga-a. (Repeat as above) 

heard toward run going crazy. 

Translation 

We commence the fetish song; 

We commence the fetish song. 
It is difficult but I try; 

The night grows very noisy. 

The fetish song arises; 

Tlie fetish song arises. 
To it the crazed women run; 

To it the crazed women run. 

n.^pache hair with the down of birds is placed in a medicine ba.sket where a spirit " developes " 
that is helpful if food is set out each night for him to eat. If he is neglected he may eauise disease, 
whereupon this song is sung. 



326 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

III 

Rsiiiganywana, rsaiganywana; wusikainy naiigioiua, rsaiganyw^na, 

Poor "me, poor me; all over me stripping, poor mo, 

wusikainy nangioma knyuhuna-a. (Repeat as above) 

all over me stripping singing. 

IV 

Tcokangi nyuimu[himu, tcokangi nyuiniu(himu; Si vat Taniifaiigr 

Niglil ' sing going, night ' sing going; Sievat mountain 

wuwui vanyuimulhimu konyhungu wuwui tcomu vapahimu. (Repeat 

toward lead mo 1 that toward there running. 

as above) 



Traiisliitioii 



Pity me! Oh pity me! 

And stri].> away my disease. 
Now strip away my disease; 

Clear it away by singing. 

I'm going to the singing; 

I'm going to tlie singing. 
It is leading to the mountain, 

Running to Sievat mountain. 

Navitco Nvni, N.witco Song 
[By Virsak VM-l] 
I 

Tcotculik viahaka tcutculuk iiiiaAa tcutculuk niiaAa. 

Fowl bean sounds drop sounds drop. 

II 

Kat vavaiwor.sunyu, kat vavaiworsunyu : sami worsunyihimu 

There stone wall arose, there stone wall arose; there arose 

sahapa kainauia kohai, sami worsunyu, sami worsunyihimu. (Sing 

pleasing sound burn open, there arose, there arose. 

once and dance) 

Tlie chicken beans are ratthng. 

They are rattling as they fall. 
The chicken beans are rattling, 

They are rattling as they fall. 

And the stone wall arose there, 

And the stone wall aro.se there. 
When the gourd seed was jilanted 

It made its way through to grow. 



BUSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 327 

Makai Nvni, Magician' Song 

[By Virsiik Vfil-I) 
I 

Krsi tahai vasialikui vavaliaki kuma nyutit tciviha-a. (Repeat) 

Kind of while inDriiins; niiiiM in I come. 

* Hainanyutil tcivihaki' nvipoinaku sisiva^u tanali-i. (Repeat twice 

There"l ciime ' my lienrt tiame shine. 

from *: then repeat all twice) 

II 
Yahanu vapakosi tatamanhu ihihamu vayonyu-u. (Repeat) 

Feathers mat-like topmost business singing. 

* Tamai kukukiuihu nvipoinaku si.siva?u tiinali-i. (Repeat as above) 

There go slowly " my heart flame shine. 

Ill 

HaliAutii .sihungia wowosaiku tcutcuwutu, tanihaiAu imukai huiiga 

That our older brother first came out lands, topmost go that 

to walk 

tasi vahoma hiyava tcohinyu-u. (Repeat) 

very more here looks. 

*Tcutcuwuta tamhaiva himukai tanalika nyimoitangu hiyaAu 

Land topmost go shining my heart here 

vainhonyu-u. (Repeat as above) 

more. 

IV 
Tcuwonw raakahi * tcuwun^u makahi; wumatci papamo wuwumia 

Land magician, land magician; with angry with 

himukai vavakia sihainyingi tco-o. (Repeat as above) 

go ruins wasted make. 

Translation 

At early dawn I entered, 

Entert'ci in the white light of day. 
And my heart flamed with power 

As 1 entered the magic house. 

In the lofty feather house 

His magic is increasing, 
And he moves very slowly 

With the power in his heart. 

Elder Brother first came forth; 

Eliler Brother first came forth. 
And with his shining power 

Governed over all the land. 

Earth ^lagician became angry; 

Earth Magician became angry, 
And with his magic power 

He destroyed all the houses. 



328 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 20 



Sitcokai 

Black 

wopoiia-a. 

tie. 



vamarnatco, 

.sniike made, 



* sitcokai 

black 

(Repeat as above) 

VI 



vamainatco, hukanyi vavaki 

snake made, with I ruins 



Sitahai vamarnatco * hukatci vavaki wopona-a. 

White snake made with it niins tic. 

Kcsinanuinuinaka worsanvL'. (Repeat a.s above) 

That fears me go out. 

7'ranslation 

With a Black Snake I tic them; 

With a Black Snake I tie them, 
The houses with a Black Snake, 

The houses with a Black Snake. 

With a A^'hite Snake I tie them; 

With a White Snake I tie them. 
The liouse.s with a White Snake, 

The houses with a White Snake. 

ViKiTA Nvni, Down Song a 

[By Virsak Val-I] 



I 

Moadangi tamai monoi tcuvafigi teoteo. 

Mo'hatilk top many clouds .stand. 

Moandangi tamai momoi ikoinu wor.sii. 

Mo'hatflk top many fog arose. 

Haini tamai tcotco hoho. 

There top .stand. 

II 



(Repeat) 
(Repeat) 



Hiatat vinak sivai vuwLia. *Hiatat viimk 

Here we Uood bitter " wind. Here we flood 



(Repeat all; then 



.sivai yuwina; momoi 

bitter wind, iiianx' 

gaiiffatil nyuitco, momoi gafigata iivuiteo hoho. 

bows singing to, many bows singing to. 

repeat twice from*) 

Transldlion 

On the top of Mo'hatiik 

There are many clouilis stamling. 
On the top of Mc/hatiik 

^Many fog clouds are rising. 

The bitter wind blows on us; 

The bitter wind blows on us, 
As we sing with many bows. 



aVipinylm Hanyul, North People song. In the treatment of some swellings upon the liody the 
vipinylm songs are sung by a number of men, who at the same time perform a simple ceremony 
intended to assist in the cure of the patient. Retiring to a structure temporarily erected from pole's 
and sleeping mats, the participants, not necessarily medicinemen, make a number of images of 
animals and edible plants, which they take, one at a time, to the patient, and allow him to touch. 
After he has touched the object carried by each man in the party of singers they retire to get a 
second supply. This is repeated a number of times until the cure is supposed to have been com- 
pleted. 



BCSSELL] MEDICINE SONGS 329 

III 
Naiivi wot navitcho koiiisap iiaka taiiiaikatcini makalia]) 

I am Navitco you talk about laying IhniUKli 

put in.'a<l 

iiiiiitiota navitcho kabatc mulitco hobo. (Repeat as above) 

run Xavitfo like run. 

IV 
Yo-o.sa ikoiuiakabi. *yo-osa ikoiiiiakabi, yo-osa ikomiakahi rusursu[ 

Slicks cut. * sticks cut, ' sticks out . straight 

tcottimhu. (Repeat a.-* aboxc, ilant-ing) 

TrannlalloH 

Thougli I am a Navitco, 
I hear you talk about me. 

I thrust my head through the sky 
And with it I run away. 

Cut sticks, cut sticks, cut sticks straight. 

Nyavolt Nyai, Demox Song 
[By Virsak Vfll-I] 

I 

Kanirndak navafiga kuiida kaiiioiuoi nyunyui kaihima, *Kaim'iiclak 

Ku'matAk mountain in many ' songs listen, Kfi'matuk 

navafio-a kunda kamonioi nyunyui kaihima; kunda nyi nu:li.\aki- 

mountain in many songs listen; in I came rnnniiiK 

yakaimu muda.vu rsarsavaiku. (Repeat all; then repeat twice from*. 

sang within echoed. 

Sing four times) 

II 

Hodonyi.si miamunda uiursarsana, *hodonyisi mianiunda mursarsana; 

Evening close to foundations, evening close to foun(iatii>ti>; 

kunda kanyDnyawo|d an\-uyapaka hiya avaivaka nyinioina 

in 'demons appeared here came running uiysoul 

kiinangioniahimu. (Repeat as above) 

stripped. 

Triiiislation 

Singing; at Ka'matuk mountain; 

Singing at Ka'matiik mountain, 
I U.sten to their singing; 

I come running to mnn with tliem. 

Evening now is falling; 

Evening now is falling. 
And demons aiipeareil running 

To strip and expo.se my soul. 



330 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axx. L>6 

III 

Tcuvai Tanavaiiga muna nyunyukaimu. *Tcuvai Tanavafiira muna 

Tcuva Toak mountain in 'hole, Tcuvm Teak mountain in 

nj'unyu; kaimukunda nyunyukaimu, kunda nyhivaka uyuta, kunda 

hole; in hole in in ' I enter see. in 

kanyunyawo{(d) aimohiva. (Repeat as above) 

demons breath out. 

IV 

Nyunyawoi(d) i^-aliala, *hiya viiiAukahi, huAu.sya.siiigaui nyu 

Demons 'boys. here came running, nnin'y flowers me 

rsa-akima kukiinu kamomuinuka kaAukatcunyu^unda liuku naraanha 

grasp standing there tar hard 'hind that top 

nyoAapiinu uyiiuoitaiigu 3'ovaiya puihimu. (Repeat as above) 

bring me to my heart ' lift ' higher. 

lyanslation 

In a Santa Rita cave; 

In a Santa Kita cave, 
As I entered in the cave, 

I saw the l)reath of demons. 

Here demon lioys came running ; 

Here demon hoys came rtnining, 
Grasping my hair they carried ine. 

Brought me to a distant hind. 

WOAKA NVni, PUBERTr SONG 

[By Virsak VAM] 
I 

Aika piworsanymhu, aika piworsanymhu; *hukia tovatcoma 

Hurry come o'ut, hurry come out; already became 

yondohonyu katcokani rsarsavaikimu. (Repeat; then repeat from *. 

go down that night echoing. 

Sing- all four times) 

II 

Tcovak moli()f(i), *tcovak nioh()f(i); kiJsingu pivayu rsumatcona 

virgin woman, virgin «nman; sleepy not" iiiditYcrent 

iiamukai nyunarsuna-a liamukai, iiyunarsuna-a tcokangik yaitaiinu. 

there wake there. ' wake night 'think about. 

(Repeat all; then repeat from *) 

Traiisliilinii 

Come hurry forth, hurry forth. 

Already the echoing sounds 
Of darkness are heard around. 

The Virgin is not sleepy, 

She is wakeful through the night. 



BCSSELL] RAIN SONGS 331 

III 

Harsanj yiiniainaiigu. * harsany yaniainaiijfu: kadomia 'woissimu 

Giiint ' ' riii-tus brr)kL'ii. giant cartas bnikt-n; then* i>iK-(l 

kudafit^i' naluma iniawoitafigu wuvutcimu j'ovaiya muniuhuk 

ill tluTo featlKTs drop laying ' raise higher 

Matcipant yailii. (Repeat as al)ove) 

Ma-atcpat close to. 

IV 

Hali puiigr kavanyuk vany puitcokimr itali yoof(i) kakayaku 

Small that rumljliiig I ' carrying this 'woman heard 

vaplkakarsa itany tatajan kokokana hotc hairsa, hairsa. 

they not sleep this on feet there points nail broke, broke. 



Tcokafii^i inamahang-a woisi, tcokangi niamahanga woisi; koiiyi 

Night branch tliri)wn night branch thrown I 

down. down, 

suka wutca miiigi worsa, konyisuka wutca mingi worsa nyahanu 

in under there gone past, "l in under there gone past my feathers 

uiaikomia. 

cut off. 

TVanslation 

The Safruaro lies there broken; 

Anil my fallen feathers rise 
O'er the top of Table mountain. 

The boy stirred the rumbling stones; 

The woman heard and eiiuld not sleep. 
And niy toe nails are broken. 

The branehes of darkness fell, 
Cutting my feathers as I jiassed. 

RAIN SONGS 

Ho.\HIHIlF 

[By Ka'miil tkiik] 
I 

Hi-ihiyanaiho-o; *NyunyuT ivsanatcona, hanyunyui fsSnatcona; 

('.') Song commence. our song commence; 

havatumahiiinamu rsunateota, hitciya yahina-a. (Repeat from *) 

pleasing cniiiincncc, (?) ('( 

Ilaiigunfigunda onyoi nyiitcota, vatumahaiiiamu rsanatcota, hitci^ya 

Large com singing to, pleasing commence, ('.')* 

yahina-a. Iliya-ala onyoi nyiitcota: vatmiahainamu rsanatcota; 

(?) siuall corn ' singing to; pleasing commence: 

hitciva yahina-a. 

TrdTt^lal oil 

Hi-ihiya naiho-o 1 Let us begin our song, 
Let us begin, rejoicing. Hitciya yahina-a. 

Let us l)egin our song, let us begin, rejoicing, 
Singing of the large corn. Hitciya yahina-a. 

Singing of the small corn. Hitciya yahina-a. 



332 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[eth. axx. 26 



11 



Hi-ihiviuiiiiho-o, 

- (■■) 

nj'Uitco, yahaiva 

""sin^ to, all nroiiml 

Tiihaiva sia-aliila 

WliitL' (lawn 

inonanaka fiinivsu 

ta>ise]s wavilif^ 

kusimu kudavat 



tcunofli hononylna kusiiuil kudavat iaiiguta 

blue evening; drops in there ceremoiiial sticks 

monananka fiifiivai kuna-a, hitciya yahina. 

tassels waving there, (?) (?) 

kukiva kudavat iaiiguta nyuitco, yahaiva 

rises there ceremonial sticks 'sing to, 'all around 

kuua-a, hitciyti _yahina-a. Tcutani hononyiiia 

there, (?) ' ' (?) Bine evening 

iaiiguta nyuitco, yo-onyoi luundanaka fiifiivai 

drops in there ceremonial sticks sing to. corn tassels waving 

kuna-a, hitciya yahina. Tahaiva sia-aliiia kukiva kudavat iaiiguta 

there (?)' * I?) W'ljite dawn rises there ceremonial sticks 

nyuitco, ya-ali yaiiaka iiiiliviii kuna-a, hitciya j'ahina-a. 

'sing to, 'squash 'leaves waving there, (?) ' ' (?) 



Ill' 



Hi-ihiyanaiho-o, *tcuwuna niuiuunai, teuwuna raumunai; vatciki 

(?) earth rumbling. earth rumbling; we are 

, „ ■ „ -1 « 1 I noahi hitciya yahina-a. 

yoa iwuna; teuwuna mumunai; wusika ., ■{ , •' -^ 

•^ ' '2 nvoko-o 



basket sounding earth rumbling: 

(Repeat from *; then repeat all) 



evervwhere ' ■' •'""."''"g 
iM.r>Hnere ., j mining 



(■■•) 



{■;) 



I'rtnis/aliati 

Ili-ihiyu nailio-o ! The darkness of evening 

Falls as we siiiy; before the sacred anilna. 
About us on all sides corn tassels are waving. 

Hitciya yahina ! The white light of day dawn 
Yet finds us singing, while corn tassels are waving. 

Hitciya yahina-a ! The darkness of evening 
Falls as we sing before the sacred atnliia. 

About us on all sides corn tassels are waving. 
Hitciya yahina! The white light of day dawn 

Yet iinds us singing, while the squash leaves are waving. 

Hi-iya naiho-o! The earth is rumbling 

From the beating of our basket drums. 
The earth is rumbling from the beating 

Of our basket <lrumg, everywhere liumming. 
Earth is rumbling, everywhere raining. 



nSongnot accompanied with dancing. 



RUSSELLl RAIX SONGS 333 

IV 
Hi-ihiyanaiho-o, *Pahangu matcrvwena yopanha, sia-alifig-n 

("I Eagle Inst wing fuatliors " pull nut, ciist 

taiiio vayoliiiha jjufiguiia tcuwangiimta-a. hitciva vahina-a. Pahaiiga 

dlrirtion point nut large clciuds thire, C')' ' (■') Knglu 

vifiginga yopanha, lionoiiyfigu tafiio vayolinha; ya-ala ikoniainwka-a, 

soft iViUliers " [iullout, west direi'Iion i>mnl out; "small elouds tliere, 

hitciya yahina. (Repeat t'l-om *) Hanio vaki wuteo vanoaliiiiii- 

(?) ("I There house liehnv rumbling 

grfigufia oiiyoimuta-u. hitciya yahina-a. Haiuo vaki witco 

'.nrge "corn there, C') " " c') There house below 

vauyokonha, ya-ala onyoiiiiuta-a, hitciya yahina. 

'rainiug. * small Vorn there. ;".'i ' ' ^■.') 

Ili-iliiya naiho-n! Pluck out the feathers 

Friini the wing of the Ea^'le and turn them 
Tovvanl the east where lie the larj;e clouds. 

Hiteiya yahina-a ! Pluck out the soft down 
From the breast of the Eagle and turn it 

Toward the west where sail the small clouds. 
Hitciya yahina ! Beneath the abode 

Of the rain gods it is thundering; 
Large corn is there. Hitciya yahina! 

Beneath the abode of the rain gods 
It is raining: small corn is there. 

Ho-oNYi Nvai, Corn Song a 

[By Ki'mal tkakj 

I 

Hi-i-lo-o ya-a-a. Ta-aiua wus sinyuina \'ali kak aonyoi vworsanyu 

(?) (?) Who all seeing "that two eor"n standing 

ta-ama wus sinj'uina siko-oholi. hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Ta-tlma wu.s .sinyuiiia 

who all seeing young<-r brother, (?) " c'l Who all seeing 

3'alikak all wor.sanyv; ta-aiua wus sinyuina siko-oholi, hi-ilo-o ya-aa. 

that two squash standing; who all seeing younger brother, (?) " ('.'t 

Ta-atfikam hutaina onyoi vworsanj'U. tii-aina wus sinyuina .siko-oholi, 

Ta-atdkam that top"eorn standing. wlio all seeing younger brother, 

hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Ta-atfikaui luta-ania ali vworsan3-u ta-ama wus 

(?) C) Ta-atukam that top squash standing who all 

.sinyuina, siko-oholi, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. (Ended by singing hi-ilo-o 

s'eeing younger brother, (?) " (?) 

woiliB) 

Trajis/ctllfni 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! He who .sees everything 

Sees the two stalks of corn standing; 
He's my younger brother. Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! 

He who sees everything, sees the two squashes; 
He's my younger brother. Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! 

On the summit of Ta-atukam sees the corn standing; 
He's my younger brother. Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! 

On the summit of Ta-atiikam sees the squash standing; 
He's my younger brother. Hi-ilo-o woiha! 

a The first songs ever sung to bring rain. Ilo-onyl was the name of the Corn god who left the Pimas 
(or many years and then returned to live at the mountain north of Picacho, Ta-ati^kam, whence he 
sang as above. 



334 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. -la 

II 
Hi-ilo-o j^a-a-a. Ta-atvikam hu tanavaiigu tatamana tcuvwaki 

(?) (?) Ta-atiikam that mountain topmost clouds 

rsaika-a amanus sikai-itamu toahimu, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Ta-atukaiii hu 

suspended there makes very loud rumbling, (?) (?) Ta-atiikam that 

ttinuvangu tatamana hikoiii hu rsaika-a, ainafius sikai-itama tcokona, 

mountain top above clouds that suspended, there makes very loud raining, 

hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Tcu-unangi huvwatcona tcuwaki j'okanyi sanavwu 

(?) ' (?) Blue bluebird clouds holding there 

rsaika-a amafius sikaitamu toahimu, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. Sa-a-ham" hu 

suspended there makes very loud rumbling, t?) * (?) Yellow that 

vanyokona hikom ha yokanyi sanavwu rsaika-a, amanus sikaitama 

bird clouds that " holding there suspended, there makes very lou<l 

tcokona, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. 

raining, (?) ' (?) 

in 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. I-itai vahimo'ina huwunduka kahonu; Ta-atukam 

(?) (?) Elder Brother breathe out wind over there; Ta-atOkam 

hu ta-ama tcuwaki vo-orsa vasitimiihsiitamu toahimu, hi-ilo ya-a-a. 

that above clouds very pleasant to appear rumbling, (?) (?) 

I-itai vahinioina huwunduka kahonu; Ta-atukam hu ta-amu hikomu 

Elder Brother breathe out wind over there : Ta-atukam that above clouds 

rsaika vasitrmah^itama tcokona, hi-ilo-o j'a-a-a. Hami yuna, .sami 

suspended pleasant appear raining, (?) C^) There in, there 

yutda, hamanyi yolihina kanyu-u va.situmahaita-amu toahimu, hi-ilo-o 

in. there me stay sing very pleasant ajipears rumbling, (?) 

ya-a-a. Hami yuna, sami yutda, hamanyi yolihina kanyu-u vasitu- 

(?) There ' in, there * in, there me ' stay sing pleasant 

mahaita-ama tcokona, hi-ilo-o ya-a-a. (hi-ilo-o woibB) 

to hear again raining, (?) ('.') 

Tra>isl<ilion 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! Over Ta-atukam 

Ri.se the clouds with their loud thundering. 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! Over Ta-atiikam 

Rise the clouds with their loud raining. 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! The Bluebird is Imlding 

In his talons the clouds that are thundering. 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! Yellowhinl is holding 

In his talons the clouds that are raining. 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! See Elder Brother 

Breathe out the winds that over Ta-atiikam 
Brive the clouds with their loud thundering. 

Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! See Elder Brother 
Breathe out the winds that over Ta-atukam 

The welcome storm clouds are suspending." 
Hi-ilo-o ya-a-a! In the great rain clouds 

Let me sing my song of rejoicing. 



a sa-a-ham from S^-am, is a Sonora Papago word. 



BPSSELL] WAE SONGS 335 

WAR SONGS 

Rs.i'i Ny.u, 8THAK1IIT Song a 

[l!y \'irsak Vul-1] 

I 

Hilii tcotcok siiyafioaiiiii iivunyuwunda tama numx^lva aihivaihi 

That liliick siiiiily Inml top cnme rumiiiig (?) 

vutaiiguvi. (Repeat) 
Tama numulva aihivaihi vutaiigruvi. (Repeat) 

Top came running (?) (?) 

II 

Hihi hiiiiteo himtco. himteo, vitco taiig-uvi himtco, vitco taiisjuvi. 

That shovo shove, shove, (?) (?) shove, (?) (?) 

(Repeat) 

Liho liho li yawoine siliyo 3'awoinc .sikvo apiatama sikvo tano-uvi 

_ P) CO (■•') (?) (V) (?) (?) you also (?•/ (?) 

apiataiiia sikyo taiiguvi. (Repeat) 

(?) {■') (?) 

Ill 

Haiia okolrsanihi maoli kiyan taiiffuyi. (Repeat) 
o", (?) ^ (?) (?) a) •' ^ ^ ' 

Takiwo^a nyihali moakahi hopama u[kana .sitaiui mtiikana r.sene 

That was slave kiUeil skin empty strip off stretch soften (?) 

rsolihive tafiu-uvi. (Repeat) 

(?) ■ (?) 

TraiisUitidii 

Over that black sandy land, 

Over the top came running, 
Over the top came running. 

The Apache slave \va.s killed 
And his hide tanned for leather. 



•>Sung on returning victorious from war. The singers dance and shake gourd rattles. This is 
believed to be a very old song original with the I'imas. 



336 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. :;e 

WoLUTA Nvni, Tie Songo 
[By Virsiik Val-1] 



Tanahali vavanyimhu yanama hiyava tcimyivia hiyava iiyinyivia 

shining r<iw man TuTe t-ame here ciime 

kanyhuina tcokangiku j'atsiny j-ahatcimu. (Repeat four times) 

see diirknt'ss "here me collected. 

II 

Panai yaliaji kavahauda kikitaka kuuda tcoiuu narsawopimu vanyu 

Coyote young shield house in there sat I am 

ingi sahai mundateoma ihinaha kimu. (Repeat four times) 

like in there shouting. 

m 

Panai yaha^i tcokaiigi yawolima vuvuikanyi vanyi raulimu kuda 

Coyote " young darkne.ss tied toward me leading me in 

manyoapa hanava nyi wukangi yavatcukia kiiigi kahimuna. (Repeat 

brought lue there me around cigarettes four departures. 

four times) 

Miihyal uavafiga kuka tamai virsaku yanyi Aumukai niuiida tcoma 

Mahyal mountani standing top hawk here me with in there 

putahaliimu. (Repeat four times) 

flop. 

Translation 

Here the warrior, Shining-row, 

Came and saw the iiight around me. 
Young Coyote made a sliield house 

And he sat in it shouting, 
And that was pleasing to me. 

Young Coyote tied tlie darkness; 
The cigarettes were passed around. 

Four times when he led me there. 
The Hawli on Maliyal mountain'' 

Stood with me beating his wings. 

a Sung on return from an .\pache campaign at the time when the hair of the enemy is tied by the 
aged companion appointed for each successful warrior. 

'•Mahyal is the Pima name of the mountains about Silver King. 



BHSSELL] WAR SONGS 337 

Ma-at'k' Nv.ii, ScALF Song" 
[By Virsak Vai-1] 

I 

Siyalingu tannfio yatamu taiwonyu, *sivalingu tanjfio yiitaniu 

Ktist dirtM-ii<iii man arose. east direclioii * man 

tiiiwonyu; kuliuwusi ya.sikamu nyiivatcuki vain' nanamu koiiia 

arose; kind of ' Howers cigarettes I ^ meet there 

hakuiiia hanyu. (Repeat all: thiMi repeat twice from*) 

smoliiug. 

II 

Navamoku nyaka, navamoku nyakatci, iiganiova mrka mundiThuna. 

Dnink false said. drunk me about said. tiiere far running. 

(Repeat) 
* Rsaiiigal anyimoinaiiga wuwumu navamo Kakandaku nanhrivangu 

I'itifuV " my soul witb drunk Crooked mouutain 

yailiiinu. (Repeat twice fiom*) 

moving toward. 

Ill 

Kaino nya himuna, * kaino nya himuna; kcsi Auiigiomi niivaita 

There 1 go, tliere I go: kind of reddish litiuor 

nyitcona pia nyiki navamok r.sakahli muuiuhulimu. (Repeat twice 

i caused not me drunk stagger run. 

to drink 

from *) 

IV 

Yahiindu kavinyik, *\'ahandu kavinyik; kunda tgali nyohonyoiAU 

Sandy bill.' "" sandy bill' in kind of ' vulture 

taiwonyuk liana vany wukany tcuwut }amu tanahali. (Repeat all; 

come out there my around land on siiining. 

running , 

then repeat twice from*) 

There arose in the East Land 

One whom I met there .smoking 
Flowerlike cigarettes. 

Running dazed and falsely speaking 

Pitiable and faint-hearted 
I feel at ( 'rooked mountain. 

There I'm going, there I'm going. 

I have to drink the liquor 
That makes ine stagger as I run. 

Vulture arose from Sandy hill 
Shining upon the land around. 

a Accompanied by dancing. 
26 ETH— OH 24 



338 THE PIMA INDJANS tETH:iAS«i ?? 

\r.Y>l 'aVA-A.!/". 
Kiikainaki takutat makaiiiga tctr, * kakamaki takutat makaiiiga 

Gray spider magician lind, gray spider magician 

tcu; kusi tcopoliiua kihata makai nyahafiga, liaiya, hiya, hi}-aka hiniu. 

find; kjjid of squarely , lU^a ki&ha. magiciam ' lie said, ^"j . (?) , ,(?) ., (J) 

(Kepeat as above) ■ ,.„, ■ „„„„ „„,„'• ,„„%.^i,, "^ mn^ 

iuiioA ijuijid^ii Yiifiv ! XVimiiilicifiV^ j?.uv/:jii;nl rj'tnov/inJ 

Kaliova hinakimu *kaliova iiinakimu; yatciAu tixvanga wntca;v;f 

Up there shouting. up there shouting; ' ' Atci lull ' under ' 

liinakimu yatam hawus am rsiiika AukaiU-una. (Repeat a.s above) 

shouting people all there poor said. 

J. mill 
The Gray Spider iiiagieiaii 

uiojauom bsiooHe is indieedta magician. " I'.ajm " Ttiiiii 

~, , ,. .. "''l ■jij' i jseqaSi) .uiiiiiiij;/ 

They are shouting, tliey are shouting, ' .biav/oj vhItocI 

Around the hill of Atci. 
The poor people there are shouting 
iiJiJiVUd iiSiQioii\U- ^A^thenevygofba^taecoiftef. ,:,rHiml u'ln oUiuA 

. , . C7\ Ko-TtDlu Ha-akam NYni, (?) Olla Sonq(« 

O'jiY/j Jijaqail) . jmirjii juiuui ui\R-Aiye-f Mouuvmn iHi\a Biq sii\' 

.am [By^jktftcu] inrjib stu lou 

I (*ino'ii 
Patamahimu, patamahimu, vapi yaijima tciviahimu nangusi 

\N'herc going, where going, not quick come 1 guess 

ytJkiyopai mbkOnatii^ ' ' mtohiAupS kftma .hyova"'ktJkimUk •lilaya 

already somewhere die - fire like thete distant ■'' stand. .:■'' (?) 

•Biail6-J'iniAhe. ■ (R^tofeat aidJlibA'-'"'J^i -^niiiljv/ (jiui haud iluv 

II *' 

(*ino-f'i oohri iaaqoi tindi 
Namu tany yavany hitconaki yo-osi kokapu vany naki-hiya. 

You dome raven to make tree top me ' liang. 

(Repeat ad lib.) .^ „; 9^,^^ 3,.„n 

. \rhi T ttioiifi 'I'll I 

Kanofigali vavai tanTTn(d){imi^ ''''y'dy'i liaputhifigi rsaitc unda 

Far down rocks shining woman yon grass in 

yafigitaka iiiuiidukai .sarnu taiuai paliaiigu iiamuku kakuvihimu. 

Iiide run there' " "top"""' ^"ikgli"'' meet whipping. 

(Repeat ad lib.) .nU-.uujoia tejlo.n') u ■. ' • 

.. Translation 

.vnjoi> Hi i ■'■1 >il ; villi I 

Now where is he, /where is he, , 

That he has not already (jflnajejti 
Yes, I fear that he has been killed. 

Ye,i^.}iiiwg ,the Itave;! trophie^ , , 

_ On a poleand dancedjaround them. 

Amid the rocks of the mountain 

The women tried to hide themselves; 
But the men ran and killed them. 

aWhon the Pimas were victorious the women sang these songs at the moment of liearing the 
first news from the runners that came in advance of the war party. 



UISSKLL] 



SPEECHES 



339 



Speeches 



Set speeches which recited portions oi the cosmogouical mj-tii were 
a feature of many ceremonies and were especially important in the 
preparation for war. They were slightly adapted for each occasion 
but their general content remained the same. Highly figurative 
language is used and in consequence it is exti'emely difficult to obtain 
even an approximately correct translation. The free translation 
offered is the result of many discussions with the older men. 

In the ten speeches here given reference is made to the following 
deities, magicians, etc. : 



Elder Brother. 
Earth Doctor. 
Soutli Doctor. 
Vulture. 
Talkinit Tree. 
Sun. 

Gray Gopher. 
Black, Blue, and 

Mocking-bird. 
Kuvlk. 
Gray Spider. 
Blue Gopher. 



White 



Black, Blue, Ked, and 
^Vhite Measuring 
Worm. 

Liglitning Magician. 

Thuixler Magician. 

Wind ^Magician, 

Foam Magician. 

Sinking Magician. 

Vakolif Magician. 

Vikilrskam. 

Nasia. 

Old Woman Magician. 



White, Blue, Black, and 

Yellow Dragonfly. 
Yellow S|iider. 
D.iwn Roll. 
Yell(3\v Kaven. 
Bluebird. 
Yellow Bird. 
Mountain. 
Mocking Bird. 
Blue Coyote. 
Black Kangaroo Mouse. 
Owl. 



ELDER BROTHEK AS UK UESTORED HIMSELF TO LIFE 

You people desired to capturo Elder Brother so that 30U might 
destroy him. You secured the assistance of Vulture, who made a 
miniature earth; j-ou saw him at his home engaged in this work. He 
shaped the mountains, defined the water courses, placed the trees, and 
in four days completed his task. Mounting the zigzag ladders of his 
house" he flew forth and circled about until he saw Elder Brother. 
Vulture saw the blue flames issuing from Elder Brother's heart and 
knew that he was invulnerable. In his turn Elder Brother knew that 
Vidture wished to kill him and had made the miniature earth for that 
purpose. 



Komtava Sis Makai 

You wore Elder Brother intigiciaii 

tcukitc aitk' si-imaitatcotk' am 



pada 

ill 



placed by 
him 

t<'otcoatc 

hamiiwdrk 

rsorsoki 

water 



followed very many plans there 



ilitidv tatcoa. 

plan desired. 

ap tcu-uma-a. 



right 



eovered. 



It tcuwci 

This land 

It ta-iita-ak 

This mouDtJLins 



iirtk si-imiiitatcotk am sap ko-oki 

followed \ery many plans there rieht tips. 

tatoatc altk si imaitcotk am s ap 

placeil foUowoil very many plans there right 

ku-ursatc aitk' si-imaitatcotk am sap ko-oki . 

put followed very many plans there right tips. 

himitcotk' am tcoikii kopal hutculwoitc. Ka-am katckahimitc am 

pushed there elsewhere turned down slide. There remains there 



It rsarsanukam 

This springs 

tcu-uma-ii. It os 

covered. This tree 

Am ki-ik'ha tcux 

Tliere four times bounce 



a Tile ruin a few miles south of Tempe. 



340 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. L'G 

Elder Brother, as he reg^ained consciousness, rose on hands and feet 
and swayed unsteadilj- from side to side. He thought of the world 
about him and it seemed l)ut a barren waste around him; as he 
recov'ered from his bewilderment he saw the true condition of things. 

Looking about him he saw a river toward the west along which 
grew arrow bushes. From these he cut four magic sticks; placing 
his hand on these he blew cigarette smoke over them, whereupon 
magic power shone forth from between his lingers. He was much 
pleased with this and laughed softly to himself. He rubbed his magic 
bag of buckskin four times with each of the four sticks and then put 
them in and tied it. He then arose and stamped down all mortal 
magicians and even ground his own house into the earth. He stamped 
upon the orator, the warrior, the industrious, and the provident 
woman, and crushed them down. Then he sank beneath the surface 
of the earth. He reappeared in the east and made from the point of 

utcukita. Ka^si-itatakrsk' ivam(pi) am uvwukatc inyunhak tcum 

it life. With his hands raised there around look he 

nyui avapi hukam haitco kanhastcoik. It wusk ap tcum 

8aw not them thing fami//ar. This all that he 

umatciamahimuk piunaka. Im ho^in3'ik woi AattJva kus tcutaki 

it ponder fails. In west toward lay kind of blue 

uAamatuta hokit am woihyamuk am pui vatak os. Am 'ki-ik 

snake beside there went to there catch wet tree. There four 

hikomiak am rwutca toak am sikommo. Kotak tiinalikatc am 

cut there under placed there conjure. That rays there 

maorsatiikit siwoAak towe katcim tctrwu'; tam am kokoAa. Towe 

between the finger-s opposite fixed country on there reach. Opposite 

katcim tcuwu; maska olt'; towe tcotcim ta-ata-ak Aupukiomitk 

fixed country clear remains; opposite fixed mountains reddish 

tcotcoa. Tak hap tcoikam tcom nyuitok am rta tcorsal ihuhumia. 

made and That this thing he ' .saw there in murmur laugh, 

erected. 

Im hoqinyik takio tcut ihimitc kus tcok uka-amhaiAakita. Huk 

In wes't direction from pushed kind of black his haze. That 

hukatc itakihonuk uta pimaska iolinuk sa-api ita-iitan. Im katcim 

with strip in invisible hold manner made. In laying 

takio ihimitc kus ta-at'ki' ukii-amhaiwakita huk hukatc isita-akiiionuk 

direction pushed kind of blue his haze that with strip thoroughly 

uta piriiasksi iolinuk sa-ap ita-atan. 

in invisible stay hold manner made. 

Im sialik takit) tcut ihimitc kus tantam ukahaiAakita huk hukutc 

In east direction from pushed kind of white his haze that with 

sitakihoni'ik uta pimaska iolinuk sa-ap itatan. It tutainu tcut ihotony 

strip in invisible hold manner made. This above from down 

kus tcutaki uka-amhaiAakita huk hukutc sita-akihonuk uta i^imaska 

kind of blue hi.s haze that with strip in invisible 

iolinuk sa-ap itatan. Im ho^inyik takio tcut himitc kus tcoak 

hold manner made. In sunset direction from pushed kind of black 

UAamatutak huk hukutc islAotk' nata. Im katcim takio tcut 

his snake that with it tie finish. In laying direction from 

ihimitc kus ta-at'ki' uAamatiltak huk hukutc isivotk nata, Im 

pushed kind of blue his snake that with it tie finish. In 

sialik takio tcut ihimitc kus tantan uAamatutak' huk hukiitc 

east direction from pushed kind of white his snake that with 



EDSSELi.] SPEECHES 341. 

emergence a transparent trail to the place where he had gone down. 

AV)()Ut the base of liis niouiitain.s the water began to seep forth; 
entering, he came out with spirit refreshed. Taking all waters, even 
those covered witli water plants, he dipped his hands in and made 
downward passes. Touching the large trees he made downward 
sweeps with his hands. Going to the place where he had killed Eagle 
he sat down looking like a ghost. A voice from the darkness asked, 
"Why are you here T' He answered that notwithstanding all that he 
had done for them the people Jiated him. Renewing his power four 
times in tiie east at the place where the sun rises, he blew his hot 
breath upon the people, which like a weight held them where they 

isivotk' nata. It tutamu tcut ihotiny kus tcu-utaki L'Aamatatuk 

til' lliiish. This nljovi.' from down kind of bl\K' liiv miiiI;i' 

huk hukutc isivotk' nata. Am ivorsanyuk am siukuirs. Ava 

that ^vith tie tinish. There arose there stamp on. It was 

hrpai taha kus makait'kam a-atam kotak am sikuihitcony ata-am 

where sitting having powers people that there stamp down ' then 

of magician 

pai-itc siukuirs. Ava hupai taha kus nyitikam a-atam kotak am 

further stamp on. It was where sittiitg kind of "^orator .man that tliere 

sikuihitcony ata-am pai-itc si-ikuirs. Ava hupai taha kus siakam 

slump down " then furtlier stamji on. Then where sitting kind of brave 

a-atam tak am sikuihitcony, avawot iwus taam siukuirs.- .\va hupai 

man that there stamp down, it was last then stJimp down. Then where 

tahaku of"i stcopoihitukam ku of'i stcotcukitukam kot huk 

sitting kind of woman energetic gathers kind of woman stored that tliat 

hawunatk' am sikuihitcon3'itk' am tco-opi'. Am kamalm miarspahimuk 

together there stamp down there sank. There thin cover with earth 

sialik takio ma-akanyik am tcut kus tantam uAakita itfu. Kus 

east direction eruption there from kind of white hLs trail put up. Kind of 

ku-uku-uitam ta-ata-ak tcotcoatc ursarstui ap vapa-aAany. Huk wusk 

large mountuins made and its ba.ses there seeping. * That all 

erected 

uta vap'ki'hitc hukutc huk uiputak ivaositahim. Ksarsanukam 

in enters and returns with that his soul moisten. Springs 

rsorsoki ttitoatc haakia nanukatcoikam mamathat katcp ui intc 

water placed many various water plants with it covered 

wuo(f)utck huk wusk ut mawopitc hukutc huk ui-iputak ivaositahim. 

lays that all in dips with that his soul wet. 

Kus ku-ukutam o-os tcotcoatck huk wusk ap mawopitc hukatc 

Kind of large trees made and erected that all there dipped with 

huk uiputiik ivaositahim. ^^ataAa tcuma-ti huku Pa-ak umoa-akut 

that his st.»ul wet. Therefore cover at Eagle he kill 

woitcotk' pitcimuk woitcotk napatoAak vi-itckut tcoik tcivia. Hastco 

straight to go around straight to sitting (?) resembles came. What 

puhimutk' tciviak vi-itckut tcoik'tc' tcivia. Hi-iks, nanypini akit 

grasp came ('.') resemblance came. Yes, I thus tuld 

spathiilitk' tatcoa tcuwuj ttcuki humata tarsa. Ta-am sialik woa 

think evil desires <'ountry for me placed human set. There cast toward 

ki-ik aprsars, AataAa tcu-uma-a tius tcutcrsatckut ki-ik ap (m)aitain 

four renewals, therefore reached sun place of <'oming up four there groups 

kavatltk' ki-ik ap (m)aitam tcutanj'. AvaAiit kuir.spakutatc wus ka.s 

hollow four there groups thud. It was stepping place all over 

huwulhakitiik wus kas tcuAakitak tcum pipapak i huk uta ap 

windy all over clouiiy not slowly that in there 



342 



THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ax.n. 26 



were. He accompanied the 81111 on his journey, traveling along the 
south border of the trail where there was a fringe of beads, feathers, 
strings of down, and flowers/' He jerked the string holding these so 
that they fell and made the magicians jump. In the north he saw a 
trail bordered like the one in the south and overturned it. 

On his journey along the Sun's orbit Elder Brother came to Talking 
Tree. "Why do you come like a ghost?" asked Tree. He replied, 
"Notwithstanding all I have done for the people they hate nie." Tree 
broke one of its middle branches and cut a notch around it to form a 
war club and gave it to him. Then Tree broke a branch on the south 
side and made a bundle of ceremonial sticks from it for him. He saw 
a trail toward the south and another toward the north liordered with 
shells, feathers, down, and flowers, which he overturned. 



takuirspan Titco kotak uta ap siukuirs. Avawot takrspakiitatc wos 

enougli result that in there stamp. II was plaee for hand his all 

kas huvuhakitak wus kas tcuAakitak tcompipapak i liuk uta apta 

over windy all over cloudy if not slo\vly that in ilii-re 

taki'spam utco kotak uta ap si-itakrs. Am iAorsanyik koiwoa 

may put the hand . that in there put his hand. There arose about to 

result throw down 

i-ipoiAoak koiwoa itak tc kowa paitcok koiwoa i-ipoiwoa koiwa 

breath nbont to shoved further about to breath aljout to 

throw down throw down throw down 

itakk tc'kowa. Am pai-itcok koiwa i-ipoiwoak koiwa itakk'tc' koiwa 

shoved. There further about to breath about to .shoved about to 

^ throw down throw down throw down. 

Avawot iwurs ta-am i-ipoiwoak koiwa itakk'tc'kowa. Avawot uta 

It was final there breath about to shoved, It was in 

throw down 

katcim vakitatc kotak iai katcim takio vakitatc wus kas pavokatak 

main route that follow laying direetion route all over n'ecklaee 

WUS kas nahakisitak a-an kiatuta hokituk vi-ik kiatuta hokitiik os 

all over earrings feathers string side down string eiige tree 

hiktc'ka hiasitastc hokituk kak sivante koAalc sikopal woihiin. 

short piece llower stuck edge that drags jerks facedown thrown, 

on 'irtilicial 

Nanuk i ait takio vakitatc wus kas pavokatak wus kas nahakiatak 

North field direction route all over n'ei-khiees all over earrings 

a-an kiatuta hokitak vi-ik kiatuta hokituk os hikutc'ka hiasitastc' 

feathers strings edge down strings edge tree short piece flowers stuck on 

artificial flowers 

hokituk kak sihopanytc. 

edge that uproot. 

Sitcuxhim teotahim. Kahupai taha kus makait'kam Ti-atam 

Jumping high continue. Where set kind of having powers of man 

magician. 

kak am sitcuxhim teotahim. A^ta^'* tcu-uraaa ku nyiakutam os. 

that tliere jumping high continue. Tlierefore roach kind of ' Talking Tree. 

Woitcotk pitcimuk woitcotk' napatoAak viitckiit tcoik'tc' tci\'ia. 

straight to go around straiglit to sitting (?) rescmlilcs came. 

Hastco puihimutk' tciviak viitckut tcoik'tc' tcivia. Hi-iks, nanypim 

What grasp came (?) resembles came. Yes, Ithtistold 

akit "spathalitk' tatcoa tcuwuj ttcuki humata tarsa. P'ata kaitam 

think evil desires country for me human set. So noise 

placed 

a ** Wood shavings." 



BBssBti] -■■•'' SPEECHES 



343 



■^'i!Att'i\''ing at the drinkinff place of the Sun he knelt down in the 
trti*<ks made by the Sun to drink, and saw a dark-lthie stone." He 
left there the arrow-bush oeremonial sticks containing his enemies? 
power, but retained in his grasp the sticks cut from Talking Tree. 
Toward the soutli were strewn necklaces, earrings, feathers, strings of 
down, and flowers, all of which he jerked and threw face down. 
Toward the north he threw down the same oltjects. and as they struck 
the earth they caused the magicians to jump. Reaching the place 
where the sun sets he slid down four times before he reached the 
place where Earth Doctor lived. i .ij... .: JH'! • 

'• Why do you come looking like a ghost?" asked the god. "Not- 
withstanding all that I have done for them the people hate mo," he 
answered. By Earth Doctor's order the wind from the west caught 
him up and carried him far tq., the east, then brought him hack and 
threw- him violently down. .; tei . >iThe south wind carried him to 



ixiuiem'^M^Si TJla kBl<am' V^okatc i^"^ IdoAlt'katk' ap U 

said it was in standing stalt that right cut around there more 

kamurspitc' avawot kasivoltatc tiik ap vanytc k ku sialik 

carry on the rnmi. it was i-hrysalis tbat^ there iduek kind oi^ east^, 

Auklomilikatc wus ka itaklhonuk Aunatk' ap isi kamurspitc iivawof 

dawn all over strip with it there more carry on the rump it was 

ulutatc" kas siam tcokiit matsik ak'tc' korsa ip' takitcony vi-ikam 

skin how proper owl hot>k call nape persist shove reinanider 

ap isi kakamhaitckatat. Im mot katchn takio mamhakatc 

there more cut cheek hair. In this directwn hiving direction l^ranch 

tak ap molinuk siam simiua vupatk' sikapitckatk' rsak. Avawot 

that there hreiik right ceremonial like sticks bound hold. It was ^ 

uta katcim vakitatc kotak iai katcim takio vakitatc wus kas 

in laying route that follow laying direction route all over 

pavokatak wus kas nahakiatak a-an kina-atuta hokituk vi-ik kiatuta 

necklaces all over earrings feathers strings edge ^ down strings 

hokituk OS hikutc'ka hiasitastc hokituk kak sivante koAatc sikopal 

edge tree ;■ cut stuck up edge that pull by jerking facedown 

artificial flow 

woihim. Nanuki Sit takio Aakitfitc wTJs Jsas jmyokatak wus ka« 

lay. .\orth ticl.i direction route all over iicckliiees all over 

nahakiatak a-an kiatuta hokituk vi-ik kiatuta hokituk os hikitc'ka 

earrings feathers strings edge down strings edge tree sh.^n .Mit ^ 

hiasitastc' hokituk kak sihopauytc' sitcu.xliim tcotahim. Ka liupai 

stuck up edge that uproot jumping high continue. Where where 

artificial flow 

taha kus nyakam a-atam kak am sitcuxhim tcotahim. A'lta-va 

setting kind of talking man that there jumping high continue. Therefore 

tcu-uma-a ku tars i-Ikut rsotaki' kaot tan woikotat<; wus kas 

reach kind of sun drinking place water that was knee place lor kneeling all over 

huwulhakitak wis kas tcu.vakitak. Tcum pipapaki huk uta apta 

windy all over cloudy. Not slowly that in there 

tan woim utco tak uta ap sitanwoa. Kaot takrspakotatc wus kas 

up knee not put result that in there stamp knee. That wa.s handhold all over 

huAulhakitak wus kas tcuAakitak. Tcum pipapaki huk uta apta 

windy all over cloudy. , .Not slowly that ^iii higher 

takrspam utco tak uta ap si-Jtakrs. Am i-itwmialkatk' am i. 

may place hand result that in , there puthand. There , he stooped there drink 

^ '^ ■ I , 1 I • » ' /i J 1 1- 1 1 • > ' H 1 1 : . ' t ; . !.■ • /^ -^ - . > I'tit i ' 

aSquare, rough edged; causes consum^ftlOTi'if one finds It and does hot properly'care for It. 



344 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. a.n.n. 26 

the north; the east wind carried him to the west; the wind from the 
zenith carried him to tlie sky ; ail returned to throw him violently down. 
From his cigarette containing two kinds of roots Earth Doctor blew 
smoke upon the breast of Elder Brother, whereupon green' leaves 
sprang forth and he gained consciousness. Earth Doctor cleared the 
ground for a council and then picked up Elder Brother as he would 
have taken up a child and put him in his house. 

Earth Doctor sent Gray Gopher up through the earth to emerge in 
the east by the white water where lay the eagle tail. He came out by 
the black water where lay the raven feathers. He came out Ijy the 



Am tcom nyui kuk trta am kuk stcu-utaki hatai tapinya. Kot 

There he saw that in there stand blue stone smooth. That 

huk wutca am maorsk am taklthii huk ^-aps' kam uamina. 

that under there thrust in there relinquish that enemies' power short sticks. 

Nyiakutam os uamina viak huk rsa-ak iai. AAawot uta katcim 

Talking tree short sticks left that grasp he followed. It was in laying 

vakitatc kotak iai katcim takio vakitatc wus kas payokatak wus 

trail that he follow laying direction trail all over necklaces all 

kas nahakiatak a-an kia-atuta hokitak vi-ik kiatuta hokitvk os 

over earrings feathers strings .sides down strings edge tree 

hiktc ka hiasitastc' hokitvk kak sivanitckovatc sikopai woihim. 

short sticks artificial edge that jerks face down thrown. 

Na-anki' ait takio vilkitatc' wus kas payokatak wus kas nahakiatak 

North field direction trail all over liecklaces all over earrings 

a-an kiatuta hokitvk vi-ik kiatuta hokitvk os hik'tcka hiiisitastc' 

feathers strings edge down strings edge tree shortcut artificial 

hokitvk kak sihopanytc' sitcuxhim tcotahim. Kahrpai taha ku8 

edge that uproot jumping high going. Where sitting kind of 

siakaiii a-ataiu kak am sitcuxhim tcotahim. AataAa tcu-uiiiii-a 

brave man that there jumping high going. Tlicrefore reach 

ku taJs hotokot ki-ik ap miiitam sutapionvtc katc kotak iiitk' 

kind of sun every other four there groups smooth"" lav that followed 

evening 

ki-ikha itapionyik imho tuAutca s papaki tcu ku sis makai. 

four times slides there us under slowly discover kind of older brother 

magician. 

Woitcotk' pitcinik' woitcotk' napatoAak vi-itckut tcoi-ik'tc' tcivia. 

straight to go around straight to sit flat (?) resembles came. 

Hastco puihimut'k' tcivia, hastco puihimiit'k' tcivia, hastco piiiliimi'it'k' 

What do jdu wish to get come, what do you wish to get eome, what do you wisli m get 

tcivia, hastco puihiniut'k' tciviak vi-itckut tcoik'tc' tcivia. Hi-iks, 

come, what do you wish to get came (?) resembles came. ■ Yes, 

nanypim akit spathiilitk' tatcoa tcuvu^ nytcuki humata tarsa p'ata 

1 thus told think evil desires land for'me placed people set he .-aid 

kaitam tcutcu. Ata-im ho^inyik takio tcut aitktcut tcivia. 

noise said. Far in west direction from after came. 

Im sialik woi tcuxhimtcotk' sialik parsiiinatkitk' opaui tarsowa im 

In east toward jumping high east turn back near home set in 

katcim takiotcut aitktcut tcivia. Na anki ait woi tcuxhimtcotk' 

laying direction from follow came. North Held toward jumping higli 

na-anki' ait parsiiipatkltk' opam tarswoa. Im sialik takiotcut 

nurtli tield turn back near home set. In east direction 

iiitk tcut tcivia. Ho^inyik woi tcuxhimtcotk' hojinyik parsJiinatkitk' 

follow came, ^ West toward jumping higli west turned back near 

opam tarswoa. It tamutcut aitktcut tcivia. Tarn atciiii woi 

home set. Here above follow came. Top sky toward 



RUSSELL] 



SPEECHES 345 

blue water where lay the hluebircrs feathers. Ho came out by the 
yellow water where lay the hawk featln'rs. He found so many people 
that he feaied they could not be conciuered. But he j^nawed the niajjic 
power of their leader until he weakened it. Then he returned to the 
council in the nether world, where his power as a majjician was recog- 
nized, and he was placed on a mat witli Elder Brother. 

The people were now ready to do whatever Elder Brother desired of 
them and, like tierce predatory animals or raptorial birds, tlicy poured 
out of the underworld and fell upon the inha})itants of the upper 
world, whom they conquered without difficulty. The victors swept 

tcuxhimtcotk taui atcim parsainatkitk' opam tarswoa haapatavaita-ata. 

bmmcling top sky turiu'ii hark iienr home set (ioiio. 

An wukaU- huk tcuwu; itakiomk hastcojirs ali wuputk' ikanulk huk 

TlKTi- iirounil thai land sirippfd icsuiiiljUs young make like hoUl that 

uta am tarswoa. Kawot ku kakai t<ax ajitcikitc" pawois tax a.iitcikitc 

ill tluTc «'t. That was kind of Khost root cifarette his pawois root eisarette his 

kotak ap parsa i-ipuihuiAoa kota siam riAakitat kavaot kus kamaki 

that there near lie piifted that right left it was kind of gray 

tcufha rsiiikatc kotak ap inu'ik rsarsoa. Kota am tcopinyk am sialik 

gopher pet that there my ery. That there sank tliere east 

takio ma-akanuk am kis tantam rso-otaki' tcu. Ku Pa-ak pahiwoa 

direction pop out there kind of wliite water discov- Kind of Eagle tail 

ered. 

katc am simairsk tcu. Am pai-itc tcopinyik am ma-akanvik am kus 

lay there covered placed. There further sank* there pop out there kind of 

tcok rso-otaki' tcu. Kv haAany a-an katc Hiairsk am tcu. Am 

blai;k water discov- Kind of raven feathers lay covered there placed. There 

ered. 

pai-itc tcopinyk am ma-akanvk am kus tcu-utaki rsotaki tcu. 

further sank there pop out ' there kind of blile water discov- 

ered. 

HuAatcot a-an katc nairsk am tcu. Am pai-itc tcopinyk am 

Bluebird feathers lay covered there placed. There further sank there 

ma-akanvk am kus soam rso-otaki tcu. Ku Aatcokok a-an katc 

pop out" there kind of yellow water discov- Kind of hawk feathers lay 

ered. 

mairsk am tcu. Am tcopinvk am ma-akanyk am ikoatcitk am 

covered there placed. There sank" there jiop out " there look around there 

tcum nvui. It Aakuta katcim pipapaki hastco katc tcoitcini tcoi-ik. 

he saw. This trail laying not slowly what lay niann.-r thing. 

Avak tcom sitairstc takatk' u-ulit huk makai. Kota am wukate 

They firmly seated think that magician. That there ' around 

katcim na-ankil tcoi-itckatc sisarsprd ki-ikomia. Puk am opam 

laying all belongings short bite oil. Took there home 

tcopi'. Ki-ik ap ma-akanvk makai na-ata tcu-umiik hokit an takita. 

sank. Four there pop out " magician tire covered beside release. 

S'makai-itakam a-atam vaksitk' tain tarswoa. Tak uta huk isi 

Powerful magician man placed for on set. There in that ready 

kuirsk kukiAak nyui Aiapiiku-ulika tcuwu;a niututam UAupjlki' o-"ofik 

stamped stood me sons land running like birds 



aAjltclkltc from I'apago. 



346 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 26 

the property and everything relating to the conquered from the face 
of the earth. 

Consider the magic power which abode with me and which is at your 
service. 

ta-atam uAupakitk' nyuinyk tarn ap uiaAak ap piat<ro tatkitcotk' ap 

flying like fly on there seize there nothing wrestle there 

sutapam poi. Am Aukiitc katcim nananuka tcoitckatc si-inasik 

smooth cateh. There around laying all belongings gather 

s'papakf kaAolkatk' s'papaki' hahak inyu woa. 

slowly bundled slowly revolve me throw down. 

Hapkvk humus uhitk' tatcoa aAaot kus ku-uk toakak konta ap puk 

Vou may think desire it was kind of good life I took there took 

antaAaioapa. 

brought. 



OPENIN(i OF RAIN CEREMONY" 

Explanation 

When mill is desired one of the leadiuj^- uien who understands the 
ceremony will notify the medicine-men, the orator or reciter, and the 
sino-er. These agree upon beginning the ceremony at the end of four 
days. On the third day they send one or more men as criers to 
announce to the people of the adjoining villages that the ceremony 
will be held on the morrow. 

When all have assembled in the evening the leader calls out the 
names one bj' one of the medicine-men, who take their position behind 
the tire, facing toward the east. Then the names of those who will 
sing are called. The leading singer sits behind the medicine-men and 
his assistants place themselves on either side of him and around the 
tire. Then the orator is named and takes his place with the medicine- 
men. When the leader announces that it is time for the ceremony to 
begin, the orator recites the following: 

Translation 

Is it in this condition that we are sitting here, understanding the 
advice of our forefathers? There is an unknown house in which lies 
the magic brand; toward this we point the ceremonial cigarette and 
smoke, thus accjuiring an insight that shall enable us to speak wiselj'. 

When the earth was new it was shaking and rough.'' As you know, 
Black Mocking Bird lives in the west. I had considered my relation- 

Na Hums hapa tcoik' kotcs huk utu tathaktc' haps ma-ate 

Not like this condition that for in sitting in therefore nnderstand 

haitco a-ak. Kavawot qetai' ki, huk uta amkatc' huk'' kotck' 

thing counsel. It was (?) house, for in lays brand 

vi-ituk. Oatciki' tan huk woi amukuk kotc hukap hawaktc hap 

remnant. CiKarette knee that one standing that which inhaling there. 

fore 

samatc haitco ak. Kota tcuwuj humoi utcu amuta haintc katc 

know thing counsel. Then earth new was made in moving lay 

amuta tcotcoaktc' katc. Ava im hojinyik takio kus tcok 

in inserted and lay. As you toward west direction kind of black 

projecting * know 

rso-ok kontak hap tcoikam mamatcuk tip imuk' I'sarsoa kotap 

mocking I had therelorc that class guessing my weep because 

bird visible 

oThe so-called Tcrtc kita, make rain. 

?>It shook because it was wet and spongy at that time, "like the wet bank of the river." 

oAm=a prelix denoting certainty. 

dConnective inserted for euphony. 

eimfik — "My (brother or other relative)," a form of entreaty. 

347 



348 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ax.n. 26 

ship to him and guessed what should be the right manner in which to 
address him. Because of ni\- entreaty he was disposed to be friendly 
toward me. 

Yes, Black Mocking Bird, if j'our plans for controlling the earth 
have failed, go far hence and leave the black wind and the black clouds 
behind you. Your people will hencefortli entreat your assistance 
from a distance. 

When the land was new I knew of a Blue Mocking Bird in the 
south, and I called on him also for help, and he came. Ho gave com- 
mands to control the hills, mountains, trees, everything. But still 
the earth continued shaking. 

Yes, Blue Mocking Bird, if your plans have failed, go hence and 

sinyh^i-ikui-itam utatk' araitcut tcivia. Ha-akia haitco ua-aka It 

friendly felt from came. Many things his counsel this 

tcuwu? tcumiik vaopanilk tcuwuj tcovituk ap kuorspahimuk ap 

land everywhere stretched land hills on touching on 

tata-ak kokok ap kukuorspahimuk o-os kokok ap kokuorspahimuk 

niiiuutain tops on ■ toucned trees tops on touched 

natti. Avak hukutc tcumsi katcikak ak hap tcumtco. Ava 

finish. Then with covering remain fixed deter- he made it has As you 

mining since failed. know 

amuta haintc katc amuta tcotcoaktc katc. Ahu-u, kus tcok i-so-ok 

in moving lay in inserteil and lay. Yes, kind of black mocking 

projecliug bird 

vatcimpiam utcon hukum tcoitcik kop varsatc" iolinhi kus tcoitcik 

may try your i>lan you farther stay kintl of black 

uhuwulik kus tcoitcik utcuwakik ktlmis.ihi ap kukiovan. 

your wind kind of black your cloud.s carried behind there stand. 

Huk hum humata hupai tcukak* apamuk mimhi rsiisoakan kop 

That your people some time future my cutrenty you 

pimaska vai-iwumkan p'ata tcu-uk va-arsatc iol(t). Im ka-atchu'' 

unseen will help, he said near stay. This laying 

takio kus tatk rso-ok kontak hap tcoikam mamutcik ap imuk 

diree- kind blue mocking I was there- f know guessing to my 

tion of bir<l fore 

rsarsoa tap sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut tcivia. Ha-akia haitco 

weep conse- friendly felt from come. Manv things 

quently 

ua-!ika it tcuwu} tcu-umk vaopanuk tcuwu; tcovitk ap 

his advice this land covering stretclied land hill to 

kuowurspahimuk ap ta-ata-ak ko'kok ap kukuowurspiUiiiiu''ik o-so 

touching on mountain tops on touched trees 

ap kukuowurspahiinfik na-ata. Avak hukutc tcouisi katckak 

on touclied tinisb. Then with that for the remain 

purpo.se 

a-ak hap tcumtco. Ava amutti haintc katc amuta tcotcoaktc"^ 

fi.\ed deter- he made it has As you in moving lay in in.serted and 

mining since failed. know prnjccting 

katc. Ahu-u, kus tatk' r.so-ok vatcum pium utcon hukum tcoitcik 

lay. Yes, kind of blue mockingbird your may try your plan 

kop varsatc iolinhi kus tatk' uhuwulik kus tatk' utcuwakik 

farther stay kind of blue your wind kind of blue your clouds 

"Kop varsatc, ''farther," when any one is moving toward an object near at hanil; "near" when 
speaking of an object close by if no one is approaching or seeking it. 
'' From Papago. 
c Speaker here points to the quarter about which he is speaking. 



Rt'sSELL] SPEECHES 349 

leave the blue wind and blue clouds behind you. Your people \\ ill 
henceforth entreat your assistance from a distance. 

Tiieii I knew t\w White Mocking Bird in the east, and 1 called on 
him for help, and he came, bringing commands that would control the 
hills, mountains, trees, everything. But the earth continued shaking. 

Yes, White Mocking Bird, if your plans for controlling tiie earth 
have failed, go hence and leave the white winds and the white clouds 
behind you. Your people will henceforth entreat 3^our assistance 
from a distance. 

Then, above me enveloped in darkness lived the magician Kuvik, 
on whom I called for help. He came in a friendly spiiit, with com- 
mands that would control the hills, mountains, trees, everything. 
The earth became much quieter, but still moved somewhat. 



kamirshi ap kukiovan. Huk hum huma-ata hupai tcukak apamruk 

curried tliere stantl. That vour people some time future 

behind 

mimlii rsiisoakan kop pimaska vaiwrmkan p'atatcu-uk varsatc iol(t). 

my entreaty you unseen will help he said farther stay. 

Im sialik takio kus tantam rso-ok kontak hap tcoikam mamutcuk 

This east direction kind of white mocking I was determiu- I know guessing 

bird ing 

apimiik r-ssisoa tap sanyhai-ikul-itain utatk am tcut tcivia. Ha-akia 

to my weep he ' friendly felt from come. Many 

haitco ua-aka it tcuwLl tcumk vaopanuk tcuwtn tcovituk ap 

things his advice this land co%'ering stretched land hill there 

kuowui'spahimiik ta-atak kokok kukuorspahimuk o-os kokok ap 

touching mountains tops touched trees tops there 

kukrorspahimuk na-ata. Avak hukatc tcomsi katckak a-ak 

touched finish. Then with for the purpose remain Ji.\ed 

hap tcumtco. Ava amuta haintc katt^ amuta tcotcoaktc 

deter- he made it ha.s As you in moving lay in inserted and 

mining since failed. know projecting 

katc. Aho-u, vatcim piam utcon hukum tcoitcik kop varsatc iollnhi 

lay. Yes, may trj' your plant you farther stay 

kos tata uhuwulik kus tata utcuwukik kamirshi ap kukiovan. 

kind white your wind kind of white your clouds carried there stand, 

of behind 

Huk hum humata hupai tcukak apa mu-uk mimhi r.sarsoakan 

That your people some time from far my entreaty 

kop pimaska vai-iwumkan. Ava! " lat tam huk stcohokam 

your unseen assistance. As you know! Here above that darknes.s 

kusikiilk'tc' ka-atc'. Ava! Uta siamp uolintc huk Kuvik karskam 

enveloping there. As you know! In right held that \*i-ik nest 

ma-akai. Kontak hap tcoikam mamutcik ap imuk rsarsoa. Kotap 

magician. I was that kind of gues.sing to my weep. Because 

sanghai-ikui-itam utatk' ha-akia haitco ua-aka rsa-aku' amtcut 

friendly felt many things hisativice gra,sping from 

tcivia. Ha-akia haitco ua-aka it tcuwu? tcumuk vaopanuk tcuwu:j 

coii'.c. Many things his advice this land covering stretched land 

tcovitk ap kuorspahimuk tiitak kokok ap kukuorspahimuk o-os 

hill to touching mountain tops to tonc-hed trees 

kokok ap kukuorspahimuk na-atiik ata hukatc am hu-us tatalim 

top.s to touclieii tniish fiy with that from little tiuiet 

utcu. Am ha-as ihikiiva amuta haintc katc amuta tcotcoak tc' katc'. 

remain. From brief time in moving there in inserted and lay. 

projecting 



a Ava means •' as you know," but is here an interjection. 



350 



THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. AN.N. 2Q 



Then, thei"e was a Gray Spider in the west." J called on him for 
assistance. He was friendly to me and came in answer to my appeal. 
He took bundles of sticks, which he placed in the edg-es of the land 
and sewed them firmly together. He pulled the black corner at the 
west, where stands the house of the Rain god of the west. He tirnd^^ 
enveloped the earth M'ith his black power. He pulled the blue corner 
at the south, where stands the house of the Rain god of the south. 
He firmly enveloped the earth with his blue power. He pulled the 
white corner at the east, where stands the house of the Rain god of the 
east. He firmly enveloped the earth with his white power, and with 
that the earth became quieter. 



Im )io}in_vik takio kus kauiaki taktiit. Kontak hap tcoikam 

III sunset direction kind of gvny spider. I was tlmt class 

mamutcik ap imiik 



rsarsoa. Kotap sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk o-os 

guessnig to njy weep. Because friendly felt trees 

uhikiaka rsa-ak amtcut tcivla. It tcuwu; hohokitak sikoapitk' 

bundles of grasping from come. This land edges firmly sewed 

stick.s together 

nata. Im hojinyik woi ivanyonuk am kus tcok mawatatuk' kus 

finish. In sunset toward pull from kind of black four corners of kind 

the earth tied of 

with something 

took va-aki katc am si maitcoyitiik' kus tcotcik'k' omu katc 

black hotise with from firmly envelope kind of black two-feathered lay 

arrow 

Im ka-atck woi 

In laying toward 

tatk' va-aki katc 

blue house lay 



am si kuowurs. 

from very hold down. 

mawatatuk' kus 

four corners of kind of 
the earth tied 
with something 

tatk' omu katc 

blue two-feathered lay 
arrow 

kus tantam 



ivanyunak am kus tatk' 

pull from kind of blue 

am si maitconytk' kus 

from tirmly envelope 



kind of 



am si kuowurs 

from firmly hold down. 



am 

from kind of 

maitcoyitiik 

envelope 



mawatatuk 



white 

kus 

kind of 



kus 

kind of 



Im 

In 

tantam 

white 



sialik woi ivanyonuk 

east toward pull 



va-aki 

house 



katc am si 

lay from Hrmly 



am 

from 



lirmly 



kuowurs. 

hold down. 



Huk 

That 



four corners of 

the earth tied 

with something 

tata omu katc 

white two-feathered lay 
arrow 

amahava ttltalim utcu. Im hojinyik takio kus tcok 

make quiet remain. In sunset direction kind of black 

Kontak htip tcoikam mamatcuk ap imuk rsarsoa. 

I was 



that 



ata hukCitc 

was with it 

atcuvik. 

measuring 
worm. 

Kotap' sinyhai-ikui-itam 

Because ' friendly 

rsa-arspal ua-aminuk am 

short broken from 

takio kus tatk' atcuvik kontak 

direction kind of blue measuring worm I was 

imuk rsarsoa. 

my weep. 



class 

Utatk' 

felt 

slam 

right 



guessing 



to 



weep. 



amtcut ki-ikha iutcovitkatk' am 



from fi>ur times 

utcutantatk' u.natii. 

itself on posts finish. 

hap tcoikam 

that class 



raises up from 

Im ka-atcim 

In laying 

mamutcik ap 

guessing to 



< Not a magician, "just a wise man,' 



BnssELL] SPEECHES 351 

Then, in tlio west there was a Black Measuring Worm that was 
friendly to nio and caiiH" in answer to my entreaty. He eanie in four 
strides and in short broken lengths stood up as erotched posts. In 
the south there was a Blue Measuring Worm that was friendly to me 
and came in answer to my entreaty. He came in four strides and in 
short l)roken lengths formed the joists to lie upon th(^ posts. In the 
east there was a White Measuring Worm that was friendly to me and 
he cami^ in four strides in answer to my enti'eat_v. Ho in short hroken 
lengths covered the joists with a layer of small poles. In the north 
there was a Reddish Measuring Worm that was friendly to me and 
came in four strides in answer to my entreaty. He in short hroken 
lengths covered the other parts in a curved outer layer, thus iinisliing 
the framework. 

Then, in the west there was a Blue Gopher who came with plenty 
of hrush which he placed la^'er above layer around the house, lover- 
ing it as with thin clouds. Around the house were four gopher hills 
with which he covered it with earth in a thin, even layer, as snow 

Kotap" sinyhai-ikui-itam utatuk amtcut ki-ikha iutcovitakatfik 

Because * friendly felt from four times raise up 

am rsarsptil uuminilk am siiimp kakai-i uvaopa. Im sialik takio kus 

from sliort brolien from right level it laying. In east direction kind of 

tuntam atcuvik kontak hap tcoikam mamtcik ap imuk rsarsoa. Kotap 

white measuring worm I was that class guessing to my weep. Because 

sinyhai-ikui-itam utatuk amtcut ki-ikha iutcovitakatuk am r.sarspal 

friendly felt from four limes he it raise up from short 

uamimlk am siamp rsu-ursurl uvaopa'. Im nanuk'. aitu taklo kus 

it broken from right straight it laying. In north field direction kind of 

wukium actuvik kontak hap tcoikam mamtcik ap imuk rsarsoa. Kotap 

reddish measuring worm I was that class gue.ssing to my weep. Because 

sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut ki-ikha iutcovitakatuk am rsarspal 

friendly he felt from four times he it raised from short 

uaminuk am siamp ukikiutatk' unata. Im kutcim takio kus tatk' 

it broken from right curve tlu'inselves finish. In laying direction kind of blue 

tcufha kontak hap tcoikam mamtcuk ap imiik rsarsoa. Kotap 

gopher I was that clas.s guessing to my weep. Because 

sinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' ha-akia rsai umoa-atak amtcut tcivia. Huk 

friendly felt many gras.s killed from came. That 

itcuwulitk' hukutc ap isirsa-itcitk' nata. Kus kuk kamalt 

he raised with that to he thoroughly covered finish. Kind of good thin 

tcuwakita ak hap tco. An wukatcik tucwu4 ki-ik ap mo-oat. 

clouds make and has failed. There behind land four to gopher hills. 

Huk ihimitcotuk hukutc ap isihiarsk nata. 

Tnat ptished with that to he covered dirt tlnish. 

Kus kuk kufainta ak hap tco. An wukutt-ik tcuwu^ itakiomuk 

Knid of good set make and has failed. There around dirt clean 

hastcop.sp' ali muwupatikituk im kamuk it uta imu tar.sowa. 

what thing young your likeness in hold this in here place. 

Siwat muhutam ko-otck' ipuk imu wutcantcu. Oatcik' tan huk 

Flame light brand he took here lower place. Cigarette knee that 

woi am kui. Tak ap ko-orsk vamusk am sialik woi si-ipueva. 

toward from stand. That to stick smoke from east toward puff. 

Ta-am ki's tatam utcotcua himuk sialik supapuk tcuma. Kus tata 

Then kiuUuf white stand went east slowly reached. Kind of white 



352 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. an.n. 26 

covers the ground. Looking around the earth I selected one to take 
me up like a little boj and place me in the house. He placed a brand 
of tire down liefore me and a cigarette also. Lighting the cigarette 
he puffed smoke toward the east in a great white arch. The shadow 
of the arch crept across the earth l)eneath. A grassy carpet covers 
the earth. Scattering seed, he caused the corn with the large stalk, 
large leaf, full tassel, good ears to grow and ripen. Then he took it 
and stored it away. As the sun's rays extend to the plants, so our 
thoughts reached out to the time when we would enjoy the life-giving 
corn. With gladness we cooked and ate the corn and, free from 
hunger and want, were happy. Your worthy sons and daughters, 
knowing notiiing of the starvation periods, have been happy. The 
old men and the old women will have their lives prolonged yet day 
after day by the possession of corn. 

People nuist unite in desiring rain. If it rains their land shall be 
as a garden, and they will not be as poor as they have been. 



kikihat uvaopanuk sialik sipapuk tcumaa. Wutca tcuwirj 

rainbows stretched east slowly readied. Below land 

s ahamasnia ukahimuk sialik supapiik tcumaa. Wutca tcuwu:) 

beautiful shadow goes east slow-ly reached. Below hnid 

s'ahamasama mamuthat'tk' utcu. Huk tarn wors hukunaniika 

beautiful branched placed. That on grow that different 

tcoikam niukaiitiitii. Kunsavatk' vaok tatany hahak skuk motatuk 

sort your seeds. Very large stalk wide " leaf good tassel 

hiasik hikum pimokam kai-iktc' pai. Ta-am arautco ta-am siam 

flowers those undying grains ripe. Then was made then good 

hasitcok puk kahtcu. Kaot ta.is sisiwutak'tc' huk uta ap kokokuva. 

intend take placed. It was sun rays that in to had ended. 

Kotak wunatuk am hasitcok pa-ak wutcum kupi haskam haitco 

That was together from intend swallow happy nothing not noticing thing 

tatam. Kus kuk mu viapoku-ulika, skuk mu tcihiaka wum 

feeling. Kind of good your sons, good your daughters with 

kupi haskam haitco tatam. Kota humaka vi-ikam kulimhakam 

nothing not noticing thing feeling. That one remnant old man 

ak ap tcinyivak wutcCun kii-ak hojony uwue nviatc' kamvamp' 

old to put mouth inanimate two evenings opposite give sight forward 

woman against 

panymut. Hapukhums aulitk' tatcoak humok aithi hap masin 

crawling. Perhaps will think desire now think deter- venture 

mining 

hukiit tcuwutika kotc huk nyuitan natc apahiip, rsiisaikam 

that laud our we that " try our right thing discouraged 

t tat kan. 

ourselves feel. 



GOING TO WAK 

Because I wa.s a boy I did not understand these things. When anj-- 
one was preparing food I stood with folded arms. They gave nie 
food so hot that it hiirned me. I went with a hunting party. The}' 
killed a little bird and gave it to me. I thought it was good to eat, so 
I carried it home to my mother and threw it down before her. When 
she saw it she turned her l)aek upon it and began to cry. She turned 
and told me about my father's death. I grieved in my heart and after 
a time went to consult a man of authority, to whom a boy should not 
have had the temerity to go. He listened to my story, approved of 
mj' plans, and told me to come at a time which he appointed. Then 
the people would accompany me to the enemy's country that I might 
see it. When we had gone to an appointed camping place we encamped 
and I slept well. The ne.xt day we continued to the camping place 

Konyo vawo^aps alik'tc' ithap tcoikam pimatc. Hastco 

Because I was young this kind not know. What tiling 

hatconyi woi kukitc nyu va-iik kamiitc. Koma hastco stiinyik 

cooked toward standinj? my stomacli hold. You what hot 

nyuma konta nj'u papaitcituk ho. Hastco ala-aitamult ka-atc kont 

me give I wa.s me burned eat. What hunting plai'e I 

huk aitk' iwors. Komuta hastco kutivitc mat moak nyu 

that alter go. Vou what kutivitc young kill me 

tcultsp. Konyak skuk hastco mokik ak'tc' kahap tcontcok'tc' 

carry at hip. I wa.s good what shoot and kill telling fn»m bringing 

ipuk an nyu akitak wutca iwoa kota-amtcrm nyuitak 

ietch there me mother under to blame for then 'she saw 

knocking down 

kamko-okam itanewa' ha-akia ukokoi mata. Kota hupai tcrkak 

turned back sat many her cry open. That sonietiine then 

am kookituk ipuk in nyu wutcti iwoa ithap tcoikam 

there ended fetch in nie under toblamefor this kind 

knocking down 

haitco has utcok tclm. Kota it iiuho nyu uta kukiva kont^ik puk 

anything making accident. 'I'lmt this there me in stand I was liold 

iwors. A-iitam hrpai ta wotatcum kuha.s liata kont liuk pihas 

ri.se. People where sit important kind of regard I that no 

ulitak huk woi ivapuk'kl. Ithap tcoikam nyu tatcoi ipuk 

think that toward pas.s through. This kind ine plans fetch 

an wutca iwoa. Kotaps nyu hai-kui-itam utatuk an puik 

there under toblamefor He was me friendly felt there grasp 

knocking down. 

haitco nyiu aka. Am tcotcoi huk siali kontak am sihivsi^rsolkahlm 

thing me advice. There appoint that mornings I was there clear away with 

something 

kot am himuk am uai kont huk puk iwors. Himuk hupai 

that there going there reach I was that gra.sp rise. Going some 

26 ETH— 08 25 353 



354 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 28 



e. 



agreed upon and there I slept well. The next day we reached tlie hmd 
of the Apaches, where I was afraid. I kept my body protected witli 
my shield and carried my clul) in hand. I could not rest for fear. 
Then I remembered how my mother had told me what my feelinjrs 
would be in the enemy's country. She told me that the birds would 
sing differently, all nature M'ould be strange; but she did not tell me all. 
This is the feeling that one experiences. The next day I reached the 
Apache mountain, where I felt like a drunken person from fear. I lost 
faith in my bow. I was frightened at .sight of an old reed arrow of 
the Apaches. Then as I .sat below the mountain I swayed from side 
to side looking for the enemy. Again I remembered what my mother 
had told me of the perils among the enemy. The next day I arose and 
went to the springs of the Apaches, where I saw a gourd diinkingcup, 
with which 1 cleared away the surface of the watei' and drank. Think- 
ing that perhaps my father had been brought to that place by the 
Apaches, I was alarmed and feared that I must already be in danger, 
because 1 had drunk the water Ijelonging to the enemy. The next day 

tcuwu? matcolituk huk tam ho;inyik woak s'aptahatam kai. Kota 

land appointed that over evening overthrow right feeling sleep. That 

mass! kont worsanyik himiik hupai tcuwu} matcolituk huk tam 

morning I was went going some land appointed that over 

ho^inyik woak s'aptahataui kai. Kota masi kont worsanyik 

evening overthrow right feeling sleep. That morning I was went' 

himuk ap ai A-ap tcuwutaka huk natakik katc siukafwkatc' 

going there reach Apache land that madness lay ditlii'nlt 

ka-atc. Haki' sikalk' katc umairstc' katc, os rsapalk katc 

there. Hide round lay covered lay, stick short lay 

siumairstc katc. Ava-am a-ai nyu iaj. Konya hap intatam. 

very covered lay. And there sway me rolling. I was with feelings. 

Ahu-u, it iiks" hap a-aktc' hap kaitc' huk nj'U akitak panya intatam. 

Yes, this is what was meant as said that me mother 1 was feelings. 

Kota masi kont himfik ap ai A-ap toaka kok huk na.\amutak 

That morning 1 went there reach Apache mountain it that drinikeTincss 

katc siilkakavitc katc tcotc. Kat molinyik va-apk' takrsunyik 

lay very resembling la.\' small mountain Bow broken reed striji 

peaks .stand. 

katc siutcutiinytc tcotc. Kot huk wutca ap nyu tarsilvak 

lay very strengthen standing. It that under there me .sat 

aAa-am a-ai nyu ia^. Konya hap inta'tam, ahu-u, it aks 

and then swaying riie rolling. I was with feelings, yes, this is 

hap a-aktc hap kai-itc huk nyu akitilk panyu intatam. Kota masi 

what was meant as .said that me mother 1 was feelings. That morning 

kont worsanyik himiik ap ai A-iip rsotaki. Avawo^ nyu ma-k 

I was rose " going there reach .\pa<'ne water. It was me hair 

hikivanyik'tc' hukatc'p' umairstc' katc kus kuk mamatho^ Apa^ak 

cut out roughly that with covers lay kindof good water plants like 

huk hokit ap katc huk nyu kar.sova hainyik. Konta hxik ipuk 

that beside to there lay that me skull broken. I was that take 

hukutc kamikufitckuAa am vasipiik ap i. Anya hastco 

with it knock down there lake there drink. I was something 

anhotcum rsapupu. Kota masi kont worsanyik himfik ap ai 

trying to grasp. That monnng 1 was rose going there reach 

ait aks refers to something held in the hand or discovered to be true. 



HI ssKi.i.l SPEECHES 355 

WO rcai-hod a hlack water, where I snielled traces of the Apaches, who 
had washed oil' their paint in this water. I cried when 1 thought of 
the camp tires whose ashes now drifted to and fro on the winds. 
Around that spot nn' imagination revolved four times, like the wind 
twisting around an object. Wandering about I again remembered 
what my mother tried to tell me. This is what one feels in the land of 
the Apaches. 

My friend Co^'ote went toward the east to spy upon the enemy. I 
relied upon him for information and assistance and put away my imagi- 
nary fears. He looked carefully about and returned to tell me that 
he had found the Apache tires. Then our party, with the courage of 
fierce prediitory animals and raptorial birds, ran toward the enemy. 
Nothing could stop us and we swept them away with scarcely any 
resistance. AVe killed all and gathered up their property to return. 
My trail was down a steep declivity and I reached home, slackening 
speed onh' four times during the march. 

A-ap rsotaki. Kawot nyu woihiil tcokolitak tc hrkatcp umairstc, 

Apacne water. That was my face black paint at once covcrc<l, 

wuska s'mataimaki huk hokit ap katc huk nj^u karsova hainyik. 

all over ashes resemble that beside to there, lay that me skull broken. 

Kus ktrk kaAajk hao wupa'jak kont huk am puk hukatckam 

Kind of good hollow cup like I was that there take with it 

ikufwitckuAa am vasipk' ap i. Ava saso-ofw(u). Map ku-xk 

it knock there take there drink. And smell. Close to standing 

huk hatai ap wutcii huk tcuwu; sva-avanyitc katc. Avawoj nyu 

that stone there under that earth wet lay. It was ine 

a-iiktc hap tcoi-ik, an Aukati- huk nyu huwulik ki-ikha siuitap 

tears as it is there around that me wind four times twisting 

konya huk parsil aptcim nyu hadr.sap ka-am a-ai himin najkit. 

I was that front of there me stick to was swaying going to and fro, 

Konya hap intatam; ahu-u, it aks haj) ak'tc' hap kaitc huk nj'U iikitak 

I was witn feelings: yes, this is what w'as meant as said that nie mother 

panya intatam. Kaim sialik takio kus kamaki t uwumakalt 

I was feelings. Faraway east direction kind of gray our friend 

kotpk' A-ap s'kakikam kont ap imuk rsarsoa kotap .sinyhiii-ikui-itam 

able Apache trailer I was there my cry he was friendly 

utatiik ametcut wupuk tcivia. Ami utcuwulitk' am tcu A-ap 

felt from tirst came. There he raised himself there saw .\pache 

nanta worsanyik wukutc pitcimitahimuk tcoikam nyunarsi'inahimuk 

tires rose around around going appearance me look carefully 

opam tcivTak nyu akit. Tcuwuja mututain o-ofik ta-atam uwupakfk 

turn around came me tell. Gnaind on running birds fly it like 

huk nyu viapsiku-ulakak nyuiiyik tam ap uiava ap piatco 

that nie sons *jump on there alight on there nothing 

tatCdvitcotilk' ap siltapam pui. Wukutc katcim nanukatcoitcikatc 

easily capture there sweep clean catch. .\round home occupations 

si-inasik supapaki kawolkatk puk opam ha-ahak inyiloa. Kotak 

all gathered slowly i>acke<l grasp turn around me around. With that 

nyu vakita skoivat^im utcu kont huk aitilk ki-ik aprsorsuk 

me trail steep false appearance I was that followed fotir incantations 

ap nyu tcuwutika tam oapa. Hukutc am simaisk tcu huk 

there me country on brought. With it there entirely left that 

covered 



356 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

The news of A'ictory which 1 brought caused my people to rejoice 
with sinking and dancing. There was a magician's house, enveloped 
in white winds and white clouds, into which we went to perform our 
ceremonies. The captives excited the children, who ran about bewil- 
dered. 

You may think this over, mj- relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victor}^ may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

nyu tcuwutika. Avawo; makai ki, stata huwulikiltc si-ipistc 

me country. It was that magician house, white wiml with entirely around 

tata tcuvak katc si-imaitconitc ku-uk. Kont huk uta am va-aki' 

to put clouds lay entirely envelope stand. I was that in there get into 

A-ap all nyu pui, kot huk uta am rsarsoa. Kot huk a-akutc 

Apacne young me captive, it that in there cry. It that tear."! 

stcuhutukim suka-akal hihimuk sku-uk nyu viapapu-ulika ap kui, 

blue curves going good me sons there drop, 

sku-uk nyu tcuihiyaka ap kui. S'ha-ap hapiik humrsa ulitk' 

good me daughters there drop. That way you you will think 

tatcoa, na-anka tcoikam nyu imiki' kotc humo hap pa^uma ta-atan 

want various things me relatives we now that lazy make 

huk pat rsiiika natc apohap takaihakim kaitc. 

that despised slave we right think disturbance said. 



WAR CHIEF URGINC THK PROPLE TO GO ON THE WARPATH AGAINST 

THE APACHES" 

Yes, nij pool" l)rothers-in-law; this land was covered with herl)age. 
The mountains were covered with clouds. The sunlight was not bright 
and the darkness was not dense. Ail was rolling before our eyes. It 
was thought that the time had come for considering these things in 
council, my brothers. Then wood was gathered and a tire kindled, 
the flames of which burst forth, reaching to the sk}' and causing a 
portion of the earth to fold over, disclosing the under side, where a 
reddish mountain stood. After these things had happened the enter- 
prise was decided upon. 

Then my breast was tightened and my loins girded; my hunger was 
appeased; sandals with strings were made for my feet; my canteen 

Ahu-u, rsilik tahatam nyu kikiu. Kava humo it Aakta katcim 

Yes, sad feelings me brothers- It was how this thing spread laying 

in-law. on the ground 

to sit upon 

ha-akia a-anukatc umairstcaip tconi katc. Tam tata-ak tcotcoatc 

many feathers with he covered it lay. On mountain his standing 

ha-akia suvikitak tca-ip tcom tcotc. Tam tataf tcom ihivathik 

many lets down with it stands. On sun it came but 

pitiinriliktc ihi. Tam tcohokomolitatc tcom i-iavathikpiukiltaktc'i-ia. 

ray not shone came. On darkness his it came but he no darkness came 

rolling rolling. 

Tava it hapa utco moi manuka tcoikan nyi-imil(i). Avao^ hutcul nya-a 

It was this was happened many different class my relatives. It wa.s alone 'ine 

vakomakitak konta inasik am sia-am nai-i. Kota am u-u?a sitoahimuk 

bones old 1 was gathered there right kindle It wa.s there within rumbling 

(ire. 

am sisiAa; muk tamatcim supapak(i) maxanuk skoiAa^am i-inairs.* 

there flames burning sky .slowly open hollow fold. 

Tuwoi katcim teuwu^ maskii oi(t) tuwoi tcotcim tata-ak wi'pkiomitk' 

Opposite laying land to cause hold opposite stiinding mountain make red 

to bring 
to view 

tcotcoa ttak haptcoikam tcom nyui. Kotava it hapa utco moi ntinilka 

stands I that class then saw. It was this was hap- many kind 

pened 

tcoTkam nyimik(i). Avao'} hutcui nyanaam kontak ap isitciitk ap 

sort my relatives. It was alone *my ribs I was there very saw there 

ipiltat. Avaoj hutcuj n3'hihi kont^i ivanyonuk hukate sTs iuin ho)a 

make heart. It wa.« alone my bowels I was stretch with very prop^-r acro.ss 

nywo. Kao^ hutci'i nyhahap konta hastco sku-uk hok(i) ak pa-ak 

tied. It was alone my intestines I was what good food intend swallowed 

n This speech is believed to be based upon an adventure in which a Pima gambled with the 
.\pache-s and lost all his property. Overcome ^y the passion for gambling, he wagered the life of 
his brother and lost. The striking figures of speech indicate the speaker's greed. 

t> Here » — a mere hissing. 

357 



358 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth.ann. 26 

was made ready. I went about the country, from mountain to village, 
beneath the sheds and trees, offering all an opportunity to join me. 
Returning home I thought I saw my brother when I was in a trance. 
I tried to grasp him and my arms embraced nothing but myself. I 
somehow caught in my palm what I thought to be his power; turning 
this over I found it to be but a creation of my imagination, and again 
I was disappointed. I was unkempt and rough, and m\' tears moistened 
the land. 

The plan occurred to me to ask Nasia, the old woman magician, for 
aid. Thinking that I saw her I ran toward the eastward and tinally 
reached her. I said "Yes, you who make the bow of the Apache like 
a kiaha and crush his arrowheads, you who paint triangles and curves 
on the kiaha bottoms with the arrow foreshafts of the Apache dipped 

ip skavat. Avao; hutcui nyma-atk' crlutak kontak nyma-a hoputak 

tfien full. It was alone * my head skin I was my hair loose 

ap isi kai kia-ata;k siam isitcuka. Avao^ hutcuy nykarsuva kont 

there very malie sanilal string right put up. It was alone "my skull I was 

hutcui nyu-ut ap vaikitk' i ik sunavaman nyiak. Iworsanyik 

alone ine blood there put in drink intoxicated talk. Aro.se 

tcutcuwu:) tcotcovitk' aitk' ikuxiamhi mamtaip iawis kontuk aitk 

lands hills after slowly go ashes thrown I was after 

ikuxiamhi. 0-os tr-uktak uta ikixianihimuk tcom ny u matciamahimi'ik' 

slowly go. Trees .shadows in slowly go then my considering 

pinaka. Tcuwu'^ sutapk' tam kopa| hutciqwoa, kota It ku himutam 

unsucces,sfut. Laud smooth on facedown slide it was this kind of 

tutamai tcukak amtcut koewoa ihutcuiwoak nyparsa ku kiowoa. 

going our above came there from down slide my breast stand. 

Konta an tcom kamuk antaprs utcu[ nykam. Ilasitcok puk nymatk' 

I was about try embrace I was alone me embrace. Somehow take my palm 

uta woak a-ai wopak tcom tcutcukak ava hapta nyuit hakim tcoi-ik 

in throw all throw then examine it was sight of disagreeable sort 

kus ku-ukuny rsiliktak. WoThya stcoktak ma-a sikivanj^k. Ahu-u, 

kind of good sorrow. Face dirty head rough. Yes, 

konyuks anytcom sirsiiiktak taktcitk' nyulit. Piam haif-itco ia-aksun 

guess me ttien much misery embrace tliotight. But here something 

tamp uolintc kus ku-ulc rsiiiktaktc amtcut a-akatc kokoiAa sisiAa^ 

are on being held kind of good misery from tears down trembled 

ihohotktc wutcii tcuwu^ va-akaniik tcu. Kava it hapot tcoi-ikam 

descending under land damp place. It was this thing class 

muntatcoi konta ipux muk sisiaatk' parsii woa ku Nasia aks makai. 

my plan it was took far east front of throw kind of Nasia old wimian 

magician. 

Kontak hap tcoi-ikan mamtcuk huk woi stcukam tai-iwonj'k ap 

I was that class guessing that toward dark sat there 

supapak(i) tcuma-ii. Anya hap kaiitam wumatc nyiak. Ahu-u, 

slowly covers. I was that loud with talk. Yes, 

kopava apim olintc. A-ap kat s'iiim vapuka^ wupakit. A-tip 

you there hold. Apache bow right reed artificial Apache 

likeness. 

o-o kop kaikuirsontc s iam isiammaki^at. A-ap vat kopuk. A-ap 

arrow you crushed right put back on. Apache his at take. Apache 

u-ut katc s'ahamasma mo-omovitc a-ilhantc hukatc huk ukiiiha 

blood with beautiful triangles painting with that his kiahfi 

sisuvinam kuo(f)ursp. A-ap u-utkatc s ahamasma ka-aka| ia-ahanii(k) 

very hard more weight. Apache blood with well look curved painted 



BDSSBLL] SPEECHES 359 

in his blood, you who twist the hair of the Apache and tie your kidha 
with it." Thus I addressed ht>r and she f^ave me a bundle of power 
whicii I grasped under my arm anil ran with it to my home. 

I thought of Vikar.skam and ])rayed for his aid. When I finally 
reached him I said, "Yes, your house is built of Apache bows and 
bound with their arrows; you use his bowstrings and sinew to tie 
these withes. You use Apache headdresses and moccasins to cover 
your house. Within it you have square piles of Apache hair. At the 
corners of the piles cigarettes give oti' wi'eaths of smoke, resembling 
white, black, glittering, purple and yellow blossoms." Thus I spake 
and he gave me power which I carried away beneath my arm. 

I thought of South Doctor and Hnallj' prayed to him. I said to him, 
"Yes, you who can make the Apache bow as harmless as a rainbow, his 
arrows like the white tasseled grass, his arrow shafts like soft down, 

ukiiiha. A-ap kop kop s'akrsp imulutcotc hukatc sis ia-amp ipuphu. 

his kh'ihn. ,\pache hair yuu left iiiiike niii with very ri^ht tighten. 

S ha-ap anya ikaitam wrmatc nyiak kota hastco sku-ukam ak .sis 

Way I noise with tallc it was what goo^l said very 

kavitcim nyhukrsp(i) ttak siskavitcim hukrsk am tai-iwors. Ap 

narrow me huggea 1 that very narrow hngged there go out running. There 

kuirsk tcux iahapinytco. Ava it tam kus tcohokom sikiilktc katc. 

stepped bound here approach. It was this on kind of darkness round lay. 

Ava Tjta sia-iimp uolintc ku vidarskam makai. Kontak hap 

It was in right being held kind of down nest niagician. I was that 

tcoi-ikam supapaki tcumii-a. Anya hap kai-itam wumatc n3'iak. 

class slowly correct. I that loud" with talk. 

Ahu-u, kopava apim olintc. A-ap kat s'ia-am sikikia. A-ap o-o katc 

Yes, you there hold. Apache bow right bend too Apacne arrow lay 

much. 

kaisipirsp. A-ap kia-a^ak A-ap tatakatc sis vinam woj. A-ap 

across bind. Apache bowstring Apaclie sinew his tighten knot. Apache 

vanam A-ap ta^arsakatc simai-itcontc ku.\. Hik ujak A-ap kops 

heaiidress Apache sandals with cover stand. That in .\pacno hair 

tcotcopolimp ia-aks. Tcotcopoli) ap tcotc a-avaptck(I) tatantc hutcLl 

squarely piles. Made corners there stands cigarettes knees alone 

kodrsantc ku nanuka masiua uhiasitahim. Statam uhiasitahim 

smoking kind of dilYcrent colors blossoms. White blo.s.soms 

stcotckom uhiasitahim sunanafkim uhiasitahim supitumukim 

black blossoms glittering blo&soms dirty 

uhiasitahim s oa-ama uhia.sitahim. S' ha-ap anyai kaiitam wumatc 

blo.ssoms yellow blossoms. Way 1* noise with 

nyiak. Kota hastco sku-ukam ak siskavitcim nylu:krsp(r) kontiik 

talk. It was what good tell very narrow * me hngged I was 

siskavitcim hukrsk' am tai-iwonyilk kaiirsp inataki. In ku Vakolo 

very narrow hugged there go out running straddle came. In kind of South 

Makai kontak hap tcoi-ikam supakak(i) tcuma-ak an3'a hap kai-itam 

Doctor I was that class slowly covered I that loud 



wumatc nyiak. Ahu-u, kopaAa apim oliny. A-ap kat kopa kus 

with talk. Yes. you tliere hold". Apa<-be bow you kindnf 

ku-uk kiilha} wupsikit. A-ap o-o kopa kus stata mo^atkam wupakit. 

good rainbow liken. Apache arrow you kind of white tassel liken. 

A-ap vat kopa kus ku-uk vik{i) wupakit. A-ap ors kopaprs pit 

Apache arrow- you kind of good down liken. Apacne arrow- you make mud 



a In this manner or in this wise, what was .said or how the voice is inoclulated. 



360 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth.ann. 26 

his arrowheads like thin dry mud, his arrow poison like water fern 
upon the pools, his hair like rain clouds." 

Thus I spake, and he gave me power which I grasped under nij arm 
and journeyed westward with four slackenings of speed. The home 
magician gave me a seat of honor. The cigarette smoked, and I took 
it and, drawing in a cloud of smoke, I praj'ed to Old Woman Magician, 
saying, "Yes, you make the Apache bow like a game ring; you crush 
his arrow shafts and make headbands of them; you split his arrow 
foreshafts, color them with Apache blood and make game sticks of 
them; his arrowheads j'ou make like potterj' paddles; j'ou make a 
girdle of Apache hair." Thus T spake and he gave me his power, 
which I caught under ni}' arm and ran home, with four .slackenings of 
speed. The home magician gave me a seat of honor. The cigarette 
smoked, and I took it and, drawing in a cloud of smoke, breathed it 
forth in the direction of the enemy. The power grew and shone on 

ki1ma[k wupSkit. A-ap hinatc kopaprs kus ku-uk mamatha; wupakit. 

tliiii liKen. Apache arrow yuii make kind of good water plant liken, 

poison 

A-iip kop kopa siii-am vi-itcwo| wuptikit. S ha-ap anyai kai-itam 

Apache hair you right (?) liKen. Way i loud 

wumatc nyiak kota hastco sku-ukam ak siskavitcira nyhukrsp(i) 

with talk it was what good told very narrow 'me hugged 

kontak siskavitcim hukrsk am taiwonyuk am hotinyik woi ki-ikap 

I wa-s narrow hugged there go out run- there west toward four 

ning 

rsars ku Aks Makai supapak(i) tcuma-ak anya hap kai-itam wumatc 

renew- kind Old Magician slowly covered I that loud with 

als of Woman 

nviiik. Ahu-u, kopova apim oliny. A-ap kat s'ia-iim haxoatc s ia-iim 

"talk. Yes, you there hold. Apache bow right make a ring right 

mulitcltakiit' wupakit. A-ap o-o kop ki-irsonytc ukoawutca sikikoat. 

runner liken. Apache arrow you crush his forehead very circle. 

below 

A-iip vat kop taprsatc A-ap u-utkatc paprssi iwupukantc s ia-am 

Apache arrow you split Apache blood with in front of redden right 

foreshaft 

ka-amhairsakot wupakit. A-iip ors kopa kus ku-uk ha-atakot 

a game like. Apache arrow you head kind of good instrument used 

for pottery paddle 

wupakit. A-ap kop kopa .s'ia-am isikisa-a. S'ha-ap nyai kai-iam 

liken. Apache hair you right bark girdle. Way l" loud 

wumatc nyiak. Kaoj uwu-uwue kokokam kota pin\'hoAitct 

with talk. It was facing points it was not me prevent 

siskavitcim nyhukr.sp(i) kontak siskavitcim hukrsk am tai-iwonyuk 

very narrow ' me hugged I was very narrow hugged there go out running 

am wutcom ki-ik ap rsarsk makai nata tcumiik hokit an takuta. 

there to four there renewals magician Are covered edges there release. 

Smakaitkam a-atam sivaksitk' tam tarsuwoa. Avao; makai oatck 

E.Kpert Magician people place prepared on sitting. It was magician cigarette 

with something 
spread to sit on 

tantc hutcu[ koirsanyitc kuk. Kontak ap sihaAak am nyaputak 

knee alone smoking stand. I was there inhale there my enemy 

woi siAostanuk taihiwoa. Kota am kus tatam utcotcoahimuk ap 

toward puffed sat. It was there kind of white erected there 



RUSSELL] SPEECHES 361 

and on until it .slowly disclosed the onemy. The Pima magician 
desired that the earth move, the trees take on their leaves, the land 
be softened and improved, that all be straightened and made correct. 
The place was one where food was increased and they were gathered 
about it. Their springs were made larger and they were gath(>r(>d 
about them. Their game was gatliered together. Some of the enemy 
were in the west and they said, "We know that harm may come to 
us if we go to that place, but we will not heed our own misgivings." 
The}' started on their journey and camped on the way. In the morn- 
ing they arose and continued, reaching their friends' camp during the 
day, where they saluted them. In the distant east were other enemies 
who heard that their friends were gathering. AVhen they heard of it 
they said, "We know that harm may come of it if we go to that place, 



supapak(i) tcuma-ak nyuaputa. Tcuwu} hokit ap sikay ihi os ap 

slowly covered me enemy. I^and edge there around ciune tree there 

ku-ukam shahaktcotk' wutca tcuwrq maikatk' s'aptahatcotk' 

stand select a tree with under land softened satisfied 

many leaves 

rsulutcotk' woitcotk' ivantckuwoak huk tarn ap taktil. Avak 

straight toward jerked that on there release. It was 

hastco kai-ikam matcom sistajanyim katc u-ulit kont huk tarn ap 

what plants with seed considered very wide lay thought I was on there 

sihumap ioi. Rsarsilnukam rsorsokia tcum .sistatanyim wutck' u-ulit 

together hold. Springs waters then very wide lay he thought 

kont huk tarn ap sihumap io(. Hastco tiimututani matcom 

I was that on there together hold. What walking considered 

sistatanvim aimulik u-ulit kont huk tam ap sihumap \o\. Kota am 

very wide haunts thought I was that on there together hold. It was there 

tcom ka hotinyik takio takam kus mas sunyaputa. jj^mokikatc ot 

then here west toward silting kind of kindly appearance His dead he 

me enemy. 

pik u-ulittamtc am tcom kaiak pi-inakak wor.sanyk himilk hupai 

like he thought there then heard impossible arose go somewhere 

tcuwu} matcolitk' tam kursk kai. Imasi kot worsamlik hinulk tataf 

land considered on fall sleep. Next he arose go sun 

carefully morning 

hupai tcok tciviak skai-itamp uimu. Ava kamuk sialiitk ap uolintc 

8omewhere there arrive very loud (?). It was distant east there being 

held 

kus mas sunyaputa. imokikatc. ot pik u-ulittamtc am tcom kaiak 

kind friendly appearance ^ Misdi'ad he like it he thought there then hcarcl 
of " me enemy. 

pi-inakiik wor.san\'ik himuk hupai tcuwu^ matcolitk' tam kursk kiii. 

impossible arose ' go somewhere land considered on fall sleep. 

carefully 

Ima.si kot worsanyik iiimuk tataf hupai tcok tciviak skai-itamp uimu. 

Next he arose' went sun some- where came very loud (?). 

morning where 

Avao} ku tahakiho koi-irsam kutars sisi(f)takatc no-omovitc pum 

It was kind of cochineal dye kind of sun headdress triangles he 

rays 

a-ai kak sivantckuwomtc hukatc sisiamp utcutcuhitc katc. Kota 

figured that jerked with right It covered lay. It was 

uta hux isikuirsk kuxiwoak nyu viapa ku-uluka. Tcuwuju 

in already firmly stepped stand rne boy reared. Land 

mututam, o-ofik ta-atam uwupakitk nyunyik tam ap uiwoak ap 

running birds flying liken "fly on there alighted there 



362 THE PIMA INDIANS [etii. ann. 26 

but we must go.'- They started on their journey and camped once 
before arriving and .salutiiio- their friends. They took sun's ra3's and 
painted triangles on their })lankets. 

Wliile this was happening among them my 3'oung men were prepar- 
ing to tight. They rushed u))on them like flying l)irds and swept them 
from the eartli. Starting out upon ni}- trail I reached tiie tirst water, 
whence I sent my swiftest young men to carry the message of victory 
to tlie old people at home. Before the Magician's door the earth was 
swept, and there my young men and women danced with headdresses 
and flowers on their heads. The wind arose and, cutting ofl:' these 
ornaments, carried them to the sky and hung them there. The rain 
fell uj^on the high places, the clouds enveloped the mountains, the 
torrents descended upon the springs and fell upon the trees. 

You may think this over, my relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly liotous. 



pia-atco tatkitcotk' ap sutapam pui. Tait nyu vakita skoeAii^am 

nothing wrestle there smooth take. That this me trail hollowed 

utcu kontuk aitk' am ki-ikap rsars. Hokltkii rsotaki tarn si 

laid I was after there four renewals. Edge water on very 

humaptol(d). Amtcut mamtcuk am tcotcoaa kus stco-otcoaatcmakam 

one make. There from guess there stand kind of swiftest 

nyu vipiapka. Kota ki-ikap rsarsk mulifkai-i kai-itc kulivi-ikam 

me boy. It was four times renewal.s canie running notify old man remain 

aks vi-ikam. Ava am makai kitcik amuk tcuwu; tcoi-istc katc. 

old woman remain. It was there magician door there land powdered lay. 

Kotak tam mumutak tcitcivi kus ku-uk nyu viapaku-ulka kus 

It was on run play kind of good me boy reared kind of 

ku-uk nyu tcuhyaka wum mawarsk tam mumutak tcitcivi. Kus 

good me daug'hter with clasping hands on run play. Kin<l of 

ku-uk nyu viapaku-ulka kus ku-uk paihiwoatc sijtat kus ku-uk 

good me boy reared kind of good tail touch kind of good 

nyu tcunhyaka kus ku-uk ta5rsak(i) ukoa wutca kikoatk' wim 

me daughter kind of good foam her forehead inider crown with 

mawarsk tam mumutak tcitcivi. Kotak huwujkatc am sivanyi'kumiak 

clasp hands on run play. It was his wind there broken 

tamatcim parsa pia-atcokani an haha^rs. Amtcut ko-okoewa si-isiAa^ 

spy nearby nc.)thing there sticks. Therefrom down flanie< 

ihohotk' kuvipkam sisiatcotcokam tcutcuwu^ tco-otcovitk' tam am 

descended surviving powerful magicians lands hills on there 

kokokoa. Amtcut ko-okoewa si-isiAa^ ihohotk' kuvipkam 

touches. There from down flames descended .surviving 

sisiatcotcokam tata-ak kokok ap rsar.sai-iwa. Amtcut ko-okoewa 

powerful magicians mountains peaks there hang. There from down 

si-isiAtlt ihohotk' kuvipkam sisiatcotcokam rsarsanukam rsorsok(i) 

flames descended surviving powerful magicians springs waters 

vufutcim tam kokokoa. Amtcut ko-okoewa si-isiAa; ihohotk 

laying on toviclied. There from down flames descended 

kuvipkam sisiatcotcokam o-os kokok ap rsarsai-iwa. S'ha-ap hap 

surviving powerful magician trees tops there hang. Way that 

humsti ulitk' tatcoa naniika tcoi-ikam inyi-imik(i) kotc huuio hap 

you think plan different sorts my relatives we lutw that 

pa^ma tata huk pa^ rsaika natc apahapta kaihttkim kaitc. 

lazy make that bad slave way right noise said. 



FIRST NIGHT ON THE WARPATH, FIRST SPEECH 

We have come thus fur, my brothers. We have already laid our 
plans. With magic power the trail is made easy, bordered with 
flowers, grass, and trees. The enemy saw the apparent bounty of 
nature and a.-ssembled, laughing, to gather the seeds and plants. It 
was the power of the distant magician which made the enemy enjoy 
his fancied prosperity. In the center of our council ground the fire 
burned and, lighting a cigarette, I puffed smoke toward the east. 
Slowly a vision arose before me, a white cane before a whitish house. 
I grasped the cane and thrust it into the corner of the house and there 
came forth a kind of white water. Afterward there came forth a kind 
of white dragon flies, which circled about four times before they sank. 
In the south stood a blue house with a blue cane before it. Thrusting 



lat tiiva tcutcka nanuka tcoi-ikam nyi-imik(i). Huk(i) attavai natak 

Here we came various classes my relatives. Already we finished 

hai-itcot aka. Huk(i) isivakitk' tcu. Konta im sia-lik takio kus tsitam 

something tell. Already planned trail placed. I was in ea.st direction kind of shining 

hiasitk' am nyu Aakita hokit am takita. Kota am nyu Aakita iiitk 

artificial there my trail edge there dropped. I was there my trail after 

flower 

ku nanuka masnia uhiasitahimuk ap katcini tcrwi^u strpapaki tcuma-si. 

kind diflerent appearance like a wave there laying land slowly cover, 

of flowers came 

Kot ap katcim tcuwu^u kunamlka masma hia. Ap kukam os 

That there laying land kind of various full-blown flowers. There standing tree 

kinds 

kunananka tcoi-ikam hia. Kota am tcum nyui kuny aputak hastco 

various clas.«es full-blown flowers. I was there then see my enemy what 

sku-ukam ui(d)itk'am rta tcor.sal ihuhuiniha." Kaot muk mamakai 

good thought there ill slowly lie laiiglied. It was far ^ magicians ^ 

tadrsa pamutaktc' s'ha-apai utcoktc'. Ava im tcvwm s'rtafitcotc 

placed unite correct result. It was in landmark center 

kutaniam hatai tunata katc. Huk woi am kukrk oatck(i) tantc hutcui 

kind of white stone our Are lay. That toward there standing cigarette knee itself 

koqrsantc kuk kontak ap sihavak am sia-alik woi si-iphuewoa. Kota 

smokes stand I was there inhale there east toward exhale. I was 

am kus tatam utcotcoahimuk sialik sui)apak(i) tcrma-a. Ava apa kuk 

there kind of white stand east slowly cover. It was there stand 

kutaniiim \a-akitcuk parsa ap kux kitaniam tcialkot. Kontak ipuk 

whitish house Ijefore there stand whitish cane. I was gra.sp 

lakatc ai) itcoik' ap sitcoa-akat. Kota ap nyriapa krs tiita r,sot4ik(i). 

with there made there stick. i was there came oul kind of white water. 



corner 



Hrk iutk' ap nvmapa kus tata vaktcutcu^hapi. Am ki ikha si-iskat 

That after there came out kind of white dragon flies. There four times around 

hihimuk am koavit tcotcp(i). Im katcim takio kus tatk{i) va-aki kux 

going there down sink. In laying direction kind of blue house stand 



o A "half laugh; more than a smile and less than a hearty laugh." 



363 



364 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 26 

the cane into a corner there came out a hhic water and then bhxe 
dragon flies, which flew about four times and then went bacii. In the 
west stood a blacii house with a blaclv cane before it. This 1 thrust 
into a corner and there came fortli a biaclt water followed bj- black 
drao-on flies, which flew around four times and then sank down. In 
the north stood a yellow house with a 3'ellow cane before it, which I 
took and thrust into the corner. There came forth j^ellow water fol- 
lowed by yellow dragon flies, which circled about four times and then 
sank down. 

On the mountain tops was a yellow spider magician, upon whom I 
called for help. He went to the enemy, darkened their hearts, tied 
their hands and their bows, and made them grow weak as women. 
Then he pushed us on to destroy the enemy. We rushed upon the 



tcuk parsS ap kux kus tatk(i) tciaikot. Kontak ipuk hukatc ap 

in front stand kind of blue onne, I was grasp with tliere 

itcolk' ap sitcoa-akat. Kota ap nyuiapa kus tatk(i) rsotak' kuk aitk' 

made there stick. I was tliere came out kind of blue water that after 

corner 

ap nyuiapa kus tatk(i) vaktcutcu}hap(i). Am ki-ikhil si-iskal hihimiik 

there came out kind of blue ^ dragon flies. There four times around goini; 

am koavit tcotcp(i). Im ho;inyik takio kus tcok va-aki kuk tcuk 

there down sink. In sunse't direction kind of black bou.9e stands in 

parsa-ap kux kus tcok tciaikot. Kontak ipuk hukatc ap itcojk' ap 

frontof there stands kind of black cane. I was grasp with there made there 

corner 

sitcoa-akat. Kota ap nyuiapa kus tcotck' rsotak' kuk iiitk' ap nyuiapa 

stick. I was there came out kind of black water that after there came out 

kus tcotck' vaktcutcujhiipi. Am ki-ikha si-iskal hihimiik am koavit 

kind of black ^ dragon flies. There four times around going there down 

tcotcp(I). Im nanuk(i) ait takio kus oara va-aki kux tcuk parsa-ap 

sink. In north field direction kind of yellow house stands front 

kux kus oani tciaikot. Kontak ipuk hukatc ap itcoik' ap sitcoa-akat. 

stands kind of yellow cane. I was grasp with there made there stick. 



corner 



Kota ap nyuiapa kus oa-am rsotak' kuk aitk' ap nyuiapa kus oa-am 

I was there came out kind of yellow water that after there came out kind of yellow 

vaktcutcu4hap(i). Am ki-ikhsi si-iskal hiiiimuk am koavit tcotck(i). 

dragon flies. There four times around going there down sink. 

Avak atilk ap uolintc' kus oam takiitatmakai. Kontak hap tcoi-ikani 

It was near there being held kind of yellow spider magician. I was that class of 

mamutcuk ap imilkrsarsoa tapsinyhai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut ki-ikha 

guess there address cry he ' friendly felt from four times 

skawo[ tahiwoak ap supapak(i) tcuma-a kuny a-aputa. Hux ipimaskil 

crouch set there slowly cover my" enemies. Already not visible 

iputatc kakhai wopotk' nanavitc kakhai wopotk' kat kiattatc kakhai 

his soul crossed tied his hands crossed tied bow string cro.ssed 

wopotk' ataprs hastco pat Aupatk ap woa. Huk aitk' inyoihai kont 

tied he made what bad like there throw. That after me push I was 

huk iiitk ita-ak ap kursk ap pia-atco tatkitcotk' ap sutapam pui. 

that after jumped there fall there nothing wrestle there smooth take. 

An wukatc katcim nanilka tcoi-itckatc si-inasik supapak kaAoikatk' 

About around laying various belongings gathered slowly grouped 



RfssELL] SPEECHES 365 

Apaches iiiid killed them without ditticulty. With pfladness in my 
heart I gathered the evidences of my victory and turned toward home. 
You may think this over, my relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste: the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 



prk opam ha-ahiikinyuwoak nytcuwu^uka tam oa-apa. Huk hukatc 

take hoiiifwaril face turned " my land on brought. That with 

am simai-Irsk tcuk nytcuwiiuka. S'ha-ap hap humsil ulitk' tatcoa 

there covereii pineeii my laud. Tlmt way that yon thoupht desired ' 

kotc humo hap pudnia tatanuk pat rsaika natc apahapta kai-ihiikim 

we _ now tliat lazy made bad slave way right 

kai-itc, 

said. 



noise 



FIRST NIGHT ON THE ■\VAKrATII. SECOND SPEECH 

We have come thus far, my brothers. I prajed to the Ocean, to tlie 
distant Magicians, and to Down Roll" to grant me power. Sun ex- 
tended his power to me as a descending trail along which the various 
villages gathered with greetings to each otiiei'. A gray headdress 
was placed upon me. A blue haze enveloped and concealed me as in a 
garment: in this I was borne along. 

I called upon Yellow Raven, who came gladly to my aid. Four times 
he with crackling gashed the land. Drawing blood from the enemy 
he sprinkled it in drops upon the land. 

On the mountain top was Yellow Spider Magician upon whom I 

lat tava tcutcka namlka tcoi-Jkam nyi-im!k(i). Konya vaprs 

Here we came various classes iuy relatives. I was there 

matai-itc uta kopaj katc muk vavanyim imitc rsoak. Muk mamakai 

ashes iti faeo (town lay far extending my ery. Far magicians 

lying 

tadrsa pamutiik imitc rsoak. Vik lai(d) Makai imitc rsoak. Tiiva 

placed unite my cry. Down Roll Magician my cry. It was 

ku vi-itckut itcursatk' UAakita skoeAa:)am itcu. Kotuk aitk' am 

kind of deer ascend his trail down placed. He then after there 

uiatcuk tcuwLia niututamuk skai-itamp uim.* Paitcp' uiatcuk o-ofik 

groui>cd land running loud naming. Further grouped birds 

ta-atauulk' skai-itamp uim. Am paitcp uiatcuk tcuwu^a mututanulk 

flying loud naming. There further grouped land running 

skai-itamp uim. Paitcp' uiatcuk o-ofik ta-atamuk' skai-itamp uim. 

loud naming. Further grouped birds flying loud naming. 

Vatai-ip uptcursatck' kus kamak(i) usiAuta ihodonyitk lukatc 

They were rising kind of gray headdress bringdown with 

sikopa] puny ate. Vatai-ip uptcursatck' kus tcutak(i) ukamhaiAakita 

face down myself put around They were rising kind of blue hazy 

throw neek. 

ihodonyitk uta pimaska myolinuk inyu pupuhi. Ava it tam kus 

bring down in invisible rue held me carry. It was this top kind of 

oam haAanta kontak hap tcoi-ikam mamutcuk ap imuk r.sarsoa kotap 

yellow raven magic I was that sortof guess there naming cry it was 

sinvhai-ikui-itam utatk' ki-ikha am uta sikilkafk ihodonykuk 

te me friendly felt four times there in crackling bringdown 

tcuwu^ an katcim kakhai sikuofdrs. Humatckam ap aimututam 

land about laying crossed gashed. People there moving 

huk ipiinaska u-u^ itcursutctk' hahatai tatu^am s'ahamasuma 

that invisible blood bring up stones setting tine apfiearance 

isipanyraat. Huk atuk' ap uolintc kus oam takutat makai. Kontak 

fallintirops. That side of there he stays kind of Yellow Spider Magician. I was 

" Living in the ruin at Tempe. 

Mmitc, past tense; lim. present. Both convey the meaning of addressing by naming speaker's 
relationship and person addressed. 

366 



KCSSELL] 



SPEECHES 3fi7 



c.illod for Iiclp. He went to the onoiiiy, darkened their hearts, tied 
their hands and their hows, made them grow weak as women. Then 
he pushed us on to destroy the enemy. We rushed upon the Apaches 
and killed them without ditKculty. With gladness in my heart I 
gathered the evidences of my victory and turned toward home. There 
I left mj' tirebrands, and I left my knife that the enemy should know 
that destruction was impending. The sliai-p stone was left there with 
which to cut his hair. The land thundered, the darkness trembled, 
the mountain roared, the trees waved; it was difficult for me to remain 
under such conditions. One of the enemy came running to that jjlace. 
He slept a part of the night; ))ut at length ded in terror with a light to 
seek a hiding place in the rocks. 

In the evening Blue Bird sang, because he was glad. Shaking his 
feathers he transforuied the land into a habitable world again, as 
smooth as the moss under the bushes. In the evening Yellow Bird in 
the gladness of his heart sang, shaking his yellow feathers." Mountain 

hap tcoi-ikam mamucuk ap imuk r.sarsoa tap sinyhai-ikui-itimi 

that sort of giicsa there naming cry he me friendly 

rtatk' amtcut ki-ikha skaAo[ tahiwoak ap supapak(i) tcoma-a kuny 

felt from four times crunch set there slowly arrive my 

a-aputa. Hul ipimaskil iputatc kakhai wopotk' nauavitc kakhai 

enemy. Already invisitjle soul crossed tied hands iiis crossed 

wopotk kat kiatutatc kakhai wopotk' ataprs hastco pat Aupatk ap 

tied bow string crossed tied he made what bad like there 

woa. Huk aitk' inyoihai kont huk aitk' ita-ak ap kursk ap 

throw. That after liie push I was that after fly there fall there 

pia-atco tatkitcotk ap sutapam pui. An wukatc katcini nanfika 

nothing wrestle there clean catch. About around laying dilTcrent 

tcoi-itckat<- si-iiiasik supapak kaAo]katk' puk opam ha-ahak inyiTWoa. 

occupations gathered sli>wly grouped catch turn face me home. 

Hrk tarn ap takutax nyu kotckd) vi-itak. tafkoan smo-okuk tam 

That top there release niy brand remaining. flint sharp on 

ap takutJik hrkatcuk ukikiat ho^aAakihak ak hap tco. Hukatci'ik 

there release with abandoned disturb told that made. With 

vkop hixiAanhak ak hap tcok hrk tam ap takfita. Kotak hrkatcuk 

hair cut roughly U»ld thut made that on there release. It was with it 

tcvwu} am vta sipuputk' utcu. Stcohokmom am uta sikikifk 

land there in roar lay. Darkness there in tremlile 

Utcu. Tata-ak tcotcim am utii sirsarsafk utcotcoa o-os tcotcim 

lay. Mountains stand there in echoed stands trees .standing 

am uta simokuofk utcotcoa-akuk tam pita hodontam utco. Kota 

there in waveil somehody placed in on not camping place make. It wai* 

a staiidiiig position 

humaka viikam nyrapfita hupaitcut mutate huk tam kursk tcum 

one remaining 'me enemy whcrefrom running that on fall then 

karsk hu-us tcohok uta pi-inakak kotk' hastcoi-ikam kaAajk ap 

.sleep night part of night in can not stand tire what sort of hollow there 

itcum vakiamhr. Kota hodonuk huAatcot makai s hux utatk kox. 

he enter. It was evening Blue Bird Magician glad tilled sing. 

Ku.s tcuhutak(i) uwapii ikik(i). Kotak hukatcuk tcuwui s aliamasma 

Kind of blue his feathers shake. It was with it land fine appearance 

n The yellow flowers that color the mountains. 



368 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. anx. 2G 

tucked these feathers under his belt to improve his appearance. In 
the evening glad Mocking Bird" sang and .shook his white feathers 
which made white the earth.* 

You may think this over, my relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

mamathatk utcu. Kota hodonuk vatcokok makai s'hux utatk' kox 

water plants lay. It was evening Yellowish Magician glad fell sing 

kus oa-am uwapa ikiki. Kotak huxatcuk tata-ak tcotcim s'ahamasma 

kind of yellow his feathers shake. It was with it mountain stand fine appearance 

s'oa-am hihifurspatakutc tcotc. Kota hodonuk rsok makai s'hux 

yellow tuck under .stand. It was evening Mocking Bird Magician glad 

utatk kox kus tata uwapil ikiki. Kotak huxatcuk tcuwu^ wuska 

felt sing kind of white his feathers shake. It was with it land all over 

tanatk' utcu. S'ha-ap hap humsa ulitk' tatcoa kotc humo hap pa^ma 

white lay. Way that you thought desire way now that lazy 

tatauuk pat rsaika natc apahapta kaihakim kai-itc. 

made bad slave way proper noise set. 

aPeople. 6 With sunshine. 



Lvaprskatii katc huk bastcony pat hohoki katc 

He was lay thht what my* bad food lay 



THK WARPATH. FIRST SPEECH 

We have vonw thus far. my l>rotliers. 1 went from \illao-o to villaijc, 
tellino' you to be ready. You came to our village and ate oui' humble 
fare antldrank from our olhis. As the blue shadows of evening beoan 
to fall we gathered in a circle and neglected our usual duties. The 
next day at nigiitfall we again gathered and repeated the ceremonie.'S 
of the tirst evening. 

To-night our medicine-man shall render the darkness yellow and 
gra\', so that we may beconu; invisible to our enemies. He examines 
his equipment, his shield and club, his sandal strings and tlie netting 
of ins gourd canteen are tightened, his headdress is moistenecl and 
shaped, his black paint is renewed that he ma\' be proper!}' painted 

lat' tava tcutcka nanCdva tcoi-ikam nyimiki. S'ha-ap ant, hums, 

Here pla<'e we varicius classes relatives. That T. yes, 

itata. OS nyu moluna wusk ap iwoetahi ka-am smatc' ait hinulk am 

do tree liie liniken all there distribute there know after going there 

utcuma-ak himfik am utcuma-a. Kota hupaitcut niujutum nyimiki 

arrive going there arrive. It was where from running relativt 

atavai tcivia. A\ 

llad came. 

ukukoslt. Rsotaki nyu vasipitc ip uvavinyit. Kota ima.si, kota 

he eats. Water me lake with he quenched. It was morning, it was 

itany ipum hutculuwa kus tcutaki nyhojinyik kus tcutaki nyhakoata 

now you slide kind of blue me evening kind of blue ' me ring 

kontak hap tcoi-ikain takutak' huk uta am s'iam vakitk' tarsuwa. 

with that that sort of release that in there right enter placed. 

Kota iiua.si kota itany ipum hutculuwa kus tcutaki nvhojinvik 

It was morning it was now' you slide kind of blue " evening 

kus tcutaki nyhaxoata kontak hap tcoi-ikam takutak' huk ut:i am 

kind of blue ' me ring with it that sort of release that in thiTe 

s'iam vakltk' tarsuwa. Kota-ama pi-ipuk nyunya konta iworsanyili 

right enter placed. It was the in breathless silent 1 was arose 

tcuwu} tciakasik siki:irsk kukiwa. Kota ama makai tcokaki ikul 

land rock shelter stepped stood. It was then magician darkness fell 

uhokit an oama uhokit an ni'ata" tak' si-ivantckuwak' hukatc sis 

side by side there yellow side by side there ashy that jerk with very 

ia-amp mai-irsk tcu. Anya huk wukatc am taktc' amliunyuwa. 

good covereil placed. I was that around there sitting pri'pai-ing. 

Nyu kaAat masit ors rsapatk' nyu wuntahlm. Nyu kaikia 

ile shield renew stick short me together. Me stmdal 

sivinukutcot nvu vaka sisuvinam pihiwuk. Nyu sivuta sihiavtck' 

strings tighten me gourd tiglitening envelope. Me headdress soften 

woehya nytcokolitc ap utix ip sintatak, huk wukatc amutaktc' 

face me black paint there in with spread, that around silting 

" .\ guttural expulsion of breath follows m', 
26 ETH— OS 'M 369 



370 THE PIMA INDIANS [ETH.ANN.2fl 

for the la.st journey if he .should take it. He extend.s hi.s hand.s toward 
the four cardinal points that he may foretell the result of the expedi- 
tion. We went into the enemy's country and our scout .saw the ani- 
mals running, which the Apaches have started, and he trails thcni until 
he comes upon the Apaches warming themselves about their tire. 

The scout upon the back trail reports no enemy in sight. The scout 
in the direction of the enemy, the scout at the west, and the scout at 
the north report and again return to their posts. From the south the 
animals come and I have wondered what is happening there. All is 
silent in that quarter; tlie land, the mountain, the beasts, the trees 
are quiet. 

The scout from the north reports that he has discovered an old man 
and a young one. The scout said, "I went out and took my stand in 
an advantageous position where I could see in all directions. From 

haitcok malik kaihyam. Kota sia-alik takio tcut kursk avaipung 

s<iinething listen. ' It was east dirt-clion from tall ho was 

akit. Im kur.sotak(i) worsutak takio tcut hastco vapakam uksikuta 

telling. Iti much water cirigin direetion from what hairy killing 

himuk itcutcitk in pum ia.va. Ahu-ukrs, apa katc apiiitc nyiatc 

going ascended liere them fell. Yes, there lay after looking 

nyui-itanuk ap aithivai umamasitam s'ha-apavai utcoktcinuk 

saw there after follow appears and dis- that manner lie made 

appears, moving 
raitidly 

tcoi itckatc p'aiiy avai-ikaitc mokiak'tc' kul katt; punj' hokatcit. Im 

property I thus tell sitting big lay me warming. In 

rsulitcotk ta-ak iu kursk avai-ipuny akit. Im ku vak worsutak 

straightened fly in fall he me " told. In kind of trail appeared 

takio tcut ta-ak im kursk avai-ipuny akit. Ahu-ukrs, apa katc ap 

direction from fly in fall he me ' told. Yes, tliere lay there 

Sit(; nyiatc nyui-itank ap aithivai umamasitam sha-apiival utcoktcinuk 

after looking seeing there after appear that manner he does 

tcoi-itckatc pany avai-ikaitc mokiaktc' kul katc puny hokatc. Im 

property I ' manner tell sitting big lay me warming. In 

ho^inyik takio tcut ta-ak im kursk aval ipuny akit. Im ku Pa-ak 

west direetion from fly rn fall he me" told. In kind of Eagle 

kars takio tcut ta-ak im kursk avai-ipuny akit. Ahu-ukrs, apa katc 

nest direetion from fly in fall he me ~ told. Y'e.s, there lay 

ap siitc nyiatc nyui-itank ap aithivai umamasitam s'haapavai 

there after looking seeing there follow appear and disappear, that way 

moving rapidly 

utcoktcinuk tcoi-itckatc pa-any avai-ikaitc mokiaktc kulkatc puny 

he does property 1 * inld .sitting big lay me' 

hokatcit. Im ku rsotaki worsutak takio tcut ta-ak im kursk aval 

warming. In kind of water origin direetion from fly in fall he 

ipun}' akit, pany avai-ikaitc kos has utco. Tcuwui tatiilim katc os 

me ^ told, I * said how what do. Land stationary lay tree 

tiitaliin kux ta-ata-ak tatalim tcotc hastco vapakam tatalim a-aimulik. 

stationary, stand mountain stationary stand what witli hair stationary undisturbed. 

Ahu-uki's, hap aatcok tc kahim hiap kukiwahai s'ha-akok iuwoan 

Yes, there stay direction stan<l turn and look some one 

pavai-i utcoktcink tcoi-itckatc pany avai-ikaitc mokiaktc kulkatc pun}' 

manner he stays belongings lay I * said sitting big lay me 

hokatcit. Im ku Pa-ak kars takio tcut ta-ak im kursk avai-ipuny 

warming. In kind of P:ag]e nest direction from fly in fall lie me 



RiTSSELi.] SPEECHES 371 

tlio west somethinjj told ine tliat tlific were an Apache and his nephew- 
there who killed some jjanie and earried it home, to return at once for 
more." " Yes," I said, "' like foolish children, they wish to die with 
their daughters, sons, and Vidnahlo property." From the east a scout 
came to tell me that in the l)rules the tracks of the Apaches show 
plainly. '"Yes, like foolish children, they wish to di(> with their 
dauohters, sons, and valuable possessions." 

Now a man with the strength and agility of the wildcat crept upon 
them from that side. And one with the sinuous silence of the gray 
snake glided upon them from the other side. Another crept up 
behind the shelter of the trees. Render yourselves invisible upon the 
gray earth! Crawl through the aiToyos, advance slowlj-. I select a 
patient aide, telling him what he shall do. He called loudly to another 



akit. Ahu-ukrs, hapa-atcoktc' kahim hiap kukiwahai s'ha-akok iuwoaii 

told. Yes. there stay direetioii sttnul turn and lonk some (.in- 

puvai uteoktcinuk tcoi-itckatc pa-an}' avai-ikaite mokiaktc kulkate 

manner he slays helongings lay I sjiirl sitting I'lK lay 

puny hokatcit. Aik wusk ap kakaitcitk' liumiap uohinan kony am 

me warming. Now all there notify gather enjwd I ' there 

iworsuiiyhi hai-itcova am tcotan p'any avai-ikaitc mokiaktc kulkate 

arose ' something nnderstjind I " manner sitting hig lay 

puny hokatcit. Kotava vaha wusk ap kakaitc kotavai-i humiap uoT. 

me ' warming. It was trne all there notify there were gather erowa. 

Konta iworsanyik tcuwuj tciakasik sikuirsk kukiwa. Im hotinyik woi 

1 was arose land rock shelter stepped stand. In sunse't toward 

s hovitam mawak sialik woi s hovitsim mawak rsulitcotk s'hovitam mawa. 

sellish reaeh for east toward selfish reaeh Un- straight selfish reairh for. 

Kota im ho;iiiyik Uikia tcut ta ak im kursk avai-ipuny akit. .V-iip huk 

It was in sunset direetion from fly in fall he nic ' told. .\paene that 

utcotcoj wumuk uinoa-a humo im imat ksikha ataiimiit. Ahuhu a-alva 

her nephew with game now in earry twiee they earry. Yes, ehihlreii 

naja uki apst oa-apaiin uovitak sUAumam ualitak su.vumam sku-uk 

era/.y his house there fetidi daughter eoax his son coa,\ good 

hti-stco utcoi-itak suAumam. Im sialik takio tcut ta-ak im kun-sk avai-i 

what his things eoax. In east direetion from fly in fall he 

puny akit. In kus vapaik tumilk vapak moi-ipa-atoa hastco 

me told. In kind t.rule top frails many appeared what 

puihvamkotiitc sAutcitckamaip umasit. Ahuhu, a-al.va nata iki apst 

gathered plaees fresh appears. Y'es, ehildren crazy his house there 

oa-apaim lofitak suAuinam Uiilitak suAumam sku-uk hastco ;tcoi-itak 

hnug his daughter eoax his son coax good what things 

suAumam. Kota-ama humakil vi-ikam nyu viapiiku-uluksi ta-ama 

coax. It was then one remainder me son then 

kuofha steoviatkam tcok(ut). Huniidvti liatai ma-atcotk' kai()!uiyim. 

Willi eat sly assume flesh. One stone head came crawling. 

Ata-ama humaka vi-ikam nyu viapaku-uluka ta-ama shamaki vamat 

,\nd then one remainder me son then gray snake assume 

tcokut. Humaka osukatc ma-atcotk' kaipanyim. Ata-ama iiumakii 

flesh. One tree hishcad came crawling. .Vtid then one 

vi-ikam nyu viapilku-uluka ta-ama skamaki teuwu; tcokut. Humaka 

remaining nn* son and tlien gray ground assume flesh. One 

vi-irsany ma-atcotk' kaipanyim. Konyak aitc ipkukhim. Awao4 sistoo 

small arruyo head came crawling. ' I wa-s after advancing slowly. It was very 



372 THE PIMA INDIANS rETii.AXX.2G 

to accompany liiiu to see what .shall happen. He reached a gap in 
the mountain and peeped through. Calling to his companion he told 
him to look and see what is before them. There they saw a lire built 
by a stump and an old Apache cracking bones. A boy was shouting 
and a girl was laughing, ^^'hen he heard this he sent his companion 
to tell us to hide and remain hidden until he gave the call of the road 
runner. We heard the messenger coming and thought it was the 
Apaches, so that we caught up our l)el<>ngings. Our leader said that 
some of our friends must have shown themselves, which would cause 
the Apaches to take the alarm and to depart. As we listened the sun 
went down and the messenger arrived. He told us to hide and our 



papkikaui nyimiki kontak mamutcuk am kuik a.\a uwumkam akit. 

patient my relatives I was guessing tltere appoint and his companion told. 

Aik rsasikotc vaphai hai-itco va-amtctan p'ata kai itam tcutcu. Atava 

Hurry then we run something umlerstaiid lie loud said. Then 

vahavapk toa-akatc rsa-ajk' am spa-apak(!) ikoatcitk uAunikam akit. 

true run mountain lilie his gap there slowly peeped his companion told. 

Aik miaki-iolin konv am inytcu Aulithi haitco va-amtctan pata kaitam 

Hurry here liold I " there raised something understand j\ist as loud 

tcutcu. Tava vaha miak i-ioi(t). Ta-am i-itcuAu[itk' tcum nyui kota 

said. That true here hold. And then he raised there saw then 

humaka orsan ap atavai inai. Huk ujak a-Sp kuli s'ap kaitam a-a 

one stinnp there built fire. That in Apaefie old right sound bones 

rsanv sku-uk viapai s'ap kai-itam rsavaj hinuk' sku-uk tcuhya 

pounding good boy right sound adult condition shout good girl 

s'ap kai-itam rsava] tcutciak, kotaam tcum kayak uAumkam akit. 

right sound adult condition laugh, then there heard his companion told. 

Kamai opam kuk.simhai hupait imik(i) tcu-ukhi akitank hupai 

There homeward fall at intervals where relatives found told wliere 

hastcoi-ikam kaAaik' ap itcom u-ustan. Kony hapa tcoi-Tkahim 

somewhere hollow there try hid. I here was like 

hiwukatc pitcimithai tcuwu:> tcumihiakhai hit-us tcohok uta 

around lay going around earth covered little dark in 

hastcoi-kam kavaiik ap haprs itcom humu kakan. Kotava vaha opam 

what kind hollow there will you look. He then true homeward 

kuksimuk woitcok tcorsa] tcovinvhim. Kota katho nyu wukatcilk 

fall at intervals straight slowly chortling. Then there me behind 

hastco pat koa-aki tatuku varsai tatuku. 

what bad lirewood wrestle grass wrestle. 

Ksam piatcu-uk hai itco kai-iham na-aks hupaiva utcuki hukt 

Silent nothing something listen might \vheK showed our 

imik(i) tuwoi tcorsal tcovinyhim p'ata kai-itam tcutcu. KotaAa vaha 

relatives tons slowly chortle not loud kept saying. Then true 

rsam piatcu-ilk hai-itco kai-iham kotak tataf vaprs kam tcom kuvitp 

silent nothing something listen that sun westward glance 

kotak uta vai-i tcivia. Haspk' umakitan nanfika nyimik(i) na-anysapa 

then in here came. Undecided told various relatives I guess right 

tcivia. Kotrs hapa tcoi-ikaihindiai hupai hastcoi-ikam kavillik ap 

came. Perhaps we in same condition where what kind hollow there 

itcom tu-usttin p'ata kai-itam tcutcu. Kava vtlha hastcoi-ikam 

try hide not loud kept saying. It was true what kind 

kiiviliik ap isiatuvintc tai-ihim. Ka-am hap tcoi-ikahimtc' worsanyik 

hollow there retreat sitting. There there was in that condition arose 

wukatc pitciniitahimuk tcoi-ikam nyunar.sunahimuk hu-ustcohok uta 

around going around kind " examine in the night ir.to 



inssKLi.) SPEECHES 373 

scout would coiiio for US dui-iny tlic iiio;lit. Wo went and concealed 
ourselves in a cave. The scout came for us and we mistook him for 
tht^ Apaches and wrestled with the grass and stones in our cfl'orts to 
conceal ourselves. Our leader said we must he (juiet and listen, for it 
was our fi'iend that was coming. He said ho, came t'arefully so as not 
to give tiie alarm, l)ut that tliere were no rocks or trees about the camp 
of the Apache, so the medicine- men must cause darkness with a yellow 
and gray edge tliat will render the warriors invisihie. 

The medicineman threw his .spell upon the enemy and they slept. 
The Apache dreamed, and when he awakened he thought it was true 
that his yoiuiger brother and his uncles had been killed. Again he 
dreamed, and wIumi he awakened he thought, '"Did I eat food that I 
never saw? Did I drink water that 1 never saw f Things that 1 never 
.saw have I used for clothing^'' \\'hen he thought of these things he 
was frightened and tried to hide himself. 

J sent the men with shield and club in two parties in the east and 
west direction to meet at the camp of the,.;Vpaches. Some went straight 
with me. There, gathered about a stump, are the Apaches. When 

tuwoe rsamonymi. Kota katho nyi" wukatcuk hastco pat koa-ak(i) 

V1.S making liitise. It was liehiiid iiu- at that pificL- what bad tin-wood 

tatuku var.sai tatrku. lisam piatcu-idv hai-itco kai-iham na-aks 

wrestle jirass wrestle. Silent nothing said something listen might 

liL'paiAa rtciki hukt imik(i) ti;woe rsamonyim p'atti kai-itam 

where showed otn- rehitive.s lis straight making noise not loud 

U'ltcu. Kotava vaha rsam piatcu-fik hai-itco kai-iham kotak uta 

kept saying. It was true silent nothing said .something listen that in 

vai tcivia. Ilaspk umakitan nanuka nyimik(I) na-amysapa tcivia. 

here came. rndeeioed told various relatives giiess*right eariie. 

Pia-ava wukatc hatai ta ])ia-ava wukatc os kr-rk p'ata kai-itam 

Not good around stone sitting not good around tree stanrl not loud 

tcutcu. Kota-ama makai tcokak(T) ikti, uhokit an oama ihokit 

kept saying. .\lld the magician darkness fall, side by side there yellow side hy side 

an mata. Kotak ivantc(u)kovak lu'kate sisiamp malrsk tcu. Kotiik 

there ashy. That jerked with very right covered placed. That 

Uta am kurs karsk am pajatp utcutckihim. Hu-i;s tcohok ita tim 

in there fall sleep Uiere perhaps of himself dreampt. Some night in there 

bad 

inyiak hap utatam rsat utco tiiva hrkiai prikun sir-iiiuki 

waked that felt himself how do it was long ago ealch him older brother 

nydrsipitc huntata nyhuki vat hik tcivia. Kr|)iny nyiita 

yiHinger bri'thcr mother's father's I guess lie came. Nothing* 'seen 

younger brotlier younger brother 

111 niatckam vant hIk rsakit ai-imu. Ki'piny nyi'itii hastco hohoki 

p'-'ople guess got ill among going. Notning 'seen what footl 

vtint hik ho. Kipiny nytita rsotak(i) vasip(i) vant hIk i. Kupiny 

guess ate. Notning 'seen water take gues-s drink. Nothing 

nyuita hast<'() tcoi-itak vant hik teoi-it t . Hap ata-atatk' 

seen what property gucs.s own. That he thought 

amahavapk umk katc. Awaoi kaof(w)k takakam kont am uta taf 

there then died lay. It was hard rooted 1 there in split 

tapanuk sia-alik takio pitcimltk hotlnvik takio piteimitk' s'iamp 

in half ea^-t direction gonroiind sunset direction carrv arounrl right 

unam. Kontak hastco p;it wum rsulitcut ita. .Vpai-i hi;inaka 

meet. I wa.-* wiiat bad with straighteneil jmnp. I'p there one 



374 THE PIMA INDIANS fETH.ANN.2G 

our meu heard of this from a ine.ssenger the^' spraiifj upon the enemy. 
Wc killed one who .slipped upon the gra.ss and fell down hill and 
another who .stumbled upon a branch. We cleaned up everything 
about the Apache camp. Animals and birds alone remained to prey 
upon the dead. 

I turned back and my trail was downward. 1 reached home after 
slackening .speed four times. When at the first drinking place I .sent 
four of my sons to give notice of our approach. They told the old 
men and the old women at the villages and they rose and cleaned their 
face.s and brushed theii- liair smooth. Then I came bringing the evi- 
dences of my victory. My land i-ejoiced with me and the mountain 
donned its headdress, the trees took on gladness. We notified our 
relatives to the east, west, and south, that we might rejoice together. 

You may think this over, my relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celebration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

orsiin ap }) ata kai-itam tcutcu. Kontak aitk' ita-ak ap kursk 

stump tlu'i-f not lourl kept saying. I was after jumped put against foot 

ap pia-atco tatrddtcotk' ap sutapam pui. Kao; rtcinvkatc steo 

there notliing wrestle there smooth catch. It was his mouth with expert 

moa-atkamtc' ap ki-irsk ap itcuAaim. Kao; uhotckatc stco 

killing there bite there drag. It was his nails with expert 

moa-atkamtc' ap hokrsk'an itcuAaim. An wukatc katcun nanfika 

killing grasp there drag. There around laying various 

tcoi-itc(i) katc sinasik stpapak kaAoi(d) katk pukr ojjam ha-ahok 

powdered ground lay gathered slowly group look homeward face 

inyuwa. Kota it nyu wakita skoiwaiam utcu. Kontak aitk' ap 

I. That this me trail sleep ineliiu' placed. I was after there 

ki-ikap rsiirs. Kaoj i-sotakiu nyi-ikottc' kanvai-.san prkukrsa kont 

four renewals. It was water dri'nking place nearby fall I was 

huk TJta am kursk am i. Ivaoj kus tcootcoa-atcmakam hunyu 

that in there fall there drink. It was kind of swiftest my 

vipiiipka kont hamam tcuk am hatcotcoa-a. Kota ki-ikap rsarsk 

youths I was had found there appointed. That four renewals 

mulifkai ikai-itc kuli vi-Ikam aks vi ikam. Kota kat si-itatakrsk 

center running to old remainder female remainder. That there put hands 

ivamik uwoihia mawoak kamirtakoa uhakvatutak i ta mawoak kam 

arose his face touch rub off Ins mistletoe like head in put hand brush 

kaniutap ka. Konyak aitck' kus .s'aptahatkam nyu moa-a oa-atc 

smooth. I was after kind of good feelings liie killing holding 

antavai-i oa-apa. Huk hukatc am simai-irsk tcuk nytcuwuiuka 

then brought. That with there covered placed my land 

nytata-aka isisisAutatc os nyu ku-ursa isitaktcotk isikok(i). 

my mountain very headdress tree my i»lanted grasp put on toi>. 

Hotinyik takio takam tuimik(i) kaitanuk sumatchait imutan 

Sunset direction sitting our relatives notify inform address 

katcim takio takam tuimik(i) kaitanuk sumatchait imutan sia-alik 

laying direction sitting our relatives notify inform address east 

takio takam tuimik(i) kaitanuk sumatchait inu'itan. S'ha-ap 

direction sitting our relatives notify inform address. That way 

hapuk humsa ulitk tatcoa kotc humo hap patmatiitan huk pat 

that you think desires for now that lazy make that liad 

rsaika natc apahapta kaihiikim kai-itc. 

alave guess on which noise said. 



THK WARPATH. SKCONO SPEECH 

We have come tlm.s far, my brothers. The land about us is truly 
our own. On my way hither I have slackened speed but four times. 
Th(> trail led to the white reed, with whirh I made four passes down- 
ward, but there were four layers of earth and I could not reach them 
all. I made four passes upward, but there were four layers of sky 
and 1 could not reach them all. I stood in the center of the world and 
looked about me. To the westward extended this black trail as far as 
the base of the black reed. I made four passes downward and four 
passes upward as before. Again I returned and stood in the middle of 

la-ataAa tcu-utcka naiuika tcoi-ikam nyi-imik(i). Kavaot nyu 

We have come vtirious classes relatives. It was me 

tcuwrtiika kontak kuirsk iui kukiAak im aai nyunhak tcLin nyui. 

land that steppe<l on in sUuhI in looking around then saw. 

Im sialik woi kus toa han(y) tcukrsantalik katc kont lak iiitk' 

In east toward kind of white my ' drawn line lay I that after 

am ki-ik p'tcukak ap tcu-umti-ak term nyDik ap rsant ap kuk 

there four eoming there covered then saw there base there stand 

krs toaha vapk'. Kont ap rsant ap mawoak Im koavit ittikio 

kind of white reed. I wa-s there base there reach in down strip 

kait tcuwtrj ki-ik ap utam katc kak am pia-is kontak am 

this land four there on top of lay this there not ricli I was there 

another 

pihckaitcotk am tcux itakio kait tamkatcim ki-ik ap utam katc 

mistaken there bound .strip this atwve laying four there on top of lay 

another 

kak am pia-is kontak am pihukaitcotk' am opam hap intcok im 

this there not rich I was there mistaken there homeward that went as in 

before 

tcuwu) s Utaf kukiwoa. Am aai nyunhak tcum nyuik im ho^inj'ik 

land center stand. There look m various then ' -saw in west 

directions 

woi kus tcok nyu tcokrsantalik katc. Kont huk iiitk am 

toward kind of black my drawn line lay. I was that after there 

ki-ik p'tcukak ap tcu-uma-ak tcum nyuik ap rsant ap kuk 

four going there there covered then saw there base there stand 

kus tcok vapk'. Kont ap rsant ap mawoak im koavit itsikio 

kind of black reed. I was there base there reach in down strip 

kait tcuwu} ki-ik ap utam katc kak am pia-is kontak am 

this land four there on top of lay this there not rich I was there 

another 

pihukaitcotk' am tcuxitakio kait tamkatcim ki-ik ap utam katc 

mistaken there bound strip this above laying four there on top of lay 

another 

kak am pia-is kontak am pihukaitcotk' am opam hap intcok 

this there not rich 1 was there mistaken there homeward that went as 

bef..re 

a-ai nyunhak tcum nyuik 

in various directions then saw 



im 


tcuwu? 


s'utaf 


kukiwoa. 


Am 


in 


land 


center 


stand. 


There 



looking 



375 



376 THE PIMA INDIANS 



[ETH. AXN. 26 



the earth. Looking about me I saw in the south " the Sea god, to whom 
I loudly cried for swiftness, dreams, visions, magic bow and arrows, 
inmuinity from cold, thirst, and hunger, and accuracy of aim. These 
favors he gave me tied in a l)undle and I bore them away to my home. 
In the north were the four living streams'' stretching in a line, liehind 
which sat the Apache magician. His camp tire shone out upon a red- 
dish reed, wiiich I went and easily pulled out, though I thought I could 
not. With this reed I scattered the fire, destroyed his food and water. 
I did this l)ecause 1 feared him, yet when 1 had finished I was not satis- 
fied. I returned to my home and stood in the center of the land. 
Again I looked around me and saw in the heavens Talking Tree. 

avarsan hut vata katc kont huk woi iahap nyu tcotcohimuk 

there then that laid lay I was that toward here me eomiiiK 

ap supapak(i) tcuuma-a. Anya-am sisk ai-itam iniutc rsoak. Kota 

there slowly eovercd. I'was very loud address ery. This 

pinyu hovitc ku nanuka tcoi-ikam ukuofkutalik sku-uk tcu-utcik(i) 

not me unseKLsh kind of various things his streiiKth gipod dreams 

tanalim haitco nyuita. Sapukam kat kiaatkaiu sulu ta-atam vapk 

visible something saw. Good bow string straight fly reed 

tcoi-ita. HuoAastalik kostalik piohokistalik tcoatcmatalik suliwi 

smt)oth. Inured t^> eold inured to ii:mred to hunger swift accurate 

thirst of dim 

tiilik. Hakia katcim nankoaa tcoi-itcik pinyuhovitcitk' .siskavitcim 

Many laying various occupations unselfish very narrow 

huntak(i). Kontak siskavitcim tak opam ha-ahalv in3'U woa. Kaiiu 

held. I was very narrow hold home- face me toward. In this 

ward direction 

nanuk(i) ait woi ku vipukam rsorsok(i) ki-ik apmaitam wuAuftc 

north field toward kind of remainders waters four successive stay 

konyak kakhai am sikukshim. Kainot wukatc katcimtc huk 

I was across there falling. In this around lay stay that 

wukatcuk makai am ta. Ha-'as siAat muhi tarn nata. An wukatcik 

around about magician tlicre sitting. Large flames light fire. About around 

stcohokmom sitiinattc katc, huk hokit am am katcik' swikiom 

darkness shone lay that edge there there staid reddish 

rsotakitc' huk utca am ku-uk huk kus swukiom vapk. Am 

water that in there stand that kind of reddish reed. There 

pihupai miacut hastcokatc tatcoi-itcim tcoi-Tk. Kontak huk(i) 

nowhere near something po\verless condition. I was that 

sispathak ulitk huk imulivitahimk antaprssuputam aiitcum 

very determined tlimiglit that dodging toward I feared ilu-rc 1 

prk antaprskam hop(u). Antak hukatc liuk makai nata am a-ai 

grasp I did pulled out. Then with that magician fire there both 

sikantat. SkaAakam hastco hohokitc ap iawoitc. Kus vavinyikam 

directions Cloying what plenty of there thrown Kind of quenching 

scattered. ' food away. 

rsotaki vasipitc ap sivasipowitc. Antak am (p)rstcum hukaiitcotk 

water take a drink there empty. Then there make that resemble 

in a cup for some one 
who is absent 

tatcoa, kaowoc) pihukai-i. Kont opani hapintcok im tcuwu? 

jilan, it was not that. I was homeward just as before in land 

.s'l'taf kukivoak am a-ai nyunhak tcum nyui. Ava ittamatcim 

center stand there both (Erections then -saw. It was this above 

looking 



nVata Katc. SVipflkam. 



RUSSELL] SPEECHES 



377 



Branches extended in the four directions; that toward the west held 
thi^ hlaok wind, which came down upon nie and, takinj,^ nie by the hair 
in his <i;rasp, carried me to the niaroin of tlie eartli where he left me. 
This he did to render me hard.v and brave. The branch toward the 
soutii bore tlie hurricane, whicti grasped and bore me to the edge of 
the world. He did this that I might become brave. The east brani'h 
bore the white wind, whidi came slowlj' down and grasp(>d my head 
and swung me to the margin of the earth. He did this that 1 migiit 
become lii-ave. The straiglit branch bore the licking wind, which 
grasped, swung, and slowly carried me to the edge of the earth. This 
he did to inure me to hardship. Now I thought that all was done, but 

it was not. 

I rctuitied to my home and stood in the middle of tlie land. Look- 
ing about 1 again saw above me Talking Tree, bearing on its western 



parsa kuk iiunviaktam o.s. Am a-ai s nanalitc kuk. Tn hotinyk 

near tn.it khill ti.lkinK tree. Thi-r,- both ilir.-clions stand. In .snnM.t 

nncUT liranclies 

woi imamahaktc hrk tarn am krk krs tcok huoAUl(d). Amtctt 

tinvar.! I.nmi-I. that on there stnnfl kind c,t lihu'k wind. ^ There fr.mi 

a-akrsi) ihodonvik iany mii-atam nvu rsak tauiatcim parsa ki-ik ap 

down wentdoWn hcri .iverln^iid me Knisp aljove near below fonr there 

sinvuvitotk' amtcut supapak(i) invu hodontahiniuk tcuwu^ hohokit ap 

me swing th.'retrom skiwly me do^vn land eilnes there 

a-ai .sinvu kukioliktc'. Avapihaskam liaitco tathak nyuaktc ap nyu tco. 

both me fix at edges. It was nothing what feel me told there me do. 

directions 

Iva im katck'woi Imamahaktc' huk tam am kuk hrk kusiofhuwui(d). 

It was in oeean toward braneb that top there stand that knid of bitter wind. 

Amtcut a-akrsp ihodonvik iany niu-atam nyu r.sak tamatcim parsa 

Therefrom down went down here bead top me grasj) sk.\-^ near 

ki-ikan sinvi: vitotk' am tcut supapak(i) imyu hodontahimilk tcuwu; 

four times m'e swing there from sfinvfy ^ me lower.'d ^ land 

hohokit ap a-ai slnyu kukioliktc. .\va pihaskam haitco tathak nyu 

edges there boib me standing. It was nothing thing feel me 

directions 

aktc' ai) nvu tco. Im sialik woI imamtdiaktc' hrk tain am krk huk 

U.i.i there nie do. In east toward brancli that on there stand that 

krs toahtwrld. Amtcrt a-akrsp ihodonyik iany ma-atam nyr nsak 

kind of white wind. Therefrom down went down here bea.l top me grasp 

tamatcim parsa ki-ikap sinyu vitotk' amtcut suuaptd.i inyu 

sky near four times me swing from ^ slmvly me 

hodontahimi'ik tcuwu} hohokit ap a-ai sin vu kukioliktc'. A va piluiskam 

loHiTi-d land edges there both me stand. It was nothing 

direetions 

haitco tathak nyu aktc' ap nvutco. Suld krkam taiu am kuk kr 

thing feel ine told there me do. straight standing on there stand kind of 

vinvom hrwrld. Amtcrt a-akrsp ihodonvik iany ma-atam nyu r.sak 

lieiiing wind. Therefrom down lowered here head lop me grasp 

tamatcim par.sa ki-ikap sinyu vitotk' amtcut supapak(i) inyu 

sky near fcair times me swing from sh.wly _ me 

hodontahiniuk tcuwu^ hohokit ap a-ai sinyu kukioliktc . Ava 



lllWlTud 



■dt^'i's tht-re Ijuth mc .■^taml. II was 

directions 



pihaskam haitco tatlmk nvu aktc' ap nyu tco. Hap titavainytco. 

' i.o,., .i,i,„r (,.,-l nie toll! there me do. There linishcd test.s. 



n.jthing thing feel iiie toM there 



378 THE PIMA INPIANS [eth. ax.n. i6 

branch the black liohtning-. This came in a thunderbolt, which split 
the earth and made a furrow toward the nortii as far as the Apaches. 
This caused the sjjirit of our youth to be strenjjthened. In a vision the 
location of the enemy was disclosed. The south branch bore the t)lue 
lightning, which descended to split the trees in all directions, rendering 
visible our enemies. In the east the white lightning descended to split 
and scatter the mountain in all directions, rendering visible the enemy. 
The straight stem bore the blue lightning, which descended in a bolt, 
splitting the sky in two parts and disclosing the plan of the Apaches, 
After receiving these powers I was pushed toward the enemy. I 
rushed upon the Apaches and killed them without difficulty. With 

Kontak amursptcum hukai-itcotk' t'tcoa kaoj pihukai-i. Kont opam 

I was there then that thing (or that) desires it was not that. I was hoine- 

^ ward 

haplnytco. Ini tcuwu? s'utaf kukiwoak am a-ai nyunhiik tcum nyui. 

just as before. In land center stand there both "looliing then "saw. 

direetions 

Konta tamatcim woi inyiak tcum myui. Ava it tamatcim parsa kuk 

I was sky toward look tlien saw. It was this sky near stand 

huk kv myiaktam ostc am a-ai sunanaldtc' kuk. Ini ho;inyik woi 

that kind of talking tree there both branches stand. In svmset toward 

directions 

inaldk' apta kus tcok woeham. Am u?a sikaponyik ihodonyk amt 

branch there kind of black lightning. There in explosion descended there 

sitting 

uj)a sikukio,\\oak huk tcuwuj am kavitc sihioftaniik tuwoe katcim 

in stand lirm that land there narrow furrowed us opposite laying 

tcuwu; tam am kokowoitc Huk aitk' huk viapiii iputak am 

land on there points reach. That after that youth .soul there 

sitiiniilitk' aptco. Aptarsa prsoi(d) huk nyir aputak huki atava nyu 

visible that do. Disclose throw that my enemy that me 

woitatk haptco. Im katck woi inaldk' apta kus tatk(i) woeham. Am 

forme made. In ocean toward branch there kind of blue lighttiing. There 

sitting 

uta sikiipanyk ihodonyik o-os aptcotcim am uta sitafutrsk am a-ai 

in explosion descended trees standing there in split there both 

sinyuntc. Aptarsa prso](d) huk nyu aputak huk(i) atava nyu woetatk' 

directions Disclosed through that liiy enemy that me forme 

throw, 

haptco. Im sialik woi inaldk' apta kus toaha woeham. Am uta 

luade. In east toward branch there kind of white lightning. There in 

sitting 

sikapanj'k ihodonyik ta-ata-ak tcotcim am uta sikamtrsk am a-ai 

explosion descended mountain standing there in split there both 

directions 

sinyuntc. Aptar.sa prsoi(d) huk nyu aputak huk(i) atava nvu 

thrown. Disclosed through that niy enemy that ine 

woetatk' haptco. Sui(d) kukamt apta kus stcutak(i) woeham. Am 

for me made. Straight standing sitting kind of blue lightning. There 

there 

uta sikapanyik ihodonyik huk tutamatcim am uta sikamutanuk ap a-ai 

in explosion descended that our sky there in split there both 

direetions 

sitarswoa. Aptarsa prsoi(d) huk nyu aputak huk(i) atava nyu 

tly apart. Disclosed through that my enemy that me 

woetatk' haptco. Huk aitk' inyoi-ihai. Kont huk aitk' ita-ak ap 

for me made. That after me pushed. I was that after jumped there 



BUSSELL] SPEECHES 379 

gladness in my heart I {fathered the evi(hMices of my victory and 
turned toward honi<'. 

You may think tliis over, my rehitives. Tiic takinif of life l)ring.-< 
serious thoujrhts of tlie waste; tli(> (•elel)ration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 



kursk ap pia-at<'o tatkitcotk ap sutapam pui. An wukate katcun 

fell thiTC nothing wrestle there sinnotb take. About arounil laying? 

nankatcoi-1 tcikat<: simasik supapak{i) kawoikatk pvk opam lia-ahak 

various helotigiiij^s gtithered slowly grouped grasp lionie- around 

lay ward 

im3'U woa. Ilapuk humsa ulltk tateoa nanka tcoi-Ikam nyr iniik(i) 

me toward. You now thought desire various sorts n'le relatives 

kotc humo hap patmatatan huk pat rsalka natc apa-apta kaihakim 

we now that lazy make that bad slave us right diseonl 

kai-iteitan. 

said. 



THE WARPATH, THIRD SPEECH 

^Vo have conie tlius fur, my brothers. The evening has come when 
I eomplete my preparations for attaeivino- the enemy. I have made 
them dislike their bows and arrows and made their magieians drowsy. 
Their wives and children are reproved and rejected. May they fall 
out among themselves. May they be unable to eat or drink. The 
time approaches when they shall die. 

After the sun arose we left camp and went to the Sand Hills," where 
we halted and held a council of war. Morning came quickly and again 
we went on. I brought my j'oung men together to kill rabbits, rats, 

lat tava tcutcka nanuka tcoi-ikam Dyi-imik(i). Tava lio^inyik ikri 

Here we came A'arious classes my relatives. It waseveiiins fall 

krny huk uta moi-i nanfika tcoi-itcik tam mai-i tcrxitahini kuny 

I " that in many different sort.s on there plaeed for I 

il-aputa. Katatc s ahatatctahim vapatckatc s iihsitatctahim kiikai^u- 

eiiemy. Bow his cavise to dislike reed his cause to dislike be- 

tiihinudv ktisitahimuk s ha-ap itata. Kota ho^inyik ikui kuny huk uta 

Avitch make sleepy proper make. It was evening fall I that in 

nioi-1 nanuka tcoi-itcik tam mai-i tcuxitahim kuny a-iiputa. Ofitatc 

many dilTerent sorts on there placed f*ir 1 ' enei3iy. Woman 

desire for 

wumatc vaimutatc s ahatatctahimuk alitatc kamkimtatc sahatatctahim 

gather to lay "With desire make dislike child his desire to emhrace causes to dislike 

ktlkai^utahimuk kasitahimuk s ha-ap itata. Kota hojinyik ikui kuny 

bewitch make sleepy proper make. It was evening fall I 

huk uta moi-i nanuka tcoi-itcik tam maii tcuxitahim kuny a-iiputa. 

that in many different sorts on there placed for my ' enemy. 

AVupa tcoi-ikam wumatc aimulukatc wumatc nyiakimtatc s'ahata- 

Fello\\-man sort f)f with accompany with address make 

tctahim kakaitutahimiik kasitahimuk s ha-ap itata. Kota hotinyik 

dislike bewitch make sleepy proper make. It was evening 

ikui kun}' huk uta moi-i nanuka tcoi-itcik tam mai-i tcuxitahim kuny 

fall I that in many different sorts on there placed for my ' 

a-aputa. Hastco liohokimtatc rsotaku) vaslpitc i-imtatc s ahatatctahim 

enemy. What eatinj; desire for water drink drinking make dislike 

ciesire for 

kiikaitutahimrdv kasitahimuk s'ha-ap itstta. Ava it kuhimutam s'hatu- 

bewitch make sleepy proper make. It was this kind of going 

kai-ip unrnabitcai-ip kamo-o. Kontavai-i ipui siAa^ muhutam nyu 

hurry bend afternoon. I was catch flames burning my 

kotak rsotaki nyu vasip(i). Varsun alhia tam atava utcu siatcokani 

stick water me drink. Yonder small sea on they lay magical 

.sand 

nyu tcokakita kontuk tairsk tahiwoa. Am wutcom tatcoip sutatkim 

my darkness I was press sitting. There before me thinking adjusting 

n Sand Hills in the Reservoir, a Hohokam reservoir a few miles north of the Double buttes. 
380 



Bi:ss.LL] SPEECHES 381 

a.ul muiils. About noon >v.- moved on to Salt river and can.i.ed u^ai" 
in the evenino-. We had to., much food and ate it half coked, ^ext 
n.ornin-wojmnaeyed.on. Iwcnt swiftlyalono- the dry water cour.^s, 
where stands the cat's claw. I went past the rocks to camp at the 
ironwood trees in the evenin- an.l ate tl>e left-over food halt raw 
ao-ain. C^ontinuing. I appointed a place ..f meeting and the day passed. 
Gathering mv young men I told the.n to grasp their weapons and run 
forward. Crossing a small canyon they proceeded, killing deer and 
antelope, beyond the red hill. Kno>ving the location of the .small 
sprino-s. thev went to the low mountain. Others 1 told to grasp then- 
weapons and run in a westerly direction. They ran through bushes 
and met those who ran in a line along the dry water courses until they 

takam ala-antcta-atam tarspi ha-apa,n tilta. V^^kj^J^-taUun tarn 

silliiiB small fuathers ""> ' .... rr i - 

.•hu.k.i..p v™,lal,ru.i,.„ k.,,,,,.o. K..„.»™ ipc; sua, n,.l>„..m ,oy; 
L-nt.a- ixotaki nvu vasip(i). Va-arsany mulinuk hohokit an alsopatkam 
„^ .ifU-U- l-onvT-k aitc pinatai hap tcoi-itcik. Alhatai kix piak 

Va-atkak l-On> l K . IIC V^uX.A tbA- v.nAMon^^nn- >^»^>^n.U.n. go around 
dry wash I "as alter unii.u uc time of going. standing 

„a,-hutam nyu kotak(I). Kijimiot ala ipupijimuk vaKi;|.,v to.; ckiknt 

burning inv brand. licfore Is"on iair> >on le ground 

s/?-^s^ K "^s- S "iil' -^s' '-"Kr.;'S': :" 

.thai. A,«l) .--.arsuklk kakl,,.,,. >:k«<ahnm-,k u Auk Ka,„a|k 
r„„,.fur. Sm^ll ™"S«'"^ >™--^ ^ . . . i ^'l . .I-t.-U- ...Ml 



stone standing tliere 



stone stanaing inere on.- .......^ , ,^ . « 4I • 

krnv vipiapka kota am rsar.sk hodon takio ipum atliai 

Kl n\ \ ipiauRa ^^^^^ direi-tloii v.mi run altir. 



my 



oX it was there gras'p .sunset direction y,.u run 



Al(d) 

Small 



a Camel Btu-k mountain, near Scottsdalc. 



382' THK PIMA INDIANS [eth. ann. 26 

reached the place where nianj' yucca8 stood. They proceeded in two 
lines, with a narrow interval between them. Unacquainted with the 
country they went forward, finding deer and antelope, which they 
killed. Camping on the suminit of the small mountain they ate their 
venison half raw. There they made prejjarations for continuing, as the 
time tied swiftly on. Taking up my possessions and a supply of veni- 
son for the next day I went forward to camp at the small Gravelly 
Water. I renewed preparations when I halted at nightfall. Morning 
came (juickly and I went on. During the next day 1 addressed ni}' 
young men, telling them to go luid kill mountain sheep. They went 
on to the spring under the kam tree, where they camped and continued 
their preparations for war. Morning came quickly and I conjured the 

r.sarsai-ikani aitk' ursarsaittahimuk aj(d) vaptapat kitcik an Im iaAa. 

grassy after penetrate .small sliade door about in fall. 

abandoned 

Ai(d) va-arsany mulinuk amtcut takitak takitak a((d) otukoa tajhak 

Small dry washes junction therefrom release release small yueca setting 

ap hahok i-iwoa huk wupukatc. Ata haasp rsapalt nyu vi-i koiita 

there face liume that first. It Wiis small narmw ine remain- 1 was 

der 

iwors hastco pat wum. Ilap horsp al(d) tcotcoi-ikam sitatakhim 

arose what bad with. That way small appearanee handle 

utarspi mtitck' tatkii tcotck paphaikam nyu viptcdiot tatsi viipkam nyu 

I not know wrestle black tails me deer white bellies ine 

viptckot ntarspi ha-apam tata. Varsatc al(d) vapuk tarn ataAa utcu 

deer I not way make. Up there small reed top Ihey stay 

.siatcokam utata.^ka ttuk tairsk tahiwoa. Hii-akia nyu moa-a tayak pa 

magician my sun I press sitting. Many n'ly killing raw 

Avutcom tatcoip sutatkim kusim. Avti it kuhimfitam .s lultkiii-ip 

swallow thinking adjusting difficulties. It was this kind going hurry 

before 

unadahitcaiip kamo-o. Kontavai ipui siAa'j muhutam nyu kotak 

bend afternoon. I was grasp flame burning iny brand 

r8otak(i) nyu vasip(i). Konyarsp koewoa sihutcu|woehim. A](d) 

water my drink. I was step down slide. Small 

a-atrdcam rsotaki tarn atava utcu siatcokam Itcokakita ttuk tairsk 

gravelly water top they placed magician my darkness I press 

tahiwoa. Am wutcom tatcoip sutatkim kusim. Kota s'hatkai-i 

sitting. There before thinking lixing difficulties. It was quickly 

nymasitatc kontavaii ipui siAii; muhutam nyu kotak(i). Kamaint ala 

me early mf>rn- I was grasp flame burning my brand. Before I soon 

ing 

ipupuhimflk varsuny tcutckikut am antava tcu. Kota prstcom sikiii 

carry yonder " ceremonial i>lace there I was placed. It was made round 

muk tataf kotavaii humap ioj kuny vipitlpka kunya am ha-akit. 

run sun it \vas e(»me together I "" youtfis I was there told. 

Kottiprs am skavitcim nyu pia-a[ ttarspi matck' tatk' rsum mamam 

It was there narrow me surround I not know wrestle kind heads 

tuhuhumakat. Vtirsatc ai(d) kiim wutca rsanak ap atava utcu 

our ones. Uji there small kam (treei luiiler spring there they placed 

siatcokam Itcokakita koiituk tairsk tahiwoa. Wutcom tatcoip 

magician my darkness I was press sitting. Before thinking 

sutatkim kusim kota s'hiitkai-i n3'masitatc kontak aimulukatc s ilhata- 

adjusting difficulties I was quickly me early moriung 1 was haunts his cause 

tctahimuk katate s ahatatctahimrik\apatckatc s ahatatctahimuk rsotaki 

to dislike bow his cause to dislike reed his <-ause to dislike water 



KUSSELL] SPEECHES 383 

enemy's magifiaii. May he not like his howand arrows. In drinkiii<f, 
iimv he swallow hut his inia^c refloated in the water. ^lay he f^rasp 
the l)ranches of trees and fall under them exhausted. I sent my younj;- 
men cast, west, and toward the renter. The scout to the east saw the 
freshlv hroken o-rass trodden by the (Mieniy. Tie sent a messenger to 
inform us of his diseovery and to state that he would report as soon as 
darkness fell. Hastening to make read}', those in the lead rushed for- 
ward. The scout to the west ran in, telling of the disco\-ery of signs 
in a canyon in that direction. I sent two experienced men to investi- 
gate; they moved carefully forward and discovered a camp of Apaches. 
Like birds my young men swept down upon and surrounded the 
enemj'. I sent my white power and my blue to aid them. After 

vasipTtc siwiTtca olimlk tcu. Kota ifci-ak uta am vataprs u-ukutak pa. 

<lrink very uiidiT liolil put. It was juiiipud iu thore full Iiis whudow swallow. 

Avaot osukatt; mandjaktc' hik isipui kotak wrtcii am kurskiu-ipop 

It was tree hiw bralieh that grasp it was under there fall exhausted 

kontak hap tcoi-ikam tcum nyui-itak im sia-al woi wapai-itcotk' ho^i- 

1 was that sort then ' saw in east toward sent running suii- 

nyik woi wapai-itcotk' ita wapai-itc. Huk aitk kai hu-ukia rsars kota 

set toward sent ruiMiing in race. That after not yet any moves it was 

sia-al takio tcut ta-ak iakursk hastco wapakam kuikmiakatc o-ok In 

east direction from tiew here fall what hairy traces take in 

]rso|(d). Kota am tconi nyuik nyi-imik(i) am wus tcukaitam utatk 

tlirow. It was there before seen uiy relatives there all promiit one felt 

am pi itcivix tcu. Kt)ta hodon takio tcut ta-ak iakurskaipuny akit. 

there not allow see. It was stuiset direction from tlew here told fall me told. 

ea<'h other 

Humaka rsakik i.sipitcimini tcoi-ik am asutakowoim tcoi-Ik am asuta- 

One canyon turn like there end of hill luav like there may be 

touch 

haraa tcoi-ik. Avtiol kus kamak(i) tcokut maktii kontak hap tcoi-ikam 

sitting like. It was kind gray owl magician I was that sort 

iiiamtcik ap imiik r.sarsoa kotap sinhai-itam utiitk' worsanyik wuksitc 

gui'ss there! ) ery I was friendly felt arose' around 

pitcimitahimukha-akiastcohokmonikatcniai-irsk ap woakopamtciviak 

going many darkness with covered there throw home- came 

ward 

nyu akit. Kottik ubi hux isikuirsk kukiwoa kuny viapaku-ulka. 

me told. It was in already stan<l iinnly on stand my* .sons. 

Tcuwu;a mututam o-ofik ta-atam uwupakitk' nunyik tarn ap uiawa 

Land running birds flyitig assume form fly on there alight 

kavap(uk)'itcuAulitk' hukatc ap infik ap tatk'. Kao^hus tiindam nyu 

reed lengthen with it there inclose there wrestle. It was kind of white me 

piaiiakut kontiik tcux ihimtcotk' hukatc ap iiimulkatc hokit ap tarsk 

insininieiit 1 was bound go with it there ground his edge there set 

Imp tata. Kao} ki^s tcutak(i) nyu piahakut kontak ttaix ihimtcotk' 

that make. It was kind of blue me instrument I was bound pushed 

hikatc ap aimidkatc hoklt ap tarsk hap tata. Anta am vam hap 

with it there haunts his edge there .set that make. I there more that 

inytcok pia-atco pux imyu mtlunaki. Kao? taprs katatc kontuk puk 

salne way nothing take me turn around. It was bis bow I was cateli 

as before 

im tcuwu^ s'ut<.laftcotk' kursk kai-ipop. Amtcut mamtcuk am hat- 

in land center fall exhausted. Therefrom guess there make 



384 THE TIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 20 

deistroying these Apaohes 1 wont on, l)ut killed only an old woman." 
1 took tlieir bows and then fell exhausted. iS'ext I sent the swiftest 
young men to cai'iy home the news of victory to the old men and 
women. With the news that I bring, the earth, the thunder, the night, 
the mountain, and the trees rejoice. 

You may think this over, my relatives. The taking of life bi'ings 
serious thoughts of the waste; the celel)ration of victory may become 
unpleasantly riotous. 

cotcoa kus tcotcoaatcmakaiu nyu vipiapka kota ki-ik ap rsars. Ata 

stand kind of swiftest me youths it was four there renewals. Tiiey 

I hem 

mulifkai kai-itc Ivuli vi-ikam aks vi-ikam. Konyak altc' kus s'ap- 

came running notify old man remainder old remainder. I was after kind good 

woman 

tahatkam nyu moa-a oa-atc antavaii oapa. Tak hukatc huk tcuwui 

feelings me killing held I was had brought. That with that land 

am uta sipuputk' utcu. Tak hukatc stcohokmom am uta sikikifk 

there In roared self stay. That with it night there in shake 

utcu tata-ak am uta sirsarsafk utcotcoa. O-os tcotcim am uta 

self stay monntain there in echoed st.ind. Trees standing there in 

simokofk utcotcoa. S'ha-ap hap humsii ulitk'" tatcoa nanukii tcoi-ikam 

shaking stand. Way that you thought desire different sorts 

inyi-imiki kotc humo hap pat ma tiitan huk pal rsaika natc apahiipta 

my relatives we now that lazy make that bad slave we proper 

kaihiikim kai-itc. 

noise said. 



a" .\u arrow w^ithout feathers.'* 



THK WAKI'ATH. FOl'KTH SPKECH 

We have come thus far, my Ijrothers. In the east there is White 
Gopher, who is sliillful with his teeth. He was friendly and eame to 
me after comin>«- out to the surface four times on the journc}-. Look- 
inj,' in all directions he saw that a plan had been formed, in accordance 
with which he .slowly approaclied the enemy, appearing at the surface 
four times during the journe3'. He gnawed the power of the encm\' 
and sank their springs. He saw that the wind of the enemy was strong 
and he cut it up. He gnawed in short pieces their clouds. They had 

lat tava tcirtckii nanrka tcoi-ikam nyi-imik(i). Ava im sia-lik 

Here we eiiiiie VHrimi., classes mv relatives. It was in ea.st 

takio ku tiiiuani Tcufha. Kotpk' ha.stco ski-Itckatkam kontak hap 

direction kiiiil of wliite gni.lier. He is what gnawer I wa.s that 

tcoi-ikam mamtcuk ap imuk rsiirsoa kotap sinyhai-ikui-itam I'tatk 

st)rt guess there my cry it was frien<lly felt 

amtcut ku tan^am utcohokik woak huk iiitk ap ki-ikap 

therefrom kinrl of white it.self Uarkeneil lay that after there four 

nii-akanuk makai natii tcumiik hokit an tahiwoa. Am a-ai 

appearanees magieian lire all over edges about sitting. There f"ur 

nycnhak tcum nyuik iivak mtikai vaklta taniittc katc. Kot ink 

diVeetions looking then saw it was magician trail whitish lay. That that 

aitk' am ku tantam utcohokik woak huk aitk ap ki-ikap 

after there kind of white itself ilarkened throw that after there four 

na-akanuk ap supapak(i) ti'uma-ak nyu aaputa. Avak tcuwut ap 

appearances there slowly covered iny enemy. It was land there 

katc toa-ak ap kukte' tcom s'unaki-itc kux u-ulit kotak am 

lay mountain there standing it hanging standing he he was there 

believes 

sirsa-arspai ki-ikoamia. Avak rsarsiinukam r.sotak(i) tata-atc tcom 

short bitten olT. It was .springs waters put it it 

s'lnaki-itc wutc u-ulit tak am .siki-ikarsahimuk am sitco-otcpit. 

hanging laying believes that there continue biting there sink it. 

Avak huwu{katc iiva tcom tcoviomatk' u-tiit tak am sirsiiarspai 

It was wind lay it was it like laud thought that there short 

ki-ikoamia. Avak tcu.vakikatc ava tcom stcova-akupatk' 

bitten off. It wa- clouds his it was it very sprinkle 

u-iiit tak am sir.sa-aispa[ ki-ikoamia. Avak humatckam 

he thought that there short bitten off. It was people 

huk tarn ap uiinuti tsuii vatconi sku-uk tcu-utc kat 

that on there haunts not good dreams he 

u-uiit t;in(d)ulim haitco nyuitatk' u-ulit tak am sirsii-arspal 

thi>ught brightly something false seeing bethought that there short 

ki-ikoamia. Avak hi iiiatckiuu huk tam ap aimuti tarn 

bitten off. It was people that on there haunts 

vatcom s'apukam kat kia-atkam. rsul ta-atam vapu(k) 

not best bow string, straight flying reid 

2i> KTii— OS 27 385 



386 THE PIMA INDIANS Ieth. axn. 20 

dreams and shining power, good bows and arrow.s, hut all these he cut 
in pieces, (jathering all their possessions, he lirougiit them with him, 
rising to the surface of the ground four times on his journey. Leaving 
all that he brought, he went home, making four appearances at the 
surface on liis way. The land roared and rejoiced with him for what 
he had done. 

In the south is Blue Coyote, upon whom I called for assistance. He 
was friendly to me and came runniiig, circling around, howling, four 
times on the journey. When he arrived ho approxed of my plan. He 
cast his l)lne darkness upon the enemy and slowly reached their place, 
after circling around, howling, four times on the way. He sucked in 
the power of the enemy, their springs, trees, winds, clouds, dreams, 

tcoi-ita rsakutcitk' ir-ulit tak am sirsii-arspal ki-ikoamia. An 

olenn had grasped he thought that there short bitten oiT. AI)oiit 

wfkatc katcim nanuka tcoi itckatc si-inasik srpapak(i) kaA<)|katk' 

around lay different bel(^ngin.i;s gaihrred slowly kioiumI 

puk opam ha-akok i-iwoa. Ap opam ku tantam itcohokik 

took homeward turn around. There homeward kind of white itself darkened 

woak aitk' ap ki-ikap ma-akan makai nata tcumfik hokit am 

plaeed after there four appearanees magician tire all edges over ahout 

takuta. Smakaitkam a-atam sivakssitk tarn tarsuwoa. Vi-ikam 

release. Expert magician people a prepared place top sat. Remainder 

with something 
spread to sit on 

supapak(i) kaAojkatk' ptjx am opam ku tantam utcohoklk woak 

slowly grouped catch there homeward kind of white his darkn<'ss throw 

aitk' ap ki-ikap ma-ilkan UAai-ikut tcumii-a. Hide hukatc 

after there four appearances his bed ctmie. That with 

s'hai-itcokm rtatk' kot hrk hukatc huk tcrwuj am uta siprputk 

conceit felt he that with Ihat land there in roar 

utcu. Im katcim takio kus tcutak(i) tuwumukai wot'pk' hastco 

placed. In laying direction kind of blue our \\ith to expert what 

tcokok s hokimutam kontak hap tcoi-ikam raamutcuk ap imuk 

made carnivorous I was that sort guess there my 

rsarsoa kotap sinyliai-ikui-itam utatk' amtcut kus stcutak(i) 

cry it " friendly felt therefrom kind of bhie 

utcohoklk woak huk iiitk ap ki-ikha sikal mutlc hihinaklnmuk 

his itself throw tliat after there lour round run shoiuing 

darkenerl 

makai nata tcumfik liolvitan tcuiakiwoa. Am a-ai nyunlutk tcum 

magician lire everywhere edges thud. There four directions then 

looking 

nyui. Avak makai vakita taniitc katc. Kotuk aitk kus stcutak(i) 

saw. It was magician trail whitish lay. It was after kind M blue 

utcoholvik woak huk aitk' ki-ikha siktil mutk' hihinaklnik ap 

his itself darkened throw that after f<jur times around run shouting tliere 

supapak(i) tcuma-ak nyu a-aputa. Avak tcuwu; ap katc 

slowly covered me enemy. It was land there lay 

toa-ak ap kuxtc tcom s'unaki-itc kux u-ulit kotak am siliafw(u). 

mountain there stand it hanging stand he thought it was there inhale. 

Avak rsSrsanukam rsorsok(i) tata-atc tcom s'unaki-itc wukatc os 

It was springs waters placed it hanging roinid tree 

ap kukam tcom ,s'unaki-itc tcotck u-ulit tak am sihafw(u). 

there standing it hanging stand he thought that there iidiale. 

Avak huwuikatc ava tcom tcoviomatk u ulit tak am sihafw(u). 

It was wind his it was it cause to blow thiiugtit that there inhale. 



Rt'ssKi.L] SPEECHES 387 

iitul iiiiigic power, also tlicir l)0\v.s hiuI urrows. (iathering up their 
other possesisions he turned toward home. Envel(jped in his blue dark- 
iie>;s he came to me, circling around, howling, four times on the jour- 
ney. Leaving all that he brought, he went home, traveling through 
his blue darkne:<s and circling around, howling, four times on the wav. 
He rejoiced at his deeds, jumping in the four directions, and in the 
morning all rejoiced with him. 

In the west is RIack Kangai-oo ]\Iouse, an expert thief, upon whom 
I called for help. He w as friendly to me, and enveloped me in his 
mantle of darkness, making four halts on the way. After surveying 
the situation he approved of my plan. Sending forth his black dai-k- 
ness he pushed his way through it to the enemy, making four stops on 
the way. He opened the .sack containing the most prized magic prop- 

Avak tcuvakikatc tcom stcova-akupatk' u-ulit tak am sihafw(u). 

It was flouds Ills ii sprinkle thought that there inhale. 

Avak humatckam Ink tain ap aimutrtam vatcom sku-uk 

It was people that on there haunts it was good 

tcu-utckatvk r-rlit tanjam haitco nyuitatk' u-rlit tiik am sihafw(u). 

dream thought white thing ' seen thought that there inhale. 

Avak hrmatckam huk tarn ap uimutmam vatcom s'apukam kat 

It was people that on there haunts it was best bow 

kia-atkam rsL| ta-atam vapuk' tcoi-ita rsakutcitk' u-ulit tak 

siring straight Hying reed elean had grasped bethought that 

am sihafw(u). An wukatc katcim naniikii tcoi-itckatc sinasik 

there inhale. About round lay different belongings gathered 

supapak(i) kawojkatk' pik ha-ahak i-iwoa. Ap opam kus 

slowly grouped take turned baek. There homeward kind of 

.stcutak(i) utcohokik woak huk iiitk' ap ki-ikha sika] mutk' 

blue itself darkened throw that alter there imir rouml run 

makai inita hokit an takuta. Smakaitkam a-atani isivakssitk 

mugieian lire edge about release. E.\pert musieian people a prepared jilaee 

with. something 
s[)read to sit on 

tam tarsuwoa. Vi-ikam supapak(i) kawo|katk' puk opam kus 

ipii [ilaeed. Remainder slowly grouped take homeward kind of 

stcutak(i) utcohokik woak aitk' ap ki-ikhu sikai mutk' 

bine itself darkened throw after there four rnund run 

hiliinakhimuk u.vaikut tcuma-a. Hukatc s'hai-itcokam utatk'tc' am 

sboutiiig his bed eovered. Witli I'oneeit felt there 

a-aip tcuqakiwoa. Hukatc huk sia-a| tcotcim am uta 

all direetions thud. With that east .standing there in 

sirsarsafuktc tcotc. Tm hotinyik takio kus tcok nahakia. 

eehoed stand. In sunset direetion kind of black kangaroo 

mouse. 

Wotpk hastcos iskam kontak hap tcoi-ikam mamutcuk ap imuk 

Expert something robber I was that sort guess there my 

rsarsoa kotak sinyhai-ikui-itam itatk' aintcut kus stcok utcohokik 

ery it was " friendly felt there from kind of blaek itself darkened 

weak iiitk ap ki-ikha tahiwoak makai nata tcuniuk hokit an 

throw after there four sitting magieian fire eovered edges about 

tahiwoa. Am a-ai nynuliak tcom nyuik avak makai viikita 

sit. There ail direetions looking then saw it was magieian trail 

sitiinajutc katc. Kot huk aitk' kus stcok utcohokik woak 

brightly lay. It that after kind of blaek itself darkened throw 

huk aitk am ki-ikha tahiwoak ap supapak(i) tcuma-ii huk 

that after there four sitting there slowly eovered tliat 



388 THE PIMA INDIANS [eth. axn. 20 

orty of the Piiemy, thouf>-h the sack was tied in many places, and took 
from it the l)lue necklaces, l>lue earrings, down, and everything of that 
nature before turning homeward. Enveloped in his jellow darkness 
he reached me after four rests. Leaving all at the council ground he 
went to his home, halting four times on the way. Rejoicing, he jumped 
about, and the night rustled like the fluttering of leaves in sympathy 
with him. 

I called on Gwl, above, for assistance. He was friendly to me and 
came, sailing four times on the way. He looked a)>out him and saw 
my plan. In accordance with this he slowl}' reached the enemj- after 
sailing four times. He cut the power of the enemy, their springs, 
their trees, and their dreams. He grasped their bows and arrows and 

nyr ii-aputa. Ava it noarsamitc vatcom ha-akia itam 

my enemy. It was this bag was it many on top of another 

hawolk u-ulit tak am siki-ikassahimiik aitk' am mawoak am 

tied he thouKht Iliat there bit off after there reach there 

pul kus stcrtak(i) payoka tcukitaiakatc. Kus sku-uk vi-ik 

take kind of blue necklace httard. Kind of good down 

tcukita^akatc. An wukatc katcim naiu'ikil tcoi itckatc si-inasik 

hoard. Abovit round layini,' clilVereiit belongings gathered 

supapak(i) kawojkatk' puk opam ha-ahak i-iwoa. Ap opam kvs 

slowly grouped take homeward turned back. There homeward kind of 

stcok utcohokik woak aitk ap ki-ikha tahiwoak makai nata tcumuk 

black itself darkened throw after there four sitting magician lire everywhere 

hokit an takita. Smakaitkam a-atam isivakusitk' tani tarsuwoa. 

edges about release. Expert magician people seat on placed. 

Vi-ikam supapak(i) kawo|katk' puk am opam kus stcok utcohokik 

Remainder slowly grouped take there Immeward kind of black itself darkened 

woak aitk' am ki-ikhii tahiwoak uAaikut tcumti-a. Hukatc s'haitcom 

throw after there four sit his bed covered. With ct)nceit 

utatk' am a-aip tahiwop kuk hukatc stcohokomom am uta si 

felt there all directions sits that with darkness there in 

r.samontc katc. Ava it tarn kus stcohokomom sikiilktc katc. Avak 

rvistling la.v. It was this on kind of darkness round lay. It was 

uta s'ia-amp uolintc' kutaiuam u-ut vaohotam kontak hap tcoi-ikam 

in right being held kind of white blood sucker I was that sort 

niamutcuk ap innlk rsarsoa tap sinj'hai-ikui-Ttam utatk' amtcut 

guess there my ^'fy friendly felt therefrom 

ki-ikhil ikiimalwoak makai nata tcumfdv' tam unakia. Am a-ai 

four thin fly magician fire covered on hang. There all 

nvunhiik tcom nyuik ava makai viikita tanatte katc. Tuk aitk' 

(directions then 'saw it was magician trail brightly lay. That after 

looking 

am ki-ikha ikiimalwoak ap supapak(i) tcumii-iik huk nyutlputa. 

there four thin fly there slowly covered that me enemy. 

Avak tcuwuj katc toa-akatc tcom s'unaki-itc kuk u-ilit tak am 

It was lan<l lay moiuUain it hanging stand thought that tliere 

sirsii-arspa( ki-ikomia. Rsi'ir.sam'ikain rsorsok(i) tiitoatc, os kursatc 

viTy short bit olT. Springs waters his placed, tree plant his 

tcotcom sis unaki-istc u-ulit tak am sirsa-arspa| ki-ikoniia. 

.standing very hanging thought that there short bit oflf. 

Humatckam huk tam ap ainiutujam vatcom sis ku-uk tcutckatk' 

People that on there haunts was it very good dreamed 

U-ulit tak am sirsa-arspaj ki-ikomia. Vatcom s apukam kat kiatkam 

thought that there very short bit off. Was it good-best bow stringed 



lussKi.i.l SPEECHES 389 

bit them in twain. He l)it oti' their tiesh and sinews, and in their lioncs 
made holes. From tiie thing's collected he made n liell from a how- 
string and turned homeward. He came thi'ough his gray mist in fonr 
flights. Leaving all tiiat lie had seenr(Ml in my behalf, ]w reached his 
home in four flights. At early dawn he rejoiced in his success and 
the darkness i attled with him. 

You may tiiink this over, my relatives. The taking of life brings 
serious thoughts of tht> waste; the celebration of victory may Ix'come 
unphnisantly riotous. 

rsuj ta-atiim vapuk(u) tcoi-ita rsaktcitk' u-ulit tak am sirsa-arspa 

straight flying reed clean liiid gruspcd tlunifrht that thece very short 

ki-ikomia. Am vak huk tcohokate ahava ki-ikomia. Katatc isi 

hit oil. There enter that flesh his then hit o(T. Bow his very 

kiahontuk a-atc k;ih:iit( rtckarsk ap koapatk' ap kirsa-atk' ap opam 

relaxed hones Ids perfonite there wig there hark dress there tnril 

kr taiijam utcohokik woak Ink aitk ap ki-ikha ikamalwoak svaoslm 

kind of \\hitish itself darkeiieci throw that after there four Ihin liy damp 

isitcki. Makai nata tcumuk' hokit an takita. Smakaitkam a-atam 

rattling. Magieian fire cover edges ahout release. Ex])ert magician j)eopIe 

isivakssitk t:im tarsuwoa. Vi-ikam supapak(i) kawoikatk pck am 

a prepared place on sitting. Remainder slowly grouped lake there 

with S4>inelhing 
spread to sit on 

opam ku tan^ttm utcohokik woak altk' am ki-ikhii ikamuluwoak 

homeward kind of whitish itself darkened throw after there fonr times thin fly 

suvaosim isitckim uAaikut tcuma-a. Tlukatc s'haitcokum itatktc 

damp rattling his hed arrive. With conceit felt 

am a-ai tai-inyok ava hukatc stcohokomom am uta sistic'ktckatc. 

there all directions flying it was with darkne.ss there in rattling lay. 

S ha-ap hapuk' hrmsa vlitk' tatcoa nanfikil tcoikam nyi-imikl kotc 

Way that you think plan difTerent cla,ss my relatives we 

hunio hap patmatatan hik pat r.salka natc apahapt.i kaihakim kaitc. 

now that lazy make that had slave way proper noi'-c said. 




o 
I- 
< 
o 
< 

CO 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. 




a ANTONIO AZUL 



fi TCO'KUT NAK, HOLDING A CALENDAR STICK 




C KAEMA-A 

THREE OF THE AUTHOR'S PIMA INFORMANTS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. Ill 




r 



n 



»;vi 






CASA GRANDE RUIN 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. IV 




a SANTAN I FROM THE WEST • 




h RUIN BELOW SANTAN IFKUM I Ht wtb 




'■ SWEETWATER 'FROM THE SOUTHWEST) 

THREE PREHISTORIC PIMA RUINS 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT PL. V 




a CASA BLANCA I FROM THE WEST) 




h SCHOOLHOUSE RUINS 
CASA BLANCA AND RUINS OF FIRST SCHOOLHOUSE 



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a FOURTEEN-POUND WHEAT LOAF; CORN BREAD; DOUGHNUTS 
PIMA BREAD, KITCHEN, AND FIREPLACES 








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MESQUITE AND PALOVERDE 



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6 BEAN POT 



a COOKING POT 





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a b 



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WOMAN WITH KIAHA 



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iM 








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HUlHnub- 




PIMA GIRLS 



SOCIAL CONDITION, BELIEFS, AND LINGUISTIC 
RELATIONSHIP OF THE TLINCIT INDIANS 



JOHN IJ. SWANTOX 



391 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 395 

Tlingit snlxlivisiniis .'We 

Historical develupiiieiit 407 

Clan emblems: 415 

Xames 421 

Social customs 423 

Potlatdies '. 434 

Clames 443 

Medicines and charms 445 

War 449 

Cosmcilii>;y 451 

Fate of souls 460 

Shamanism 463 

Wit<-licral:t 469 

Relationship lietween the Tlingit and Haida languages 472 

393 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 
Plates XLVIII-LVI. Facial paintings of tlie Tlingit Indians. 

LVII. ((, Small basket represeutingamountaiiicalleilT.sAtxfi'n. 

/<, Wooden drum with design of killer whale. 

LVIII. II, Crest hat representing killer whale. 

h, <■, d, e, Copies of shamans' masks. 

Figure 108. Crest hat representing shark 417 

104. Crest hat representing killer whale 418 

105. Crest hat representing grizzly bear 419 

106. Room partition bearing design of beavers 420 

107. Crest post of the Ku'gwAntrin 421 

108. Model of grave post surmounted by grave box 431 

109. Model of grave post having grave box inserted in the back 4.31 

110. Grave posts at Wrangell 432 

111. Grave post at Wrangell 433 

112. Shaman's medicine 465 

113. Anthropomorphic representation of the land otter, carved in bone 467 

114. Shaman's medicine box 467 

115. Medicine case proper wound with human hair 468 

1 16. Shaman's carved comb 469 

117. Carved jiost placed on salmon trap 470 

394 



SOCIAL CONDITION, BELIEFS, AND LINGUISTIC 
RELATIONSHIP OF THE TLINCIT INDIANS 



Bv ,I<)HN R. SWANTON 



INTKOOrCTION 

■ The material contained in this papi-r is a portion of the results of 
al)out two months" worlv at Sitlia, Ahiska, between January and March, 
1!M)4, and about one niontii at Wran^ell, March to April of the same 
year. The remainder of the mater-ial gathered at that tima consists 
principallvof texts in the native language with translations and myths 
recorded in English. The chief objects of the investigation were: (1) 
To obtain a suUicient number of Tlingit myths to round out the col- 
lections of tales from the noi'th Pacific coast; (2) to collect enough lin- 
guistic material for a careful study of the Tlingit language, with the 
special object of comparing it with that of the Haida, with which some 
sort of relationship was })elieved to exist and with which the writer 
already had considerable acquaintance; and (3) to add as much as pos- 
sible to our knowledge of Tlingit ethnology generally. This paper 
coiuprises most of the notes made with the third purpose in view, 
and the results of the writer's comparison of Tlingit and Haida. Very 
little attention is given to the arts, the industries, and the food quest, 
partly because these have i)een treated very fully in Krause's monu- 
mental work, Die Tlinkit Indianer (Jena, 18S,5), and in one particular, 
that of basketry, in "The basketry of the Tlingit," by G. T. Enunons, 
in volume in of the Memoirs of the .\merican Museum of Natural 
History, and partly because these arc not so readily studied in con- 
nection with language and myths, and indeed require independent 
investigation. 

The phonetics used are almost identical with those employed by 
Professor Boas, the writer, and others in connection with the work of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology and the American Must>nm of 

395 



396 



THE TLINGIT INDIANS 



[ETH. ANN. 26 



Natural History, upon the Pacific coast, and are as follows, the arrange- 
ment, however, bein^ the writer's own : 





Sonants 


Surds 


Fortes 


Spirants 


Nasals 


Semi- 
vowels 

and 

breatii- 

ing 


Vowels 


Labials 


(Only in 

y 

? 
g 


foreign or 


a few onomatopoetic words) 


w 




Gutturals: 

Vocalic-VL'hir 






q 

■ k 


q! 

k! 
k-! 

t! 

s! 
ts! 
tc! 

l! 


X 
X 




h 
y 


. 














Denta,Is. 


d 


t 
s 
ts 
tc 

L 


c 


n 






Sibilants 








dz 

I, 








Dental-sib:iant-aspirates .. 
Dental liquids 






, 




J 

















X is German ch in ach!, x almost like German ch in icli. l is nearly the same as dl and l as tl or 
kl, while 1 is an aspirated sound represented best perhaps by hi. dj is English j, tc English ch in 
church, and c English sh. The velars are similar to the palatals, but pronounced farther back in the 
throat, and the vocalic-velar farther back yet. The fortes are pronounced explosively or sometimes 
with a pause following. The characters " and « represent barely formed u and o sounds. 

TLINGIT SUBDIVISIONS 

At the present day tribes speaking Tlingit (or Koluschan) occupy 
all of the "pan-handle" of Alaska, coast and islands, except the 
southern third of Prince of Wales island and the smaller islands imme- 
diately' to the southwest of it, and extend westward along the coast as 
far as Copper river. The people on Taku and Stikine rivers camp and 
travel some distance into British Columbian territory, while the Atha- 
pascan Indians in turn camp well over into Alaska and come down to 
the coast towns to trade or visit. The Tagish. a i^urely interior people 
living in British Columbia north of the Chilkat, are said to speak a 
dialect of this language; but, if that is indeed the case, it has pr()bal)]y 
been adopted by them in comparatively recent times. An Eskimo 
tribe, the Ugalakmiut, living just east of the mouth of Copper river, 
has been so far moditied l)y contac-t with the Yakutat as to be enumer- 
ated with the Tlingit ti'ibes proper, though historically it has no right 
to that position. 

Leaving these two peoples out of consideration, fourteen geo- 
graphical groups may be recognized, as follows: The Tongas (TAuga'c 
qoan), Sanya or Cape Fox Indians (Sa'nya qoan), Hem'a (Ile'nya qoan), 
Kuiu (Kuiu qoan), Kake (Keq! qoan), Sunidum (Slaoda'n qoan), Stikine 
(Sta()Ihrn (joan or CqlAtqoan), Taku (T!riqI"qoan), Auk (AkI"qoan), 
Hutsnuwu (Xutslnuwu' qoan), Huna (Ilu'na qoan), Chilkat (Djilqa't 
qoan), and Yakutat (YaqMii't qoan or Laxayi'k qoan). The Hehl 
(Xel (|oan), now at Wrangell, once formed an independent group on 
Revillayigedo island. 



swAXKixl TLINGIT SUBDIVISIONS 397 

Each of these divisions or tribes had at least one winter villaj^c and 
a section of coast on which the ])c()])ic caiii])ed every siniinier or l)ack; 
of which thc}' hunted in winter. The imniber of permanent towns as 
well as their location varied considerably from time to time. In the 
case of the Chilkat there were four of those, while tiie people of 
Killisnoo were formerly divided between two. 

The following is a list of the Tlingit towns, ancient and modern, 
that were enumerated to the writer, with the division to whieii each 
belongs, though it nmst ))y no means be supposed that this exhausts 
the number: 

TAn^a'c TonaaiJ 

Giic Sanya 

TA'(i(ljik-fm (Tuxican ) Henya 

fcAwa'k (Klavvak) Henya 

CAxfi'n (Shakan ) Henya 

Kuiu Kuiu 

KGii! (Kake) Kake 

Slaodfi'n Suiiiilum 

QatcxA'na-fik!", "Hnman-hip-lake" (Wrangell) Stikine 

QattcALl-un (tcAL! = "al(lers") (Old Wrangell) Stikine 

SlikAnAsa'nk!i-an Taku 

T!a(fq!aka-an, "Town-at-the-mouth-of-Taku-inlet" Taku 

A'ntcgattsu ., Auk 

TsA'ntikli-hln (Juneau) Auk 

Naitu'ck-an, "Town-ou-outside-of-]ioint" Killisnoo 

Angu'n, " Right-across-tlu'-town," signifying that a road runs across a 

narrow strip of land from behind the town to some body of sea water. Killisnoo 

Gaotla'k-an, " r*ruiu (or Bell ) town" Hnna 

Luca'cakli-an, "Sand-hill-town" Huna 

KAqlAnuwii' Huna 

XAkAnuwu' Huna 

Gona'xo (at the mouth of Alsek river) Huna 

GAthi'ni, "Silver Salmon creek" (north of Dry bay) Huna 

Lfik''-an "Kenowned town" (Klukwan) Chilkat 

Qattilwa'AUu "Town-ou-the-point-of-a-hill " (Katkwaltu) Chilkat 

YendO'staq'.e Chilkat 

Djdqo't (Chilkoot) Chilkat 

Daye' ( Dyea) Chilkat 

Cqague' (Skagway ) Chilkat 

Decu' (Haines mission) Chilkat 

Citlka', "Behind Baranuf island (CI)" Sitka 

l^\'xq l"xo-an, ' ' Town-where-one-does-not-sleep-nuich " Sitka 

KAstaxe'xda-an Sitka 

Llisti' Sitka 

LAUA'xk Sitka 

Qona' Sitka 

Qleckunuwu', " Blue-jay-fort" Sitka 

DaxO' t, "Fallen-stunned," hecause a man there once ate so much 

halibut that he fell down as if stunned Sitka 

L!uxa'cayik-an, "Town-straight-opposite-Mount Edgecomh (lIux)" Sitka 

Ya<i"da''t (Yakutat ) Yakutat 

Eaxavi'k, "Inside of La'xa (an island)" Yakutat 



398 THE TLINGIT INDIANS Teth. an-n. 26 

Some of the foregoing names represent probably little more than 
camp.s, while others were designations of towns once occupied ))y 
people who are now living elsewhere. 

Dialecticallj' the Yakutat were set off from all others, and there was 
also a certain dialectic, as well as social, distinction between the north- 
ern and the southern members of the remaining groups. They will 
be referred to as " nortliern" and "southern." Each smallei- gi'oup 
also had certain minor dialectic ])cculiarities. 

Besides these geograpiiical di\ isions, which one might ahnost call 
" involuntary," the Tlingit were separated socially into two sides or 
phi'atries, each strictly exogamic with descent through the mother. 
One phratry was known as Raven thi'oughout all of the divisions, while 
the other was usually called ^Volf and in the north also Eagle. One 
small group was outside of both the phratries and its members could 
marrj' into either. 

Each phratry was subdivided into clans or consanguineal bands, the 
members of which were more closely related to one anotlier than to 
other members of the phratrj^ and each of these bands usually derived