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The Code of Statutes, ordained on Feb. 6, 1813, for the govern- 
ment of this Society, have, from time to time, since that period, 
undergone alterations; all of which (excepting one) that were made 
on and before the Anniversary Meeting, in January, 18S2, are printed 
at the beginning of the first volume of the Transactions. The follow- 
ing are now printed for the first time : — 

Jan. 7, 1818. — Resolved, — ^* That such muniments and records as are illustra- 
tive of the History of Northumberland^ and other tidjacent countieSi and which 
shall be transmitted to the Society and deemed worthy of publication by the Coun- 
cil, be printed in the Society's Transactions.'" 

Jan. 1, 1828. — Resolved, — ^* That the original fourth Statute do stand so far 
as the words — ^ below the number of ; and that the following addition be made 
thereto instead of the remainder of such original fourth Statute : — * Six, and so re- 
main for twelve calendar months then next following, the funds and property of the 
Society shall be delivered unto and become the property of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne, if that Society be then in existence ; and 
should that Society not be in existence, that then the same be delivered to, and be- 
come the property of, the Mayor and Corporation of Newcastle upon Tyne.^ 

Resolved, — ^^That one hundred Members having now been elected to this 
Society, any new Member to be elected will only be entitled to such publications 
as may be printed after his election ; but may purchase any of the previous publi- 
cations at the same price as the same are furnished to the booksellers.*" 

Jan. 6, 1826. — Resolved, — "That after the next Anniversary Meeting the 
Members dine together, and that the Committee for the jear take the management 
of providing for such dinner.^ 

Jan. 4, 1826. — Resolved, — " That no Member shall be entitled to take books 
out of the Societj^s Library, until Ins subscription in advance for the current year 
be paid ; and if any Member shall suffer his subscription to remain unpaid for 
three successive years, his name, at the end of three months, shall be erased from 

' '^^ ■d «■>.. * • * 


the list of Members in the books of the Society ; and he shall be required to deliver 
up his diploma ; and further, that a copy of this Resolution be sent to the usual 
place of residence of every Member of this Society.^ 

Jan. S, 18S7.— RssoLvsD,— << That the Monthly Meetings of the Society be 
advertised to be held at ? oVlock instead of 6 o^clock in the evening.^ 

Jan. 2, 18S8.-«— Resoltxd,-^^' That in order to secure (as was the intention of 
the Society), that all books belonging to the Society shall be in the Library during 
the Monthly Meetings, a fine of one shilling for each book not brought in at such 
meetings be imposed upon those Members who hold such books at the time, and a 
further fine of sixpence each week afterwards, and that for the purpose of examina- 
tion all books be returned to the Library on the Wednesday preceding the Anni- 
versary, to remain until after the meeting of that day, under a fine of two shillings 
and sixpence.^ 

Resolved also, — ^' That not more than two volumes of any work be allowed to 
go to any Member at one time ; and that the Abbey Churches, Yertue^'s Plates, the 
Vetusta Monumenta, Gregson^s Proofs for the History of Lancashire, and all man- 
uscripts, do not circulate without leave of the CouncQ, obtained at a meeting.^ 

Jan. 6, 1830. — ^Resolved, — '^ That the number of Ordinary Members be ex- 
tended from one hundred to one hundred and fifty : — That the Council have power 
to mitigate or remit fines in particular cases ; that all books be returned to the 
library a fortnight previous to every anniversary meeting, under a penalty of two 
shillings and sixpence ; and that no books be taken out during that fortnight, and 
that the rule as to fines for not returning books generaUy be altered, so that the 
fine will attach if the books are not returned by half-past six o'^clock on the nights 
of meeting. 

Oct. S, 1831. — ^At a meeting this evening, it was Pkoposxd, — That notice be 
given that the Anniversary Meeting be in future held on the first Wednesday in 
February instead of the first Wednesday in January, which was afterwards moved 
and carried. 

Several communications, which have been made to the Society during 
the course of the last year, could not be included in this volume for 
want of certain notes and illustrations, with which it was thought neces- 
sary tb It they should be accompanied* 

• »•••* ••• •• 

•» • • 1 •• • •• • •• •, 

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I. A Letter to James Losh, Esq.^ one qfihe Vice-Presidents of the 

Antiquarian Society^ qf Newcastie upon Tyne^ containing an 
Inquiry into the Age qf the Porch qfSt. Margarefs Churchy 
Yorhj hy J* MacGregor, Esq. - - - - 1 

II. Observations on some Roman Altars and Inscriptions, erected 

hy a Cohort qf the Tungri, and found at Castte-Steeds, or 
Cambeck Fort, in Cumberland, by Mr. Thomas Hodgson, - 80 

III. Copies qf various Papers, relating to tfte. Family qf Thornton, 

qf Witton Castle, in the CounUf qf Northumberland, some qf 
them bearing the Signatures qf Charles I. and Oliver Crom^ 
welL Commtmicated by W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf Walling- 
ton, to J. Adamson, Esq., Secretary, - - - 93 

IV. The Copy qf an Indenture preserved amongst the Records qf 

University College, Oxford, dated 1404, between Walter, 
Bishop qf Durham, and the Master qf that College. Com^ 
municated to the Society by W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., ofWaU 
lington. - • - - - - -99 

V. Account qf a Discovery qf some Remains qf Trees, within Sea 

Mark, at Whitburn, in the County qf Durham, from the Rev. 
Thomas Baker, Rector qf Whitburn, - - 100 

VI. Ejctracts (being Warrants and Orders issued by King Henry 
roL. II. b 



the Eighth of England^ and WilUam ihe First of Scotland) 
from a PecUgree of the Famihf qf Lambert^ attested hy Cam^ 
den ; JV. SegOTj Garter ; R. St. George, Norroy ; R. Tresa- 
weUj Somerset ; in the Possession qf Sir Charles Miles 
Lambert Monck, Bart., qf Belsay. Communicated by W. 
C. Trevelyan, Esq. - - - - 101 

VIL Ea^lanation qf the Inscription on a Bell at Heworth Chapel, 
in ihe County of Durham, in a Letter from William Hamper, 
Esq., to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, - - - 105 

VIII. An Account qf some Antiquities fotmd in a Cairn, near 
HeskeUin-the-Forest, in Cumberland, in a Letter from Mr. 
Christopher Hodgson, to the Rev. John Hodgson, Secre- 
tary, ..--•- 106 

IX. An Account qf some Roman Remains, discovered on the Coast 

qf Durham, in the Year 1816, by W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., 
qfWaHington, ..... no 

X. An Account qf a Runic Inscription on an ancient Cross, disco- 

vered at Lancaster, in ihe Year 1807> in a Letter from Wil- 
liam Hamper, Esq., to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, 111 

XI. Copy qf an Indenture respecUr^ Apparel made in the Time 

(f Richard Ae Second, between the Lady Joane de Calverley 
and Robert Derethome. Communicated in a Letter from W. 
C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf WaHington, to John Adamson, Esq., 
Secretary, ..... 113 

XII. An Account qf some Antiquities presented to the Society by 

William Chapman, Esq., Gvil Engineer. Commtmicated by 
him to the Secretaries, .... 115 

XIII. Copy of a Letter written by Queen Elizabeth to Frederick II., 
qf Denmark. Communicated by W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf 
WaUington, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, - 120 

XIV. Observations on an ancient Roman Road called Wrekendike, 
and particularhf qfthat Branch qf it which ledjrom the Mouth 
of the Tyne, at South SMelds, to Lanchester, in the County qf 
Durham. By the Rev. J. Hodgson, Secretary, - - 123 


XV. An Account qf the Life and Writings of Richard Dawes, 

A. M., late Master qfthe Royal Grammar School, and qfthe 
Hospital qf St. Mary, in the Westgate, in Newcastle upon 
Ihfne. By the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, - - 137 

XVI. An Account qf some Roman Antiquities which were sold in 
Newcastle, in 1812, communicated hy Mr. John Bell, - I67 

XVII. An Account qf a curious Sculpture at Bridlington Church, 
Yorkshire, in a Letter from W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf WaU 
lington, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, - - I68 

XVIII. An Account qf the Tomb qfPJulippa, Queen qfEric Pome- 
ranus. King qf Denmark, and Daughter qf Henry IV. qf 
England, in a Letter from W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf WaU 
lington, to John Adamson, Esq,, Secretary, - - 169 

XIX. Some Account qf the Rectory qf Bromfield, in the County qf 
Cumberland, by W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf WalUngton ; 
addressed to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, - - I7I 

XX. Accounts qf some ancient Wooden Cqffins discovered not far 

from Haltrvhistle, in the County qf Northumberland fone qf 
which was presented to the Society by the Right Hon. Thos. 
Wallace^, contained in Letters from Lt.-Col. Coulson, and 
Mr. Wallace's Steward, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, I77 

XXI. The Origin and Formation qfthe Gothic Tongues, but parti- 
cularly the Anglo-Saxon. By the Rev. J. Bosworth, 
M. A., F. A. S., Member qfthe Royal Society qf Literature, 
Honorary Member qfthe Copenhagen Society for Ancient 
Northern Literature, Sgc. s dnd Vicar qf Little Norwood, 
Bucks., - - . - - - - 189 

XXII. Account qfan old Inscription at Lanercost, Cumberland. In 
a Letter from the Rev. J. Hodgson, Sec. to J. Adamson, 
Esq., Secretary, • - - - - 197 

XXIII. Several old Letters relating to the Xevills, one qfthem bear- 
ing the Signature qf Richard III. as Duke qf Gloucester , 
commtmicated by W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf WalUngton, 199 

XXIV. An Account qf a Runic Inscription discovered in Baffin's 

Bay. communicated hy G. T. Fox, Esq.^ in a Letter to the 
Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary^ - - - - 203 

XXV. An Accoimt qf some Roman Shoes lately discovered at Whit- 
ley Castle^ Northumberland^ in a Letter from the Rev. A. 
Hedley, to John Adamson, Esq.y Secretary^ - - S05 

XXVI. Some Account qf a Cairn opened near NeAerwitton^ in the 
County qf Northumberland, communicated by W. C. Trevd- 
yan, Esq.^ qf Wallington, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, 9Xff 

XXVII. An Account qf some Roman Coins discovered near Bramp^ 
ton, in Cumberland^ communicated by Mr. Wm. Hutton, and 
Mr. Chr. Hodgson, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, 209 

XX VIIL Account qf some ancient Instruments found in quarrying 
Stone on the SouA Side ofRoseberry Topping, in 1826, in a 
Communication from John Hixon, Esq., to John Adamson, 
Esq., Secretary, --.... 213 

XXIX. An Account qf the Chartulary of Brinkbum, with some 
Notices respecting those qf the AbUes qf Nezvminster and 
Alnwick, in the County qf Northumberland, ofLanercost in 
Cumberland, and qfShap in Westmorland. By the Rev. John 
Hodgson, Secretary, in a Letter to John Adamson, Es^., 
Secretary, ...... 214 

XXX. The Household Expenses, for one Year, qf Philip, third 
Lord Wharton, communicated by W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf 
WalUngton, -....- 224 

XXXI. An Account qf the Remains qf a Chapel, or Church, and 
Kirk Garth, near Low Gosforth House, in the County qf 
Northumberland, in a Letter from Mr. John Bell, Libra- 
rian, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, - - 243 

XXXII. An Account qf a Roman Road in Northumberland, in a 
Letter from John Smart, Esq., qfTrewhitt, to the Secretaries] 246 

XXXIII. An Account qf certain Articles taken from the Graves qf 
the ancient Peruvians, in the Neighbourhood ofArica, on the 
West Coast of South America, in a Letter from Joseph H. 
Fryer, Esq., to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, - - 248 




XXXIV. An Account qf some Golden Articks brought jrom South 
America bjf Mr. Charles Empson, and laid before the Society 

on the 6th February, 18S8, with Remarks thereon, - 252 

XXXV. JEa^lanation qf some qf the South American Figures de- 
scribed by Mr. Empson, in a Letter from &e Rev. G. S. 
Faber, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, - - 256 

XXXVI. Some Account qf <*e Bronze Statue qf James IL, sup^ 
posed to liave formerly stood on the Sandhill, Newcastle, in a 
Letter from Mr. John Bell, Librarian, to John Adamson, 
Esq., Secretary, --...- 260 

XXXVII. Account qf a Roman Inscription found at Old Penrith, 
in a Letter from Mr. Christopher Hodgson, to the Rev. John 
Hodgson, Secretary, - - . . . ^65 

XXXVIII. Account qf a Golden Armlet found near Aspatria, in 
the County qf Cumberland, communicated by Henry Howard, 
Esq., of Corby, to the Secretaries, ... g67 

XXXIX. An Account qf some Letters at Eshton Hall, Yorkshire, 
relating to the Nunnery qf St. Bartholomew, in Newcastie 
upon Tyne, communicated by W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qf 
TFallington, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, • - 269 

XL. Abridgments, in English and Latin, qf Fifteen Original An- 
cient Deeds respecting the Manor ofOfferton, in Ike County 
qf Durham, made and communicated by Mr. R. W. Hodgson, 
to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, ... 273 

XLI. Papers relative to the Murder qf Lord Francis Russell, at 
Hexpethgate-head, on the Middle Marches, between England 
and Scotland, communicated by Capt. Samuel E. Cook, R. N., 
and accompanied by an explanatory Letter from the Rev. 
John Hodgson, Secretary, to John Adamson, Esq., Secre- 
tary, - - - - - . - 287 

XLIL Observations on Mr. Brandos Opinion respecting the Origin 
of the Prior* s Haven, at Tynemouth, communicated by Thos. 
Brown, Esq., in a Letter to the Presidefit and Council qfthe 
Newcastle Antiquarian Society, ... - 297 

VOL. II. c 



XLIII. The Great Roll qf the Half qf the Su^th Year of King 
Richard the Firsts beginning in Julifj 1194, and ending in 
Januarys 1195 ; also for Easter Term, in the Seoenih Year 
of King John. From the Originals in the Tcnver qfLondon^ 
communicated hy Henry Petrie, Esq.^ Keeper qftJie Records 
ihercy to the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary^ - . 304 

XLIV. Account of an ancient Pitcher^ found in digging the Founda^ 
tionsfor a New Gaol, at CarUsle^ in a Letter to John Adam- 
son, Esq.j Secretary^ by Mr. C. Hodgson, , - - 313 

XLV. Account of the Discovery of a Stone Vault and Um^ at Villa 
Reals near Jesmond, in a Letter to the Secretaries^ by Russell 
Blackbird, Esq.^ ------ 315 

XLVI. A List qfthe Freeholders qf Northumberland^ in 1628 and 
l638-9» communicated by John Trotter Brockett, Esq.^ in a 
Letter to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary ^ - - 316 

XLVII* A Rental qfthe Principality qfRedesdale ; copied from an 
original Roll, in the possession o/* William John Charlton, qf 
Hesleyside, Esq., by Mr. R. W. Hodgson, mth some Notes 
by the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary, - - - 326 

XLVin. An Inquiry into the State of Literature and the Arts 

among the Ancient Tuscans, by John MacGregor, Esq., - 339 

XLIX. A Letter from the Corporation qf Newcastle upon Tyne, to 

the Mayor and Aldermen qf Berwick, . . . 366 

L. Some Additional Particulars relative to the Stone Coffins found in 

Chatton Church-yard, - - - . . 368 

LL Rutupiarum Reliqtuce ; or, an Account qfthe celebrated Roman 
Station Rutupice, near Sandwich, in the County of Kent ; 
with Remarks on Julius Ccesar^s Landing Place, in Britain. 
By Thomas Charles Bell, - - - - 369 

LH. Antient Charters respecting Monastical and Lay Property in 
Cumberland, and other Counties in the North of England ; 
from Originals in tJie possession qf Wm. John Charlton, qf 
Hesleyside, Esq., accompanied with Abstracts qfthem in Eng- 
lish, and some prefatory and illustrative Remarks, by the 



Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary^ addressed to John Adam- 
son, Esq.^ Secretary^ ..... 

LIII. An Account qf the ancient Ruined Chapel at East Shqftoe^ in 
the Parish qf Hartbumy and County qf Northumberland, by 
the Rev. John Hodgson, Secretary y communicated to the So- 
ciety in a Letter to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, 

LIV. Account of two Roman Inscriptions, in a Letter from Mr. C. 
Hodgson, to John Adamson, Esq., Secretary, 






fage. Lime. 

171 1 fir ia read in. 

173 8 pcell r. pcell. 

176 18> 25,ybr vacaridge r. vicarge. 

29 — compoaitioDes r. compositionifl. 

31 — incuoibentes r. incumbentis. 

191 26 — TbD r. abo. for Tbw r. abo. 
26 — VIS r. irra. ^ Tna r, •^rrj. 

192 7 — nnK r. nnK. 
13 — nbT r. rrbi. 

16 — 13 r. "^a. /w Taia r. "^a-^a. 
In the Moeso Gothic words haum and haurngan^ a 
K is inserted instead of an R* 
24 — an ask r. an ash ; and^ ask r. asken. 

7 — J>yjvcj'um r. pyjvcfum. 
16 — pipj>uran wen/utum r, pyjjii- 
f an tpUAtftoii. 

16 >- Phillippo r. Philippo. 

6 — pro air r. proavL 
12 hcft^ free <uU a. 
34 fir Vigeny r. Viggery. 
36 — Vigeny r, Vigerry. 
43 — Mansetur r. Maufetur. 
46 ^ Vigeny r. V^rous. 
50 — Mansetur r. Maufetur. 
66 and 58^ Manduit r. Mauduit 
219 63 fir Latur r. Latun. 

70 and 71t/^ Preadwyk r. Prendwyk. 
80 y&r Amabet r. Ambroee. 
82 — sequele r. sequela. 




Page. No. 

220 109 

221 160 

222 204 


223 238 

226 18 















— Hirling r. Horling. 

^ Himyage r . Hirnynee. 
and 144,^ Hulred r. Uutred. 
fir Raganild r. Ragunild. 
^ Manger r. Mauger. 
^ Aakilr. Archil. 
^ Angylic r. Argylic. 

— Plessig r. Plessiz. 

^ Bugllum f . Buyllum. 

~~ Mendicus r. Medicus, and fir Halivel 

r. HaliweL 
-*- Giuz r. Guy. 

— Mr. Banes r. Wm. Bang. 
Mr. Felton, qiutre Wm. Felton. 

fir Parliament r. Parliament. 

* Cofi r. Com. 

^ Singulor r. Singulo'^ 

— . eligend r. eligend. 

^ invitand r. invitand. 

— munerabis r. numerabis. 

— statut. r. statut. 

— ParUament r. Parliament. 

— edit r. edlL 
^ vi{S r. via. 

— statut r. statul. 

— Braushaw r. Branshaw. 
^ aym r. may. 

Last line, jfbr misricordia r. misericordia. 
/>r di^hter r. daug^hter. 

— testebus r. testibus. 



I. A Letter to James LosH,Esq. one of the Vice-Presidents of the Antiquarian 
Society, of Newcastle upon Tyne, containing an Inquiry into the Age of 
the Porch of St. Margarefs Church, York, by J. MacGregor, Esq. 


In addressing you, and, through you, a Society, already distinguished 
for the learning and talents of its Members, I am aware, that an ample 
apology is due from one, who is, as yet, a stranger in this walk of 
literature, and, consequently, but ill qualified to do justice to the 
subject he has undertaken* Having no pretensions, then, to the skill 
of an Antiquary, it may be proper to state, that I became acquainted 
with the present, while in pursuit of another, object of study, upon which 
it promised to throw some light. For this purpose, it was necessary to 
ascertain its history, and, with this view, the principal works on 
British Antiquities were consulted, but without effect I was thus 
reduced to the necessity of endeavouring to supply this deficiency 
myself the best way I could, in order to reap the expected and desired 
advantage. I had not, however, proceeded far in my new labour, until 
I perceived, that, from a collateral, it claimed to be considered as a 
primary object of research ; in consequence of which it was reserved 
for a future and more particular consideration, the result of which I 
have now the honour to lay before you. 

Its claims must be considered important indeed, if they be really such 
as they appear to me — no less than an antiquity of sixteen centuries, 

VOL. II. • B 

2 Inquiry into the Age qfthe Porch qf 

and a pre-eminence in beauty over all the specimens of British Roman 
art, which have come down to our times. 

To vindicate such pretensions was certainly worth any man!s while, 
to whom they appeared well founded. Success would secure to him 
the merit of having filled up a desideratum in the history of British 
monuments, and the attempt would, at all events, have the effect of 
bringing into more prominent notice a beautiful relic of past ages, which 
has hitherto languished in comparative obscurity. 

But I must confess that I had another motive to encourage me in the 
prosecution of this subject, which was the opportunity it afforded of 
completing the history of the Signs of the Zodiac, the first part of which 
I had the honour of submitting to another learned Society, in which 
you hold an equally distinguished rank. 

In discussions like the present, the professed object of investigation 
frequently derives additional importance, from its furnishing a centre for 
adapting and connecting scattered fragments of antiquity, which united 
may diffuse light and order through the most abstruse subjects of ancient 
history. Accordingly, availingmyself of the matter brought forward in the 
progress of research, I have the satisfaction of having been able to accom- 
modate it to the elucidation of two important points of inquiry at the same 
time, and thus to give to the following pages all the interest in my power. 

In many parts notes are added, where the points under immediate 
consideration appeared to require further illustration, or suggested 
matter of consequence, which could neither, with propriety, be introduced 
into the text, nor omitted altogether. 

Upon the whole, I trust the intention will redeem the imperfections 
of a performance, which, although but a sketch, I am sensible, requires 
the strongest recommendation to the indulgence of a Society for whose 
judgment I entertain the highest respect. 

Individually, I beg to assure you, that I am. Sir, 

With great esteem. 

Your very obedient Servant, 


NetDcastJe upon Tyne^ 1825. 

St. Margarets Churchy York. 3 

St. Margaret's Church is situated on thenorth side ofWalmgate, 
in the city of York, behind a line of mean houses, which occupy a space 
nearly equi-distant between Foss-Bridge and Walmgate-Bar. The 
ancient porch, attached to this very humble and comparatively modem 
building, is composed of several retiring arches, which, as they recede, 
contract in height and span, from about twelve feet in height, and nine 
in width, (a rough estimate of the size of the exterior semicircle,) to 
the dimensions of a common door. The arches are supported by 
corresponding pillars, from whose capitals they spring, which, together 
with the faces of the arches, are beautifully carved in what is commonly 
called the Saxon manner. 

To save myself the difficulty of a minute description, I beg to refer 
to an engraving of this porch in Drake's Antiquities of Yorky which is 
the best representation of it now extant,* although I must not forget to 
mention, that the signs of the Zodiac, with which the face of the 
exterior arch is decorated, are, in regard to their position on the porch^ 
reversed in the print, owing, probably, to an error of the engraver. 

The 1x)ut ensemble is very striking; as a specimen of art it is beautiful^ 
and the accompanying air of antiquity, which adds dignity to grace, 
secures for it unqualified admiration. The most casual glance is suffi- 
cient to detect indications of its belonging to a period anterior to the 
conquest, for both its contour and costume forbid the supposition of its 
construction in times posterior to the Norman improvement in British 

We are thus enabled, at once, to circumscribe our inquiries within 
the period of the Roman and Saxon occupation of this country ; and to 
determine to which of these two it belongs, is all that I purpose by the 
following investigation. 

It has been observed by a distinguished writer and antiquary, that it 
is at all times difficult, in the absence of historical information, to assign, 
with any certainty, the true dates of buildings of antiquity, or from the 

* Since this paper was written, I have seen a good engraving of this porch by Mr. Cave^ Engraver^ 
Stone-gate, York. It is taken evidently from Mr. Drake's plate^ but much enlaiged. 

4 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch qf 

peculiarity of their remains to fix the period of constructioii. But, in 
the present instance, this difficulty is much increased, by there being, 
as will presently appear, no difference in the style of the architecture of 
these two periods, whereby they may be distinguished ; and were it not 
for some features in the costume, I should have despaired of being able 
to decide in favour of either. 

Before proceeding, however, to the general discussion of the question, 
it may be proper to show tlie poverty of the historical notices respecting 
this monument, in order to justify my having had recourse to the method 
of intrinsic evidence. 

These notices are as follow : 

" The Hospital and parish church of St. Nicholas was ruined in the 
siege of York, anno 1644, and never rebuilt. It has been a noble 
structure, as appears by part of the tower yet standing, and its antient 
porch which is now put up in St. Margaret's, Walmgate.'** 

" St. Nicholas was of the advowson of the King's of England, and was 
visited as such by William Grenefield, chancellor of England, in 1303. 
Richard II. confirmed all donations to this Hospital."t 

^^ Among the religious foundations in York, St. Nicholas is mentioned 
as an hospital for lepers, to which the empress Maud was a benefac- 

" There was in or near this city an hospital for leprous persons as 
antient as the time of Maud the empress, who was a benefactress to it, 
and is thought to be the same which was afterwards known by the name 
of St. Nicholas without Waingate Bar, which was of royal foundation; 
It consisted of a warden and several brothers and sisters, and had lands 
and rents, 26th Henry VIII. to the yearly amount of £29. 18s. 8d. in 

In Torr's Antiquities qf York, this church is merely mentioned in the 
list of religious houses which forms the Appendix. 

The sum of all this is, that the hospital and parish church of St. 
Nicholas, from whence the porch of St. Margaret's was. removed, existed 

* Drake's ArUiq. of York^ p. 250. f Dugdale*s Mtmatticon, p. 165, ed. 1718. 

{ Gough's Cambden, vol. iiL p. 65. § Tanner^s Notitia Monoitha, p. 667$ ed. 1744.. 

St Margarefs Churchy York. 5 

In the days of the empress Matilda, and, consequently, in the middle of 
the twelfth century, if by this personage is meant the daughter of oijpr 
Henry I. who married Henry Y. emperor of Germany, in 1165.* 

It is probable we shall never come nearer the date of this church, for 
the reasons assigned by Somner, who says of parish churches in general, 
** it is but of very few that I have been able to ascertain either the date 
or name of the founder, because none of them are much, if at all, anterior 
to the conquest, before which event, they were for the most part built 
of wood and destroyed by the Danes, For this reason in some old 
charters, grants of land are found recorded to churches whose existence 
cannot be traced beyond this epoch.t 

This, in the main, is confirmed by Dugdale in his History of War- 
Tvickshtre^ page 301, and in the Parentalia it is stated, that " in the time 
of the Conqueror the street-houses of London were of wood and 
thatched/* But, indeed, until after the great fire, in 1666, wood was 
the common material of which houses were built in the metr,opolis. 

We gain no assistance from the fact, that it was through the interest 
of the Dominicans, that so many churches were dedicated to St Nicholas, 
who was their favourite tutelar saint, because churches were dedicated 
to him not only before the arrival of this order in England, in the year 
1221, but before the order itself existed. The founder, Dominick de 
Guzman, a Spanish gentleman, was bom anno 1170. The order was 
first approved in the year 1215, by Innocent III. and confirmed in 1216, 
by a bull of Honorius HI. under the title of Augustine. Now, besides 
the church at York, there was another dedicated to the same personage 
in the suburbs of the town of Warwick, either a little- before, or imme- 
diately after, the conquest, where the Dominicans did not settle before 
the close of Henry III.*s reign.t 

* Lord Lyttelton, in his Hutory of Henry XL vol. ii. p. 456-7* report^ that her bounty to pious and 
charitable institutions exceeded those of any cotemporary king in Christendom, and that she left large 
sums to lepers and other poor people, as well as to convents and churches, which her son paid 

f AtUiqidtiet cf Canterbury^ page 324. 

'^ Dugdale's Antiq, of jynrwichhire. 

6 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

There were five Popes of the name of Nicholas ; the first was elected 
in the year 858; the second, in 1059; and the third, in 1277 ; churches^ 
therefore, may have been dedicated to St. Nicholas two centuries before 
the conquest. 

It is evident, however, from the observation of Mr. Drake, " it has 
been a noble structure as appears by part of the tower yet standing,'* 
that this church cannot be referred to the Saxon but to the Norman 
period, because the Saxon churches were mean in appearance compared 
with those of subsequent times, being built generally within the space 
of five or six years, with stone roofs, and without towers, or with such as 
the epithet noble could not be applied to in our days. " In the descrip^ 
tions we have remaining,** says Mr. Bentham, " of the most ancient 
Saxon churches, particularly of St. Andrew's, at Hexham, and St 
Peter's, at York, not a word occurs by which it can be inferred, that 
these, or any other of them, had either cross buildings or high towers 
raised above the roofs but as far as we can judge, were mostly square, 
or rather oblong buildings, circular at the east end ; in form resembling 
the basiUcoSf or courts of justice, in great cities throughout the Roman 
empire, many of which were converted into christian churches on the 
first establishment of Christianity under Constantine the Great ; and 
new erected churches were constructed on the same plan, from its ma- 
nifest utility for the reception of large assemblies. Hence basilica was 
used in that and the succeeding ages for ecclesia, or church, and conti* 
nued so even after the form of our churches was changed. St. Peter's, 
at York, begun by king Edwin in the year 627, is particularly reported 
by Bede (Hist. Eccles. lib ii^ chap. 14. J to have been of tltat form, * per 
quadrum cepit aedificare basilicam.' "• 

In the Parentalia it is also stated, that the cathedral of St. Paul^ 
which was rebuilt by Mauritius, bishop of London, after the great fire 
in 1083, " was originally built with a semicircular presbyteritmij or chan* 
eel, in the 7th century, after the usual mode of the primitive churches ; 
but, after this event, Mauritius built it in a more modern style, not with 

* fientham's History of Ely Cathedral, Introd. sec 5th. 

SL Margarefs Churchy York, 7 

rdund (as in the old church) but with sharp-headed arches^ to make way 
for which, the semicircular j^^re^Jytermm was taken down/** 

These quotations, as they exhibit the great poverty both of the 
dimensions and style of the churches built in the Saxon times, appear 
sufficient to warrant the conclusion, that Mr. Drake's observation can 
apply to no other than a Norman building, probably a re-edification of 
that to which the porch originally belonged ; many Saxon and Roman 
door-cases having been preserved, when other parts of the churches 
were rebuilt. 

The date of the church, therefore, which, according to the above 
data, must be somewhere between the years 1066 and 1165, cannot 
satisfy us respecting the date of the porch, which is certainly not a 
Norman work. 

To determine this point, therefore, it is evident, that we must, in the 
absence of historical information, have recourse to the only other means 
within our power — ^the intrinsic evidence afforded by the porch itself. 
This consists of two parts, namely, the general contour of the fabric ; 
and the peculiarity of the costume. But as it is the latter alone which 
furnishes the discriminating marks, I have selected from it two features 
as the basis of the argument, which, for the sake of perspicuity, I have 
divided into three parts. The first of these has reference, in a general 
way, to the degree of civilization which prevailed in Britain, and more 
especially to the importance of York, while a Roman province, in 
order thence to deduce the flourishing state of architecture, and the 
consequent probability of the existence of such structures during that 
period ; the second embraces the objections to its being a work of the 

« Page 172. 

Mr. Somner, in his Antiqtaiies of Canterbury y p. 516-7 — ed. 1640, quotes the authority of a charter 
of king Edgar to the abbey of Mahnsbury, dated 974, for the fact, that most of our monasteries, 
before the conquest, were of wood. This is welli but the following assertion, by the same author, is 
clearly refuted by the above remark of Sir Christopher Wren. Somner says, ^ St, Paul's was re- 
built after the fire of London anno 1087> by bishop Mauricius, upon stone arches for defence of fire, 
a manner of work before that time unknown to the people of this realm and then brought in by theN 
French. This doubtless is that kind of architecture the continuer of Bede intends where speaking of 
the Normans' in-come, he saith, ' videas ubique in villis ecclesias, in vicis et urbibus monasteria edifi- 
candi genere consurgere.' 


8 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

Saxons ; and the third professes to unfold the intrinsic evidence by 
collateral testimonies derived from the prevaling superstition of the 
times, and from monuments of this superstition still in existence in this 
country, though imperfect and very rare. 

With regard to the first, we are informed by Cambden,* upon the 
authority of Caesar and Strabo, that the Britons, before the arrival of the 
Romans, had no other towns than woods fortified with a ditch and, ram- 
parts ; and from the pen of the elegant and discerning Tacitus we learn, 
that the earliest appearance of regular architecture dates from the time 
of Agricola. " Caesar," he relates, " was the discoverer, not the con- 
queror of the island. He did no more than show it to posterity. The 
civil wars broke out soon after, and, in that scene of distraction, when 
the swords of the leading men were drawn against their country, it was 
natural to lose sight of Britain. 

<< During the peace that followed, the same neglect continued. Au- 
gustus called it the wisdom of his councils, and Tiberius made it a rule 
of state policy. The invasion meditated by Caligula proved abortive 
from his caprice, and reserved the grand enterprize for Claudius, wha 
transported into Britain an army composed of regular legions and a great 
body of auxiliaries. Among the officers was Vespasian. The first 
officer of Consular rank who commanded in Britain was Aulus Plautius.. 
He was succeeded by Ostorius Scapula; both eminent for their military 
character. Under their auspices the southern part of Britain took the 
form of a province, and received a colony of veterans. The next go- 
vernor was Didius Gallus, who did little more than preserve the 
acquisitions of his predecessors. Veranius succeeded to the command^ 
but died within the year. 

* Cough's Cambdciiy vol. iii. p. 9. This remark, however, can apply only to the interior of the 
island, because Caesar himself gives a different account of the condition of the inhabitants of the coast 
opposite to Caul. ^£x his omnibus, longe sunt humanissinu, qui Cantivm incolunt; quse regio est 
maritima omms : neque multum a Grallica difierunt consuetudine." — De Bell, Gall. v. tec, 14. 

Somner, on the authority of Huntington, states that there were 9S principal British towns in the 
island. Of these Canterbury was one, and called Kair Chenty which in British signified a walled 
town. — Afitiq, of Canterbury y p. 8. But this author also reports, with gravity, that this ciiy was 
founded >y Rud-hudibras 900 years B. C. ! ! 

St Margarets Churchy York. g 

*^ Suetonius Paulinus was the next in succession, and he pushed on the 
war in one continued series of prosperity for two years together. In 
that time he subdued several states ; and secured his conquests by a 
chain of posts and garrisons. He invaded Mon£^ the retreat of the 
Druids, and gave a mortal blow to the power of the Britons by the over* 
throw of their army under Boadicea. From the recal of this officer to 
the time of Agricola, the Roman commanders were gradually extending 
the empire of Rome in Britain. Under the latter it was completely 
subdued, and the Roman power permanently established. He first 
introduced literature and the arts of civilization, and reconciled them 
to Roman manners. 

^* To introduce a system of new and wise regulations was the business of 
the following winter (the second of Agricola's administration). A fierce 
and savage people running wild in the woods would be ever addicted to 
a life of warfare. To wean them from those habits, Agricola held forth 
the baits of pleasure, encouraging the natives, as well by public assis- 
tance, as by warm exliortations, to build tempJeSj courts qfjustkCj ancf 
commodious dwelling houses. To establish a plan of education and give 
the sons of the leading chiefs a tincture of letters, was part of his policy. 
By way of encouragement he praised their talents, and already saw them 
by the force of their natural genius rising superior to the attainments of 
the Gauls. The consequence was, that they, who had alwap disdained 
the Roman language, began to cultivate its beauties. The Roman ap- 
parel was seen without prejudice, and the toga became a fashionable 
part of dress. 

** By degrees the charms of vice gained admission to their hearts ; baths^ 
porticos, and elegant banquets, grew into vogue, and the new manners, 
which, in fact, served only to sweeten slavery, were, by the unsuspect- 
ing Britons, called the arts of polished humanity.''* 

Such is the succinct and interesting communication of this celebrated 
author respecting the dawn of civilization and the arts among our rude 
progenitors. To us it is important, as fixing a limit beyond which we 
need not ascend in our inquiries on the present subject. 

V^^^. jj^ * T^itu.' Life afjgricoia. 


10 Inqmry into the Age qfthe Porch of 

That the Britons continued, henceforward, to make progress in the 
arts, appears from Cambden. '' The Romans so civilized the Britons 
by laws, and polished them by manners, that they were not inferior in 
way of life and improvement to other provinces. They erected so many 
buildings and noble works, that their remains strike beholders with the 
greatest admiration.*** 

It has been ingeniously shewn,t that the military force of the Romans 
amounted, in Britain, to 73)000 foot, and 13,000 horse, and that the 
native Romans, or those bom in the island, were, at the conclusion of 
their empire here, not fewer than half a million. A progressive exten- 
sion of the Roman colony, during a space of 350 years, could not fail 
to make a powerful and favourable impression on the natives, converting 
them from a rude to a polished people, and producing all the conse- 
quences that can be imagined to result from the diffusion of civilization 
among men, and in a country, susceptible of the highest moral and 
physical improvement 

As it is a pcnnt of some importance to ascertain, as nearly as may be, 
the degree to which " the arts of polished humanity" were then carried, 
I have endeavoured to convey some idea of this by the following sketch 
of the civil establishment of the Romans in this country, which, in the 
absence, more especially, of topographical details, appears the only way 
by which we can arrive at this information. 

" The regions of Britain were divided into six provinces, governed 
by six Praetors and six Quaestors. The former officer was charged with 
the whole administration, and the latter was appointed to manage the 
finances under him. All acknowledged one head within the island, and 
were subject to the authority of the Proconsul of Britain. The country 
from the southern sea to the Friths of Forth and Clyde, at the close of 
the first century, contained a hundred and forty towns differing in de- 
gree of civil estimation, and in the nature of their civil constitutions, 
and distinguished accordingly into four orders of towns, municipal and 
stipendiary, colonies, and cities invested with Latin privileges. Muni- 

* Gough's Cambden^ vol. i. p. 47. 

\ Wbitakcr's ^Unyof MmiduiUr^ vol. L ch. 6, sec 4, and vol. iL p. 198. 

St. Margarefs Churchy York. 1 1 

cipal, two ; colonies, nine ; Latin towns, ten ; the rest were stipendiary, 
in which the Britons resided. The Latin towns were those which were 
raised above the common rank by the communication of the Jus Latti, 
or Latin privilege, which consisted in being exempted from the ordi- 
nary jurisdiction of the Praetor, and being governed by one of their own 
election, where the president, justiciary, and tax-gatherer were Britons« 
The towns possessed by the Romans themselves were the colonies 
and municipies. The commencement of the colonies was nearly coeval 
with the conquests in Britain. Colchester was the first colony, and 
founded by Claudius. The next in succession were Richborough, Lon* 
don, Gloucester, Bath, Caerleon, Chesterford, Lincoln, and Chester. 
That colony was esteemed the head-quarters of the legion, where some 
of the principal cohorts were stationed, the eagle deposited, and the 
commander was resident. Such was Deva for the SOth Valerian Victo- 
rious ; Eboracum for the 6th Victorious ; Caerleon for the 2d Augustan ; 
and Glevum for the 7th Teuin Claudian. The rest were peopled by 
the other cohorts of those legions. More than eleven mints, in all pro- 
bability, were established within the pale of their own government in 
Britain ; two in the municipies ; nine in the nine colonies ; and some in 
the legionary stations. Coins minted at Chester, London, York, Col- 
chester, Richborough, Verulam, Lincoln, Gloucester, and Conuvium, 
have been transmitted to the present times. 

<* The Roman conquests in Britain were regularly partitioned into 
dioceses as early as the year Slit.* The first bishopricks of the church 
would naturally be commensurate with the provinces of the state, and 
the first sees of the bishops fixed at the capitals of the provinces. Three 
of these provincial bishops appear as subscribers to the Council of 
Aries, in 314."t 

• Dugdale, in his AniiquUies of Warwickshire^ p. 100, si^ that Episcopal Sees and Monasteries 
were not introduced idto England before the time of Augustan, when the Benedictine order was 
estaUishtd, and became so reputed, that there was scarcely any other in this country before the con- 
quest Mr. Turner, in his Hittory of the Anglo Saxom^ says, however, that each of the 1 15 dvitates 
into which the 17 proyinces of Gaul were divided, had a bishop, and every province a superior bishop, 
answerable to our metropolitan, though not distinguished by the title of archbishop. 

t Whitaker^s ffttiory of Matu^eHer, vol L ch. 8, and vol. ii. ch. 11, sec. 4. 

12 Inqmry into the Age of the Parch qf 

The rapid growth of civilization under the Romans appears to have 
been owing in a great measure to their peculiar policy regarding the 
disposal of their military force. For, different from the practice of 
modem times, an order to serve in the provinces, was often, to a legion, 
a decree of expatriation for centuries, and became, indirectly, a power* 
fid mean of confirming the manners and institutions of Italy. The con« 
sequences of this regulation or usage Tacitus describes in the following 
passage : " The natives of the province of Syria had lived in habits of 
friendship with the legions, and, by intermarriages, had formed family 
connections. The soldiers, on their part, were naturalized in the coun- 
try, and the stations to which they were accustomed, were, by long 
residence, grown as dear to them as their native country."^ 

This would be precisely the case in Britain, where some of the le* 
gions remained upwards of 300 years, particularly after the reign of 
Antoninus Pius, when the Roman citizenship was extended to every citizen 
of property and worth. Before this time, none of the natives were 
permitted to marry into the family of a provincial officer, to purchase 
territorial property, slaves, *or houses. 

To the legionary soldiers lands were also assigned, which they had 
ample time to cultivate, military duty, being, in ordinary, discharged 
by supplementary legions formed of natives. Hence one great cause 
of the rapid increase of the Roman population, their condition being, in 
the main, favourable to domestic happiness. It must be allowed, how- 
ever, that the wealth and grandeur of Roman-Britain flowed chiefly 
from the wisdom of their civil policy ; for, extensive as their military 
establishments ultimately became, it is probable, had they confined 
themselves to these, that we should have had little more than the re* 
mains of their walls and forts to remind us of their presence. It is to 
the transplanting of their civil institutions, arts, and social refinements, 
and to the care with which they afterwards nourished them, whatever 
may have been the motives that prompted such policy, that this country 
was indebted for that early refinement demonstrated by those splendid 
specimens of art which have from time to time been discovered within 

* MtL Roman, Hb, iL 

SL Margarefs Churchy Tark. 13 

it But so scanty are the memorials of the fine arts, and so barren the 
history of this interesting period, that the imperfect picture of Roman- 
Britain must be made up from fragments of the history of the times 
immediately succeeding their departure. 

" The authentic history," says Mr. Turner, " for the year 407 is, that 
the barbarians excited by Gerontius, burst in terror upon Gaul and Bri- 
tain ; that Constantine (created emperor by the British troops in 406, 
in opposition to Honorius, the legal emperor,) could give no help be- 
cause his troops were in Spain ; that Honorius could send none because 
Alaric was overpowering Italy ; that the Britons thus abandoned, armed 
themselves, declared their country independent, and drove the barbaric 
invaders from their cities; that Honorius sent letters to the British 
states, exhorting them to protect themselves; and that the Romans 
never recovered possession of the island.^ 

^< After this event the island, as far as it was possessed by the Britons, 
divided into many independent republics, as appears from the circum- 
stance, that Honorius addressed his letters to the Civitates of Britain. 
After the year 410, these republics were severally governed by chief 
magistrates, or decemviri, a senate, subordinate officers called decurions, 
an inferior senate called curias, with other necessary officers. The 
ecclesiastical concerns were regulated by a bishop in each, whose power 
sometimes extended into lay concerns." *'The Anglo Saxons must 
have been materially improved," continues this author, **^in their man- 
ners and mental associations by the internal state of Britain at the time 
of their invasion. They came among a people who, for above three 
centuries had been the obedient subjects of the Roman government ; to 
whom the peaceful acquisition and enjoyment of regular property had 
become familiar; who had cultivated the luxuries which create a distaste 

* Upon the authority of Bede and Gildas, it is generally said, that the Romans finally quitted 
Britain in the reign of Honorius, anno 426. But, from a stone, found at Ravenhill-Hall, in Yoric* 
ihire, anno 1774, it seems the Romans were in Britain during the reign of Justinian, or between the 
years 527 and 566, a hundred years after that of Honorius. This stone is represented in Mr. Gharle- 
ton*s History of WMtby, and the following is the inscription on it, according to his rendering : ** Jua- 
tinianus Pater Patriae Vindicianus Mauritanus Africanus Sarmaticus Britannicus Imperator ExceUen- 
tissimus Romanorum Quatcr Praetor Maritimum Castnun Effiscit Ad Navigantium 0|>iia«'^ 

14 Inquiry into ffie Age of the Porch of 

for war and love of indolent tranquillity ; and whose country abounded 
with those works of art, that distribution of wealth, and those articles 
of convenience, which a rude mind cannot contemplate without feeling 
new wants and expecting new comforts ; without having its curiosity 
agitated and its comprehension enlarged. It is true, that the feuds 
which followed the departure of the Romans had disturbed the prospe- 
rity of the island, and the struggles with the Saxons must have spread 
much devastation. But the monuments and fruits of the preceding 
civilization, though diminished, were not destroyed. After all the dis- 
orders of the period, Gildas still boasts of the island containing twenty- 
eight cities and some castles, with houses, walls, gates, and towers ; and 
from the ruins of Caerleon, as they continued even to the 1 2th century, 
when they were seen by Giraldus, we may form some notion of the 
improvements of Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries. He says it was 
elegantly built by the Romans with brick walls. Many vestiges of its 
ancient splendour are yet remaining ; stately palaces, which formerly, 
with their gilded tiles, displayed the Roman grandeur. It was first 
built by the Roman nobility,* and adorned with sumptuous edifices, an 
exceeding high tower, remarkable hot baths, ruins of ancient temples 
and theatres, encompassed with stately walls, partly yet standing. Sub- 
terraneous edifices are yet to be met with, not only within the walls, 
which are about three miles in circumference, but also in the suburbs, 
as aqueducts, vaults, hypocausts, and stoves.'^t 

Mr. Carter, an architect of eminence, states it as his opinion, that the 
works of the Romans in England rivalled those in Rome itself; and that 
at Woodchester, in the county of Gloucester, vestiges were discovered 
of a Roman structure 400 feet in extent, the foundation walls of which 
have been clearly made out ; in several of the principal chambers are 

ff * Caerleon is commonly supposed to be derived from Cavr-£Adofl^ the city of legions; but Dugdale^ 
in his AnHquUiet of Warwickshire^ page 298, derives it from the name of the British prince Gutheline, 
by whom it was built, thus, Caer-Guthleon, contracted, Caerleon. But, supposing it to be of British 
erection, it is evident the Romans were the people to whom it owed its magnificence, for an account 
of which, see Pobfckromcon^ lib. 1, ciq). 48. 
f Hkiwry ofth€ An^Stunm^ book viii chap. 1. 

St Margarefs Churchy Ym^k^ \5 

tesselated pavements, in so rich and fine a taste, that the uprights of 
the work, he observes, must have been magnificence itself.* 

All this is countenanced by the panegyric of Mamertinus, in praise 
of Diodesian, Maximianus, and Constantiua Chlorus, where it is men- 
tioned that there were many eminent architects at that time in Britain, 
who were invited by the people of Burgundy to erect and repair their 
public buildings.! 

Such is the glimpse afforded by history of the social organization and 
refinement of the Romans in Britain. It shows that their system of 
government was favourable to civil liberty, which, with the domestica- 
tion of the legions, had the effect of spreading a Roman population over 
the country, and of gradually incorporating the natives in their exten- 
sive community, so that it is probable, had the Romans remained two 
centuries longer, all distinction between the two people would have been 
lost. We cannot avoid, therefore, the conviction that their public and 
private edifices corresponded with the condition of the colony in the 
latter days of their power, more especially when we consider that all 
this time a direct and constant intercourse was kept up with Rome» the 
most' luxurious capital then in the world. But not to dwell on the con- 
sequences which the above statements render very apparent, I shall 
only observe here, that they are decisive of the inaccuracy of Gildas, 
who represents the Britons as being, immediately after the departure of 
the Romans, ia a state of utter helplessness cmd barbarism^ and of the 
superior candour of Stow, who has shown from ancient records, and 
even from Gildas himself^ that the conquest of Britain by the Saxons 
was owing to the corruption of all classes, and particularly to a waste of 
military strength, in those contests of ambitious partizans, which occu- 
pied the greater part of the interval between the emancipation of the 
island, and the arrival of the northern bands. So different, indeed, was 
their real condition from that which the Saxon historian of Glastonbury 
would lead us to suppose, that we find the natives, notwithstanding these 
disadvantages, contesting every inch of ground with the invaders, who 

* Antient Architecture of England^ part 1, and note to page 12th. 
f See Speed* s STutortf of England, page 255, folio edition, 1650. 

16 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch qf 

did not, until after the lapse of a century, succeed in confining them to 
Wales, Cornwall, and part of Devonshire, The Britons were then cor- 
rupt, and weak from corruption and misrule, but not barbarous. 

With regard to York in pitrticular, it appears, from Flaccus Albinus, 
alias Alcuin, a native of the place, who lived towards the close of the' 
eighth century, that it was built and fortified by the Romans, but Cax- 
ton soys it was built by Ebrancus, fifth king of the Britons, who called 
it after his own name, Caer-brank.^ 

Cambden informs us that it was not a Municipium Britanniae but Co- 
lonia.t Like Verulam, however, it soon rose to the rank of a munici- 
pium, and to be the chief city of the province of Maxima^ The 
importance of these two Municipia is specially marked by the commu- 
nication of a privilege which was confined to them, namely, the right of 
exemption from the imperial statutes, and the liberty of enacting their 
own laws.t 

Some authors class York as the second city in point of rank, during 
the Roman dominion in Britain, but the author of the Polychronicon 
asserts that several old writers style it the head of the kingdom. § Here 
the bishops of the province resided ; here, also, the emperor Septimius 
Severus had a palace and court of justice, || where he died, after being 
four years in the country. Constantius Chlorus, too, who succeeded 
Dioclesian, made Britain the chief place of his residence, and died in 
this city, aft«r a reign of two years.^ 


* Pofychrfmieon^ lib, 1, capitulum 48. f Gout's CafMk% toI. vL page 9. 

X Whhaker's Httiory of Manchester, yoL L ch. 8, sec. Ist. 

§ Among the more modern authors, Archlnshop Usher contends for York ; Bishop StiUingfleet fbr 
London. But the Bishop evidently felt the weakness of his arguments while writing them; they are 
not written with his usual confidence. — See his Origines BrUannioiB. Gibbon sides with Usher.— 
Z}eckneaud Fall, vol i, p. 78. 

II Whitaker's Manchester, vol. iL ch. 11, sec. 4th; Gough's Cambden, vol. iiL p. 65; and Torr'a 
AntiquUiet of Tork, page 9% 

Y The long absence of the warlike emperors was very prejudicial to the interests of Rome, and 
finally annihilated its sovereignty. The emergencies of war were first made the excuse, and until lh« 
rdgn of Dioclesian and Maximian, Rome, in time of peace, was respected as the seat of power and 
head of the empire. These princes went a step farther, by fixing their ordinary residence in the pro* 
vinoes; the former at Nicomedla, the hitter at Milan. In consequence, the one acquired, in the space 




St. Margarefs Chttrchj Y(yrk. Vf 

The sixth legion, conducted into this country by Hadrian, from Ger- 
many, was settled here, according to the general opinion, so early as 
the year 154, which continued to be its head-quarters until the Romans 
finally quitted the island. It was probably on account of the long resi- 
dence of this legion in York, that it received both from Ptolemy and 
Antoninus, the appellation of Legio Sexta Viciriar^ a circumstance 
which, it seems, procured for some other cities similar titles. Thus, 
Camalodunum and Glevum are also styled Gemina Martia, Colonia Vic* 
tricensis and Claudia ; we have also Dena Yictrix, and Legio Claudia 
for Gloucester. 

Thus York, frcMn its becoming, at a very early period, the head o£ the 
most extensive province in Britain, and afterwards of Britain itself, com- 
mands an unreserved acknowledgment of its having possessed a corre* 
sponding degree of wealth, population and embellishment. Other less 
distinguished cities in the island rivalled in magnificence many of the 
principal cities within the Alps, and therefore it is not likely, that the 
occasional residence of the Caesars, and seat of the western empire, 
would be in a conditicm less respectable in regard to public establish* 
ments civil and rdigious. In all that was transacted at York, Italy 
would give the tone, and as there were no examples in architecture but 
what she furnished, the style of the public and domestic edifices would 
be imitated firom those of the continent, and, moreover, as the Romans 
were a people who thought it as necessary to introduce their gods as 
their laws, language, and manners, it is but reasonable to suppose that 
they would provide in a suitable manner for the ceremonial of their 
worship, and that, in making such provision, they would be guided by 
the precedents of Italy. Upon the whole, it is more improbable that 
there were no temples of elegant workmanship in the capital of Roman 
Britain, than that it abounded with them. In regard to York, I fear no 
local demonstration now exists, which I ought to offer at present, but in 

of a few years, a degree of magnificence, which might appear to hare required the labour of ages, and 
became inferior only to Rome, Alexandril^ and Antioch, in extent or populousness ; while the other 
assumed the splendour of an imperial dty, whose houses were numerous and well built, with a circus, 
theatre, mint, palace, and baths ; porticoes adorned with statues, and a double circumference of walls. 
Such, in short, was its condition, that it <&I not seem oppressed by the proximity of Rome. 

18 Inqtury into the Age qfthe Porch of 

other places ample evidences of such providence have been discovered^ 
with a few examples of which I shall close this part of the subject. 
. Cambden* states, upon the authority of Spartian (in Vita Severi^ c. 
Q%) that thet-e was a temple of Bellona in this city. Upon the conver- 
sion of Constantius Chlorus, who is reported to have married a native 
and christian, the celebrated Helena, we find the christians were in- 
structed to repair decayed temples^ and to build new ones. Bede in- 
forms us,t that Gregory the Great advised Augustine that the temples 
ought not to be demolished, but only, that the idols should be removed 
and destroyed, and the temples consecrated to the service of the true 
God. In the time of Lotharius, King of Kent, anno 67O, there were 
Roman temples i^tanding, in which christian worship was performed. 
At Canterbury, St. Pancrace's church, within the abbey precinct, and 
St. Martin's, in which Augustine performed his devotions, are supposed 
to have been idle temples.^ 

Stukely discovered the remains of Roman temples at Cirencester and 
Chesterford.S Mr. Carter, in his Ancient Architecture ofEngland^W has 
given representations of several beautiful fragments of the temple of 
Minerva, at Bath, discovered a little before he wrote. The accompa- 
niments of an owl and helmet, leave, as he justly observes, no doubt as 
to the deity to whom it was dedicated. From the representations, too, 
of the sun and moon foimd among the ruins of the ancient city ^ and of the 
head of Diana, encircled by the horns of the moon, it would appear, 
that temples to these luminaries had also been erected here. And, 
lastly, a respectable author informs us, that the church of St. Paul, at 
Rouen, was, originally, a temple of Venus.^ 

* GoughU Cambden, vol. iiL p. 10. f HtH. Ecdet, lib. i. ch. 30. 

X Ethelbert, and his queen Bertha, attended divine service in these churches : the latter was edii* 
cated a christian, bong daughter of Ghilperic, king of France. 

§ Itinerarium Curiotum, p. 63-75. || Part L plates 7th, 8th, 9th, and lOtfa. 

f Thimer^t Tour in Nbrmandy,ipBge 71* 

The Ronmns first passed into TVansalpine Gaul as auxiliaries to the republic of Marseilles, and we 
find, that Caius Sextius, anno Urfois 629, placed a colony in the neighbourhood of the hot springs of 
Aix, in Provence, fi'om whom they were denominated Aquae Sextise. — FergiuwCi Roman ReptMc^ 
vol. L See, also, lAvy, b. Ixi. of which there remains only the contents. 

St Margarefs Church, York. 19 

Having thus established the probability, at leasts of the existence of 
a structure in accordance iiHth the style of the porch in question, in 
York, during its occupation by the Romans, I now proceed to state the 
objections to its being a work of the Saxons. 

The northern nations, who conquered England after the Romans, 
were chiefly composed of Saxons, Jutes, and Angles. Their very early 
history is still involved in obscurity, authors not being, as yet, agreed 
respecting their derivation. The common opinion runs, that they were 
descendants of the Getas, who originally settled in Germany, sent colo- 
nies to the Bosphorus, lake Masotis, and shores of the Euxine, possess- 
ing themselves of Thracia, Dacia, and Massia, and who, in after times, 
assuming the names of the countries they had conquered, were known 
as Cimmerians, Sarmates, Sc3rthians, Thracians, Dacians, &c. in the 
east J and as Saxons, Sweves, Angles, &c. in the west 

The most ancient authentic information, which has reached us, places 
them on the southern part of Jutland, and three small adjacent islands, 
North-Strandt, Busen, and Heiligland, before the middle of the second 
century. It appears to have been a particular impulse which deter- 
mined them to piracy. The emperor Probus, to weaken the barbarous 
enemies of Rome, had adopted the policy of removing numerous partieis 
of them to very distant stations, and had accordingly posted on the 
shore of the Black Sea a large body of Franks. These, eager to return 
to their native country, became the Argonauts of modem times* Hav- 
ing possessed themselves of many ships, they ravaged the various coasts 
of the Mediterranean, and, sailing into the ocean, arrived in safety at the 
Rhine. Before this time, the piracies of the Franks and Saxons are not 
mentioned by imperial writers ; but so frequent did tibey thenceforward 
become, that, within a few years, it was found necessary to station a 
powerful fleet at Boulogne, for the protection of the adjacent country. 
This precaution increased the evil; Carausius, the ofiicer entrusted 
with the command, having first encouraged the depredations of the pi- 
rates, that he might be enriched by recaptures, and having aft:erwards, 
when apprehensive of punishment, sought support for his usurpation of 
the imperial purple, by communicating to the Saxons a more perfect 

20 Inquiry into (ke Age of ike Porch of 

knowledge of naval tactics. After this, tibey vrtte fostered by a 
succession of propitious circumstances, which gradually conducted them 
to the grand enterprize for which they were destined.* 

After the time of Ptolemy, the Saxons are not mentioned again for a 
century, but, at the sera of the invasion of England, Cambden states, 
that they were resident in the district of Anglen, in the dutchy of Sles- 
wick, and attributes to them the German cities, Engleheim, the birth- 
place of Charlemagne ; Ingolstadt ; Engieburgh ; Englerute ; and An- 
gleria, in Italy .t 

The little band which first arrived under the conduct of Hengist Mid 
Horsa, in 449f were Jutes, and three vessels were sufficient for their 
accommodation during the voyage. A reinforcement, under Ella, ar- 
rived, in three more vessels, iti 477, Cedric followed, with five ships, in 
495, and Ida, with a fleet of forty sail, in 547. Their conversion was 
first attempted by the monk Augustine, and his coadjutors, in 596, and 
completed, after the labour of nearly a century, by the submission df 
the South Saxons to the authority of the church, in 675. Throughout 
the whole progress of their history, previous to this event, we discover 
no indications of their ever having been a literary or scientific people. 
When they were first observed by the Romans, to wh<Hn the Goths 
were known under the name of Grermans, they exhibited no symptom 
of refinement. The perpetual wars in which they were aft:erwards en- 
gaged with this people, in defence of their civil liberty, was unfavour- 
able to the cultivation of letters ; and the practice of piracy, to which 
they became subsequently addicted, and to which the whole nation was 
devoted, averted the influence of that civilization, which had made 
great progress in Gaul and Britain, during the decline of the Roman 
empire in the west, so that, at the period when they became connected 
with English history, they were, as yet, distinguished for nothing but 
their ferocity of courage and formidable activity, displaying qualities 

* Turner's History of^ Anglo'Saxont, vol. i. 4to. See also, Gibbon> vol. ii. p. 84. 
f Britannia, Introduction. 

The Saxons are not mentioned by Tacitus, but, in the time of Ptolemy, the Anglo-Saxons were 
recognised as a branch of the great Saxon Confederation, which extended from the Elbe to the Rhine- 

St Mar gore fs Churchy York. 21 

the most inauspicious to the improvement of intellectual and moral 
character. Of their compositions in their pagan state, says Mr. Turner, 
we know nothing ; Tacitus mentions generally of the Germans, that they 
had ancient songs, and therefore we may believe that the Anglo-Saxons 
were not without them. But none of these have survived to us. If 
ever they were committed to writing, it was on wood or stones ; indeed 
the word for book (boc) expresses a beech tree, and seems to allude to 
the matter of which their earliest books were made. The poets of bar- 
barous ages usually confide the little efiiisions of genius to tradition. 
They are seldom preserved in writing, till literature becomes a serious 
study ; and therefore we may easily believe, that, if the Anglo-Saxons 
had alphabetical characters, they were much oftener used for divina- 
tions, charms, and funereal inscriptions, than for literary compositions.* 

When letters appeared among the nations of the north, is a question 
still undecided, but, as Tacitus pronounces the alj^bet to have been 
unknown to the Grermans, 'Miteraum secretae viri pariter ac feminae 
ignorant,'' it is probable, their introduction was subsequent to this time. 
Odin is called, in the Edda, and by Snorro, Father of Letters^ King of 
SpettSf which favours the opinion, that he introduced the art of writing 
among the Goths. It is necessary,, however, to state, that the learned 
disagree as to the sra of this celebrated personage, some supposing him 
to be Sigge, a Scythian prince, who flourished B. C. 70 ; others, that he 
was liie progenitor of Hengist, in the fifth degree, and figured in the be- 
ginning of the fourth century. 

It has been urged, in proof of the Saxons* ignorance of letters, previ- 
ous to their conversion, that the oldest Runic inscriptions on stone 
commemorate the fortunes of soldiers who had served at Constantinople 
in the corps of Varangi, and that no specimen of Saxon writing, ante- 
rior to their conversion, can be produced. But as we know that, imme- 
diately after this latter event, the books written in the Runic character 
were destroyed, together with the old inscriptions, because these cha- 
racters had been employed in magic;t the above particulars cannot be 

* History of the Anglo-Saxons, book tii. ch. 4tfaC 

f It WAS for this reason that Olphilas inveated a new character, and that the Saxon chatacter was 

2& Inquiry into the Age of the Porch qf 

received in evidence on this question. The strongest and most legiti- 
mate grounds upon which this fact rests are, the silence of history 
respecting any literary attainments while they continued in Germany, 
and the absence there of monuments of art, the most incontrovertible 
attestations of civilization and refinement.* 

Asser, in his life of Alfred, has drawn a melancholy picture of the 
uncultivated state of the Anglo-Saxons, even at the close of the ninth cen* 
tury. In those days, so much was knowledge undervalued by the great 
and powerful, that even kings signed with the cross because they were 
unable to write.t By the wise policy of this prince, most of the nobles, 
and many of the inferior orders, were put under masters to learn to read 
and write, and many of his Earls^ Gerefas^ and Thegns^ who had been 
illiterate all their lives, were compelled, under severe penalties, to learn 
in their mature age, that they might be competent to the discharge of 
their respective duties. Such was the intellectual condition of the An- 
glo-Saxons in England, a century after Charlemagne had advanced 
literature to such a pitch in his empire, that the learned in France and 
Germany are classed by Muratori witii those of Greece, and declared 
to have been much superior to those of Italy. But the succeeding 
anarchy had obliterated the labours of Charlemagne, and left Alfred 
without contemporaneous support, and the civilization of Britain was 
still more effectually obstructed by torrents of Norman invaders. 
. High authorities^ state, that tiie first rays of literature were shed on 
the Anglo-Saxons from Ireland, from whence, also, the empire of Char- 
lemagne had been illumined. This singular fact a modem author thus 

afterwards inyented in England. From the attachment of the common people to them in Sweden, 
they continued there uddl the year 1050, when the Roman characters were ordered to be substituted 
•by the Pope. They were finally condemned in the Council of Toulon, anno 1116. Hie Gretee or 
Saxons, ascribed their invention to the gods, who were supposed to have communicated the know- 
ledge of them to F1mbul,and Woden was considered the first who applied them to magic. 

• Those stupendous Yemains of architecture still to be seen in some parts of this country, particu- 
iarly a vast waU erected by Rrobus, have nothing doubtfiil in regard either to age or style. — See Gib- 
bon, Decline and Fall, vol. iL p. 81. 

f This seems to have been die original treason, but it codtinued to be the practice long afterwarda, 
jts a token of their conversion. 

4 Bed^ Alcuin, and Adelm. 

St. Margarets Church, York. 23 

explains.* From the suppression of the western einpire» in 476, or at 
least, from the death of Boethius,, in 524, to the close of the eighth 
century, when Charlemagne employed his utmost efforts for the restora- 
tion of learning, a period of nearly 300 years, was an interval of vio- 
lence and ignorance. In this interval,, the rough process was performed, 
which incorporated the rude tribes of the north with the corrupted na- 
tions of the south, apd prepared the materials of new combinations of 
policy ; and such a process was inconsistent with the security necessary 
for the cultivation of letters. But the religion and legislation of the 
ancient empire contributed to preserve some sparks of learning to relu- 
mine succeeding generations. The emperors of the fourth century had 
encoiuraged a literary spirit among thier christian subjects, for the de- 
fence of their religion against their pagan opponents, and, with this 
view, had erected libraries for their use. The barbarian conquerors, on 
the other hand, in general, respected the ministers; of religion amidst 
1^ the depredations, and the coavents became the asylums of the lite- 
rary treasures of antiquity, and the schools of the middle ages. Ireland 
appears to have been provided as a geographical a^jrlum.fbr the fugi- 
tives of religion and learning, who were driven frpm the continent by 
the violence of this disastrous time. Here they enjoyed for a long 
space that tranquillity which is necessary to the cultivation of letters. 
At length, Ireland became a scene of northern depredation, the Danes 
having extended their ravages to it at the end of the eighth century, 
just when Charlemagne had fully established his government^ and the 
improvement of his dominions demanded that men capable of commu- 
nicating instruction, should even be forced from their retreat. It was 
the opinion of Mezeray (Abrege Chron. tome i. page 508,) that the driv- 
ing backwards of the Normans by the French, in the great Saxon war 
of Charlemagne, begun in ^^% gave the impulse to their descents upon 
the coast of France. It seems, then, to be a reasonable conclusion, 
that the long series of hostility which subdued and civilized Germany, 
sent abroad those maritime ravages, who drove from Ireland the teach- 
ers (gleaming and religion to give their assistance in the improvement 

* Miller's Lecturet on the Pkilotophy of Modem Hutoty^ vol. iiL 

24 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

of an empire, which has been the foundation of the modern pdity of 
£urope. Iceland, which discharged a similar function, in awakening 
the literary spirit of the north, appears to have received from Ireland 
its earliest knowledge of religion and letters." That the Saxons in 
England were much assisted in their education by Irish ecclesiastics, is 
equally certain ; the Irish monk, Maildulf, who settled at Malmsbury, 
was skilled in Greek and Latin ; and, in the life of St. Dunstan, it is 
mentioned, that he read the books of some Irishmen, who had settled 
at Glastonbury. It is true, that mention is made of schools and libra- 
ries in England, long before the appearance of the Danes on our shores, 
and that Canterbury, York, and Bangor, are instanced as seats of learn- 
ing, anterior to the sera of the sea-kings. But these, such as they were, 
owed their establishment to churchmen. The school of philosophy at 
Canterbury, we know from William of Malmsbury, who flourished in tiie 
reign of Stephen, was founded by Archbishop Tlieodosius, who died anno 
690 ; and the Grammar School of York is first mentioned in connec- 
tion with the name of its most celebrated mteter, Albert, who was raised 
to that see in the year 767* This prelate is justiy praised as the founder 
of the library of this city,in which he deposited the books he had collected 
during his travels abroad.* But seminaries are reported to have ex- 
isted in the British Isles more than a century before this time, and, in 
particular, Bedet mentions, that the monastery of Bangor was furnished 
with learned men before the arrival of St. Augustine. But as this was 
a Benedictine establishment, (as all the monastries appear to have been 
in England before the conquest,) I fear this expression must be mea- 
sured by the deep ignorance of that dark period, rather than by our 
notion of learning in the 19th century, because Benedict of Norsia, the 
founder of this order, was notorious for his contempt of learning, agree- 
ably to which praiseworthy sentiment, he made no provision for educa- 
tion in the rule of his order, the members of which, in imitation of some 

* StoWy in his Chromtdc, page 74, reports from WilUam of Malmsbuiy, that ^'Egbert, AichbUiop 
of York, about the year 736, founded a library at York, repletdthed with all good booh** For a good 
account of the schools and literati of the Anglo-Saxons, see Dr. Lingard's AnHqmHti of the Angh' 
Saxon Churchy vol. ii. 

f Lib. lie ii quoted by Stillingfleet^ OnjgtfiM i^ritaiMtc^, page 1^, ed. 16S& 

SL Margaret* s Churchy York. «25 

firatemities in Egypt, were brought up to ignorance, labour, and devo- 
tion. It is not until after the time of Charlemagne, who appointed 
schools for the instruction of youth, both in monasteries and cathedrals, 
that the followers of St. Benedict are remarked for application to study, 
a distance of 200 years from the destruction of this monastery, and its 
supposed famous library, by the grandson of Ida, immediately after the 
decisive battle, in which he annihilated the power of the Britons, and 
gave to his countrymen the undisputed sovereignty of England ; a vic- 
tory creditable to the courage of the barbarians, had not Ethelfiide 
steeped his laurels in the blood of ISOO supplicating monks. 

At this period, nothing could be expected to emanate from Italy, 
which was then enveloped in thick darkness, from the miseries inflicted 
by the continental Goths, and by the Saracens, with whom she waged 
a domestic war from the year 8^, when they first passed frojn Africa 
to Sicily, until the beginning of the eleventh century, when the Nor- 
mans established a new dominion in their room. 

So deplorable, indeed, had her condition become, that, a century 
after Charlemagne, it was stated, in the Synod of Rheims, that, at 
Rome, scarcely any person possessed so much learning as was necessary 
for a porter.* 

Not a scrap of literature ever came from the shores of the Baltic* 
The sons of Woden traced the map of the country with the sword, and 
their martial deeds were recorded in the memwies of their Scalds 4 tha 
fruits of Roman civilization everywhere withered at their approach, and 
were washed away by the torrents of British blood shed in the battle of 

To all this, I am aware, it may be objected, that, in the Anglo-Saxon 
history, mention is made of their possessing many conveniences and 
luxuries, which men, recently emerged from a barbarous state, could 
not have derived from their own invention. But this objection has been 

* Iffiller's Lecluresy voL iii. In corroboration of this singular &cty I may be allowed to add, that 
Mr. Pegge, in his ^' Anecdotes of the JEngUth Language,^* p. 50, states, upon authority, that several 
tnshops signed the acts of the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon, held in the 7th century, by proxy, 
Jrom inaiiiUi^ to write their names. 

vol 'i ^ 

26 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch qf 

successfully met by Mr. Turner, who observes, that they were indebted 
for these to their conversion to Christianity. "When the Gothic na- 
tions exchanged their idolatry for the christian faith, hierarchies arose 
in every converted state, which maintained a close and perpetual inter- 
course with Rome and with each other. From the letters of our Boni- 
face, of Pope Gregory, and many others, we perceive, that an intercourse 
of personal civilities, visits, messages, and presents, was constantly taking 
place ; whatever that was rare, curious, or valuable, which, one person 
possessed, he communicated, and not unfrequently gave, to his acquain- 
tance. This is very remarkable in the letters of our Boniface and his 
friends, of whom some were in England, some in France, some in Ger- 
many, and elsewhere. The most cordial phrases of urbanity and affection 
are usually followed by a present of apparel, the aromatic productions 
of the east, little articles of furniture and domestic comfort, books, &c. 
This reciprocity of liberality, and the pei*petual visits, which all ranks in 
the state were in the habit of making to Rome, occasioned a general 
diffusion of the known conveniences and improved inventions which 
then appeared.'** 

To architecture, civil and military, ancient Germany seems to have 
had as few pretensions, as to literature. Until the time of Charlemagne, 
the state of society there was a state of infancy. " The ancient Saxons,'* 
says Bede,t " have no king, but many chiefs set over their people, who, 
when war presses, draw lots equally, and whomever the chance points 
out they all follow as leader, and obey, during the war. The war con- 
cluded, all the chiefs become again of equal power.*' 

" That they had some sort of architecture," says Mr. Turner, •* be* 
fore tliey invaded Britain, cannot be doubted, for they lived in edifices, 
and worshipped in temples, raised by their own skill. The verb, which 
they commonly used, when they spoke of building, satisfactorily shows 
us, that their ancient erections were of wood. So appropriate was the 
word to building, that, even when they became accustomed to stone 
edifices, they still retained it. The circles of stones found in Cornwall, 
Oxfordshire, and Derbyshire, as well as those in Westphalia, Brunswick, 

* Turner's History of the Anglo^Stuoru, book viii. ch. 6. f Hut. Eceki, lib. i. cfa. 16l 

St. Margarefs Churchy York. 27 

and Alsatia, which Keysier mentions, show rather the absence, than the 
knowledge, o£ architectural science.'^* Montfaucon says, that the Scy« 
thians built the temple of their god Mars of vine branches, on the top 
of which they placed an iron scymitar, the image of this deity. 

The temple of the idol Irminsul, which was spacious and magnificent, 
appears, from the expressions of Adam of Bremen, to have been of wood. 
The palace of Ingleheim, near Mayence, burnt about the year 813, was 
of wood. According to Stow,t the first castle in Flanders was built in 
793, when this country became an earldom, immediately after the Saxon 
war of Charlemagne, with whose reign the aera of military architecture 
jMTc^erly commences. In Germany, however, it appears, there were 
not any towns until long after this period, neither he nor any of his 
ftoccessors, before Henry the First, having encouraged them. Hie first 
erection of towns, in that country, was the work of the church. <* As 
not only a point of honour, but also a positive canon, required, that 
bishops should reside in towns, the bishops laboured to form towns for 
their residence ; these were peopled partly by their vassals, partly by 
freemen, who sought their protection, but principally by artizans and 
traders. Henry I.,, anno 919> surrounded with walls the principal vil- 
lages in Saxony, and the neighbouring provinces. At this period, there 
was no trace of municipal government in Germany. In the time of 
Frederick I., emperor of Germany, anno 1 152, buildings of stone were 
so rare, that a cotemporary historian, describing the violences then 
commonly practised, says, that every man carried steel and flint for set- 
ting fire to houses.''^ 

The habits and institutions of our Saxon forefathers evidently did not 
lead them to delight in towns. In England we find, that the country 
was divided into small hamlet lordships^ and that the proprietors lived 
on their estates. Doomsday-Book shows that, at the conquest, the 
towns of England were small, and tlieir population contemptible, while, 
at the same time, the country was remarkably populous. The Romans 
erected, in this countr}% many works in every province which they 

* Turner's Hutoty of ike AngUhSaxont^ book xii. ch. 5. 

f Chromde^ page 7^. t Miller's Lectures, &c, toI. ii. 

S88 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

conquered. It is hardly possible to suppose that these were all destroyed 
when they quitted it Yet, notwithstanding what of these must have 
presented themselves in every part of the country, we find, in the time 
of Alfred, that English architecture was equally rude with that on the 
continent. Asser* informs us, that the walls of the Saxon castles were 
then of eafth, and incompetent for defence against the Danes, in con- 
sequence of which, this monarch ordered their fortifications to be re- 
paired and strengthened with brickt and stone buildings, and the royal 
castle of Norwich is particularly stated to have been so improved by the 
king himself. But, in truth, although the court of this prince was the 
resort of learned men of all professions, as well foreigners as his own 
subjects, there was scarcely an individual in his kingdom who could 
erect a stone building. Of the elegance and comfort of his palace some 
notion may be formed from the fact, that hangings and lanthoms were 
used there from necessity, as defences against the wind, which this ill- 
constructed fabric admitted freely, to the annoyance of its inhabitants. 

It is true, that Giannone has borne testimony to the magnificence of 
the public works erected at Rome and Ravenna, under the direction of 
Theodoric, founder of the Gothic monarchy in Italy, anno 508. But 
Muratori assures us, that what he accomplished was with Italian archi- 
tects ; and Maffei, an Italian antiquary, declares, that *^ it is not to the 
Goths, but to the Italians themselves, that the Gothic style of architec- 
ture is to be attributed." Theodoric is entitled to great praise, not 
only for what he did, but for what he spared ; but it is to Charlemagne 
that we must ascribe the honour of having restored the splendour of 
Italy, a glory which he was enabled to acquire by the spoils of the 
Huns, who had become rich from the plunder of other countries. 

Ecclesiastical architecture came to the northern nations, with Chris- 
tianity, from Rome. Clovis, the first christian king of France, is 

* Asserius de VUa Regis Alurediy ed. 1603, quoted by AVilkins, ArchatJogia, vol. xii. p. 144. 

f I beg to mention here, that in a paper by the Dean of Eieter, read to the Society of Antiquaries in 
the year 1756, it ia stated that the art of making bricks was lost from the time of the Romans until 
that of Richard II. ; upon which authority it seems this opinion still obtains; but if the above passage 
from Asser be correct, this opinion must be given up, because it is not probable that all the eastles 
were, at this period, repaired from the ruins of Roman works. 

St. ,M^^g<^^^^ Churchy York. 29 

reported to have built the church of St. Genevieve, in 507, and many 
others, afterwards. His son, Childebert, erected, in 559, the church 
and abbey of St. German de Prez ; and Clothaire, that of St. Medard, 
at Soissons, about the year 564. The churches, in Gaul, before this 
time, were either the ancient temples which had been consecrated to 
christian worship, or churches erected by the christians, before the for- 
mation of the kingdom of France, under Pharamond, who flourished 
seventy years before the conversion of Clovis. 

The first Saxon churches in England, those of Northumberland, Dur- 
ham, and Greensted, in Essex, were built of wood. " Bede,*' says Ben- 
tham, ** informs us, that the first Saxon churches were built in king 
Ethelbert's reign, who was converted anno 561.* He enumerates three, 
one in Canterbury, one in Rochester, and the cathedral of St. Paul, 
London ; but he has left the materials and manner of construction un- 
certain, and it is not until a century afterwards, with the exception of 
one church, built by Paulinus, soon after the conversion of Edwin, king 
of Northumberland, in 627, that he speaks positively to churches of 
stone, and then, both he and Eddius, a contemporary historian, are 
careful to inform us, that they were the work of foreign artizans, under 
the directions of the English prelates, Biscopius and Wilfrid, whose 
designs were according to the Roman fashion."t This style consisted 
of piers or round pillars, much stronger than the Tuscan, with rude 
capitals and bases, and semicircular arches ; and some of the most per- 
fect examples are, the White Tower of London, the chapel of St. 
Crosses, and of Christ Church, Oxford ; and such also was the style of 
the old cathedral of Winchester. These two prelates may be justly 
considered as the founders of the Saxon architecture in England. Such 
was their zeal for its improvement, that they repeatedly visited Rome 
for this purpose, and sometimes in company. It was in Italy alone 
that in those days architecture could be studied, and Rome was still rich 
in monuments of art, — for, notwithstanding all she had suffered, there 
remained to her, in the latter days of paganism, a thousand temples, 

* This is a mistake. Ethelbert haYiog been baptized by Augustan, who did not arrive until 596. 
f Introduction to the IRttory of Ely Cathedral^ sec. 5. 

30 Inquiry into the Age of the Borch qf 

sixty of which were situated on the Capitoline hill.* In this extensive 
field there were two fabrics of peculiar interest ; the temple of Peace 
built by Vespasian, and the basilica of St. Peter of the Vatican. The 
former is an example of a three-aisled edifice, vaulted with diagonal 
cross vaults, and was probably the prototype of our cathedrals, as none 
were built in the form of a cross until the 10th century,! or, at all 
events, until .Rome had been inspected for patterns by the Saxon 
bishops, although I am aware that another reason is usually assigned. 

The basilica of St. Peter of the Vatican, was a beautiful structure, 
erected by Constantine the Great about the year 324, upon the scite of 
the circus of Nero, and for whose accommodation the temples of Apollo 
and Mars were demolished. To the honour of Alaric and Totila, they 
respected this elegant fabrick, the whole of which formed a cross, and it 
continued to adorn the capital of the Christian world until the beginning 
of the l6th century, when, crumbling with age, it was pulled down by 
order of Julius II. to make way for the gigantic and magnificent struc- 
* ture which he began. 

Not content with their personal labours, Biscop and Wilfrid hired 
workmen to follow them to England ; and at Hexham, Rippon, and 
Weremouth, are still to be seen some specimens of what was then 
effected. The former has the credit of being the first who introduced, 
and from France, the sut of painting and glazing.t The middle of the 
7th century may, therefore, be considered as the aera of the Roman 
Saxon style, an improvement, in Britain, upon the preceding wooden 
structures of the Saxons, and the more ancient basilicas of the Romans, 
whose flat roofs were supported without arches, by ranges of pillars only. 
An example of this kind of building did certainly appear a little earlier, 
in the church of St. Paul, London, which was restored by Bishop Mel- 
litus in the reign of Ethelbert, with round arches, but still retaining 
the semicircular presbyterium or chancel, agreeably to the mode of the 

* Humphry's Montfaucoriy voL iL part let. 

-f I have smce learnt that the conventual church of Ramsey, in Huntingdonshire, was the first which 
•was built in the form of a cross. It waab^gun A. D. 968, and finiahed in six ymn afterwards, 
l Stow's Ckroniele, page 7^ 

SL Margarefs Churchy York. 31 

primitive churches. But it was the zeal of the prelates just mentioned, 
for the improvement of the architecture of their native land, that gave 
the tone to this style, which continued down to the 12th century, and 
was, as Bede* informs us, allowed by the Saxons themselves to be Roman. 
All this time, the Saxon laymen took neither interest nor share in these 
transactions; the bishops were the only architects, and the inferior 
clergy and monks, the masons. Indeed, it seems they were the only 
mechanics of those days, at least for the necessities of their own esta^- 
blishments, for it is certain that all the clergy were then taught some 
trade, which, by the canons, they were obliged to practise at their leisure 
hours. The twelve hundred monks in the monastery of ancient Bangor 
were all tradesmen and labourers ;t St. Dunstan worked as a black- 
smith, and the abbot of Weremouth occasionally held the plough. 

Thus, it appears, that the Saxons did not bring with them a know- 
ledge of architecture, and that in Britain, as well as in Germany, the 
first essays in this science were the work of the church. It appears, also, 
that the style then introduced, and continued through the remainder of 
the Saxon period, was purely Roman, having been first taught and 
practised in England by Roman masters, and that afterwards it was 
denominated Saxon, only because it prevailed during the dominion of 
this people in South Britain, and not from any peculiarity in the style 
itself. — Here we arrive at an intricacy, for, if what are commonly called 
the Roman and Saxon styles be identical, how, in the absence of dates, 
shall we be able to discriminate between them ? In general I fear this 
difficulty will be found insurmountable,^ but, in the present instance, I 
hope to overcome it through the aid of the intrinsic evidence, and to 
show satisfactorily that the porch of St. Margaret's was not the design 

* Hiit Ecclet. Kb. y., and Hist. Abb, Wvremouih et Gyrw. p. 295; quoted by Bentham, Hist, of 
JEfy Cathedral, Introd. sec. 5th. 

t Bede, Hist. Eccies. lib. ii. ch. 2d. 

j: It was the opinion of Sir Christopher Wren (ParentaHOy p. 296), that the least fragment of a 
cornice or capital was sufficient to indicate whether it belonged to a Roman or Saxon edifice. And 
Mr. Wilkins {Arcka?ologia, vol. xii. p. 1 74) has the following remark : — ** Thus, it appears likewise, that 
the respective dates of architecture are distinguishable by peculiar characters also : since it is not only 
by the great contour of the building, the shape of the arch, or the proportion of the columns and piers 

32 Inquiry into the Age qfthe Porch of 

of any Saxon bishop. To the developement of this evidence I now 

It consists of two parts or features of the costume ; the first, compre- 
hending the signs of the Zodiac, akeady mentioned j the second, a spe- 
cific subject, carved on the arch of the porch. 

In a former paper, which professed to explain the nature of the zodi- 
acal figures dehneated on the temples of Egypt and India, I offered 
several reasons in proof of their being, in such situations, mystic, not 
astronomical, symbols, and feel much satisfaction in having had this 
opinion confirmed by subsequent researches. This additional evidence 
will appear in the explication which I am about to offer on the last part 
of my present subject, in which the history of the signs will be briefly 
traced among the Romans during the decline of their power, until the 
subversion of the western empire, when they finally ceased to bear the 
mystic import, and became the exclusive property of the astronomer. 

It is well known that the sun was, in ancient times, the chief and 
almost only deity among the pagans. Adoration seems to have been 
originally paid to the natural luminary,* but afterwards images were 
substituted, which by degrees became almost innumerable. In later 
times, however, there was one idol of the sun which became pre-eminent 
among the symbols of this luminary, and engrossed, in the decline of 
paganism, the universal homage of the heathen world. 

Hiis was a humanized emblem of the sun, denominated Mithras, and 
represented under the figure of a young man crowned with rays. His 
name has hot yet been explsuned by the most patient mythologists, one 
believing it to be a Chaldee word signifying "rays of the sun," or a 

that their dates ore ascertainable, but each little fragment of a moulding, or vestige of enrichment, 
marks the sera of the structure, imd assbts the curious inyestigator in his researches into antiquity." 
1%' Christopher was a scholar, as well as, perhaps, the greatest architect England ever produced. But 
notwithstanding, I may with due deference be permitted to ask, how many dates of ancient churches 
have these gentlemen determined, and why was one left to the conjectures of posterity? 

* The worship of the sun, moon, and stars, was at £rst performed in the open fields. Hence the 
ancient Greeks, who were Sabeans, gave to the void or space between the earth and firmament the 
nam*^ of temple, and to the objects of their adoration that of Theoy which ori^nally signified the mere 
action of turning or running. 

St. Margarefs Cfiurch, York. S3 

revolution or cycle of that body ; another, that it is derived fi-om the 
Greek word mOt to tie, because his cap is bound round his head in the 
shape of the Persian bonnet ; while a third asserts it to be simply the 
Syriac term for Lord ; and a fourth, that it was given td him because 
the sun is subject to eclipses. The figure itself, however, seems to be 
intended only as a personification of the eastern gender of the sun, for 
which the face and phallus were characteristic diminutives and common 

There is also much uncertainty as to the country which gave birth to 
this idol. The general opinion derives it from Persia, yet it is strange 
that this opinion does not stand even on a plausible foundation. That 
distinguished antiquary Montfaucon observes, in his "Introduction,'' 
that " the Persians adored the natural sun at first, afterwards under 
the figure of a young man, Mithras, which worship extended to Greece, 
and spread over the whole Roman empire ;'* but recollecting afterwards, 
that in the most ancient account of the religion of the Persians, delivered 
by Herodotus, it is stated that they had no statues, he qualifies what 
he had said before by intimating, that " it is supposed the worship of 
Mithras was introduced into that country by foreign merchants.*'* This 
latter opinion is very satisfactorily confirmed by the following observa- 
tions of Mr. Bryant : — " Mithras was a Chaldaic god ; adored at He- 
liopolis, in Egypt, where obelisks were erected to him. He was com- 
monly represented under the character of Osiris and Orus. Stephanus 
speaks of Mithras as a man and joins him with Phlegyas, and informs 
us that these were the authors of the Ethiopic rites and worship ; for 
they were by birth Ethiopians ; which people were the first nation con- 
stituted in the world ; and the first who enacted laws, and taught men 
to reverence the gods. 

" There was a temple of the god, Sol, in Arcadia. This was an an- 
cient name for Mithras, and Osiris, in the east. Hence the priests of 
the sun were called Soli and Solimi, in Cilicia ; Selli, in Epirus ; Salii, 
at Rome ; and described by Virgil thus — 

* Humphry's Mont/aucon, vol. ii. part S. 

VOX., n. F 

84 Inqturjf into the Age qfthe Parch of 

9 »* 

'* * Turn Salii ad Cantos incensa altaria circum. 


From a passage in Gibbon's Decline and Fall, we may, with proba- 
bility! infer, that the state religion of Persia was pure Sabaism, even in 
the third century of the christian aera. In relating the sack of Antioch, 
by Sapor, King of Persia, in the reign of Valerian, this author mentions, 
that ** the tide of devastation was stopped for a moment, by the resolu- 
tion of the high priest of Emesa^ who appeared in his sacradotal robes 
at the head of a body of fanatic peasants, armed with slings, and de- 
fended his god and his property from the sacnl^ous hands of the 

Both parties were Heliolaters, but the people of Syria had long be- 
fore become Helio-idolaters, or worshippers of the sun, through the me- 
dium of representative images, and consequently obnoxious to the Per- 
sians as heretics. That the idol in tiiis temple was Mithras, is. placed 
beyond a doubt, from its having been from Syria that his worship spread 
through the western empire, and from the circumstance of its symbols, 
appearing on the coins of Heliogabulus, who was priest of this temple 
befcH-e his elevation to the purple, and afterwards of that which he built 
on the Capitoline hill to the same god. There seems to be, therefore, 
no good reason for referring the origin of this modification of the wor- 
ship of the sun to Persia. 

Although the worship of Mithras was common in Greece and Asia, 
before the Roman commonwealth had reached its zenith, yet no memo- 
rial exists from which it can even foe inferred, that it was publicly re- 
cognized, in Italy, before the Romans engaged in foreign wars, because, 
until then, there is ample evidence to prove, that they preserved a sin- 
cere attachment to the ancient national faith prescribed by the code of 
Numa, which inculcated the exclusive worship of the gods of their 
fathers, and veneration for their ancient rites and tenets. The gods of 
their fathers were the simple and rustic divinities of Etruria and Latium, 
until the three hundredth and fiftieth year of the city, when a portion 

* Anal, of Ant. Mythol, vol. iv. p. 313, aad vol. i. p. 38. 
t Vol. ii. p. 438,— 8vo. edv 

St* Margaret's Chtarck^ York. si 

of the imposing and degant mythology which had been embellished l^ 
the conceptions of Homer and hand of Phidias was added to the native 
stock ; at which time Livy enumerates^ among the principal deities of 
R(Hne, Apollo^ Latona, Diana, Hercules^ Mercury, and Neptune. But 
these, as yet, received the adorations of the Romans, in the simple ca- 
pacity of independent rulers of the elements and particular powers of 
nature, and no others appear to have been associated with them, untfl a 
taste for the Grecian philosophy b^an to prevail, with the exception 
of £sculapius, in the consulate of Posthumus MegeUus and Cains 
Junius Brutus, and again, anno urbis 46S ; and of Cybele during the 
"second Punic war. 

Ennius, is perhaps the first Roman writer who mentions the Dii Con- 
senteSf or twelve great gods of the Ramans, which be has transnukted 
to us in the fc^wing distich from an cdd Gredc poet.* 

JtmOy VestOj Minerva^ CereSj Dianas Venus, Mars, 
Mercurius, Jovty Neptunus, VulcanuSj Apollo. 

These, as I have elsewhere shown^t are merely Latin appellations for 
the twelve great gods of Greece, attributes of the sun, and of which the 
signs of the zodiac were personifications. 

The worship of the sun does not indeed s^pear to have be^i esta- 
blished by law in the time of Ennius, but from some prohibitory ordera 
of the Senate, against the solar rites or Egyptian superstitions, as they 
are called by some authors, it seems to have been clandestinely prac- 
tised even before this period. Accordingly, we find a decree of the 
Senate recorded in the 657th year of the city, and consulship of Cn. 
CcM^nelius Lentulus and P. Licinius Crassus, forbiddk^ the immolation 
of man. Now, as human sacrifices were unknown among the Romans 
until the introduction of the Mithratic mysteries,1: we have here positive 

* TUi fingBieBl of Bmniw has htem pte a er y e d by Varro 4eR^R» 

f Chmeml Jour. Nos. 66-6-7* For an aecoimt ist thaae gods^ am Ibe notea to the fiaat Toh o€ 
pMuummi Sni^iak ^^muUdkm^ tol. iii. f^ 276* 

% Among other authorities,. PboCnMs a hb Life of Athaoaaiiis, mentioiia, that there wm ft Greek. 
temple in Alexandria, in which, ia ancient times, the Greeks perfonned sacred rites to- Bfithrae sacri- 
ficix^ men, women, and duldreii, and angming from their own viscera* And Soctatea and SoaomeA 

36 Inqviiy into the Age qfthe Porch of 

testimony to their private celebration at least, about seventy years after 
the death of Ennius. 

Mr. Gibbon also states, upon authority, that about forty-two years 
afterwards, the temple of Isis and Serapis was demolished, by order of 
the Senate, and even by the hands of the Consul himself, and that their 
worshippers had before been repeatedly banished the city.* 

Of the frequent attempts that had been made to introduce foreign 
superstitions during the better days of the republic, Livyt has furnished 
ample proof, in a speech which he has recorded of one of the Consuls, 
who harangued the people on the discovery of the sect of the Bacchan- 
nals, a discovery which filled Rome with the utmost horror. " How 
often," said he, " was it given in charge to the magistrates, in the ages 
of our fathers and grandfathers, to prohibit the performance of any 
foreign religious rites ; to banish strolling sacrificers and soothsayers 
from the forum, circus, and the city ; to search for and burn books of 
divination, and to abolish every mode of sacrificing that was not con- 
formable to the Roman practice.** As the worship of the sun prevailed 
at this time among the more polished nations, it is reasonable to sup- 
pose, that it was alluded to on this memorable occasion which occurred 
about 186 years, B. C. 

That Serapis was an idol of the sun, is allowed by the most eminent 
mythologists. The two following inscriptions are from Montfaucon.t 

To Jupiter the Sun the great Serapis^ and to the Gods that are wor- 
shipped in the same Temple. 
To Jupiter the Sun the great Serapis^ 

In the British Museum also, in the sixth room of Antiquities, No.. 95, 
is a small statue of Jupiter, sitting, having the erect and inverted torch, 

report, that, in the reign of Julian and Theodosius, the cave of Mithras, at Alexandria, was opened, and 
found full of sculls of human victims. Pallas, in Porphyry, also mentions the Mithratic mysteries in 
connection with the abolition of human sacrifices by the Emperor Hadrian. But this abomination 
was a common rite in this worship from the earliest times, for the ancient Syrians ** caused their 
children to pass through the fire to Moloch," a personification of the sun. 
• * Decline and Folly vol. i. p. 52. f Lib. xxx. sec. 16. 

:|: Vol. ii. book iii. ch. 1st, and book iv. eh. 6th, Humphrey's Translation. 

St. Margarets Churchy York. 37 

intimating his two-fold capacity as king of the upper and lower regions, 


or the summer and winter sun. 

The Ennian or Roman Jove, therefore, and the members of his coun- 
cil, the Dii ConsenteSj or Dii *mqjorum gentium^ were types of the sun 
and his attributes, adopted from the mythology of Greece, and famiUar 
to the Romans, at the time this poet wrote, as he enumerates them 
among the deities of his countrymen. 

As it will hereafter appear, that these were the Mythratic symbols, it 
follows that Plutarch, who affects to be particular as to the period and 
people by whom this worship was introduced into Italy, must be mis'^ 
taken, when he af&rms ^ij^ ofPompey) that it was brought to Rome 
first in the time of Pompey, and by the pirates who were subdued by 
that illustrious commander, who flourished 1^ years after Ennius. 

Until their interference, in the affairs of Greece and Lower Asia, the 
Romans may be said to have preserved their primitive religion, and 
under its influence, their primitive virtue. The innovations previously 
attempted proceeded from the zeal of fanaticism alone, and though at 
times partially successful in its appeal to the creduHty of the people, 
was yet effectually within the controul of the laws, whose salutary re- 
straint the Senate, who, throughout the commonwealth, respected the 
venerable institutions of Numa, occasionally interposed to check the 
inundation of foreign rites.* 

* That the religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans had no connection with thdr morality, is a 
misconception founded upon ignorance of their history, and as it has been publicly maintained, in a 
▼ery recent work, I shall, perhaps, be excused for exposing this error here since it interferes with the 
yiew I have taken of the same subject. 

In Southey's *' Book of the Ckurch^^ the author observes, vol. i. p. 11, that, ^ Religion had no con- 
nection with morality among the Greek and Roman heathenst and this was one main cause of their 
degeneracy and corruption. Religion consisted with them merely in the observance of certain rites, 
and the performance of sacrifices ; men were left to the schools of philosophy, there to choose their 
system of morals, and learn a rule of life." ^ 

The above reipark, he gives upon the authority of Bishop Stillingfleet ; the following I give upon that 
of Polybius, and is so conclusive as to supersede the necessity of further quotation. 

In his estimate of the Roman manners, of his own day, compared with those of other cotemporary 
and ancient people, he thus assigns the cause of the pre-eminent morality of the former : — 

^ But, among all the useful institutions which demonstrate the superior excellence of the Roman 

38 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

But after the conquest of the East Rome became the head of a mighty 
empire, and was incessantly filled with subjects and strangers from every 
part of the world, who, together with foreign literature, introduced a 
variety of exotic superstitions to the neglect of the ancient worship. It 
was then that she became, in the language of her modem historian, 
** the common temple of her subjects, and that the freedom of the im- 
perial city was bestowed on all the gods of mankind.'* 

The dawn of philosophy and polite literature, at Rome, was coeta- 
neous with the march of her armies into Syria. This was the age of 
Ennius, of Cato, and of Africanus the elder, who accompanied his 
brother, Cornelius, commander of the first expeditiion against the Syro* 
Macedonian Kings. 

The lovers of wisdom now began to frequent the schools of Magna 
Grecia, and Athens, where the teachers, from motives of rivalry, as 
much as from a spirit of inquiry, were divided into a variety of con- 
tending sects. In each school, however, they were alike instructed to 

^goTernment, the most considerable, perhaps, is the opinion which the people are tau^t to hold con* 
«eming the Gods ; and that which other men regard as an object of disgrace, appears, in my judg^ 
ment, to be the very thing by which diis republic is sustained, I mean, superstitioo, which is impressed 
with all its terrors, and influences both the private actions of individuals, and the public aduiuistnip 
tion of the State, in a degree that can scarcely be exceeded. To me, it appears, that this contrivance 
was at first adopted for the sake of the multitude. For if it were possible for a State to be composed 
of wise men only, there would, perhaps, be no need of any such invention. But as the people uni- 
versally are fickle, filled with irregular deskes, precipitate in their pasrions, and prone to violence ; 
there is no way left to restrain them, but by the dread of tilings unseeo, and by the pageantry of ter* 
rifying fiction. The ancients, therefore, acted with good reason when tiiey inculcated the notions 
concerning the gods, and the belief of infernal punishments ; but much more those of the present 
nge, are to be charged with rashness and absurdity, in endeavouring to extirpate these opinions. For 
not to mention other effects which flow firom sudi an institiitioOy i( among the Greeks, finr example, 
a single talent be entrusted to those who have the mani^ement of any public money, tfaou^ thfty 
pve ten written sureties, with as many seals, and Vrice as many witnesses* they are unable to disio 
charge the trust reposed in them with integrity* But, the Romans, on the other hand, who, m the 
course of their magistracies, and in embassies, disburse the g;reate8t sums, are prevailed on by tha 
single obligation of an oath, to discharge tiieir duty with strict honesty. And, as in other States, a 
man is rarely found, whose hands are pure firom public robbery ; so among the Romans it is no less 
rare to discover one tainted with this crime." The historian goes on to show die true cause of the 
degeneracy of morals in great states, from which he predicted, with singular accuracy, the fiiture fiitt 
of Rome.— 5re kis General LTutortf^ ^oak vL conduiion.'^Hampton^s TVoiw. 

St. Margarefs Churchy York. 39 

reject and condemn the religion of the multitude, to smile at the pious 
ceremonies of their fathers, and to assert the independent dignity of 
reason. Men so educated were not disposed to wrangle about new 
modes of faith or worship, and though they were constrained to yield 
obedience to the laws by public acts of devotion, yet they approached 
the most sacred fanes with inward contempt, and even the Pontifex 
Maximus often ridiculed in private both the objects and system of which 
he was guardian* With the diffusion of Grecian literature, these athe- 
istical opinions spread among the patricians ; and the legions, who had 
intimately mixed with idolaters of a different cast, completed the down- 
fal of the indigenous superstitions of Italy, by the propagation of the 
rites of the Syrian Mithras among the commonalty. On the death of 
Cffisar, the temple of Serapis was restored at the public expense, and 
under Augustus, his worship had become fashionable at court, as ap- 
pears from the coins of the British Prince, Cunobeline, who resided in 
Rome during part of this Emperor's reign, on which, among other 
Roman devices, may be seen the symbols of this deity.* 

But, although this worship was recognized in the wane of the re- 
public, and in the first days of monarchy, and the protection of the law had 
been yielded to its votaries, by a corrupt and humbled senate, in obe- 
dience to the wishes of a prejudiced emperor and clamorous body of 
citizens, yet there is a circumstance recorded by Tacitus, which shows 
that it did not generally prevail even so late as the sixty-ninth year of 
the christian aera, and that the western provinces had not then become 
infected, since it seems to have been still unknown to the legions who 
garrisoned Gaul, the banks of the Rhine, and Britain. 

In detailing the events of the civil war, which succeeded the death 
of Otho, this author relates, that on the morning of the engagement, 
which led to the capture of Cremona, by the army which had declared 
for Vespasian, " the third legion, according to the custom observed in 
Syria, paid their adoration to the rising sun."" " This eastern form of 
worship," he continues, " either by chance, or by the contrivance of 

* Many of these are engraved in the works of Pc^gge and Stukely. I^y are said to have reached 
our times. 

40 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

AntoniuSy gave rise to a sudden report, that Mucianus had arrived, and 
that the two confederate armies exchanged mutual salutations.***— 
Licinius Mucianus and Antonius had each embraced the cause of 
Vespasian against Vitellius. The former was then at the head of the 
forces of the east, and governor of Syria, and the latter commanded 
the troops, who had revolted from Vitellius, in Germany and GauL 
The third legion had, not long before, been removed from the east, as 
we read of its serving under Mark Anthony against the Parthians (who 
are described, by Herodian, lib. iv. ch. 15. in the act of worshipping the 
sun) ,and under Corbulo against the Armenians. As this legion, there- 
fore, knew what they were about, it was impossible to impose on them, 
but upon the rest of the army who had not been in Syria ; and the at- 
tempt of Antonius to gain advantage from this circumstance, or its 
spontaneous effect in his favour, produced by an erroneous conception 
of the posture of homage, argues complete ignorance of its import in all 
the witnesses. Indeed, it does not appear to have become very com- 
mon, until the civil wars which followed the death of Nero, the last of 
the line of Caesar, when the legions were frequently intermixed ; the 
exigencies of the competitors for the purple often bringing suddenly 
into collision the forces stationed in opposite quarters of the empire. 

But afterwards, the Mithratic symbols are very common on the coins 
of the lower empire, particularly on those of Pertinax, Septimius Severus, 
Heliogabulus, and Constantine the Great. In the third century, this 
superstition had become general, and the following forms of dedication 
accordingly very common. 

" Deo Soli Invicto Mithrce.'^-^** Soli Invicto Comiti.*^ 

In imitation of the Massagetae, who sacrificed a horse to Mithras, 
Gallienus, on his return from the east, represented Apollo as a centaur, 
holding his lyre in his right hand, and a globe in his left, with the in- 
scription, " ApoUini Comiti.*' 

Probus, represented him as a charioteer, crowned with sun-beams» 
the title, " Soli Invicto.' 

« Hist. Ub. iii. sec. 24*-25. 

SL Margarefs Churchy York. 41 

Constantine, Aurelian, and Crispus, represent him as a naked man, 
crowned with rays, having a globe in one hand and a whip in the other ; 
the title, " Soli Invkto Omitir 

At Rome, two altars were found, dedicated to Mithras, by Marcus 
Aurelius Euprepes, the freedman of the emperor, to whom the god had 
appeared in a dream. 

On the first was inscribed— 

** Numiru Invicto Soli Mithrce. Af . Aurelitis August. Lib. Euprepes 

una cum Filiis pus. x>. d/' 

On the second — 

" Af. Aurelius Aug. Lib. Euprepes Soli Invicto Mithrce Aram ex Visu 


At Nismes, the following was discovered : — 

" Deo Invicto Mithrce L. Calphumitls Piso Cn. Paulinus Volusius. 

D. s. D.** 

It thus appears clearly enough, that it was the Mithratic modification 
of the worship of the sun which prevailed among the Romans ; and as 
Mithras was but another name for the chief deity of Phoenicia, Egypt, 
and Greece, it will explain how he came to be frequently represented 
by the same symbols which were common in the worship of Bel, Osiris, 
and Apollo. 

The prevalence of these rites, through the Roman dominions, during 
the decline of their empire, appears to be chiefly attributable to the ex- 
tensive intercourse which arose between Rome and the eastern pro- 
vinces, after the deposition, by Pompey, of Antiochus AsiaOcus, the last 
of the Syro-Macedonian kings, and to the intimate association and 
family connections formed by the soldiers, officers of state, and some 
of the emperors, with the inhabitants of Syria, the hot-bed of this super- 

Septimius Severus, married Julia, daughter of Bassianus, high priest 
of the sun, at Emesa, who was mother of the emperor Car^calla. Julia 

VOL. II, a 

42 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

Maesa, her sister, was married to Julius Avitus, a man of consular rank, 
by whom she had two daughters, who were the mothers of Heliogabulus 
and Alex. Severus, Both these were educated in Phoenicia^ Maesa, 
having, on the death of her son, retired from the angry presence of 
Macrinus, his successor to her native city Emesa, taking with her her 
two daughters, then widows, and her two grandsons. By her interest, 
the son of her daughter Soaemis, was promoted, while a boy, to the 
office of his grandfather, the duties of which he afterwards continued 
to discharge, at Rome, where his impiety and folly led him to assume 
the title of Elagabaly or puissant god. 

Aurelian, too, who filled the throne in the middle of the third cen- 
tury, and who built a magnificent temple to the sun, on the Quirinal 
hill, in which he placed the images of this luminary which he had plun- 
dered from that of Palmyra, was the son of an inferior priestess of 

Again, Antioch, which, under the Seleucidae, had risen to such a 
pitch of wealth, populousness, and refinement, as to yield with reluc- 
tance to the majesty of Rome itself, was the permanent residence of 
the Roman governors, occasionally of the emperors who headed the 
eastern expeditions, and the head quarters of at least four legions, while, 
at the same time, it was the grand focus of the Mithratic institutions. 
The ancient city of Emesa, in whose suburbs one legion was usually 
quartered, was in its neighbourhood, and CarrhaB, of Mesopotamia, at 
no great distance j the former celebrated for its splendid temple of the 
sun, the latter for that of the moon, which was here worshipped under 
the title of Det^ Lunus. 

It was in the common course of moral agency then, that a worship, 
which had become the family religion of the prince, and the favourite 
superstition of the soldiery, at a period when they were the most power- 
ful and intolerant, and whose prominent feature was licentiousness, 
should recommend itself to a people among whom philoso{)hy and 
luxury had already undermined every principle of virtue, and by them 
be gradually diffused through their most distant colonies.* 

« In order to show more explicitly, that ^Cthra8 was the god adored in Syria, I shall add the 

St. Margarefs Churchy Ywk. 43 

I now come to offer a few proofs of the signs of the Zodiac being 
symbols of Mithras, and as such, objects of adoration, originally, among 
the Romans. 

In the twenty-first plate of Humphrey's Montfaucon^ there is a re- 
presentation of the rape of Proserpine, accompanied by the signs, in 
separate compartments, and ranged in a straight line. In the thirty 
second plate, there is a figure of the sun, surrounded with the signs in 
a manner which forbids the idea of its having any allusion to astronomy. 
The ninety-sixth plate contains the representation of a broken statue, 
found at Aries, in 1698, having four coils of a serpent round the body, 
with three of the signs between each convolution. In the British Mu- 
seum, in the sixth room of antiquities, No. ^^ is a bas-relief represent- 
ing the goddess Luna, surrounded by the signs. The deity appears 

seated in an arched niche, on the face of which the signs are sculptured. 


following observatioas, from Mr. Bryant's Analysis of Ancient Mythology, which, at the same time, prove 
the identity of tlus deky with Isis, Cybele, and Ceres, and thus account for the commixture of rites 
and symbols in the worship of these divinities. 

" Ada, i. e. land of fire, was a name given originally to Phry^ and part of Lydia only, from the 
rites of fire establiahed there. 

^ One of the most ancient cities of Syria, Adesa, called by the Greeks, Edessa, was so named for a 

similar reason. The sun was here worshipped under the name of Azizus. Both Ceres and Ph>8er- 

i pine were called Azazia, and by the lonians, Azesia. Azaz, and Azizus, is the same as Asis and Isis* 

made feminine by the Egyptians. 

^ The Mithyr, of Egypt, was the same with the Da Mater or Demeter of the Grreeks, the mother of 
the gods. 

^' In the coins of Syria, we find Cybele, with a tower upon her head, sitting on a rocL In her right 
hand, she holds some ears of com ; near her is the mystic hive and an altar, and over her head is a 
bird ; below her feet is water, in which a person seems ready to sink. There is a coin to this 
purpose of the empress Julia Severa, which was struck at Antioch, on the Orontes. The same story 
occurs on the coins of Julia Msesa, at Edessa, of Severus, at Charrse ; of Gordian, at Singara ; of 
Barbia Orbiana, at Side ; of Phil^, at Nisilus ; of Alex. Severus, at Rhesain. The history was un- 
doubtedly taken from the religion of the Syrians and Mesopotamians."— Fo/. i,p, 38; voL OL p, 

These observations are decisive of Mithras, whose symbols appear unequivocally on the coins of 
the lower empire, being the masculine type of the sun worshipped at Edessa, and, consequently, that 
he is of Phoenician descent, and one of the ancient gods of Canaan. After this, it is easy to trace 
bis identity with every other ancient emblem of this luminary. 

44 Inquiry into ihe Age of the Porch qf 

This monument is, perhaps, not more than two feet in height, but in 
excellent preservation.* 

The temple of Diana, according to Montfaucon, was sometimes oma« 
mented with the signs. 

In a paper, by the Reverend John Hodgson, published in the Ar- 
cfueologia JSUanOj vol. i. part ii. an account is given of a very singular 
and unequivocal Mithratic monument, which was discovered at the ce- 
lebrated station of House-Steads, the ancient Borcovicus, thirty miles 
west of Newcastle upon Tyne. It consists of the figure of the Persian 
Mithras encircled with the signs. The stone, Mr. Hodgson observes, 
when perfect, has been four feet high and two feet six inches broad. 
The upper part has been thinned away. It is at present in several 
pieces. Libra and Cancer are wanting. I have, myself, seen this monu<- 
ment, and although it is now in a very mutilated state, enough still 
remains to show that the signs were once complete in number. It is a 
circumstance worthy of remark, as tending to confirm the nature of this 
remain, that it was discovered in an artificial cave dedicated to Mithras, 
because it was a peculiar feature in this modification of the worship of 
the sun, that its rites were celebrated in caverns, both in Persia, Egypt, 
and the west. 

Montfaucont reports from Luctatius, the interpreter of Statins, that 
the Persians were the first who introduced the custom of worshipping 
the sun in caves. St. Jerome, in his epistle to La^ta, mentions the den 
of Mithras, with its monstrous figures. In Egypt, Belzoni found the 
signs delineated in some of the ancient tombs ; and it was mentioned 
above, that there was a cave of Mithras at Alexandria. 

An intelligent writer, who resided long in India, has the following 
observation : — " The ancient oracle and place of worship, at Delphos, 
was a cave, which was called Delphi, an obsolete Greek word, synony- 
mous with yoni^ in Sanskreet ; for it is the opinion of devout Hindus, 

* I inquired, at the proper quarter, where thiB interestiiig monumeDt was found, but was sony to 
learn that this important particular was not known, 
f Humphrey's Montfaucon^ vol. i. part ii. 

St Margaret^ s Churchy York. 45 

that caves are symbols of the sacred yoni.^* " This opinion prevailed 
also in the west ; for perforations and clefts in stones and rocks were 
called ctmni DiaboUy by the first christians, who always bestowed the 
appellation of devils on the heathen deities."* 

Yofd^ it must be noticed, signifies pudendum nmUebriSj and constitutes 
the second sign or mansion of the lunar zodiac of the Hindus, among 
whom the worship of Mithras was very common. 

These examples are sufficient to show, that, among the Romans, as 
among other people, especially the Greeks, the zodiacal figures were 
objects of idolatrous worship, being symbols of the attributes of the sun, 
the division of whose natural course into twelve parts suggested the parti- 
tion of his essence into a corresponding number of attributes or qualities, 
which by tiie vulgar were esteemed distinct deities. In Greece, how- 
ever, we find an acknowledgment of the unity of tiiese, in the titie Me^ 
notyrammSy which intimates that he was lord of the months as well as of 
the years. 

I have now to mention some of the principal Mithratic monuments 
which have been discovered in Britain, together with the places where 
they have been found, in order to show the prevalence of the worship of 
the sun in this coimtry, during the period of its occupation by the Ro- 

Besides the monuments, already mentioned, found at House-Steads, 
there were two altars discovered there at the same time ; and by the same 
gentieman, one is described as being three feet seven inches high, the 
other a foot higher, both bearing inscriptions showing their having been 
dedicated to the sun and Mithras ; the former during the joint consul- 
ship of Vibius Trobonianus GaUus and his son, C. Vibius Valutianus, 
A.D. ^S. 

In Westmorland one, and in Cumberland four, Roman altars were 
found, inscribed to the god Belatucadro^ whom Dr. Ward, upon the 
authority of Selden and Vossius, has shown was the same with Bel, 
Apollo, or the Sun.t Mr. Cambden mentions that a tablet was 

* Wilford on the Sacred Isles of the West — Asiatic Researches^ vol, vi, 
f Arcfiaeologia, vol. i. page 309. 

46 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

found in Trinity church yard, York, on which there was a represent- 
ation, in bas-relief, of Mithras stabbing the bull. An engraving of this 
tablet is given in the 62d plate of his Britannia. Several similar engrav- 
ings are also to be found in Montfaucon's Antiquities^ on some of which 
two or three of the signs may be recognized, such as the lipn, serpent, 
and scorpion, accompanied with the upright and inverted torch.—* 
Mithras riding on the bull was an emblem of the meridian sun ; hence 
bulls were sacrificed to him, and he is sometimes represented as perform- 
ing this sacrifice himself, by stabbing the bull in the fore part of the 
thorax with a short Roman sword. The absurdity of a deity offering 
sacrifice to himself is characteristic of the Roman people ; for, among 
other instances, Tacitus records that of Sejanus, the freedman of Tibe- 
rius, who offered incense to himself after his deification. 

In Scotland, at Westerwood Fort, on the wall of Antoninus, Mr. Gor- 
don found a phallus^ carved iij relievo, and in good preservation. Very 
interesting and curious monuments of this idolatry were also discovered, 
by Gordon and Pennant, in the north-east of Scotland, chiefly at Balu- 
thern, four miles north of Dundee ; at Aberlemni ; Forress, in Murray ; 
Aberdeen ; Mar ; Glamis ; and Meiggle, in Angus-shire. They are 
represented and described by the former author in his Itinerarium Sep- 
tentrionale, and by the latter in his Tour in Scotland f vol. iii. p. I67. 

But the plates of Gordon appear the most carefully executed, as well 
as his description the most minute. His representations are exhibited 
on the plates numbered 53, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, and 63 of his work pub- 
lished in I726. 

These monuments are large monolithite obelisks, having several of 
the signs mixed with other devices, rudely carved, on one side, and a 
large figure of the true cross, as it is termed, on the oUier. The most 
remarkable are, 1st. Sweno's stone at Forress, in Murray, which is 23 
feet high, and 5 broad, and exhibits several human, and other animal 
figures, on one side, and the cross, on a large scale, on the other. 2nd. 
The Maiden Stone, in the county of Mar, twelve miles from Aberdeen : 
on one side of this stone are carved the figures of a fish, serpent, camel, 
eagle, and three horsemen ; on the reverse, the cross, highly ornamented, 

SL Margarefs Churchy York. 47 

and surmounted by two wild boars. 3rd. King Malcome's stone, at 
Glamis, on which is represented, a serpent, fish, lion, centaur, two men 
with battle axes, &c. The cross occurs here on both sides. On the 
stones at Meiggle similar figures are represented. On No. 6, plates 
59 and 60, of Gordon, the caduceus of Mercury is observable. No. 3, 
plate 60, is the representation of a stone at Glamis remarkable for exhi- 
biting the figure of an elephant in its natural state, unaccoutered. All 
these are carved in that style which has been remarked as peculiar to the 
Roman soldiery. Mr. Gordon also informs us, that at Inverkerthing, 
in Fifeshire, there is a stone 10 feet high, on which several hieroglyphics 
are carved in low-relief; and that there is another obelisk at Campbell- 
town, in Argyleshire, which is supposed to have been brought from 

The conjectures respecting the people who raised these stones are 
almost as various as the antiquaries by whom they have been examined. 
The terrors impressed by the Danes transferred to that people in the 
traditions of posterity many a camp and castle, as well as obelisk, erected 
by the Romans, and seem to have obliterated the remembrance of earlier 
invaders. Hence it has happened, that some antiquaries have vainly 
endeavoured to reconcile the appearance of these monuments with events 
which belong to a later period in the history of Scotland, declaring it to 
be their opinion, that they were raised in memory of victories obtained 
over the sea-kings. But no victory was gained over them in Murray ; 
on the contrary, in the reign of Malcome, the Danes, in a great battle, 
defeated the Scots there : Gordon supposes that Sueno's stone was set 
up to commemorate the battle of Murdoch, gained over the Danish 
generals Olavus and Enecus, sent into Scotland by Sueno. But these 
are the very generals who defeated the Scots in the reign of Malcome.* 

Bishop Nicholson, in his Scots Historical Library ^ page 64*, concludes, 
that they are remains of the later incursions of the Danes and other 

* It must be allowed that the tradition which connects these stones with events which happened in 
the time of the Bialcomes, is, at first sight, plausible; for, after their successes in Murray, the Danes 
are said, by some respectable historians, to have been defeated by Malcome II. at Murthlack, in Angus ; 
and Malcome IV. was surnamed the Maiden, from having persevered in a life of celibacy. 

Spotswood^s History of the Church of Scotland, p, lOU 

48 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

northern nations ; while Hector Boethius, with a bolder imagination, 
pronounces them Egyptian hieroglyphics, from which country he derives 
the Scots themselves.* Gordon, apparently ready to take a hint from 
any quarter, joins issue with Boethius ; and, forgetful of his opinion 
of Sueno's stone, says, page 164, " But taking it for granted that the 
Scots never came from Egypt, yet this hieroglyphical way of represent- 
ing facts is uncontrovertedly like the Egyptian fashion, and was without 
doubt invented to transmit most memorable actions to posterity," To 
this opinion Pennant also assents, so that, in regard to the number of 
advocates, it may be considered as hitherto preponderating. This con- 
jecture, as no reason is offered by any of the party in its support, is, by 
chance^ a happy one ; for these symbols were common in Egjrpt during 
the Roman government of that country, together with the hieroglyphical 
mode of writing, as has been shown by two distinguished modem writers. 
The signs which may be distinctly made out on the above obelisks are, 
Scorpio, Sagittarius, Gemini, and Pisces. The other figures, unequivo- 
cally Roman, are, the caduceus of Mercury, and the elephant, the image 
of this animal having been given by Julius Csesar to the fiflh legion, for 
their standard, as a reward for their having voluntarily combated the 
elephants, in number thirty, in the army of L. Scipio, at that time the 
confederate of Juba. 

Those, that are presumptively so, are, the wild boar, the horsemen and 
captives, and cynocephali, which appear on figure 2d, plate 55, because 
the two former have been found on monuments undoubtedly Roman, as 
in those represented at Nos. 5 and 6, in Stukeley's plate prefixed to his 
account of a Roman temple near Graham's Dike, published in Yf9Q ; and 
the latter are familiar objects in the mythology of Egypt, whence they 
were derived by the Romans. 

The appearance of war chariots, too, among these figures, is strong 
evidence that these stones were erected long before the invasion of the 

* In Hollinshed's tmnsUtion the following are the words of Boethius : — ** The Scots, at first, used 
the rules and manners of the Egyptians from whence they came, and in all their private affidrs they did 
not write with common letters as other nations did, but rather with cyphers and figures of creatures 
made in the manner of letters* as their epitaphs on tombs and sepulchres remaining among us do 
hitherto declare." 

SL Margarefs Churchy York. 49 

Danes, as such were not used after the wars of the natives with tiie 
forces of Italy. 

There are some who imagine, that hy possibility these obdisks, or 
the devices on them, may have been derived from the Phcmidans, or 
Greeks, who are said to have made early settlements in Britain. Bat 
to this it may be rephed^ that whatever settlements were made by those 
people, they were confined to the southern shores of the island, being 
solely for the purposes of traffic, and not with a view to territorial ag« 
grandizement ; so that, such a supposition must be treated as a mere 
flight of imagination. That they were not the work of the Caledonians 
or natives, is clear, from an expression in Mr. Smith's Gaelic Antiquities^ 
where, at page 16, it is said, *' in the Gaelic language there is no hint 
of Roman gods.'* As, therefore, they were not derived from earlier 
visitors, nor raised by natives ; and as they would form an anonmly in 
the history of succeeding invaders, it is to the Romans, that common 
sense as well as sound criticism will refer them, to a people among 
whiwi they were familiar, as objects of worship and common derign, 
whose gods were the constant companions of their eagie, and whose 
common practice was the commemorati6n of their services in the pro- 
vinces, by impressions of their national characters. 

But let us examine this question more particularly, as it is one of 
importance and novelty. 

Agricola fought his great battle with Galgacus about the year 85 of 
our sera, in which it would seem, from Horsiey,* that all the legions 
were present, and the general opinion places the scene of this action 
towards the eastern extremity of the Gran^ian hills, in whose vicinity 
many of the stones in question were situated. The impression made at 
this time, on the Caledonians, was improved by this i^e general, who 
immediately formed stations to keep the natives in check, by which 
means this part of Scotland was preserved to the Romaps for a con- 
siderable time afterwards. But, upon this expedition, J ^ not mean 
to found any conclusion, because, the above learned antiquary asserts, 
that ** we have few inscriptions so ancient as the time of Hadrian, 

* BrUamua lUmana^ p^ 84. 
VOL. II. ^ 

50 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

and none now extant in Britain that are undoubtedly older."* 
Although, therefore, these monuments cannot be considered as 
belonging to the class alluded to by Horsley, yet I think it better 
to draw the proof of my position from later events, both because they 
are more authentic, and more fertile in materials for the argument. 
In the reign of Antoninus Pius, Lollius Urbicus commanded the forces 
in Britain. This active and enterprising officer, is supposed to have 
penetrated even farther than Agricola himself, into Scotland. He re- 
duced the eastern and north-eastern shore, scaled the hills of Athol and 
Badenoch, behind which he had driven the natives, and was about to 
gain the glory of the complete conquest of Britain, when the Caledo- 
nians rallying under Creones, attacked and repulsed him. Afterwards, 
uniting wisdom to valour, they managed to press the Romans with 
such effect, as, within the space of SO years, to force them behind the 
rampart of Antoninus^ which this general erected to defend the 
more southern possessions of Rome ; abandoning all to the northward 
of that boundary, which was denominated the province of Vespasiana. 

Horsleyt and Gordont are of opinion, that the Romans had no set- 
tled stations beyond the River Tay, and that the Vallum Barbaricum^ 
as it is sometimes termed, or the rampart which stretched across the 
isthmus, between the Forth and Clyde, was, by that people, considered 
the limit northward. But, besides the above positive testimony, that 
they occupied the province of Vespasiana, at least the eastern half of 
it, for upwards of thirty years, Mr. Whitaker, who, on more than one 
occasion, has displayed greater depth of research than either of these 
gentlemen, informs us, that the British nations beyond the rampart of 
Antoninus were sixteen in number, of which six were reduced by the 
Romans, and ten remained And from the Itinerary of 
Richard Corinensis, which forms the appendix to his History of Man-^ 
Chester^ the following appear to have been the principal stations, in 
Scotland : — Falkirk ; Peebles ; Dunbarton ; Stirling ; Kinkel, upon 
Erne ; Perth ; Dunkeld ; Brumchester, on Tay Frith ; Brechin ; 
Eshlie, on North Esk j Aberdeen ; Fyvie ; Nairn ; Inverness ; and 


* Britannia Romanay p. 81. f Britannia Romana^ p. 65. 

X IHnerarium Septentrionale, p. 187. || ^tt of the AntiqmHet of Manchester^ yol. ii. p» SOh 

St. Margarefs Churchy York. 51 

Bnimchester, near Blair. Now, as to three of these stations the Jtis 
Lata was extended, namely, to Inverness, Perth, and Dunbarton (all 
within the province of Vespasiana), it appears they were towns of con- 
siderable importance, municipal, and within the pale of Roman judica- 
ture, consequently, integral portions of the empire, and, therefore, as 
permanent as the Roman government, in that quarter of the island. 
This proves, that the Romans not only had military stations, but that 
they were domiciliated for some time beyond the Tay. But this is 
going, perhaps, farther than necessary, for all that is requisite, is, merely 
to establish the probability, that they were in that distict under such 
circumstances as would produce sepulchral monuments. Now, we 
know, that after the province of Vespasiana was formally abandoned, 
that of Valentia was retained for upwards of seventy years afterwards, 
until Septimius Severus fixed the limit of the empire, in Britain, by his 
famous wall, which extended from the River Tjme to the Solway Frith ; 
and, that along the whole line of the Vallum Barbaricum^ or wall of 
Antoninus, the Roman population was very dense, from the number of 
considerable towns which were situated in the line of country which it 
occupied, such as, Falkirk, Dunblane, Stirling, Paisley, Dunbarton, 
Glasgow, &c. Thus established on the confines of Caledonia, it is not 
too much to suppose that frequent occasions would offer, either for the 
gratification of cupidity, or the exercise of vengeance, on the hostile tribes 
of the north ; and, it is certain, that in such excursions, the intrepidity 
of their opponents would give ample occasion for the erection of monu- 
mental pillars. But, further, sixty years after the time of Septimius 
Severus, a war of considerable duration was prosecuted against the 
Scots and Picts, by Constantius Chlorus, and after his death, by his 
son Constantine, who was twice in Britain. The impression made, at 
this time, may be gathered from Speed, who says, ^' they subdued the 
Britons, that were more remote, and inhabitants of those islands, that 
witness the setting sun.'*^ At a still later period, the Romans again 
established themselves on the borders of Caledonia, for, in the reign of 
Theodosius I. the province of Valentia was reconquered, apparently hf 

* HUtory of England^ p. 259,— from Eus^us' I^e of ConttaiUkie. 

52 Inquiry into ike Age qftke Porch of 

StUicho, who then commanded the forces of the west» and whose vic- 
tories over the Scots and Picts are celebrated by Claadian» though 
without specifying the year. 

But, as the transactions of this genera], in Scotland, have not been 
minutely detailed, I forbear to examine the reasonableness of the sup- 
position, which would derive these monuments from them, because, in 
my own (pinion, the probability of their Roman origin is sufficiently 
accoimted for, by the knowledge of the previous integration, with the 
empire, of the country in which they were found ; although, as it could 
be done without prolixity, I deemed it but justice to the subject, to 
adduce every circumstance in which a probability might be supposed to 

The nature of these monuments seems to be placed beyond all doubt, 
by some later discoveries, mentioned by Mr. Gordon, in his work, page 
87, *^ On digging up,'' he states, '^ a small tumidus^ near the castle of 
Glamis, in Strathmore, an urn was lately discovered, with great quan- 
tities of Roman medals of silver ; one, a silver coin of Galba. At the 
Silver Bum, near Aberdeen, many more Roman medals were found, 
several of which I saw in the hands of some gentlemen there. Further 
north; in the country oi the Boyne, several Roman coins were dug up^ 
twenty-seven of which were then in the possession of the earl of Find- 
later. Four of these were medals of Antoninus Pius, one of Faustina^ 
one of Otho, in silver, the rest of different emperors." He further in- 
forms us, that the medals and coins, found north of the Tay» were all 
procured from sepulchral monuments, and that no vestiges of Roman 
encampments, no altars with inscriptions, or military instruments, are 
to be found beyond this river. Here, it is to be observed, that none of 
the coins specified are of later date than the reign of Antoninus, and, 
therefore, none which can be referred to a period subsequent to the 
abandonment of Vespasiana. It is remarkable, too^ as Mr. Pennant 
observes, that such stones are not only unknown in Ireland, but limited 
to the eastern side of north Britain. Thus, then, if we commence at 
Thepdosia or Dunbarton, not far from which is Camjpbellton^ where 
one of these stones is stated to have stood, and proceed along the wall 

St Margarets Churchy York. 53 

of Antoninus to its eastern extremity^ we come to Inverkeithing/ on 
the north side of the Queen's Ferry, where another of these stones was 
found ; next, turning northwards through Fifeshire, we arrive at Victo- 
xia, or Perth, on the banks of the Tay, twenty miles west of Dundee, 
and about half that distance of Meiggle, Glamis, and Coupar in Angus- 
shire, where more were discovered ; then, continuing northwards from 
Dundee, or, in a north-easterly direction from Perth, we arrive at Aber- 
deen, in whose neighbourhood the rest are placed. If from hence we 
still proceed northwards, we come to Ptoroton, or Inverness; from 
whence, drawing a straight line^ almost directly southwards, through 
Brumchester, or Blair, to Victoria, we shall have described pretty nearly 
the boundary of the Roman possessions in Vespasiana, within which, 
both the obelisks and other sepulchral memorials, mentioned by Mr. 
Gordon, were discovered ; a coincidence equally remarkable and satis- 

But here I must anticipate an objection, which those who follow the 
opinion of Mr. Horsley will urge, who denies that the 5th legion was in 
Britain ; because, if this opinion holds, it will deprive my argument of 
all the weight which depends on the image of the elephant being a Ro- 
man emblem. This opinion was adopted and maintained by this distin- 
guished antiquary upon the ground that he could not discover any 
memorial to substantiate the fact ; contending that, during the second, 
third, and fourth centuries, the 2d, 6th, and 20th legions only were in 
Britain.t Mr. Gordon, however, who preceded him by several years 
in this walk of literature, had, in his Itinerary , page 56, presented the 
world with an engraving of a stone which he found at Grot-Hill-Fort» 
near the town of Crow-hill, upon the wall of Antoninus, inscribed 
thus >[LEGy3< . " From the letters," he says, " two angular borders 
appear on each side of the stone so close and plain that it leaves no room 

•* Stukeley makes Abercom the eastern terminatioD, but it is supposed to haye extended to the 
Queen's Ferry, although it cannot now be traced so far, the east end having been long imperfect from 
the removal of the material into new buildings, chiefly during the times when the Scottish kings 
occasionally held their court at Linlithgo, and Calender Castle. 

f Cambden says that these were all that were in Britain during the reign of Severus. — GougKt 
Cambden, p. 44. 

54 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

to doubt of its being read Legio Quinta ; nor is there any space what- 
soever for another letter to have been put in.'* Against this Horsley 
enters a strong protest, alleging that it ought to be read Legio Vtctria:.* 
But among the three legions which he himself allows to have been then 
in Britain, and to have continued until the last, there was another so 
entitled, namely, the 20th, or Valens Fictruv. According to his own 
account, also, both these legions were employed in building this wall ;t 
therefore, his reading would reduce this stone to the condition of an 
equivocal monument ; and if so, it is, so far as I know, at least, the only 
equivocal monument in our island. There are some unintelligible from 
the nature of the subject which they commemorate ; others from the 
defacings of time ; but none perfect, I believe, of ambiguous import. 
Besides, it appears, that in regard to the amount of the military force of 
the Romans in Britain, the author of the Britannia Romana was not 
very well informed ; and, therefore, to remove so much of the objection 
as depends on his limitation of the number of legions, I shall have 
recourse to the exposition of Mr. Whitaker, who places this particular 
in a very luminous point of view. " It is supposed,'^ he observes, "by 
Mr. Horsley, that the Roman garrisons in Britain during the second, 
third, and fourth centuries, amounted to only three legions, the 6th 
Victorious, SOth Valerian, and Snd Augustan, and their auxiliaries.—^ 
And with this supposition the History of Dio, Ptolemy's Geography j 
and Antonine's Itinerary seem all to concur; as they all mention 
these to be resident in the island. This number, as appears from the 
complement of a single legion during the very same ages, which was 6100 
foot, and 7^6 horse ; and from the stated proportion of the auxiliary to 
the legionary troops, which was equal in the infantry and double in the 
cavalry, must have contained about 36,000 foot, and 6500 horse. Such 
would be the greatest amount of them, even if every corps had its just 
complement of men. And we can have little doubt but among a nation 
which was so numerous, and in a country only in part subdued, the 
legions and their auxiliaries were constantly supplied with fresh recruits, 
and maintained in their full force. But, even this considered, three are 

* Bfitanma Romana^ page 86. f Ibidem^ p. 77* 

St. Margarefs Cfturchf York. 55 

insufficient for the purpose of garrisoning the island. And the long list, 
which the two Itineraries give us of the stations in Britain, shows them to 
be so. That presents us with 140 or 150 fortresses, even after the Ro- 
mans had retired to the wall of Antoninus, and abandoned the stations 
that extended from the friths to Inverness. Those were all of them 
designed to be, and were actually, garrisoned by the Romans ; as other- 
wise they would not have been constructed at first, nor recited in the 
Itineraries afterwards. And I have shown each of them to have been 
attended with various castellets, which would require garrisons nearly 
equal to the complement of the principal station. But it would be evi- 
dently ridiculous to distribute a body of 43,000 men into 140 principal 
forts ; as such a scheme would allot only about 307 for ^ station and its 
'subordinate chesters. The garrison of every station in the Itinerary, 
with its appendages, except five or six that were merely constructed ad 
Fines, could not have been less than 400 effective men. A greater 
number would have been requisite for most, and a smaller could not 
be sufficient for any. And even in this disposition, the total amount of 
troops requisite for 140 garrisons would be 56,000 men. This is appa- 
rently the smallest number that we can suppose resided in the kingdom. 
But a much greater* was resident in it ; as, during the dispersion of the 
rest, some more considerable bodies would be kept together, the more 
effectually to overawe the conquered Britons within the walls, and the 
unconquered withoirt And such actually appear together ; one large 
corps being quartered at York, another at Chester, and a third at Caer- 
leori, in Monmouthshire. This being the case, there were necessarily 
more than three legions in the island. The positive testimony of Jose- 
phus assures us, that there were four during the reign of Vespasian. 
And the accounts of Richard, and the discovered inscriptions of the 
Romans, prove that there were more afterwards. Several bricks have 
been discovered at Caer-Rhun, on the ancient Conovium, in Wales, which 
clearly exhibited .the name of the 10th legion. And the fact is very 
particularly authenticated, having the united attestation of the Rev. Mr. 
Brickdale, and Dr. Gale, each (as far as appears) unknown to the other, 
and both concurring in the same testimony. Hence the 10th legion 

56 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

appears to have been quartered among the Ordovices, and at the station 
of Conovium. And it remained there a long time ; because the name 
of a neighbouring hill, Mynyah Caer-Lheion, or the mountain of the city 
of the legion, shows the town to have obtained the same name among 
the neighbouring Britons that Deva, the seat of the 6th legion for three 
centuries, acquired on one side, and Isca Silurum, the residence of the 
2d for as long a period, still retains on the other. To this we may add 
the 7th or Claudian, which was settled at Gloucester in the reign of 
Claudius, and from the length of whose residence the town was deno- 
minated* Legio Claudia. Thus have we found five legions resident for 
a long time in Britain, two additional to the number supposed by Mr. 
Horsley, and seemingly fixed by Ptolemy, Dio, and Antoninus. But 
the legionary lists in these authors are very defective. That of Dio, 
which is the fullest, mentions only thirty-one in the whole ; that of An- 
toninus only twenty-six ; and Ptolemy's only seventeen. And as the 
two last of them appear particularly defective upon a collation merely 
with the first, so is this expressly declared to be the list of such legions 
only as consisted of Roman citizens. The many that were composed of 
volunteers from the subject nations, and which were very distinct from 
the bodies of auxiliaries supplied by the national authority of each, as 
the 5th of the Gauls, the 10th of the Batavians, and the twelve others 
that are recited in the following catalogue."— ^See vol. i. p. 261.) — 
** All of these are prc^essedly omitted by Dio. The authentic records 
of inscriptions demonstrate the number of both to have been fifty or 
sixty at least And the suggestions of common sense, still more authen- 
tic than they, evince the necessity of as many (Independently of the na- 
tional auxiliaries) to secure the extended dominions c^ the Roman em«- 
pire. The express number of the legions appears indeed, from Dio, to 
have been only twenty-three or twenty-five from the reign of Augustus 
to that of Alexander Severus ; and firom inscriptions, I think, never to 
have exceeded thirty-six afterwards. And this has been generally sup- 
posed by our antiquaries, to be absolutely the whole of the Roman 
legions. But as several of these were bodies of foreign volunteers, so 
each of the others, except, perhaps, the 8th, 11th, 14tht and SOth had 

St Margarets Cht&ch^ York. 57 


several extraordinary brigades of citizens or foreigners belonging to 
them ; every one of which had equally the complement and denomina- 
tion of a legion, and were distinguished from each other and the original 
brigade by some additional title. And this was sometimes derived from 
the name of the emperor under whom they had been originally raised^ 
or by whom they had been particularly favoured, but was generally 
assumed from the kingdoms of their first or longest residence. Hence 
in Dio's catalogue of purely Roman legions, we find so many of them 
distinguished by the denominations of Gallic, Cyrenean, Scythian, 
Egyptian, Macedonian, &c. And the 10th Twin legion, being long 
stationed in Germany, and the Sd Augustan, being longer settled in 
Britain, appear under the particular denomination of the 10th Germanic, 
and the 2nd Britannic legions, in Ptolemy and the Notitia* But the 
original and additional battalions can seldom 'be distinguished from each 
other by their names. And yet they may by the catalogue of Dio, 
Thus the 7th legion had the several brigades which were called the 7th 
Claudian, and the 7th Galban legions, both consisting of Romans, and, 
therefore, specified by Dio ; and the 7th Twin, 7th Twin Claudian, 
and 7th Twin Antonian, all three composed of foreigners, and therefore 
omitted by him. And the 10th had the 10th Fretan, and 10th Twin, 
two enumerated battalions of Romans ; and the 10th Antonian Augus- 
tan, and the 10th Batavian, two unnoticed ones of foreigners. The 
10th legion is mentioned by Dio, and placed by him in Judes^ ; and Jo- 
sephus had previously fixed it at Jerusalem. And the brigade intended 
by both appears, from the Notitia, to have been equally denominated the 
10th Fretan. It was settled in Judea by Titus ; and there it continued 
to the period of the Notitia. But the legion which was stationed in 
Wales, and which appears, from the above mentioned inscription, to 
have been certainly a battalion of the 10th, appears pretty clearly, from 
a coin which was discovered in that country, and inscribed with the 
following name, to have been the 10th Antonian Augustan. 

** And many of the legionary brigades were denominated Gemellas, 
or Twins; because they were compounded of two, and had a dou- 
ble complement of men. Such was one of the 10th, of the 13th, and 

VOL. \}. I 

58 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

14th. And such, as appears above, were three of the five in the 7th. 
One of these, the Twin Claudian legion, was that which was stationed 
at Gloucester. The troqps, then, which the Romans maintained in the 
island, were five legions, one of them being double, and all having their 
attendant auxiliaries ; or about 73,000 foot, and 13,000 horse. And 
the head-quarters of another, the 20th, were in all probability fixed at 
Chester, by order of Agricola, at the termination of his war, as it cer- 
tainly resided there within seventy years afterwards. 

" We have also the positive authority of Malmsbury, perhaps the vehicle 
of tradition, but probably the copier of history, that one or more of the 
Julian legions, those commanded by Julius Agricola, were actually 
settled at Chester; and the better and more express attestation of 
Richard, that Chester was constructed by the soldiers of the 20th.*** 

This statement is clear and precise, and consistent with the nature 
and extent of the Roman government in Britain, and a strong contrast 
to the superficial manner in which this important question has been dis- 
posed of by the author of the Britannia Romana. It is true, we gather 
from it no direct proof of the 5th legion's being in Britain, but it con- 
tains the certainty that the military establishment of Britain comprised 
two more than this author chooses to allow, and the probability that in 
the course of three centuries others may have belonged to it, whose 
records may still be undiscovered, or have perished in the lapse of time. 

But, besides the latitude in regard to the amount of the forces in 
Britain, we know from history that sudden emergencies often produced 
a rapid and indiscriminate shifting of the legions, a memorable instance 
of which happened in that eventful period which succeeded the death of 
Nero. In the civil war between Vitellius and Vespasian, the former 
was reinforced with the flower of the British army, and he had sent also 
into Spain and Gaul for succours. The 5th and 15th legions, which were 
disposed in the wings of the army, were supported by the vexillaries of 
three British legions, apparently of the 9th, 2nd, and 20th, which formed 
the centre, as their numbers correspond to three of the four brought 
over by Claudius. Pannonia and Massia were drained of their contingent 

* History of the AniiquUiet rf Manchester^ voL i. ch. 6, sec. 4. 

SL Mar gore fsCkurchj York* 59 

of troopS) and Mucianus was hastening from the East to the same scene 
of action. This political tempest agitated the whole empire, and so 
disturbed what may be considered the quarter-master-general's arrange- 
ments, at least, for the western provinces, as to render it impossible for 
historians to have taken distinct notice of the particular changes which 
then occurred.* Other succeeding commotions, no doubt, were, to a 
certain extent, followed by similar results, so that it appears bold to 
presume, that no part of a legion, which was indisputably quartered in 
the neighbouring provinces of Germany, ever served in Britain, espe- 
cially since we know, that it was not uncommon for the legions to have 
detachments in different provinces; for example, the 10th had three; 
the 12th, five ; and the 22d, six cohorts, in Gaul and Germany.t 

The following discovery, however, in conjunction with the ^bove 
reasons, I conceive to be completely decisive of this question. About 
the year 179S, a Roman urn was discovered, in a barrow, 196 feet in 
circumference, near Hopton, in Derbyshire. On the stone which 
covered this urn was inscribed, ^^GeUius Prcefectiis Cohortis Tertue 
Legiottis Quintce Britannicce^^X 

This shows that this legion was not only in Britain, but distinguished, 
as a British legion, by the title Britannica. 

It ought not, at the same time, to be forgotten, that the legions did 
occasionally carve the insignia of their standards on the works which 
they erected. In Mr. Carter's Ancient Architecture qf England^ part 
first, plate fourth, is exhibited a representation of the standard of the 
2d Augustan legion, consisting of a pegassus and sea-goat, which were 
taken out of the Roman wall, near Newcastle. And number 3, in 
the plate prefixed to Stukeley's Description qf a Roman Temple^ is 
another representation of the same^ standard, found in Scotiand. It is 

* This is eminently exemplified, in M. Crevier's Hutory of ike Ronum J^mperart^ who, in 
the same events, upon other authorities, states, that there was only one legion drawn fixim Britain 
upon this occasion ; and that the 6th and Ifith, had, at the same time, been removed from MaesiBand 
Ptemonia to assist at the siege of Jerusalem. 

f Hittory of the AntiquUiei of Mancketter, vol. 8, sec Ist^ 

X ArcktsolcgiOf YoL xiL pbte 0d« 

60 Inquiry into the Age qfthe Porch qf 

not likely, that a national custom would be exemplified in the practice 
of one legion only. 

To those, who, notwithstanding what has been said, may still be dis- 
posed to imagine, that the image of the elephant, on one of the stones, 
at Glamis, has some connection with the order of the elephant, of Den- 
mark, I would beg leave to observe, that in 1464 Christian I. esta- 
blished a monastic society with the badge of an elephant, which appears 
to have suggested to Frederick II. the idea of founding such an order 
of knighthood, which he gave away for the first time, in 1580. As the 
earliest of these dates is subsequent to the latest invasion or descent of 
the Danes on Scotland, it destroys the last presumption in favour of 
the Danish origin of this emblem.t 

But it must be confessed, that a difficulty, apparently a formidable 
one, still opposes itself to the conclusion, that these obelisks are Roman. 
I allude to the seemingly anomalous conjunction of christian and pagan 
symbols, presented by the appearance of the cross on these monuments. 
In explanation, it will be necessary to advert, iii the first place, to the 
authentic aera of the introduction of Christianity into this country. . 

Some rest satisfied, that this most important blessing flowed imme- 
diately from the compassion or policy of Gregory the Great,* who, in 
the year 596, appointed the monk Augustine, with Paulinus and Mel- 
litus, as his principal associates, to this charitable mission. But, we are 
assured, that the first consequence of their arrival was, a dispute with 
the members of the British church, respecting the prerogative of the 
bishop of Rome. This sagacious and wily pontifi* perceived the grow- 
ing importance of Britain, and was unwilling to delay the opportunity 
of establishing within it his temporal authority, by proclaiming and 
arguing his divine right of supremacy over the christian world. At all 
times the first step in this scheme of ambition was, to efiect tHe recog- 
nition of the supreme authority of the see of Rome in ecclesiastical 
government. But, startled at this new and presumptuous doctrine, the 

* Mr. Ledwich, in his ** Antiquitiet qflreland^'* p. 78, say8> that bishop LawreDce, in Bede, meodonSy 
that he and Austin were sent by Gr^ory, as if the gospel had never been heard before in Britain. 
f The standard of Hunguar and Hubba was a raven. 

St. Margarefs Churchy York. 61 

British prelates deputed to confer with the monks, warmly remon- 
strated, and opposed with firmness, such arrogant pretensions. Failing 
in argument, the archmissionary paid court to the Saxon king, Ethel- 
bert, who accepted baptism and became a pious catholic, walking daily 
arm in arm with his spouse Bertha, to the church of Su Martin, to 
listen to the sermons of St. Augustine on the tenets of the Roman 
church. The Britons, obnoxious on more accounts than one, were 
gradually put to the sword, until their civil and religious liberty was 
finally extinguished.* 

It is evident, then, that these were not the first christians who came 
to Britain, and that Augustine was the apostie, not of the British but 
of the Saxon nation, whose conversion may very properly be dated from 
this event. 

In a former part of this paper, it was stated, upon authority, that this 
island was partitioned into dioceses so early as the year 314, or eight 
years after the accession of Constantine the Great, when Christianity 
was established by law throughout the Roman empire. Its introduc- 
tion into Britain must, therefore, date higher than this period. 

Bede says (Hist. Eccles. lib. i. ch. 4. J, that the British king, Lucius, 
was baptized about a. d. 164. 

Usher agrees to this, while others reject this passage of the Saxon 
historian as spurious, upon the flimsy prete;xt, that the history of the 
church in times immediately succeeding, is very obscure. 

In escaping from this hard passage, Rapin, in his History of Eng- 
landyi remarks, that from the supposed conversion of Lucius, to the 
IKoclesian persecution, or, during eighty years, the ecclesiastical history 
of Britain is entirely unknown, although, in that persecution, it furnished 
many martyrs. Mr. Bentham also, in the introduction to his History 

* Bede, lib. ii. ch. 2, reports, that Aug;u8tiDe threatened the British clergy with extermination, by 
the Saxon sword, for their resolution of non-conformitj. Mr. Ledwich dtes, in the above mentioned 
work, p. 94, authorities for the fiict, that Ethelbert, at the instigation of the same monk, put to dotth 
the seven bishops who first resisted his claims. And Bpotswopd, in his HitUny of the Church of 
Scotland^ fol. p. 12. ascribes to his religious enmity the slaughtCT of the twelve hundred monks of 

t BookL 

6iS Inquiry into the Age of the Torch of 

of Ely Cathedralj* observes, as it were by the way, that " little is found 
in history concerning the state of the British church, in the times im-* 
mediately succeeding, possibly the records of those times might be de- 
stroyed in the Dioclesian persecution; for nothing material occurs 
concerning the christians in Britain, till the beginning of the fourth 
century, the last year of that emperor's reign, when we find they had 
their share in it" Their share seems to have been considerable, since 
a thousand suffered mart3rrdom, in Litchfield alone. So much, says 
Speed,t did this town then suffer, that it still bears for its arms, a field, 
charged with many mart3rrs. 

From this sad account, we learn, that Christianity had made con- 
siderable progress, in Britain, before the time of Constantine the Great, 
as this persecution commenced ten years before Dioclesian resigned. 
For the growth and extension of Christianity, in this daik period, we 
perceive an adequate cause in the long peace of a hundred years enjoyed 
by the church, from the persecution of Domitian, in the year 9S, to the 
edict of Severus, in the year S04t ; neither Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus 
Pius, Verus, nor M. Aurelius, having publicly noticed the christians, 
or made their religion a matter either of conscience or state policy. In 
many places, it is true, they sometimes suffered during this period, from 
civil commotions, the violence of provincial governors, and even from 
their own imprudence ; but, throughout, there was no edict for perse^- 
cution, and, upon the whole, it was a period of comparative rest to the 
church, in which much seed was brought to maturity. 

From this we are better prepared to receive the testimony of Fordun 
(ScoHchrony lib. iii.^ and of Hector Boethius (lib. vi. p. 89),t who report 
the introduction of Christianity into Scotland in the reign of Severus, 
upon an application of King Donald to Pope Victor, for missionaries to 
preach the gospel to his subjects ; nor, against such authority, do I think 
it reasonable to treat this particular of Scottish history as a fable, merely 
because Bede, St. Jerome, and Marianus Scotus are silent On the subject, 
unless their testimony be essentially necessary to the whole hibtory of 

* Page 3. f Pfe^ 255. 

t Quoted by Stilliiigfleet, Ongmei ^nteimscff , ch. ii. p. 52. 

St Margarefs Churchy York. QS 

the Scottish church anterior to the times in which they respectively flour- 
ished. MarianuSy however, happens to mention the mission of Palladius, 
the first bishop of Scotland, who, according to the Ulster Annals^ arrived 
there in the year 4iSl, or two centuries after the reign of Donald ; there- 
fore Cardinal Baronius* chose, for the honour of his church no doubt, 
to laugh at Fordun and Boethius, and pronounce Palladius the first who 
promulgated Christianity in North Britain. Unfortunately, however, 
for this dignitary and his followers, it is an indisputable fact, that many 
christians retired from England, during the Dioclesian persecution, into 
Scotland, where they would not fail to make known the faith they so 
highly valued, and where, it is certain, they did establish a system of 
church government similar to that which prevailed in South Britain, ^n 
ample detail of which may be seen in the history of the Culdees, mem- 
bers of the primitive church of Scotland. 

Since, then, there is no positive proof to oppose to the statement of 
Fordun and Boethius, their declaration must hold good against a nega- 
tive argument, more especially as they are authors of respectability, 
particularly the latter, who was principal of the college of Aberdeen in* 
the reign of James V., and of whose learning and integrity both Bu- 
chanan and Erasmus speak in the highest terms, notwithstanding the 
aspersions of some English writers. The fair inference, therefore, from 
the fact related by the above historians, and which they profess to have 
collected from ancient annals, is, that if Donald solicited assistance from 
the bishop of Rome for the propagation of Christianity in his dominions 
in the beginning of the third century, he must previously have heard of 
it, have listened to its preachers, and been convinced of the truth of its 
doctrine, and, therefore, that it must have reached Scotland in the ^d 
century, and if so, that it was originally introduced by the Roman sol- 
diers, who were the only foreigners known to the Scots for the first five 
centuries after the christian aera. 

This, however, implies a very early planting of Christianity in South 
Britain, from whence the Roman garrisons in Scotland were always 
furnished with troops. 

* See Spotswood*s Church Hittory of Scotland, 

64 Inqtdry into the Age of the Porch qf 

That it was known here in, or near, the times of the apostles, Usher« 
Stowe, Speed, and Stillingfleet have shown from several authorities.-*-* 
The latter, in particular, quotes Eusebius and Theodoretto this effect,* 
and states, upon the authority of Gildas, the father of British history, 
who flourished nearly two centuries before the Saxon historian, Bede, 
that this event happened after the triumph of Claudius Caesjir over the 
Britons, and before the middle of Nero's reign, u e. between a.v» 44 and 
61, during which Britain was reduced to a Roman province, and a com* 
munication opened between the two countries. Now, as Gildas acknow- 
ledges that, from the scarcity of domestic monuments, he was compelled 
to have recourse to foreign writers for information on this subject, the 
fact of this early introduction rests, fortunately, upon the testimony of 
unprejudiced and impartial men, and therefore the more entitled to credit 
Rejecting then, the legendary tales of the preaching of Joseph of Arima- 
thea, of Simon Zelotes, and of St. Paul, in Britain, yet whence arises this 
unanimity of opinion among the ancient historians of England and 
Scotland, and some of the ancient fathers of the church, as to the gene- 
ral fact, unless from a concurrence of more remote history and tradi- 
tion i a basis perhaps as solid as any upon which we build our belief of 
the general subjects of ancient history. It would thus seem that the 
introduction of Christianity into Britain is to be referred to Roman emi- 
grants who fled from the persecution of Nero, and its prevalence during 
the first centuries, to its adoption and propagation by the Roman colo- 
nists and soldiers, throughout the whole line of their conquests north- 
ward in the island. Some have wasted much time in attempting to de- 
termine the year and the individual who first conveyed it hither ; but it 
is hopeless to glean such particulars from the scanty records which have 
survived the several persecutions of ancient British literature. The 
edict of Dioclesian was as hostile to the works as to the religion of the 
Christians, and many records of those early times were buried in the 
ruins of the British churches j Ethelfrid burnt the library of the mo- 
nastery of Bangor in which there must have been some interesting 
memorials of the transactions of the ancient Britons ; and Edward I. 

* Origmei BrUanmc€B, ch. i. p. 36:-7. 

St MargarefsCkarchj York. 65 

destroyed the monuments of the Scottish nation.* From the time of 
Bede to the conquest, a space of three hundred and thirty years, there 
was not an historian in the kingdom ; and much of what had been 
gathered by the cleigy in the middle ages, perished at the dissolution 
of religious houses in the sixteenth century, so that it is now Vain to 
hope to obtain a knowledge of the precise time or mode of its introduc- 
tion. What of this sort has been raked up and exhibited by some 
modem authors has been disproved as monkish fables unworthy (fatten* 
tion or remark, and the unimportance of the: questiKm itself is likely to 
skreen it from further discussion, at least in the present day. Assuming, 
therefore, in the mean time, the reign of Nero as the sera of the intro- 
duction of Christianity into Britain, we shall have, from thence to the 
reign of Antoninus Pius, a space of eighty-eight years, in which it was 
making progress among all classes of Roman subjects, and, therefore, a 
high degree of probability that it obtained in the army of Lollius Urbicus, 
his lieutenant. Thenceforward it seems to have spread, with more of 
less interruption among both the Romanized Britons and natives, until, 

* Spotswood thus enumerates the more prominent consequences of the invasion of the English 
monarch: — ^He carried the prindpal nolrility captive; abolished the ancient laws; imposed the 
English ecclesiastical rites; destroyed the ancient monuments, both Roman and native; burned the 
public registers, and the fieunous library of Restennoth ; and carried off the marble chair, the palladium 
of the national independence."— lR«^ory (^the Church of Scotland^ p, 50. From the perverse zeal of 
the Romish clei^gy, too, before the establishment of the Saxon schools, it appears that the eariy history 
of Britain sufiered as severe a loss as firom the barbarous fiiry of heathen and christian tyrants. On 
this subject I quote the following passage from Ledwich's AntiguUies of Ireland^ page 353: — 

^ * Fh>m the time of St. Augustine,' says Rous, (Hut, Re^. Ang. p. 68, 7^—3^, * the Bishops of 
Rome interdicted schools and teaching in England, on account of the heresies constantly springing up 
there, and this continued to the time of Alfred.' Gregory I. discouraged profane the more to advance 
sacred learning, and with this intent burnt the P&latine libruy and worics of Livy. Gregory followed 
Amobius, whose work against gentile superstition clearly inculcated the corruption of Christianity by 
heathen writers. The learned Bruker, in his Critical Hutory of Philosophy, Bgeinst Bayle and Barbay- 
rac, shows Gregory's conduct to be highly probable, if not certun. These &cts are recorded by 
zealous Romanists. Hence the liberal and ingenious were necessarily driven to Ireland to acquire the 
rudiments of knowledge, as papal injunctions had no force there. • And hence the superiority of die 
British and Irish clergy in all their disputes with their antagonists about baptism, Easter, &c, ; a supe- 
riority which so severely galled the Romish party that Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, even against 
the spirit of .his religion and the order of Ins superiors, was forced to set up schools and promote the 
«tudy of letters." 

VOL.11. ^ 

66 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch qf 

under Constantine, it became the established religion of the country.— - 
Thus, it appears, that the figure of the cross cannot be considered an 
objection to the Roman origin of these obelisks, if the objection be 
grounded solely on the supposition that the Roman soldiers were exclu- 
sively heathens \vhen the Roman armies were in Scotland.* 

But, further, this apparent incongruity is explained by the practice of 
some of the earliest professors of Christianity, especially those known 
under the generic term of Gnostics, a class of heretics, who profanely 
mixed the doctrines of the gospel with the tenets of the oriental philo- 
sophy and religion. This pseudo-christianity was conspicuous in the 
schools of Alexandria and Greece, where the true religion seems, iox 
the most part, to have been received from motives which would have 
admitted, with equal readiness, any new pagan superstition, and where 
its pure doctrines were submitted to the test of philosophical cenceits ; 
the leaders of this sect being theoretical, not practical, christians, adopt- 
ing many of the rites and doctrines of Christianity without suri'endering 
those of the heathen worship. The Gnostics arose mostly in the second 
contury ; their success was rapid and extensive ; they covered Asia and 
Egypt, established themselves in Rome, and spread over France and 
Spain. At this period they were the most wealthy and distinguished of 
the christian name ; but, after an existence of about two centuries, they 
were suppressed by the superior ascendant of the reigning power.t 

They sprung from the sect of the new Platonists, who, neglecting the 
whole compass of moral, natural, and mathematical science, attempted 
to explain the secrets of the invisible world, imagined that they pos- 
sessed the power of disengaging the soul from the body, claimed a far 
miliar intercourse with spirits and daemons ; and, by a very singular 
revolution, converted the study of philosophy into that of magict 
Among the Gnostics, the Basilidians are stigmatized by the early fathers 
as pre-eminent for the blasphemous worship of Christ and idols,, and 

* Tertullian assures us, that in the time of Septinius Severus the christians ** filled the armies^ 
senate, and cities of the empire." Many of Alexander Sevorus' household officerv, too, professed the 
true faith ; and in the time of Maximian> the Theban \egion was entirely composed of christians. — 
From the death of Antoninus to the accession of Sep. Severus, there was a space of only 33 years^ 

f Gibbon, vol. ii. p. 286. X Oibbon,, voU ii. p. 165, 

St. Margaret* s Churchj Ywk. 67 

some of their talismans are curiously illustrative of the justness of the 
charge. On some old seals, Harpocrates and Serapis are represented 
on one side, with the invocation^ Conservate me^ on the reverse. Others 
have a lion's head, near which are the %ures of the sun and moon, 
and several birds, who were supposed to be the angels who presided over 
these luminaries and the planets. The same deity is seen, also, seated 
on an ass, with the title, strong and invincible^ which they applied to 
Jehova. Upon this subject, Montfaucon speaks plainly.* " It is cer- 
tain,'' he observes, '* that the pseudo-christians worshipped the sun, 
under the two names of Abraxas and Mithras, and that they believed 
Jesus to be the same with the physical sun. The letters, composing 
the word. Abraxas, according to the supputation of the Greeks, make 
the number 365. They are placed as follows, abraxas^, and reckon 
severally, 1, 2, 100, 1, 60, 1, SOO. The word, mithras, contains only 
360, but if read, meithras, 365." To the same purpose he also quotes 
Hadrian's letter to Servianus the consul, in which is this remarkable 
expression, — ** The worshippers of Serapis are christians, and some of 
the sectaries of that deity, call themselves bishops of Jesus Christ" 
Bat the simultaneous worship of Christ and idols, and the practice of 
magical rites, were not confined to the polite philosophers of the east, they 
were alike common to all barbarian converts. Procopiust complains, 
that the Franks, after their conversion, continued to observe many rites 
of their former superstition. Bedet mentions, that some of the Saxons 
had, after the manner of tl\e Samaiitans of old, in the same temple, an 
altar dedicated to Christ, and another to idols. From Buchanan, we 
learn, that the same was the case in Scotland ; and from St. Audeon's 
Life qfSt Eloif bishop of Noyon,§ we become acquainted with the fact, 
that, even so late as the seventh' century, the ancient heathen deities 
were commonly worshipped in France. * 

Among some, even of the Jewish proselytes, there prevailed, in the 
first century, a community of worship. The first fifteen bishops of 
Jerusalem were aU circumcised jews ; and the congregation over which 

# Humphrey's Translatioii, vol. ii. part u. f GoOnc. ISb. ii. cfa. ^. 

X BUL Ecde$. lib. n. ch 16. \ CStedby Mr. Ledwich, AiUiq. oflretand. 

68 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch qf 

they presided, united the law of Moses with the doctrine of Christ. 
Are we to wonder^ then, that the Roman soldiers, who were every day 
witnesses^ of- such a practice, not among the rude and unlettered pro- 
vincials only, but even in the very centre of philosophical refinement 
and of Christianity, in the Syrian cities of Damascus, Berea, and An- 
tioch, and in those of Asia, mentioned by St John as the primitive 
seats of the faith, should follow an example, unfortunately, so general 
and so highly recommended ? That they did so, there is positive evi- 
dence in the instance of Alexander SeVerus, who placed in his domestic 
chapel, the statues of Abraham, of Orpheus, of ApoUonius, and of 
Christ.* Thus, the union of these symbols, though awfully incompa- 
tible, was yet conformable to the practice of many of the first professors 
of Christianity, a practice which arose from their impiously considering 
divine revelation as a species of natural religion, and thence inferring a 
connection between the author of our holy faith and the gross object 
of their base idolatry. 

In the second place, this anomaly is explained by some upon the 
supposition, that the figure of the cross was added afterwards, in times 
posterior to the universal acceptance by the Scottish nation of the chris- 
tian faith. In those days there was no covered temple, and the con* 
verts assembled statedly at such places as possessed some remarkable 
object well known to the inhabitants of certain districts c^ the country ; 
for, as yet, it was not divided into parishes or dioceses, Malcolm IIL 
being the first who set limits to the jurisdiction of the bishops, who, 
together with the inferior clergy, were hitherto itinerant preachers. 
The remarkable objects, which fixed the place of congregation, were, 
the circle of stones, old fort, tower, or obelisk, whosd purity was re- 
newed, and whose future sanctity was confirmed by consecration with 
the sign or badge of the new faith. 

Thus, in no point of view is there to be discovered a solid objection 
to the Roman origin of these curious and singular remains. 

Having thus mentioned some of the principal Mithratic monuments, 
which have been found in our island, I have next to show the 

* Gibbon, vol. iu p. 450. 

Sf. Margarefs Church York. 69 

correspondence between the places where they were discovered and the 
stations of the sixth legion in its progress through Britain, ^om the east, 
until its final settlement at York. 

From a passage in Tacitus,* part of which was given above, it appears, 
that this legion was in Syria, in the reign of Nero. How long before 
it may not be material to enquire. The consecutive part of the passage 
is to the foUowing. efiect : — '* Commotions, about the same time, broke 
out in Dacia ; and, since the legions were withdrawn from Moesia, there 
remained no force to hold the people in subjection. They had the 
policy, however, to watch, in silence, the first movements of civil dis- 
cord among the Romans. Seeing, at length, that Italy was in a blaze, 
they seized their opportunity, and stormed the winter quarters of the 
cohorts and cavalry. Having made themselves masters of both banks 
of the Danube, they were preparing to raze to the ground the camp of 
the legions, when Mucianus, apprised of the victory at Cremona, sent 
the sia^th legion to check the invasions of the enemy. The good fortune, 
that ha-d often favoured the Roman arms, brought Mucianus, with the 
forces of the east, to quell the insurrection,'' &c. 

As the sixth legion was despatched on the spur of the moment, md 
before other forces could be collected, it would seem to have been at 
head-quartjers or in the immediate neighbourhood, in Syria, where the 
third had learnt the worship of the sun, and not farther to the eastward, 
or in Judea under Titus, to whom his father Vespasian had just com- 
mitted the conduct of tije siege of Jerusalem. Upon the termination 
of the civil war between Yitellius and Vespasian, the legions, who had 
fought at Cremona, were dispersed by Mucianus into several provinces, 
and it seems he was in the more haste to do this, from the attachment 
of several to. Antonius Primus and Varus, his rivals in the emperor's 
favour. Accordingly, the seventh was sent into winter quarters, in 
Italy ; the third was sent back to Syria ; and the rebellion of Civilis 
(a German), who was at that time endeavouring to erect the provinces 
of Gaul and Germany into an independent kingdom, was made a pretext 
for marching the sLrth, and eighth, into Germany. We hear no more 

* SiiL lib. iii. sec. 16. 

70 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch of 

of the sixth legion until its arrival in Britain, under the command of 
Hadrian, about the year 121. Their first service in this country ap- 
pears to have been in Scotland and the north of England, particularly 
in the erection of the ¥^alls and other works. 

** The legions," says Horsley, " which continued long in Britain, were 
jointly employed in carrying on the works in this island, they jointly 
buUt the wall in Scotland, and those in the north of England. The 
legions and legionary cohorts seem to have been the only soldiers, who 
were employed usually in erecting forts and fences, and among all the 
inscriptions found upon the Roman wall in Scotland, there is but one, 
at most, that mentions any auxiliary cohort as having a hand in the work. 
Several inscriptions, in Northumberland and Cumberland, show the 
sixth legion to have been at StanwickSy Cambeck-Fort, Burdoswald^ 
Little ChesterSy and House-Steads. In tlie former part of Antoninus' 
reign they were in Scotland, and had their share in building the waU there. 
After their return from Scotland, and about the middle of Antoninus* 
reign, they were settled at York j for Ptolemy places them there, where, 
it would seem, they continued to the last, as its head-quarters, from 
whence some cohorts were occasionally sent out.''* Gordon presents 
us with additional testimony to the fact of their having worked upon 
the wall of Antoninus in the following inscription, which was dug out 
of this wall, and presented to the University of Glasgow in the year 

** Imperatori CcBsari Tito MUo Hadriano Antonino Augusto^ Patri Patriae 

Veaillatio SexUe Victricis perfedt Opus Valli per Passus 

Quatuor MiUe Centum Qjuadraginta UnumJ* 


The same author informs us, that there are many inscriptions to Ha- 
drian in the north of Scotland, and that some stones with inscriptions 
have been found, showing that the sia:th legion lay near Craw-Hill Town^ 
upon this wall. > 

In Stukeley's account of a Roman temple, mentioned above, there 
are two inscriptions, which show, that this legion made, at one time, 

• Britannia Romana, p. 77—79- + IHnerar. SeptetUrionale^ p. 02. 

St. Margarefs Churchy York. 71 

four miles, a hundred and forty-one paces, of this wall ; at another, 
three miles, six huildred and sixty-six paces, additional. It is proper to 
observe also, that it was in the line of this wall that the Roman temple, 
mentioned and described by this author, and commonly called Arthur's 
Oven, stood, which, from the description, appears to have resembled so 
closely the old circular temple of Vesta, mentioned by Plutarch in his life 
of Numa, and the ancient round temple of the sun in Thrace, noticed by 
Macrobius (^SaturUj i. 18), in the centre of whose dome there was an 
aperture to admit the light, that there seems scarcely room to doubt of 
its having been a chapel dedicated to the worship of the same divinity. 
We have the authority of Mr. Horsley, also, for the fact, that this legion 
worked likewise upon the wall of Severus.* 

Upon the whole of these facts I have to observe, in the first place, 
that the progress of the sixth legion has been distinctly traced from 
Syria, northward, through Spain and Germany to Britain ; and in Britain, 
through the several stations in which the above mentioned Mithratic 
monuments were found ; first, to the wall of Antoninus, where Arthur's 
Oven stood, and where Gordon found the phallic symbol ; then, along 
the wall of Severus which crosses Northumberland and Cumberland, 
where the several monuments described in the Archaeologia AeUaruiy and 
the altars dedicated to the god Belatucadro were discovered; and, 
lastly, to York, where the Taurine Tablet was dug up, and where also 
stood a temple of Bellona,t a personification of the sun, according to 


* Brkamma Rmnanm^ p. 7^> 

f BeUona is the Latin appellation for Enyo of the G^redcs, the sister or wife of Mars. Hence she 
was esteemed by the Romans, originally, as the goddess of war. It i4)pears they had adopted her 
rery early, while they yet retained the worship of the ancient divinities of the country, for, in the 
speech of Decius Mus, when he deroted himself to the gods for the safety of his country, during a 
battle with the Latins in the year 337 B.C., she is called upon by name, together with Janus, Jupiter, 
Mars, Qoirinus, the Lares, and the gods NovemUeM and iTidigites (Livy, viii. 9.). The same author 
mentions an appeal to her as Bellona the Vietorious, in a battle fought about the year ^6 B. G. (lib. 
X. 19.). During the commonwealth, while the simplicity of ancient worship continued, it seems she 
was known and adored as the arbitress of batties only, since we find the worship of Cybele, who is 
the same divinity, introduced from Pessinus in Phryg^a, by order of the Sibylline books, 120 years after 
the earliest of the above dates. 

That Cybele and Bellona are the same deity, and types of the sun, might be easily proved from a 
comparison of their rites, symbols, and character of their priests, but the trouble and space which this 

72 Inquiry into Ike Age of the Porch of 

Mr. Bryant, who derives the name from Bel and On^ two eastern terms 
for this luminary. Considering the distance of time, this must be esteem- 
ed a very extraordinary agreement between history and monumental 

Secondly, from Gordon's information that many stones, with inscrip- 
tions to Hadrian, were found in the north of Scotland, it would seem, 
(as this emperor was especially commemorated in Britain by the sixth 
legion,) that this legion was in Vespasiana, probably occupjdng, in part, 
the chain of stations mentioned by Whitaker as extending from the 
Friths to Inverness ; certainly, in the army of LoUilis Urbicus, during 
his war with the Caledonians, and, therefore, in all probability, had a 
share in raising the obelisks found in that province. 

Thirdly, as we find that this legion assisted in building the stone wall 
of Severus, in the beginning of the 3rd century, we must allow that it 
composed part of the army which this emperor conducted against the 
Scots and Picts ; and as his campaigns in the north occupied the three 
or four last years of his life, it foUows that it was not permanently settled 

would occupy, are saved by the following passage from the Metamorphoses of Apuldus, where the 
moon is introduced as addressing the metamorphosed author thus :— -'* Behold, Lucius, moved widi 
thy supplications, I am present ; I, who am Nature, the parent of all things, queen of the elements^ 
first progenitor of ages, the highest of divinities, queen of deported spirits, first of celestials, and the 
uniform appearance of gods and goddesses, who rule, by my nod« the luminous heights of the heavens^ 
the salubrious breezes of the sea, and the silences of the infernal regions, and whose divinity, in itself 
but one, is venerated fay all the earth, according to a multiform shape, various rites, and difierent appel« 
lations. Hence the primitive Phrygians call me Pessinuntica, the mother of the gods; the native 
Athenians, Cecropian Minerva; the floating Cyprians, Paphian Venus; the Cretans, Dictynnian 
Diana; the three-tongued Sicilians, Stygian Proserpine; and the inhabitants of Eieusis, the ancient 
goddess Ceres. Some, again, have invoked me as Juno, others as Hecate, others as Bbllona, and 
others as Rhamnusia; and those who are enlightened by the rays of the rising sun, the Etfiiopiaftn, 
Arrians, and Egyptians, powerfiil in ancient learning, who reverence my divinity with ceremonies per- 
fectly proper, call me by a true i^pellation. Queen Isis." 

Nothing can be more satisfactory of tfie identity of lab, Cybele, and Bellona, and, as the same deity 
was of both genders, of these with Mithras or the Sun. At a time, then, when the worship of the 
sun prevailed universally among the Romans, when all distinction of deity had mei^ed in this one gross 
object of idolatry, the temple of Beilona, at York, in th^ time of Severus, must have been a temple 
in honour of this ddty, the Lord of Day% And as the porch of St. Maigaret's has been proved to 
have belonged to one of this description, there exists the greatest degree of probability, especially firom 
the representation of tiiis emperor, which it still bears, as wiU be mentioned hereafiter, that it is actually 
part of that very temple»-^How much does this discovery enhance its interest and our respect 1 

St. Margarets Church, York. 73 

at York till* about fifty years after the time assigned by the author of the 
Britannia Romano. Hence we obtain a period, that will admit of its 
domesticaticm in the neighbourhood of the walls, and consequently 
account, satisfactorily, for the construction of those diurable places of 
worship, and sacred monuments, which have from time to time been 
discovered in their vicinity. 

In conclusion of this part of the intrinsic evidence, I have only to 
mention, that a few instances occur, both in this country and on the 
continent, where a single sign, or small groups of two or three, are to be 
seen scattered among the ornaments of some churches, baptismal fonts, 
and sepulchral monuments, of the Saxon and middle ages. Iffley church, 
near Oxford, and that of Montevilliers, in Normandy, where the pillars 
are ornamented with clusters of Sagittaries, are the most striking exam- 
ples at present within my recoUection in regard to the signs. But other 
Roman devices, or grotesques, as they are now termed, are to be met 
with on the friezes of the north and south parts of Adderbury church, 
Oxfordshire, and on the undercroft of the French church at Canterbury, 
supposed by some to have been part of a Roman temple sacred to Isis. 
They have also been noticed on the frieze of the pulpit of the church of 
St Laurence, without the walls of Rome ; and on the door-way in the 
west front of Kenilworth church, near Coventry. Most of these are, 
unquestionably, immemorial fabrics, erected, at least in part, either by 
Roman heathens, or by the earliest Saxon christians, who imitated for 
the sole puq)ose of decoration, the mythological figures of their predie- 
cessors. That this was the case is evident from the capricious disposal 
of some of the signs, singly, or in small groups, among the other sculp- 
tures, and from the singular fact that on no church, original^ christian, 
is the whole number of the signs to be seen, either in consecutive order, 
or dispersed among the mouldings ; of which any one may easily satisfy 
himself, by an inspection of such churches themselves, or the engravings 
of them in architectural works. 

This partial use, and whimsical arrangement, are obvious in every 
existing instance ; and prove that embellishment alone was the point in 
view, and that their astronomical and mythological import was as little 

VOL. li. L 

74 Inquiry into Uie Age qfihe Porch of 

apprehended by the Saxon prelates, as by the Scots and Picts. Before 
their days their countrymen on the continent had subverted the Western 
empire, and with it the ancient religious institutions of Italy, which were 
slowly expiring before the light of the gospel. In Britain, the same 
salutary service was performed about the same time, and the remains 
of an impure and cruel idolatry, the peculiar disgrace of mankind fix>m 
the flood to the time when the Goths emerged from their native forests 
to vindicate the honour of God and of human nature, were eradicated 
for ever in the savage work of extermination. 

Those, who shudder at the accounts of the blood which they shed, and 
the desolation they occasioned, ought to reflect on the high purpose to 
which they were destined, that, like the Hebrews of old, they were the 
avengers of nations defiled with blood and wallowing in pollution, prac- 
tising the identical abominations for which the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Canaan were '< spued out'' by the land itself— agents in the hand of 
divine Providence, to root out, within the sphere of their action, a moral 
poison, which had contaminated the whole earth, and thus to prepare 
the way more effectually for the establishment of a pure system of reli- 
gion and morals, and of constitutions of civil polity more consistent with 
the dignity of man. 

It was then that the worship of the sun was extinguished throughout 
the greater part of Europe and eastern coast of Afiica, all memorial of 
it being swept away in the flood of northern invasion. What escaped 
the Goths, Vandals, and Saxons, was met by the Northmen or Danes, 
who continued the work of destruction, until the final triumph of Chris- 
tianity in the west by their own acknowledgment of its influence. 

In the mean time, another people were appointed to iulfil the same 
purpose in the east, and the Saracens, with an impetuosity surpassing 
that of the Grodis, and with an enthusiasm which they did not feel, dis- 
solved the ancient systems that still lingered among the nations composing 
the eastern empire, which, together with Arabia, Persia, and the greater 
part of Hindoostan, they thoroughly cleansed from the mire of this most 
offensive superstition. 

The original import of the signs, as objects of idolatrous worship. 

St Margarefs Gitarh, York. 75 

perigbed in thi» genersl dissoluticm of the civil and religious system^ of 
antiquity. On the revival of learning in Europe, they were again intro- 
duced to notice, aa marks cur signs of the several divisions of the zodiac ^ 
to which purpose, agreeably to the creed of the times, they had veiy 
appropriately been applied by the Greek astronomers, from whose works 
they were copied both by Arabian and European writers on this science, 
and who, ignorant of their genuine signification, simply followed them 
in this inoffensive application of these figures. It does not appear, that 
any of the Greek authors alluded to lias explained whence they derived 
these figures, or hinted at their mystic character ; since it is still a matter 
of much difficulty to trace their derivation, even with the assistance of 
elaborate treatises on ancient mythology, owing chiefly to the endless 
transformations to which all the heathen deities were subjected in classic 
times, which confused to perfriiexity the simple theogonies of the heroic 

I now come to the seco^ part of the intrinsic evidence, which wUl 
detain us but a mom^it as it requires no comment. It is included in 
Mr. Carter's description of a monument brought from the wall of 
Severus by Sir Robert Cotton, and now in Trinity College, Cambridge. 
It is a basso-relievo, with the inscription ^^ Numnibus Augustorum 
Cohors III. GaUorton Eqmtim FedV^ 

Of this monument, Mr. Carter says, " We may notice, that the oc- 
tagonal wreath, in the centre, has four different ornaments, each of which 
is repeated \ these varieties consist of quilochi, the laurel-leaf, with and 
without berries, and the oak-leaf; each division is tied with a riband. 

** On each side of the tablet are shields, above which are heads ; that 
on the left presents at once three faces, one front and two profiles ; be- 
low them are snakes twisted into the ornamental true lover's knot. In 
the arched recess on the left, is a winged victory, with the usual sym- 
bolsy the palm-branch, laurel wreath, and globe under one foot ; in the 
compartment below, is a stork, &c. \ in the nich on the right is a 
statue, in the full "warlike dress qf the Romans. In the compartment 
below the last figure, is another representation of a stork, with a vase. 

76 Inquiry into the Age of the Porch qf 

&c. This subject is Uk&wise carved on the arch qf the grand porch of 
St. Margarets churchy York; which porch was originally brought from 
a building of a very remote date, and, from its general design, nearly 
of Roman workmanship. Horsley supposed the emperors commemo- 
rated in the inscription to be Severus and Caracalla.'** 

This is positive testimony, of great importance even if it stood alone^ 
but its additional evidence discloses so entirely the value of the pre- 
ceding observations on the nature and derivation of the signs on ancient' 
British monuments, as to raise the whole argument to a demonstration 
that this porch is not nearly (an unmeaning term as applied by Mr/ 
Carter) but absolutely of Roman workmanship, and originally designed 
as part of a temple of Mithras, or the Sun, whose worship anciently 
constituted the established religion of this celebrated city. 

For the preservation of this interesting monument to our times, I can 
only plead the good fortune which favoured others until lately, and 
some even to the present day; such as the heathen chapel of Ethelbert; 
the Pharos, in Dover Castle \ the temple of Janus, at Leicester j the 
amphitheatre, at Dorchester; Richborough Castle; Worth-gate, at 
Canterbury; and New-Port-gate, at Lincoln. 

York is said to have had a large share in the disasters, which befel 
the country immediately after the departure of the Romans, and were 
we to believe implicitly all that is related upon this head, no argument 
whatever could satisfy us that any monument, now within it, belongs 
to a period so distant as that which I have assigned to the one in ques- 
tion. I shall endeavour to remove this oblique objection, by one or 
two observations on a passage to this effect, in the Britannia of Camden, 
which I have purposely selected as that of the greatest weight. 

At the conclusion of the Scotch and Saxon wars," says this author,-* 

little more than the shadow of the former greatness of York remained, 
and so completely were the buildings destroyed, that Paulinus, in 627, 
could not find in the v/hole city a church wherein to baptize king 
Edwin, in consequence of which, according to Bede, he was obliged to 
construct one of whattles for the purpose." 

* Ancient Arclatecture of England^ part i. 

St. Margarefs Churchy York. 77. 

But this assertion is refuted, first, by Mr/Bentham, who obsei^v^es; 
that Bede's wooden oratory was built on the spur of the occasion, a 
mere temporary expedient ; and, that the Saxons, at the time of liieir ' 
conversion, must have learnt liie art of building stone edifices with^ 
columns and arches, because they had many instances of such kind of 
buildings before them, in the churches and other public edifices, erected 
by the Romans. "For, notwithstanding," he adds, "the havock, that 
had been made of the christian churches, by the Picts and Scots, and 
by the Saxons themselves, some of them were then in being. Bede 
mentions two in Canterbury, besides which, it is likely, there were 
others of the same age, in different parts of the kingdom, which were 
then repaired and restored to their former use."* 

Secondly, by the rescript of Gregory the Great, who interposed in* 
behalf of the pagan temples, and by the rite of consecration appeased 
and reconciled the converted Saxons to their use. 

Thirdly, by a passage in Doomsday-Bookj quoted by Camden him- 
self,t which states, that " in the Confessor's time, there were in this city, 
six scyrae or divisions, besides the archbishops. One is laid waste for 
castles. In the other five were 1418 houses inhabited, and in the 
archbishop's, 200." 

Lastly, by Caxton, who states, in his Poh/chronicon, that before York 
was destroyed by William the Conqueror, " it seemed as fair as the city 
of Rome from the beauty and magnificence of the buildings." 

Whence, then, did York derive this magnificence which it exhibited 
in the beginning of the eleventh century ? According to Bede and Cam- 
den, it must have proceeded from the efforts of the Saxons or Danes, 
for they allow nothing to have descended to so late a period from the 
Romans. But we have seen, that, for nearly two hundred yeiars after 
their arrival, the Saxons were rude and unlettered barbarians, strangers to 
the arts, and enemies to civilization ; and that, after their conversion, 
they were, as a nation, alike ignorant and regardless of civil architec- 
ture, being, for the most part, dispersed in small village communities, in 
preference to the more extended associations of large towns.^ The 

* liUrod. to the History of Ely Cathedral, sec. 5th. f Britannia, yqL iil« 

78 Inquiry into the Age qfihe Porch qf 

unsettled state of the country during the Danish dynasty, which may 
be said ta have been a period of continued civil war between two bar* 
barous people, will not allow us to suppose, that the arts of civil life 
were then carried to any measure of extent in England, or arose to any 
d^ee above the wants and capacities of savage freebooters. The apr 
pearance of Ycn-k at the conquest, therefore^ must be ascribed to the 
superior taste and refinement of its more ancient, powerful, and civilized 
inhabitants, with whose institutions and moral conditicm it alone cor- 
responded. Thus, there is no reason for believing in so complete a 
demolition of public edifices in the year 627» ^ Bede has represented, 
but rather, that many continued to adorn it throughout the Saxon 
period of English history* It appears that in the year 1070, the Con* 
queror visited this city, with great severity, as a punishment for the 
treachery of the inhabitants, who had, but a short time before, made a 
voluntary surrender of it to the Normans. The historians of this trans* 
acticm represent William as at this time the equal of Cambyses, in 
the madness of his fury, totally destroying all Ae noble remains qfan^ 
tiquity which stUl continued to adorn it ; and the parallel between the 
Norman and the Persian seems continued into the description of the 
remote consequences, for it is asserted, that the city and adjacent 
country lay desolate for forty years afterwards. Such, however, are 
the warm but vague expressions of monkish historians, who record every 
capture of this city in nearly similar terms* It is enough for the pre- 
sent purpose, that, after this storm, the porch emerges from the mist of 
antiquity as the hallowed adjunct of a christian church, which, though 
of humble note, is yet deserving of especial remembrance for the shelter 
it afforded, for centuries, to this beautiful memorial of the first age of 
the arts in Britain. In the year 1644, the period of its first notice, by 
history, it escaped . more imminent danger than in IO7O, from the can- 
non of the parliamentary army, which played against the quarter of the 
town where it then stood, and demolished the edifice to which it be- 
longed* After this event, we trace it to St. Margaret^s church, to 
which it still continues attached, but under circumstances which excite 
deep regret, as it is there exposed to certain destruction, not so much 

St. Margarefs Churchy York. 79 

from the slow operation of time and weather, as from the distressing 
accidents which occasionally arise from the gambols of the rabble youth 
who frequently play around and within it, proofs of which I have wit- 
nessed with sorrow. 

Upon the whole, if the above arguments are well founded, it follows 
that the citizens of York possess within their walls, a very beautiful 
remain of cm ancient temple of the Sun, a unique in Britain, perhaps in 
Europe, and a monument which would, it seems, be highly prized in 
France, where, even single figures of the signs are careAilly laid up in 
museums. Should its future preservation ever become an object worthy 
of particular consideration, I beg leave to suggest the minster as its 
most proper asylum, for, as a consecrated relic, and specimen of art, 
it will reflect neither on the piety nor taste of thos^ who may be dis- 
posed to vote it a place among the glories of that wondrous pile. 

80 Observations on some Roman Altars and 

Observations on some Roman Altars and Inscriptions, erected by a Cohort 
qfthe Tungrif andjbund at Castle-Steeds, or Cambeck Fort, in Cumber^ 
land, by Mr. Thomas Hodgson. 

It is well known to ail, who are any way conversant with the Roman 
antiquities of this part of the island, that Mr. Horsley, from two imper- 
fect inscriptions given by Camden in his Britannia, was induced to be- 
lieve, that the station of Castle-Steeds, or Cambeck Fort, situated on the 
Wall, not far from Brampton, and to which he assigned the name of 
Petrianae, was for a short time garrisoned by the Cohors Prima Tungro- 
rum, before that cohort removed to its long-established quarters at 
House-Steeds. Considerable doubt has been thrown upon the accuracy 
of this opinion by two curious and interesting altars, which, since the 
publication of the Britannia Romana, have been found at Castle-Steeds. 
The first of these altars was recovered in the year 1741 ; it had been 
found about 40 years before the publication of Mr. Horsley's work, but 
was almost immediately sunk in a weir, which was at that time making 
in the river Irthing. On that weir undergoing some repair in the above 
year, orders were given by Mrs. Appleby, the then proprietress of the sta- 
tion, that |this altar should be sought for, and, if possible, recovered. 
This search was made, and was happily attended with success. A draw- 
ing of this altar was in the following year communicated to the public, 
through the medium of the Gentleman's Magazine, by Mr. Smith. 
Figures of it have since been published in several works,* but the most 
correct one will be found in the eleventh volume of the Archaeologia, pi. 

* Brand's Hist, of Kewcattle, vol. i. p. 614. Hutchinson's HuUny of Cumberland^ vol. L Castle- 
Steeds plate, no. i. fig. 14. Cough's Camden's Britanma^ toL in. pL xiii. fig. 13. ed. 1789. 

Observations on some AUars found at Castk^Steeds. 81 

vi. fig. SI, accompanied with a short explanation by the late Rev. J. D. 
Carlisle, in whose possession it then was.* The other altar, which I 
have mentioned, has been found only within the last few years (in 1818, 
I believe), and has never, that I know of, been published.t It was 
communicated in that year to James Losh, Esq. one of the Vice-Presi* 
dents of this Society, by Miss Carlyle. It was found near Castle-Steeds, 
and is now in the possession of William P. Johnson, Esq. of Walton 
House. The inscription upon it is most fortunately perfect, and in con- 
sequence most satisfactorily illustrates some parts of the inscription 
upon the other altar, which were rather obscure. As its substance, 
however, is fully contained in the first inscription, and as the examina- 
tion of this will completely explain all the difiiculties of the second in- 
scription, I shall confine my observation's principally to the first one. 

The first altar was no sooner published, than it gave rise to much 
learned discussion amongst the antiquaries of that day ; the principal of 
their remarks I shall notice as I proceed. 

Though the top of this altar is broken, there can be no doubt, from 
^ejulmen on its side, that, like the second one, it was dedicated Jovi 
Optimo maaimo ; and of the second line sufficient remains to shew, that 
it should be read Et Numinibus Augusti Nostri. Thus far all writers 
spoke with confidence ; but the next line making mention of an auxi- 
liary cohort not noticed in the NoHttOy nor in any of the inscriptions 
contained in the Britannia Romana, was not received without some hesi- 
tation. The double numeral was, however, too distinctly cut and too 
well preserved to admit of a doubt ; and scholars soon found, that Taci- 
tus, in his life of Agricola, had expressly mentioned the presence of two 
cohorts of the Tungri in Britain. Speaking of the battle with Galgacus^ 
" Agricola^** says he, " tres Batavorum cokortes ac Tungromm duas co^ 
horiatus est ut rem ad mucrones ac mamis adducerent^** &c. Inscriptions 
mentioning the second cohort of the Tungri^ have also since been found 
at Middleby in Scotland, as may be seen in the Appendix to Pennant's 
Tour in Scotland, 1772.t And if any doubt had remained respecting this 

* It is now in the possession of Miss Carlyle, of Carlisle, subsequently mentioned in the text, 
t See plate i. fig 1. . 4; Part ii« p. 408. 


as Observ£aio9U on some Jltar^Jbund at CasUe-Steeds. 


cohort, it would be comi^etely rraeioved by the last found attar, <m which 
the name and number are perfectly distinct. This well-estabHsbed fact 
makes the alleged circumstance of this fort having been at one time 
garrisoned by the Cohors prima Tungrorum extremely problematical. 
Mr. Horsley, it is wdl known, was induced to ad(^t this opinion, from 
the name of this cohort being apparently expressed in two inscriptions 
published by Camden, the originals of which are now lost ; but an exa- 
mination of the figures, as given by Mr. Hutchinson,* will shew that 
each of them has received such an injury in its centre, as renders it 
extremely probable, that part of the numeral has been obliterated in the 
one, and part of the h of coh. for Cohort in the other, and tiiat hence 
these two stones were in fact erected by the Cohors seettnda, and not 
the Cohors primat'-^SL probability, which in the sequel I shall, I trust, be 
able more fully to establish. 

The letters gqr. following the name of the cohort, are, with much 
probability, taken by all writers to signify Gordiana, — ^an epithet assumed 
by, or conferred on^ this cohort, in token of its attachment to the £m- 
p^rpr Gordian, in the same manner as was done in the case of the Cohors 
/. MUa Dacortm^ which garrisoned the neighbouring station of Burdos- 
wald* The next letters eg. with the monogram oo, which the sculptor 
has ^parently omitted on cuttingthe line, and been afterwards obliged to 
insert in tibe space above, at first gave rise to some diffisrenceof opinion, 
but are now generally allowed ta signify miliaria eqtdtata. Mr. Smith 
was disposed to read them, mUe eqmtum^i and the learned Professor Ward, 
millenaria eqtdimn^X but not only is there no authority for these readings, 
but the cohors milUaria eqmtata is expressly mentioned and described 
by those writers,, who treat of the military affairs of the Romans. And 
though I cannot appeal to any inscription, in which, to my knowledge, 
these, words are jointly exjuressed in words at length, yet so many 
insc^ptumsoccur in Grater mentioning both the cohors nuBaria; and the 
cohors egtdtatOfW as to leave no doubt that these two words are the correct 

* ICat of Ctimb. vol. L Ckat St pL no. L fig. 11. andp, lOS. f Gent. Mag. voL zii- p. SO. 

t G«i^.Iiag. ^oi in. p. 136. 

II In cii. 3. we meet wiftb cea. li. uwlumam dalmatabtm ; and in some which will be noted here- 

Observations on some Altars fomd at Castk-Steeds. 83 

terms of the description of cohorts tinder consideration. In the Kotitla 
too, both the cohors miUiaria and the cohors equitata are expressly men- 
^oned* According both to Hyginus and Vegetius, the first cbhort of 
a legion, in the times of the lower empire, was called mU&aria, ftotn 
its being stronger than any cohort of the legion, and from its generally 
consisting of about 1000 men ; and it was further called equitata when 
it contained a certain number of horse. Hyginus ("De CastrametationeJ 
informs us, that the Cohors eqmtatd miUiaria consisted of 760 foot soldiers 
formed into 10 centuries, and 240 horsemen formed into 10 turmae.* 
It contained within itself, therefore, a due proportion of both kinds offeree, 
and seems to have been particularly well adapted for the garrisoning of a 
station like Castle-Steeds, situated in an open country, and liable to the 
frequent inroads of an enemy. The description here given of the cohors 
miliaria^ tpay not at first sight, perhaps, appear applicable to the cohort 
now under consideration, from the circumstance of its being the secondy 
and not the Jirst^ cohort of the Tungri ; but it should be recollected, 
that it is an atmliary^ and not a legionary, cohort ; and, ^s is well ob- 
served by Mr. Gale, •* though the second of th6 Tungri, it might yet be 
the first, or milliary, cohort of the auxiliary legion to which it belonged.'' 
And there is no reason to suppose that all the cohorts of the same nation 
were contained in the same legion, any more than that all the battalions 
of tiie same regiment are now-a-days always comprised in the same bri- 
gade } on the contrary there is abundant evidence, that they were often 
separated, and even employed in different countries and services. 

Turning now to the principal inscription recorded by Camden to have 
been found at this place, it is highly pleasing to observe how easily and 
satisfactorily the information, which we have now acquired, elucidates 
that inscription, and removes the difficulty which Mr. Horsleyt found in 
its explanation. By the simple prefixing of an m before the letters ilec, 
which he was inclined to think might be the name 6f a place, these to 

after eqtuiatae occurs at length. I can find no inscription in Grater in which equitata is accompanied 
wHkMiAlcrta eidier contracted or at length, nor yet expressed by hs'aonogram as in tfaitf ifiatanee. 

* Habet cohors equitata miUiaria pedites septingentos sexa^ta, oenturiaa decern, e^ikes dtteeatos 
qoadruag^Bta, tunnas decern. 

f See his Britanma Romano^ p. £64. 

84 Observations an some Altars found at Castle-Steeds. 

him untoward letters naturally resolve themselves into mil. ec. or eq. 
evidently the contractions of the words miliaria eqnitata. If we are. sa- 
tisfied of this, we can have little difficulty in believing that the numeral 
in the preceding line has been ii. and not i. ; for it was the secundOj and 
not the prima^^Cohors Tungrorum^ which was rniUiaria equitata. The 
presence of the latter at House-Steeds is well authenticated by a long 
series of inscriptions, and in not one of these is it ever described as of 
that kind. This inscription will then, like the two others, read — 

Jovi optimo maxima Cohars secunda Tungrorum milliaria equitata. 

And if we wanted a further proof, that this altar had been erected by 
the second cohort of the Tungri, we should find it in the letters c. l., 
which follow the letters ilec, and which occur in both the others in 
precisely the same situation. For though these letters are nearly de- 
faced on the principal altar, and so ill defined that Mr. Carlisle was in- 
duced to read them fid. for Jida^ yet those who saw the altar at the time 
of its recovery, all concurred in reading them c. l. ; and they are so plain 
and distinct upon the second altar, that it is impossible to hesitate in 
supposing, that those individuals read them correctly. The signification 
of these letters I cannot but <;onsider as somewhat obscure and uncer- 
tain. They have generally been supposed to be numerals, but a well- 
grounded doubt may, I think, be entertained upon the subject. Mr. 
Smith is almost the only one, who has not taken them for numerals, and 
he is disposed to read them Cataphractariorum JjCgioni ; although he 
acknowledges that he is not aware that ** the Cataphractarii were ever 
formed into regular cohorts,'' and appears, besides, to be not very well 
satisfied with this explanation. Both Professor Ward* and Mr. R. Galet 
looked upon them as numerals. They were induced to do so by the fol- 
lowing passage of Vegetius. Speaking of the first cohort of a legion, he 
says, /' Uabetpedites mille centum qmnquet -equites laricatos centum triginta 
duoSf et appeUatur cohors milliaria.**t The number of horse here men- 
tioned not agreeing with the numerals, which it was wished to find 

■* Gent. Mag. toL xu. 1742. p. 135. f Hiitchinsoa's Cuxnberlandy vol. i. p. 110 — 11^ 

% Lib. u. c. 6« 

Observations on some Altars found at Castk^Steeds. 85 

expressed upon this altar, Professor Ward endeavours to account for this 
difference by observing that *^ under the lower Emperors, and especially 
in the provinces, it seems by inscriptions, as if those numbers were not al- 
ways regularly observed. And therefore, as this second cohort, which was 
honoured with the name of the Emperor, exceeded the common number 
both in the foot and the horse, — might possibly occasion its being parti- 
cularly mentioned." Mr. Gale expresses himself to the same effect ; but 
unfortunately for this opinion, it is impossible to suppose, that the mere 
possession of the extra number of 18 troopers would either be considered 
so extraordinary a circumstance, or so great a distinction as to be parti- 
cularly recorded on all their inscriptions. Why, moreover, should the 
number of the horsemen be mentioned, and those of the foot-soldiers 
of the cohort be passed unnoticed ? A very short space of time, too, it 
may be supposed, would suffice to destroy the distinction arising from 
these 18 additional horsemen, for the cohort could scarcely for any long 
continuance be kept up to its full complement; and yet these letters are 
found upon their inscriptions during the command of three different 
Prefects. Besides Vegetius, in the passage referred to, is describing the 
Cohors mUiariOj or 1st cohort of a legion, and not the Cohors milUaria 
equitata^ to which, as we have seen, Hyginus ascribes a very different 
proportion of horse and foot ; and as Vegetius wrote only a very short 
time before the date of the NotiHa^ and consequently nearly 200 years 
after the time to which these inscriptions refer — a lapse of time in which 
we may reasonably suppose some alteration took place in the constitution 
of the Roman armies, — ^there is great probability, that his description 
has but little application to the cohort now under discussion. These 
considerations are, I think, sufficient to convince us, that these letters 
cannot be numerals ; and what is a further proof to my mind that they 
are not, I found, on examining further, that almost every Cohors eqtutata 
had letters, corresponding with these, attached to its name. Thus in an 
inscription, found at Riechester, near Elsdon, we have coh. i. fid. 
VARDVL. 00 EQ. c. B. : in Gruter, cccclix. 9» we meet with coh. i. afr. 
c. R. £Q. ; in cccLxxxviii. 3, coh. hi. astvr. eq. c. r. ; in xiiii. 9« coh. 
lui. A. Q. EQ. c. ?• The c. R. in the Riechester inscription is read by 

86 ^Observations on some Altars Jbund at Castle-Steeds. 

Dr. Taylor, Civium Romanorum^ and this reading is generally acquiesced 
in. Indeed it almost seems warranted by some inscriptions in Gruter ; 
in one of which for instance (mcviii. 5\ we find coh* primae equitatae 
CIV. ROMAN ; in another (ccccxcviii, 18), coh. ii. c. r. which by a third 
inscription (ccccxxxix, 2), seems probable should be read Civium Roma^ 
norum^ since in that we find in words at fiill length praefecto cohortis 
SECVNDAE civivM ROMANOR. It from hencc, I think, seems most probable 
that the c. in this case should be read Gvium^ and by analogy that the l. 
should be read Latinorum. The citizens of Latium, it is well known» 
enjoyed nearly equal privileges with those of Rome. They served as 
allies in her army, and constituted the principal part of its strength. 
We learn from Livy that they sometimes furnished two-thirds of the 
cavalry and also of the infantry ;• but, as Sallust informs us, were not 
embodied in the legions.t From this description of them, there is, I 
think, no incongruity in supposing that a body of them, or of soldiers 
on whom the privileges o£ Latium had been conferred, might be attached 
to a cohort of another country. 

The words which immediately follow c. l., are evidently cuipraeest^ 
followed by the name of the Prefect. The name upon the laiger altar 
has become so obliterated as to render it uncertain. It was supposed 
by Mr. Smith, judging from the traces of the letters, that it had been 
StciUus Claudianus. As this name is as probable as any other, and as 
Mr. Smith had the earliest and best opportunities for examrnation, it 
may as well be* adopted. The praef. after hi« name there can be no 
doubt is the contraction of Praefectus. 

The words succeeding praef. have been read generally instante 
Aelio Martino Principe^ — a reading, which I have no doubt is perfectly 
correct, though I cannot agree with the explanation which has been given 
of these words. Instante^ say both Mr. Ward and Mr. Grale, is the same 
as durante ; but this I take to be an opinion not exactly warranted by 
inscriptions. From these it appears to me that by cura or curans, iff 
expressed one species of duty, and by instans^ anotiier and inferior duty. 
The former terms seem to have been applied to those, who gave orders^ 

*- Lit. iii 2^, 17, et aUbi passim. f SaUtut Jug. «9. 

ObservaHans on some Altars Jbund (U CasUe^Steeds^ 87 

w provided the necessary fundd^ for the erection of any work ^ and tho 
ktter to those, on whom devolved the duty of carrying the othem' direc** 
tiom into execution, and of superintending the progress of the work** 
Thus in an inscription found at Netherhy, recording the erection of an 
equestrian Basilicaf it is said to have been^ per Curam Marti Valeriani Le^ 
gaU AugtcstaUs Propraetoris^ instante M. AvreUo SaMo Tribuno CohoT'^ 
tis;f and again, in the inscription found at Walwich Chesters,1^ records the 
erection of some building, per Marhtm Vdlerianumj S^. instante Septmio 
Nihf Praefecto^—But this, perhaps, is not of much moment Neither can 
I agree, that the n^mie of the person, who performed the duty instans^ m 
the case of the altar before us, was AeUtis MarUmis Princeps. The oc^ 
eurrence of ^* Prvncep^^ as a proper name in Gruter, has been deemed- 
by all, who have ever noticed this inscription, as a certain proof that it 
is abo a proper name in this instance. Of the accuracy of this reading, 
however, I always entertained the strongest doubts. 1st Because there 
is nothing to inform us who this Martinus Princeps was ; and I thought 
it strange that in an inscription which declares that Claudianus, the com- 
mander of the cohort, was its Prefect, the rank of the person who dis- 
charged the duty insians should not be stated, as in other inscriptions. 
2d. Because I considered the contraction of Princeps irreconcileable with 
this reading, for I believe it wiU be found upon examination, that the 
contraction of a nomen, much less of a cognomen, excepting the com- 
mon termination uSy is of extremely rare occurrence, especially on large 
inscriptions like the present, and that it ought not to be suspected here 
where CUmdiantis and Martino are both inserted at length. Sd. As the 
contraction praef*. is the only one in this combination of words to which 
that of PRiNC. is analogous, I thought it possible that these two words 
might also be analagous in their meaning. 4thly. Oti examining the in- 
scription published by Camden, I found, though the latter part of it is 
much defaced, sufficient to convince me, that its concluding word was 
also Prmdpey us^ as the cognomen, or designation of a person,, whose 

* Plmy, Fm»gyn e. ISrtpeakiiig of the ofi^e)nn4ia direeted the soidnn* to woric, uses thecApres*' 
f Hutcfainaon's HuUny of Cwnbelriand^ toL iL Netheiby pL Bg» U % Arek^ Mun fTsL i>j^ If^ 

88 Ohsaroatims on some Altars Jbund at Castle-Steeds. 

preceding name is illegible, but evidently not AeL MarUnuSf and who 
had also performed the duty instante; and I thought it extremely impro* 
bable that there should have been two persons of the same cognomen^ 
who should at different times, (for it is evident that the inscription in 
Camden refers to a period, when the Cohort was commanded by a dif- 
ferent Prefect), have performed the same duty of instante. On the peru- 
sal of the inscription, on the last found altar, however, I felt this doubt 
strengthened into certainty, for I considered it to be impossible that the 
duty in question, could, at three different times, have devolved upon 
three different persons, each bearing the cognomen of Princeps ; and^ I 
thought it much more probable, that this duty should have devolved 
upon these three persons, because they had each, at different times, filled 
the same ofiice, the proper designation of which was Princeps. In this 
conjecture, I have been fully confirmed by an inscription which I hiaye 
since met with in Gruter,— p. cccxlvii, no. 1. It commences thus : 

p. AELIO. p. F. PAPIR 


This inscription will be best explained by the quotation of a passage 
from Manutius.* " In a legion," says he, " there were three kinds of 
foot soldiers, Jiastatij principes, and triarii ; and in each there were ten 
centurions, who were called the 1st hastaius, 2d Iiastatus, 8d, &c. and so 
on up to the 10th ; 1st princeps, 2d, and so on ; but the triarii, the 
bravest of all, were named in a different manner, for they did not call 
them 1st triarius, but pfimipiltcs, or primipili centurio.^* A portion of 
each of these descriptions of soldiers was, as is well known, contained 

* Erat primipilus stuqinas ordo inter pedites legionarios : nam in leg^one tria peditum genera erant 
hastatiy piindpesy triarii ; et in singulis deni centuriones, his nominibus, primas hastatus, secundus has- 
tatus, tertius usque ad dedoium ; primus princeps, secundus, et similiter ; in triariis, omnium forttssimis 
alia ratio ; non enim dicebant, primus triarius, sed primipilusy aut primipili centurio ; pnsds autem tern- 
poribus primus centurio.^ilfanif^. 

Observations on some Altars found at Castle-Steeds. 89 

within each Cohort, and the auxiliary Cohorts were formed upon the 
same model as the legionary. 

Having thus, in general terms, proved the existence of the termjprfn- 
cepSj as the title of an officer in the Roman army, I know not that more 
is required of me, though it may perhaps be expected by some, that I 
should point out its particular application in the present instance, and 
why the duty instante should devolve upon the princeps, in preference to 
any other officer. But this I am unable to do, and it must be evident 
that this would require an intimate knowledge of the internal construc- 
tion and arrangement of the cohors milliaria eqtUtata^ and perhaps of this 
very cohort in particular, and I am not aware of any source from which 
such a knowledge can be derived. Several conjectures have certainly 
suggested themselves to my mind, but I conceive it of no use to 
trouble the Society with them. 

The remaining part of the inscription presents little difficulty with re- 
spect to the reading of it, — it being evident that it records the date of 
the erection of this altar. The small i in the belly of the l is generally 
taken to be the initial letter of the name of the month, which of course 
must be one of those beginning with j. These lines may therefore be 

read, decimo kalendarum J , Imperatore Domino nostro GordUano 

Augusto III. Pompeiano ConsuUbus. x From the Fasti Consulares it ap- 
pears, that it was in the year 241 of our era that Gordian was Consul 
with Pompeianus ; but here an unexpected difficulty occurs, for accord- 
ing to the Fastif it was in his second consulate that he had Pompeianus 
for his colleague, and not in his third, as here recorded. Various in- 
scriptions also occur in Gruter, in which Pompeianus is mentioned as 
his colleague in his second consulate ; and also in an inscription found 
a few years ago in Cockermouth Castle. This difficulty has been a 
source of much doubt and futile conjecture to all who have endeavoured 
to explain this inscription. Professor Ward concluded, that as there was 
^' no mention made of this third consulate any where, but here, and in 
another inscription given us by Gruter (mlxxxv. 10),'' that it *' must be 
a mistake."* Mr. Ward's conclusion has been acquiesced in by many ; 

* Geni, Mag. toL ziiL p. 30. 

90 ObservaUons on sotne Altars found at Castie^Steeds. 

Mr. Gale, however, was of a difibrent opinion, and advanced the follow- 
ing hypothesis : — " It is no mistake," says he "of the eroperor^s bdng 
the third time consul instead of the second : for in the inscriptions of 
Gruter he is mentioned as consul the second time with Pompeianus, and 
as it was in the 4th year of his reign that he was consul with him, thede 
numerals cannot refer to a third consulate which he never took, but 
must refer to his being the third emperor of that name. If it is objected, 
that it was not usual for the Roman emperors to style themselves i. ii. 
in., I answer, there were never three of the same name, thus nearly suc- 
ceeding one another, as the three Gordians, if at any time. However, 
the inscription in Gruter mlxxxv. must include a mistake when it re- 
presents this Gordian as trib. pot. cos. iii. p. p. the iii. immediately 
following cos. and so cannot be applied to any other word, but it is a 
mistake of the stone cutter.'** With neither of these opinions can I 
wholly agree. I have a great repugnance to every conjecture founded 
on a supposed mistake of the workman, especially when it would be so 
soon perceived, and could be so easily corrected as here ; and the occur- 
rence of the same supposed mistake, in another instance and in a difierent 
country, tends strongly to the belief that there was something more than 
accident in the inscribing of this numeral. And if he was here styled 
III. on account of his being the third emperor of that name, it seems to 
me not a little singular that he should not be always so styled, which 
he certainly is not, indeed I do not at the present moment recollect any 
instance of such a designation. Neither of these opinions, therefore, are 
satisfactory to me, but I know not that I can advance any conjecture 
which will be found much more effective in removing the difficulty.— 
In considering this point, an idea once struck me, that what had hitherto 
been taken for the last i. of the numeral, might in reality be the re- 
mains of a ligature for et, which word otherwise is wanting in this litte, 
and which in the Cockermouth inscription is curiously incorporated 
with the p. of Pompeiano.t With the hope that it might prove so^ I 
ventured to take the liberty of requesting Miss Carlyle, in whose pos- 

* Hutchinson's SUtort^ of Cumberland, v. L p. 110. 
t Lysons^s Cumberland^ p. dxxxi. 

ObsenaHofis on some Allots found at Caitle^Steeds. 91 

session the altar iis, to examine this mark most particularly, to ^scertftih 
if it had hitherto been misunderstood. With the greatest ' politeness 
and attention, for which I feel extremely obliged to her, and beg thus 
publicly to express my thanks,* Miss Carlyle instantly complied With 
my request, but unfortunately the result of her examination was com- 
pletely destructive of my conjecture. The i. proved too distinctly cut 
to be mistaken. Driven from this supposition, I was led to entertain 
the hope, that a solution of the difficulty might be found in the practice 
which, it is well known, prevailed under the emperors, owing to the 
difficulty of finding a sufficient number of persons of consular dignity to 
fill all the posts requiring persons of that rank, in conseqtience of the 
great number of provinces, of creating consuls only for a few months, 
in order that others might be substituted for them, who were called, 
petty, substituted, or lesser consuls, and of reckoning the first ordinary 
consulate as a second consulate when it was preceded by such petty 
consulate.t But unfortunately for such an opinion, I cannot find that 
any such petty consulate was ever held by this Gordian ; our list of the 
petty consuls is, however, so imperfect, that it is not improbable that 
such may have been held by him, and no record of it have trans- 
pired to us. It is highly probable, I think, that he might have seryed 
as consul, either whilst Caesar or immediately after his elevation to the 
empire in ^8, and thus his consulate with Aviola in 239 would be his 
second, and this with Pompeianus, in ML, his third. But then again the 
difficulty occurs, why this last consulate is so positively called the second 
in the Cockermouth inscription. It is, however, as positively called the 
third in this and the other inscription, so that the evidence is as strong 
one way as the other. Great uncertainty on this point seems evidently 
to have prevailed amongst the Romans themselves, and on the whole I 

• I must also beg leave to express my obligations to Wm. P. Johnstone, Esq., for his polite atten- 
tion to, and ready compliance with, my request for a more correct drawing of the second altar than 
the Socic^ was then in possesion o^ and also for his communication of some further information. 

f According to this rule, Claudius having taken the consulship in the month of January, a. d. 42^ and 
the second of his reign, is styled consul for the second time, because he had been petty consul the 
1st of July in the year 37, and 1st of Caligula. It is the same with Vespasian, whose second consu- 
late mariu the year 70, becauae he had been petty consul m the two last months of the year 51. 

92 Observations an some Altars found at CasUe^Steeds. 

am strongly inclined to think that a solution of the difficulty can best 
be found in the belief of some unrecorded or forgotten petty consulate* 
If the preceding observations are correct the reading of the first found 
altar will be 

Jovi Optimo maximo et NumrubisAugmti nostri Cohors secunda Tun^ 
grorum Gordiana milliaria eqiutata Civium Latinorum, cm praeest Sicifius 
Qaudianus praefectuSy instante Aelio Martino principe, decimo Kalendarum 

J , Imperatore Domino nostro Gordiana Augosta tertium Pompeiana 


That of the second will necessarily be, 

Jovi optima maximo Cohors secunda Tungrorum milliaria equitata Goium 
LaUnorum^ cui praeest Albus Severus praefectus Tungrorum, instante Vic- 
tore Sevro (^OT SeveroJ principi. 


Should the preceding attempt to explain these difficult inscriptions 
prove satisfactory to the Society, I shall feel much gratified. Though not 
deficient in the hope that I might throw some light upon them, I have 
been principally instigated by the belief that a combined view of these 
inscriptions would materially tend to clear up an obscure part of the 
history of a cohort which has lately so much occupied thcattention of the 
Society, and by which so large a portion of the collection of antiquities in 
its possession was erected. I have, I trust, laid sufficient grounds for 
believing that the first cohort of the Tungri never garrisoned any other 
station on the wall than that of House-Steeds, 


Thornton Papers. 93 

III. Obpies qf various Papers relating to the Famfy qf Thobnton, of 
Witton Castle^ in the County of Northumherland^ some of them hearing 
the Signatures qf Charles I. and Oliver Cromwell. Ckmmumcated by 
W. C. Treveltan, Esq., qf WalUngton^ to J. Adamsok, Esq, 


A Commision from William, Earle of Newcastle, to Captain S'. Nich". 
Thornton, K"*. to be Cap", of one Troope of Hargobuzieres, consisting 
of one hundred men — ^and power to rayse the said Troope by beating a 
Drume w'^'in the Countyes of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmo- 
land, and Bishoprick of Duresme, &c. &c. 

9M. 8ber, 1642. 

Indorsed, — John Thornton passe from ye King. — ^On parchment. 

Carolus dei gratia Magnas Brittanise Francis et Hibhias. Rex fidei 
defensor, &c. Serenissimis Reverendissimis Celsis*. Illustris'. Regibus 
Principibus Ducib. Statibq. eorumq. vices gerentibus Regionum, Urbi- 
um, Castrorum, Oppidoru. Copiaru. Classiu. Portuum, Naviu. Fluvioru. 
viarumq. Praefectis aut quibuscunq. aliis Magistratus munere insignibus 
viris ad quorum benevolas manus hse liters pervenient salutem. Sciatis 
quod lator presentiu. nobis dilectus Johannes Thornton Colonellus Eques- 
triu. nuper locum tenens qui omnibus nostris mandatis fideliter obsequu- 
tus est iter in partes transmarinas perficiendu. habeat nosq. ea qua hunc 
nostrum ministrum prosequimur benevolentia iter istud tutum securum 

94 Thornton Papers. 

expeditumq. cupiamus. Nos igitur Regiis nostris Uteris salvi conduc- 
tus concomitantes atq. omnib. quorum supra honoris causa mentionem 
fecitnus comendantes singulos in quorum ditiones aut jurisdictiones per- 
venerit, amice benigneq. rogamus subditisq. nostris prascipimus ut dicto 
Johanni amicam pacatam, liberamq. cum rebus necessariis eundi ac 
morandi concedant potestatem nihil omnino mors molestise vis aiil inju- 
riaB inferant inferrive sinant sed potius omni benevolentias humanitatis & 
amititise officiorum genere prsestiterint atq. omnia ad itineris expedi- 
tionem facientia praebeant quse unusquisq. sibi suisve ministris aut sub- 
ditis peregre euntib. exhiberi vellet. Hanc illi petimus (quoquo appu- 
lerit) humanitatem quam ex talionis lege eorum subditis per nostras 
ditiones euntib. debemus & nos prsBstituros promittimus. A Newcas- 
tle decimo quinto die Januarij Ano salutis Millessimo sexcentessimo 
Quadragessimo sexto. 


Copies from the originals^ at Netherwitton. 

IlL^^On paper. 

©Theis are to require you forthwith on sight hereof to for- 
beare to prejudice the Lady Anne Thorneton rehct of S' Nic- 
holas Thorneton of Witton Castle in the County of Northumberland 
K'*. either by offering any violence to her person or any of her family, 
or by taking away any of her horses Cattle, or other Goods whatsoever 
without speciall order. And hereof you are not to fayle as you will 
answeare the contrary, Provided that shee yeild obedience to all orders 
and ordinances of Parliam': & act nothing prejuditiall to the State. 
Given under my hand* the 17 day of Julye, 1650. 


To all Officers and souldiers under 
my Command, And all others 
whome it may conceme. 

* The pen has been drawn across a word in the original. — W, C, T, 

Thornton Papers. 95 

IV.^^On paper. 

IV: Aug: 1651. 
Three hundred horsses belonging to the Officers of nyne Regimt' of 
Foote viz\ his Excies^Maio' Gen" Lamberts, Maio' Generall Deanes, 
Collo: Engoldsbyes, CoUo: Prids, Collo: Fairfax, CoUo: Goffes, Collo: 
Coopers and Collo: Wests, as alsoe one thowsand horsses belonginge to 
the Traine and baggage togeather with One hundred and fiftie horsses 
belonginge to the life guard, and One thowsand horsses belonginge to 
the two Regim". of CoUo: Tomlinson and Collo: Hacker, were all 
quartered for one night upon the grounds of Lady Thometon, att Nether 
Witton, in the Parish of Halbome, in the Countie of Northumberland 
Tenant to Edward Fenwicke of Stanton Esq'. 


Whereas beside the p'iudice w*''* the said Lady Thornton received 
by the quarteringe of the Army in respect of Come and grasse for horse- 
meate. The foote souldiers spoiled att y* least Thirtie loades of Hay (and 
Straw)* (by estima*con) w'** they made use of to lay in theire Tents, 
I desire y* same alsoe may bee Considered, and allowance made to the 
Lady and her Tenante respectively accordinge to the Loss they have 
suste3med thereby. 

ir. August: 1651. O. CROMWELL. 

V.'-^'On paper. 

Losses sustained by the Lady Anne Thornton, of Netherwitton, in 
the Countie of Northum. and her tenants, the Armie being quarterd 
uppon her grounds as appeares by an order under the Ger^*' hand, 11"^: 
August: 1651. 

Impri: Quartered uppon my Lady Thornton her grounds 
of Netherwitton, in the Countie of Northumer. and . 

f Xj S fl 

Parish of Hartburne, in Meadow and other grass ( qA i ^ ^ 
for one night. Two thousand fowre hundered and 
fiftie horse, as appeares under the G'"*. hand, at 
thre pence a horse a night comes to 

• The pai has been drawn across the words and straw in the original.— IV, C. T. 

96 Thornton Papers. 

£• s. d* 

Alsoe Thirtie loads of Hay spoilled and waisted by 1 ig 00 00 
the foote Souldiers, Estimated to - - - J 

alsoe a batne burned by the Soldiers vallewed - 16 00 00 

Sixteen Sheep taken and killed by the Souldiers to 3 04 00 
Likewise their was destroied in Oats ancl eaten 

by their horses of my Ladies and her tenants (off i q ig o6 
Morpeth measur) Thirtie nine bowles & a bush- 
ell vallewed to - - - - 

And of Pease two bowles & one bushell to - 01 17 06 

of Rye one bowle vallewed to - - - 01 00 00 

of bigg tene bowle vallewed to - - - 11 15 00 

Some is ofFy' — 

Losses: 95 : 05 : 6* Summ totall 95 05 06 

All theise perticuUers (save whaf)f the order mentioneth is 
viewed and prized by us whose names are heer underwritten. 



JOHN JOYSEY X his marke 

NICHOLAS BELL his >< marke 

Indorsed, y Generalls 


VL— On paper. 

Appointment by T. Northumberland & I. Percy Lieutenants of 
the County of Northumberland, of John Thometon Comett to that 
Troope of Voluntiers whereof the Lord Widdrington is Captaine — 95 
January l660. 


VII. — On paper. 
Same as above, but dated 6th June, 1664. 

* An error of £1 occurs in the calculation.—^. C 7*. 

f The pen has been drawn across the words gave what in the ori^nal. — W, C. 71 

Thamion Papers. 97 

VIII.— Oft Parchnent. 

Commission signed by Charles 9,^ to John ThomtonEsq. to be Comet 
of that Troop of Horse whereof the Lord Widdrington is Captaine. 
IS'" June, 1667. 

IX. — On Parchment. 

We whose names are hereunto subscribed, do certify that S' Nicholas 
Thornton, late of Witton Castle, in the County of Northumb''. Kn^ de- 
ceased, did, in the beginning of the Warr, att his owne charge, raise a 
troope of Horss for his late Maje** service and comanded them himselfe 
tell want of health obliged him to returne home, and then he lejft them 
to his Brother John Thornton, under whose comand they continued in 
y* Kings sarvice soe long as any field forces remand on foot the said 
John being for a long time Leiuietennant CoUonell to S' W™ Blackiston 
of Newton, that the said S' Nicolas for this, and his constant adherence 
to the Kings Party, was in his life time often plundred, his Estate se- 
questered, and soe continued divers years after his Death, and at last 
put into the Bill of salle, w""^ forced his Sonn John Thornton to redeeme 
it att a high rate, and the rather because the said Jo. Thornton, The 
Sonn, even in his Infancy shewed his Loyalty, by appearing in the Warr 
of 1648, where he was made prisoner, and constantly after sustaind 
all the hardshipps and plundring that the prevailing Enemy could in- 
flect on him j and that, after the happy restauration of his Maiesty, the 
said John, his Sonn, was Comet to the Voluntere Troope in that County, 
Comanded by the late Lord Widdrington, and continued in that Im- 
ployment to his Death, and that the said S' Nicolas Thornton was 
Grandfather, & y* said John Thornton, his Sonn, was Father to Nico- 
las Thornton, Esq. now of Witton Castle aforesaid ; and we further 
Certify, that the said Nicolas Thornton hath, on all occations, shewed 
himselfe Loyall and ready to sarve his Males***, and that his Two Unckles, 
Henry & William, now liveing, w^** Henry sarved in the quallity of a 
Comission oflScer under his late Males**' of Blissed memorie, and that 
William is Sonn to S' Nicolas Thornton, and sarved his Majes*** under 


98 ITiomton Papers. 

the Comand of W" Lord Widdrington, late Deceaced. Witness our 
hands y 2 January, 16U. 

I doe verily beleive this 
certificate to be true. 




Note hy W. C Treuelyan^ Esq. 

It is said there is a bed at Nether Witton, called Oliver Cromwell's. 
" His Excellency" mentioned in the fourth document, must mean Oli- 
ver ; — ^it appears that he was then on his way to Scotland, having en- 
tered Newcastle on the 15th of July preceding ; Colonel Pride, who 
is mentioned was one of those who went to meet him at Durham, and 
attended him back to Newcastle.— J3ra»(f^ Newcastle^ it. 478. 

Ancient Indenture. 99 

IV. The Copy qf an Indenture preserved amongst the Records of Uni^ 
versibf CoUege^ Oxford^ dated 1404, between Walter Bishop qf Dur- 
ham and the Master of that College. Communicated to the Society hy 
W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. qf WaUington. 

Indentura inter Walterum Episcopum Dunelm. et Magistrum Col- 
legii de sex voluminibus Librarise CoUegii traditis. A. D. 1404. 

Haec indentura facta inter reverendum in Christo patreiA Walterum 
Episcopum Dunelmensem ex una et magistrum Johannem Appelton 
magistrum seu custodem Magnse aulae Universitatis Oxon. ex altera 
parte Testatur quod idem Reverendus Pater tradidit et realiter libera- 
vit praefato Johanni Appleton opere et litera parisiensi. videlicet tria 

volumina lecturae Fratris Nicholai de Lira super tota Biblia 

alia tria volumina super tractatu intitulato Repertorium Die- 

tionare de eisdem opere et litera sub conditionibus et modis infra scrip*- 

tis videlicet ut dicta sex volumina infra librariam Aulae prae- 

dictas, et quod infra tres menses magister et socii dictae Aulas faciant 

dicta volumina inferri alligari nee unquam commodabunt nee 

commendari permittent, sed infra dictam librariam continue remanebant 

exercitium et utilitatem studentium ibidem. Et ad hoc per- 

ficienduni et observandum magister et socii tam praesentes quam futuri 
corporale praestabunt juramentum. In cujus rei testimonium Reve- 
rendus pater Dunelm Episcopus et Magister Johannes supra scripti si- 
gilla sua praesentibus indenturis alternatum apposuerunt. Dat. apud 
manerium ipsius Reverendi Patris de Hoveden die ^V mensis Augusti 
Anno domini 1404. 

Copied from the original in University CoUegCj Ojford. 

W. C Tbsveltan. 


100 Submarine Trees Jbttnd at Whitburn. 

. Account of a Discovery of some Bemains qfTrees^ within Sea Mark, 
at Whitburn, in the Counfy of Durham, from the Rev. Thomas Baker, 
Rector of Whitburn. 

At about a mile south of Whitburn, the sand having been removed by 
the tide at the latter end of November, 1822, the stumps of seven trees 
were seen at about 100 yards in the sea, measuring from high water 
mark. The largest is described as about six feet in diameter, and is 
obviously in the situation in which it grew. There is a considerable 
accumulation of vegetable matter round them, containing leaves, 
nuts, and broken pieces of branches : next below this, is a light blue 
clay, in which the trees appear to have grown : the common general 
stratum of clay is brown, with many small stones intermixed, and is 
very brittle ; in this no vegetable remains have been found, though it 
is frequently laid bare for a considerable distance in Whitburn Bay. 

Whitburn, 31st. Dec. 1822. 

Lambert Pedigree. 101 

VI. Extracts (being Warrants and Orders issued by King Henry the 
Eighth qf England, and William the First of Scotland J from a Pedi- 
gree of the Family of Lambert, attested by Camden ; W. Segar, Garter; 
R. St. George, Norroy ; R. TressweU, Somerset ; in the Possession of 
Sir Charles Miles Lambert Monck, Bart ofBelsay. Communicated 
by W. C. Trevel YAN, Esq., of Wallington. 

Signed Henry R. By the Kinge. 

Forasmuch as wee send this bearer John Lambarte GentiL (Sonne 
of Christopher Lambart of Skipton) with all possible diligence uppon 
certajme owre weighti affayres into sundry partes of this owre Realme, 
Owre pleasure and highe commandement is that immediatelie uppon the 
sight hearof, ye see him furnished from tyme to tyme of sufficient and 
able horssis for his jomey at pryce reascmable, when and as often as hee 
shall have cause, as yowe and every of yowe will answere for the con- 
trary at youre most extreme perills. gevin under owre signet at owre 
Castell of wyndsor the xx** day of Octobre, the xxviij'^ yeare of owre 

To all and singular owre Mayors, Bayliffs, SheryfTs, and Constables, 
and to all other Officers, minesters, and subjects, and to every of them. 

Signed Henry R. 

We greet yow well j lettinge yow weete that whearas we have di- 
reckted and sent with others owre right trustie and entyerly beloved 
Cousin and Counsellor the Earle of Southampton, to owre Towne 

102 Lambert Pedigree. 

of Newe castdl uppon Tyne, thertoo meete and treate with certayne 
commissioners thyther to be sent from the Kinge of Scotts owre 
Nephewe, for and touchinge an unyversall peace to be concluded be- 
twene us, and owre sayd Nephewe, and bothe owre Realmes for ever : 
Ower pleasure and high comandiment is that uppon the receipt hear- 
of yow presently furnish youre selfe to make youre repayre to owre 
sayde Cosyn of Southampton, so soone as yow may understand of his 
beyng at Yorke in his way thither wardes, thenceforthe to be further 
ymployed as yowe shal be ymmediatlye comaunded by us or direcktid 
by him, whearin wee will yowe to use youi'e beste endevour and di- 
ligence, whearof wee are well pswadid already, and as yowe tender 
owre service, and hearof fayle ye not as yow will answere the contrary. 
Yeoven at owre honor of Hampton Courte the tenth day of June in the 
xxxiiij'** year of owre raygne. 

Directed no the outsyde "^^ ^^ ^^^^ *"^ welbeloved 

and the insyde •^°^" Lambart gentU. Sonne of 

Christopher Lambart of Skypton. 

Signed Henry R. By the Kinge. 

Wee greete yowe well ; letting yow weete, that forasmuche as owre 
Right trustie and welbeloved Cosyn and Counsellor the Earle of South- 
ampton is departid this lyfe in his journey into Scotland, (uppon whose 
Soule Jhesu have mercye) and that dyvers and sundrie Instructions, 
letters, direcktions, papers, wrytings, and other noets touching owre 
service, whearin o' saide Cosjoi and Counsellor was lately there, and 
into the north partes of owre Realme ymployed, whearby him put in to 
youre handes, and there leafte, and are so still remayninge: Owre plea- 
sure and highe commaundement is, that uppon the sight hearof yowe 
make youre ymmediat repaire unto us bringinge with yowe all the saide 
instructions, letters, direcktions, papers, wrytings, and other noets what- 
soever receavid eyther from us or from him tochinge that service to be 

Lambert Pedigree. 103 

disposid of, at owre pleasure, Andheareof fayle ye not at yowre perrill. 
Datid at owre pallace of Westmester the xxvij'*" daye of October in the 
xxxiiij'"* yeare of owre Raygne. 

To our welbeloved John Lambarte gentil. 
Sone of Christopher Lambart of Skipton. 

Signed Henry R. By the Kinge. 

Wee greete yowe well, lettinge yowe weete, that forasmuche as wee 
nave conceavid good lykinge of owre trustie and welbeloved John Lam- 
bart Gentil". (Sonne of Christopher Lambart of Skipton.) of whose redi- 
nes and promptnes in service wee have had pryvate knowledge for cer- 
tayne yeares paste. And whearas wee have receavid dyvers complayntes 
agaynst owre nowe Secretarye of owre Counsell established in the northe 
partes, Owre pleasure and high coiuaundement is owre sayde former Se- 
cretarie to be removid, And that yowe see the sayde John Lambart placid 
in that Office, and that yowe admitt and receave him as owre Secretarie 
of owre Counsell in the Northe partes by these presents so to contynewe 
at owre pleasure, and untiU yowe receave further comaundement from 
us. And heereof wee will yowe not to fayle, Yeoven under owre Signet 
at ower palayce of Westm* the xxvij**" daye of November in the xxxv'*" 
yeare of owre Raygne. 

To owre Right trustie and entyerly beloved Cosyn and Counsellor 
Charles Duke of Suffolke owre lyevetenant in the North Partes, and 
to oure Counsell there established. 

(William I.) 

W: Rex Scotie universis in Christo Ecclie. fidelibus salutem : Sciant 
omnes ad quos littre iste pervent quod an** ab incarnatione Dni : M. C. 
Ixvij* in presentiam mea et venerabilium virorum Clericorumet Laicorum 

10* Lambert Pedigree. 

apnd Stryvelyii, Talis facta est compositio inter Henricum de Lam^ 
bart legatum ab Anglia et Alexandnim de Olifard militem, quos ad 
Judicium finaliter p. me fiend' Henricus Rex Anglian totaliter referebilt 
in causa duelii ipsis concessi p. Mariscallum Anglise propter quasdam 
accusationes p. unum adversus altrum habitas et fidei interpositione 
utrinque firmata Scilicet quod coram me veniet uterque eorum Armatus 
paratus ad congressum et me suadente totam calumpniam quam quisque 
habebat adversus alterum confestim deponet et remittet ex corde et 
dignitas utriusque salva erit et jungent dextras et super Evangelia jura- 
bunt se in eternum futuros veros amicos, salva Officio quod seorsim ge- 
runt adversus Regem suum, Et omnia hec facta sunt in presentia mea: 
Hiis testibus Ingelram Episcopo Glascuensi, Nicholao Cancellario, 
Richardo Capellano, David de Olifard, Willmo. Dolepen, Thome de 
Maundeville, Willmo. Latimer, Petro de Colvill, Barnardo filio Brian, 
Rogero Camerario, Wydone Marescallo, Alexander deNevill, et multis 
aliis Scotis et Anglis. 

fPart of the seal^ in white wax^ a man armed on horseback.) 

Inscription w a BeU at Hemyrih ChapcL - 105 

VIL EsfianaUon of the Inscription on a Bell at Heworth Chapel^ in the 
County qf Durham^ in a Letter from Wiluam Hamper, Esq. to John 
Ai}AMSON, Esq. Secretartf. 

Deritend HotisCf Birmingham. 

I BEG, through your medium, to lay before the Society a brief explana- 
tion of the inscription on the Bell at Heworth Chapel, concerning the 
import of which, your worthy Go-Secretary confesses himself unable to 
form the smallest conjecture.* That its characters are unusually rude 
and obscure must be allowed, but I conceive that it eluded Mr. Hodg- 
son's sagacity, chiefly from the legend having been impressed in an 
i^werted position ; and that, on viewing Plate V. the contrary way, it 
may be made out, in black letter, as follows :— 

Now, presuming R* tJBL to be the maker's initials, it will follow that 
IIC# 90^ denotes his residence, either at Morpeth, or some other pliEice be- 
ginning with the same letter. 

31^4 is the well-known monogram of ihesus ; and, though the ** name 
above all names," was commonly introduced on the sacred utensils, 
books, and vestments, and may probably have only a general application 
hi the present instance, yet it is far from impossible but that the bell 
itself was so named in baptism. One of the celebrated peal at Osney 
Abbey was called Jesus ; and on a small hand-bell of the year |1545, 
formerly used in the domestic chapel at Baddesl)ey-Clinton Hall, in 
Warwickshire, is an inscription to the same effect— Rhesus, es. minex.. 


* ArchaeoL JEHksUL^ toI. i. part i App. no. 6. 

106 Antiquities J^Mid in a (kurn^ ne(^ He$het4n4he^Forest. 

VIIL An Account qf some Antiquities found in a Qum^ near Hesket-in- 
tJie-Forest, in Cumberland^ in a Letter Jrom Mr. CHRiSTOPfiEft Hodg- 
son, to the Bev. Jobn Hodgson, Secretary. See Plates I. and 11. 

On Friday, the 15th of February, 18££, the workmen employed under 
my directions in widening HesketLane, on the great road between 
Carlisle and Penrith, about seventy yards from the Court Thorn, and 
on the east side of the way, fell in with a Cairn, which, with the anti- 
quities it contained, 1 will endeavour to describe to you in the best 
manner I can.* 

The hedge which was removed to make the alteration ran close by 
the west side of the cairn, and the new one runs through it One would 
suppose the road had been curved round the west side of the cairn to 
avoid injiuing it. Mr. Atkinson, of Cross-Oaps, which is the nearest 
dwelling'-house to the cairn, tells me he remembers that when the turnpike 
road was made, between 60 and 55, or 56 years since, this cairn consisted 
of a very large heap of stones ; that he believed many of them were taken 
at that time for forming the road, and since then, the successive fanners 
of the ground have taken stones in such considerable quantities from it, 
for repairing their hedges, as to have reduced it so far below the level 
of the adjoining ground, that none of it has^ of late years, been within 
the reach of the plough. 

On the Monday after the workmen fell in with it, I set several of them 
to work to clear away its area j in the progress of which operation, a 
very large quantity of cobble-stones, consisting chiefly of such red 

* See plate i. fig. 2, for sketch of theroad, dtuatioa of the Gairoy Sec. 

•r Ksy sis.* Tg «E» ««> 

Antiqmtk^ fivnd in a Ckurftf mar He^ketiri'^e'ForeiL 107 

mid^stone m m ioxmd in ^iiu in the neighbourhood, but partly of the dif- 
ferent varieties of the hard blue rocks, which form the mountains^ that 
eimroQ tiie sides aad head of UUsirater ; some of them H^^eie so large as 
to take three men to roll them out. They were lyingin a ciixneiJtar 
maimer, ia an araaof about:S2ieet diameter, and about two feet below 
the aurfiuse of the field. Immediately below the stones, and upon 9 
natural bed of very fine dry sand, we came to a stratum consisting of 
charcoal, burnt bones, ashes, and the following antic^puties, dbiefly Jying 
in a heap, with strong marks of fire in the sand, over an area of about 
14. feet diameter. The stones immediately covering the ashes were 
laigie, andclosely s^togeth^; those above smaller, compact, and re<- 
gulan. Tbefour stones in. Plate I, were found amongst them. 

Plate L fig. 3« J3 a atone perforated with two holes, and having a part 
afits ^per surface sunk about an inch deep. It is 18 inches across, at 
the broadest part, by IS inches. . 

Figt 4, a^ is part of a millstone, of freestone ; it measures Hi inches 
across in one line, and 61 inches ii^ the other, and differs from 1 to 3 
inches im thidbiess. 

Pig; i, 6, is another fragment of ^ millstone,, of the kind that arexaUed 
the Wae stone, and which are quarried on the Bhine, near Cologne.*— 
It measures 11^ inches across in one line, and 6| inches in the other. . 
. Pig^: 4, XT, is a rude hmnisiphere of freestone, havingseveral ^m^I holes 
<tn its b^.^ It has probably been an upper millstone. The diameter 
15 Indies. . • •) i • 

Plate II. fig. 1, is a fragment of an ivory comb, neatly carved, and 
tuined to agreemshv brown colour. , . , 

/. lEig^^ % ^ and ^and%» d, a and £, arQ alsKitof ivoiy, imd I suppo9e 
them to have been the hafts idther of knives or razors, asi they are very 
like those of the razors now in use, and of the clasp knives used before 
the modem invention of spriogs at the hinge. They Im^^ e^h a fret 
upon them, very neatly and very regularly carved, and sndi as ifi com-^ 
iionly met wilh on Itonian anti^uitiesu t^ > 

Fig. 4, is a sharping stone, not unlike those oalled water of Ayr 

108 Antiquities found in a Qnmp near HeskeUin-ihe^Forest. 

Figures 1» S, 3, and 4*, are about twice tiie «i2e of the %ures in the 

. Fig. 5, a and hy are parts of a pair of steel spurs, and are about 6 
inches in length. 

Fig. 6, a sort of iron dish, which I take to have been either tiie up- 
per part of a helmet, or the umbo of a ^eld. It is 5? inches in dia* 
^ meter. 

Fig. 7, an axe of steel, which the Romans called securis. It is 7 
inches long. 

Fig. 8, is a double edged steel sword ; the hilt is 3 inches long, and 
\i inch broad. The guard 5 inches long, i high, and 1 inch broad. 
The pommel or balance knob, behind the hand is three inches in dia* 
meter, and of the same strengh as the guard : bol^ the guard and the 
pommel have been plated with silver, which has been melted, but still 
adheres to them in globules, and they have a similar fret carved upon 
them to that on the ivory. The blade is S feet 10 inches long, next 
to the guard S| inches, and at the point 1| inch broad. 

Fig. 9* ^ is a spear head of steel, of very neat workmanship. It is 
bent between the blade and socket, the latter of which is 5^ inches 
long, and | of an inch in diameter, having the copper rivets through it. 
The blade is 6i inches long. 

Fig. 9* ^9 is anotiier head of a lance or spear, also of fine workmanship, 
the socket 6 inches long, I of an inch in diameter, and having in it 7 
holes on each side, fitted in copper rivets. The blade is 12 inches 
long, a part of which is wanting. 

Fig. 10, is an iron bit of a bridle, whidi has apparently been plated 
with brass. It is remiairkable, that though of the kind called a snaffle, 
it has rings for one rein and head ; they have been fixed by iron plates. 
It measures 7 inches. 

Fig. 11, a, 6, and c, iron fragments of a biidle, and other appen« 
dages to a bridle. ... 

Fig. 12, a piece of iron, 8 inches across the bow', which I suppose to 
have belonged to the pommel of a saddle. 

I can make very few general conclusions concetniilg these antiquities. 



%t :.• 

Antiquities found in a Cairth near Hesket-m-ihe^Farest. 109 

From the style and excellence of their workmanship^ I would con- 
clude that they are Roman ; and I am much in favour of this conclu- 
sion from the circumstance of querns of Cologne stone being generally 
and very frequently found near Roman camps and forts, and from their 
being found on the site of a funeral pile. The remains of a bridle and 
saddle, however, are in favour of their belonging to a Scandinavian or 
Tartar race of people, as they make it probable that the ashes of a horse, 
as well as those of its rider, bad been interred here. All the implements 
that are of metal, have been exposed to great heat, probably to that of 
the funeral pile, lighted to consume the body of their original owner; 
after they had been softened in the fire, the sword and the spear heads. 
No. 9, had received the twists with which they are represented in the 

If the turnpike road was on the line of Watling-Street, I would in- 
fer that these antiquities are older than, or coeval with, the Roman way 
from old Penrith to Carlisle, as it makes a turn at this place, which can 
be accounted for by no other way, than supposing that it had that 
direction given to it, for the purpose of avoiding the Cairn which I 
have been endeavouring to describe to you. 

Dear Brother, your's affectionately, 


110 Ranum Remaim* 

^. An Account qfsome lUmm Semam disewered on ihtOmt qf. 
ham, in Oe Year 1816, igf W. C. Tjievblta», Esq. qfWaiUngUm. 
numkaiedto ^ Society. ^^Se^ Flate I. Fig* 6. 

I' ' ' • 

N the summer of 1816, as I was examining the hills on the c.oast, about 

half way between Seaton and Hartlepool, in the county of Durham> 
near a farm called the Blue Houses, I observed a spot under the sand 
where the earth seemed to have been burnt, and some fragments of 
bones appeared ; and on further examination I found a fragment of 
the fine red Roman earthen-ware, another of coarser brown, and a third 
of a red tile, together with some cinders and burnt bones* In the an- 
nexed sketch, the shaded parts shew the masses of earth formerly at the 
surface, but now only exposed by the washing of the sea. At the spot 
marked A I found a bone and a piece of tile; at B the earth for some 
space appeared burnt, and several vertebral bones of some animal were 
lying on it. At C were the fragments of earthenware, and near it 
two flat stones in an upright position, and a third l3ring near them. At 
this spot, the depth of the soil which contains these remains is four feet, 
the sand has now accumulated 24 feet above it, and below it is a clay. 

The Rev. Mr. Leman, of Bath, to whom I sent the above account says, 
that it is evidently some Roman villa, or station, and suggests the proba- 
bility of there being some road or communication between it and Pierse 
Bridge (Ad Tisam), or Binchester (Vinovium), or Chester-le-Street } 
but this I have not yet had an opportunity of ascertaining. 

In the present year (1822), Mr. Pease, of Darlington, picked up, on 
the same spot, a large fragment of the red earthenware, which 
induced him to examine further, and he found an iron spear head, a 
brass coin of Domitian and a small brass fibula. 

Runk InsaiplioM on dnoneMnt Cross. 

X. An Account qf a Runic Inscriptum on tm amient Cross, disafvered 
-at Lancaster, in the Fisor 1S07, in a Letter from William Hamfbe 
Etq, to JoHK AsAHSOiT, Esq^ Secretary* 

DeriUnd House, Birmingham, 
Oct, 3d, 1832. 

I SHALL feel obliged by your laying before 
the Socie^, accompanied by my best acknow- 
ledgements for the honour of membership 
latdy conferred upon me, the annexed sketch 
of an ancient cross, found at Lancaster, in 
the year I8O7. Never having seen the ori- 
^nal, I can only vouch for the accuracy of 
its delineation, on the assurance of my learned 
friend Mr. Onnerod, the Historian of Che- 
shire, who informs me that it was made by 
a very careful artist at Lancaster, when this 
curious relique was deposited in the Vicar's 
house there, shortly afler its discovery and 
disinterment in the adjacent church yard. 
The Runic Inscription, ** faithful to its 
trust," though partially injured by all-pre- 
vailing Time, may be thus represented in 
Anglo-Saxon characters. 

112 Bwiic InseripHon on on andmt Cross. 

i. e. Erected for Ocyelbrifs Burial^lace. 

In the unsettled orthography of the eariy period when thi» cross was 
set up, probably anterior to the Norman Conquest, Ocyelhrit would ex- 
press the same name as Egelberht or JEthelberkt^* which seems to have 
been a common appellation. 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Youths luncerdy, 


* Gibion Cbron. Sax. Rcgute generales, p«51« 

Ancient Indenture. 113 

XL Copy qfan Indenture respecting Apparel made in the Time qf Rich- 
ard the Second^ between (he Lady Joane de Calverlet and Robert 
Derethorne, communicated in a Letter jrom W. C. Treveltan, Esq. 
of WalUngton^ to John Adamson» Esq. Secretary. 

WalUngion, Nov. 5, 1823- 
Dear Sir, 

Accompanying this I send you a copy of an old account, which is in- 
teresting, as shewing the prices of divers things in this country at an 

early period. 

Dear Sir, very truly your's, 


Copy Jrom the original^ on parchment. 

Cest endente fait a Calv'lay le xvi io' de Juin Ian du Regne le Roy 
TSi^dh secound puys le conquest xi"*" p. ent' La Dame John* de Calv'lay 
d un pt. & Rob* Derethome d autre pt. tesmoigne q' la dit dame John 
paiera a dit Rob* p' les choses queux ensuont P'mment p' viii ermyns 
achatez viii' It p' 1 gowne de melled ovesq' une chapon de bloy lyne 
ove Tarter3m vt xs It p' iii aulnz de russete p' 1 gowne ove 1 chapon 
prs del auln ii' iiij"*— vij*. It p' 1 furrur degray p' mesme la goune ove 
le pfulyng du mesme &la lynure del chapon xxij.% It p' xl perles pris 
del pece ij"* q' vii* vi** : It p' 1 goune de bloy mottelay & 1 chapon de schar- 
lete la goune furre ovesq. popill & le chapon ove menever & les p' fels 
d ambedieux d ermyne p* ovesq. la ptenaunce viii' iiij^ It la dite 

• Joan Che wife of Walter CBhreriey/ofCBhrerley, was daughter of Sir JolmBygot^ 


1 14 Ancient Indenture. 

dame paiera a dit Rob^ ix marcz queux il appta a luy. It p' 1 coupill de 
Haranc sor & vi pisd sals xvi' It p' 1 viel xvi'' It p' 1 sell rub cum 
frene p' 1 mlier x' It p' 1 sell deaurat coopt cu rub velvet p' 1 dna p 


This indenture, made at Calverlay the l6th day of June» in the year 
of the reign of King Richard the Second^ after the Conquest llth. Be- 
tween the Lady Joane de Calverlay, of the one part, and Robert Dere- 
thome of the other witnesseth, that the said Lady Joane hath paid to 
the said Robert, for the things which follow : Imprimis, for 8 ermines 
bought 8s. Item, for a gown of melled, with a hood of blue lined with 
green tarterine, 10s. Item, for S ells of russette for a gown, with a hood, 
price per ell, 2s« 4d , 7s- Item, for a furring of grey for the same gown, 
with the perfuling* of the same and the lining of the hood, S2s. Item, 
for 40 perles, price a piece, 2^d. 7s. 6d. Item, for a gown of blue mot- 
telay and a scarlet hood, the gown furred with poplin, and the hood 
with menever,t and the perfulings of both of ermine, price, with the 
appurtenances, 8s. 4d. Item, the said Lady hath payed to the said 
Robert 9 marks which he had lent her. Item, for a couple of heronsor 
and 6 salt fish, l6s. Item, for a calf, 16d. Item, for a red saddle, 
with bridle, for a militia man, 10s. Item, for a saddle, gUt and covered ^^> 

with red velvet, for a lady, price 40s. 

* Perfuling : : bordering. f Menever ss a fine fur fiom Muscory. 

Antiquities Jbund in Cumberland. 115 

XII. An Account of some Antiquities presented to the Society by William 
Chapman, Esq. Gvil Engineer, communicated by him to the Secretaries. 
See Plate III. 

Newcastle J 24fA December, 1823. 
Dear Sir, 

1 CONCEIVE the various Relicks I send you can no where be so appro- 
priately placed as with the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle, who, I 
hope, will deem some of them to be worthy of their acceptance. 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Your's truly, 
John Adamson, Esq. WILLIAM CHAPMAN, 

Newcastle, December 18, 1823* 
Dear Sirs, 

As the course of the Canal from Carlisle to the Solway Frith, which 
was lately executed under my chief direction, crossed the line of the 
Roman wall several times, I had hoped to have obtained some remains 
of antiquity worthy of being presented to the Antiquarian Society of 
Newcastle; having desired the different contractors to inform their 
men that I would give the full value of whatever they found. It has, 
however, so happened, that they either found nothing of any material 
value, or sought for such purchasers as were at hand ; therefore the only 
antiquities that came to my possession^ are enumerated in the enclosed 
letter to me, from one of the contractors for the work, and are now 

116 Antiquiiies^und in Cumberland. 

sent, for the acceptance of the Sociefyi in the same package they were 
forwarded to me.* 

The church spoken of in the letter, is that of Burgh^ the ancient Axe- 
lodunum, on the south side of Severus's wall ; and the bog which is 
mentioned, is close to the entrance of Burgh marsh, the surface of which 
is below the level of high tides. 

The rude figure upon the stone, of SO inches in length by 8 inches in 
breadth, is apparently a figure of Mercury in one of his characters, on 
which I shall make no comment, as it will now be correctly ascer* 
tained ; the floor of hard cement, near to which it was found, can at 
present only afford basis for conjecture. 

The coin appears to bear the image of Faustina, but is so eroded as 
not to be easily definable. 

The metal pot seems to be of comparatively recent origin ; and on 
the small earthen vessel, I have formed no decided opinion. 

There were also found, near the same place, parts of red earthen 
pipes, which may indicate the vicinity of a Roman bath : but what I 
deem to be more worthy of observation than any of the preceeding, is a 
small specimen of oak wood,t from a subterraneous forest, which was 
cut through in the excavation of the canal, near the banks of 3olway 
Firth, between the stations of Gabrosentum and Tunnocelum, viz. about 
half a mile north west of the village of Glasson, and extending into 
Kirklands. The trees were all prostrate, and they had fallen, with 

• Sir, Burgh, 2m AvguH, 181B3. 

I have sent you all the curiosities that I was able to obtaio, and perhaps you will he desirous ta 
know in what situation they were found. The stone was discovered with its hce down, about 50 
yards east of the church, about 8 feet below the sur&ce, near to a large floor of hard cement, about 
3 feet below the surface. 

The coin was found about 100 yards east of the church, at about the same depth firom the surfiice 
as the stone. 
The small earthen pot was found among the peat moss beside the culvert. 
The small metal pot was found very near the same place where the coin was found. 

Your obedient Servant, 

f A suffident quanti^ of this wood was afterwards obtained, through Mr. Chapman, to make 
a President's chair for the Society. 

Antiquities Jbimd in Cumberland* II7 

little deviation, in a northerly direction, or a little eastward of it.-» 
Some short trunks, of 2 or 3 feet in height, were in the position of their 
natural growth ; but although l^e trees, with the exception of their 
alburnum and all the branches, were perfectly sound, yet the extremity 
of the trunks, whether fallen or standing, were so rugged, that it was 
not discoverable whether the trees had been cut down, or had fallen by 
a violent storm. The level upon which the trunks lay, was a little be* 
low that of high tides ; and from 8 to 10 feet below the surface of the 
ground they were embedded in ; which, excepting the superficial soil, 
is a soft blue clay, having the appearance oi marine alluvion ; I brought 
a specimen of it to Newcastle, with a view to its being analysed ; but, 
by some non-attention, it has been lost ; as also has a paper of efflo- 
rescent salt, which had formed upon the vertical face of a pillar of this 
earth in the middle of the canal ; therefore I can only say, that the 
taste and appearance of the salt was ammoniacal. Although the pre- 
cise period at which this forest fell is not ascertainable, there is a posi- 
tive proof that it must have been long prior to the building of the wall 
of Severus, because the foundations of that wall passed obliquely over 
it, and lay 3 or 4 feet above the level of the trees j all of which were of 
oak, and several of them above 4 feet in girt. 

I have seen numerous trunks of oak trees, both in Ireland and this, 
island, but all of them were embedded in peat bog ^ and their sap ves- 
seb were uniformly decayed, so that the ligneous fibres were easily, 
separable. On the contrary, you will see in the specimen I send you,^ 
which is superscribed with my name, that the wood appears as sound as 
if recently ciit. It was saturated with moisture, and rather expanded, 
but not more than if newly cut timber had been exposed to moisture ;: 
in fine, it was in so perfect a state, that I authorised the contractor for 
8(Hne jetties protecting the outlet of the canal into Solway Frith, to use 
it under few limitations in the construction of those jetties, in common 
with other oak timber procured for the purpose. 

I have also seen, interspersed with short trunks in a standing direc* 
ti(Hi, prostrate trees in beds of peat mossi^ on both shores of this island^ 
as lowi and even below the level of spring tide low water, which as the 

118 Antiquities found in Cumberland. 

level of the sea rises slowly from the fall of precipices^ and from the 
constant protrusion of alluvial matter from the various rivers of the 
globe, it follows, that even with the aid of some not . yet ascertained 
auxiliary cause, numerous centuries must have elapsed since those trees, 
lipon the lower levels, were in a growing state ; but in all those instan- 
ces, whether ancient or more modem, the sap vessels were reduced to a 
black pulp, as already implied, and the concentric ligneous fibres only 
remaining, which were more or less divided by the vessels communi- 
cating through each concentric ligneous ring, so as to be easily separable, 
in small slips, like whalebone. Therefore the preservation of the sap 
vessels in the trees under discussion, appears to be owing, either to the 
saline matter I have mentioned, or to the substance in which they were 
embedded being more impervious to air, and to the transmission of water. 
Amongst the causes tending to raise the level of the ocean, I have not, 
as has been some time done, enumerated the constant formation of co- 
ral islands, because the matter of which they are formed must previ- 
ously have been in or under the ocean ; nor can the islands formed by 
sub-marine volcanoes raise the level of the sea ; but must, on the con- 
trary, depress it, so far as the volcanic mass shall be raised above its level. 

The accuracy of astronomical observations prevents me attributing it 
to a slight polar deviation, insuf&cient to bend the crust of this sphere, 
by any local change of centrifugal tendency. 

Besides those relicks found near the western end of the wall of Seve- 
rus, I also send, for the Society's acceptance, two fragments of an ele- 
gant Roman vase, of fine red pottery, which was found at its opposite 
extremity, close to or in the site of the station of Segedunum, which 
were presented by me many years since, to the late Hugh Hornby, Esq. 
Alderman of this Corporation, and returned to me by Miss Hornby, 
after her father's death. I shall not attempt to describe the various 
figures embossed upon them, because these fragments will now pass 
into the possession of those more competent to decipher them than. 

Dear Sirs, your's faithfully, 


Rev. John Hodgson,\ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Antiquarian Society, Newcastle. 
John Adamson, Esq. } 

Antiqvitiesjbtmd in Cumberland. 119 

Explanation qf^ and Remarks on^ the accompanying Plan. 

The extensive agger, y and the smaller one, x are deserving of the 
examination of an Antiquary. 

In Horsley's Britannia RomanOj the wall of Severus is described to 
run on the north side of the highway over Burgh Marsh, which accords 
with the general plan, p. 158 ; but he also says, that the wall passed 
through Bowstead and Easton ; both of which lie on the south edge of 
the marsh, and the course of the wall is so marked by dotted lines on an 
enlarged plan. 

In Cough's edition of Camden's Britannia, vol. iii. p. 228, the line of 
Severus' wall appeared to go straight over Burgh and Easton Marshes, 
which accords with the vallum and stony vestiges in the extensive 
agger at y. As the marshes in the time of the Romans must have 
been more overflowed by the high tides than they now are, which sel- 
dom occurs but in the equinoxes, it is not improbable that they might 
have had castella, or small stations^ on the eminences of Bowstead and 
Easton, which project into the southern boundaries of those marshes, 
and if so,, the ruins of these minor stations may account for the discor- 
dance of opinions. At x the mounds are simply of earth; they ap- 
pear to be military works ;, and as it is dubious whether Hadrian's 
VaUum extended so far west, it is not unlikely that they have been 
thrown up during the various contests antecedent to the union of these 


120 Letter Jrom Queen EUzabeih. 

XL Copy qfa Letter written by Queen Elizabeth^ to Frederick II. of 
Denmark, communicated by Walter Calverley Treveltan, Esq* 
of WaUington, to Johk Adamson, Esq. Secretary. 

Serekissime Princeps & Frater charissime. Quoniam per nobilem 
virum, qui has perfert, aut etiam antequam ille in Danias Regnum forte 
venerity de Scoticas Reginae nece famam volaturam suspicamur, ea res 
quemadmodum gesta sit Serenitati Vestrc vere & fideliter apperiendam 
duximus. Ea Regina in quantis criminibus de necis nostras non semel 
sed saepius iterata machinatione & status nostri euersione deprehensa sit 
Serenitatem Vestram audivisse non dubitamus. Quod ipsius Reginas 
multis Uteris Secretariorumque eius confessione, multorumque in necem 
nostram eius mandato coniuratorum testimoniis euidentissime compro- 
batum est. Ac coniuratos illos, totam illam machinationem statim cum 
caperentur, atque etiam cum Supplicio traderentur, palam confitentes, 
debitis poenis leges afficerunt. 

Reginam vero, vitae nostras quotidie struentem insidias, trium Sta- 
tuum nostrorum auctoritas, quod parliamentum vocant, iustissimo in- 
dicio neci condemnavit, qui saepe nos iteratis precibus defatigarunt, ut 
earn potius meritae neci traderemus, quam perpetuo, dum ilia viueret, 
cum eius emissariis de nostra vita dimicaremus, simul etiam plane nobis 
edicentes, nuHam humano ingenio rationem iniri posse qua (iUa salua) 
nos saluas esse possemus. Eam tamen supplicio tradere propter sangui- 
nis coniunctionem nuncquam sustinuimus, ut id fieret in eo duntaxatcasu, 
si tumultus aliquisy aut rebellion eius Reginae causa, in pemiciem nos>- 
tram exitata esset. Hoc diploma Secretario cuidam nostro custodiendum 

*9 *^rxJ3.^ -ffJiQ . 

Letter from Qiueen EUzahelh. 121 

dedimite, grauiter interdicentes ne cuiquam id enunciaret, aut quic- 
quam in ea re nobis non prius consultis egeriet Quod ille prorsus 
negligens (habita cum consiliariis nostris nonnullis consultatione) prae- 
cipiti festtnationey nobis insciis, executibni mandavit, qui tamen nunc ita 
se excusant, se esse mmia nostra . dementia nobis ipsis exi- 
tium accelerarenlus. 

Ita praeter nostram voluntatem^ huius Secretarii temeritate, Begina 
ilia (quanquam quod negari non potest nocentissima) nobis, Deum tes- 
tamur, nihil tale suspicantibus morti tradita est. Secretarium tamen 
ilium, propter manifestum mandati nostri contemptum, in Turrim con-^ 
jecimus ut ad amussim tam inexpectati nobis factirationem reddat. 

Quod hiis Uteris Serenitati Vestrae testari voluimus, non quod verea- 
mur ne huius Reginse supplicium nobis imputetur, quod et iustissime 
exequi potuimus, & si periculi nostri duntaxat rationem habuissemus 
certe debuimus, sed ut rei ordinem vere & sincere pro Sororio nostro 
animo intelligeret, nee quicquam nobis in vita hoc uno facto acerbius 
contigisse. Itemm Deum Optimum Maximum precamur ut Serenitati 
Vestrae omnia fausta ac fodicia largiatur. Datum ut in Uteris. 


On the Cover ;— 
SER'mo Principi ac Domino FREDERICO secundo, Dei gratis 
Daniae, Norvegiae, Vandalorum, Gothorumque Regi, Duci Slesvici, 
Hobatiae^ Stormariae ac Dietmartiae, Comiti in Oldenburg & Delmen-^ 
horst, Fratri, Consanguineo & Amico nostro charissimo. 

With the Queen's seal in yelUm "wax. 

Under the address is written : — R.. (receptae-) Scanderberb. (urgi) 

23 Martii Anno 8?. 

The original of this letter is preserved amongst the Royal Archives 
at Copenhagen, and was pubUshed in the *^ Nye Danske Magazin'' for 
18S3, with a fac-simile of EUzabeth's signature. 

In a letter from, Lord WiUoughby to Frederick II. dated London^ 



LeUer from Queen E&zaieth. 

March^ 4^ 1587f he speakd thps concerning this event i-rr*^' l^^ci e«t 
novum, potentis^ime Rex, quod ante mensem Regina demoitissunay 9^ 
«anguine tantum abhorrens, ut justam aegre sumat vindiqtam, vicrti^ 
tamen omnium Angliae ordinum atque universitatiB civium ^uoiiwn ?& 
subditorum precibus assiduis, eam jussit exequendam sententiam^ QU^m 
regni proceres tuterant» & tota gens nostra comprobat, <;pDtra iOOioen* 
tissimam Reginam/' 

Obsenaiians on the Raman Road called Wrehendike. 123 

No. XIV.— OJ^^Wfltfcww on the Roman Road called Wrehendike^ and 
particular fy qf that Branch qf it which led from the Mouth qf the 
Tyne, at South Shields^ to Lanchester^ in ihe County qf Durham. By 
the Rev. John Hodgson, Sec. 


Till Gateshead Fell was indosed there was only one house at the Five 
Lanes' end upon it, which commonly went by the name of the Red Robins^ 
a nick-name given to a person who resided in it not many years since. 
It is still a public house, and stands on the west side of the old road to 
London, and at the head of the lane that leads thither from Lamesley, 
by Harley Green. After the enclosure of the common, l^r* Watson, 
of Warburton Place, on Carhill, founded a considerable village at this 
place, which, at my suggestion, he called Wrekenton. My reason for 
recommending this apparently antiquated and unintelligible, but cer- 
tainly EngUsh-sounding name, to this new establishment, was— -its conti- 
guity to the course of an ancient military road, which was there called 
WrekendikCf and in other parts of its extensive course, Rykenild^treetf 
and Ikenhild-street : and my object in writing this paper is to give some 
general account of this road, and of the meaning of its names } but more 
particularly to describe the part of it which runs westward from Wre- 
kenton to Lanchester, and eastward to South Shields, in the county of 

Ralph Higden, in his Pohfchromcon^ as printed by " Wynkjrn de 
Woorde," in 15Q5^ has a chapter '* On the Rotal Roads,'' in England, 
of which he gives the courses of four, and of the fourth thus : — ** The 
forth is called Rykenilde-street, and stretcheth forth by Worceter, by 
Wycobe, by Biymyngham, by Lychefelde, by Derby, by Chestrefelde, 
by York, and forth vnto Tynmouthe."* 

In the Oxford edition of the Polychronkon^ this road is described as 

* L3). L cap. xly. foL Ixy. 
VOL. II. S • 

124 Observations on the Ronum Road called Wrekendike* 

commencing at St David's : — ** Quarta via dicitur Ryknild-street, 
tendens ab affiico in boream vultumalem, & incipit a Mavonia in 
West-Wallia, tenditque per Wygomiam, per Wicum, per Birmyngham^ 
lichefeld, Derby, Chesterfeld, Eborum usque ad ostium Tyne fluminis, 
quod Tynemutha dicitur." 

A manuscript in the Cottonian Library,* intituled, Eulogium His- 
toriaruniy " seems," as Gale observes, " to have been copied fi'om the 
same draught" as Higden derived his information from, their descrip- 
tion of the four great roads being nearly verbatim aUke. These are the 
words of the Eulogium : — " Quarta via dicitur Rj/keneld-street tendens 
ab af&ico in Boream. Incipit enim a Menevia, et procedit per Here- 
fordiam, Wigorniam, Wicum, Bermingham, Lychefeld, Derbi, Chester- 
feld per Eboracum, usque ad ostium Tyne fluminis, quod nunc dicitur 

Harrison, in his Description of Britain^ after noticing that some 
call the " Erming. street" " the Lelmey* has the following description 
of this road: — " The Ikenildj or Rikenild^ began somewhere in the south, 
and so held on toward Cirencester, then to Worcester, Wicombe, Brim* 
cham, Litchfield, Darbie, Chesterfield j and crossing the Watling-street 
somewhere in Yorkshire, stretched foorth in tihe end vnto the mouth of 
the Tine, where it ended at the maine sea, as most men doo confesse. 
I take it to be called the Ikenild, because it passed through the king- 
dom of the Icenes. For albeit that Leland, and other following him, doo 
seeme to place the Icenes in Norfolke and Suffolke yet in mine opinion 
that cannot well be done, sith it is manifest by Tacitus that they laye 
neere vnto the Silures, and (as I gesse) either in Stafford and Worces- 
ter shires or in both, except my conjecture doo fail me. The author of 
the booke, intituled, " Eulogium Historiarum^* doth call this street 
the Lelme. But as herein he is deceived, so have I dealt withall so 
faithfullye as I may among such diuercitie of opinions ; yet not denieng 
but that there is much confusion in the names and courses of these two 
latter, the discussing whereof I must leave to other men that are better 
learned than I."t 

Drayton, in his Poly^olbion^ personifies Watling-street for the purpose 

« Galba E. 7. f Hooker's Edit. 1586, p. 113. 

Observations on the Roman Road catted Wrekendike. 125 

• of making it give an account of its own course, and that of the Foss, 
the Icning, and the Rickneld, which last it describes thus :— 

** And Rickneld, forth that raught from Cambria's farther shore^ 
<< Where South-Wales now shoots forth St. Dauid's Promontore» 
** Andy, on his mid-way neere, did me in England meet ; 
<< Then in his oblique course the lusty stragling Street, 
** Soone ouertook the Fosse ; and toward the Fall of Tine, 
** Into the Germane Sea dissolu'd at his decline."* 

In support of this general opinion, that an ancient road called Riken- 
ild-streetf passed from the western part of Wales, by way of Worcester 
and Birmingham, to the mouth of the Tyne, at South. Shields, I shall 
endeavour to bring some collateral, and, I think convincing, testimony. 
' In the foundation charter of the .Abbey of Hilton, in Staffordshire, 
one of the boundaries of a property granted to that, institution is de- 
scribed thus : — ^' Ascendendo per Richinild-streete el per viUam de 

Selden, in his notes on Drayton's Poly*olbion says : — " This name of 
Ricen^ild is in Randal, of Chester,, and by him derived from St* De- 
wies, in Pembroke, into Hereford, and so through Worcester, Warwick, 
Derby, and Yorkshire, to Tinmouth, which, upon the author's credit 
reporting it to me, is also iustifiable by a very ancient deed of lands 
bounded near Bermingham, in Warwickshire, by Rickenild.'^ . 

Mr. Horsley, in his Britannia Romana tells us, that ^' the Roman 
way which ran by little Chesters, a mile below Derby, is called Ricnig- 

. In the Additions to Camden,t speaking of this street, it is said, that 
^*in an old survey or map of the county of Derby, about Tupton Moor, 
made in the last century, it is called Rignall-street/' . 

In Lyson's Derbyshire we have the following observation : — " Rik- 
enild-street is called by the name of Rignal-street, in an old survey 
of Sir H. Hunlocke's property, in Derbyshire, as well as in those of 
other estates in Warwickshire and Staffordshire, where it is described 
as their boundary." § 

^ Selden*8 Ed. fol. 248. f Dog. Moo. ?oL il p. 94SL % Vol iL p. 431. $ P. ccix. 

126 Ohiervations on the Bomm, Rood called Wrekendihe. 

On the north side of die hamlet of Eighton-banks, in the county €£ 
Durham, there are vestiges of an ancient road, ^ich there forma the 
boundary between the parishes of ChesterJe-street and Gateshead, and 
further east, between the parishes of Jarrow and Washington, and in 
that particular spot is called Wrehendike. This road extended from 
the mouth of the Tyne, at South Shields, to the south-western corner 
of Gateshead Fell, where it branched off towards Gateshead to the 
north, Schaden's Law and the Wear to the south-east,* Chester-le- 
street to the south, and Lanchester to die west. 

Having now, I think, satisfactorily shown that the Wrekeodike, on 
Gateshead Fell, is apart of the Rykenilde-street of the Monk of Ches- 
ter, and our other old Topograpbicsd writes, I shall endeavour to give 
a rational etymology of the term Rykenilde, and a more particular 
account of the ancient road which led from South Shields towards 

Ild, is a Saxon word meaning old. Street, in its most obvious sense, 
is irom the Latin stratum^ and means a paved road, but was v^ pro-^ 
bably in its origin from the same source as the Greek rfavit, an army, 
and applied to such great ptiblic roads in the Roman Empire, as were 
made by the military , and maintained at the puUic cost* 

Dtke, as ^plied to roads, means a ridge of earth with a ditch onveaefa 
side of it. In this sense it appears in Graham's Dyke, Offii's Dike, &c. 

Rtken, I suppose to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon hjii2;3,t a 
ridge, in which sense it is still used in the north of England in the ex- 
pressions—" a rig of land," " the riggen tree," " the riggen of the 
bouse," and in this . sense, the Ricken-ildestreet is a name of the very 
same import m ^* the old Ridge-Wd^.*^ In support of this derivation 
it might be urged, that a collateral branch of Ikeneld-street, which 
ran from Streetley, on the Thames, in Oxfordshire, by Ashbury, Taun- 
ton, and Redruth, to the Land's End, is, to this day, called the 

* *' De Seiner per altum iter usq; Scadneslawe*' (Surtees, iLSlO). 

f The Saxon hpic^ or h]iy ^ and the Islandic Riggur mean a back or back bone ; and are proba- 
bly of the same origin as T'tuut^ L e. spina dorsi, which in the common 'language of Northumberland 
is called a rack; henoe also they call a neck of mutton ^ the rack,** 

Observations an (he Raman Bjoad called Wrekendike. 127 

JRidgemof ;* and that Iken^ or as it is frequently written Hiken^ is a 
mere synooym of Siken^ 8igiDif3dng Highj as in the Teutonic Hooge- 
strate and Hoagen^Jwegluf 

That t^ name Wrekendike was not imposed in modem times upon 
the branch of this road, which it is the object of this Essay to describe, 
but is of very ancient standing, I am able to advance indubitable evi- 
dence.t For Hugh de Pudsey, who was Bishop of Durham from 115S 

* Goug^y in the prefiuse to Camdeft$ BriUmma^ p. Izxv. 9Ay%^ the ^ Ridge^way" runs ** by Tamworth." 
Andm another place, ^ Wading-streety so named from one VitellanuSy supposed to have directed it (the 
Sntains calfing l^teUanus in thdr language AnetaUn) and Werlam Street, from its leading through or 
l»y Vendam, and called in other places hy the people, High«dyke, ffighdidge, FortieifooUway, and 

f See the Glossary to Wilkins' Legei AtigU^SastomtM. 

X The following documents are from certified copies made in the time of the Commonwealth, fix>m 
original records belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Durham* I found them among a bundle of use- 
less igapen at Hebbum Hall: they have suilered by damp^ and only the Eng^ translation of the 
first instrument fell into my hands :— 

No* 1. The charter of the towne offfoiletubie grmiied to tw.*<— Hugh by the grace of God bishop of 
Dnriiam to all hisbanms of HaliewercfoUce to Ftenoh and English greetinge. Know ye that I have given 
and granted to God and Saint Cuthbert and to the monks of Durfapm the towne of Foleteby in finee 
and perpetual almes by bounds which I myselfe have sett out vnto them betweene Boldun and fibleteby. 
That is to say from Le-strothie even vnto Bestale and fromRestale to Blakelawe and fromBlakelawe to 
the marehci of Wracketmdherge by theis bounds I grant vnto them the foresaid towne free and quitt from 
all service, that they may possess the same free and quitt for ever with all thinges belong^e to it as 
well in the plains as in the feedinges and in woods, even as they do possesse their other lands quiet 

and firee. l^tness being made of thms deeds. John Theobald Gierke. 

The hand of the Preslnter. Mr Thomas 11. Ralphe Noble. Thomas son of Gilbert 

Hellias Ellco- Psike. Lukeof Rana and many other derkes and laidies. 

No, 2. Condaio adfaciend. InqmtUSem de conmum patUura m mora tIeBoidonpro teneti^ de Wardley. 
RoBBRTUs DeigratisB qnscopus Dundm. dilectis et fidelibus suis magistro R. de Hertebuni et do- 
mino Johanni deBggesdiue saltm. Bfandamus vobis quod per sacramentu duodec. proborum et legal. 
v iro ru m de visnet. de Boldun* diligentem fedatis inquisicoem per quas metas et divisas prior et con- 
ventus Dundm. et homilies sui de Wardley per averia sua pasoere soldMut padfice pesturft manerij 
nostri de Boldon* temporibus episcopor. Nichohd et Walteri predecessor, nostror. et maxime a tempore 
quo Wdterus de Sdeby predictam villam de Wardley dictis priori et conventui Dundm. resigna- 

vit: Et inquisicoem unde fiu:tam aperte et distincte lari fiidatis et veritatem dicte inqui- 

dc5isfiu;te nobis in primo adventu nostro scire fiuiatis. Dat. apud Ifidldiam uirSp die Nouembris 
Pont n'ri. anno secundo.«-HBG est nomina juratorum qui sQmoniti fuerunt veniend. coram magistro 
R. de Hertbum et d*no. Johanne de Eggesdive super moram de Boldon* die Sabbati px. post festum 
Sancti Andree Apostoli anno grade BLccbdj. ad veritatem recognoscend. super sacramentQ suum per 
quas metas et divisas averia prioris et oontentus Dundm. et horoinO suorQ de Wardeley solebant pascere 

128 Observations on the Roman Road called Wrekendike. 

to. 119^, gave to the monks of Durham the town of FoUensbj, by bounds 
which he himself set out between Boldon and FoUensby, that is to say, 
from ^^ Le Strothie even unto Restate, and from Restale to Blakelawe, 
and from Blakelawe to the Marches of Wrachenndberge ;'* and Robert 
de Stitchell, who presided in the same see from 1260 to ISIJi^, issued a 
commission on the 27th of November, 1262, to inquire into the rights, 
which the Prior of Durham, for his lands at Wardley, had on Boldon 

padfice in mora de Boldon* temporibus Episcoponim &c. id wpra^r^'RohertaB de Elmeden : Adam de 
eadem presbiter : Walterus de Seleby : Johannes de Merley senior : Johannes de Merley junior : GU* 
bertus Gategang : WUlimus de Elmedon : Rogenis de Vsworth : Willimus de eadem : Bichardus de 
Stretforth : Willimus RaiRis de Newton: GaUHdus de Riklinden: Willmus de Yolton : Alexandrqs 
de Hilton et Johannes de Linz— jurad dicunt super sacramentum suum quod Prior et conventus 
Dunelm. et homines sui de Wardley usi sunt pasturft de Boldon* padfice in austral! parte ultra Wra- 
JcynSk uaq; campum de ffi)leteby sdlicet de Wittemere versus ocddentem :^Itbh dicunt quod pre- 
dict, prior et oonventus de Wittemere usq ; Blakeslaulech pascebant aliqufi pesturam et capta f uerant 
averia sua per homines episcoporQ et iugata apud Boldon sed nesdunt quoquo delibenita fuenmt. 
Et dicunt quod mora ilia de Wittemere usq. Blaklaulech continet per eorum estimaoSem xiiij acra^. 
Dicunt etiam quod a Blaklauleche versus Boldon tota m<»B est solum et d'nica pastura Episoopi et 
hominu de Boldon ex parte australi scdm. quod lapides et mete protenduntse vsq. ad finem cuiusdam 
fossati tempore Hugonis episcopi levati versus orientem. 

^ , . • . s Thos Bullock 

A true Copy agreemg with the 1 Notary Publia 
Original remaining in the ... l^ 4 late Registrer 
of the late deane& Chapter Lig^. Hkduct 
ofDurfiam. ) Not. Publiq. 

No, 3. Ifiquiiic*o capta, dt^<ndbornekeadiuxtaHewortiL — iNQUisic'ofiMtaapudBolboumeheued die 
Jovis prox. ante Pent, anno pont. d'ni Robert! Ep'L quarto p. tales subsoript*. sdlioet p. Robertu de 
Elmedon : RogerQ de Ousworth: Will'm de Yolton : Roberta de Rauenesworth : Will'm de Rlmedm : 
Joh'em Ayer de eadem : Galfiridfl de Quichft : WalterQ de Vrpeth : Riduurdum d^ Holmdde : Joh'em. 
de Kimlesworth : Will'm. de Pockerley : Willimu de Swallowdl : Willimu de Redley : Qui jurator. 
dicunt per sacramentu suQ quod homines d'ni prioris cQ omnibus averijs suis toto tempore d'ni Ridi- 
ardi de Marisco quondam Ep'i Dunelm. et ex tunc usq. in hunc diem paner^ (*) pasturam more p. to- 
tum a fonte qui didt' Bolbumeheued descendendo secund. cursa dusd"^ fontb versus Orientem uaq. 
campum de flfolansby et sic descendendo per WrakendUke versus orientem usq. Wytemer et siketu 
quod descendit a marisco subtus Blakelaw et sic descendendo per Wrakendyke versus orientem 
usque Wytemer et quod in dicta mora ab eod>> tempore et prius absq. aliquo impedimento soluti sunt 
brueri eradicare et turbas excortare ad libitum suum. 

Thisisaftruecoppie \ Exami.edbyme 

of the Record remammg • . . . f ^^ iiJLw — 

the Records of the T ,^S 

and Chapterof Dur . ) ' •• •"''^q- 

* Sic : in the trAnaljiti<m which accompaniet thisdocument it is « did eate the pasture more by the whple from 
A founuine which, &c.*' 

Observations on the Roman Road called Wrekendike. 129 

Moor; and an inquest, in 1265, found that '^ the Prior's men, from the 
time of Richard de Marisco, in ISiy^ till that day, had enjoyed for their 
cattle the whole eatage of the moor, from a well called Bolburnehead, 
descending by its course toward the east to the ground of Follansby, 
and so descending by Wrakendike towards the east to Wytemer, and 
tiie sike which goes from the bog under Blakelaw; and so descending 
by Wrakendike towards the east of Witemer; and that on the said 
moor, from the said time, they had without hinderance been accus- 
tomed to pull as much ling, and pare as much turf as they pleased/' 

The track of this road, from the Roman station on the Law, near 
South Shields, to Biddic-lane, which runs from East Boldon to Jarrow 
Slake, is accurately described by Mr. Surtees, in his account of the re- 
mains of the Roman works, on the south side of the Estuary of the Tyne. 
From Biddic-lane to Hedworth Fell Gate, its course is more distinct, 
but stlU much obliterated. From that place to the south end of Monk- 
ton Mill-lane the hedge on the south side of the Leam-lane, is upon the 
north side of the old road; and from thence, till it enters the Leam- 
farm, in the township of Upper Heworth, its ridge is still bold and 
high, and the present high-road runs upon it From the east end of 
Leam-farm, to a public foot-path from Heworth White House towards 
Usworth, the northern hedge of the Leam-lane is generally upon the 
southern margin of the Old Ridgeway. The road of the present Leam- 
lane again runs upon the old one, till it is crossed by the high-road from 
Newcastle to Usworth, at which place it still bears the name of Wre- 
kendyke, and keeps it till it reaches the north-west boundary of the 
hamlet of Eighton Banks, where the bishop of Durham, in 1387, 
granted to a hermit, called Robert Lamb, an acre of land on ** the north 
side of the ville of Eighton, near the highway leading towards 
Gateshead, namely, on the east side of the said way, near the rill that 
falls from the well called the Scottes-well, to found a chapel and hermi- 
tage upon, in honour of the Holy Trinity." The junction of several 
roads, like the end of a bridge, was a convenient spot for one of these 
pitiable enthusiasts to establish a begging station upon. 

From the west end of Eighton Banks to High Eighton, the track of 

ISO Observations (m the Roman Road catted Wrekendike. 

Wrekendjke is dtill visible. Dn Hunter, in 1750, says that '* here the 
ridge" of it '^ not having been ploughed up, it is partly ovei^own with 
broom )" and '^ there is a foot-path along the ridge of if-^^Hut* voL ii« 
p. 613, 8vo. ed.) From High Eighton to Stanley it points in a line 
perfectly straight ; but is wholly through inclosed grounds, passing in 
its course on the south side of the villages of Lamesley and Kibbles- 
worth ; on the north side of the township of Urpeth, and the south side 
of the manor of Causey. From Stanley, Horsley supposed it passed to 
Maidenlaw, and thence to the station at Lanchester \* but he found 
it impossible to trace its course through the bogs between Stanley and 

This road not only forms a boundary between the parishes of Gates- 
head and Chester-le-street ; and between Jarrow and Washington from 
the north-east comer of Eighton Banks to the foot-path from Newcas- 
tle, by Whitehouse, to Usworth ; but from the first cross below that 
point to where it crossed the Don, at Hedworth, it was an ancient 
southern boundary of the possessions of the monastery of Jarrow, till the 
removal of the monks of that house to Durham ; after which time it 
gradually ceased to be so, with respect to the lands on the south of it» 
in the township of Hedworth, the greater part of which were acquired 
by the Prior and Convent of Durham, in exchange for lands, in other 
places, with the Hedworth family. 

From the pediment of the cross, which stands in the middle of Leam- 
lane, at Whitemere Pool, to another pediment of a cross in the centre 
of the lane between that place and Gingling Gate, it is a boundary be- 
tween the parishes of Jarrow and Boldon : and, from the last-mentioned 
cross to the foot-path from Whitehouse to Usworth, it divides the ville 
of Follensby from the township of Upper Heworth. 

From the west end of Eighton Banks westward, I am not aware that 
it ever formed the boundary, either of any property, or of any civil 
or ecclesiastical division of the county. About the year 1116, the 

< Surtees also says the same, voL ii. p. 305 ; though he quotes Hunter for an opuiion that it ended at 
Stanley (vol. iL p. lOSand^BSO). Alittk to the east of Lanehestcr Church diere is a fiEyrm called the 
Peth House, and fourteen years smcei ^ere were remaiiia of an <4d ridge-way from that house to- 

wards Holmnde and Chester-lepstreet. 

Observatims om tke Boman Road catted Wrekendike. 131 


boundaries of Eighton» Lamesley, and Ravensworth, are very distinctly 
described in Bishop Elambard's grant of these manors to his nephew 
Richard ; but these boundaries run very considerably both to the north 
and south of this antient way ; a circumstance which, joined to the high 
antiquity of the lane that runs parallel to it from Wrekenton to Lames- 
ley, and from thence to Kibblesworth, induces me to think that, in 
Flambard's time it had ceased to be a public road from Eighton Banks 
westward; while the names of certain places on its line, and especially of 
Harley Green^ Lamesley^ Vrpethy and Catiser/^ remain as strong pre- 
sumptive evidences, th&t, in some part of the Saxon sera, it was not only 
made use of as a boundary, but that it was paved with stone, and sup- 
posed to have been made for military purposes. 

Harlet Green, — Mr. Hamper, in his " Observations on Hoai" 
Stones,** communicated to myself since this paper was read before the 
Society, has very clearly shown that " the Greek Spot ** (which sigpiifies 
both time, an hour, and a mountain), '* the Latin ora^ the Celtic and 
Welsh or and oir, the Armoric horz^ the Anglo-Saxon or, ord, and 
ara, the obsolete British yoror, and the obsolete Irish ur and or, have 
all, to a certain degree, one and the self-same meaning, namely, a bound 
or Umif^ (p. 6.), and, as the lands of the little hamlet of Harley 
Green are bounded on the south by this branch of Wrekendike, it is 
fair, I think, to presume that some time prior toJFlambard's episcopacy, 
this road, in that part of the Ravensworth estate, formed a boundary 
either of a public or private nature. 

Lameslet, is written Lamesleyay in a charter of Richard, the nephew 
of Bishop Flambard. From Jarrow Slake to Wrekenton this road is 
called the Leam^lane: and there is a farm, in the township of Upper 
Heworth, called the North Learn, and one opposite it, in the ancient 
township of FoUensby, called the South Learn. Now, while I think it 
probable, for I do not contend for it as a demonstrable matter, that Lamest 
ley (which is the name of a chapelry and a village in the parish of Chester- 
le-street) had its name from being a ka over which this Learn or antient 
road passed, I think it very plain that the Leam-lane and the North and 
South Leam just mentioned, derived their names from it ; and from the 


192 Observations on the Roman Road called Wrekendike. 

very same reason that the numerous places called Learn or Lemming or 
Lemington, had their names, viz. because they were seated either im« 
mediately upon, or contiguous to some antieilt formed road. 

Harrison, speaking of Erming Street, says some call it ** the Lebne ;'' 
and, we have before seen, that he supposes the author of the Eulogium 
Historianm mistaken^ in calling Rikenild-street, ** the Lelme.*' What is 
the derivation of this word Learn ? Our modem words loamy signifying 
fat, ' unctuous earth ; and UmCj any kind of mortar, made of calcareous 
earth or mud, for building purposes, are of the same family as the Saxon 
lame and hm, which mean mud or clay, or earthen ware ; lamene, claey \ 
gelunan, to agglutinate; and liming, a besmearing or daubing. In 
German leim is also clay, mud, slime, potter^s earthy &c. ; and leTmch% 
clammy, claey, &c. : and these several shades of meaning are very curi- 
ously preserved in old Glanville's definition of clay^ which he says ** is 
tough earth, glewie and glemie, apte and meete to diuers works of pot- 
ters.*'* Learn also is a word well known to every school-boy in the north 
of England, in the terms *' a brown leamer,'' and ** it leams well," as ap- 
plied to a hazel nut, when it becomes brown and mealy ended, ripe, and 
ready to fall out of its husk. Were these roads, then, called kamSy on 
account of the Ughtness of the friction of carriages upon them, in com- 
parison with that on the common unformed trackways in the country ? 
Did the wheels glide over them with some such sort of ease as clay is 
fashioned into earthen-ware on the potter's lathe, or as a full ripe nut 
turns out of its husk? This conjecture, I think, assumes additional 
strength from the import of a word of similar sound and kindred mean- 
ing in the old.Norske and Islandic languages, in which A/bTmii, signifies 
to smooth ; hlemmi-gate, a very smooth way ; and hlemmi-skeidy a very 
easy carriage. The term, however, may be of British origin, for, as I 
have shewn in another place,t since this paper was written, mention is 
twice made of " thejbrmed way of Llemtnig'* in Aneurin's Gododm. 

I shall now endeavour to show that the township of Urp£th derived 
its name from its contiguity to this road. 

^ De Proprietatibus Rehim, lib. xvl c. S. fol. !S53. b. ** An unctuous thing is meane between a g^* 
mie and vaporative thing." — lb. 
f HiBt. of North, part 11. toI. 1. 



Observations on the Roman Road called Wrekendike. 13S 

" Walterus de Urpethe," Lord of Urpeth, when T. £mericus» Arch- 
deaooii of Durham, and Phillip de Hulecot were guardians of the see 
of Durham, in the latter end of the reign of King John, granted a 
third part of the ville of Pokerley, in the parish of Chester-le-street, 
to Daniel de Pokerley, and one of the witnesses to the deed is ** Alanut 
de Hvrphatiu^ 

Walterus de HurpatK* also occurs as a witness to a deed respectin^^ 
lands in Pokerley, when Alexander de Bidic was Sheriff of Durham.* 

In the laws of Heniy the First, and in the chapter ^^ concerning the 
right of the King,'' it is said that " every Here-street wholly belongs to 
the King/' 

In the laws of Edward the Confessor it is enacted, that ** in every 
oounly there shall be one Heretoch, chosen by election, to lead the army 
of the county according to the command of the King." Also, that a 
** Folkmote ought to be holden in each county, on the first of the ka- 
lends of October, to provide there who shall be Sheriff, and who shall 
be Heretoches.**f 

I will add another example of the meaning of Here^ when it is applied 

to military persons. Bede, speaking of the Angles, says :*— ^^ Their 

first leaders are reported to have been two brothers, Hengist and 

Horsa,"1: which sentence is thus rendered by Alfred. '* Wseron tha 

srest heora latteowas and heretogan twegen gebrothra Hengest and 

From these quotations it is plain, that here in Here^treet aqid in 

Heretogan have the same meaning as the adjectives arrm/ or military : 

and hence that Urpath or Herpath may mean the military way : but as 

the Roman road from Lanchester to South Shields passed very near the 

northern boundary of that estate, the most probable conjecture perhaps 

is, that here, as in numerous other places, the word means simply the 

Boundary wm/.% 

• Svrt Dor. yoL iL p. 195. f Wilk.Lcgefl Sax.p.!B05. 

- % Duces fiuflse perfaibentiir eomm primi dao frntm Hengist and Horaa. — Smith's. Ed. p. 53. 

§ Mr, Hamper bj fiivouring the author with his ** ObsemUions on Hoar Stones," has enabled 
him to add the latter and new definition of Her, Hary and Hor, as they occur in such words as Her- 
peth, Harestane, Hoarstone, &c., which definition he is now fully satisfied b the right one. There are 

154 Observations on the Roman Road called Wrekendike. 

Cawsbt is a manor lying to the west of Urpeth, and had tliis road 
running through it. Its name is probably from the same source as the 
French word chaussie^ or the English causey (corruptly written cause- 
way) which means a foot-road ; and in monkish Latin is rendered by 
calceata or calcetum, because such a road was cakatum^ trodden upon. 
In 1399 the name of this place is written CaucCy when Bertram Mon- 
boiicher held it of Aline Conyers.^ Cawsey Park, in Northumberland, 
adjoined the highway from Morpeth to Felton, and in a record of 
the time of Henry the Third, is written la ChauceA In the 43d year 
of the same reign, an inquest is dated ** apud Calcetum i**t and in 38 
Hen. VIII. it is called Cawse Parke. § 

Aft^r Wrekendike passed Cawsey I am not well acquainted with its 
course. Dr. Hunter, as has been observed, supposed that it ended at 
Stanley^ which is a manor to the west of Cawsey, and has a square en- 
trenchment on the height called Stanley Hill, where several Roman 
coins are said to have been found.|| But Horsley heard a traditionary 
account of Wrekendike passing by Stanley to Lanchester ; and ** was 
assured at Lanchester that several trees had been dug up on the moor,'^ 
west of Beamish, ^* which had been cut down with an axe^ possibly to 
clear the way. And if trees have been sunk so much below the surface 
into the ground, no wonder if a heavy military way be much more so;**^ 
and while I resided at Lanchester, from Easter, 1804, to August, 1806, 
I remember that I supposed I could see traces of it at Maidenlaw, and a 
little to the east of that place : and my opinion is, that it ran from Causey, 
thence through the north side of the manor of Stanley by the Shield* 
row, which I take to be the place that in an old deed, dated at Stanley 

numtfous places in NorthttmberlaQd in which her, kar, hor, and hare, enter into composition in that 
sense, as Hordon-edge, Herpeth, Harewillows, Harehope, Harbotde^ Horton, Harelawe, &c. &c :— 
and ^ the Rarestone at Edinbni^/' noticed by Mr, Hamper^ stands on the edge of the Borough-moor 
there, on the boundary between the town's property and that of Marchiston, It was in this stone 
(probably once a boundary cross) that James the Fourth of Scotland fixed Jhis standard, before he 
oonunenced his march into England, and to his overthrow and death at the battle of Floddon Fidd.-» 
(See Scott's Marmion, and Ph)Tin. Antiq. of Scot. p. 111.) 

* Surt Dur. yoL ii. p. S19. f Hist. Korthumb. Part IIL vol. i.p. 216. % Sir Bicfaard Heron's 
Pedigtee, p. 5. § HarL MS. 757i p. 266. || Sort- Hist. Dur. voL iL p. JSSO. T Brit Rom. p. 46h 

Observations on the Roman Road called Wrekendihe. 135 


in 1908, is called the ** ScheUs^ near the Pethe, between Pethebume and 
LyhSmmey* Peth and path are the same. 

Speaking of the materials of which this road was made, Horsley says 
** it consists of firm gravel and sand, very hard and compact, so as to 
make a very good way at this time (17^1) <^t all seasons of the year. I 
also believe it had a mixture of stone, or somewhat of pavement :'^t 
and in another place he observes, that his uncle's gardener, at Consents 
Housed assured him ** that he had seen, and helped to dig up some 
stones out of Wrekendike (which he called Brackendike), so that he 
was altogether of opinion that this part of it,'* through Ravensworth 
estate, " was paved."t About twelve years since I also recollect having 
had its line shewn to me over the newly inclosed grounds on the south 
side of Blackburn Fell, along which the pavement of it had sunk below 
the surface of the earth ; and was then dug up to be used in the new 
fences. In one part, on that tract, which is a little to the south-west of 
Kibblesworth, very great quantities of querns were found. The lessee 
of the farm called the North Leam, also assured me, that he had fre- 
quently met with parts of its pavement, along the southern boundary 
of his grounds : and I remember having myself seen the border-stones 
of its pavement for several yards together, both between the Gingling- 
gate and White-mere-pool, and along the elevated ridge of this road 
opposite to South Wardley. All these traces, however, have vanished 
before the hand of modem improvement. 

The subject I have been discussing, though full of local curiosity, does 
not seem to be fruitful in useful conclusions. The following observa- 
tions may not, however, be thought to be unappropriated appended to 
this paper. 

* Hoc sciptu cyrognphatQ testatr t^ Will*8 deKyrkenny d'ni de Staneley concessit et dmiisit WilI*o 
fiL Badi-ffiider de Vrpeth, totam terrain illft toftu et vfi^xxm cum omib; edifices in dto. tofto sitis et c&- 
struct. que Rob'ts. de Rckering (>'uj tenuit in le Schelis iuzta le Peth sicut iacent inter Pethebume et 
Lyfatbum. Habend. &c. ad f m yite sue &c. Reddendo &c. octodedm solid. & vnfl denar' af]genti 
&c ISSoA testib; Joh*e de Birtdey seniore. Ada de Holmset. Joh*e de Ednmunisley. W^o de Lome. 
Hugone de Grrendale. Bob*to del Ouerton de Linze. et aliis. Dat. apud Staneley die M'cur. in "^gilia 
Assumpcionis be* Marie. Anno d*ni lifillmot Tcente8>°<* octauo.— ^J<Vom the original in the TWof. of 
the Dean and Chapter of Durham, J 

t Brit Rom. p. 462. J Id. p. 461. 

136 Observations on the Roman Road called Wrekendike. 

1. The number of names, which the lands and places along this line 
of road have derived from it, very distinctly points out the assis- 
tance that might be expected in tracing the lines of other antient 
roads, by proper enquiries being made after the names of the villages^ 
fields, and streams that adjoin them. 

2. By the branch of Watling-street, that passed through Lanchester 
by way of Corbridge, through Redesdale into Scotland, the distance is 
many miles nearer to the Frith of Forth, in the neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh, than it is by the way that passed into that country from Bin- 
Chester by Chester-le-street and Newcastie into the north. For the 
purposes of traffic, therefore, along the main line of central communi- 
cation between Liondon and the northern parts of the Roman domi- 
nions in Britain, a road from the mouth of the T}me to Lanchester, 
could not be without important advantages, both with respect to im- 
ported and exported goods, and for military operations. From the 
Roman station, on the site of which the present church of Jarrow is 
built, to where Wrekendike crosses the Don below Hedworth, that 
stream is navigable at high water, and consequentiy afibrded a conveni- 
ent place for the delivery of goods, either to be sent into the country or 
brought from it by this road. Corn, I believe, was one of the principal 
exports from the eastern shores of Britain in the Roman age ; conside- 
rable quantities of it were shipped for the garrisons on the Rhine:* and 
extensive tracts of land upon our commons, which before their iudosure, 
were marked with ridges and furrows, showed how extensively the Ro- . 
mans had ploughed the country before it was portioned out by their 
Saxon followers. 

3. That the Romans made use of this road for architectural purposes 
is also plain, from the great quantities of magnesian limestone, such as 
is found in the Marsden and Fulwell hills, still to be seen in the field 
walls on the north side of thQ Roman station at Lanchester. J. H. 

Upper Heworthy 16^ October, 1822. 

* Ammian Marcd. I. viiL c 2. ed. Bip. i, 16QL 

An AccoutU of the Lj^ and Writings <if Richard Dawes. 137 

No. XV.— An Account qfthe Life and Writings qf Richard Dawes, A. M. 
late Master qf the Roi/al Grammar School, and qf the Hospital qfSt- 
Mary, in the WestgatCt in Newcastle upon Tyne. By the Rev. John 

. Hodgson, Sec. 


Though the subject of this Memoir died only about 61 years since, and, 
after the death of Bentley, stood pre-eminently at the head of Greek lit^a- 
ture, in these kingdoms ; yet so little is known, or to be gleaned from the 
publications of his time, respecting him, that, to compile an account of his 
life becomes a matter of difficult antiquarian research. He was one, who, 
in the imaginary maze of lines which the force of ambition and self-interest 
press in concentric circles towards the throne, like planets of the largest 

138 An Account qfthe Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 

size and dimmest light, moved in the widest of these circles, and was, 
therefore, little noticed. In the earlier years of his life he appeared, 
indeed, for a short time on the stage of human life, among the dhampions 
of literature, wielding his weapons with the mightiest, and receiving the 
praises of the wisest : but a cloud of apprehensions came over his mind, 
that he was assailed on every side with the arrows of ingratitude and per- 
secution, and he threw aside his armour and walked gloomily away from 
the contentions for honour and the post of usefulness, to hold conver* 
sations in the obscurity of rural life, with unlearned men and his own 
imagination. The deer, which finds itself smitten, fearful of being 
gored deeper by its own species, rushes to the woods, and dies unseen ; 
and the Indian of the New World, when he feels the pestilence of the 
hot savannahs working in his frame, retires from the companions of his 
journey into a thicket, and, covering his body with his mantle, resigns 
himself to death. There are no sufferings, which neglected and melan- 
choly pride cannot treat with indifference. 

Richard Dawes, a critic and grammarian, of great celebrity, was bom 
in I7O8. The place of his birth has not been exactly ascertained ; but 
the hamlet of Stapleton, in the parish of Market-Bosworth, in Leicester- 
shire, is said to be entitled to that honour ; for a Dr. Dawes, who had 
the character of being a great scholar, and was, according to the fashion 
of his time, a searcher afler the Philosopher's Stone, resided there in the 
beginning of the last century, and is supposed to have been his father, 
though the register of Barwell, which is the name of the parish in w^ch 
Stapleton is situated, contains no evidence of the fact. All the tradition, 
that the author of the History of Leicestershire could hear on the subject, 
was, that he was born in Market-Bosworth, or somewhere in that neigh- 

Though I can see no reason to dispute his being a Leicestershire man, 
yet,. my apprehension is, that he was descended from a Westmorland fa- 
mily, who were long seated in the parishes of Barton and Bampton, in 
that county. Dr. Lancelot Dawes, one of the founders of Barton 
School, was a Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, became a Prebendary 
of Carlisle and Rector of Asby, atid Vicar of Barton. He purchased of 

An Account qfthe Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 139 

the Hodgsons of Barton a moiety of the rectorial tythes of that parish,* 
which descended to his nephew, Thomas, who had two sons, Lancelot 
and John. This Dr. Dawes died in 1653. A family of the same name 
also had property in Martindale, in the same parish, and, if my conjee* 
ture be right was that from which Richard Dawes originated. The 
grounds for this conjecture are stated in the following genealogical sketch. 

L Philip Jackson, a relation of Thomas Jackson ^J, a 
celebrated schoolmaster at Bampton, in West- 
morland, who died in 1719 : and also of Richard 
Jackson, who was successively master of the 
Grammar Schools of Bampton, Kendal, and Ap* 
pleby, in the time of Charles the Second, and 
** one of the most eminent teachers of his time." 
This PhUip died Dec. 2, 1824. 

Jane, who died 
Oct. 80, 1739, 
aged 70. 

11. 1. Philip =: Isabella, widow of Rich. 2. Martha Jack- 3. Olave Jackson 4. Mary Jackson 

Jackson died 
Sep.l 1,1770, 
aged 72. 

Allison, who was a 
conveyancer at Rose- 
gill, in Westmorland, 
iler maiden name was 
probably Hobson. She 
resided at one time at the fint house above 
Measend-becks, on the mai^n of the lake 
Haws*water, in Mardale, and there, about 
50 years since had a sale, at which the Rev. 
John Bowstead,B.D. the present master of 
Bampton School bought two or three sacks 

son married 
Wm. Judson, 
and died June 
14, 1781, aged 

died unmarri- 
ed, March 10, 
1793, aged 93. 

married John 
Dawes, who 
had an estate 
in Martindale, 
in the parish of 
Barton, whldi 
he sold to 
sey, of Butter- 
wick, near 
Bampton. = 

full of Greek and Latin books, which, if my 
memory serves me rightly, he used to say had belonged to a great scholar of the name of Dawes, 
who had resided near Newcastle upon Tyne, and was someway related to Mrs. Jackson. I weU re- 
collect some of the books being much benoted with critical remarks, on thdr margins. Mrs, Jackson 
died only a very few years since at Hornby in Lancashire. 

1 r I 

IIL 1 diedanin&nt ^ Philip Jackson died 3. John Jackson Esq. author 

ip Jamaica. of a *' Journey from India 

towards England in the 
year 1797, by a Ronte commonly called Overland^ &c. London, 1799." He sold an 
estate in Bwipton Grange, which he inherited from his father, to Mr. Dawes, a banker 
in London. 

1 : 1 — 1 7 — 

1. John Dawes, a merchant in 2. Thomas, also a merchant 3 Dawes, a banker, 

London, died without issue. in London, died without in London, of the house 

issue. ** Dawes, Devaynes, and 

Noble." He left issue who inherit property from him in Bampton Grange. 

faj ^ Utnimque docuit Gibtoniim, alteram Cl. LIncolnia prasalem, alterumCoU. Reg. Oxon. praspositaa, 
et aliquos plurimos, qui patriae simul et achole sunt oraamenUu" — (M. L Hist. Westin. p. 4f6S.} 

* He also built the Vicarage House of Barton, and his great nephew, Lancelot Dawes, married 
Frances, daughter of Thomas Fletcher, of Strickland, Esq. and wrote a remarkable epitaph to her 
memory, which is printed in Bum and Nicholson's History of Westmorland. For some notices 
respecting the Hodgsons of Barton Kiik (of whom Dr. Dawes purchased a part of the great tithes of 

VOL. n. u 

140 An Account ofihe Life and WriHngs of Richard Dawes. 

This connection by marriage between Mrs. Jackson and the family of 
Dawes, was, I apprehend, the reason why the effects of Richard Dawes 
fell into her hands ; and the hints here thrown together, may possibly 
serve as a useful clue to any future investigator, who may wish to make 
further researches into the pedigree of the family from which Dawes Was 

Mr. Dawes*s birth-place and parentage are not, however, the only ob- 
scure places in the history of his early life : it is equally uncertain where, 
or under whom, he received the first rudiments of his education : for 
though it is known that he had the advantage of the lectures of Anthony 
Blackwall, in the school of Market-Bosworth ; yet because that excel- 
lent teacher and grammarian did not remove to that place, from Derby, 
till 1722, Dawes could not be less than fourteen years old, when he first 
became his pupil, and must, of course, at that period of life, have made 
considerable progress in classical learning. Under that able instructor 
it is, however, probable that he first began to be initiated into those 
mysteries of grammar, which can never be made intelligible to ordinary 
minds ; but which gradually unfolded to his understanding the niceties 
and beauties of the antient Hellenick tongues. 

That his parents were not wealthy may be inferred from his entering 
Cambridge as a scholar of the lowest rank ; for, in 17^» when he was 
then only about I7 years old, he was admitted a sizar of Emanuel CoU 
lege, in that University. 

Two years after his matriculation he published a " Themo-thriambic 
Idyl,** intituled " The Lamentation of the University of Cambridge for 
the Death of George the Rrst, the beneficent King of Great Britain ; 

that parish) see also the same work, p. 401, line 44, and pp. 404 and 406. TTiey generally wrote their 
name Hudson ; though George Hudson, mentioned by Bum at p. 404, is called Geoi^ Hodgsone in 
Bishop Barnes' Survey, and the name of his ancestor (who married Elizabeth Lancaster, a descendant 
of Ivo de Taylboys, a great captain of the conquerer) is written " John Hodgson" (Idem, p. 401 and 
31 — 34). A great author, however, speaking of the ori^ of English surnames, says ''one is' 
called Hodgeson if his father were Roger;'* and ** Hodson comes from Hod or Oddo** (Remains, 4v. p. 
99 — 115). Cadets of this family of Hodgson are stiQ seated in Martindale, and a branch of them re- 
sided in the beginning of the last century in Glenridden, in Pbterdale, and afterwards in the parishes of 
Shi^ and Bampton, in Westmorland, the ascending line of which last branch is, at present, as fol- 
lows :— Richard-Wellington son of John, son of Isaac, son of John, son of Isaac of Glenridden. 

An Account of the Life and Writings qfBichard Dawes. 141 

and her rejoycings on the peaceful and auspicious succession of the most 

potent prince George the Second, the heir of his father's virtues and 

throne. Cambridge, 17^/' This performance is a good-tempered 

dialogue between one Palaemon, and two young men, who, from their 

names, Damoetas and Thyrsis, might, like the Corydon and Thyrsis of 

Virgil, be supposed to be 

Ambo florentes iBBtatibuSy Arcades ambo ; 

for he introduces them, as 


a line which, in justice to the verse of Theocritus, 

ought to have appeared between quotations. This Pastoral is in 89 lines, 
and has been reprinted by Mr. Kidd, who remarks, *^that if one of 
Dawes's pupils, in after years, had made the first syllable of xm§ shprt, 
as he has done in this juvenile composition, the offender would certainly 
have had to tremble under the ferula of this flogging Orbilius, who, for 
one sin of false quantity, would have made his skin as black and blue as 
his nurse's cloak." 

In 1729, he took the degree of Bachelor of Arts ; and on the 2d of 
October, 1731, was chosen a Fellow of his own College on the nomina- 
tion of Sir Wolstan Dixie, Bart, who was a Market^Bosworth man, and 
probably patronized him before he went to the University. In 1733 he 
obtained the degree of Master of Arts ; and, in the following year, was 
an unsuccessful candidate for the ofiSce of Esquire Beadle, in Cambridge. 
That his talents had now brought him into celebrity, may be inferred 
from the struggle he made for that situation ; but what were the causes 
of his disappointment, and the effects of it upon his own mind, are no 
where related. The indolent and sedentary way in which he is said to 
have lived, while he was at Cambridge, probably originated in a me- 
lancholy turn of mind, which loved to indulge itself in solitary contem^ 
plations of its own powers, and to look down upon the trifling labours 
and intriguing schemes of the society that was about him, with a sort 
of misanthropic scorn ; and to vent its embittered feelings in such harsh 
and sarcastic expresssions as created him more enemies among the busy 

142 An Account qfthe L^fe and Writings qf Richard Dawes. 

and self-interested many, than the splendour of his talents could procure 
him friends among the generous and learned few. His temper, too, was 
exceedingly irascible ; and Dr. Kippis says, that, while he was at Cam- 
bridge, ^^he distingtdshed himself hy some -pecuhsxities of conduct ;'' and 
occasionally '* took such liberties, on certain topics, as gave great offence 
to those about him/' 

One of his peculiarities is related. When care for his health compel- 
led him to rouse himself out of the state of bodily inactivity into which 
his leisure and studies had brought him, he chose bell-ringing as an ex- 
ercise, and ** being of a strong athletic frame of body,'' and impelled in 
every thing in which he engaged by " such a genius" as " could not stop 
at mediocrity, he quickly became the leader of the band, and carried the 
art to the highest perfection." The stage of this new performance was 
in the tower of the church of St. Mary-the-Great, in Cambridge, to the 
ringers of the peal of bells in which Margaret of Richmond* had be- 
queathed a certain allowance of ale, in which Dawes made no scruple of 
indulging, after a long lesson in campanology : and, on such occasions, 
he seasoned " the nut brown draughts" with a spicery of wit and hu- 
mour, in which he was rich and overflowing, when his spirits were high 
enough to bring him into the kind of company in which he delighted. 
The pungency and perfume of his mirth and raillery were not, however, 
of a kind to be relished over potations of a politer kind than ale ; and his 
want of success in being promoted to the office he had lately aspired to, 
may be fairly enough attributed to his associating with companions un- 
suitable to a gownsman, and amusing them with humour and opinions, 
which became the subject of conversations, and were at variance with the 
prevailing opinions of the University. This anecdote in bell-ringing is 
given by Mr. Kidd, on the authority of the late Dr. Paley's father, who had 
many humourous tales respecting Dawes, and had been a crony of his at 
Cambridge, where they studied Terence and Bentley's z;^iS<kr/(« together. 

^ Bfargaret daughter and heir of John, Duke of Somerset^ grandson of John of Graunt ? She 
— Firstly, Edm. Earl of Richmond, by whom she became mother of Hen. VII. ; secondly, Henry, 
son of Humph. Duke of Buckingham; and thirdly, Tho. Stanley, Earl of Derby. She was also the 
founder of Christ's Coll^ge^ Cambridge. CDug- Bar. H. 237| and Bum's Eccl. Law under MonaOeriet,) 

An Account of the Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 14iJ 

On the occasion of the marriage of the Prince of Wales in 1736, his 
talent for Greek versification was a second time called into action in an 
epithalamium under the following title, *' The congratulation of the 
. University of Cambridge, on the very auspicious marriage of Frederick 
Prince of Wales and Augusta Princess of Saxe-Gotha. Cambridge, 
printed at the University Press. 1736.*' It consists of 50 hexameter 
lines ; and is reprinted in Mr. Kidd's Appendix. 

In the same year " Proposals" were issued " for printing, by subscrip- 
tion, the First Book of Paradise Lost, rendered into Greek Verse, with 
Notes by Richard Dawes, M. A., Fellow of Emanuel College, Cam- 
bridge." The original title is in Latin, and accompanied with a speci- 
men of the translation of the apostrophe, which commences with 

————— " Farewell happy fields 
** Where joy for ever dwells," ' 

and ends with the line 

" Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven." 

He proposed to put the book to press " as soon as a competent number 
had subscribed ;" and to " proceed to the second book, and so on, if he 
met with sufficient (encouragement/* This tract has also been re-printed, 
and its " Specimen'* commented upon by Mr. Kidd. The translator, 
indeed, soon found occasion to quarrel with it himself The search he 
was daily making into the minutiae and niceties of the Greek language, 
the discoveries which his own sagacity first elicited, and the ordinary 
effect of application gradually gave him such enlarged and luminous 
views into the subject of his favourite study, as to make him dissatisfied 
with a work from the publication of which he had, a year or two ago, ex- 
pected to be gratified with the approbation of scholars. But where is 
the composition in which an acute and fastidious mind cannot discover 
some fault? When he began to review his translation of Milton, or, as 
he calls it, " to prune his vines,*' he found it full of grammatical inac- 
curacies (solcBcimis scaterej ; and ingenuously took occasion to quarrel, 
even with the first word in the specimen which he gave in his proposal, 
and pointed out seven other errors or improprieties in language, which he 

144 An Account of the Lffe aiid Writings of Richard Dawes, 


was not aware that any one else had detected. * Dr. Kippis remarks that 
** it was customary with him, in conversation, humourously to expose 
his version to ridicule, and, therefore, though he had actually completed 
his design, by translating the whole First Book of the Paradise Lost, it 
is no wonder that he did not commit it to press/' 

We come now to an important aera of his life. At the age of thirty, 
on the 10th of July, 1738, he was apjpointed Head-Master of the Ro^ 
Grammar School in Newcastle upon T3n[ie, and, on the 9th of October 
following, was admitted to the concurrent office of Master of the Hospi- 
tal of St. Mary the Virgin, in the Westgate, in that town. Prior to his 
election these offices had been frequently filled by men of the first talent. 
Rudd, a famous grammarian and antiquary, and Dr. Jurin (before he 
sat in the chair of the College of Physicians, and became Secretary to the 
Royal Society in London), successively held them ; and, in selecting 
Dawes to preside over a seminary that ranked in the highest scale of re- 
putation among similar institutions in the north of England, we cannot 
suppose that the Common Council of Newcastle were guided in their 
choice by motives of favouritism ; but brought into their town a person 
who had begun to shine in the bright constellation of learned men that 
illuminated the reign of George the Second. He had now been thirteen 
years, five as a student, nine as a graduate, and seven as a fellow, 
enjoying the academic advantages of one of the first universities of the 
world ; every day in company with the learned members of the society 
to which he belonged ; and storing his mind with the species of litera- 
ture which his genius inclined him to, and which peculiarly fitted him to 
excel as a master in a great public school. 

For some time after he settled in Newcastle no mention of him occurs. 
Nothing is said of him, either as a teacher or as an author. He only, 
however, retires for a short time out of notice to re appear in the eyes of 
every genuine scholar in a new and splendid character, touching with 
talismanic hand, the obscurities and inaccuracies which perplexed the 
poetry of antient Greece and Rome, and converting them into their pri- 
mitive forms and beauty. 

* Mis. Crit. Prsrf. p. t. 

An Account qfthe Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 145 

Some time previous to the year 1745, he addressed ^* to the Rev. Dr. 
Taylor/* a letter,* dated " Newcastle, May 81st,** but without adding 
the year. Dr. Taylor himself was an eminent classical scholar, a com*^ 
mentator on the works of Lysias and Demosthenes, author of a well- 
known work on the ** Elements of the Civil Law,'* and a distinguished 
antiquary. He had somewhere ** advanced that the ancient Greeks ex- 
pressed the power EI by the single vowel E. The authorities to which 
he had appealed, seemed to** Mr Dawes " to be inconclusive,** on which 
account he hinted to him ** such objections as the principal of those au- 
thorities seemed liable to, desiring at the same time,** that if Dr. Taylor 
could furnish any more ** he would be so kind as to communicate them.** 
That **favour** was "readily granted*' and, in the letter before us, Mr. 
Dawes, with great acuteness and power of argument, makes it appear that 
the authorities upon which Dr. Taylor " built his hypothesis, are not able 
to support it.** Much of the reasoning advanced in this letter appeared 
soon after in a printed form. But, besides its being written in a clear and 
nervous style, and being an excellent specimen of our author's talent in 
controversial criticism : it contains, in its concluding paragraph, a full 
developement of his literary plans. " I am preparing,** says he, " for 
the press, a volume in the critical way (which I shall desire the favour of 
you to revise), with the following inscription :— Emend ationes in Poetas 
Grsecos, Aristophanem, Euripidem,Sophoclem, Eschylum, Callimachum, 
Theocritum, Findarum, Hesiodum, Homerum. Prsemittitur Dissertatio 
de prsecipuis Poetarum dramaticorum Metris, uti et de Accentibus cuni 
4«^'«/Mic tum veris. Hanc exdpiunt Animadversiones in CI. Bentleij 
Emendationes in duas priores Aristophanis Fabulas. In Prsfatione 
autem disseritur de Aspiratione vau prout in Sermone Homerico obtine- 
bat. Agmen extremum claudunt alterae Animadversiones in Phileleu- 
theri Lipsiensis sive Bentleij Emendationes in Meandri et Philemonis 
Reliquias ** **I have*', he continues, *^ a pretty large apparatus out of 
which these emendations will be selected ; upon Aristophanes, in par- 
ticular, about 1500.** 

* Printed first at the end of Bentley^i Letters, by Bulmer , London, 18(^ ; and secondly in Kidd't 
second edition of the Miscellanea Critica. 

I4i6 A,n Account qfihe Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 

In I74f5f^ the prefatory part of this plan appeared in his great and 
only published work on Emendatory Criticism, under the title of MIS- 
CELLANEA CRITICA.* The first five pages of the address to the 
reader are taken up with discussing the ** solecisms" committed in the 
specimen of his Greek translation of Paradise Lost. Then he proceeds to 
state that he had judged it better to employ the little leisure he enjoyed 
in correcting the works of the antient Greek poets, than in perfecting his 
promised Translation; and that, he hoped, that the ingenuous severity he 
had employed over his own performance, might be advanced as a proof 
that, when he had found occasion to differ in opinion with learned men, 
he had not done so from the motive of lessening their merit, but of be- 
ing of service to sound learning. The subjects treated upon in the five 
sections of the work are as follow : — 

L ^' Sekct emendations qfTerentianus Maurus^*' who was a grammariim 
about the beginning of the' third century ; and wrote in Latin verse, on 
the powers of letters and the laws of metre. 

II. " Examples qfthe want of accuracy in the Oxford edition qf Pindar.^* 
In this section he displays an accurate knowledge of the prosody and 
structure of Pindar's stanzas ; and great skill and sagacity in detecting 
the errors committed by transcribers of manuscript copies, and editors 
of the printed editions of the ** deep-mouthed" bard. 

JII. ^^On the true enunciation qfthe Greek language. The reason and 
design of the A^ futures varying from the Ionic. The (Ufferent use, of 
<fte su^wzctive and optative moods. Errors committed in the syllabic quan^ 
tity of certain words, by [Bentley] the late editor of Callimachus. Emen- 
dations qfCallimachus.*^ Bentley, in 1741, the year before he died, had 

^^BlbceUanea Critica in Sectiones quinque dispardta. Scripsit Bichardua Dawes, A. M. Coll-. 
Eminan. apud Cantabrig^enses non ita pridem Socius; hodie Ludo Literario et Gerontocomio apud 
Novocastrenses Praefectus. Cantabrigiae Typis academicis excudit J. Bentham. - Veneunt apud Gul. 
Thurlbourn Cantab, et Johan. Beecroft, Lond. MDCCXLV." The volume is in octavo, and contains 
356 pages, of which' 8 at the end are taken up with ** Addenda et Corrigenda,'* besides the leaf con- 
taining the title page, vii pages of preface, and another leaf for the title of the 5 sections into which the 
work is divided. Mr. Hubbard, who was Senior Fellow of Emmanuel, and Dr. Mason, of Trinity Col- 
lege, assisted in carrying the work through the press ; and Bishop Burgess, says, that Dr. Farmer, ^o 
was Mastec of Emmanuel, showed him a MS. of Dawes, which contained the substance of the Mitod- 
lanea, which their author had enriched with a vast store of erudition in his printed work. 

An Account ofihe Life and Writings qfBichard Dawes. 147 

published a Collection of the Fragments of Callimachus with Annota^ 
tions, to which he appended the remains of Theognis. The edition upon 
the whole has been considered good. But Dawes despised the editor's 
learning \ and, therefore, assailed his literary fame in this section. He 
had, indeed, in the first section, said, of the great champion against the 
genuineness of the Episties attributed to Phalaris, that "he knew nothing 
of Greek, but from indexes*' : and, though he took care not to differ with 
him, in print, till he was dead, it is still to be borne in mind that it re^ 
quired great boldness and consciousness of his own powers and attain- 
ments to assail the literary memory of a man, who had reigned so many 
years over the republic of classical learning in England. This section, 
however, abating its severity, must always be considered as a master-piece 
of granmiar and profound criticism : bitter and sarcastic at its beginning; 
as it proceeds, ironical in its interrogatories and contemptuous in its ex- 
clamations ; and, at its end, overpowering and triumphant. His obser- 
vations on some of the Greek moods and tenses, contain distinctions, 
which were unknown to grammarians before his time. 

IV. An Essay both on the prosodical and analogical Power of the Conso- 
nantf or aspiration^ Vau, as it is retained in the text of Homer. This sec- 
tion also is a master-piece of investigation, in which the origin and power 
of the VaUj or Mdiic Digamma F, are dearly traced and illustrated ; and 
in which some of Bentiey's notions are successfully ridiculed and refuted. 
The Digamma was pronounced like the English W. It was a favourite 
subject of its author, and, in illustration of it, he brought such a force 
of clear and convincing evidence, as to obtain among the scholars of 
his day, the epithet of ^Eolic Digamma Dawes. It is, however, certain* 
that some of his positions in this section are incorrect, especially where 
he af&rms, against Bentley, that Homer wrote in the Ionic, and not in 
the j^olic dialect, a subject which the Bishop of Salisbury has treated 
and settied with great skill in his commentary on this chapter. 

V. The Design of the Ictus or Accents observed by the Attic Greeks. Se- 
lect Emendations to each of the Plays of Aristophanes. Miscellaneous Ob- 
servations on Euripides^ Sophocles and Mschylus. This section occupies 
nearly half the book, and contains much information, especially iu 


148 An Account i^the Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 

prosody, which wa% in a great measure, new to the critical world wl^n it 
was published* Reiske, an author who knew well enough how to blow 
hot and cold on the same subject, has observed of the whole book, that it 
is rich in excellent matter from beginning to end, but that in the fifth 
section, which is the best, the Greek dramatists, and Aristophanes 
especially, are touched with such a masterly hand, that he who wishes to 
feast on the honey of Attic comedy must never want this work. '* The 
great Valkner too, and his excellent disciples, Fierson and Koen, have 
spoken of it in terms of distinguished commendation." Bowyer and 
others, in consideration of the author's intimate acquaintance with the 
niceties and elegances of the Greek language, conferred on him the 
epithet of DomfmmrmrHf aud Mr. Tate has also very justly observed, that 
Dawes's ** contributions to metrical knowledge can never be estimated 
too highly," while of himself it may with equal justice be said, that, on 
this nice, curious, and scholar-like subject, he has, in his ** Introduction 
to the principal tragic and common Metres," taken the most accurate 
survey that has hitherto been made of it, and reduced it into a dear and 
comprehensive form; and in his **Canones Dtmesiani xi," has, with 
great skill, extracted the principal of Dawes's doctrines on the subject 
of Greek Syntax, and illustrated them with admirable force and fulness 
of examples.* 

To these testimonies of learned men to the excellence of the Miscel- 
lanea Critica, numerous others, both of our own and foreign countries, 
might be advanced from the memoir on its author by Dr. Kippis, and 
from the elaborate prefaces to it by Dr. Burgess and Mr. Kidd. Brunck 
« held it in the highest estimation, and recommended it in the wannest 
terms to every scholar; and the works of Musgrave, Tyrwhitt, and 
Porson are scattered with enconiums upon it : but the reception it met 
with in its author's life time, and the high reputation in which it has 
ever since been holden by scholars are still more strongly shown, by the 
number of editions it has gone through. 

Dr. Burgess, the present Bishop of Salisbury, in 178l> published a new 
edition of it, which he dedicated to Thomas Tyrwhitt, the illustrious 

* Gibson's Theatre of the Greeks. Gamb. 181^, p. 386 and 460. 

An Account of the L^e and Writings of Richard Dawes. 149 

editor of Aristotle's Poetics^ lind annotator upon the works of Chaucer 
and Shakspeare. It was enriched with a new preface of 4S pages 
containing notices respecting Dawes's life and a luminous review 
of the Miscellanea CritkOj to which he appended 188 pages of annota* 
tions and six copious and useful indexes of matters treated upon in the 
original text of Dawes and in the editor's own prefaces and appendix. 
This edition issued from the Clarendon Press : it was a juvenile under«- 
taking, and raised its editor into high celebrity among critics and 
scholars. The indexes to it are a proof of the high estimation in which 
Dr. Burgess held that species of literary keys : and of the disregard he 
had for Dawes's sneer over the memory of Bentley~that he knew nothing 
of Greek but firom indexes. This edition by Dr. Burgess was reprinted 
at Leipsic in 1800. 

In 1817 Mr. Kidd, the learned editor ofOpusctUa Ruhnkeniana, gave 
the public a fourth edition of this work accompanied with considerable 
additions to the notes upon the text and the notices respecting the 
author's life by the Bishop of Salisbury ; and in 1827 a fifth edition of 
the original work in which the prefaces are still further enlarged, the 
notes enriched with new reasoning and illustrations, and a curious appen- 
dix given of the author's proposals for printing his Greek translation 
of the first book of Paradise Lostj the letter to Dr. Taylor already 
noticed, and extracts from advertisements and pamphlets, which origi- 
nated in disputes with the people of Newcastle after the publication of 
the Miscellanea Critica. 

But, aft;er witnessing the flattering reception the Miscellania Critica 
met with, at its first appearance, and, seeing ' it soon ranked among the 
best standard books, and largely and luminously commented upon, it is 
only justice to observe that it is not without its peculiarities and faults. 
Dr. Burgess has noticed the inconvenience of its method of joining two 
w<H*ds in one, instead of using the apostrophe where the laws of verse 
require that a letter or syllable should be omitted where a word ending 
with a vowel, is succeeded by one beginning with a vowel, as yit^ for y «^, 
yiyf»«0^«» for yfyim^ «r, ntf for « ufy bcsidcs the omission of the accents on 
Greek words, and other similar peculiarities, which might not meet 

150 An Account of the Life and Writings qf Richard Dawe^. 

adepts in Greek in the form of difficulties, but could not fail to impede 
and perplex the way of a tyro. Mr. Tate has also observed that '* a very 
useful article might be formed under the name < Errores Dawesiani ;' '^ 
for ^* the detection of ingenious error in clever men affords instruction as 
well as amusement, if properly considered. The quick may learn mo- 
desty and the slow may derive encours^ment from the same lesson.'*— > 
fGibson's Theatre qfthe Greeks^ p. S51.) Perhaps the greatest fault of 
the book is its style, which by being over curiously and artificially con- 
structed is often difficult, and sometimes obscure. It is rapid, forcible, 
and pure, but like a full stream rushing over a confined and inclining 
bed, it sometimes becomes too deep to be translucent to ordinary eyes. It 
ismore copious than graceful. The sentences are dressed in such succinct 
and idiomatic brevity, that one, who wishes to admire the beauty of its rea- 
soning, must not be a stranger to the niceties of phraseology in fashion 
among the Latin authors of the Augustan age. The book, at any rate, 
can be useful only to scholars ; and, commercially speaking, itsLatingarb 
may have procured it a more extensive circulation, in foreign countries^ 
than it could have obtained if it had been originally published in Eng- 
lish ; but, when it is considered that the true intent of critical books is 
to give facility to students in obtaining a knowledge of the subjects they 
treat upon, it cannot but be matter of regret that such knowledge should 
oflen be clouded and obscured by an affectation of acquaintance with un- 
common words and modes of phraseology : and that Mr. Dawes's book 
did not appear at first in English is to be still more deeply regretted, 
since we have become acquainted with his masterly style of writing in 
that language, in his letter to Dr. Taylor. Is there no one to be found 
with leisure and ability to translate this excellent work, and thereby to 
give to minds that travel slowly through the literature of Greece and 
Rome, accompanied as they go with grammarians and lexicographers for 
their guides, some opportunity of beholding and enjoyii^ the beauties 
of that rich and ever-varying scenery, which charm the fleet and wing-- 
footed sons of Hermes in their aerial excursions over the gardens of an* 
tient Hellenic and Roman poetry ? 
In closing the view of Dawes's critical labours, it is natural to turn 

An Account of the Life and Writings qfJUcJufrd J)awe$^ 1^1 

to. himself, and observe with what effect upon his own mind he watched 
their receptioq in the world. Had he firmness to sit in the complacent 
enjoyment of self-approbation, conscious of the benefits he had conferred 
upon his own profession, and regardless alike of the approving vpic^ of 
genuine learning, the detraction of envy, and the common-place criti- 
cisms of the multitude of the wise ? There were times when neither 
admiration, nor envy, nor vulgar wisdom, could find any pleasure in his 
company ; when mercy and pity were the only beings tliat could be 
gratified by visiting him ; when praise fell upon him as cheerlessly as 
sunshine comes over sorrow. Dr. Keppis has observed that the pecu- 
liarities of conduct, by which he was distinguished at the universities, 
'^probably arose from a dash of insanity in his constitution.'* I wish I 
could have dashed this assertion out of the page of history, and thrown 
a veil of everlasting oblivion over it. For who is there who does not 
feel the best and holiest sympathies of his nature aJGfiicted, and shudder, 
when he recollects how many powerful minds, the sun of whose genius 
could have dimmed all the intellectual constellations around them, have 
nevertheless been subjected to have their understandings darkened by 
this ** heaviest of human afflictions,'' and themselves made the sport of 
ignorance and folly. 

«< From this day forth 

rU use you for my mirth, yea, for my laughter 
When you are waspish," 

WHS a threat, the bitterness of which, from the morbid irritability of his 
mind, poor Dawes too often tasted. ^^ He fancied that all his friends 
had slighted him or used him ill : and of the jealousy of his temper he 
has left a remarkable instance on a very trifling occasion. His printer, 
by an unfortunate mistake in a passage of Terentiqnw Maurus^ which 
Mr, Dawes had produced in order to correct, had inserted a comma 
that destroyed the merit of the emendation. In consequence of this 
involuntary errpr, our author in the addenda to his Miscellanea has 
expressed himself with great indignation. He declares he could not 
conjecture what fault he had committed against the printer, that 
he should envy him the honour, whatever it was, that was due to his 

152 An Account of the Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 

correction : and he adds, that he knows not how it happened, that for 
several years past he had been ill used by those from whom he had 
deserved better treatment."* 

Dr. Parr told Mr. Tate that the Emanuel men of Dawes's standing 
were all Tories little short of Jacobites* Hence, in the violence of parly 
spirit, they carried their dislike to Bentley to the greatest height Old 
Harry Hubbard who was senior fellow of that college, and an excellent 
man, but no lover of the Georges, in conjunction with Dr. Mason, 
assisted, as has been observed, in carrying the Miscellanea through the 
press. But I do not see that Dawes's uncourtly mode of speaking of 
Bentiey is to be attributed to bitterness of party feeling. His odes on 
the death of George the First, the accession of George the Second, and 
the marriage of Frederick Prince of Wales, if they are to be attributed 
to honest feeling, are proofs of his attachment to the interest of the House 
of Brunswick. Besides which, he says himself that after he had given a 
specimen of his severity over his own errors, he hoped it would be taken as 
a proof, that as often as he had occasion to differ ftom learned men and to 
charge them with errors, it was not done ft'om a wish to detract from 
their true merits, but solely for the improvement of genuine learning. 
I would, therefore, attribute his complaints against the defection and 
ingratitude of his friends, as well as his asperity of criticism, to the 
saddening effects of temporary delusion : when he was in his better 
moments and his reason was fully capable of resolving the darkest criti- 
cal difficulties, there was still a gloom and despondency over all the 
views that connected him with humanity. It was on this account that 
his ^' situation at Newcastie was neither so happy nor so useful as might 
have been expected :" this failure in his (^Ice as a schodbnaster **was," 
as Dr. Kippis remarks, *' owing to the excentricity of his disposition ; 
and, indeed, to his imagination being in some respects disturbed."—' 
** With the Corporation" oli that town " he had got involved in alterca- 
tions, and he adopted a singular method of displaying his resentment or 
rather his contempt ; for in teaching the boys at school, he made them 
translate the Greek word for Ass into Alderman^ which some of the lads 

* Kippis. 

An Account of the Life and Writings iff Richard Daxtes* 158 

did seriously, though otherwise well instructed,"*—" a practice, which 
habit rendered so inveterate, that some of his pupUs inadvertently used 
the same expression with very ludicrous effect in their public college 

I have not yet been able to discover the immediate cause of his quar- 
rels with the Corporation. Probably, as Dr. Kippis observes, it was 
connected with his occasionally unfortunate state of mind and conse- 
quent desertion of his school. With the helm of his own understanding 
shattered and weak, when he once got into disputes with his patrons, 
and supposed that he saw others, from whom he might have expected 
gratitude and kindness, treating him with coldness and neglect, it is not 
to be wondered, that he should be blown into an ocean of difficulties 
by the storm of his own poignant wit and irascible temper. 

Of the ill treatment, which he imagined he experienced from some of 
his townsmen, he has left us an account in a pamphlet, which he pub- 
lished under the title of Extracts from a MS. Pamphlet intitled the 
Tittle Tattle Mongers, No. I.§ This curious performance, with 
"the titles of the Extracts'* had been weekly announced in the New- 
casHe Courant from April 5 to May SI in 1746. I have been favoured 
with a sight of it from the valuable collection of local books and manu- 
scripts of an intelligent member of this society ; and after reading it 
over more than once, I have had no eyes or judgment to find any 
s3rmptoms of its being the produce of a disordered intellect. It certainly 
was not prudent to publish it at all : but one of his mottos, 

'* Multa diuque tuli ; tandem patientia victa est," 
shows that he had suffered indignities till his patience was conquered ; 

* Sjpjns. f Smtees' Hist. Dur. ii. 84. 

$ It is in l£mo. "* printed at Newcastle upon Tjne in the year MDCCXLVII. by John White." 
pp. 40. A copy of it. No. 1211, sold for 41. 58. at Mr. Brockett's sale. Under *'the titles of the 
Extracts on page 2 '* it contains the following ** N. B. There will soon be sent to press No. IL con- 
sisting efy 1. The prindpal contents of some letters from I%ilarchus to Polemarchon, &c^ with a 
commentary. 2. Professor Fungus's lecture oi\ PRUDENCE alias Scoundrelism ; with notes. — 
And soon after that. No. IIL, consisting of characters of some of the gentlemen of the corporation of 
Logopoiion, alias the Vengefid Brotherhood, or Ftmgus Clan^^ Besides which, an advertisement in the 
Newcastle Courant, in April and May 1747, announces in addition to the three ^ Extracts" published 

154 An Account qfthe L\fe and Writings qf Richard Dawes. 

andy after that was done^ I apprehend few in a similar situation could 
have found a more effectual engine for assailing their enemies, and 
scattering among them the bitter arrows of irony and scorn than Mr. 
Dawes invented in the little Tattle Mongers. That parts of it are of 
a most uncourtly nature is no argument against its fitness for the pur- 
pose for which it was intended. A good general adapts his mode of 
attack to the nature of the fortress he has to reduce, and our author, 
finding no other mode of sUencing the disturbers of his peace, made a 
laughing stock of their pretensions to judge on learned matters ; and 
threw contempt and humiliation with unspairing hand on all their pur- 
suits and acquirements. His second motto is 

<^ Turno tempus erit : magno cum optaverit emptum 
Intactum Pallanta/' 

That this attack had the effect of creating fear and shame is plain 
from the impression of the pamphlet, which contained it, having been 
as far as possible bought up and destroyed. Very few copies of it got 
into circulation. Indeed the learning and criticisms, with which its 
raillery and satire are blended, made it unintelligible to general readers, 
and consequently limited its circulation to a few*. 

The first extract is on 'Hhe Origin of the Names Neusowmasa and 

in No. L ** TV, the character of Porous. Porcut with a pen in hit hand, recommended as a prover- 
bial expression to answer the latin Assinus ad Lyram, V. the character of StrepsocBcus.'* And the 
same Newspaper from October ] to November 14, 1747, has the following advertisement : — 

<<I. PhiloDoi AntipolypragmonisEpistoUad juvenuin«A<K^«M;^v»«^XtMef«f Antonium Askew, M. B. Coll. 
Emman. apud Cantabrigienfes, non ita pridem Pseudo-Socio-Commenaalem, JEacbyli editiones promiMorem.. 
In qua « iu^a obiter y^'own capmtt ex suis virtutibus omatur. 

< Quid digoum unto feret hie promiitor hiatu? 
' ParturiuDt montes, naacetur ridiculus mua, 
' Quod medicorum est 

< Promittant medici Hoa. 

'O Ziv! 6<r% fMf Tuf tiXa^efu»9 itafitl^uy i^n* h mr afAtUm^ ! Luc, 

' Tc miror, Antoni. * Crc. 

<< II. Consilii a PoKtolmo ThroKmida, Academie Panalaxoniee alumno, undecimum «Utis annum i^ntr, 
de Lycopbrone edeodo luscepti declaratio. 

* AXet^onvdfMft ir»$j vfnpnK09Ttmu AaisroPH." 
' These advertisements, in an abridged form, and some extracts from the " TittU Tattle Monffen" are given with 
notes in Kidd*s last edition of the <« MUceOamea CHHca,'* ' 

An Account qfihe Life and Writings qf Richard Dawes. I5b 

LogopoUon with a general character of the LogopoiioDs." The former 
of which names means, Queen qf Islands^ and the latter the town of 
Tittie Tatik. Both of them, he says, were imposed by Homer, who 
made an expedition to this island and visited most of its principal towns. 
He then proceeds to state the process of reasoning by which some of 
the genii of Logopoiion came to discover the derivation of these iiames, 
the result of which was, that a Logopoiion, a Ix^ o' wood, a sow, and 
an ass were tantamount contemptuous expressions, imposed ujpon their 
town and country by one Philhomerus purely in contempt and abuse of 
them. After this he introduces certain gentlemen and ladies of Logo- 
poiion uiider feigned names. Who the ladies were who had a heart to 
l>reak a bruised reed and could render themselves worthy of being 
noted and remarked upon by Dawes's critical pen^ he has left us no 
light to assist in discovering ; and we will not take up a taper to go on 
so ungallant and invidious an errand as to seiarch for their real names. 
Dr. Adam Askew, whom he designates by the names oi Polypragmm and 
Fungus^ was, as a physician in Newcastle and to great distances around 
it,as Mr. Nichol has remarked, the Raddiffeof his day. Herealizedagreat 
fortune. Few are now alive who remembered him ; but many amusing 
anecdotes are still told of him about Newcastle, which represent him as 
a character full of life, pleasantry, and bustle ; very prompt and decisive 
in all his proceedings ; . but no way remarkable, when he chose, for 
urbanity of manners or choice of words. Dawes in this Extract speak- 
ing of himself says, his nose was somewhat apish ; and that this Socratic 
turn of a principal feature in his face had often been an object of 
Fungus's wit in conversation. Once, in particular, aft^r racking his 
noddle for a month how to draw the critic's picture at ftdl length, and 
after calling in the assistance of some learned friend, or perhaps an 
index to Martial, he produced upon a scrap of paper, a piece of daub- 
ing, subscribed with 

<* Non cnicunque datum est habere nasum," 
and sent it to Dawes, who, after sliowing that habere nasum has there no 
relation to the features, but means ** sense, sagacity, and ingenuity," 
says — '* what is still more unlucky for the pleasant animal, the line is 


156 An Account qfthe Lifb and Writings qf Richard Dcpwes. 

an epigram upon a stupid ^t^on that fancied himself witty and probably 
used to exercise his precious talents upon blemishes in people's features, 
since this is the most abject kind of scurrility, and such as even an idiot 
is equal to/' This Extract also contains a dash at Dr. Askew's <' musical 
son;"* and concludes with a qualifying paragraph in which he observes 
** that he is far from intending to suggest that Logopoiion is entirely des- 
titute of men of real liberality, knowledge, wit, or sense." " Nay even 
this general description is meant to be so far limited, as not to include 
any person whatsoever, by whom I have not been industriously, and 
without provocation, insulted, molested, or depreciated." 

The scope of the second and third Extracts is aimed at Dr. Akenside» 
who had been a pupil under Dawes, and with all his qualificatioDs of 
genius as a poet ; of religion and virtue as a man ; and of vivacity and 
eloquent conversation as a companion ; was nevertheless, haughty and 
disputatious ; and even in the generous days of early youth, before he 
was twenty-four years old, had, in the opinion of his preceptor, the malice 
and unmanliness to introduce him into the Pkasures qf Imaginatianf in 
the character of a surly cynic of the name of Momion. The lines in 
which this act of impiety is done, are as follow :-— 

'* Thee too, fiu^etious Momion, wandering here^ 
Thee, dreaded ceosor, oft have I beheld, 
Bewildered unawares : alas I too long 
Flushed with thy comic triumphs and the spoils 
Of sly derision I till, on every side^ 
Hurling thy random bolts, offended truth 
Assigned thee here thy station with the slaves 

* This WB8 Dr. Anthony Askew, the same gentlemen who is ridiculed respecting his promised ei^ 
don of iBschylus, in the proposals printed in the note p. 154. He was born in Kendal in 1722, before 
his fiither settled in Newcastle, and educated at Sedburgh and Emmanuel college. He probably got a 
considerable share of his education under Dawes. In 1745 he took the degree of B. D. : his propo- 
sal for publishing a new edition of JEschylus was printed in 1746, contained a specimen of the inten- 
ded work, was dedicated to Dr. Mead, is in quarto, but now very scarce. Lithe same year he studied 
at Leyden, then went with the Embassy to Constantinople, whence he returned by Italy to Paris in 
1749. In 1750 he became M. D. He had the best private collection of Greek and Latin books 
and manuscripts that was ever sold in England. It was unique in its day. Dr. Parr has 
him as a scholar in the Bibliomana, 

Jn Account qfthe L\fe and Writings qf Richard Dawes. 157 

Of foUy. Thy once formidable name 
Shall grace her humble records and be heard 
In scofis and mockery, bandied from the lips. 
Of all the vengeful brotherhood around, 
So oft the patient victims of thy scorn." 

On this passage the author of the Extracts has the following remarks : 
** A certain illustrious^ collection of genii have thought proper to apply 
this character personally. The part of the brotherhood they take to 
themselves, and are so kind as to confer that of Momion upon Philhome- 
rus. The poet, indeed, has absolutely denied that the character was 
intended personally, and has professed himself astonished at the applica- 
tion. But his pleading non-intention with respect to another gentleman, 
after having declared himself astonished at what was his doctrine, makes 
me entertain but a moderate opinion of his veracity. And, in this 
opinion, I am confirmed by the conduct of his friends, the genii, who, 
notwithstanding his remonstrance, persist in the application. Nay, I am 
apt to believe, that they, being acquainted with his blushing diffidence^ 
instigated, if not hired, him to undertake so notable a prank.'' He then 
goes on to show, with great clearness and force of reasoning, that *^ the 
height of bravery to which Virgil raised the character of Turnus, was 
principally calculated with this view, that his hero, ^neas, might, upon 
his victory of Turnus, appear to a proportionably greater advantage. 
The same conduct had been before observed by Homer, in the case of 
Hector and Achilles ;'* and then he enters on new ground of criticism, 
and '* takes occasion to point out another instance of the Latin poet's ar- 
tifice of making ^neas call Diomedes the bravest of the Graecians/' 
which he thinks was done for the purpose of raising in the reader'is mind 
such an exalted notion of Diomedes' bravery, that the character which 
he had to give of MneaSy in another part of the poem, *^ might redound 
to his honour in the highest possible degree." '' Had the same character 
of MneBs proceeded from an insignificant worthless creature, nothing 
could have rendered the hero more ridiculous." Just so, he remarks, 
** the only way whereby such animals," as those against whom he was 
writing, *^can contribute to the real praise ofany person is to depreciate 

158 An Account of. (he Lffe and Writings qf Richard Dawes. 

him. Hence^ by the way, let me recommend to the reflection of the 
genii, what abundant praises they have unwittingly conferred upon 
PhUhomerus (Dawes himself) j what additional lustre they have given to 
a fair character by endeavouring to blacken it." " I am so well ac- 
quainted with the state of the case betwixt Philhomerus and them, as 
to be able to affirm that he never was flushed with any triumphs over 
them. He may, perhaps, have chastised their stupid insolence , but he 
no more triumphed upon this, than upon having corrected an impudent 

Dr. Akenside, in the *' Pleasures qf Imagina&on^^^ had the misfortune 
to mention ** the blushing diffidence of youth," with reference to himself : 
and Dawes, thinking him not over highly gifted with that amiable re- 
commendation in a young man, honours the passage with an ironical '* il- 
lustration from a line of some ancient tragasdian preserved by Lucian," 
and with frequent quotation, as, — "return we now to the poet of blushing 
diffidence." But, however just his opinion of the Doctor's diffidence 
might be, his estimate of his poem, when he called it, " such a cob-web 
as the Pleasures of Imagination** was certainly illiberal and ill-founded. 
It was written at a time of life when its autiior was capable of conipre- 
hending atid sketching out vast ideas, but wanting in judgment how to 
arrange and finish aU the details of his pictures. In maturer years he 
expunged the offensive passage respecting Momion from his poem, as 
well as some otiiers which Dawes had commented upon in his Extracts. 
It is still, however, to be borne in mind that the circumstance of this 
pamphlet having never been answered affords no ground of reason to 
believe that its author's conduct in his School was correct, or that the 
prejudice of the* people of Logopoiion was unjustiy excited against him. 
That he was very highly talented as a grammarian every one must allow. 
But to preside with success over a great public school, requires the rare 
union of many qualifications— great industry and steadiness in conduct 
and opinion, patience and evenness of temper, firmness, dignity of 
deportment, discrimination of character, a highly stored and compre- 
hensive mind, an accurate and retentive memory, fluency in lecturing; 
great delight in communicating knowledge, great art in rousing the 
curiosity and exciting the most highly gifted faculties of his pupils, 

An Account of the Life and Writings qf Richard Dawes. 159 

as well as great ambition in seeing them rise into offices of usefulness 
and honour. 'That Mr. Dawes was deficient in some of these excellen- 
cies, and consequently failed in attaining eminence and distinction in 
the way of life in which he set out, was no just cause of humiBation to 
himself, or of triumph to others. What is there less uncommon than for 
V persons to form a mistaken estimate of their own powers ? His faults 

seem to have been, a blindness to his own infirmities, blaming every 
body but himself for want of success, and pertinaciously adhering to 
office when he found himself unpopular. His situation at Newcastle, 
I apprehend, was this :— he was found, from causes he could neither see 
nor controul, to be unsteady in his attention to his school, resentful of 
all interference with his manageinent, and cuttingly satirical : but he 
\ was also firmly seated in his office, and a giant and a king where he was. 

He knew that no man in the neighbourhood dared to measure a lance 
with him in learning ; and he, therefore, among his scholars, threw out 
his wit unsparingly on all he suspected of opposing him. Some mode, 
however, was to be taken of removing him ; and a natural, but cruel 
one was applied. The marble which stands for ages unchanged among 
atmospheric tempests, effervesces and bursts by the appUcation of asim- 
pie acid: and here, the body, which the powerful levers of law and 
reason could not stir, moved like a feather before the breath of ridicule. 
Prom the playful style of the Extracts it does not, however, appear 
that the lash of derision afflicted his ihind with any intense suffering. — 
They were written in the heat of his quarrel with the Corporation : but 
30 far from indulging in complaints of ill usage, their tone is that of 
scoffing and contempt. The war that was wiaged against him. seems to 
have stirred his irascible and indignant, more than painful and humilia- 
ting feelings. 

On the SSd of September, 1746, he made a proposal to resign the of- 
fice of maister of the school, upon which the Corporation offered him an 
annuity of £80. for his life, on condition of his resigning both that situ- 
ation and the mastership of St. Mary^s Hospital, which offisr he seems to 
have declined ; for on the 10th of January, 17^8, he made new proposals 
to the Common Council of terms of resignation, but of what nature does 

160 An Account of the Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 

not appear. The negociation, however, was closed on the S6tli of 
January, 174t9f by the Corporation granting him. an annuity of £80. for 
his life, and allowing him to receive a stipulated fine on all renewals of 
poperty belonging to the Hospital, in which one life had fallen in. On 
the 25th of September following, his annuity was secured to him by a 
bond, under the common seal, and he resigned both offices accordingly. 
The papers containing his correspondence with his patrons, are among 
the archives of the Corporation. 

After resigning the school he retired to a house on the banks of the 
Tyne, at Heworth Shore, where, at that time, only three or four families 
resided. This house stood in a pleasant garden on the ea^t side of the 
rivulet, which divides the Felling and Heworth lands, and close adjoin- 
ing the west side of the garden of the house of the late Mr. Richard 
Kell. At present the garden is quite destroyed, and its western verge 
can only be traced by a row of elm trees. In his time, the batiks of the 
Tyne, in that neighbourhood, were, on both sides, covered with oak 
wood, and the situation selected by Dawes for his retreat was retired 
and sweet. His chief amusement was rowing a boat on. the Tyne ; and, 
when he was well, he walked much in the lanes near his house. His 
companions were few and selected ; but here, as in Cambridge, not al- 
ways chosen on account of their high rank, but with minds congenial to 
his own. He brewed good ale, and a humourous and eccentric black- 
smith at the adjoining hamlet of Bill Quay frequently partook of it. A 
person, who remembered him well, told me, that for one year he went 
and resided at the neat but retired village of Monckton, the reputed 
birth place of the venerable Bede } but soon returned to his former habi- 
tation at Heworth Shore. The same person also said, that her father, 
who was a weaver at Heworth, and of the name of Bowes, used to shave 
him three times a week, and that he always knew on entering his room, 
whether he was disturbed in his mind or not ; for when he spoke he was 
right, but, if he was silent, he was in a low state ; and, in these melan- 
choly moments, he would take the razor very gently out of Bowes's hand 
and draw it as gently across his sleeve, without doing him any harm ; 
but, to use the words of the same narrator, ** while he was doing so, a 

An Account of the Life and Writings of Richard Dctwes^ :l6l 

cold fear used to come over my father, lest, wheu he was in that low 
state of mind, he might not be always safe with a razor in his hand. 
My father attended him during all the time he lived both at He worth 
Shore ^nd at Monckton \ and, when he found him well, would not. un- 
commonly stay a whole day with him/' 

He was of a strong frame of body, tall, and corpulent ; and his hair, 
which was thick and flowing, was snowy white j on account of which 
the children of the neighbourhood (rude savages !) used to run after him, 
calling out, " White head ! White head !" which often made him angry, 
and lift his stick at them. According to his own account, as has been 
noticed, he had *^ some degree of the Socratic Simote^s," or flatness of 
nose which is '* mentioned by Zenophon and Plato,'' and which had 
*^been at least fifty times an object of" his medical friend, ** Mr. Fungus's 
wit in conversation." I have often heard a gentleman say, that he has 
seen the children about Heworth Shore, as they passed Mr. Dawes, 
crossing their noses with their finger and thumb, a dirty trick, which he 
abhorred, but which they had no doubt been taught by their Newcastle 
neighbours, for the sole purpose of tormenting him. His wrath, how- 
ever, never fell with a heavy hand upon the varlets who teased him ; for 
after he had shaken his stick at them, if he had any copper in his pocket, 
he deUghted in throwing it among them, and enjoying the scramble it 
occasioned. Mr. Brewster, in his memoir of the Rev. Hugh Moises, 
M. A., the able and successful follower of Mr. Dawes, in the Grammar 
School of Newcastle, has the following anecdote concerning our author, 
during his residence at Heworth Shore. Mr. Brewster " remembered ^o 
hapre heard a friend of his say, that he had visited Mr. Dawes after his 
removal to Heworth, and that, though he could not, perhaps, be pro- 
nounced absolutely insane, his eccentricity was of that lively kind, both 
in words and actions, as to leave the impression that great wits and mad- 
ness are proverbial : but, though in spite of the proverb, there does not 
exist any real connection between them, an elevation of mind, of what- 
ever nature, will always produce an elevation of expression, which was 
remarkably the case at my friend's interview with Mr. Dawes." 

Some suspicions have been thrown upon his belief of the truth of 

162 An Account qfihe life and Writings qf Richard Dawes. 

ChriBtianity.^ Dr. Kippis says, that he occasionally, at the University, 
took such liberties, on certain topics, as gave great offence to those about 
him ; but doies not mention what these topics were. In his Extracts^ 
Mr. Dawes makes a dash at the clergy, through the sides of Dr. Aken-^ 
side, where he concludes his illustration of that '* poet's' blushing di£S- 
dence,'' with observing — ^that ** there is no room for being surprised at 
its having been experienced by private persons — ^by the clergy, as some 
think, in . general, and by part of the nobility — since it has not scrupled 
to make free with Omnipotence itself. Witness, that^raodest simile in 
the Epistle to Curio, v. S3, which must shock any reader that is not 
habituated to prgfaneness and blasphemy — 

*^ Calm as the Judge qf Truths at length J come, 
^* To weigh thy merits, and pronounce thy doom.'' 

'^ Coeluni ipsum petimus stultitia." These lines are omitted in the 

edition of Akenside's Poems, in 177^- But an inference, which I think 

■ • • • • 

way be drawn from the observations which precede them is this, that 
Dawes considered that Akenside was here guilty of making free with 
Omnipotence, just as the clergy are habitually guilty of profaneness and 
blasphemy in many of the doctrines which they uphold. This, however, 
may be considered as a forced construction ; and it is best no doubt on 
this subject to say with Mr. Kidd, *' judex esto Deus, sapientissimus et 
maxime benignus pectoris humani scrutator.*' 

Another inference may, I think, be drawn from the Extracts. — ^That, 
while they are the sparkling and effervescence of a scholar that treated 
insult with derision and scorn, their lofty and disdainful tone was 
breathed from a mind which, though it was rough, was proud and vir- 
tuous } which set all imputations of moral blame at defiance ; and 
honestly and obstinately adhered to the conduct and opinions it consi- 
dered right. 

Had he carefully weighed all his powers with reference to his own 
happiness and usefulness in the w;orld, he ought never to have quitted 
his college, but to have endeavoured to increase his reputation and his 
means of supporting himself by his critical labours. Employed in this 

^ Kidd's Misc. Crit Pref. p. tL 

An Account ((fthe Life and Writings of Richard Dawes. 163 

manner, he would have been less liable to be harassed with the crosses 
and indignities of vulgar opinion, than he was as a schoolmaster ; and 
his labours would have been both useful and lasting. 

Of his books and inedited manuscripts, I hoped long ago to have got 
some certain information ; but my enquiries have hitherto been unsuc- 
cessful. Dr. Bu rg e g s says, that some of his manuscript books were in the 
collection of Dr. Anthony Askew, who purchased them and the rest of 
his books. No notice, however, is taken of any work that had belonged 
to him in the sale catalogue of Dr. Askew's printed books ; and I have 
been unable to obtain a sight of the catalogue of his Collection of MSS. 
The impression on my mind respecting them is, that they were disposed 
of in the manner I have mentioned in the beginning of this memoir. If 
Dr. Askew got the manuscript of the " Emendationes in Poetas Grcpcos^'* 
mentioned in the letter to Dr. Taylor, it is to be hoped that he suffered 
them to share a better fate than to put them . into the evil hands of 
.Reiske, as he did those of his friend Dr. Taylor. 

Mr. Dawes died at Heworth Shore, on the 21st of March, I766, in 
the house in which he had lived about 16 years, and was buried on the 
93d of the same month, in Heworth chapel-yard. A tradition is still 
current in the neighbourhood that he grew weary of life, and ended his 
days by an act of suicide ; but, on enquiry into the report, I found from 
a person who was present at the washing of his body immediately after 
he died, that it was a groundless slander, and that he went out of life by 
the uniform way of nature.* 

In addition to his other afflictions, it is also somewhere intimated that 
he was subject in his latter days to the hardship of poverty, which, of all 
the evils that can befal a high and feeling mind, is the heaviest and most 
insupportable ; but his protracted negociation with the Common Coun- 
cil of Newcastle, for terms to retire from his school upon, show that he 
set a proper value on independence and the means of self-preservation ; 
and his annuity of £80. a year, with the portion of fines for which he 
stipulated, were certainly riches to one who had no family to share his 
income with, who "shunned the noise of folly,*' and the expensive pur- 
suits of ambition and fashionable life. 

* See Surtees's Hist. Dur. vol. ii, p. 84. 

164 An AccowU qf&e Life tnd Writings qf Richard Dawes. 

His grave in Hewortfa diapel-yard is still mariced irith a faead-stone 
aS rade workmanship ; but said to be the gratuitous ofiering of a cotmtay 
mason to the memory of a great scholar. The stone bears tiie following 
inscrifition :— "In memoiy of Richard Dawes, latehead master of the 
gramniCT school of Newcastle, who died the Slst of March, I766, aged 
57." Besides noticing the sin of bad spelling, Brand is severe on the 
" vile sculpture,*' and wretched taste in grouping of a trumpet, swcHtl, 
and scythe, which are carved above this inscription : but, thanks to the 
intentions and peace to the gentle soul, who marked the spot that has 
tlie custody of Dawes's ashes. Before Heworth chapel was rdniilt, die 
incumbent there had the grave carefully marked with a stake, and the 
stone removed out of the way of injury ; and, as soon as the building 
was completed, the frjul *' memorial'* was moved back to its proper 
place, a large rolled block of bazalt laid lengthways on the grave, and 
the following inscription, on a plate of bronze sunk into it: — 

The incumbent of Heworth also suggested to the Rev. James Tate, of 
Richmond, in Yorkshire, the propriety of putting up a plain marble mo- 
nument to the memory of Dawes in the adjoining new chapel, promising 
on his part to furnish the design for it, and to take the trouble of getting 
it. put up, if Mr. Tate would procure the meaus of defraying the ex- 
pence of executing the plan, and write the inscription for the monument 
The subscriptions amounted to £SQ. 8s., and the expence of putting up 

An Account ofAe Life and Wrifykgs qf Richard Dimes. 165 

the marble and basalt monuments, and of the wood cuts for this memoir, 
to £94. ^9 the particulars of which sums are as follow : — 

£, «. 

The IKshojp of Salisbury, 10 10 

Emm. Ck>Il. Cambridge^ 5 5 

Rev. Thomas Kidd, 2 2 

Jonathan Raine, esq.. Professor Mus- 
grave^ the Rev. Doctors Samuel Parr, 
BAaltby, and Samuel Butler, and the 
Rev. Messieurs G. Butler, Dobree, 
H. Drury, James Tate, E. Moises, and 

James FUdne, each one ^nea, 11 11 

Expence exceeding subscription, 4 14 

£'M 2 

The Biarble Monument, 25 

Engraver and founder for the ]^nze 

Plate, 3 2 

Wood-cut of Marble Monument, 1 10 

Ditto for Mould of Bronze Plate, 1 10 

Ditto of Dawes's House, 3 

£34 2 

The marble monument, of which the wood cut on the next page is a 
correct representation, was executed by the late Mr. Isaac Jobling, 
sculptor in Gateshead, and bears the following inscription : — 





ANN08 • X . PR.£f1BCTYS« 






Besides which, the incumbent of Heworth promised to draw up and 
print a memoir of all he could collect respecting Dawes and his writings ; 
which, by way of redemption of his word, he has here endeavoured to 
do, at the first leisure moment he could spare for the purpose since the 
monument was completed in 1825 ; and he begs that othera may con- 
sider this performance in the same light he is constrained to judge of it 
himself— as a very humble tribute to the memory of Dawes ; a series of 
superficial gleanings from Kippis, and the Prejaces to Burgess's and 
Eadd's editions of the Miscellanea, interspersed here and there with a 
new fact, or with the inferences and reflections of one, whose preten- 
sions to sit in judgment on his ** golden book,*^ the *^ decus immortale'' of 

166 yin Account of the Lffe and WriUngs qf Richard Dames. 

English learning, Dawes would have treated with memment^if notwith 
indignation ; but whose respect for his memory, admiration of his great 
critical powers, and sympathy for his sufferings, are cordial and intense. 


An Account of some Ronum Antiquities. 167 

XVI.— ^^n Account oj' some Roman Antiquities which were sold in New- 
castle, in 1812, communicated by Mr. John Bell. See Plate IV. fig. 1. 

In February, 1812, several Roman Antiquities were sold by a person 
(to all appearance a farmer) to Mr. Thomas Watson, Silversmith, New- 
castle, and afterwards passed into the possession of John Brumell, Esq., 
in whose collection they remain. They consist of an oblong silver 
salver, about 18 inches in length, carved round the edge, and which, 
when discovered, was quite entire; a silver cup, about 5 inches in 
diameter, with only a small damage on one side ; another, about the 
same size, but which was so much corroded as to fall to pieces ; a flat 
handle, of which I send a drawing and which appears to have belonged 
to one of the cups, is most beautifully carved with leaves and flowers, 

and has an inscription DVB IT which had been inlaid with 

letters of gold, all, however, excepting the letters T V B being lost 
out ; two pieces of silver, carved and gilt, which seemed to haye been 
pieces of a bridle bit \ several gold snd silver rings, mostly in the shape of 
serpents, some of them set with stones, and one having an inscription. 

1^ An Account iff a curious Sctdpture. 

XVlL^^An AtcovM^n curious Scu^iure at BtidlikgtonChurck^ Yotk-^ 
shihe, in a Leiterjfrom W, C. Trsveltan, £54^ xtfWaMngton^ to Jobn 
AdamsoN) Esq., Secretary. See Plate V* 

WaUington^ January 20, 1825. 

N the autumn of 18Sd, I visited the interesting Church at Bridling- 
ton (founded about 1114, by Gilbert de Gant). On examining a tomb 
Stone with an inscription and date of 1587, standing on two low pillars of 
masonry near the font, t found some appearances of sculpture on the 
under side of it, and having obtained leave to turn it over, the curious 

• % ft » • 

sculpture represented in the etching herewidi sent, was discovered. 

Its meaning, or date, I cannot attempt to explain. Can it have any 
reference to the building of the church ? You will perceive both the 
drculak* and pointed aiicfa (liiiough the latter is probably only accidi^ntal, 
the space being limited)* 

The roof, I think, resemblies some of the Roman buildiags of tiie 
lower empire of which I have seen engravings^ 

The tiles, in shape, (Correspond exactly with (^ose Vhisch were found 
among the remains of a Roman villa discovered a few years since at 
Stonesfield, near Oxford. The upper figures are very like some on 
Bridekirk Font (of the 10th century). — Archceologia^ vol. xiv, plate SO. 

The figures of the Fox and Dove remind one of iBsop's fable of the ^ 
Fox and the Stork. 

The use of the plate I beg to offer to the Antiquarian Society of 
Newcastle, should it be thought worth publishing in the next volume of 
their Transactions. 


An Account qftke Tomb qfPhiUppa. 199 

XVIli, — An Account of the Tomb ofPhiKppaj Queen qf Erie Pomeramss^ 
King of Denmark, and daughter qf Henry IV. of England, in a Letter 
from W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., qflValHngton, to John Adamson, Esq. Sec. 
(For the Plate the Society are indebted to Miss Emma Tkevelyan.) 

Dear Sir, 

I jftead you a drawing of the Tomb of Philippa, Queen of Eric Pow^ 
ranus*, King of Demmark, and daughter of Henry IV. of E^gUiodi wbo 

Queen Philippa was much esteemed for her good qualities, bu^ is par- 
ticularly celebrated for her courageous and successful defence of Copen- 
hagen, when attacked by the Hanseatic States in 1428, with a force of 
12,000 men. A few months before her death she retired to Wadstena 
Monastery in Sweden, where her monument now exists. Her loss was 
much lamented by her subjects, as she had shown herself to be a good, 
a valiant, and a wise queen ; possessing those qualities which they could 
the better appreciate in her, in consequence of the absence of them in 

her husband. 

Among the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum (Caligula B. iii) is 
preserved *' Litera procur&toria facta de maritagio Erici Regis Daciae 
cum Philippa filia Henrici quarti," 1402. At the same time there ap- 
pears to have been a treaty going forward for the marriage of Henry 
Prince of Wales (Henry V.), with a daughter of Eric, as in the same 
volume is, ** Litera procuratoria de maritagio Henrici Principis Wallise 
et Catarinae Sororis Erici Regis Dacias, 1402." 

Holinshed says, of the marriage of Philippa, — " In the summer of this 

• Eric IX. son of Wratiriaws, Duke of Pomerenia, by Mary of Mecklenburg, niece to Margaret, 
the SemiramiB of the North ;— (See Monstrdet, 8th edit vol. ii, p. 7B), whom he aucceeded in 14}2. 

170 An Account oftiie Tomb qfPhUippa. 

ye^ (1406), the ladie Philip, the King's younger daughter, was sent 
over to her affianced husband, Erike, King of Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden, being conveyed thither with great pomp, and there married to 
the said King, where she tasted (according to the common speech used 
in praying for the success of such as majtch together, in marriage,) both 
joy and some sorrow among. There attended her thither, Henry 
Bowet, Bishop of Bath, and the Lord Richard, brother to the Duke of 

In a note in p. 67, voL i, of EUi^ Original Letters^ is mentioned the 
equipment of the ship which carried Philippa to her home, where a re- 
ference is made to Rym. Feed. i. viii. p. 447- 

For this drawing, copied from an original by Abildgaard, in the collec- 
tion of the Antiquarian Society of Copenhagen, I am indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. Thomsen, Secretary to that Society. 

The original is, I believe, merely figured in outiine, on the stone or on 
brass, I know not which. 

I remain. Dear Sir, 

Very sincerely, your*s, 


Some Account tflhe Rectory ofBromfield, VJl 

XIX.— ^ome Account (ff tke Rectory qf Bron^ield, ia ^ Coun^ qfCum. 
berkmdt by W. C. Tbevbltan^ Esq.^ qf Waliington ; addressed to John 
ADAUaoN, Esq., Secretary. 

Dear Sir, 

AccoHPANTiNO this is a cast of a seal which is appended to a confiniM- 
tion by Adam (de Warthwic), Prior of St. Mary's, Carlisle, of the 
grant made by John (Halton) Bishop of Carlisle, of the Rectory of 
Bromfield, in Cumberland, to the Abbey of St Mary's York, in IS03. 

On one ride appears the seal of the Monastery, and, on the back of it, 
prob^ly the private seal of the Prior, which is evidently a well sculp, 
tured antique, with a more modern inscription round it Sigillum Fris- 
J'Gton" — Sigillum Frateis Johannis Gton' ? with two coats of arms. 

Hutchinson in his History qf Cumberland, when describing the parish 
YOL. II. A a 

i7< idn^ At^mtdfthH Rectdfy dfBronyiblik 

of Bromfieldi says, *' there are no documents, it is apprehended, now to 
be met with, to shew, with any exactness, how this manor, and the great 
tithes of this rectory, were gradually parcelled out into various hands/' 
In looking over the papers formerly belonging to the Calverley family, 
I hftVe fbbild bdtHe teltttihg to the Rt%tbr)r bf BfbitiMd^ df som% ^ 
Midh) aS thi^y iStlpply ^m bf the itifdi*n)&tlbto vtrikited by HatchiMtOtk, I 
send you an abstract, which, if you think it l^brth the tlotic6 of thi An- 
quarian Society, you can lay before them at their next meeting, with the 
cast of the seal. 

I remain. Dear Sir, 

Very sincerely your's, 

M. c. tfefivELYAiif. 
Wicnhigtdn, !ran. sfo, I8g6. 

i^Si.^^^uhe 1st, l^fh itienry tTltl, the flfeV. Fathet ift 6od ISdrtrflATi 
Abbot, of the Monastery of our Lady of York, and the Convent of the 
same place, let to James Martyndale, Anthony Eglesfeld, gentilmen, 
Edward Raper and John Thombrand, of Bromefeld, yeomen, the ma- 
nor, place, and demesnes of Bromefeld, and all tyth com and hay, rents, 
houses, landd, &c. he. and all other rights of the said, except and re- 
served to the said Monastery, all and singula!* perquisites of courts, sutes, 
homages^ wards, &c. fcc. and all other such like casualties, belonging to 
the Royalty seignory of the said, for 34 years, paying annually £34., and 
£200. at 150. a year. 

1545. — Henry VIII. by his letter's patent, granted to Henry Thomp- 
son, the Manor, Rectory, and Church of 'Bromefield, then leased for 
£34. per annum (as above), together with the scite and demeanes of 
the late Priorie of Esholte, in the County of Yorke-, let at £14. 9s. 4d. 
per annum; together £48. 9s. 4d.: deduct, for tythe, £4. I6s. lid,; 
leaVesi £43. ISs. 4di : by a vald&tioti made at the time, rated at tw^ftty 
years' ^'nrchas^, £472< 7s. 6d4 ; add for the Woddsi £19^ 13s» 4d> t in aU^ 
:f4&i* lOfe. lOdi 

This grtmt appeant nfot to have been then completed, as Edward VI^ 
in his letters ptitent^ daitdd 25th August, 1 st year X)f his reign, Mysb that 

S&me Account of the Rectory at Brmt^li. VfB 

in CQiisidieratioa that Henry Thompson h^d deliy^red to iiis faliier (Hen; 
ViU.) the Ma^son Dieu at DoFer, and had paid faim (Hen* VHI.) £BtiS'. 
^. 8d., and Ibr £286. 4ks, 2d. tfi be paid by th^ £aid Henry Thon)paon» 
grants to him *^ totum illud Manerium nostrum dis Bromfield st Ei^ctOr 
nam nostram et Eedesiam nostram de Bromfield cumsuus juxibiji^^ coem- 
bris, et pertiDeatii9 uniyersifi in Com nVo Cumb'. nuper monastepe begte 
Mari^ juxta muros civitatis Ebon modo dis6olutc-«Hiudu^ spectand* et 
ptkien« ac pceil. possessiomim inde nuper ^xistend.!^^^c AdvocadoneiPi 
don^eionem, liberam dispositionem et jus p^tronat. f^icairi^ Eccie^ 
parochi^is de Bromfield/' 

10th Sep. 26th Eliz. 1584.— William Thompson, lets to Tl^omas 
Hetaton, of Heaton, Lancaster, Yeoman, the j^f anor<>house of Bromfield} 
called the Vicaridge, with lands, &c. for 21 years, at £6. 13s. 4d. yearly 
rentr and to pay the vicar forty marks yearly for his stipendiary wages. 

ISth Aug. 11th Jas. I, l6ld.-'-«During die minority of Christopher 
Thompson, his trustee (and grandfather)? Christopher Andertpn, of Har- 
widi, Lancaster, sells Sir Edward Musgrave, of Heiton, Cumberland, and 
William Musgrave, of Abbey Holme, for £^120., tithes of corn, grain, and 
b^^y, upon all 1^€( improvements Jiow, or hereafter 4;p be improved, on all 
tile commons in tiie parish of Bromfield, parcel of the rectory of Brom- 
field, to hold of the King, by the yeady payment gf sixteen pence, at the 
feast of St. Michael the Archangel. 

1638.— ^Henry Thompson conveyed to Cuthbert Orfeur, of Aikleby^ 
a messuage and tenement with appurtenances in Whyrigg. 

l654.-~12tb .October, Heniy Thompson levied a fine for setding cm 
hisheirs all the Manor or Lordship of Bromfield, and 5 messuages or tene- 
ments thercj and 60 acres cf arable land, 40 acres of meadow beld with 
the above, and that pasture ground calkd East^mire, Middlcrmire, and 
West^mire^ containing 200 s^cres, and the rectory and church of 
jfoomfield, and the advowson and right of patronage of the vicarLdge of 
the parish church of Bromfield, and 4 acres of arable land at Langridge, 
and tithes of corn and grain of Langrigge, and two messu^es, 4 acres 
of arable land, and 2 acres of meadow in Allanby ; and a me3suage and 
6 acres of arable in Urnegill ; ^ messuage and 14 acres of arable landj^ 

174 Some Account of the Rectory ofBromfield. 

and tithes of hay, in Kelsicke ; a messuage, 3 acres of arable land, and 
tithes of com, grain, and hay, in Dundrawe and Murawe ; tithes of corn 
and grain of Crookdake ; and all and singular grainges, mills, messuages, 
&c. &c, as specified in Edward VI. patent, and given in Hutchinson's 
History J vol. i. p. 806. 10th March, 1667> Walter Calverley, and Frances 
his wife, only daughter and heir of Henry Thompson, late of Brumfield, 
Esq. deceased, levy a fine of the Manor and Rectory of Brumfield, and 
of all tithes of grain and hay, and obventions within the said rectory, 
glebe lands, and predial fythes, &c., 20 messuages, 200 acres of land, 80 
acres of meadow, 80 acres of pasture, and 200 acres of waste. 

1670. — ^24th May, Walter Calverley sells John Hayton, of Umegill, 
in the Parish of Bromfield, yeoman, a messuage and grounds at Umegill 
for £50 , reserving to Walter Calverley an annual rent of 8s 6d. 

1671. — ^27th Sept., Walter Calverley sells to Francis Orfeur of High 
Close, all his estate, right, title, &c. to several farms, and the tythes, in 
the township of Bromfield, for £650., and Francis Orfeur to pay annu- 
ally to his Majesty the fee farm rent of 35s., and all other fee farm rents 
issuing out of the premises or out of the towns of Kelsick, Milrigg, 
Crookdake, Langrigg, Dunrowe, Brumfield, Scales, Wheyrigg, Alianby, 
and Newton, and payable yearly to his Majesty by reason of any grant 
of the Rectory ofBromfield, from King Edward VI. to the ancestors of 
Hienry Thompson, Esq. late owner of the same. 

1679.— Walter Calverley sold Sir John Ballantyne, Kt. of Crookdake^ 
all tithes of corn and grain in Crookdake for £400. 

I68O. — Walter Calverley sells Richard Thomlinson, of Akehead, Gent, 
the parsonage, rectory, and church of Bromfield, and the advowson 
gift, and presentation to the, vicarage of Bromfield, messuages, tithes, 
&c. in the towne of Bromfield ; S acres of arable land inLangrigge ; barn, 
and 12 acres at Dundrawe ; and a messuage in Kelsicke ; excepting and 
always reserved out of the said bargain and sale, all the tythes, great and 
small, of Crokedake, and 2 seats on the north side of the chancel ofBrom- 
field Church, now or late in the possession of Sir John Ballantine, of 
Crookdake, Knt., and all other tithes, of whatsoever kind, on any im- 
provements in the Parish of Bromfield, and also a rent issuing out 

Sime Account qf the Rectory qfBromfield. 17* 

of lands and tenements in Newton, and a rent out of lands, &c. in Al- 


1680.— April 5, Walter Calverley sells Robert Jackson, of Carlisle, 
yeoman, one seat in the north side of the Chancel of Bromfield Church, 
for £5. 

1689. — Walter Calverley sells to Richard Martindale, and Robert 
Sibson, of AUanby, land in the manor or township of AUanby, called 
X^ing Smales, Borrans, and Walkers. 

16P5. — ^August 10th, Walter Calverley sells Cuthbert Osmotherly, 
of Langrigg Hall and others, for £830. tythe of corn and grain in Lang- 
rigge, a tythe bam and stable, and two acres of land. 

1695. — October 15th, Walter Calverley sells to John Patteson, of 
Penrith, gent for £880. all his freehold messuages, tenements, lands, 
&c. in Kelsick, Dundraw, and Moor-raw, in the parish of Bromfield, and 
all tythes of hay in Kelsick, tythes of com, grain, and hay, and the tythe 
bam in Dundraw and Moor-raw. 

The right of presentation to the vicaridge of Bromfield appears to 
have been contested both by Thompson and Calverley against the Bishop 
of Carlisle, but without success ; though William Grainger, on the pre- 
sentation of Henry Thompson, was admitted, instituted, and inducted 
to the living by Sir Thomas Bennett, by order of the Parliament, 25th 
Nov. 1648, Peter Beck having died 4th Feb. I647. June 29th, 1654.— 
William Grainger compounded with the Lord Protector for the first fruits 
of the vicaridge. He was confirmed in his living by the act for con- 
firmation and restoration of ministers, 12, C. 2. ; and further for having 
subscribed the act for the uniformity of public prayers, August, 166?. 

In 1506, it was found that '' reparatio cancelli spectat ad vicariam 
ecclesise, pro qua reparatione de anno in annum vicarius recepit deci- 
mam de Blencowgoe virtute cujusdam compositiones factae inter Abba- 
tern et Conventum Monasterii Beatae Marise prope muros Ebor. et pre- 
decessores vicarii jam incumbentes." 


Smm Jceaunt qfAe Beettny f^BrwffiM. 


Henry Thompipii. ^ EI^«iiar» daughter of 

Lawrence Townley. 

WabMn, living 

Doiothyi daughtar of 
Christopher Ander- 
lon, of Loetpoky 


CMstopher, = Frances, daughter of A daughter. A daughter. 

4/flBr8o)dT ***-«• Thw^tep* of i^ . -w- 

in 1585. ] Marpton. Biphard Rhod^, — ^r Rohinsony of 

I ofSfeoeton. 9wensteyiiiill. 

Henry. s= Dorothy, daughter of 
I Walter Stanhope, 
I of Horsforth. 

ftances. » Walter Calverley, 

I •"^- 

^•••••«^^iil^^^»***»«*«V^«^— ••— •»*Wi»*iP'^— v-w* 

ll^ftiff f^r»r*ir*T«n 



Walter Galverley. y Juliiiy daughter of Sir Anne. 

Wjn. Blaekett, Bart. — — 

ofNewcpall^l709. Bcnjaipin Wad^, )9t. John Jtwfil^, 

of bew Grange. of Crowstoo. 

24. W«!av» K^. 

Waiter XiJalverley after- Julia. 

wards took the name — 

ofBtackett Sir Ge^ise Trtv^bwi. 

A^olMs ^IMM Mcknt Wooden O^glM. I77 

XX.— -^^ccotm/^ of some ancient Wooden Coffins discowred not Jitr 
from Haltwhistle, in the County qf Northumberland (one qf which was 
presented to the Society by the Right Hon. Thos. Wallace^» contained 

. in Letters from Lt.-^Coi^ Coulson and Ma. Wallkck^s Stbwamd^ to 
J^mr AoAftfSO^) Esqy Secretaty^ 

Bknkimopp, JtptHstUh, tStS. 

Ik complianoe with your request I shall make you acquainted with what 
I kmow respecting t^e Coffin which has been presented to the Antiqua- 
rian Sodety, by my neighbour, Mr. Wallace. It was discovered last 
year, along with several others of the same description, by some men 
who were cutting a drain about two hundred yards to the north-east of 
the farm house at Wyden Eals, which property belongs to Mr. Wallace, 
•and is situate on the north bank of the river Tyne, two miles above the 
village of Haltwhistle: it is formed from the boU of an oak tree which 
has been split by the wedge and hollowed out in a very rough manner 
to admit the body^ the lid secured at the head and feet by wooden pins : 
it was lying at the depth of six feet from the surface in wet clajr^ 
those in dryer ground were of t^ourse more decayed ; few bones wene 
found, and those, after being exposed to the air, shortly became dust. 
As neither history nor tradition make mention of any place of worship 
haviiig ever been near this spot, it m, in all probability, a burial ground 
of remote antiquity. King Arthur is said to have been interred in a 
trunk of oak hollowed, which the Monk of Glastonbury calls Sarcophagus 
Ligneus, the most ancient record of wooden coffins among us. 

I was fortunately on the spot when these relics were found, which 
probably has been the means of preserving them from destruction, as I 

178 Account of some AnHent Wooden Coffins* 

had four of the most perfect immediately removed to Featherstone 
Castle» the seat of Mr. Wallace. 

I am, my Dear Sir, Tour's faithfully, 



Featherstone Castle^ March ^^ 1825. 

Mr. Wallace has desired me to write to you all particulars relating to 
the finding of the Coffins, which is as folio weth : — ^The Right Hon. Thos. 
Wallace had employed some labourers to drain some swampy ground in 
an estate of his called Wyden £als, within two miles of Haltwhistle, in 
the county of Northumberland, near the side of the river Tyne. In 
cutting the main drain they met with what appeared an oak tree, and, as 
it impeded their progress, they got an axe to cut it out, and, to their sur- 
prise, it proved to be a coffin, after that they took out the remains of 
four more, in one of which there was part of a skull. The coffin I have 
sent was the most perfect. The workmen passed several coffins lying 
north and south, very near each other, and about five feet below the sur- 
face of the ground. I think it does not admit of a doubt that it has been 
a place of interment, but at what period is uncertain. There is no 
building or remains of buildings near the place, except the remains of 
what appears to have been a cottage, and a modern-built farm house.—- 
The only buildings that appear to have been of any particular account 
are Featherstone Castle, the property of the Right Hon. Thos. Wallace, 
the remains of Blenkinsopp Castle, the property of Col. Coulson, and of 
Bellister Castle, the property of Mr. Kirsop. The castles are nearly at 
an equal distance from the place where the coffins were found. Can 
this have been a burying place for the families of these three castles ? 

The above is the best account I am able to give ; if any further in- 
formation is wanted, I shall be very ready to give it to the best of mj^ 

I am, very respectfully. Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


Origin and Formation qf the Gothic Tongues. 189 

XIXy — The Origin and Formation qf the GoUiic Tongues^ hat parHcularly 
the Af^lO'Saxon. By the Rev J. Bosworth, M. A. F. A. S., Member 
qf the Royal Society qf Literature, Honorary Member qf the Copen- 
hagen Society Jbr Ancient Northern Literature, S^. ; and Vicar qf 
LitHe Horwoodf Bucks^ 

I SHALL not stop to prove that the European Languages of the Scjrthian, 
Teutonic, or Gothic stock, are related to those of India and Persia, but 
take it for granted you will allow, that the stream of peculation, which, 
about the. seventh century before the Christian aera, came out of Asia 
into Europe, over the Kimmerian Bosphorus, brought with it the pri- 
mitive tongue, from which the more recent northern languages haVe 
been derived.* - Though I have given a table of these languages in ^'the 
Elements of the Anglo-Saxon," I shall here lay before you the table of 
my friend. Professor Rask, of Copenhagen, as in some points, it is more 
systematic than mine. 



AncieDt Scandinavian, or Islandic, which Very extensive in two subdivisions, being all six distinct 

was spoken in Norwav, Sweden, Den- languages of andent Germany. 

mark, Iceland, Greenland, Ferro Isles, t ^ \ 

Shetland, and Orkney Ides, and, for 1. Upper DialecL 2. Lower Dialect. 

a time, at the Court of Russia. r ^ " % / '^ ■ % 

r— ^ — i Moeso-Gothic, Alemanic, Frisic, Old Saxon, Anglo-Saxon. 

Modem Islandic, scarcely distinguishable and Frandc 

from the Ancient Swedish and Danish. / ^ ^ / ^ % r ^ ^ 

Modem Swedish, ffig^ Dutch, or Geraian, Low German. English. 
Modem' Danish. £ some other dialects. Dutch. Lowl^tich. 

Tiie Anglo-Saxon, though not a primitive language, must be interesting 
to every intelligent Englishman, as it is the parent of his own tongue. 

* See Undergelise om det gamle Nordishe eller Islandshe Sprogs Oprindelse af R, R. Rask. 
Copenhagen, 1818, 8vo.; Herod. Melp. sec. 6, 0, 7» H.; Turaei^s Hist of Anglo-Saxons, 3rd edit.. 
6vo. Tol. L p. 95. 



190 Origin and Formation qfthe Goffdc Tongues. 

It boasts of no meretricious ornaments, but for strength and the philo- 
sophical manner of its structure, it is inferior to few, and, therefore, 
deserves the careful attention of every philologer. Some knowledge of 
the geperal formation of languages, as weU as of those which flow from 
the Gothic, .may be acquired from an intimate acquaintance with the 
structure of the Anglo-Saxon. 

In investigatipg the origin of language, wfi must observe^ that a 
knowledge of things is conveyed to the mind, through the medium of 
the five senses, but chiefly by the sight. An idea, or image of a visible 
object is formed in the mind, by means of the eye, and the word which, 
when written or apoken, conveys this image of the thing to.the^mind, 
is. called a Noun. The general outline, or form of an. object 
first impressed on the mind ; nouns, therefore, appear to hfi the primi- 
tive words in language.* Nouns which are pronounced by a single 
impulse of the voice, and, therefore, called monosyllables, were .pro- 
bably first formed ; as, 

Sc, ac, an oak ; peji, wer, a man; COob, mo4> the mm^^ 

Compound nouns, in Saxon, often consist of two, or more, indepen- 
dent and significant words ; as, 

Sc, ac, an oak ; cojin, com, a com; accojin, accorn, a aom qf the 
oakf an acorn. 

J7eji, wer, a man ; heojib, heord, an herd ; pejiheojib, werheord, 
an herd^s man. 

pm, win, wine ; trjieop, treow, tree ; pmtrjieop, wintreow, a vine. 

6a, ea, water ; lanb, land, land ; 6alanb, ealand, an island. 

From these few examples, it will be evident that those words, which 
are generally considered primitive, in the present English, are in reality 

f Many eminent philologera haye been of a different opinion. See Bishop of SaliAbur/s Essay on 
the Study of Antiquities, 2nd edit. p. 89. ; Anselm Bayley's Introduction to Languages, p. 7% &c» 

They say. JHf d%, is ajith^ from JI*T> d^, to multiply, or increcue; but would not the linage, or gene- 
ral figure of the fish be fbrmed on the retina, and from thence be conveyed to the mind, and a mono- 
syUablic sound representing that image, be uttered before the property of its great increase could be 

observed ? I should then rather say, that Xlf d%, to aetat a fishy to pncre^i/te, pr nmUfpfy, waa formed 
from ^*T> dSg, a fiih; for the fish must often have bieenseeD^ and pointed outi>y aiuune, before lt& 
property of great increase had been noticed. 

Origin and Formation qf the GoUdc Tongues. 191 

expi^essiire Sfjixon ^sompounds ; as, Sccojio, accorn, a com qf the oak ; 
and 6alant>, .esi^nd^awaterJand, or an island. But the use of Saxon in 
ascertaining the true .meaning of English words, will be best seen in ex- 
plaining a few of those terminations which appear to many to be inexpli- 
esiile. The Saxcm. will unfold the mystery, and prove that many English 
terminations are either the whole or part of a significant Saxon word ; 
t>om, doair^igin^es Judgment, right; words ending in dom have this sig- 
nification j as, cynebom, cynedom, a king's right, or kingdom; composed 
of cyne, cyne, a king, and t>om, dom. Ric, ric, dominion, and bifceop, 
biscec^, a bishop, make bif ceopj\ic, bisceopric, a bishop's dominion, or 
bishopric, tpabe, hade, qjBUce, state, and cdb, ( pronounced chilb,) a chjild, 
make cdbhabe, cildhade, a chiltPs state, or childhood. Scype, scjnre, shire, 
share, and pjveof t, pr^ost, a priest, make ppeoftrfcype, preostscyre, a 
priesfs share or parish. Bp, er, pep, wer, a man, and peopm, feorm, 
a farm, make peopmep» feormer, a man "who farms, a farmer. 

Verbs appear to be derived from Nouns. Every Noun, or name of a 
thing, which has an existence, must have either an action, or a state qf 
being, and the word which expresses that action, or state of being, is de- 
nommated a Verb. After the general outline of an object was formed 
in the mind, the attention would be fiixed upon its action, or state qf being ; 
and, therefore, Verbs were formed subsequently to Nouns. Verbs are 
often Nouns applied in a verbal sense ; as, in Hebrew, 

ai> d€b, a bear ; yi, dSb, he acts as a bear, he murnmrs, or grumbles. 

tSf33, k£b£s, a lamb ; tS^33, kSb^s, it acts as a lamb, it is subject, or humble. 

T7D, mSKk, a king TJ^, mS^k, he acts as a king, he reigns, or ruks. 

"MU, ner, a river ; TrO, ner, it acts as a river, it flows. 

Examples occur in Anglo-Saxon ; as, 

CDaej, masg, pcfwer; CDae^, msg, to act mth power, to be able, may. 

CDot, mor, an assembfy ; mor, mot, to act as people in an assembly, 
to assemble, to meet. 

Teon, teon, an accusation; treon, teon, to act with accusation, to accuse. 

Examples also occur in English ; as, a fear to fear ; a sleep, to sleep ; 
a dream, to dream. 

That Verbs are derived from Nouns admits of ample illustration from 

192 Origin and Formation of the Gothic Tongues. 

most languages^ but the more ancient and simple the language is, the 
more satisfactory and convincing will the examples prove. In the 
Oriental languages many examples are found : it will be sufficient to 
quote a few from the Hebrew. 

nKf ar, a river ; "ntt> axir, it acts as a rivers it JUms^ JUms awajf, or 

TMif ack, a brother; nnK> acke, he acts as a brother^ he joins, conso^ 

^K, ap, heat, anger; n£)K» ape, it acts as heat, it bakes. 
tffHf Bs,^re, wrath ; ffffS^H, as&, it acts as fire, itconswnes, he is wrath.^ 
p, bSn, a son ; JMX bSne, he acts as a son, he builds up, supports his 

father^ s house. 
TT, dSl, poor ; vhl, dSle, he is in the state of the poor, he is exhausted, 

13, k£r, circuit ; ^T\2, k^k&r, he goes quickly in circles, he dances 

Instances of Verbs formed from Nouns, are* also numerous in Greek ; 
they are formed by 09 the last letter in §ym, &go, I ; as, 

A«»x«^ doulos, a slave ; 3^v?iM90, douleuo, slave I, or / enslave. 
But, bios, Iffe, Cm«p, bioo, l^e I, I live. 

*Ae^«T)i, abrote, night; '«Sf«n#, abroted, nigfit I, I benight, I err. 
x»XHy salos, the sea ; mamw, saleuo, sea I, I agitate. 
*vxny psuche, a soul; 4^jc*0, psuchoo, soul I, I soul, or enliven. 
'o»fM, oime, a way ; \ifuut, oimao, wc^ I, I make way, or advance. 
Examples of Verbs formed from Nouns are numerous in the Gothic 
tongues, but particularly in Anglo-Saxon, as the greatest part of Saxon 
Verbs are formed from Nouns by the addition of the syllables an, ian, 
or jan, probably formed from — 

Snan, anan, or an, an, to give, to add; ^ent), anend, ^it^ing: ; anob, 

anod, given, 8gc. 
Dansan, gangan, or jan, gan, to go ; sanjento, gangend, going ; 

janjet), ganged, gone. 
Jl^an, agan, U> possess, to have ; a^ent), agend, having; a^st), agasd^ 

Origin and Formation qf the Goffiic Tongues. 193 

The terminations derived from these Verbs are added to Nouns, and 
give a verbal signification ; as, ' 

Dsel, dael, a parts baelan, dselan, to give apart, to divide. 

Feoj\ni, feormjjbodj peojiman, feorman to have Jbod, to feed, or 

Fepeji, fefer, a fever ; pepejijan, fefergan, to have a fever. 

pit, wit, wisdom ; piran, witan, to give knowledge, to know. 

Moeso-Gothic Verbs are formed in the same manner ; as, 

MjiTS, mats, meat; Mj^TQ^N, matgan, to give meat, to eat. 

IT jlMj^ , name, a name; Nj^^QjVN, namgan^ to give a name, to 

S^^T, salt, salt; S/l^TQ jiN, saltgan, to give salt, to season. 

]l^1\ICN, haum, aAont; lljU\KNQ^lf> haumgan, to give ^ 
horn, to celebrate with horn trumpet, to praise. 

Adjectives are formed from the two preceding classes of words ; 
that is, from Nouns or Verbs. Some Nouns are used as adjectives 
without any alteration ; as, 

Deop, deop, the deep, the sea ; t)eop, deop, deep. 

LaB, lath, evil; laB, lath, pernicious. 

Genuine Adjectives are formed by adding to Nouns and Verbs the 
terminating syllables an, an ; en, en ; eb, ed ; enb, end ; 13, ig ; i]*c, 
isc, &c. These are probably derived from an, an ; ican, ican ; to give, 
to add, to join ; as, 

Mfc, ffisc, an ask ; en, en, add, give, join ; sf cen, aescen, ask, add, 
or join, something ; as, ae]*cen t'j\eop, aescen treow, an ash tree. 

note, gold, gold ; en, en, add, give, join ; jolben, golden, golden. 

Lyn, lyn, Jiax ; en,* en, add, 8^. ; linen, linen, flaxen. 

Blob, blod, hhod ; 13, ig, join, SfC. ; blot)i3, blodig, bloody. 

pit, wit, wisdom / 15, ig, join, S^c. ; pitij, witig, wise, witty. 

Djimcan, drincan, to drink ; ento, end, join, S^c. ; bpncento, drinc- 
end, drinking. 

Here we see the true meaning of the English Adjectives ending in en 
and y ; as, blood, blood-y ; gold, gold-en; that is, add, or join something, 
to bloody, golden, such as hand ; making bloody hand, Sfc. 

1^ Origin and FormaUon qf the Gothic Tongues. 

Adjectives are formed from Nouns and Verbs by the addition of other 

syllables ; as, 

pe}\, wer, a man^ he, lie, like ; pephc, werUc, manlikef manfy. 

Lupe, lufe, l&ve ; hce, lice, like ; luphce, luflice, loveUkCf andabk. 

pynne, wynne, pleasure ; fum, sum, some part ; pynf um winsum, 
some pkasure, joj/jul. 

pyjvc, wyrc, work j pim, sum, some ; J>yjvcf um, wyrcsum, laborious. 

Tun^, tung, tongue ; pull, full, plenty ; run^pul, tungful, loquacious. 

paBptrm, wasstm, Jruit ; baeji, baer, producing ; paej-trmba&ji, wa^tm- 
baer, fruitful. 

Lupe, lufe, Uyoe ; tyme, tyme, teem ; luptryme, luftyme, pleasant 

Gob, God, God ; cunb, cund, bom ; 3ot)cunb, godcund, divine. 

Ke, SB, law s F«r^> ^®^*> */^'» ^ed ; aepaBf r, B^fyssi^Jixed in the finr, 

FaBt>ep, feeder, father^ leaf, leas, lost^ less ; p8et>epleaf , fasderleas, 

We cannot fail to observe, that what are now used as adjective termi- 
nations, are, in reality, significant words, or fragments of such words in 

The comparative terminations oji, or ; aji, ar ; ejt, er ; and, by trans- 
position, pe, re, are from ap, ar, or aep, ser, before^ in regard to time, 
and then to quality and the superlative aj* t:,ast or aef r, sest, jirst ; as, 

S, a, tfiwe, ap, ar, aep, aer, before ttmcj before ; af tr, ast, aeft, aest, 
Jirst time, foremost. 

pif, wis, wise; pifsep, wisser, before in wisdom, wiser; pifaefr, 
wisest, frst in wisdom, wisest. 

Those Adjectives which are now considered irregular, were once 
formed by the preceding rule ; as, 

Bet, bet, good ; betep, beter, better ; betr-fr, bet^st, bet-st, best. 

poe, woe, bad ; pope, wore, popf , wors, worse ; popf tr, worst, worst. 

CDa, ma, much j maepe, msere, mare ; mseft, msest, most. 

Pronouns are thought to be formed from the fragments of Verbs and 
Nouns. The Pronouns he, he ; hit:, hit ; ])e, the ; and f e, se, may, 
perhaps, have their origin from a Verb s as, 

Origin and Fartnatitm of the Gothic Tongues. 195 

Present. — paran, hatan, to caH to say. Perfect. — pe, he, heo, 
heo, called, said, he ; hst, haet, hir, hit, it, said. 

PREgENT.— Dean, thean, to say. P£RF£ct.-~Da, tha, )>eo, theo, said, 
the ; J^SBt:, that, stud, that. 

Adverbs are formed by constantly using Nouns in certain cases, or 
from Verbs ; as, 

ppilum, hwilum, awhile, now ; the dative case of hpile, hwile, time, 

Dancef, thances, ^eefy, gratis; the genitive case of ]>anc» thane, 

thank, favour. 

Get:, get, get ; the imperative mood of ^etran, getan, to get. 

Lan^, lang, long ; the imperative mood of lan^an, to prolong. 

Prepositions and Conjunctions are generally formed from Verbs ; as 

Geman^, gemang, amxmg j irom ^emenjan, gemengan, to mis. 

pipwCBxi, withutan, wiihout; from pij\])ut:an, wirthutan, to be out. 

6ac, eac, also, and ; from eacan, eachan, to add. 

nip, gif, if; from ^ipan, gifan, to give. 

. I have thus briefly traced the formation of the Anglo-Saxon language, 
that its philosophical structure and great utility, in an etymological 
point of view, might be more apparent. The amazing extent and fa- 
cility of forming many very expressive compound words, from a few 
simple terms, must attract the notice of every Saxon student. Thus 
we have a Verb combined with Prepositions. 

Stranben, standen, to stand. 

S^en-f tranban, agen-standan, to stand against, oppose. 

Snb-ftranban, and-standan, to stand back, resist. 

Op-f tranban, of-standan, to stand off, tarry behind. 


Unbeji-f tranban, under-standan, to stand under, bear, to knonv, or un- 

pi])-}*t:anban, with-standan, to stand against, withstand, oppose. 

The Anglo-Saxons, like other Gothic nations, were remarkable for 
combining several short significant words to express any complex idea. 
Instead of adopting technical terms from other languages, it was their 
usual practice to translate them by a simple combination of the radical 

196 Origin and Formation qf the Gothic Tongues. 

words, taken from their own nervous language. Hence, for the word 
Grammar, the Saxons used the expressive term boc-cjiaejrt, boc-craft, 
hook-craft; composed of hoc, boc, a hook, and cfsepr, craeft, crafts art, 
kmywledge ; rungol-cjiaBpng, tungol-craflig, star^craftyt or an astrono- 
mer, which word we have adopted from the Greek «rr(«r9 a star, and ^f^, 
a law, or rule, pmbejiia, winberia, a wine herry, or grape. Nihtrbur- 
repple^e, nihtbutterfleye, a night hutterfiy, blatta, at moih. Indigenous 
Saxon words were formed in the same manner ; thus, 8t:a|>ol-}:aef ron, 
stathol-fseston, to confirm ox fix Jirmh), is composed of 8t:a|>ol, stathol, 
a fimndation, psef r, faest, firm, fa$t, and an, an, to gt^e. 

Account qfan old Inscription at Limercost. 197 

XXlh— Account qf an old Inscription at Lanercost, Cumberland. In a 
Letter Jrom ffie Rev. J. Hodgson, Sec., to J. Adamson, Esq. Sec. 

WhelptngUm, \5ih Jufy, 1835. 
Mr Deae Sie, 
1 was at Carlisle with Mr. Raine last week j and in our way thither, 
we called at Lanercost, where we found in the walls of a bam, the 



Account of an old Inscription at Lanercost. 

annexed fragment of an inscription, which is not published either in 
Bum and Nicholson, or in Hutchinson's History of Cumberland. 

It is upon a. part of the shaft of the Cross of that place> the pedestal 
and lower part of which are still remaining in their original situation on 
the north side of the Priory Church there. The angles of the shaft are 
neatly and skilfully carved ; but I had not time to make a drawing of 
the remains of the Cross in the Priory Yard or of the fragment of it in 
the barn. The name of William of Scotland is lost by the stone being 
broken in two, at the place where it occurred. 

A thin plate of stone has been broken off the upper part of the shaft 
by a natural bed, by which the beginning of the inscription has been 
lost., but the new surface has been occupied by an epitaph in wretched 
cljaracters, which I was not at the pains to copy. The inscription trans- 
lated into modern characters should stand thus : — 

Alemannia Othone regnante, in Francia Phillippo, Johanne 

in Anglia, Willielmo in Scotia, facta est haec crux: and in English 
thus : — When Otho reigned in Germany ^ Philip in France^ John in Eng- 
land, and William in Scotland^ this cross was made. Otho died in 1S18, 
Philip in 1223, John 1216, and William in 1214. 

I am. My Dear Sir, 

Very faithfully your's, 


Letters relating to the Nevills. 199 

XXIII. — Several old Letters relating to the Nevills, one qfthem bearing 
the signature qf RicJiard III, as Duke qf GUmcester ; communicated 
hy Vf .C Trevelyan, Esq., qfWalUngton. 

The volume in which these letters are contained is chiefly in the hand- 
writing of Robert Hegge, and in it (amongst other articles) is his 
'ySoint Cuthbertj'' with the date of 1625 affixed to it, but without the 
Epistle to the Reader, which in the printed copy is dated IQ^ZQ ; and bis 
" Lectiones Theologicce,^* the first of them dated April 4, I627, which 
were printed in 1647- 

W. C. T. 

A coppie qfsome letters 'of* were found in Rabie^astle a/ter t ReheUion, 

to shewe ihe fashion qf those times. 

To f ryghtt onerabayll and my vere good lord and master, my lord off 

Wyastmorland, yeoe thys laf sped. 

Ryghtt onarbiU and my vere gud lord, my most umbyll dowte had in 
ramambrs, thys shal be to sartefi^^ yo' gud Lordchep, that my Lord 
nevell, my Lade Catryn, my Lade mayre, w' all other yo' Lordcheps 
housoulld ys meyre. Thanks be to God, for thomas gasguyns byell ys 
borstyn and allmost boll. I have resavyd yo' Lordcheps later, wherin 
I do parsave yo' Lordcheps rateryn will nott be so soyn as I wolld 
wyche god ytt wyer : for thys shortt days and yll wyther benders the 
wyrkemayn sore, so thatt ytt gose nott so fast forwyard as I wolld 
wyshe ytt dyd ; aUso, her ys bott ij q"' off wyahtt wyntjoig v pakes, 
and I knowe off no mor to be had, and for malltt, ther came in iiij q", 
and that ys all brawd, wher to have ane more I knowe nott, and all the 
mo3aie I had will be gone yes wyke in housoUd ^charges and other 

200 Letters relating to the NeviUs. 

neseserys : wherfor I beshe yo' gud Lordchep I may know yo' plesor, and 
I shall be gllad to acoumplys ytt to the otermost off my small pour, as 
my bounded dowte ys to do w* the hallpe of god, whome have yo' Lord- 
chep in hes bllysed kep3^g, and send yo' Lordchep myclye onere and 
soune home frome yo' Lordcheps maner off Kerkbemorsyd. — ^ix off 
november, be the yll hand off yo' Lordcheps pour sarvntt and badme, 


To the right honorable Lord my Lord the Erie of Westmland. 

My Lord, in my most laulyest maS that I can I comaunde me unto 
yo' Lordship, And accordyng unto yo' Lordships cofiiaundement for 
propayrytig for such stuff as yo' Lordship shuld occupy at yo' lowge, 
At yo' home comyng nowe. As for W3me my Lord, their cane none 
be gotten sayvyng oon hogissheid, whiche was gotteyn at the Newcas- 
till of reid wyne, which I trust yo' Lordship will thynke wonderous 
deir : And also my Lord, as for wheit and mawte and other fresshe 
decatis, what appon yo' awne and of other Provision, I trust ye shall be 
well servied, besuchyng yo' Lordship that ye wold be content for to 
send over yo' Gierke of your kechyng and your Coke for sley)aig of 
suche man of beveiss and muttons as must be occupyed at yo' Lord- 
ships home comyng. My Lord, as con^'cnyng yo' comaundement ayence 
Antony Brakynbury, ayence suche fermoldez as he hath of yo' Lord- 
ship : As yo' Lordshipps comandement was, at he shuld avoide theym, 
for yo"^ Lordshipps mynd was that ye wold have theym in yo' awpe 
haunde : And as for aunsewer he wold send me none by my sv'nt, but 
he said that he wold send his with awne sv*nt betwxt that and sonday : 
Also, as tochyng the sekenes within yo' Lordship si then I was with 
yo' Lordship ; lowed be God their was no stei^' in the Lordship of 
Brauncepath : And if their is any other svice that yo' Lordship wold 
comaunde me withall, I besuch yo' Lordship that I knaw yo' ferther plea- 
soure theirin. writtyn at Brauncepath, xxviijth Septembre, by yo' #v*nt> 


Letters relating to the Xevills. 201 

To mf tvorshipJuU uncle j Richard Booths be thes delivered In hast. 

Right worshipfull uncle» I hertly comand me unto you, dissiryng you 
that ye and Ralf Glaxton doo stoup all my sv^nts as shulde wait apone 
me to Caliss, and that they be not w* me afor the xii'** day of may, for 
divs consida'^ton^z, & thus fair ye well, frome Popler the xxvj'** day 
of Aprill, and not to faill but to be w' me the same day. 


To my horde Xeoyll in hastj 8^c. S^c. 

My Lorde Nevyll, I recomaunde me to yoe as hartely as I can, & as 
ever ye love me & yo' awne weale & sewrty, & yhs Realme y* ye come 
to me w^ y' ye n^ay make defensably arrayde in all the hast y' ys 

possyble ; and y* ye wyll yef credence to V /p (Sir) Richarde 

Ratcl)^, thys berrerr, whom I nowe do sende to you enstructed w' all 
my mynde & entent : & my Lorde do me nowe gode Ivyce as ye have 
have always befor don, & I trust nowe so to remembre you, as shalbe 
y makyng of you & yours : And God send you goode fortunes. — 
wrytten att London, the xj*** day of June, w' the hande of 

yo' hertely lovyng Cousyn & master, 


* 1484. — ^Ralph Neville, second Earl of Westmoreland, died without surviving issue, and was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew Ralph, son of his younger brother Sir John Neville; who married Maigaret, (a) 
daughter of Sir Roger Booth, of Barton, in Lancashire.— j&€ry/yn'« Help to Engliih Hutory, 

In a pedigree of the Nevilles in the same volume with these letters — which, with several others of 
North Country femilies, Hegge copied from a manuscript which he borrowed (as he says) from his 
Gosen, S. S. (aunderson, {b) added in a later hand), it is said, that Raphe NevUl, 3d Earl of Westmore- 
land, married Kathren the daughter of Roger Bouthe, of Cheshire, Esq. which appears to be incorrect. 

f This letter is printed in FentCs CoUecHon, vol. v. p. 302, from a copy sent to him by the Rev. J. 
Brand, who remarked that it was ** doubtless a transcript of an original letter of the Duke of Glou- 
cester, afterwards King Richard the 3d, and written just before his seisure of the crown." 

** This letter was written at a busy period of Richard's life; his plans were now in forwardness for 
his seizing the crown, and his orders must have been sent (perhaps this very day) for the beheading 
of Rivers, Vaughan, and Gray, at Pontfract. Lord Neville appears to have done Richard former 

(a) Neice of Laurence Booth, Bishop of Durhun, 1457, 1456.— SivrleM', Durham, 
^ijmiiel Sanderson, keeper of Brancepath Casdc for King James I., ob. July, 1650.— Arfaw* Ihtr, ii. S48. 


Letters relating to the NeviUs. 

services, and he seems to hove great confidence from his assistance now, for which he makes most 
liberal promises." — Fenuy vol. v. p. 305. 

The date of the letter is probably Wednesday, 11th June, 1483, 1. Edw. V. On the 13th the priso- 
ners in Pontefract Caatl^ were beheaded, orders to that dfect having been sent by the protector to 
the governor Sir Richard Ratdyff, Knight, ** a proper instrument in the hands of this tyrant," says 
Hume. Hollinshed says, that ** the protector specially used his service in that councell, and in the 
execution of such lawless enterprises, as a man that had been long secret with him, having experience 
of the world, and a shrewd wit, short and rude in speech, rough and bc^isterous of behaviour, bold in 
mischief, as far from pitie as from all fear of God." — HqlUnthed, p. ^Stb, 

''Ralph Neville, second Earl of Westmoreland, died without surviving issue, in 1484, and was 
succeeded by his nephew Ralph, son of his younger brother. Sir John Neville, who would not pro- 
perly be called Lord Neville during his uncle's life, whose second title this was ; yet it is probable 
that Richard might address him by this title as presumptive heir." — Fenny vol. v. p. 304. Perhaps this 
letter may have been written to Ralph the second Earl. 

" The Nevilles were cousins to Richard by his mother Gedly, Dutchess of York, who was daughter 
of Ralph Neville, the first Earl of Westmoreland." — Fenn, 

A few slight errors in Brand's transcript may be observed by comparing this copy with that in 
Fenn^s Collection, 

An Account of a Runic InscripUon. 20S 

XXIV.- — An Accomit of a Runic Inscription discovered in Bqffin's Bay^ 
communicated by G. T. Fox, Esq., ir^a letter to the Rev. John Hodg- 
son, Sec. 

Durham^ Nov. 22, 1826. 
My Dear Sir, 

I send you herewith what I take to be a Runic inscription, with a Da- 
nish and English translation. It is of considerable antiquity, and per- 
haps you may judge it worthy of being inserted in our Antiquarian 
Transactions, not from the value of the composition, which is only the 
foundation record of a building, but from the curiosity of its locality, 
and the light it throws on the maritime adventures of an obscure period. 
Its history is this : — 

About two or three years ago, the remains of a rude building were dis- 
covered on the topofasmall conical island, 700feet high, one of that group 
of islands in Baffin's Bay, called the Frow or Woman Islands, in lat. 7S, 
and long. 54. Amongst the stones was found one with this inscription, 
which the governor handed to the Danish government. The latter 
caused an engraving to be made of it, from a copy of which the inclosed 
fac-simile was made by Captain George Palmer, of the Cove, whaler, 
this year, who brought it to me from the above island, or an adjoining 
Danish garrison, I dont know which. 

The date A. D. 1133, shews that maritime excursions were made at 
that early period, probably by the inhabitants of Iceland, who were in a 
flourishing state at that time. They had coasted the East side of 
Greenland, and doubling Cape Farewell, had advanced up the shores of 
West Greenland in Baffin's Bay, as high as the point where they built 
a tower, probably to record the extent of their migration. I have not 


204 An Account qfa Runic Inscription. 

at hand Orantz's Greenland, to which I refer you for further particulars. 
Captain Palmer is of opinion that the route must have been made by 
sea, and not by crossing the peninsula. It is well known that a colony 
perished on the East of Greenland above Cape Farewell, by the closing 
in of the ice, the remwis of whose habitations are visible at this day. 
I remain, Deab Sib, 

Your^s, very faithfully, 


Elligr Sigvards Son og Biome Torderson, 
og Enrid Oelson,— Loverdagen forend gimgdaeg, 
(en daeg i Maij Maaned) 

eller saaleedes, 
Ossreiste denne Vaerde og rijdde Fladsen, 

MCXXXm eUer V., aldsaae, 11S3 eller 5, 
(efter Christus.) 

ElUger, Sigimr^s Son, and Biome Torderson, 
and Enrid Oelson, — on Saturday b^re the Ascension, 
(A day in the Month tffMayJ 

or thus. 
Erected this Tower and cleared the Ground, 

MCXXXIII or F, (^ 1133 or 5, 
C<^ Christ.) 

4^ AcQOunt qf same Roman Shoes. 205 

XXV. — An Account qf some Roman Shoes lately discovered at Whitley 
Castle^ Northumberland^ in a letter from the Rev. A. Hedley, to 
John Adamsok, Esq., Sec. 

Whitfield RecUyryi October % 1826. 

My Dear Sir, 

At our August meeting, you will recollect that you submitted to the 
inspection of the Society the remains of some old shoes, sent by your 
colleague, which he affirmed to be Roman, but which the meeting 
thought more likely to belong to a much more recent period, having 
been, found near the site of an old monastery, in the neighbourhood of 
Carlisle, though on the line of the Roman Wall. When on a late visit to 
me here, he rode over with me to Whitley Castle, the Roman AUone, 
as we heard that the proprietor, Mr. Henderson, had lately been making 
some excavations among the ruins of the station. Among other things 
he had found, he told us, some old shoes, and whilst he was gone to 
fetch tiiem, I recollected those above-mentioned, and was in the very 
act of rallying our worthy friend on the subject, when as a just judg- 
ment on my presumption, in steps Mr. Henderson with perfect ^/Zrc- 
similes of them, which he had dug out of an old dunghill, undoubtedly 
Roman, as well as the shoes. Like those from Carlisle they had been 
made and worn right and left. Those of the Ladies had been much 
ornamented and escaloped, &c. in the upper leathers, with ears for lace- 
holes. The soles of some of them were studded with nails of precisely 
the same kind, so far as I can recollect, as those in the sandals presented 
to the Socie^. The nails were of a bright blue colour, probably a 

VOL. II. D d 

S06 An Account qf some JRamatt Shoes. 

coating of Prussia acid. Among these curious spoils of ancient times 
were some jet ArmUcPy fragments of green glass, very coarse, and evi- 
dently cast, and a piece of a transparent vessel of a pale yellow colour, 
but whether of mineral origin or a composition of that kind of paste in 
which the ancients sometimes imitated precious stones, we could not, at 
the moment, decide. It deserves a further examination, and I shall 
endeavour to procure it from Mr. Henderson, for this purpose. He 
has partly laid bare a Sudatory ; but, perhaps, tlie most interesting, at* 
any rate, the most valuable discovery, is the dunghill, having already 
experienced its wonderfully fertilizing effects upon some grass land. — 
It has by no means the appearance of being effetCj but has a sappy 
unctuous feel, a property which its deep covering of soil has probably 
tended to preserve. 

The acknowledgment of error is always becoming, and often the only 
amends that can be made for it ; and I think it dueto truth and to Mr. 
Hodgson to declare, that I for one condemned the Roman pretensions 
of his shoes, in utter ignorance of the subject, never having seen any 
thing of the kind before. I am now, however, quite convinced,. that 
this was a most irreverent proceeding, and that the shoes found at Car- 
lisle and those I saw at Whitley Castle, must have been made and worn 
by the same people ; and as the latter are undoubted remnants of the 
Roman aera in Britain and of the Roman people, there can be little or 
no question that we may safely assign to the former a similar origih.-* 
And to ascertain a point of this kind is to the Antiquary of some curio- 
sity and importance, as, if we except their armour and their personal 
ornaments of metallic or mineral manufacture, shoes are perhaps almost 
the only species of Roman habiliment that eoer have come down to mo^ 
dern times. 

I am, My Dear Sir, 

Your's very truly, 


Jcanmt o/* a Cahn near Neihermttoru 907 

XXVI.— iSoiwe Account qfa Cairn opened near Neihermttonj in the County 
of Nortfiumberhmdf communicated by W. C. Treveltan, Esq., of 
WalUngUm^ to J. Abamson , Esq., Sec. 

Mt Dear SiR| 

I ENCLOSE you two sketches of a Cairn which was opened last year near 
Netherwitton, but which I did not see until a few days ago. The Bar- 
row, near the centre of which it was found, is about 10 yards in diameter, 
and 6 feet above the tomb, composed of loose rolled stones, probably 
taken out of the River Font, near which it is situated. The Tomb is 
about S feet long, 1 foot 3 inches wide and 2 feet deep; the sides 
made of flat sand stones, the top covered with a flat limestone of irregular 
outline about 15 inches thick and 6 feet long. There were a few bones 
found in it, but I believe nothing else% 

I am 9 Mt Dear Sir, 

Very sincerely your's, 


Accowit <^a Cairn fiearNethermttoru 

Jn Account (if same Roman Coim^ S09 

XVII. — Jn Account of some Roman Coh 
in Cumberland^ communicaied hy Mr. \^ 
HoQGsoNj to John Adamsok, Esq., 5ec. 

Hanover Square, 6tii December, 1826. 
Dbar Sir, 

If the few coins enclosed and the accompanying remarks are worthy the 

attention of the Antiquarian Society, your communicating them will 


Your's, very truly, 


It will be within the recollection of many of the Members of this So- 
ciety, that in tlie early part of this year a considerable quantity of 
Roman coins was found near Brampton, in Cumberland. By the 
kindness of a friend a few of these coins came into my possession a short 
time ago, and having the means of communicating with the person wbo 
fixind them, it struck me that a short account of the circumstance, to 
accompany the few coins, might not be unacceptable to this Society, 
formed as it is expressly to examine into, and register, the Antiquities 
of the Northern Counties ; and this the more especially, as no other 
account has been published, but the very meager one which appeared 
in the Newspapers of the day. 

The discovery was made in April, 1826, by a person ploughing ground, 
which to all appearance had not been worked before. The place is^ 
situate about one mile South of Castle Steads now Walton House,-— 
the Roman Petriana, the 13th station on the Wall. • The name of the- 

SIO Jn Account of some Roman Coins^ 

spot is Hawk Nest, and the precise situation is on a high ridge of 
wet land near the top of the field* There was nothing in the circum- 
stances under which the coins were found, to indicate more than ordinary 
care in depositing them. The vessel was only six inches beneath the 
surface, and was standing upright and nearly full of coins, no stones 
around it, nor any cover. The coins were computed at 5,000, fliey were 
of copper and brass, and weighed more than 14lb8. The vessel was of 
clay quite plain, and capable of containing about three quarts. No 
other piece of antiquity was found at the time, but in the adjoining field, 
where there are many large stones and other indications of buildings, 
many separate Roman coins have been found from time to time, and 
not long ago part of an iron sword, which being taking to some black- 
smith near, was by him worked up with other old iron« 

The fragments of the vessel (which was broken by a stroke of the 
plough), together with nearly all the coins, were taken to Nawortk 
Castle, where I am informed they yet remain. 

The fimUng of such hoards as this has been of the greatest use to the 
Antiquary. In these remote provinces there were probably no Banks 
or places of deposit in those days, consequently, when a man became 
possessed <^ more of the circulating medium than was necessary for 
present use, he was obliged to store it up. This we may suppose the 
individual to have done, whose hoard we are now considering, and, 
quitting his quarters (perhaps for some distant service^ he secretes his. 
spare mon^, making use of one of the common earthen vessels to keep: 
it togedier, . and intending no doubt to dig it up again on his return i 
this it is most probable never took place, and thus has treasure has beeiL 
preserved through a period of more than 1500 years, fiimishing matter 
for the investigation of the curious of our own days. 

As this Society is the natural place of deposit for tlie Antiquities of 
the district, more particularly those connected with the Roman Wall,— 
I should (with defeneoce) recommend that the Earl of Carlisle be written 
to upon tile «ubje<^ of these coins, and as in 5,000 there must be many 
that are alike, it is not improbable that his Lordship might present us. 
with some of them ; but, independent of any advantage that the Society's 

An Accmmt tfiome Roman Coins; ^11 

cabinet might derive from such an application, I should strongly urge 
that such a measure be adopted in all similar cases of discovery withm 
the district, which would show the Society to be properly' alive to the 
purposes for which it was instituted, and could ;not&il of doing it gdod, 
by making it more generally known. . 

The four coins now sent, upon which the inscriptions are pretty per- 
fect, and which appear to have undergone scarcely any chaise, are of 
the Emperors Valerianus aud Gallienus, the former began lus reign 
A. D. 252, and the latter A. D. 260. 

Before closing these remarks I would wish to say a few words upon 
the state in which the coins were when found. As before observed, they 
were in a damp situation, and this exposure to moisture for a space of 
1500 years might, beforehand, be expected to have operated considerable 
changes on the metals ; and we find that most of the coins were adher- 
ing together in a mass when found, having undergone a very curious 
alteration. The great bulk of them were converted almost through 
their whole substance into brown oxide of copper, having sometimes a par- 
tial coating of green carbonate, which, where it has had room, has assiuned 
a very pretty mammilated form ; from this I would assume that the 
major part of the coins have been of copper, which being more easily 
acted upon than brass, has been altered, whilst many of the brass coins 
are much less changed, and some of them (as, for instance, the four 
most perfect now sent,) scarcely at aU. These four coins, from their 
colour, hardness, &c. appear to be brass, with a large proportion of sane, 
but time has not allowed me to ascertain the. exact proportion. ' There 
are also portions of a yellow ochrey substance, which would indicate the 
presence of iron ; this is very likely to have been brought by the mois- 
ture from the surrounding earth, or it may have been an accidental 
alloy in the metal of which the coins were formed. 

The latter remarks are not strictly "Antiquarian," but I trust I shall 
be pardoned for trespassing on the time of the Society, as the changes 
which the metals undergo by long exposure to moisture is a curious 
subject, and one that is at present attracting considerable attention. 


S12 An Account of seme JSomon OAn$. 

Extract qf a Utter from Mb. C. Hodgson, dated Cartisle^ 9th Aprils 

18S6, and addressed to the Rev. John Hodgson. 

** The field in which these coins were found is called the Htmk^s Nest, 
and the HaH-cust, or HaU Steads. Till within the last 100 years it was 
in part of a forest, which was thick and continuous all the way from 
Brampton Old Church to the river Gelt. The place is two fields from 
the Old Church ; and commands a view of Brampton, Castle Steads, 
Irthington, Bewcastle, Tindale Fell, Carlisle, the Solway Firth, the 
Scotch hills, and the Castle Carrock, Cumrew, and other fells. Mr. 
Bell, the occupier of the field, had the swamp at its head drained for the 
purpose of ploughing through it ; and his son John, in performing that 
work close to the north side of the inclosure, struck off the top of the 
vessel which contained the coins, and so shattered it, that it fell into 
several pieces. The number of coins which it contained, will, I think, 
be not less than 5000; the largest of which are about seven-eighths of 
an inch, and the smallest about a quarter of an inch in diameter. This 
field and those adjoining it to the West have very uneven surfaces, as 
if some sort of buildings or earthworks had been upon them ; and great 
quantities of stones, as well as flags and paving-stones, have from time to 
time been taken out of them. I should also miention that in ploughing 
in this field a few years since, about 200 horse shoes were found ; and 
that in a meadow below, a little to the South, there is a considerable 
tumulus, now planted with oak, and another in an adjoining field, 
nearer the Turnpike road.** 

Account qfsome Ancient Instnments. 913 

XXVlIL-^Accaunt qfsome ancient Instruments Jbund in quarrying Stone 
an ike SouA Side qf Rosebury Topping in 1826, m a Comnmnication 
Jrom John Hixon, Esq., to John Adamson, Esq., Sec. See Plate IV. 
Figs, fl, h, c, d^ e,f. 

Th£S£ ancient Instruments were found in quarrjdng stone on the South 
side of Rosebury Topping, Yorkshire, in May, 1826, and are supposed to 
have been buried at some distant period, by the slipping down of some 
part of the higher stratum of stone* 

Fig. a, has the appearance of a small copper axe much worn down 
and blunted by use. 

Fig. 6, is a clumsy sort of socket. 

ilg. c, resembles a joiner's gouge. 

Fig. ^, several pieces were found about a quarter of an inch thick, 
but none of them join or fit the piece engraved, a small staple is inserted 
at one corner by which it has been attached to something, and the rebate 
of another staple is seen at the other comer. 

Fig. e, the pipe has been ruptured or torn ofi* something. This was 
the <Mily one found. 

Fig.^ both sides of this stone, which is poUshed and a species of 
quartz of a brownish green colour, are alike, and are bevelled. It is 
nearly two inches thick in the middle. The finders called it a whetstone, 
but it bears no marks of attrition upon it. 

Several of each sort excepting e and f were found, and a mass of 


copper, or rather of a metal resembling copper. Sib. weight, and very 
soft, was found at the same time^ 

VOL. u. £ e 

214 Jn Acd&unt ofihe Chartidary ofBrmkbum. 

XXIX.-~^n Aceatmt qf the Chartulart/ of Brinkbum^ "wiAsame Notices 
respecting those qftke Abides ofNewminster and Abmicky in the County 
qf Northumberland^ of Lanercost in Cumberland^ and qfShap in West- 
morland. By the Rev. John Hodgson, Sec.^ in a Letter to John 
Adamson, Esq., Sec. 

Deae Sib, 

The subjoined Schedule, or Index of the contents of one volume of the 

Chartulary or Register of the possessions of the Priory of Brinkburne, 
in the county of Northumberland, was forwarded to me in June, 1827» 
by the President of our Society, from my friend John Caley, Esq., 
Ke^er of his Majesty's Records, in the Chapter House and Augmenta- 
tion Office, in London, for the purpose of assisting me in writing the his- 
tory of this county. It was made some years ago by Mr. Caley himself, 
from the original, at the request of the Duke of Buckingham, and as I 
fear I may not be able to spare room to print it entire in my work on 
Northumberland, I transmit it to you, desiring that you will do me the 
favour of laying it before the next meeting of the Society, and that it 
may be submitted to the consideration of the Censors of the Society, 
whether or not it may be adviseable to print it in small type in the 
ArchcBologia JEUana, as a note to this letter. In my estimation, it is 
a very curious and very valuable document, inasmuch as it is a key to a 
considerable treasure of county and ecclesiastical history. In the year 
16S8, Roger Dods worth, made large extracts from the original book 
then, together with the Chartularies of the Abbeys of Newminster and 
Alnwick, in the county of Northumberland, Lanercost, in the county 
of Cumberland, and Shap, in Westmorland, in the possession of Lord 
William Howard, at Naworth Castle. These extracts are all still existing 

An Account qf the Chartutanf qf Brinkhwm. il6 


iotbetranscriptofDodsworth'sCoflecfiom, which arein liS2 folio volumes, 
made at the expense of Lord Fairfax, and by him given to the Bodleian 
Library. Part cf them are also to be found in the Lansdowne, MS. 
326, which is a copy of two of Dodsworth*s volumes ; and a consider a- 
ble part of them have been printed in two editions of Dugdale's Mo- 
nasHccmj for which, and for the same author's Baronage Dodsworth's 
Collection was expressly made. Robert Treswell, Somerset Herald, 
aibout the year 1587 also made several genealogical extracts from the 
Brinkbum Register, which, besides very copious quotations from the 
Brinkburn Chartulary, and several unpublished notices out of those of 
Newminster, Alnwick, Lanercost, and Shap, are copied into that curious 
and useful treasure-house of genealogical information in the Harleian 
Collection^ No, S94^, intituled ** Apparatus Genealogkus AngUctis eo? eS- 
versis in Archivis Recordis compacias*^^ 

Lord William Howard, third surviving son of Thomas, the fourth 
Duke of Norfolk, and common ancestor of the Howards, Earls of C^- 
lisle, became possessed of Naworth, Morpeth, and Hinderskelle, where 
Castle Howard now stands, by his marriage with Elizabeth daughter to 
Thomas, and sister and coheir of George, Lord Dacre of Gillisland. 
He was a nobleman of great talent and learning, and collected a very 
curious library both of printed and manuscript books, which after his 
death were permitted by his successors in the estate to remain at 
Naworth, the principal place of his residence, in the same state and 
order in which he- left them. But as the library was constantly shewn 
to curious visitors, and the bookcases were not locked up till within the 
last SO years, the shelves have been thinned of many very rare 
and curious works : and amongst the rest the Chartularies already no- 
ticed have all, as I have been told, disappeared from Naworth. Some 
of them perhaps were taken by the agents of the Carlisle family as evi- 
dence to courts of justice and never returned : numerous valuable pa- 
pers are annually lost in this manner. How the Brinkbum Register 
passed into the hands of Mr. Astle, I am not aware. In becoming his 
property, however, its existence was secured because he understood its 
value. Some of the rest may perhaps still exist, but are either secreted^ 

216 An Account of the Chartulary qf Brmkbum. 

or are in possession of persons, who, from being unable to read them, are 
ignorant of the nature of their contents. That of Newminster was pro- 
bably at the dissolution deposited with the Dacre fitmily, as representa- 
tives of the Merlays founders of that house* I have in another place* 
noticed, that I have been told that the late Edward Cook, of Blakemoor, 
Esq., who was a barrister and a skilful antiquary, was once possessed of 
it. That of Shap was lost when Dr. Bum edited his History of West- 
morland in 1777 : perhaps it fell into the Howard Eamily after Lord 
William purchased the manor of Thornthwaite, in that Parish, and made 
the ancient Hall there his occasional residence.! 

Dr. Burn in another place says that the Blenkinsops, who married the 
heiress of Helbeck, ^' had a large collection of writings, not only re- 
lating to themselves but of several other kinds, as divers originals belong- 

* History of Northumberland, part II. toI. i. p. 21 

f The foUomng notices are from a manuacript book, of the expences of Lord William HowardjUow 
in the poesession of William Lawson, Esq., of Longhirst, near Morpeth : — 

** 1619 paid to Thomas Gray as laid out by him at thoratwhat for a bkk freis jerkin for my lord 
the viijth of October 1619, xvijs. It for on paer of bouts for my lo : there, zs-^Itr for fireis for gam- 
roasheis by the way, lis. vid. — It. for my lord ryding chargds from thomtwhat to London beginning the 
ixth of October till the xixth p bill, xviiil. lOs.**— << 1619. Paid to on for bringing letters to Thorn- 
twaht.'*— "'* 1620. It for my Lord ryding chargeis from thomtwaht to London boning the xuxth of 
apereill 1620 p bill, xvijl. xts. iUjd."— *" 1621. It. paid at thomwhat to Thomas Lowdian for a bOl 
off pcells for a goune and wastcot as appears on the bill paid by tho. gray, Stc^ xxjdxs." — A^m in 
" 1621. Imprimis for my lo. ryding chargds ffirom thomtwhat to London begining the xxxth of 
April being in companie at my lo. chargeis 24 men and 12 horseis as appears by bill, xxl. xvs. iiiid.'* 
—And again in * 1621. Imps, for my lo : ryding chargeis from thomtwhat to London begining the 
xith of norember as appears by bill, xiiijl. xixs. yd." — ** 1622. It for a peare of bouts at Thoratwhat 
for my lo : wch Mr. RadcUffe did pay for, &e.. jlb.**^-** It for my lo. ryding chargeis from thorathwat 
to London boning the viij May,' be in companie 16 p bill.— It to the pson at thomwhat the nijth 
may, xs."— >^ Rewards sence the first May 1623.— It to a follow at thoratwhat 2 may, vs."— 1624^ 
It to my lo : by Mr. Raddeif at thoratwhat 20 May, xs. — It flbr my lo : ryding chargds ftoo thora- 
twhat to London b^ninge the xxth Mav 1624 p bill, ixl. xjs. iiid.'* — It. to the pson at llioratliwal 
at my lo: waycoming, xs. ** It to the poore there, ijs.*'— ** 1625. Imp. for my lo ryding charges 
from thorawhat to London beying the 4th may as appeares by bill being in his companey 6, xYiijL xs. 
ijd." The Howard fomily at that time were Roman Catholics. The two presents of lOs. each to 
the parson of Thornthwaite, were probably given to the Roman CatfaoUc priest kept there. The 
people in the neighbourhood have still traditions of the famous belted '^^ll residing at the place; and 
cherish their legacy of hatred to them as papists, by telling their children that lady Howard abhorred 
all protestants, and used to say, that she hoped to live to ride knee deep in Uood down Won^gat^ 
loaning to Brampton Church. 

Lnd/ex to the B^gjUier of Brinkburfu 


ing to Shap Abbey and other places, which as it is not known how they 
came possessed of the same, neither is it known what became thereof, 
and in all probability they are all now totally lost, except what hath been 
preserved thereof by copies taken, and extracts made, by the Rev. 
Thomas Machel, who had free access to the same, and whose collection, 
therefore, in that respect, is extremely valuable/' Mr. Machel died in 
1699- The Chartalary of Lanercost, according to Dr. Burn, was still 
remaining at Naworth in 1777* — Bum and Nicholson's Westmorland^ 
pp. 4f7S, 580, and Prtf. iv. 







1. ConfimmtJon by Roger Bertram, of the doiuk 
tion made bjhu father( William the Founder) to 
the GanoDs of the blessed Peter of Br3n[ikbom; 
viz.— Thomhalghy Foderiialgh, Fapurhalgh, 
Hely, and Unerhely, Sk^ sans date^ fol. S. 

S. Grant by Roger Bertram of '' illam petariam 
que est mter Rymlawe et Heleya/' «. dL fol. 3. 

3. Grant by Roger Bertram of all Helihopey with 
its appurts., #. d. IbL 4. 

4. Grant by Roger Bertram Dominus de Mltfbrde 
of one part of his wood and forest of Rymside^ 
the boundaries expressed, with a reservation 
that he and those who are with him shall hunt 
there, #• d. fol. 5. 

5. Grant by the test mentioned Roger, of another 
part of the wood of Rymside, with a 
reservation, #. d. foL 6. 

6. Confinnation by Roger Bertram of the grant 
made by his great grandfiither (pro air sui), of 
a part of the wood called Linchwood, the 
boundaries expressed, #. d. fol. 6. b. 

7. Confirmation by William de Framlington of 
' the whole land of Little Framlington, and the 

pasture of Linchwood, #• d. fol. 7* 

8. Confirmation by John deEslii^n of the gifts 
made to the priory by Roger Bertram and his 
ancestors, in Feltondiire, with the addition of 
a toft in Little Framlington, u d. foL 8. I 

9. Compromise of a dispute between Tho^ Bry- 
an, Clerk, and the Priory, respecting the pas- 
ture in Lynchwood and Westrymside, whereby 
the said Tho. releases all his right in the said 
wood, &c., on condition that his cattle shall 
depasture thereon, #. d. fol. 8. 

10. A similar compromise between Wdl, son of 
Wm. de Bokenfield and Alice his wife, and 
the Priory, respecting thdr pasture in linch- 
wood and Westrimsyde, #. d. foL 9. 

1 L A charter of David de Strabolgy, Earl of Athol, 
reciting by inspeximus a record of quo war- 
ranto, in which the jury say that the Prior of 

Bk-enkbum hath assize of beer, &C., in the town 
of Framlington, 34. Ed. a foL 9. 

12. An agreement between Roger Bertram and 
the Prior and Convent^ rec^pecting the holding 
of a court, &c, and also concerning free cha- 

. pel, in the manor of Fdton, #. d. foL 10. 

13. Compromise of a dispute between the Priory 
and Roger Bertram and Robert de Gamel- 
thorp, wherein it is agreed that the Convent 
shall have common of pasture in Great and 
Uttle Felton,&c., 125d» fol. 11. 

14. Grant by Roger Bertram, Dominus de Mitford, 
to the Priory of the privfledge of tumixig their 
horses into his lands in Rymside and Wal- 
mq)ethes, #• d foL 1£. 


Ind€x to the Register qfBrinkhum. 

ld> €Hmit by the nme Rogtr of 9 SHirl pit (mar- 
lerium), in his wood of Walden, #. d, foL 1£. 

1^. Grant by the same Roger of waste land in 
Glantele and Snoke^ #. dL fol. 12. 

17. Grant by the same Roger of a toft and croft 
in Glantele, #. d, fol. 13; 

] 8l Ghrant by the same Roger of land in Evenwode, 
$, d. foL 13. 

19. Grant by Richard de Mora of the manor of 
Evenwode, 1296, fol. li. 

£0. Gfant by Roger Bertram of land in Litde FeU 
tbn, #. d. fol. 14. 

£1. Release of right by Roger Fitz Payne in Up- 
per Felton, 1242, fol. 15. 

22. A similar release by Wm. de Scancebi of the 

same premises, 1242, fol. 15. 

23. Compromise of a dispute between Roger, son 
of Wm. de Felton, and the Priory, respecting 
Upper Felton, 1349, fol. 16L 

24. Grant by Ralph de Scancebi of land in Over 
Felton, #. d, fol. 16. 

25. Grant by the same Ralph of a toft in Over 

Fdton, s d. fol. 16. 

26. Grant by die same Ralph of three acres of 
hind there, #. d, fol. 17- 

27. Another grant by the same of two acres there, 

«. d fol. 17. 
2a Liceose by Robert de Hilton of taking dead 
wood in the wood of Haysand, 1289, foL 17* 

29. Grant by Richard de Morwyk of land in Ake- 
ton, t. di fol. 18. 

30. Grant by Nich. de Aketon of land there, 1242, 
fol. 18. ' 

31. Confirmation of tiie preceding grants by Hen. 

de Aketon, 1347, fol. 19. 

32. Grant of Wm. FiaSfyn of land in Felton, 1257, 

33. Confirmation of the last grant by Roger Ber- 
tram, 1257, fol. 20. 

34. Grant of Hugh VSgeny of rent in Kirketon, 
s. d. fol. 21. 

35. A confirmation of the last grant by Hugh 'Vi- 
geny, s. d. fol. 21. 

36. Release of right to the rent last mentioned by 

Adam de Bokenfdd, 1269, fol. 21. 

37< Grant by Wm. Bertram of land in Upper Fel- 
ton, #. d. fol. Z2. 

38. Compromise of a dispute between the Pri- 
ory and John de Eslinton, respecting a rent 
of 20«. for the mill of Framlington, 1254, 
fol. 22. 
























ObUgation by Bofer Bertram, Lord of Mitford, 
to inclose his park before Michaelmas in that 
year, 1256, fol. 22. 

Grant by Richard* son of Roceline, of land in 
Thrasterston, $. d. fol. 22L 
Confirmation of the last grant by William, his 
son, $, d. foL 23. 

Ghrant by William Pu£^ of land in Thrasters- 
ton, #. <^ fol. 2a 

Gtant by Adam Mansetur of one penny rent, 
in the place last mentioned, #. d. foL 24. 
Grant by Agnes, daughter of Thomas, of a toft 
in Thrasteiston^ $. d, fol. 24. 
A confirmation of the last grant by the same 
Agnes, t, d. fol. 24. 

Grant by Hu^ ^Hgeny of a toft and croft in 
Thrasterston, t. d: fol. 24. 
Grrant by William Pu%n of a toft and croft 
there, #. <f. fol. 25* 

Confirmation by Roger Bertram of twelve acres 
in Thrasterston, s, d, fol. 26. ^ 

Confirmation by John de Vesey of the grant 
made by Pufiyn, s, d, fol. 26. 
Quit chdm by Adam Mansetur of the homage 
due to him in Thnisterton, <. d, foL 27* 
Grant by WHliam de BlunviUe of premiaes in 
Bokenfelde, #. d. fol. 27. 
Grrant by William de Munville of land in Bo- 
kenfelde, 1244, fbL 28. 
Grant by Mllliam de Toggesden of 2i. rent in 
Bokenfelde, s* d, fol. 28. 
Grant by William Frankelayne of land in Bo- 
kenfelde, s, d, fol. 28. 

Release of right by Richard Freman to a toft 
and lands in Bokenfelde, 7. Ed. 2. fol. 29. 
Grant by Geoffrey Manduit of land in Eashet 
and Bokenfelde, s, d. fol. 29. 
Orsnt of the same Geoffirey of a toft in Bok- 
enfelde, #. d. fol. 30. 

Confirmation of the grants in Esshet and Bo- 
kenfelde, by QeoScey Manduit, son of the last 
mentioned person, 1244, fol. 30: 
Compromise of a dispute about the tithes of 
Esshet and Bbkenfdd, 1224, fol. 31. 
Ghrant by William de Franrfington of land in 
Framlington, t. d, fol. 31.' 
Grant by William Pigace, and Mai^. his wife, 
of 4 messuages in Framlington, j: dL fbL 32. - 
Grant to M^liam Pigace, and Marg. his wife, 
of a toft and tiiree acres of land in Framling- 
ton, i. (/. fol. 32. 

Ludcx A» Oie Meghkr hfBtMchim: 


63. Qnnto£Wm.dehE^xti€\.3SiA ^* Orant by John de Balngton of as aMaitin 

64. Another grant by the aaid WiUiam of land] 
there, #. d. fol. 9S. 

66. Grant of Wn. Brien ^iand in f^iuidiiigton, 
#. dlfol. 33. 

66. Another grant by Wiiyam Biien of a toft and 
croft in the -said town, #. 4. fd. 33. 

67. Anodier grant by the same and Agnes his v(^ 
of land there, t. d, fol. 33. 

68. A grant by William Brien, Agaeshls wife, and 
Thomas their son, of lands in Fkandii^^n, 
«• d. fol. 34. 

69. A grant by Agnes, widow of the last mentioned 
person, of a toft and croft in Framlington, 
«• d. fol. 34. 

70. Grant of Roger, son of Walter de Preadwyk, 
of a toft, croft, and ISO acres in Framliogton, 
«. d. foL 34. 

71. Grant by Wakr. de Pkrcadwyk of 4 acres of 
l«id in Framlington, u d. foL 35. 

72. Release of right by ChnsCiana, wife of Roger, 
son of Walter de Pceitdwyk, as to lands in 
Fhmlington, «. d. fol. 35. 

73. Grant by VTillam de Bokenfeld of 6 acres of 
land in Framlington, $, <C fol. 35. 

74. Confirmalion by Richard Brunthyng of a mes- 
suage in Kraadington, #. d. fol. 36. 

75. Confirmation by Mildred Pfgas of the last 
lentioned deed, «. d, foL 36. 

76. Grant by John de KaKngton of land in Fram- 
lington, #. d. foL 36. 

77* Confiimalion by Alex, de Erfiogton of lands, 

&c in Framlington, <• dL foL 37. 
76. Grant by fifaigery de Eramlington of 10 acres 

of land in Framlington, 11^79 fol- 37. 

79. Grantby Agnes, daughter of William de Fram- 
lington, of a toft and croft and 7 acres of land 
there, #. d. fol. 36. 

80. Grant by Amabetde Framlington of a toft>&& 
there, #. d. fol. 36. 

81. Confirmation by Marg. de Framlington of the 
lands given to the Priory by her three hus- 
bands, 1246, fol. 38. 

^ AgiftbyMai^garetdeFhunliiigtonofAdam,her 
^ natiye cum tetasequele sua," t. d. foL 39. 

83. A deed by which Alan, the Poor, and the 
Convent of Brinkbum give fineedom to the 
said Adam the Native, «. d. foL 39. 

84. An agreement between the Prior and John de 
Eslington, respecting certain tofts in Fram-f 
lington, $. d. fol. 39. 

, «. d. fol. 39. 
66. Compromiseofdisputes between Jordan deF. 

and Mai^. lus wife^ and the Priory, respecting 

assart lands and common of pasture, s.' d. 

foL 40. 
87. Confirmation by William Brien, and Agnes his 

wife, of aU the donations of IfHlliam de Finm- 

tington to the Canons of Brinkburn, s. d. 

fol. 40. 
68. Agreement respecting tithes of Framlrngton, 

between the Frioiy and William de Boewills, 

«. d. fol. 40. 

89. Another agreement respecting tithes in Fhun- 

lington, between the Priory and Adam Hiriing 
and Matilda, bis wife, 1256, foL 41. 

90. Another agreement as to tithes there, be- 
tween the Priory and John de Esliqgton, 

91. Grant by Ralph de Hedawe of Langlineton, 
and the whole land between Titlesdene and 
Welpesticroke, ftc, $, d. fol. 41. 

92. Grant by Roger Bertram of wasteland in Lit- 
tle Framlington, «. d. fol. 41. 

93. Rel.ease by Rog. Bertram of the service due to 
him in Framlington, #. d. fol. 42. 

94. Wm. de Glanton grant of 6#. rent in Littie 
Framlington, 1349,foL42. 

95. Confirmation by Robert de Fdton of the last 
mentioned grant, 1349, foL 42. 

96. Grant by M^illiam de Glanton to Robert de 
Felton of all the lands he holds in fee of 
the Prior and Convent of Brinkbum, 1349, 
fol. 43. 

97. Grant by William Pyon of a toft and croft in 
Lan^eveton, s, d. fol. 43. 

98. Grant by the same of a barcary in Littie Fram- 
lington, #. d. fol. 43. 

99. Release by William Pyon of all his right to 
lands in Lan^vynton, 1248, fol. 44. 

100. Confirmation of the last grant by William, his 
son, #. dL fol. 44. 

101. Confirmation of the same by John Pjron, #. d. 

102. Release by William Pion of a toft and croft 
&c,, in Littie Framlington, in consideration of 
money given to him by the Prior and Convent 
in his necessity, 1245, fol. 44. 

103. Release by William Pjron of his right to Est^ 
croft, &c., $, d. foL 45. 


Index to the Register qfBrinkham. 

104. Another leleaie of right bj 1X^9Iiaai Fyon of 
land in Little Fnimlington, 1240, IbL 45. 

105. Anodier release by tlie said WilliaDi Pjron» as 
to Laqglevinton, &€^ tmd, foL 45. 

106. Confirmation by Jdin Pjron of tbe release 
made by William^ lus fiithery of Lands in Lit- 
tle Framlington, #• d, fol. 40. 

107. Release by Agnes Fjron, wife of the said 
John, of her right in dower orotfaerwisey to 
Little Framlington, «• d. foL 40. 

108. Release by William deCraureoke of his nig^ 
to lands in Little Fhunlingtoii, «. d. foL 40. 

109. Grant by Bladlda Himyage of hmd in Fhmn- 
lington, #• d, fol. 47. 

110. Grant by William dePhmiUngton of Akflhalgh 
and Ljrndialgh, f . d. foL 47. 

111. Confirmation by Margaret, daughter of Wil- 
liam de Fremlington, of land in Framlington 
and Langlevyton, «. d, fol. 47* 

112. Ghrant by Rpger de Merky of land on the 
south part of Coket, $. d, fol. 48. 

113. Grant by the same of pasture land in Coket, 
#. d. fol. 48. 

114. Grant by Roger de Meriay {terUna) of com- 
mon of pasture in Coket, f . d. foL 48. 

1 15. Grant by Roger de Meriay of as nmdi wood 
as two horses can carry out of hu wood of 
Coket,^. i.fol. 49. 

1 16. Grant by Richard de Meriay of a messuage in 
Stanton, «. d. fol. 49. 

1 17. Confirmation by Roger de Meriay {ieriius) of 
all the grants made by him and his ancestors, 
«. d fol. 49. 

118. A deed by which Richard de Hely, Rector of 
Horaley, renounces all right to the tithes of a 
certain ctdture circa CokH, the same being in 
the manurance of the Priory, and therefore 
not liable to such a payment, #. d. fol. 50. 

1 19. Pleas before the Justices itinerant at Yoric, 
wherein William de Whelpinton was sum* 
moned to answer to the Prior of Brenkbume, 
why he unjustly detains three charters firom 
him ; the defence is, that thieves broke into 
his house and stole the seals firom two of them, 
and the third he delivered to the Priory, 27* 
E. 1. fol. 50. 

IdO. A memorandum that John, son of Patrick de 
Kesterne, gave to the Priory of Great Tirwhite 
twelve messuages, sixteen oxgangs of land, 
and thirty acres of meadow, &c., «. d, fol. 51. 

191. Gmt by John de Kestame ofhnd, Ac, in 

Great Tinriiit, «• d fi)L 51. 
1^ An exdiange of lands in Hrwhit b e t w een the 

Priory and John and Adam, aona of Michael | 

de Tirwhit, #• d fol. 51. " / 

1£3. Grant by John de Kesleme of his demesne 

in Great Tirwbit, f . d foL 5C. 

124. Grant by the same of a toft and croft there, 
#. d. fol. 52. 

125. Grant by the same of land faiTirwfait inferior, 

126. Grant by the same of lands in Tlrwhit, «. d. 

127* Grant by Agnes deTirwIiit of a toft and craft 
in Upper Tirwhit, «. d. fol. 53. 

128. Coiidfirmation by Jolmde Kesterne of the b^ 
mentioned grant, t. d, foL 53. 

129. Grant by William Fits Geoffiey of a toft and 
crofts in Upper Tirwhit, «. d, fiol. 54. 

130 Confirmation by Agnes^ daughter of Robert 
de superiore Tirwhit, of tbe last mentioned i 
grant, 1241, fol. 54. 

131. Confirmation of the aame by John Fits Hugh 
of Upper Tirwhit, «. dL foL 54. 

132. Grant by Adam (Prater Nich. parvi) of the 
m<nety of a mill in Great Tvwhit, 1241, foL 55. 

133. Grant by Tho. Fits Alan of lands m Upper . 
Tirwhit, £. (f. foL 55. 

134. Grant of Alan Jay of tiirae acres of land ad 
sustentationem lumfaiarij Refectorij, #. d. 
fol. 55. 

135. Grant by Gr^ry de Otoriqgton of Land in 
Tirwhit, 1243, fiO. 55. 

136w Grant by Adam, son of Halye de '^hit, of 
land there, 1244, foL 55. "^ 

137. Ccmfirmation by John de Kesterne of divers 
grants made by his ancestors, 1272, foL 55. 

138. Release of right by Adam de Cambhus to a 
toft hi Tirwhit, 31. H. 3. foL 56: 

139. Release by Adam de Tirwhit of hnd in Tir- | 
whit, 1252, foL 56. 

140. Grant by Wm., son of Ylif, of land m War- 
ton, i. d, foL 57. 

141. Grant by John, son of Walden, of a toft and 
croft m Little Tossan, 1245, foL 57- 

142. Grant by Rlias, son of Huh«d, of lands in 
Little Tossan, #. d. foL 57. 

143. Grant by John, son of Walden, of hmd there, 
$. d. foL 57. 

144. Confirmation by the same of the grant made 

Index to fhe Register qf Brmkbum. 


to tbe Priory by Elias, bod of Hulred, «, d 
fol. 58. 

145. Grant by John de Kesteme of land in Kes- 
teme, #. d, £6L 69. 

146. Agreement respecting lands in Kesteme made 
between the Prior and Convent of Brenkbum 
and the Prioress and Nuns of Halistane, 1£409 

M. 69. 

147. Grrantby Alice de Umfrayille of rent of the 
miU of BaUngtoD, «. d, fol. 59. 

148. Grant by the Nunnery of Halistan of rent 
due from the above railly <• d. fol. 59. 

149. Grant by Ralph de Trihamton of rent in 
Hayning, *, d, fol. 00. 

150. Grant by Ralph de Yediam and Bagaiuld his 
wife of land in Roxburgjiy t. d, fol. 60. ^ 

151. Confirmation of the laat grant by Gilbert 
Fhwer and Christian his wife, s, d, fol. 60. 

152. Agreement between the Priory of Brenkbume 
and the Monks of Kelao respecting land in 
Boxbur^, #. d, foL 60* 

153. Another agreement between the same parties 
respecting land there, «. d, foL 60. 

154. Grant by John de Kdlingham of common of 
pasture m Bdlingham, 1259, fol. 61. 

155. Grant by John Fits Simon of his lands in 
Whittiq^am, Thrownton, and Barton, «. d. foL 

156w Grant by Robert de Glanton of estovers in 

Whittu^ham Wood, s. d. fol 6S. 
157. Grant by Thomas Fltz Sfichael of a capital 

messui^ in Barton and lands in Whittingham, 

«. d, fol. 62. 

156. Confirmation of the same by Tho. his son, «. d, 
fol. 62. 

159. Release of right to lands in Whittingham, 
Throwton, and Barton, by Rob. de Ealington, 
23. £. a fol. 62. 

160. licence by William de Vesey to ifte po6r ca^ 
noHs of Brunkbume of buying and selling with* 
in his town of Alnwick, #• d. foL 63. 

.161. Confirmation of the last grant by John de 
Vesey, i. d. fol. 63. 

162. Grantby Wilham de Vesey ofa toft in Alne- 
monthe, #. d, fol. 63. 

163. Agreement between the Priory of Brenkbum 
and the canons of Alnwick respecting the 
tiliieaof Swiidey,.«.dlfol.j63. 

164. Grant by Nichotos de HowkebUl of rent m 
HawkehiU, f. d foL 64. . 

VOL. II. p f 

165. Grant by William de Budeston of rent in 
Wirkworth, «. d fol. 64. 

166. Grant by Ste^^en de Gillinge and Agnes his 
wife of rent in Wirkwortfa, #• d, foL 64. 

167- Grant of other rent in the same town by 
Hugh, Bon of Grcigory, «. d. UA, 64. 

168. Grant by German Tysun of a toft m Wirk- 
worth, s. d, foL 65. 

169. Grant by Heniy, Prince of Scotland, son of 
David I. of a salt pit in Waricworth, #. d. foL 

170. Grant of another salt pit there by Robert 
Fitz Roger, «. d, foL 65. 

171* Confirmation by William, Earl of Northum- 
beriand, ofa salt pit in Walworth, $, d. fol. 65. 

172. Agreement between the Priory of Brinkbum 
and the Nuns of Wericworth respecting the 
tithes of fishery and saltworica tiier^ 1247, 
fol. 65. 

173. Grant by John de Neubiggyng of two tofts 
in Neubiggyng^ #. d. fol. 65. 

174. Grant by Berrard de Baliol ofa messuage in 
Neubiggyng, #. d. fol. 66. 

175. Confirmation of the same by Hu^ de Baliol 
s. </. fol. 66. 

176. Grantby the Priory to Symon,8onofBfanger, 
of two tofts in Neid)igg3nig in consideration of 
the yearly rent of 500 herrings, 1334, foL 66. 

177* Confirmation by Bernard de Baliol cf a mes- 
suage in Newbiggyng, #. d foL 66. 

178. Grant by John de Plessiz of a place called 
Heifordbridge, 1267, foL 66w 

179. Grant by Askfl, Son of Edmund, of knd in 
Herford, i. d. foL 67. 

180. Confirmatioa of the last grant by Richard, 
son of Angylic, $, d. fol. 67* 

181. Grant of land in Herford by Adam, son of 
Gilbert de Schotton, «. d. M. 67- 

182. Grant by Simon de Plessiz of suit of mill in 
Herford, Schotton, and Pless%, i. d, fol. 67. 

183. Grant by the same Simon of pasture in Her- 
ford, $. d. fol. 68. 

184. Grant by William Paris of land in Schotton, 
«. d. fol. 68. 

185^ Grantby William, son of Roger de Schotton, 

of land in diat town, #. d foL 69. 
186. Grant by Oliria de Schotton of land there, 

187' Grant by Robert de Blaykeston of lands in 

Schotton, s. d. foL 69* 


Index to the Register ofBrmkbum. 

laa Grant by Gilliert de Sdiottoa of lands thcte> 

s. d, fol. 69. 
1^9. Gnmt by Simon de Plessiz of lands there* 

<. d. fol. 69. 

190. Grant by '^^Uliaoi de Schotton of land there, 
t. d fol. 70. 

191. Confirmation by Mnigaret de Schotton of the 
last mentioned grant, «. d, ftH. 70. 

19£. Grant by James de Bolum of a salt pit in 
Cupom, $, d. foL 70. 

193. Confirmation of the last grant by Gilbert de 
Bohun« #. d. fol. 70. 

1 94. Another confirmation of the same by Walter de 
Bolum, t. d. fol. 70. 

195. Grant by John Fltz Hugh of lands in Cnpum, 
1. d, fol. 71' 

196. Confirmation of the last grant by Walter de 
Bolum, i. d, fol. 71* 

197. Grant by John Fitz Hugh of other land in 
Cupum, #. d, £(A. 71* 

198. Grant by Roger Fitz Hugh of land there, 

#.d.fol. 71* 

199. Grant in fee by the Priory to Tho. de Fenwic 
of land in Stamfordham and Matfen resenring 
a yearly rent of ScT. 1256, foL 72. 

200. Grant by Tho. de Fenwic of lands in Heton 
Magna, i. d, fol. 72. 

201. Grant in fee by the Priory to Robert de 
Stemfordbam of land in Matfen with a reser- 
vation of rent, 1241, fol. 73. 

iH)2. Grant by Tho. Sturdi of land in Hulkeston, 
t. d. fol. 73. • 

203. Grant by Agnes daughter of Hew Mopper of 
" unam Celdam" in Cortnidge, s. d. foL 73. 

204. Grant by John BiigHinn of a shop in Cor- 
bridge, 1245, fol. 74. 

205. Grant by Bob. de Neuham of rent in Neu- 
ham, s. d. fol. 74. 

206. Grant by Sunon Fitz John of a toft in FreBU 
wick, t, d, fol. 74. 

207. A fine between Roger Bertram, plaintiff, and 
John Fitz Robert, defordent, of the manor of 
Felton, 1235, fol. 75. 

208. Grant by Wm. de Felton of rents, &c. in New- 
castle, 1292, fol. 75. 

209. Grant in fiee by the Priory of premises in 
Newcastle to Tho. de Castello with a reserva- 
tion of rent, 1307, fol. 76. 

210. Grant by Tho. son of Alexander de Gloucester,] 
of land in Newcastle, #. d. fol. 77. ( 

211. Agreement between tiie Prioiy and Henricum 
Medicum by which a house in Newcastle is 
conveyed to the said Henr. at a fee fiurm rent 
of 2ff. per ann. with license to alieoate ex- 
cept to Jews and religious persons, 1249, foL 

212. Grant firom Henr. Mendicus to John Fitz Geof- 

frey de Halivell of rent in Newcastle, in free 
marriage with Ysota, his daughter, «. d. fol. 77. 

213. Release of right by John de Haliwell and 
Ysota his wife, of the house last mentioned, 
J. d fol. 77. 

214. Grant by Gtuz de Arenis of rent in Newcas- 
tle from a messuage there, $. d. fol. 78. 

215. Acknowledgment fi^m Simon the Master and 
his Brethren of the Hoq>ital of Westgate that 
they are bound to pay rent to the Priory of 
Brinkbum for the last mentioned messuage, 
1. d. fol. 78. 

216. Grant by the Priory to Samud Fits Robert of 
land in Newcastie, with a reservation of rent, 
«. d. fol. 78. 

217. Grant by John Raynaldof a messuage in New- 
casde, #. d. fol. 78. 

218. Grant by the Priory to Hen. Slaver of a house 
in NewcasUe, with a reservation of rent, 1249, 
fol. 79. 

219. Grant by the Priory of a toft in Gatesheveif 
to Mr. Banes, witii a raservatioa of rent, s. d. 
fol. 79. 

220. Grant by Hugh Pudsey, Kshop of Duriiam,of 
land and a fishery ia Qiiicham, 1. d, fol. 79. 

221. Confirmation by the same Bishop of James de 
Bolum's grant of a salt pit in Cupum, &e., #. d. 
foL 79. 

222. Grant by the same ]%hop of land between 
Heley and Coket, 1. d. fol. Sa 

223. Confirmation by the same Bishop of the grants 
made to the Priory by Roger Bertram, 1. d, fol. 

224. Confirmation by Bishop Pudsey of the privi- 
ledge of sepulture within the Priory, s. d.kil. 80. 

225. Grant by Phil., Bishop of Durham, of the 
church of Felton, «. d. foL 80. 

226. Confirmation of the last grant by the Prior 
and Convent of Durham, #. d. fol. 80. 

227. Acknowledgement bythe Priory of Brinkbum 
that they are bound to find one pound of wax 
for the light of the chapel of the infirmary, 
1253, fol. 80. 

Indes to tite Register cfBrinkbum. 


228. Renuncmtion of right by the Priory of Pent- 
ney, over that of Brenkbume, i. d* foL 81. 

229. Agreement between the last mentioned Pri- 
ories by which it is accorded, amongst other 
things, that if the Priory of Pentney, choose to 
send a monk of thdr house, at any time, to 
Brenkbnme, he shall be treated as one of their 
own body, «. d. foL 81. 

230. The King^s confirmation of the several grants 
made to the Priory of Brenkbume, 2 John, fol. 

231. Grant by King John that certain lands of the 
Priory in Iinchwood,&c., shall be qfuit oft omm 
Begardo Fore$i0, 2 John, fol. 82. 

232. Confirmation by King Hemy III. of the seve- 
ral geuitsmade to llie Priory, 37 H. 3, fol. 82. 

233. Another confirmation by the King of Hely- 
hope and other lands given to the Priory, 37 
H. 3; IbL 83. 

234. A similar confirmation by the same King, of 
lands in Evenwode, &c. 43 H. 3, fol. 83. 

235. Another confirmatioB by the same King; of 
Brenkburne, Felton, &c., t. d, fol. 83. 

236. A confirmation by Henry (yUius Regit ScotieJ 
of the place called Brinkbarn, «. d. fol. 84. 

237- A charter by which the King takes the Pri<Mry 
into his protection^ 37 H. 3, fol. 84. 

238. Licence to receive Mr. Felton's rent in New- 
conveyed by him, to the Priory in Thraster- 
castle, in exchange for messuages and lands 
ston, 21 Ed. 1, foL 84. 

239. PtffdoB to tbeRioryforhavkigpurchaBedthe 
rents in Newcastle above mentioned prior to 
the licence being obtained, 8 Ed. 9, fol. 85. 

240. Pope Urban's bull granting divers priviledges 
to the Priory, i. d. foL 85. 

241. (Year of Pontiff omitted) Pope Urban's bull, 
granting power to correct the canons when 
feulty, &C., 15 Kal. April, IbL 87. 

242. The King's license to appropriate the ehureh 
of Horsley, 10 Rie. 2, fol. 88. 

243. Grant by Balph, Baron of Graystock, of the 
advowson of the above diurch, 1387, fol* 88. 

244. Appropriation of the church of Horsley by 
Walter, Bishop of Durham, to the Prioiy, 
1391, fol. 89. 

245. Kne between John Rts Simon, phdntifi^ and 
Ilfichael Htz Michael and others, deforciants 
of the capital messuage of Barton and divert 
Uuids, 19 H. 3. 

224 The Household Eapences of PhiUp^ third Lord Wharton. 


XXX. — The Household Ea^pences, fw one Year, qf Philip^ third Lord 
Wharton^ communicated by W. C. Treveltan, Esq. qf WalUngton. 

Philip, third Lord Wharton (of whose household ezpences for one year 

the following is a copy) was grandson of Sir Thomas Wharton, Knt. 
who was created Baron by Henry VIII. in 1544, for his services against 
the Scotch, and son of Thomas, second Lord Wharton (who died in 1572), 
and Anne, daughter of Robert Devereux, Earl of Sussex. Philip mar- 
ried Frances, daughter of Henry Clifford, second Earl of Cumberland ; he 
died in 1625, and was buried in Helaugh Church, his wife died in 1592, 
and lies in Kirkby Stephen Church. 

Thomas, first Lord Wharton, died in 1568, and was buried in Helaugh 
Church, where is a fine altar tomb to him and his second wife, Anne, 
daughter of Francis, fiflh Earl of Shrewsbury, who survived him some 
years. There is also a monument to him and his two wives in Kirkby 
Stephen church. — See Hunter's HaUamshire^ p. 61. and Bum and 
Nicolson^s Hist, of Westmorland and Cumberland^ vol u pp. 540, 559* 

Wharton Hall, in Kirkby Stephen parish, Westmorland, was going 
fast to ruin, till it was repaired by Lord Lonsdale for the use of his 
tenant ; the chapel is now used as a dairy, in the kitchen are two large 
fire places, and in the hall is one twelve feet wide. It, with most of 
the Wharton possessions, was sold by Philip, sixth and last Lord Whar- 
ton, to the Lowther family. — See Beauties qf England and Wales. 

It will be seen from the account for month 5, that fasting during 
Lent was very strictly observed in Lord Wharton's family. His grand- 
mother died a Roman Catholic in 158S, but I am not aware that he was 
of that religion ; neither does his observing the fast of Lent prove that 
he was, as it appears that the statutes of Edward VI. and Elizabeth for 

The Household Expences qf Philip, third Lard Wharton^ 225 

die observance of fast-days were strictly enforced even to a much, later 
period, when it was necessary, for Protestants to get dispensations for 
permission to eat meat in Lent. By S5 Eliz. c. 7* s. 18, persons of the 
degree of a Lord of Parliament, or their wives, should pay for their li- 
cense, yearly, into the poor's box of their parish, 26^. 8d Knights and 
their wives, 13s. 4td. — and other persons, 6s. 8d. In 2 and 3 of Edward 
VL c. 19* the reasons given for enforcing the observance of fast days, 
are, ^* that diie and godly abstinence is a mean to virtue, and specially 
that fishers and men using the trade of living by fishing in the sea, may 
thereby the rather be set on work, and that by eating offish much flesh 
shall be saved and increased." 

In sections 39 and 40 of the act of Elizabeth, it is stated that the statute 
for abstaining firom flesh ** is purposely intended and meant politickly 
for the increase of fishermen and mariners, and repairing of port towns 
and navigation." 

I subjoin the copy of a licence to eat flesh in Lent granted in 1660. 

'^Gm&eAitiijProvidentiadivin& Cants Archiepus totius AngliaB Primas 
et Metropon*^ ad infra scripta authoritate Parlament Angliie legitime 
fulcitus— -DiVecto nobis in Christo GudUero Cdherley de Calverley in 
Com Eboraci, Armigero Salutem et gratiam cum L^es ad utilitatem 
omnium conditae ad salutem singulor de rigore suo aliquid remittere 
etiam ipsae cupiant Nos ex relacone tua aliorumq^ fide dignorum testis 
monio intelligentes piscium esum sanitati corporis tui adversum esse 
Salutem tuam ex animo Poptantes Pmittimus et indulgemus Tibi ut una 
cum Quinq^ quibusvis aliis arbitrio tuo eligend et ad mensam.tuam 
invitand, Camibus cum dehita gratiarum aocone hoc tempore quadra- 
gesimali vesci possis Volumus tamen quod sobri^, id et frugal?, cautd 
itidem, et ad vitSnd publicum Scandalum (quoad fieri possit) tect^ non 
pahm facias. Proviso etiam quod Sumam sex Solidorum et octo De- 
nariorum in parochia infra quam habitabis ad Cistam pauperum conferes 
et munerabis juxta Statut in Parlament Anglise in ea parte edit et pro- 
vip Volumus etiam qudd omnia et singula alia Pimplebis et observabis 
quce in diet, statut ac proclamaconibus aliisq^ constituconibus Regiis 

296 The Household Exptnces of PhiUp, third Lord Wharton. 

respectiTe continentiir. Datum sub Sigillo adjaadtates sexto die Msr* 
tii Anno Dni (stylo Anglis) I66O £t nrs Trandacoois Anao primo. 

Jo. Berkenhead 
ad Facuttes Cofilrius. RICHUS BAYLIE CLICVS 

Regratus P Johem Spencer Clicum Regie 
Ma^'* ad facilitates in Cancellaria. 

Partridges killed by the Hawke are mentioned in Month IS. 

It appears from the following letter, that the Hawks used in the di- 
version of Falconry were sometimes procured from Ireland ; it is taken 
irom the S3d voL of Hopkinson's valuable Collections in Miss Currer's 
library, and was copied by him from the original in Sheffield Castle. 
It is addressed to Gilbert, seventh Earl of Shrewsbury, and is endorsed 
*' Captaine Esmond, of Ireland, to the Earle of Shrewsberrie, of Dogs 
and hawkes." 

Right hoble my very good LonL I long since received a letter 
from your Lopp for a brace of great dogs, which shortly after the receipt 
I provided, but heareing soon after that the bearer was gone over unto 
your Lopp about some other busines I made bold to staye them with 
me. I did my best indeavour to gett white doggs and cold gett but one 
of that colour fitt to be presented to your Lopp the other is yeUowe, 
and both are good ee^ecially the white, for I doe assure your Lojqp there 
is not in this land that I can heare of a better to kill the wolfe and 
stagg, he killed this last springe three great old wolves, without the 
helpe o£ any other dogg, I am sorie this yeare doth not aflbard me a 
hawke worthy the sending to your Lopp and for these two yeares past 
I can not well excuse my selfe but onely lett your Lopp knowe that I 
tooke course to provide, but wanted either experience or discipline to 
keepe them, for twice I had gotten hawkes in mue, of purpose to have 
sent them your Lopp but still miscarried. I doe wishe there were 
some good occasion wherein I might shewe the bounden dutie I owe 
youf Lopp in whidhi noe man shalbe found more faithfull then I that 
am & ever shall remaine — ^from Duncaiion the one & twentieth of July 

The Household Espences of PhiUp, third Lord Wharton. 9Sn 

I6O8. my most humble dutie & service remembered to my ever hono- 
red Ladye & mistresse. 

Your Lcq^ps most humble 

servant at Comaund 
Todier«hthoble . LAURENCE ESMONDE. 

my very good Lord 

the Earle of Shrewsberrie 

at his house Broad Street 


The original is written on 15 sheets (excepting the note of Kitchen 
fee) which were fastened together in a long roll, but which I have se- 
parated for their better preservation by having them bound- 
As in the Northumberland Household Book, the numbers are express- 
ed, not by figures, but by the old numerical letters as below,* It is 
only in money that the hundred consists of five score, in all other ar- 
ticles the enumerations are made by the hundred of six score or ISO, 
according to which I have reduced the calculations at the end to their 
real sums. 

JFallington, Feb. 2, 1829. 

* yf^xxxvii is five hundred four score seventeen, or 617* 
T^^zix is five score and nineteen or, 119. 
viim ix«v*'^ru is seven thousand nine hundred five score seven, or 95S7. 

S28 The Household Expences qf Philip^ third Lord Wharton. 

Whaitoow — The dedaracion of thexpence in howseholde of the right 
honorable Phillippe Lord Wharton from the xxx* daie of October 
in the seaven and Twentye yeare of the Reigne of oure Soveraigne 
Ladie Quene Elizabeth &c. and contynuynge untill the said xxx^ 
of October in the xxviij**' yeare of the reigne of oure said Sove- 
raigne Ladie Quene Elizabethe beinge one hole yeare as hereafter 
followethe, &c. 

1 Monnthe. fin wheate ilij qr* v bz iij pc* at •• x^ vU*. vij</. 06. 

¥^ereof cam yssue in bread after 1 -«^^i-_-. ^^pfo 
the raite of xltie caste in evye bz. J "^"^* ^^ 

In Malte — v qr. vij. bz. I pc. at iij«. uijdL bz vij21 xvij«. yjif. 

Whereof cam jrssue in beare after the ) ••• « 

raite of one hog^shead in ij bz malte J ^ ^ ^ 

In malte brewed m aille vi bz at iij«. iiijdL bz xx«. 

In wheat for brewinge j bz. ij pc. at v«* vjdL bz yiij«. iij^f. 

In flower to kitchin lij r^ raited to ••• iiijf. 

In hoppes xxvij lb. at vj<f. a Uf xiijf. vjd!. 

In whitel^hta x stone yj IbA qr at iij«. viijif. st xlviijf. 'md^ 

In Beifs iiijor care, viij pec di* raitea at xb. care. ix/. v«. 

In Multonsf Ixiij raited at ii|«. iiij€^. a pece x/. xm* 

In Saltefishe xxxyj at xdL a flahe • _ xxx«. 

In Cuunyes j: from RavinsiandaiU § vi cuple at yjif. ^ 

the '*^th f 1 ^ ^^ value of presents woodcocks j — iijdl fresh sal- 

xxvii o i ^^^ one— iij#. iiijA geise j — ^viijdL chynes of Porke S- yj#. iijA 

ill — ^xijdL Pestles of Porke ij — xijd } 

In Spice expend, in the Kitchin besids asmuche in * 
the chambers. Sugar vij2&. at xvjdl Bf^ — ixs. iiijcL 
Currannts viij2&.-iii#. iindL Raisons vij/&« — iig. iiijdL 
Prones vij/i^^ — ^xxjdL repp. jA. di vj«. Maice di 
qr. — iijf. vjdL Cloves di qr. xjif. Sjmnamon 1 qr. 
ij«. ijJL G3mgerj qr. — ^ixcL Nutmuggs 1 qr. ij«.... 
In Caitorpcells this monnthe as in bujinge freshe" 
fishe. Butter (4S«. 2d.) e^ (Si. 2d.) Mvlke, 
Yeaste, Salte, Oiteroealle) Geise, Capons, Pulletts, 
Cunnyes, Wyldfoulle, and other necessaries for 

thuseof the howse • ^ 

Sum Totalis of) |...> •• ^ r 
I thisMomithe}^j'-*«'-^^-^- 

There was measses of meate served this monnthe vc iiijnxvij minde | fi^^^jjj^*'- *'^' 

Straungra cciiijuy m. di. Difficyents vuxix m. Ord Psons — ^vjc xij m. di. 

* di. dimidiam, htlf. 

t iftttton, Miilto» used in law Latin, a Mutton or sheep. 

t Cwu^n, Conya, Babbits. 

§ RaventioMdal» manor and adrowson which belonged to the Prioiyof Watton in Yorkshire, at the dissolution^ 
were granted to the Archbishop of York for his life, and in 1646 the reversion to Thomas Lofd Wharton, for 
the sum of £986. Ids. 8d being ten years' purchase. 

Expended from 
the xxxth of 

November 1585 





vij/. y^s. v)d. 

The Household Expences qf Philip, third Lord Wharton. 299 

.2 Monnche. T Wheat t qh j pe> d. ndted Ht ▼« • Vu£. the bs. xU. ij#. o&. 

Whereof cam yisue in bread after the ) ^ 
raite of xl. c in evye bz | «iiA,uiv u«bi« 

Malte T9 or. liij bs. i |^ raited at int. liijdL bs. •••— • xl. xd. 
Whereof came jtsue m beare after the ) xxx hogges^ 
raite of j hoggeshead in ij bz. malte j* head ▼ gall. 

In Malte brewed in aille vij be. at iijt. iiijil. bz. xxiijt. iiijif. 

Expended from 
the xxvij* of 
Novemb. untiU 
the xxvth of De- 
cember 1585. 

In Wheat for brewinge ii bz« raited mito • xj«. 

In flower to Kitchin vij bz. d. pc. at Tf. yUL the bz. ... xxxixf. ijdL 

In hoppes xxxvj lb. at irjcL A. «... •••.••..•... .»..• ^ xviijf. 

In Wfaiteligfats xij stogie iij^ d. at iiijt. viijdL atone .m... Ivij^. ijdL 

In Bei£i iiij care, tx pece xl#. care ix/. yij«. ilijd!. 

In Multons lij caice i ^r* Ij atro* at iiij«%caice •••••.... xL ixs, viijd. 

In Salte t bz* at ij5. iiij<2i bz. «••» •••... •••m. xi#. viijdL 

In vealles of atoore n caice vallued to ^ • viij«. 

In Cunnjes firom Healaugbe* xx^* cuple at yjcL cupple xa. 

In Cunnye8flromIlavinstondai]liii|<vcii]^eatT]dlci^Ie ij#. 

In Hennes from Fhillippe Atkinaon ij doaen & viij at) ••. 
iu«. dosen «•••««••••««*««•.••.«••.•«•••..•«—.•.••••• • ) ^ * 

In Saltefiahe xxxiij f. d* at nil the fiahe .....m*.* xxviijt. ixd. 

In the valine of Fresenta, Poike iiijor Chyn c s Xf j dL } 
Sparecibbes »•• -^viijdL Peatles of Porke y^d, 
Pi^8 ij-HJa. Capons vuj— yj«. vuioL Geue ui-^- 
ija. Hennea m-^idyL Ptngga xiij— lija. iiidl Quailea ^ xxiiija. vdl 
inj^^xj^ Smalbyrda uijo^ doeen — ^xij<£ Turbatt 
d* one ijt. Codlings vj---anriijdl Ciabbea iij— ixdL 
m au prese in s *»♦ .>*».#•>»..>»».. ».«.........^>^. ..«•.♦ ••.....— , 

In Spice expended this monnthe besides eaqpended in 
thecluunbre8,SugarxijA.atxixdLZ&.xixa. Currants 

Gynger j qrir-~ixi 
In Caitor Pcells this mcmntiie as in buyinge Seafidie, 
freshe watfr fidiey butter, eggSi mylke> jreaate, Oite* 
mealleigeaseyCaponsyCunnyesyVealleywildfouUeyaBd ^xiA. xviijt. iiijif. 
other necessaries for thuse of the howse as pticu- 
l. lerlie ippeaKthe in tibe howshdd booke. 

Sumatotalisofl i^ ... ,,. . . 

There was measses of meate served this monnlihe ^•Tiij m.d.i]ide I ggke^dviii m 

Straungn* this monalhe ..•••.«•.«» cccxxiijj m. 

Deffec this Monnthe ••... Iviij m. iij Ptons. 

Ord Psonnes served this monnthe ..... yjc xlj m. dL 

^Heahmght, a {Nurish hear Tadcaiter, where the Wharton*! had a seat; in the chiiidi are the tombe of Thomas 
first Lofd Wharton, his Beoonfl lady, Anne, daughter of Francii^ afth Eerl of Shrcwtbiiiy, and bit grandson 
PhUip. In Hebuigh wai a prioiy of Augmtine Monke. 



930 The Household Es^pences of Philip, third Lord Wharton. 

S Monnthe 

Expended from 
cemberuntilthe < 
xxijth of Janu- 
arie 1585. 

¥^eate vi qr. iij bz. ij pc. d. raited at v«. vidl bz. 
Whereof cam yssue m bread ) _ "^ . 

after the raite of xl c in abz> " '"' ^ «»** 



xmj/. u)s. xur. 

Malte ix qr. ij bz. i pc« raited at iij«. m\d. bz xijiL vij«. \id. 

Whereof cam yssue in beare 1 .. « 

after Uie raite of i ho. in ij bz. malte/ ""^ '^^' ^' ^' 

In wheat for brewinge this monnthe ij bz xis. 

In malte for aille vij bz. at iij«. iiijif. te. xxiij^. iiijc/. 

In flower to Kitchin i qr. iij bz. ij pn* at ys* vioL bz. ... lxiij«. iij(/. 

In Hoppes xxxvj ib. at v'uL lb. xviijj. 

In Whitelighta xiiij sto. iiij lb* dL at iiiU. viijd. etone Ixvix. x</. 

In beifs vi care xi pece di. raited at ids. care xiij/l xij«. viij</. 

In Multons Ixxviij ca. iij qr. stro. at iiijf. caice xyL xv«. iiijc/. 

In brawnes ij thone vallued at xxyj^. viijd. and thother ) , . .... 
to XX*. J. .C } xlvu. Vlljl/. 

In vealles iij of stoore vallued to , xii«. 

In Swannes i from Robte Shawe • xij«. 

In Hennes from Phillippe Atkinson v dosen v hennes) . ... . 
at iij*. dosen .T...... | *^'- "J^' 

In Hennes from Naitbye* xvij atiijdL pece iiij«. iljd. 

In Soltefishe Iv at xijai the pece Iv*. 

In die valine of Presents, Signetts i — ^vi«. viijdL Tur- ' 
kies iij — ^vi«. Paicocks ij — v*. Geise ij— xvj<f. Pigg8 
ij — ^ij#. Capons iij — ^iijf. Phesante i — xijd. Wud- 
geise ij — ^xijd. Malleras ij — ^viijdL Hearonsewef i — i • • . 
xd. Bytters i— viHA Plovers xxyiij—vijA Wood- *^ *^^"- '^^• 
cockes V— xvdL T ealles xiij — ij*. ijbL Snipes xxiiij 
— iij*. Yid. Feliiedres x — y'uL Smalbyrds v dosen — xa, 
Freshe Salmon i — ^iij*. iiij4 

In Wvldfoulle from .fames Wilson, Woodcocks xij at ^ 
iijd. pece — iij*. Ptrij 
Smalbyrds xvi — xi)d. 

iijd. pece — iij*. Ptriggs iiijo^ at iijcf. a pece xi 



xi/. xvi*. yd. 

In Spice expend in the Kitchin besids the chambers,' 
Sugar xxviij/&. at xixd. lb. xliiij*. mid. Currants 
xxvi lb. at YcL lb, x*. xd, Raisons xxij ib. at iiijd. 16. 
vij*. iiijd. Prones xxx lb, at iijdL lb, vij*. Yid, Synna- 
mon iij Uf, di. at ix*. lb, xxxi*. Yid, Gyngr iiij ib, di. 
at ij*. Y)d, lb, xi*. il\d. In ppepp ix lb, at iiij*. viijdL 
Uf, xlij*. AnnesseediB viil lb, at ixd, lb, vi*. in Licores 
x Uf, at viijcf. lb, yj*. viijdL Maice ij lb, at xinjd, lb, 
xxviij*. Cloves i lb, di. at vij*. lb, x*. Yid, Nutmuggs 
i lb, di. at viij*; lb, xij*. Issinglas iij lb, at iiiji. /6.xij*. 
Turnesaill^ di. W, xi}d- Sanders^ i ttf, ij*. Saffirone 
i ounce ij*. y'uL Riseij lb, xijd, , 

In Caitor rcells this Monnthe as in buyinffe vealles, ^ 
Capons, Pigges, Hennes, Wildfoulle, Seafishe, fresh I 
watter fishe, butter, eggs, milke,yeaste, Geise, Cun- V xiiij/. v*. ob. 
nyes, Oitemealle, and other necessaries of howshold ] 
as pticulerlie appearethe in the howshold booke ... J 
Suma Totalis of this Monnthe cj/. xiiiji/. cb, 

* Naiibyt^ Nateby, a Manor in Kirkby Stephen parish. 

t Heannuew, Heronahaw or Heron : here I would with to correct an error in p, 114, foL ii, of the AreMogia 
MUanOf where Harare tor ahould be translated rtd Henrimgt, not heronsor. 
i TurnuoiB, Turnsole, a plant used in glTing confections* purple colour, as Semden was for staining them red. 

The Hotisehold Ejppences of Philip^ third Lord Wharton. 231 

There was measses of meate served this monnthe viij« Ixxi m. di. inde > 5 v^^TL,?"^"* *" 

'' J nsne cvj m. 

Straungers vcxvij m. iii Psons. Ord. viclxx m. di. Deffec*iiijui m« 

4 Monnthe. 

Ex* from 

xxijth of JantuiF 


xixth of Feb. 


Wheat Yif'ibz. iij pc* at vtf. yiij(f. 

Whereof cam yssue in bread jiler 1 

the raite of xl cast in evye bz. J °»ccc^*c- 

In malte vij q^"* v bz. at iij«. m}d. bz. 

xjL xyj#. vijrf. 


Whereof cam yssue in beare after \ « 

the raite of one ho. in ij bz. malte / f" '*®' "^• 

In malte brewed in aille viij bz. at iij«. iiij(/. bz. 

In Wheat for brewinge ij bz. raited to 

In Flower to Kitchin iij bz. iij pc. at ys. viij(/. bz 

In Hoppes xxxvj ft. at vi(/. lb 

In Whitelights XI sto. x U>. at iiij#. viije/. sto. 

In Beifs v care, vij pece at xb. carcas 

In Multons xlvij caice ij qr. ij stro. atiiij«. caice • 

In Saltefishe Ixi f. di. raited at xud* fishe 

In Hennes from Fhillippe Atkinson xxix at ind. pece 

In Hennes from the bailife of Wharton xiiij at lij^f.pece 

In Hennes from the bailife of Carberghe,*xiij atiij(/. p. 

In Hennes from Shappef xl at iii^f.a pece 

In Fishe cominge frome Yorke, Sturgion ij {>ece — ^iij«.l 
Salte Eilles in — ^xijc^. Whithearings cccxxiiij — ^viij«. > 
Roadhearing Ivi — xm^d. as appearethe ) 

In the valine of presents, Turkes ij — ys. Capons viij — ^ 
viij«. Hennes vii — lis. und* Ltonbes ii — wis, Geise I 
i — ^viijflf. Bacon i pece — ^iij«. Mallerds i — ^vicf. Teal- > 
les i — ijd. Cowshottsj: ij — vi}d. Freshe Salmon i — I 
iij«. iiij(/. as appearethe m the howshold booke J 

In Spice expended in the Kitchin besids the Chambers ' 
Sugar xxUf. at xxxis, viiie/. Currants x\\i\lb. 
at v</. lb, vijf. vid. Raisons xyj lb. at iiije/. lb* vs. iiij{f. 
Prones xij lb. at iijc^. iij«. Pepp. wlb. at iiij«. viijif. lb. 
xxiijs. inyi. Gynger i lb. — ijs. Yid. Nutmu^ges iij qr. 
lb, — y'ls. Maice £. lb. vij«. Rise iij lb« — ^xviij^f. ^ 

In Caitor PceUs this monnthe, as in buyinge Veall, Ca- ' 
pons, Hennes, Cunnyes, Wildfoulle, Sef&he, freshe 
Watterfishe, Butter, Eggs, Mylke, and other neces- 
saries as pticulerlie appearethe in the howsehold 


Suma Totalis of this Monnthe Ixxv^ xiiijf. viji/. 

xLup. mja. 

xxvi^. viijc^. 

. •••• « 
xu. uijo. 

xxitf. iijdL 


Imjtf. vuja. 


ix^ xs. viijc?. 

\xi8. y'ld. 
•• ••■ * 
vijf. u\d. 
••• • • 
u}s. via. 

ii}s. uija. 


xiij«. ija. 

xxixs. iujd. 

ui}L vijf. xd. 

xvL xyj«, ii^d. 

There was measses of meat served this monnthe viic ix m. inde -| fijie ccKxvi m? "^ 

Straungers iiijcxxxiiiim. iij Psons. 
Deffic cix m. iij Fsonnes. 
Ord. vicm. iPsonn. 

• Carberghe^ Kabergb, or Kaber, a Manor in the parish of Kiifcby Stephen. 

•f Shtp, The poiiiDtiirinnn of the Abbey of Shap were grantedin 1644, to Thomas, Lord Wharton, with the Mo- 
nasteriesof GIsbumand Bifal, at the yearly rent of £41. lit. with the Reversion in the Crown, which James I. 
in 1610, granted to Phttip, third Lord Wharton and his hein male. 

I Comhot, Coahat— Wood Pigeon. 

332 Th$ Household Eapences of PhiUp^ third Lord WharUnu 

5 Monnthe. 

Expended from 
the xixth of Fe- 
bruarie, 1585, < 
till the xixth of 
Marche, 1586. 

'In Wheat v q'- ij bz» i pc« dL raited at vb. the bz.. -x^L xiiijf. iij^f. 

Whereof cam yssue m bread after "1 „^^„^ ^ 

theralteofxlcaiteineTeiyba. jm««cxvc. 

in Malte vi qr. i bz. iij pc* at liif. iiijdl the bz viii/. v«. x^. 

Whereof cam issueinbeare anerthe raite ) xxiiij ho. 

of one hoggeshead in ij bz. malte « f xxxvg. 

In maltebfewedin Aillevibz. raited at iij«. iiij<f.thebz« xx«. 

In Wheat for brewinge i bz. ii pc> raited at vu« the bz. ix«. 

In Flower for Kitchiofle — ^ii bz. di. pc. raited at vi«. be. xij^. ix4. 

In Hoppes xxvij A. raited at vid!. lb • • xiijc/. vie/. 

In WhitelightB vi stone vi lb* iij qr. at ii|j«. viy«2. stone xxxj. iij(/. 

In Saltefishe cxxiij fidie raited at xij^ fishe ••.•••.••«•• vij^ iii«. 

In Whitehearings mmcv raited at ii«. ^td. the c Int. vij(/. 

In Redhearings cccxxx^ at u». vidL the c. ••••••.•••••••• viljtf. ij</. 

In Salte Salmon xy from SrMentie CWn0en,*at ij«.pece xxx«. 

In Salte Eilles xviij at ivcf. pece •••» «••.••••• vi«. 

In Stm*gion ij pece vallued to •• » .....i. iiijt. 

In Heimes for mj lo. Clifford xi at uijA a pece {jS^ K*'' 

^ *« !f"«! •*:P'«««** ««^« Salmon u-vu. vio^l^jj,. Vujrf. 
Tenches ij — ii«. as appeaiethe »*....•••••••••. ^ "^ "^ 

In Spice exj^ded this monnth besids the Chambers, 

Sugar, XVI ft. at xix^ the ft«— -xxv«. iiij^ Currants 

xvi ft. at yd. the ft.— vi«. viijdL Raisons, xiiij ft. at 

uijd. ft^iiijfc TiijA Pjxmes x|| ». at ijjA »^j». I ^^ j.^ 

iw. vitf. Nutmugge ig ^. ft^— vi^. Maice di. ft.-^vij«. I 
Cloves v ouncz^— ^«. nd. Synnamon dL ft* iiij^. vidl I 

sic in tota....M..*«M •»..•• ••••• J 

In Caitor Fceils thb monntiie as mbuvii^ Seafishe, ^ 
freshwattr fishe, butter, egBS, rayUte, jeaste^ can- i 
dleweake, musterd seed» and other necessaries, for Vx]/. xvi«. md. 
those of the howse^ as pticiderlie appeareth sett | 

downe in the howvhold booke • ••.... J 

Suma totalis of this Monntfae liij/L x«. y\d. 
There was measses of meat served this monatbe, all in fishe v« v^ilij m. di. 

Strami^n cceiiij m. di. 

Deficients ...^ii^nvilj m. i Pson. 

Ordnry Psons vcvnvi m. i Pbob. 

• Sir Hemrff CWraPM, oif WoridngtOB, wrFcd in pwliameiit for tbt oounly* azth jFVir nT £d«nid VI. and Ant 
of Elisabeth. At the nottth of the Derweat,«t WortSagtoa, Im e Ittge ttfnwB triierj. 

The Household Expences of Philip, third Lord Wharton. 238 

6 Moonthe. 



Expended firom 
the xixtb of 

r In Wheat — ^v q^. ii bz. i pc< raited at vi«. yiijd, bz. 

Whereof cab yssue in bread after < ^ ^^^ - ^^ 

the raite of xl c- in evye bz. ...... | ™ ^^^ * ^^ 

In Malte — ^i q^* vij bz. i pfc* di. at iij«. iiijei. the bz. ... ix/. iiijf. vijcf. 

Whereof cam yssue in beare after ) xxvij ho. xxTij 

the raite of one ho. in ii bz. maite J qr. dL 

In Wheat for brewinge, ii bz xiij«. iiijif. 

In Malte brewed in AiUe i qr. raited at iij«. iiijci bz. xxYi«. Yiiji/. 

In Hoppes xxxvi lb, raited at vi^ lb xviijf. 

In Wlutelights iiij st. xij lb, and iij ^r. at iiijf. TiijdL sto. xxii«. js\d* 

In Flower to Kitchin i bz. i pc* at iii«. iiiia. bz. viii^. iiiicf. 

In Beifs ii care xi peice at lij W, care viij/. vii«. md. 

In Multons ix ca. at v<. the caice xlv«. 

In Saltefishe iiii^^^iiij fishe at xiidL fish iiii/L iiij«. 

In Whitehearings ixc Ixviij at m, y'ld, the c xxiiij. y\d. 

In Readhearings xxxii at 4 jd. .•.. ymd. 

In Salte Salmon v fishe at ii#. a fishe xs. 

In Sturgion iiii pece at ii«. the pece ....i viiif. 

In Salte Eilles, vi vallued to i\m. 

In Eggs from Kirkbystephin* Tie the viiiclx viii«. y'uL 

uie XIX OT J In Eggs from Ravinstondaille iijc xl iijf. iiiW. 

^^ ^ nf "* ^*g»es of Kirkbystephin Tiethe i vaUued to xii//. 

xvitb of Aprill^ 

Ixviif. yiii«f. 

In Hennes from Reagillf xviij vallued to •.• yii. 

In the vallue of presents, freshe Salmon ii — v\$, yiijdL '\ 
Capons iiijor — iiii«. Turkies i — ^ii^. vic^. Chynes of I 
Porke ii — \md, Pocs of Porke i — y'ld. Bacon one \ xxyiii«. ud, 
fiicke — Yn}8, Porpus pigge:^ ^ — ^* ^^* Sturgion i — | 
m$, wid, in toto J 

in Spice expended this monnthe besids the chambers. 
Sugar xYi U), at xixcf. the lb, xxy«. iiijdL Currants 
xiiij lb, at vd. lb, — "vs, xd, — ^in liaisons xii lb, at iiijcL 
Bt» iiijf. Prones x lb, at iiid, lb,ii8, vid, Pepp.ii^ 
iiijf. viij^. lb^'xi$, vujd, Gynger i Ib-iis, y'ld, Maice vi 
ouncz v«. viij(/. Cloves iiiior ouncz — iis, Synnamon di. 
lb. iuis, YuL Nutmugges di. Ib^ — ms, v'md, in toto ... , 

In Caitor pcells this monnthe as in buymge vealles, *) 
Capons, Hennes, Wildfoulle, Seafishe, fresh watter 
fishe, butter, eggs, mylke, yeaste, hony, Salte, 
Candleweake, and other necessaries, for thuse of 
the howse as appearethe pticulerlie sett downe in 

the howshold booxe , 

Suma Totalis of) , ..>.7 . « 

this Monnthe ) '""j'' '^' ^ 

There was measses of^meate fflesheccvuxiij m. di. 

served this monntheDciim.inde \ fishe cccviii m. di. 
Straungn* ... cccxl m. i pson. 

Defic... iiii"xiiij m. iij psons. 

Ord. Dvuxv m. i pson. 

xuiji. y\ns, yd. 

* Tlw RaeUNrul pooatiioiit in KhMif SUphen pariah, in the time of William I. were granted by Ito de Tailbois, 
to St. Mary's Abbey, York, and at the diaolution were obtained by Thomas, Lord Wharton, who, in 8th Elia. 
founded a free grammar school there. 

f ReoffUlt a manor in Crosby Rafensworth parish, giran by the Veteriponts to Shap Abbey, and at the dissolu- 
tion sold to Lord Wharton. 

\ PoqmM pijfy^Porpe nB once a royal dish.— See Pswiaal 



7 Moimthe. 

Expended from 
thexvi^of Apr 

1586, till the 
xith of Mayc, . 
1586, at Whar- ' 
ton, being three 
weeks and three 

In Wheate liij qi"* vij bz« ij pc* di. at vitf. y\\}d, bz. 
Whereof cam yssuein bread afler 
the raite of xl caste in a bz. ..•• 


mcccxxv caste 

In Malte v q^- vij bz. di. pf^* raited at iij«. iiijd bz. 
Whereof cam yssue in beare after) xxiij no. xx 
the raite of one ho. in ij bz. malte J di. 

Xllj/« iuj«. IJO* 

vij/. xvij#. kf. 

In Wheate for brewinge 1 bz. vallued to vi#. Vmd. 

In Malte brewed in AiUe iiij bz. at iii«. iiijc^. xiijf. iiijcL 

In flower for Kitchin ij pc«- vallued to iij«. myL 

In Hoppes xviii lb, at vj(/. lb, ix«. 

In Whitelights iiij stone i lb, i qr. at iiij«. viij(/. stone xix«« iij</. 

In Beifs iii care, xj pece di. atiij lb. a care xi/. ix»* 

In Multons vi caice i qr. atv«. the caice xxxi#. iijcL 

In Saltefishe xxx iiij fishe at x \]d. pece xxxiiij^. 

In Pigges from Kirkbystephin of the Tiethe there, one ) ... 

vallued to j *'J^- 

In Rabbitts from Ravinstondaill iij y\d. 

In P'nts this monnthe, Capons viij — viiU. Piggeons' 

xxxiiij pre. at \d. ob. pre. — iiij«. iijc^. Kidds i — ii«. ^ . 

iiijd. Chlckins xi — xxij^/. Pigges i — xij(/. Sturgion rxxvu.vil. — v«. freshe Salmon i — iiijtf. 

In.Spice besids expended in the Chambers, Sugar xv lb. 

at xix</. the lb. — xxiij«. ix£/. Currants xvi lb. at yd. lb. 

yis. yi\}d. Raysines x lb. at iiij</. lb.'\\\M. mid. Prones 

xii lb. at i\\d. the W* — iijf . Pepp. iij lb. at iiij«. yii\d. . . • ^ • 

the /ft.— xiiij*. Gynger iij qr. of a ».at ij*. virf. lb. J^**^'- *"• *' 

xxij(/. ob. Nutmuffges di. tt. — ^iijf. yV\]d. Maice i qr. 

\\\9. y'id. Cloves in ouncz — xyWyl. Synnamon di. /5. 

inj*. yid* — so in all the spice this monnthe 

In Caitor pcells this monnthe as in buyinge Vealles, 

Capons, Hennes, Chickins, Wildfoulle, Seafishe, 

freshe Watter fishe, butter, e^gs, yeaste, and other 

necessaries, and fresh Acchaits* for thuse of the 

howse, as appe'the by pc'ells p'ticulerlie sett downe 

in thehowshold booke ^ 

Suma totalis of) i.../ .. ^. 
^u* *!. r Ivuj*. i1#. OD. 

this monnthe } ^ 

fleshe ccciiijuxi m. 

xwL xyd. 

There was measses of meat s'rved thU monnthe v xxxiiij m. di. inde { J^'^fi^^l^iJ' 

Straungers ccv>xii m. 

Defic ex viij m. di« 

Ord uijc niju iij m. 

* jieehaUt^ Achat, purcliMes— -from the French. 

The Houseliold Ea;pences of Philip, third Lord Wharton. 933 

Expended from 
the iiij^ of May 
wch my lo. chil- 
dren cam to He- . 
tin the liij'h of 
June, 1586, be- 
inge a Monnthe 
and fewer daies. 

" v/. viijf; vijdL 

8 Monnthe. fin Wheate viij qr- y bz i pc. raited at iij«. iiiyl. the bz. xi/. x«. xcL 
Healaughe. Whereof cam yssue in bread as \ t> xx ** fl* 

appearethe in the howshold booke j "* ^ vijcoi. 
In Malte xij qr iiij bz. iij p(^* raited at ijf. the bz...»... xL xviijc^. 
Whereof cam yssue in beare after thel xxxiij ho* 
raite of one hoggeshead in iij bz. malte ) xxiij g. 

In Wheat for brewinge i q'* at iij«. iiijd. the bz xxvi«. viijif. 

In Flower for Kitchin iiii bz. iij pes. at iijf. iiijc^. the bz. xv«. xcL 

In Hoppes vxxxii/^. vallued to U, 

In Whitelights v stone i lb. 1 q^* at iii^d. lb xxiij«. ixd. 

In Beifs vi care, xi pece di. whereof two at iiij /.a) ... .. , 

pece and the reste vallued at x\s. a pece j ^^ ' ij'« x 

In Multons Iv caice vallued at v«. a caice xiij/. xvs» 

In Saltefishe Ivij fishe at xd. a fishe xlvij^. vid. 

In Piggeons of Stoore at Helaughe xxij pre. at idL ob. & ) :j^ i^j 

pre J 

In Piggeons of stoore from Synningthwait* x pre. ... xyd. 

In Sturgion one Cagge vallued to ix«. 

In the vallueofpresents. Chickens v^xxi at i]d. a pece' 
xviij^ virf. Grenegeise x — iij*. iiijrf. Doterells v — 
xd* Turkies ij — v«. iiijc^. Capons Ix — iij 15. Pig- 
geons xvi pre. at id. cb. the pre. — lis. Rabitts xxiij 
cople at iiij<f. cople vij5. viijcL Watterhennes iij — 
vid. Egges c — ij*. Lambes i — iij*. Pigges iiij — iiij*. 
Sbepe Starlings xii — iiijrf. Umbersf vij — via. Bar- 
bies i — id. Trowts vi-*iiij£f. Chevons ij — ii^^. as ap- 
pearethe in the howshold booke 

In Spice, viz. course Sugar xxx lb. at xi^d. lb. — xxx*. * 
other Sugar xvi /6. at xviijd!. U>. — xxiiij*. Raisons i 
qr. of c viij*. ii\}d. Prones i qr. of c — vi*. Currants 
i qr. of a c & a halfe xiii*. vid. Synnamon i lb. ix*. 
iiiyL Gynger iij lb. — v*. Pepp.- iii lb. — xv*. Nut- 
muggs, di. lb. — iij*. ixd. Maice di. lb. — vij*. Daits i 
Uf. — ij*. Ryse vi lb. — ij*. Cloves di. lb. — ij*. iijrf. 
Almonds vi lb. — v*. ixd, 

In Caitor pcells this monnthe, as in buyinge vealles, ' 
Capons, Hennes, Chickyns, Wildfoulle, Seafishe, 
freshe watter fishe, (U, IS*. 2d.) butter, eggs, 
mylke, yeaste, Musterd Seed, Candles, and oUier 
necessaries and acchaits for thuse of the howse, as 
appearethe pticulerlie sett downe every daie in the 

howshold booke 

Suma Totalis of this monnthe iiijnxij/. x*^ vd. 

meases of meat s'rved this monnthe vijc iii m. inde. { J^*^ "^'^ ^ 

Strangle ccdxxix m. i pson. 
Defic. xxiiij m. 
Ord. Dclxxij. 

• Sjffumigthwait, near York ; in lfi92, Philip, fourth Lord Wharton left an estate there for the puichaae and 
annual distribution of Bibles and Catechisms in ceruin places menUoned by him, in Yorkshire, Westmoreland, 
Cumberland, and Buckinghamshire— the number of bibles 105a— &« Bunter*M D<meatier, i. sa 

f Umber or Grayling, Salmo Thymallus.— -Ltn. 

\ Cheoon, or Chub, Cyprinus cephalus.— Xtii. 

vi/. xiij*. xii^ 

XYiijL xi*. 

There was 

f 86 The Household Erpences of Philip, third Lord Wharton. 

9 monnthe. 
m^' my lo. of 
Rutland* was 
here this 

from the iiij^^ 
of June 1586, 
till the Seconnd 
of JuUe, 1586. 

pin Wheat vii qr* iii bz. i pc- di. ratted at iiif. iiikf. bz. vlL xviit. xkf. 

Whereof cam jssue in bread after the ) ...^ ^. 

raite of xxx caste in every bz J ^ ^ J ^' 

In Malte xii qr* i bz. ii pes. raited at ii«. the bz ix^ xvt. 

Whereof came yssue in beare after the ) xxxii ho. 

raite of i hoggeshead in iii bz. malte ( xx galls. 
In Wheat for brewinge iiii bz. raited at iii«. lilid. the bz. xiii«. wid. 
In Flower for kitchin i qr. ii pc« di. raited at iiif. iiii^J>z. xxviiif. y'ld, ob. 

In Hoppes Ivi lb. vallued to • xxv«. 

In Whitelights iii stone xiii lb, iii qr. at iiii«. \iiicL sto. xviiif. yiid. 
In Beifs vi care, ii pece di. whereof one greate oxe 1 'i " 'd. 

raited at vi /. and the reste at xl*. the care J ' ^^' 

In Multons of Stoore lix ca. i qr. i stro. at v«. the caic xiiiiiL wis. viiii/. 

In Saltefishe Iii raited at xd. the iBshe • xliiit. iiii</. 

In Hearonsewes paied for by Mr. Shawe vi vallued to vii. 
In Moorecocksxiiiiw«-'i> camfortheofSwaldaillef pdfor^ 

by Mr. Shawe ii^. iiiic^. and for his paynes and f .... 

chardge w^b brought them iis. vid. agaynste my lo. i ^^^^' 

of Rutland's cominge to Helaughe...^ J 

In the valine of presents this monnthe Grenegeise xv *) 


pie xis. Piggs iii — ^iii«. P'triggs vi — xiid- Moore- 
cocks iiii — xiid. Smalbirds viii — lid. Barbies i — 

viiZ. vi^. viii<2. ob. 

iiif. Chevons ii — iid, Salmon i — iis, vid, 

In Spice exoended this monnthe course Sugar xxx lb, '] 
at xiid!. xJb, xxxf. other Sugar xxv lb, at xviiic^. 15,- 
xxiis. vid, Raisons xviii lb, at iiii^ 15, — vis. In Cur- 
rants i qr. of c — ix*. In Prones i qr. ofc— -vii. Syn- 
namon i 15, ixs, iiiic/. Gynger ii lb, — iii#. iiiic^. Pepp. 
vi 15. — xxxs. Nutmuggs iii qr. lb. — ys. viid. ob. 
Maice iii qr. — xs, \id, Daits i 15. — iis. Rise v 15. 
— xxd. Cloves i 15, — ^iiiif. vid. Almonds, iiii 15, — 
iiii«. Safiron di. i ounce xvd. Sanders di. 15. ydid. So 

in all 

In Caitor pcells this monnthe, as in buyinge vealles, 
Lambes, Capons, Chickins, Wildfoulle, Seafishe, 
I fresh watter fishe, butter, eggs, mylke, yeaste, V xv/. iiis, yd. 
\ Salte, and other necessaries for the use of the howse ] 
^ as app^ pticulerlie declaired in the howshold booke J 

Sum Totalis of this Monnthe iiii^^ii/. xviij^. viiidf. 

There was measMs of meate s'rved this monnthe vie iiiiix viii m, inde i ?®u^^ V.!!* ^"^ "• 

Inshe cuu>^xxvui m. 

Str. ccclxxiii m. 

Defic. Ivij m. 

Ord. vie iiiixxxviil m. 

* Edward Earl of BfUkmd, 9th Jaly, 1586, as chief com misiioner for the Queen, concluded a league with the 
ScoCtiih King's commissioners at Berwick. He died 14th April, 1587. 
f SwaUak, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, in which some manors belonged to Lord Wharton. 

The Household Eapences qf Philip, third Lord Whartori. 237 

10 Monnthe. 
md. my lo. and 
my la. were a 
fornighte at 
Skipton this 

from ttie Second 
of Julie till the 
xxx^* of the 
same, 1586. 

' Wheate v qr* ii bz« iii pes* raited at ms* iiiiif. bz JuL us. y'ld. 

Whereof cam yssue in bread afler 1 —•»«•• . ^ • 
theraite of xxk CMte in everjrbz. ;"""""" ^^ ^• 

Malte ix q'* i bz. iii p^>* di; raited at iis, the bz vii/, yuM.ixd. 

Whereofcam yssue in beare after) .... « 

-1 -M. j» V. u J • ••• f XXUU no. XX¥. 

the raite of one hoggeshead m in > .J 

bz. of malte J ^ "*' 

In Wheat for brewinge — ii bz. at iiu. mid. bz yls. wind. 

In Hoppes xxviii lb. at yid. the lb. • xiiiif. 

In Flower for Kitchin v bz. at iii«. mid. the bz xvi«. yiii(/. 

In Whiteliffhts one stone iiii lb. iii qr. at iiiidL the U^.... yis. yid. 

In Beifs iiiior carcas xi pece raited at x\s. the carcas ixl. xis. yd* 

In Multons Iii caice ii stro raited at v<. the caice — ••• xiii/. xd. 

In Saltefishe xxix fishe di. at xd. the fishe •• • xxiiii#. vii^f. 

In Piggeons ix pre. of the stoore from Syningthwaite \ ..f> 
coat • • • j 

In the valine of Presents, Ci^ns v— v«. Chickins') 
two — yid. Rabbitts xxvi at yd. cople-— v«. ud. 
Ptriggs 2 — yid. Pickerells* vii — mid. Eilles iii — 
lid. Sturgeon iii pece iiis. as appearethe in the hows- 
hold booke 

In the valine of Spice expended this monnthe, Susar ' 
xii 15. at xxd. the /&« — xxs. Raisons viii Ib^ — ns. 
yUid. Prones vi lb. — ^xviiiif. Currants xiiii lb, — 
v«. jul. Synnamon iii ouncz — ii«. yid. Cloves i qr. ^ liiii«. xd. 
— ximd. Pepp. for bakinge venyson and other things 
as appth iii lb. — ^xv«. Gmger di. U>. xd. Nutmuggs 
ii qr. — xxiitL and Maice i qr« — iii«. yid. 

In Caitor pcells this monnthe, as in buylnse vealles, 
Lambe, JPigges, Capons, Chickins, Seafidie, freshe 
watter fishe, butt^* , Eggs, mylke, yeaste, and other 
necessaries for thuse of the howse, as appeareth 
p'ticulerlie sett downe every^ daie in the howshold 

xmu. vuio. 

> vii/. xiif. yid. 


Suma totalis of 
this monnthe 

> li/L xiiii«. Yd. 

There was measses of meat s'rved this monnthe \ cccclv m. inde < 

Straung'rs s*rved this monnthe ccxxv m. 

Deficients ccxxv m. 

Ordinye vc x m. 

fleshe ccclvij m. 
fishe v". xviii m. 

• Ple««i«a-fike. 


98S TheMausehoJdEa:pencesofPhiSp^ third Lord What/on. 

11 Moomlie* 
note this was 
read Wheat and 
did B0 ydd aa 
man J cast in a 

Expended from 
the xafi^ of 
JuUe till Uie^ 
xxTiitb of Au- 
guste, 1586. 

In Wheat vi qr* v bz« ii po* raited at iii#. iiiiilL bz— ••*. 
Whereof cam ^ssoe in biead'm ccc 1 caste. 

In Malte xi qr. ii b& i pc* raited at iis. the bz» ••••••••• 

.Whereof cam yssoe in beare aftcE the 1 zxx ho. 
raite of one ho^;eshead in iii bz^maltej iii g. 

In Wheat for brewing iili bs. at iii#. iiiiil« the bsE« 

In Hoppes ^^j ^« nuted at vidL the Uu •.«..••••••• 

In Flower for Kitchin vij bs. i p^ raitedat iiis. iiiidLbs. 

In Whitelights iii stone liii /i^. di« at iiiis. viiidl stone 

In Bei& ▼ care z pece dL raited at zl«. the care. 

In Multons zl caice ii' ff* laited at t#. a caioe •••...••• 

In Saltefishe xlu fishe raited at tuL the fishe ..••«..•..•• 

In PiggeonsofStoore fiom<Uelaughe (cpne.) andSjrn- 
ningthwait coats (43 pre.) ozl ui pre. vaUued at id. 
oD» pre. ••«••»«.•»•••••«•.•««.•••••••«.»•••«••••»«•«.*••••••.• 

In the vallue of presents, Moorecocks v—- xvd. moove 
Powlts ii— iiiia. as appeareth • ^ 

In the vallue of Spice tnis monntfae^ ^^^'^ ^^ ^« ^^1 
lUJuL the Ib^-'^KKXis* vmtL Cummts xii /&• at yd. j 
the Bh> — ys» In Raisons vl 2&.r-jii. Fhmes iiii« lb» I 
xiidL Sjmnamon dL lb.—- iiiic y'uL Maice yri omicz. ^ 
▼«• vid. Cloves dL A. ns* iiidL Pepp. iiii 
Nutmugffes dL A. iii«* ixd. Gynger i A. zzdl 
the hoolie ..•• ••..••••••.««▼••• ••*■ 

In Caitor pcells this monnthe, as in bujinge vealles, ' 
Pines, capons, Chickins, Seafiahey fteshewatter 
&S^ butter, eggs, yeaste, musterd seed, and other 
necessaries for thuse of the bowse, as appeaiethe 
p'ticulerlie sett dbwne in the howdiold booke •.»••• ^ 

zJL vs. 



xvs. viif . 
xyL iis. viil. 

ouncz. f' 
lb. zzs. I 

dl so in I 

luL XVU4. una. 

* xL xviis, yd. 

Suma Totalis of this ) i,,^- » _. •» j 
Monpthe } ^^J'- ^' ^i''- 

There was measses of meat s'ved thismonnthe vcxliij m. inde. > g^ cxliiii m. 

Straungc* swedthis monnthe ...... ...ccalij m. di. 

Deficiente of the Ordiniy allowance vnxv m. 

Ordinry Fsods sVed this monnthe Dvxsiiii ni.i p'son. 

The HowehoU Eaipences of PhiUp^ third Lord WharUm. 9SQ 

12 Monntfa. 
nota thin was 
the moste pte 
read wheate. 
nota iqy lo. of 
Cumbri* andmy 
La» were here 
this monnthe. 

Expended from 
the xxviith oi 
Auguste, 1586, 
till the xxiiiith ^ 
of September 

^in Wheate vii q'* v bz. ms. iiiicf. the bz- nL ms. iiiid. 

Whereof cam yssue in bread after ) ^^^i . 

the raite of xxv c. in eveiy bz. ] "^"^ ^^ 
In Malte xi qr- ii pc* raited at ii«. die bz ».. viii/. xviif. 

Whereof cam yssue in beare after the ) xxix Ho. 

raite of one Hogg, in iij bz. malte j xx g. 

In wheat for brewinge iiij bz. at iij«. iiijd. the bz xiiii. iiiii/. 

In Hoppes Ivi lb. raited at vidf. the tb. xxviiif. 

In Flower for the Kytchin i if* iiii bz. i pc- di. at msA y .... 

iiiid. bz ..•• J * " 

In Whiteliehts v stone xiii lb. di. raited at iiii«. ymd, t •• ^ 

stone ]^'^ '^ 

In Beifs v care, x pece raited at xlvi^. viiid carcas ... xiii^ yis. viiidl 

In Multons Ix caice raited at vs* the pece •• xv/. 

In Saltefishe xlix fishe di. raited at xd, the fishe xli«. iii^« 

In Piggeons from Helaughe iiii<'r pre. and from Syn-) .. 

ingthwait xii pre* at id. ob. the pre J "'* 

In the vaUue of presents, Ptriggs. x — xxd. and by the 

Hawke xvi — us. viiid. vealle one (f • from M>*« Vavi- 

sor — ^iiif. Connyes viii — us. yiiia. SeaguUes ii — 

viii<2. TeaUes ii — ^iiiicf. Snypes iiii — vid. Smalbyrds 

one dosen iuL •• 

In the valine of Spice Sugar xxvi lb. at xixd*. the lb. ' 

xlis. lid. Currants xulb. — ys. Raisons viii lb. iis. 

viiidL Prones viii lb. — ii«. S^nnamon di. lb. uiis. 

Yid. Maice i q^^- lb. iiii«. viiid. Cloves di: /&• iis. 

Hid. Pepp. vii lb. xxxys. Nutmuggs di. lb. His. 

ixd, Gynger i lb. di^ — iis.yid. sic in' toto , 

In Caitor pcells this monnthe, as in bujrinffe Vealles, " 
Capons, Chickyns, Connyes, Wildfoulle, 

> ids. Yiud* 

* yL ms. Yis. 



ishe, fresbe Watter fishe, butf, eggs, yeaste, t w -j- -j 
and other necessaries for thuse of the howse as ^** * 
appth by p'cells every daie sett downe in the hows- 
hold booke • J 

Suma totalis of this Monnthe Ixxij/. xij«. viiid. 
Hiere wasmeasses of meat s'rved this monnthe vc Ixv m. di. inde -j f^^^^^g^ 

Straungn s'ved this monnthe ccvniii m. iii psons. 

Deficient of the ordinry alloc- Ix m. iii p'^ons. 

Ordinal p'sons s'ved this month ••• vicxxiii m. di. 

* Gtorgt Cliflbrd, third Earl ofCtimbnkmdf born in 1A66, married liirguvC BaHeU, jouogMt daughter of the 
Earl of Bedford. 

240 The Household Expences of Philip, third Lord Wharton. 

13 Monnthe. 

Expended from 
the xxiiiith of 

'In Wheat vi a'* i pc« Rye iii q^- rated at t*. the bz.\ .. . 

Wheat wd uU. uM. the bz. Rye f *^"- *^^- 

mv^vi c. 

le bz ix/. xixt. 

Whereof cam yssue in beare after the ) xxxiii ho. 

raite of i Ho. in iii bz. malte.... j viL g. 

In Wheat for brewinge ii bz. at vs. the bz xs. 

In Hoppes xxviii lb. at vie/, the lb xiiiit. 

In Flower for Kitchin iii bz. di. p^* at y«. the bz« xvs. y'lid. 

In Whitelights ix stone vi lb, i qi*- raited at iiii#. y'liid. ^:--^ :j 

stone ; 

In Beifs v care, xii pece raited at xlvi«. viiid. care. xiii/L xiii«. iiiidl 

In Multons Ixvi caice di. at vs. the caice xvi/. xilf. vid. 

In Saltefishe li fishe raited at xd, fishe xlii#. vi^f. 

In Piinreons of stoore from Helaughe Coate v«xxiiii „.;.. .... 

pre. at uL ob. pre. 

xxixthof Octo- 
ber, 1586. 

»xuiu. ua. 

• ••• * ••• mm 

ximi. xnis, via. 

Septem:tilithe^ In Piggeons of the stoore from Syningthwait coate ;.. ., 
*" -* '^-"- Ixvm pre 

In Presents this monnthe, Capons vi — vitf. Ptriggs viii — ' 
us. Fes^unts i — ^viii(/« Wooacocks viii — xxd. Snipes xii 
xviiidli Stynts* ii dozen — us. Larks xx — iiiic/. as ap- 

In spice this monnthe, Sugar xxx lb. at xixd. the lb — l 
xlvii^. vid. Currants xvui lb. at yd. the ttf. — ^vii«. vid. I 

Raisons xvi Ib^ — vs. uiid. Prones x lb. — us. vid. } , 

Synnamon di. lb. — vs. Maice vi ouncz — ^v*. viiid. * ^""*' **"• 
CIove8di./&« — us. iiid. Pepp. iiii Ib^ — ^xx«. Nutmugges 
iii qr* lb.~^vs. viiid. Gynger ii Ib^ — uis. iuid. so in all ^ 

In Caitor pcells this mpnnthe as in buyinge vealles, "^ 

Pigges* Capons, Chickins, Geise, Cunnyes, Wild- 

foulie, Seanshe, Freshe watter fishe, butter, eggs, 

yeaste, Candleweake, and other necessaries for thuse 

of the howse as appearethe pticulerlie sett downe 

L in the Howshold bookeeverye daie , 

Suma Totalis of this monnthe) ::::„::::7 ,•• „f 
J I > uu<<uii». vus. va. 

and one weeke J 

1 here wais measses of meat s'rved this monnthe D c xxxvii m. inde. | r^^^J^" ^/ji ^^ ™' 

Str cvxxxiiii m. i p*son. 

Defic cvi m. di. 

Ord Dcciiiix'x mease. 

Suma toii«. of all the \ .^^ , ^..^ 
monnthes afforesaide J 

whereof in the 
' In Wheate at Wharton of the 1 

measure there xxxvi qc vii > iiii^xvii^ xs. uid. 

\ In WhX at Helaughe & Syningdiwait) , ( l^\^ 

I of the measure there xlv qr. vi bz. di pc« J J '^•' 

L Whereof cam yssue in bread — xxviii m. and ii dute. 


nu" T 

v2Lr<='"'- ""••''• 

* Siyta or Purre-^Tringi dnclus Lvn .* 





* v^xxviii (f ibz. i pc- 

• ••• ■ ••• •••• a 


1111 qr. lui bz^-> 
viu. xiii«. Vila. 

^ cxlix/.xU. 

••• • 1 

xuii/. xiiu«. la. ob. 

fin Malte at Wharton oO 

the mesure there xlix > Ixy&xvu. viii^ 
if' iii bz; *' '3 
In Malte at Helaughe and Sjm- 1 

ingthwait of the mesure > Iv/L ix£f. 

there Ixviii qr. vi bz. i pc* du j 
In Wheat forbrewinge atl 

Wharton of the mesure > Hi/. x«. iiUL 

there — ^i qr. iiii bz. ) 
In Wheat for brewinge at 

Helaughe and Syning- 

thwaite of the mesure 

there iii qr. 
In Hoppes — ^iiiic vuiiii lb. weighte at vzz and xii A. in the c 

— XUll. vu«. 

Whereof cam yssue in beare — cccxx Hoggesheads xxxviu 


In Malte brewed m AiUe at Wharton — ^v qr. vi bz, vii/. xiii«. | 

L iiiicf. *. ..J 

In Whitelights — ^iiii»xiii stone v Ih ^ xxi/.xvi«.i<f. 

In Flower to this Kitchin ^ 
at Wharton of the me- > vii/. xii«. id. 
sure there — ^iii qr. iii bz. I 
In Flower at Helaughe and^ 

Syningthwaite v qr.i bz. > vii/L iit. ob. 

di. pes. ...••... ) 

In Beifs — ^Ixiii care, iiii pece di. at di^i'se pries cxlv/. \\m. md. 

In Multons— Dx caice ii qr. ii stro cxxxviii/. ixs yd. 

In Saltefishe Dcix fishe xxxiii/. x«. v^. 

In Rente Hennes of my lo. of Cumberlandes in Westm^l. x 

dozen di xxxi«. Yid. 

In Rente Hennes of my lo. owne in Westmland vui dozen 

di xxvii«. id. 

In Cunnyes from Ravinstondaille xi cople vs. vid. 

In Cunnyes from Helaughe xx cople x«. 

In Vealles of the stoore m Westm land v xxs. 

In Brawnes ii Tallued to • xlvi«. viii^. 

InSwannesi from Helaughe xii^. f viic^xvii^ 

In Pigges of Kirkbysteven Tiethe ii iii. ( j^ 

In Piggeons of stoore from Helaughe Coate ccxx pre. ' 

xxxiii. vid' 
In Piggeons of stoore from Syningthwaite Coate cxxii pre. 

xviii«. id. ob. 

In Eggs of Kirkbystephan tiethe Dccdx Tiii«. vid. 

In Effgs of Ravinstonedaille tiethe cccxl His. iiiicf. 

In Sfute Salmon from Sir Henrie Curwen xx ••• ids. 

In Stur^on from Yorke iio gagges .' xxiiilf. 

In Salte Eilles from Yorke xxvu ixs. 

In Whithearings besids caitor pcells iii™ iiiciiiixxxvii, iiii^ iiii«. 


In Readhearings besids in the Caitor pcells cccc x«. 

In Spice in the Kitchin besids xv/« xiiii#. herafier mencioned 

Ixu. viiu. Vina. 
In Salte at Wharton besides the Caitor pcells v bz. xi«. viiicf. 

In the valine of all the presents xyiii/. xii#. xid. 

In Caitor pcells • dxxLlis. uud.j 

242 2^ Htmiehold Expenee^ ofPhiUp, third Lard Wharm. 


cxxTi. V98. ymU £t eqz* oter and besid 
ne at WhAiton iiii^* Hoffges-*! 
lalf, and at Hekmghe and Sy«> / ^i* .^ 
mior. Hegg : dL «t xtIu lb. a f*"' ^'* 


Soma totalis D^cccayU xt«. yiuL Et eqz* oter and besides 
In Clarett Wjne at Wharton iiii^* Hogges-* 

heads and' a half, 


In White wj^ne at Helaugheft Bjningthwtite ii<»* Hog- 

gesheades ix/. «.•«»• •••••— Mviii/. 

In Seek at Wharton x g» and at Hekwighe iiii gallons 

xxxvii#. iiiiif. — •;•. 

In Muskadyne* x gallons at iii«« iiiU. the gallon 

xxxiiif. iiiid!. « j..*. •..••« • ..u. 

.In Vyoigree x firkins at x«. the firkyn**. ..•;••••«••• v/.. 
In Salte at'Helaughe and Syningthwaite besides ^^1 xxxiiiU 

Caiter pcelles ii q^- i bz ••••v^ f 

In l^ice besids that wcb is before in the Kitchin ex- 
Spice. \ pended in the Chambers as appearethe bj the biUes ^ xv^ xiiiii. 

thereof * j 

. In Fewell by estimacion at Wharton xxxiii/. vi«. viii^» 1 
Jewell. X In Fewell at Helaughe and Syningthwaite xiiil vi«* > xlvi/. xiii«. iiiid. 

viiici •••kM.totk k.».* * • ) 

Suina Totalis off all) 
Thexpences affore->nic xhriiA xviii. viU. (£l(Mt7. 17#. Id.) 
said of thfo yeare—j 
f There was measses of meate s'rved thisl Fleshe-^-^vfvcccxKiii m. dL (b.) 

yeare in all — ^viiimxviii ra. (a.) inde j Fishe— m. in. vie iiiiuxiii m. dufc.J 

Straungn* s'rved this yeare m. m. m. m*. cxxvi m. dL (d.J 

Deficients this yeare ..« nu exxxviii m. v p'soh. fe.J 

Ord. p'sons. s'rved m .*.. vii mixc v^yu mJ(f.) 

Kytchynfbe comincefor one hole ycarie ended the xxix«l> of October, 1586. 

Kytchmfi^ sold at Wharton xv stone i q*^* 1 

Kytchinfee sold at Helaughe &1 ^ ^^^^^ > xxvi stone & i q'« stone. 

Sjmingihwaite J * J 

Suminmoneyatii*.Uj^ ^ 
iinrf. the stone .... | 
Whereof paied as appearethe monthhe) , .. ^^, 

in the howshold booke Y^^' **^ 

And so rem. — iiix. iiii</. ov' & besids^ 
Kili^infee delivered to Thomas Fawcett, bird, 1 y^ ^^^^ ^j 

at Sopgill • X 

Also delrved for the waynes St, carte in Westm land and for) *•• 

the wayne at Helaughe and Syningthwaite | *" 

Also deliv'ed to the Cooks in x pennies for there fee iii stone di. 
Suma totalis of KitchihfbeV 
besides occupied for meate > xxitv stone iiiqr* of a stone, 
in the Kitchm J 

• JlwAoibM, m rich wine brought from Ckodia. 

f The ebdve nims which are calculated by the old nz wort or ISO to the Hundred, reduced to the modem 
Ave leore per cent., are ai follow \^a.) 9600.— /'i^; 6404.— ^«.; »lS"^fd.J WA.'^t.J l3Bd.^f.J 9567. 


ix stone di. 

Pj:jl2f ol- r^ti /iX2>IATJV.r or ^^ OXD dri'SCX rar frx aoSFOXTH XSTAT^ 







....■' i^wMm w.u *w~9. 


An Account qfBuhui near Gos/brih. 943. 

XXXI, — An Account qf the B)emains qf a ChapeU or Churchy and Kirk 
Garths near Loiw Gosforth House, in the County qf Northumberlandy 
in a Letter from Mr. John Belj:^, Lihrarianj to John Ab amsoNi Esq^., 
Sec. See Plate FIT. 

WindmiUHiUs, Gateshead, 90th December, 1826. 

Dear Sir, 

On the Gosforth estate, radier better than a gun-shot to the south- 
south-east of Low Gosforth House, the seat of Robert William Brand- 
ling, Esq., and about nine ibrlongs north from the present church, are 
the remains of a chapel, or cbur-eh, andi lark-garth, with some tomb- 
stones. Mr. Brandling having, in the course of this summer, had the 
place cleared of the weeds and long-deposited rubbish that covered it, 
which shewed a number more of tKese mementoes, and as there is lit- 
tle or no notice of this chapel in any of our county histories, I was 
induced to walk out to view it, when I took the plan and copies of 
the existing inscriptions, which I send herewith, for the Society's ac- 

. The place is curious, there being evident traces of it having been on 
fire, and part of it being of more, modem mason work# causes a conjec- 
ture that it has been partly re-built, leaving out a portion of the west 
end, but subsequently to have fallen over to the south, as the walls 
shew, which are standing about three pr four feet high, and in the front 
are leaning outwards. 


A. C. K. Are oblong, .with only a moulding xouQd the edg«. 

B. An oblong stone, marked with a sword and an ornament. 

344 An Jccount qf Ruins near Gotforth. 

D. A table stone, with armorial bearings, viz. a Chevron between three 
Bucks. Inscribed *^ The burial place of John Robinson Senior 
Lucy his wife depted ye 2d of Novemb. 1664 also William Ro- 
binson their Son Margarett his wife depted ye 12th of Novem 
1666 also Elizabeth his wife who departed y* 26 of October 1691* 

£• An un-lettered table stone broken in two. 

F. An oblong stone raised along the middle. 

G. The base or foot of a cross, from having a square hole for the shaft 

H. A table stone, with armorial bearings, viz. a Chevron debruised by 
a Fess, charged with a Crescent between three Annulets, inscribed 

The Buriall place of William 
Hedley yeoman Mary his 
Wife & 12 children He depted 
Octob' ye 29 1664 J6hn their 
Son depted June the 13*^ 1665. 


In christian hope one Rests Here 

Observe yet Reader Shed a Teare 

He was a Godly Zealous Youth 

Never desserting from the Truth 

Humilitie Love Honestie : : : t 

Each Vertue of Humanitie 

did in him Florish Whilst Here he 

livd in Faith Hope & Chartie 

Ending this Life in Godly Sort 

Yielding to the World a Good Report 

L An oblong stone, marked with a small cross. 
L. An oblong stone, crossed from the opposite corners. 
M. Part of an oblong stone, marked with a cross. This was found 
among the ruins, and placed upon the wall. 

An Account of Ruins near Gosforth. 245 

N. Nearly the same as the last, but has been burnt. 

P. A large flat stone. 

Q. A hollow stone like the top of a font 

R. At this place, in the original building, a stone marked C O H, and 

seemingly part of a Roman altar, is built upside down. 
S. A stone, in all appearance, the shaft or support for the stone marked 


a, b, c, d, e, f, g, are fragments of plain head-stones, or flags, set up 
to shew some places of interment, supposed to have taken place 
after the chapel had fallen. 

I am, Dear Sir, 

Your's respectfully, 


VOL. II. 1 1 

246 Account of a Roman Road m Northumberland. 

XXXII. — An Account of a Roman Road in Nortkwnberbndf in a Letter 
Jrom John Smart, Esq. qf Trewhitt^ to the Secretaries. 

TrewHtt House^ aSd Dec., 18^6. 


Favourable circumstances ha^ve enabled me to trace the line of a 
Roman road, which made a communication between the two branches 
of Watling Street that pass through Northumberland. It commences 
at Rochester, in Redesdale (the Bremenium of Antoninus), it passes by 
the Dudlees, Braushaw, and Yardhope to Holystone, where St. Paulinus, 
as recorded by the " Venerable Bede,'* converted several thousand Pa- 
gans to Christianity, and baptised them on his journey to the '* royal resi- 
dence'' of the Saxon monarch, king Edwin, at (Maelmin) Millfield, the 
palace at Ad Gebrin having gone to decay. At this place St. Paulinus 
continued for some time, converting his subjects and baptizing them in 
the river Glen. The road then passes the river Coquet, near to the vil- 
lage of Sharperton, a little to the eastward of which, on an eminence 
called Chester-hill, is an encampment, nearly square, occupying about 
two acres, and equidistant between the two branches. It then passes 
through the grounds of the villages of Burradon and the Trewhitts. 
When taken up, in front of my house, I measured the breadth at four- 
teen feet. After passing through some fields at Lorbottle, it has been 
carried along the " Street Way," in Mr. Clavering's estate at Callaley. 
Immediately near is a high conical hill, with a triple circular entrench- 
ment ; the smallest circle is cut out of the solid rock, to the depth of 
eight or ten feet in some places ; but as it is destitute of water, it can 
only have been a place of refuge to the inhabitants on any sudden inva- 
sion of the enemy. It is probably a work of the Britons. The road 

Account of a Roman Road in Northumberland. S47 

then passes through a part of Lord Ravensworth's estate to Barton, 
and it joins the eastern branch of Watling-street before it crosses the 
river Alne, to the north of which is Crawley Tower, built upon the 
east angle of a Roman station, on an eminence near the road which I 
consider to be the ^^ Alauna Amnis'* of Richard of Cirencester. There 
is gredt probability of the road being continued from Barton by Aln- 
wick down to the port of Alnmoutb, as during the period of the lower 
empire, great quantities of grain were shipped from Britain, to supply 
the Roman armies and garrisons on the Rhine. Having had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing some improvements at West Glanton, in a field called 
Deer-street, where open were eipployed in taking up a part of an old road, 
with about six inches of soil upon it, consisting of large flat stones laid 
horizontally, on the outside twelve feet wide, it appears that a branch 
had been made from the former road, crossed the Alne west of Whit- 
tingham church, passed through Deer-street to the Breamish bridges, 
where it joined the Rcnnan road. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, • 


248 Account of some Peruvian Remains. 


XXXIII. — An Account of certain Articles taken from the Graves of the 
ancient Peruvians, in the neighbourhood of Arica, on the West Coast 
of South America, in a Letter from Joseph H. Fryer, Esq. to 
John Adam son, Esq., Sec. See Plate VIIL 

Newcastle^ 5th January, 1829* 
Dear Sir, 

The things I send you with this were taken from the graves of the 
ancient Peruvians, in the neighbourhood of Arica, a small village on 
the West Coast of South America ; if you think they will be acceptable 
to the members of the Antiquarian Society, you may present them at 
the next meeting, with the following short notice of the manner in 
which they were found, and what I consider to have been their uses. 

The country about Arica, although now a barren desert of sand 
and salt, must, I should suppose, formerly have been extremely 
populous, from the astonishing extent of burial grounds which sur- 
round the town, the graves being as close as in the church-yard of a 
populous town in England, and have been almost all explored by the 
Spaniards, in search of treasure, it having been the custotn of the Pe- 
ruvians, of the higher classes, to bury at least a portion of their mo^ 
valuable effects with the dead. 

I was desirous of seeing a grave that had not been disturbed, but 
as there did not appear to be any chance of finding one in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Arica, I went along the coast about a mile and a half 
to the southward, where I had seen similar graves not so generally ex- 
plored* This place appears to have been a fishing village, and there is 
no doubt has not been used as a burial place since the conquest of Peru 
by the Spaniards, they must, therefore, be the sepulchres of people who 

Account qf some Fentvian Remains. 94Q 

existed at least three centuries ago. They extend for a mile along the 
coast, and after very few trials, J was so fortunate as to fall in with a 
tumulus, consisting entirely of graves in three courses, one above the 
other. The space occupied by these . graves did not exceed a cube of 
two feet square, being formed either of pieces of wood, apparently the 
masts and paddles of their boats, or of thin pieces of sandstone. The 
bottom was invariably covered with a considerable quantity of shell 
fish, placed there, I have no doubt, from religious motives, either for 
food for the person interred, or to serve for bait to his fishing hooks, 
which occur in every grave. A straw mat was placed upon this bed 
of shells, on which the body was found. 

The body was in a sitting posture, the knees bent up close to the 
sides, the hands crossed over the breast ; in this position it was envel- 
loped in a woollen cloth, which, in its manufacture, resembled an ex- 
tremely coarse crape, over this the Poncho was put, wrapped round the 
whole and tightly sewed, and covered by a neat net-work of well- 
made cordage, with large meshes. The head was enveUoped in the 
same crape-like cloth, with a closely woven cap, or surrounded by a 
wreath of feathers. The bodies were in a perfect state of preservation, 
dry, hard, and brown, like an Egyptian mummy, but soon mouldered 
away upon exposure to the air. 1 do not suppose that any means had 
been used to preserve them, their state being entirely attributable to the 
perfect dryness of the atmosphere, and the sand and salt in which they 
are deposited. 

On the breast, underneath the Poncho, was a small bag, containing 
cocOy the leaf of a plant very much used by the Peruvians for chewing, 
being mixed with wood ashes and lime, in the same manner as the beetel 
nut is used in the East Indies. In the joint of the elbow, on each side, 
was placed the small pottery vessels, No. 5, closed by the core of the 
maize (which is still generally used in the country instead of a cork), and 
which, I suppose, must have been filled with Chicha, the favourite 
drink of the Indians ; it resembles beer, and is made from maize. 

The other things were all upon the floor of the grave, the earthen ves- 
sels Nos. 6 and 7 on each side, and No. 8 in front ; the latter evidently 

2^0 Account of same Perufvian Remains. 

intended for the purfiose of cooking the provisions deposited with the 
bodj, being precisely similar to those at present used in the country j 
the other two for holding water and Indian com in the ear. No. 1 a 
and A, is a model of a boat with its paddle, and is the more curioiK, as 
nothing resembling it is now found on the coast ; indeed, the country 
being completely destitute of wood, precludes the possibility of their 
being made, the only vessel at present used being made of seal skins 
sewed together, and blown full of air, as well described by Captain 
Hall. With the boat I also found the roodol of the harpoon. No. 2 
a aiid2 A, having a point of chalcedony, or quartz, with a number of spare 
pieces adapted to the same shaft, frequently tastefufly disposed in the 
basket-work, No. S. 

The basket, No. 9) contained fishing lines with copper hooks, and a 
fishing spear, also with a copper point, some neatly made cotton cor- 
dage, some stronger cordage made of seal skin, and a few small sticks 
which I do not know the use of. 

One or two other baskets, Nos. 10 and 11, were also in every grave, 
one containing cacao, the other a few small roots Kke onions. A bag, 
similar to that I have mentioned, but larger, was full of ground maize. 
The small matting. No. 4, resembles what is now used by the Indians 
when travelling, to lie upon when the ground is damp. 

The only difference in the graves was, that the females had in addi- 
tion to the tKings already mentioned, a bag of cotton and a spindle. 
No. 12, with cotton on it, and thread partly spun. In one grave I 
found a Pan's pipe, made of reeds tied together by small thread, and 
having eight notes; the thread being decayed, it very soon feU to 

SmaJl tooth-combs were not uncommon, extremely neatly made of 
very thin pieces of wood^ ingeniously tied together with fiae cotton 

I did not, nor could I hear of any one, ever finding any thing made 
of iron,, in any of the Peruvian graves. 

It must be observed that almost all the utensils, vessels, weapmis, 
&c. are models, and bear a striking resemblance to l^ose used by the- 
Indians of the interior. 

Account qfswne Peruvian Remains. 251 

Nos. 1 a and b, and 2 a and b^ have been crossed with streaks of red 
upon the wood, as shewn by the lines of the plates. The various articles 
are given in the plate half the size of the originals. 

I am, My Dear Sir, 

Your's most truly, 


252 Accmmt qfsome South American Figures. 

XXXIV* — An Account qfsome Golden Articles broughtjrom South Ame- 
\i rica by Mr. Charles Empson, and laid before the Society on the 6th 

February f 1828, with Remarks thereon. See Plates IX. and X. 

JVIr. Empson having communicated with Mr. Adamson, as to the 
exhibition of these curious articles, he was requested to furnish such an 
account as to their discovery, &c. as his information might enable him 
to give the Society, which he was pleased to do in a letter to Mr. Adam- 
son, from which the following is an extract 

It may be as well here to state, that the engravings represent the 
articles of their proper size, and that their weights are as under. 

No. 1*..* 










No. 7... 
No. 8... 








No. 2.... 



No. 8. .. 


No. 9... 



No. 4.... 

No. 10.... 



No. 5...« 
No. 6.... 

No. 11.... 
No. 12.... 



" Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. — ^These Golden Figures were obtained at Bogota, 
in that part of South America which is called Colombia. I believe 
them to have been found in the Lake of Guataveta, into which it was 
said the Indians annually threw many images of gold and other valua- 
bles, to obtain the favour of the Gods which preside over the waters. 
There are many lakes which are known to have been sacred amongst the 
Aborigines, and in which golden figures have often been discovered. 
The lake of Guataveta was always believed to be the spot into which the 
Indians of Tequardama threw their treasures on the approach of the con- 
querors. Persons have been constantly diving for, and seeking by 
other means, these Indian remains ; but as they were only valued as 


Account qfsome South American Figures. 25S 

gold, and as the precious metals are always preferred in grains or ingots, 
it was common for the persons into whose hands they fell, to put them 
immediately into the crucible, so that it is impossible to say what may 
have been found. At present it is so difficult to meet with any curio- 
sities of this nature, that I was upwards of three years in the country 
before I could obtain any, or even a sight of them. The gentleman, 
who procured these interesting objects for me, was intimately con- 
nected with the parties who caused the lake of Guataveta to be drained, 
doubtless with the expectation of meeting with treasures that would 
repay them for the outlay of many thousands of dollars. The speculation 
was ruinous to the projectors : they found some images and other arti- 
cles of gold, a few amethysts and emeralds, but nothing of great value. 
The gems were from the mines of Muso, which is but a few days* jour- 
ney from the Lake, and the gold is of the same quality as that which is 
still found in the alluvial depositions of the neighbourhood. Nothing 
occurred that was foreign to the country, or even to the immediate vici- 
nity. There was no silver, nox indeed is there any evidence of this metal 
having been known in the country before the conquest. It is curious, 
however, that a stone, which was guarded by the Indians, and removed 
by them as they were driven from place to place by the Spaniards, and 
which was the first thing which the subjugated natives stipulated to re- 
tain, is a large mass of very rich grey silver ore. 

" No. 6.— I have been assured that this cross was found in one of 
those burial places, or sacred depositaries, called Gicachas; it was ob- 
tained in Antioqua, a province remarkably rich in treasures which have 
been buried by the Indians. It was natural for me to doubt, that an 
emblem so sacred amongst Christians should have been an object of 
veneration amongst the Aborigines of South America. For some time 
I thought that, during the progress of the conquerors, some Christian 
might have been buried in one of the tombs which were used by the 
natives, and that this symbol of his faith had been deposited with the 
stranger ; but upon comparing its workmanship with that of those orna- 
ments worn by Cortes and his followers, it is impossible to ascribe to the 
European artizans of that period so rude a fabrication. I thought, also, 

VOL. II. Kk 

954 Account qfsofne SoutJi American Figures. 

that this cross might have been made by some Christiaa soldier, from 
grains of gold which he could so easily and so abundantly obtain ; for 
even to this day the Spanish soldiers are constantly fashioning ornaments 
of this nature out of pieces of iron, copper, or silver. But my doubts 
of its being a genuine relick, of a nearly exterminated race, are entirely 
removed ; for I have seen a similar figure of a cross, sculptured upon 
a rock, with many other devices, and especially representations of the 
human form. This rock is believed to have been a place of worship ante- 
rior to the conquest, and may be seen near Talamaque, about ten miles 
from the great river Magdalena. 

<^ That nations so totally unknown to each other should apparently re- 
vere the same emblem, and that emblem not having' reference to any 
natural object, is a remarkable coincidence ; but after all, the figure 
may be purely accidental, and its signification altogether at variance 
with the thing represented, as the cross stones occasionally found in the 
cromlech of antiquity, which, afl:er Christianity was introduced into this 
country, served for sepulchral ornaments, or to place in those temples 
in which the new faith was promulgated. 

*^ On reading Moore's tale of the Epicurean, I was struck with his 
assertion, that the cross was amongst the Egyptians the emblem of fu-^ 
ture life. His notes to illustrate this opinion are very curious. 

" No. 7- — This ornament was found in that district of New Granada, 
which was inhabited by a race of Indians, called Guayaberros : the 
Spaniards found them the most obstinate of the indigenous tribes.— 
Their Cazique was a person of superior talent and uncommon bravery; 
after many perilous encounters, he was taken prisoner, but neither 
threats nor persuasions could prevail upon him to disclose the place in 
which he had concealed his treasures. At length, upon the prospect 
of immediate torture, he apparently consented to make known the hid- 
ing place of his vast wealth. The cave, in which it was secured,, was 
in a situation to which he could not direct the Spaniards, but he offered 
to conduct them to the spot. Dreading the escape of so important a 
prisoner, six slaves were chained to the fetters of the fallen chief, but 
he refused to move until persons of consequence were substituted for 
the slaves j they were replaced by ^ix of the most noble followers of the 


I . .u 


Account qfsinne South Americim Figures. 255 

Spanish General. The Cazique led them to one of those frightful paths, 
of which there are so many in crossing the Andes, where a false step 
might lodge the traveller at the bottom of a chasm, which the noontide 
^ beams of a tropical sun have not the power of penetrating. From this 
path the Cazique threw himself with such a sudden and effectual plunge, 
that he dragged after him the six Spaniards to whom his chains were 
attached. It is said that the bodies were never found, but that shrieks 
issued from the gulph for several days : even yet the ravine is known 
by an Indian term, which signifies the *' unburied dead." This story 
does not rest solely upon tradition ; in the archives of a convent in Bogota, 
there is a curious and most interesting manuscript, written by one of 
the earliest missionaries, in which the history of this native prince and 
his exterminated race is most carefully narrated. To this MS. a very 
learned and ingenious Frenchman is permitted a free access, and as it 
tends to illustrate the manners and state of a people so little known, I 
trust that it will be given to the public. The author of this MS. de- 
scribes the dress of this Cazique and all his family as having been per- 
fectly regal. " They all wore crowns made with plates of gold, and 
breast-pieces of the same precious metal,*' says this authority ; but the 
descriptions are not sufficiently minute to enable me to judge whether 
this ornament was worn upon the head or some other part of the person. 

** No. 8 resembles various figures which were found near Popayan, 
and which are now placed in the Museum at Bogota. 

" Nos. 9, 10. — The locality in which these figures were found is un- 
known. They were procured at Mariquita, and it may be interesting 
to know, that in the neighbourhood of that city, there is a rock which, 
for about thirty feet high and two hundred feet wide, is elaborately 
covered with similar figures, and many others which approximate more 
nearly to the Egyptian hierogljrphics. The sculpture is apparently 
effected without tools of metal. The monument is situated in the Que- 
brado Seco, on the road from Honda to Mendez, and is still called ** el 
Altar de los Antiguos." 

" Nos. 1 1, 12, were found in a cave which formerly, it is thought, was 
a burial place. It is near the salt mines of Zipaquira." 

956 Explanation qf some South American Figures. 

XXXV. — Explanation of some of the South American Figures described 
by Mr. Empson, in a Letter from the Rev. G. S. Faber, to John 
V Adamson, Esq. Sec, 

Copies of the extract from Mr. Empson's letter having been sent to se- 
veral gentlemen by Mr. Adamson, the letter, of which the following is 
copy, was received from Mr. Faber, and it is hoped that when the Soci- 
ety's Transaction's shall be circulated, other details respecting these 
interesting antiquities, aym be obtained. 

Lmg Newton^ Jan. 1, 1829. 

The relics, of which you sent me the representations, are extremely 
curious : and from what little knowledge I possess of ancient mytho- 
logy, I feel no doubt of their being genuine remains of the aboriginal 
Americans, wholly unconnected with their Spanish conquerors. 

I. The veneration of the cross is no way peculiar to Christianity. 
Doubtless its veneration among the Pagans originated from causes alto- 
getlier different from that which has produced its veneration among 
Christians ; but still, in regard to the mere naked Jact, its veneration has 
been common to both. 

Among the Egyptians, both the complete cross + was revered, and like- 
wise the imperfect cross, or the Taautic T. The complete cross seems to 
have referred to the four quarters of the heavens, so far as the theology of 
materialism was concerned ; but, in another great branch of their theology, 
it had apparently yet another reference. It was, in fact, the Taautic T 
with a handle attached to it ; whence, I believe, antiquaries style it the 

crux ansata H-*. This modification shews, that the real position of 

the Taautic cross is not the T in its proper literal position, but the 1 

Ea^lanaHon of same South American Figures. S57 

inverted. Taking the X inverted, the Egyptians added a handle, or 
fourth arm, and thus produced the perfect crux ansata. I much incline 
to think, on the principles of comparative mythology, that the X repre- 
sented the sacred ship Argo or Argha, with Osiris or Siva standing up- 
right in it, and supplying the place of a mast. When the handle was 

added "-H , it served partly for the mere purpose of carriage after the 

manner of an ensign, and partly on the material system, to produce a 
four-armed cross, which should designate the four quarters of the 

Exactly the same figure was equally revered among the ancient Celts. 
This appears from the very curious interior of the artificial two-forked 
earth pjnramid at New-Grange, in Ireland. When opened, it was found 
to contain, with an arrangement similar to that of the great Egyptian 
Pyramid, a narrow passage of considerable length, which led to a cen- 
tral chamber, containing a stone table and some stone paterae. From 
this chamber branched out rectangularly three shorter arms ; so that 
the whole exhibited the form of a cross, strikingly similar to the 
American cross, from the circumstance of the central chamber being 


\ / 

A print and a description of it are given in Ledwich's Antiq. qf 
Ireland^ p. 316. No bones were found, so as to give any ground for 
imagining that the tumulus might have been reared over some Ckris- 
tian Irish chieftain. Indeed the form of the tumulus, with its two 
peaks, constructed on the strict principles of old mytholpgic paganism, 
which is substantially and ideally the same in every quarter of the globe 
forbids any such supposition. 

II. The throwing of the consecrated images into a holy lake, per- 
fectly accords with the mythology of the old world. 

S58 E^lanation of some South Amervcan Figures. 

There was a saored lake of the Moon in the south of France, into 
which the old Celts were accustomed to throw their votive offerings. 
•I mention it somewhere in my Origin of Pagan Idolatry ; but I cannot 
find the place, so as give you a precise reference for my authority. 

A custom of yet closer affinity to that of the Americans prevailed 
among our old Teutonic ancestors. You will find it detailed in Tacit, 
de Mor. German^ sec. 40. 

In every part of the Pagan world, and no where more than in Ame- 
rica, lakes were reckoned sacred : and there were frequently in them 
floating islands, most probably artificial ; rafts, I suppose, covered with 
•earth and turfed over. I have collected some information on this point 
in my Origin of Pagan Idolatry ; particularly in vol. iii. p. 221—228. 
I subjoin some notices of American lakes, which more immediately con- 
nect themselves with your antiquities. 

The sacred lake of the Peruvians was the great lake Titiaca ; and 

they had a tradition, that, when all men were drowned by the deluge, 

Virachoca emerged from this holy pool, and became the father of a 

new race of mortals. They likewise shewed a small island in the lake, 

where they believed the sun to have once hid himself, and to have thus 

been preserved from a great danger which awaited him. — Purch. Pit- 

gim. book ix. c. 9. 874; Precisely the same idea was attached to the 

Egyptian island Chemmis, in the lake near Buto, and to the sacred 

island Delos, in the Archipelago. The Americans had a temple to the 

endangered sun in their sacred island, just as the Greeks and Eg3rp- 

tians had in Delos and Chemmis. I need scarcely say, that the island, 

whether floating or fixed, rq)resented the ship of the sun, or of that 

great hero-god, who was astronomically venerated as the genius of the 


I give you yet another American lake legend. A spirit, called Otkon by 

the Iroquois, and Atahauta by the other barbarians at the mouth of the 

river St. Laurence, is thought to be the creator of the world j and they 

assign its reparation after the deluge to this same Otkon, under the 

new appellation of Messou. They say, that Messou, or Otkon, being 

a-hunting one day, his dogs lost themselves in a great lakej which 

ExplafioHon qfsome S<mik American Figures. 359 

thereupon overflowing, covered the whole earth in a short time, and 
swallowed up the world. They add, that Messou, or Otkon, gathered 
a little earth together by the help of some animals, and used this earth 
to repair the world again. — Hennepin's Discov. of North America^ p. 54. 

The sacredness of some of the British lakes is sufficiently shewn by 
the very name. Thus, Loch Leoen^ denotes the Lake of the Moon* I 
have little doubt, according to what has come down to us of Celtic my- 
thology, that the mysteries of Ceridwen, sidereally the Moon, terres- 
trially a ship swelling out, and bearing in her womb the great father Hu, 
or Beli, were anciently there celebrated. 

I myself apply all these matters to the history of the deluge, engrailed 
upon mythologic astronomy, which I believe to be the foundation of 
Paganism all the world over. But, whether I am right or wrong in 
my opinion^ the facts^ upon which it is founded, remain, of course, 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient humble servant, 


Sometimes the T appears in the hands of the Egyptian gods in its 
simple form. The floating moon was the lunette ^^^f our modern 

life-boat Place Siva, or Osiris in it^&/ : and you have the Taautic X* 
The Egyptians give the floating moonof Osiris thus : 

Mount it on the handle and you have 

260 Some Account qfa Bronze Statue qf James IT. 

XXXVI. — Some Account of the Bronze Statue qf James II.9 supposed to 
have formerly stood on the Sandhillj Newcastle, in a Letter from Mr. 
John Bell, Librarian, to John Adamson^ Esq., Sec. 

30th December, 1826. 

The Society's collection of local prints has had a valuable addition 
made to it, of the print of the Equestrian Statue of James II., which 
is said to have formerly stood on the Sandhill, in this town. This print 
was advertised to be published by subscription in 1742, by Joseph Bar- 
ber, music and copper-plate printer, in Humble's Buildings, afterwards 
of Amen-Comer, and appeared the latter part of that year, with two side 
accompaniments of the Armorial Bearings of the subscribers ; which 
latter plates he afterwards cut to pieces, and sold each individual arms 
at two shillings and sixpence per hundred, as book plates. The print 
of the statue gives the folloiying inscription : — 

JAMES the II. 

By the Grace of God 

qf Great Britain, 

France, <§* Ireland, 

King, Defender qf the Faith. 

Sir William Creagh, Knight, 


Samuel Gill, Esq''., 


Some Account qfa Bronze Statue qf James II, 26l 

A copy 4^$D' much' of this print ^ the statue itself, u engraved in 
Brand's History of the Town, and in a wood-cut^ published by Mr. 
J. i^kes;* as follows :— 

And also a smaller cut, as an embellishment to one of the numbers of 
the Catholic Magazine for 1826, each of these copying the foregoing 
inscription, which is evidently erroneous in the date. Sir William 
Creagh came to Newcastle early in l€84h-5; and in the following year pro- 
duced the King's sign manuil letter, dated I7 March, 1685*^, to Sir 
*Mr. Sjrkcs.liBspolitefy'&Tiniredthe Socie^ with the tise of his Cut. 

S62 Some Account qfa Bronze Statue of James 

Henry Brabant, Knight, then Mayor of the town, to be admitted a firee 
merchant of Newcastle, which was read to the Merchants' Company the 
4th May, 1686,* and complied with ; in July, next year, he produced 
another letter,t from James, for his further admittance into the Corpo- 
ration, and on the Sd January, 1687-8, he was, by mandamus from 
James, elected Mayor of the town, and Samuel Gill his Sheriff; they 
only continuing in office until the 1st of October next ensuing, so that 
the date, 1 685, mentioned on the print, and by Brand and other succeed- 
ing publications (who have noticed it) is wrong. 

Bourne, in his History (page 126), says, " it cost the town £1700." 
This I do not find to be the case, for on referring to the Corporation 
account books,* in the Town's Hutch, the following items only are found 
respecting it : — 

Apr. 14. 86. 

AprQ 1686 y«iiiitli Week. 

P4« out of y« Revenue of this Town as 
p. OT^ of C.C. y« 12th of Apr. 86, for 
& toward y^ Contract about his Ma<i«« 
Statue £300 as allso the sum of four 
Pounds ten Shillings & 10 pn return of c. l. s. d. 
y* said Moneys wcb makes paid in all... iij iiij x 
November. 1687. 

• <c 

126. 4 May, 1686, a letter from the King, signed James R., dated 17 Bfarcfa, 1685-6, directed 
to Sir Henry Brabant, Knt., Mayor, and Govr. of the Hostman's Co., and to Timothy Davison, Esqr. 
Gov. of the Merchu. Co., was read, requiring them forthwith to admit Sir WHim. Cre^gh, Km., a free 
Hostman and free Mercht., and undersigned Sunderiand, P.; and iomiediately after reading the letter, 
y« Co. in obedience to his Majesty's command, did admit Sir William Creagh, Knt., to his freedom 
of this fellowship." 

t <* 142. 19 July, 1687, Sir Wm- Creagh, Knt, presented a letter from the King, directed and 
signed, and undersigned nearly as the former, dated 31 May, 1687, redtmg the letter of the 17 March, 
1685-6; and also, that he had been admitted, but not in so ample manner as his Majesty intended . 
therefore requiring his Freedoms to be recorded by order of the Common Council, and the Company 
of Hostmen and Merchts. so as he and his posterity may be enabled to take apprentices, and enjoy 
all other franchises which any Freeman of the Corporation enjoys, either by descent or servitude. In 
obedience to which it was ordered, that Sir Wm. Creagh shod be recorded an absolute free Brother, 
as Merchant Draper. — Vide Record Bock of the Merchanii Company^ 

N. B. Sir William Creagh's freedom, by order of the Common Council of the 29^ 7^« 1689, was 
made void. 
* These were politely ordered for my inspection, by Archibald Reed Esq., when Mayor. 

Some Account qfa Bronze Statue qf James II. «68 


Novr. 26. 87. 

The fourth Week of Novr. 1687. c, l. s. d. 
Paid as p order dated y« 23* of Nov 
1687, out of ye Revenues of this 
Town for ye Statue y® Sum of ij -« .. -^ 

July, 1688. 
Pi f^ a Sledge here for y« Statue — — xx — 

Septembr ye 4^ Week, 1688. 
Pd Mr. Wm. Larsonye Statue in full ij Ixvi ▼ vijt 

Which makes the cost of it little more than £770- > which appears to 
have been the total amount paid to the founder for casting the figure ; 
there being no sum charged for erecting it, or for the pedestal (in mar- 
ble of some size) on which it is represented to have stood, or for the 
iron palisades which are also represented to have surrounded it The 
: inference I draw is, that the erecting of such a statue had been projected 
by the King, or those about him, and that Sir William Creagh, a personal 
friend of his Majesty^s, was sent down to Newcastle to carry the scheme 
into effect, and was followed by sign manual letters, to introduce him 
still further into the company of the leading families, the more closely 
to watch over the political interests of his Majesty in that town j and on 
coming down he brought with him impressions of the plate alluded to, 
and in a short time procured an order for its erection ;* but such a 
statute, 1 think, never was erected, for Bourne, page 126, in noticing 
the Sandhill says, ^< the effigies of King James II. which stood here, as 
I have been told," " for I never saw the statue itself, nor the picture of 
it" Sir Christopher Wren*s certificate to the Common Council, in 
August, l688,t and the payment for the sledge in July, 1689, shew 
that it had come to Newcastle in the middle of that year, when it would 
be landed on the Quay, where it might be lying, either owing to the 
.political ferment which was agitating the country, or waiting its 
removal. to the place of erection, through any of the narrow water gates 

** Brand, pag;e 30, gives an extract from the Common Council Books, ** March 16, 1685-6. A 
figure of his Majesty, in a Roman habit, on a capering horsey in copper, as big as the figure of his 
Majesty Kii^ Cbaries L at Charing-crosse, on a Pedestal of black or white marble, to be set up for 
jeSOO. sterling." 

f August 279 ^^d- 3ir Christopher Wren's certificate was read, '< that Mr. Larson had very 
sufficiently performed his work in casting the sud Statue." 

264 Some Account of a Btomse Statue ofjmies II. 

in the town's wall, which then stood parallel with the Quay, and where 
its contiguily to the river would easily suggest to the mol^.* the idea of 
overturning it into the water* The supposition of the print being 
co*eval with the projecting of the statue, arises from examining the 
lettering of the inscription on the pedestaL 

JAMES the II. 
By the Grace qf God 

^Great Britain, 

France, 8^ Ireland, 

Kingj Defender of the Faith. 

Thus fhr it is in a bold style of engraving, and the remainder of the 
inscription, except the letter M in mayor, the S in sherid^ and 16 in the 
date (which are done by the same bold hand' as the former) the writing 
is in a more modem style, evidently shewing that the inscription has 
been put on at twice, and by two different engmvers. 

Sir William Creagh, Knight, 

Samuel Gill, Esq., 

are in the same hand-writing as the five descriptive lines at the bottom 
of the plate, and must have been put on in 1742, when Barber pub- 
lished the print It is quite evident that it had bisen engraved and 
printed in London, as tiiere was no one in Newc^tle who could do 
any such thing at that time ; it is probabUe, that after the plate had 
been first done, it had'been suffered to remain in the hands of the en^ 
graver, as plates often are, and his successors offered it to Mr. Barber, 
to publish as a speculation, as the price it was published at (5s.) would 
scarce have paid for engraving it« 


• Koreuber, 1S88. 

Account qfa Roman InscripUanJbtmd at Old Penrith. 965 

XXXVII. — Account <tfa Roman IftxripHon found at Old Pemitk, in a 
Ijetterjrom Mr. Chsistopher Hodgson, to the Rev. John Hodosoh, 


Mt Dear Brother, 
The Tomb-stone, of which the above is a drawing, was found on the 
morning of the 19th of September, 1828, at Old Penrith, about 200 
yards north of the Roman Station, and on the east side of the turnpike 
road from Penrith to Carlisle, by some workmen employed in removing 
earth to fill up a deep hollow, a little still further north. It was Ij^g, 
when found, with its &ce downwards. The workmen told me there 

VOL. II. M m 

266 Account of a Raman Inscriptwn found at Old Penritii. 

were several pieces of stones, with Roman characters on them, found 
near the same place ; and a number of urns containing ashes. The 
full height of the stone is 7 feet, 3 inches, its breadth 2 feet, 1 1^ 
inches, its thickness 10^ inches. Its weight is about I ton, 8 cwt., which 
I fear is too great, on account of the expence of carriage, to allow of its 
being placed in the collection of the Newcastle Antiquarian Society. It 
is at present in the possession of Mr. Moss, of Penrith. I was the first 
person who came past the place after it was turned up ; and immediately 
took the sketch which I now send you. The panel in which the figure 
is placed is sunk S inches, that for the inscription an inch and a half. 
The reading I understand is DIIS MANIBUS MARC I COCCEI 
of the Shade of Marcus Cocceis Nonnus, this was set up. 

C. H. 

Carlisle, October 12, 1828. 

Accent of a Golden Armlctjbfimd near Aspattia. 867 

XXXVIII. — Account of a Qolden Armlet found near Aspatria in the 
County of Cumberland, communicated hy Henrt Howard, Esq., of 
Corby J to the Secretaries. 

Corby Castle, Carlisle, Sept. 27, 1828. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Wm. Hamper, I take the liberty to send to 
you the copy of the drawing of an Armlet lately found near Aspatria, 
in this county, which Miss Carlyle has sent me to forward to your So- 
ciety, to which I add the interpretation given by Mr. Hamper, which I 
conceive to be the truth. From Miss Carlyle's account it appears, that 
there are some slight traces of a letter or letters ef&ced, which coincides 
with Mr. Hamper's opinion. 

I remain. Gentlemen, 

With great respect. 

Your obedient humble servant, 

Copy of a Letter from Mr. Hamper to Mr. Howard. 
" The Aspatria Torques or Armlet is a first-rate curiosity, for I do not 
recollect any previous relique of that kind bearing an inscription. 




I have full confidence that some other letters (at least a monagram) 
were inscribed upon it denoting the maker's name.' 


36s Account qfa Golden Armiet found near Aspatria, 

In a subsequent letter to Mr. Adamson, Mr. Hamper says, " that as 
the characters (if any) that are upon it only form a single word, which 
may be the same in several dialects of the northern runj, it may seem 
rather presumptuous to give a decided opinion about it." And, in 
another letter, he desires it to be stated that he did not see the Armlet 
itself, but only Miss Carlyle's drawing, because some antiquaries who 
have examined the original, doubt whether the characters are any thing 
more than accidental scratches. 

The wood-cut is the size of the Armlet Its weight is five ounces and 
a half. It is of very pure gold, and was found in the ditch of a hedge, 
near Aspatria, in 1838. 

Letters relating to (he Nunnery of St. Bartholomew. 269 

XXXIX. — An Account qf some Letters of Eshton Hall, Yorkshire, re- 
lating to the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew, in Newcastle upon Tyne, 
communicated by W. C. Thevelyan, Esq., qf WaUington, to John 
Adamson, Esq., Secretary. 

WalUngton, November 29, 1828. 
Mt Dear Sir, 

In looking over a volume of Lord Dacre's Correspondence, from June 
1st, 1523, to August 4th, 1524, which is preserved in the valuable li- 
brary of Miss Currer, at Eshton Hall, in Yorkshire, I met with the ori- 
ginals of two Letters relating to the election of a Prioress in the Nunnery 
of St. Bartholomew's, Newcastle on Tyne, which are printed in Hearne's 
Chronicle qf Otterboume and Whethamstede, p. 576-580 ; and referred 
to in Brand's History of Newcastle, p. 228. They are No. 43 and 56 of 
the Correspondence. I found also copies of two Letters from Lord 
Dacre on the same subject, Nos. 42 and 53, of which I enclose you a 
transcript, thinking they may be interesting to the Members of the An- 
tiquarian Society. I am not sure whether I am right in the name in the 
last line but five of No. 42. 

In No. 261 of the same correspondence, a Letter from Lord Dacre 
to Cardinal Wolsey, dated from Morpeth, April 25, 1524, is the follow- 
ing passage concerning the currency of " crossed pence." 

^' Also please it your grace forasmuche as crossed pens has not bene 
occurrant in thes north pties this many yeres past and that now the 
most part of all the money that your grace has sent downe for the pay- 
ment of the Kings garnisons is in pens, your grace must send downe 
certein comissions aswell into this shire of Northumbrland, with Cum- 
brland and Westraland, as into the Beshoprick of Duresme, wherupon 

270 Letters relating to the Nunnery qfSt Barthohmew. 

proclamacions may be made that the Kings subiects may be compelled 
to take the same pens, and thos that doth refuse to take them to be 
punyshed accordingly/' &c. 

Was the Proclamation of 1525, regarding the silver money, mentioned 
by Ruding, voL ii., 8vo. edit., p. 41 7» in consequence of this implica- 


No. 42. Copie of a ire to thabbot of Fontans. 

My Lord Abbot, in my best mail I comend me to youe, and in the 
same wise thanke youe for all yo' kindnes shewed to me and to yo' furst 
filial] my lord Abbot of the monestarie of newmynstre, ascertayning 
youe that aftre the deth of Dame John Baxter, late ^ores of the nunry of 
Sainct Bartilmew of Newcastell, yo' said furst filiall rode thide' and elect 
a new ^ores by the hole consent of all the convent of the house, called 
Dame Agnes Lawson, according as his ^dcessor Abbot Charlton did, 
like as apperith by the election of the same undre the convent scale of 
the said monestarye of newmynstre, notw'standing Doctor Clifton viccar 
generall to my Lord Cardinalls grace w^in his dioc of Duresme has com 
to the said nunrye and disanolled all that yo' said filiall has done, and dis- 
chargied the said ^oresse elect saing, that the jurisdiction therof appte- 
nith to my said Lord Cardinalls grace in the right of his bushoprick of 
Duresme, and neith' to youe nor yo' said filiall, and incontynent aftre 
that the ^misses com to my knowlege I maid laubor to git sight of som 
ficedents in the regisixe of Duresme touching the election of the said 
^ores, wherupon I saw dyvse and many ^cedents where the said jPores 
has bene elect by the officers of the bushop of Duresme, emongest which 
I gat copies of two of the most principall which I send youe herin closed, 
to thintent that ye maye see the right that my said lords grace hath. 
My Lord yo' Lordship knoweth that all that yo' said filiall did was in 
yo' right, wherfore I deasire and prey youe that ye wol plainely and at 
good lienth advertise me or yo' said filiall what is yo' pleas' he shall do 

Letters relating to the Nunnery of St Bartholomew. 271 

in this matter, for as ye shall coSiand hym so shall he do, and if ye 
think that it be yo' right, good it is and also I geve youe my full counseill 
to stik at it, and if ye think that it woll goo against youe I prey youe 
eftsones that Imaye be advtised what ye think that yo' said filiall shall doo, 
for loth I were that he or his hous shuld be in comi)re, and furdermore I 
assure youe that ov and besids the copies which I send youe herin closed 
I have sene in dyvse placs of the said registre of Duresme where my 
Lord of Duresme jPdicessors have confermed infermed and cassat elec- 
tions of the said nunry of Sainct Bertilmewes provided the ^ores, and 
admyt resignacions at sevall tymes, and finally to thintent that the cir- 
cumstaunce of all this matier may be manyfestly knowen (unto youe) I 
send youe at this tyme yo' discrete monk Dane Edward Tirrey, who is 
wise and of substanciall conversacion, and has done muche good here, 
Praing youe that ye wol favorably here hym, and dispatche hym to me 
againe, w* yo' fuU mynde in the ^misses, w^ all convenient celeritie, in 
the which doing ye shall do me singler pleal^, and Jhu ^sve yo' Lord- 
ship. At Morpeth the x daye of Julij anno xv^"" Henrici octavi. 

No. 58. Copie of a ire to maister Cliflpn. 

Maister Clifton, in my best maS I recomend me unto youe, and the 
same wise thank youe for the good mynde ye here to me, wherof I am 
advtised by my singler good frend & fellow M'. Magnus & specially for 
the good will ye here unto elect priores of the nunry of this towne of 
Newcastell, I pceive well by the Regesters of the dioc of Duresme, the 
entreste that my Lords grace has the correction. Notw^standyng the 
countrye ellection which has bene used heretofore wherupon I have 
caused aswell thabbot of newmynstre to advertise thabbot of Fontains 
of the said entrest which mv Lords grace has in the said election, and 
in semblable wise I have advtised the said abbot my self, and as yet we 
have no worde frome hym, wherfore seing the i (said) tyme is so short 
I se not but it is best that ye reasorte hiddre, and according to my said 
Lords grace jurisdiction use yo' self in the said election, praing youe to 
be favorable unto the elect ^ores, for I trust vereyly that ye shall finde her 
most able to be hede of the house of any that is w^in it, and for yo' costs 

^2 Letters relating to the Nunnery of St. Bartholomew. 

and chargiesy which ye shall susteigne herin I shall recompense youe, 
but for the costs and chargs whiche the pore house must here, for the 
confirmation of the election, I se not but the s^d house shalbe enforced 
to make hard shift as ye shall further know. At yo' co^yng and hartely 
fare ye well. At Newcastell the xxj daye of Julij A^ xv"*. H. viij''*. 

Deeds respecting Ae Manor tfOffertm. 178 

XL.-^AlnidgtnenUf m English and Latin, qfjifleen original Ancient 
Deeds respecting the Manor (f Offer ton, in the Comfy (f Durham, 
made and commumated hy Mr. B^. W, Hodgsok, to John Aoamson* 
Esq., Sec. 

Whe^ngton Vicarage, February 2, 19&9. 

Mt father having had a bundle of ancient deeds* respecting the manor 
of Offerton, in the county of Durhanii lately put into his hands, ha3 
employed me in making the following English abstract and copy of 
them ; and as they are curious on account of containing several parti- 
culars respecting the boundaries of that manor, a well and chapel de* 
dicated to St. Cuthbert there, and how that property successively passed 
through the hands of the Basset^ Denum, Thropton, and Coupland 
families, into that of Strother*— which are either not noticed or imper- 
fectly e:Kplained in the Histories of the county of Purbam» be supposes 
they will be considered as valuable supplementary information to the 
labours of the highly distinguished Historians of that county ; and^ 
therefore, requests me to beg the favour of your commupicating them 
to the next meeting of the Antiquarian Society of Newcastle. 

I have tibie honour to be. 

Your obedient Servant, 


• They were the property of Sir Charles Lorame, of Kirkharle, Bert ; aad die brandi of the 
Strothcr hseSly, who were proprieton here, ended ki three eohdnses, loan, the oldest <^ whom 
married Edward Lorame, and Ind for her part of her father's estates Kiridiaiiey in Horthombeiiand, 
and its appendices, and one tfakd of the Itfanor of QfiMon. Kirfcharlc;, b a pariah or manor, and 
still in the posaeasion of the Loram^ £unily«— /. H^ Sec, 

VOL, II. N n 

274 Deeds respecting the Manor qfOfferton. 

1. Omib banc cartam visur vel auditur Witts Basset miles dns de Vffer- 
ton sattm in dno sempiniS . Nonitis me dedisse concessisse ^ hac ^senti 
carta mea confirmasse Johi de Stayndrop dto le coronr totu illud mes- 
suag ^ toftu cu toto firmo % aliis reb5 % catallis meis in dto tenemeto 
inuentis • Videli3 ittd meS ^ toftu qd situa! inr &a qmdam Galfri del hille 
ex pte orient % capellam bi Cuthbti in Vfferton ex pte occid in latitudle 
% qd vocar le Calgarth cu omib3 suis ptinetijs in Vfferton vna cii toto 
muro sicut includir ex q'cGq^ pte cu libis in^ssib3 ^ exitib3 ex q»cunq^ pte 
dti tenemeti p voluntate dti Jobis ^ heredu suoTjl fds vel faciendis • 
Videl3 a coi strata ex pte austrat vsq^ in fonte sci Cuthbti in ead villa ex 
pte boreat in longitudle vnacu vna placia vasti adiacente dto tenemeto 
ex pte australi que continet in se septies viginti % q*ndec! pedes in longi! 
^ triginta ^ q*tuor pedes in latitud • dedi etil % concessi eid Jobi dto le 
coronr hered % assignatis suis duas bouatas terre cu ptinetijs in ead villa 
de Vfferton de dnico meointeg*liter cu tota vesta in dtis duab3 bona? terre 
crescente qual^ una bouata terre sint in manu Pet* filii Thome de Uffer- 
ton ex dimissioe Witti de Bidife q* dtam bona? terre de me tenuit ad 
^Wnu annoljL ^ dna eiM ville alram bouatam terre tenuit de dto WiSo 
de Bidik ad nninu annol^ % que due bouate terre continet in se viginti 
q*tuor ac»s terre sicut jacent in campo de Vfferton suis pcett p siliones. 

1. Sir Wm. Basset, knight, by deed, without date, granted to John de Stayndrop, called 
The ConmeTy all that messuage and toft, with the whole fiurro, and all his other goods and 
chattels found upon the premises : — ^viz., that messuage and toft called the Calgarth, and 
lying between the land late belonging to Geofiry del Hille, on the east, and the chapel of 
the blessed Cuthbert, in Ufferton, on the west, with all its appurtenances in Ufferton, 
together with the wall around it, and free ingress and outgress wherever he or his heirs 
might please : — ^viz., from the common street, on the south, as far as the well of St. Cuthbert, 
on the north, together with a waste place adjoining the said tenement on the south, and 
measuring one himdred and fifty feet in length, and thirty-four in breadth. He also grant- 
ed to the said John, his heirs, and assigns, two bovates of land, with their appurtenances in 
Ufferton, with all his demesne, and all the vesture growing upon the said two bovates of 
land, ,one of which was held by Peter, the 3on of Thomas, of Ufferton, by the demise of 
VS^illiam de Bidick, who held it of Sir William Basset himself, the lady of the said ville 
holding of the same Bidick for a term of years the other bovate, each of which bovates 
contained 24 acres, and were parcelled out in ridges, in the common field of Ufferton, in 
the following manner : — viz. in the Calgarthffat, five selions and a half; in the Middleflat, 

Deeds respecting the Manor qfOfferton. 9^15 

videt3 in le Calgarthflat qnq^ sili5es % dimid . Itm in le Middelflat sex 
silioes • In le Westxidding qtuor silioes . In West strotheracris septe 
silioes % vnu heuedland • In Est strotheracris octo silioes • In le dam- 
flat qHuor silioes. in le schortflat q*tuor siliones ^ dimid . In le kilnflat 
qM;uor siliones • In dedefurlang q*tuor sil:% dimid . In le M'acris octo sii . 
In le Milnflat duodecl silioes • % in le langeflat duodeci sit • Dedi etiS 
% ^cessi eid Johi dto le coronr her % assig suis past'am in oib3 meis sepa- 
lib5 P^st'is in Vfferton ad qtuor boues ad coicand % pascend vbiq^ vbi 
boues mei ibut vel ire de iure debent. vid5 in tota sepali past'a existete 
in manu mea die confectois hui^ carte cu libo introitu % exitu omi tem- 
pe anni nocte % die p volutate dti Johis % her suol^ aut assignat, videl5 
ad coicand in sepalib3 sbs'tas scil3 in le Westmsfe . In le Scrgges • In 
le Wythoch . In faulowley adiacente in Nedersden * Alibi undiq^ ubi 
ego Witts her « assig mei cum bob3 nris coicabim^ vt ibim^ ad pascend 
excepta In. Baxingdon % Cemcohoch • Hend % tenend dto Joiii le coronr 
hered is assig suis omia dta teneffita, &c. Prerea ad hoc volo % ^cedo 
p me her % assig meis qd idem Johes le coronr her % assign sui liba heat 
% teneSt inf ^ villam de Vfferton % ex^ oimoda auia. aucas. gaUos. galli- 
nas. capones. anates. porcos. bidentes. vaccas. eq^'s ^ omia alia aialia % 
pecora p voluntate sua cu libo in^ssu ^ e^ssu absq^ omi impedimeto mei 
vel her meoTji sine assig • Et ad hoc volo % ^cedo p me ^ her meis qd id 
Johes her % assig sui sint libi % qeti de secta curie % aforciameto % de 
secta molend ^ mult*a. sitir volo % ^cedo qd id Johes her % assig sui heat 
libum in^sum '^ e^su. oi tempe anni p sua liba voluntate ad 5ia jPdta ten 
% terras colend repand % emendand . Et ego v"" Witts Basset ^ her mei 
omia ^dta, &c. Warantizabim^ &c. In cui^ &c. Hijs testib3 Witto dno 

six selions; in the Westridding, four selionB; in Weststrotheracres, seven selions and one 
headland ; in Eaststrotheracres, eight selions ; in the Damflat, four selions ; in the Shortflat, 
four selions and a half; in the Kilnflat, four selions ; in Dedefurlang four selions and a half; 
in the Meracres, eight selions ; in the Milnflat» twelve selions ; and in the Langflat, twelve 
selions — ^the said grantor also giving to the said John, his heirs, and assigns, common of 
pasture, in all his separate pastures in Ufferton, for four oxen ; viz. in the Westmersk, in the 
Scrogges, in le Wythock, in Fawlowley adjoining to Nedersden, and where the said Wil- 
liam, his heirs and assigns, with their oxen, had common-right, or have gone to feed, except 
in Baxingdon and Cerncohoch. 

276 Deeds respecHng the Manor qf Offer ton. 

de hington . Ro^o de Essche • Robto de Lambton Henr de Lomely . 
Witto de Wodesend • Ro^o dno de Birdon • Stepho filio suo . RiSo 
Pinchard de herington • Elia Scot • Galf r de Refhop ciico • Ro^o de 
Essche juniore • Jo)ie Pouncyn • Nicho filio Per de Pencher % aliis. 

t. Vnidsifl ad quosf sens sc'ptumpuenit Witts Basset miles sattm in dno . 
NoSitis me concessisse JoU de Deno qd omes tire « ten cu ptinenf in 
Ufferton que % q's Alicia filia Henr de hombi « Petr^ filius eiusdem 
Alicie tenent ad ^inu vite eol^dem Alicie ^ Petri • Et que post deces* 
sum eo^dS Alicie % Petri mihi Witto Basset « heredib5 meis reSti de- 
berent • remaneant^to Johi heredib3 % assigtis suis tenend de capitalib3 
dnis feodi illius p saicia inde debita ^ consueta im^m • Et ego &c.— - 
Hijs te8tib3 dno Robto de Hilton • Waltero de Wessington militib5. 
Jotie de Bydyke • Ro^o de Esche • Robto de Lambton • Rdbto fit Henf 
de Lumley . Witto de Knicheley « aliis. 

3. Hec est finalis concordia facta in cur dni Dunelm Epi apud Dunelm«u 
die Martis pxla post festum Eptiie dni anno regni dni Edwardi Regis 
Angt tlij a conquestu vicesimo quinto et regni sui Franc duodecimo et 
ponf dni Thome Epi septimo coram Thoma Gray Thoma de SetonRo^ de 
Blaykeston % Petro de Richmund justic assigfi « aliis dti dni Epi fide* 
lib3 tunc ibi ^sentib3 inr Ricm de Scardeburgh capelim quer % Johem 
de Thropton <^ Isabellam ux^em euis deforc de manio de Vfierton cum 
ptiii % vno mesuagio centu % sexdecim acris tre quinq^ acris p^ti « quinq^ 
acris bosci cum ptin in West-heryngton cum liba piscaria in aqua de 

Were in eadem vitta • Vnde pii^m conuencois fuit inr 

eos ibi eadem cur sciit qd ^dti Johes % Isabella recogn ^ta maneriu « 

2. A d«ed poll without date, by Tdiich Sir William Basset granted to John de Denuxn, all 
his lands and tenements, with their appurtenances in Ufferton, which Alice, the daughter 
of Henry de Hornby, and Peter the son of the said Alice, held for the term of their lives. 

S. Fme of Ufferton, in the Bishop of Durham's court at Durham, in 25 Hen. 3, 1241, be- 
tween Richard de Scardeburgh, phuntiff, and John de Thropton and his wife Isabella, de- 
forceants, concerning the manor of Ufferton, one messuage, 116 acres of land, 5 acres of 
meadow, 5 acres of wood, with appurtenances in West-Herrington, and free fishing in the 
water of Were, by which it was agreed, that the premises should remain to the said John 
and Isabella for their lives, and after their death to John de Coupland and Joan his wife 
and the heirs of the said John, for which iSine the said Thropton and Coupland and their 
wives, gave one soar hawk. 

Deeds respecting the Manor qfOfferton. 277 

teS cu ptiS esse ius ipius Rici vt ilia que idem Riciis het de dono ^dto^^ 
Joius ^ Isabelle • £t p hac recogn idem Ricus concessit jPdtis JoU « 
Isabelle ^dta maneriu ^ ten cG ptin • Et ilia eis reddidit in eiadem cur. 
Hend % tenend vidett ^dtm maneriu de capitalib3 dnis feodi illius % omia 
alia ten de dno Epo « successorib3 suis p suicia que ad f^dta maneriu ^ 
ten ptinent tota vita ipo'^ Jofiis ^ Isabelle • Et post decessum ipo^ Jo- 
l&is ^ Isabelle jpdtu maneriu % ten cu ptin integre remanebunt Jotii de 
Coupland % Johanne u^i eius ^ hedib^ ipius Joliis . Tenend vidett 
jPdfm maneriii de capit dnis feodi illius ^ alia ten de dno Epo % succes- 
soribj suis p ^uicia que ad jpdta maneriu % ten ptinent imppfm • Prerea 
jPdtus Ricus concessit p se % heredib3 suis qd ipi waranti3abunt jPdtis 
J<^ de Thropton ^ Isabelle ^dta maneriu % ten cum ptm sicut ^dtm 
est tota vita ipo^ Joliis de Thropton % IsabeUe et etiam post decessum 
eo^dem Johis « Isabelle ^tis Johi de Coupland % Johanne « iiedib3 
$ius Jotis coat* omes holes i°^p^m • Et p hac recogn concessione 
redditone warantia fine % concordia ^dti Johes, Isabella Joiies « Jo- 
hanna dederunt ^dto Rico vnu espuariu sorum • Et hec concordia quo 
ad jpdta ten in Westheryngton facta fuit p jPceptu ipius dni Epi . — 

4. Hec est conuencio fca inr dnu Henricum de Guldeford ciicum dni 
Regis ex vna parte % Johem de Denum ex alra • videlicet . qd dtus dns 
Henricus concessit % ad firmam dimisit dto 3(Aii maneriu suu de VfTer- 
ton in i$atu Dunelffi vt in edificiis, gardinis, bosds p^tis &s pasturis * 
oimib3 aliis pficuis dto maSio quoquomodo infra villam de V£ferton vel 
extra q)'i:antib3 iUud scil ; quod dtus dns Henric>^ iiuit ex dono % con- 
cessione dni Wi&i Basset . Habend ^ tenend dto Jotii « heredib3 suis 
vel suis assignatis vsq^ ad nninu dece anno^ pxo sequentiu plenaf com- 
plete^ nnino incipiente in festo sci Midlis Archan^i anno dni • M'^ccc'' 
s^>timo de jpdto dno Henr * heredib3 suis p §uic vm9 rose in festo Na- 
tivi! so Joliis Bapte p omib3 secularib3 suiciis ^ demandis dto dno Henr 
vel heredib3 suis sp'iantib3 . Et fadend p jpdto dno Henrico capitalib3 
dnis feodi suicia inde debita ^ consueta • Hijs testib3 dno Henrico de 

4* An agreement dated at Londcniy in 1307^ between Sir Henry de Guldeford> clerk to the 
King, and John de Denum, by which the said Henry demised for the term of 10 years, to 
the said John, the manor of Ufferton, which the said Henry had obtained by a grant from 
Sir Wm* Basset 

278 Deeds respecting the Manor qfOfferton. 

Scrop . Wittmo de Herle . Galfro de Scrop . Johi de Dudden • Johe Ga- 
lum % aliis • Da{ London in festo sci michis archangti anno sup'dto. 
. 5. Ista indentura testa' qd cum Johes de Denum recupasset seysinam 
suam p bre none disseyS versus diis Wills Basset milif de vno mesuag . 
Centu ac*s tre • duodecim acris bosci • Trecentis acris more % pasture in 
Vfiurton corS Lambto de Trik3mgham % sociis suis die ve3is px post 
festu sci Georgii martyr anno dni miUo trecentessimo decimo et conse- 
cracois dni Antonij di gra tuc epi dunelm vicesimo septimo . Conuenit 
in? dtos Wittm ^ Johem qd id Joiies no sequef executoem judicij 

^dci none disseysine ante die Lune pxm post festu 

sci Jacobi apii px sequent post diem confectiois jPsentiu . Ad que die si 
dtus dns Witts hedes vi attomati sui ve3int in monasno Dunolfn % solue- 
rint dto Johi !iedib3 vi ctis attomatis suis • Centu et decern marcas ar- 
genti bone % legalis monete dtus Joiies no exequet' n"" faciet execucioem 
judicii • immo remittet % quietu clamabit dto dno Willo % )iedib3 suis 
totu Jus % clameum qd habet vi habere potest • p se % tied suis in ^dtis 
&is % tenemetis % sc*pta que ht de dno Henr de Guldeford eid dno Wifio 
^')iedib3 suis cu q*eta clamacoe totius juris quod habuit in dtis tenemetis 
sursum reddet • Et si cotingat qd dtus dns Witts hered vi attomati sui 
ad ^dtm temp^ dto Joiii hed vi assignaf suis • Ut ^tum est de dtis centu 
% decem marcis no satisfecmt • Ide dns Witts vult % cocedit qd dtus 
Joiies iieat dta ten scd for*m recupacois ^dte . Hoc tamen obseruato i 
Quod si dtus Witts hedes vi attomati sui soluerint dto Jolii heredib? ^ 
assignatis suis q'traginta % duas lib*s argenti in monastio Dunoim in festo 
sci m^chaelis archangii Anno dni mitto trecentessimo vicesimo . Id Johes 
hered % assignati sui reddent libabut dto dno Witto ^ iiedib3 suis dta 
tenefhta tenenda imppe&n . Sin ante i dta tenemta dto Johi % )iedib3 suis 
remanebut imppm • Prerea dts Witts faciet dto Johi talem statu de p*to 
qd Petrus de Marisco vsus eund Wittm recupauit vi de redditu sexa^ 
ginta solido^ inde puenienf qualem habebit de tenemtis antedictis In 

5. Indenture dated at Durham in 1310, showing that John de Denum having recovered 
possession, by writ of novel disseisin against Sir William Basset, knight, of one messuage, 
100 acres of land, 12 acres of wood, and 300 acres of moor and pasture in Ufferton ; the 
parties now enter into certain covenants which confer on Denum his heirs and assigns ex-- 
clusive possession of the premises. 

Deeds respecting the Manor qfOffirton. 279 

cui^ rei testimoniu ptib5 istius indenture sigilla ptm alniatim sut appo- 
sita . Da! dunolm die veSia px post festu sci Georgii martyr Anao dni 
mifi:o trecentesimo decimo.. 

6. Pateat uoi^sis p ^sentea qd ego Wi^ Basset retnisi % quietu clamaui 
Johi de Denu totil jus ¥ clam qd hui ia omibus rris pratis faoscis moris 
pasturis in Vfiurton contends infra diuisas subscriptas videlic3 incipiendo 
deaqua de Were <c sic ascendendo p rectas diuisas inr mim de Vfiurton 
^ man Wifli de Kukenni de Melbumley usq^ summitate de Grimeshop, « 
de Grimeshop p linialem supficiem pasture que vocatur le Mersk usq^ ca- 
pellam de Vfiurton, « de capella inter st^iorem parte culture que vocat' 
le Scbortflat % culturam que vocatur kilnflat vsq^ Aldewell « sic usq^ su- 
piore ptem pasture « p supiorem ptem pasture sicut pastura se iunxit 
^e arabili usq^ in Edresden <c p Edresden usq^ ad aquS de Were, « sic 
p aqi^ de Were ascendendo usq^ ad langschauden, % Melbumley, ha- 
bend "B tenend predto 3<M. <c hedib3 suis in suo seperali omi tempe anni 
cum suis ptinencijs de capital! dno feodi p seruicia inde debita ^t con- 
sueta . Et ego Wiits « hedes mei omia ^ta tenementa cum ptinen- 
cijs §dto JoU )iedib3 « assignatis cent? omes ho- 
mines Waranti5abimu8 <e defendemus imppetuu. 
In cuius rei testimoniu ^sentibz sigillu meu ap- 
posui . Hijs testibus . dno Walto de Wessington . 
Johe de Bydlk . Ro^o de Esse seniore . Ro^o 
de Esse juniore . Rico de Sanndoun ^ aliis . Da! 
apud Vfiurton die lune pxia post festu aci Petri ad 
vineula, Anno regni Regis Edward fit regis Ed- 
wardi sexto. 

6. A deed poll, dated IS12, by which William Basset released to John de Denum, all the 
right and claim which he had in his lands in Ufierton, hy boundaries hereunder written, 
viz^ beginning at the water of Wear, and so ascending b; the right bounds between the bnd 
of William de Kukenni, from Melbumley, to the summit of Grimeshope, and from thence 
in a line with the outside of the pasture, which is called the Mersk, to the ch^lof Uferton, 
and from the chapel between the upper part of the culture which is called the Shortflat, and 
to the culture which is called the Kilnflat, to Aldwell, and so to the upper part of the pas- 
ture, and by the ui^>er part of the pasture where the pasture joins itself with the arable 
land unto Edresden, and by Edresden to the water of Wear, and so ascending by the 
water of Wear to Langshawden and Melbumley. 

880 Deeds respecting the Manor qf Offer ton. 

7. Pateat vniuersis p ^sentes qd ego Wilhis Basset remisi ^ quietum 
clamaui Jdiii de Denum totum jus « clam qd hui uel habere potui in 
maSio de Vfferton cum ptin • Hiid % tenend dto JoU heredib3 ^ assig- 
natis suis • Ita q nee ego §Ah Wiflms • heredes mei nee aliquis nomie 
nro aliquod ius uel dam in ^dto manerio exigere poterimus imppetuum • 
Et ego So Wittms « her. &c. Waranti3abim^ « defendemus imppe- 
tuum • In cul^ rei testimonium presenti sc^pto sigillum meum appo- 
sui . Da! dunolm die mart px an ftn Epiphan dni • Anno regni regis 
Edwardi fit regis Edwardi decimo . Hijs testibus • Dno WalPo de 
Wessington . Johe de Bydik • Ro^o do Esscli • Simoe fre eius • He- 
lia Scot « aliis. 

8. Omnib5 ad quos j^sens scriptu puenerit • Cristiana que fuit ux 
Henrici procuratoris de Medilton . Salhxx in dno NoSitis me in pura 
viduitate mea remississe relaxasse % omnino de me « heredib3 meis 
quietu clamasse • Johi de Thropton % Isabella uxi eius % heredib3 ipius 
Isabelle • totu jus « clameu • que • habui habeo • seu quouismodo • ha« 
bere poro in manerio de Vfferton • « omib^ nis <« tenementis • reddi- 
tib3 . possessionib3 . cu suis ptinentijs que ^ quas • ego • ^dta Cristiana • 
% jPdti . Johes ^ Isabella habuim^ • de dono % concessione . Willi fit 
Robti de Denu . in ^to manerio de Vfferton ^ Wodhall in Westher- 
ington % Melburnley • Et etil in reuersione oim tra':^ ^ tenemento^ 
ibide de pfato Witto tentol^ ibide ad nninu vite vel anno^ vel in dote 
Ac etiam seruiciis liberoljL tenementorii . ibide . Ita videli3 qd nee • ego • 
^ta Christiana . nee heredes mei nee aliquis • alius • noie nro in ^dto 
manerio • ms tenementis • redditib3 • possessionib3 • reuersioue % serui- 
cijs aliquid . exigere vel vendicare ponm^ in futuru • Sed ab omi accione 
juris ^ cuiuscumq^ damei • inde sim^ . exclusi • imppetuu . Preterea 
&c. Hijs testib3 • Witto de Faudon • Henrico de Faudon . Henrico de 

7. Release of William Basset to John de Denum of all right which he had in his manor of 
Ufferton, dated at Durham, in 1317^ 

8. Release dated at Midelton, near Denum, 1340, by which Christian, the widow of Henry 
Proctor, of Midelton, quit claimed to Jota de Thropton and Isabella his wife, and to the heirs 
of the said Isabella, all right which Ae had in the manor of Ufferton, which right the said 
Christian, John, and Isabella acquired by a grant of William, the son of Robert de Denum> 
in the said manor of Offerton and Wodhall, in WestJierrington and Melburnley. 

Deeds respecting the Manor qfOfferton. 281 

Medilton • Thoma Gray . Johe de Herll ^ alijs Daf apud MidUton 
iuxta Denu • die • dinca pxa post festu sci Hillar • Anno dni M^'ccc"^ 

9* Hec indentura fca apud Ufferton in? Wiihn fit Robti de Denu ex 
pte vna % Johem de Thropton % Isabellam vxore eius ex pte alra testaf 
qd cu ^tus Wifius fii Robti feoffituerit Cristiana que fuit uxor Henrici 
le procurator de Medilton % ^dtos Johem % Isabella de maSio de Vffer- 
ton . le Wodhall « Melbumley cu ptin in Westherington simul cu re9- 
sionib5 omniu ti'a':^ ^ tenemento^ apud Vfferton ^ Westlier3n[igton ad 
tminu vite vel anno':^ vel in dotem de pdto Wilio tunc tento'^ • Tenend 
^fatis Christiane Johi ^ Isabelle % liedib5 ipius Christiane de capitalib5 
dnis feodi iUius p raicia que ad tenementa ilia ptinent imppetuu • Red- 
dend inde annuatim ^fato Wifio % heredib3 suis quadraginta libras ar- 
genti ad duos anni tminos ad festa Pentecost % sd Martini in hyeme p 
equales por£6es • Ita qd si j^dtus redditus quadraginta libra^ ad alique 
nninu p quadraginta dies in pte vel in toto aretro fuere extunc bene 
liceret ^fato Witto ^ hedib3 suis in omib3 ms ^ tenementis ^dtis intrare 
X sibi imppetuu retinere i Postea ^fata Christiana remisit relaxauit ^ 
omnino de se heredib3 suis imppetuu quietu clamauit ^fatis Johi % Isa- 
belle % heredib3 ipius Isabelle totum ius % clameu que huit seu aliquo 
modo habere potuit in omib3 tVis % tenementis % reusionib3 ^tis • Sup 
que jPdtus Witts vult « concedit p se * heredib3 suis qd si idem Witts 
p'usq^ p ^fatos Johem % Isabella de omib3 nis tenementis ^ re9sionib3 

9. A deed, executed by way of Indenture, and dated at Ufferton, 1S41, between William 
the son of Robert de Denum, and John de Thropton, and Isabella his wife, shows that the 
said William having enfeofed Christian the widow of Henry the proctor of Middleton, and 
the said John and Isabella, in the manor of Ufferton, the Wodhall, and Melburnley, with 
their appurtenances in Westherrington, together with the reversion of all the lands and 
tenements at Ufferton and Westherrington, for the term of life, or of years, or in dower 
then held of the said William, to hold by the said Christian, John, and Isabella, and the 
heirs of Christian herself, of the chief lord by the annual rent of 40/. of silver : and the 
said Christian having afterwards released to the said John and Isabella, and the heirs 
of Isabella, all her right in the premises « — Now, by this Indenture, the said William 
grants, that if he should die without issue, the said rent of 40/. should be annulled, and the 
reversion of all the said lands, &c. should belong to the said John and Isabella, and should 
be wholly exonerated from the said rent. 


282 Deeds respecting the Manor qfQfferton. 

^dictis refeoffef tenend sibi « l9Ledib5 de coipore suo legitime pSatis 
obierit tunc ^dtus reddit^ quadraginta libra']}^ p nullo heat' sed peoit^ 
adnullef . Et etiam si j^dti Johes ^ Isabella jPfatu Wittm de omb3 ^ris ^ 
tenementis ^tis simul cu re§siomb3 feoffent competanr tenend sibi % 
)iedib3 de corpore suo legitime pcreatis • Vult idem Wifls ^ concedit p 
se « heredibj suis qd si ipe Witts sine herede de corpore suo legitime 
pcreatis obierit tunc omia ^dta tre « tenementa % reusiones j^fatis Johi 
99 IsabeUe ^ )iedib3 ipius Isabelle integre reStant" • £t qd omia ^ta 9re 
^ tenementa « rensiones de ^to redditu quadraginta Ubra^ vsus quos- 
cuq^ heredes ipius Willi sint quieta « de ^dto redditu quadraginta libra'^ 
exhoneret' imppetuii . In cuius &c. Hijs testib3 Johe de Menevyi) tunc 
vie Duhelm . Simone de Essh . Walro de Ludeworth . Johe Harp3ai • 
Gilbto fii Thome de Holum • Ricardo Mirison de Heryngton • Johe Co* 
gur % alijs . Da! apud Vfferton die sabati in vigilia see Trinitatis anno 
dni M"" ccc°^ quadragesimo j^mo. 

10. — Piita de juf % assiS cap! apud Dunelm cor3 Ricardo de Aldburgh 
Ro^o de Essh Thoma de Fencotes ^ Ro^o de Blaykeston justiciarijs 
dni Epi assigna! apud Dunelm die Martis in Septimana Pasche anno 
Regni Reg Edwardi tdj a conquestu decimo octauo . Regni vero sui 
Franc quinto . Et pon! dni Ricardi de Bury Dunelm Epi duodeci- 
mo • Thomas de Ebo^ % Agnes ux eius petunt vsus Johem de 
Thropton % Isabella uxem eius % Wifim fii Johis de Thropton vnu 
mesuagiu ^ decem acras nre cu ptin in Vfferton vt ius % hereditarie ipius 
Agnetis et in que ijdem Johes Isabella % Wittus non habent ingrm nisi 
post disseiam qua Thomas de herington • chiualer inde iniuiste % sine 
iudicio fecit Jobi Marrays patri ^dte Agnetis cui^ heres ipa est post 
&c. — Et vnde idem Thomas % Agnes dicunt qd ^dtus Johes Marrays 
pater ^dti Agnetis cui^ heres ipa est sint seisitus de ^tis tenementis cu 

10. In a suit at the Assizes at Durhaoiy Easter Teraiy 18 Edward III., 1345, Thomas, of 
York, and Agnes his wife, daughter and heir of John Marrays, plaintiffs, against John de 
Thropton and Isabella his wife, and William, son of John de Thropton, respecting a mes- 
suage and ten acres of land in Ufferton— when the defendants shewed that the said Agnes^ 
before her marriage, released to them all right in the premises with warrantry, &c. ; on 
which the court adjudged the plaintiflBs to be in misrioordia prof also clamore. 

Deeds respecting (he Manor qfOfferton. 283 

ptin in dinco suo ut de feodo % jure tempe pacis tempe dni An- 
tonij quondSL Epi Dunelfii ^decessoris dni Epi nunc capiendo inde 
explef ad valent %c. Et de ipo Johe descendit jus &c. isti Agneti vt 
filie % heredi que nunc petit simul %c. Et in que %c. Et inde pducunt 
sects %c. Et Johes Isabella % Wittus veil • Et defendunt ius suu ^^^c. 
Et Wittus dicit qd ipe nihil habet in ^tis ten ad ^sens %c. Et Joiies % 
Isabella dicunt qd ipi sunt tenentes de j^dtis tenementis • Et dicunt qd 
^ta Agnes p nomen Agnetis filie % heredis Joiiis Marrays du sola 
fuit p scriptu suu remisit relaxauit % omnino p se % heredib5 suis imp- 
petuu quietii clamauit ^dtis Johi de Thropton % Isabelle « heredib5 ipius 
Isabelle • totu jus % clameu que habuit habet sen quoquomodo habere 
pont in iuturu in vno mesuagio % decern acris rre cu ptiii in Vfferton 
quequeds tenementa sunt eadem tenementa nunc petita . Ita qd nee 
ipa nee heredes sui nee aliquis noie suo aliquod jus vel clameu in ^tis 
tenementis extunc exigere vel vendicare poterunt set ab omi accione 
juris p ^tu scriptu exclusi essent imppetuu • Et obligauit se ^ heredes 
suos ad War • ^dtis Johi % Isabelle % heredib5 ipius Isabelle • Et pfert hie 
in cur ^d!m scriptu sub noie ^dte Agnetis quod hoc testat' et petiuit judi- 
ciu si ^ti Thomas % Agnes cont'f^m ipius Agnetis accione habere debe- 
ant %c. Et^tiThomas% Agnes non possunt dedicerequin^fm scriptu sit 
factu jPdte Agnetis du sola fuit • Ideo considerat' est qd ^dti Joiies x 
Isabella eant inde sine die et ^dti Thomas % Agnes nich capiant p bre 
suii set sint in mia p falso clamor %c. 

11. Omib3 sc'ptum visur \i: auditur Hugo filius Witti Basset militis 
saitm in dno . Nouitis me remisisse Witto filio Robti de Denum p se ^tr 
heredib3 suis % suis assignatis totum ius % clameii qd bui vi aliquo modo 
habere potui in omib3 illis rris % tenementis simul cu reusionib3 eofl^Am 
n^Xkon boscis redditib3 suiciis libo'ljL bondis bondagiis cu eo^ sequelis % 

11. Release by Hugh, son of Sir William Basset, knt. to William, son of Robert de De- 
num, of aU right which he had in the land, tenements, reversions, woods, &c. in Ufferton 
and Pencher, which at one time belonged to the said Sir William Basset, his father, and 
which the said William de Denum had, and ought to have, by hereditary descent, after 
the death of his brother John de Denum. No date, but Sir Thomas Surtays was seneschall 
to the Bishop of Durham in 1S56. 

284 Deeds respecting the Manor (^Offertm. 

catallis iuis omibj ac vniSsis ptinentijs que fuerunt aliquo tempe dti 
Witti Basset pat's mei in Vffertoti % in Pencher quas quidem tiras is te- 
nementa bosCos tedditus ^ suicia litk)'^ idem Witts habet ^ habere 
debet p decensum heditariu post morte Joiiis de Denum fratris sui in 
Vfierton % in Pencher . Ita qd d' ego Hugo Basset jPpb n"" hedes mei &c. 
aliquod jus in predictis tenementis , &c. decero exi^e vt vendicare pos- 
sim^ infutur • Et ego Hugo ^tus ^ hedes mei o&s tiras % tenementa 
^ta &c. Warantijabim^ imppetuu • Et sciend est qd si aliqui redditus 
vi seruicia, aJiquo^ VHboli hominu, qui de dto Wifio Basset patre meo 
tenebanf in V£ferton p eo qd dto Johni de Denu, no attomauerunt vi 
pp? aliquS aliam cam aliquo modo aretro sint i omes redditus a suicia 
V^Tl \n? simi cQ bondis bondagiis % eo^ sequdis ^dto Wilio fit Robti 
de Denum, p se « hedib5 suis et assignatis^ p jPsens scutum do, concedo, 
% confirmo • Ita qd ipe Witts de Denum, hedes sui, % sui assignati in 
bosco de Pencher ^ in maSio de Vfferton cu oniib3 suis ptinent • simul 
Cli rei^sione tra^ % tenemento^ que Alicia de Horneby « Petnis filius 
eius tenent ad rmiou vite sue in Vfferton plenu dominiii hafoeant • sine 
aliquo retenemento • In cui^ rei &c. si^lu meu &c. Hijs testib5, Dno 
Thoma Surtays tunc senescatt Dunotm, Witto de Wallewortfa vicecomite, 
Johe Darcy, Stephno de Birdon, Symone de Esche ^ aliis. 

IS. Omib5 hoc sc'ptii visur vel auditur Johes de Coupland « Joha vSL 
eius saHm in dno Nomtis nos concessisse « ad firmam demississe Pat^cio 
Charts % Alicie ux^'i eius maSiu nrm de Vffertom ac omia alia tiras ^ te* 
netnenta cii suis ptm que habuim^ de dono % feofikmento Johis de 
Thropton infra Episcopatu Dunelfn hend % tenend j^dtu maniu &c p 
centu annos px seqnen! ^tis Pat'icio « Alicie ^ hedib^ legitime pcreaf 
Reddendo nobis % )iedib5 mei ^dti Johis annuatim vnu denar argenti ad 
festu natalis dni si petat' Et nos vero ^dti Johnes « Joiina % hedes mei 
^!m maniu • Waranti3abim5' « In cui^ rei he. Da! apud Vfferton die 
sabati px post festum sa Jacobi apli anno regni regis Edwardi ttij .post 
conquestu Angt tricesimo primo. 

12. A Deed poll by whidi John de Coupland and Joan his wife demised to Patrick Char- 
ters, and Alice his wife, their manor of Ufferton, and all other lands, &c. which they had, 
by the gift of John de Thropton, within the Bishoprick of Durham, for 100 years, by the 
yearly rent of one silver penny if demanded, dated at Uffisrton, 1S57. 

Deeds respecting the Manor qfOfferton. 285 

13. Pateat vniSsis p ^sentes qdt ego Alicia quondl nx Pat'cij Chai& 
remisi relaxaui % omino p me % )iedib5 ™^^^ imppetuu qiuetu clamaui 
Jotii de Coupland % Johe ux""! eius % !iedib3 % assignatis ipius Johnis f 
totum ius % clameu que vnq^m hui, heo seu quouismodo bre poro in futu- 
rum in man^io de Vfferton cum ptiii ac in omib3 tris ^ ten cu ptin vocaf 
la Wodhall in Westherington . Ita qd nee ego &c. Da? apud Newh'm 
die dnica pxpost festum conusionis sci Pauli annodni Millesimotrecen- 
tesimo sexagesimo scdo. 

14. Omib3 hoc scriptu visuris vel audituris Thomas de Midelton 
psona ecctie de Lyth' satfm in dno • Cum Thomas de Hexham tenet 
maniii de Vfferton infra libtate Dunolih cum omib3 suis ptin de me « 
}ledib3 meis ud rminu vite Johanne que fuit ux Johis de Coupland • 
Reddend inde annuatim mihi % heredib3 meis decem marcas ad festa 
Pentecos? % sci Martini in yeme p equales porcoes • Ita qd post deces- 
sum ^dte Johanne ^dtm maniu cum omib3 suis ptin mihi % heredib3 
meis integre reSterat • Nouitis me ^dtm Thoma de Middelton dedisse 
Alano del Strother heredib3 % assign suis ^tm redditu decem marca'ljL 
cum reusione dti manij . cum decedent vna cum suicijs tam libo':^ te- 
nentiu q^ natiuo'^ cu pratis boscis % pasturis ^ omib3 alijs pti3 j^dto 
maSio quoquomodo spectantib3 . H'end &c. Hijs testib3 Robto de 
Wiclyff ctico, Witto de Gascoyne, WiSo de Crayk ciico . Rico de Mid- 
dleton . Sampsone Hardyng % alijs . Da? London sextodecimo die De- 
cembf anno regni Regis Edwardi rtij post conquestu Angt quadragesimo 

13. Release by Alice, the widow of Patrick Charters, to John de Coupland and Joan his 
' wife, of all right she ever had, or could in future have, in the manor of Ufferton, with its 

appurtenances, and in the lands called the WodhaU, in Westherrmgton, with their appur- 
tenances, dated at Newham, 1362. 

14. Thomas de Hexham having had a lease of the manor of Ufferton granted to him for 
the term of the life of Joan, widow of John de Coupland, to hold of Thomas de Middleton^ 
parson of the church of Lyth, at the yearly rent of ten marks, the said Thomas de Middle- 
ton, by deed poll, dated at London, 17th December, 1371, granted the said rent, and the 
reversion of the whole of the said manor to Alan del Strother, his heirs and assigns for 


286 Deeds respecHng the Manor ofQffh'ton. 

15. Omib3 hanc cartam indentatam vlsuris vel audituris Witts Stro- 
ther fit « heres Witti Strother nup de Walyngton in com Northumbr 
armi^ saHm in dno sempirnam . Sciatis me dedisse concessisse % hac 
^septi carta mea indentata confirmasse Alexo Cok ciico vicar ecctie 
Noui Castri sup Tjmam Witto hardyng armi^o Johi Marton ctico Robto 
Morpath alias dto Robto Barker ciico % Henr Sele ctico maniu % villam 
mea de Vfferton • cum ptin &c. que heo in ^ta villa de Ufferton % alibi 
infra com Dunelm • tiend % tenend omia jPdta eisdem Alexo, &c. imp- 
petuu . Et ego vero ^tus WiSs Strother fit Witti omia ^ta, &c. cont* 
omes gentes Waranti3abim^, &c. Et ad intrand p me % noie meo in 
^ta assignaui % loco meo posui dittos mihi in xpo Johem Turpyn de 
Nouo Castro sup Tynam is Wittm Virly de Ufferton j^dta attomatos 
meos spciales . Hijs testib3 Jolie Midilton • Witto Swynburn militib3 . 
Robto Raymes . ThomaWeltden . Rico Weltden . Witto Shaflhowe . Johe 
Herle. % multis alijs • Daf vicesimo quarto die Septembr anno regni 
regis Henrici sexto post conqueS Angt tricesimo primo. 

15. By indenture bearing date 24th September, 31 Henry VI., 1452, William, the son of 
William Strother, ofWallington, Esq. granted to Alexander Cok, clerk, vicar of Newcastle 
upon Tyne, William Hardynge, Esq. and others, the manor of Ufferton, and all his other 
lands in the county of Durham, to hold of the chief lord of the fee with waranty, and 
making John Turpyn, of Newcastle, and William Virly, of Ufferton, his attorneys to give 

On the Murder qfLard Francis Russell. 887 

XLI. — Papers relative to the Murder of Lord Francis Russell, at Hea- 

pethgatehead, on the Middle Marches, between England and Scotland^ 

communicated by Captain Samuel £• Cook, R. N., and accompanied 

hy an eaplanatory Letter from the Rev. John Hodgson, Sec, to John 

Adamson, Esq., Sec. 

Whelpington, October 15, 1829. 
Dear Sir, 

Captain Cook some time ago communicated to me his wish to contri. 
bute to the Transactions of the Society any paper or document in the 
British Museum, or the public offices, which might be pointed out to 
him * as illustrative of the history of this country ; and, in May last, I 
showed him certain letters and proceedings respecting the murder of 
Lord Francis Russell in 1585, which he thought interesting, and of 
which I have received from him a copy, under the date of Brigh- 
ton, 4th July, 1829) and now transmit it to you to lay before the next 
meeting of the Society. 

The documents you will find arrange themselves into four divisions, 
upon each of which I will endeavour to make a few preliminary remarks, 
by way of illustrating the subject to which they relate. 

I. — The Manner of the Slaughter qfihe Lord Russell. 
The time and manner of the death of this young nobleman are facts 
well authenticated in history ; but there wants a few notices of his 
family and himself, drawn up in the order of time, to show by what 
chain of circumstances he was drawn so far from home, and induced, 
in peaceful times, to be present at the border meeting in the bleak and 
lonely part of the Cheviot Hills where he met with his untimely end. 


288 On the Murder qfLord Francis Russell. 

Francis Russell, the second Earl of Bedford, was a nobleman who 
made a conspicuous figure during the early part of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign. Collins calls him ** The Great Earl** ; and in allusion to 
his great hospitality, Queen Elizabeth used to say of him, that he ** made 
all the beggars/' She also employed him much in northern affidrs, and 
about the latter end of the year I069, appointed him to succeed the 
Lord Grey de Wilton, as governor of Berwick and warden of the East 
Marches. In the following year, he and Sir Thomas Randolph, the 
resident English minister at the Court of Scotland, were commissioners 
in the conference holden at Berwick for negociating Queen Elizabeth's 
cruel and tantalizing proposition to marry Mary, queen of Scots, to her 
own favourite, Robert Dudley, afterwards earl of Leicester. To his 
offices of governor of Berwick and warden of the East Marches, he had 
added that of Lieutenant of the counties of Durham, Northumberland, 
Cumberland, and Westmorland, upon which he entered about July 20, 
1565, when he came to Berwick, and, under secret instructions from his 
mistress, gave all the assistance in his power to the measures of the 
Scottish nobility, who were opposed to Mary's marriage with Darnley. 
In the following year, however. Queen Elizabeth was requested to be- 
come godmother to James, prince of Scotland, and Bedford was sent 
with a splendid retinue to Stirling, where, on December 15, as ambas- 
sador and proxy for the English queen, he made an offering of a font 
of pure gold, and stood as surety for the royal infant : after which, 
according to Melville, he became one of the surest and most affectionate 
friends the Scottish queen had in England. These notices seem suffi- 
cient for the purpose of pointing out the connection, which the Bedford 
family had with the north of England, in the early part of Elizabeth's 
reign. In 1568, the earl was succeeded in the government of Berwick 
and the East Marches by Lord Hounsdon, a near relation of the queen's 
and after that time noway appears, as far as I have seen, on the annals 
of the Borders. 

Before he entered upon these offices. Sir John Forster, a gentleman of 
very considerable property in Northumberland, had begun to signalize 
himself for his bravery and military skill. He was one of the captains 

On the Murder qfLord Francis Russell. 289 

in the great foray into Scotland in 1557, when the houses of Linten 
and sixteen other towns were sacked and burnt, and all their com de- 
stroyed. " In this skirmish, Sir John Forster fought bravely, was sore 
wounded, and had his horse killed under him, and to his prowess was 
chiefly ascribed the victory gained by his countrymen.'* The Duke of 
Norfolk thought him the only man in Northumberland fit to serve in 
that species of warfare ; and during the siege of Berwick, in 1560, in- 
trusted him with the chief command of a considerable body of light 
horsemen, which he had levied for the purpose of acting offensively and 
defensively in the Middle Marches. In 1563, the Earl of Bedford made 
him his deputy warden in the East Marches, in which capacity he at- 
tended Mary, the beautiful queen of Scotland over Hallidon Hill, towards 
Berwick, for the purpose of showing her from some short distance what 
Camden calls ** munitissimum totius Britannice opptdumJ^ When the 
northern rebeUion broke out in 1569f he was Lord Warden of the Mid- 
dle Marches, and continued to hold that office till about the year 15 • • , 
when he was succeeded by the Lord Eure, whose successor in it- 
Carey, earl of Monmouth — ^says of Sir John Forster, that " he had been 
an active and valiant man, and had done great good service in the 
Middle Marches, of v/hich he had been a long time warden." 

Such were Francis, second earl of Bedford, the father, and Sir John 
Foster, the father-in-law of Sir Francis Russell, knight, the principal 
subject of these notices, and commonly known in history under the 
name of Lord Francis Russell. His mother, Margaret, countess of 
Bedford, was daughter of Sir John St. John, knight, and sister of Oli- 
ver, first Lord St. John, of Bletso. Of the time of his birth I have found 
no account. His father, when he entered upon the office of Lord War- 
den of the Middle Marches, was only 36 years of age ; lord Francis 
could, therefore, be only a boy at that time. His wife's name was 
Eleanor, and she had two sisters, Grace, the eldest of the three, mar- 
ried to Sir William Fenwick, of Wallington, and Mary, wife of Henry, 
son and heir of Sir Robert Stapleton. His acquaintance with Sir John 
Forster's family was probably commenced while his father was warden, 
and Sir John deputy warden of the East Marches \ and, if such was the 

290 On the Murder of Lord Francis Russell. 

case, he was initiated at an early period of life into the enterprizing and 
perilous service of the borders. In 1575, he was at the warden's meet- 
ing on the Redeswire, which ended in the memorable afiray in which 
himself^ Sir John Forster, and other English gentlemen were made pri- 
soners. History does not contain many notices concerning him ; but 
the high consideration in which he was holden in the north may be 
judged of by his having represented Northumberland, in the parlia- 
ments from 1572 to 1585.* In 1775, he was chamberlain of Berwick 
and one of the governor's council there ; and two years after filled the 
office of High Sheriff for Northumberland ; but as will be seen by the 
following papers,t was slain at a border meeting at Hexpethgatehead, 
on July 27, 1585. The spot where he fell is on the ridge of the mountain 
called the Windy-gyle, on the confines between the lordship of Kidland 
and Scotland, near the eastern extremity of the Middle Marches ; and 
is still pointed out by a cairn, called to this day " RusseWs Cairn.*' Col- 
lins says, that his body was buried in Alnwick church ; and, though 
no monument, nor entry in the parish registers there, remains in evidence 
of his assertion, yet it seems probable that his account is right ; for, 
Carey in his Memoirs notices, "that Alnwick Abbey was the house 
where Sir John Forster ever lived while he was warden," and custom 
justifies the supposition that he would be buried among the ashes of his 
nearest friends or relatives in the country where he had resided. It is 
remarkable that he was slain on the day after his father died. 

II. — The Names of those that are charged of being guilty of the Lord 

RusselFs Death. 
The clan of Carr, or more properly Kerr, in Scotland, was very 
powerful in the south of that country. Sir Thomas Carr, of Femy- 

* Collins says that this Sir Francis Russell was summoned to parliament in 7 Edwd.6. 1552: 
but, in this instance, mistakes him him for his father, who was certainly summoned to that parliament 
in the 25th year of his age, and two years before he succeeded his fiither in the earldom of Bedford. 
See Jour, o/H. o/Lordty I. 431. 

-f These papers are very much in accordance with the account Camden, in his Annals of the Reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, gives of the events of this meeting, with the exception of his asserting that others 
were killed besides Lord Francis ; unless the expression ^* men lawfully assembled in Grod's peace and 
their sovereign's slain," may be considered as including a greater number than one. 

On the Murder of Lord Francis Russell. 291 

hurst, the leader of the armed force on this occasion, had previously 
signalized himself as a military captain ; for, immediately after the 
murder of the regent Murray, he and " Walter Scott, of Buccleugh, 
two of the mightiest of the border chieftains," made an incursion into 
England, burning and ravaging the country through which they passed* 
It is his son who makes such a conspicuous figure in Carey's Memoirs. 

III. — Sir John Forster^s Reasons to prove that the Murder of the Lord 

Russell was premeditated* 
This is a clever section ; and, if it was really drawn up by Sir John 
Forster himself, shows that he was intimately acquainted with law in 
general, and particularly so with the customs, practice, and pleading of 
the March courts ; the processes of which, and the laws and maxims by 
which they were regulated, are here practically explained. In the se- 
lection and marshalling of his arguments, one may incidentally see how 
much dexterous Machiavelism and chicanery were employed in manag- 
ing the international transactions of the two countries ; but, one could 
hardly have expected to have heard that so much learned reasoning 
had ever been employed in the Wardens* Courts at Kemmelspeth or Hex- 
pethgatehead — ^in the open air, and on the high mountain ridge that 
separates England from Scotland, towards the head of the river Coquet. 

IV. — The Manner of holding a Day of Truce^ or Day of March^for 
Restitution of Injuries and Insolencies done on the Borders. 
A collection of the laws of the borders, which contain directions 
about the manner of holding the border courts, was published above a 
century since by Bishop Nicholson, and might be very much improved 
by additions and corrections. This short section of the papers, under 
consideration, does not seem to be drawn up with the same spirit and 
care* as the preceding articles; but rather to have been intended to 
suit the case in question, than for general purposes as its title would 
imply. I am, dear Sir, your's, very truly, 


* Ridpath's Bord. Hist. 633. 


On the Murder of Lord Francis Russellj 

[M.S. Cotton* MuB. Brit. Caligula C. VIII. foL 2S6-24S.] 

V-— October 1686. 77^ tnamier ofihe daughier of the 

L RustOL 

Impkimis.— the Warden of the middle marches of 
£ngland came to Oswjne Middle the zxv\jA of Ju- 
ly, 1686, wtb the gentlemen of En^and to kepe a 
truce w^ the opposite warden and staying there a 
certaine space, sent certaine aentlemen to uie oppo- 
site warden to Hexpethgatehead to make assurance 
accordinff to the ancient use & custome yr^ being 
gmunted on both ades, and thereupon prodamadon 
made that none diould breake the said assurance un- 
tiU the next day in the morning, neither in word 
nor dede, nor countenance, upon pame of death. 
The said Warden came forwarde thinkinge to finde 
the warden of Scotland accompany ed after his accus- 
tomed manner, w^b they found contrary to the gpreate 
mistakeinge of the said warden of England, and all 
the gentlemen his companye, the g^round so servinge 
that they could not discover the other ptye till they 
were at the joyneinge together, so that there was no 
lemedie, the forces of Scotland being so gteate, but 
stand to their former assurance, where tne said op- 
posite warden was standinae nuiged in order of bat- 
tell w^h ensigne pensell fyfe & drunies otherwise 
then ordinarye custome hath bene at any dav of 
Marche in ty me of peace betwene those two reahnes 
as in their procedlngs did playnly appere. 

This is not accident or sodaine as ordinarilyehath 
bene and yet hath bene stayed by warden or conurs. 
If it had bene an accident or sodaine breakeinge by 
rascalls as there was no such matter. The gentle- 
men of Scotland, wth their drumes, fife, shot, and 
such as carryed the ensigne & pensells would have 
tarryed with the warden, so that it appeareth plaine- 
Iv that it was a pretended matter before hand, for 
tbe wardens sittinge quietly, calling their bills the 
wuden of England thmkinge no harme, the partye 
of Scotland seelncr the tyme serve for their former 
devise sodainely Drake strikinge up a larome w^ 
sounds of drufnes & fife w^^ ensiffne displayed pen- 
sell and shot & cave their char^^e upon us in yi^^ 
chardge the lord Aussell was cruelly slaine wth a 
shot, and so divers gentlemen of Scotland, w^ their 
footmen and horsemen and their whole force follow- 
ed and maintayned the chardge fower miles wt " 
the realme of England, and toke sondry prisoners 
and horses, and carryed them into Scotland, web they 
deny to redeliver againe. The like breach of assu- 
rance was never sene, so that it is manifest that it is 
a plaine set downe matter before. When all thb 
was done and the fields disordered, and the gentle- 
man was slaine, i|nd aU past remedye the waraen of 
Scotland made prociamacion for the defence of the 
former devise when there was but a small company 
of gentlemen ey ther of England or Scotland left to 
heare it, wcb was to a small purpose. 

1 1. — October 1 1 586. The names of those that are chard- 
ged to be guUtjf of the lord RussdTs death, — S' Thomas 

Cazre, of Famiherst, Knight, W»- Cane, of Ange- 
rem, James Carre, of Ldntolee, Sobert Cane, bro- 
ther to the said Wm. Carre, Andrew Carrey lor. of 
Grenhead, John Budderfbrd, of Hunthill* David 

Moscroppe, deputy Provost of Jedworth, 

Kirton, wardens sexgeant, James Cane. 

III.-^^ John ForHai^s reasons to prove the mssriher 
of the lordRusseU was pretended ^ Written by S Jo. 
Fortter and stAscribedEx^aK) Imprimis the Warden of 
the liiddle mardies of England came to Oswold 
middle the xzvnth of July, 1686, w^ the gentlemea 
of England to kepe a day of truce wtb the opposite 
warden, but staying there a certaine space sent cer- 
taine gent to the opposite warden to Hexpethgate- 
head to take assurance, etc. as on the other side, and 
afterwards these names subscribed. 

John Forster, Wm. Fewnike, RL Feynick, Jo. 
Horsley, Thomas Sdoy, Edmund Creister, John 
Thornton, Bobt. Lidey, Tha Woodrington. Humfir. 
Forster, Bobert Claverinffe, Bobt. Middleton, Per- 
ceval Cl^mell, Andiew Frinaell, George Pryn^, 
John Heron, James Ogle, Jonn Heron, Fra. &d. 
diff, Luke Ogle, Tho. Procter, John Camaby, Balph 
Co'.lingwood, Henry Collingwood, Jo. Collingwood, 

the younger, Percewell Thomas Collii^wood, 

Bobert Leaylle, Edward Shaftowe, Jo. Hall, 

October^ i 686.— JDouMet wherein her Mafi^ ComUstom^ 
ersdesire to be resohed, — I. First if o^ English witnesses 
be not to be allowed w«b is a prindpall cause to stand 
uponsofiirre as there is lawe to mamtaine, then whe- 
ther to peed to ex. Phamiherst himselfe who they de- 
ny not to be ex. and some other that were on the field. 
Scottshmen whome they cannot disallow supposing 
the matter so plaine in some prindpall pomts, as 
upon othe they cannot nor will aeny, viz. That as. 
sembly in warlike Sl strange manner otherwise than 
at any tyme before. The charge acainst the Eng- 
lish and the chase a greate way wiUi displayed en- 
signes, pennans, or pensells into England, w^ soimd 
of dnime & fife wth the chiefe ofiic*s and servants of 
Phamihurst, and the whole power of that side, sa- 
vinee very few, &c. The murder & killinjge of the 
lord Russell done in the first beginninge oithat dis- 
order but by whome unknown. The takinge of pri- 
soners as well in the chase in Englands ground, as in 
the presence, and even at the back of the said Phar- 
niherst Warden and the spoyle ofa greate number her 
Matiet subjects at that tyme &c. All wcb It is sup- 
posed by St. Jo. Forster & others they cannot denye. 

This offfer they Itm whether to j^eld to examyne 
made by word af- any witnea of their side as they 
ler their answer in h^^e desired offering to allowe Of 
wnUng delivered. ^ , English witnesses if we will al- 
lowe of their witnesses supposinse more advanta^ 
to fidl by or witnesses then can mil to them admitt 
they prove all they alledge, because that allegacon I 
think not suffident' But this is advisedly to be consi^ 
dmd & yet or English witnesses ex. alone if it can be. 

On the Murder qfLord Francis Russell. 


3. Itm it may be considered whether to ex. onelj 
Phamihent and other Scottishmen that cannot denye 
the points before declared rather than by alloweing 
or fnffUsh witnesses to allow also their witnesses, u 
otherwise we cannot have o^ Enfflish witnesses al- 
lowed or to ex. first the Scotts, and if we finde them 
not sufficient then to aUowe their witnesses rather 
then we lose the benefiet of or Enfflish. 

The but of thue 4. For the prcne against Araine 
there to be taken. I ge but little, savinge presump- 
con that Phamihersts dealinge might be thought 
not wtbout his privity, his sonne beinff\pth Arrane 
late before whereof there is no prou£ but secret 
intelligence, yet he may be exd himself of that 
point and what advise he had upon his othe. And 
the want of profe is the said Arrane was left out 
of the said bilL 

5. There is some suspicion they have found out, 
one as guiltye of the act of the murder of the lord 
Kussell, thinking to be so dischardged, and by their 
answere there is some semeing there should be such 
a matter, but whether true or not it is uncertaine, 
albeit S^ John Forster hath such secret knowledge 
and if it so be it is thought by the said S' John 
Forster and myself^ that it were no hinderance to 
the cause to give them cause to precede w^ that 
purpose whereby happely some furder matter might 
iiUl out and yet hinder or excuse no other that of 
good cause or likelihood. 

October, 1685.—.^ project of the reply to the answere of 

the Scottish ConUssumers, 
To reply to the answere made by the honorable Co- 
missioners opposite, and authorised by the right 
mightye and excellent prince James by the grace 
of God, Kinge of Scotts to the bill or allegacon 
exhibited by the Com" authorised by the most 
excellent princes Elizabeth, by the same grace Q. 

To the first parte of the allegacion in the said an- 
swere contained, although war&ns be at libty and no 
lawe contrary but they may assemble bringe order 
and array power and rorces at their day marches as 
they like and at their discretion, yet not allowed 
or used in tyme of peace to assemble or bringe to 
any such metings tendinge to the preservinge of 
peace and ffood order, any ensignes pennans files and 
drumes w^ be sisnes and tokens of warr. And 
therefore the said S' Thomas Carre vdth his compli. 
ses comeing to the said day march assembled and 
fiimished with such signes and tokens of warr, wth 
greater number, power and forces, as well gathered 
out of the other wardenryes as his owne, and in other 
forcible order placed appointed and arrayed then was 
usual, or at any tyme before used eyther by the said 
Sr Thomas Carre, warden, or by the warden oppo- 
site as is alledged, and the same unaccustomed pow- 
er and force by forsene advantage so pollitiquefy in 
order of batteU there placed as before taking of as- 
surance and before the said English warden his co- 
minge so farre into the danger as w^out sreater 
danger could not be avoyded, was not by the said 
English Warden known or discovered bredinge a 

ffreate doubt and question betwene.the said Engludi, 
Warden and his company of some perill intendra af- 
ter the same power and forces was sene and viewed. 
After the said assurance being then destitute of any 
other help or reliefe but to stand to the trust & hope 
onely of tneir said assurance was a manifest and plaine 
presumpcion, that the consequente disorder and mis- 
chiefes that did after fiill out was purposely before 
hand pretended to the breache of toe treatye truce 
and assurance as in the said bill or allegacon exhibit- 
ed is alleaged. 

To their answere to the second and third heads of 
the said bill or alle^cion as they do term it, excu- 
sed chiefly by the onginall beginninge of the breake 
whereupon the whole disorder as they say did growe 
was begone by the English. Admit the same was 
true as it is not, God forbid that of so liffht an oc- 
casion so great disorder and mischiefe as aid foUowe 
were to be allowed as lawful! or to allowe any sub« 
ject being attempted w^ greater hurte or injurye, 
then was offered or done by any English to any sub- 
ject of Scoiland that day, to rcdresse his owne inju- 
rye with a greater mischiefe being not denyed of 
justice and a thinge usually in experience of greater 
offences and quarrels many tymes pacified, and upon 
complainte presently redressed by the wardens at 
like metings then of sufficient power to suppresse 
greater matters and offence then for this excuse if it 
were true as alledged, but the whole newer savinge 
a small number wth the warden of Scotland there as- 
sembled wtb the wardens owne ensigne, and a good 
number of pennans beside displayed sound of me & 
dnime accompanyed w^^ his owne chefe servaunts 
and officers, upon so small occasion if it were true, 
to invade the realme ofEngland, cruelly to murder 
kill take & lead away as prisoners, her ma^ subjects 
as well in chase wt^n the ground ofEngland as upon 
the field in the presence and even at the back of the 
said Warden w^ w^b the suspicious assembly before 
declared, and all the members depending of the same 
manifestly proveth and enforceth a pretended intent 
and plaine breach of the peace truce and assurance, 
and the disorders tl^n & there comitted to be by 
the counsel &. pcurement of the said warden of the 
middle marche of Scotland and his accomplishes, and 
the matt" for the excuse of the same in the said 
answere,- objected to be but feigned or surmized, or 
at the least of purpose procured for the coloring onely 
of the pretenaed mischiefes as any intending the 
greatest mischief might easely procure to be done at 
such assemblyes as this, that for excuse is alleaged 
were to be allowed a perilous and dangerous exam- 
ple, not confessing that there was any pacifienge of 
the disorder by the said warden, till all the mischiefs 
were ended, or yet the prisoners generally set fi«, 
but for the most pte resting as yet in bondage, and 
no spoyles as yet' redressed, nut omittinge uso the 
uncertaintye of the excuse alledjred, is it more to be 
allowed (as it is not) in that it is not declared whe^ 
ther by English or Scotts the same first spears was 
cast downe, swords drawne and shot dischardged, 
nor by what English persons. And not declaring 
what injurious words they were that were spoken » 




On the Murder of Lord Frawis Ru^seU^ 

not whetlier by Englith or Sootts they were laid, if 
the matter were as any weight as it is not to excuse 
so great incoiiTenience* So as the substance in the 
aaid bill or allegacion contemned is not so sufficiently 
a?oyded by tne said answere as it is expounded, 
nejther the pcuring of the most horrible murder of 
the honourable Lord Russell her Ma^y subject, par- 
o»U of the said bill or allegacion so directly excused 
at it is taken, being the first act of injury done in the 
&»t assault, and chardge that was f^ven. at the be- 
ginnings of the said disonl, not refusing to joyne w^b 
you the Comiasn opposite in any convenient tryall, 
so ftxre as or condiaon and authoritye will beare to 
the findeinge out of any such as are culpable of that 
■0 haynus a cryme, not excusing such as are not to 
be excused. And to the redresse of prisoners and 
goods according to the lawes to be tryed by the war* 
detts. We thmk her Ma^r* warden for his part will 
not refuse to deale in that course the greater and 
weifffatyer causes being first redressed and satisfied 
to her Bfa^« as to the honour of her highnes apper- 

To the witnesses by the said answere desired to 
be examined fbr profe of the causes in the same ans- 
were contayned. We have some doubt whether or 
cemmisnon or authoritye so serveth w^out furder 
direction or instruction from her Ma^ye o^ Soveraigne 
maintayneinff to be lawful and agreing to the lawes of 
Qod and eviU^that or English witnesses ought to be 
examined and alowed the case standins not as a co- 
non cause betwene princes against whome it were 
hard lor any subject to prove or to beare wittness. 

ix Octobr. 1586.— Albeit that it phdnely appeareth 
Tk§l Setomto as well by or aUegacon as by the 
Ac IfoMa^tam. witnes for profe thereof that a ma- 
nifest breach of the peace will oe found in Famiherst 
yet they will allowe or admitt no breach thereof 
at all, as by the viewe of their said answere you may 
very well perceave, Yet notw^bstanding because we 
oould not by that course so efiectually pvaile wth 
th^u as were to be wished, for p*nt deliv* ye of Fer- 
niherst as a fbwle man in the breach of the peace and 
murder of the Lord RusselL We made choice agre- 
able to an especiall article amongst others in our in- 
strucc'ons fro the Lb of his Aiaty* privy Counsell to 
demand him to be delivered to us a fi>wie man in 
respect of the appearance of his fiu:te w^ oth* Scottsh- 
men his accomplices. Whereunto they have answer- 
ed that they could not do it untill they had further 
acquainted the Kinge therew^ but would upon the 
understanding his pleasure therein, give us theirfur- 
ther answere upon fHday next 

Ottober 1585. — T%eeau9et obfeeied agtOttit Sr, T%o, Cvrre 
ofFamiherrt and othen Mt Complket oomUi at fblhwe. 
All issues in tryall do consist in theis two heads in 
ftct in lawe.— In every fiict is considered the effect 
the demeanor in doinge and the intent— In this act 
now in question whereupon Famiherst and his com- 
plices are chardged Theffect is this. The realme 
waa entred by force, thassuiance broken men lawful- 
ly assambled in God's peace and their Sorenugnes 

slaine, and tl^ose of the best in nresedce, Twenty mil, 
tlemen making no resistance tsken prisoners, goocb of 
great value taken and carryed away.— The demeanor 
was thus, he complained by letters extant, to thearle 
of Arrane wherein he aheweth himjelf oflFended upon 
a former accident.— •He prepared new ensignes with 
hast— He arrayed his people, being armed in ord' 
of battell w^ £nsignes, penons, ffwydons, dniSa» 
fyfta, ftc The ensile carryed by bis own servaunt, 
who entred after with the same, displayed two milea 
wtbia £ngUnd.«-He toke a phu» of advantage 
where he nor his company could be discovered wtb 
wings ordered in such sorte that the lord warden 
li^tinff was envyroned.«-He stood in battel! array 
with sSoo in number by estimacon.— His manner of 
coming was expostulate by the lord warden wtb the 
sent, attending and mislilced.— He denied satisfle* 
inge of the K. Ire signed wth his owne hands, com- 
aundinge redresse to one Henry ColUngwond, £n« 
fflishman, who being aftsones urged by the lord war* 
den for full answere utterly refosed wtb these terms^ 
I will answ. the Kinge.— Wm- Stable als Coulder 
one of the bands of Jedworth requyred two English- 
men servaunts to Mr. Thomston of a spedall fiivor 
having once bene his servaunt that they would re- 
payr to their m" and kepe them on horseback for the 
day would prove evilL— iThe lord Russell was oftred 
to be taken prisoner by Wm* Carre of Ankoram— 
A voUie of shot dischardged upon the lord RusbpH, 
when he was slaine— The drum stroke up as it 
semed for a token immediately upon the firat cnardse. 
—The English gentlemen were taken prisoners that 
were next about both the wardens sundry w^bin a 
man*s lenght, and were not releved by Famiherst— > 
Famiherst drewe his owne swarde.^-The Chaoe 
came by Far: wt^in the distance of fbrtye yerds, and 
were not stayed by him.— The said chace was follow- 
ed intQ England by his whole troupes, ensignes dis- 
played, guidons, &C. wherein Kirton his water aer- 
jernt was taken as an arch Traytor by Mr. Feu- 
nick of Wallingtou, two miles within England.-- 
Horses & men taken in England & carryed awav by 
the Scotts 100 or more.— -Famiherst chardged w^ 
the premisses in Sooth confessed that his banner waa 
displayed in the prnoe of Peck her Nb^y Ambr di- 
vers nobles of Scotland &, Mr. Fennick. 

T%e inUni t^peardh ly Ihe demeanr amd ^tei 
A^rcioii:— All w«b concurring in one act is riffht> 
ly tearmed & taken for hostmtye carryeinge wu it 
theis horrible crymes of feytfa^breaking, Murther & 
Robbery, as acoessaryes accompaneinge. 

Upon the feet groweth the kwe which is consider- 
ed in theis :— The lawe of God, The treatyes be- 
twixt the princes the same expounded &, confirmed 
by experience. The lawe Civile and and the lawe 
of nations. And first in the lawe of God.— In the 
mouthe of two or thre witnesses all truthe shall stand, 
Murther is punished by death, God will requyre 
bloudshed at the hands of men yea of beasts In the 
treatves, hostilitves be expressly forbidden, Treaty 
6. art 8. H. 8.'art. 2, 3. for the wcb the penalty la 
not eyprassed as a cryme of higher nature or quslity 

Ott the Mwd^ qfLord Francis Bussetl. 


tku ought to come wthin the comptMe of ordinarr 
tryall but is reserved triable bj Com" as appeareth 
bjT the treaty e H. 6. art. 16. The manner no doubt 
is intended agreable to the lawe of God and the Uwe 
of nations. The repayre of justice not done and the 
■punishment of thonender is referred to the zeale of 
of Gods justice in the heart of the prince to the wcb 
end God hath put the sword into his nands. Thother 
accessary crymes of breach of assurance murther and 
robbenr in cases where they be principal!, are deter- 
minable by the wardens by delivery. 

The third hrench : — Experience hath expounded and 
confirmed the honourable and sincere meaninge of 
the princes wt^in memery thus :— Kin^ Henry the 
seaventh made delivery by his Comissioners of S^ 
"Wm Heron his Ma^7> officer to satisfie the murther 
of Sr Robert Carre, lord of Cesfurtb, the opposite 
warden shiine at a day of marche in a tumult bj one 
Starrehead a private man. 

Thearle of Moreton late Begent made deliv*y of 
of M' Carmiffhell then keper oi Liddesdale to satis- 
fie her Ma^y^ for the breach of assurance & slaughter 
of S' GeoTge Heron and others. By the Civill lawe 
the partye offended or his prince complaineinge by 
bis Amb' to the prince of the ofiend' if he be deny- 
ed justice. In causes pecuniary, reprisalls are justly 
graunted by his own prince to the person so amav- 
e4* In causes criminall, not estimable as for life or 
limbes taken away, yf justice be denyed the lawe wil- 
leth denouncing of warre. The reason of the lawe 
is that the subject oweth obedience and service to 
his prince and the prince protecoon to his subjects. 
.In both the cases his profes of his owne nation is suf- 
ficient neythar shall thadversary produce witnesses 
to sweare to the contrary, Iniquam enim est quieri 
de peregrino for punishment force publique and ar- 
xnea is ifeatb. By the lawe of nations the assertions 
abovesaid in the effect and demeanor will be avowed 
Sl proved by the othes of twenty sentl of bloud & 
Gotearmour who are ready to forti& their othes so 
to be taken by combat with their appeachers upon 
equal condicon. The ground is auncient-Grassatio 
hostilis, nisi beUum prius denunciatum ett indictum 
fuerit, est latrocinium. By the premises it appeareth 
that Famiherst and his complices are justly charged. 
-The profe is lawful* The fileing not avoydable and 
therefore our demaund already made to have him and 
his complices delivered is just. 

the murther of the lord EusseU by his preco^tat 
intent then the^ shall deliver him &c. or any other 
person within his realm yea though it were the hund 
Chancellor being so found guiltye etc 
Herein appeareth this, either defect or sleight as 

this pa semeth to inlaige their authoritye 

in delivering so doth it abridge the same in latving 
out that which was authorised to enquire upon be- 
fore, namely the breach of the peace which they find 
to be the chiefest pointe wherew^all he is diardged 
and for which this said paper directed no deliverye. 
This may depend upon the conceipt pretended in their 
answere that the peace cannot be broken which I think 
they ground upon the treaty, concluding that the 
peace shall not end before warre denounced under 
thejgreate seale etc admitting no difference betwene 
ending and violating. The cause and theffect whereof 
the words are theis Treaty, H. 8. art 4. Quod neuter 
dictorum principium eorumve aut eorum alterius sub- 
diti dictum peipelunm pacisfcedus aut aU(|uem articu- 
lum in eodem comprehensum violabit diminuet dis- 
solvet aut violabunt diminuent dissolvent &c. The 
same purpose appeareth in their comission which car- 
rvinge the same words w^b o" mutatis mutandis in 
the clause, Whereas o" hath and the peace broken 
the V have to the hazard of the breach of the peaoe 
and yet in the later part given authority to enquyie 
of breach of the comon peace after assurance given, 
Intendinge peradventure at more nede to distinguiah 
betwene the comon peace and the truce. 

. xvj^ Oetob. 1585. — The ScottUh Idngee antmre to the 
Comiuumerg demaund tent by George Vounge :— 43one af- 
.WBsdispached Mr. George Younge with a paper sign- 
ed with the king^ hand as an Appendix or Comple- 
ment of the former Commission where upon we were 
advertised from the opposite Comissioners that they 
had receaved further instruccons firom the kinge and 
requyred our metinge upon satterday the xvj^^of 
October. At w^^ tyme protestinge the kinses good 
disposition and sinceritv they shewed us the same 
viz^ Albeit by generall words he bad in his.former 
comission given power to precede in tryall &x:. Now 
in case upon true & lawful profes had, Famih: can be 
found guiltye in the breach of the assurance 'or 

OcUfb, l&o, 1585I^M. to the L Scrope &, the rest 
of the Comn:—- My verie good lord the Queenes 
Maty upon the viewe of the answere made by tl^ 
Scottish comisioners to yor allegacons doth finde tie 
same very weake and impertinent considering the 
circumstances Sl sequel of the matter, tor where thev 
pretend for excuse of the extraordinary number w<w 
accompanyed their warden that he being a publique 
person in thafiayres of his office might lawrully by 
the authoritye of his Soveraisnerepayre to the day of 
march accompanyed with what number he pleased, 
many or fewe, anned or unarmed, in order or unar- 
rayra, and that there is no statute to the contrary, 
lier Ma^ conceiveth it may weU be replyed unto 
them that if evther the said warden had at any other 
tyme repaired to a day of metinge with the like num- 
bers and m like sorte appointed for armo' and all 
other Mrcumstanoes or that there hadfoUowed no act 
of hostilitye not long after the tyme of th^ assembly 
eyther els that the same had fidlen out immediatlye 
upon the cause by them alledge^ through the stelth 
comitted by an English boy then might tney answer 
yelde some collo' or shewe of satisfaction. But seing 
the said warden made not repayre before to any day 
of metinge accompanyed , in that sorte and that the 
matter of disorder comitted by the English boy was 
compounded, and offer made by the English warden 
to have the boy executed, there is no reason to al- 
ledge that as a ground of defence for the breach of 
peace, all things being appeased before the last dis- 
order fell out And that how unlikely it was that 
England being but 300 in number, and thother 2000 


On the Murder of Lord Francis RasselL 

at the least, the Scotta armed, the English unarmed, 
would attempt any thlnge, comon reason will easily 
disceme. Wherein it is not also to be denyed that 
there was notbinfle done by the warden of Scotland 
^r the stay of the disorder nor present restitucion 
made of the prisoners then taken. And therefore it 
is manifest that the breach of the peace grewe from 
them, and so consequently the murther and so the 
deliTery of the warden for the breach of the peace to 
be insisted on w^h cannot justly be denyed, the j&ct 
being so notoriously knowne as there is no cause 
why any witnesses should be produced for the profe 
thereo£ Besides her Ma^ saith that as it was well 
alledged by you this case is extraordinary, the no. 
bleman stayeing no border nor comon person but for 
birth & quality, a principall member of this state 
and ther^ore requyreth extraordinary satisfaction 
w<ib being denyed, she conceaveth that there is not 
that care had of the continuance of thamity that is 
pretended. And to make that the more apparent 
that this was a matter pretended her Ma^y thmketh 
mete, vou should deduce this &ct of the breach of 
peace m>m a cause precedent of the disorder comit- 
ted by certain of her subjects of the west marches for 
which there was offer made by her Ma^r<" warden 
that satis&ction should be gelded accordinge to the 
treatye wherew^ they resting not satisfy^ as it is 
greatly to be presumed, take a resolucon of revenge 
w<^ feU out in execution, and that to prove, you 
may saye that the same was not done w^ut advise 
from the Courte of Scotland. Phamihersts Ires un- 
to Arrane gave great cause of presumpcon, for that 
as it appeareth by the said Ires demanded advise 
how he snould behave himself Whereupon his man- 
ner of proceedinge in a warlike sorte for numbers 
armor array and other marshall shewes of drumes & 
fifes, &c pennons displayed, argueth that he had 
some direction to take revenge as the sequele doth 
manifestly witness. And herein her Ma^« doth 
call to mmde two speciall examples which she doubt- 
eth not but you have alread v alleaged of redresse and 
satisfiurcon, made in the like cases of the breach of 
peace, the one by England in K. Henry the 7^^' 
tyme, when hereon the warden was delivered into 
Scotland, and thother of fresher memory by Scot- 
land duringe the time of the late Resents govern- 
ment when Carmihell keper of Leddisdale, and sixe 
or eyght noblemen were delivered into England as 
hostages for yeelding satisfiiccon for the disorder co- 
mitt^ at the Redcuswyre, which examples she con • 
ceaveth would be followed if there were as greate 
care had nowe of the continewinge of good peace and 
amitye between the two crounes as the said Kinge 
and Regent semed to have, especially the present 

case beinge of greater importance than the precedent 
for the wch in case the Com" of Scotland shall not 
receave direccon from their K. to yield her that sa^ 
tis&ccon that apperteyneth upon view of the propo- 
sicon you write that Uiey have made unto him then 
shall you know her further pleasure, touching the 
course that is to be held in the matter whereof I 
thought good in the meaue tyme to notifie to yor 

IV.— 19<A October, 1685. The manner of ihe holding 

of a dayqftrewe 'or day ofMarchefor Hhe rcfUUuoon if 

injuria and intdknces uppon the Borders. 

First the twoo opposite wardens at a sett day & 

place indifferent do meete at the borders and there 

prepare themselves to geve & receave justice as at a 

generall Assize. 

The forme ofpceeding is by exhibitinff of biUes by 
the pties interened and the pties found mule or giltie 
are to be delivered into the opposite Wardens handes 
to make satisfiuxon according to the qualitie of the 

1. The manner of triall of any pson is twoo folde 
viz. The one, when the Warden shall uppon his 
owne knowledge, con&sse the &cte & so defiver the 
ptie offendinge. 

2. The other is by confrontinge of a man of the 
same nation to averre the fiicte. Then is he by the 
lawe guilte. 

For except the Warden himself knowing shall adc- 
nowledge the &cte or a man of the same nacon found 
that voluntarilie will avouch it (the ordinary &, only 
wales of triall) be the fact never so patent the delin- 
quent is guilt by the lawes of the borders. 

The death of the L. Russell is apparent, & there- 
fore the warden of Scotland ex. notorietate fiicti is 
foule thereof w^^out contradiocon in case he deny it. 
For triall this Order is to be taken. 

Her Ma^« is to require the delivie of Famiherst 
into England. Bycause both wardens are pties, Newe 
Wardens are to be named by pvicom. The frendes 
of the L. Russell are to exhibit their bill accusing 
Famiherst If either the newe warden ex. notorie- 
tate &cti shall acknowledge the bill, Or otherwise a 
scottes man be found to averre the &cte upon him 
he must stand guiltie and is to be delived ex. notorie- 
tate juris. 

Examples — Sir Robert Car: warden of Scotland 
being slayne at a trewe, a Heron then En^lishe war- 
den wtb 7 others were delived for him & died in Fast 
Castle prisoners for that fiu:te. 

An Archbishop of St Andrewes (Beton) did un* 
derUe the lawes of the borders in the like case. 

Observations as to the Origin qfPrior^s Haven. SQTl 

XLIL'-^bservations on Mr* Brand's Opinion respecting the Origin of 
the Prior* s Haven at Tynemouth. Communicated hy Thomas Brown, 
Esq. in a letter to the President and Council of the Newcastle Antiqua- 
rian Society. 

I FEEL induced respectfully to submit to your consideration the few 
following observations, with a view of drawing the attention of your 
learned body to a subject of considerable importance as connected with 
the local history of this neighbourhood. 

To doubt the accuracy of even a conjecture of so able and learned 
a historian as Brand— especially on any subject connected with anti- 
quarian research, wherein he has so eminently excelled — ^may appear 
bordering upon presumption. There are, however, conclusions, at 
which that learned author has arrived, which do not seem to be quite 
warranted, by the premises from whence they are deduced. One of 
these, contained in the author's account of Tynemouth, which is given 
in the second volume of his History of Newcastle, appears to furnish 
considerable room for doubt. 

He thus commences his account — " Notwithstanding what has been 
advanced to the contrary by the learned Horsley, some recent disco- 
veries seem clearly to prove to us, that the Romans had a station in this 
place, during their residence in Britain" — and in a note subjoined, 
wherein he narrates the finding in Tinmouth Castle, the front of a 
Roman altar, and also a stone with a Roman inscription thereon, he 
gives it as his opinion, that the Haven on the south of the Castle, was 
one of the artificial harbours of the Romans. 

Now that the Haven is not of Roman origin, will, it is presumed, 
appear almost undeniable, even upon a cursory examination of the pre- 
mises upon which the author founds his conjecture, but it is appre- 

298 Observations as to the Origin of Prior's Haven. 

bended that the document hereafter referred to, places the matter be- 
yond even a doubt. 

Whether or not the Romans had a station at Tynemou];h, is not 
perhaps essentially material in deciding the question now under consi- 
deration ; but inasmuch as the existence of such a station gives a 
colourable basis for the author's conjecture as to the origin of the Ha- 
ven, it may not be inappropriate, to examine the grounds upon which 
he constructs the assumption, that this has been a Roman station. 

The author in the outset, very candidly admits the authority of 
HoRSLEY, as being on this point opposed to him, and he raises his hy- 
pothesis, upon the single and isolated fact, of these two Roman stones 
having been discovered near the castle ; he says that the front of the 
Roman altar was found by a Major Durnford, at the depth of six 
feet in the earth — " where it had been laid as a foundation stone proba- 
bly of the ancient Christian church,* which is said to have been erected 
there soon after the introduction of the faith into Britain." Now the 
only fact^ we here discover, is the finding of the stone by Major Durn- 
ford, at the depth of six feet in the earth, all the rest is purely an as- 
sumption } the fact of its having constituted part of the foundation of 
the ancient Christian church, could only have been established, from 
some trace of such foundation having been discovered ; but of this we 
have no account, therefore under what circumstances, or at what pe- 
riod, this stone had been placed there, must be altogether matter of 

The other stone with a Roman inscription, and which will bye and 
bye be more particularly adverted to, was found in the same place 
June 12th, 1783, " where (as the author observes) it had been laid in 
the foundation of some qfthe ancient building^* — but he does not ven- 
ture to assert, that this stone had along with the other been employed 
in the foundation of the ancient church, so as to raise the inference, 

* The first Christian church upon this place is said to have been built of wood, by Ed- 
win, king of the Northumbrians, sometime between the years 617 and 633, and in this his 
daughter Rosella, is said to have taken the veil ; Oswald, his successor, whose reign com- 
menced in 634, caused this wooden edifice to be taken down, and erected upon the site 
thereof a structure of stone« — Leland$ CoUectaneOj vol. iv. torn, iiu p. 42. 

Observations as to the Origin qfPrior^s Haveiu 999 

that both stones had been in the hands of the builder at the same pe-^ 
riod, therefore with regard to this stone, we are equally left in the dark, 
as to the circumstances under which, and the probable period when^ it 
came there. 

The same author describes three stones which he states to have been 
found at Jar row,* one of which he suspects to be of Roman workman- 
ship, and tlie other two, from the inscriptions thereon, being obviously 
so ; these stones, he says, ** may have been brought to Jarrow at the 
first building of the monastery, from the adjoining Roman station near 
South Shields.'^ Now these stones furnish equally strong grounds for 
asserting, that at Jarrow also there had been a Roman station ; — ^this 
however the author does not attempt to set up ; but accounts for these 
stones having come there, in that reasonable and probable manner, 
which, it is submitted, is equally applicable to the stones discovered at 
Tynemouth, especially when the immediate vicinity of that place to 
the station on the opposite bank of the river, is considered. 

The various military works, which have fi'om time to time been con- 
structed, in and near the ruins of the ancient monastery, the excava- 
tion of vaults within its site, and the digging of graves in the ceme- 
tery immediately adjoining, together with the removal of the mounds of 
earth, on the outside of the present fortifications, must have afforded 
many and ample opportunities of discovering other remains pf Roman 
antiquities, had any such existed there ; and the total absence of such 
indications would seem most fully to justify the presumption, that the 
Romans never had a station at this place. 

The author having thus assumed the existence of a Roman station, 
and having taken it for granted, that the stone secondly mentioned 
had been placed by the Romans, as a tablet on a temple erected there 
to the God of the Winds, he proceeds therefrom, and from the inscrip- 
tion which he makes out upon this stone, to deduce the inference, that 
the haven, called Prior's Haven, is of Roman origin. 

The following is the inscription given as found upon this stone :«— * 

* See Brand, voL ii. p. 62, — and appendix, p. 590. 

300 Observations as to the Origin qf Prior^s Haven. 

" Gyrum Cumbas et Templum fecit Cains Julius Verus Maaiminus Legi- 
onis sextcB victricis ex votoJ** 

The note which immediately follows runs thus : — 

" I suppose Gyrum to mean here, — a circular harbour for the ship- 
ping — ^and, in favour of this hypothesis, have to observe that there is 
still a recess of that form, called Prior's Haven, adjoining on the south 
to Tynemouth castle, which has every appearance of having been one 
of the artificial harbours of that great people, and is, I presume the 
place alluded to in this inscription/' Now from the author's own ac- 
count, it does not seem quite clear, that he is accurate as to this word 
" Gyrum," upon which his whole argument hinges, actually being part 
of the inscription, for he says, " The first letter of what I call the first 
line of the inscription, is confessedly faint and doubtful : the second 
letter appears plainly to be a Y, as does the third to be an R, though 
at first sight, it resembles a F, there can be no doubt concerning any 
of the others ;" granting, however, that he is correct as to the word, 
and without questioning the accuracy of his translation, as from autho- 
ritiest he quotes, the word would certainly seem to have been used to 
denote " a harbour," it does not for the following reason, as far as re- 
lates to the term " circular," seem applicable to Prior's Haven. 

It is true that the banks inclosing the western side of the haven, 
have from the accumulation of sand at high-water mark, and other ad- 
ventitious causes, assumed a sort of semi-cirular or amphitheatrical 

* It should have been Cypum cum basi^ et Templum, Sfc, — i. e. Caius Julius Verus 
Maximinus of the Sixth Victorious Legion according to a vow erected this Cippus, with 
its base and a temple. The Cippi were columns erected on pedestals or bases as boundary 
marks, memorials of affection or events, and for many other purposes. Sometimes when 
placed in temples they were surmounted with the statue of the Deity to whom the build- 
ing was dedicated. When Christianity became the established religion of Europe, crosses 
were erected for purposes similar to those for which the Romans had used Cippi. — J.H. 

\ Skeffer in his book de Militid Navali Veterum, p. 212, cites Columella, lib. ix. as 
describing the ancient mode of making harbours in the following words, " prsejaciuntur in 
Gyrum moles.'* This word seems to have been corrupted afterwards into *^ GyrruSy^ see 
DuFRESNE in verboy where he gives a quotation from an authority of the date of 1064, in 
which the following passage occurs — ** eant et redeant piscatores Gyrrum.*' 

Observations as to the Origin qf Prior* s Haven. SOI. 

shape, yet it cannot but be quite apparent to the most common observer, 
that the land must at one period have reached out to the present ex- 
tent of, and have covered the rocks lying on the north and south sides 
of the haven, consequently, that when it has been cut, the haven itself 
instead of being circular, must have been decidedly oblong. 

Independent, however, of all that has before been observed, the con- 
jecture of the learned historian appears to fall to the ground on the 
score of improbability ; for what motive or inducement had the Romans 
it may reasonably be asked, when by means of a strong and formidable 
station on the south bank of the Tyne, they had the full command and 
use of a good natural harbour, to form an artificial harbour, so imme- 
diately in its vicinity ? 

That the place now called Prior's Haven, was, as its name imports, 
made by the Priors of Tynemouth, for the use of that monastery, 
seems to be placed beyond a doubt by the document presently referred 
to. It would appear that during the thirteenth century, great feuds 
and contentions had existed between the priors and the burgesses of 
Newcastle, who claimed the port under the crown, respecting certain 
alleged infractions on the part of the monastery, with reference to the 
duties and customs upon goods landed for its use ; the supplies for the 
monastery coming by sea, and these would not be inconsiderable in 
amount, would, when brought within the limits of the port, be liable to 
these imposts — to avoid this, and perhaps other exactions of the king's 
officers and burgesses, it is fair to presume that the prior had been in- 
duced to cut the harbour in question, without the limits of the port, 
and the jurisdiction of the town of Newcastle; for by the record 
of a suit, appearing to have been instituted before the king in parlia- 
ment in the term of St. Hilary, in the SOth of Edward I. (1292) between 
the king and the burgesses of Newcastle, and the prior of Tynemouth, 
the prior is required to answer for certain grievances and injuries al- 
leged to have been committed by him, as well against the king as 
against the said burgesses, and he is charged (inter alia) with haung 
made for his own use and benefit, in his domain and lands lying between 
the town of Newcastle and the sea, a port where no port befiire existed. 

VOL. ir. R r 

302 Observations as to the Origin qfPrior^s Haven. 


The following are extracts from this record, a copy of which is given 
by Brand, in the appendix to his second volume of the History qfNew^ 

** Pretextu cujus mandati venerunt predictus prior et predict' bur- 
genses personaliter modo hie et pred' burgenses pro Domino Rege di- 
cunt quod cum ipse Dominus Rex habeat et habere debeat totum 
portum in aqua de Tyne a mari usque ad locum qui dicitur Hydewine- 
Streames, ita liberi quod non liceat alicui carcare seu discarcare 
mercandizas aliquas seu denaratas nee forstallum facere de hujus modi 
mercandizis seu denar' emend' vel vendend' eadem nisi infra villam 
Novi Castri predict'. Ita quod Dominus Rex tolneta sua prisas et cos- 
tumas et alia ad dominium suum ibidem spectant' percipere possit — 
Predictus prior qui habet dominicas terras suas predict' aque adjacent' 
inter mare & villam pred' carcare & discarcare facit ibidem mercandizas 
& denar' quascunque ibidem applicant' emend' et vendend' in terris 
suis pred' pro voluntate sua Jaciendo ibi portum ubi nullus portus prius 
Jyit et etiam forstalla mercandizarum in prejudicium Domini Regis et 
ville sue." 

"Dicunt etiam quod homines et tenentes predict' prioris deTynemuth 
et de Sheeles per ipsum priorem apud Sheeles receptati carcant et dis- 
carcant mercandizas et denarratas ac si essent mercatores secundum 
quantitatem bonorum suorum, et ita portum et forstallum ibidem faciunt 
ubi nuUus portus dejurejieri debereU 

" Et quia compertum est per veredictum jur' sicut in recordo patet 
superius quod portus in aqua de Tyne a mari usque ad locum qui dici^- 
tur Hidewyne Streames est liber portus Regis, et quod nullus in portu 
illo carcare aut discarcare potest sine licent' Regis aut ballivorum su- 
orum. Ita quod apud Tynemuth neque apud Sheeles naves carcantur 
sive discarcantur bona vel mercimonia ibidem de cetero vendantur in- 
fra coopertum nee extra, &c. Et recuperet Dominus Rex dampna sua 
que taxantur per jur ad quatuor libras racione carcacionis et discarca- 
tionis navium ibidem per predict, priorem.** 

The foregoing extracts from this record, seem clearly to show that 
the prior of Tynemouth was charged at least, with, not only having 

Observations as to the Origin qfPrior^s Haven. 808 

made (^' faciendo'' is the term used) a port where no port before existed, 
but also with having loaded and unloaded ships there (i. e.) ** apud 

That the parts of this voluminous record, appearing to bear upon 
this question, may have been overlooked by Brand, is by no means im- 
probable ; inasmuch as he has contented himself with quoting from 
Bourne, that which prq/esses to be a translation of the record, but 
wherein the foregoing passages are altogether omitted.* 

I am, Gentlemen, 

With much respect. 

Your obedient and very humble Servant, 

Newcastle, Oct. 6, 1829. 

* Since the preceding remarks were drawn up, I have met with the following note in 
the marginal MS. additions made by Grey to his C/ujrograpkia, and published by th^ 
Newcastle Antiquarian Society. The note is marked p. 18, line 24. << The prior of 
Tinemouth contended with the T * * for the privilege of Key * * but was foiled, which 
made the prior to make the haven called Prior Haven. 

304 Great RoU of the Sixth of King Richard the First. 

XLIIL— T/w? Great Roll of the Half of the sixth Year of King Richard 

t/ie First, beginning in Jufyj 1194f auH ending in January, 1195; also 

for Easter Temiy in the seventh Year of King John. From the originals 

in the Tofwer qf London, communicated by Henry Peteie, Esq., Keeper 

of the Records there, to the Rev. John Hodgson, Sec. 

Whelpington, October, 1829. 

The revenues of the kings of England, in former times, were collected 
by the Sheriffs of the different counties, and annually accounted for at 
the Exchequer, before an officer called the Clerk of the Pipe. The ac- 
counts themselves were kept on long skins of parchment, sometimes 
written on both sides, and the whole number of them, for one year, 
sewed together at the head, and rolled into one bundle, from which 
they obtained this name of the Great Roll, which was otherwise called 
the Pipe Roll, from the form of the Roll itself, " which is put together 
like a pipe." — Cowell. From the second year of the reign of King 
Henry the second, these highly valuable records are now kept in the 
Exchequer Offices, in Somerset House, and the series of them, for the 
whole of the counties of England, is nearly complete. Prior to that 
year, there is only one of these Rolls remaining, which has been supposed 
to belong to the fifth year of King Stephen, and to other years ; but 
Mr. Petrie thinks it contains internal evidence, for assigning it to either 
the 29th or 30th of Henry the First. Other two of them have been se- 
parated from the rest, and are now in the custody of Mr. Petrie, among 
the records of the Tower, who has furnished me with a copy of them, 
so far as they relate to Northumberland, which I have now the pleasure 
of forwarding to the Society, as a very curious contribution to its TYanS' 
actions, as well as a specimen of the highly interesting nature to Histo- 
rians of the contents of the whole. Madox, in his great work. The 

Great Roll qf the Sixth of King Richard the First. 305 

History qf the Exchequer^ has made much use of them, and copiously 
illustrated their nature and their value; and Mr. Foxton, jun., of 
the Exchequer Office, is now proposing to publish a lithographed edi- 
tion of the whole of the Roll attributed to the 5th of King Stephen ; 
and is also making me a copy of the whole Northumberland series, 
from the beginning of them to the end of the reign of Henry the Third, 
which I am procuring for the purpose of working up its contents into 
the History of that county, with which I am now engaged. 


[E Rot Pipe de primo dimidio anni sexti regni Regis Ricardi primi • 
Scitt a mense Julii A. D. 1194, usque ad mensem Januarij A. D. 

NoRHVMBERLAND. — Hugo Bardulf reddit comp de firma de Norhum- 
berland de dim anno . In tllro Ixxvi ii * iiij s. * ix. d. nuo. 

Et in elem consti! mili! de Tempi i. m. . Et capelle de Finchai 
xviij. d. de diin anno . Et in lifea! consti! Johi Canuto xxx s « v. d. 
de dim anno . Et in quie! rre Rogeri Flamavitt xx. S. de dim anno • 
Et in &s da! Regi Sco! C. s. de dim anno . Et Hug Bard xv. ti, ad 
Custod Novi Cast* sup Tinam de dim anno . Et Robto fit Ro^i xvj. 
ti. IS xij. d. in Werkewurda cu ptinencijs de dim anno • Et in repa- 
rat domo^ Regis in Novo Cast* sr Tina xxviij. S. % ij. d. p bf. !^ . 
Et in defalta instaur de Baenburg p iij carrucis xv. S de dim anno • 
Et ite in defalta instaur de Sedbga p j carruc v. S. de dim anno • Et 
p XX vaccis ibid x. S. de dim anno * Et p xx scrophis ibid x 3. de dim 
anno • Et p CCC ovibj xxx. s de dim anno . Et Quiets est. 
' De p^sturis * Escaetis • Id vie redd comp de xxiij. ii. * xj. l.^ ij. 
d de firma p^stura'lji . In thro viij. ii. « xiij. s. « vij. d . Et in terris 
da! Sewalo servienti Reg xiiij. ii. * xvij. g. ^ vj. d. de dim anno . Et 
Quiet^ est 

306 Great Roll qf the Sixth of King Richard tlie First. 

Rote fit Odinelli de Umfranvitt redd comp de C. S. de debito Rad Vi- 
nitoris p recto . In tihro libavit . Et Quiets est Walts Bruis redd 
comp de xiij. S. 9s iiij. d p recto de xxv. fii. • In tliro iiij S. . Et 
deibet ix, S* % iiij. d • Villata de Walebota deb xl S* p disS ^* assiS . 
Rad fit Main redd compo! de j . m. de ij m. quas acceperat de molend 
Waldevij . In thro libavit . Et Quiet? est . Galff de Torp deb 
Ix. ti. ^ xiij. s. % iiij. d. q^ cep fine suu de plac de Rap anq'm Rex bret 
fine suu • Id vie redd comp de iij S. ^ iiij d. de Villata de Etiingeha 
p wasto bosci . In thro libavit • Et Quiet? est . Rofet? de In- 
sula deb iiij. ti« p bnda recogn de morte avuncii sui de villa de Anger- 
ton * de Hydewin vsus Walrm de Bolbec. 

De Tallag diiio^ « terra'ljL Regis de Norhumbrland p Godefr de Luci 
% soc suos . Id vie redd comp de ix. ti % iij. S. % iiij. d. de hoib3 de 
Baenburc de dono • Et de xxij S. % ij dde Stodesdon . Et de xxvj. 
S. de Sunderland . Et de xxx. §• de Gospat'cio Dreng . Et de iiij. 
ii. <« V. S* % iiij* d* de Spindlestan - Et de Ixij. S« "^ x- d de Roebira • 
Et de xvj. g « X. d. de Torpinton . Et de xiiij 5. * vj. d- de Yetling- 
ton . Ed de xvij- 2- de dono holum de Luuerbode . S* xxij. fi. 
xviij. S • In pdon p br 9 fidcis holbj xxij ti * xviij s . Et Quiet? 

Item Tallagiu de Drengis comitat? de Norhumbland ^ de Theinis * 
Id vie redd comp de C. ft * Ixvj. S. ^^ xj. d. de Tallag Drengo^ ^ Thei- 
no^ (^Ij. noia annotant' in sedo Rotulo reg Ric • In pdoii p jpdcm br 
^dcis Drengis * Theinis C. ti « Ixvj. S xj. d . Et Quiet? est 

Samuel Juds de Novo Cast'' deb xx. £&. q^ vocav warantu q bre n po- 
tuit. • + Sun fit Godefr deb xx. 3. « viij. d. p bendo plac suo Vsus 
p*orem de Hextoldesham . Rob de Berchlay deb xl. s. p disS . 4. 
Elias . de Pston deb dim m p def * Uctred Strie debet iij* s. p fia 
^sen! plac . Villata de Wulloura xx* S- p fta ^sen{ . Villata de 
Nordcoket red comp de Ivij. s. « ij d p eod . In thro xlv S « viii 
d • Et deb xj. 3.% vj. d . Id vie redd comp de xvij. 3. 99 vij* d. de 
Wltio de Sumvifi p eod . Et de j. m. de Adam de Dod p vino vend 
^t" assi3 . Et de j. m. de villata de Hadeston . Et de ix. 3. ^ iiij. 
d de Witto fit Obinisi de Robira p viridi . Et de x. 3. de Robto BertHn 

Great Ron of the Sixth qfKing Rkliard the First. SO? 

p dei • Et de x. S. de Robto de Rue p eod* • In thro libavit in 

• . . tallis . Et Quiet? est 

Anffired fit Kettelli redd comp de j. m p venaf q cep de Lepsis . In 
thro X. 2. . Et deb. iii. S. <« iiij d. 

De oblatis.— Robtus de Muscans redd comp de CC* m. p Relevio 
19 fine vre sue * In thro C % iiij. ii« « xix- §• 19 iiij* d. • Et deb xxviij. 
ii. % vij* §• % iiij? d- • Et in pdonis p br 9^ ipi Robto xxviij. ii. % vij. S. 

* iiij d. p xxviij ii. 19 vij. S. 19 iiij d. q reddite fueft de cata& ipi? Robti 
venditis p manu Hug de Neviti . Et Quiet? est • Rad Hairon deb 
xl. S. p recto + Id ddt) x. fh* p recogn hnda de tra de Mulesfen 
utru bat maj? jus ad tenend earn de Rege an Rex ad hndu earn in 
dnico . Rad fii Main redd compo^ de xl m p hndis custod bedu Rad 
de Caugi . In pdon p br 9: ipi Rad xl. la. . Et Quiet? est. . Ni- 
chot de Morewieb reddit compotu de CC. m. p hnda custod Nepo! 
suo']^ . In thro libavit . . Et Quiet? est . Gospatf ci? de Brome^ 
ton redd comp de xx, d. p recto • In thro libavit • Et Quiet? est . 
Hug Dunelmsis epc • D«C. m. p escamb de Satberge • Id epc • 
m. m. marc p comitatu de Norhumbland hiido • Id epc . Ix. m. 
q*s Rob de Muschans pmSat • Rad fit Main redd comp de xl. S ut 
sc'ba{ in Rotulo q^ sit q'et? de xl. m. q^s pmisit p hnda custod bedu 
Rad de Caugi q^a custod illsi n buit eo qd Epc Duneim eSl buit c Nor- 
humbland • In thro libavit . Et Quiet? est • Adam de Leme- 
stoii redd compde ij. m. p recto . In thro libavit . Et Quiet? 
est • Gilbt? de la Lega debet xx. ii. p hndis rris q*s Rex ei dedit • 
S3 reddidit in comp in Rotulo de Everwicbsr Quarti anni reg Ric « ihi 
Q*et? est • Helewisa de Tindala debet q^er xx. m. p se maritanda 
ubi volSit X p bnda custod bedis sui . S3 debnt req^ri ab Epo Du- 
nelnlsi q eas recepit 

Nova Obl ata post reditum . Regis ab Alemannia Ric de Um- 
franvilla redd comp de C. ii. ut Rex ^edat ei finem rre sue q fecit cu 
epo Dunelihsi qn. Comitat? de Norhumbland fuit i manu sua.« ut ii bat 
malevolentil Jk de eo qd n t*nsfretavit in Normannia . In thro q"? xx. 
ii. * C. * vj. S. 19 viij. d. • Et deb xiiij. ii. 19 xiij. s 19 iiij. d. . S3 redd 
^po! ifra . Ro^s de Merlay redd comp de xx m. ut remaneat ab 

308 Great Soil of the Sixth qf King Richard the First 

eScitu Norm . In thro lifeavit . Et Quiet^ est . Robtus de Mus- 
cans redd comp de xx. ii. p eod • In thro x. ti . Et deb. x. ti. S3 
redd comp infra • Rad de Calgi red comp de Ix. m de fine relevii 
sui . In thro xx m . Et deb xl m. 

Id vie redd comp de xij. li. % iiij. S. iiij. d. de exitu tre ade de Tin- 
dala de diih anno . Et de ix. ii. % vij. 3. % ix. d de exitu tre Rad de 
Caugi de dim anno . In thro libav in ij tafi • Et Quiet^ est. 

ScuTAG. de Norhumbland qd io reddr in j. suma q^ Comitate fuit i manu 
Epi Dunelfiisis a q"" receptu fuit scut % io n potuit distingui p Baronias . 
Id vie redd comp de Ixxvij. ii. % xiij. 3. % iiij. d. de scut Militu de Nor- 
humbland ad redemptions dni reg . In thro Ij. ti. % xix. 3. % v. d • 
Et deb XXV. ti. « xiij. 3. « xi d. 

Id vie redd comp de xxvij. ti. % vj. 3. 1^ viij. d de catallis Flandrensiu 
venditis . In thro xix. ti. ^ vj. 3. * viij. d. . Et deb viij. ti q*s Alan^ 
Trenchem % Magr Gerva3 de Houb*gge 19 Ric Cakuel * Ric de Fremin- 
geh3 recepert % in debent respondere . Walts de Bolebech redd comp 
de C. ti p fine ?re sue . In thro xx ti . Et deb qx xx. ti . Rob. 
de Muscans redd comp de x. ti. ut remaneat ab excitu Norm . In 
thro x. m. . Et deb. v. m. . Id redd comp de eod debito . In 
thro liberavit . Et Q'et^ est . Ric de Umfranvilla redd comp de xiiij. 
ti. ^ xiij 3. % iiij. d. ut rex ^cedat ei fine rre sue q fecit c Epo Dunelmsi . 
In thro liberavit • Et Quiets est . Adam de Tindala redd comp de 
C. ti. g fine q fecit p hnda tot3 rra pat's sui q*m ipe liuit die q' obiit ^ p 
relev suo . In thro 1. ti. . Et deb. 1. ti. 

Rotulus Escaetarum % Wardarum de Quib3 Hugo Bardulf respond . 
— Norhumberland . — Hugo Bard redd comp de xiij. ti. * yj. 3. ^ iiij. 
d de firma tre Wiiti Bert^'m de dim anno affirmata p Epih Dunelm . 
In thro liberavit . Et Quiets est . Id redd comp de xxv. 3. % iiij. 
d. de firma tre Ric le Masle in b comitatu de dim anno affirmata p 
^dcm epm . In thro liberavit . Et Quiet^ est. 

Great RoUfor Ae Seventh qfKing John. 309 

[Visus compot vie toci^ Angt de t!mino Pasch anni regni Reg Joliis 

Norhubted. RobfiiRogi de firm deNorhufeland.— Inthro.— Et Quiet? est. 

NoBHUMBERLAND. — Rofet^^ fit Ro|l . Angot? de Corf p eo redd 
comp de CC % xl ti. * xviij S. % iiij d. nuo de firm' Comif . In thro 
C * iij s. 15 vij d . Et in elemoS ^stitu? milif de Tempt j fh . Et 
Capellano de Finchal iij. S. • Et I libatone ^stituta Johi Canuto Ix S. 
^ X d . Et I quief ?re Ro|^i de Flamavitt xl §. . Et i 8ris da! 

Ro« fi} Rogi ij 

Regi Scotie x ti I Tindat . Et eid xxxij ti % x S* i Werkewrde cu 
ptinenciis . Et Wilto Bardulf 1 s. I Theinagio q WiS fit Witti tenuit 
I Heppedat % Cokedale cu ptinenciis . Et epo Dunhelm xxiij ti. % 
xiiij S. % iij d. I Wapentac de Sebge . Et ^dco Robto fit Ro^i xxx. ti. 
I Neweburii. 

Et p galeis faciend liiij ti. % xiiii d. p br G. fit Pet* qd attulit de 

poncd de c^ pr ei n locabit 

^putand ei C. fh ad galeas faciend % xxv. m. ad trencheas faciend. 

Et 1 ^dcis trencheis xxv. fh. p ^dcm bf . Et tribus balistariis cu bi- 
nis eq^s y^. ti. i^ ^ §• p xlij dies de libatone sua p br 9" • Et Ailmaro 

p id br 

Balistar Iv §. p Iv. dies p id br . Et Reimud xlviij s. p xlviij dies . Et 

t*b5 aliis balis! iiij ti. % xix S. p xxxij dies p id br • Et cuids alii cu 
t*b3 eq*s xi ti. % xij 3. is vj d. p C. « qT xx * vj. dieb3 p id br . Et 
XX 8ervientib3 peditib3 ad libatones suas xiiij ti. * vj 3. ^ viij d. de q*9 
XX ^ \j dieb3 scit cuiq^ ij d I die p id br ^ p br 9' qd br ^cipit libatones 
fi X balls! ^ iij svientibz eq*tib3 * xx aliis svientib3 peditib3 de q* nuo 
X balistar no ven n*' iij svientes eq*tes . Et I reparacone dom'^ 9 i 
novo castett sup Tina xv §. p br 9 • Et deb xvij ti. ^ xiiij g. i^ viij 
d. . Id f ^p eod deb . In di nicti . Et i ^dcis Trencheis vij ti. 
X xiiij S. * viij d. p br G. fit Pet* . Et deb x ti. . Id r cop de eod de- 
bi? . In th nicli . Et ipi Robto in Corbrig xxij ti. ^ x 3. de t*b3 
»tib3 ani p bf 9 ^^ ^^3 I'^sp infra . Et eide xv ti. i Robir de eisd 
.minis p br ej^d * am* totu . Et ht de supple xxvij ti. ^^ x 3. q locant' 

VOL. II. s s 

310 Great RoUJbr (he Seventh of King John. 

ei infra . Witts de Stutevite deb xxix li % xviij s. ^ ix d. * ob de firm 
comit de dim anno scdo . Id vie r comp de j m de q'da domo q fuit 
Witti fit Erenbald . In thro libavit • Et quiet? est . Galfr de 
Torp r comp de Iviij ti ^^ xvi 5. ^ viij d. % cepit fine sic ^V I 9^ p*mo . 
In li XX §. Et deb Ivij ti. ^ xvj g. « viij d. D' q*b3 deb redde p ann xx 
3. . Rob fit Ro^i f . comp de xxij ti. ^^ x 3. de firm de Corbrig de t^b3 
ptib3 anni . Et de vij ti. % x. S. de cmto ej^d manii de eisd tmin . 
In tti nich . Et I suo supple q^ tit sup* xxvij ti. % x §. . Et deb 1 
3. . Id f ^p de eod deb . In th libavit . Et Quiet? est. 

De p^stur % Escaetis. Id vie r. comp de xlvij ti i? ii S. « iiij d. de 
firm p^stura^^L . In th x ti. % ij §. ^ iiij d . Et in nis daf Sewalo 
§vienti 9: . xxix ti qs xv 5. . Et Eustacii de Vesci vj ti « xviij 5. * 
v d. 1 Spindlestan . Et deb dim in. Et dim fh de anno ^&to . Id 
deb ij in. % difii de remanenti ej?de firih de ptib3 annis . Joiies fit 
Hugon deb v in. sic ^V I 9 viij* . Ro^s fit Gerard r comp de xxiiij ti. 
^ vj s. ^ viij d. p bind bnvot 9 sic ^l' in 9 scdo . In dl xl s . Et 
deb xxij ti ^ vj §. ^ viij d . Rob fit Ro^i deb xx g. de t*b3 scu! 9 
Ric . Thoih de Amiidevitt deb xl g. de scdo ^ rcio scuf. 

De p*mo scuf JJ:* J- Rob fit Ro|i deb ij m sic ^f ' in 9 v* . Rol'b de 
SUai deb ij m de eod • Walts Carun deb ij m. de eod . Ric de 
Umframvitt deb v m de eod . Alex de Bradefeld deb ij in de eod . 
Thoih de Amiidevitt deb j in de eod . Wal?s fit Gilebti de Bolun deb 
AJ ni de eod . Eustacii de Bailloel xl m de eod • Et C % Ix in q^ 
n fuit 1 ¥vic 9^ ult* mare . Gileb de Lasci 1. in ^ j palefr ut sit dnic 
cticus 9^ sic pr I 9 V* . Hug de Morewic r comp de ij in de p'mo 
scuf . In tb j ni . Et deb j m . Id redd ^p de eod deb . In 
til libavit . Et Quiet5^ est 

SresfS infra 

Coin Thofii Pat^ci^ deb xL m. iiij palefr p hnd recogn sic ^f ' I ft iij"« 
Ada de Calgi deb x m p hiido r^'to sic pP ibid. 

Id vie r comp de viij d de rra Turfin . Et de xxiiij. §. de hoib3 de 
Jakelinton ut sit i ptectone ft q'^s debnt redde p ann • In tb libavit I 
ij f . Et quiets est. 

Id vie . Iviij s. % iiij d. de comag de anno iiij"" . Et C. g. de cornag 
p'mi scdi is aiii rcii q* sf sup rras Reg Scotie . Et Ivij g. % iiij d. de 

Great RoUJar Ae SevenA of King John. 311 

anno ^ito . Cofii Pat^ci^ f . comp de xl m % iiij palefr sic sup' ^F . 
In th nich • Et ipi Comi i pdon xl m « iiij. Palefr p br $: • £t quiets 

Id vie r ^p de xx li de cornag . In thro xvij ii. ^ ij. g. ^ viij d . 
Et defi Ivij g. =t iiij =t . Wifl fit Wal?i de6 x fh. p hnd litfts sic ?P i Jfc 
v** Rob de Muscamps xx m. de ^stito • Wiils de Bikere r comp de 
V. m. p hnd ptib3 motnd de Gesemue sic ^H 9: jPced . In th libavit . 
Et quiets est. 

De quarto Scui — Adam de Tindal r comp de C. g de eod In 
thro libavit • Et quiet^ est . Rob fit Ro|^i deb ij in de eod . 
Rob fii Witti deb ij m de eod . Waltk fit GUeb deb ij m de eod . 
Witt Bard deb xx. in. i? j. palefr p tenend rra sic ?? I 9: scdo I Evwicsir. 

De oblatis. — Com Pat*ci^ deb x fh. % ij brachetos ^ vj leporar p hnd 
iq*sicone sic pf I 9 ^ced . Alex C apett r ^p de dini m p bind bri sic fl 
ibid . In til libavit . Et quiet? est . Witt de Ravenestun * 
Ysabet ux ej^ r ^potu de j m p hndo ^cipe sic ^f ibid . In ^ libavit . 

r o8 de XX m 

Et quieti sunt . Helewisa de Tindal p sic qd n dist'ngaf sic ^?' ibid . 

In til nicii . Et i pdonis ipi H. xx m p br 9 P ^^^ ^ob viri sui sub- 
sc^ptu . Et quieta est . Rob fit Witti deb rcia pte xxx marca'^ q 
adq«rere poftt 4us Godefr Malduit . Amota fit Witti fit Witti r ^p 
de j Palefr p lind ^cipe sic ^f ibid . In tli v. m p palefr . Et 
quieta est . Galf f fit Galf r deb xx fh p sic qd loqla n pcedat sic ^^ 

De quinto Scuf ass ad ij marc « dim. — Rob de Cramavitt f comp de 
XV fii de f ' iij mit . In tb xl g. • Et deb xij in . Rob de Troke- 
lawe deb iij ni. p dreng^g . Hug de Bailloel deb 1. ti andeg sic fV I 
9: §ced • Id vie f comp de diih in de Jobe fit Sini p lie pcord Et de 
dim in de Vincenc de Witingha p eod . Et de diih de Teob de Scot- 
ton . In th libav 1 iij f . Et quiet? est. 

Nova Oblata.— Ada de Tindat r comp de xx in p lie ^ cu Rob fit 
Ade de placito aptti . In th libavit Et Quiet? est . Eps Nor- 
wic r comp de uno bono palefr electo p Witto de Ford qd ipe n ponat* 
I asgis vt recognic . In th v. m • Et deb ij in. % diin . Id r pp 
de eod deb . In th libav Et q'et? est . Ric de Umframvitt deb j 

312 Great Boll for the Seoenth qf King John. 

palef r p hndo bri de pace g Rad Taillard senescaii suu q n potuit hre 
n^ p ipm I p'a psona de medietate viii de Netherton de q' tenes est % 
poii se in I magna asS • Rob fit Ade r ppotu de xl m p hnd n*a sua I 
Tindai ^ Helewisa uxore sua ^ cataii: q in amota sf • In th xx m • 
Et deb XX fh. . Wiit de Lattoii deb C. m ut duella pcedant q vadiata 
fuert It ipm Witt petente * Galf r fit Galfr tenete de vij carr tre cu ptin 
1 Silkeswurd 15 de ^j carr rre cu ptiii I Horden. 

D finib3 * scuf vj"* Mil assiso ad ij marc. — Id vie r. comp de xxx m 
de Walro de Bolebec de fine suo . Et de xv. m. de Johe le Vescunte 
p eod • £t de X m. de AdSi de Tindai Et de x. fh de Hug de 

Morewic . Et de de Rob de Muschans . Et de xx m 

de Gileb de la Vat de eod . In th iibavit I vj tal . Et quiets est . 
Rad de Kaugi xx m. de fine suo • Rob de Muschans viij m. de scu! • 
Ric de Umfranvitt f comp de xl m de fn suo • In th xxx m . Et 
deb X. m. . Id vie r comp de ij m de Alex de Bradeford de f j^ mil . 
Et de viij S % xd. de Thorn fit Rob de ?cia pte ]9 Mit . Et de viij m. 

de Ro^o de SUai de iiij feod Hairun de t]9 mit . Et 

de vj m. de Rob btram de f iij mit Et de ij m. de Ro|^o fit Rad fit 
Main de f ]9 mit . Et de iiij fh de Rob de Ros de ij f . Et de 

xxiiij Vesci de f xij mit . Et de xvij S. is ixd. de Ric sup 

Teise de ij ptib3 f ]9 mit . In th Iibavit I x. ? , Et quiets est , 
Witt Bard ij m de f'f mit . Witt Briewe deb x fn de v feod. S3 ht 
q»e? p br 9: . Isti hnt Quiet^^ p bria . Rob fit Ro|^i . Hug de 
Bailloel . Waltk fit Gileb r comp de x in de f iij mit . In thro 
libav . Et quiets est . Eustaci^' de Vesci r cp de xl fh de fn suo . 
In th iiij m. p man vie Ebo'^ Et deb xxxvj m . Rob de Ros r pp 
de Ix fh. de fn suo . In th iiij ti % j in p man ej^d Et deb Iiij 
in. . Id r ^p de eod deb . In th j m p vie Line . Et deb Iij in . 
Jordan^ Hairuii iij m de eod . Ric sup Teisia r ^p de ij m de eod . 
In th lib . Et Quiets est . Ro^ de Silai r ^p de xx m de fine . 
In th X m • Et deb x fh. . Thorn de Deuelestoh xx s. de eod . 
Rob fit Ro^i deb j palefr p Pef de Mallai. 

Tig, 3, 



■ ftf ttl* OvLgloftl aJs4 



/fTTi i 

Account of an Ancient Pitcher. SIS 

XLIV. — Account of an ancient Pitcher ^ found in digging the Foundation 
for the New GaoU at Carlisle, in a Letter to John Adamson, Esq., 
Secretary 9 by Mr. C. Hodgson. 


This Pitcher (Plate XII. Pig. «,) was found in digging the foundations 
of the boundary-wall, at the new gaol, at Carlisle, in the old gaol yard, 
and on ground which is said to have formerly been occupied by the 
Black Friars. It lay at the depth of about 15 feet below the surface, 
imbedded in black sludge, intermixed with stones and other rubbish, 
and within a tank (at B in Fig. 1, Plate XII.), composed of square oak 
frames, covered on the outside with riven oak boards. This tank was 
about 7 feet deep. Neither a saw or plane seemed to have been used 
in forming either the boards or frame work of it. Behind the planks, 
it was stuffed all round with a light blue clay, which is very uncom- 
monly found in the neighbourhood of Carlisle ; the clay of tliat district 
being all of a red colour, and such as is usually met with in new red 
sand formations. Besides this Pitcher there was another of simi- 
lar form and manufacture, but smaller, found with it. Several frag- 
ments of red earthen-ware, bearing ornaments in bas-relief, were found 
in the stratum of rubbish above the tank. One thing which I consider 
remarkable in this vessel is, its being covered with a glaze, which I 
suppose is the vitrification of some earth, &c., with a metallic oxide, 
probably lime and oxide of lead. I believe it is not known where the 
clay with which the blue-bodied terra-cotta vessels of this kind are 
made, is found. If this vessel is Roman, I apprehend it was left by 
the very first settlers in this country ; which I infer from the very great 
quantity of Roman earthen-ware and other antiquities which were found 
all over the parts about the tank which have been dug into, and in a 

VOL. II. T t 

314 Account of an Ancient Pitcher. 

stratum of about 4 feet thick over the level part of the ground, 2 feet 
from the present surface, and over the brow inclining towards the river 
Caldew, firom 12 to 27 feet thick, as in the annexed section. These 
discoveries were made in the course of digging the foundations of the 
new gaol. Coins were found in making these foundations, of Vespasian, 
Trajan, Antoninus Pius, Tacitus, &c. &c., and a great quantity of urns 
containing bones. 

The shoe-soles or sandals, sent herewith (Figs. 3 and 4, Plate XII.), 
were found at A, as dotted on the Section, about 17 feet below the sur- 
face. I think they must be Roman, as a quantity of red Roman pot- 
tery, &c. was found with them. Their being formed right and left, as 
well as being studded with hemispherical hob-nails, shews that these 
contrivances are not of modern invention.* 

I am. Sib, 

Your obedient Servant, 


* Great numbera of shoes of various sizes, boots, and other articles of leather have been dug out 
of a very laige heap of dung and rublnsh, near the ruins of the bath, at the Roman Station, called 
Whidey Gastie, in South Tindale. The shoes are all made right and left, clinker-built, and studded 
with hob-nails, like the specimens which my brother here describes, and transmitted to the Sodety. 
The dung-heap also contains fragments of Roman earthen-ware, glass, and odier curiosities. Horses 
or mule's shoes have been found in it ; and in places it is intimately mixed with the moss, called in 
Botany, ^^um sguarratuM, which I suppose to have been used as bedding for the animals that have 
produced it. It is very remarkable^ that the properties of this dung as manure, have been very littie im- 
paired, for the proprietor of the ground upon which it is situated, has used it upon his grass land with 
the most beneficial effects ; and thinks it very littie inferior for that purpose to fresh stable manure. 

J. H.. Sec. 

Account of the Discowry of a Stone Vault, S^. 3VS 

XLV. — Account of the Discovery qf a Stone Vault and Urn, at Villa 
Real, near Jesmond, in a Letter to the Secretaries^ by Russell 
Blackbird, Esq. 

Villa Real, April 10, 1828. 


In trenching some ground for planting, this morning, we discovered a 
stone vault, 4 feet long by 2 feet wide, and SO inches deep, deposited 
in a dry hard mark below the soil, which we were taking out for mak- 
ing the walks in the garden. It contained the bones of a man, the head, 
in particular, quite perfect, with all the teeth in it. Also a small urn 
(of which the annexed is a representation. See Plate XI.), of which I 
beg your Acceptance for the use of the Antiquarian Society. There 
was some red-coloured earth in the urn which the labourers threw out. 

I am, respectfidly. 


Yours, &c., 


316 A Listqftfie Freeholders of Northumberland, 

XLVL — A List of the Freeholders qf Northumberland^ in 1628 and 
1638-9- Communicated by John Trotter Brockett, Esq. in a Letter 
to John Adamson, Esq., Sec. 

Albion Place^ 1st November^ 1830. 

Dear Sir, 

I BEG to lay before the Society the copy of a list of Freeholders of 
Northumberland, in the year 1628, extracted by the Rev. James Raine 
and myself, from " MSS. Mickleton, No. 9/* in Bishop Cosin's Library, 
at Durham. This highly curious volume, apparently compiled by Sir 
Thomas Swinburne, of Edlingham Castle, Knt., contains several muni- 
ments relating to the office of Sheriff of the county, and concerning 
the rates and other antiquities, especially for 1628 and 1629, during 
both of which years Sir Thomas was High Sheriff; also many particu- 
lars concerning the Commissions of Array ; with letters and original 
papers connected with the Scottish Rebellion, and the subsequent 
troubles in the reign of King Charles the First. In a note in Brand's 
History of Newcastle^ vol. ii. p. 454, mention is made of Sir Thomas 
Swinburne, as Sheriff for 1628, but it is stated, that "in 1629, none 
occurs." The fact is. Sir Thomas was Sheriff for 1629, as well as for 
the year preceding. From an entry in the manuscript, in Mr. Spear- 
man's hand writing, it would seem that Sir Robert Brandling, of Aln- 
wick Abbey, was meant to have succeeded Sir Thomas Swinburne, but 
that he retired into Scotland to avoid the expense of executing the 

I have also taken the liberty of sending a copy of another list of 
Northumberland Freeholders, in 1638-9, during the Sheriffalty of Wil- 
liam Orde, Esq., extracted from " MSS. Hunter, No. 23," penes Dec. 
8g Cap. Dunelm. 

A List qfthe Freeholders qf Northumberland. 


The perusal of these lists affords a melancholy instance of the rapi- 
dity with which the human race passes away. It is painful to reflect 
how few of the male descendants of the persons whose names are here 
recorded are now seated on the estates of the original possessors. Many 
families, no douht, cease to exist hy the natural course of events ; but 
the civil wars of the seventeenth century and the rebellions in 1715 
and 1745 have largely contributed to this remarkable extinction. 

It may be proper to notice, that it has been thought desirable in 
these extracts to preserve the orthography of the original MSS. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 




S'* Ralph Delavale, of Seaton Delavale, kt. 
S'- John Delavale, of Dissington, kt. 
S'* Edward Grey, of Morpeth Castle, kt. 
S'- Henry Bavington, of Heton, kt. 
S'* William Fenwick, of Meldon, kt. 
Robte. Delavale, of Cowpon, esq. 
Edward Delavale, of Bebside, gent. 
Marke Errington, of Pontyland, esq. 
Anthony Errington, of Denton, gent. 
Mark Errington, of Howdon Head, gent. 
iTristam Fenwick, of Keinton, gent. 
'Martin Fenwick, of the same, gent. 
Anthony Swinbum, Elswick, gent. 


Lancelot Ogle, of Burrodon, gent. 
Oliver Killingworth, of Killingworth, gent. 
Robte. Dalton, of Wetsled, gent. 
Lancelot Ogle, of Darrishall, gent. 
Cuthbert Og}e, of Kirkley, gent. 
Marke Ogle, of the same. gent. 
Hugh Goflon, of Benridge, gent. 
Marke Ogle, of Carter Moore, gent. 
Thomas Fenwick, of Frestick Hall, gent. 
James Shafloe, of Prestick, gent. 
Thomas Potts, of the same, gent. 
Thomas Gibson, of the same, yeom. 
John Pattyson, of Laverickhall, gen. 


A List qfthe Freeholders qf Northumberland. 

John Gwrjnetf of Mersfen, yeom. 
John Pfeston, of Cowpon, gent 
Cuthbert Watson, of the same, yeom. 
Robte. Spraggon, of Whawton, jeom. 
Lancelot Meggetson, of the same, yeom. 
John Horsley, of Milburne Gralnge, gent, 
Richard Smithy of Dalton, yeom. 
Edward Sharprowe, of High Callerton, g. 
James Shaftoe, of the same, gent. 
Raiph Middleton, of Edington, gent. 
John Bell, of Bellassls, gent. 
/ Lionell Fenwick, of Blagdon, gent 
John Fenwick, of Brinkley, gent 
Robte. Fenwick, of the same, gent. 
Oswould Mitford, of Wetsled, gen. 
Thomas Dalton. of the same, gen. 
Thomas Bates, of Hallywell, gent 
Robte. Cramlington, of Newsham, gent 
Richard Rea, of Horton Grainge, yeom. 
Bartram Rea, of the same, yeom. 
Robert Shaftoe, of Benwell, gent 
Henry Dent, of Byker, gent. 
*Will. Southgate, of Long Benton. 

John Bowe, of Tynemouth, gent 
Henry Helme, of North Sheeles, gent 
Raiph Read, of the same, gent 
John Delavale, of Tynemouth, gent. 
Thomas Dowe, of Whitley, gent 
Thomas Mylls, of Munkseaton, yeom. 
Robert Hall, of the same, yeom. 
Raiph Fife, of Whitley, yeom. 
Thomas Rea, of Horton Grainge, yeom. 
Thomas Akenside, of Eachwick, gent 
Henry Thometon, of Gaily Hill, gent 
Richard Gofton, of Eland Hall, yeom. 
John Shaftoe, of Stickley, gent 
*Robert Spearman, of Preston, gent 
* Will. Southgate, of Long Benton, gent 
*Michael Spearman, of Preston, gent 
^Michael Milburne, of Chirton, gent. 
*Ralph Grey, of Pfeston, gent 
*Mark Milbankes, of Chirton, gent 
♦Roger Otway, of Preston, gent 
♦Henry Burghill, of Wallsend, gent 
♦Richard Hyndmersh, of same, gent 


S'- Ephraim Widrington, of Birkheads, kt 
Richard Hearon, of Bockenfield, esq. 
Thomas Ogle, of Tritlington, esq. 
Robert Widrington, of Plessy, esq. 
Thomas Lewen, of Warkworth, gent 
Thomas Errington, of the Hirst, gent 
George Reevley, of Newton Underwood, esq. 
Tliomas Fenwick, of Throple, gent 
Robte. Collingwood, of Todbume, gent. 
Henry Collingwood, of the Whome, gent. 
Alexander Pott, of Thriston, yeom. 
Robte. Pott, of the same, yeom. 
' John Creswell^ of Creswell, gent 
Raiph Thompson, of Hepscott, gent 
Henry Browne, of Creswell, yeom. 

Claudius Browne, of the same, yeom. 
Roland Archer, of Seaton, yeom. 
Henry Widrmgton, of Hawxley, gent. 
Henry Eirton, of the same, gent. 
Matthew Wharrier, of Toggesden, yeom. 
Gerrard Browell, of the same, yeom. 
Edward Patterson, of the same, yeom. 
Nicholas Atkinson, of Creswell, yeom. 
Thomas Read, of Helme on the Hill, gent 
Raiph Carr, of Eshott, gent 
John Ogle, of Cawsey Pke. esq. 
William Lisley, of Shothaugh, gent 
George Wharton, Spitle Hill, gent. 
Robte. Sadler, of Longhirst, yeom. 
Robte. Straker, of the same, yeom. 

A List of the Freeholders qf Northumberland. 


Robte. LawsoDy jun., of the same, jeom. 
Robte. Wjrmperley, of Creswell, jeom. 
Cuthbte. Pye, of Morpeth, Gent« 
Robert Raymes, of Long^tton, gent. 
I William Fenwidk, of Stanton, esq. 
William Fenwick, of Nunnykirke, gent. 
John Bulman, of Morpeth, gent. 
Richard Greene, of the same, gent. 
Gerrard Redhead, of the same, gent. 
Lancelot Hatherwicke, of Buller's Greene, 

William Hall, of Garrett Lee, gent. 

George Fenwick, of Langshawes, gent. } 
William Fenwick, of Nunridelng, gent. 
Laurence Softly, of Morpeth, yeom. 
Gawen Smith, of the same, yeom. 
George Birletson, of Woodhome, yeom. 
Thomas Story, of Olde Moore, yeom. 
Martin Albon, of Tritlington, yeom. 
Edward Albon, of Eargdon, yeom. 
Robert Pearson, of the Olde Moore, yeom. 
Robert Urwen, of Morpeth, gent. 
* John Fye, of Morpeth, gent. 


S'- Francis Brandling, of Alnewick Abbey, kt. 
S'- John Clavering, of Callaly, kt. 
S'- William Camaby, of Fameham, kt 
Roger Widrington, of Cartington, esq. 
Robte. Lisle, of Felton, esq. 
George Collingwood, of Eslington, esq. 
Robert Haslerigg, of Swarland, esq. 
Edward Lisle, of Acton, gent 
Robte. Clavering, of Brinkburne, gent. 
Alexander Selby, of Bitleston, esq. 
Thomas Collingwood, of Great Ryle, gent 
Alexander Collingwood, of Litle Ryle, gent 
Thomas Unthanke, of Unthanke, gent 
Robert Clavering, of Leerchild, gent 
Francis Radcli£P, of Warton, gent 
John Salkeld, of Hull Abbey, gent 
Francis Alder, of Hobberlawe, gent. 
Robte. Clennell, of Clennell, gent. 
John Hall, of Otterbume, gent 
Hugh Parke, of Warton, gent 
Alexander Hall, of Brankshawe, gent 
Thomas Davison, of Newton, gent 
George Selby, of the Coatwalls, gent 
Gerrard Haiigingshawe, of Harehaugh, gent 
Thomas Hall, of Ottercops, gent. 
Raiph Forster, of Owersgrasse, gent 

Lancelot Lisle, of Hayson, gent 
Cuthbte. Collingwood, of Ditchbume, gent 
Henry Ogle, of Eglingham, gent 
Thomas Ogle, of Harcopp, gent 
Thomas Hearon, of Crawlaw, gent 
Arthur Hebbome, of Hebbome, esq. 
Jeffirey Proctor, of Shawdon, gent. 
Francis Collingwood, of Thrunton, gent. 
Richard Dunn, of Gallowlawe, gent 
Francis Collingwood, of Reeveley, gent. 
Cuthbte. Chesman, of Woodhall, gent. 
Willia. Widowes, of Alnewicke, gent 
Nicholas Forster, of the same, gent. 
Edward Hall, of Yardopp, gent 
Michael Clennell, of Warton, gent 
Percival Snawdon, of Bickerton, gent 
Alexander Snawdon, of the same, yeom. 
Willia. Snawdon, of the same, yeom. 
Michael Elsdon, of the Mote, yeom. 
Robte. Hall, of Munkridge, gent 
Richard Turner, of Burrowdon, gent. 
Thomas Brigge, of Alnewick, gent 
Thomas Partis, of the same, yeom. 
*Cuthbert Pfoctor, of Rock, gent 
*Geo. Beadnell, of Lemadon, esq. 
*6eo. Beadnell, gent, son and heir. 


A List qfthe Freeholders of Northumberland. 


Sir John Fenwick, of Wallington, kt. 

Sir Edward Radcliff, baronett. 

Cuthbe. HearoD, of Chipchase, esq. 

Raiph Carnaby, of Halton, esq. 

Henry Errington, of Beawfront, esq. 

Thomas Midleton, of Belsoe, esq. 

Robte. Fenwick, of Bitchfeild, esq. 

Lewes Widrington, of Chesburne Graing, esq. 

Albony Fetherstonhaugh, of Fetherstonhaugh, 

Thomas Blenkinsop, of Blenkinsopp, esq. 
William Welton, of Welton, esq. 
William Fenwick, of East Heddon, gent. 
John Elrington, of Espersheeles, gent. 
George Blenkinsop, of Billestre, gent. 
Willia. Charleton, of Hesleside, gent. 
John Adjson, of Ovingham, gent. 
Arthur Lee, of Wylam, gent. 
Arthur Halsey> of Ovingham, gent. 
Willia. Swinburne, of Capheton, esq. 
John Swinburne, of Black Heddon, gent. 
George Hearon, of Kearsley, gent. 
Griffin Wrinkles, of Harneham, gent. 
Willia. Ajoiesley, of Shaftoe, gent. 
Gawen Aynsley, of Ajoiesley Hall, gent. 
John Read, of West Heddon, gent. 
William Shafloe, of Bavington, esq. 
Robte. Widrington, of West Harle, gent. 
Beniamin Widrington, of Buteland, gent. 
John Hearon, of Birkley, gent. 
Henry Widrington, of Collwell, gent. 

Raiph Errington, of Bingfield, gent. 
Nicholas Crane, of Crawhall, gent. 
Matthew Newton, of Stoxfeild Hall, gent. 
John Ridley, of the Wall Towne, gent. 
William Male, of Hardrideing, gent. 
John Charleton, of Readsmouth, gent 
John Ridley, of the Woods, gent. 
Oswould Fenwick, of the Hugh, gent. 
George Simpson, of Ovington, gent. 
John Belly, of the same, yeom. 
Richard Teasdale, of Slealey, gent. 
Edward Errington, of Wallichgrang, gent. 
John Killhill, of Aynick, gent. 
Richard Carr, of Cootley, gent. 
Richard Smith, of Aynick, gent. 
Thomas Charleton, of the same, yeom. 
Robte. Bewick, of the Close house, gent. 
Raiph Grinwell, of Corbrigg, gent. 
William Hudspeth, of Corbrigg, gent. 
Lancelot Fenwick, of Matfen, gent. 
John Sanderson, of Heley, gent. 
Lyonell Winshopp, of Aydon, yeom. 
John Ridley, of the same, gent. 
Thomas Errington, of Sandoe, gent. 
Thomas Rowcastle, of Welton, gent. 
Willia. Stokoe, of Newbrough, gent. 
Alexander Ridley, of Whitsheels, gent. 
Anthony Glenwright, of Newbrough, yeom. 
Rowland Urwen, of the same, gent. 
James Carr, of Whitchester, gent. 
John Fenwick, of Echewick, gent. 


S'- Arthur Grey, of Spindleston, kt. 
S'- Roger Grey, of Ulchester, kt. 
S'- Matthew Forster, of Etherston, kt. 
John Grey, of Bradforth, esq. 

John Craister, of Craister, esq. 
Willa. Weetwang, of Dunston, gent. 
Edmund Rodham, of Little Houghton, esq. 
John Carr, of Lesbury, gent. 

A List qfthe Freeholders of Nor Cumberland: 


Ephraim Anix)rer, of Alemouth, gent. 
Thomas Thompson, of Embleton, genU 
Thomas Salkeld, of Fallowdon, gent. 
Richard Forster, of Keetham, gent 
Roland Phillipsony of Rennyngton, yeom. 
Samuel Weddell^.of Swinhoe, yeom. 
Matthew Forster, of Warneford, gent. 

Thomas Armorer, of Belford, gent. 
John Forster, of Newham, gent. 
Thomas Forster, of Brunton, gent. 
Alexander Armorer, of Tuggell, gent. 
George Lawson, of Newton by the Sea, gent. 
John Selby, of Mulsfen, gent. 
Thomas Fenwick, of Lesbury, gent. 


S'- William Muschamp, of Barmoor, kt 
Thomas Carr, of Foorde, esq. 
John Strother, of Newton, esq. 
John Selby, of Pawston, gent 
Gerrand Selby, of the Harelawe, gent. 
Ralph Muschamp, of Lyam Hall, gent. 
Stephen Jackson, of Haslerigg, gent 
Alexander Scott, of Yeardle, gent 

Robert Burrell, of Milfeild, gent. 
Thomas Vnthank, of the same, gent. 
Edward Reepley, of Humbleton, gent. 
John Orde, of Weetwood, gent 
Robte. Lawe, of Branxton, yeom. 
Clement Strother, of Langton, yeom. 
William Gr^ of Akeld, gen. 
I William Canr, of Hetton, gent. 

NORTHUMBERLAND.—^ pfect booke contayninge the ffreeholdr*- 
"tiffin the countye qfores^ as they are in the sevaU wards in the tyme of 
W^ Orde, Esq^- heigh Sheriff of the said Countie, ana do. 1638-9. 


S'- John Delavall, of Dissington, knight 

S'- Nicholas Tempest, of Flatworth (?) knight 

Robrt Mitford, of Sighill, esqr. 

Gilbrt Errington, of Pont Hand, esq. 

Lancelott Errington, of Denton, gent 

Marke Ogle, of Kirkley, gent. 

Marke Errington, of West Denton, gent. 

Lancelott Ogle, of Burroden, gent 

Lancelott Ogle, of Darreshall, gent. 


Martin Fenwick, of Kyneton, gent 
Trestram Fenwick, of Kynton, gent 
Edward Delavall, of Bebside, gent. 
Robert Cramlington, of Newsham, gent. 
S'- Wm«»- Fenwick, of Meldon, knight. 
Robert Mitforth, of Mitforth, esq. 
Nicholas Thorneton, of Galleyhill, gent 
Raph Middleton, of Truick, gent 
Marke Ogle, of Kirkley, gent 


A List qfthe Freeholders of Norihwmberland. 

Marke Ogle^ of Cartermoore, gent. 
John Fenw'k, ef Brenkley, gent. 
Robert Fenwick, of Brenkley, gent. 
Robert WiddringtoD,'of Plesaey, esq. 
John Bell, of Bellas's, gent. 
Robert Dalton, of Wesled, gent. 
Oliver Killingworth, of Killingworth, gent. 
Will™- Killingworth, of jr* same, gent. 
Edward Stott, of Walesend, gent. 
Raph Rede, of Chirton, gent. 
Thomas Bates, of Halliwell, gent* 
Robrt Shaftoe, of Benwell, gent 
Anthony Swinbome, of Elswidc, gent. 
Henry Anderson, of Quarry House, gent. 
Henry Horsley, of Milbome grange, gent. 
Reynold Horsley, of the same, gent. 
Raph Tompson, of Hepscotte, gent. 
John Shaftoe, of Prestwicke, gent. 
James Shaftoe, of the same, gent. 
Willm. Potts, of the same, gent. 
John Gardner, of Merisfen, gent. 
Andrew Goflon, of Benbridg, gent. 
Richard Gofton, of Handball, gent. 
Thomas Fenwick, of Prestwick, gent. 
James Shaftoe, of High Callerton, gent. 
Edward Shaftoe, de e**"-, gent. 
Robert Gofton, de e*°-, gent. 
Robrt Otway, of Preston, gent. 

I Thomas Dowe, of Whitley, gent. 
^Thomas Mill, of Munchseaton, gent. 
John Bowe, of lynemouth, gent. 
Willm Aynsley, -of Gallohill, gent. 
Henry Helme, of North riieels, gent. 
John Batie (? Bates), Of Halliwell, gent 
John Preston, of Cowpon, gent. 
Cuthbt Watsen, of the same, gent 
John Preston, of Cowpon towne field, gent 
John Patteson, of Stickley, gent 
Nicholas Thornton, of Galleyhill, gent 
John Fenwlc, of Dalton, gent 
Willm. Fenwick, of East heddon, gent. 
John Rede, of West heddon, gent 
Richard Smyth, of Dalton, gent 
Thomas Akenside, of Eachwic, gent. 
Lancelott Maggetson, of Whawton, gent 
Thomas Spraggon, of the same, gent 
Will°*- Storie, of the same, gent 
Richard Hindmers, of Walsend, gent. 
I Thomas Dalton, of Wetsled. 
Richard Rea, of Horton grainge, gent 
Robrt Rea, de id™*, gent 
Thomas Read, de id™-, gent. 
Willm. Gofton, of Fawdon, gent 
Edward Punshon, of Walsend, gent 
George Fenwick, de id™-, gent 


S'- Will™- Widdrington, of Widdrington, gent 
Thomas Horsley, of Thislehaugh, esq. 
Richard Hearon, of Bockenfield, gent. 
Nicholas Thometon, of Netherwitton, esq. 
Edward Fenwick, of Stanton, gent. 
Robert Widdrington, of Hauxley, gent. 
Thomas Lewin, of Warkworth, gent. 
John Creswell, of Creswell, gent 
John Errington, of Hirst, gent 
Genrge Whauton, of Spittlehill, gent 

Gawen Aynsley. of Heighlee, gent 
Robert Collingwood, of Todbume, gent. 
Henry Collingwood, of y*- Whembe, gent. 
Robrt Rede, of y* Helme, gent 
Willm. Carr, of Eshott, gent 
George Lawson, of Ulgham, gent 
Matthew Wharrier, of Toggesdon, gent 
John Patteson, de id™-, gent. 
Jerrard, Browell, de id™-, gent. 
Henry Johnson, of Acklington, gent. 

A List of the Freeholders of Northumberland 


Willm. Bayrde, of Chevmgton, gsnt, 

Martin Albone, of Ch^vixigtony gei^t. 

Rowland Archer, of North SeatoD> gent. 

Henry Browne^ of CreswcU? gent. 

Claudius Browne, de id™*, gent. 

Robert Wrimprey, de id"*-, gent 

Robert Pearson, the elder, of y^* old Moore, 

Robt. Pearson, junr«, de id™*, gent 
Willm. Hall, of Hauxley, gent 
Willm. Fenwick, of Nuni(ydeinge, gent 
Willm. Hall, of Garretlee,. geo^t 
Willm. Lawson, of Langhirst, gent 
Robrt Lawson, of the same, gent 
Willm. Lawson, junr., of the same, gent 
Robrt Sadler, of the same, gent 
Robrt Straker, of the same, gent 
Allen Horsley, .of Morrick, gent 

Willm. Spoore, of l^UighirsI^ gent 
John Buhwan, de Morpeth, gent 
Robrt Lisle, of the same, gent 
Edward Urwin, of the same, gent 
Richard Greene, of the same, gent 
John Greene, of the same, gent 
Robrt Wardhaugh, of the same, gent 
Thomas Stokoe, of the same, gent 
Edward Bewick, of the same, gent- 
Robrt Smyth, of the same, gent 
Thomas Watson, of the same, gent. 
George Marshall, of the same, gent. 
Richard Todd, of Bullers greene, gent. 
Thomas Todd, of the same, gent. 
Walter Trumble, of Middleton, gent. 
John Hudson, of Hauxley, gent. 
Henry Kirton, de id™*, gent* 
Robert Spoore, of Throple, gent. 


S'- John Fenwick, of Wallington, Knight and 

John Fenwick, of Hexam Abbey, esq. 
Cuthbert Hearon, of Chipchase, esq. 
Raph Carnaby, of Halton, esq. 
Thomas Middeton, of Belshaugh, esq. 
Willm. Ridley, of WiUomansw'k, esq. 
Willm* Shaftoe, of Bavington, esq. 
Thomas Blenkinsop, of Blenkensop, esq. 
Albany Fetherstonhalgh, of Fetherstonhalgh, 

Thomas Lorren, de Kirkharle, e^q. 
Willm. Charleton, of Heslesyd, gent. 
Willm. Carr, of Crawhall, gent 
Henry Widdington, of Blackheddon, gent. 
John Swinborne, of Captheaton, esq. 
John Butler, of BlpckhaU, gent 

Wrinkells, of Hama, gent. 

Matthew Newton^ of Stockesfeild haU, gent 
Cuthbert Fenwick, of Bavington, gent 

John Charleton, of Leehall, gent. 

John Ridley, of Walltowne, gent 

Henry Errington, of Befront, esq. 

Edward Errington. of Wallick Grange, gent 

Robert Willson, of Wallick, gent. 

Raph Greenewell, of Corbridge, gent. 

Thomas Hudspeth, de id°^, gent 

Xpofer Chester, de Aydon, gent. 

John Ridley, of the same, gent 

Henry Shaftoe, of Kearsley, gent 

John Robson, of Townchead, gent. 

John Ridley, of the Eles, gent 

John Sanderson, of Hely, gent. 

Edward Gray, of Bitchfeild, esq. 

Henry Winshopp, of Aydon, gent. 

Arthur Halsey, of Ovingha, gent 

Michael Welton, of Welton, esq. 

George Simpson, of Ovington-hall, gent. 

John Bell, of Ovington, gent 

Willm. Hunter, of Bearle, gent 


A List qfihe Freeholders (f NorihumherUmd. 

John ErringtoD, of Whittington, gent 
Will»^ Stockoy of Whitechi^pell>gent. 
Henry Stocko> of Newbrough, gent 
Anthony Lanwright de id"-, gent 
George TedcasUe, of Tedcastle, gent 
Matthew Whitfield, of Whitfield, esq. 
John Hearon, of Bircley Hall, gent 
Cuthbert Hearon, of Kirkheaton, gent 
Georg Blenkinsop, of Bellister, gent 
Edward Suerties, of ^ Holehouse, gent 
Peter Newton, of Hyndley, gent« 
Cuthbert Newton, of Bywell, gent 

Edward Newton, of Old Redley, gent 
Thomas Hutcheson, of Sandhoe, gent 
Willm. Smyth, of Hanych, gent. 
Robert Kell, of the Wall, gent 
John Armstronge, of theWoodsheesheles, gent. 
Thomas Rowcastle, of Welton, gent 
Willm. Rowland, of Dotland, gent 
Robert Thirllwall, of Hexa, gent 
Henry Widdrington, of Booteland, gent. 
Edward Charleton, of Anton-hill, gent 
Robert Fenwick, of Hexham, gent 
Thomas Woodman, of y«- the same, gent 


S'- John Claveringe, of Calloleye, knight. 
S'- Francis Brandlinge, of Anw'k Abbey, 

Robert Lisle, of Felton, esq. 
S'- Willm. Camaby, of Fameha, knight 
Cuthbart CoUingwood, of Eslington, esq. 
Roger Widdrington, of Cartington, esq. 
Robert CoUingwood, of Branton, esq. 
Robert Claveringe, of Brenkbome, esq. 
Thomas Selby, Coatwalls, gent 
W™- Selby, of Bittleston, esq. 
Robert Heslerigge, of Swarland, esq. 
Edward Lisle, of Acton, gent. 
John Hall, of Otterbome, gent 
Henry CoUingwood, of Great Ryle, gent 
Alexand'- CoUingwood, of Little Ryle, gent. 
Thomas Unthank, of Unthank, gent 
George Alder, de Prendick, gent 
George ClenneU, of ClenneU, gent. 
Hugh Parke, of Warton, gent 
Thomas Davison, of Newton, gent 
Raph Greene, of Thropton, gent 
Robert Davye .of the same, gent 
WiUm. Fenwick, of Burroden, gent 
Michael Hindmers, of the same, gent 
George Rothforth, of the same, gent. 

WiUm. PotU, of Fameha, gent 
Alexand'- Snawdon, of Bickerton, gent 
WiUm. Snawdon, de id"-, gent 
Jerrard Hangingshaw, of the Harehaugfa. 
John CoUingwood, of Revely, gent 
Robert CoUingwood, of Ingra, gent 
Georg. Selby, of Coatwalls, gent 
Henry Ogle, of Eglmgham, gent 
George Wray, of Lemadon, gent 
Christopher Ogle, of Harup, gent 
Raph ColUngwood, of Ditchbume, gent. 
Thomas Huntridge, of Aberwick, gent 
Raph Lisle, of Hason, gent 
George Lisle, of Newton on y^ Moore, gent 
Ralph Forster, of Oversgrasse, gent 
Roger Manners, of Framlington, gent 
Robert Rede, of Guyson, gent 
Roger Buston, of Buston, gent. 
Robert Clavering, of LeirchUd, gent, 
Nicholas Forster, Alnewick, gent 
WUlm. Woodhouse, of the same, gent 
Henry Metcalfe, de id"-, gent 
John Wanles, of the same, gent. 
Robert HaU, of Munchridge, gent 
PercRede, of Throughead, gent. 
Alexander Barrow, of Barrow,.gent 

A List of the Freeholders of Northumberland. 


Francis Forster, of Buston, gent. 
Raph Watson, of the same, gent. 
John Bednell, of the Barnehill, gent 

Robert Adston, of Alnewick, gent. 
John Belly of Buston, gent. 
Alexander Hall, of Sa^x)th, gent. 


S'* Matthew Forster, of Etherston, knight. 

S'* Roger Gray, of Ulchester, knight. 

John Gray, de Bradforth, esq. 

John Salkeild, of Rocke, esq. 

Thomas Armorer, of Belford, gent. 

Willm. Armorer, de id"^, gent. 

Rich<^ Forster, of Newha, gent. 

John Carr, of Lesbury, gent. 

Edward Conyers, of Hoppyn, gent. 

Edward Gray, of Howick, esq. 

Tho. Fenw^^k, of Lesbury, gent. 

Weetwand, of Dunstan, g. 

Tho. Forster, of Brunto, gen. 
Ephra Armorer, of Alemouth, gent. 
Thomas Forster, de Brunton, gent. 
John Conyers, de Crookleech, gent. 
Rowland Willson, of Renyngston, gent. 
John Rodham, of Little Houghton, esq. 
Tho* Swinhoe, of Mulsfen, gent 
Samuell Weddell, of Swinhoe, gent. 
John Craster, of Craster, esq. 

Thomas Carr, of Ford, Esq. 
George Muschamp, of Barmore, esq. 
Raph Muschamp, of Lyham Hall, ge. 
Edward Revely, of Hombleto, g. 
Thomas Unthank, de id™-, gent. 
Wilhn. Burrell, de Howtell, g. 
Willm. Selby, de Pawston, gent« 

John Revely, of Humbleton, gent. 


Gilb^ Swinhoe, of Chatton, esq. 
Robrt. Carr, of Etall, esq. 
George Ord, of Sameshouse, gent. 
Robert Burrell, of Milnefeild. 
Stephen Jackson, de Haslerig, gent. 
Oliver Lawe, de Branxton, gent» 
Raph Brady, de Woller, gent. 

Luke CoUingwood, of Lanton, gent. 

326 A Rental of the Frindpul^ty qf Jftedesdak. 

XLVIl. — A Rentalofthe antient Frmcipalily} qf Redesdaky copied from 
an Original Roll in the Possession q/* WiUUm John Charletoji, of Hes- 
leyside, Esq., In/ Mr. R. W. Hodgson, with some Notes hy Ihe Rev. 
John Hodgson, Sec, 

*♦* Redesdale, of which Harbottle Castle was the principal seat, was, 
at the time of making this survey, in the possession of Thophilus 
Lord Howard, of Walden, by virtue of a grant from James the First ; 
and the gentlemen who made the rental were, I apprehend, a sort of 
board or commission, for managing his estates in Northumberland. Sir 
Henry Widdrington was of Widdrington, and the chief of his family ; 
and Sir Ephraim Widdrington, his uncle, and then proprietor of High 
Trewhit and East Ritton. All I remember to have seen respecting 
Edmund Sawyer is, that in 1628 he was a knight, and that, in 
that year there were writs obtained in Hillary term, both by him and 
Thophilus, Earl of Suflfclk, against different persons in Northumberland. 
Thomas Atkinson is a name I am quite unacquainted with. This docu- 
ment is not only curious on account of the purposes for which it was 
made, but as a census of Redesdale, and an enumeration of the persons 
holding property in each village there, in 16 18. Sir Robert Bowes, in 
1551, in a report of the state of the marches, had described the country 
of Redesdale as " overcharged with an excessive number of inhabitants, 
more by many than the profits of the same may sustain ;'* and, to a per- 
son at all acquainted with this district, a slight inspection of this docu- 
ment will convince him that the same evil was still prevailing here in 
1618. Many of the villages and places here enumerated, are now either 
wholly destroyed or occupied by one tenant. 

A kental of the TrincipaUty ofRedesdale. 327 

A RENTALL of the lordshipp of Harbottle renewed before S'. 
Henry Witherington knight, S' Ephraim Witherington knight, 
S' Wittm Selby knight, Edmond Sawyer, esq^, « Thomas Atkin- 
son gent., the xxv*** day of August I6I8 as foUoweth. 

Rents of assize of freeholders : At the feasts of S'. 
Cuthbert in somer and S'. Cuthbert in winter. Lynshields: Roger 
Witherington esq.for the towneship of Lynshields with Lathalghe xviijd. 
— Greenchesters : The same for certaine land called Greenchesters» 
xijd.— HiGHRTDiNG : The same for the highriding late the lands of 
Edward Dun of Smallburn, ijs.— Davyshields : John Hall of Otter- 
borne for lands w*"^ late were the lands of Wiftm Pott, one Birletson ^ 
one Jenyson, xijd. — The same for certeine lands called the Overleame, 
vijd, Elsden ijs. viijd, Karswelleas xd, Westwoodburne ijs. viijd, * 
Chesterhoppe xxd ; viijs xd. — Troughwhen : Percivall Read for the 
manor * towne of Troughwhen * Bromhope &c, iiijs. ixd. — Otter- 
borne : Gilbert Harle for one messuage in Otterborne, vjs, id. — Els- 
den : Thomas Elsden for certeine lands in Elsden called the highmote 
* the Shaw late Cicely Elsdens, iiijd. — Neathercairwick : Archibald 
Read for the mannor of Nethercayrewick ^ certeyne lands called the 
Colehouse the Colefield Dunnebanck and Dunsfields sometime the land 
of John Carre and 2 crofts in Elsden sometime dynands lands % cer- 
teine other lands those late the lands of Hall, vijs. jd. — Calfe Leas : 
Wiftm Carnaby esq^ for a pcell of land called the Calfe leas, vjd. — Els- 
den : Gabriel Hall for a tenement w*^. thap^tenances in Elsden some- 
time Rofete Halls, ijs.— Crawshawe : Arthure Dun for a tenem*. in 
Crawshawe, xijd. — Collwelhill : David Colwell for one tenem^ in 
Colwellhill * one tenem*. in Farneclough, iiijs.— -Hudspeth : Edward 
Spore Henry Spore Cuthbert Spore John Hedley Wittm Hall « John 
Hall for certeine lands in Hudspeth, iiijd. — Chestrop : George Wann 
for a tenem*. in Chestrop, xviijd. — Davyshield : Thomas Anderson 
lard for certeyne lands in Davidshields auncientlie the Andersons, iiijs. 
vjd. — John Hall sonne of Robert Hall of the hole for certeine lands in 
Davidshields, \jd. Woskershields : Wittm. Hall of Woskershields for 

328 A Rental of the PrincipaUty ofRedesdale. 

certeine lands there, ijs. — The same for a mill there, xijd.— Faene- 
cloughe: Wittm Hall of Fameclough for certeine lands there late 
Cocksons lands, xxd.^— Neatherleame : Wiflm Milborne of the Haugh 
Rowland Milborne % William Stoker of the Nuke for certeine lands in 
the Neatherleame, iiijd. — Elish^we, Birkhill, Farneclough : Ralphe 
Hall of Parkehead for certeine lands in Elishawe, viijd. ; Birkhill, iiijd ; 
% Fameclough, xvjd ; ijs, iiijd. — Hairehaugh : Jarrett Hangingshawe 
for a tenem^ called the Hairehaugh, iijs. — Munkridge Hall : Roger 
Hall of the Munkridge hall for certeine lands there, viijd. — Elsden : 
Jasp Hall of CoUelhill for a tenement a water-mill and 2 garthes in 
Elsden, vjd. — Smalborne : Edward Dun of the Smalborne for Smal- 
borne Trowhen Garret shields * Rochester, xvjd. — ^John Dauge of the 
Smalborne for a tenem^ there, ijs» viijd. — Chestrop : Robert Read of 
the Shawe for pcell of George Wan his lands in Chestrop, ijd. — Bori- 
shield: John Hedley * Edw. Hedley for the Boreshield, vs. ijd. — 
Troughwhen : Thomas Read of Troughwhen for certeine lands there, 
ijs. — Clewfield : Bartholmewe Foster of the Clewefield for a tenem*. 
there, xijd. — Netherclewsfield : John Foster of the Netherclewefield 
for a tenem*. there, xijd. — Elsden : Cuthbert Elsden for a tenem^ 
called the mote, iiijd. — Wittm Hall for a tenem^ in Elsden, xiid. — 
HopPERCLOSE : Wittm Browne of Harbotle for a close called Hopper- 
close, iiijd. — John Swayne of Hopperclose for the moyetie of a pcell 
of land called Hopperclose late John Wilkinsons, iiijd.— Wittm Browne 
for the moyety of a pcell of ground in Harbotle called the Hop- 
perclose * another pcell called the Stonehouse late Wilkinsons, iiijd. — 
La WE Mote : Cuthbert Elsden of the lawe mote for a tenem*. there 
late Cicely Elsdens, iiijd. — Chestrop : Robert Foster of Woodburne 
for a tenement in Chestrop called the lard Wans farmhold, vjd. — Ro- 
bert Foster of Woodburne for a pcell of ground in Chestrop called 
the close pcell of Wans Farmehold, ijd. — Hudspeth : John Hall of 
Hudspeth for a tenement late Jereme Halls * Gawen Halls, jd. — 
Attercops free forest : Gabriel Hall for the free forest of Attercops 
at the Anundacon of 6 Lady a sparrow hawke or in money, iijd.— Carst 
WELLEAS : Thomas Hall of the Carswell lease for a tenement there pcell 

A Bental qfthe Principality qfRedesdale. 329 

of Carswelleas,iiijd. — Barrowe: PercivallBarroweforacapitall messuage 
called Barrowe. ijs.— Caldtowne : Archibald Read of Caldtowne 
for certeine lands there, xd. — Mathewe Read for a pcell of Caldtowne, 
vijd— George Read for another pcell of Caldtowne, vjd.— Robert Read 
for another pt thereof, iiijd. ob. — Rowland Hogg for another pte of 
Caldtowne, iiijd. ob.— Wiflm Hogg for another pte of Caldtowne, iiijd. 
— SoppAT £T al' : Robert Hall of Munkridge for certeine lands in Sop- 
pat, Fameclough % in East & Westwoodbume, ijs. iijd. — ^Farneclough : 
Robert Hall for a tenement in Farneclough, viijd. — Blacopp: John 
Read infant for certeine lands in Blacopp, ijs. vjd. — Cragg : Arthure 
Read for certeine lands called the Cragge, xvjd. — Thomas Read for a 
messuage in the Crag called Spittle land, xvjd. — Chestrop : Wittm 
Foster for certeine lands in Chestrop called Spittle land, xvjd. — Michael 
Foster for certe3aie lande in Chestrop called Spittle land, xvjd. — S*m 
iiij**. xjs. vjd. 

At the feast of S'. John the Baptist. Rentes of Tenants at will in 
MucKRiDGE ^ Stickelhaughe : — Gabriel Hall, xiijs. ixd. ob.— Peter 
Hall Lionell Hall * Thomas Hall, i^s. ob. — Robert Hall, iijs. — Anthony 
Hall for halfe a tenem*, vjs. vd. ofe. — John Hall ats Babbe for the third 
pte of a tenement, iiijs, iiijd. — Wittm Hall ats Wittm the Babe for the 
third pte of a tenem^, iiijs, iiijd. — John Hall ats the babe for half a Te- 
nement called the Stickelhuge ^ pte of Munckridge, vjs. vd. ob. — 
Gabriel Hall for halfe a tenem^ in Stickelhughe, vjs, vd. ob. — Wittm 
Hall, vjs, vd. ob. — Matthewe Hall, xijs. xjd. — Robert Hall, xixs, iiijd. 
ob. — Michael Hall, xd. — Matthewe Hall, xijs, xjd. — S*m v*^ iijs. 

iiijd. ob. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist. Headshoope^ in the peishe vt su- 
pra: Clement Pott, ijs, ijd. ob. — Thomas Pott, xviijd. ofe. — Gregorie 
Pott, vijd. — Anthony Pott, vijd. — Gabriell Pott, vijd.— Gabriell Pott 
Junior, xiiijd. — S*m vjs. viijd. 

At the feast of S*. John Baptist. Stobbs : Allen Hedley, \js. — Tho- 
mas Hedley, iiijs. iiijd. — Henry !« Gerrard Hedley, iiijs. iiijd. — Nicholas. 

* This place on Armstrong and Greenwood's Maps is corruptly called Egypt, and very commonly 
so by the people in the neighbourhood, 


330 A Rental qfthe PrincipaUty ofRedesdak. 

Hedley, iiijs. iiijd ; iiijd. p ann. inter eos. — John Hedley viijd. — John 
% Nicholas Hedley, vjs. viijd.— S*m xxvjs. viijd. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist. Neitherhouses : Thomas Ander- 
son, iiijs, viijd.— George Hedley, ijs, iiijd.— Thomas Hedley xiijd. — 
John Hedley, xiijd. — ^David Hedley, xiijd.— and yearly jd to be paid 
amongst the last three. S'm x* iiijd. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist. Oveahobsley : George Hall, vijs. 
iijd. — George Coxon, iiijs, viijd.— Clement Coxon, iiijs. viijd. — Michael 
Hall, ijs. viijd. — Wittm Hall, xxd. — S'm xixs. vjd.— Yairehaugh : 
Nicholas Hall for a tenem^ called Yairehaugh vt supra, iijs.— S^m. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist. Garretshields : Clement Hall, 
iijs. — ^John Hedley, iijs. ixd. — George Read, iijs. xjd. — Archibald Dun, 
xviijd. — Jerrard Hedley, iijs. — Wiflm Hedley, xviijd. — James Hedley, 
ijs* viijd. — Archibald Hedley, ^s.jd.— David Hedley, iijs. \jd. — ^Thomas 
Daughe, iijs. vjd. — ^Wittm. Hedley, xviijd, — Michaell Hedley, xviijd. — 
Clement Hedley, ijs, viijd. — George Read, ijs. vjd. — John Hedley, vd. 
—Stephen Hedley, xxd. — Thomas Hedley, iijs. ixd. — ^Peter Dauge, ijs. 
jd. — John Dauge, ijs. xd. — Roger Widrington esq^ xiijd. — Ralph Dauge, 
xiijd.— S'm. Iiijs. vjd. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist. Averacres* : Wittm Hall, iijs. 
iiijd. — Jasper Hall, ijs. vjd. — ^Thomas Hall, vs. — Wilfan Hall, xs. vijd. 
—Ann. Hedley ats Hall, vs. — Gabriell Hall, vijs. vjd. — George Hall, 
ijsj vjd. — Ralphe Hall, ijs, vjd. — ^Witim Hall, xiijd. — S'm. xls. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist. Potts Durtrees : Thomas Hall, 
viijs, iiijd.— Cuthbert Pott, viijs. iiijd. — Ralphe Pott, vs.— Thomas Pott, 
vs.— S'm. xxMJs. viijd. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist. Parkhead is Shittelhaughe : 
Ralphe Hall, xvijs, vd.— Wilhn Hall, vs. xjd. — Thomas Hall, vs.— 

* This place» in other parts of this document, is called Raner-acres^ which I take to be the true 
name, and to be the same as Oat«cres9 for Haver, in many parts of the north of Eng^d, is still the 
common name of Oats. An aver^ in Scotland, u a cart-horse, or nag of indifierent quality ; and the 
averia, so frequently mentioned in old writings, were horses and oxen used for ploughing and other 
husbandry purposes. So that if ATe^acres be the true reading, it might mean Horse-acfes. At piCL 
sent, the place is called (>7er-«cres«»&tf below, under Spithope, ^ Thomas Hall,of HavcrHuaresr &c" 

A Rental qftke PrincipaUfy oflUdesdale. S31 

Robert Hall, vs*--^*m xxxiijs. iiijd. — ^Troughwhen: Percivall 

Read as aforesaid, xiijs* iiijd.-^'m GBBSsoNriELD : Thomas Hall 

for a cottage called Dames HiU at the feast aforesaid; ixs. iiijd* whereof 

to be abayted j' iiij*^ for a dose called Dames hill and so remains for 

Gressonfield, viijs. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist. Todholes : John Lunsden, iijs, 

iiijd. — John Fargus, iijs. iiijd. — Alexander Hedley, vjs. viijd. — Edward 
Lunsden, vjs. viijd.— S'm xxs. — ...vingbubne Sibespourfeild : 

Jenkyn Anderson, vs. ijd. — Robert Anderson, vs. ijd. — Gabriell Ander- 
son, vjs. xd. ob. q^.— Robert Anderson Criple, iijs. vd. q^. — S*m 
xxs. viijd. 

At the feast aforesaide. Paunchford : Thomas Spoore, vjs. viijd. — 
Allen Wanless, vj. viij. — S*m xiijs^ iiiid. 

At the feast aforesaid. High Carrick: George Pott, vs. ijd. — 
Robert Witherington, iiijs. viijd. — Henry Pott, iijs, yjd. — Robert Pott, 
xviijd. — Anthony Pott, iijs, vjd. — ^Thomas Pott, ijs. iiijd. — Ralph Pott, 
ijs. iiijd. — Robert Pott, iijs. vjd.-i— The said Robert, xviijd. — S*m 

At the feast aforesaid. Brensh awe : Thomas Hall, iijs. iiijd. — Wiiim 
Hall, iijs. iiijd.— S*m vjs. viijd. 

At the feast aforesaid. Dudleys : Tliomas Hall, iijs. iiijd. — Pearce 
Hall, iijs. iiijd. — S'm \js. viijd. — Otterborne: John Hall>iijli* 

vjs. viijd. — S'm West Otterborne : — John Hall as aforesaid, 

xls. — S*m. 

At the feast aforesaid. Black Hatherwick: Wiiim Browne, ijs. 
yjd. — Allen Browne, ijs. vjd. — Stephen Browne, ijs. i^d.— Anthony 
Browne Junior, ijs, ^d. — Jane Hedley ats Hall, vs.— Anthony Browne 
sen. iiijs. vd. otJ. — Giles Browne, xiijd..ob.— John Browne, of y* Bastall, 
xxd. — John Browne of Hatherwick, iijs. ixd*— Cuthbt Browne sen. 
xxijd. ob. — Thomas Browne junior, iiijs. iiijd. ob. — Cuthbert Browne, 
vjs. viijd. — S*m xls. 

At the feast aforesaid. Davishields : John Anderson, viijd. — Ed- 
ward Anderson, xijd. — Jenkin Anderson, iiijd. — S*m ijs. — Wool- 
LAWE : Thomas Coxson at the feast aforesd, ijs. iijd. — Greorge Coxson, 

882 A Rental of the PrindpaUty ofRedesdale. 

ijs. iijd. — S*m iiijs. vjd. — Linterne Heugh : — Barthoi Pott as afore- 
said, xxd. — ^Thomas Pott, xxd. — Andrewe Pott, xxd. — S^m vs. — 
Kniohtside : Wiihn Hall at the feast aforesd, ijs. \jd. — The said Wil- 
liam, xviijd. — Edward Hall, vjd. — Andrewe Hall, vjd. — Robert Hall, 
vjd. — S*m vs. \jd. West Horsley : Wittm Hall at the feast afore- 
said, iijs. iiijd. S^ra. — ^Langsheth ais Langshaues : — ^Wilhn Hedley at 
the feast aforesaid, ijs. vjd. — ^Anthony Hedley, ijs. vjd. — ^John Hedley, ijs. 
vjd. — Anthony Hedley, xvd. — Ralphe Hedley, xvd. — S*m xs. — 

Lowe Carrick : Arch: Read of Dunshields at the feast aforesaid, iiijs. 
— Shn . — The Hill ats Caresletfield : Roger Widrington esq^ 

at the feast aforesaid, xvd. — Barthoi Pott, iijs. ixd. — Robert Pott, ixs. 
vijd. — S*m xiiijs. vijd. — Coxenfield ats Sempfield ats Cleugh- 
BREY : Barthot Pott, xxd. — Aich : Pott, xxd. —Anthony Dun, xxd.— 
S*m vs. — Hernehouse : Pearce Pott, ijs. vjd. — Robert Pott, xvs. 
— Clement Pott, xvd. — S»m vs. — Smartside : George Cley, Henry 
Jones, John Read % Robte Hall at the feast aforesaid, iiijs. vjd. — S^ 
* * * Kelley and Burnehope : Thomas Hedley at the feast 
aforesaid, xvijd. ob.— John Hedley, xvijd. — John Read, ijs. xcj. — S*m 
vs. ixd.— Yatesfield : Thomas Hall at the feast aforesaid, vs. — 
Clement Paules, ijs. — Allen Paules, xijd.— S'm viijs. — Elsden: 

Pearse HaU at the feast aforesaid, ijs. — Michaell Hall, vs. ijd. — Jasp 
Hall, ijs. xd. — Thomas Elsden, iijs. iiijd.— Wittm Hall, viijs. — The said 
Wittm for the High field house, ijs. — ^Thomas Hall, xd. — Michaell 
Hall infant, xxijd. — John Hall, xd. — Wittm Hall, xviijd. — S*m 
xxxiijs. iiijd. — ^Wittm Hall for the Toll of Elsden vt supra, iijs, iiijd. — 
Hollydod ats Hollidod belonging to the Dene house: Clement, 
Robert % Pearse Pott at the feast aforesaid, iijs. iiijd. — S*m . — 

Heardlaw : Gabriell Pott at the feast aforesaid, vjs. jd. — Clement 
Pott, vjs. jd. ob. — Witim Hedley, vjs. jd. ob. — S^m xviijs. iiijd. — 
EvixTONs . Barthoi Fletcher at the feast aforesaid, vijs. xjd, — George 
Thurleway, ijs. iiijd. — George Fletcher, ijs. — Witim Fletcher, xd. — 
Thomas Fletcher, xjd. — George Fletcher sen. vijs. — Thomas Fletcher 
of Dyck, iijs. iiijd. — S'm xxiiijs. iiijd.— Evington ats Cleughbrey : 
John Hedley vt supra, vjs viijd.— S*m * * Ashtrees : Humphrie 

A Mental qfihe PrimpaU^ qfMedesdale. SSS 

Hedley at the feast aforesaid, ijs. xjd.— -Edward Hedley, xijd. ob. — 
Wittm Hedley, xijd. cfe.— Reynold Hall, xd. — S^m vs. xd. 

At the feast of S^ John Baptist Sciles : Allen Hedley, iiijs. ijd.— 
Percival Hedley, xvd.— WiSm. Hedley, vd.— Thomas Hedley, vd. — 
Duke Hedley, ijs. jd. — Alexander Hedley, xd. — John Hedley, vd. — 
Edward Hedley, vd.-^S*m x6,^-*Blackborn£ pcell of the Sciles : 
John Hedley at the feast aforesaid, xd. — John Hedley of Langsheete, 
xd. — ^WiHm Hedley, xd.— Anthony Hedley, xd. — S*m iijs. iiijd. 

Hterhouse : Thomas Read infant for a tenement ^ certeine lands 
caUed Hyerhouse at the feast aforesaid, xs. — Roughfield: Barthoi 
Pott for a pcell of land called Roughfield, iiijs.-— Ghisleys : Allen 
Wanles « Thomas Wanles for a tenement called Grisleys, xiijs. iiijd. — 
Fatbeside : Allen Wanles for a pcell of land called faireside, iijs. iiijd. 
whereof to be abayted xxd. because the other xxd. is pte of the 
xs. pd. for HoUibume-foote. — Holliburne-foote : — Gabriell Ander- 
son for a pcell of ground in HoUiburn-foote, xs. — S*m .— Somer- 
crofte in Davyshidds : Edward Anderson for a pcell of a peece of 
ground called Somercrofte, xijd. — Jenkin Anderson for another pcell 
of the said land, iiijd. — S*m xvjd.— Litle Ryden : John Hedley, 
infant etaf 8 anno^ for lands in Litle Ryden, iiijs. — Causeclosse: 
Wiftm Charleton for a pcell of land called Causeclose, iiijs.— S*m 
Storiesfield : Thomas Wanles for certeine lands called Storiesfield, 
ijs.~-Ralphe Wanles, ijs. — S*m iiijs. — Westwoodburne in Cor- 
senside peisbe : Thomas Foster, xijd. — Rhenold Hall, xijd. — Percivall 
Foster, ixd. — John Foster, iijd.^— S*m iijs. — Reedshedd somer pasture. 
Batenhope ^ CoMESDON ijs. V* is divided as foUoweth : — Archibald 
Read, Matthew Read, Robert Read, Edward Read, iijd. i George Read, 
Thomas Read, iijd. ; Thomas Read, John Read, Archbald Read, Cle- 
ment Read, Archibald Read, Archbald Read jun', vjd. ; Tho : Read ats 
Rapleston, i/jd. j Tho : Read y* sonne of Jo : Read, ijd. : John Read, jun', 
ijd. ; Humphrie Read, ijd. — The Whitlee « Beex>shaw£, xijd. This to 
be divided according tc the ijs. abovesaid. — Lunsden somer pasture. 
The rent in all is, vs. viz. : —Percivall Read, ijd. ob. ; More, vd. : Gabriell 
Read, ijd. ob. ; Archbald Read, ijd. Ob. ; Nicholas Read, ijd. ob. ; 

VOL. II. Y y 

334 A Rental of the Prmcipaliiy qfRedesdale. 

Clement Read, ijd. ob, ; Roger Read % Wittm Read, ijd. ob. ; Robert 
Read, xd. ; Peeter Read, xd. ; George Read, vd. ; Robert Read, jun. 
vd. ; Peeter Read ^ Thomas Read, xd. — ^Rameshope soS pasture. 
The rent in all is, vs. viz. : — John Foster, xxd. j Barthoi Foster, xxd. ; 
S'. John Foster, xd. ; S'. Henry Witherington * Richard Foster, xd. 
— Spithope * BuRNiES : The rent in all is, vijs. viz. : — Tho : Hall 
of Hauacres, ijd. ^ jd. ; Jasp Hall, ijd. ^ jd. ; John Hall, ijd. ^ jd. ; 
Edw : ^ Humphrie Hall, iijd. ob. ; Ralphe Hall of Fameclughe % 
his 4 brethren, vijd« ; Roger Hall of Munckridge, vijd.; Anthonye 
Errington of Denton % Roger Hall, iijd. ob. ; Clement Hall, Roger 
Hall, John Hall, James Hall, Peeter Hall, ijs. iiijd. ; whereof Anthony 
Hall, Robert Hall, William Hall, John Hall, have f pte viz. : John 
Hall the halfe and the rest the other halfe j Edward Hall of Yerd- 
hope, \ pte ; Clement Hall, i pte ; Randall Fenwick gent, ^ pte ; 
Ralphe Hall, William Hall, John Hall, ^ pte of w""^ John hath solde his 
pte to Clement Hall ; Michaell Hall of Elsden, vijd. ; Jasp Hall of Ry- 
leys, vijd. ; John Hall of Flatts, iijd. ob> ; Tho : Hall of the same, iijd. 
ob. ; Wittm Hall, Nichot Hall, Anthony Hall, Oswald Hall, vijd. ; 
Robert Hall, xiiijd. ; Gabriell Hall, xiiijd, ; Cottenshope som pasture. 
The rent in all, xs*. For Cottenshope head, iijs iiijd. ; viz. : — Thomas 
Hall, ijd. ob. ; Edward Hall, ijd. ob. ; Edward Spore, xd ; Archibald 
Spore, ^ pt of xd. ; George Spore ^ John Spore, ^ of xd. ; Thomas 
Spore ^ Dandy Spore, theise two have halfe ^ of xd. ^ of the other halfe 
Archibald is to have halfe ^ George % John halfe ; Henry Spore, vd. ; 
Robert Spore, vd. } Wittm Hall ^ John Hall, ijd. ob. j Wittm Hall, 
Percivall Hall, Ralphe Hall, John Hall, Henry Hall, ijd. ob. — Cottens- 
hope MIDDLE Q*TER iijs. iiijd. viz. : — Gabriell Hall of Attercops, 
xvjd. ; Wittm Hall, Robte Hall, Edw: Hall, John Hall, ijd. ob. ; Wittm 
Hall, ijd. ob. ; Oswald Hall, Edw: Hall, Andr. Hall, Robert Hall, vd. ; 
Edw : Hall, Roger Hall, Wittm HaU, Giles HaU, George Hall, xiijd.— 
Cottenshope Nether q'ter ats Holungburne foote, iijs. iiijd. viz. : — 
Gabriell Hall, xiijd. ob. ; Roger Witherington Esq,^ i^d. ob. ; Roger 
Witherington, vd } Roger Witherington, vd. j Wittm Hall * Giles Hall 
of Yerdhope, iijd. * jd. ; Wittm Hall, of Knightside, iijd. ijd. j Roger 

A Rental of the PrincipaUty ofRedesdak. SS5 

Widdiington esquier, iijd. i jd. — Akenside soS pasture. The rent in 
all, \js. iiijd. divided in 4 qHers: — 1. The first q*ter called Akensidej 
M^ Roger Witherington, xixd. j 2. The Cragge shields^ Henry Pott, 
vijd, ob. J ob. ; Gabriell Hall, iiijd. ; Thomas Pott * Ralphe Pott of 
Righead, vd. ob. ; M'. Roger Witherington, ijd. want i of ob. ; 3. The 
BenteSj George Pott, A/jd. f of ob. ; M'. Roger Witherington, iijd. ob. 
J ob. ; 4. The Seaven Sykes^ Percivall Pott, iijd. ; M'. Roger Wither- 
ington, iijd. ; Robert Pott % Ralphe Pott, iijd. ; Gabriell Pott « Anthony 
Pott, jd. ob. ; Gabriell Pott junio', jd. ob. ; Tho : Pott of the Cragge, 
Gregory Pott, Clement Pott, George Pott, iijd. ; The said Clem, for p 
^chase, iijd. ; All the saide pties, jd. — Earlstde som pasture. The 
rent in all, xs. viz. : — Wilim Hall of Hauakers, John Hall, Edw : Hall, 

the i pt of viijd. ; Witim Hall « Hall sons of George, i of J of 

viijd. ; Wittm Hall Sonne of Tho : ^ of i of viijd.* ; Witim Hall of 
HaSacres by purchase, i pte of "viijd, j Percivall Hall of Elsden, viijd. j 
Gabriell Hall, % Michaell Hall, viijd. ; Percivall Hall, xxd. ; Ralphe 
Hall, Anthony Hall, Stephen Hall, Ralphe Hall of Earleside, viijd. 
whereof the first 3 have sold their pte to Witim Hall of HaSacres ; 
Peter Hall, Lyonell Hall, Tho : Hall, iiijd. ; Nicholas HaU, Robert 
Hall, ijd. ; Tho : Hall, ijd. } Witim Hall of Munckridge of the towne 
end, \jd. j Robert Hall, vjd. j Robert Hall of Munckridge, ijd. ; Per- 
civall Hall, ijd. ; Roger Hall of Rochester, xd. ; Thomas HaU of 
Rochester, vjd. ; Witim Hall of Fameclugh, ijd. ; John Hall of Hud- 
speth, jd. 'y Percivall Hall of Ryding, jd. ; Ralphe Hall of Richester, 
Michaell Hall, John Hall, Mark HaU, Witim Hall % Matthewe Hall, 
ijd. of w'*" the 2 last are to have i- ; M'. Roger Witherington, ob. j 
Witim Hall, ob., Robert Hall, jd , GabrieU HaU, vjd. ob., John HaU 
called the Babbe, iijd. q% Jasp Hall the Babbe, iijd. q% Witim HaU 
the Babbe, v)d. ob, % ob more amongst them. — Chetelhope somer 
pasture. The rent is in all, vs. viz. : —Anthony Browne of Hatherwick, 
vijd. ob. ; GUes Browne, vijd. ob. ; John Browne, iijd. ob. q' j Tho : 
Browne, jd. ob. q' ; Witim Browne, iijd. ob. q* ; Stephen Browne, iijd. 
ob. q*; AUen Browne, iijd. ob. q*; Anthony Browne, iijd. ob. q»; 

* How well these border thieves understood vuigarfiacHons / 

336 A Rentai of the PrhcipaBty q, 

Cuthbert Brown^^ vd. db^ q^ ; The said Cuthbert Browne, Thorn : 
Btoniie atid Jo t Browne, iijd« oto« q* j Mark Browne of the Brigge, 
iijd ; Cuthbert his brother, ijd. ob. i Jenkia Browne, ijd. } Anthony 
Browne of the Brigge, iijd« ob. q\-^CATCL£WOHS sofi pasture. The 
rent is in all, iijs. iiijd: — Thomas Hall of Burdhope, vjd. ^ i of 
ijd. ; George Hall of the same, vjd. <« i of ijd« ; John Hall, Cle- 
ment Hall, Anthony Hall, vjd, « i of ijd. ; Tho : Read, Jo : Read, 
infantes, xd. ; John Hedley, xd. ; Thomas Hedley, vd, — ^Dbbdwood 
Somering. The rent, iijs :— Michael Hedley, John Hedley, Thomas 
Hedley, iiijd. ob. ; Rhenold Hedley, iiijd. ob« ; Heniy Hedley, 
iiijd. ob. } Thomas Hedley, John Hedley, Wittm Hedley, iiijd. ob. ; 
Thomas Hedley of Netherhouses, ixd. ; Wiilm. Hedley infant, iiijd. ob. ; 
Dandy Hedley, jd. ob. ; Archibald Foster, iijd.— Blacrburke pcell of 
the Siells. The rent is, xxd. viz. : — Gabriell, Hedley, xd. ; Edward 
Hedley, xd. — Blackburne hauohe som pasture. The rent in all, iijs. 
viz. :-^Thomas Hedley, iiijd. ob* ; John Hedley, iiijd. ob. ; John Read, 
iiijd. ob» ; Thomas Read, iiijd. ob. ; Humphrie Hedley, iijd. ; Robert 
Hedley, iijd. ; Wiilm Headley, iijd. ; John Headley, iijd. ; John Foster, 
iijd. ; Allen Hedley, iijd«-^TH£ Rooken soS pasture. The rent in all 
is, iiijs. viz.: — Bartholmewe Fletcher, viijd. f ofob. ; George Thirle- 
well, ijd. ob. ^ ob ; Thomas Fletcher, jd. ; Wiifan Fletcher, jd. ; George 
Fletcher, ixd. ; Litle George Fletcher, ijd. ; Thomas Coxon of Raten- 
rawe, ob. q* ; Math : Coxson, ob. q' ; George Coxson, ob. q* ; Anthony 
Coxson, ob. q^ ; John Coxson, iijd. ; Percivall Coxson, jd. ob. ; Robert 
Coxson, jd. ob. ; Archibald Coxson, ijd. ; Tho : Coxs<m, jd. ; Wittm 
Coxson, Clement Coxson, John Coxson, jd. ; Edmond Coxson jd. ; 
John Coxson, jd. ; Edmon Coxson of Elsden, iijd. ; John Coxson his 
brother, iijd. ; Thomas Coxson Junior, jd. ; Mathew Coxson, jd. ; 
Robert Coxson, jd. — 

At Martilmas. Harbottle towne : Andrewe Routherforth, iijs. 
vjd. ob. ; John Swayne, iijs. ijd. ob. ; Thomas Gibson, xviijd. ; The 
said Thomas Gibson, xixd. ; George Trumble, xvjd. ; Ralphe Smyth, 
:xiiijd. ; Wittm Gibson, yjs. ; John Hath^ton, ijs. iiijd. ; The foresaid 
Wittm Gibson, ijs. ; George Carre, xs. iiijd. q« ; Thomas Gibson junior. 

A Rental qfthe PrindpaUlif qf ReSesdak" SSJ 

xxijd. oti. q* ; Alexander Routh6rft)rtbf \js, yd. ofe. ) The said Alex- 
ander, ijs. vijd. ; Lawrence .•^••.•. xyijd, ; Mabell Browne, vd. ; 
Robert Swajme, ijs. ; Henry Browne, iijs. ijd. ob. ; The foresaid Robert 
Swajnei ijs. iiijd. ob. ; George Swayne, xvd, ; Robert Browne, xixd. ; 
Anne Smyth, iijs. ijd. ob. ; Alice Wabye, ijs. j John Wabye, xxjd. ; 
Henry Browne, ijs. viijd. j The said Henry Browne, xiiijd. j S'in. 
liiijs. ijd.'^^oppETHAUGHE : The saide Tenants of Harbottle for pcell 
of Soppothaughe somer pasture, iijs. iiijd. 
Fee farmes. Harbottle Craggs: Percivall Pott for the ground 

called Harbottle Cragge, at the feast of S'. Luke the Evangelist, iijs. 

■ • ■ • « 

At the feast of St Michael! Tharchangell. Rochester: Ralphe 
Hall of Rochester for S pts of a messuage in Rochester, vs. ; Michaell 
Hall for the like, iijs. ijd. ; Roger Hall for the like, xxs. S'm 
xxviijs. ijd. — Nether Rochester : Thomas Hall of Neather-Rochester 

for the like, ijs. yjd. ; Robert Hall, ijs. \jd. j S*m — Burdhope 

Cragg : Edward Anderson for a pte of a messuage there, ijs. viijd. ; 
Thomas Anderson for the like, vs. iiijd. ; Robert Anderson for the like, 
vs. iiijd. ; S*m xiijs* iiijd. — Over Rochester : Robert Hall sonne 

of Thomas Hall for S pts of a messuage there, vjs. Filhaupe : Wil- 
liam Wanles for the somerings or highland grounds in Filhoupe, xijd : 
Durtrees : for a tenement in Durtrees, xiijs. iiijd. ; Morerigg : for 
lands in Morerigg, iijs. iijd. ; Storiesfield : Storiesfield, ijs. ; Toft- 
BURNE : Somlands in Toftburne, xiijd. ; Raws : Certen lands in the 
Rawe, xs. ; Eardhope : Lands in Eardhope, xd. ; In all, xxxjs. yjd. ; 

S'm — Bridhope: Thomas Hall for 2 pts of a messuage there, 

vs. ; George Hall for the like, vs. j S'm — ^The Rawe : Witim 

Wanles, yjs. viijd.; S*m — ^Yerdhope: Edward Hall for 2 pts 

of a tenement there, iijs. iiijd. ; The same for 2 pts of xixd. ob q"" land 

in Cottenshope, xixd. ob q*; S*m iujs. xjd. ob q\ — Woodhaughe 

ats WooDHALL : Giles Hall, xijs. ; George Hall, viijs. ; S'm xxs. 

Beilsheele: Anthony Anderson, yjs. viijd. S*m — Yerdhope: 

Percivall Pott, xd. ; Thomas Pott, xd. j Wiltm Pott, xd. ; S*m 

ijs. vjd. — The Rawe : Percivall Pott, iiijd. viijd. j Clement Bewick, 

VOL. II. z z 

338 A Rental qfthe Principality qfRedesdale. 

xjs. viijd. ; Michaell Pott, vijs, ; S^m xxiijs. iiijd. — Morerigg : 

Thomas Hall, viijd.; Andrewe Wanles, xvd. ; Thomas Wanles, yjd. ; 
Clement Wanles, iiijd. ; S*m ijs. ixd. West Durtrees : Andrew 

Wanles, yjs. viijd. ; Thomas Wanles, vjs. viijd. j S*m xiijs. iiijd. 

— ToFTBURNE ^ ToFTHOUSE : Allan Wanles * Tho : Wanles, ixd. ; 
John Wanles, iiijd. ; Thomas Hall, iiijd. ob. ; Clement Wanles, iiijd. ; 
Witim Wanles, jd. oft. ; Thomas Wanles, iiijd. ; S*m ijs. iijd. — 

Greencroft : John Hall of Otterburne for lands called Greencroft, iijs^ 

iiijd. ; S^m 

At Whitsontide % Martilmas : Lease lands in Harbottle. Wilfan 
Wanles for one tenement ^ two pte's of Stewartsheels as it is divided by 
years, Ixvjs. viijd. ; The same for the third pte of Erlingbome « Comes- 
merebanck in Fillup, Ixvjs. viijd. ; Roger Hall ^ Ralphe Hall for the 
third pte of Rochester, iiijti. ; Edmond Hall for the third pte of Yerd- 
hope, xxs. ; Giles Hall ^ George Hall for the third pte of Woodhall, 
xls. ; Thomas Wanles ^ Andrew Wanles for the thirde pte of West 
Durtrees, liijs. iiijd. ; The same for the thirde pte of Morerigg, vjs. ; 
John Hall ^ Wittm Wanles for the thirde pte of Toftbume, xls. ; Ga- 
briell Pott, Wittm Hedley, * Clement Pott for the thirde pte of Herd- 
lawe ; xls. ; M'. Roger Witherington for the thirde pte of Burdhope^ 
Burdhope Cragg ^ Bell sheele, cs. — S*m xxv. ti. xijs. viijd. 

XX t 8. d. 

The total of this Rental is iiij vj xvij v q^ 

For the Rent of Cottenshope 1 ^ ^ ^ 

as it shall be then j 

Edm: Sawyer. 

M^ s. d. 

Rents of Assize of freeholders iiij: xi : \j 

L 8. d. 

The Auntient rent of the ^ , 

Tenants at wiU } ^^J ^ ^^"^ '• ' 

1. 8. d. ^ 

Leased Lands • xxv : xij : viij 

On the State qf Literature^ 8^. among the Ancient Tuscans. 839 

XiyiilrAn Inquiry into the State of Literature and the Arts among 

the ancient Tuscans^ hy J. Mac Gregor, Esq. 

In the spirit of conjectural history, it has been a supposition of late, 
cherished by some among the learned and curious, that the noble piles, 
whose ruins remain at Paestum, as well as the various existing monu- 
ments of the arts of antient Etruria, have been the product of science 
and improvement, not derived from Greece or the East, but the native 
growth of Italy ; or, however, that, whether Italy received the arts 
from the lofty plains of Tartary, or from the submerged Atlantic con- 
tinent, she had them before Greece, and at least assisted the Eastern 
nations in communicating them to that country. 

This opinion, which appears to have originated with the Abbe Perron, 
and to have been widely propagated by the pen of the philosophic 
Bailli, is not, so far as I have been able to trace it, founded upon his- 
torical records ; but as it has been very generally adopted, and not yet 
formally refuted, I have ventured to consider an historical discussion 
of the question respecting the remote civilization of the ancient Tuscans, 
a subject worthy of your attention on the present occasion. 

With regard to the origin of this people, Herodotus informs us,^ that 
they were a colony from Lydia, who emigrated under the conduct of 
Tyrrhenus, son of Atys, King of Lydia, about B. C. 700- ' " Almost all 
the writers of antiquity," says Mr. Dunlop,t " though varying in par- 
ticulars, have followed, in general, the tradition of Herodotus concern- 
ing the descent of the Etruscans. Cicero, Strabo, Velleius Paterculus, 
Seneca, Pliny, Plutarch, Servius, and Catullus, all affirm that they came 
from Lydia. The account of the departure of the colony by Herodotus 
is exceedingly plausible, and its truth appears to be corroborated, if not 

^ Lib. L c. 7. t BisL Roman Literature^ yoI. i. p. 6-7* 

340 On the State qf Literature, 8^. among the Ancient Tuscans. 

confirmed, by certain resemblances in the language, religion, and pas- 
times of the Lydians, and of the ancient Etruscans. The manners, 
too, and customs of the Lydians, did not differ essentially from those 
of the Greeks ; and the Princes of Lydia, like the Sovereigns of Persia, 
being accustomed to employ Phoenician or Egyptian sailors, the colony 
of Lydians which settled in Italy, might thus contain a mixture <^ such 
people, and present those appearances which have \edi some Antiquaries 
to consider the Etruscans as Phoenicians or Egyptians, while others have 
regarded them as Greeks." 

The writers of the Ancient Universal History have exerted their 
usual diligence upon this subject. "Italy," say they, "in ancient 
times, was parceled out into many petty states. In afler ages, when 
the Gauls settled in the western, and the Greeks in the eastern pro- 
vinces, it was divided into three great parts, Gallia Cisalpina, Italy 
properly so called, and Magna Grecia. Italy comprehended Etruria* 
Umbria, Sabinium, Latium, Kscenum, the countries of the Vestini, 
Marrucini, Peligni, Marsi, Frentani, Samnites, Hirpini, Campani, and 
Piscentini. Etruria was divided into twelve tribes, each of which had 
their peculiar city whence they borrowed their names. TTie modem 
names of these cities are Bolsena, Chiusi, Perugia, Cortona, Arezzo, 
Civita, Castellana, Volterra, Grosseto, and Cervetero; Veii, Cer», 
and Tarquinii being in ruins. They had twelve other cities on the 
coast, and twelve or thirteen inland. The Etrurians were also called 
Tuscans, and by the Greeks Tyrrhenians ; both Greek and Latin 
authors bring them from Lydia. When they arrived in Italy they took 
possession of the country of the Umbrians, whom they drove out. It 
lay between the Adriatic Sea and the Appenines; they possessed 
themselves afterwards of the territories of Nola and Capua, and of al- 
most all the sea coast which from them took the name of Tyrrhenian. 
These countries they held until the invasion of the Gauls, by whom 
they were driven from the coast of the Hadriatic, and from Campania 
by the Latins, by which they were confined to the small territory which 
lies between the Macra and the Tiber, and is called by all the an- 
cients, Hetruria.'** 

♦ Vol. si. 

On the State ofLiteratwe^ S^c* among the Ancient Tuscans. S41 

Another learned writer informs us, that the first inhabitants of Italy 
appear to have been lUyrians or Thracians, Cantabrians, Celts, Pelas- 
gians, and Etrurians. *' The Celts/' he adds, ** may be imagined to 
have emigrated from Asia after the Iberians, and before the Thracians 
and Pelasgiaiis, settling principally in Gaul, and spreading partly into 
Italy, under the name of Ausonians and Umbrians. The Etrurians and 
Umbrians were originally a branch of the Celts from Rhstia, as is 
shown by the similarity of the names of places as well as by remains of 
Tuscan art found in that part of the Tyrol ; they are supposed to have 
entered Italy by Trent, about the year 1000, B. C, and to have after- 
wards improved their taste and workmanship, under Demaratus, of 
Corinth, who settled in Etruria, 663 B. C."* 

Hitherto, our authorities, and they are ample, are unanimously against 
the notion of the Etrurians being aborigines of Italy, although the 
learned author of the article alluded to in the Quarterly Review^ differs 
from Herodotus in regard to their foreign derivation. But, besides 
this copious attestation, there are difficulties of another nature to be 
surmounted by those who contend for their being " men of the soil ;*' 
they will have to fix the original locality of most of the numerous savage 
tribes who formerly occupied Italy, and who, from various causes inci- 
dent to such a condition of life, were frequently compelled to change 
their abode. 

Pliny, for instance, mentions that old Latium was successively occu- 
pied by the Aborigines, Pelasgi, Arcadians, Sicilians, Aruncanes, and 
Rutilians — that the Ligurians changed their seats thirty times — that 
Etruria oft:en changed its name, and was successively occupied by the 
Umbrians, Pelasgians, and Lydians.t The same author informs us, 
that in Latium, which anciently extended from the Tiber to the Liris, 
fifty-three states have perished without leaving a trace behind ; and, 
that according to the report of Mutianus, the consul, the Pompdne 
Marsh was once a dry plain, in which stood twenty three cities \ Amid 

* Quaiierfy Review, voL x. art. 12, — Supposed to be by the late Dr. Young, 
f lib. iiL ch. 5. 
X Idem niedeoi. 

342 On the Slate qf Literature, S^. among the Ancient Tuscans. 

these political and natural dislocations^ it seems impossible to fix, in the 
absence of positive history, the chorographical position of unsettled 
tribes whose remote antiquity deprives us of all particular knowledge 
of them. 

The country in which the Lydians ultimately settled was the district 
of Italy proper, now known as the State of Tuscany, which extends 
from the mouth of the Tiber 150 miles westward, confining on the ter- 
ritories of Lucca and Genoa in that direction^ with a breadth of nearly 
100 miles inland. In their primitive state, however, they appear not to 
have been confined to the limits which preserve their name. Polybius 
states,* that the Tyrrhenians occupied part of Cisalpine Gaul beyond 
the Po. It would seem that they chiefly inhabited the west of Lom- 
bardy, but their settlements may be traced eastward to the shores of 
the Adriatic. They were dispossessed of their Transpadane territories 
by the Gauls, who vanquished them in the neighbourhood of the Tesino, 
about the year 600 B. C, when they founded Milan in the country of 
the Insubres. 

After this, according to Polybius, they settled in Campania, in the 
country round Capua and Nola called then, the Phlegroean fields, where 
they gained great fame by their exploits. " Whatever,** he adds, " we 
read in history concerning the ancient dynasties and fortunes of 
this people, must all be referred, not to the country which they possess 
at present, but to the plains just mentioned, whose fertility and extent 
afforded them the means of becoming great and powerful. 

Here an historical difficulty occurs. From Herodotus, we learn that 
the Etruscans first settled in Tuscany before the Trojan war. After 
this, from other respectable authors, we find Etruscans in Lombardy 
beyond the Po, who possessed the country from Liguria, at the foot of 
the Western Alps, to the territories of the Veneti at the head of the 
Adriatic. Afterwards, according to Polybius and Livy, we find them 
in Campania Felix (Campi PhlegrceiJ, a district situated 150 miles 
south of Etruria proper, or Tuscany, the intervening country being oc- 
cupied by the Latins, the Volsci, and the Ausones. Thus we have a 

♦ Gen. Hist B. ii. ch. 2. 

On the State ofLiteratwrey S^c. among the Ancient Tuscans. 343 

northern, middle, and southern Etruria, each at a great distance from 
the other, and whose relative positions Mr. Niebuhr has indicated in 
a map of the ancient nations of Italy, prefixed to the translation of his 
Roman History. Which of the three is the mother country as regards 
Italy, seems still problematical. Livy, however, says (Lib. v. c. 83), 
that the Rhaetii and other Alpine tribes were Etruscans of the plain, 
who retired from the invading Gauls to the Alps. From history, we 
likewise learn, that obscure traditions existed respecting the capture of 

* _ _ 

Pisa and the surrounding country, from the Umbri, by the T3nThenians, 
and this line of conquest seems to be pointed out by Pliny (iii. 8), 
who says, that the Umbri, the most ancient nation in Italy, were dis- 
possessed by the Pelasgi ; a term which will here appropriately apply 
to the Lydian emigrants, and the circumstance is corroborated by 
Dionysius and Strabo, who state, that the Tuscans acquired by con- 
quest Falerii, Groviscae, Alsium, Fescennium, and Saturnia. Further, 
as the account of Herodotus, respecting the Lydian migration, was uni- 
versally received in the time of Livy, and as he enumerates eight 
Etruscan states (lib. xxviii. c. 45), who spontaneously forwarded the 
armaments of Scipio, all within the kingdom of Tuscany, it seems pro- 
bable, that this kingdom was the original Etruria. If, on the contrary, 
they were a Celtic tribe, as supposed by the writer alluded to in the 
Quarterly Review, the probability would go in favour of Cisalpine Gaul. 
How they came to form important establishments in Campania is equally 
uncertain. Dionysius (lib. i. c. 25-29) says, that by Tyrrhenia, the 
Greeks understood all the western coast of Italy, from the Bay of 
Naples to beyond the Arno, thus including the cantons between the 
Vulturnus and the Tiber. 

Velleius Paterculus informs us (lib. i. c. 7)> that Capua and Nola 
-were founded forty-eight years before Rome, by the Etruscans, who 
appear, from Strabo, to have also possessed twelve cities in this quarter. 
Again, Livy states (lib. iv* c. 37), that they were defeated by the 
Samnites at Vultumum or Capua, in the year of the city 318, so that 
they must have possessed this district 366 years. After this date, the 
Campanian Tuscatis disappear. From the Roman history, however, it 

344 On the State qf Literature^ SHc. among the Ancient Tuscans. 

is evident, that neither the northern nor the southern Etruscans were 
the people with whom the early Romans contended for such a length 
of time ; and from whom they are said to have borrowed many ponti- 
fical and military institutions ; for they had no communication with 
states at a distance from! the sphere of their military operations. Nor 
are the southern Etruscans to be identified with the northern horde, 
who were dislodged by the Gauls in the reign of Ancus Martius, for 
the former are noticed as seated in Campania 154 years before the in* 
vasion of the Gauls. The question of the primitive seat of the Etrus- 
cans in Italy, appears, upon the whole, to be one of difficulty. The 
tenour of ancient history seems to favour the claim of Tuscany to this 
distinction, and that the others were colonies from thence ; the southern, 
in all probability, having gone by sea. But I am not satisfied, that 
these ever attained to that degree of political power and skill in the 
arts which Polybius supposes ; for the Greeks, who settled in this country 
in the eighth century B. C, were then prosperous and powerful. Nor 
do I think those specimens of art which have been found in this district 
an argument in favour of his opinion, because they were not necessarily 
manufactured on the spot. Besides, Polybius, who evinces such pene- 
tration as an historian of his own times, is to be read with caution^ in 
regard to matters of remote antiquity, which he despised as fabulous. 
Leaving this intricacy, I proceed to a few observations on the state of 
their Literature. 

On this head, Mr. Dunlop observes, from Lanzi, the most correct 
writer on the subject, that whatever may have been their descent, liieir 
religion, learning, language, and arts, must be referred to a Greek 
origin, and not to the Egyptians, as Gori and Caylus supposed. The 
period of Etruscan perfection in the arts, and the formation of those 
vases which we now admire, was posterior, he maintains, to the subju- 
gation of Etruria by the Romans, and, at a time when an intercourse 
with Greece had rendered the Etruscans familiar with models of Gre- 
cian perfection. As to the language, he does not, indeed, deny, that 
all languages came originally from the East, and that many Greek 
words sprang from Hebrew roots ; but there are in the Etruscan tongue, 

On the State of Literature^ S^c. among the Ancient Tuscans. 34^5 

he asserts, such clear traces of Hellenism, or ancient Greek, particu- 
larly in the names [of Gods and heroes, that it is impossible to ascribe 
its origin to any other source. In particular, he attempts to show, 
from the "inscriptions on the Eugubian Tables, that the Etruscan 
language was the -^olic Greek, since it has neither the monosyllables 
chaiacteristic of northern tongues, nor the affixes and suffixes peculiar 
to oriental dialects.* 

The diffiision of the language and arts of Greece may be naturally 
attributed to the numerous colonies, chiefly of Achaeans of Peloponne- 
sus, and of Dorians, who settled in Italy, about the commencement of 
the Roman aera. Mr. Mitford, in his History qfGreeceji informs us, 
that the Ligurians were supposed a colony from Greece ; and that Pisa 
and Cerae, in Tuscany, Formiae, Antium, Aricia, Ardea, Tibur, and 
Proeneste, in Latium, and even Rome itself, were held to be Grecian 
towns. He observes, further, that " a colony of later date, and con- 
cerning which testimony is more ample and more precise, may have 
carried science and the arts into Tuscany, in a state of at least as much 
advancement as they seem ever to have attained there. It was led by 
Demaratus, of Corinth, upon occasion of the revolution of that city, 
through which the democratical party under Cypselus, became masters 
of the government, when the oligarchical chiefs, and particularly the 
family of the Bacchiads, of which Demaratus is said to have been one, 
found it necessary to seek settlements elsewhere. Demaratus found 
in Tarquinii, the principal city of Tuscany, a safe and honourable re- 
treat for himself and dependents. He married a lady of high rank 
there, and died in the peaceable possession of wealth, then esteemed 
extraordinary. His son, Tarquinius Priscus, became King of Rome, 
by election of the Roman people. "The concurrence of testimonies," 
says Mr. Mitford, " both Greek and Roman, to these facts of so early an 
age, seems to go far towards proving one of two things ; either that 
the Tuscans, and it might be added, the Romans, esteemed the Co- 
rinthians a kindred people, or that they found them a people superior 
to themselves in arts and general knowledge." 

* EM. of Roman Literature, y. i. pp. 15, 16, 17* f VoL u. p. S77-8. 

VOL. 11. S A 

346 On the State qf LitertOuref SfCf among the Ancient Tuscans. 

The writer of the article in the Quarterly Itetdew^ alluded to above^ 
say8» that ** the Latin is evidently derived from the Celtic, mixed with 
Greeks because Rome, from its situation, would naturally receive much 
of the language of these various nations, and much of Greek from the 
south of Italy. Its character as a derivative language may be observed 
in the adoption of insulated terms, independently of the simpler words 
from which they are deduced." It thus appears, that the Greeks were 
a more influential people in Italy in the first age of Rome, than the 
Etrurians, and their language more prevalent than the Tuscan. Some 
imagine from the resemblance of the Etruscan letters to the Phoenician, 
and from the latter people having established factories round the coast 
of Italy in remote times, that the former were indebted to them for 
their alphabet, and the arts which they practised. But, Bochart ex- 
presses his belief, that the Etruscan arts were derived from Greece, 
and denies that there is any resemblance in the languages of Etruria 
and Phoenicia.* 

The poverty of the Etruscan Literature is more particularly disclosed 
by the nature of their books, most of which were extant, and well 
known at Rome towards the close of the republic, and appear to have 
been of the most frivolous description. Cicero, and other Latin writers, 
who have the Greek authors perpetually in their mouths, scarcely al- 
lude to any except treatises on augury and divination ; and the only 
titles of their books, recorded by Roman writers, are the Libri Fatales, 
Libri HaruspicimB, Sacra AcheronHa^ Fulgurates et Rituales Libri. It 
is said, indeed, that the Etruscans cultivated a certain species of poetry, 
sung or declaimed during the pomp of sacrifices, or celebration of mar- 
riages. It is evident, however, that these Etruscan songs or hymns 
were of the very rudest description, and probably were never reduced 
into writing. Livy 's account of their dramatic performances (lib. viii. 
sec. 2) shows that they did not excel the Greeks in the days of Thespls. 
Censorinus informs us, on the authority of Varro, that they had their 
chroniclers and historians. " In Tuscis Historiis quae octavo, eorum 
seculo scripta sunt.*' But this eighth century of the Etruscans, accord- 

* Gtographia Sacra (De Coloniis, lib. i.) 

On ike State qf Literature^ 8gc. among Ae Ancient Tuscans. 3^7 

ing to the chronology followed by Lanzi, would be as late m the sixth 
century of Rome ; and, besides, it is evident from the context, that 
those pretended histories^ were, in fact» mere registers of the founda- 
tions of cities, and the births and deaths of individuals. The celebrated 
Eugubian Tables (so called from having been dug up at Eugubium or 
Gubbio, a city of ancient Umbria A. D. 1444,) are no longer an argu- 
ment for a very ancient knowledge of writing among the Etruscans, 
five out of the seven are in the old Etruscan character, the others in 
modem Roman letters ; notwithstanding which. Father Gori considers 
them all pf equal antiquity, and to have been composed two generations 
before the Trojan war. It has been ascertained, however, that those 
in the Etruscan character were written towards the close of the sixth 
century of Rome, only a little before the others, in Latin, were com- 
posed. In support of this point, it may not be amiss to observe, that 
Mr. Swinton has proved, in a dissertation printed at Oxford, in 1746 
('De pris. Roman. Liter.) j that the Etruscan letters were used in Rome 
and in Latium posterior to the year of the city 245. The Eugubian 
Tables, in both languages, consist solely of ordinances for the perform- 
ance of sacred rites, and religious ceremonies. 

Another argument, against the opinion that the Etruscans were a lite- 
rary people, is derived from the extreme ignorance of the Romans, in 
letters, during the first five centuries of their history. Dionysius Hali^ 
camassus* informs us that the Romans, Latins, and all the neighbour- 
ing nations wrote on tablets of wood before the reign of Ancus Martins ; 
and that the Greek characters were the first used by the Latins. He 
observes further, that the treaty between Tarquin the Proud and the 
Gabii was written in Latin words, but with Greek characters, on a 
wooden shield, covered with the skin of the ox that had been sacrificed 
on the occasion. 

Pliny mentions,! that from ignorance of letters, the supreme officer 
among the Romans was ordered, by an ancient law, to mark the num- 
ber of years by driving a nail into the Temple of Minerva ; and that 
the same method of noting time was used by the Volscians, who fixed 

* AntiqwL Roman, lib. i. c. 35. f NaL HisU lib. vii. c. 60. 

348 On the State of Literature^ Sfc* among the Ancient Tuscans. 

their nails in the Temple of the Tuscan Goddess, Nortia. In the 
twelve tables, he also informs us, mention is made only of the east and 
west points ; some years afterwards the south was noted ; and the con- 
suls' crier called the hour of noon when he saw the sun between the 
rostra and Grecostasis (the place where foreign ambassadors attended), 
from the door of the Senate-house, and proclaimed the last quarter 
when it was visible between the cohanna Menia and the jail. This 
could only be done on clear days, and yet there was no other mode 
known until the first Punic war. Marcus Val. Messala, in the year of 
the city 477, introduced an inaccurate sun-dial from Sicily, which was 
used for 99 years, until one more exact was procured by Martins Phi- 
lippus, the Censor. Twenty years afterwards the water-clock was in- 
troduced, by Scipio Nasica. 

The pursuit of letters was neither a native nor predominate taste 
among the Romans, they were naturalized in the soil of Rome by a 
a few assiduous individuals, reared in the schools of Greece. The age 
in which Roman literature commenced was that of Lslius and Africa- 
nus. It is remarkable that there was no historian of Roman literature 
among the Romans themselves ; particulars concerning it, as also judg- 
ments on works now lost, are to be collected from Cicero's writings, 
and the works of the latter classics, Pliny's Nat History j Institutes of 
Quinctilianj Attic Nights, ^c. The first historical and chronological 
documents were the Censor's Tables and Fasti Consulares, which offices 
were not in existence before the expulsion of the kings. These are, 
probably, what Livy alludes to (lib iv. c. 20), where he says, " there 
were very ancient books of the magistrates written on linen, and de- 
posited in the temple of Moneta, and often cited as authority by Li- 
cinius Macer. 

The early Roman authors were mere translators from the Greek. 
Fabius Pictor, the most ancient Roman historian, is said by Dionysius 
to have written in Greek. The next historians were Ennius and Cato 
the Censor. Pliny informs us,* that Theopompus was the first who 
wrote an account of Rome, in which he mentioned only that it was taken 

* Lib. iii. c. 5. 

On the State qf Litef^ature, <§r* among the Ancient Tuscans. 349 

by the Gauls. Next to him was Clitarchus, who only mentioned an 
embassy to Alexander the Great. After him Theophrastus wrote a 
book of Roman history, which he sent to Nicodorus, archon of Athens, 
anno U. C. 460, but the only particular which Pliny knew of this work 
was, that it mentioned that Circeii, which was an island in Homer's 
time, was eight stadii in circumference. 

Mr. Niebuhr, in the first volume of his Roman History ^ as translated 
by Mr. Walter, asserts that ** the profane sciences of Etruria, medicine, 
natural philosophy, and astronomy, together with their numerals, which 
were afterwards adopted by the Romans, were native and unborrowed, 
or introduced from the north, the abode of the Gods.* That their 
alphabet came directly to them, and not through the medium of the 
Greeks ; and that they were acquainted with the art of writing from 
the most remote times.t That the Literature of the Etruscans was not 
refined by the Grecians.t That they had ancient historical works among 
them, with which Cato, the elder, and Varro were acquainted, and from 
which the Emperor Claudius composed his twenty books of Tyrrhenian 
History.** § 

I have conjoined these assertions, as the answers will have more force, 
collectively than singly, and as his reasons are purely negative, I shall 
draw what I have to say in reply chiefly from the context of his own 
narrative. Besides, in matters which belong to a period beyond the 
aera of authentic history, positive evidence cannot be expected either 
pro or con. Passing over, therefore, any investigation respecting the 
northern abode of the Gods, as a terra incognitay we find, in the first 
place, the following observation at p. 129. " The pretenders to philo- 
sophical observation have overlooked the fact, that there exists no in- 
stance of a people really savage, who have spontaneously advanced to 
civilization, and, that wherever it has been forced upon them from 
abroad, a physical destruction of the race has been the consequence, as 
in the case of the tribes of New California, and the Hottentots of the 
missions." As it is the opinion among philosophers, that savage igno- 
rance resulted from extent of wandering, it follows from this mode of 

» Page 91. t Page 2J2-90. J Page 90. J P&ge 22. 

350 On the State qf Literatures Sic. among the Ancient Tuscans. 

reasonings that the Etruscans were either extrinsically enlightened, or 
were the origmal stock of mfinkind, supematurally illumined. But it is 
also contradictory of the express declaration of Sallust and Virgil, that 
the Aborigines of Italy were savages, living in hordes, without laws, or 
agriculture, subsisting by the chase or upon wild fruits. At pp. 88, 89, 
he further observes, *' It is useless to attempt denying, that, however 
peculiar may have been the Etruscan science of architecture, all their 
improvements in statuary were communicated by the Greeks. The 
antique statues, which are still preserved, evince their original rudeness ; 
the Greeks alone were inspired with the idea of exhibiting the human 
form in life and beauty. A spark of their genius kindled the sensitive 
spirit of a sensitive people. This is further proved by the Greek my- 
thology, in many of the most splendid Etruscan works of art. The 
Tuscans, also, when once enlightened, embodied their own conceptions, 
with a feeling altogether Grecian. From the use of Grecian mythology 
in the arts, we may infer their intimacy with the Greek poets. The 
fables of Thebes and lUum would not have been presented to the eye, 
if the mind of the spectator had not been previously familiarized with 
them by. poetry. The whole of the west, even Carthage, was open to 
Grecian literature." At page 109> "the Greeks, however, diffiised 
their sciences, their literature, and even the civic use of their language, 
far beyond the countries in their immediate vicinity, throughout ail 
Italy.*^ These, to say the least, are extraordinary admissions in the 
face of a declaration that ** the literature of the Etruscans was not re- 
fined by the Grecian." 

The expression, that their alphabet came directly to them, and not 
through the medium of the Qreeks, is obscure, unless it means that it 
was sent by the gods ; but at page 90 he is more explicit. ^* The 
Etruscan alphabet," he there informs us, '^was formed like the 
Greek, from that which, among the many originally different Asiatic, 
was universally adopted throughout Europe in a variety of imitations." 
Here also is an admission that the Etruscan and Greek languages were 
cognate branches of the same stock ; but it would occupy too much 
time to attempt to shew the extent of the obligations of the Etruscans 

On Ae State of L%i6raiwre^ Sfc. amorig the AncUnt Tu^ans. 361 

to the Greeks, iii re^d to their alphabetical characters. Of the 
nature of their ancient historical books, we have become pretty well 
acquainted from the researches of Mr. Dunlop. ' Many of these, in 
possession of the Romans, no doubt perished in the conflagration of 
Rome, in the year of the city 229, as stated by Livy j others, probably, 
when it was burnt by the Gauls. Yet, says Mr. Niebuhr, page 23, •* in 
Cato's time the historical monuments, consisting of books and of 
ancient monumental inscriptions on stone or brass had neither wholly 
perished nor become unintelligible. Whatever, therefore, is stated 
upon the authority of Cato, deserves the highest attention ; and when 
stated as his positive assertion, the most implicit credit." The works 
of Cato to which Mr. Niebuhr here refers are, the 2d and 3d books of 
his Origines which treated of the neighbouring cities of Italy, and per- 
haps part of the first, which contained a history of the Roman monar- 
chy. But, as only a few fragments of the Origines have comfe dowti to 
us, and even these are considered supposititious, where is the use of re- 
ferring us to them or quoting them as authority ? Mr. Niebuhr pro- 
ceeds, ** the Social war and contests in the times of Sylla, destroyed 
the sources whence Cato drew his materials. These dreadful devasta- 
tions which successively visited every part of Italy, and buried its most 
ancient cities in ruins, must have annihilated memorials of every de- 
scription. In some districts the population was totally changed. The 
ancient Etruscans perished together with their science and Literature ; 
the nobles, who had led the common cause, fell by the sword ; those 
who deserted it became altogether Roman. The majority of l3ie popu- 
lation lost all their landed property, and sank into poverty, under fo- 
reign and cruel masters and colonists, whose oppression robbed their 
degraded descendants of every patriotic recollection, as well as of their 
language and national characteristics. Nor is this the only reason why 
the later and peculiarly Roman historians are silent respecting the early 
history of Italy. TTie nations had become extinct, in whose original 
diversities Italy had formerly enjoyed multiplied varieties of social life ; 
and though the Etruscan and Oscan language continued for a long 
time to be spoken in the secluded districts, the books and memorials 

352 On the State qf Literature^ S^. among the Ancient Tuscans. 

were almost generally unintelligible, or sunk into oblivion, in the time 
of Augustus," It thus appears from his own showing, that forty years 
before the time of Varro, no original materials existed for a history of 
Etruria, and that consequently the only sources of information available 
to later witers were the Origines of Cato. He, indeed, mentions Etrus- 
can annals (Note to p, 22), with which Varro, he says, was acquainted, 
and from which he supposes the Emperor Claudius wrote his T3rrrhe- 
nian history ; but unfortunately he compares these (p. 77) to the Indian 
Puranas, which are acknowledged forgeries. 

So far, I think, Mr. Niebuhr has failed to prove that the literature of 
the Etruscans was indigenous ; that they had carried it to any extent, 
or that their small improvement in it, was not the consequence of their 
intercourse with their Greek neighbours. Instead, therefore, of listen- 
ing to this author, whose work, in the lang;uage of his translator, '* is 
mainly formed of hypotheses and conjectures, and who leaves us to con- 
jecture what his conjectures are,'** it will be safer to follow the Latin 
classic writers pointed out by Mr. Mitford, who observes, " upon this 
subject, however, it seems enough for the historian, that neither Cicero, 
with all his partiality for Italy, and all his diligence, and all his means 
of inquiry, nor Horace, with all his desire to gratify his Etruscan 
patron, nor Virgil, nor Livy, nor Pliny, had the least suspicion that 
their fellow-countrymen had any claim to the priority in science and 
art, which it has been proposed by some learned moderns to attribute to 

A few circumstances now come in course to be mentioned, in order 
to show their political weakness, and rude notions of the arts of civil 

It is vaguely stated by Niebuhr,1: and others, that the Etruscans were 
a great naval power when the Greeks first came among them. Hero- 
dotus, and Thucydides,§ indeed notice a naval engagement between the 
combined fleets of Carthage and Etruria and that of the Phocseans, in 
the first books of their respective histories, as happening in the reign 

* Translatot^s Pteface. f Sutory •/ Greece^ t. ii^ p. S91. 

X Roman £Riiory, I, p. 85-6. $ Lib. L, c. 167. 

On the State qf Literature, S^c. among the Ancient Tuscans. 353 

of Cyrus, or Cambyses, and also that the latter with twenty vessels de- 
feated the fleet of their enemies consisting of sixty ships. There must, 
therefore, have been a great inferiority on the side of the latter, either 
-in the size of their vessels or in naval skill. It appears, however, from 
Herodotus that the Etruscan vessels in this engagement belonged only 
to the town of Caere, in Tuscany. It appears further, that the Etrurian 
maritime states were then dreaded by the Greeks as piratical, in con- 
sequence of which, as much as from apprehension of tlie Carthaginians, 
the Phocaeans traded in the Tyrrhenian sea in armed vessels. In the 
year of the city 278 Cuma solicited the protection of Hiero, king of 
Syracuse, against them, who destroyed the whole of their ships without 
opposition, the Etriiscans attempting to avert this loss only by bribing 
the commanders. Twenty-one years after this, when the S3nracusans 
invaded Ilva and Corsica, no Tyrrhenian ships opposed them ; and 
sixty-nine years later still, their coasts were unprotected when plunder- 
ed by Dionysius, the elder. 

No trace of naval power is found among them during the wars of the 
Romans against the towns on the coast, and they possessed no vessel 
during the first Punic war, since the Romans were destitute of them. 
The first quinquereme which fell into their hands, which served as a 
model for the construction of similar vessels, was taken by Appius 
Claudius, in his passage from Messana to Rhegium, after the reduction 
of Etruria. 

In early times the Etruscans seem to have been equally insignificant 
as a military power. If we take for granted, a circumstance, which it 
would be difficult to disprove, namely, that j^neas conducted a colony 
of Trojans into Italy,* we have a strong instance of the military imbe- 

* Strabo and some others maintain that ^neas neyer left his country, but rebuilt Troy, where he 
reigned, and his posterity after him. Homer, who lived 400 years after the war of Troy, says (D. zx. 
▼. 30, &€•), that the Gods destined ^neas to reign over the Trojans. Dionydus HaIicamassus,how* 
ever, exphuned this passage, by saying, that Homer meant the Trojans who had gone over to Italy 
with iBneas, and not the actual inhabitants of Troy. Livy, Virgil, and other Latin authors, describe 
the arrival of ^neas as indubitable. The former represents him as having married Lavinia, daughter of 
the king of die Latins, in whose honour he built Lavinium. That Alba was built by his son, Ascanius, 
on the Alban Mount, close to the river Albula, which afterwards changed its name to Tiber, lA 

VOL. II. 3 B 

3Si On Ihe Slate tjf liieraturej 8^. among At Ancient Tiucmis. 

<a]ity of the Etrurians in the iieraic ages, for lAvy (lib. i. sec. 8) says, 
Aat only thirty years after the death of JSneas, neither the Etrurians 
nor any of l^e neighbouring nations durst attempt any thing against 
die Latms. We have the same authority, that Romulus could never 
noster more tiipn 800 hoise and SOOO in&ntry, a nibble of shepherds 
and vagabonds from various tribes, a lawless horde who chose to setde 
on the Palatine faili, whence they made inroads on the netghboiuing 
country, yet tiie Etrurians were not strong enough to dislodge this 
handful a£ freebooters ; and as Rome was not surrounded by a stone 
wall until die time of Lucius Tanjuinius, it appears they wiere able to 
maintain diemselves without this advantage for the space of 187 y^eais, 
a great proof of die equally savage state of dieir neighboiu's. Again 
we find that Porsenna, King of Etruria, or, according to Nidbuihr, only 
kiiij^ of a tribe, was unable, with die assistance of other states, his aeigii^ 
hours, to restore Tarquiaius Supobus, by force of arms, although in all 
probability the deposed King had a powerfiil faction within die city 
in Ids £ivour. Still later, in the early period of the republic, livy men- 
tions that the Fdbian family alone, consisting of 806 patricians, and 
probably of 8600 vassals and clients, made war, at dieir own expense, 
against ihe stake of Veil, die most powerful in Etruria. 

The religion of the Etrurians was cruel in the extreme ; they prac- 
tised human sacrifices, which was abhorrent to the qiirit of the Teligion 
of Rome. Their divinities were of the rudest sort. In the days, of our 
forefaithers, says Pliny,* there were no statues of brass or marble, or of 
foreign workmanship. The temples contained the likenesses of them- 
selves and ancestors, in wax, including only the head and neck, which 

coiueqaence of Tiberinus, the 9th in descent (rom JEneas haying been drowned in it ; and that from 
the race of the Alban lungs the Romans are descended. Mach evidence has lieen brought forward 
by Bocfaart, and Mr. Wood, in his ** Eum^ on the Original ixemut and Writings of Homer!* to prove 
the scholium of Dionysius wrong, but Dr. Gillies, after a careful examination of this evidence, tiiinks 
the matter too doubtftd to contradict the popular opinion of the Trojan origin of the Bomans.— 
Even Nid>uhr, the professed historian of andent Italy, leaves this point, as he does «very other of 
intricacy, just where he found it, by declaring it to be ** a native natknud story on a par with every 
other event of the mythic age."— Vol. i. p. 143. 
♦ Lib. X5CXV. c. 2. 

On the State qflAteraturer 8^. among ihe Ancient Tu9ca$au 356 

were carried in procession at tiie funerals of particular families, and ar- 
ranged in the sepulchres^ It appears, however, that they were gra^ 
dually allured by the enticing fictions of the Grecian mjrthology, for, 
according to livy, the principal Gods of the Vientians removed to 
Rome were, the Pythian Apollo, and Imperial Juno ; and the Noven- 
siles which the Sabines brought with them were, Lara, Vesta, Minerva, 
Feronia, Concord, Faith, Fortune, Chance, and Health, all of Greek 

The priests of Etruria were given to the frivolous pursuit of augury 
chiefly by the Haruspicium, a mode which, among savages, may have 
led to human sacrifices. But there were other methods. ^^ The Etru- 
rians,'' says Mr. Niebuhr, ^^ shared the glory of many branches of sooth- 
saying with other nations of Italy, especially the Marsi. The science 
of lightening was their peculiar secret. This, like every other depart- 
ment of divin£[tion, was taught in the schools of the priests.''* ^^ The 
priests taught that they knew, even without experience, by observing 
the signs of the foundation of any state, how many ssecula it should 
last, and of what duration each would be." There was no oracle as in 
Grreece, where the priest might enquire personally of the God, but they 
divined the will of Heaven, by lots, made of billets of wood, rudely in- 
sqibed, which were drawn by a boy." ^^ The Romans borrowed from 
them the art of divination, but the infallible source of this knowledge 
seems to have remained as a national property of the Etruscans, from 
the day in which Tages, a subterranean dwarf, rose and instructed them 
in this science."t These passages are important, in as much as they c 
show that the Etruscans, in the first age of Rome, were as uncivilized N. 
as the Scandinavians in the days of Odin. In ingenuity and imagina- * 
tion, it is far below the grossest system of northern mythology, and 
is indicative of a low state, both of civil and moral virtue. 

It is said that the Romans borrowed from the Etruscans, their ponti- 
fical and royal ensigns, the pomp of their triumphs, and their martial 
music. On this point, Mr. Niebuhr is more cautious than some other 
writers, accompanying the expression of his bdief of these reports by 

^ Ram. Hitt v. L p. 95. ' f Id. p. 94. 

356 On the State qf Literature^ ^. among the Ancient Tuscans. 

the qualifying phrases, ** it can not be doubted^** ^^ according to welUknown 
tradiHon^*^* instead of leaving them to take their chance with the reader 
for being grounded on authority. We do read, however, upon good 
authority, that before the capture of the Greek city, Tarentum, in the 
two hundred and ninety-first year of Rome, the Romans exhibited in 
their triumphs only the broken arms of the Samnites, the empty cars of 
the Gauls, and herds of cattle, and, that upon such occasion?, their 
Generals, among whom was the great Camillus, practised the savage 
custom of painting their bodies red.t In those days too, trophies were 
hung outside the doon 

There is nothing, surely, in all this indicative of refinement Besides, 
as Sallust mentions,! that the Romans borrowed from their allies, and 
even their enemies, whatever they thought useful, it will be difficult to 
apportion the extent of their obligations to any one people, and it will 
also prove, that few as the wants of a rude people are, the Etruscans 
were then incapable of suppl3dng them. That they were poor in regard 
to the elegancies of life, appears from the fact, that the Romans found, 
for the first time, the plunder of an opulent city, at the capture of Ta- 
rentum. Livy expressly states, that £129,000. was a sum not to be 
expected from the plunder of any city in Italy in those days. If such 
was then the poverty of the Greek cities, what must have been the con- 
dition of the Italian ? These observations go far to disprove the opi- 
nion that the ancient Etruscans were a commercial people. The 
ancient Romans, and probably the Etrurians, according to Niebuhr, 
imported not only articles of luxury, as stufls, purple, silver and gold j 
but likewise necessaries as lead, tin, and corn. Their exports were only 
slaves, iron, and coppef. They had only copper coin. Such commo- 
dities were not fitted for distant land carriage ; the foreign traders must 
therefore have been the Carthaginians, notwithstanding what Niebuhr 
supposes, namely, that " Etruria must have been the emporium of trade 
between the sea, the rest of Italy, and the remotest barbarian nations, 
to whom there was a safe and sacred road across the Alps !" — P. 87. 

Here, however, this writer is at issue with Livy, who styles these 

* VoL i. p. 97. t Pliny, lib. xxxilL c. 7. t Cataline's Conspiracy. 

On the State qf Literature, S^c, among the Ancient Tiiscans. 357 

mountains the ^^ pathless Alps,** and says, that there did not exist even 
a tradition, that they had been climbed over previous to the invasion of 
the Gauls, under Beliovesus, anno U. C. 364.* 

In the beginning of the fourth century of the city, the Romans had 
to send into Greece for a code of jurisprudence, Etruria not being able 
to furnish a system of judicial or legislative enactments adequate to 
such an infant state of society. Such are some of the circumstances 
reported in the early history of this people which show their gross igno- 
rance in literature and science until the tim'e when they began to make 
foreign conquests, and, by inference, the Etruscans, with whom, during 
this long period, they never ceased to be engaged in important transac- 
tions. . Many more, known to us all as schoolboys, might be gleaned 
from the same sources, if necessary. But there is another view of this 
part of our subject which we must not omit to notice, namely, that the 
whole of the first age of Rome, which extends to the extinction of 
monarchy, is accounted, by some of the best Latin authors, fabulous, an 
opinion to which Niebuhr subscribes, who styles the history of the Kings 
2L po€tic^tion.f Plutarch,t Solinus, and St. Austin § all express the dis- 
cordance prevalent in their days respecting the aera and the founder of 
Rome J but the observations of Sir Isaac Newton on this point are de- 
serving of particular attention. " When the Greeks and Latins were 
forming their technical chronology, there were great disputes about the 
antiquity of Rome. The Greeks made it much older than the Olym- 
piads. Some of them said it was built by iEneas ; others by Romus 
the grandson of Latinus King of the Aborigines ; others by Romus, son 
of Ulysses ; or of Ascanius ; or of Italus. Some of the Latins agreed 
with the Greeks, that it was built by Romulus, son or grandson of 
jfEneas. Timaeus Siculus and Naenius the poet were of this opinion. 
Hitherto nothing certain was agreed upon ; but about one hundred and 
fifty years after the time of Alexander the Great, they began to say 
that Rome was built a second time by Romulus, in the fifteenth age 
aft«r the destruction of Troy, reckoning the age at about thirty-one 

• Lib. V. c. 34. f Vol. L p. 188-9. | Life of Romulus, 

5 Apud. Ant, Un. IBs. vol. xl T Chronology, p. 128. 

35S On (he State of Literaturey Sic. among the Andent Tuscans, 

This pass^e is of value as showing tbe uncertain nature of tlie tra^ 
ditions before the time of Cato the Cetisor, who flourished about this 
distance of time from the death of Alexander^ Even Niebuhr acknow- 
ledges thus much, although probabl j he was not aware of the admission. 
It has been already noticed, that he considers the history of the monar- 
chy a poetic fahky composed from old songs which used to be sung at 
convivial entertainments. In other parts of the same volume are the 
following remarks. ^^ When historians arose^ history was alone attended 
to ) but monuments and records were not consulted. Tbe Romaffi re>- 
cords were certainly from the earliest times meagre in comparison with 
those of the Greeks. Their laws were for a long time only engraven 
on oak, and were entirely burnt when the Gauls took Rome. The 
only ancient document recorded of the whole period of the monarchy 
is the league of Servius TuUius with the Latin, and of the \sAt 
Tarquinius with the Gabii.*'* Not only the Annals of the Kings, 
but every narrative of those times were completely destroyed/'t. 
" The sacred ceremonies of the Roman religion rest upon gratuitous in- 
terpretation.^ t Here his meaning appears to be that tbe derivation of 
these ceremonies was uncertain. *^ The Etruscan annals, from which 
Varro copied, were nothing but a legendary priestly literature/' § 
" The (mnals of the PontificeS) and the Fasti Triumphaks^ did not com- 
mence until the battle of the Regillus" || (the beginning of the Common- 
wealth). "The Pontifical annals falsified history in fevour of the 
patricians.'*^ ** The Consular Fasti, and those of the monarchy, are 
suspicious."** " The received Fasti, of the 4th and 5th centuries* are 
full of striking inaccuracies."tt " The Libri Fatales enjoined human 
sacrifice." " The Sibylline book, purchased by Tarquin, perished in 
the conflagration of the coital." 

" The keepers of the Sibylline books seldom ventured to open them. 
We know not in what language they were written ; probably, in Greek, 
as Greece was ransacked for traditions to supply the place of those 
which were burnt ; in which case the priests could know nothing of them, 
as they durst not admit an interpreter to a knowledge of their contents." 

* Page 185. \Vt!^m. J Page 176. $Ptge362. 

1 Page 382. t Page 190. •• Page 201. ft P*«e 202. 

On tim State qfliieratwrc^ S^c. among ike Ancient Tuscam. 359 

But bow does he astonish the reader when, in the face of such con- 
cessions, he asserts that many historical monuments, consisting of books, 
and inscriptions on st&ne or brass^ existed, and were intelligible in tba 
time of Cato, and continued even until that of Sylla.^ StiU more 
when, on the authority of Dionysius, Xanthus, a Lydian historian of no 
certain age or character, and the Native Annals qfEtruria^ he contra* 
diets Herodotus and the other respectable authors who ccnncide with 
him in xleriving the Eruscaos from Lesser Asia ;t when he refers to 
early native annals written before Oreek literature predominated 5 1 to 
the SibylUne books, which he says w^ere read by Dionysius ;§ and to the 
sacred books 4of the Etruscans, the Libri Bituaks for the Etruscan ori- 
gin of the whole of the primitive constitution of Rome. || 

This author -seems to go abroad in quest of any obscure writer or 
tradition to support what may be termed his new theory of ancient tran- 
sactionSf accepting or refusing the guidance of accredited historians, just 
as they suit his peculiar views. Thus he r^verses the account of Hero- 
dotus that the Tyrrhenians were a colony from Lydia, into an emigra- 
tion from Tyrrhenia into Greece upon the authority of Myrsilus,ir a 
writer unknown in classic history. Bujt his <^apricious treatment of 
some of the most able and candid historians of aptiquity is deserving of 
especial animadversion : for instance, in oae place he says, '' Pdybius 
is not to be relied upon in historical matters of remote antiquity ;''** in 
another, that ^' he writes with so much caution and accuracy that every 
word he uses must be tkken as significant'^tt Dionysius is, in gener^ 
his favourite authority, who, be tells us, **was renowned as a critic 
among his cotemporaries;''1:t yet, elsewhere, h^ classes him with PluAacoh 
** as a man of weak discernment," 5 S ^^^ ^' whose judgment was wcuped 
by prejudice."!! !! He appeals to Varro as a standard authority on many 
occasions, yet he also writes that ^' his authority, as to the situations and 
names of places destroyed in very resK^ ages, is, in fact> of little val^me. 
But whatever weight may reasonably be assigned to him when^ a¥uai:ent 
documents could be brought to light, yet bis confused knowledge a^ 

•'VoLi.,p,«a tPp-W-77. t Page 176. ^ Page 14^-178. |i Page 193. 

f P.p. X6S-170. •* Page 51. ff Page ^9. tj: F^ — . §§ P^ 169. Il|j Page Hie. 

360 On the State of Literature^ S^, among the Ancient Tuscans. 

wavering judgment, tend much and justly to diminish his credit, on oc- 
casions where critical penetration alone can justify the boldness of ven- 
turing on an untrodden path without a guide."* Livy, whose elegant 
and valuable history he has taken as his text book, he declares, ^' is not 
to be depended upon when the chronology of foreign nations is con- 
qemed ;**t that, " from a poetical spirit he relates things rather in the 
style of history, than as real history ;*'1: that "he did not seek truth 
with simplicity of spirit, and is an affectedly ingenious investigator who 
deserts the natural and obvious meaning/' § These, and they are but 
a few of those to be found in this volume, are manifest inconsistencies, 
and surprise us as dropping from the pen of a professor of ancient his- 
tory. He is the most recent, the most confident, and, perhaps, the 
most popular advocate for the existence of a high degree of civilization 
and skill in the arts and sciences among the ancient Etruscans, before 
the a&ra of authentic history : but opinions founded on books of augury, 
the Sybilline oracles, annals written by savages, monuments whose ex- 
istence is not authenticated, and whose inscriptions were, at all events, 
never intelligible, and other similar data, which were despised by the 
classic historians of Rome, are not likely to command respect in the 
present day, nor would they have been noticed here, did not their hos- 
tility to the view of the subject maintained in this paper render it neces- 
sary to expose their fallacy by an analytical examination. It now 
remains to make only one or two observations on the temples at 

In the dark and turbulent ages which succeeded the Trojan war, in- 
testine sedition, foreign invasion, or the restless spirit of adventure oc- 
casioned extensive migrations from Greece in various directions. Some 
of the most important settled in the south of Italy and in Sicily, which 
settlements were afterwards included in the generic term Magna Grs- 
cia. With the exception of Eubasan Cumas whose foundation ascends 
to the heroic ages, the greater number of Greek colonies in those parts 
were planted during the 8th century B. C, chiefly by the Eubaeans 
of Chalcis, the Achceans of Peloponnesus, and the Dorian states, 

• Page 125. t Page 55. % Page 169. S P^ ^l^* ' 

On the State of Literature, 8^. among the Ancient Ttiscans. 361 

particularly Corinth, by whom Syracuse was founded. Crotona, the most 
considerable city of the Achasans and of all Italy in ancient times, was 
built 710 years B. C. Sybaris, its rival, was built about the same time, 
and by the same nation. The former sent colonies to Tirina, Caulonia, 
and Pandosia ; the latter built Laus, Metapontum, and Poseidonia or 
Psestum. Many other cities sprung up at .the same time both in Sicily 
and Italy, over the whole southern coast of which the Syracusans had 
extended their settlements in the 6th century B. C, and in the follow- 
ing the colonies of Magna Graecia had risen superior to the mother 
country in wealth, power, and refinement. During all this time Proper 
Grreece was in a state of semi-barbarism, and had made but little pro- 
gress either in literature or the arts. The refinement of Magna Grsecia 
clearly emanated from the Asiatic Greek cities, which had been planted 
about the same time with the western colonies, and with which they 
maintained an intimate intercourse. From Miletus, the capital of 
Ionia, the arts and manners of the polished Lydians might easily pass, 
without communication with Proper Greece, to the wealthy towns of 
Italy and Sicily. But history is deficient in materials for tracing the 
causes of the wonderful prosperity of some of these cities. Many, as 
formerly in .Holland, seem to have contained an excess of private 
wealth, beyond reasonable objects of expenditure. Agrigentum, for 
example, was a vast city commanding a territory scarcely equal to one 
of our smallest counties, in which 20,000 wealthy citizens were sove- 
reigns over 180,000 free subjects, sovereigns and subjects both having 
under them slaves unnumbered. Their extraordinary wealth was dis- 
played in the magnificence of public edifices, and in the splendid enjoy- 
ment of private fortunes. They had begun and almost completed the 
celebrated temple of Jupiter, on whose pediment were the celebrated 
sculptures of the defeat of the Giants and the taking of Troy. 
Nothing could rival the beauty and elegance of their tombs to perpe- 
tuate the fame of their coursers which had obtained the prize at Olym- 
pia ; and to commemorate the quails and other delicate birds which 
were cherished by the efieminate youth of both sexes. 

This prosperity and refinement, had, in a certain degree, spread 

yoL. II. 3 c 

362 On the State of Literutwre^ <$*c« among the 4ncient Tuscans. ^ 

through the principal Greek citiea of Italy, antecedently to the appear- 
ance of even brick buildings, either in Etruria or Rome ; for in the 5tb 
century B. C. such was the weakness and barbarism of the Italian 
tribes that, according to the testimony of Greek and Romaa writers, 
wherever almost a Grecian pirate chose to settle on the coast he found 
no force among the natives capable of resistance ; and it is allowed that 
Rome was but a collection of thatched cottages, until it was destroyed 
by the Gauls* Here, then, we find all that is necessary, in regard to 
wealth, science, taste, and peculiarity of religious worship, for the con- 
struction of the Paestan temples, among the Greek inhabitants of that 
city or district ; while throughout the whole of this paper we have not 
discovered a single similar circumstance in favour of their Etruscan 

The same arguments might be effectually urged against a supposed 
Etruscan style of architecture, still visible in many parts of Tuscany and 
Magna Grfficia, as Fondi, Crotona, and Cora; and which consists in having 
tjie sides and angles of large polygonal blocks accurately adapted to each 
other without cement ; did we not know that similar ^ecimens are to 
be found at Mycenae, the Pynx at Athens, the walls of Mantinea and 
Chaeronea, and in almost all the fortified cities in Proper Greece and 
Epirus ; which shows, beyond doubt, that it was derived from Greece. 

But many, and Paoli in particular,* consider the three temples at 
Psestum, from their style and proportions, to have been built by 
Etruscans, and before the arrival of the Greeks in Calabria. Here, 
however, we have on the other side, the opinion of Mr. Wilkins, a com- 
petent judge of the national characteristics of architecture, who informs 
us that the largest of the three is decidedly Greek, and the two smaller 
Roman, built in subsequent ages when the arts had been long on the 
decline. " There can exist little doubt,*' he observes, " in the minds 
of those who are accustomed to contemplate the features of ancient 
architecture, that the largest was coeval with the very earliest period of 
the Grecian migration to the south of Italy. The Grecian character is 
too strongly marked to admit of any argument whether its origin waa 

* Apud Wilkin's Magna Gneda^ p. 59, note. 

On tiie State qfLiterature^ i§r« among the Ancient Tu$cans. 863 

prior or subsequent to the possession of Poseidonia by that people. 
Low columns with a great diminution of the shaft, bold projecting capi- 
tals, a massive entablature, and triglyphs placed at the angles of 
Zophorus, are strong presumptive proofs of its great antiquity* The 
shs^ of the columns duninish in a straight line from the base to the 
top, although at first si^t they have the appearance of swelling in the 

But, as the style of the great temple at Paestum, predominates also in 
most of the temples remaining in Sicily, and in one, of which small relics 
only are left, at Pompeii, and di^rs from what is found common in 
Greece, and among the Grecian settlements in Lesser Asia, does not 
this discrepance show-^-say the advocates for the Etruscan origin of the 
Sicilian and Passtan buildings — ^that these are Italian and not Grecian 
architecture ? I answer, no, for the reasons assigned for this discrepance 
by Mr. Mitford-t " But not,'* says this excellent historian, " to say 
any more of the total want of testimony to the existence of an Italian 
people capable of teaching architecture to the Greeks, the following 
considerations may, I think, sufficiently account for the di^rence be- 
tween the style of tiie Attic, and that of the Sicilian and Peestam build- 
ings. Sybaris was destroyed about eighteen years before the invasion of 
Xerxes, and the buildings of Agrigentum, where the noblest ruins of 
Sicily remain^ were raised, according to Diodorus, immediately after the 
event, when Athens was also to be restored, afler its complete destruc- 
tion by the Persiana. It is likely that ihe Agrigentines and Sybarites 
would build in liie style of their forefathers ; but we are well informed 
that the Athenians did otherwise. Themistocles^ who superintended 
the rebuilding of Athens, ^lendid in his disposition^ rather to excess, 
acquainted with the elegancies of Asia Minor^ and possessing power to 
command the science, art, and taste of the country, would not restore 
when he could improve. Cimon^ who succ^ded him in the administra- 
tion, was also remarkable for his magnificence j and he too had seeti 
whatever the Asiatic coast possessed of great and beautiful. But tilie 
ornamental buildings of both those great men were comparatively little 

* Magna Gracia, p. 59. f Mtt. of Greece, toL ii^ p. 299, note. 

S6t On the State of Literature^ <§r. among the Ancient Tuscans. 

to what were afterwards raised by Pericles under the direction o£ Phi* 
dias. The fame of the buildings of Athens then spreading over Greece, 
a new style of architecture was introduced gradually everywhere^ The 
Ionic order had been imported into Attica from Asia ; the Corinthian 
was soon after invented by an Athenian architect ; and the Doric itself 
began to change its ancient, simple, and massive grandeur, for more 
embellishment, lightness, and grace/' 

These quotations remove all doubt respecting the architects of the 
Paestan temples, and the latter shows that the Tuscan order is no other 
than the old Doric, as it existed before the age of Pericles. It is, 
therefore, needless to seek for other proof that the Etruscans were not 
the founders of those buildings which have survived near nine centuries 
the total destruction of the city. That they were constructed previous 
to the arrival of the Greeks in Italy, is an assertion founded on igno- 
rance of ancient history ; for it is well known that both Italy and Sicily, 
in Homer's time, were known only by name. They were regions of 
imaginary monsters and real savages, who, according to this great poet, 
neither ploughed nor sowed. " They feed," he says, " on the sponta- 
neous productions of the soil ; they have no assemblies for public 
debate ; no magistrates to enforce laws ; no federal union nor common 
concern of any kind; but they dwell in caverns, or on the tops of 
mountains, and every one is magistrate or lawgiver to his own family."* 
The situation of Passtum, in the midst of a wide plain, was most happily 
adapted to the purposes of commerce and agriculture. Its port was 
highly advantageous to the interests of the city, and was frequented by 
the merchants of distant nations. During a period of more than 200 
years from their first establishment, the Posidonians enjoyed a state of 
tranquillity in their possessions. An equal degree of prosperity was 
enjoyed by nearly all the Grecian settlements in Italy and Sicily. It is, 
therefore, natural to suppose that, from the gulfs of Salerno and Naples, 
in particular, a gleam of civilization would, in time, reach the coast of 
Tuscany, either through the medium of trade or piratical excursions^ 
and in this manner we may account for those rude institutions and arta 

* 0((y#f . lib. ix. 

On the State qf Literature, ^. among the Ancient Tuscans. 365 

M^hich appear to have been known there during the first sra of Roman 
history ; but in all that I have read respecting the ancient Etruscans^ I 
have met with nothing in any author of repute which countenances the 
opinion that they were ever an enlightened and scientific people ; on 
the contrary, they appear to have been subdued and incorporated with 
the Roman Commonwealth before they had emerged from a state of 

366 Letter relative to tte Plague in Newta^tlCj in 1636. 

XLIX. — A Letter from the Corporation qfNewcastie upon T)fne to the 

Mayor and Aldermen qf Berwick. 

Mr. Charnley, one of the members, having presented the Society with 
the cwious little volume, entitled ^^ Neoocastles CaH To her Neighbour 
and Sister Townes and Cities throughout the land, to take warning by 
her Sins and Sorrows, &c., by R. Jenison, D'. of D., whereunto is ad- 
ded, the number of them that dyed weakehf in Newcastle and Garth^de^ 
from May 6th. to December 31, 1636,*' the following letter, on the 
same subject, was presented to the Society by the Rev. Jas. Raine, of 
Durham ; extracted from the Guild-book, Berwick, 1636, foL 159 : — 

A letter redd in guild from the mayor and aldermen of Newcastle upon 

Tyne to the mayor and aldermen qfthis Brough. 

Right worthie gent. 

Wee haue receaved from yo'' by a servant of Sir John Clavering the 
some of 40 marks a verie ample expression of your pittie to us in this 
our great calamitie by reason of the sore pestilence soe long confynue- 
ing in this place, your charitie with the helpe of God shall be by us 
continually had in remembrance, and as occasion shall require shal be 
requited with thankfullness according to our powers. God in his mer- 
eye for Christ Jesus his sake cease the sickness and preserve yuw and 
all others from the same. The nomber of the dead is not so manye 
this last weeke as formerly being but one hundred twentie two. The 
great death of people that hath beene which doth amount to verie nere 

Lett&r relfltm to the Jpjgjgt^ ^ ffewc<is^^ in 1636. 


6000 persons since the beginning wee feare is the cause that there, dye 
fewer now ; there being not see many people left in the towne as there 
was. Thus with all due respects of thankfuUness wee rest. 

Your truly loving friends, 

Pete Riddei^l, maior. 
Wm. Warhouth, Rob. Anderson, 
Raphe Cole, Leonard Carr, vie. 

Octob. 1636. 

368 Addiiional Particulars relative to a Stone Coffin. 

la.*— Some additional Particulars relative to the Stone Cqffin found in 

Chatton Church Yard. 

Since Mr. Cock's communication respecting the Stone Coffin discover- 
ed in Chatton Church Yard, Northumberland (for which see Archceologia 
MlianOf vol. i. p. 99)} he has favoured the Society with a model of it, at 
one-third of its original size, and also drawings of it with its dimensions 
(Plate XIII). This Coffin is considered of more moment than the usually 
discovered Stone Coffins, from the circumstance of there being not any 
quarries of stone in the vale of Chatton, from which such a Coffin could 
be procured. This strengthens the probability of its having been the 
depository of the remains of some person of note, perhaps a celebrated 
warrior in the then contending armies, from the spur and other reliques 
being found near it. The only place where the stone could be procured 
is on the adjacent hills, which are at some distance. The weight of 
the Coffin is I70 stones. 

pi4/irK xm- 







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Account qf the Roman Station Rutupke. 369 

LI. — Rutupiarum ReUquice^ or^ an Account of the celebrated Roman Sta- 
Hon^ RutupicB^ near Sandmch^ in the County ofKent^ with Remarks on 
Julius Cassar^s Landing Place^ in Britain. By Thomas Charles Bell. 

The attempt of the present essay is to throw some light upon the his- 
tory of the famous Roman Station, Rutupite, more commonly called 
Richborough, situate on an eminence about a mile and a half to the 
northward of the town of Sandwich, on the eastern coast of Kent. 

Various have been the opinions respecting the place of Julius Csesar's 
landing on his first expedition against Britain, some having supposed it 
to have been to the southward, while others, and as it should seem ^th 
more probability, from the accounts left us by Caesar himself, that it 
must have taken place to the northward of Dover. This last opinion is 
much strengthened by a survey of the coast in that direction, where 
we find, as will afterwards be shewn, an open level country, such as 
would most likely be chosen by a skilful general for the landing of his 

Cassar informs us that he landed at about eight miles from Dover, on 
an open level shore. At Dover the cliffs are remarkably high and per- 
pendicular, and thus continue northward, but gradually decrease in 
height, until near Walmer, where the cliffs terminate, and the beach or 
level shore commences, and continues as far as Sandown Castle, about 
a mile and half further northward, where the sand hills commence. — 
These cover a tract of land extending from the beach into the country, 
upon an average of about half a mile, and along the shore northward 
almost to the mouth of the river Stour, or entrance into Sandwich Haven, 
nearly two miles further. They form a barren and very rugged tract, 
being composed of heaps of loose sand. 

The whole of the land extending behind these, from Deal on the 

VOL. II. 3 D 

370 Account tfihe Roman Station Rutufice. 

south, to Woodnesborough Hill on the west, and from thence to Each- 
end, about a mile and a half on the road from Sandwich to Canterbury, 
and proceeding northward and forming a little bay, in which the valley 
of Goss Hall is now situated, round the headland of Richborough, is one 
continued level and marshy tract of country, with all the appearance of 
having been, not many ages since, overflowed by the sea, and forming 
an extensive but shallow bay. 

With regard to the sand hills themselves, as their elevation is consi- 
derably above the level of the surrounding lands, it appears questionable 
whether these have been formed by an accumulation of sand coatiiiually 
thrown up 'by the sea since its retreat, and thus raising as it were an 
em'bankment against any encroachment on ti)e land it had recently left ; 
or whether they originally existed as shoak like those of the Goodwan 
and other sands, does not appear to be essential to the preseai; enquiry. 

The object is to ascertain the exact place of Csesar's landing ; aod 
this, as has beem ably shewn in a paper inserted in the Mechaami^ Mm- 
gazine for May, ISSy^ in&y he pretty clearly ascertained by comparixig 
some observations Csesar has left in his Commentaries willi aatronomi- 
cal evidence by <^alculation, as an extract from the paper alluded to will 
clearly prove. '^ The first expedition of Caesar into Britain tock place 
in the year of the oonsulship of Pompey and Crassus^ the 55th year be- 
fore Christ ; and with respect to the time of the ^ear, Cxsar expressly 
says, that a -small part of the summer being left, he hastened over into 
Britain, und arrived on its coast about the fourth hoar of the jday, when 
he beheld fhe armed forces of the enemy drawn up in battle array on 
all the hills, to oppose him. The nature of the place was such, that the 
sea being environed with steep rocks, a dart could be thrown from the 
top of the cliffs to the shore. There is no doubt but this place was Do- 
ver, in front of which Caesar arrived about ten o'clock in the morning ; 
here he remained at anchor until three o'clock in the afternoon, when 
having obtained a favourable wind and tide at the same time, he sailed 
along with them, and then landed upon an open level shore. Caesar 
next informs us, that after he had been four days on the islands, a storm 
arose, which did great damage to that part of the fleet appointed to 

Account of the Roman Station Rutupi^. 37 1 

bring over the cavalry, and that on the night it happened there was a 
full moon. This expression, considering that a small part of the sum- 
mer only was remaining when the expedition was undertaken, incpntror 
vertibly decides the day on which Caesar landed. Calculating backwards 
from the full moon in May, 18S7, we find that 2S,^9 lunations have 
elapsed since August 27> ten hours, fifty-one minutes p. m., fif);y.five 
years before Christ, at which time, consequently, there was a full moon, 
and which must be that mentioned by Caesar, as happening four days 
afler he came into the island. It could not have been the full moon 
which happened on tlie 29th July, or that on the 26th September, nearly 
at noon, because, then he could not say, ^ eaigud parte asstaUs reUqua^^ 
when he was about to undertake the expedition ; nor ^propmqm die equi- 
noctih* when he was going to return to the continent. Caesar, there- 
fore, came in front of the cliffi at Dover on the 23d August, B. c. 55, 
according to the Calendar now in use, and after three o'clock in the 
afternoon of that day, sailed with the tide eight miles before he landed. 
Hence, we have only to determine which way the tide was running at 
that time. Now, at the time of full moon, the moon souths nearly at 
midnight, and in this instance, it is quite certain that it was the ca^e 
within three or four minutes either way ; and allowing three hours ten 
minutes, for the difference of southing in four days, the moon would be 
south on the 23d, at eight hours fifty minutes p. m. Hence, according to 
the rules laid down for calculating the time of high water, it was low 
water at Dover on the above day, at two hours eight minutes p. m. — 
Therefore, by three o'clock, especially if accelerated by a favourable 
wind, the flow-tide would be sufficiently up, which, running northward, 
as it does on the coast of Dover, carried Caesar and his fleet that way. 
Consequently the plain open shore where the landing was effected^ was 
north of the cliffs of Dover, and between the South Foreland and Deal. 
Thus, the place of Caesar's landing, stands in no need of conjecture, but 
is almost as capable of demonstration as any of the propositions in 

It is, therefore, somewhere on the coast near Walmer, and before we 
arrive at Deal, that the landing of Caesar's troops must have been 

372 Account qfthe Roman Station Rutupice. 

effected, since this spot, the^rst open and level shore, northward of Dover, 
is about the distance from that place at which Caesar states his landing 
to have been effected. After landing, it is natural to suppose, that he 
would search for some commanding station, upon which he might fortify 
himself against the assaults of the enemy, and such a station, the only 
one, indeed, fitted for the purpose, would be found upon the headland 
of Richborough. 

The country to the northward of Richborough, like that on the south- 
ward, is a level marshy ^ tract, extending from near the site of the an- 
cient town of Stonar along the Minster Level on each side the course of 
the river Stour as far as Sarr, on the road from Canterbury to Margate, 
and from thence on each side the course of the decayed river Wantsum, 
to the sea near Reculver, on the northern coast of this part of Kent. 
The whole of the tract on each side the Stour and Wantsum, being a 
marshy level, like that on the other side of Richborough, probably form- 
ed an immense estuary, widely separating the Island of Thanet from 
the main land. The mouth of this inlet of the sea seems to have ex- 
tended from the Gore, on the eastern, and to Reculver on the western 
side, where projecting cliffs, or headlands, are still observable, and 
which must have been more particularly the case when the land was 
continued into the sea, several miles distant from the present shore ; 
but which has, from time to time, been undermined and washed away, 
as appears both from authentic records, and from the evidence of many 
persons still resident near the spot. 

Hence, Reculver, the Regulbium of the Romans, was probably a 
fortified station, commanding the entrance of the aestuary on the 
northern side, as the headland of Richborough did on the southern j 
and, if this view be correct, it will thus appear, that the castle of Rich- 
borough was erected upon a neck of land, at that time nearly surrounded 
by water, being connected with the main land only on its north- 
western side, and thus affording a pl^ce of great security. 

The whole of the present immense tract of land from Richborough 
to Eachend, and from thence by Woodnesborough to Walmer, being up- 
on nearly the same level, and covered with water, the present town of 

Account qfthe Roman Station Rutupke, SJS 

Sandwich could not at that time have been in existence, nor indeed until 
many years after the retiring of the sea, which seems, from the ac- 
counts of the Saxon historian, Bede, was gradual, and probably occur- 
red between the fourth and sixth centuries. 

This is the more clearly borne out by the fact, that no Roman 
remains either of armour, utensils, or coins, are hitherto known to have 
been found at Sandwich, or within the marshy tract just described, 
while occasionally those of the Saxon, more particularly their skeattas 
and small silver coins are sometimes discovered ; it is also evident 
from the quantities of marine shells, always the deposit of a retiring sea, 
which are found at a short depth from the surface, beneath the cliff 
upon which Richborough is situated, that the sea must, at some distant 
period, have flowed against its very base. Indeed, this is proved from 
the fact noticed in Boys' History ofSandwichy p. 865, where it is stated, 
that a few years ago, the workmen employed in digging the foundation 
of Richborough sluice, ** after penetrating through what was once 
the muddy-bed of the river, that runs close by, in a more contracted 
channel than formerly, came to a regular sandy sea shore, that had 
been suddenly covered with silt, on which lay broken and entire shells, 
oysters, sea-weeds, the purse of the thornback, a small shoe with a metal 
fibula in it, and some small human bones ; all of them, except the last 
article, with the - same appearance of freshness as such things have on 
the shore at this day/' Surely this must incontrovertibly prove that 
the sea, and that too, if we may judge from the discovery of the shoe 
and fibula, covered this tract during at least the earlier part of the time 
the Romans were in possession of Britain. 

The present course of the river Stour, which empties itself into the 
sea at Sandwich Haven, is very irregular. At Sarr, it crosses the road 
from Canterbury to Margate, dividing the Isle of Thanet from the main 
land, and running a north-easterly direction along the Minster Level, 
until it arrives at Ebsleet, where it turns, taking a south-westerly di- 
rection as far as Stonar-cut, close by the high-road from Sandwich to 
Ramsgate, in which direction it continues, with an inclination westward, 
unto about half a mile from Richborough, where it takes almost a direct 

374 Account qfike Raman Station RutupuB. 

westeriy course towards the Castle, a short distance from which it again 
turns to the northward, and recurves at a distance of about two hun- 
dred feet from the edge of the present cliff* The northern wall of the 
castle is in a direct line with the banks of this bending of the river, 
which runs from hence almost in a parallel direction, but at some 
greater distance from the cliffi. On approaching Sandwich, its course 
again becomes very tortuous, winding along the northern side of the 
town, and through the marshes until within a mile of the sea. It then 
again bends to the northward, and continues with many windings, al- 
most in a parallel direction with the sea-shore as far as the Salterns, at 
Stonar-cut, on the right hand side of the road from Sandwich to Rams- 
gate, approaching within about a furlong of the course it had previously 
traced a mile to the north-eastward of Richborou^. At this spot the 
river is united by Stonar-cut, over which the bridge passes for the road 
to Ramsgate, and the river continues in the same winding north-east- 
wardly direction until it empties itself into the sea at Shellness, form- 
ing a haven or channel among the shallows in the line of the cliff at 

Relying on the supposition, that the sea once flowed up to the base 
of the w^ls of Richborough, and through the SBStuary, between Tbanet 
and the main land, it will readily be understood how it was, upon the 
retiring of the sea, that the river came to assume its present irregular 
course ; more particularly if we suppose the retrocession of the waters 
to have occurred on a sudden. The Stour, which, as we learn from its 
ancient name, Durwhem^ signifying a swift river, sweeping through 
the marshy district from Fordwich to Stourmouth, upon the retiring of 
the sea, readily wore itself a channel through the lower and softer soil 
of the bed of the aestuary, and in like manner around the head-lands 
of Richborough, and through the marshy level of Sandwich and Stonar, 
to the line of coast which then formed the shore. 

The Castle of Richborough is situated on the highest part of the 
eastern edge of the eminence or headland, which we suppose to have 
been nearly surrounded by water, when the bay and aestuary existed, 
it seems to have been a parallelogram, or square, of about 480 feet on 

S C^l*S 






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PLAN rf ^^^ Sife €f Jticklifrctf^k (^asf/e r?t ifsjyrfjitn^ 


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Aftfxi"^^^. ''.'« r'-fM,- .*>rt^vt^r. 

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Account qfthe Roman Station Rutupff. 9}$ 

each side. The northern wall, in its present state, is the mo^t perfect, 
the foundation of it existing throughout, and the wall it^eU^ particularly 
towards the east, is almost entire for 340 feet ; as may be seen by the 
shaded lines on the accompanying plan, taken on a survey made in 
August, 1830. Good portions of the western and southern walls also 
remain ; but the eastern is entirely destroyed, having fallen down with 
part of the bank, from being, perhaps, undermined by the sea, as the 
platform or table of land beneath the cliffs, walled up, as it were^ with 
irregular masses of the building, clearly indicates. Huge masses of this 
fallen wall are also lying at a short distance from the eastern angle of 
the castle. The whole space covered, according to Boy's History^ was 
6a. 1r. 8p. of ground ; and the area within the walls, 5a. 3b. 8p. The 
walls were protected at their angles by round projecting towers, and 
also by square ones, at irregular distances, along the sides. There are 
evidences of two of these in the western, and of tWiO others in the 
northern wall ; besides the Porta Decumana, a narrow and oblique en- 
trance into the castle. They appear to have been solid nearly eight 
feet from the foundation, and afterwards hollow ; and to have projected 
about the same distance from the wall. They were thought by Mr. 
Boys to have been designed for the purpose of containing some s^para- 
tus of defensive machinery, as several round smooth holes in the wall, 
of from four to nine inches in diameter, and penetrating various depths 
from eight feet to ten inches, would seem to indictyte. In the western 
wall, 1 15 feet nearest the northern side, appears to have been a spacious 
opening, about twenty five feet in width, where some have been induced 
to think, from the exuvias cf animals usually sacrificed to Diana, and 
which are abundant near this spot, that an altar or temple, to that god- 
dess must have formerly existed, but instead of supposing such a situa- 
tion to have been chosen for the performance of religious rites, when 
the castle must have been continually exposed to the attacks of the 
enemy, it seems more reasonable to suppose, that in this aperture a 
strong fortified gate, the principle entrance to the castle, was erected. 

About 265 feet of the southern wall is still remaining, but very much 
dilapidated, the whole of the facings being thrown off by ivy, and 

876 Account ofUie Roman* Station Rutupke. 

exposure to heat and moisture. It has also been purposely undermined 
in many places, to serve, as it should seem, as a shelter for cattle, de- 
pasturing in the neighbouring fields. The foundation is partly remain- 
ing, from the end of the wall to the edge of the cli£^ about ^5 feet 

There does not appear ever to have been a ditch, or other fortifica- 
tion around the building ; and the foundation of the walls is very super- 
ficial ; from which it is supposed to have been erected upon some great 
emergency. The walls, to the height of six feet, are between eleven 
and twelve feet in thickness ; and afterwards only ten feet eight inches ; 
they are composed of a mixture of large holders, or beach stones, sand- 
stone, blocks of chalk, and ochrestone, cemented together with a mor- 
tar formed of lime, grit, large and small pebbles, sea shells, and frag- 
ments of baked bricks. The walls are faced on both sides with square 
masses of grit, and Portland stones, and which, in many places, are dis- 
posed in the herring-bone fashion. On the outside of the northern wall 
the facing is most perfect, and there we see, at intervals of three or four 
feet, double rows of large flat tiles, exceedingly well burnt, and differing 
in dimensions from fourteen inches by seven and three-qarters, to seven- 
teen inches and a half by eleven and a half. These do not go through 
the wall, but merely, for the most, to the depth of two tiles. The walls 
are nowhere perfect, their greatest height as they now stand, is at the 
northern side, and there it is about twenty-three feet. 

Within the area of the castie, towards the north-east corner, is an un- 
derground platform of masonry, one hundred and forty-five feet long, 
one hundred and four wide, and five feet thick, composed of holders 
and coarse mortar. In the middle of this, is the base of a structure in 
the form of a cross, rising a littie above ground, and considerably above 
the platform upon which it is erected ; the shaft running north and 
south, is 87 feet long, and seven and a half feet broad, the transverse 
one, is 22 feet in width, and forty six feet in length. To what purpose 
this could have been erected, is at present a matter of much uncertainty, 
some having supposed it to have supported a lofty sea mark for the ma- 
riner, while others, and perhaps with equal probability, have supposed 

Account qf the Roman Station Rutupup. 377 

it to have been commemorative of Saint Augustine's arrival in Britain, 
and landing at this very station. 

Where the city of Rutupug was situated, whether it consisted of the 
space within the walls, or extended over the plain behind the castle, is 
now as much a matter of enquiry as that of the purpose for which the 
cross we have just spoken of was erected. No traces of the city are 
known at this time, nor have, indeed, for several hundred years past to 
have been discovered. Indeed, the causes of change to which this part 
of the island has, for the last 3,000 years, and since the building of 
Richborough Castle, been subjected, have been so many and powerful, 
and the writers upon such matters, for the first eight or nine hundred 
years of that period, so few or so brief in their narratives, that we can- 
not wonder why so little of its history remains. The present remains 
of its walls, probably owe their existence to their ponderous and rock- 
like nature, and to their great extent. 

In the absence, however, of all historical records, some conjectures 
perhaps may be admitted. War, and its attendants, are the principal 
causes that have swept away even more extensive and powerful cities 
than we can suppose Ruiupias ever to have been, and of which nothing 
but the names remain, not even their sites being near so well ascer- 
tained as that of Rutupia^ at the present time. That war has been 
almost the sole cause of the decay of this place, can hardly be doubted, 
since, more particularly within the area of the castle, we have ample 
proofs that a great slaughter must at some time have taken place, from 
the vast quantities of human bones discovered at about two or three 
feet beneath the surface. Indeed, from an inspecti<m of the eastern 
cliff, it will be seen, that the stratum next below the vegetable mould 
consists almost entirely of human bones, mixed with made earth, rubble, 
Kmestone, chalk, and flints ; and at one place beneath this, for an ex- 
tent of thirty or forty feet along the cliff, is a stratum of four inches in 
thickness, composed entirely of ashes and human bones. Not unfre- 
quently, whole skeletons are discovered, lying in various directions, in 
these strata. Coins, and other antiquities are also very frequently found, 
particularly in the stratum of ashes. It will be seen, also, that the 

VOL. II. 3 £ 

378 Account qf the Roman Station Rutupics. 

stratum is deepest at nearly, midway between the northern and south- 
em walls of the castle, and that immediately beneath this is the 
natural soil, a solid pit sand, interspersed with sea shells. 

From these facts^ it seems not unreasonable to suppose, that the area 
of the castle was at one time, perhaps, almost entirely built over ; and 
although it may startle our modern ideas of a city, to imagine that the 
town of Rulupke existed within the circuit of the present walls, we can- 
not refrain from suggesting that such appears to us to have been the 
case. The Roman colonial towns are well known to have been confined 
within a small compass, and to have been protected by strong walls. — 
If, therefore, the city existed elsewhere in the neighbourhood of the 
castle ; as on the western side, for instance, according as some suppose, 
how is it that we have no traces either of its wails or of its buildings ? 
Was it likely to occur that the Romans, the masters of the world, 
equally wise as powerful, would have built their city without walls, on 
a spot so likely to be attacked by an enemy, while they took such espe- 
cial care, as the thickness of the walls of this castle sufficiently indicates, 
for the protection of their garrisons ? Or can we suppose, that the walls 
of the city were more likely to be utterly demolished than those of a 
strong hold, which it is always the first endeavour of an enemy to anni- 
hilate ? We are of opinion, therefore, that the area of what is now con- 
sidered to have been the castle, was in fact the site of the city, and 
that this, having at some time been taken by the enemy, the inhabitants 
were massacred, and the town itself reduced to ashes. If this, were not 
the case, how is it that we find such disorder in the arrangement of the 
soil, which is a mixture, in fact, of the ruins of buildings, and human 
remains. With regard to the stratum of ashes in the cliff, before noticed, 
some may argue, perhaps, that this, as the Romans were accustomed to 
bum their dead, was formed from some such burning of remains after a 
conflict ; but to this it may be replied, that, had such been the case, 
we should not have found whole skeletons of unburnt bodies in the very 
stratum itself, which the author of the present essay has himself disco- 
vered. And more, if it be admitted, that these bodies were afterwards 
buried, we should not have found them disposed in every direction ; a 

Account qf Ae Roman Station Rutupus. 979 

certain proof of the bodies having been buried without care or distinc^ 
tion. Indeed^ their situation is such as might be supposed would result 
from the destruction of a town and the general massacre of its inhabi- 

In connection with the city of Rutupia:^ we have also to notice the 
Amphitheatre, distant from the south-west angle of the ruins about 
460 yards. Its centre bears south 46 degrees west; is now about 11 
feet deep, and measures from the north-west to the south-east point, 
about 68 yards ; in the opposite direction, it is 70 yards, and 7 feet 
deep. It was no doubt, at one time, very considerably deeper, the mar- 
gins being worn away, and the interior filled up by the operations of 
husbandry, the plough being annually driven over the soil. 

Among the best evidences of the antiquity of a place are the coins, 
remains of armour, and other reliques found about it and its vicinity.—- 
With such evidences the castle of Richborough and its neighbourhood 
abound. About twenty or thirty years ago, Mr. Boys, the antiqua- 
rian of Sandwich, and author of the history of that place, accompanied 
by several other gentlemen, made researches here, particularly within 
the area of the castle, and near the cross before alluded to, and discovered 
a subterraneous passage, in which were found various articles of Roman 
armour, coins, and other antiquities. A beautiful glass lachrymatory, 
now in the possession of a gentleman resident in Sandwich, has since 
been found in the soil within the walls of the castle ; and coins of almost 
all the Emperors, from the Cssars downwards to the time of the de- 
parture of the Romans from this island, are repeatedly turned up by the 
plough. Of these, the coins of the Constantines, Gallienus, and Va- 
lens, are the most common. Here have also been found some of that 
kind of coins which are generally considered to be more ancient than 
those of Constantine, and are made of the metal called electrum, which 
was of brass, and contained about one fourth of gold. They are gene- 
rally concavo-convex, or hollow on the one side, which is the reverse, 
and bear either Pagan symbols or a horse, and the word Tascio around 
it; the other side has a head, sometimes crowned with laurels.-— 
Others, also, of the same kind of metal, but still more ancient, have 

380 Account of the Reman Station Rutupias. 

been found here ; one side of them is rugged and unstamped, and the 
other has a horse or wheel, or some such symbol* 

Upon these reliques, it s^pears unnecessary to make further remark 
in the present tract ; the fact of their being frequently discovered on 
the spot, sufficiently proves that they were used there^ and in some 
abundance ; and that the place itself was populous, and commanding 
subjection from the surrounding country. 

AnHent Charters.^^Prtfatory Remarks. 581 

LU. — Antient Charters respecting Monastical and Lay Property in Cum- 
berlandf and other Counties in the North of England / Jrom Ofiginak 
in the Possession ^William John Charlton, of Hesleyside, Esq , ac- 
companied mth Abstracts qf them in English^ and some pr^atory and 
illustrative Remarks by the Rev. John Hodgson, Sec.^ addressed to 
John Adamson, Esq.^ Sec. 

Whelpington, SeptZS, 1880. 

Dear Sir, 

The following antient muniments are copied from originals in the pos- 
session of William John Charlton, of Hesleyside, Esq., ai\d came into his 
family in 1680, by the marriage of his great-great-grandfather with Mary, 
daughter of Francis Salkeld, of Whitehall, in the parish of Aspatria, in 
Cumberland, Esq. The copy of them now sent to you has been made 
with scrupulous attention to accuracy by Mr. P. Mackay, my assistant 
in such matters, and since collated with the originals by myself ; and 
I hope the Council of the Socie^ \i^ll not deem them unworthy of a 
place in the Archceologia jEliana ; for such documents form by far the 
most valuable parts of parochial and county history, of which they are 
indeed the bones and sinews, and want only the breath of the genius of 
history to be blown upon them to make them live and bloom through long 
ages of futurity. Travellers and scholars have dug all over the earth, and 
ransacked all the archives and depositories of the world for inscriptions 
and manuscripts relating to the dynasties and people of antiquity : even 
fragments of memorials on stone, and damp-eaten tatters of books, have 
been illustrated with notes and commentaries^ in works upon which the 

382 Antient Charters. — Prtfatory Remarks. 

republic of letters have put the stamp of immortality. With documeuts 
of the kind, which I now lay before the Society, many of the affections of 
human nature, and of the interests of our country, are strongly connect- 
ed. Descendants of many of the persons, who put their seals upon 
them, are still living and preserving their genealogies bright and un- 
broken down the stream of 800 years : and, though many of the institu- 
tions they relate to have been overthrown by violence and legal enact- 
ments, some of them still remain. They have ceased to be valuable 
for the single and special purposes for which they were made ; but time 
has formed them into invaluable materials for histories of men and places. 
For the entablatures and capitals of genealogical structures, they form 
the most appropriate enrichments. Dugdale's Monasticon owes to them 
almost all its interesting and graphic sketches of truth ; and Dods worth's 
celebrated collection of similar documents afforded the same author the 
brightest jewels for his baronage ; it was indeed his Liber Veritatis. — 
Records of grants to monasteries and to private persons form a large 
portion of the rich treasures of the Record Rooms, in the Tower and 
Chapter House, in London. Some families still hold the papers of their 
estates from very remote periods, and freely permit them to be inspected 
for historical purposes : but, it is deeply to be lamented, that when 
estates have been transferred by sale or mortgage, from one hand to 
another, the antient charters concerning them, which were no longer 
useful as title deeds, but still valuable as elements of history, have been 
too frequently and indiscriminately destroyed ; — lamented, because, they 
are the only evidences and the noblest memorials that a family can pos- 
sess of the hereditary virtue and prudence which have kept its posses- 
sions entire and free from the humiliating loads which indolence and 
extravagance entail upon them, and lamented because it was only from 
them that any account of certain periods of our country could be 

Many persons and bodies even of learned men have, I know, objec- 
tions to publishing grants and papers like these ; but I look cheerfully 
far over and beyond all such impediments that lie in my way, and would 

gladly say to this Society, fill your Transactions with county muniments. 

Antient Charters. — Prtfatory Remarks. 38S 

and they will continue a treasure-house for almost every kind of history, 
and afford the healthiest food that the mind of genuine patriotism can 
be nurtured and maintained with. They will make the villages that 
gave us birth, and the fields that gave us food, objects of veneration and 
affection, and subjects for enquiry to ourselves and posterity. Let us 
not then, I beseech you, suffer our Institution to languish for want of 
zeal and labour, in promoting the objects for which it was formed. — 
Every member by turning his attention to the subject, may procure from 
the public offices and libraries of our country, or from private collections 
of muniments, most valuable materials for our Transactions which I 
would most gladly see converted into a great laboratory for the historian 
to work in ; intaa garden of perennial flowers, to gather honey from. — 
During the eighteen years in which we have been incorporated as a body, 
these Transactions have not hitherto reached the conclusion of the se- 
cond volume ; and a considerable portion of the parts that have been 
published have been made up of subjects of a very general nature ; 
while far the greater part of the spacious and highly interesting 
field of local history that surrounds us, has been left either totally 
wild and unreclaimed, or if the plough-share of enquiry has ever 
passed over it, the furrows which it opened have immediately closed 
behind it. For my own part, even with an author's not uncommon 
guest, — res angusta domi — and many other discouraging difficulties 
in my way, I feel a spirit within me that forbids me to abandon the 
interests and objects of this Society, and urges me over all the forms of 
deference and order, to rouse into life and activity the genius that 
watches over our destinies, and I do trust that this appeal to your ho- 
nour, and call for your assistance in the cause we have engaged in, will 
not be made in vain. 

I add to these general remarks, a genealogy into which I have worked 
some notices of the persons who were parties to several of the deeds» 
and to each of the deeds have given an abstract and some explanatory 
remarks, with the hope of obviating a part at least of an objection I have 
often heard urged against printing records in dead or foreign languages^ 
Where abstracted is added to the Latin of the charters, they have been 


Antient Charters.-^IUustrative Pedigree. 

abridged by leaving out^their formal parts. The rest of thein» on account 
of their high antiquity, have been preserved entire. 

From, Dear Sir, 

Your*5 truly, 



Compiled for the purpose of illustrating some of the following Charters. 

. EUNf ▲,! 

Aau. of 
KlBfl of 


: Ito. db Tail>— .Lucia. <Uu.(tf A1.s=3. Ramul: 
Bm8.flntbi]fl. gar, £arl of Mtr. 
baoaofLucia, cia, after the death 
d. of Earl AU of her brothers, 
Edwin ft Morcar, 


— m- 


MsacBiBMa had, Tgavetotbo 
by grant of hii I Canons of 

gar, was bro. 
tber of Fulk, 
^rl of Anjou 
and Ring of 
Jerusalem, ft 
had a grant of 
the barony of 
Kendal, and 
large posses- 
sions in Lan. 

fMblft, (torn 
William the 

«.w.« ft ,-«.^., 
had a grant of all 
their lands from 
William the Con- 
queror, and was 
married to Ivo. 
About a month 
after her first hus- 


third husband of Lucia, 
dau. of Earl Algar, sue 
ceeded to the earldom of 
Chester, on the death of 
his cousin Richard, son of «.»»««»«. mu^,^ 
Hugh first Earl of Chester Derwent in Cum. 
after the Conquest, prior to berland, and built 
which Rich. 's death he was 
Earl of Cumh. and Carlisle. 
This Ranulph, according 
the MonoiticoH, 



brother Ranulph, 
the barony or 
Allerdale, above 

and resided in 
S^emoDt Castle. 

to the MonoiticoH, was 
founder of Calder Abbey, 
which he endowed with 
band*s death, she the posicsskms mentioBed Ranulph 
married,secondly, in Deed No. 1., which is a Gllsland, 
confirmation of his grant 
by the great grand-daugh. 
ter of his brother William, 
Ciceljr Fitxduncan, Coun. 
tess of Albeioarle, and Lady 
of Copeland. By his wife, the Lady Lucia, he had several 
chiklr^D i aad an old VislUtioQof Cheshire says he had before 
her a wife. Maude, dau. of Aubeny de Vere, Earl of Oxford, 
by whom oe hud issue Raoulphus, soa and heir. 

Roger deRomara, 
son of Gerald Earl 

of Lincoln, an iUustrtous youth. 

mm{CanH». higtUpki, p. 1^) 

S. Oboftmt bb 


whom his brother 
he suoceeded to 
the earldom of 
Chester. This is 
In JSamAil under 
Randle, Earl of 
Chester, but on 
what aotherity 
is not stated. 

sessions for 
the healU 
of her bus- 
band, and 
of hdrsons 
Ranulph ft 

who bad a 
mot of 
RMlllnb de 


•ttoiorthe foresta»hh» 
of Inglewoo^ which 
oQoe >is desoendaols 
held till Thomas de 
Multpn Ibrfeited it in 
the time of Hcary the 
Third.— (Jitew. ^10.) 

II £jLOMi> or DniBL^^ 
BID, second Baron 


AucB pB M«kwibmbbbRobbbt DB RoMLBT, Lord of the 

Honour of Skiptoa, in Craven. 





lit Kbtil, third Baron o^^bsCrbiotuna. Ke. 


' Lord of Isel, Ipi 

Kendal, to whom William 
de Mescbiens, Baron of 
Allerdale, above Derwent, 
gave the manors of KeU 
ton. Salter, Workington, 
90A Stocklaw, in Allerdale, 
dbove Derwent in Cumber, 

11 r I 1 / 

1. GiLBBBT, 4th 

tel's grant of Mor. 
land Church to 
St Mary's, York, 
is tested <« Chris- 
tiana, uxore mea, 
WilUelmc IIUo 
meo,*'ftc. (B%tm*t 


knont siMi Skip^ 
ton, in Craven. 

IT. 1. GiLBBBT, 4th Baron of 
KMidal, whose son WlUlam 
took the name of Db Lancas- 
nB, from whom descended 
the Barons of Kendal of that 
name, and the Lancasters, Lords 
of Barton, in Westmorland. 

% yiiUAku. ( BumUWettm.^\. 

4. Alah, son of KeteL 

b, UllVHBBDt, 

t. Obmb, sonsGuNiLDA, dau. of 
of Ketel, bad Oospatric Earl of 
Dunbar, and sister 
of Waldeive, first 
Lord of Allerdale, 
below Derwent — 
Allan, her nephew, 
and seoond son of 
the above-named 
Wa]delve,a» shown 
by Deed 18, made a 
gr^at to St, 

1. CbcILT FtTK 

William Fitzduncan, 
Earl of MttCTty, son of 
Duncan, brother of Da. 
vid King of Scotland. 
His naothtr was Octbre- 
da, sister and heir of Waldeve. son 
of Alan, first Lord of AUerdale, 
and son of Oospatrick, Earl of 
Northumberland and Dunbar. 



Of ^eua, nau 

son of Oospa. 
Mek, in mar- 
riage with his 
wife, Beaton, 

Flemingby, ft 
in the west of 



^BciLT tm Duncan, 
Countess oS Albemarle 
and Lady of Copeland in 
Cumberland, confirmed to 
the house of Chaldra and 
the monks there, their 
possessions, on the tenure 
they had holden them of 
his ancestors. {Deed No.\.) 
She was married, firstly, 
to Alexander Fits Gerald, 
but by him had no issue. 

8. AUcB, wife of Gilbert 
Fipard } and, BBOondly, of 
Robert Courtney, died s.p. 
Her fortune went to the 
lamili«« of ber two slsten. 

2. Amabill, wife of Re- 
rinald de Lucy, Lord of 
Egermont {BunifM(km^. 

2 ^ 3 


■WiLLUM LB Gbosb^ Earl 

of Albemarle aud HoUer. 

ness, second husband, 

founded the Abbey of 

Meux, of the bletory of 

which. No. 7. of the fol- 

lowing Deeds seems to be 

a leaf: He and his wife 

are mentioned in Deed, 2. 

Thfy had a son. WiVlaiB, 

who died an infant This William le Gross 

was son of Stephen Earl of Albemarle, son 

of Odo de Cao^Muia and Adel&ia dau. of 

King William the Conqueror, which Odo had, 

by the grant of his fatiMr-lB Jaw, the £arU 

dom of Holdemess. He, his wife, and bro. 

ther Ingleram, are mentioned in Deed No. 2. 

RooBB DB Mob. __ 
viLLB, eldest son. 

Ada, d. and h. of Wikssarapir db 
liam, son of Bamilph 
Eneain, who was mar- 
ried to Ibria, daiv and 
sole b. of Robert de 




wbo^ io 16 
Henry IL, 

Hugh db Mobvillb,3mHslwi8b dib SrimriLLB. 
one of the i^Mas^ns i heiress of KirkoswaM 
of Thomas a Becket I and Lasingby. (Bmm't 

1 C^m^. S17. 

with the dau. 
of WUUwa 
de Laneas. 
ter, and left 
issucy IMpi, 
married to 
Rowland de 


Pedigree qfihe Tailboh and Meschienf Families. 





Had Working- 
ton ft Lamp, 
high, in ex. 
change with 
man, William 
de Ijancaater, 
for Middleton 
in Wettmor. 
i. 58: \l 930, 



uncle of 
John, Km 
of John 

in Deeds 
13 P 


6 John. 
gave 900 
his wife's 
share of 
her Au 
ther*s es. 
tafee, and 
died 15 




_J — 

Ada, ipTBoBCAs db 
d.and| MuLTOir of 
coh.of Multon, in 




second hus- 
band of Ada 
de Lucy.— 



first husband Wil. 


Earl of Albemarle, 
who died without is- 
sue, at Roan, in Nov. 
1180. To her third 
husband she had 
Baldwin db Bbtubb, 
Earl of the Isle of 
Wight, who also, in 
right of his wife.en. 
jOTed the title of Eisrl 
or Albemarle. i 


Yl L Thomas, aoN op Oos-s l. am a. 
PATBic, to whom Rowland, bulb db 
•OB of Ughtred, son of Luct had 
Feigus, gave the lordship the baro. 
ofCulwin,in Oallowav.^ nyofEger. 
UBNtrn*s Cumb, 53.) This monL ex. 
Thomas was founder of ceptLows. 
the Abbey of Shap. I water. 

8. GiLBBBT. son of OOSPATBIC, 

witnessed toe grant of Cnlwen 
to his brother Thomas. He had 
two sons, Tbomas ^ Wiu.iam, 
also witnesses to the same 
frantj and Thomas, by Deed 
Ka 9, confirmed a gift of his 
ancestors to Holmcultram. 
Sl Adam, son of Oo^Mrtric, la 
called ClericuiL in Deed Na S. 
4. OBMBfSonof Go8PATBic,had' 
by the grant of his fkther, the 
nuinor of Ireby, and hence was 
failed Obmb db Ibbbt. 
Sl Albxabdeb, son of Oospa. 
TBic, witnessed the grant of 
Culwen to his brotherThomas. 

-, 1. Ama.4: 





and 13. 



1. Lam. 


son or 


=£. AuCB=d8L AlAM 




Joan, dau. and 
ooh.of Hughde 
Morville. mar. 
aAer her Esther's 
death to Rich. 
ABD Gebwvn, 
who in 6 John, 
gave dOO marks 
to have Ms wife's 
purparty of her 
uther's estates; 

s. *!.. _,* ^ ^ •"<* at the re- 
quMt of his wife, bjr Deed No. 10, confirmed 
to the monks of Holmcultram, for the health 
of her father Huch de If oryiUe, the patrooase 
of the church of BrouBb-upon-SaaasTwhlch 
they had obtained by gift of the same Hugh. 


of William lei second husband, in right of 
Gross, Earl of his wife Earl of Albemarle, 
Albonarle, had to her confirmed, by deed Na 1& 
-_-. .-- .^__^ «,__ jjjg ^^^ ^^ salmon at 

Cockennouth, and of land 
at Aspatria, made to ^ 
Bees by his ancestor, AL 
Ian, the son of Waldieve, 
first Lord of AUeidaleb 
below Derwent 

TOB, 2d 
son of 

Tbowas db Multow, heir 
to the Morville Unds— 
Brngh-npon-Sands, ^, 
was forester of Cumber, 
land, by descent from his 
mother. He married 
Maud db Vaux, dau. and 
heir of Hubert de Vaux, 
Baron of Gilsland, and 
died 53 Hen. IIL This 
Thomas had a sister, Ju. 

LIAM, wife of ROBBBT DB 




Earl of Albe. 
marie, died in 
the MedUer. 
raoean Sea, 
86 Hen. IL, 

s Ateuwb, 
dau. and coh. 
of Richard 
Munfichet, a 
baron in Es. 

Thomas : 


OMAa, married Joan, 
dau. of Robeit de Vetripont, 
by whom he had a dau. wife tom, son 
to Harrington of Harring. andheir. 
ton, but both the dau. and 
fother dying before bis fiu 
ther, he, Thomas son of 
Gospatric. gave his English 
estate to his second son Pa. 
trie, to whom he had previously given 
Culwen in OaOoway. 
Fatbic db Culwbic resided at Seaton, 
In the weal of CambcrUnd. till Work, 
ington fell to Mm, and then he was 
styled PatricdeCulwendeWerkington. 
A law ha dy l ^_the gift of his brother 
Patiic, Camertoo, which was part of 
Seaton, and ftom him the Camertons 
took their name {Bmr»*s Cumb. 101.) 

Yfll. Thomas db Culwsn, 
•on and heir, by Deed No. 9 
gave to the monks of Hohn. 
fukram, ground in lieu of 
some that had been given 
them by his ancestors, at the 
mouth of the Derwent, for 
a fishery, but washed away 
by the sea. Died s. p. 

ington, whose descendants, 
in the time of Henry VI., 
began to write their names 
, and fttnn whom the 

Thomas db Hitl.: 
TOM took his mo- 
ther's name of 
Luct, and died 
33 Edw. L, pos. 
sesscd of the roy, 
dtv of Allerdale, 
and the manors 
of Aspatric and 
Caldbeok, as well 
as of Langlev, is 

: Isabbll, 
one of the 
d. and coh. 
of Adam 
de Boltby, 
baron of 
TIndale, 4r 
Lord of 
the ca of 

Thomas db M ul. 
TOB, Lord of 
of Burgh.upon. 
Sands and Kirk. 
oswaUL and Ba. 
roo of Gilsland, 
died 21 Edw. I., 
1308. .~^Buru*t 
Cumb. Sia) 



IIL Earl of Albemarle, 
married, fintiy. Christian 
dau. and coh. of Alan de 
Galway, which Christian 
died s. p. ; when her hus- 
band married, secondly, 
Isabel], dau. of Baldwin 
Earl of Denby. He died 
44 Hen. IIL 

Thomab m 
of Coupland, 
son ana heir 
of Sir Tho. 
mas, aon of 
Sir Thomas 
de Multon, 
by Deed No. 
11, confirmed 
grants of his 
ancestors to 
the Abbots of 
Melros and 

present family of Curwen of Holmcultram. 
Workington are lineally de- 







Lucy, 24 years 
old in 1306; died 
s. p. 2 Edw. IL 
2L Anthony 
Lucy had a char, 
ter for a market 
and a 3 davs' fair 
at Heydon-Dridge. 
He was one of the 
great men of his 
time, and was 
summoned to par. 
liament from 14 
to 17 Edw. IL, in 
which last year 
he died. 


Trohab db Multom was 
24 years old in 1293; and 
died in 1295, leavtag a son 
as below, and a widow of 
the name of IsabelL 




r, Tbomas, WitUAM, ani 


Alicb, all died young, and 

of Utttt. 

buried hi the Abbey 

Thomas db HwTon the 
fifth, was 13 years old at 
the time of. his father's 
death, ilewas regularly 
summoDed to Pariument 
till 7 Ed. II., about which 
time he died. He had a 
brother William, who had 
Laaonhy for life. 



Eari of 



BUS, died s.p, when 
her g. g. grandmo- 
ther Cicely's pur- 
party of Skipton in 
Craven was given ter, and 
by the crown to the M son of 
family of CUffbrd, Hen. UL 
of Appl^ castle. 
The other part of .the FitB- 
Dunqan estates went to the 
heirs of AmabiUe die Lucy, a» 
si)ove. Gen. 5. 



Pedigree of the TaiJbois and MescJuens Families* 


I 1 

X Jour DB Elikabbtb db Mul- 
If ULTON, TON, wife of Har. 
ob. 1. p. ringtoo of Hairing, 
ton, whote third 
than of the Multon estates 
descended to Thomas Grey 
Duke of Suflblk, who forfeited 

, It in the time of Queen Mary. 


TOif , wife of Ro- 
bert Fits Walter; 
but what became 
of this share of 
the Multon lands. 
Burn had not fhr 
certainty found. 




XL Airraoinr DBS Joan, dau. 
Loot, 84 yein of William 
dd, 99 Ed. III. Lord Grey. 
Died in 41 Ed. stock. 
IIL, 1997, leav. 
lag a daughter, Jane, 8^ 
Tears old, who died in the 
foUowing year. 


married Buphemia 
dau. of Ralph Lord 
Neville, and had 
the manors of Cald. 
beck, Ulnedale, and 
Aspatric. and died 
without issue. 

AEOABR ~ Thomas db Ldct, great 
DB Multon. grandson of Alice de Lucy, 
was much engaged in the 
Scotch and other wars: 
and after being summoned 
to Parliament flt>m 15 to 
98 Edw. IIL. died in the 
99th year of toe same reign, 
- . annol9BS. 

Gilbbbt bMauddbLdct settled upona 
UMrKBYiLLB her second husband, herself 
E. of Angus, and their hdrs male, all her 
who died s.p. estates, and, fklling them, 
entailed them upon Henry 
Percy, herSd husband's eldest son, and 
his heirs male, on condition of their quar. 
terlng the arms of Lucy with their own. 

Maboabkt db Molton BBrrleA 
Ranulph de Dacre, of Daer*. 
Castle, in Cumberland, who by 
this match obtained the barony cf 
Oilsland, and from whom it liaa 
passed in lineal desooit to th* 
Earl of Carlisle, its preeent 

:HENRT PERCY.v «^«..»„, 
llrst Earl of I daughter or 
Northumberland, | R^h Lord 
slain at Barham I NeTUki, 1st 


March 8, 

[. Hi 

Xn. Hbnbt Pbect,:=Elizabbth, eldest 

fumamed Hotspur, 
slain at Shrewsbury, 
88d July, 1403. 


Thomas Pbrct and his brotherssEuzABBiv,dau.of 
Ralph, by th^ marriages, be. David de Strath. 


dau. of ^ward 

Mortimer, Earl of came possessed of the baronjr of bolgie, 19th Earl 



Mitford in Northumberland. 

Ralph PBECTsPHiuvra 

dau. of David de 
Barlof AthoL 

Xnt Hbnet Pbbct, second Earl of^aELBANOB, dau. of Ralph John Lobd Cuvfobd ■■ 
Northumberbmd, stein in the battle I NeviUe, Earl of Westmor. 
of 8t Albans, 8Sd May, 1456. I tend. 

Pbbct sb Ralph Nbtillb. 
second Barl of 



XIY. I. Rbnby Pbbct died young. 
8. John Pbbct died young. 


7. WiLUAM Pbbct, Chancdlor of Cambridge and Bpi of Carlisle. 

8. Ricbakd Pbbct. 

S. Thomas Pbbct, created Earl of Egremont, slain in the a Gbobob Pbbct, a Prdtend of the coDesiate church of Bcreitey. 

King»g tent at the battle of Northampton, 98 Henry , r.«...„ «.' ^^ TT^ « . rr^* 

VL ^' Cathbbinb Pbbcv, mar. Edmund Grey, Earl of Kent 

L Ralph Pbbct, slain at the battle of Hedgeley Moor. *• ^"jJS^^t"^*!?' 5'^?""«!f*2S H? i;«»*n»iM»yf«' 

ft. John. Lawrence Rainford, Knight ; and, 9dly, Sir Hugh Vahan. 

A. Hbnet Pbbct, third Earl of Northumberland, slain at theaELSANOB, dau. and hehr <tf Richard. Lord Polnlncs. Biin. and 
battle ofTowtoo, 89th March, 1461. I FitsIPahi. — -^ 

I 1 ~ I I 

XV. Hbnbt Pbbct, fourth Earl of Northumberland, and lord of the honour of Cockermoutb, gave ss Maud, dau. of Eubahob. 
a deed of Inspeximus, No. 18, in the following collection, and dated at St Bees, Sept 11, 1479, of WiUiam Her. 
a charter of his noble ancestor WlUiam de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, to the monks there. He bert, flrat Eail 
was stein 88th April. 1489, in an aidoavour, as LonUlieutenaat of Yorkshire, to put down an in. of Pembroke. 
sunrectioQ at Goilodge, near Think. 


1. Caldre.— C . coMiTissA d alb . ^ dna d Caupelanda . omib3 minist^s 
?re sue « hoib3 suis francis ^ anglis . « omib3 fidelib3 suis . Saf . Sciatis 

1. This is a confirmation made by Cicely, countess of Albemarle and lady of Coupland 
to the house of Chaldra and the Monks there, of Chaldra, and Bemerton, and Holegate, a 
manse in the borough of Egremont, two salt-pans in Withoue, one fishery in the Derwent 
and another in the Egre, with sufficient pasture in her forest, and all things necessary for 
their salt-pans, fisheries, houses, and swine, without pannage — all which possessions and pri* 
▼lieges were granted to that house, by her great-grandfather, Ranulph de M eschiens — and 
to which she added in this charter the gift of Stovenerge, with its appurtenances, in free 
alms for ever, and whatever had been granted to them in the charters and writings of 
former donors ; and all privileges they had enjoyed .under her ancestors, particularly aoc 
and sac, toll and them, and infangenthef. 

Mmastkal Charters. — Caldre. 387 

me ^sensu « consilio araico2^ meo^ dedisse ^ ^cessisse . ^ hac mea carta 
pfirmasse do ^ see CQARIE « domui d chaldra . ^ monachis ibid do 
seruientib3 in libam . pur3 • % ppetua elemosina p ala pat's mei ^ mat's 
mee . ^ Regis Henrici • % salute mea • % salute omiu fideliu CbaldrSl 
cu omib3 ptinentijs suis • ^ Bemton3 cu omib3 ptinentijs suis . % Hole- 
gatS cu omib3 ptinentijs suis . in siluis . in pascuis • ^ una CQanpura 
in burgo d Egremt solam % quieta ab oi seruicio . % duas salinas ad 
Withoue • ^ piscaria d deruenta • % piscaria d Egre • « pascua omib3 
aialib3 eo^ in foresta mea q^'ntu eis op^ fuerit • ^ ea que necessaria 
fuerint salinis suis % piscarijs suis . % edficijs domoTjL suaru . % porcis 
suis sine panagio p tots rram mea sicut meis pprijs . Prerea ^cedo eis 
« confirmo ^dicte • s . domui . in pura . libam . ^ ppetua elemosina 
stouenerga cu oinib3 ptinentijs suis . % quicq'd eis datu est in elemosina 
sicut carte is cyrographa donato^ suo2f testant' . Quare nolo * firmit 
pcipio . ut omia ista teneant in pace • bene • libere honorifice . in- 
tegre • % plenarie • cum socha % sacha . % to! . % tbem • ^ infan- 
genthef . ^ cu oi5ib3 alijs lifetatib3 • * ^^^^^ ^s«etudinib3 ^ cdmoditatib3 
q d ^dictis rris pueniuat ut puenire possunt . « quietantijs suis sicut 
unq^'m meli^ « liberie % quieti^^ tempore antecessor meo'2f tenuerunt . « 
sicut carte eo'2^ testanf. His Test • Rob . ^stabulario • Ysiaac d 
schefUing . Symone d scheftlig . Witto d chirtelig , Wittb d schefUing 
• Thoma capellano comitisse. 

2. In noie pat's . ^ filij . ^ spirit^ sci am; Ego WiUm^ de essebi « 
uxor mea hectred • see mat's ecclie filijs I dno sat . ^ sci sp? cosolatione 

2. William de Esseby and Hectred his wife, for the health of their own souls, of the 
souls of their parents, and of their lord, William, earl of Albemarle, and of his wife Cicelj, 
the countess, and of Ingelram the earl's brother, and of their father and mother, taking into 
consideration how useful and necessary it is to all christians amidst the malice of the times 
and the vexatious temptations that are known to be continually springing up ; and desirous 
of doing some act of justice, in this most miserable life, that might avail before the eyes of 
Almighty God, in procuring the redemption of their sins and eternal life, gave to Almighty 
God and the holy Mary his sweet mother, and to the abbey of Caldra, Becheremet and 
its appurtenances, as well in waters as pastures, with the mill of the same ville, and the 
fishery in the £hgena, pertaining to the same village, which grant they made to the said 
abbey, in free alms, and as a sweet odour. Peace, hesdth, and blessedness to all who in 
true charity shall maintain this our elemosinary deed. The Deed is signed by ecclesias* 

i ' 

988 Mmoitical Charter$.''--<!aldre. 

. Vtile prsus % oihP xpianis necessariu e • inr malicias dieru isto'];^ • % 
molestias teptationu . q cotidie puUulare noscunt' • aliq'd iusticie i hac 
miserrima uita puide i qd I enia uita ad redemtione peccatc^ suo'^ 
ante di omipotetis oculos ualeat subuenire , vnde ego % uxor mea 
p salute Siaru nostra? ^^ parentu nostro^ . % p salute dni nri Wilimi 
comiti* de albemar . ^ uxori' sue cecilie comitisse • % ingelrami frat's 
^dicti comiti' . patru matruq^ eo'^ donam^ . ^ cocedim^ do opoteti . 
« see marie dulci sue maf • % at3bie de caldra ^ becheremet « oia ad 
eS ptinentia t3 I aq*s • q'^m i pascu' • % molendinu i eade uilla • « pis- 
caris in ehgena ad eSnde uills ptinente • Qu2l donations ita lite . ^ ab 
oi seruicio q'eta • sic jpdict^ dns meus Wilim^ comes eS m' p seruitio meo 
libo . ^ humagio donauit . % put carta ipi>^ testat' * dam^ % cocedim^ 

• ^senti scripto pfirmam^^ • ^dicte atdbie i ppetuS elemosina . % I odore 
suauitati* • Q*sq*s hSc elemosinS nostra I uera caritate manutenuerit ' 
sit illi pax • salus • % biidictio . Hui^ donacioni* testes sunt • Ricard? 
p^or de sea bega . Rob ^sbir de puncunesby . Rog ]psbi{ de egremund 

• JurdanJ^ psona de goseford . Ricard^ filiu^ Osberti de sea brigida . % 
Ricard^ ei^de ecctie uicari>^ . Ketel filiu>^ vlf. 

3.— -Adam fili^ Uhtredi oinib3 amicis suis % h^b^ . t3 fut'is q^m 
presentib3 / sat • Sciatis me ^cessisse • « hac mea karta pfirmasse Beat'ci 
nepti mee • v^' . bouatas rre • ex dono Willi nepotis mei in killecruce 

• sibi % filiis % filiab3 suis . ita libere ^ quiete . sicut karta Willi nepo- 
tis mei filii Liolf de moUe testat' . Hiis tes! . Cospatrico fii orm . « 
Thoma filio ei^ • Adam clerico fit cospat*ci . Patricio fit Gamel • 
Gilebto fit Gilebti . Adam de coresbi . Orm fit Ailfi • Adam de bas- 

tics, in the neighbourhood of Beckermet and Caldre. What relationship William de 
Esdeby, and Hectred his wife, had to the earls of Albemarle, I have found no clue to discover. 
By the calender to the inquests after death it appears that a William de Esseby, in 33 
Hen. III., died, possessed of lands in Cattesby, Newbottle, Creke, and Lillebume, in 
Northamptonshire. — ( VoL up. %,) 

3. Adam, son of Uhtred by this deed confirms to Beatrice his neice, 5 bovates of land 
given to her in Killecruce, by his nephew William, son of Liolf de Molle. It was this 
Beatrice, I apprehend, who, under the name of Beatrice de Molle, gave to Caldre Abby 5 
bovates of land in Little Gilcruce, and a fourth part of the mill of Greater Gilcruce. — See 
Bwn*9 Cumb. 28, 115 ; and Hut^ dumb. 174, 347, for illustrations of this deed. 

Monastical Charters.— Caldre. 889 

tunthuait • Cospat'cio de de plumlund . Alano fit ketel • Vht'do fit 
ketel . Thoma fii ysaac • Benedicto sacdote de aspat'c . VhMo sac- 
dote de cros^ebi • Ro^o sacdote de Irebi * Valete. 

4. — Ricard^ de boisuilla • oib; amicis suis . Francis • <^ Anglis • has 
li^ audientib3 ^ uidntib3 tarn ^seatibz q' fut'is f sa! . Notu sit uob 
me p salute Sle mee • % p 3iab3 pris % mat^s mee • nee n % amico'^ ui 
parentu meo^ • concessisse • « dedisse • ^ hac ^senti carta mea ^firmasse 
• do • « bate marie . ^ abbacie de Cald^ • « monachis ibide deo semi* 
entib3 » dece achras rre f ifra parte me3 de Culdretun . c comuni pas- 
cuo ad ^dictS tVam ptinte • i liberam • % puram • ^ ppetuam elemosi- 
nam • tenendas de me « heredib3 meis ab oi sclari seruicio q'etas . 
Hui^ donationis testes sut . Robtus decanus • Robt^ ^sbr d pun* 
chunebi . Robt^ ^sbr d Egremd • RicardJ^ ^sbr d becchiremd ^ Wifis 
de boisuilla . Jobs fili^ ade . Alexand fili^ ade . Gilebtus fr ei^ . 
Gilebt^ de boisuile . Woldef de beckirmeth . Ada miP Ketelli . 
yuuain de Hale ^ mtti alij. 

5. — Sciant jpsentes ^ futuri q ego Jobes de Hudleston concessi deo 
^ beate CDarie de Caldr^ % monachis ibidem deo seruientib3 pasture sex 
vaccis cu sequela eaTf vni^ anni / q*tuor eq*s - % q'draginta ouib3 cu 
sequela eai^ vni>^ anni p totH annu in comuna pastura de Milnum • Ita 
qd decero no habeant maiore numeru vacca'2^ equoTji aut ouium q* in hoc 
sc^to continetur ad salinam sua de Milnum appendentm • Saluis S car- 

4. Richard de Boisville for the good of the souls of himself and his father, moth^, 
friends, and parentage by this deed granted to God and the blessed Mary, and the Abbot 
of Caldra and the Monks serving' God there, nine acres of land in his part of Caldretun 
with common of pasture and other appurtenances. The Boisville family had a grant of 
Milium from William de Meschiens* Their heiress, in the time of Henry the Third, married 
into the Huddleston family. There is no mention of this Richard de Boisville in the hia. 
tories of Cumberland. — (Bum. Nick. Cumb. p. 10.^ 

5. John de Huddleston grants to the Abbey of Caldre pasture for 4 horses, and for six cows 
and their calves of one year's old ; and for 40 sheep and their lambs till one y/ear's old, in 
the common pasture of Milium, on condition of their not keeping a greater quantity of 
cows, horses, or sheep as appendages to their salt pans there, saving to the Monks there 
the otlier privileges granted to them in the Charters of his ancestors ; and further granting 
to them that their place for carrying on their salt works, at Sandslof, should contain two 
acres, and that they might turn the Ruttanpul on such manner that it should do no injury 
to their said works. 

390 Monastical Charters.— Caldre. 

tis ancessaijL meoTjL diio^ de CDilnu ^dcam salinS tangentib3 1 oinib^ aliis 
articulis suis • Concessi « ^fatis monadi q babeant illam placed su3 que 
vocat' sandslof in q'ntitate duaTjL acra^ rre % illam in eadem q'^ntitate 
in posteru cotinuent ad faciend de sabulo infra ipam place! contento 
oinia app'amta que exinde eis puenire potint ad dcm sabulu sup tVam 
^fate saline ptinente cariandu % sal suu inde sumend et alia necessaria 
comoda sua inde rationabitit faciend sn ^dcone mei ut liedu meo^ 
ippetuu . Concessi insr ^fatis monacli q possint diStere le RuttanpuII 
de ^dca placea sicut meliJ^ potuerint ne p cursum eiusd in ^dca placea 
dampnum aliquod ut jacturS incurrant • H' oia ^dca concessi ^fa tis monacli 
in libam pur^l ^ ppetuS elemosinam cu oinibus coibus ajsiamtis ^ce 
ville de CQillnum liba q'eta ^ soluta ab omi seculari Vui£& secta cosue- 
tudie % demanda . Sicut sac4icm altaris . IncuiJ^ rei &c. Hiis testibj 
Dno Robto de hauengton AVitto de Bethm • Witto de Thuajrtes . Joiie 
Corbet . Jobanne de Morthing ^ aliis . Dat*^ apud CQilnum in (Dense 
ap4is Anno Regni Reg Edwardi filii Reg Henr quintodecimo. — 

6. Sciant ^sentes % futuri qd ego Johes filius Johis de Hideleston 
dedi % concessi % hac ^senti carta mea q^etuclamaui deo ^ be marie % 
Afebie de Caldr % monachis ibidem deo seruientib; Wilim filiu Ricard 
de loflscales quonda natiuu meu cu tota sequela sua % catali suis Jta qd 

6. This curious document is an assignment made in 1291, by John, son of John de Hud- 
dleston, of William, son of Richard de Loftscales, formerly his native, with all his retinue 
and chattels, to the Abbot and Monks of Caldre. It is, in fact, that species of grant of 
freedom to a slave, which is called manumission implied, in which the lord yields up all 
obligation to bondage, on condition of the native agreeing to an annual payment of money 
on a certain day. The clause, << So that from this time they may be free, and exempt 
from all state servitude and reproach of villainage from me and my heirs,*' is very curious, 
especially to persons of our times, in which there has been so much said about the pomp of 
Eastern lords, and the reproachful slavery in which their dependents are still kept Here 
the Monks of Caldre redeemed a man his family and property from slavery, on condition of 
his paying them the small sum of two-pence a year. The Huddleston family were seated at 
Milium, in the time of Henry the Third, when they acquired that estate, by the marriage 
of John de Huddleston with the lady Joan, the heiress of the Boisville family. Slavery 
continued to thrive on the soil of Northumberland long afler the time of Edward the First ; 
for in 1470, Sir Roger Widdrington manumitted his native, William Atkinson, for the pur- 
pose of making him hb bailiff of Woodhom. — ERsL Northumb. 11. ii. 187. 


MonasUeal Charters. — Meaux. 391 

amodo sint libi % quieti de me % liedib; meis ab omi uanitate % calupnia 
viUenagii inppetuii nee liceat m^ nee hedib; meis in ^dcos Wiihn se- 
quelam suam vi catalla aliquod jus vi clamiu decero exi|b vi vendicare 
. Et ^dcus Will's obligauit se p tota sequela sua ^dce domui de Caldra 
in annuo redditu dualjL denar ubicuq^ fuint comprantes ad festu sci Pef 
ad vincuta imppetuu singiis annis ^dce domui fidelit soluendoTji in re- 
cognicone libtatis ^e . Et vt li donaco concessio % q^etaclamaco rata et 
firma inppetuii pseueret ^sens sc^ptu in signo % firmitate libtatis sue 
eisdem fieri feci anno r. r. E. vicesimo . In cui^ rei testimoniu ^senti 
s'pto sigillu meu apposui . Hiis tesf WiUmo Wailburthuait . Wittmo 
Thuaites . Johe de mordling • Johe Corbet • Johe de Halle % aliis. 


7* ...eui iustus fuit vt nuUus eu aduocatoTi in consistorio circuuenire 
potuit n« a cognicoe iusticie in ca aliqua face deuiare . Post que sedit 

7. This, I apprehend, is a leaf of some book of the Abbej of M eaux or M elsa, which con- 
tained a history of the lives of the Abbots of that house. The Abbey itself was founded 
by William de Fortibus, husband of Cecily, great grand-daughter of Ms^colm, king of Scot- 
land. It was situated on rising ground, but hemmed with swamps and marshes. Part of 
the property given to it by its founder, was the wood of Rude, from which the marsh of 
Rude, mentioned in this document, probably had its name. J have seen no account in 
books on monastic history, or in catalogues of MSS. of any work expressly upon the lives 
of the abbots of this house, of which their is rather a long history in the edition of Dug- 
dale's MonasHcony in 1682 ; but in the Cottonian library there is a manuscript parchment- 
book in small folio, consisting of 246 folios, which contains ^^ the names of die feoffors of 
the Monastery of Melsa or Meaux, and of the places, lands, tenements, and rents belonging 
to that house, with abstracts of its charters, feoffments, confirmations, releases, quit claims, 
and exchanges, and concluding with a table of the chapters, of little use." The following 
MSS. respecting this house, are in the Lansdowne library. — 1. A History of the Abbey 
cf Meha, This is a transcript, and occupies 53 pages. — 2. The Register of the Abbey of 
Melsa or MeauXy written on vellum in the 15th century. It appears to have belonged to 
Christopher Hilyard in 1553 ; and contains of 160 folios. It consists of Pope's Bulls, Char- 
ters of the Bishops and Chapter of York, Royal grants, and compositions, privileges, various 
charters, &c.'&c. from 1273 to 1373. Its original index is unfinished, and it is defective 
at it^ end.— 3. Bishop Kennet's Collections^ from an ancient parchment cartulary of Melsa, 
in the possession of James, bishop of Lincoln, in 9 folios. — 4. Memoranda^ by the same 
.P^latCy from a MS. History of Chronicles of the Abbey ofMeauxy in S folios. 

592 Manastical Charters.^-^Meazut. 

Gregorius ii. cu^ tepe iusticia fuit venalis in curia . % cardinale^ in 
diusis regnts optia queq^ bnficia optinuere abbaciat^ vid priorat? diaco- 
natus ardiaconatus is alias dignitates ac ^bendas nee non ^ ecciias po- 
chiales ptrimas vbiq^ ^td^li . vt aliquis eo^ vij vt viij abbaciat? ib priorat^ 
^ alias dignitates « fenificia piP possideret . De ipo itaq^ pp* Greg in 
sequentibj^ tepe dni WiSmi abftis 18 . ampuils referetur . Anno ecia 
dni IS69 tcia pestilencia fuit in Anglia. 

WiLLMs ABBAS ocTAUUs DEciMUs. — ^De creacioue dni Wifimi de Scard- 
burgh afifeis 18 ; de clausura campi de Northg*ng^ a marisco de 
Ruda ; de fossato de Monkdyk % alijs. 

Anno dni 1372 mortuo vt ^mitit' pie memorie dno Wiftmo de Dryng- 
howe atbe nro 17, electa fuit in p*rem ^ pastore mon nri dns WiSms 
de Scardburgh qui CellerariJ' extitit p I6 annos ^cedentes in die vidett 
sci Desiderij epi quo die contingebat fm see Trinitatis in octauis Pon! 
solepnitcelebrari . Nam in electione tuc p futuro atiE>e celebrata conuet^ 
adhuc equalit diuisi fuerut • Qjaoni media ps ^scriptu frem Johem de 
Hull priorem elegit in a^)em : sed % aim media ps frem Johem de 
Newton ^dcm ipi priori in singulis adusante eidm in abbaciatu ^ferre 
conabatur • Non tame q^ aliqua ipa'];^ ptii!, quod mirabile fuit, electii 
suam mere voluit assumere in a^em -^ s^ q^ vtraq^ ps electu suu aln 
Iferre deliberauit ne ^ ipe alt sibi jPficeretur nulli alio sibi ^ferendo in- 
W intendentes . Et cu ideo conuet? sup vnico eis ^ferendo p duo'^ 
die^ spaciu cocordare nequiuissent • tandin dcus dns Willms de Scard- 
burgh cellerari^ vir simplex ingenij, rectus tamen in ope, in minisno 
solicit?, ac pcere et elegans stature, p copmissione noit? fuerat in atbem 
cu prius ad abbaciatum nuUaten^' fuisset suspicatus • % Hie quidm 
abbas anno dni 1389 diuisit fossato campu de Northg^ng' a marisco de 
Ruda voca? le Whytkerr inr angtm de Bennerls « aliud clausum nrm 
diet* le Park versus le Wythdyk, Jolie de Roos dno de Rowth, dno Johe 
de Rowth mili? ^ aliis libere tenetib3 in Rowth consencientib3 * cosu- 
lentibj in hac pte • ita ut cii antique diuise inr dictu campum de North- 
g^ng' % ^fatu mariscu de Rowth p quosdam puteos quasi p iactu lapidis 

db imuceia dfittadtea patteeat tmdew ». dcm fossatS kr sdo nf o i^nrio 
in §&iiiO oampo de Northg*iig' cfifieet" • vt ipe antique dimse es* dcm 
fossatum p tiium pedum spaciu remaiwFgt * vt si quaiido in futara 
idem foseatu nrm dari deberet ^ dilatari in 90I0 nro ^^o p dco fosaato 
dUatado fodereln^ quatin)' idem mariscos de Ruda abs(]y nfa pmr^stura 
pnsteret integer ^ illibatus • Qne ecia campA ab in^ori pte dci fnissli 
vepribus, spinis, virgultds ^ salicibus fecat conmniri . Nam ante $a 
tepa bestie ib aSia in dco marisco de Rowtb pastencia Uada ^ p'ta nri 
in capo die Nortbg^ng' q^pliuia depascentia misefafaiK? conculcarut . 
f Eiusdm ecis atbi» t^e Petrus Hylyard de Arnali qui de nobis tene- 
bat p homagiu quends pcelbiii capitalis messoagii sui ^ alia teiiesneDta 
in ArnaHf implacitauit nos de phirimis dspnis sibi fds vt assernit in 
ddtu mndacois fossata^ sdne sewera'^ de Monkdyk^ Wytbdyke^ % le 
esthedyk * tnst^ ipa'gi defectJ^ cora justici«iis feSat ^entari * Cui 
quidm ^sentacoi p placitn ^ veridcm aliquot conati dum^ cot^ire • eo q^ 
ipa fossata no fuert coes swere ab antiquo • <^ si swete essent nos ad 
ipa^ mndac&em seu Tepsidbem soti mininie tenerem' nisi p quatitate ^Ira:^ 
nnr^ eis adjacencm . S^ viUate "^ alij p snis pceilis adiacentib^ p reliqno 
repacbis eaijidm pvideret • Sed quia ipm pladtS fini ddbitfi non est 
dortitu ^ villate ac alij adjacentes ead fossata mndare % repare neclexe*^ 
nit pcessum hui^ placiti huic operi addere non curam^ « eo fidpae 
sicut patet p tenuras carta'^ nra^ onus pine fodif&is eo^m ppr duct^ 
"^ decensns aqua^ supio^ ad molendina* 

8. Holm CuLTaAM.-^UniSsis Xpi fidelibj ^seotea lil^aa viauiis ut 
audituris Wills filius Gtlleciist de Alnel/ch salute . Sdatis me gratum 
% ratum fire totam donacionem quam Wilts de ScefUing fecit monacfaia 
de Holmcoltr* sup piscaria de AIne % ocnnib3 ptinentiis suis put naeliaa 
« plenius continet' in carta dusdem WilM quam idem monachi Imt de 
eo • £t ne ego ui aliquis heredum meo':^ aliquod clamiu grauamen sea 

S. This is a confirmation made by William, son of Gillchristy of Alnburgh» of a gift which 
William of Sceftling made to the Monks of Holmcultram, respecting a fishery upon 
the Alne, which had been given to them by Richard de Alnburgh, and William^ son of 
Simon ShefUing. — (Sum and Nick, Cumb^ 172,^ — ^Isaac, Symon, and William ScbefUiog 
are witnesses to Deed, No. 1. 

VOL. II. 3 G 

S94 M(mastical Charters.^^Hohnculiram. 

molestiS sup cotntnunia eiusdem piscarie , ui sup aliquib3 que ad earn 
ptinent contra tenorem carte quam habent de eodm Witto eisdem mo- 
nachis inppetuum facere possitnus • ^sens scriptum im^ssione sigilli 
mei roboratum ^fatis monachis contuli in testimoniu ppetue quiete cla^ 
mationis . Hiis testibj Patricio de Wirkington* • Ada de Neuton*^ Rob 
de Karlaton* Walro de vluesbig tunc official Karli • Rob dec Brisckirke 
. Ric de Alneb*ch . % aliis 

9. Uniuersis Thomas fili>^ Gilbti de Culwenne . Saltm in dno sem- 
piniam • NoSit vni&itas vra me inspexisse ac intellexisse cartas ante* 
cesso^ meo^ q^ testant^ predictos antecessores meos dedisse % ^cessisse 
deo ^ beate marie de Holmecolt* % monachis ibidem deo seruientib3 ^ 
eo^ successorib3 in libam puram % ppetuam elemosinam . vnam placeam 
Pre sup ripam aque de Derwent • ad sustentacoem piscarie eorunde 
mousLcholi in Derwent • Q"" q'dem placea tre p maiori pte p inundac&em 
^dce aque de Derwent % maris inundata est % asportata • ita qd necessa^ 
ria sua ad sustentac6em seu refecc6em ^dce piscarie comode ntto modo 
possut bre . Qua ppt ego ^dcs Thorn ^dcas asportaf&em et inunda- 
66em p salte aie mee . « aia*^ antecessor meo^ is successor . restituere 
uolens • Dono % ^cedo p me % bedib3 meis ac assignatis deo « beate 
QDarie % jPdictis monacb de Holmcolt"^ % eo^ successorib3 totam illam 
placeam rre annexam placie eo^djg monacho'^ ex parte boriali uers^ 
orientem q* jacet intsulcum q*m feci t*here * mare . sup ripam predce 
aqe de Derwent in recompensa£6em partis ^dce placie rre asportate ^ 
innundate . Tenenda &c. Et ego « bedes mei seu assignati » Waranti- 
zabimJ^ in ppetuum . In cui^ &c. • Hiis testib3 • Dnis Robto de Feri- 
tate Robto de Hauirington . * Thoin de Neuton' militib3 . Thorn de 
Ribbeton • Wifio le Venur . Jobne le Fraunceis de mebornraatild Hu- 
gon de Brunfeld . Adam de Thorisby . Wi&o de Sismonderlawe • « 
aliis. — f Abstract. J 

9. Thomas, son of Gilbert de Culwenne, having inspected certain charters of his ances- 
tors respecting a place on the bank of the Derwent, given by them to the Abbey of Holm- 
cultram, for the support of a fishery in that river, which place having been inundated and 
almost wholly carried away by a flood of the Derwent and the sea, by this charter, gave 
them the whole place next adjoining theirs on the north and east, and which laid between 
the sea-bank and a furrow which he had caused to be drawn. 

Manastical Charters. — HobncuUram. 395 

10. Uriiuersis Sancte Maoris Ecctie filiisRicard Gernun Sait . Sciatis 
me uoluntate % petitione Johanne spouse mee concessisse % present! 
carta confirmasse deo % Beate ODarie % monachis de Holmcolt* in ppetuS 
elemosinS p salute alarum nrarum % p aia Hug . de CDoreuill: % p aiaM 
oium ancesso^ % successo']^ nro^ . Donum eiusdem Hugonis de (Do- 
reuitt ueri patroni ecclesie de Burg . libum % q'etum de omni catupnia 
nra % heredum nro^ q*m ecciiam de Burg integrS cum omib3 ptintiis 
suis idem Hug eisdem monachis in ppetua elemosinS habendam donavit 
sicut in ei^ sc'pto auctentico continetur • Hiis Test^ Radulfo de la ferte 
. Ric filio Radulfi . Ro^o folioth . Witto de Toresbi . Adam de 
Wige?, Toma de Brunfeld . Witto de Bochardebi . Fabieno de Ayket- 
tun • Ricard £re eius • Alano Buche . % vnSso capitio Cuberand. 

11. Omib3 hoc scriptum visur^ vel auditur^ Thomas de CDulton dns 
Cbuplandie filius « hes dni Thorn de CDulton Salutem in dno Sempitnam 
» NoSitis me inspexisse « intellexisse cartas mpnumenta is conuencones 
quas religiosi viri Abbas % Conuent^ de Holmcoltran hent ex dono x 
concessione antecessor meol^ « alioc^ Videlicet quamdam cartam dni 
Thome filij dni Thome de CDulton aiicessoris mei p quam dedit A^i t 
Conuentui de ODelros in libam puram % ppetuam elemosinam tram in 

10. Richard Gernun, at the request of his wife, Joan, and for the health of their own 
souls, and of the soul of Hugh de Morville, confirmed to the monks of Holmcultram 
the gift which the said Hugh had made to the said monks of the church of Brugh-upon- 
sands, in Cumberland*. 

11. Thomas de Multon, lord of Coupland, son and heir of Thomas de Multon, having in- 
spected certain charters and muniments which his ancestors and others had given to the 

. monks of Holmcultram — ^namely, a charter of Sir Thomas, son of Sir Thomas de Multon, 
his ancestor, by which he gave to the abbot and convent of M elros land in the ville of 
St. Botulpb to make buildings upon for them and their successors ; and, moreover, a char- 
ter of the same abbot and convent of Melros to the abbot and convent of Holmcultram, 
respecting the same ground in St Botulph ; and also a charter of Gilbert, son of Gilbert, 
of Dundragh, by which he gave to Holmcultram twenty acres of arable land, in the town 
of Distington, and other four acres of ground, according to his charter ; and also one small 
mussa below Stotfold to make a curtilage ; and pasture in the field of Distington for 600 
sheep, 8 oxen, 7 cows, 1 bull, and 2 horses ; and a peatry, and materials for making their sheep- 
folds and hemmels out of the wood of Distington, and for their hedges out of Hodfaldskogh ; 
and covering for their houses in the territory of Distington : and also two charters, by which 
Hugh de Moriceby gave to the same house of Holmcultram six acres of arable land, and 
four acres of meadow, in Distington-^Now he by this his deed for himself and heirs, con- 
firmed to the said abbot and convent of Holmcultram all the aforesaid grants. 

596 Mamstiea! CharUt^.'^BbhiKt^miu 

riffa de s^o Betulpbd aid edifibia Ahi ^ inxxessmb^ stiif facieridn ^ut 
itl cirta dci dSi Thdm . ptetiiuts cotitiiiett^ ; £t i^ hoc caltam ej^dS 
Abbtid « Coduentus de Melros dB^ A{S>ti «« eofiuentui de hdimcoltiaa 
de eadem 9m in dca villa de sEo Bcitulpho edvtam £t etiaiai cdrtam (^ 
Gilbti fit GilbiBrti de Dundrdgh p qliain dedit ^ eaneessit deo « EcCe 
d£e COarie de Hohn<^oltraD ^ monachid ibidem deo 9uie»tib5 in fibam 
puram ^ ppetuam elemosinam viginti acrad &e arabOis in villa de Dii^ 
tington infra certas diuisas ^ quatuor alias acras terre infra alias diviMd 
put carta einsdem dili Gilberti filii Gilbti plenius testatur • £t paruam 
Mussam* Subtus Stodiald ad Curtilagiii faciend « pasturam in campo de 
Distington, ad Sex Centas oues octo bottes Septem vaccas vnii tauram 
« ad duos equos ^ petariam « materiam ad caulas* % ad ofnlia* sua fa^ 
cienda de bosco de Distin^on ^ materiam sepibns suis lie Stodfaldskdgh 
% cooptoriu domib3 suis in mtorio de Distington . £t etiam duas cartas 
ex dono « concessions Hngonis de CDoriceby fcas eisdem Abbti « con- 
ventui de Holmcoltran in libam puram ^ ppetuam elemosinam de sex 
acris terre arabiKs in villa de Distington % de quatuor acris p^ com 
ptinenciis in eadem villa put in cartis eiusdem Hugonis distinctius « 
apertius cantmetur • Quas quidem dona£6es concessiones ^ confirma* 
c6es das Abbti « Conuentui de Holmcoltran ^ eo^ successoribj in 
libam puram % ppetuam elemosinam pro me ^ hedib3 meis ratifico ^ 
confirmo p ^sentes . Concedo insup p fne « iledib^ meis j^d^fts Abbteoa 
% conuentu ^ ea^ successores ad omia ^missa vers^ quoscumq^ inppetuu 
acquietare « defendere • In cui^ rei testimoniu huic jPsente sc^pto sigillu 
me& appossui • Hiis testib3 Dnis Rico de Hodekston . Jolie le flem* 
meng . Jobe de Lamplough . Ri66 de Cleterue . Nicbo de CDoriceby 
militibj Jobe de Stikeneye tunc Balliuo de £gremond • Alano de 

* CauUb m Scotland are rows of stakes driven idCo rivers Mow a fbrd^ so as to make it capable 
of retainiiig any stones or gravel that fall into it^ and keep its line over the river level and amoot^ 
Jameson says a cauld is a dam kead^ probably from the idea of its making a pond or AWtf behind it. 
Docange under Cauldf says* Mnnimenta onurn vel sepimenta ovium ; bnt omUa does not occur in his 
work. The same noble author, under Mutsmy quoted an authority to diow, that, in one sense at least, it 
meant a bundle of sticks, or the moss, weeds, or lichens of trees and marshy places : — ** Cum panperes 
mitffo, quem de nemore coDegerant, oneratos praeterire cemeret.'* But Muua^ in the passage above 
referred to, seems to mean some small measure or quanti^ of ground, to convert into a yard, garden, 
or croft, near or adjoming to a dwdHng-house. 

Monastical Charters. — Burgh-upon-Sands. — Lekeley. S97 

CDuIton • Robto de Goseford . Lawrencio de Kirkeby . Nicho de Neu- 
band tuc Receptore % aliis. 

12, Omibg xpi fidelibus has litVas uisuris ut audituris Joh filius Johis 
de yrebisalm in dno NoSitis me p me «« heredibg raeis quietum clamasse 
imppetuum dompno attii ^ monachis de Holimcolt*n totum ius et cla- 
mium si quod habui u} aliqua roe hre potui in tota rrS cu oiiiibg ptinciis 
suis quam Wifls fili^ Orim auuncts pris mei eisd attbi ^ monacil in ?ri- 
torio de Giliecruce in libam puram % ppetuSL elemosinam dedit ^ carta 
sua confirmauit • Ita videlicet sciatis me quietum clamasse qd nee ego 
n*" aliquis heredum meol^ aut aliq*s ali^ ex pte mea de cero jus ul cla- 
mium in dcam tram ut aliq^m ei^ pticiam pone ponm^ ullo iure ut roe . 
In cui^ rei testimoniu huic scripto sigillu meu apposui . Hiis testibg • 
Dno Walro de vluesby archidio Carti . Dno Gilbto de feritate psona de 
Bonnes . Th de CDorisceby psona de vluedal . Rob Vicario de Gillec'ce 
decano ailerd . Witto francigena . Walro Bonekil « aliis. 

IS. Brugh-upon-Sands. — Oibg x^ fidelib^ ad q°s ^sens sc'ptu pue§- 
it . Witt fit D'rem* . Sat Nov^t vniversitas ura me ^cessisse dedisse % 
hac jPsenti carta mea ^firmasse Deo ^ Eccte bj mich d burg p salute ale 
mee ^ p aia pris mei ^ fhris mee ^ oium parentu meo^ vna roda tre I 
Witholy • ilia scit q jacet infra ppinq^or t^b^ rodis eccte uers^ Orients I 
eade cultura Tenenda ^ lindam I pur3 % ppetu3 elemosins t3 libe ^ q^ete 
q*m aliq* rra Deo % see eccte lib^us « q^etius p^sit ^ferri • Hiis Test* 
Rad d f itate . Gileb fre ej^ . Rob fit D'rem* . Simone d Sabtis . Thorn 
^ Nicfc fre q^ de T'stanfeld . Ad d Dikis . Pet' tuc dee Eccte capefto. 

14. Lekeley. — Sciant jpsentes is futuri hoc sc*ptum visuri uel audi- 
turi qd ego Jolies de Hodeliston pro salute anime mee ^ animal^ omium 
antecesso^f * successo'2^ meo'2^ concessi « presenti carta mea confirmaui 

12. By this deed, John, son of John de Ireby, quitclaimed to the Lord Abbot and the 
monks of Holmcultram, all right he had in the lands of Giliecruce, which William, his 
father's uncle, and the son of Orim gave to that house. — See pedigree, generation v. and vi. 

13. William, son D'rem', by this deed gave to the church of St. Michael, of Bui^h- 
[upon-Sands], in Cumberland, for the safety of the souls of himself and of his father, and of 
tdl his parentage, one rood of land in Witholay : namely, that which lay low down 
nearest on the east to the three roods of the church. — See deed. No. 10. 

14. John de Hodeliston, for the health of his own soul and of the souls of all his ances- 
tors and successors^ confirmed to the monks of Holmcultram all the land of Lekeley, 

VOL. II. S H * 

398 Mmastical Charters. — Lekeley^ 

deo % beate ODarie de Holmcolt^m % monachis ibidem deo 9uientib3 to* 
tarn illam tram de Lekeley quam dicti Abbas % monacbi hent ex dono 
^ concessione Gunnilde filie Henrici filii Arturi Tenendam &c. £t tgo 
Jolies « hades mei Waranti5abiin^ prefatds A^i « monachis &c., imp- 
petuii • In cuiJ' &c. Hiis testib3 dnis CPiciie de Hartecla tunc vice- 
comitte Cumbr . Thom de Culwenne . Robto de haSington . Robto 
de Feritate . Thom de Neuton . ^ Robto de Whyterig^ miiitibus . 
Hugone de Moriceby . Rico de Cleterue . Johe de Morthing ^ aliis* 

15. Sciant ^sentes % futuri hoc scriptum uisuri ui audituri qd Ego Jo- 
hanna filia « heres Ade de Milnum in mea uiduitate % ligia potestate p 
salute anime mee ^ p salute ale Joliis de Hodellston* q'^ndam uiri mei « 
ofiiium ancesso^ « successo':^ nro2^ dedi concessi % psenti scripto con- 
firmaui p me ^^s hedibus % successorib3 meis in libam puram % ppetuam 
elemosinam tota illam tram de lekeleya integre cu omib3 ptinentiis suis 
sine ullo retinemto / quam dci atbs % monachi hnt p cartam Gunilde filie 
Henrici filii arturi . Tenendam % imdam . Ita libam • quietam % so- 
lutam ab ofhi seruicio consuetudine secta placiti exactione % demanda ^ 
Sicut aliqua elemosina potest teneri ^ hri libius • quieti^ • pleni>^ % me- 
lius . Et ego Johanna r, hedes ut Successores mei Waranti3abim^, &c., 
totam tVam ^noiatam prefatis a^i ^ monachis de Holmcolt^m % aquie* 
tabim^ cam de omi seruicio « defendem^^ eam contra omnes homines 
imppetuu • In cuius rei, &c., testimoniu huic scripto sigillum meum 
apposui • hiis testibus Dno Patric de Wirkinton . Diio Johe de Lan- 
geluierth . Dno Wydone de Boyuilla . Nicholao de CDorisceby . Johe 
de Cambtona • Hugone fre dni patricii de Wirkinton . Johe de 
Thuaythes . WiSo de Estonhing . Et aliis. 

which they had by the gifl of Gunnild, the daughter of Henry, son of Arthur. This 
Henry, father of Gunnild, was Henry Boyville, lord of Milium, whose grand-daughter Joan 
married Sir John de Hudleston, lord of Anneys, in Milium. — (Bum and Nick, Cumb. 

p. 10-11.; 

15, This is a confirmation to the monks of Holmciiltram, made by Joan, daghter and 
heir of Adam de Milnum, in her widowhood, for the health of her own soul, of John de 
Hudleston's, her late husband, and of all her ancestors and successors, of all the land in 
Lekeley which they had by the charter of Gunnildi daughter of Henry, son of Arthur. 

Monastical Charters. — Seaton. — Conishead. — St. Bees. S99 

16. Seatok pRioEY. — Hec endent'a facta in? ThomS York afebem 
monasni beate marie de holmcolth^m ex pte vna % £li3abeth Crefto 
p*orissS de seton ex alra pte testaf qd dicti abbas ib couent^ cocesserut 
IB ad firma t*diderut die? p^orisse ^ couent sue tota ilia Sra infra esk ^ 
Dudyne vocal lekley ad fine duodecl anno']^ reddendo inde annuati 
duran! ftnlo ^dicto viginti solid . Dat octauo decimo die menS Octob' 
anno Dni Milim*" cccc quinq*gesimo. — (Abstract J 

17. Conishead Priory. — Omnib3 hoc sc^ptum visur* vel auditur' i 
Custancia de Hale quonda vx Wittmi de punsunby sal^m iii dno sempi9- 
nam • Nov^tis me in pura viduitate ^ legia potestate mea remisisse deo 
« beate COarie de Conyngesheued % Jolini Priori eiusdm % canonicis ibdm 
dosuientib3 in libam puram « ppetuam elemosinam totu jus « clamiu 
quod liui vi aliquo modo here poto in vna roda rre sup Belhousbanck in 
villa de hale simul cu ecctia eiusdm ville « aduocacoe Ecciie eiusdm . 
Ita videi^ qd n"" ego n^ liedes mei nee aliquis ali^ noie nre in dcis roda 
tire « ecctia vel in jure patronat^ eiusdm aliquid juris vel clamij exi^ 
vel vendicare de cetero ponm>^ quoquo modo . Et ego v** j^dicta Custancia 
« hedes mei ^ assignati mei ^dcas cont* omnes holes waranti3abimJ' im- 
petuu . In cui?, &c. . Hijs testib3 dno Joiine Flemynge milite • Joline 
de Hodelston . Rado de Landploygh . Rico de Clet'gh • Thoma de Fri- 
syngton' . Alexo Punsunby . « aliis* — (Abstract.) 

18. St. Bees. — Henricus Comes Northumbrie et dns honoris de Co- 
kermouthe • UniSsis et singlis ad quos presentes ire nostre pueSint 

16. Thomas York, abbot of Holmcultram, by this indenture, 18th Oct. 1459, leased to 
Elizabeth Craft, prioress of Seaton, all the lands between Esk and Duddon called Lekeley, 
for 12 years, at the yearly rent of 20«. Seaton was a small priory in the parish of Bootle, 
and in the manor or township now called Lekeley. — (Bum and Nick* Curnb, 17, J 

17. Custance, widow of William Ponsonby, by this grant released to the Priory of Co- 
nyngshead (now Conishead) all right in a rood o£ land upon Belhousbanck, in the ville of 
Hale, together with the advowson of the church in the same ville. Hale is a small parish 
between Calder and Egremont, in Cumberland. This Custance was one of the two daugh* 
ters and coheirs of Alexander de Hale* Her other sister's name was Agnes, whose moiety 
of her father's estate seems to have past to her sister's descendants, the Ponsonbys, an- 
cestors of the earls of Besborough. 

18. This is an inspeximus by Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, of a charter of 
William de Fortibus, earl of Albemarle, by which he gave to God, and the church o£ St. 

400 Monastkal Cfuirters. — St. Bees. 

Salfm . £t quia Inspeximus quamdam cartam nobilis antecessoris nostri 
Wittmi de Fori comit^ Albermerlie de diversis concessionibus et dooa- 
cionibus deo et ecctie sancte Bege de Coupland et monachis ibm deo 
seruientibus pro salute 3ie sue et antecesso'^ suol^ cuius tenor sequit' in 
hec verba :— Wifims de Fort^ comes Albermerlie oniibus has Iras visur^ 
vel auditur^ saKm . Nov\t uniuersitas vestra me concessisse et hac pre- 
senti charta mea confirmasse deo et ecctie sancte Bege de Coupland et 
monachis ibm deo servientibus pro salute anime mee et antecessor meo^ 
ofhes donacoes quas habent de antecessoribus meis in feodo meo de AI* 
lerdale et de Coupland . scilicet quatuordecim salmones quos habent 
de dono Alani fit Waldelf et de eadm donacbm dimidiSL carucat3 terre 
in villa de Aspatrich et sex acras in alio loco in eadm sicut continef in 
carta ipius Alani . Frerea dedi et concessi et hac presenti carta meaconfir- 
maui sex salmones et vnSL mansurS in villa de Cokermouth ilia scilicet 
quS dudu huctredus de Derh^m tenuit • £t viginti solidos singulis an- 
nis recipiend de Willmo de Ribbeton de firma sua Immodo scilicet dece 
solidos ad pascha et decern solid ad festum sancti CDichis saluo seruicio 
et homagio predci Wifii de Ribbeton et heredu suo':^ michi et heredibus 
meis de tenemento illius toto ptinente • Volo autem hec omia predicta 
habeant de me et heredibus meis libere et quiete in purl et ppetuam 
elemosinam sicut predictnm est • Hiis testibus dno Gaufro de Scaun- 
den . dno Fetro Gillot tunc constabulario de Cockermouth-^ • dno 
Thoma fit Johnis . dno Wittmo de Yreby . dno Rado de Feritate . 
diio Gaufro de Talantir • diio hugone de CDoriceby . et alijs . Nec- 
non inspexisse fa'as confirmatorias antecessol^ nro^ de j^missis facr • 
Sciat^ nos ob reverencia dei et intuitu caritate omes predictas donac6- 
nes concessiones et confirmac6es ratificasse approbasse et quantu in nobis 
est confirmasse deo et abbati monasterii beate marie iuxta Ebol^ et ecctie 

Bega, in Copeland» and the monks serving God there, for the health of his soul and of the 
souls of all his ancestors, all the donations which that house had of his ancestors in his fee of 
Allerdale, in Copeland, namely, 14 salmon which they had by the gift of Alan, son of Wal- 
def ; and of the same gift half a carucate of land in the ville of Aspatrich, and 6 acres in 
the same place, as contained in the charter of the same Alan ; also the same William de 
Fortibus gave them six salmon and one manse in the town of Cockermouth, namely, that 
manse which was formerly holden by Huctred, of Derham ; also an annual rent of 20$. out 

Lay Grants. — Sathertun. — Clffton. 401 

sancte Bege de Coupland et monachis ibm deo seruientibus imppetuu • 
In cuius rei testimonium presentibus sigillum nostrum apposuimus . 
Dat^ infra dcm monasterium undecimo die mensis Septembris anno 
regni Reg^ Edwardi quarti post conquestum Anglie terciodecimo. 

19. Lay Grants. — Sathertun. — Omnib3 xpi fidelib3 hoc scriptum 
visur^ vi auditur^ Witts de Holegyle salu!m in dno sempirnam noueri- 
tis me dedisse ^cessisse % hoc ^senti scripto meo ^firmasse ^ omnino 
quiel clamasse Johi Corbet totam tram meam de sathertun cum toto 
jure meo quod tempe ^fectionis ^sentis sc^pti ad me % hedes meos ibidem 
ptinuit . ^ quod in posterum - potuit ptinere . Tenend ^ habnd dco 
Johe et hedib3 suis ^ suis assignatis de frib3 hospital Sci Johis libe 
quiete integre cum omnib3 ptinenciis libtatib3 • ^munis % aysiamentis - 
ad dcam tram ptinentib3 p octo denar' f annuatim ^dds fribus ad fes- 
tum sci Bartholomei psoluendis p omnib3 aliis seruiciis • exactionib3 
% demandis . Et Ego Witts ^ hedes mei totam dictam tram cum pti- 
nentiis dicto Johi % hedib3 suis ^ suis assignatis / ^t^ omnes homines is 
feminas put ^scri^ptum est - Waranti3abimus inppetuum . In cui^ rei 
testimonium f sigillum meum ^senti scripto . p me % )ledib3 ^^^^ ^P* 
posui • Hiis testib3 • diio Johe de Hudelstun • Witto de morthyng • 
Witto de twaytis . Witto de Waythebutwayth . Robto de Camera . 
Johe de Laygate • hnrico fit Robti • Johe de hale • % Aliis. 

20. Clifton.— Omnib3 Augneta fit Alxi ancipitis quondam vx Mich 
Roy salute in dSo sempiniam . NoVit vnivsitas vra me in pura vi- 
duitate mea ^ legia potestate mea omnino remisisse de me et hedib3 
meis totum jus % clameu q hui in septe acrs tre cu omnib3 ptinenciis in 

of the lands of William de Ribbeton. The Earl of Albemarle's deed is without date, but 
must have been made between 1190, the time of his marriage with Hawise, daughter of 
William le Gros, and 1194, the time of his death. The inspeximus is dated at St. Bees, 
September 11, U73. 

19. WUliam of Holegyle quits claim to John Corbet, of all his land in Sathertun, to 
hold of the brethren of the Hospital of St. John. This John Corbet was probably a de- 
scendant of William, brother of Patric, sixth Earl of Dunbar, which William married 
Constantia Corbet, heiress of Walter de Corbet, of Makerston, in Scotland, and had issue 
who took the name of Corbet. 

20. The seal of this deed is destroyed ; but the label upon which it has been put 
has part of the first line of a deed, in which are these words: — Agnes cond*m vxor 

402 Lay Grants. — Clj/hn. 

villa de Clifpton* quas ^dcs Mich roy quodam marit^ meus % Ego Augn 
habuimJ' in Cliipton* Walro scit fii Willi Anglici « hedibus uel suis as- 
signatis Tenend faciendo forinsecu ffuicium qd ^tinet' in carta ^fecta inP 
dcm Mich quondam maritum meum « Adam Pigon de Cokrmue ita scit 
qd n^ ego, &c. . In cui^, &c. • Hiis testibus Ric. Geddeney tuc senes- 
callo de Co^mue • dno Thorn de Derewenteswatre • dno Thofii • de 
lucy militib3 • Robto de Bramth . Johe de Oene . Thofii de Eglis- 
feld . Ric del ^ta^ Ben de Clifpton* . Gift de Hustwayt . Willo de 
Oene . Johe de P'dishaw « aliis. fs, d. — Abstract) 

SI. Anno Incamacois dni . W .CC . octogessimo scdo • adfestu 
sci CDartini In hyeme facta est hec puencio iter Benedictu fii Thm de 
Clifton* ex una pte ^ Walnn le harpur ex altera videlic^ qd j^dcs Bene- 
dictus p se et hedib3 suis dimisit ^ ^cessit ^dco Walro % hedibj suis ut 
suis assignatis molendinu fullonii de Clifton % domu et toftu px"" adia- 

aracr ^ 

cente % vn3 ^midiam * ac'm tre i milneholm vlt' aq*m de meran Ja- 
cente . Tenend % hnd s^ % )iedib3 suis ut suis assignatis vsq^ ad nninu 
viginti anno^ px"" subsequenciu p q*dam summa pecunie q^m Idem 
Walrs dedit ^manib3 ^dco Bndicto • Libe • q<ete . intege . % paci- 
fice • cu omLb3 ptinenciis comoditatib3 Libertatib3 • % aysiamentis ad 
^dcm molendinu domu toftu ^ tram spectantib3 nichil inde reddendo ut 
faciendo • Et sciendu est qd fides Bndictus ut hedes sui ut sui assignati 
dabunt i fine tmini ^dco Walro % lledib3 suis ut suis assignatis p sump- 
tib3 suis ibidem factis vnS marcl argenti • Et si illud facere recusant f 

Thome Marschall de Cokermouth salutem, &c The deed itself is a release from Ag- 
nes, the daughter of Alexander two-faced, widow of Michael Roy, to Walter, son of Wil- 
liam English, of all right which she and her husband had in 7 acres of land in Clifton, to 
hold by doing the foreign service mentioned in a charter made between the same Mi- 
chael and Adam Pigon, of Cockermouth. Clifton is in the parish of Workington, and the 
Eglesfield, and after them, the Berdsey family were formerly the principal proprietcM-s in it. 
21 • On the feast of St. Martin in winter, 1282, this agreement was made between Be- 
nedict, the son of Thomas, of Clifton, and Walter the harper : the said Benedict demised 
to the said Walter the Fulling Mill of Clifton, and the house and toft adjoining, and half an 
acre of land in Millholm, lying on the other side of the Water of Mere, for 20 years, for a 

• The following is added in another hand at the bottom of the deed : qua*:^ Racr jaoet in milne hilm 

« alia dimid acr iacet sup Cliftanebank. 

Lay Grants* — CUfion. 403 

^dc8 Waltk ui faedes sui ui sui assignati dabunt ^dco Bndicto % hedib3 
ui assignatis suis vna marca argenti . Et erut feofati ippetuu de dco 
xDolendino domo . tofto <^ tra • £t ego vero Benedictus « hedes mei « 
nn assignati ^dcm molendinu domu toftu et tirSi ^dco Walro % liedib^ 
suis ui suis assignatis ^' omes holes % feminas cu omib; suis ptinentiis 
vsq; ad jPdcoi rminu completu sicut j^dcm est warantizabim^ adq*eta- 
bim^ % i omib; defendem^' • Et in testimon huj 5^ ^vencdis alter alteri huic 
sc'pto C3rrograffiito Iter nos ^fecto sigillu suu apposuit • Hiis testib; 
Thm de Weston^ tuc baiio de Cokmue . Thm. de Egelfeld • Ric del 
fyche . Thm. fil. gregor . Henr fre ei>^ . Witto uenator . Thm. ca- 
petto de Wirkington* % multis aliis. 

22. Pateat vniusis p ^sentes qd ego CDariota soror « heres Wifimi fit 
Tho. de Crosthwayte imppetuu quietu clamaui Benedco de Eglesfeld « 
hedib3 % assign suis totu jus ^ dameii que habui in vna dimidia acf tre 
apd Stodfaldrunes cu suis ptin in alta Clifton • Ita videit, &c. . Prerea 
concessi eidm Benedco hedib5 % assignat suis qd oms tre % tenemeta cu 
suis ptin que cristiana que fuit vx"" Stephi de cliflton tenet ad totam vitam 
suam ex dimissione ^dci Willi fris mei % que post mortS ipius cristiane 
m^ % hedib3 meis reuti deberent post morte ipius cristiane remaneant 
^dco Benedco % hedib5 suis % suis assign imppetuu . Et ego vero dca 
CDariota « hedes mei jPdcs mis Warantizabim^ imppetuu • In cui^ rei, 
&c« • Hiis testib3 dno Rohto de Leybum tunc custode castri % honoris 
de Cokirm . dno Rohto de Bampton • Johe de Eglisfield . Johne de 
Stanlaw • Thorn de pardshou . Thom de Bramithwayt . % aliis . Dat' 
apud Cokirmouth vicessimo quarto die Septembr Anno rr. Edward duo- 
decimo . 19M.— (Abstract) 

sum of money given beibre-hand to the said Benedict, but without the payment of rent or 
service ; and that the said Benedict, at the end of the term, should give to the said Walter 
for his expences one mark ; and, if he refused to do so, the said Walter should give to hint 
the same sum, and be infeofied in the mill, house, tofl, and land, for ever. 

22. By this deed, which is dated at Cockermouth, 24th September, 1284, Mariota, sis- 
ter and heir of William, son of Thomas, of Crosthwayte, released to Benedict de Egles- 
field all claim in half an acre of land in Stodfaldrunes, in High Clifton ; and also granted 
to the same Benedict, that all the lands and tenements which Christian, widow of Stephen, 
of Clifton, then held for her life by the demise of her said brother William, and whicby 
afler the said Christian's death, shoidd revert to her the said Mariota and her heirs, should 
after the death of the said Christian remain to him, the said Benedict for ever. 

404 Lay Grants.-^'-CRJion. 

23. Sciant omes tarn jpsentes q^m futuri quod ego Johanna filia et 
heres Galfridi le Harpur dedi concessi % hac ^senti carta mea con- 
firmaui Thome de Weston* ctico * Christiane vxori ejus ^ heredibus da 
Thome illas sex bouatas terre "^ septem acras quas jPdcs Galfridus q'^ndam 
pater mens habuit ex dono Jsabelle de Fortibus comitisse Albemarlie 
« illas nove ac^s tre % dimidiam q^s ^dcs Galfridus pater meus habuit ex 
dono Ade filii ODichelis q'^ndam dni de Clifton'' cu omib3 suis ptinenciis 
exchaetis libertatibus « liberis consuetudinib3 sicut ^dcs Galfridus me- 
lius vi liberius aUquo tepore tenuit . Habendas % tenandas ^dtis Thome 
% Cristiane vxori eius % heredibus dci Thome vi assignatis de capitali- 
bus diiis illius Feodi . Libere • q'ete • pacifice . integre ^ hereditarie 
cum omibus exchaetis aysiamentis . in pratis . pascuis planis pasturis 
boscis moris . viis • semitis • aquis . stagnis . molendinis • wardis • re- 
leuiis ^ oinib3 aliis ad ^dcam tram ptinentibus sine aliquo retenemeto p 
^uicia inde debita % consueta . £t ego uero ^dca Johanna « heredes 
mei omia ^dca tenemeta sicut ^dcm est ^dcis Thome ^ Cristiane et 
heredibus dci Thome v) assignatis cu omib3 ptinenciis libertatibus ^ 
aysiametis ad vill^i de Clifton ptinenf ^* omnes gentes in ppetuu Waran- 
ti3abimus ^ defendemus . Et ut hec mea donaco cocessio « carte mee 
confirmac6 robur firmitatis optineat • huic ^senti sc*pto sigillu meu ap- 
posui • Hiis testebus . Wifio de CDarham tiic constabulario de Cocker- 
mue . CDago Robto de Bramthwayt • Ad. de CDorisseby . Wifto 
vllelayk . Alano de Camberton* . Thorn de Ryweton* . Thorn de 
Ireby • Alano de Ireby . Johe de Pardishaw . Witio le Venur . 
Walto le Harpur . Benedco de Clifton* • Robto de Derham . Johe de 
lamplow . Rico Bere . Johe Heyr . Wiflo de Dene . Alano le vsser . 
^ aliis • Dat^ apd Nouu Castru sup Tynam . dje Lune post festii 
sco^ Tyburicij * Waleriani . anno regni regis Edwardi tercio decimo . 

23. JoaD, the daughter and heir of Galfrid the harper, here grants to Thomas de Wes- 
ton, clerk, and Christian, his wife, the heirs of the said Thomas, six bovates and 7 acres of 
land, which her said father had by the gift of Isabella, the second wife of WiUiam de For- 
tibus, third earl of Albemarle, and also 9^ acres, which he, her said father, had given to 
him, by Adam, son of Michael, formerly lord of Clifton, to hold of the chief lord of the 
fee, with numerous detailed privileges in the original* This deed is dated at Newcastle 

Lay Grants — Berdesayke. — WameU 405 

psenf dtio Heiir Scoto tuc majore Noui Cast' • Thofii Burninghill . 
Petro Wodeman . Jacobo Tanator • Wifio auford . Wifto de Hakay 
^ Robto de layhaj capeBo « alijs. 

24. Kbrd£sayh£. — Sciant ^sentes ^ fiit'i quod ego Wifls de Berde- 
sayhe dedi concessi ^ hac ^senti carta mea conf 4naui Witto fit meo 
quamdam ptem tre mee in nitorio de Berdesayhe • scilicet totam tram 
que jacet ad Le Wra • «« ad • le Giieends q*m Gilbt? fr meus p*us te- 
Duit de me in eade villa % toftum % croftum que Wal% Hylestunte p^us 
de me tenuit in eadem villa . ^ totam ?ram q*m Steplis p^us de me te- 
nuit in eade villa cum quodam tofto % <ffto « Insup unam acm tre sup 
Righeberch % licet ei ^dcs oas assartare ^ alia quecuq^ s' viderit expe- 
dire sup ^dictas oas face • Tenendas ^ habendas ipi Wifio % heredib5 
suis vel cui assignare voloit de me % heredib3 meis . In feudo ^ heredi- 
tate libe ^ q*ete pacifice % integ% cu omnib3 ptinetijs % libtatib5 % ayida^ 
mentis tante rre ptinentib3 inf^ villam de Berdesaye % ext* • Reddedo 
inde annuati michi % heredib3 ™^^^ ^^^^ denarios ad Pascha floridum p 
omib3 suiciis % secularib3 demandis m^ % heredib3 meis ptinetib3 « Fa- 
ciend forinsecu ^iciu • q*ntom pdnent ad tantam tram in ^dca villa • 
Ego vero Wifts de Berd ^ h^edes mei omnes ^dcs imppetuu Wa- 
ranti3abimJ' . % in huj>^ rei Tcstim huic sc^pto sigiUu meu apposid . 
Hijs testib3 . diio Wifio de Fumesio * dno Ric de Caupland . dno 
Marmeuduch Daret . Wifio de Furs • Wifio de Hasmunderlavhe . 
Wifio de Schelmereserch . Robto fit I^ysig • * aliis. — (s. d.) 

25. Warnnel, in Ikglewood Forest. — ^Edwardus dei gra rex Anglie 

upon Tjme, on the Monday afber the feast of Saints Tyburicius and Waleriauy August 11, 
I suppose, 13th £dw. I^ 1285. 

24. William de Berdesayhe by this charter granted to his son William a certain part of 
his territory of Berdesayhe^ namely, that which laid at the Wra and at the Gillends, which 
his brother Gilbert formerly held of him in that village ; and the toft and croft which Wal* 
ter Hylestunte, and the land which Stephen formerly held of him there, with a certain uA 
and croft; and, besides these, an acre of land upon Righd)erch, with licence to assart or rid 
the above-named lands ; to hold to the said William, the son, his heirs and assigns, in fee 
and inheritance, and by paying to the donor and his heirs' %i* at flowery Easter. 

25. A grant by Edward the First, dated at Woodstock, 17th Jdy, 1276, by which he 
granted .to John de Haitedo a certaia waste place in WamhiU, in his finest of Inglewood, 

VOL. II. Si 

406 Ley Grants. — Wigton. 

dns Hibnie % Dux Aquit . Omib3 ad quos ^sentes lit?e pue&nt / 

Sattm . Sciatis qd de gratia nra speciali dedixnus % concessimus diico 

nobis Johi de Halteclo vnam placeam vasti cum ptinentiis in Wamhull 

in foresta nra de Ingelwode int parcum de Caldebek % Ruddestangill 

ppe aquam de Caldewe* continentem in se sexaginta acras p pticam de 

foresta • Hend « tenend eidem Johi et liedib3 suis de nobis ^ hedib3 

iiris cum litk) introitu ^ exitu ad omnimoda aSia sua eunda a pximis viis 

regiis vsq^ ad ^dca clausum % placeam . Reddendo inde nobis % iledib^ 

nrs p annu ad scc*m nrm sexaginta solidos videK p qualibet acra duode- 

cim denarios vnam videK medietatem ad scc'in i^m sci QDichis % aliam 

medietatem ad scc^m nrm Pasche p omi exaccione suicio % demanda • 

Ita qd idem Johes ^dictam placeam assartare % in culturam redigere x 

eam paruo fossato % bassa haia scdm assisam foreste includere % earn sic 

assartatum % in culturam redactam ac inclusam tenere possit sibi % lie* 

dib5 suis cum litk) introitu % exitu ad omnimoda auia sua eunda a pximis 

viis regiis vsq^ ad clausum 5b placeam ^dca de nobis % liedib3 nris imp- 

petuu sine oc66ne vel impedimento nri vel hedum nrol^ justiciario^ 

forestarioT^ viridarioi;^ aut alioi;^ balliuol^ seu ministro^ hro^ quo^ 

cumq^ • In cuius rei testimoniu has iras nras fieri fecimus patentes • 

Teste me ipo apud Wodestock decimo septimo die Julij • anno regni 

nri quarto . p bre de p^uato sigillo ^ Duppi / 

26. WiGTON. — Hoc sc'ptu Cyrog*ffatu testatur qd duodecimo die 
CDartij anno regni regis Edwardi q*nto ita couenit inter Johm de Wyge- 
ton ex vna pte % Bendcm de Fapecastf ex alni • videlc3 • qd ^dcus 

between the park of Caldebeck and Ruddestangill, near the river Caldewe,* containing bj 
the pole of the forest, 60 acres ; to hold of the king, to him and his heirs, by paying G0«. 
annually into the Exchequer ; and that the said John might rid the place and put it into 
cultivation, and inclose it with a small ditch and low hedge, according to assise of the forest. 
For Inglewood being a Royal forest, see Statute 4, Hen. 7, Chap. 6. 

26. This is a mortgage dated 13th March, 1277, and made by John de Wigton to Bene* 
diet de Papecaster, of 4 acres of ground in a place called the Priest-ridding, within the 
township of Wigton, for 20#. sterling, with conditions for redemption within a given time. 

* That is Cold-water, ewe being tbe same as the present eam in Frendi. So, also Kald^aa, is tiie 
name of a river near Harinfiord, in Iceland, and means CoU-rwer. It is there pronounced Kald-tm, 
the Icelandic aa being pronounced like the English ow in howe^MadsniMt Icekmd, p^ 108.^. 

Leaf Grants.'^Wigton. 407 

Jotines impignorauit ^dco Benedco quatuor acrs rre cu 6ib3 suis ptnt' 
que iacent in quodain loco vocatur le Prestriddynge in villa de Wyge- 
ton p viginti solidis Srlingo'2fL quos ab eodm mutuo recepit sub hac 
forma • videlic3 • qd si ^dcus Jollnes non solSit n^ satisfe^t ^dco Be- 
nedco v) llredibj suis de ^dcis viginti solidis in fo sci micliis pxo seqn? 
post datam istius sc'pti / ^dcus Jolines concedit p se % lledib3 suis - qd 
^dce quatuor acre tire cu suis ptin' remaneant dco Benedco % lied suis 
imppelm put in carta feofamenti que t'ditur in custodia Gilbi Bracia- 
toris ex ut^q; assensu tanq^m in eq4i manu custodiend vsq^ fm sci CPictiis 
Archangel sup*dcm pleni^ in se continet' • Et pdcus Bends concedit p 
se * hred suis qd si ^dcus Jollnes vi lied sui solSint « satis/ecint dco 
Bendco de ^dcis viginti solidis in fo sci CDicllis arkanget sup'dco ' qd 
tuc ^dce qnuor acr ^ cu suis ptin. ^dco Jofcni « hed suis reStant x 
remaneant in ppetuu sine aliq" cot*dc6ne ^dci Bendci vi hred suo^l et 
qd carta feofamenti ^dci extunc p nuUo heatur in quo^cumq^ manib3 
deueSit . Et ^dcus Johanes concedit p se « linJdib3 suis qd acquietet 
j^dcm Bendcm et hredes suos de quadam apnua iSrma quatuor solido-;^ 
capitali dno feodi illius p ^dca ft-a annu;itl debita . In cui^ rei testim 
^senti sc*pto admodu cyrog^Tatim confecto tam dcus Jofcs q*m^dcus Be- 
neds al9natim sigilla sua apposuerut - Dat apud Rounthwayt die *anno 

27. Sciant omnes tarn ^sentes q*m futuri qd ego Johannes de Wyge- 
ton miles filius q^dam dni Walft de Wygeton dedi Ricardo Skot tres 
acras terre cu ptinedis que iacent in feodo meo de Wygeton in loco qui 
vocat' le Colemyre iuxta terram q*m Wilis sutor 19 Walrus Lentyn tenent 
in eodem loco . qua^ unu caput se extendit vers^' Docwrarig* * aluid 
cap' se extendit vsq^ Aynolfbergh . Tenend eidem Ricardo * hered suis 
St suis assign atis . Reddendo inde annuatlmichi * heredib3 meis viginti 
denarios argenti . Hiis testib3 dns CDichele De Hartecla tunc vie Cum- 
ber! . Thom de Neuton . Rico de Kirkebryd militib3 . Robto de 

27. John de Wigton, knight, son of the late Walter de Wigton, gave to Richard Skot 3 
acres of land in his fee of Wigton, in a place called Colemyre, near the land which WiUiam 
Che shoemaker and Walter Lintyn held in the same place, of which land, one head extended 

408 Lajf Grants — Thwmtm. 

WartheMryt . Rico de Boyuill • Rdbto de Joneby • Akno Delreby • 
Johanne de Crokjday • Johanne de Berwya • Rofcto de Kircoswald 
dico . Et aKis. — ( Abstract} 

28. THOBNTaif, m Yohblshire. — Omnibj Robt^ fii Ro^i ctici de 

Thornton Ssdlm in DSo 5 No3itis me reroisisse rdaxasse ^ omnino de me 

« lied meis inppetini quetii clamasse Ric fii Ade Bernard de Welbum 

totu iua % clamiii cjd vnq'm hui in vno tofto ^ croft* et vna bouai tre cu 

I^ in villa « territorio de Thornton iuxta foston que idm Ric damat v t 

tus suu post decessn Alic Gower nepotis sue • Hiis testib5 Dnis Thofii 

de BouUon . Johe Morin . Auketino Salvayn . CDilitib3 . Witto Gowere • 

Johe de iaiyn§ . Johe de Foston • Ro^o de Scrinsale . Nicho de Clax- 

ton . Wiflo Louell . Nicho fit ei^ . Rogb fabro . Wal?o Playce de 

eadm . Witto « Gilberti de Lflling . . Et alijs . Dat* apud Thornton 

die veSis p^a post festu Sci . Nichi epi anno regni Regis Edwardi Scij 

1^ conquests f^^^suho.— (Abstract.) 

29- Sciant jPsentes ^ futuri qd ego Johes fii Wiffi Jacobe de Thornton 
dedi Rico Bernard de WeSburn totu pratu meu iacente in le IJoethkef 
in le langdailes in ?it*io de Thornton iuxta fosseton Tenend, &c. In 
cui^, &c., hijs testib3 Rdbo de Thornton . Johe a fosseton . Ro^o de 
Scrinsale . Nicolao de Claxton . Ro^ le smythe de Thornton . Thofil 

towards Docwrayrig,* and, another, to Aynolf bergh, to hold to the said Richard, by the 
payment of 20 silver pennies annually. Michael de Harda, the first witness to this deed, 
was for 12 successive years, from 14 to 26, Edw. l^ sheriff of Cumberland ; and father of 
the famous, but, unfortunate, Andrew de Harda, Earl of Carlisle, 

28. This charter, which is dated at Thornton on Friday next, after the feast of St. 
Michael the bishop, in 1833, is a release from Roger, son of Roger, derk of Thornton, to 
Richard, son of Adam Bernard, of Welbum, of all the right he had in on« toft and crofts 
and one bovate of land in the ville and territory of Thornton, near Foston, which the said 
Richard claimed as his right after the death of his neice, Alice Gower. 

29. By this deed, which is dated on Monday, next after the feast of St Michael the 
Archangel, 1336, John, son of William James, of Thornton, gave to Bernard Welbume all 

* I think that Dock^wray means Waier»r(m, It is the name of a street in Penrith, of one in Keadal, 
and of a hamlet in Matterdale, in Cumberland. Duck and Dodc have generally in their meaning a refe- 
rence to water ; and wray is the same as the French me, a street, and rom in Engtith} Dock is from de 
auc of the water. Hence duck, a water bird, to duck, to bathe or dip or plunge in water. Nurses in the 
north of England call a drink, a ducky. A dock is a place to hold water in. The plants of the Dock 
tribe have their name from delighting in moist soils, or growing by river sides. Docker, too, is the 
name of a beck that fidls inta the Lune on Lune Sand&—< Aorrirat't JDeic. (fBng.p. 80.> 

Lcn/ Grantss — Kirkby-Irektk. — Thorp Arches. 409 

Jacobe « alijs • Daf apd Wdbura iaxta BulS die lune px post f ta sa 
CDidlis arcangeli anno Regni Regis Edwardi rcij post ^questu dedmo. 

80. Pateat vniSsis p ^sentes me Johem de Kirkebt-Iheleth chiuair 
ordinasse <« fecisse dilcm michi in xpo Wifim de Berdesey fidelem attor- 
natu men ad delittendii seisynam p me % in noie meo Thome de Kirkeby 
frat' meo ^ Thome de Berdesey % Henr de Waynscharth vic^ Ecciie 
de Elirkeby in manerio meo de Emelton cu omib5 ptinent-*^ suis except 
quibusds terr ^ t£n&s vocal Schaton % Stangere prout in quads carta 
^fatis Thome Thomeq^Henrp ^faf Johem inde facta plenin^^ continet'ratu 
% gHum bitur quicquid idm Wilis noie meo fecit in ^missis • In cui^ rei 
testiom huic sc^pto sigillu men apposui . Hijs testibj • Jolle de Bam* 
ton • Johe de Eglesfeld • Johe del hames . Johe de Cambton • Johe Bouth 
^ aliis . Dat^ apud Kirkeby in Foumeys die Jovis px an festii pente- 
cos^ Anno Regni Regis • Edwardi rtij a conq An^ q^'dragessimo Scdo. 

SI. Pateat vniv^sis p ^sentes qd ego Johes de Kirkeby-Irelith chiuair 
dedi concessi « hac ^senti carta mea confirmaui Thome de Kirkeby 
frat' meo Thome de Berdesey « Henr del Waynskarth vicar Ecciie de 
Kirkeby maneriii meu de Emelton cu ptinent^ suis ^ ad ^dcm maner^ 
spectani except-^ quibusdam rris % tentis in ^dco ma&o que voca{ Scha- 
ton . Et ego, &c. In cui^, &c. Hijs testib3 Johe de Bamton • Johe 
de Eglesfeld • Johe del hames . Johe de Cambton . Johe Bouthe is 
alijs . Dat apud Kirkeby in Foumeys die Jovis px** an festu ^entecosr* 
Anno regni Regis Edwardi rdj . a conq. Angt q^'dragesimo scdo. 

32. Thorp Arches. — Sciant oms tam ^sentes q*m futfi qd ego Rob 

his meadow lying in the Noethker, in the Langdales, in the township of Tliornton, near 
Foston, in the parish of Buhner, Yorkshire. 

SO. Sir John de Kirkehj-Ireleth, knight, here ordains William de Berdesey, his attorney, to 
give seizin for him, and in his name, to his brother Thomas de Kirkby, Thomas de Berde* 
sey, and Henry of the Waynscharth, vicar of Kirkeby, in his manor of Emelton, with its 
appurtenances, except in certain lands and tenements called Schaton and Strangere, as was 
expressed in a deed made to them by the said Sir John. Dated at Kirkeby in Fumess, 
in Lancashire, on the Thursday, next after the feast of Pentecost, in 1369. 

SL This is the deed referred to in the preceding power of attorney, and of the same 

32. Robert Dune of Thorp de Arches, near York, grants to Helen, daughter of his son 
Ralph, three acres of land in the territory of Thorp, namely, half an acre at Langerane, 

410 Lay Grants.— 'Tinmouih. 

dune de Thorp de Arches dedi helene iilie Radulfi filij inei tres acras 

tre in Pritorio de thorp . s . dimidia acram ad langerane jacente int tram 

luce filij laurencij * in? Sra hugois de jPstegate . Ite . j . roda sup enge- 

bang in? 8ras §d&l/lf. . ite . j . roda ad b*mwath int terra luce « n-a Thofii 

filii martini Ite . j . roda ad dune-keldes int tra luce * tra hugois filii 

ade . Its . j • rodam ad houthes in? ?ra luce * tra JoMs fris ei^ . Ite . 

j . roda in skoecrofl in? ?ra luce « ?ra T. fit martini . Ite brembelirode 

jx* eccliam in? ?ram luce « S:a Thorn filii martini . Ite . tres rodas ad 

langelandes in? ?ras luce ^ hugo de ^stegate % T. filij martini . Ite . j . 

roda sup stocches in? ttam luce ^ Jobis fris ei^ % tercia partem tofti mei 

in villa de Thorp . s . ppinquiorem ptem domui alani fit Jacobi . cu pti- 

nentijs ^dce fi-e ^tinentib3 . Hiis tetib3 dno Rob vicario de bdesay 

Alano stel de Thorp • Thorn fit Johis . Alano fit Jacobi . Thoma filio 

martini • ^ aliis mttis. — (Abstract.) 

38. TiNMOUTH. — Sciant ^sentes % fut'i q ego Nicholaus fili^ Radulfi 
dedi « concessi * hac ^senti carta mea cofmaui Witio Hyndeley unam 
dimidiam acram ?re in campo de Tynem que jacet inter ?ram ^dicti 
Witii * ?ram Wiffi Cuherd ex parte boriali crucis de Seton' Hnd ^ Te- 
nend ^dco Wilio % heredib3 suis vi suis assignatis de me ^ liedib3 meis 
vi meis assignatis libere q^ete bn % in pace cu libertatib3 % aisyamentis ad 

lying between the ground of Luke, son of Lawrence, and of Hugh of Prestegate ; also one 
rood upon Engebang, between lands of the aforesaid ; also one rood on Bramwath, be- 
tween the land of Luke, and of Thomas, son of Martin ; also one rood on Dunekeldes, 
between land of Luke, and of Hugh, son of Adam ; also one rood at Houthes, between 
land of Luke, and of his brother John ; also one rood in Skoecrofl, between land of Luke, 
and of Thomas, son of Martin ; also Brembeli-rood, near the church, between the land of 
Luke, and of Thomas, son of Martin ; also S roods at Langelandes, between the lands of 
Luke and Hugh of Prestegate, and Thomas, son of Martin ; also one rood upon Stocches^ 
between the land of Luke, and John his brother ; and a third part of his tofl in the ville of 
Thorp, namely, the part nearest to the house of Alan, son of James. — (No Date.) 

83. Tliis is a grant from Nicholas, the son of Ralph, to William Hindley, of half an acre 
of ground, in a field of Tinmouth, which lay between the ground of the said William, and 
that of one William Cuherd, and on the north side of the Cross of Seaton. From the hand- 
writing of the original, which is bold and fine, the charter seems to belong to the beginning 
of the thirteenth century. << The Cross of Seton" was probably the obelisk called the 
Monks Stone, and of which Grose gave a drawing ; and an apocryphal traditional account 
of its being set up by one of the Delaval family, who killed a monk of Tinmoth, there, for 

Lay Grants. — TinmoutJu 4 1 1 

^dcam &am ptineiitib3 • Reddendo inde annuati m^ ^dco Nicholao x 
heredib3 meis vi meis assignatis ipe % bedes sui ui assignati vnu obolu 
ad festu sci Martini in yeme pro omni Suicio seculari exaccoe consuetu- 
dle % demanda . Et ego jPdcs Nicholaus ^ liedes mei ui assignati ^dco 
Wiiio % hedibj suis vi assignatis ^dcam uram contra omes botes % femi- 
nas waranti3abim^ aq^tab; % defendem^ inppetuu . In cui^' rei testi- 
inoniii ^senti sc^to sigillu meu apposui • Hiis testibus . Thorn de 
Fischeburn tuc senescalio . Ada de Pykering . Nichoi de Bacwrht • 
Nichot de la Hay • Johann Aurifab"" • Johann fit Suayn % multis 
aliis. — (Sj d.) 

cutting off and carrying away a pig's head from the spit at Seaton Deleval. The inscrip- 
tion on the base of the cross, ** O Horror to kill a man for a pigges head/' is of very 
modem date. Tlie cross, I have no doubt, was set up like the cippi or shafts of the Ro- 
mans, as a boundary, between the lands of Tinmouth and Monkseaton, or else as an index 
or guide to travellers ; for it stood where the way from Morpeth through Earsdon, branched 
off one way to Tinmouth, and the other to Preston and North Shields. In 1320, one 
Henry Faukes, of West Backworth, granted to the prior and convent of Tinmouth, way- 
leave through his grounds for leading slate from their quarries in West Backworth, to cover 
their houses with ; and released to them all right he had in a certain part of tiie moor 
called Bade Stone MooTy on the west side of Preston, containing 60 acres, and extending 
in length from the way which led to Billing Mill, and thence to Murton, and the culture 
called the '* Blake Chesters," in the field of East Chirton, and thence to the north street 
which led from Tinmouth to the Rodikme Gallows. The RoodsUmet were crosses. In 
the reference to a plan of the manor of Tinmouth made in 1757, and remaining at Nor- 
thumberland house in Brand's time, the field in which the Monk-stone stood, is called the 
'' Cross Close Pasture."— ^iSiee Brands Newccutk^ iu 90 and 9hJ 

412 An Account if East Sh^fioe Chapel 

LIII. — An Account qf an ancient Ruined Chapcly at East Si^oe^ in Ifte 
Parish qfHarthum^ and County of Nortinmberland^ ly Ae Rev* Jehu 
Hodgson, Secretary f communicated to the Sodety in a Letter to John 
AdamsoDy Esq., Secretary. 

Dear Sir, 

Tradition had immemorially pointed out a plot of ground on the 
south side of Shaftoe-crags as the site of the Chapel-yard, and Chapel 
of East Shaftoe ; but no record or other evidence, till within the last 
two years, had been brought forward to prore that such an institution 
had ever actually existed there. 

The place, pointed out as the Chapel-yard, is in the form of an oblong 
square, and consists of about an acre of dry sandy ground which rests 
on rock of the kind called MiUstone Grit. It has been fenced-in witii a 
deep ditch, and an earthen walL A large and solitary ash-tree is growing 
within the north side of its area, and is still called the Chapel Tree. Its 
situation is a few furlongs from the west end of the ancient village of 
East Shaftoe ; and where the Shafloe-crags begin to run in a hoary and 
and lichen-covered precipice towards the west. The road from East 
Shafloe, by Shafloe-grange to Deneham runs on its north side ; and, 
like similar institutions in many other places, it has formed the western 
extremity of the village to which it was an appurtenance. Of the ex- 
tent of the village littie more can now be guessed at, than from its ruins 
dtiU forming two long lines of foundations of houses, with a space for 
a broad street or town-green between them. These lines may still be 
traced running westward, for 200 yards or more, behind the old Man- 
sion-houiae of the Shafloes and Vaughans, through a thick grove of trees 
towards the chapel. 

An Account qfEast Shij^he Chapel. 418 

The middle part of the area of the Chapel-yard is covered wiHi foun- 
dations of buildings lying in lines, some of i^hich form such sharp and 
accurate right angles to each other, that it required no fanciful imagina- 
tion to trace among the turf-covered reioains the site of the chancel, 
nave, porch, and of a southern transept, as well as of other parts of the 
edifice or appendages to it, the use of which, could not, perhaps, be 
well ascertained without clearing away the earth and rubbish within 
them ; and, even then, conjecture might have had to employ its versa- 
tile and theorizing powers to tell us for what purpose they had been in- 
tended. The appearances above ground, however, corroborated the tra- 
dition respecting them, and strengthened the probability that at some 
remote period the. chapel at least had been consecrated and set 
zp^xt for holy uses ; but proof was still wanting to convert the probability 
into fact, till last year, when a document, sent to me from the Tower of 
London, by Henry Petre, Esq., the learned and liberal Keeper of the 
Records there, fully effected that conversion. 

In 1378, an inquest was holden before William Ergun, the IQug's 
escheator for Northumberland, to enquire before a jury, respecting se- 
veral benefactions to chapels, chantries, and hospitals, the revenues of 
which had been diverted from the uses for which they were given ; and 
among other things which this enquiry brought to light, it showed that 
the ancestors of John de Shaflowe founded a chantry in the chapel of 
Shaflowe, and endowed it with five score acres of arable and meadow 
ground, to find a chaplain to celebrate divine services there for the souls 
of the king and his ancestors, and of the ancestors of the Shafiowes, 
which chantry had for a long time been withdrawn ; but the jurors 
further said, that the Vicar of Hartbum took the profit of the said lands 
to his own immediate use, to the damage of the King and the found- 
ers, and that the land and meadow were worth SOs. a-year.* One can 
hardly hope to meet with the record of this endowment, or with any 
very definite information about it ; but in the following very meagre and 

* Inqdsitb capte i^ud Corbpgg coram Willielino de Ergun escaetore regii in eontitatu North- 
umTSr xz die Jun« anno regni Edwardi tertij per lacnunentum Roberti de Louthre « aliorum juratonim 
. Qui dicunt quod anteoesaores Jobannis de Shaftowe ftindayerunt cantariam in Capella de Shaftowe, 
VOL. IL 3 K 

414 An Aicwmt ofEart Shaftoe ChaptL 

dtitel«68 pedigfM, kiodly copied for lae, with various other documdnts, 
by W. C. Trevelytiti, of Wallington^ £sq^ from a MS. in the library of 
Mifts Correr, at Eshton Hall^ in Cravetii generation vi points out, 
Thomas Shaftoe as one of his family, who alienated a part of his pos- 
sessions to religious uses% And Thomas de Schaftowe is certainly a 
person who very frequently occurs as a witness to deeds in and about 
the year 1549. 

The family of Eoliot were barons by tenure, in Northamptonshire, in 
the time of Henry the Second^* and branches of it continued to flourish 
in different parts of England, in the time of Henry the Third ; but I 
have no where seen them mentioned as pix^rietors of lands in North- 
umberiand, nor any notice of such a property as the Fenwick and 
Foliott f^. Roger Folioth is witness to a deed printed above, at p. 39^, 
but from the ntuation in which he there stands, he seems to have been 
a Cumberland man. It is, indeed, difficult to give credit to the early 
part of this pedigree ; and not to suspect that a fbw df the flrst genera- 
tions of it (as of many other pedigrees which pretend to commence near 
the time of the Norman conquest, but are unaccompanied with dates 
or authentic evidence) are not as much indebted for their existence in 
writing to the flattery of our early hearlds, as many of the British 
kings of England and Scotland are to our old Monkish historians. Fa- 
milies, like nations, have often the source of their origin emblazoned 
with the artificial light of &ble, beyond the false glare of which all is 
savage and dark. There can, however, be no reason for doubting the 
authenticity of this pedigree fVom the fifth or sixth generations ; and 
evidence may still arise to carry it higher, but in another form. 

ad quam caBtariam dederant t-xx. acras terre « prad ad inveniendum mppllannm diyina ibidem cele- 
braturum imperpetuum pro animabus reg;is « antecessorum suorum % antecessorum de lea Shaftowes, 
que quidem cantaria subtrahitnr per longa tempora : dicunt etiam quod vicaiius de Hertbonrn capit 
proficumn terrarum pradictaram ad naum proprium ad dunpniun ngia % ^t^^^tumm canfearitt : terra 
% pratum valent p ann. zxz s. &c. &c.— ^JEjr« Orig. in Tw, Ltmd.) 
* Liber Niger, 213 ; Banks t., 85. 

Shqfhe Pedigree. 



IWlmt aMttiaOf JtavQ been nndt to th« 9m» u ^t Eshtotuk^U* they are printed within brackets.] 

I. Quram F0i40iT^MCQO4lWDaf Sir John f rtjpt, lord of Fenwiflfc^Awwg^ ^u. of Hoger Wdwick^lord of Shaftoe Craggi. 

II. I. BniA]rFouorr,«pdS. JomvFoftio^bothdiodwitlioutiMie. 

SL DiOMAS PoLioT named himidf Shaftoe, after the lands he liad by his mother.aaOrisacre, dau. of Ewine Comine, Esq. 


IIL Ewim Sbavtok.=bAlicb, dan. of John Pudsey^ Esq. 

m !■■■■ Ill ii i i>i > i n i inMm »ii imiM ' i '»t I iii^ m iwi »i i i m <i 

IV. Rkvnald SH4nx>B.sUunsA, dau. of Sbr John ClaTerin^ Axon, wife of John Strother, Esq. Jahb, wife of John Elwick, 

i flf£l^»£sq. 

V. 1. 




DMAstnanos awnieA a dxeu ^loair f^mcfL Cef« «f tWe mne ▼•• Finest to a Cy phe nt w —.*,. .. dan. of Bic. Grey, 
of Wm. Blackett, Esq. anddied deed without date, but made about im] (Hkt, 2tortk. \ of Horton, Beq. 
4 jk WN6. part 111* 99l i.,p, %) 



tJteSJTOK gye i o ertrt plindi 4o reUtf one usea. rOneofthianaaie.occnnaaawitnsss|o=> dau. of John Horton, 

deeds in ia», in^HML UrorOHimS., II. CXI, m. T «/ in l94St, in ApAi*. JKif. /. UB; andin ~ 
1949, in Hiit. Jiortkmtb, 11. i, 814^ no.ia.j III, tV. 0, 17, 1&3 

VU, JU.Jovv Shaitqb Dived in tliie time of Richard tbeo" dan. of Tha Lisle^ of Felton. % Wiluak Sbaftob mar. a 

flecoodaooeraBgtainfMBt^inpAiaj I dan. ff Goncpi 4ak0> £i^ 


Vin. HkmiT SBAfTOKapAMifB, dau. otyha, 

I lAWSon, Eaq, 


8. Blbavor S.ssEDM0in> Dblatal. 

9. Xuis ai^EoanTCocpnJbq. 
4 .... SusJoHM FooLB, ofKedDi 





IX. L WiiLUM SH4jrroB mar. .... dau. .and heir S. T&omas Sdaftok pianied a dau. of Jomr CAKrufOTOir, Esq. 

I -^ ri 

X. L JAMMaBAnoBnHttf{ed....^m.Qf8lr|l^qo)BeFfnwlel« ^^nafBrteAnoamaqied .... 4«M.«[i4bairo|....P)9d|on. 

of Wallington, Knights 8. Edwakd Sbavtos. 

1 I I i' J 

XI. 1. WiLUAMSBArroB,Eiq.>B.... dan. andheirof .... 8. Gbbau> teAivoB married a dau. ofWrFsnler, by whoMl» bad 

„ I Fenwic^ Esq, a son Jo^iet. who married BIabt and by her ha^.^son 

'^^^^^^^■^ Mattkno, who cWs. pt 

S. Javbs Sraftob marred EuzASBm Milu, and had issue Thomas and Maty, 
4. 'Dpoh SnAFTCw maK. £^jx. CaBaawBUb, andjhad4ss)ie £UfL and Mary. 

& Babtholombw Sharob married Uhsula SwimuBNB, aodby her had fssuaooia sea, CMtttpUr, and thvf 
daughters, Tis. 
J. JElcomtr 8.. marv^ed. Jiri«^, to Sir Mm Zmu, bf wt^om she had WUKmmf Jakn, Tkpwis, Jozies, 
and IsabeU:~-*econiBy, married Ntc*olat Merlaw, by whom »e had JWcmAm and JtooeK :--and, 
Uird^, to John Bmurne^yn ^bqni ahe bad J^m, 
% Jane S., wife of WmmmJQrimmdk 
SL Ifory, wife of Tkomuu Trpfter, by whom she had Ckrittopker and Smma m urt . 


III H> I1I | I M l p »l»| I 


^ AjnaroBSBAntiB,* priest 

4. isABBLL S. manied Mr. Londne. 




8. EoBBBT teArroB 



4 1flCHABI.SL 

e. TaoKAaa 

— n 

7 GiB«fBn& 
a Jonra 


XIV. I. Wdxiam Shaftob, Esq. of J3aTington. married Tas would seem=B & nacnrsi. 8. married a dau of ... . F^pdsn. 


br the £sbtoa4MU MSsl 0«<^lM |Ce«fortb, cf BidaU. 

a OBosiaB Shaftob. 

4l Jambs Sbaitob. 

a DoBoiHT Sbastob, Wife of Michael StokeU. 

XV. Om*iu> SAaviqb, of Bavington, feorth son of WHliam Shaftoe. «* Eunuwntj d»v. qf gliomas Swinburne, of NaiferVMi. 

I I I I I 

XVL X, C^i/naur StaanoB, of Bavington. ^ Ibabbix, dau. of 

gliq. eldest son and heir, ancestor of BcwBertram, 
e Shaftoas of BAVIVOTON. Ac [ ofBrenUeylj 
•ei«htt to Ka^Man Ma 1561, feL 00; >H 
he had a second wife, but her name is 
not there mentioned. J 
a ALBXAinMin & married Ahmb, dan. of Tha Fenwlok. of 

aSavnoira marriedadaikof ...... Goni|«|ivoo4,.ofBidM 

TQuiBTe of Ryle.1 

4. Mabkb Shaftob fof Mewcastie-upon-Trnc, ^ 

he was mayor in 154a He married MABOAan*. dau. of 

lbkb Shaftob fof Newcastle-upon-Trne, of which town 

.... Riddel, of Newcastle, and was buried in St Nicholas* 

I'USSfeJS??*- .^"^ flhaftoes ofWHIT WORTH and 
BBNWELL. whose pedigrees are given In fliMtees UL 
804-39a are descended from this marriage.] 

aNiKiAif Shaftob married the widow of Bates, of 





I I I i 

a BiXra BHAFTOB. __«.» 

f. YtiLLUM Shaftob manrlad thfraunl of WSUaiB Fcn- 

wick, of Wellington, 
a Stoob S^fiob msrried Mfm, dau. of Ralph Bwip. 
bume, of Widdrington. iQiuete if tUs sKoald not 
be lUiph Widdrington.1 
a Rambolbh Shaftob married the sister of Dsmid-Cpr« 

naby, ot Halton. 
la Hsif iT SBAvreB matried ^ubabvih, sister of Wm. 
Setby, of Neweas^e. 
B^ Surteu kat Edward the temth eon, a$td SampwH 
theeiepemthj andMarIk, i»hi9p9dist^,dtjt^ 

iMABOABBT a wifepf Baqvb* of Coibrifitt 
EuBABB3B,a CTheHarlelanMaiM|,>iM/«9^^3 
wifeof JoHH Bbadfobo, of Bradford. 
a JAifB a wife of TBo. FBifwiCK, of Littleharle. 
a Amm, wife of JpHN Oolb, of Ogle Castle. 


416 An Account tfEast Shufioe Chapel 

But that a chapel existed at East Shaftoe m former times^ proofs of s 
higher species of evidence than either tradition or records have lately 
been discovered. On May 17) 1831, Lady Decies employed a party of 
workmen to dig among its ruins, with the hope of finding on its floor 
some monumental device or inscription ; or in the earth below the floor 
some evidence of the interment of human bodies. I was present when 
they commenced their labours. At first they were directed to make a 
cast 6 feet broad, from south to north, in front of the line in which it 
was supposed the rails before the altar might have run. At about 4 
feet deep, and in the middle of the trench, a course of thick flag-stones 
with holes in them for fixing the posts of a wicket in, evidently marked 
the spot along which the rails had run ; and within it, at the north-east 
comer of the building, and at about S feet from the siuface, and about 
10 inches above the flagging for the altar nuls, the workmen came to a 
sandstone slab 6 feet 9 inches long, S feet broad at the head, 2 feet 5 
inches at the foot, 6 inches thick, and bearing devices as represented 
in the wood-cut in the next page. 

These, I apprehend, are the funereal symbols of a warrior and his 
wife-— the shears and left hand cross being emblematic of the lady ; and 
the sword, shield, and other cross, of the gentleman ; but the bearing 
on the shield — ^three crosses moline, are no where given, as far as I 
have seen, to any branch of either the Foliot or Shaftoe family. 

This stone was regularly embedded in lime and lying square with the 
walls, and did not seem to have been moved since it was first laid down. 
Perhaps it was a memorial stone of the founders of the building. It was, 
however, carefully raised and replaced in its original position ; but though 
the ground below it was dug through down to the rock, no bone, or 
other trace of human remains, was found to prove that interments had 
been made in the chapel, and, consequently, that it had been conse- 
crated as a place of sepulture. A wide trench was also made along the 
south wail of the chapel, but there, as within the altar rails, no human 
bones were found ; but the openings in the wall for a door and a win- 
dow remained. 

The whole chapel, inside measure, is about 66 feet long. The 

Jn AceotaU ofMtat Shqfhe C%wt 417 

south transept about 14 feet, square* and the chancel 15 feet long and 
4 feet broad. The opening between the nave and chancel had been 
walled up } and fq)pearances on their floors showed that both of them 
had been used as dwelling-houses, or as bams or stables. There were 
strong marks of fire on the middle of the chancel floor. 

I think it probable that the transept ^>pended to the south side of 
the naVe was the chantry where the services were done for the 100 

41S An Account of East Skqftoe Chapel 

acres of laird, the proceeds of irldcli Ind been ^tMbawn from their i 
tended ums so early m 197S $ and tliat die mt of the chapd was oMre 
ancient than the cbairtrf • 

Mr. Forster (Lord Decies' agent» to vfaom the estate of East Skaflioe 
now belongs) told me tiiat the shafts of mines near the site of the 
chapel-yard, were those of a colliery, which was worked not many 
years since ; and that a large stone basin, believed to have been the 
bowl of a font, formerly lay in or near the Chapel-yard ; but that after 
the coUiery ceased to be worked, this bowl was thrown down one of 
the shafts by some idle people. The coals of this colliery were of the 
splint or kennel kind, and of very fine quality, but the seam thin. 

I am, dear Sir, your's truly, 


Ncwbiggmg'btf'the^SeOf Sept. 7f 1831. 

Mcomt qfTm Emm InKripHau. 419 

LTV.—Accottnt qftmo Soman Inscriptiotts, in a Letter from Mr. C. 
Hodgson, to John AdamsoDj Etq.^ Secretary. 


The above is a representation of a Roman Tombstone* found on Sept. 
9Qt 18S9> in cutting down Gallow-hill. near this city, for the pur- 
pose of improving tJie great mail-road from Fenritfa to Carlisle. It wae 
found about four feet below the surface* and with its face downwards. 
It measures 5 feet 4 inches high, and S feet 9 inches broad in its widest 
part. A rude Cminthian pillar and numerous graves were found at the 
same place. The inscription* I understand, should be read thus :— 



Which ma,y be Englished thus x—Sacred to the Gods that wui upon 

420 Accotmt qfTrvo Roman JrucHptions. 

departed sprits. AureUa AureUa lived ihirtJf-one years, Ulpu$ ApoU' 
naris set t^ this stone to Us most beloved veffi. 

L The stone bearing this inscription 
I was found in the river Eden, about 
half-a-mile below Beaumont, and two 
I miles from the station on the Roman 
Wall, at Bnigh-upon-Sands. It is 
twenty live inches high, nineteen inches 
I broad, and one foot thick. The let- 
' tering on the bottom part of it 
is much defaced ; but I give you as 
correct a copy of it as I can. Some 
time since I sent a sketch of it to my 
brother, your fellow secretary, and he 
told me in a letter that it had been " an 
altar erected to Jupiter, the best and greatest of the Grods, by a miliaria 
equitata cohort of German soldiers, called Vangiones, which was com- 
manded by a Prefect, whose first name was Pius, and the second, per. 
haps, Secundus. The last line but one seems to have contained his 
agnomen : and the last, in sigla or note^ the reason for dedicating 
the altar. The sigla N. R., in the second line, may be synonymous to 
C. R. in several inscriptions in Gruter and Horsley, and to C. L. in 
those above at p. 91, and in English may mean — by nation Romans, 
llie cohors miliaria equitata, as has been shown by Mr. Thomas 
Hodgson, in the Newcastle Antiquarian Society's Transactions, con- 
sisted of 760 foot soldiers and 240 cavalry. The Vangiones were a 
people of fielgic Gaul, on the Rhine, and their capital at Worms. One 
Tribune of this cohort left a stone to the memory of a most charming 
daughter, at Walwick Chesters, on the RcHnan Wall ; a second, an altar 
to Hercules ; and a third, a tablet recording some work that had been 
done by it under his direction, at Risingham, on the river Rede. 

I am, Sib, your obedient Servant, C. HODGSON. 

CarSsU, Dec. 18. 1831. 


'«* The names of Penoos and Placet in the Brinkburne ChaituUry, and Northumberland PiM Rolliy are 
arranged alphabiticaUr under Bumkboakb Paioar and Pips Rolls ; and the names of the rersone, who 
attested the difllerent Charters printed in this Tolume, lare giren under Witnbssks. 

AssEwiCK, 324. 

AcUiiigton, 322. 

Acton, 319, 324. 

Adam, son of Uctred, hia gnat to Beatiiee de 

MoUe, 388, 380. 
Adston, Robert, gent, 325. 
Adjson, John, gent., 320. 
Akehalgfa, 220. 
Akdd, 321. 
Akennde, 335 ; Dr., 168-158, 182 ; Thomas, gent, 

318 322. 
Alanus fit Waldef, 400. 
Albemarle, Cicely, counten of, her gisnt to Caldre 

Abbey, 386, 387. 
Albon, Edward, yeom., 319; Martin, gent, 323; 

Martin, jeom., 319. 
Alder, Francis, gent, 319 ; Geoige^ gfStA., 324* 
Alemouth, 321, 325. 
Allerdale, 400. 
Alnewick, freeholders in, 310-^26 ; Abbey, itschar- 

tulary, 214-217. 
Andersons, fimuly o^ in Redeadale, 827-888 ; Henry, 

gent, 322 ; Robert, 367. 
Anfflo Saxons, their leamug, 19, 20, 21 ; derived 

£>m Ireland, 22 ; early churches, 29, 30, 31. 
Antiquities, found at Hesket, in Camberlaind» 106- 

109 ; near Rosebury Topping, in Yorkshire, 213 ; 

Roman, found on the eoaat of Ikirham, 110 ; at 

Burgh, in Cumberland, 116; aold in Newcastle, 

167 ; Peruvian, 248-251 ; South Americai^ 252- 

Anton-hill, 324. 
Archer, Rowland, gent, 323. 
Armlets of Jet found at Wbitley Castle, .206; a 

golden one, at Aspatria, 267« 268. 
Armorer, Alex., gent, 321 ; Ephndm, gent, 321, 

325; Tbomas, gent, 321, 825; Williain, gent, 

Armstrong, John, gent, 824. 
Ashtrees, 332. 
Aske, Conon, esq., 415, 

VOL. II. 3 L 

Askew, Dr. Adam, 155; Dr. AAtbony, 15^. 
Aspatria, golden armiet found near, 2679 268 ; Aa- 

patrich, 400. 
Atkinson, Nicholas, ^eom. ,318; Thomas, 326, 327 i 

William, the native or slave of Sir Rpger Wid^ 

rington, 390. 
Attercops free forest, 328. 
Augneta fi) Alzi ancipitis, 401. 
Averacres, now Overacresy 330. See H9ocr*^cr£t, 

334, 335. 
Aydon, 320, bis., 323, bis. 
Aynesley, Gawen, gent, 320, 322 ; William) gent., 

320, 322. 
Aynesley Hall, 320. 

Aynick, freeholders in, 320, ter. ; Htnychy 32^ 
Aynolfbergh, 407. 


Baker, Rev. Thomas, on Submarine Treei^ liO#. 

Barmoor, 321, 325. 

Bamehill, 325. 

Barrow, 324, 329. 

Barrow, Alex., gent, 324. 

Basset Hugh, rdieaaes to William de Denum, lands, 
&c, in Offerton and Pencher, 283;^Sir William, 
lord of Offerton, 274 ; grants lands, in O&rton, 
to John de Stayndrojp, 274, 275 ; and to John de 
Denum, 276 ;— William, releases to Jc^ de De- 
num all right in Offerton, 279. 

Batenhope, 333. 

Bates, Thomas, gent, 318, 322. 

Batie (? Bates), John, gent, 322. 

Bavington, 320, 323, bis. 

Bavington, Sir Henry, 817. 

Bayrde, William, g&t, 323. 

Bouinell, Georae, esq., 319 ; Geoige, gent, 319 ; 
John, sent, SSLJk. 

Bearle, 323. 

Bieaumont, Roman Altar, found near, 420l 

Beawfiront 320, 323. 
I Bebside, 317, 321. 
I Bechermet, 387, 388. 



Belfbrd, 321, 325, biB. 

Belhoiubonk, in Villa de Hale, 399. 

Bell, John, gent, 318, 322, 323, 325 ;.Mr. John 
on Roman Antiquities, 167 ; on the Remains of a 
Chapel near Low Ooaforth House, 243-245 : on 
a Bronze Statue of James II., 260-264; Mr. 
Thomas C. on the Roman Station, Rutupise, and 
Caesar's Landing in Britain, 369-380. 


Bellistre, 320, 324. 

Bellsheeles, 337. 

Bellj, John, yeom., 320. 

Belshaugfa, 323. 

Belsoe, 320. 

Bemerton, 386. 

Benedict, son of Thomas, 402. 

Benridge, 317, 322. 

Benwefi, 318, 322. 

Berdesayhe, grant of land in, 405. 

Berdesajhe, Thorn de, 409 ; WiUs de, 405, 409. 

Bernard, Ric fit Ade, de Welbum, 408. 

Bertram, Isabell, daur. of Roger of Brenkley, 415. 

Bewick, Edward, gent, 323 ; Robert, gent, 320. 

Bickerton, Freeholders in, 319, 324. 

Bingfield, 320. 

Birdhope, 337. 

Birckley HaU, 324. 

Birkley, 320. 

Birkheads, 31 a 

Birkhill, 328. 

Birleston, George, jeom., 319. 

BLshopricks, their original size, 11. 

Bitchfield, 320, 323. 

Bitleston, 319, 324. 

Blackbir(^ Russell, esq., on a kistvaen, near Jesmond, 

Blackbume, 333, 336. 

Blackbumehaugh, 336. 

Blackett, William, esq., 415. 

Blackhale, 323. 

Bkck-hatherwick, 331. 

Black-heddon, 320, 323. 

Blacopp, 329. 

Blagdon, 3ia 

Blenkinsopp, 320, 323. 

Blenkinsop, George, gent., 320,324; Thomas, esq., 
320 323. 

Bockenfield, 218, 318, 322. 

BoisviUe, Richard de, his grant to Caldre Abbey, 389. 

Boldon and Wardley, in Durham, boundaries be- 
tween, 127-129. 

Booteland, 324. 

Borishield^ 328. 

Borroden, 321. 

Bosworth, the Rev. J., on the origin and formation 
of the Gothic tonffues, 179-196. See Errata. 

Bowe John, sent, 318, 322. 

Bowes, Sir Robert, 326. 

Bradforth, 320, 325, John de, 415. 

Braciator, Gilbert, 407. 

Brady, Ral^, gent, 325. 

Brampton, Roman coins found at, 209-212. 

Brandling, Sir Francis, 319, 324; Sir Robert of 
Alnwick Abbey, 316. 

Brankshawe, 319. 
Branton, 324. 
Branxton, 321, 325. 
Brenkbome, 324. 
Brenkley, 322, bis. 
Brenshawe, 331. 

Brewster, the Rev. Mr., his anecdote of Dawes, 16L 
Brigse, Thomas, gent, 319 
Brinlbume, 310. 

Brinkburne Prionr, Abstract oi^its Chartulary, 214- 
223, to which the following is an index of persons 
and places mentioned in it See Errata, 

Agnes, daughter of Thomas, 218. 

AketOD, Henry de, 218; Nicholas de, 218. 

Alan, Prior of Brinkburn, 819. 

Angylic Richard son of, 22i. 

Arenis, Guiz de, 222. 

Atkil, son of Edmund, 221. See ErraUu 

Bailloel, Bernard de, 221. 

Bang, Wm.,222. 

Bertram, Roger, 217 pass., 218 pass., 219,222 bis. 
William, 217, 218. 

Blayketton, Robert de, 221. 

Blunville, William de, 218. 

Bokenfield, Adam de, 818 ; William de, 217, 219. 

Solum, Gilbert de, 222; James de, 222 bis. ; 
Walter de, 222. 

Boswilla, William de,219. 

Brien, Thomas, clerk, 217; William and Aenes 
219 bis. 

Buyllum, John, 822. 

Burnthing, Richard, 819. 

Butleston, William de, 221. 

Cambhus, Adam de, 220. 

Castelio, Thomas de, 282. 

Craurcoke, William de, 820. 

Edlingbam, John de, 821. 

Bslington, Alex, de, 819; John de, 817,819pasB. ; 
Robert de, 221 ; WillUm de, 818. 

Felton, Robert de, 819; Roger, son of WiU. de, 
816 ; William de, 882, 888. 

Fenwick, Thomas de, 888. 

Fits- Alan, Thomas, 880. 

Fitx-GeoflVey, John, 888 ; William, 880. 

Fits-Hugh, John, 880, 888; Roger, 288. 

Fits-John, Simon, 888. 

Fits-Michael, Michael, 888; Thomas, 881. 

FitcPayne, Roger, 21& 

Fiu. Robert, John, 888 ; Samuel, 888. 

Fits. Roger, Robert, 881. 

FitZ'Simone, John, 881, 883. 

Framlingtoo, Agnes, 819; Ambrose, 219; Jordan 
de, 219 ; Margery de, 819, 880 ; William de, 817, 
818 280* 

Frankelayne, Will., 21& 

Fraser Gilbert, 221. 

Freman, Richard, 218. 

Gamelthorpe, Robert, 217. 

Gillinge Stephen de, 221. 

Glanton, Robert de, 221 ; William de, 819. 

Gloucester, Thomas de, 888. 

Graystock, Ralph, 888. 

Gregory, Hugh, son of, 821. 

Haliwell, ' 

John de, Stp. 
Hawkehill, Nicholas de, 221. 
Heclawe, Ralph de, 219. 
Helye, Adam, son of, 880; Richard, rector of Hor- 

sley, 880. 
Henry, son of Da?id I., of Scotland, 881. 
Hilton, Robert de, 818. 




Brinkbunie Priory continucd.«-iPsBaov8. 
Hirling, Adam, and MaUIda, 219. 
Hirnyoge, Matilda, 820. 
HutredSlias, son of, 220,821. 
Jay, Alan, 220. 

Keaterne, John, son of Patrick, 280. 
Latun, William de, 219. 
Mauduit, Geoflfrey, (enoBeoualy printed Manduit,) 

Maufetur, Adam, 218. 
Mauger, Simon, son of, 221. 
Merlay, Richard de, 220; Rom de, 220. 
Mopper, Agnes, daughter of Benry, 222. 
Mora, Richard de. 218. 
Morwyke, Richard de, 218. 
Neuham, Robert de, 222. 
Newbigging, John de, 221. 
Northumberland, William, Eari of, 221. 
Oterington, Gregory de, 220. 
Paris, William, 221. 
Pigace, William, 218. 
Pigaz, Mildred, 219. 

Plessiz, John de, 221 ; Simon de, 221, 222. 
Prendwyke, Roger, 219. 
Prendwyke, Walter, 219. 
Pudsey, Hugh, bishop of Durham, 222. 
PuflVn, Wiirum de, 218. 
Pyon, Agnes, 220; John, 219, 220; WilL, 219, 

Raynald, John, 222. 
Roceline, Richard, son of, 218. 
Scaucebi, Ralph, 218; WilUam,218. 
Schotton, Gilbert de, and Adam his son, 221, 222; 

Margaret de, 222 ; Oliria de, 221 ; Rc^er de and 

William his son, 221, 222. 
Simon, Master of the Hospital of Westgate, 222. 
Slaver Henry, 222. 
Stamfordham, Robert de, 222. 
Strathbolgy, David de. Earl of Athole, 217. 
Sturdi, Thomas, 222. 
Terwhit, Adam de, 220; Agnes de, 220 ; Michael 

Toggesden, Will, de, 218. 
Trihampton, Ralph de,221. 
Tysun, German, 221. 
Umfraville, Alice, 221. 
UAan, Pope, his bull, 22S. 
Vesey, John de, 218, 221 ; William de, 221. 
Vigery, Hugh, 218 passim. 
Walden, John, son of, 820. 
Walter, Bishop of Durham, 223. 
Whelpington, Will, de, 220. 
Tetham, Ralph de, 221. 
TUf, WiU. son of, 220. 


Aketon, 218. 

Alnwick, 221. 

Babington, Mill of, 221. 

Barton, 221, 223. 

Brinkburn, 223. 

Corbridge, 222. 

Copuro, 222. 

Edlingham, 221. 

Evenwode, 218, 223. 

Felton Church, 222; great and little, 217; litUe, 

218 ; manor of, 217, 222 ; shire of, 217 ; upper, 

Fram'lington, little, 217; mill 218. 
Gatesheved, 222. 
Glantlee, 218. 
Hawkehill, 221. 

Brinkbume Priory continued.— Placis. 


Haysand, wood of 218. 

Hely, 217 bis. 

Helyhope, 217, 228. 


Herfordbridge, 221. 

Heton Magna, 222. 

Horsley church, 223. 


Kirkheton, 218. 

Linchwoode, 217,228. 

Matfen, 222. 

Newbiggen. 321. 

Newham, 222. 

Newcastle, 222. 

Papurhaleh, 217. 

Pentney Priory, 288. 


Preslwick, 222. 

Quicham, 222. 

Roxburgh, 221. 

Rymlawe, 217. 

Rymside, 217. 

Schotten, 221. 

Snoke, 218. 

Sumfordham, 222. 

Swinley Tithes, 221. 

Thomhaigh, 217. 

Thrasterton, 218, 228, 

Thrownton, 221. 

Unerhely, 217. 

Walden, Wood of, 218. 

Walmepethes, 217. 

Westrymside, 217. 

Whittingham, 221. 

Wirkworth, 221. 
Brinklcy, 318 bis. 

Britain, divisions o( in the Roman age, 10, 11. 
Brockett, John Trotter, esq., on the freeholders of 

Northumberland, 316-325. 
Bromfield, in Cumberland, account of the rectory of, 
I7I-I76; ch?uicel, repairs of, 175; lease of, 172; 
grant of to the Thompson fiunily, 172, 173 ; passes 
to the Calverlj fiimilj, 17^. See Errata. 
Bronze Statue of James II., account of, 26a-264<. 
Browell, Gerrard, gent, 322 ; Gerrard, jeom., 3ia 
Browne, familj of, in Redesdale, 328-338; Clau- 
dius, gent, 323; Claudius, yeom., 318; Henry, 
gent, 323 ; Henry, yeom., 3ia 
Browne, Thomas, on the Prior's Haven, at Tyne- 

mouth, 297-303. 
Brugh-upon-Sands, Church o( granted to Holmcul- 

trum, 395 ; grant of lands to the church of; 397. 
Brunton, 321, 325, bis. 
Buller's Greene, 319, 323, bis. 
Bulman, John, gent, 319, 323. 
Burdhope Cragg, 337. 
Bui^hill, Henry, gent, 3ia 
Bumehope. 332. 
Bumies, (Bemess), 334>. 
Burrell, Robert, gent., 321. 325; William, gene, 

Burrodon, 317, 319, 324, pass. 
Burthorne, John, 405. 
Buston, Freeholders in, 324, 325. 
Buston, Roger, gent, 324h 
Buteland, 320. 



Butler, John, gent, 323. 
Byker, 3ia 
BjweU, 324. 


Caim, Antiquities found in one, 105-109 ; Account 
of the opening of one at Netherwitton, 207. 

Caidbek, 406. 

Caldre Abbej, grant to, by Cioelj, Countess of 
Albemarle, 386, 387 ; bj llirilliam de Easeby, 387, 
388; by Bichard de BoisrUle, 388 s bj John de 
Huddleston, 389, 390, 391. 

Caldretun, 389. 

Caldtowne, 329. 

Calfe Leas, 327. 

Callaly, 319. 

Callolere, 324. 

Calverler Family, Owners of Eaholt, Yoi^a^ and 
Bromneld, Cumberland, 174 ; atH their property 
in Bromfield, 175; Pedigree ci, 176;— .Lady 
Joane, receipt by her for Dress and Jew^ anno, 
1388, 113, 114, ; Walter, has licence to eat Flesh 
in Lent, 225. 

Cambeck Fort, or Castlesteads* the Petriana of the 
Romans, 80 : Gariisoned by the Tungri, 80. 

Canterbury, William, Archbishop o( licence by him 
to eat Flesh in Lent, 225. 

Capheaton, 320, 32a 

Carlisle new Gaol, Antiquities fbund at, 313, 314. 

Carmighell, Mr., keeper of Liddesdale, 295. 

Camaby, David, of Halton, 415. 

Canuby, John, 292; Ralph, esq^ 320, 323; Sir 
WiUiam, 319, 324 ; William, esq., 327. 

Carre, Andiew, 292 ; James, gent, 320 ; James, of 
LiDtolee, 292; John, flent, 320, 325 ; Leonaid, 
367; Ralph, gent, 318; Richard, gent, 320; 
Sir Raben, of Cesforth, 295; Sir Robert, 296; 
Robert, 292 ; Robert, esq^ 325; Sir Thomas, of 
Fem^hant, 290, 292; Thomas, esq., 321, 325; 
Wi]bam,of Ang^too,292; William, of Ankoram, 
294; William, 292; WiUiam, gent, 321, 322, 

Caitermoove, 317, 322. 

Cartington, 319, 324. 

Cartington, John, esq., 415. 

Catsleyfidd, 332. 

Carswelleas, 328. 

CatephiBctarionim legio, 84. 

Catcleugh, 336. 

Caulds or Cauls, meaning of, 896. 

Cause Close, 333. 

Cawsey on Wr^endike, account of, 134. 

Cawse? Parke, 318. 

Chapel, Remains of one near Low Gosforth, 24^ 
245 ; at East Shaftoe, 412-41 & 

Chapman, William, esq., on Antiquities fi>und in 
making the Carlisle Qmal, I1&-119* 

Charleton, Edward, gent, 324; John, gent, 320, 
323; Thomas, yeom., 320; William, gent, 320, 
323 ; William-John, esq., of Hesle^ude, his rental 
of Redesdale, 326 ; Copy of original Charters in 
his possesrion, 381. 

Charters, Patrick, and Alice his wife, proprietors 
in Offerton, 2Si, 285; Release by Alice of 

Offerton to John de Couj^famd, and Jon 

wife, 285. 
Charters ropecting Offerton, 273-286 ; Monasdcal 

and Lay ^operty in Cumberluid, &c., 381-411. 
Chatton, 325; Stone Codfin Ibund in the Onudi- 

yard of, 368. 
Cbesburne Grange, 320. 
Chesman, Cuthtert, gent, 319. 
Chester, Christopher, gent, 323. 
Chesterhope, 327, 31^ 329. 
Chetelhope, 335. 
Chevington, 323, bis. 
Chipchase, 320, 323. 
Chirton, 318, bis, 322. 

C. Ij., readinff o^ on Roman Inscriptions, 86. 
Ckvering, fi& John, 319, 324, 366; Robert, esq., 

324; Robert gent, 319, bis, 324; Robert, 292; 

Ursula, dau. of Sir John, 415. 
aennell, 319, 324. 
Clennell, Geoige, jsent, 324; Michael, gent, 319 ; 

Perdval, 292 ; itobert, gent, 319. 
Cleughbrey, or Evington, 332, bis. 
Clewleld, S2a 
Clifton, in Cumberland, Gnmts of Land in, 401- 

404 ; FuUing Mill in, 402; High, 403. 
Clifton, Mich dns de, 404; Stephen de, 403. 
Close House, The, 32a 
Coatwalls, 319-324^ bis. 
Coffins, of Oak, at Wyden Eals, 177 ; of Stone, in 

Chatton Church-yani, 36& 
Cohors MiUiaria Equitata, 82, 83, 84, 89, 480. 
Coins, Roman, discovered near Brampton, 209-212. 
Cokermouth, a Manse in, granted to St Bees, 400. 
Coket, 220. 
Cole, Ralph, 367. 
Colemyre, in Wigten, 407> 
Collingwood, Alex., gent., 319, 324 ; Cothbert, esq., 

324; Cuthbert, gent, 319; Francis, of Reevley, 

fent, 319; Francis, gent, 319; Geoi|pe, esq., 
19; Henry, 292, 294; Henry, sent, 818,322, 

324; John, 292; John, gent, 324; Luke, gent, 

326 ; Ralph, 292 ; Ralph, gent, 324 ; Robert, 

esq., 324. 
Collingwood, Robert, gent, 318, 322, 324 ; Thomas, 

gent, 292, 319. 
Collwell, 320. 
CollweUJiill, 327. 
Comesdon, 333. 

Comine Grisacre, daur. of Ewine, 415. 
Conisbead Priorv, Grant of Lands to, 399. 
Cook Captain, S. E., communications respectinff the 

murder of Lord Francis Russell, 287^96 ; Robert, 

esq., 415. 
CootJey, 320. 
Corbet John, 401. 
Corbrigff, 320 bis., 323 bis. 
Cottenshope, 334 ; middle quarter, 334 ; nether 

quarter, 334. 
Coulson, Colonel, on oak coffins found at Wyden 

Eals, 177. 
Coupland, in Cumberland, 400. 
Coupland, John de, and Joan, his wife, proprietors 

of Offerton, 276; grant huids there to Patrick 

Charters, and Alice, his wife, 284, 26S. 




Cowpon* 317, 318 bis.* 322 bis. 

Cowpon town-fidd, 322. 

Coxaon, fiunilj of, in Redesdale, 331^38 passim. 

Cozsonfield or Sempfield, 332. 

Coyn or a , Edward, gent., 326 ; John, gent, 325. 

C. K., reading ot, on Homan inscriptions, 84, 86, 86. 

Cragge, The, 329. 

Cragge shields, 335. 


Craister, Edmund, 2d2 ; John, esq.. 320, 325. 

Cramlington, Robert, gent., 318, 321. 

Crane, Nicholas, gent., 320. 

Grawhall, 320, 323. 

Crawkwe, 319. 

Crawshawe, 327* 

Creft, Eliz., Prioress of Seaton, in Cumberland, 399. 

Cieaswell, 318 ter, 319, 322, 323 ter. 

Cresswell, John, gent., 318, 322 ; Elizabeth, 415. 

Cromwell, Oliver, at Netherwitton, 95, 98. 

Crookleedi, 325. 

Cross, inscribed one at Lanercost, 197> 198 ; vener- 

tion oi^ common to pagans and c^stians, 256.; 

origin of among the ancient Egyptians and Celts 

856, 257. 
Crossed pence, letter from Lord Dacre to Cardinal 

Woolsej, concerning, 269. 
Crosthwayte, Mariota, daughter of Thomas de, 403. 
Culwenne, Thomas, son of Gilbert de^ his grant to 

Holmcultram, 394. 


Dacorum cohors I. ^lia, 82. 

Dacre, Lord, letters of, respecting the Nunnery of 
St. Bartholomew, in Newcastle, 269-272. 

Balton, 318, 322. 

Dalton, Robert, gent., 317, 322 ; Thomas, gent, 318, 


Dau|^ &maliy of, in Redesdale, 330. 

Davison, Thomas, gent, 319,. 324. 

Davye, Robert, gent, 324. 

Davy shields, 327 bis., 331. 

Dawes, Richard, his life and writings, 137-166; 
birUi place unknown, 138 ; fiunily of at Bampton, 
Westmorland, 139 ; a sizar of Emanuel College, 
Cunbridge, 140; graduated, 141; anecdote o£, 
142 ; his translation of Paradise Lost, into Greek 
verse, 143 ; Head Master of Newcastle school, 
144,; letter to Dr. Taylor, 145 ; his Miscellanea 
Critica, 146; its character, 148, 149; quarrels 
with the Corporation of Newcastle, 152 ; his ex- 
tracts from the Tittle Tattle Mongers, 1 53 ; resigns 
Newcastle school, 160; removes to Heworth- 
8hore,ib; then to Monkton,ib. ; his death, 163 ; 
monument to his memory in Heworth chapel, 164, 

Delavale, Edmund, 415; Edward, sent, 317, 321 , 
John, gent, 318; Robert, esq., 317 ; Sir John, 
317,321; Sir Ralph, 317. 

Delphi, meaning of the name, 44. 

Dent, Henry, gent, 318. 

Denton, 317, 321. 

Denum, John de, proprietor of Offerton, 276, 278 ; 
William, son of Robert, sells 0£ferton, 281, 282. 

VOL. II. 3 

Deriiam, Huctred de, 400. 

Dii Consentes, 35 ; types of the sun, 37. 

Dissington, 317, 321. 

Distington, in Cumberland, 395. 

Ditchbume, 319,324. 

Dockwrayrigg, 408 ; derivation o£, 408. 

Dotland, 324. 

Dowe, Thomas, gent, 318, 328. 

Dudleys, .331. 

Dunn, fiimily o^ in Redesdale, 327-338 passim. 

Dunn, Richard, gent, 319 ; Robert, of Thorp Arch- 

es, 409, 410. 
Dunston, 320, 325. 
Durham, Walter Skirlaw, bishop of, his gift of books 

to University College, Oxford, 99. 
Dumford, Miyor, 298. 
Durtrees, 337. 
Durtiees, West, 338. 

Eachwick, 318, 320, 322. 
Ealand Hall. 322. 
Eardhope, 337. 
Earlsyde, 335. 
Easth^on, 320, 322. 

East Snaftoe, remains of a chapel at, 412-418. 
Edington, 318. 

Edward I., grants land in Inglewood Forest, 406. 
Eglesfield, Benedcs de, 403. 
Eglingham, 319, 324. 

E^mont, a manse in, granted to Caldre abbey, 386. 
Eightonbanks. in county of Durham* a hermitaffe 

on, 129. 
Eland HaU, 318. 
Eles, 323. 
Elishawe, 328. 
Elizabeth, Queen, a letter of to Fredrick II., of 

Denmark, 120. 
Elrington, John, gent, 320. 
Elsden, 327 passim, 328 bis., 332. 
Elsden, &mily oi, in Redesdale, 327-338 ; Michael, 

yeom., 319. 
Elswick, 317, 322. 
Elwick, John of, esq., 415. 
Embleton, 321 ; manor o( 409. 
Empson, Mr. Charles, on South America antiquities, 

Epitaph, on Rich. Dawes, 165 ; on William Hedlev 

Emm, Wm., escheator for Northumberland, in 

1378, 413. 
Errington, Anthony, gent, 317 ; Edward, ffent, 

Errington, Gilbert, esq., 321 ; Heniy, esq., 320, 

323; John, gent, 322, 324; Lancelot, gent, 321 ; 

Mark, esq., 317; Mark, gent, 317, 321 ; Ralph, 

gent, 320 ; Thomas, gent, 318^ d2a 
Eshott, 318, 322. 
Esholte Priory, in Co. York, granted to Henry 

Thompson, 172. 
Eslington, 319, 324. 
Espersheels, 320. 
Esseby, William de, his grant to Caldre Abbey, 387, 





Emhtt and Brockenfidd, 218. 
Eftriren, fiunily ot, 384. 
EUientoii, 320, 326. 
ETingtoD or Cleugfabfvj, 332. 
EvixtoiiSy 332. 

Faber, the Rer. O. &» on South American Anti- 

quitiea, 266-259. 
FaUowdoo, 321. 
Farncbugfa, 327, 328, 329. 
Farneham, 319, 324, bb. 
FawdoD, 322. 
Famide, 333. 
Felton, 319, 324. 
Fenwick, Cutbbert, gent.; 323; Edward, gent., 

322; Geoige, gent, 319, 322; John, eaq., 323; 

John, ffent, 318, 320, 322, bia ; Lancelot, gent, 

320; Lionel, gent, 318; Martin, sent, 31 7» 321; 

Mr. of Wallington, 294 ; Oswould, gent, 320 ; 

Richard, 292 ; Robert, eaq., 320 ; Robert, gent, 

318, 322, 324; Sir George, of Wallington, 416; 
Sir John, 320, 323 ; Su- WUliam, 317, 321 ; 
Thomaa, gent, 317, 318, 321, 322, 325; Thomaa, 
of Little Harle, 416; Tristam, gent, 317, 321 ; 
William, 292 ; WillUm, esq., 319 ; William, gent, 

319, bia, 320, 322, 323, 324; Wm., of WJiing- 
ton, 416. 

Fetherttonhaugh, 320, 323. 

Fetherstonhaugh, Albony, esq., 320, 323. 

Fife, Ralph, yeom., 3ia 

FUhaupe, 337. 

Fitz Duncan, William, 384. 

Flatworth, 321. 

Fletcher, ^milj of, in Redeadale, 332. 

Fleetham, 321. 

Follonsbj, in Co. Durham, a Charter o^ 127* 

Fountians, Letter from Ld. Dacre to the Abbot of, 
270, 271. 

Foliott, Cutbbert, son of Sir John, 416 ; fiunUy of 
Barons, in Northamptonshire, 414 ; Roger, 414. 

Foorde, 321, 326. 

Forest of Oak under the Roman Wall, in Cumber- 
berland, 117. 

Forster, family of, in Redeadale, 328-338 ; Francis, 
gent, 326 ; Humphrey, 292 ; John, 292 ; John, 
gent, 321 ; Mathew, gent, 321 ; Nicholas, gent, 
319, 324 ; Ralph, gent, 319, 324 ; Richard, gent, 
321, 326 ; Sir John, made Deputy Warden of the 
east Marches ; 269 ; Lord Warden of the mid- 
dle Marches in 1669, 289 ; on the Murder of 
Lord Russell, 292, 293, made prisoner at the Re- 
deswire, 290;.Slr Mathew, 320,325; Thomas, 
gent, 321, 326, bis. 

Fortibus, fiimily of, 386 ; Witts de, 400. 

Fox, G. T., esq., on a Runic Inscription found at 
Baffin's Bay, 203, 204. 

Framlington, 218, 219, 324; Tithes of; 219. 

Freeholders of Northumberland in 1628 and 1638, 

Fryer, Joseph H., esq., on Peruvian Sepulchral 
Antiquities, 248, 261. 


GaUowhin, near Carlisle^ Roman Tombstone faand 

at, 419. 
GaUyhill, 318, 321, 322, bia. 
GaUylawe, 319. 
Gardner, John, gent, 322. 
Garretlee, 319, 323. 
Garretohieida, 330. 
Garyner, John, yeom., 318. 
Gemun, Richard, his grant to Hofancultram, 395. 
Gibson, fiunily of; in Redeadale, 336; Thomaa^ 

yeom., 317- 
Gileends, in Berdeaayhe, 406. 
Gillance or KiUecruce, in Cumberland, 388, 397. 
Glenwrigfat, Anthony, yeom., 320. 
Gloucester, Richard Duke of, his Letter to Lord 

Neville, 201. 
Grofton, Andrew, gent., 322; Hugh, ffent, 317* 

Richard, gent, 322 ; Richard, yeom., 318 ; Robert, 

gent, 322 ; William, gent, 322. 
Gospatrick, family o^ 384, 386. 
Gotnic Tongues, origin and fimnation o( by Mr. 

Bosworth, 179-19£ 
Gower, Alice, 408. 

Great Roll, for Northumberland, 305-312. 
Great Ryal, 319, 324. 

Great Tirwhit, Priory of Brinkbume*s lands in, 220. 
Grey, or Gray, £dwflj:d, esq., 323, 325 ; John, esq. , 

320, 326; Ralph, sent, 318; Sir Arthur, 320; 

Sir Edward, 317 ; Sir Roger, 320, 325 ; William, 

gent, 321. 
Greenchesters, 327. 
Greencroft, 33a 

Green, John, gent, 323; Ralph, gent, 324; Ri- 
chard, gent, 319, 323. 
GreenweU, Ralph, gent, 323. 
Giessonfield, 331. 
Grimwell, William, 415. 
Grinwell, Ralph, gent, 320. 
Grisleys, 333. 

Guildeford, Sir Henry de, leaae of Offerton, 277. 
Guyson, 324w 


Hairehaugfa, 328. 

Hale,Custancia de^ grants lands to Coniahead Priory, 

Hale, in Cumberland, advowson of the church o^ 
granted to Conishead Priory, 399. 

Halistane, Nuns of, 221. 

Hall, family ot proprietors in Redeadale, 327-338 
passim; Alexander, sent, 319, 325; Edward, 
gent, 319; John, 292; John, gent, 319, 324; 
Robert, gent, 319, 324; Rob^ yeom., 318; 
William, gent, 319, 323 bia. ; Thomas, gent, 

HaUiwell, 318, 322 bis. 

Halsey, Arthur, gent, 320, 323. 

Halteclo Johes de, 406. 

Halton, 320, 32a 

Hamper Wm., eso., on Horestones, 133;-- on the 
bell in Heworth Chapel, 105;— on a Runic in- 
scription found at Lancaster, 111, 112; on a 
golden Armleti found near Aspatria, 267, 268. 



Hangingahawe, Gemid, gent., 819, 3S4. 

Hanmc sor, or Salt-faeiring, 114, 230. 

Harbotde Crags, 337 ; lease of lands in, 338 ; zental 

of the lordsMp o( 327 ; Towne, 338. 
Harcopp, 319. 

Harcla, Andrew de, Earl of Carlisle^ 408. 
Hardrideing, 320. 
Harehaugh, 319, 324. 
Harelawe, 321. 
Harle, Gilbert, 327. 

Harley Green, derivation of the name, 131. 
Hamham, 320, 323. 

Harpur, Galfiid le, 404 ; Walter le, 402. 
Harup, 324. 

Haalerigg^ 321 ; 325 ; Robert, esq., 319. 
Haaon, d24w 

Hatherwicke, Lancelot, jeom., 819. 
Hereracres, now Overacrea, 330, 334^ 335. 
Hauxley, 318 bis., 322, 323 bis. 
Hawkes for fidconrj and wolf-dogs, letter respecting 

them, 226. 
Hajson, 319. 
Headshoope, S29. 

Healaughe, a pariah near Tadcaater, 229. 
Heardlawe^ 332. 
Hearon, Cuthbert, esq., 320, 323 ; Cuthbert, gent, 

324 ; George, gent, 320 ; John, 292 ; John, gent, 

320, 324; Maisaret, 415; Bichard, esq., 318; 

Bichard, gent, 322; Sir George, 295; Sir Wil. 

liam,295; Thomaa, gent, 319. 
Hearonaew, 230. 
Hebbum, Arthur, eao., 319. 
Hediey, fimodlj o^ in Hedesdale, 327-338 passim ;~^ 

Bev. Anthony, on Buman Shoes at Whitlej 

Castle, 205, 208. 
Heighlee, 322. 
Helej, 320, 32a 
Helme, The, 322. 
Hehne on the Hill, 31& 
Helme, Henry, gent, 318, 322. 
Hepacotte, 322. 
Hermitage on Eighton Banks, in county of Durham, 

Hemehouae, 332. 
Heslerigg, Bobert, esq., 324. 
Healeside, 320, 323. 
Heton, 317, 321."' 
Heugfa, The, 32a 

Heworth Chapel, inscription on its bell, 106. 
Hexham, 324 ter. ; Abbey, 32a 
Hexham, Thomas de, has a lease of the manor of 

Offerton, 285. 
Hexpetbgatehead, Lord Franda Buasell murdered 

at, 287-298. 
m^ Callerton, 318 bia., 322 bia. 
High Corrick, 331. 
High Biding 327. 
Hindley, 324 ; Witts, 410. 

Hindmera, Michael, gent, 324 ; Bichard, gent, 322. 
Hirst, 318,322. 
Hlxon, John, esq., on ancient Bronze Implements 

found in a quarry at Boaebury Topping, 213. 
Hobberlawe, 319. ' 
Hodgaon, Mr. Chr., on Antiquities found near 

Hesket-in-the-Forest, 106-109 ; on Boman Coins 
near Brampton, 212 ; on Boman Antiquities at 
Carlisle, 314, 316, 419 ; on a Boman Inscription 
at Old Penrith, 265, 266; at Gallow-law, near 
Carlisle, 319 ; in the Eden, near Beaumont, 420 ; 
—Mr. B. W., on Deeds of Offerton, 273-288 ; 
on Assue Bental of Bedeadale^ 326-338 ;— Mr. 
Thomas, on Boman Inacriptions at Cambeck 
Fort, 80 ; Bev. John, on Wrekendike, 123 ; Life 
and Writings of Bichard Dawes, 137 ; on an in- 
acription at Lannercoat, 197; abstract of the 
Cluululary of Brinkbum, 214 ; on the murder of 
Lord F. BusseU, 287; Northumberland great 
Boll, for 6 Ric I. and 7 John, 304 ; notes on Be- 
deadale assize rental, 326-338; on various monas- 
tical and lay charters, 381; on East Shaftoe 
chapel, 412-4ia 

Hodeliaton, John de, granta Lekeley to Holm Cul- 
tram, 397, 398. 

Holegate, 386. 

Holegyle Witts, grant of land in Satherton to Jno. 
Corbet, 401. 

Holehouse, 324. 

Holllbumefoot, 333, 334. 

Hollidod, or Hollydod, 332. 

Holmcultram, ffrant to the Abbey c£, by William, 
son ot Gilchrist, of Alnbuigh, 393, 394 ; by Thos. 
de Culwenne, 394; by Bichard Gemun, 395 ; by 
Thomas de Multon, 395, 396 ; by John de Hode- 
liston, 397, 396 ; by jdm son of John de Ireby, 

Hombleton, 325 ter. 

Hopperdose, 328. 

Hoppyn, 325. 

Hornby fiimily, proprietors in Offerton, 276. 

Horaley, West, 332. 

Horsley, Allen, gent, 323 ; Henir, gent, 322 ; 
John, 292 ; Jdm, gent, 318 ; Beynold, gent, 
322 ; Thomas, esq., 322. 

Horton Grange, 318 ter., 322 ter. 

Horton, John, esq., 416. 

Houghton, Little, 32a 

Howard, Henry, esq., on a golden Armlet found 
near Aspatna, 267, 268; Theophilus, lord of 
Walden, 326. 

Howdon, 317. 

Howick, 325. 


Huddleston, John de, his grant to Caldre Abbey, 
389, 390 ; his assignment of William de Loftacales 
his native to the Abbot of Caldre, 390, 391. 

Hudson, John, gent, 323. 

Hudspeth, 327, S2a 

Hud^th, Thomas, gent, 323; William, gent, 

Hugh, or Heugh, The, 32a 

Humbleton, 321. 

Hull Abbey, 319, 

Hunter, William, gent, 32a 

Huntridge, Thomas, gent., 324. 

Hutcheson, Thomas, gent, 324. 

Hutton William, on oak coffins, 178; on Roman 
coins found near Brampton, 209^11. 

Hyerhouse, 33a 



Hjlestunte, Waltenit de, 405. 
Hjmdmanh, Richard, gent, 318. 


Triandball, 322, 

Inglewood Forest, grant of lands in, 40ft. 

Ingrain, 324. 

Inscriptions, on a Cross found at Lannercost, 197, 
196 ; on an Altar near Beaumont, 420 ;<-oRoman, 
at Castlesteads, 91 ; at Old Penrith, 205, 260 ; at 
Prior's Haven, 300; at Reichester, 85; on a 
Tombstone at Garlisle, 419 ;^Runic, at Baffin's 
Bay, 203, 204; at Lancaster, 111, 112. 

Instans, meanins c£, in Roman Inscriptions, 86, 87. 

Ireby, John de, nis grant to Holmcultnun, 397. 


Jackson, fiunilj q( at Bampton, 139 ; Stephen, gent, 

321, 325. 
James-John, son of Wm. Thornton, 406. 
Johnson, Henry, gent, 322. 
Jesmond, Antiquities fbund at, 316. 

KarsweUeas, 327. 

Kearsley, 320, 823. 

Keinton, 317 bis. 

Kell, Robert, gent 324. 

Kelley, 332. 

Kesteme, 221. 

Killecruce, Cumberland, 386, 397. 

Killhill, John, gent, 320. 

Killingworth, 317, 322 bis. 

KiUingworth, Oliver, gent, 317, 322; William, 

sent, 322. 
Kirkbj Ireleth, Jobs de, 409 ; Thos. de, 409. 
Kirkby Stephen, rectorial possessions o^ 233. 
Kirkharle, 323. 
Kirkheaton, 324b 
Kirkley, 317 bis, 321. 
Kirton, Henry, gent, 318, 323. 
Knightside, 332. 
Kyneton, 821. 

Lakes, sacred among the Pagans, 258, 250. 

Lambert fiunily, extracts from the pedigree ol^ 101- 
104; Henry, ambassador at the court of Scotland, 
104 ; John, order of King Henry VIII. respecting 
him, 102, 103. 

Lamesley, meaning of the name, 181. 

Langesane, in Thorp Arches 410. 

Lai^urst, 318 bis., 319. 323 passim. 

Lai^itton, 219, 319. 

Langleveton, Lanslivinton, 219 bis., 290. 

I^angshawes, 319,332. 

Langton,321, 325. 

Lannercost priory, its chartulary, 214-217 ; inscrib- 
ed cross found at, 197t 198. 

Lanwriffht, Anthony, gent, 324. 

Lathalghe, 327. 

LaverickhaU, 317. 

Lawe Olivei^gent, 326 ; Robert, yeom., 321. 

Lawemote, 3S& 

Lawes, Sir John, 416. 

Lawson. Aime, 416; George, gent, 321, 322; 
Robert, gent, 323; Robert, yeom., 319; Wil- 
liam, gent, 323 ; William, jum, gent, 323. 

Leamlane, Account of and meaning of the word, 
131, 132. 

Leaylle, Robert, 292. 

Lee, Arthur, gent, 320. 

Leehall, S23. 

L«no quinta, at Crowbill, in Scotland, 63 ; called 
Britannica, 69 ; a Roman account o^ 88. 

Leirchild, 319, 324. 

Lekeley, in Cumberland, granted to Holmcultram, 

Lelme, an ancient Street, 124-132. 
liCmadon, 319, 324. 

Lent, a licence to eat Flesh during, 225. 
Lesbury, 320, 321, 325 bis. 
Lewen, Thomas, gent, 318» 322. 
Linchwood, 219. 
Linteme Heugh, 3:^2. 
Lintyn, Walter, 407. 
Lide, Edward, gent , 319, 324 ; George, gent, 324 ; 

Lancelot, gent, 319 ; Ralph, gent, 324; Robert, 

esq., 319, 324; Robert, gen^ 823; Thomas, of 

Felton, 415. 
LiBley, Robert, 292 ; William, gent, 3ia 
Littlehoughton, 325. 
Loftscales, William (a native), son of Richard de, 

granted to the Abbot of Caldre, 390, 391. 
Lonff Benton, 318, bis. 
Lonone, Edward. 273 ; Mr., 416 ; Thomas, esq., 

Lowe, Carrick, 2^32. 
Low Gosforth House^ Remains of a Chapel near, 

Lucy fiunilj of, 385, 386w 
Lunsden, 333. 
Lyham, 325. 
Ljham Hall, 321. 
Lyehalgh, 22a 
Lynshields, 327. 


MacGrmor, J., esoL, on the Zodiac in St Mar. 
garet'srorch, in Tork, 1-79; on the state of Li- 
terature among the ancient Tuscans, 33&-365. 

Male, William, gent, 320 

Manners, Roger, gent, £24. 

Marche Day, manner of holdins one, 286. 

Marrays Agness, daughter and heir of John, 282. 

Marsfaial, Ckoige, gent, 323. 

Matfen, 320. 

Meaux or Melsa Abbey, in Yorkshire, notices of, 

Mesgeston, Lancelot, gent, 322 ; Lancelot, yeoa., 

Meldon, 317, 321. 

Mebos, 39& 

Mere, Water of, 402. 

Merafen, 318, 322. 

Meschiens, pedigree, c£, 384 ; William de, 389. 
Metcal^ Henry, gent, 324. 
Metforth, OswakC of Riddel, 416. 



Middleton, 32a 

Middleton, Christian, widow of Henrj Proctor, her 
lands inOfferton, 281, 282; Ralph, gent, 318, 
321; Robert, 292; Thomas, esq., 320, 323; 
Thomas de, parson of Ly the, 283. 

Milbanks, Mark, gent, 318. 

Milbume Grainge. 318, 322 bis. 

Milbume, Michael, gent, 318. 

MUl, Thomas, gent, 322. 

Millfield, 321 bis. 

Mills, Elizabeth, 415 ; Thomas, yeom., 318. 

Millstones, Roman, 107* 

Milium, 389 bis. 

Milnefield, 325. 

Milnum, Johanna, her grant of Lekely, 398. . 

Mitforth, 321. 

Mitforth, Oswald, gent, 318; Robert, esq., 321 bis. 

Mithras, MacGregor*s account o1^ 32 ; emblem of 
the sun, 32, 33 ; his namenot explained, id. ;. God 
of the Persians and Caldees, and an Ethiopian bv 
birth, 33 ; temple of in Antioch, 34 ; worship of 
introduced among the Romans, 34, 37 ; human 
sacrifices offered to, 35 ; inscriptions to, 40 ; pre- 
valence of worship amonff the Romans, 41, 42 ; a 
cave of, in Alexandria, 44 ; inscriptions to, in Bri. 
tain, 45, 46. 

Molle, Beatrice de, 388 ; William, son of Liolf de, 

Moreriflg, 337, 338. 

Morpe£, 319 passim, 323 passim ; Castle of, 317. 

Morrick, 323. 

Morville, &milj of, 384. 

Moscroppe, David, 292. 

Mote, the, 319. 

Mulsfen, 321, 325. 

Multon, &miiy of, 385 ; Thomas de, his grant to 
Holmcultram, 395, 396. 

Munkridge, 319, 324, 329 ; hall, 328. 

Munkseaton, 318 bis, 322. 

Muschama George, esq., 325; Ralph, gent, 321, 
325 ; Sur William, 321. 

Natives, grant of one to the Prior of Brinkbume, 

219 ; to the Prior of Caldre, 390. 
Neathercairwlck, 327. 
Neatherleame, 328. 
Neitherhouses, 330. 
Netherclewsfield, 328. 
Nether Rochester, 337. 
Netherwitton, 322 ; Cairn at, 207- 
Nevills, letters relating to them, 199*202. 
Newbrough, 320 bis, 324. 
Newcastle, leiter from the Major of, respecting the 

plague in 1636, 366, 367. 
Newham, 321, 325. 

Newminster Abbey, its chartularj, 214-217. 
Newsham, 318, 321. 
Newton, 319, 321, 324f. 
Newton -by-the-sea, 321. 
Newton-on-tbe-moor, 324. 
Newton-under-wood, 318. 
Newton, Cuthbert, gent, 324. 
Newton, Edward, gent, 324. 

VOL, !!• 3 

NewtoD, Matthew, gent« 320, 823. 

Newton, Peter, gent, 324. 

Nich, fit Radulfi, 410. 

Niebuhr, his opinions respecting the literature and 
civilization of the ancient Tuscans supposed incor- 
rect, 352-^365. 

Noethker, in Thornton, 408. 

North Seaton, 323 

North Shields, 3 1 8 bis, 322. 

Northumberland, Earl of, grant to St Bees, 399, 

Nunnery of St Bartholomew, in Newcastle, letters 
respecting, 269-272. 

Nunriding, 319,323. 

Nunnykirke, 319. 


Oak Coffins, found at Wyden Eals, 177. 178, 

Oak trees, under the Roman wall, 117- 

Oiferton, deeds respecting the manor of, 273-286. 

Ogle, Christopher, gent, 324 ; Cuthbert, gent, 317; 
Henry, gent, 319, 324; James, 292; John, 
esq., 318 ; John, of Ogle Castle, 415 ; Lancelot, of 
Burroden, gent, 317, 321 ; Lancelot, of Darrefr- 
hall, gent, 317, 321 ; Luke, 292 ; Mark, gent, 
321 bis, 322 ; Marke, of Cartermoor, gent, 317 ; 
Marke, of Kirkley, gent, 317 • Thomas, gent., 
318 319. 

Olde Moore, 319, 323 bis. 

Old Penrith, Roman tombstone, found there, 265, 

Old Redley, 324. 

Ord George, gent, 325 ; John, gent, 321 ; William, 
esq., sherifiTof Northumberland, 316, 321. 

Otterburne, 319, 324^ 327, 33J ; West, 331. 

Otterco^M, 319. 

Otway, K(^r, gent, 318; Robert, gent, 328. 

Overhorsley. 330. 

Overleame, 327. 

Over Rochester, 337. 

Overgrasse, 324 ; Owersgrasse, 319. 

Ovingham, 320 bis, 32a 

Ovington, 320 bis, 32a 

Ovington Hall, 32a 

Paley, Dr., his anecdote of Dawes, 142. 
Papecaster, Benedcs de, 406k 
Parke, Hugh, gent, 319, 324w 
Parkhead, 330. 

Partis, Thomas, yeom., 319. ' 
Paterson, Edwara, yeom., 318; John, gent, 322. 
Patteson, John, gent, 317, 322. 
Paunchford, 331. 
Pawston, 321, .325. 
Pearls, price of in 1388, Iia 
Pearson, Robert, gent, 323 bis; Robert, yeom., 

Percy, family of, 386. 

Peruvian antiquities, found near Arica, 248-251. 
Petriana or Cambeck fort, 80; coins found at, 

Petrie, Henry, esq., on the Pii« Roll, 304-312. 
Phallus, carved on monuments in ScoUand, 46. 




Fhilippa, Queen of Denmark, account of her tomb, 
169, 170 ; her marriage, from HoUinshed, 17a 

Philipaon, Rowland, jeom., 321. 

Pigon, Adam, 402. 

Pipe Roll or Great RoU, for Northumberland, pp., 
30^-312, to which the following is an Index of 
persons and places :— 


Ailmanis, the Balister, 809. 
AmoU, daor. of William, 811. 
Amundeyille, Thomas de, 810 bit. 
Bailloel, Eustace de, 310; Hugh de, 811, 812. 
Bard, Hugh, 805, 806 ; William, 311, 812. 
Banlulf, Hugh, 805, 806 ; William, 809. 
Berchlay, Robert de, 806. 
Bertram, Robert, 806, 812 ; William, 806. 
Biker, William, 811. 
Bolebeck, Walter de, 806, 806, 812. 
Bolun, Walter, 810. 
Bradfield, Alex, de, 310. 
Bradford, Alex. de,812. 
Briewer, William, 812. 
Bruis, Walter, 806. 
Cakuel, Richard de, 306. 
, Canute, John, 805, 809, 810. 
CaruD, Walter, 810. 
Caugi (Calgi), Adam de, 810; Ralph de, 807 bis, 

306 bis, 312. 
Corf, Augotus de, 209. 
Cramavilt, Robert de, 31 1. 
DeuelstOD, Thomas de, 31 2. 
Dod, Adam de, 306. 
Durham, Hugh, Bishop of, 307. 
Erenbald, William, son of, 310. 
Flamaville, Roger, 805, 809. 
Ford, William de, 311. 
Fremingham, Richard de, 806, 
Galfrid, son of Galfrid, 811, 812. 
Gerrase, of Houbrigge, 306. 
Goepatrick, 806, 807. 
Hairun, Jordae, 812; Ralph, 307. 
Heztoldesham, Prior of, 806. 
Insula, Robert de, 806. 
John, son of Hugh, 810; son of Simon, 311. 
Kettell, Anfrid, son of, 807. 
Lasci, Gilbert, 810. 
Latton, William de, 312, 
Lega, Gilbert de la, 807. 
Lemeston, Adam de, 307. 
Luci, Godfrey de, 806. 
Main, Ralph, son of, 806, 307 bis. 
Malduit, Godfrey de, 311. 
MaUai, Peter de, 812. 
Masle, Richd. le, 806. 
Merlay, Roger de, 807, 810, 812 bit. 
Morewic, Hugh de, 810, 312 ; Nicholas de, 307. 
Muscans, Robert de, 307 bis, 306 bis, 311, 312 bis. 
Nevill, Hugh de,. 307. 
Norwich, Bishop of, 811. 
Patrick, Earl, 810, 811 bis. 
P'ston, Elias de, 306. 
Ralph, the Vintner, 806. 
RaTeneston, Will, de, 311. 
Reimund, 809. 
Richard, on Tees, 812 bis. 
Robert, son of Adam, 311. 
Robert, son of Roger, 809 bi% 810 ter, 311, 312 bis. 
Robert, son of William, 311 bis. 
Roger, son of Gerard, 310. 
Roger, son of Ralph, son of Main, 312. 
Roa» Robert de, 812 bis. 

Pipe Roll continued.^^PxESOVs. 
Rue, Robert de, 307. 
Samuel, the Jew of Newcastle, 806. 
Scotton, Theobald de, 311. 
Sewalus, the King's Servant, 305, 8ia 
Strie Uctred, 306. 
Stuteville, William de, 310. 
Sumervillc, William de, 806. 
Taillard, Ralph de, 812. 
Thomas, son. of Robert, 812. 
Tindale, Adam de, 306 bis, 311 bis, 212 ; Helewiss 

de, 807, 811; Robert, son of Adam de, 812. 
Torp, Galfrid deft306, 810. 
Trenchem, Alan, 806. 
Trokelawe, Robert de, 311. 
Umfranville, Richard de, 307, 306, 810, 811, 312; 

Robert de, 806. 
Val, Gilbert de la, 812. 
Vesci, Eustace de, 310. 
Vescunte, John le, 312. 
Waldevius, 306. 

Walter, son of Gilbert, 811, 812. 
William, son of Obinisus, 806. 
William, son of Walter, 811. 
William, son of William, 309. 


Angerton, 306. 
Baenburgh, 305, 806. 
Cokedale, 809. 
Corbridge, 809, 310. 
Etiingeham, 806. 
Finchal, Chapel of, 806, 309. 
Gesmue, Mill of, 810. 
Hadeston, 806. 
Heppedale, 309. 
Hordon, 312. 
Houbrigge, 306. 
Hydewin, 806. 
Jakelinton, 310. 
Luuerbotle, (Lorbottle),806. 
Mulefen, 307. 
Netherton, 312. 
Newcastle, 305, 809. 
Neweburn, 809. 
Nordcoket, 806. 
Normannia, 807, 306. 
Satberge, 307. 
Sedberge, 805. 
Seberge, Wapetnac de, 309. 
Silkeswurd, 912. 
SpindlesUn, 806, 310. 
Stodeston, ? (Scodeston), 806. 
Sunderland, 806. 
Tindale, 809. 
Torpinton, 806. 
Turfin, 810. 
Walebou, 806. 
Werkwurd, 305, 809. 
Witingham, 811. 
Wu 11 ours, 806. 
Tetliogton, 306. 

Pitcher, an ancient one found at Carlisle, 313, 314. 
Plague in 1636, letter from the Major of Newcastle 

respecting, 366, 367. 
Plesaev, 318, 322. 
Pont island, 317, 321. 
Poole, John of Redbum, 415. 
Pott, Alex., yeom., 318 ; Robert, yeom., 318. 
Potts, Durtiees, 330. 



Potto, ftmily of in RedewUde, 327-338 yanim ; 

Thomas, gent., 317 ; William, gent., 322, 324. 
Prendick, 324. 
Pl«8ton, 318 passim, 322. 
Preston, John, gent., 318, 322 bis. 
PJrestrydding, in Wigton, 408. 
Pmestwick, 317 ter, 322 passim. 
Prestwick Hall, 317. 
Price of lady's dress in 1888, 113. 
Prinoeps, meaning o( on Roman inscription, 87-89. 
Pringle, Andrew, 292; George, 292. 
Prior*8 Haven, observation respecting its origin, 297- 

Proctor, Christian, widow of Henry, quits claim of 

Ofierton, 280; Cuthbert, gent, 319; Jeffrey, 

gent, 319; Thomas, 292. 
Pudsey, Alice, daughter of John, 415. 
Punshon, Edward, gent, 322. 
Pye, Cuthbert, gent, 319 ; John, gent., 319. 

Quarryhouse, 322. 


Rabie Castle, letters found in, 199-202. 

Raddiff, Francis, 292, 319; Sir Edward, 320; 

Thomas, 416. 
Bameshope, 334. 
Ravenstonedale, manor of, 228. 
Rawe, 337; Isabella, 416. 
Raymes, Robert, gent, 319. 
Rea, Bertram, yeom., 318; Richard, yeom., 318; 

Richard, gent, 322 ; Robert, gent, 322 ; Thomas, 

yeom., 318. 
Read, fiimily of, in Redesdale, 327-338 passim. 
Read, John, gent, 320 ; Ralph, gent, 318 ; Thomas, 

gent, 318, 322. 
Readsmouth, 320. 
Rede, John, gent, 322 ; Percy, gent, 324 ; Ralph, 

gent, 322 ; Robert, gent, 322 bis. 
Redesdale, rental of assisse for the franchise of, 328- 

Redhead, Genard, gent, 319. 
Reedshaw, 333. 
Reepley, Edward, gent, 321. 
Reevley, 319, 324. 
Reevley, Edward, gent, 325; George, esq., 318; 

John, gent, 325. 
Rennyn^on, 321, 325. 
Ribbeton, Wilis de, 400. 
Riddell, Margaret, 415 ; Peter, Mayor of Newcastle 

in 1636, 367. 
Ridley, Alex., gent, 320; John, gent, 320 passim, 

323 ter ; William, esq., 323. 
^geberch, 405. 

Rikenild Street, account of in authors, 125 ; deriva- 
tion of the name, 126. 
Robson, John, gent, 323. 
Rochester, 337. 
Rock, 319, 325. 

Rodham, Edmund, esq., 320 ; John, gent, 325. 
Roger fit Rogeri cts de Thornton, 408. 
Romans, cause of srowth of civilization under them, 

9-12 ; their mifitary force in Britain, 10 ; in the 

time of Gildas, 14, 15 ; Consulates, method of 
reckoning them, 90, 91 ; account of a Roman road 
in Northumberland, 246-247 ; Roman shoes found 
at Whitley Castle, 205, 206.— .Sto Iiucriptumt. 

Rooken, The, 336. 

Rothforth, George, gent, 324. ^ 

Roughfield, 333. 

Routherforth, &mily of in Redesdale, 336, 337. 

Rowcastle, Thomas, gent, 320, 324. 

Rowland, William, gent, 324. 

Roy, Michael, 401, 402. 

Rudderford, John, 292. 

Ruddestangill, in Cumberland, 406. 

Rude, wood of, 391. 

Runic inscription at Baffin's Bay, 203 ; at Lancas- 
ter, 111, 112. 

Russell, Francis, second earl of Bedford, employed 
in the North by Queen Elizabeth, 288; Lord 
Francis, papers relating to hb murder, 287, 296. 

Rutupise, and Caesar's lading in Britain, remarks 
on, 369-380. 

Ryden, 333. 

Ryle, GtcslU 319, 324 ; Little, 319, 324. 

Sadler, Robert, gent, 323 ; Robert, yeom., 318. 
Saint Bees, mnt to, 599, 400 ; St Botulph, 395 ; 

St John, Hospital of, 401. 
Saint Margaret's Church, York, its situation, Zodiac 

in its porch, and account of it, &c., 3. 
Saint Nicholas* Church, York, and Zodiac formerly 

in it, 4 ; described 6. 
Salkeld, John, esq., 325 ; John, gent, 319 ; Thomas, 

gent, 321. 
Sameshouse, 325. 
Sanderson, John, gent, 320, 323. 
Sandhoe, 320, 324. 
Sandslof, 389. 
Sappoth, 325. 

Satberton, mnt of lands in, 401. 
Sawyer, Edmund, 326, 327. 
Scanlbrugh, Richard de, fine between him and John 

de Thropton concerning the manor of Offerton, 

Sciles, 33a 
Scloy, Thomas, 292. 
Scott, Alex., gent, 321. 
Seal of the Pnor of Carlisle, 171. 
Seaton, 318; Cross of, near Tinmouth, 410, ill. 
Seaton Delaval, 317, 411. 
Seaton Priory, in Cumberland, 399. 
Seaven Sykes, 335. 
Selby, Alex., Esq., 319; Elizabeth, 415; George, 

gent, 319, 324; Gerrard, gent, 321 ; John, gent, 

321 bis ; Sir William, 327 ; Thomas, gent, 324 ; 

William, esq., 324; William, gent, 325. 
Serapis, an Idol of the Sun, 36. 
Shatloe, 320 ; East, 412-4ia 
Shaftoe Grange, 412. 
Shalloe, of Shaftoe Crag, pedigree o( 415 ; Shaftoe, 

Edward, 292 ; Edward, gent, 322 ; Henry, gent, 

323 ; James, gent, 317, 318, 322 bis ; John, gent, 
318,322; Robert, gent, 318, 322; Thomas, 414; 
William> esq., 320, 323. 



Slup Abbe/, iti cbartolaiy, 214 rpoaaeflBions 0^831. 

Sharprowe, Edward, gent., 318. 

Shawdon, 319. 

Shittlehaugh, 330. 

Shoe«, Roman ones, found at Whitlejr Castle, 205, 
206 ; at Carlisle, 314. 

Shothaugh, 318. 

Sibespourfield, 331. 

Sicilius Claudianus, a Roman Prefect, 86. 

Sighi]], 321. 

Simpson, George, gent, 320, 323. 

Skot Ricus de, 407. 

Slealej, 32a 

Smallborne, 328. 

Smart, John, esq., on a Roman road in Northum- 
berland, 2i6, 247. 

Smartside, 332. 

Smith, Gawen, yeom., 319; Richard, gent., 320, 
322 ; Robert, gent, 323; William, gent, 324. 

Snadon, Alex., gent, 324 ; Alex., yeom., 319 ; Per- 
cival, gent, 319; William, gent, 324; William, 
yeom., 319. 

Softly, Lawrence, yeom., 319. 

Somercroft, 333. 

Soppat, 329. 

Soppethaugh, 337. 

South American Antiquities, presented to the So- 
ciety by Mr. C. Empson, 252-255. 

Southgate, William, gent, 318 bis. 

Spearman, Michael, gent, 318 ; Robert, gent., 318. 

Spindlestone, 320. 

Spithope, 334. 

SpittlehiU, 318, 322. 

Spore, &mily of, in Redesdale, 327-338 imssim. 

Spore, or Spoor, Robert, gent, 323 ; William, gent., 

Spniggon, Robert, yeom., 318 ; Thomas, gent, 322. 

Stable, William, 294. 

Stanton, 220, 319, 322. 

Stanley, on Wrekendike, 134. 

Stayndrop, John de, cdled the coroner, acquires 
lands in Offerton, 274, 275. 

Stickelhaugh, 329. 

Stickley, 318,322. 

Stockesfield hall, 32a 

Stod&ldrunes, 40a 

Stokell, Michael, 416. 

Stokoe, Henry, gent, 324; Thomas, gent., 323; 
William, gent, 320, 324. 

Storey, Thomas, yeom., 319 ; William, gent, 322. 

Storiesfield, 333, 33?. 

Stott, Edward, gent., 322. 

Stovenerge, 38o. 

Stoxfield, 320. 

Straker, Robert, gent, 323 ; Robert, yeom., 318. 

Strother, Clement, yeom., 321 ; John, esq., 321 ; 
416 ; William, of Wallington, grants Offerton to 
Alex. Cook and others, 286. 

Suerties, Edward, gent, 324. 

Suffolk, Theophilus, Earl of, 326. 

Sun, Chief Deity of the Pagans, 32 ; Temple o( in 
Arcadia, 33. 

Swarland, 319, 324. 

Swayne, £imily o( in Redesdale, 328-338. 

Swinburne, Anthony, sent, 317, 322; EXiabcth, 
415; Jane, 415; John, esq., 323; John, gent, 
320; Sir Thomas, of Edlingham Castle, 316; 
Ursula, 415; William, esq., 320. 


Swinhoe, Gilbert, gent, 325; Thomas, gent, 325. 

Synningthwait, 235. 


Tailbois, Pedigree of, 384^ 385. 

Tate, Rev. James, his Cancnes Dawesiana, 148 ; £r- 
rores Dawesiana, 150; writes the inscription tor 
Dawes's monument 165. 

Teasdale, Richard, gent, 320. 

Tedcastle, 324 ; George^jrent, 324. 

Tempest, Sir Nicholas, 321. 

Thirllwall, Robert, gent, 324. 

Thislehaughe, 322. 

Thompson, fiimily, owners of Broomfield, in Cum- 
berland, 173; ofE8holtl72; pedigree of, 176; 
Ralph, gent, 318, 322 ; Thomas, gent, 321. 

Thornton, in Yorkshire, deeds about, 408, 409. 

Thornton Family Papers, 93-98; Certificate of the 
Family's Loyalty rrom J. Howard and others, 97, 
98 ; Henr^, gent., 318 ; John, pass from the 
King to him, 93 ; appointed to a troop of horse, 
96 ; Commission signed by King Chas. IL for 
the same, 97 ; John, esq., 416 ; John, gent, 292 4 
Lady Anne, her losses by Cromwell's Army, 95 ; 
96 ; Nicholas, gent, 321, 322 bis; Sir Nicholas, 
Commission for him to raise men for the King's 
service, dated 1642, 93. 

Thorp Arches in Vorkshire, grant of lands in, 409, 

Thriston, 318 bis. 

Throple,318, 323. 

Thropton, 334 bis. 

Thropton, John de, and Isabella, proprietors in Ot- 
ferton, 276, 281, 282. 

Throughead, 324. 

Thrunton, 319. 

Tinmouth, grant of lands in, 410, 411. 

Tirwhit, 220 ; Priory of, 220:^ 

Titlesdene, 219. 

Todd, Richard, gent, 323 ; Thomas, gent, S23. 

Todbume, 318, 322. 

Todholes, 331. 

Toftbume, 337, 338. 

TojQgesden, 318 ter, 322 ter. 

Tossan, Little, 220. 

Townhead, 323. 

Trevelyan, Sir Geoi^, 176; — ^W. C. esq., oonunu^ 
nications by, Thornton Family Papers, 93 ; In* 
denture between Walter, Bishop of Durham, and 
the Master of University College, 99 ; Lambert 
Pedigree, 101 ; on Roman Remains found on the 
coast of Du