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Full text of "The art of propagation"

-cv 1 ° ©9 



A HAND BOOK FOR 




Price, S° Cents. 



PUBLISHED BY 

JENKINS' GRAPE AND SEEDLING NURSERY, 

WINONA, 

COLUMBIANA COUNTY, OHIO. 



MUCCCLXXVI. 



Harris k Company, Printers. 
Salem, Ohlft. 



NEW INVENTIONS AND LABOR-SAVING DEVICES, 

WE are aware that Nurserymen do not like the conserv- 
atism that withholds by secrecy, and protects by patents, special 
methods and devices of value in the business ; but while every 
one must admire the open freedom and generosity that has gen- 
erally characterized the Trade, it is no more than just and fair 
that parties should have a moderate and reasonable compensation 
for their improvements and labor-saving processes. What we 
have noted below are simple, practical devices, each of which 
will often, in a single season, pay back to the purchaser many- 
fold its cost. 



Jenkins 1 Seed- Washer 

Is an arrangement by which the water is thrown through 
the apple pomace so as rapidly and effectually to separate the seed. 
Itisoperated in a stream, or at a common pump, and can be made 
of any capacity. The device can also be applied, with some modi- 
fication, to the ordinary seed-washing boxes. One, to five bushels 
per hour can be separated, — according to capacity of the washer. 
Any carpenter, or person of ordinary ingenuity can put up the 
arrangement. 

(Price for Model, with Individual (Right to 

make for own use, $*>.oo. 

Address^ J. JENKINS, 

BOX 45, WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



The Callousing Process. 

When a cutting has calloused, it is very sure to emit roots 
and make a plant without further trouble. This appears to be 
the only really effective method of accomplishing the process. 
It has caused a great decrease in the expense of producing vines 
from cuttings, and should be known by every Nurseryman who 
keeps up with his profession. 

Full Explanation and (Directions, §2.00. 
Address, J. JENKINS, 

BOX 45, WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



.0 



o 



*X 



® ff PM Ofa 




*£ JE&& 




Copyright Secured. 

PREFACE. 



Qjfi if T has not been the design, in this little work, to produce any- 
vpt. thing elaborate, or exhaustive of the subject, but rather 

a brief digest, concise, practical in its bearings, combining much 
in little. Covering the points of greatest interest to the practical 
nurserymen, avoiding, as far as may be, technicalities, and giving 
clear hints and directions that would have been worth hundreds 
of dollars to us in our own early experience. 




-AJRT O^ 1 ^ 5 I^OI :, -^0--^. , T , I02^^. 

There are, in reality, but two ways in which trees and plants 

multiply themselves. 

1st. By seeds. 

2nd. By buds. 

_<£>_ Seed. 

Is the ripened ovule, the product of the fertilized flower of 
the plant and consists of an outer covering, be it one or more coats, 
and the kernel. 

The kernel is the living organism, with food in store, and 
consists of the embryo, a miniature plantlett, with the life-principle 
and the albumen which nourishes the plant until the time that it 
can feed itself from the soil. The embryo consists of a stemlet 
and seed-leaves (Radicle and Cotyledons) lying dormant, but ready 
to burst forth into life when surrounded by the proper conditions 
of heat and moisture. 

.A- ZB-u.3. 

May be compared to a seed, but is more completely developed, 
more intimately connected with, and carries within itself a more 
intense image of the parent. 

Buds broken from our forest trees and sown with care, can 
often be made to grow. 

Some plants naturally multiply themselves by throwing off 
buds of some kind. The potato tuber consists of buds with a store 
of nourishment, all formed and thrown off from the roots, or rather 
from underground stems connected with the roots of the potato 
plant. Similar instances are found in the artichoke, dahlia, the 
bulbs and corms of the lily, the crocus, etc. The strawberry 
throws off buds from its runners; the blackcap raspberry from 



4 Propagation of Forest Trees. 



the tips of its canes; other raspberries and blackberries 
from buds formed on the roots. The seed in all plants 
produces an individual which, though of the same species, differs 
to a greater or less extent from the parent ; whereas the bud plants 
are a simple and exact reproduction ; being, indeed, a part of the 
original plant, but separated and self-supporting. The seed prop- 
agates the species, the bud, the individual. 

A branch cut from a tree, in its main features, resembles the 
tree entire, and the analogy may be traced to the twig and to 
the leaf. 

A skeletonized leaf forms a miniature picture of the tree 
on which it grew. Even a fraction of a plant-leaf is made to 
produce an entire plant in the hands of the florist. 

Seed. 3?ropa-gra,ti©rj.. 3^a,isingr of Forest Trees. 

Seeds to germinate must have the proper conditions of heat 
and moisture. These conditions vary greatly with different seeds. 
The moisture in which one kind of seed would flourish would be 
destructive to another class, causing them to rot instead 
of forcing growth ; and the heat necessary to start one class of 
seeds would dry up and utterly destroy the germ of another class. 
So that experience and close attention are necessary to success- 
ful propagation. The propagator should be an earnest student of 
nature, a close observer of the wants and habits of trees, and plants, 
and able, constantly, to draw hints and instructions from what he 
may see. Most of our forest trees ripen their seeds in the Fall. 
When the autumn winds blow, and the rains come, they fall to 
the ground. Then the leaves, having accomplished their mission 
on the tree, loosen their hold, fall to the ground with the seed, 
and in their death cover and protect the young germs of the 
new life. 

As a general rule, forest tree, and many other seeds should 
be planted in the Fall soon after they ripen, or, if reserved for 
Spring planting should be mixed with earth, moss, leaves, or other 
material to prevent drying, imitating, in a measure, the conditions 
and protection as observed in nature. 



Propagation of Forest Trees. 



Seed, of tlxe 2<T-a.t-Bea,rixi.g- Trees. 

For seeds of this class, as acorns, chestnut, hickory, black 
and white walnut, &c, the open field, if of mellow, rich soil, 
makes a good and sufficient seed bed. 

After the ground is thoroughly cultivated mark out with a 
plow as for corn or potatoes, planting the seeds closely in the light 
furrows or drills. 

The drills may be made at any convenient distance. If culti- 
vated with the hoe they need be but a footapart; but, unlesscramp- 
ed for room, they had better be sown in broader drills, and the 
drills three or four feet apart so that the space between them may 
be stirred with the horse hoe or cultivator. 

If the planting is done in the Fall it is better to mulch the 
ground with straw, leaves, marsh -hay, or any like material; this 
will prevent baking of the soil after the spring rains, aud keep it 
in a nice mellow condition. The mulching should be removed 
in the Spring, or, at least so much, that it will not interfere with 
the growth of the young seedlings. 

Tls.e Sim.a,ller Seeds, 

Such as maple, white ash, tulip, linden, magnolia, etc., re- 
quire more care in planting. 

Let the soil be thoroughly pulverized, then throw up into 
beds a few feet wide, and any desirable length. Mark out and 
plant in drills by placing a board across the bed and making the 
drill along the edge of the board with a sharpened stick, or, with 
the corner of the hoe ; then sow the seed in the drill as you would 
peas, or beet seed ; cover lightly, and then turn forward the board 
for a new drill. The width of the board regulates the distance 
apart of the drills, and as such seedlings are not usually allowed 
to grow more than one year before transplanting the board need 
not be more than eight or ten inches wide. Mulch with straw 
if planted in the Fall, removing the same in the Spring. 
^vdZa-g-nolia, Seed- 
There are a few kinds of seed that require special treatment. 
Those having a pulpy, oily covering will not grow well unless this 



6 Propagation of Forest Trees. 

pulp is removed. After the red seeds of magnolia are gathered 

from the pods put them in a tub, or bucket, with enough water to 

barely cover them. Stir occasionally. In a few days the red, 

pulpy covering will be softened and may be rubbed from the black 

seed, or seed proper, in the hands ; or, place the seeds in a coarse 

sieve and rub the pulp through the meshes into a running stream. 

The meshes of the sieve must be fine enough to retain the 

black seed. Then mix lime or wood ?shes with the seed to cut 

the oily matter that appears to interfere with germination, and 

they are ready for the soil. 

^^_3aotli.er D^etliod. 

The pulpy seeds may be mixed immediately with a quantity 

of ashes, unleached ; then if set in a cellar and kept moderately 

moist the pulp will be found by Spring mostly removed from the 

seed by the alkali. 

T77"li.ite .^.sih. Seed. 

Will seldom grow the first season after planting, unless sub- 
jected to special treatment. The theory is, with this and many 
other seeds difficult to propagate, that there is a gummy, resinous, 
or oily epidermis that interferes with the action of the air neces- 
sary to produce germination. Excellent results have followed 
the immersion of such seed in an alkali, in acetic, or dilute 
sulphuric acid. Care must be used, however, that the acid, or 
alkali does not destroy the integuments of the seed in addition to 
this air-proof covering. 

Hed a-zid Sil-srer ZLv£a,ple, Elxan.., <Scc, 

Ripen their seed late in the Spring, or early Summer. They 
will keep but a tew weeks, and should be planted immediately. Silver 
maple seed planted in June will often make a growth of fifteen 
or twenty inches by the last of October. Birch seed can be kept 
in sand in a cool place and planted the following Spring. 
<3-a/tli.erix5.g r of Seeds. 

Seeds of the nut-bearing trees are easily gathered, but with 
maple and other small seeds the operation of gathering from the 
ground is exceedingly tedious. 

Seed, of 2^£a,ple. 

If the tree can be spared it may be cut down when the 
seed is nearly ripe and first begins to fall. Thev can then be 



Propagation of Forest Trees. 7 



rapidly stripped from the branches by hand. On small trees they 

may often be gathered from the branches without cutting 

the tree. In gathering, after tliey have fallen on the ground, 

the leaves must first be raked off, and the seed gathered up mainly, 

by hand picking. 

T-u.lip Seed. 

Is gathered when the cones first begin to open. The cones, 
which are made up of seeds, are usually picked from the tree by 
an active climber. Our northern 

3^a,gran.©lia<— -A-CTa-naixisitta,— SeecL 

Grows in pods, closely resembling a young green cucumber ; 
hence the name cucumber tree. These pods may be gathered 
after they have turned a red or pink color, and begin to open, 
showing the red seeds. Spread them out in the air after they are 
gathered. In a few days the seed is readily shelled out. 
Preservation. 

Seeds are kept in various ways. Some kinds preserve their 
vitality for .-years ; others, but for a few days, or weeks. Some 
must be kept entirely dry, as the least moisture starts the germ 
and they are spoiled, unless planted at once. Others, as the chest- 
nut, will be ruined if allowed to dry to any extent. Evergreen seed, 
rich in oily, resinous matter, must be kept dry, and in an airy 
situation. Generally it is safe to follow nature's method as nearly 
as we can ; by placing the seed in thin layers on the ground, and 
covering them with partially decayed leaves, or mixing them with 
moss, or sand, moderately moist, and keeping them in a cool place. 

Sli.ipm.en.t- 

Seeds having an outer covering, or pulp, as magnolia, dog- 
wood, &c, should have the pulp removed, or be partially 
dried to prevent fermentation. Then pack in sacks with dry 
moss or charcoal. Chestnuts may be packed in moss, only damp 
enough to prevent drying. Walnut, hickory, etc., with the hull 
removed, may be shipped in bulk, in boxes, or sacks, without 
packing material, but should be mixed with sand to keep them 
fresh and ready for growth as soon as received. Evergreen seeds 
must be dry, and care used to keep them dry while in transit, 
and, indeed until near the time of planting. 



8 Propagation of Evergreens. 



23-verg-reen. SeedJ.im.grs. 

The seed of evergreens is always found in cones, with the 
exception of the juniper, and yew, which produce small berries; 
hence,the general name applied to evergreens of coniferrae,or cone- 
bearing. The seeds are found at the base of the shells composing 
the cone, and instead of the two seed leaves, (cotyledons) and primary 
stem, (radicle) as usually found in other seeds, the coniferrae is com- 
posed of a whorl of from two, to as high as fifteen seed leaves. The 
seeds are composed largely of a resinous, or oily matter, which 
is liable to become rancid. Hence, great care is needed to pre- 
serve the vitality of the seed, and they will keep best in their 
natural receptacles, the cones. 

Tla.e Soil 

Most suitable for raising conifers is a light sandy loam, rich 
in vegetable matter, bat entirely free from rank manures. The 
soil should be deeply spaded and thoroughly pulverized. Then 
lay off in beds four feet wide, and any desirable length, with 
alleys of one foot between. The beds should be rounded in the 
middle, the sides being but little higher than the alleys. The 
seed is usually sown broadcast and then carefully and lightly 
raked in ; but some prefer sowing in drills a few inches apart, 
then rolling, or pressing with back of the spade, and sifting over 
them a very light covering of soil (never more than one-eighth to 
one fourth of an inch.) The seeds are sown thickly ; one- 
pound of Norway Spruce should cover a space of twenty to thirty 
feet in a bed four feet wide. The ground should be prepared the 
Fall before, and the seed put in at the earliest possible moment in 
the Spring. Some propagators do not wait for the frost to leave 
the ground when they can find sand or soil to sift over the seed. 
Most failures arise from not having the seed beds partially shaded* 
If hot sunshine falls on them while the seeds are swelling 
and cold follows, a large proportion will rot before tbey appear 
above the ground. When seedlings are raised extensively arti- 
ficial arbors are made high enough to work under, by driving posts 
in the ground and nailing on them boards or poles, thus mak- 



Propagation of Evergreens. 9 

ing a trellis several feet above the beds, then putting slender poles 
across, and covering all with bushes and branches of trees with the 
leaves on. This arbor should be constructed the previous summer. 
Where the growing is carried on on a less extensive scale, 
stakes are driven at convenient distances along the sides of the 
beds to which boards six inches wide are nailed, to support 
screens for shading the young seedlings. The lower edge of these 
boards should be but four or five inches above the surface of the I 
ground, thus allowing the air to circulate freely over the beds. | 

Xjsttls. Screens 

Are made of plasterer's lath, placed one to two inches apart, 
and fastened by nailing to a lath across each end. They form a 
convenient, portable shade where the space to be covered is not 
too great, are light, easily removed and replaced, and, with 
care, will last a number of years. 

TiLe <3-erm.ia^.o,tio3n. of tla.e Comiferae 

Often requires from thirty to sixty days, they being slower in 
swelling and bursting their coats than many other seeds. Some- 
times they will lay dormant one season and come up nicely the 
next; hence if they fail to grow the first year it is well to examine 
the seed, and, if it remains plump, with fresh-looking kernels, keep 
the beds weeded for the next season. 

TDa,m.pI:tJ.g- off. 

The critical period for the young seedlings extends over six 
or eight weeks from the time they make their first appearance, 
or, until they form their secondary leaves. They are extremely 
sensitive to external influences, a little excess of drought, heat, or 
moisture proving ruinous, rotting the stem off at the surface of 
the ground. 

Rainy, hot weather, or a warm rain saturating the beds after 
they have become very dry, will often cause them to damp off by 
thousands. The destruction may often be arrested by sifting dry 
sand over the bed. 



10 Propagation of Stock, Etc. 



Protection, for "\^7"inter. 



In the Fall the young seedlings should be covered with leaves, 
straw, or marsh-hay, which will prevent them from being drawn 
out by the frequent thawing and freezing. 



3Tr\xit Tree Seeds. 

As these are liable to vary from the parent they are usually 
planted by the nurserymen for stocks, on which to bud or graft 
particular varieties. 

.Apple Seed- 
Is usually obtained from the fresh pomace at the cider mill. 
The seed is separated by washing in water ; having a greater 
specific gravity it settles to the bottom, while the pomace floats. 
The hand washing process is very tedious, but where there is a 
running stream of water they may be separated more rapidly. 

Ord.ina.r3r Seed T^7"a.sn.ingr Arrangement. 

Sink a long box in the bed of the stream, (say two feet wide 
by eighteen inches high) nail a board across three feet from the 
upper end, ten inches high, or about one-half the height of the 
sides of the box, and every two feet to the lower end nail across 
still narrower boards, or cleats. Throw in and stir the pomace 
in the upper end. This separates the seed, which settles to the 
bottom while the pomace floats over with the running water. 
Some of the seeds will be washed over the first division but will 
be caught by the lower cleats. After the pomace is washed off 
the seed must be panned out, that is, shaken up with water in a 
pan, or other convenient vessel, the fine pomace and other impu- 
rities that have settled with the seed will thus be shaken to the 
surface and easily separated. 

A very simple and effective apparatus has been invented, 
which separates the seed at one operation, and far more rapidly 
than by any other known process. It entirely dispenses with the 



Propagation of Apple Stocks. 11 

panning off process, and enables the operator to get otit seed at 
a tithe of the expense of other methods. See page 2 of cover. 

The seed should be spread out to dry in an airy situation, but 
not exposed to the full rays of the sun. It should be frequently 
stirred to avoid mildew and heating. The process will be hastened 
by spreading very thinly on floors or shelves where the air has 
free circulation. 

If the seed is for home use the tedious process of drying 

may be avoided. If sown in the Fall mix enough dry plaster or 

sand with the seed to take up the moisture, and to allow it to run 

freely from the hand or drill. If sown in the Spring thoroughly 

mix the seed with four or live times its bulk of sand, then keep in a 

cool, shaded place through the winter. Freezing and thawing 

will not injure it while in the sand, and is, by many considered an 

JW\ /^Vv ^vantage. The seed and sand may all 

V / few) k e sowec * together in the Spring. Seed 

o" "\\cv /Jf^ 7 ^" — ^ kept m l ^ s wa y sprouts very early and 

^W/ should be put in as soon as the frost is 

11 out and the ground can be prepared. 

11 LW^ ^Preparation, of <3-ro-a.ri.ol. 

/JK Is much the same as for other seeds. 

jE\ l — -a Some plant in beds as recommended in 
/» the management of the smaller forest 

yry tree seeds. But they are usually planted 

I in drills 15 to 20 inches apart in the 

Apple seed and Young piantiet. open field, and cultivated with a narrow 
horse-hoe or cultivator designed for the purpose. The best soil 
is a deep, rich, clay loam. Sandy soil encourages the growth of 
too many lateral roots instead of the long tap root desired in 
stocks. To encourage length of root the ground should be sub- 
soiled and deeply and thoroughly pulverized before planting. 



12 Propagation of Stocks. 

ZETa-ll axid. Spring 3Plaxrtixi.g-s 

Each have their advantages and drawbacks. Fall planting, 
is more easily managed; the extra care of keeping and re-hand- 
ling the seed is avoided and a start is made on the Spring work — 
Spring being a time full of care and perplexity for the nursery- 
man. On the other hand, the ground, unless very sandy and 
porous becomes baked and solid before Spring so that the little 
seedlings cannot break through to the light, being literally smoth- 
ered. This difficulty is avoided if the ground is mulched with 
coarse manure or straw immediately alter planting in the Fall. 

Tlb-e 3Plan.tixi.gf of 3P©xnace 

Directly from the press is sometimes successful. It is scat- 
tered in broad drills and covered lightly with soil. This process 
is not very popular, however, as the pomace sours the ground. 
The seedlings often come up irregularly and appear to be stunted 
in their growth. 

Spro-u.tixi.gf _^-pple Seed- 
When the seeds are dry they should be put to soak a week 
or ten days before planting; change the water daily, pouring 
warm water over them, if it is desired, to hasten the process. 

They may then be mixed with sand and exposed to the heat 
of a hot bed, stirring frequently to prevent fermentation and to 
secure an even start. 

As soon as they show signs of piping, or sprouting, they 
should be immediately planted. Sometimes a thin layer of seeds 
are placed between wet blankets and put under the stove, or near 
the flue in the Green House. This causes them to sprout very 

quickly. 

ZDigfgfixigf Stoclss. 

If the seedlings have made a good growth they are loos- 
ened late in the Fall by running a sub-soil plow close to the rows 
and then pulling them out. 

If they have made a poor growth the largest should be 

pulled while the ground is soft with Autumn rains, leaving the 

! smaller sized seedlings to grow another year. When all are dug 



Propagation of Stocks. 13 



they are heeled-in closely, so the leaves are sweated, as it is termed, 
and will readily fall off from the stocks. They are then assorted 
into three or four sizes and put up in bunches. 

Extra Size — Thicker than a lead pencil, and will make three 
or four cuts to the root. 

No. 1. — Somewhat smaller ; will make two or three cuts to 
the root. 

No. 2. — For collar grafting with small scions, and for 
budding. 

No. 3. — For transplanting. 

They are kept by packing them away in the cellar in moist 
saw-dust, or moss. For shipping, the tops are cut off near the 
collar which can be rapidly done by taking a bunch at a time and 
chopping them off with a hand-axe. 

Pear Seed. 

Is for the most part obtained from France and Germany, 
where quantities of Perry are made, and the seed separated in 
much the same manner that we have described in the case of 
apple seed. 

Pear seed is found to be much more difficult to manage than 
apple; it very frequently lies dormant the first season, and comes 
up nicely the next. 

Some French writers advise washing and rubbing the seeds 
together, to rid them of a sort of mucilage that surrounds them, 
like a water-tight coat; and claim that if this is removed by con- 
tinued washing and stirring, the seed will grow the first season. 

Stratification.. 

Le Vassaur, of Ussy, France, in a letter to C. Raux, says, 
that the main point is to stratify the seed, which is done by 
placing it in layers on the ground and covering it with moss and 
turf. A sheltered place is selected, with an eastern exposure. 
The layer of seed may be several inches thick. If the ground is 
very dry, a hole should be dug and the layer of seed placed in 
this, thus retaining a greater amount of moisture. The seeds are 



14 Propagation of Stocks. 

kept constantly moist. They also should be soaked several days 
in water before being stratified. Another method of stratification 
is to dig a hole into which the seed is placed after being mixed 
with from one-half to two-thirds its bulk of sand, then covered 
with moss and turf as before. If the time to plant has nearly 
come, and the stratified seed do not show signs of piping, they 
may be placed on a hot bed as recommended for apple seed. 

The general cultivation and care of seedlings is much the 
same, be they Pear, Apple, Cherry, Plum, or others. 

Seed, of Ola-erry, ^1-am, <Scc. 

When separated from the fruit should be packed immediately 
in sand or moss to prevent drying and shrivelling of the kernel. 
The Plum will bear more drying than the Cherry, and the Peach 
more than either ; yet the greatest care should be exercised to 
keep the kernels fresh and plump. 

ZPeacla. Seed. 

Are usually stratified by placing a layer of seed several inches 
deep on the ground, and then covering with a layer of soil in a 
place where the seed will be kept moist, allowing them to freeze 
during the winter. Or the pits may be mixed with one-half to 
two-thirds their bulk of sand in a box out of doors and exposed 
to freezing during the winter. Leaves, moss, or saw-dust may 
be substituted for the sand. Some persons place the seed under 
the eaves of a building that they may be kept wet with the rains, 
and fully exposed to the action of frost. By Spring most of the 
shells will be found to have burst open; those that are not opened 
are cracked with a hammer. The kernels are then planted in 
drills, three or four feet apart, and from three to six inches apart 
in the drill. If the season is favorable they are usually ready for 
budding in August and September following. We find many 
prefer planting their Peach seed in the Fall, depending on the 
moisture of the ground and the action of the frost to open them 
during the winter. Although the stocks of the stone fruits are 



Propagation of Hedge Plants. 15 



usually worked by budding, they may be taken up in the Fall and 
grafted during the winter, the same as the Apple; but not with 
as great success. 

Osage Orscrs-g-e 

Is extensively grown for Hedge Plants. The seed is gathered 
in large quantities in North Eastern Texas, and in Arkansas. 
The seeds are about twice as large as those of the Apple or Pear 
and its appearance doubtless is familiar to most readers. 

The Orange is round and from two to five or six inches in 
diameter, and resembles a melon, in having a thick outer rind, 
enclosing a gummy pulp, in which the seeds are imbedded. Each 
Apple or Orange contains from 100 to 300 seeds. In one process 
of saving the seed the Oranges are pared down with a knife, then 
crushed, and allowed to ferment until the gummy pomace will sep- 
arate by washing. By another process the whole Oranges are 
crushed in a mill made for the purpose. The pomace is then placed 
in pools of water where the ground has been hollowed out as re- 
ceptacles for it. Here it is allowed to soak until it will separate 
from the seed by stirring. Another simple and effective method is 
to bury the Oranges in the ground as soon as ripe, by the following 
Spring the pulp will have mostly rotted and the seed will be found 
in fine condition for germination. 

Spro-o-tixigf tla.e Seed- 
It is usually soaked from one to three weeks, either in a box, 
sunk in a running stream, or in a tub or cask containing water, 
which should be changed every twenty-four hours. When it is 
desirable to hasten the germination, hot water should be used. 
The general directions of planting and care given under the head 
of Apple Seed, will apply equally for Osage. 

Honey Hiocvust, 

And seeds having such a hard bony covering, will not grow 
unless treated severely with boiling water. Put them to soak the 
same as Osage, and constantly renew the boiling water, until they 
become quite soft. One would think that the germ would be killed 



16 Propagation of Cuttings. 

by such heroic measures, but it does not injure them in the least. 
It will sometimes grow well, if kept moist, and exposed to severe 
freezing during the winter. 

_£>_ ^To-sreltiy in Grape 0~aJ.t-a.re- 

Pieron of France describes a method of "sowing the vine on the 
vine." He makes a small hole with a gimlet in the lower part of 
the stock, in the Spring when the sap is flowing. Into this hole- 
he drops a grape seed of thekind desired, which will germinate; being 
kept moist by the sap, and will incorporate itself with the old vine, 
and grow up as one of the branches. At a proper time the old vine 
may be cut away. 

IDI^7"ISI03Sr SE003ST3D- 
3Propa,gfa,ti©n. "by B*u.cLs. 

This method of propagation, as was intimated in the opening 
section, covers by far the greater proportion of the operations of 
the Nurseryman, and may be subdivided into — 

1. Propagation by cuttings or slips, including root cut- 

tings and division. 

2. Propagation by layers, including runners and sprouts. 

3. " " budding. 

4. " " grafting, including inarching. 

5. " " bulbs, corms and tubers. 

Oio.ttiri.g-s 

Are usually made in Autumn, from the last season's growth; 
many of the fruit and ornamental trees, plants and shrubs are thus 
multiplied. A heel of the old wood is often left on the cutting and 
is supposed to facilitate growth. Some plants throw off buds 
more readily from the roots than the tops, and are propagated by 
root cuttings. Some that can not be raised readily from ripened 
wood, not emitting roots freely, are propagated by using slips of 
the green wood, called Green Wood cuttings. These seldom suc- 
ceed in out-door propagation, but often do better than any other 
in the Green House. 



Propagation by Cuttings. 



17 



Propagation by Division is instanced in box-edging where 
each stem is split off and down, and carries with it a few of the 
roots belonging to the plant entire. The daisy, aster, marjoram, drc, 
are often increased by division. These differ from ordinary cut- 
tings only in retaining a few roots of the original plant. 

Cuttings are made of various lengths but as every bud, under 
favoring circumstances, may unfold into an independ- 
ent existence, it is unnecessary with many plants to 
/ use more than single joints or nodes. 

X'ropsigra.ticaa. cf G-rape from. O'u.tting's. 

The cuttings should be made in the Fall or early 

Winter; buried in 
the ground, or 
packed away in 
moist sawdust or 
moss in the cellar. 
Cuttings were 
formerly made a 
foot o r eighteen 
inches long, but so 
great length is of 
doubtful advant- 
age, as they do not 

usually make vines Grape Vinc from singll . Eje . 

as symmetrical in appearance nor as well rooted as do 
the shorter cuttings. Two bud cuttings are made by 
severing the cane immediately below the lower bud and 
from |- inch to 1^ inches above the upper bud. Two 
and three bud cuttings are the most popular. 

When the variety is rare and rapid multiplication 
is desired, single eyes may be used and the advantages 
of a two- bud cutting retained by making a slanting cut 
across the node of each bud. The beginning of the 
cut being opposite and below the direct line of the 

Two-Bud Grape Oil 

£""• how'the cut bud, an d the terminus ^ to \ inch above. We have 
"cross b the "odt 8 seen beds of cuttings prepared in this way that grew 

utilizing evarv f^ ftg ^ as ^^ having twQ an( ^ ^qq fc^s. 



m 




18 Propagation by Cuttings. 

Preparation, of O-ro-a.ri.cL a.n.cL Planting-. 

Beds are thrown up six or eight feet wide, with alleys a loot 
or more in width and depth between them. Let the soil be thor- 
oughly spaded and pulverized, and the top raked nearly level from 
side to side. Place a board one foot in width across the bed and 
open a shallow trench with the spade along the edge of the board, 
this trench is usually slanted forward that the cuttings may more 
readily lie in their places. In this the cuttings are placed one or 
two inches apart, the upper bud just below the surface ; the dirt 
is then drawn up and pressed against them and the board turned 
forward its width for a new trench. After the beds are planted 
they may be mulched with rotten sawdusi, leaves, cut straw, or 
other material. Our practice has been to irrigate by damming an 
adjoining stream and running water through the alleys between 

the beds. 

Peterman's n^Eetliod.. 

Cuttings of two and three eyes are used and the bark is pared 
off to within an inch of the top bud. The cuttings are then 
coated with a sort of mortar or groat made of clay loam. A line 
is stretched in the open field along which a trench is opened : 
the cuttings are laid in the trench with the top buds | an 
inch or more above the surface, and the soil drawn up and pressed 
against them. The rows are made three or four feet apart and 
cultivated with a horse-hoe, &c. The groat or mortar on the 
cutting keeps it moist after planting, thus assisting its growth. 
We doubt whether enough is gained by paring off the outer bark 
to pay for the extra trouble. 

O-ermari l^/Lat]a.o6L. 

Cuttings are prepared about one foot in length. A line is 
stretched in the open field to make the row straight. The planter 
takes a sharp spade and plunges it perpendicularly into the ground 
at right angles from the line and to a depth about equaling the 
length of the cutting; the handle is then thrown back to make a 
a wider opening, and the spade withdrawn ; two or three cuttings are 
put into this opening at the sides and in the middle, the top buds 
being an inch above ground. The spade is now plunged in an 
inch or two forward of the first cut and as the handle is thrown 



Propagation by Cuttings. 



19 



back it firmly presses the soil against the cuttings while it makes 
an opening for the next, and so the operation is repeated to the 
end of the row. 

This is an excellent plan. The work is finished up. The soil, 
from the very nature of the operation, is pressed firmly against 
the cuttings. It foims a broad row of vines. These rows being 
placed three or four feet apart are worked to a great extent with 
the cultivator. 

The Callousing Process for single buds or longer cuttings 
positively secures the growth of nearly every one. See page 2 
of cover. 

G-reeaa House Propag-ation. 

In this case single eyes ?.re used with half an inch of wood 
above and one or two inches below each bud. These are planted 
in pots and placed in borders immediately over the flues or hot 
water pipes so as to receive bottom heat, or sometimes the border 
is filled with sand and they are planted in this without using pots. 
When they reach the height of two or three inches they are trans- 
planted into three-inch pots and from these to the open ground. 
By the use of the patent transplanting boxes (see page 3 of cover), 
these operations are greatly facilitated and eighteen or twenty 
vines are planted as quickly as one can be from a crock. 
G-reeaa. "WoodL O-a.tti03.g-s 

Are used only for in-door or Green 
House propagation. Slips taken from 
vines that have made their growth 
under glass succeed the best; two 
joints of the cane are taken, cutting 
immediately below the lower bud and 
J inch above the upper bud leaving a 
leaf attached to the latter. These are 
then placed closely in the propagating 
beds, the glass shaded and the atmos- 
phere kept moist until they have rooted 
Green wood Grape cutting. and commenced growth. The opera- 
tions of potting, transplanting, &c, being the same as for single 
eyes of old wood. 




20 Propagation by Cuttings. 



Hose C-a.ttin.g-s. 

These are made early in the Autumn from the same season's 
growth. They are from four to eight inches in length, and 
preferred with a heel of the old wood, and are planted in a cold 
frame or border in much the same way as grape cuttings. Late 
in the Fall, after the ground has begun to freeze, cover them 
heavily with straw, so that the frost will not reach them. The 
following Spring this covering is removed, and usually the greater 
proportion of the cuttings grow. We have followed nearly the 
same plan with the Currant and Gooseberry, and with abundant 
success. 

Evergreen Cia-ttings 

May be made of Siberian Arbor Vitge, Irish Juniper, etc., in 
the early Fall months. They are planted in a cold frame or hot bed 
after the heat is about spent. They usually callous before heavy 
freezing. When winter sets in cover them with straw so as to 
protect from frost ; this is removed in the Spring and the larger 
proportion of the cuttings make a vigorous growth. 

Well-ripened shoots should be used for cuttings; the unripe 
wood, known by its lighter appearance, nearly always fails from 
damping off. 

Cuttings may also be made in the Spring, and as late as July, 
from the previous season's growth, and planted with a fair pros- 
pect of success. Other Evergreens, as the Norway Spruce, etc., 
that grow readily from the seed, are seldom raised from cuttings. 

IR.©©t 0-u.ttin.g-s. 

As a general rule, all plants that throw up sprouts and suck- 
ers from the roots are readily multiplied by root cuttings. These 
are made by carefully taking up the roots and cutting them in 
pieces two to four inches long; these are then planted in drills, 
covering | to one inch deep, when they soon develope buds. Each 
piece of the root forming a plant. Pyrus Japonica; the Rasp- 
berry, exclusive of the Blackcaps: the Blackberry; and some- 
times the Plum, Cherry, Pear, &c, are propagated in this way. 



Propagation by Layers. 



21 



FROPAGATIOU B"^ L^^IE^S. 

This is a very certain and often a 
very convenient method of multiply- 
ing many of the fruits and flowers. 
Some plants emit roots very readily, 
the mere contact with the ground 
being sufficient: nature often accom- 
plishing the layering process, as in the 
case of the Raspberry, Strawberry, &c. 
Some persons object to layering, 
claiming that layers weaken the parent 
plant ; the return of the elaborated nourishment and life circu- 
j lation from the leaves back to the roots being arrested. But if a 
portion of the original plant is left without layering this objection 
| loses its force. 

^efiaaitioaa. of Xja,37-ers. 

Layers are 
branches or por i 
tions of bran- 
ches that have 




Plant Layer. 




Cane Laid I) 

contact and covered with 
the soil and thus caused to 
throw out roots, after which 
the rooted layer is separa- 
ted from the parent. 



been placed in 




Sprouts Growing up from Layered Cane. 




Stool Layering of the Quinc 



Stool Lasers. 

Some trees or bushes may be en- 
couraged to throw up a large number 
of branches or canes near the ground bv 
severe cutting back, and may then be 
ayered by simply making a mound of 
dirt around them. This method, which 
is called Layering by Stools, is fre- 
quently followed in propagating the 
Quince, especially the Angers. 



22 Propagation by Layers. 



Where roots are not readily thrown out, the operation of 
tongueing is resorted to ; this is simply cutting into the cane or branch 
where it is bent down into the ground and making a slit forward 
through the center for an inch or two. The cut is usually com- 
menced just below a bud and may be above, below, or at the side. 
After pegging down the branch at the point where it is tongued, 
cover with fine soil several inches deep. Often a slight twist 
given to the branch where it is bent into the ground is sufficient 
without making the tongue, as either process checks the flow of 
sap and thus encourages the formation of roots. In some cases 
where it is desirable to obtain layers from branches that can not 
be made to reach the ground, a box of earth is elevated on stakes 
and the branch passed through the box and soil. 

SprovLts euacL Sha-clsers 

From the roots are a kind of layers, though the process seems 
reversed, the branch in the former case emitting roots and in this 
case the root throwing up a branch. Some plants multiply them- 
selves very readily in this way, so much so, as often to become a 
nuisance, as for instance, the Silver-Poplar, Locust, etc. Many 
Roses and other shrubs throw out long underground shoots or 
stems on which roots are formed and which may be separated from 
the original shrub or bush. 

The Morello Cherry, some Raspberries, Blackberries, Plums, 
Pears, and other fruits, multiply themselves by sprouts from the 
roots. 

A great advance in the art of propagating from layers has 
been, made by the use of the Layering Tube, by which the growth 
of every bud is secured, and the plant or vine multiplied with the 
greatest rapidity. See page 3 of cover. 

This is a favorite method with nurserymen of multiplying 
particular varieties. 

Its main advantages are: The facility and rapidity with 
which it is performed; its certainty when the conditions are prop- 
erly regarded ; and the rapid multiplication of distinct varieties by 
thus securing the growth of each bud. 



Propagation by Budding. 



23 



Objections have been urged on account of the limited time in 
which it can be successfully performed, and the unsightly crook 
near the base which a young budded tree usually presents. 

The conditions necessary for successful budding are: 1st. The 
stock in which the bud is inserted mnst be in active growth so 
that the bark will run or slip. 2d. The new growth of the tree 
or plant to be propagated must be sufficient to make full, plump, 
well-matured buds. 

In some stocks the sap appears too watery early in the sea- 
son. In these cases the budding should be deferred until it thickens 
and is depositing its annual ring of "pulp " or woody fiber imme- 
diately under the bark. Then the implanted bud will the more 
certainly unite and incorporate its growth with the stock. 

Tla.e Season, of lO-u.d.d.iaag' 

Is usually midsummer and early autumn though the bark 
will run on many stocks when the leaves unfold in spring; budding 
performed at this time is called Spring Budding. 

In this case the buds must be taken from the new growth of 
the previous year. They should be kept dormant in an ice house 
until used. Often they will force a strong growth, and buds of 
this growth can be again used for Fall budding. This is called 
double working,and'is sometimes resorted to where it is desirable to 
increase a new variety very fast. For summer budding the full 
development and maturity of the buds may be accelerated by 
pinching back the growing shoots. 

Tl^e Process of 33-a.d.d.izigf- 

When the buds on the young shoots are sufficiently 
developed the stocks are gone over and all side-shoots 
or sprouts are rubbed off for a few inches above th e 
ground, this is usually done a few days before budding 
them. 

A transverse cut is made at a smooth spot on 
the stock and a perpendicular slit downward from this 
for a distance of one or two inches. The corners of 
vance-s Method, in- the bark beina: sliarhtlv elevated with the point of the 

serting bud C where ° c •> A 

a bud has been cut I.,-, If,-. /Q or , n ,.t 1 

out of the stock. unite, (bee cut.j 




24 



Propagation by Budding. 




The operator then takes the stick of buds and entering the 
knife above, brings it out | an inch below the bud or eye. A little 
wedge of 
wood is thus 
cutout with 

the bud and. 

1,1 i ^ 
bark, the 

removal of 
which is ad- 
vis e d by 
some nurs- 
erymen, but 
as i t does 
not seem to 
interfere at 
all with the 
uniting o f 
the tissues, 

and the removal is tedious and fraught with some danger to the eye 
of the bud, it is usually omitted. Into the cut previously made 
in the stock the bud is now inserted and pressed 
downward under the bark, then tied by passing 
strings of bass matting or cotton yarn around the 
stock thus pressing the bark closely over, 
the bud : care must be used not to 
allow the ligature to rest on the 
eye of the inserted bud. 

In ten days or two weeks the 
ties are removed by passing a knife \\| 
over them at the back of each stock ; 
thus severing them at one cut, or by un- 
winding. When the stock is growing rap- 
idly the operation must be attended to s ^a^d^i 
Mil eat lier to avoid injury to the stock and bud by Btran- 
,„t ami sin and gulation, and if the bud is found not fully united it 

bud ready for in- £J ' ' J v 

sert,on - must be tied up again. 



CuttiiiL' a Bud. 






Propagation by Budding. 



25 



In early budding the stocks are often headed back immedi- 
ately after the buds have "taken," and the ties are removed, thus 
forcing the growth of the young bud immediately. But in later 
budding the operation is left and the inserted bud remains dor- 
mant until the following Spring The heading back is accom- 
plished by a clean cut commencing an inch 
or more above the bud "and passing back- 
ward and upward, severing the stock. All 

sprouts must be removed when- 
ever they appear after the stock 

is headed back, so that the growth 

may go exclusively to the bud. 

Some prefer leaving more of the 

old stock as a support to which 

the young shout is tied, but this 

is not often really necessary. 

Tying bud growth 
to stump of old 
stock. 






ZE^Im.g' ZB-a-d-d-irLgf 



Is accomplished by taking off a ring First Seaso - n ' 8 Urbwth tTOm Bud " 
of bark from the stock | inch wide, more or less, and replacing it 
by a similar ring containing the bud to be propagated. 
This offers no advantage over the other methods ex- 
cppt in the case of the Grape, which sometimes suc- 
ceeds better budded in this manner. 

The principles involved in both budding and grafting are 
the same. 

The circulation, nutrition and growth of plants is carried on 
by a system of cells, which make up their structure in a great 
measure, and by the exosmosis and endosmosis between these cells, 
an interesting botanical study ; but will not be taken up in 
this work, which is designed to be brief and practical rather than 
theoretical. 



26 Propagation by Grafting. 

However, it is found that tissues or cellular formations of 
like nature, placed in contact readily unite and form a continuous 
growth ; hence the process of grafting, etc. The cellular growth 
is carried on immediately beneath the outer bark in all except the 
endogenous plants, hence the cambium layer or annular ring gen- 
erally known as the inner bark of both stock and scion should 
come in close contact in order to unite in -growth. 



2STa,t-u.ra-l <3-ra,ftin.g' 

By inarching may be frequently observed in our native for- 
ests, where one branch or tree has come in contact with another, 
and, swayed by the wind, the inner bark of each has been exposed 
by the continued friction and the cellular growth being homoge- 
neous, they have united. Sometimes we see trees of entirely dif- 
ferent natures which appear to be joined, but in these cases it is 
found to be merely a sort of dove-tailing, the cell circulation not 
uniting or crossing from one to the other. The nurseryman in 
selecting scions and stocks chooses those of like nature ; thus the 
most perfect union for the apple is the apple, though it will form 
a union with other fruits bearing similar seeds, as, for instance, 
the quince and pear; but the union is notso perfect, often dwarfing 
the tree and producing precocious fruiting. This is taken advan- 
tage of in dwarfing the pear on the quince. Hence fruits bearing 
seeds are grafted on fruits of similar' nature and bearing- similar 
seeds, and stone fruits on stone fruits. 

The plum is frequently budded or grafted on the peach, and 
vice versa, and the apricot, nectarine, etc., flourish on either. 

In the case of stone fruits, as the peach, plum, and cherry, most 
nurserymen prefer working them by budding, limiting the opera- 
tion of grafting to the seed fruits and mainly to the apple. 

The usual methods of uniting stock and scion, are known, as 
splice, whip, cleft, side, and saddle grafting. 

Splice Grafting is the simplest form. The stock and scion, 
which should be the same size, are shaved down to a like angle or 
slope, and then fitted and bound together. 



Propagation by Grafting. 



27 




Cleft Graftings. Stuck cut and split, 
and Scions inserted. 



Whip Grafting is a modification of splice, and differs only 
in splitting or tongueing the stock and- scion midway on 
the . sloping cut of each as shown in the engraving, and 
thus locking them together ; it also gives a more ex- 
tended surface of the cambium or growing tissues. 

Cleft Grafting is pre- 
ferred when the stock is 
much larger than the scion, 
as in renewing the tops of 
orchard trees. The stock, in 
this case, is cut square across, 
then split, and the scions, 
having been shaved down to 
a wedge shape, are inserted 
as shown in the cut. Suc- 
cess depends on having the 
inner bark of the stock and 
scion contiguous. 

In Crown or Side Grafting; the stock is cu t Whi i ,Gr " fti "«- 
square across as in cleft grafting, a slit is made through the bark 
and the scion, shaved down on one side only, and 
having a shoulder to rest on the cut surface of the 
stock, is inserted between the bark and wood similar 
to the inserting of a bud. 

The same operation may be performed without 
cutting off the top of the stock by cutting a notch 
transversely, and a downward slit from this, then 
inserting the scion and tying it like a bud. Another 
plan of side grafting is to plunge a knife at an angle, 
downward through the bark, and into the wood of the 
stock. The scion is inserted into this puncture. The 
cut surfaces must be covered with grafting-wax to 
protect them from drying winds or excess of moist- 
ure, and to hasten the cellular formation by the 
exclusion of air. 

In Saddle Grafting the operation of cleft- 
grafting is reversed, the stock being shaved to a wedge- 
saddie Grafting sna p e) an( } the scion split and pressed over it. 



28 



Propagation by Grafting. 



Crraftian.gr of -A_pple Stoclrs, Etc. 



The nurseryman's grafting on stocks is usually performed 
during the Winter, and fills up the time when there is little else 
on hand. 

The stocks which have been stored away in the cellar, packed 
in moss or saw-dust the previous Fall, are cut into pieces 3 to 6 
inches long, the tops having be^n removed down to the collar, or 
junction of the root with the top. 

Many prefer the upper or first cut of 
the root, claiming that the union is more 
perfect, and natural, at the collar. Be 
this as it may, we know that most excel- 
lent trees are produced from the lower 
cuts, and the grafts show little, if any, 
difference in their relative growth. The 
scions are prepared like the roots, i. e., 
cut into lengths of 4 to 8 inches, and 
joined usually by whip-grafting. A good 
grafter will put up over a thousand a 
puuting^Koot^Graft^ pressing dirt j.^ Alter the parts ai e locked toget her 

they are tied with waxed- thread, or covered wiih melted grafting- 
wax at the point of union, and then packed away in the cellar in 
moist saw-dust, moss or soil. The Waxed Thread is made by 
drawing cotton yarn (about No. 3 is generally used) through 
melted wax. It may be wound on a reel, or cut into lengths 
ready for tying. 

Grafting- Wax is made of equal parts of rosin, bees-wax 
and tallow melted together. Though various formulas are given 
the above is good as a general rule. When the wax is applied hot 
the proportion af rosin should be greater; but in making wax for 
covering the thread a larger proportion of tallow should be used, 
that it may be more pliable. The operation of grafting may be 
greatly facilitated by the use of the device noted on page 3, of 
cover, by the use of which the novice can cut and join the 
grafts with as great precision and rapidity as the experienced 
workman. 




Propagation by Grafting. 29 

G-ra.ftIn.g- tla.e "\7"irxe 

Is a difficult operation, the inner bark being very thin, and 
the flow of sap so profuse as to prevent the uniting of the cellular 
growth. 

The scions should be kept in the ice bouse until the vine to 
be grafted has come out in leaf. The sap is now thickened, and 
depositing its annual ring of growth, and the graft will more readily 
unite. In Cleft Grafting the stock is cut off and the scions in- 
serted close to the ground and then covered with soil to the top bud. 

Side-Grafting is performed by plunging a knife at an angle, 
downward toward the root, and then inserting the scion. Or a 
cane may be laid down, the buds at each joint cut out, plunge a 
knife directly through the nodes and insert the scions through 
the joints, the buds having been removed, their place is supplied 
by the scions, or grafts, and a cell circulation is soon established. 
The scions are prepared as for cleft grafting, except that a 
shoulder is left on either side which rests on the cut surface of 
the cane. The cane and the inserted scions are then covered 
with soil to the upper buds. 

The advantages of this new method of grafting the vine are, 
1st: the scion more readily unites, owing to the greater depo- 
sition "of the cellular growth, or cambium at the joints. 2d: the 
split closes tightly over the scion and renders tying unnecessary. 

In.a-rcli.in.g- tlxe "T7~ine. 

Owing to the difficulty encountered in forming a union with 
the Grape by the processes of ordinary grafting and budding, in- 
arching is resorted to and appears to be the only really certain 
method of changing one variety to another. 

Inarching may be performed either on ripe or green wood. 
If on ripe wood, the new variety should be planted beside the 
vine it is to be inarched upon, or may be set beside it in a box or 
crock. It is better to keep the vine back so that when the oper- 
ation is performed the buds may be just swelling, while the 
vine used as the stock should have opened its leaves. A slice of 



30 



Propagation by Grafting. 



wood 2 or 3 inches long is then re- 
moved on both stock and scion. 
The scion may be tongued up- 
ward and the stock downward, 
though they will unite very well 
without tongueing. The two cut 
surfaces are now brought together 
closely as in grafting, are bound 
with muslin or wrapping yarn, 
and protected with moss, or clay. 
In about a month the union will 
be perfected. The bandage should 
be loosened, but not removed, and 
the stook should be frequently 
pinched back in order to throw 
the growth into the inarched 
branch, and finally in the Fall, 
the stock should be cut off entirely 
immediately above the junction 

Inarching. Tlie dotted lines below show where the with the neWVine, atld theneW 
new variety is cutoff and removed after the union is ' 

perfected: and above, where the wild vine is severed. vme g everec l an d removed beloW. 

The operation on green wood is virtually the same, and is 
performed in June, July and August. Greater care must be used 
in joining the young growth and in protecting the union with 
moss or clay ; and it is better to have this point well shaded from 
the direct rays of the sun. The tender varieties, such as the 
Eebecca, etc., will succeed much better if inarched on strong- 
growing stocks, like the Concord, or Clinton. 

A curious and useful application of the principle of inarch- 
ing is sometimes made by bending in a cross-branch from fork to 
fork of a tree to prevent its splitting. A young branch of the 
same tree is bent across from limb to limb, the bark is pared off 
from branch and limbs where they join, and the joints closely 
tied. The farther joint should be higher than the first to give 
some circulation of sap in the young branch. If properly done 
and circumstances favor, the cross-piece will unite the two halves 
of the tree by a brace of nature's own workmanship, thus effect- 




Propagation from Bulbs, Etc. 31 




ually preventing the tree from splitting by the action of the wind 
or the weight of a heavy load of fruit. 

E'ropa.grsLtion. frozn. BulITos, T'-u.'foers, dec. 

We have a familiar example of propagation 
from tuberous roots in the sweet potato. The 
Hyacinth Buib. Dahlia and Peony are the same in their arrange- 
ment of roots and in propagation. The Irish Potato differs in 
being an enlargement of an underground stem thrown off from 
the root proper. The Iris, or Flower-de-luce, has a long, irreg- 
ular underground stem (Rhizoma) emitting roots below, and 
throwing up leaves above, and is propagated by division. The 
Crocus, the Daffodil, Hyacinth, and Lily, are propagated by 
corms and bulbs. The corm is a thickened, root-stem, supplied 
with buds in the transverse wrinkles along its sides where the 
axils of the leaves joined it the previous summer, as the Crocus. 
The bulb is formed almost altogether by the bases of the leaves 
of the previous season, overlapping each other in the form of 
scales, and the buds which produce the new crop of bulbs are 
protected within these scales, as the Hyacinth, Lily, &c. The 
Lily of the Valley forms little bulbs, or bulblets, in the axils of 
the leaves above ground. 

The tuberous roots, &c, are often started in the Green 
House, or hot bed, the same as the sweet potato ; and as the 
buds constantly start the rooted stemlets are separated and plant- 
ed, and thus multiplied indefinitely. 

Bulbs are usually planted in Autumn, though they may be 
kept over in a dry, frost-proof cellar, and planted in the Spring, 
if preferred. They are largely imported from Holland by nur- 
serymen every Fall. 

Florescence, rEIsrloricLiizsitioTi., Etc. 

Flowers are the organs of re-production of plants. 

Flowers are perfect as far as fertilization is concerned if 
stamens and pistils only are present. Perfect is used here in the 
sense of completeness. 

All plants of the higher orders produce flowers which gen- 
erate the fruit and the seed. 



32 The Art of Propagation. 

The flower produces the fruit, the fruit the seed, the seed the 
individual of the species. 

Flowers are perfect and imperfect. 

A perfect flower has its stamens, pistils, petals and calyx 
perfect. 

The stamens and pistils Eire alone concerned in re-production. 

The pollen, or fertilizing powder is produced on the anthers 
of the stamens. 

The pistil receives and absorbs the pollen from the stamen 
and generates the fruit and the seed. 

A flower is imperfect when some of its parts are lacking. 

Where the stamens are lacking, or have been removed, fer- 
tilization can only take place from other flowers of the same 
species having these organs perfect. 

The fertilizing pollen may be carried long distances to the 
pistils by winds or insects. 

In hybridization the anthers are re- 
moved from the stamens when the flower d-V 
first opens, and before the pollen is shed, 
as shown in the cut of a grape flower. 
o.S2K S e ^r 6 .When the flower is fully developed the pollen D G «;^ 
from another plant-flower of the same species is carried antl,ersremoved 
to the pistil. 

The dust may be carried on a camel's hair pencil, or a 
flower plucked and the stigma of the pistil touched with its 
anthers. 

This generates a seed which is presumed to perpetuate the 
marked characteristices of both parents. 

In this way a choice, delicate fruit not possessing hardihood, 
may be crossed on a coarser fruit that is vigorous and hardy. 
The resultant seed is presumed to produce a fruit possessing both 
delicacy and vigor. 





Jenkins 1 Layering Tube, 



For the rapid m amplication of vines by Layering can be 
made at a cost of less than a quarter of a cent by any one of 
ordinary ingenuity, or will be supplied in quantity by the in- 
ventor. By their use every bud is insured to grow, unless pre- 
viously winter-killed or injured ; and the variety can be multiplied 
to any extent. 

Trice of Model {credited on future order for right) 

by mail, pre=paid .50. 

(Price of Model, with individual right to make for 

own use, S2.00. 

Address, J. JENKINS, 

BOX 45, WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



Jenkins' Transplanting Boxes 

Are designed to facilitate the operation of transplanting from 
the Green House. A row of 15 or 20 vines can be transplanted 
in an open drill in a field as quickly as a single vine from a pot. 
It is simple, effective, and inexpensive. 

(Price of Model, with individual right to make for own 
use, pre=paid by mail, §1.00. 

Address, J. JENKINS, 

BOX 45, WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



The Grafting Device 

Enables a novice to graft with equal precision and nicety, 
and with as great rapidity as the most experienced workman. 

Smallest size, by mail pre=paid r -..jo cents. 
Larger " " " S1.00 

Address, J. JENKINS, 

BOX, 45, WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 




» ~m M 000 933 630 8 

She Jlrtof ' Sco/jcfoatio/c 



A Treatise on the Rapid Multiplication of stock for 
Jfat&rtymm, §aidmeM, -Jhri-yh, and ^rerifbodif. 



Price, S° 



Published by JENKINS' GRAPE AND SEEDLING NURSERY. 



Every one remitting for the work is entitled to 50 cents 
additional stock, with the first cash order of $10.00, and upwards; 
as it is intended to make the book virtually a gift to customers. 

Address, J. JENKINS' Grape and Seedling Nursery, 

Ti'iiio/ia, tol tun Liana to., thio. 



Suour Jduple Sree- 4 ), etc., Cut Such. 

The Sugar Maple is universally admired for its grace, sym- 
metry, and beauty, and its gorgeous autumn coloring. We have, 
for a number of years made a specialty of furnishing Nurserymen, 
and others, with Seedlings and Trees by the quantity- The Trees 
should be cut back, near the ground, when they throw up a strong 
and vigorous shoot like the Peach. Latterly, our largest custo- 
mers have instructed us to cut them back at the Nursery; thus 
saving freights on a lot of useless wood, and facilitating, and 
reducing the expense of packing. Send for special prices and 
Catalogue of Forest Trees and Seedlings, Evergreens, Hedge 
Plants, Concord, and other Grape Vines, with a general assort- 
ment of Nursery stock. 

tutcf/oouC') zllee. 

Address, J. JENKINS' Grape and Seedling Nursery, 

Jh'ncna, toliimbiana to., thio. 
MONEY ORDER OFFICE, SALEM, OHIO.