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Full text of "A voyage of discovery, made under the orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty's ships Isabella and Alexander, for the purpose of exploring Baffin's Bay, and inquiring into the probability of a north-west passage"

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CONTENTS. 



CHAP. XIII. 



Proceedings of the Ships at Shetland. — Sail from 
thence, and ArriTe at HqU. -^Xjreneral Orders to the 
Officers, and various Emulations. -r Arrival in the 
Thames. — And Conclusion of the Voyage, Page 57 



APPENDIX. 
No. 

I. Official Instructions, . • Page 63 

11. On the Deviation of the Magnetic Needle, 81 

III. Geological Memoranda, - - * 121 

IV. Zoological Memoranda, - - • 143 
V. Crimson coloured Snow, and Meteoric Iron, 181 

VI. List of Plants, by Robert Brown, F. R. S. 187 

VII. An Account of the Gping of the Chrttnome- 

ters, ■ " - - - - 197 

VIII. Observations on the Dip-Sector, - - 207 

IX. Aurora Borealis, - - - - 216 

X. Report on Compasses, Instruments, &c. made 

to the Admiralty, - - / - - 221 

XI. Table of Soundings obtained in Davis' Strait 

and Baffin's Bay, - - - - 231 

XIL ' liatitudes and Longitudes of Places, . • 2^ 

XIIL Descr^tion of the Heep Sea Clamms, Hydra- 

pborui, and Marine Artificial Horizon, 247 



i I 



VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY 



TO 



THE ARCTIC REGIONS, . 



■k-k. 



CHAPTER XL 

CONTINUE OUR PROtlRESS TO THE SOUTHWARD, EXPLOR- 
ING THE WEST COAST OF BUFFIN's BAY — CAPE GRA- 

HAM MOORE POND's BAY — COUTTS' INLET 

NORTH GALLOWAY AND NORTH AYR DIS COVERED — 
LAND ON AN ISLAND NEAR CAPE EGLINGTON, WHICH 
IS IfAMED AGNES' MONUA^NT —- CONTINUE EXPLOIT 
ING THE COAST AND BEACH CAPE WALSINGHAM. 

I I ■ 1 ^ !■ iM ■ I ■ I 111! W^m^^^m . 11 I 1 ■ ■ I ■ I I I ■ 

Sept. 1. Lai. 7a° 37^' N. Long. 74® 18^' W. Vtr. XIO^ W. . 

. ■ ■'■ " ■ .,,. I — ■- II. ■■ , . I I, . I . - t 

We continued to make a S.£. by S. course^ 
in which direction I had seen the southern 
extremity of the land before the fog came 
on. This however had now completely 
^cleared away^ and at daylight we found our- 

' VOL. II. B 



2 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY 

■ 

Sept. 5. Lat. 72° 37J' N. Long. 74® I3j' W. Var. Ill* W. 

selves about six leagues from Cape Bathurst. 
At four we hauled in to take a better view of 
the coast, and came within a few miles of a 
high cape, which was named after Sir 
Graham Moore. To the southward of this 

1 

we opened a wide inlet^ which had, at first, 
the appearance of a strait, but it wi^s soon 
discovered to be occupied by a large glacier, 
which extended for a considerable distance 
into the sea, and at the bottom of the inlet, 
the land was seen to be continuous. To this 
I gave the name of Pond's Bay, in compli- 
ment to the Astronomer Royal. To the 
southward of this we passed two capes, 
which were named Gape Bowen and Cape 
MaccuUoch ; we were abreast of the latter at 
noon, and found it to be, by its hearings, in 
latitude 72^ 13' N., and longitude 74° 17' W. ; 
a small bay between them was filled with ice. 
►We continued to run down the coast until 
we were abreast of a very remarkable inlet, 
when we were becalmed. To this bay^ 
which was also discovered to be isurrounded 
by land, and occupied by ice, I gavp the 
name of Coutts' Inlet The northern Cape 



TO THE 



Sept. 5. Lat. 72° 3 7 J' 1 



9 



by which it was bo 
name, and that ol 
the southern one. 
interior were more i 
snow than those abc 
the declivities near t 
snow, as" were also 
points of land. 

At sun-set,' the land 

r I r 

far as to the S^E. point 
tion of the same chain 
has been described in tl 
extending to the distani 
thelineof coast graduall}? 
erly direction. Several 
which had no doubt beei 
some of the precipices on 
coast, were here floating i 
rection. During this day 
above seventy miles of the 
complet;ely satisfied that th 
passd.ge any where between 
72^: As we had run a grea\ 
the Alexander, we hove to, 
have an opportunity of joini 

B 2 



A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERr 



Sept. 6. Lat. 70? 23' N. JLong. 73° 07§' W. Var. 97° oo' W. 

the mean time we sounded in one hundred 
and twenty fathoms, and found sandy mud. 
On the Alexander coming up with us, we 
learnt that the observations made on board 
the two ships agreed, and that neither of us 
had observed any part of this coast to be 
inhabited. Two whales were seen off the 
entrance of Coutts* Inlet, but no birds, 
except our constant attendants the Fulmar 
peterels. In the evening the wind fell, and 
we pursued our course under an easy sail. 

Sept 6. — Very soon after midnight it be- 
came calm, and after day-light there were 
some light and variable airs of wind. At 
eight it again fell calm, and continued so 
the whole day. The ship's head had, how- 
ever, been generally kept near the course, 
by the assistance of the swell, which was 
from . the north ; and we made fourteen 
* miles of southing and a degree of easting, 
although the log only gave half as much. 
We obtained some good observations in the 
forenoon for the longitude ; and the sun 
being visible in the meridian, we also took 
its altitude for the purpose of ascertaining 

8 



TO TH] 

St-]>t. 6. Lat. 7^^ 23 

our latitude, but 
At six, it being 
smooth, we so 
clamms, and foi 
fathoms, which 
we ever reache< 
had only one hu 
fifteen miles fu 
that the bottom 
must here be ve 
at the bottom w 
ment was compl 
considerable for 
being a dead ca 
fectly perpendii 
opportunity of < 
before it started 
instrument cam. 
taining about si 
with a few ston 
mud was much 
had before obtai 
looser nature; 
small otar-fish 
below the poir 



6 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY. 

■ ■ ■ ,« . ■ ■ I ... ■ 

Sept. 6. Lat. 72** 23' N. Loncf. 73° 07i' W. Var. 97° oo' W. 

^ .... — .- ■ * ,1 — ■ ■■_■■■_ , . , 

f^homs. The instrument took twenty-s^ 
ven minutes to descend the whole distance. 
When at five hundred fathoms, it descended 
at the, rate of one fathona per second, and 
when nearly one thousand fathoms down, 
it required one second and a half per fathom. 
Although the check made to the motion of 
the line when it struck the bottom, was evi- 
dent to all, I wished to put the fact beyond 
•doubt J and for this purpose, it was so 
nicely set as to act on the least resistance. 
The self-registering thermometer was thea 
attached to it, and it was let down, first to 
five hundred fathoms, and afterwards to 
six hundred, seven hundred, eight hun- 
dred, a«d a thousand, in succession. At 
each time it came up empty, the thermor 
meter each time showing a lower tempera- 
ture } thus proving that the water wag 
colder as it became deeper, and also indi- 
cating that the instrument had not reached 
the bottom, even at the depth of one thou«- 
sand and five fathoms. It occupied one 
hour for all hands to pull it up firon^ tbs^ 
depth. Land was distinctly seen this &/&ir 



no T 

Sept, 7. Lat. ya® 



ing, bearing S 
peared two poi 
To the land abi 
been seen by fo \ 
rname'of North 
and capes, varu 
found in the ch 
high, and of t 
appearance as th < 
.day. \ Every ere 
with Icie, and the 
that tjie land was ; 
no appearances < 
current w&,s founc 
perceived. 

Sept 7. — Durin 
sided) and the cal i 
thi^; motning, wh i 
brought with it a : 
hour and a half. 
iHit we were able 
al<mg the land, wll 
dii:ectiop. We son 
of one hundred pou 
one thousand and £i 



8 A VOTAGE OF DISCOVERT 

I i I II I m N I ■ I I I •• II !■■ ir 

. Sept. 7. Lat, 72** l^ N. Long. 7 !• 46j' W. Vtr. 90« W. 

a the bottom i..twe,ty»,e minute.. ».a 
was hauled up in forty-erght. The lead^ 
which wa& observed distinctly to strike the 
bottom^ appeared, when it came up, to have, 
been, like the clamms, sunk more than its 
own depth )n the mud. After this experi- 
ment, the clamms were sent down, with a 
self-registering thermometer attached, to 
one thousand and ifive fathoms, and the 
temperature of the sea at that depth was 
ascertained to be twetity-eight and a half; 
the instrument, coming up without any 
thing in it, proved that it had not been at 
the bottom. The furthest land distinctly 
seen to be continuous with that abreast of 
us, was named Cape Adair, its latitude 
being 70° 24' N., and longitude KfW. This 
part of the coast, which is also very high, 
forms a curve, and within it were seen two 
small islands. To one of these I gave' the 
^iljarne of Bell Isle, and to the other Mari- 
anne Isle. A great number of icebergs and 
glaciers were here seen, and every* inlet was 
filled with them. Immediately- after ' we 
had finished our experiments, a bree^ 



TO 
Sept, 7. Lat. 

Sprung up fr 

* shore under 

along it at tl: 

leagues. On 

observed to 1 

two points or 

that before < 

S.S.W., the i 

and on the < 

pearing on th 

upon the latt< 

At four P. 

' considerably, 

in consequen 

soon covered 

masts were s 

gallant yards 

sails double r 

ships did not 

necessary to 

as the wind 

ward. • Towa 

S. E. had got 

ipade a gfe 

want 6f grip 



10 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY 

Sept. 8. Lat. 72° 16' N. Long. 7 1° oo' W. Var. 88**1V. 



now south by compasss and, in consequence 
of the deviation, the ships appeared on one 
tack to lie east, and on the other west. 
Having got an offing of seven leagues, we 
stood off and on, so as to keep about that 
distance, until the weather moderated and 
cleared. 

Sept. 8. — It became moderate this morn- 
ing, and we again began to get to the S.E., 
but it continued thick till noon, when it 
cleared sufficiently to allow of a tolerable 
observation being obtained. We then al- 
t^ed our course, so as to close the land, 
and made all sail. At sun-set we saw 
the coai^t between Cargenholm and Hamil- 
ton's Bay; and having then out-run the 
Alexander seven miles, we shortened 
sail till she should join us, which she 
did about 7*" 30"". I received Lieutenant 
Parry's reports, and found that her devia- 
tion h£^ been, in one instance, five points: 
for this he did not assign any reason, but »s 
I learned that some iron casks, which had 
previously been secured on the quarts- 
deck, had b$en removed, it is probable that 



\ 

TO THE ARCtiC REGIONS. 11 

Sept. 9. Lat. 71° 2'iJ' N. Long. 68« 26' W. Vmr. 86° W. 

this was the cause of the difference. The 
rest of his reports were very satisfactory ; 
his observations by the chronometers, his 
latitudes, and his meteorological journal, 
agreeing with ours. Our stock of vegeta- 
bles being expended, orders were given 
that a certain proportion of preserved meat 
and soup should be served out to the crew, 
in lieu of a part of the salt provision, in 
order to prevent scurvy. 

Sept. 9. — During the night the wind had 
shifted to the norths and our course was 
shaped for Cape Adair, which had been 
seen last night; but the day continuing 
snowy and thick, it was necessary to give 
that point a good birth. We, therefore, 
ran on a parallel with it until it was certain 
that we had passed it about three lea^es» 
when we hauled our wind direct for the 
shore, taking the usual precautions of 
sounding and looking out. We saw several 
.streams of ice, and^ at four P.M., the land 
w^s discovered, appearing, at first, like a 
chaiiiaf islands ; but they afterwards proved 
to be part of the ma.in land, and to form the 



12 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY 

' > ■ ■ - — 

Sept. 9. Lat. 7I" 22J' N. Lon;;. 68° 26' W. Var. 86" W. 

N.E. point of this coast. This land bore 
S.W., and Cape Adair was seen soon after 
bearing N.W. The land between them 
shortly appeared, and when discovered to be 
continuous, we bore up for the Cape which 
was first seen, which I named Cape Eglin- 
ton; the bay to the northward of it was 
called Scott's Bay. Having arrived within 
six miles of Cape Eglinton, we sounded in 
forty-nine fathoms, and discovered that the 
land trended towards the south. As this 
country was also a new discovery, I named 
it North Ayr ; a low point, which was sup- 
p<)sed to be an island, to the north of the 
Gape, was called Horse Island, from its re- 
semblance to the island of that name off 
Ardrossan ; and a bay, which had the ap- 
pearance of a good anchorage, was called 
Ardtossan Bay, from that harbour on the 
coast of Ayrshire. I was desirous of put*- 
ting into this bay, for the purpose of mak- 
ing observations, and accordingly stood off 
and on, at the distance of four miles, having 
from thirty-eight to one hundred fathomisr, 
an til day-light; but unfarttmately the 'ships 



TO 

Sept. 10k Xa 

haddrifted t 
obliged sevei 
avoid the ice 
not fetch wit 
This part of t 
character froirj 
tains being m 
shape at the 
snow J but in tl 
high, and had i 
Sept. 10.— Ti 
we bore up alon 
of three miles, 
from which a 
about a league . 
was bare of snov 
^hind it appeared t 
covered. A smal 
the southward, ai 
party to take pos& 
form. They fount 
iog, but at last effo 
md having examin, 
staffr left ar bottle w 
procecjdipgSy and i 



14 A VOYAGE OP DISCOVERY 

Sept. 10. Lat. 70® 40' N. Long. 68" oo' W. Var. 78** W. 

that this island had been recently inhabited; 
the remains of a temporary habitation, a 
fire-place, a broken stone vessel, a part 
of a human skuU, sonje bones of a seal, 
some wood partly burnt, and a part of a 
sledge, were brought on board. The tracks 
of dogs were also seen, and some stoned 
were found set up in a particular manner. • 
Thi3 island, which was named Agnes* 
Monument, is nearly circular, is about forty 
feet above the level of the sea, and is . flat 
at the top, being rather highest towards the' 
N.W. ; it is bold all round, except at a 
short distance from the N.W. and S.E. 
sides. . The tide near it was observed, at 
ten o'clock, when it was high water, to be 
setting to the southward, at about one mile 
in the hour. It lay in the mouth of a deep 
inlet, into which I determined to proceed^ 
for the purpose ot anchoring and fnaking' 
observations ; but at four P. M. a dangerous 
reef was discovered stretching across the 
entrance, and I was obliged to haul offi 
When the boat was absent^ two large beats' 
swam off te the ships, whidb w^e at the 



T( 

-ii... '^ . ■ ' . ■ ■ 

Sept. 10. I 

^ ■ v ' ■ ' 

distance of i 

fetched the i 

diately attac 
and killed; 
the head, ui 
on being won 
shewed consii I 

• # 

secured, and 
boats of botl 
^isson, Mr. - 
Fisher, assistai 
shewed much < 
animal, which 
pendix, weighe i 
and thirty-one i 
the blood it had 
mated at less tl i 
mensions were 
Beverly undertot ; 
which he^^ perfec 
of the bead and I 
iti their places, s 
ifekifih Mtisetim i 
eveQiog we st^ood 
out of the mflu( 



16 A VOYAGE OP DISCOVERT 

• « 

" ' ' ' "" ■ ■ ■ ■ I I ■III,. 

Sept, 1 1. Lat. TO** 34^' N. Long. 76" 46j' W, Var. 75« 0(/ W; 

changed about six,. and set to the north- 
ward at the rate of one mile an hour. This 
inlet is bounded by high mountains, th^se 
only in the interior being covered with 
snow ; it appears to be the mouth of a 
small . river, and was named Clyde River ; 
the island to the north being named Haig's 
Lsiland, and that to the south Bute Island. 
The icebergs which were seen this day had 
much the appearance of low islands, and 
they were surrounded with loose ice ; the 
whole appearing to have lately been sepa- 
rated from the land. Some large whales 
were seen in the morning running* towards 
the south. 

Sept. 1 1. — The wind was against us, but 
the weather being moderate during the 
night, we carried all sail, standing off until 
two A.M., and afterwards in shore. At 
day-light we saw the land, and the weather 
was very clear ; we plainly distinguished, 
the coast to the north of Cape Adair, at the 
distance of twenty leagues, and .recpgnisi^ 

* A term used when whales are swimming with great 
Telodty in a particular direcjdon. 



■i.j ,, , 1 

$ept. 41. Lau 7 

Ul^he the \ 
imt^^t. Th, 
4l»P seen ^ t 
3* by W.„a ^ 
seiBbliiig ^ 

.tb^sie JEQoufi 
iVidik^ iwene 

\^t .eight 
.aen^en ileagu 
ior inland, th 

imment; ai 
lAiSiitiWiB n 

VOL. II. 



l8 A VOYAGE OP BISCOVEtll' 

^ . _. ' 

Sq)t. 11. Ltt. 70' 84 J' N. Long. 67* 46|< W. Vir. 7 5* OO' W. 

/Opportunity to obtain its size by aetuaV 
iseasurement. For this purpose I sent 
Lieutenant Parry, Mr. Ross, and Mr. Bush- 
man, dtid a party was also sent with the 
necessary instruments, to obtain the mag- 
'netic dip and variation ; ^hile we stood to- 
• wards it with a very light ahr. Considerable 
difficulty was experienced in the attempt U> 
-land, as in rowing round it they found it per- 
ipendicular in every place but one: inthisl^W- 
ever there was a small creek, in which a cbn- 
Venient l«»ling^lacew» di«»yered. Wh«n 
they had ascended to the top, which Was 
perfectly flat, they discovered a white bear, 
who was in quiet possession of this mass. As 
their fbe-arms had been weU;ed, it was some 
time before dispositions could be made for 
an attack, during which the animal seemed 
to wait with patience for the assault; but 
as soon as they had formed their line and 
bi^ah to advance^ he made for the other 
s^ide of the island. Our party had not cal- 
culated on any other way to eaeiq^e but the 
laiidiug-place hehte mmxtMfoedi vAikkiHh^^ 
had lefi well guarded ; but to their mortifi- 



I 

.— H 



TO T^E ARCTIC BE&ION«. 19 

Sept. 11. Lbc 7oP »4 j' N. Long. 67° 40il' W. Var. 7 5*} OO' W. 



•■tanHMl 



cation, as well as astonishment, when th^ 
animal came to the edge of the precipic^e^ 
which was fitly feet high, he plunged into the 
sea without hesitation, and there being no 
boat onthatsideof the island, heescaped.The 
party remained until sun-set, and had good 
observations; mid Lieulenant Parry reported 
tb me, that the iceberg was four thousand 
one hundred and sixty-nine yards long, three 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine yarda 
bipad, and fifty^one feet high; being aground 
in l»i)i:ty^one fathoms. Its appearance was 
much like that of the back of the Isle of 
Wight, and the qlifis exactly resemble^i 
the chalk cliffs to the west of Dover. In the 
ev^ing the breeze which had sprung 
ufi from the southward freshened, and as 
soQii as the boats returned, we passed und^ 
the lee of the iceberg, and stood off shove. 
We found our observations on board to 
agree with those made on the berg, -^nd 
fttund the latitude pretty exactly by Cok's 
method, v^nd, again, soon after dark, by the 
pple iStianv, Lidntenant Parry here reported 

;• * : C 8 - 



20 k VbYAtJE 6t AlSC6VEfet 

.. . ^ _ . .. . ■ - ■*•• 

~^^— — ^~— > I I ■ I I I I II 

lAkbtber chfO^ge on th^ AleMttd^^'s deVi'- 

fifep*. 12.~ltie WfeSthef- being deif-j and 
tfefe ^l^id hi ^tich la diV€>ctidi!i tWt ¥to pf(<d- 
Ipress towards th^ i<hati could b^ nsad^ t 
Solved t6 stand acrosi to tb<6 eaE(twarifi» in 
brder to detei^iwe if th^6 i^ais any iatid «r 
hot iyet^een thie we^t «tffd east sides (^xMs 
^artof Divis' Stt^it Ali isUi was accord- 
ingly %n«de, iuvd Wfe stood to the 6astwar<l. 
At da,y-l^giit it Wa^ blowing fi*^) and W^ 
W^re bilged t<!> reef tbe topfsaib aind strike 
1^6 r6yal-n)tj^ts. At ten it beciMi^ tl^rck, 
^d the Alekan^er being 'eight or nihe 
Mil^ astern, We ishcirtesied sail. 'Wt stir a 
gr^eft'dea^ of Ibote ice, aftd <paSsed th^nb^iigh 
JEi it^^m of it^ many large iijebcfrg^ w6r6 
Idso »een. At tei^ it b^dlAiife tfc^ck, a6d the 
r«^lt were d&v^red "with i<se: 'While we h^, 
dtiriiig the Whble dby, bh^aVy fall bf %iid^. 
kt'fourP.M^, W6 W^e ttbotit mid-dlaniiid, 
W^ti a boittle and a copper cylinder, etich. 
odntaihing aft ttdc&mit <^ mir ^OceediJig^. 
iveire thrown ioVerbotSrd. WhUfe w6 'hbV^^ 
for the Alexander, f sounded in two hun- 



TO 



b^^om ; no c 
had b^p^l ^pj 

W0 9a»se4 
aground. A 
able to fetp); 
which we hac 
to the eaatwQ 
wind modera 
very thick. 

Sept 13.^^ 
when the wi 
came neee^s^ 
moment one 
thci eastward 
weather be^ 
tainly see t^o 
was thefpfoi 
land existed i 
about the lat 
from the opp 
ftom this iidi 
9udi land 9» 
ddwn 411 iao3 
baektoithew 



^2_ A VOYAGir OF DISibOVEttY 

■ II < I I I ,. ,1,1 ,1.11 I ■ ,1 , — i— — iM» 

Sept. 14. Ut. 70^ 19i' N. Long. 65* 30' W. Var. 80* W. 

■ • ■ ■ . - r 

■ , » , ■• 

loose ice, we saw a bear on one piec^, 

which we ascertained to be one hundred! 

miles from the land. We bad go6d obser^ir 

Vatiohs both for the latitude and longi^ 

tude. 
Sept. 14. — During this night, which wAi 

extremely dark and thick, the utmost 

caution was necessary to keep clear of ike 

ice. We had our top-sails close-reefed, and 

the main-sail furled, with the royal masts 

knd yards struck, the sea running very high. 

The Alexander fell much astern, and to 

leeward, probably in consequence of her 

being obliged frequently to bear up on 

Account of the ice. She was not in sight. 

at day-light ; we therefore wore, and bore 

tip to look for her, and, at five, discovered 

bet to leeward. As soon as we joined her 

i&ll sail was made, but the wind fell consi^ 

derably, and* soon after came totheN.K 

At noon, we had a good meridian altitude ; 

we also sounded, and found fi\e hundi^ 

and seventy fathoms in sofl greenish mud j 

we had no observations for the longitude^ 

but by the reckoning wtt were «ixty miles 



> 



Sept. 15. Ut.69» 



a. 



tp the eastward 

The wind ther 

g-head of the 

evmingi made t 

becoming thick 

after she joine 

hy the reckonii 

and thirty-six 

which we had s 

hauled our win< 

topsails, itbein 

ti^ whole of tl 

Ir0to the &W 

considerably to 

saw; many icebi 

Sept 15.— y^ 

during the nig 

Qiorniiigi thou| 

inore favourabl 

^as on the prci 

bffing from thi 

breeze, was vi 

n^tedpf ourli 

of daiig^« 1 

direetion waa 



24 A VcfyiKJE oi* tns&drt«t 



Sept.] J. Lit. 69*25' N. Long.64»49'W. Var. 7«»W. 



Wifd. At seten, A.M., we dis<j6v6t<Ad ki 
cluker of islands, which We ^fierwtiitd£. 
found to be five in number, and we dfto 
ascertained, that they^wete tw^ U^^ 

distant from the main l^ndi W« «fti^po^6d 
them to be the Salmon Islands j as they agi'g^d 
hi latitude with the iiiilailds df that nam6^ 
Whidh are fbund in some dbdrtSi We pas66d 
these at the distance of thtee leagues, AAA 
ran along the land, Which wasr towneftf thd 
shore : the names of seVe^al (^pes and b&j» 
whlfch we explored sufficiently to determine 
the continuity of^the cO^^t, will be fbund in 
the chslrt. The mount^in^ were not $(D> 

high, nor ISO ihuth eoveted with ^now, m 

those forty miles to the northward j, and 
they were also at the distance of ^y^ttjt 
leagues ftotn the isea; A Idw point W6» 
gedtt about noonj bearing Sk by W. j andi 
ftotia the end of itv a reef Of itiebei-gs whfeh 
appeared to foe abound j denc^ed ^hoal 
^ier. This w» i^uncl lo be a bank, having 
no inore th^ eighteen fitthotnis watet* oh 
it; e^^bndihg to the eaislWatKl as faf ti6 «Outd 
b!s discerned from ttie iMMI-head;- Mkd wtd 



Sept. 15. ! 

foimd the 
southward, 
half an hoi I 
Iftabella Bar i 
df ships pasi 
Odast, until 1 
which are ag 
which drift 6 
renting them i 
the wind and i 
the strait a loi i 
north edge of 
deep, and cai 
of the tide, in I 
five and then 
now became sn 
cury more sail 
in order to avoi 
carried foul of i 
We were obiigeci 
prepared, the \ 
ship's company 
he necessary. 
friAft twenty-foal 
w^tei wlien on t 



26 A VOYAGE OP DtSCOVJBKY 

— • - I - — - ■' — 

S«ft. 15. Lat. «9® a»' N. long. 64<* 42' W. Var. 76* W. 

tance of eight miles from .the point before 
menticHied, which I now named Cape Kater. 
The quality of the soundinga was very; 
various ; we had^ successively^ fine and 
coarse, grey and red sand and mud; on 
the shoaleat part we had stones, and on the 
edges coral and . shells*' The south edge 
i^peared to be equally steep with the nortby 
as from twenty-four fathoms we feU sud*r 
denly into fifty, after which no bottom was 
found in one hundred fathoms : in twQ 
hours afterwards we hove to, and sounded 
in four hundred and seventy fathoms, find-» 
ig^g soft mud. To the south of this we 
discovered a spacious bay, in which was an 
island, to which I g^ye the name of Wol* 
laston Island ; it was surrounded with ice* 
We ran along the coast until near darky 
when we hove to for the Alexander, which 
was at a considerable distance astern. At 
eight, we hauled to the east, and stood off 
and on, it being too dark to run, or to exar 
nine the coast- We observed that the tide 
changed at four o'dock^and then ran .to the 
southward ; and> by the icebergs, ti^ w^Xer 



re 



Sept. 16. 



Beemed to 
being one 
ten, we fel 
which, we 
this carrie< 
into the ii 
have wishi 
At midnig 
cloudy we 
Sept. 16 
been earri< 
southward 
we made i 
discovered 
of three lei 
and inlet!: 
ourselves i 
which, hoi 
that a pa! 
ble, notwi 
able swell 
forced th 
reached t^ i 
that, at a 
penetrabl i 



28 A. VOYAGE OP Dl$COySR¥ 



JM - % 



Stpt. 14. Ut. 6gO 05' N. Ung. ^4° 48' W. Var. 73o W, 

fiur to the eastwftrdi inA^Q it nece&i84rj to 
haul our wind immediately, in order to 
extricate ourselves. Although the greatest 
care was takm in cunning tl^e «hip through 
the innumerable mas9e9 of ice which sur^ 
rounded us^yetaprevpof 9ail being absolutely 
necessary, we unavoidably received Q^apy 
severe shocks, but met with no material 
damage. The tide, which had been netting 
us rapidly to the southward, changed at 
half-past ten, and had the e^ct of opening 
the ice considerably, as well as of netting 
US to windward. W^ appeared to gain 
grouiid by the ic^ergs which were near us; 
which w» found were i^U aground on th^ 
edge of a shoal; pu this we sounded iu 
thirty^five fathoms, but bad no doubt tba|^ 
the w^ter was mueb shallower further to 
the Aouthwiurd, t» we observed field-ice 
fised oa it* and ^xti^pding to the aouthw^^ 
as far as could be di»tingui9hed from, tbup 
nuMt^head ; at the wm^ time the eastern 
MEtMDuty of thi9 field W9» dUpQv^ed 9t 
the dUianc^ q£ tm^v^ mUes from m* and 
wmad it we bad to hoat. We oamed Jthi? 



Sepi 



shoal A 
^iUiin \ 
lifter th 
Attl 
top of 
tee and 
thcougl 
betweei 
W€ «oc 

be^desc 

"ftota ik 

i^everal 

V distano 

&e09 and 



50 A VOYAOE OF DISCOVEEV 

Sept 17. Lat.69'07yN. Long.63«00'W. Var. 70»W. 

■■W*"^">»— — — ^"^^»^'— ^WOi^'-'— » ^ ' I _ ., I » I | i ■ II I I I I. II .^^^bM» • ', 

land ice until sun-set, when we shortened 
jsailibr the night During the whole of tkk 
day, the Alexander was managed with much 
skill and ability : she carried s^il and kept 
up with the Isabella to admiration, and it 
must be attributed to the exertions of her 
commander and officers, that she was not 
compelled to pass the night amcmg thjfe 
broken ice, which, from the heavy swell which 
we found there, could not fail to have been 
attended with serious consequences. We^ 
had a good opportunity of making observn^ 
tions on the tides, which confirmed thosd 
we had made yesterday. We had no me^ 
ridian altitude of the sun, but by Mr. Cole's 
method, we found ourselves at three o'cloidk 
to be in latitude 65'' N. ; we had dear 
weather at sea, but the land was obscured 
by fog in the evening. 

Sej^. 17. — ^The night was dear, and we 
had several o>bservations for latitude by the 
polar and other stars, and I also obtaiaed 
^^ood lunar distances between the moon an^ 
Aldebaran, by which the longitude was 
4etermtned. At day*break we steered for 



TO 

Sep(. 17. L 

the land, an 
souths now 
it to a suffi 
its icontinui 
along it, di 
direction ; 
different he I 
ed, none 1 
the least a|] 
dkcovered 
-which I 
'»emed to I 
^irening t 1 
other Cap . 
was disco ; 
called Mi 1 
The diai 
ttninterri] 
sea, its d 
the lant T 
'mlhkto 
miA les 
Zdred 
ml icebi 
thbpar 



32 A VOYAOS OF ]»gCOV«»T 

Sisfit. 18. Lat. €?• 37' N. L^i^.6a'« «7' W. Var. 6ft« oU W.. 

- ^ - ■ . ^ __ _ ' 



tile topsaQs and Jmuied our wind for the 

andeac. 

. SepL 18. — Thie flight •proving fine, jaad 
tba tky cdeai;, wie had exoeUent dbserFatoMii 
ibr the latlbude itmd Jtoa^bude. I fiMuid >tdw 
luoarobservi^Qii^ to agi^e exactly ^wkhlihe 
paoeans of the Ave be»c dbionomjetere. At 
pwQ A.M.9 me 4:ac^6d and ;irtx»od lor the 
landy which, at da^y-it^aAf mm aeeniextaid- 
iqg fram i^.W.?to/S.S.£., and quite clear 
of fog ; the naMQAin^bains wfem necy hif^ «id 
iixegular. AVa^yremaidcahle xaack, neeesw 
bling a xHifitle, or toinw, >heoe >f&rms .the 
2)oint <of « vLarge ba^, lOr inlet ^ w^e laiad»iio 
daeht iAiAt this ivias Bjer'a .Cape, 4uid ihat 
ibe inlet to JHhesoiKfah wsb £xeter Bagir, dos- 
iVMrerad by the ^^bimted jia^igatcr iiWifi. 
We -abtaiiEied (thb ?day igood <!pbsevvsatiansdSQr 
latjUide, j»id>disjba«i.<^ie«'af^he)simjmdim0on 
ifor the -longitude. We also .espdaned ithe 
xxmst as .£str.as IsitiUide 36'' 50', ^hen.a C^e^ 
which we ;smppQsed:to be the£lape Maiaing- 
ham x^f rDavai;, was («sen tto the aou:Uiivaad. 
;At &uu-T8et we rhove to, as iisiial, i to jmuiid, 



\ 






Sej 



and t 
of joi 
depth 
obtaii 
rusty 
up, I 
to reti 
other 
in cas( 
tions a 
ours, ( 
the di£ 
by the 
magnet 
during, 
towaird^ 
the wea 
no obsei 
Durii 
in this c 
der, cor 

90on as 
milled. 

VOL. 



34 A VOYAGt: OP DISCOVERY 



CHAIPTER XII. 



PROCEEDINGS OFF CAPE WALSINOHAM AND MOUNT 
HALEIGH — EXPERIMENtiS ON THE ^MP^tlA^Uto 03^ 
THE WATER — THE BREAlitH OP DAVIs' DtHAIT^ ANI> 
NON-EXISTENCE OF JAMES'S ISLAND DETSllMINSD -"^ 

PROGRESS TO THE SOUTHWARD SANDERSON'S 

TOWER SEVERAL ISLANDS DISCOVERED — ARRIVE 

OFI" CUMBERLAND STRAIT — DEPARTURE TAKEN PROM 
R&SOLUTION ISLAND — ATTEMPT TO MAKl^. CAPK 
FAREWELL A DREADFUL STORM — ARRIVE AT SHET- 
LAND. 

Sept. 19. — Cape Walsingham wbs tibis 
morning seen to the S^W., at the distiuice 
of ten leagues j we stood towards the land 
with a light breeze, and discovered a higt 
mountain, which we took to be Mount 
Kaleigh of Davis ; but the tops of the 
mountains, this day, Were generally ob- 
scured with fog, and the sun was only geea 
wheli iiear th6 meridian. Some birds w^^ 
observed, which were, at first, supposed to 
be of a new species, and a boat was sent to 
procure specimens ; but they turned out to 



betl 

featfc 

cime 

after: 

«ouni 

&tho 

nity 

deptb 

momc 

at six 

S^nt 1 

at on€ 

<^ayi 

Theti 

tance ] 

moduli 

in stre 

trasfoi 

Inth^ 

tbe so\ 

it 

Septn 
Fat€9 h 
cbuid 



36 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVEEY 

r 

I 

• • - " ■ 1 11 

' Sept. 2 1 . Ut. 66° 56' N. Long. 56* 28' W. Var.66® 0(/ W. 

^ ■ I . I I II, I 1 I II I I ■!, ■■ I. . I I * 

The wind being against us we still stood off 
shore, but towards morning it shifted a 
little in our favour, and we again stood for 
the land, gaining thereby a few miles south- 
ing. At noon the Cape was seen to the 
S.W., at ten leagues' distance. The sea 
was much smoother than it had been for 
some days ; and the breeze being steady, 
I determined to stand off shore for the 
night, because it was the best tack for gain- 
ing ground upon, ^^and because it gave us a 
chance of making the ^ast side of Davis' 
Strait without losing time. Nothing re-, 
markable took place, and our observations 
tended to confirm those of yesterday. Afler 
dark the breeze freshened, and the swell 
increased proportionably. 

Sept 21. — ^Towards morning the weather 
became clear and fine, the sea was smooth^ 
and we had a series of gopd observations ; 
viz. for the latitude, by the polar star and 
meridian altitude of the moon ; for the Ion-, 
gitude, by the distances of the moon from 
Pollux; and, for time, by. the altitude of 
Capella. The di^rent observers agreed ^ 



w 
th 
wi 



of 
7tl 
th( 

COl I 
COI 

fatl 

whii 

inl 

StO( 

our 

was 

did 

bee 

Da 

hai 

lati 

the 

all 

In 

di, 

to 



38 A yOYAGE OF DltCOVEKT 



Sijpt. 89. IaU 67*»«y N. Long. 67® eo' W. Vaf. 67<» OO' W. 



yairds were struck, and the crow's-nest ww 
laken from the mast-head^ We stood to 
the westward, but the gale was driving us 
up the Strait } and the Alexander, which 
could not carry sail, got far to leeward# so 
that we were obliged to bear up and join 
het occasioDally. ^ Many large icebergs were 
in sight, and it is worthy of remark, that the 
highest end of these masses was generally 
to 'windward; we had indeed before ob- 
served, that they turned in this direction 
almost immediately as the wind changed- 
No observations were made this evening. 

Sept 22. — ^The gale continued the whole 
day, but neither barometer nor sympeiso- 
meter foretold it, nor did either of them 
fall after it came on. We supposed ouiv 
selves about noon to be three-fourths across 
the Strait towards the west, when we wore> 
and took up a situation for the purpose of 
waiting a change j we drove directly up the 
Strait, and had also to bear xup occasionsdly 
for the Ale^ander^ which was very lee- 
wiwrdly. 

S^.28. — ^The wtAther continued very 



m 



UQ 

iU 

boil 
Th: 
at t 
wei 

it i 
obm 
belc 

wbi 
P.]V 

« 

the 
atk 

too 

aof 
ma 
Ion 
bd 



40 X VOYAGE OF DiSCOTElir 

.... J, 

l*"^*^— |i^— »— I'll! tl til ■■ I I I ■III > I I ■■ I «l 

Sept. 24. Lat. 660 i gj' N. Lone. 5 8« 3o' W. Var. 67« OO' W. 

»«»^— ■————*— ^^——^M* 111 W I M I ■■ III —■■»■■■■■ Ml^— iP»^l I ■— M^— — — i^p^B^M^^— ^1— *^^^— ^^— 
. J 

50' W., is the easternmost land ; and the 

breadth of Davis' Strait, at its narrowest 

• • • • 

part, is consequently about one hundred 
and sixty miles.^ Towards evening we 
sounded and found two hundred and ninety 
fathoms with soft mud, and a substance 
like hair in it ; we had a light air from the 
southward, and stood off and on. 

Sefpt. 24. — The sky became obscured^ 
and the wind began to increase about one 
o'clock, until it brought us under single- 
reefed topsails ; we then stood to the 
eastward or westward, tacking occasion- 
ally to take advantage of the wind, which 
varied sometimes one or two points. 
The weather was cloudy until near noon^ 
when it cleared, and we had a good meri- 
dian altitude, together with observationi^ 
for the chronomieters about two P.M. j after 
which it again became cloudy. We then 
stood to the westward in hopes of making 
the land ; but in this we were disappointed^ 
and as it shortly became foggy we stood to 
the southward. 

Sept. 25. — The wind had gradually mo- 



Sept 

derat< 

some 

sawtl 

of US3 

the \ 
good; 
meani 
the ti 
cordii 
end o 
withg 
soon i 
ing a 
Alexg 
A ve 
give I 
Th. 
seamc 
whicl] 
this p 
paniei 
Parry 
the w 
comp 



42 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERT 

Sept. 36. Lat. 65° 5V N. Long. 59° 05' W. Var. 70^ 00^ W. 

„oono„thi,d.y,andwe«>wthe"b«gfi»m 

which we bad procured ice» six miles <^ 

the northward of us. At oQe^ a breese 

sprung up, and we hauled in for the lan4» 

which we discovered at four o^clock, bear* 

ing from N.W. to $.W. ; the nearest land 

being at nine leagues distance. The coafit 

here seemed to take a south*-westwardly di-* 

rection; the top of Mount Baleigh was 

distinctly seen like an island at tiie northern 

extremity, about eighteen leagues off; and 

from Cape Walsingham to the south ther^ 

was a number of small bays and capes, 

the names of which are given in the Chart ; 

but the continuity of land was perfectly as^ 

certained as far as latitude 63" d& N. We 

sounded in three hundred and seventy 

fathoms, off the pitch of Cape Wdsing«f 

ham i the weather was very dear, and the 

aurorar-borealis ^ was seen until near raid* 

night, when it agaiB became feggy. 

Sept 27.— We had some d^cuUy thif 
morning in getting aight of the Alexander} 
which was necessary before alt^g the 

* The x6|M>rts i»i the aoroca^borciJifi wi& b« ^M^ in 
the Appendix. 



S«pi 



course 

in the 

we 8a\^ 

note 01 

saw th< 

the inl 

bay, -a 

to be 

land^ ' 

seen L 

we hac 

afternc 

N.E. 

fell ca 

ations 

polar ; 

the sh 

clothe 

Sep 

ing ru 

exploi 

we^mi 

coven 

this CI 

dred a 



44 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY 



Sept. 29. Lit. 6&0 34i' N. Long. 62^ ll'W. Vtr. 59° W. 



it fell quite calm, and remained so the re- 
mainder of these twenty-four hours. 

Sept. 29. — -A light air having sprung up 
from the westward we stood towards the 
southward, but the wind soon afterwards 
backed to the south, and we immediately 
tacked and stood to the westward ; we had 
numerous good observations both before 
and after noon. At four P.M. we were 
within four leagues of the land, in latitude 
OS" N. ; to the north we saw the land which 
had been discovered yesterday, and had a 
more perfect view of it. The Cape which 
we were off last night, which was named 
Cape Mickleham, seemed joined to the 
main by a narrow neck of land ; to the 
N.E. of it appeared a bay with three small 
islands : one was round and flat, and two 
were conical in shape : within them there 
appeared to be the entrance of a small 
river. To the southward of the above-men- 
tioned Cape the land was no less remark- 
able ; near the southern extremity a high 
conical mountain was seen bearing W.S. W.^ 
and a mountain which resembled, a martella 



TO Tl 
Sept. 30. Lat. 6- 

\m^l ■■ M—^ ■^■■fc ■■■■ M» ■ MM^I.^-. 

tower, bore we 
was Sanderson' 
evening the wi 
appearance of 
southward, aloi 
reefed topsails. 

Sept. 80.— Aft 
so hard as to obi 
and take in the fc 
towards daj-ligh 
three the gale hat 
was discovered, 
westward, all sail 
close this land,' bi 
was setting us to tl 
passed a number 
which we found w i 
and on which we so i 
on each side of tl 
and ten, and at a s 
in one hundred and 
this bank! was N.E. 
about six miles in le 
quarter of a mile bi 
it at hoon^^onTihis d 



46 A VOYAGE OF BISCOVEEY 

Sept. 29. Lat.05«'a4i' N. Long. 6i<» 1 1' W. Van 5«<»W, 

rate of one mile and a half per hour. We 
txied for fi$h on this bank^ but found none* 
At four P.M. the land was very di«tinotly 
seen, bearing from N.N.E. to W. by S. 
The high mountain which was ^een yester** 
day, bearing W,S.W. now bore W.N.W.; 
and a head land, having the appearance of 
a cape, bore, at sunset, W. by S. The 
l^itude by the pole-star was determined 
to be 63^ 40' N. When this cape bore 
Hre^t, its longitude by the chronometers^ 
and by the : adtitode 6f Arcturns, war 
foijpd to be 65^^ west: it was named Cape 
£nd»by ; some maU islands, which were 
seen to the southward, were named Swedish 
Islands, and the southernmost of thesn^ 
Charles's Island. 

The land here trosded to the westwmrdy 
appearing to £<ma m itikt, and on die op. 
posite side of it land was also 8een> bearing 
south. After dark the coune was altered i» 
sottUi ; it was blowing firesh, and, having 
ru«i ten lei^ites, whidb brou^ ns off tiie ladt 
land we had distinctly seen, we hauled to 
the wind, on tliehKboard taidt,«&iardioa&* 



Oet.l. 

reefed to^ 
doudy we 
found, by y 

had BiBt U8 

during the 1 i 

Oct. i.— ' 
light, when 
at sevea W€ i i 

ed to be at 
fram the lam 
ward of it. i 

d^r^ the land 
^etly seen, ai 
anine time the i 
latitude Bnswei 
^rakiiMi: betwi 
westward of tk 
noith^ Ihere wiK i 
doubt but that th 
Am weapproadbeG 
ffieiibfmnd ^ itron^ 
4i^^ «et Mund th 
^am%ioik. Several 
Meii 'to tihte noith 
e&«rtttitia^ whieh ap 



•*- 



48 A VOYAtfE OP DISCOVERV 



Oct., 1. Lat.62» 5iJ'N. Long.61°i2|'W. .Var. 58® W., 

thirty and forty miles wide. The land 
was also seen bearing S f W. In the 
morning the tide was observed to carry the 
ship to the; westward, and> after noon, to 
the S.E., at the rate of two miles an hour. 
As the first of October was - the latest 
period, which, by my Instructions, I was 
allowed to continue on this service, I was 
not authorized to proceed up this strait to 
explore it, which, perhaps, at the advanced 
season of the year, might be too hazardous 
an attempt ; the nights being now long, the 
little day-light we had being generally ob- 
scured by fogs or snow, and the rigging 
of the ship covered with ice. I thought 
it, however, advisable, to finish our opera- 
tions for this season, by making Resolu- 
tion Island,"^ the exact situation of which 
had been laid down by Mr. Wales ; Ij 
therefore, determined on steering for the 
southernmost land in sight; we conse- 
quently crossed the entrance of Cumberland 
Strait, and, making an allowance for indraft, 
steered about .S.S.£.^ It will appear that, in 
tracing the land fi'om Cape Walsinghams 



TC 

Oct. 2. Lat. i 

no doubt CO 

tinuity until 

Cumberland i 

south than it \ 

authorities wh 

possession of; 

whfere; Davis pi. 

has been found ; 

circumstance of 

the entrance of t 

less a much bettei 

than in any other 

ject of much regrel 

been able to reach i 
, Oct. 2.^ — Having . 
to bring us abreast c 

. nightji we hove to at 
•hip's head to the noi 
w^ wore and hove to 
to the southward^ the 
westward. At day-lig 
the ^land, and made I\ 
n;n^ o'clock : it bore al 
eighteen leagues. Befeir^ 
and became fog^. W 

VOL. II. E 



50 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY 

* ' ' ' -,. . ■ . - , _ 

Oct. 8. Lat. 6 1^ 41' N. haaig. «9^ i^ W. 

hundred and fifty fathoms^ and obtained 
^om the bottom several small shells and 
8[tooes : we discovered that the tide, at di£- 
i^ent periods, set in various directions, bi^ 
strongest to the $.£. and N.W. At eight 
o'clock a light brees^ sprung up from the 
yre^ti^ard ; we then rail fifteen miles to the 
southward, and hove to. 

: (kik 3, — It was my intention to have taken 
ia better view of Resolution Island, in order 
to prove the accuracy of our longitude ; but 
th? W4^ather being foggy^ and the wind light 
^d variable, T was obliged to abandon the 
attempt as too h^sardous under the circum« 
Stances of thic^ wither, bad**sailing ships, 
a d^rk moon, spring-tidea, and a coast sinr* 
rounded with rock«i. The time I was di- 
rected to leiive the service on which I was 
employed was also anrived ; but our bearings 
of yesterday were sufficient to convince us, 
Uiat onx observations and chronometers 
could not be materially wrong. Daring the 
last nighty whicb was both dark and fog^, 
the Alexander had separated from us coil* 
aidei^ably f aad the wind bekig lij^t she did 



TO TWC ARCTIC AflGIONS. 51 



im , . »• 



Oct. d.. Lat, 61* 41' N. Long. €3« 16' W. 



not Jom us until noon. We then bore up 
lor Cape Farewell* having intimated, by 
signal, that it was my intention to make 
^at Cape on our passage home ; we sound*- 
ed in three hundred and seventy fathomai 
Cape Best on Resolution Island bearing: 
west* distance sixteen leagues* by our 
reckoning: in the evening a light breeze 
sptung up from the westward and we pur- 
wed Our course* 

Oct* i.-r-We bad good obseifvations for 
the latitude, longitude* and variation* and 
jGoond the latter considerably decreased ; we 
Munded at noon* but found no ground in 
mne hundred and fifty ' &thoms ; at the 
same time the self-registering thermometra 
was sent down* and the temperature of the 
sea at that depth* was found to be 35|% 
irhile at the surface it was at 41 V that of 
the air being at ST* Before sun-^set I al^ 
tered the course to & by R* in order to get 
sdonet into ;the parallel of Ciq>e FarewdL 
JDuring the ni^^hc we had stiow^ and fresh 
btefeeaes from the W*N*.W* On the morn^ 
iogcxf th66th it blew. A galef wbicfa brdtighi 

E 2 



52 A VOYAGE OP DISCOVERY 



m^amt^tmm$m 



On, 8. Lat. 59° 00}' N. Long. 5 1° aaj' W. Var. 46° oo' W. 

■ ' ■ II. Ill I I I I I I I n il ■■ .1 I 1 I II n 

US under the close reefs ; the sea rose so 
suddenly, that before the dead lights in the 
cabin could be secured, two of the windows 
were btoken to pieces ; at four o'clock the 
wind shifted to the northward, and gradu- 
ally decreaJsed. We continued our course 
during the seventh and eighth, and on the 
latter morning about eight we were on the 
isame spot on which we had been at on the 
27th of May, when outward bound. About 
noon the bowsprit was discovered to be 
sprung, and, the wind increasing, no time 
was lost in getting in the flying jib-room : 
we also sent down the fore-top gallant mast 
and yard, to ease the bowsprit, and the 
runner and tackles were fixed as a tempo- 
rary security for the fore-mast ; we sup- . 
posed that this damage was the effect of the 
late gale. The day was employed in fishing 
the bowsprit with two spare oak tillers, which, 
being crooked, saved the necessity of taking 
out the chock between the knight-he^ids* 
This expedient was effectual, but the woric 
was not completely finished before nlgfal;. 
On the moming of the 9ih we had^a heavy 



TO THE 



Oct. 9. Lat. .' 



gale ; the top-gal 
sent down, but w 
our course until 
were obliged to 
top sails, and i 
At noon we wf 
Cape Farewel] 
Upton*; but 
tuous that we 
five miles, on 
on the sea. 
very high, tl 
broach to, a 
longer, she 
sprit being 
under the i 
wind as Ion 
a double b 
and the f 
About si: 
boats waf 
been tun 
high as 



♦C»pel 

by Capt. I 



54 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVEBY 

Oct. la. Lai. 59° 17j' N. Long» 38® 46|' W, 

«— ' .1 ■ .11 , . I .1 ■ I .1 ■ ..I,. , . 11 1 ■ 

after, the dog I had purchased at Prince 
Kegent's Bay was also unfortunately washed 
overboard. About eight o'clock the foresail 
gave way^ and the ship could no longer 
be steered ; we then brought to under the 
trysail. Soon after this the starboard 
quarter boat was washed away ; during the 
nighty much water was also shippe^i and 
the boarding of the bulwark was washed 
away by the sea, which sometimes made a 
breach over the sbipi but no other damage 
was sustained. Fortunately me met with 
no ice* but in the morning several large 
icebergs were seen* 

At four, A*M., on the 10th, the gale 
began to abate, smd* at nocHi, wq were 
able to carry the close-reefed topsaik^ 
which were immediately set. The Ale^t-^ 
ander not being in i^ht, we jsteered to the 
northward, being the most probable di- 
rection for finding her. 

On the 12th, the weather being finer 
and calm* we sounded, but had no ground 
in one thousand fathoms. We sounded 
agairi, oh the 14th| with no better succesa. 



TO. THE ARCTIC KEGIOKS. SS 



Arfival at Shetland. 



Nc^hing remarkable happened on our 
passage to Shetland, during which we had 
generally moderate weather, with frequent 
snows and fogs. One iceberg was also 
seen on the 17th, about midway between 
Cape Farewell and Shetland. On the 25th 
of October we made the Islands of Ferroe ; 
and, on the 26th, were close to Saddeloe, 
where we found our chronometers to agree 
with its longitude. We had afterwards 
thick weather, and could only discern the 
tops of the mountains. 

On the 30th of October we made the 
island of Fula, and, passing between Fair 
Isle and Sumburg Head, arrived at Shet- 
land, anchoring in Brassa Sound, after an 
absence of exactly six months. We here 
found the Alexander, she having anchored 
only a few hours before, and all well. The 
Lerwick packet being about to sail for Leith, 
I sent a short account of our proceedings 
to the Secretary of the Admiralty, for the 
information of their Lordships: in which, 
after recommending the officers and men 
of both ships, for their meritorious con^ 

fi 4 



56 A VOYAGE OF DISGOVERY 

duct, I concluded in the following words : — 
^^ Not an instance of punishment has taken 
" place in this ship, nor has there been aa 
" officer, or man, in the sick list ; and it is 
" with a feeling not to be expressed, that I 
*^ conclude this letter, by reporting that 
^* the service has been performed, and that 
" the expedition, which I had the honour 
" to command, has returned, without the 
** loss of a man. 

" I have, &c. 

« J. Ross/' 



PROCEEDINGS 
THENCE, ANl 
THE OFFIGEl 
VAL IN TH] 
VOYAGE. 

We had m 
Sound, than 
on board, tc 
offer us acco 
were thereb) 
concluding oi 
dipping needl 
observations ' 
proved that n 
in that valuab 
the sun for t 
ficial horizon : 
for latitude w( 
board and on s 
chronometers v 



58 A VOYAGE OF DlSCOVDllY 

pose of determining, by the known longi- 
tude of Shetland, the errors of the watchei^ 
The variation of the compass was also accu- 
rately observed, and the re&uHsof all these 
operations will be found in the Appendix* 
I also made experiments on board both 
ships, to determine the points of change, 
and the amount of the deviation in this 
harbour, for the purpose of comparison 
with tho^e made in Baffin's Bay ; and these 
observations, which are at full length in, 
Appendix No. I, will be found of nioch 
importance. 

In the mean time our water was re- 
plenished, our cables and anchors arranged, 
our crews refreshed, and every preparation 
made for our voyage to the Thames ; and 
the wind coming fair, we sailed from 
Brdssa Sound on the morning of the 7th of 
November, having previously sent a sealed 
letter to Lieutenant Parry, with directions 
to open it in latitude 58"" North. The pur- 
port of this letter was, according to the 
tenor of my Instructions, to require him, 
the officers, petty officers, or others, on 
board the Alexander, to seal up, andf de- 



31 
b( 

G 
Ti 

mi 
all 
shi 
arr 
wit 
tot 
L 
ant 
and 
veml 
tosig 
cond 
shipi 



< 



60 A VOYAGE OF DISCOVEEY. 

probable an expedition of similar nature 
would be undertaken in the ensuing spring ; 
and that those who were desirous of volun- 
teering their services, should have a pre- 
ference over all others, should be found 
employment during the winter, granted a 
month's leave 6f absence, and kept in pay 
until the ships were ready for receiving 
men ; upon which nearly the whole volun- 
teered, and the Isabella and Alexander 
were paid off on the 17th of December. 



APPENDIX. 



A 



OFF 



" Hb Ro 
ingsignifie 
that an ati 
Northern 1 
the Pacific 
th^eof, ca 
out and a] 
which, the 
tended to 
ward throu 
rothea and 
may be fov 
gen seas. 



64 APPENDIX, NO* r. 

" And whereas we have thought fit to inti'ust 
yw with the command and directicm of the f^-^ 
mer expeditio^^ and have diretAed' -LifeutSnlitt- 
Pany, who has been aj^kited to^ooimiiand tfie 
Alexander, to follow your ordeirs 3for. hts fulJtfcer 
proceedings ; you are herel)y^ ±apiiotrd sttid iK- 
rec^^d to proceed to sea^ with all ccmvieni^nt^ 
despatch, in the Isabella, and, /teiMng 4^d^p 
your orders the rAJexander^ above ^»i€fl(tiotiedr 
make the best of your way into Pavis* cJStFttitJ ^ 
through which you will, oideayoorvto pass to^ llite 
northward^ without ^pping on either of iti 
coasts, uidessyou fhipB find it ;ai^adkltdy nece^ 
sary. Iii this^.passage .you: may €X^eet oMt^ meet ' 
with frequent obstructions from'^Mt and iidliiidi^ 
of ice J to get clear oQf which,;^ andito; ensure: the 
safety of the ship%a^ p^opbtconscnitted' to year 
ch^ge, wiU ;re^ii^ jTrojGDt vyoui^ 3^ad^ aHTirfao^M^ 
un4er your ord^f S;^ ^^^g]!ieajt^ 
vigUafice. :Andf::^r^\»»x^f^^ 
may be c^n^dei^e^l: ts? a^ art; to haiacquirectiifiif 
by prac,ticj^^ wie rhaVe 4i<'^ted -thst^ltowbe^p^ 
point^^fo^afi^^ of :tbl^irf)ip3;:unditXF^ 
a master, andfa mq^^^f (wbatetfiiljiK^g iMssi^,'^nriit 
experienced iujtj^i^f^ &(^i!t^W[kntiwhfd|;e 
and 9kill you ^y ^i«rtv^ ifiHteiMiI Misiatance; ^/ 1 

" Itis not^impr^M?l^|h9ttip^the.esri 
the season, when y^a m^y be expected ;to.s»it9re 



> APnxfMXf NO. u 65 

mBsm^ StT$aiii^^:i^ ice noajr bje found to str^di 
aGpMlmfcdm land to land ; but to ice is knoum tp 
viasjr m it» po8iti0n IriMa yiidar t^^^^ aadi»$fef«i 
tim^^mtlmoMtm dTti year/and, in tho86 pllusea 
wfaMpe not &8t by the groondr t» idmost con- 
stefittfy isLJnotiion by vamda^ ttd^^ Mul OMrr^its ; 
i^ on yoiar aima^ it skould appear to present a 
coai|iact beaiBr, you mU» of course, be prepared 
to^avail yourself of tjbejnrt; opening which may 
be diaeovered, to pai» to the northward. As, 
hofwemer, in the present state of uncertainty wkh 
r^purd to tl^ movements of the ice, and with 
the. very impesfeet knowledge we have of thii» 
stM^ and still more so of the sea beyond it, 
no qpficifio iaitructions can be given for your 
guidaiie^ the time and manner of proceeding to 
fiilO thft uherior object of your destination, in 
plMis where impediments may occurs must- be 
left Mitifely to your diacretion; in the exercise 
of whitth we rely on your 2eal and skiU m your 
profeflrion for the aecompKjdmient, as far as it 
can: be aeemaidtilied, of the service on which 
you are emjdoyed ; not do^btIng that eveiy ex- 
ertiKm wfll be mode on yoor part, and on that 
of your affioara, whik^ at the same time, no pre- 
caution waH be omitted, thirt; prudence may 
dicitate, to ttvoid accidents mi $n euterprise ol^so 
anhKma a native as that of conductti^ ships in 

VOL. II. F 



isa&ty through fields a£ ice in . unknown weasL It 
m^ not, however, be amiss to .suggest, aft.a^e- 

in^tnl observation, that a passage through fiefais 

'Of ice is 4tliost likely to be found where the sea 
i6 dee{>el^ a^nd least comleeted wilii land) as 

^th^re i^ i^eason to suppose that ice is:found to be 
tnore abundant near the shores of the oontin^ 

-and islands, in nikrrow 'Straits, and tle^ hMy%. 
And it may ^Iso.be elcpeeted, that the seajwill 

^be^ m^t etea^ of ice Ti^fteiis ^ the cusrraiii ade 
strongest, as the dt^am <if a river will eontinue 
open long' filler the sides are fhaen up* . 

** From the best information we have betti 
able to obtain, it would appear that a ourrimt of 
some force runs from the northward towards the 

^pper pi)tt of Ba^s' Straiti during the summer 

- sea^oh, and, perh^pSy fo^ sonie part of t^e winter 
also, bringing with it Adds of ice m the sprh^, 
and ice-berg^ in the sUinmer. . ^ 

- ** Thij^ current. If it b^ eonsiderafalei dan 
Scarcely be altiDgether supplied by isLreams fimn 
the land, or the melting oi iae^ tfaeese Woidd, 

' theitefore, seeM tenson td sui^pose, that it ^nay 
be^ derived &(^i an op^n tiea^ m, whkh vjcaae, 

^Baffin's B^y cfi^iitk>tbe^ bounded by iand^' as^our 
charts g^herally i'epre^ent'i^ but inu6t4»Miunu- 
nieite with the Ai«tie O^j^an* 






6? APPt^mx, NO. 1. 

have seen the land,) is generally free from field- 
ice, which, from its extent of surface, offers! the 
greatest impediment to navigation. Should yo\i 
find ^ this actually to be the case,' it may be ad- 
visable to stand well to the northwaxci, before you 
edge away to the westward, in order to gpt a 
good offing, in rounding the north-east pmnt of 
the continent of America ; whose latitude has 
not been ascettained, but which, if a coftjeqtiire 
may be Jia^arded, from what is known from the 
northern coast of thiat continent, may perhaps be 
found in or about the 72d degree of latitude. 

« In the event of your being able to succeed 
in rounding this point, and finding the slea open» 
you are carefully to avoid coming near the coast, 
where you wojild be most likely to be impe4c5d 
by fixed or floating ice j but keeping well to the 
noithward, and in deep water, make the best tpf 
yoiir way to Behring-s Strait,tiu:ough which you 
are to endeavour to pass into the Pacific Ocean } 
and, in the event of your succeeding to pass this 
Strait, you are then to make the best of your 
way to Kamtschatka, if you think you c^n do so 
without risk of being shirt up by the ice pu 
that coast, for the purp<»e of dehvetpug to the 
%u6sian Governor, dujplicates of all the journals 
and other documents which the passiige may 
have Supplied, with a request, that they may be 



APPENDIX, NO. !• 69 

forwarded overland to St. Petersburg!], to be con- 
veyed from thence to London ; and from this, 
you will proceed to the Sandwich Inlands, or 
New Albi(Hii or such other place in the Pacific 
Ocean as you may think proper, to refit and 
refresh your crews ; and if, during your stay at 
such place, a safe opportunity should occur of 
sending these papers to England, you should 
send duplicates by. that conveyance* 

<< If the circumst^ces of your passage should 
be such as to encourage your attempting to re- 
turn by the same course, you may winter at the 
Sand^ch Islands, New Albion, or any other 
propei'^l^lace ; and early in next spring,* may 
proceed direct for Behring's Strait, and use your 
endeavotiitt to repass the same ; and should you 
succeed in this attempt, you are to proceed, if 
possible, to the eastward, keepii^ in sight and 
iq[>proaching the coast of America, whenever the 
position pf the ice^ will permit you so to do, in 
order tibat j^iou may^ be enabled to ascertain the 
latitudes and longitudes c^ some of the most re- 
markable headlands oir inlets that may occur ; 
taidjAg every possHde precaution, however, 
agagift beiitig beset by the ice, and thus com*^ 
peUe4 to winter on tibat coast 

<* Before, however, yon determine on return- 
ing |)y the same way, you will maturely consi4er 

F 3 



70 App£ndiX| no. u 

and weigh the prudence of making such an at* 
tempt If your original passage shoidd be made 
with fadility, and you see reason to believe that 
your success was not owing to circumstances 
merely accidental, or temporary, and that there 
is a pirobability that you may be able also to ac« 
complish the passage back, it would be umdoubt* 
0dly of great importance that you should en- 
deavour to make it : but if, on the other hand^ 
it shall have been attended with- circumstances 
t£ danger or difficulty^ so great as to persuade 
you that tiie attempt to return would risk the 
safety of the ships, and the lives <^ the cre^ 
you, in this case, are to abandon sdl thoughts of 
returning by the northern passage, and are to 
inake the best of your way home-ward, by C^[>e 
Horn. 

" Previous \xi your leavmg England, or at any 
rate before your departure from Shetland, you 
are to ^x with Caption Buchan, to whom the 
other expedition is intrusted, upon a rendezvous 
in the Pacific % and if you should be joined t^ 
the Dorothea and Trent, or eitfier rf them, you 
are to take them under your command | and» 
having detached one ship, with a copy of tf 
your papers, and a complete set of des^a^^iet 
reporting your proceedings, to Ebgkm^ by ^e 
route of Cap^ Horn, you are to proceed wi^ Sie 



otj^^: abi^; to repmm B^imiBgh:$kna,t, as ufaovd 
dki»;te4 if yaii, should liaiirecietennme^ ^tti^^ 
CQW96 ; but if.you sbouldhaKe r^nihried ito retem/ 
by tbe Sbiithyyou^aretQ taksn eara tamt^rchaqgei 
wkh Ca|rtaiu JBuchasi x»>piea rf. you^ . ire^feptiva ^ 
joinnaab iumL dei^atditts ; or^ j£ you do iiqt meet 
Cs^ftsm Boofaai^ or his %\ap^y0a. are to deposiit 
cfsfiim qtyom omnipapet^ . on board the Ates^^/ 
andec^ ininder do. caisure^ as &rfs pemfak^ tihusf 
arrival of these impoi!tiant'doaudieitt^iri Eng^soidy^ 
by tbiia. mukiplyng tbft modes of i^onvjeyaiK^e. 
< ^< li^ howerecy it should ia. happep, that fnm 
Qbstraoi9oir| q£ ice, or aay akhcc cireamatumer 
yoiiF prdgr^is to the imst\irard should |irovo toO) 
slow tf» admit of youc ap^oaoh to ^duii|g*s 
Stiaity bffiifiyre tiae.praBdqt aeason shall be too^ far 
advaneed^ to make it adfc to sMempt that paw 
sagof ^^d, at the aametime^ your piRigrefis 
afamild be too eoBsida^able to the westw^, to 
^BsifrByQWs i^etom Ji^ .same season by the way 
of Davis' Strait; youase^ ia that catie^ to edg€t 
d0im to^the nasthsm coast of America^ ta^d en* 
daaimiir to. HoA mit some aiicure bay, in wfaicb 
t|te ships may beJaid up for the winter^ taking 
swkmoaausea fot the healjdi and- comfort of that 
I^Bople bofsauttodto yoor cbuge^^ 
nifeh ^^faiah you arb slipplLed &r housiug-in thier 
ships^or luit|i}ig the awo xm^re^ magr endoleyou 
to do: andyifyou shall find it expedient to resort to 

F 4f 



72; AFFENPix; N0* i; 

this4&M0urey radyou^hauldoMN^t with amy inhdU- 
tani^ rither Edcimaiix or Indiaii8» Bear the {daoe 
wii^e you wiiit^^ yoiii are to endeaviHir b^ 
meaa^ m yoiuipower to cultivate a Meiidbihqp'^ivitli 
ihm^i^y ma]djQgthem{H:eseiits of such ortidesii^^ 
youimy be w^ftlied^th, 9Bd ^^^ 
Gd4X[ agreeabk<t0 than: you'wi]], however^ take 
care n<A to sulEbf y<Miisid£tolife aiiriicmxi b]^ Ikem, i 
but uw .ei^Qcy pKe^nticm^ and be^confltaiitly^ on*' 
yoiirgiswd against ^yc^hoitil%. i 

fi ¥«|| wiU ^ndaayour to proimloii theat^ by. 
aiidbv|4spar4>f andlo be^jpaid.: in audi manmer, aa 
yoi^mf^jtiMnk^bMl to Mswer the purpose^ to 
cao^ to any cif< l^^ifietadeti^^ 
Bay Company, or of the Northwest^OGiaipaa^;^ 
an ^cc^mi^^^ry^9m^Mi^^ 
with, j^^gant rogniipt Ihat it iip^iieftciMunte^ 
to lEi^lf^ «tinoat pi06«|ihfe d€^9Mi|i^.A t: 

<^ ^,jlto^^^ id| your endeavmra>d^ 
ii^ g^l^lpg so^9f tpt^ii^ vmslmBxdMJto eMshh^ym^ 
to do{ubli$ the n€grth<*ea<fii^ni esdxeadty of :.i^«^ 
rica, (ropvl whi((;h thea^ hiffym&mm hfM^lpi)^ 
thwto sijij|^K)S€^a pipsage to exk^);:y0v anB^iic 
that casf^ to 5iS6 #. l^b^SieKaw ^/tituq^oate^i^^ 
keeping to the northward axid .tmstmm3ii>to^m^^^ 
certain to w)uit :^toi»t^ y^ ^^i^prmsis^J^^ 
the wfgflerft QQast; pi^ .(^j Gi«^^ 
whfther there is : any reason to^ppose jtliatiib 

12 



i>^. 



X 



APPBNDIX, NO. Iw 73 

fbmisia piHcfc of the contiiieiit of Americft ; aod 
yoaareidso to <^uieAvbur to improve the very 
imptti&ct; geogn^hy of the eastern coast of 
Ameriea, and of the idaffd CHrisiaiids whidi are 
wppoaed to* int^rwse between it and Disco 
Islaod in Davis* Strait; but you^are, on no ac<* 
couafti ia tibis latter case» to i^Midiii on thia ser- 
vi<«2 ja \cmgf mAeaa .aceideiitatty caught in the 
ice^ asuto he.oUig)ed to wint^ 4>n any part of 
the eastern coast of America, or the western 
coast jo£' CHd Greraknd, ov the intermediate 
islands;; but to leave the ice about the middle: 
or ^j^Qthrof September, or the 1st of October at 
the latest, and; make the best of yoiv way to ti^ 
Rim^ Thames. 

« Although; the first, and most important, ob- 
ject of this voyage^ is the discoveiy of a passage' 
^om Davis' Strait, alo^g the northern coast of 
America, and through Behring's Strait, into the. 
PsQific|] it is hoped, at the same time, that it 
migr likewise be the means of improving tiie 
geo^grafkby and hydrography of the Arctic Be- 
gioBSr of which so little is hitherto kaown, and 
coo|flt^te ta the advancemeaoit of science and 
natnsai Icnowledge. 

<^ With this view, we have caused a great 
rarinty of valoaUe instruments to be put on 
boaid the ^ahips under your orders, of which 



74 APPENDIX, NO.Ii 

yott will be furnislied witb a list> and for the 
return of which you will be held responsible; 
and -have ftlso^ at the recOnnzMQdatioii ^f the 
President and Ckmncil of the Rojral * Society, 
ordered to be deceived <» board the l9abQll% 
CaplSMh Sabine^ of the Royai Aartillery, wha ia 
represented to^ us aa a geatlesfian wdl sidUed in 
asiTonomy, hi^uta) history, and iwrioiis branches 
of kne^ledge^ to Minsi you m making such <^ 
seivtttions as may tend to the improvement of 
g eogr ap hy and navigation, and the advancement 
of science in genctrsd. Amongst ether subjects 
of seienfti^ esuqtnjry, you will paftieulai^ly direct 
yoor'fiittMEtionytp tilie vteiatkm and inclinatien of 
the magnetic needle, and the intaiffltyof the 
nH^netfc Ibree ;- 3^ott wiU eodeavoufc to ascertain 
hofw ftr the needle mwy be eflboted by the 
^tftaMMq^liericu electricity, and what eialat 4nay 
be predueed on the dbctroxneter and magnetic 
needle on^ the appearance of the Aurora Bopoalais. 
You wffl keep a eomet legtaber of the tctap^a- 
tare df five air and of tl|e woface of 4he s^i «i4 
you wfll f^eqaeirtly^ tiy the temperature' of th^ 
seay in varimis siteaCiima and at dUfer^nt depths. 
You will cause the dip of thei^ hotiM» to be fire- 
qveirikly observed by the dip^^ector invmted by 
Doctoa WoMnstm; and ascertaw what eifect 
mi^ be preduoed by^ tueftsuing that dip aoMss 



APPfiNDIXy NO.). ?.5 

fidds of ice> ai^ compared with its measurement 
acroasthe aurfkce of the open sea« You will 
also cause frequent observations to be made for 
ascertaining the r^£racti0n, and what effect may 
be produced by observing an objects eith^ 
celestial or terrestrial, over a field of icei M 
compared with objects observed over i^ wtftce 
of water; together with such otii^ Aieteoi^akoi- 
giieal nmarka b» you may ha?ire /opportunities of 
making. You are to attend particularly t« the 
hei^^ directkNi, and stri^gth of the tid(^ mi 
to the set and velocity of the civrreQWi th^ 
depth and somncfeigs of the Ma^ and the mtm» 
of the bott(Hn i for idsiich fmpme yim vq aup^ 
^ed with 4111 inatrument better c^otdated to 
hnng u|i substances than the lead usiMQy em»^ 
pbyed for this pujppoae. 

.¥ ¥ot the purpoie^ notiiraly of afloeiftaiohig 
the sfll of the ourrentsr in the Axctk^,Sm^ but 
abo of albrdtog more fti^n^wil: xsbmc^iof kfm^ 
tag f>f year progress. We dawre :tha4 yo'utdo £re-< 
quaotfy after you shall hav«) passed t^ei l^t|tiid« 
0£ ^^ NbfA^ and onee e^ery^ ilay . ^stiien yqu 
shiallbeitt an aaoeiRtained^iastosiMif thnaw Qv^r 
board a bottle, cliiflely^eflted^JitndconliaiiUji^ a 
pafMoratafeing^e dale and position ait ml^k i^ 
humched? and ywtt will giv« si«iiil4F osdera. io 
the Commandfir of the Alexander* to be i^xer 



76 APPENDIX, NO. I. 

ciited in case of sepairation. And for this pur- 
pose, we have caused each ship to be suppUed 
with papers, on which~is printed^ .in iseveral 
lanigusiges, a request that whoever ma^ find, it 
should take measures for transmitting it to this 
office. 

"'And, although you are not to be di^wn 
aside fi^om the main object of the service on 
which you are employed, as long as you may be. 
c^pabled to make any progress, yet whenever 
you may be impeded by ice, or find it neces^vy 
to approach the coasts of the continent' or 
inlands, you are to cause views of bays, har- 
bours, headlands, &c, to be carefuUy taken, t^ 
illustrate and explain the tra,ck of liie yeussels^ or 
i^ch charts as you-may be able t^ ma^ke; ott 
which duty* you yill be assisted by lieutenaiH; 
Hcppner, whose jskiU w jdrawigg is represepl^d 
tp be SQ ceijsideraWe^i as tp super Jjede the ne« 
ciaiiaity pf appojjiting a professions^ draughten^an. 
" You are. to make use of every means in your 
p««r. to coUect «>d pre3er.« ssd. spwmed. 

' 0^ the animal, mineral, and yegetable kingdbfnsy 
as you can qonveniesntly stow, on board the 
tbipB : and, of the larger animals, yqu are to 
MMe accurate drawings to be made^ toaccqm- 

tfftpiy and elucidate the descriptions of them* In 
this, as^well as in every other part of yoiir sden- 



APXENDIX, NO. I. 77 

tific duty, we trust that you will receive material 
assistance from Captain Sabine. 
.' "You are to iise your best endeavours, and 
give instructions to the same effect to Lieu- 
tenant Parry, to keep the two vessels constantly 
together, and previent their separation : if^hoiir- 
ever, they should separate, you are to appoiint 
Lerwick, in the Shetland Islands, as the first 
rehdezvous, and, after that. Love Bay, Disco 
fslahd, in Davis* Strait ; beyond which, as no- 
thing is known, no other rendezvous can 'be 
^ppdihted. And in the Wetatbf any irre]^arable 
a^cid^ht happening to either of' the dhiJ)S,^ you 
af^ Wc^iise the oiBcers and crew of the disabled 
irtiip' to'be renioved into the dthet, and with hei 
singly, td pfdfceied in prosecution of tlie voyage, 
ctf^returh to ISngland, a;ccording as circtiinstances 
«h*afl Appear to require : should, unfortunately^ 
ytfut own ship be the one disabled, you a!re,' in 
that case, ib take the command of the Alek- 
ahd^]^ : and, in the event of your own ina3(0\^\ 
by ^ckness or btberwise, to carry these ihlstruc- 
tioiis into execution, you are to transfet thenii 
to "ih(^ Lietifesnant * next in comnland, wl^^^^ id 

liierelyy re^ii*^^ execute tKem in the bek 

mafiner^'^ cl^n^for ^he attainment of the s^tfefal 

" i^s,' in afl undb of this nature; siei 



78 APPENDIX, NOiJ. 

vera! em^gencids may arisen againat wfai6h M0 
foresight can providei and no spedfic ii»s(^»c* 
tions can be given ; you are» in all such cases, 
to proceed in such a maonerus you may judge to 
b6 . most advantageous to th€ aervioe im ivbklh 
you are employed ; most likdy to advmte the 
accomplishment of the various objects of the ex- 
peditiod ; and mo6t condueivt to the security of 
the sbipS) and the faeUth» comfort^ and aafety, 
of your offi<J6rs and iden. 

<< C^ your torival it Eiigland# ychi are iib^ 
aMdiatdy to repair to this office in oi^der to lay 
before U^ a fbll account of your preHeediitgs in 
the whole course of your v^age : taking care^ 
befctft you lea?ve the ship^ tt> demand from the 
officers and petty officers the logs and journals 
they may have kept ; and alto ^om Captaki 
Sabine such journals or mem<»randa .as he mny 
htive kept ; which are 1^ to be sei^d up : and 
you 'win i^e similair directions to lieutenaat 
Pati^ ^d>lM^ oiBeeHs; the said logs, joumalfi^ or 
oi&ef .documents^ to be thereafter disf>osed of as 
W^ may th^ik proper to determine* 
. " His |ilajesty'$ Frinc^>al iSecretaiy of State 
ioff Foifeign Ail^s has been re^ueisted to Bipply 
to the cotuta of Rutisi?^ Dptnnark^ and Sweden, 
to issue orders to their respective suibjects^ to 
afford mj h^pitality w Bj^Maace which these 



Deviatioit of S.3f.S. Isabdla in BaMns Batf Compared with her iityiation £il Shetiami . 



♦. 



•Vr 



^•^^ 



*^rf- 



A* 




«V 



•'**^-, 



Deviatipw of ff.M.S. jihucander in Baffim B<uf Compared mthfha^ delation at ShfAmd^. 



V 



•^j 



'kA.^ 



*» 



^a 




^'^t or 



a«j^ 



SidHHatt tfvlp' 



The Deviation in BalHnj Baaf wiU h* tburid bebreen the inner and middle Ctniev and 



86 APPENDIX, MO. II. 

ations it was found to difier in different parts oiT 
the world. Hence it became absolutely neces^^ 
sary, both on this account and because of th? 
gradual altexai^nk to wllch it tras subjc^cV that 
mariners should be furnished with the means of 
daily ascertaining, in every situation, the quan- 
tity of erton or vfiniatioa, Of ^h conl]p!als^ in 
order to correct the courses to be steered, and 
the bearings of objects seen. In ascertaining 
the quantity of this variation by the well known 
ftiiethod^, tfie reSuIt Was, tlH Within' la feW fei&s 
p^ generally believed to he corr^crt ; or, at 
le^t, tiot iMibject to much entxr. Dtfferen^es it . 
these results were howeVeir at length oBiserved 
by modern navigators, particularly by Mr. Wale^, 
1^ astronomer, who accoihpahied Captain Cook 
ito his third voyage; these diderences heink 
trom y to 6% and even 10% with the ship's head 
in ccmtrary directions : under various other cir- 
cumstances, mentioned in the Introduction to 
Cook's Voyage, they were from 5** to 7*** 

It was reserved, however, for that abfe tod 

• • ■ > • 

scientific navigator, the late Captain Fliriders, to 
elucidate this interesting fact; to explain tlte 
probable, and till then the unsuspected, cause of 
this aberration of the nejpdle ; to draw coiiclu- 
, "sions, and to lay down a rule for correcting the 

13 



^i^jm^m »>• ut. 87 

tfftf ^f imdil&ony QO&amtai«d by chtm^ug tbe 
lAip^s head, which, uudiear the circumitaitces, a»d 
withki the lumts of hid dbservation a^id expe- 
msaaSf mere probably Ifigitirnate and €afrei:t» 
But the princqite on which tiiis rule is founded^ 
wiU mt be fi>iHid afq^licable to every circum* 
stance, and ito idl dituatioxu, and partiindarly 
where it has now been putio the test, in Baffin'^ 
Ba^y, 

The memoir, written by Captab Flinders on 
th^ subject, is rec<^ded in the Fhilospphical 
Transactions of the Royal Society for the year 
X80Si fyom this, it appeals to haye been las 
oplnj^i]^ that the error qf variationj consequent on 
9 chaj^ in the direction of the ^p^s head, was 
prodaced by the combined force of terrestrial 
99|ignetisQi, and *^ ferruginous attraction'' within 
theship. / 

In ^e y<^ 1$1% the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty ordered experim^its to be made 
on board of fiveiliflfer^nt vessels, in the King's 
pcprts, ^* with a view of asceitauiung the partir 
" i:»i||tr causes of error to which CaptaiQ Flin- 
<< d^s had ady^ed ; ot of obtaining some ge- 
" Be?al jneftults from an inquiry so intimately 
*< connected, as it ^peai^ed to be, with the im- 

G 4 



imMA^ dfrfar as- ^^i^v^tr tended to estafdiab 
the fiict, and toijUG^y !the ^opinion of Captain 
IBlind^B. i StSii^ iKimefdr^ moire>informatiQnr w«s 
"i^antedore^K^g^tbis sulij^ the purpose, 
ef ^discovi^ruig'^nihi thiM^ 'V^oidd^emble^ob 
to finditke ftiiie ; quaotitity of error in Bxiy. {^ace» 
and nindef att dbrsmnstancesv ^^ 






Altlnnigh the ;jexperanait8 above motioned 
gaive dOfne^innght'iiito 'the'catisfea of this viiri- 
ation,^ 4:hey weie ihsufficient to explaaa tfaoti 
per£iM^tly ; ^nor^ it probable that we shall soon 
be acqustiiited Mith « them^ -ignorant as we ai^e of 
the natiQire ^ of^ iiuinyv physical appearsisices c£ fy- 
mUiar ocevuxenee^i Hkii^h itwoittd^ p^tbiif^ 
be pMAible/ in the present Mghly improyftd state; 
of navi^tion, for one, thorbiighfy . versed . in 
seamanship and nautical astronomy, toccmduiCt 
a ship in safety from England to any port in the 
world, without the aid of the mariner's .ct>mpass ; 
yet, in cloudy tempestuous weather, or in con- 
fined waters, and surrounded by land^ his doubt 
and sm^iety could only be relieved, or confidehee 
given to his mind, by the compass. It is, thl^- 
fore, necessary, that this instrument s^idd be 
rendered as unerriqg u guide as possible ; and 
thiii^ can only be done by a certain universal and 



▲PFEiroiX^ Ka Ht 



«9 



mvairiable mode of finding the true varmHim^ at 
all times and places, and under all circumstances. 

This iiregularity of the compass beuig oi^/of 
the important objects c^the Expedition under ^ 
my command,^ it became my duty ^to examine 
the various reports and publications on the sub- 
ject, and to endeavour to ascertain how far the 
diilferent systems given to the PubUcare.c(»rect 
aoid the rules for correcting the deviatioatof the 
variation to be depended on. Every possible op- 
portunity was embraced' during the voya^^ of 
taking observations, and of making afl liie 0(3- 
C68(9ary ^cperiments and cooipaadfawu llieiB,^ 
with their results, will be detailed progrojilydy, 
as they were taken in each month, tc^ether with 
die steps which I deemed necessary tQ come at 
the truth. ..,-,.,., 



/ » - ■ 
I 



' • y 



. i 



\ 



EXPERIMENTS 



MAPS aN BOA&D HIS- MAJESTY S SHIP ISABELLA 



IN THK MOKTR Olf MAY, 1818. 



1^/ Maperiment on the Difference between the 
Compasses qfthe Isabella and Alexander. 

Tte Mgnal was made to steer N.W. by W. ; 
and when the Isabella was on that coursei and 
the masts of both ships were in ^3ne, the Alexan- 
der wte N.W. 4- W. 

9d Ejtperknent — 'the signal wtus made to 
steer West ; and when the Isabella was on that 
course, the Alexander was W. by S., the masts 
of both ships being in one. 

8d Experiment. "^The signal was made to 
steer S. W. ; and when the Isabella was on that 
course, the Alexander was S.S. W. f W. , the 
masts of both ships in one. 

And, in like manner, — 



APPENDIX, NO. II. 



91 



With the HeadN., andlsabella N., the Alexander N. i W. 
Do. N.E., do. N.E., do. N.E.^E. 
Do. East, do. East, do. £• S. 
Do. S.E., do. S.E., do. S.E.fS 

Do. SoMthi do. South, ^.^.. ^S.fE. 



When the compasses were carried on board the 
Alexander, to be compared with the ship's head 
8.W., there ^ias a difiertnce of otte poiitf; be- 
tween the Isabella's aziniutti compass'Md th^ 
Alexander's. Jennings's iiisul^tted cothipci^s^ftood 
at a mediuDl between them, and one of the other 
compasses had half a point difference to the 
west. 



"<L* rJf^tri 



The ojperalions were repeated, but never gave 
the same i^esults; so that no rule couldcbe laid 
down, at t%is time, to correct the devisttion. 



' »•> 






\ ^.n 









\ 



v.. ■' 



, .• - « 1 » ,. J fc » . 



EXPERIMENTS AKD OBSERVATIONS 

' MADE IN THE'illiWfBr OF JITNE,'' 1818. ' 



. ; • 



Qdi t^e .4f|di pf Jttue» m Jati^de S^'"" J^' N. , and 
loi9gi|tii^ 54f?.0 30" W., obsaryations were 
msade^ ps i^ei^y ^ possible, at the four cardinal 
points, M^^hicl^igayf the foUowiag results ;<-^ 

.'ill.. . . . . • ' : /. 

VAUATXOV. 



S%>t 

■I Do. 

Do. 

.Do. 


.... -W^rt,, r^ 


- 60 50 15 West 
. - 52 g5 00 , 
.. 48 10 op 
-77 33 30 


/• 


^- MpAn 59 44 41 


Ship'sJEiWN.ir E. 


- 58 01 00 Weit 



This ipe^ of the .Alexax]^er's observations 
0Hthe4|hTju»eigsvas56° 55' lO"W.j bmt the 
obsen^^ns with the ^ihip^s head West is not in- 
cluded, as lieuteMBt Paity r^Kxrted that l^e 
ship was unsteady wfaaoi on thatpoiiit. 

June 9th. Hie variation yfss observed by 
azimuth on the four ci^rcGnal points of the com* 



\ 



APPENDIX, NO. IL 



99 



^ass, the mean of which gave 5^ more than the 
trae- variation observed at the-same time on an 

10' 00" West 



iceberg, which .Was' - -6^ 
On hosk Isayiia,'-?n^'^^^r' '^ 






.i ' T •» 



A '* 



head West^ the yapj^ljtjp^ 

was observed to be - - 72 10 20 West. 



■•^*' 11' ^■» ■^■■"■p'w ■ I » < ■* 



< .And, at the\same'tiihe, when observedwitb the 
^^8 head Nv M?^:i ftJa#^6^<?'8'*W^'#«e. 
kig nearly wif&'^t on theicet)er^/^ iteluths 
w^e then tacen 26" <to t^df Me ^-N.' 14^ R, 
and dieir me&n gave the-s^e fe^tdti « 



' r <"■ 



\ .» 



■"•• % 



June '19th. .The following bearings were taken 
of a distant object, wWcb*b?bk/^l)(rdrtfe from the , 



iceout of tbe lAipV attracklci^V-i 



— r-. /^ 



SBXr'SBIAA. 



OBJICT. 



North . . N, 4 — W,4,E.S.E. 
N.byE. ^-JiL-lr — E. 
:.N.K.E; -.N. ;1, — jW. 

- N.E^byN/^N, ^4'— 'W.' 



SB^ilk^ 



^ I •• 



"^ttnccT* 



N. IS 25. W. 



N.byW.. N. 8 15 W. 
vN.N.W, , -/ N^.10;45 W. 



N.E. - . N. . 8; — W., L.N'.W-. .^. - r .N., IS 45 W. 
Bast, ; ^ . . . ,?^, ,MiT«]^p': ' i«^f,i- , .- W. ,10 „f!^ W.. 



» ",/.rf- 



>■• ■ ' 



. > ■ 



94 AFimmUDlXf «0.'ll. 

The mJatioiD .9f tbe/0bMrmof^/was)f(t^^ to be) 7#*tf 
W. : whi^ <B»*f Wt?^: wi* the ship^^he^ N.N.IjV^., it ^%|{i^ 
served, to M ♦i^ 4- ,-. 83** 00' West. 
From which, subtracting 10 45 the deviation at N.N.W. 



r 

■MUl 



Leaves true variation, 7? )5 V^est. 



The foregoing observations and experiments, 
bAjAb tl&ider^Qa^f&^tie inrcumrtaades^ teiai to 
esteli^i&h aetetA iwqpoitoift points : 



1st. That there itia point of change in the de- 
viation^ occasiope^ by the attraction in the ship* 

■ . ill , '..i^uv I y •'!.]'. ' '- '• J -5 •• ; r ; 

2d. That the point of change was not the 
magnetic north, but near it, in the Isabj^Sbu ' 

sa. tfet it-(rdi?fe% iBiKrent *ipi and is 
affected by an increase or decrease of the varia* 
tion, by proximity to land, or by that of ancrtlber 

ship. - ^ ^ . , 

4th«^3!3)ft thej^int pf ehangse itoy bd^fimnd 
by a?amnthj or else by tibe bearing of a distant 
obje^ situated near the m^gne^c.ntjrth or in any 
Qtfegr diy^ctjion, if that oannot be h^. 



Take an azimirth, or the beark^ of a ^ly' dis- 
tant object by the azimuth compass^ with the 



ship's head at ibSbr^ painta Saal Jad.Weit of 
North, until the pokits of leaat aiid qpeatest 
deviation are fotind^ Ihe mem of tiitae will be 
nearly tihe point of chaqge. * 



, t 



]$XAMPL^S. 

On the Idth of June an ob|eet boreK 4"" W. 
by ootnpas$ ^ mi the ahqi^ailicad, by means of a 
rope fastened to the iceberg, was in succession 
brought to eight points of the compass, by which 
it was found that the poinil of dumge in the de- 
viatUm waa N. 17^ jBL 

1st. On the 19th of June^ with the ship^s head 
N* N.W«, the i^aciaiUA (Am&wixm board 
wat - . ^ - ^^.^.Wes^. 

Bifference p£ beaniigs bet^eee the 
dup^a head and the posmt of 
cMnge . i Inoreaii]% 10^49' 



"^ * Thi9 rid0 wi|9 imiA wA$^V^n^J not f Q l?i^ a)^9«i>k 



« • 



96 APPi^Dix,. no; ih' 



L*Qn the 19th of June, with 
the tMp's head N^E., Hib 

wa« - . . i: - - ::. - m 20 W. 
Difference of bearings between 
the ship's head and point of 
change - - '!becrewii^ -» 8 00 

True variation, 72 «0W,. 



mm 



It is evidraty iiiat azinmths tal:«n on e&c^ 
point will have the same efiect^ and therefore n0 
example is required. 

It jgy hqwtver^ necttwary to observe, that this 
.point of dbange was calculated -i&oiii the com- 
passes in the binnade, which agreed with the 
azimuth compassed pltu^ :a99i»d[(Atp^, ha^ wmf 
between the mz^Mmstrnid cnq/fitan; but the point 
of change Imay be 'altered by setting tiie com- 
passes in-imy oliier position in the ship ; and par- 
ticulaElyby;dbiitingtfam.fit>m niidi^ to the 
side. * finding the point of change thus subject 
to alteration, by changing the position of the com- 
pae^^ aM tlie as^le of dievi^ 
aJBfected hf heat and cold, as wdl as by the hu- 



APPEKBIX, NO. II. 



97 



imdityandden^tyoftheatmo^here; to obviate 
these difficulties, a binnade was constructed to 
stand always exactly in the spot abov:e mentioned, 
and fitted with a Ainnel for the conveyance of 
heated air, that an equal degree of temperature 
might be preserved within it Hie temperature 
was above the freezing point during the time that 
all the foregoing experiments and observations 
were made. 



.\' 



f '■*''. lii 



::..4,/ 



- *r^ 






vol. n. 




. I •. I .'jj • i I 




( • i * 







EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERyATIONS 

MADS 
ON BOARD H. M. S. I$AB£l«LA, IN JULT» 1818. 



A FLAG-STAFF wos erected upon the behest 
part of the Three Island^, in ^^74"^ 1' 15''N. and 
Icmg, 57** 45' W. } from whence the exact bearing 
was taken byKater's compass, of a remarkable 
spot on a sugar-loaf mpuntain, mne miles distant. 
The; ship then stood to the offing three miles; 
i^til the flag^sjtaff and spot were in one. Between 
the inna: and middle circles of &e annexed 
figure^ the transit bearings are inserted, when the 
shq^'s head was on the several points of the com- 
pass, and drawn to correspond in line. . For in^ 
stance, with the ship's head North, the.two> 
objects in one, bore S. 5^ E. ; aod when the ship's 
head was N.E. they bore S. 21"* 41' E. ; and so of 
the rest. It is clear, that the point of change is 
between N. by E. and N.N.E., as represented; 
for when the ship's head was N. 17*E., the 
transit bearing of the two objects agreed with 
that taken on shore; the deviation immediately 
increasing the Variation to the we^ and decreas- 
ing it to the east 

a « 



100 APPENDIX, NO. II. 

Between the middle and outer circles, will be , 
found the degrees and minutes to be added to, 
or subtracted from, the variation oh«6rved, with 
the ship's head on any of the particular p6int9 of 
the compass corre^onding in line, fo^ thfe pur- 
pose of obtaining the true variation j or to Ob- 
tain the true course, if steering on any of those 
points. 

These observations were made on board, With 
Walker's, Alexander's, Jenning's, and Burt's 
compasses ; all of them agreeing. But Jen- 
- Ding's and Burt's did not traverse sufficiently- 
quick to obtain all the results with them. The 
four compasses used, were always kept in the 
same stations, where they were found to agree 
with those in the binnacles. The compass in- 
^e centre was so raised above the other three,' 
that each, was three yards equidistant from it,', 
and from the rest ; the whole four forming a 
solid pyramid, thus : 



The Alexander made the same observa^ns. 
Her point of change, however, was to the AVest- 
^ard of North, and her deviation rather ex- 
ceeded the. Isabella's J but her compasses having; 
been ahifled during the operation, no conclu- 
sion could be drawn, but that the deviation 



APPENDIX, NO, IX. 101 

ei^tisted to a great degree, though in what va- 
ri0m| ^fc^rtionsv was not ascertained. 

I was^ desirous to determine whether the quan- 
tity of iroj\on board the Isabella was the cause 
of this extraordinary deviation ; and how far my 
eoipclusions . were applicable to the ships em- 
ployed in the Davis' Strait Fishery. For this 
purpose, I went on board the Harmony of Hull, 
M^Bride, master, the senior in the trade. I took 
^th me two of the compasses with which I had 
« observed, and found them exactly to agree with 
> those in her binnacles. Having gone through 
the safne observations, I found her deviation to 
^be £ill two points each way ; or, 45^ di£Perence 
b^ween the bearings of the objects when the 
ship's head was W. by N. and when E.N.E, ; 
fax which points' her extremes were found. The 
wiodtwai 8. by W. true, but when the ship's head 
va& ta to the Westward^ she lay up only W. by 
N. the wind appearing to be S.W. by S. ; and 
with her head to the Eastward, she lay E. 
by S. the wind then appearing to be S. by E. 
ftt^tyVuAolinding object, such as icebergs, &c., 
ahered their bearings in the same proportion. 

' Mr. M*Bride, who gave me every assistance 
in his power, by placing his ship on every point 
t desired, told me, that during twenty voyages 
he had made to this part of the world, the wind 

H 3 



10^ 



APPENDIX, NO. II. 



appeared to him often to ahift when the ship 
was in stays; and that he attributed to the 
effect of currents the ship's not fetching so far 
to windward as he expected. It was, hovevpf , 
the generd opinion and belief, that conip9sse§ 
lost their magnetic virtue in Davis* Strait ; axjid, 
therefore, the whalers seldom look at them, 
steering by the land whenever they have an 
opportunity. 



I : 



. < A. 



•1| 



y . ^ . .. 



... f , 






APPENDIX, iro. II. lOS 



ISABELLA'S DEVIATION, 

The Isp^bella's deyiatioti was obtained during 
the tiinei shi^ wa^ impeded by ice, between the 
latitude T^** and 7^" N., and' when the yariatioa 
was between ^G*" knd 96'' W-^ by various and 
/ repeated observations made pnjthe ice, and on 
board the ship with her head on every point of 
the compass^ No alteration in its amount was 
perceptible between the latitudes of 71^ and 7&^ 
Nm although the variation had increased from 
75** to 110^ W^ But it . was found to : be: cmu 
aiderably increased by humidity* in the atmo- 
sphere ; and frequently, no compass, in the shipi 
was of any use except Alexander's, the card of 
which w#s; su^ended in a superior manner; for 
the purpose of diminishing the friction. Beings 
also, lighter and smaller^ and the needle powers 
fuUyjnagnetizedrit traversed, when all others had 
ceased to act; but,!<Mi the Slst of August^ the 
Wj^ajther being rainy and boisteroi:^ and the ship 
having, qoi^derable motion, this compass i also 
became useless* Thie ship was. at that time in 
lab 74^30* N.,. w^long^ 81'' W.^ and fot a short 
time, oui: coutse tmt of Lancaster Sound^^ yi/hfch 
we had eKaiBiined that .day,':was regolaited by 
firing mu9quet$ to the Alex^der* The fiinf 

H 4 



104 APPSKDIX, NO* II. 

however soon ceasisigt ^ compasses again txa- 
versed) ^ Tke^ irtoa*ii» oat 1toa*j^d*}ri Was ascer- 
tained to be 115^ West, by a transit bearing of 
Capes : Eansha'vre apd JByitm Mant^OK^ « tCiIcepf^hen 
to thte wej*ft»mf o£ tJieffi. o->Tb^:phj§^*s»^^^ 
on tto poi«*tjo(fi <iij9gei .1^^ 5^tE- 

from «Kh Qth6r,^^ S. Mf MA&Wk th^^- ^p. 
The.iiireMjteri*teifl^A:flhM in^pii«nt prgtty; 4qj^, 
as itrftliip^vmr^lteii^^d^ jshif) j«^d£t tO; the^eosltyf^e/ 
of .thees^i/Giipesiy th^ w«i:e«fouii4 to, bear frDvn 
ea^.ot^6»;46^^|V:»» f^&o{n'th^4i^^ N«46f £• 
The^^iritartpa Q»r4hat-4p^^ was <)b8€«>^ ij^ J^^ 
aeaa^ ^ B^> ^itt^ic^ lies betwe^^ > thm) ^ 'be 
109? Wv,^«^.th#.«F^i)fe bearing of tberCiggtaaiWas 

* -^ -■ «*-e -, *^ *»-.-.^ »». *^ . ., •, 

On the "llth of September, in kt.# 35r N., 
and l<Mig. 76® 55' W., when the variation was 
observed to be 75'' W., and the dip 84^ SQ' 21", 
the deviation had not decreased in the Isabella, 
nor was the decrease very perceptible till we had 
passed the 66th degree of north latitude. But, 
jdthough the exact amount of the deviation was 
not ascertained, yet the bearings of the land 
were always found correctly, by placing, the 
ship's head on^ the northern or southern points 
of change. The deviation was sometimes found 
to be more or less, accordihgto the state of the 



APPENDIX^ KO.n« 105 

weather, when the ship's eourse was resumed 
and the>tfea$jhgs^ df die sami3><]ib|edB were taken. 

'^Thr* ©tagrata ' ^eeffis to prove clearly, that 
thfe|>€^kib of change in * the deviation do not 
alte^^ utiles^ some material alteration is made in 
the" s^^Mragfe of the iron in t^e ship, as they con- 
tifliied^lhfc^same li¥ the feafe^ ^r <&^ months, 
i»«Ste# the Variatidh had Jrffiered frctfti 2?'' to 115^ 
W;; the'deviatidft itsdf diflering dnly^in^noiint, 
but^h4 atttourit be^wilf a propoftioto^ though 
riot Witegiaar onej tc*' the' ittcreas^ «»d -deca-ease 
of *%tie vaaiitdn and dip, Notwithstaaidingthiese 
ii?te^teri^es ft jdJay, by Actual ^servAtions of 
the most simple nature, be always obtained suf- 
ficiently near the truth for the purposes of 
liavigation. 



;.' 



<A 'i , Vj ;. 



M«^'~^^<^i <* 



•"■ a-!';/ J* , V * 






•J C: , . ^ « ■ » -. • >. /" . * 



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i > 



APPENDIX, NO. n. 



AXEXANDEA*S DrEVlATlON. ' 

The Diagram, No.-S, contains' QieTeslrit of 
experiments made on boird the Alexander, 
on the STth July, 1818, in lat. 75'' 30'N". and 
long. 60° SO' W., to shoWthe diflference betweea 
them f^nd those which I afterwards made in 
the same ^p, on her arrival at Shetland. Scan 
after we had forced the last hairier of ice, on 
the iStii of August, it was found that the Altx^ 
ander sailed much worse than the Isabella, aaidit 
therefore became necessary to trim her. , Iran 
casks, and othet metallic substances, were re- 
moved from the quarter-decl^, and in <?*?nap- 
quence l>er points of change wer^ altered. , 1^ 
weather- being subsequently unfevourabl^ and 
the season advancing, I had neither time nor op- 
porturrffy to'make further experiments on board 
of her.'^ " AH the bearings of the coast, thereiorb, 
takeft ftom the Alexander after that time, are rf 
course' of no value. But the amount of tite 
deviati6n, as well as l^e points of change, alterwl 
in an extraordinary- manner. - -■- ;-- ■' 

By the subjoined official Report, inad,e to me 
by lient. Parry, it appears, that on the 28th of 
August; in the taof!t Interesting part of tSe Voy- 
age, the Alexander's deviation was actually 



greater than that of the Isabella, on some points; 
^ but we had^,m,^^Ttw^^^ 
the direction, or the amount, until our arrival at 
Shetlai^^j^ wj^epr^ J having ex^^min^ part, of the 
log of tl^ Alexaadey,^ J fo tl;^t whgi-e,, tjxreq 

or niQre b^aringp f?f . head^wis J^ .^^^ taken^ 
they could nx^tbe <n|94^ .tgt.mt^rseq^ But the 

charts 9i|i. bQ^4 jt%t 4^ ^ow 

much ^e ablest if imgator npfay^ b^l^d ij^po OT^or 
in ti^^ir j[^ngtructiQ^ whpn thejpoints of clmage, 
and the amount of deviation have not been 
obtained, and where the variatiop i^ cpndder^e* 



i^ 



'yjA 



.MisjM^ffeity's Skip^ Aleaamfery q( Sea, 

I HAVE thfe honour to i|tate to 
you, that the officers who have Charge of the 
respective watches on board the AlexaActeFy. 
ha\dz^, on the @7thand S8th ult, r^drted to me, 
that they had remarked^ a very perceptible ina^ 
eura^cy m the compasses, by the shi,p'« l}4Qg 
repes^tedly within eight and half, dght, and even 
seven points^ on both tacks; I tb6k particular 
notice on (several occadiOspls,. of the direction of 
her head by the compassed befotia ' aitd 4fter 
tacking, and found their iepiHt40^bttve been cor- 
rect X select the folljOwing instances : — 



108 APPENDIX, NO. n. 

' ^m^M^j^^^ t^¥Mbt»Err(btlttdcitW^E»S;r orn ItDtiUate' (m 

6.30 P.M., larboard do. N.W.b. 



•d do. JN.W.b. "J ^,^.j 
ird do. S.S.W. 3 ^' 



,. , Starboard ^.,,^,^,,,, ^ 

^B^e^triD^to iljie diagram of ;the escpeiipients 
mttte) ^ono l^ffiBxsd the Aiexam^r, ttpdef) your 
dif eQtieiR/oit(khej2!7th of Jitly, it af^ears th«)t the 
deviattioli tkea&miid on any of the above courses 
istetdlly iiiadaqpiate to account 6)r such a differ- 
ence; ;the amount being now ali]9K)M m ijTiany 
lidmftyin^iwmet; iniitano^^^ as ittban w^stisji^^^. 

"Piw'jdesafltian bus fe^floiofe JftSi :jp(«rfl§p6ible 
8iiwer4he>28tJiiJ«idba£Hb, <iiQHghriifcip*tfil^fetad 
fiifeipi8ritlj5„i3b heTiwUck^ cftftst 

of Gbreenland*. -. .r .^-ucn.-n- otbain:- . 

A ti7i L -rlha^e the li0JSbDUi?jtQ))f^4^Bi^<7 

. jtiiljMjS^ fyab^i a^JS(^?i:^ "-^^ :!a..')q >a.^ 

* There are only nine pointo. 



APPENDIX, NO. XI. 109 

TheDiagram, No.^, exhibits the extraordiBary 
«ltei!id2i(in that^Meas/fbRuid .tedt»i¥fl^ taJ^^i^bMce in 
the^'iyexa^der^-^iiUts^'of ^db^^ which were, 
now. r^as^itaihed to te. teo!!!f of tbeta, t^ the 
North warcj: of ^l^asjt ana West. It spjejpis com- 
plete^ to/provfe^h^ ^he..^^jp*s attraction, . or 
magnetism, is an independent force, and that its 
amf»itt|tasa)9ec1red(4hoiigh(hj)f(i^ meapf^figularly) 
by^Hirt €)f Ah^ dip and vanatiofi, in a considerable 
degree, i • ^..•-^- , :/ .tOE^.d 

llie amibunt of the Isabella's deviation having 
been fully determined in the month of July, when 
the'vwiatidn was between ^^^seod^^W^t, it 
only remakied-to tmisxk its' incierau^ ortdeetese, 
as We advan^^d to the ]%^f^aiid'dV«dt:^'»Bnd 
hotr it might be affected; by ohakigea . of c cdftmate. 
It is to be observ»€d, thatj unotal tthe^ i^oir gof 
Augui^t, aimoiSt daily opportunitiesiai^ ob|;mnag. 
the de^atidn t6cciu*rdd, by takan^ &osnit]^$«3up, * 
aild!^:on^$he ice; ^^be^ritigi ofiiiifitatit ^db^cts. : 
ikflertiii^ variat|(m exceeded i9O?^^d:h€ddfewiifci0n 
dH^ ii&t itJi&f^eaise^ ^^^ :bu|tl:haiipdfity . 

seemed to increase it considerablyvix /i\!Quid i&e 
slup^^^^ais^lkstctc^thaiafid^ce, i^^ instances 

ib!t»B^s-% d8fferenqiB3(jf 7? in the transit bearing, 
of two distant objects, and aiv^viibeldbqpIS h%ad 
on the points of greatest de^^&ttiofi^ itliidri^ased; 
from 22"^ to 29°. The variation might, however, 



no APPENDIX, NO. II. 

have been increased by the game cause, as well as 
the devKrtioii i^&jr,hi experihi^mla itia^febf the 
same HndJ I 4itver^'fttiml'80''ihiiA' difference 
when the A^ria1l6h'and d^viatidnhad contrary 
tendftneies." The gteate^ vari^dn ^ttuaDy'ob- 
served'on^the ke, ^s'llO^W. in-l^t.^'fi'-W N., 
and king. TT^'W. ' Af Cap^ Byhk ]Vf^n,'m 
fet.7S''SS'N. and'loiig:77'lO"W.,^ it Vai'Wv 
served to be lOg* west: biit the bearing: dftWo 
points ifi one,' to the west of tha;t Cape, b^ing 
taken,'first, inlohgi Slowest, and secondly, from 
PossfesSionTSay, anmcrease of 7" was fouid'fiiie 
hygtomefer being nearly the same): hence the 
variation in' yi^'N. and 81° W., Was ascertained 
toJbe 119°, liaving^deducted 1° for ^ in6-tese 
of devotion. Hcreitfetobe obseriredthat, ita 
CfRiseciukiCe 6f«the alteration which is metifio^^d 
before 'to have taken' place iia" 'liie' Aleidn^fePs 
point* t# change, of the discovery' made "'<itf'^ 
SStJi of* August, that her deviation had bicfsased, 
and oP^fe points of 'change riofhayiiig beeil iM- 
tmrinedtiB bur animal at Lendck; alt the ^eaf- 
ings of places in the log of tiiat siiip'fiTim^iie-day 
thfiithlteiationtook'pkce till our rfeaching Shet> 
land, are iJicorrect, and cannot Be redoced to 
tmth. As I have before observed, 'they'" cttttnoit 
be made to intersect ; and there is one remark- 
stUe instance where Cape Walsingham has been 



APPENDIX, NO. lU 111 

brought M S^tq the east^a]:d| as to place it con- 
^idef^Wj^ ,f)p ^^^.ftut?|i4€i og t^^ Is^bella'^? track. 
OxK,.)^fPf^i^f^^^^^^ contrary, in 

refer^iice;^Ors^Y,^^^iky gpiveaia.fiall ia 

the Joufyx^ J^j^^tt it, ,^S[M foun^ tj^ftt the 
Decfeiip^ -f^^; 0|J>s€sy4t^pi^ ^^ ^sa .^Vell, as 
Qoms]^i^^ ^ gT0Yer^.tiim1i jthe yni^ia^dn,, 53011 be 
corrected J tor/tl^, pefu:^3t.,(i^^e ; as^^^conse- 
qupi^y. . %^ truq tcpurses, to, bc^ ^teei;e4, sf^ the 
bearings of ol^ects, may ^ be found with the 
grjo^test'^^cuntcy • In my Journai, the variation, 
canrocted V for' tha » d^ation^ ^is giv^tv op^ . ^very 
cou^s^ in a. column next to the caiqpj9^ pf^seiau 

Af^er tfee l^t of September, ^;no, gopd^fjjjpprtu- 
mity:/occiui!(&4 j^r as^cerUmmg^tki^ devi^^pn^, but 
it w^4f6a»d .to 4e.crease rapidjy. after tlju^,v^ia^ 
tipn wa$ le$8.(t|iaa ^^ During^ ..tfe^ jpaq^j^ of 
Qfit^b^, f(?W cdbs^rvatipns^ were wade^ bul;.the 
v^n^tioQapd^de^^tioa decireasedtc^^th^ ; >^d, 
o^ the ,a^iYaJi 9^/^^ ^^^ ahip3mt Lepric^ ^ aet 
of .expeiiiin^ip^ wrere made ijndei^y ^^fjB^qn on 
boi^d of eaph,f ^]bich have beep illusteal^ inthe 
diag^g, I?pp., 1 and 2L . . 

-'J'h^ gpy^rai- f^ all the 

expemnents :;^ade . at different times, appear to 
beitlye^ foUowi^ . ' 



*•. • .1 - -i 



lUi That every ^hip has aii individual attrac- 



1 1^ APPENDIX, NO. If- 

tion which affects tte^ conipaases on board of* 
her ; whi to MMMfift'lih^ii*^ te 

effect, though pcMSde* Mqpnrai <iMitfMM|liitffi»i* 
kr care and the mMit attentMW 

often imgular, iu>g«ncni eakubtiM wili tiM^ih 
fore i9ffy mvtiht jpiMT iil t^ip^/IU* «t ^H•^ 

tain it for. thf f^rfMes «il^ 0«0|»c|if»|| .agKl^i 
conseqoraitj^ all the rules hidMsrto f^mtfOiSm- 
obtaimi^ it, psrtictilftrly m srctiic cteatM* eM- 

SdL As sk compasses were oonpNFed «ilh 
each oliicr on board the Isabetta, and femid t«> 
agree! in the iwp^iflaoeir -fuid «i t^ iwre iiH 
found tp di|iigf«|t^w]p«^ pllM^ ]» 4|iibn^^ 
atioas.betweon tha stem* iBGid 4lie»f«lmii^ il ii 
evidcQt.thet.th^deviiitMS^Q in.s»y..lhi^ 

time of Mtng.it ; ^eisi^ t^e«efi»re^^a4ihe |Mftabof. 
change will noib^ti»istttile et «miy,part^o£ tbb 
ship, afil otoerriirtffiii vmA be igidi^'in the eiftie 

plac% |Pf||»e iiN» iK«t ctf ^^MD^lMl ImMMI 4^ 

tffiined, sn«eteJi«toi^wdl tiibiNHg»tliiM ijy^y 
^. Hie dmetmi 4oeB not always continue 



APPENDIX, NO. 11. 113 

• { 

tiie same under Ihii nwwr jyfwrwit circumstancea, 
but nai fi tMp iMHf 1 irrthg-fiqto^^ioa.^gil^ the 

diG/L IW deviaticm ajppeared to be materially 

iititi (^ililHIMiiy tin Ifteaal^ oflii#«fea^^p»e. 

Tim mmdiM^^ ^ ll^i^^ yb^^ tMave 
ail ftfett'^^ mtAr§iftg ffei-rftffifl^ty^of the 

7*1. Tfie force or quantity of th^liijp-'i^eJs^es 
^ decided influence over the force or quantity of 

iteAt AfchjfU^he^^lfe chkfige ^fbaftd 

wiWilh^^ti^ffii^ ill the! sAd^ pian^f 'the Jhip 

adlHividi ^ iMMlfti ' iri\ ^e ' ^tJbimgp- ^f the' i#oii bn 

tl^ A^ }i4yU<^ airy pdjy^t^f. ili|;^c^n^asi^, 
witt^l) W n 4pr)0p6rtion^ though not a rt^av 
one, :«» ^e ifierei^e^ or. dte<^^lte& ^^^^ii^^va- 
ria4tni$«fd aii|^9;/il^:^(it!h:df^tM^^^]j^^ 
in ii(li|[^ijde^ii^ei^^ 

of change are not ; as they seem to be independ- 
ent of 'any iiiAuence, exci^it li«4«*o^ th^ ship's 

VOL. II. I 



114 APPENDIX, NO. II, 

attxaction or magnetism ; which is not of 
equal force in every part of the same ship, nor, 
perhaps, alike in any two. It is, however, pre- 
sumed, that the experiments arid observations 
which have been made, together with the fore- 
^ing rules, as exemplified on the 4<th and 19th 
of June, and in the month of, July, at the Three 
Islands, will be sufficient to correct the errors in 
the mariner's course, whiph have so often proved 
fatal; and which have bitherto been attribated 
to defects in the compasses, to currents, and to 
other unaccountable causes. 

In conclusion, it only remains further to 
expljun : — 

Ist How the deviation may be obtained, 
when the variation of the compass has been 
found by observations made, out of the influence 
ofliieship; and, 

2dly. How the true variation on board of a 
ship at sea may be ascertained, when the varia- 
tion is not known. 

The first is an easy process, it being only 
necessary to find the point of change, ^id the 
d^erenoe on the point steered. 



APPENDIX, NO. It. 1 a 

RULE 

T6 find ike Point of Change in Deviation. 

Let the bearing of one, or the transit of two 
distailt objects, (who^ frt«^ bearing from the ship, 
or fiom ^ach othe?, is known,) be tak^n, with 
the ship's he^d at several points of the compass ; 
jif they^ all agree, the ship has no deviation; but, 
if not, the one which is found to agree is the 
point of change. 

RULE 
To find t^ Deviation fin^ tiie Pmnt steered. 

Let the bearing of the same object be taken, 
with tfee ship^s^ head on the point of the course 
steered; f^nd add, or subtract, the difference 
between theiti, as it increases, or decreases, the 
variation* 

To, find the deviation at sea when a distant 
object. is in view, the true magnetic bearing of 
which is not known : let a boat be sent :put of 
the ship's attraction, to take the bearing of the 
object, and thca the bearing of it is to be taken 
from, the 3hip,,in the manner before described. 
But even when no Jistajit object is in view, it 
can be done in fine weather with smooth water, 

I 2 



Il6 APPENDIX, NO. JI, 

by veering a boat (copper-fastened) astern with 
a compass. The ship is tihen to steer on dif- 
ferent ceurses, (the boat always teepiiig her 
masts in one,) until the compasses of the ship 
and boat agree. If there is no difference be- 
tween them on any point, the ship has ho 
deviation. But whatever ttifference is found 
between them -on any pcant, that is the ship's 
deviation for t}iat paxticular point, and must be 
added, or subtracted, to coirect the ship's course 
on that point, according to the tru^ magnetic 
■course of the boat. And, in like manner, tbe 
respective differences found on the several points 
are to be applied to each. On whatever joint 
the courses of the boat and the ship agree, when 
her masts are in one, that is the ship's point of 
change. The result of observations made with 
the ship's head on this point will give tfie true 
variation of the compass j butif observed on any 
other points, the error of variation will be ac- 
cording to the amount of the deviation, or dif'- 
ferences found pn those points respectjvely, 
between the course of the ship and, the boat, 
and must be applied + or — , as the case may re- 
(juire, to correct it. The variation may be ob- 
served, either before or after this process, ^or 
finding the ship's point of change and deviation % 
and if amplitudes, or azimuths, ai'e taken at dif- 



ferent parts of the ship, the difference betweeirf 
the azimuth compass (wherever it may stand,) 
and the dompass the ship steers by, ought always 
to be taken, and applied in like manner to obtain 
' the trtiis Variation. 



u 



It would be of great benefit tO" navigation if 
tl^e bearipgs of remarkable head-lands, and other 
objects, on the coasts of different countries, were 
correctly taken, and inserted in the published 
charts. Thus, a ship,, able to approach near 
enough to take the transit bearing of any two 
such objects^ whose relative situiations were 
exactly laid down, could thus know at once her 
devtatiotii on whatever course she was steering, 
(if the true variation was "on the charts,) since it 
would be the difference between that and the 
true transit bearing as laid down on the chart ; 
taking into consideration, at the s^me time, the 
known variation. For instance, let a ship be 
si^posed steering west (by compass), along a 
coasit where two remarkable objects are situated 
true north and south of each other, and the 
variation laid down on the chart to be 29^ west. 
On setting these objects in onje Une from the 
ship, they are found to bear by compass N. 34* E. 
making a difference of 5^ for her deviation on 
the west point. So that if she had now to steer 

I S 



118 



AFPEKDIX, NO. 11. 



a correct magnetic west course, it must be shaped 
W. d"" S.; or to make a ^ri^westcCOurspB,W. 34^ 
N. according to the variation of 2^*^^ wek. 



^ r: 



If, again, with her head N. by £.:sheiind8 the ' 
transit bearing of the two objects to be N* 29'' E. 
by compass, agreeing with t^at laid down pn the 
chart according to the variation, that is the point 
of change) because there is no deviation. 

Again, if in steering east by compass, sbe 
finds the transit bearing of the two objects to fee 
N. 34*" E. by compass, the difference between it 
and that on the chart, according to the varni-f 
tion, being 5^ j to shape a correct magnetic^ eaSJt 
course, she must steer E. 5"" S. ; or, to make a^ 
true east course, E. 34° St - , r 

Mep^of-'War, and, indeed, all ships, should^ it 
every opportunity, try the jdeviation, and ascer^r 
tain their points of ch^^Pge ; and that being 
once found, no change should berioade in the , 
^towage or position of any oS the larger I n^ses^ • 
ef iron on boards r . ; 






APPENDIX, NO. JI. 



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120 



APPiliroiX, NO. !!• 



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APPENDIX, No. IIL 



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Gi;0I<QOXCAL MEMORANDA. 



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Th£ following pages coiistitute sJl the inform- 
ation which I have to give respecting the geo- 
logical history of the countries which we visited. 

As no one in the expedition was acquainted 
with this subject, nothmg more could be done, 
than bring on board a specimen of every rock tha^ 
occurred; but being alike unacquainted with 
the substances, with the mode of collecting 
them, and unaware of the necessity of making 
observations on the disposition and connections 
of the strata, much information must not be 
expected. 

For the names of the specimens collected, I 
have been obliged to apply for assistance to 
Dr. M'CuUoch, who has kindly fumisbed me 
with the following catalogue. 



Mv= ^i^ . ' ' :> 















',.-5 .♦.•»•" ^/' -nr \< 






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1; ' J • . ' 



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* 

^ 



GEOLOGICAL MEMORANDA. 



The following. is a catalogue of the speciiftens: 
which were subjected to : my examination by 
Captain Ross. They appear to have been col- 
lected without care/ and with no attention : to: 
their relative situations; the greater number, in-: 
deed, being casual fragments, or pebbles picked 
up on the shore. No direct observations were 
recorded^ for the purpose of throwing light on . 
them; either respecting the forms of the land, 
or the appear^ces of stratification, or otherwise,: 
so often visible, even at a distance, on sea-coasts. 
The little additional illustration which they ad- ; 
nrit. was furnished by Captain Ross's observa-. 
tions, made with other views, and by some of his. 
very characte^ristic drawings of the land. I have ^ 
to regret that I had no means of adding anything 
to render this very meagre Ust more interesting, 
without indulging in unwarrantable conjectures. . 



126 APPENDIX, NO. lil. 

ITie detached situation of the oijy three spots, 
of which the examinatioii is at all tolerable, 
namely, Waygatt Isle and the adjacent shore. 
Prince 'Regent's Bay,' and Possession Bay, is 
such as to prevent any general conclusion re- 
specting the structure of this extensive region. 
If it were justifiable to draw such a conclusion 
from the characters of those tracts, it might be 
supposed that the whole country in the interior 
consisted of granite and gneiss j or, at least, that 
these were the prevailing rocks. It is at the 
asOxe time evident, that some of the shores are 
skirted by secondary strata, of which the proof 
ie to be found, not only in the nature of the 
rocks described, but in the appended list of 
soundings, which, in some instances, prove the 
existence of secondary limestone. It is impos- 
sible, however, to pass from this subject, with- 
out pointing out a remarkable circumstance; 
namely, that in three out of the four places of 
this extensive bay that were examined, there 
are indications of a trap formation. It woidd 
he a singular chance, if this should exist only 
in those three spots; and on any calculation 
of probabilities, it is likely that the trap rocks 
will be foiuid to form a very characteristic 
feature on the shores of Baffin's Bay, should 
future navigators have time to Ihvestigate them. 



APPENDIX, NO. Ift. 



127 



As the^e are among the most limited and par- 
tial of the several classes of rock, their occur- 
rence here through so extensive a range, should 
it prove to be the . fact, could not &il to be 
considered m interesting circumstance. 



r .' 



1 



» , J 



■\ 



CATALOGUE OF THE. SPECHftBNS 
ROCKS AND MINERALS 

MOVGRT BY 
CAPTAIN ROSS FROHVArisr STMAITAND BAFFIN'S BAY. 



SPECIMENS FOUND ON AN ICEBERG, 

Several varieties of granite and gneiss* 
These present the most ordinary characters, 
and require no notice as specimens. 
Basalt. 

The iceberg from which these specimens were 
brought, 'was met with on the east coast of Davis* 
Strait. It is uncertain, of course, whether it 
was formed on the shore nearest to the actual 
position of the ship ; and it cannot, therefore, 
indicate any thing respecting the nature of the 
country, which, by Captain Ross's account, pre- 
sented a rocky coast, skirted by islands, and 
rising in the interior into high mountains. 



APPENDIX, . NO. III. 1391 

SPECIMENS F^OM WAYGATT ISLAND. 

Lot. 70° 26' N., Longf S*' W to. 55" W. 

Granite »f di^tQDt aspectt. 

Gneiss, also of different aspects \ some of tJiem, 
as Well as a few of those mentioned in the former 
' article, cont^uning^ green com^ct felspar. 

Quartz rock. 

Graywacke schist. 

Gray earthy amygdaloids, containing nadelstein 
and brown spar^ the letter crystallized, of adark, 
and of a red-brown colour : the cavities are also 
frequently en^ty. 

Brown clay sbme. . - 

Siliceous iron fit«ie 

Common argillaceous iron stone. 

Red iron clay. . , 

Semi-opal. ,■ 

Chalcedony, in laminse, apparently formed in 
■ the fissures of a rock j '. and also in crusts wi^' a 
; botryoidal surface. ' 

Cacholong and chalcedony interlaminated, and 
resembling the specimens brought from Faroe 
; and Iceland.' 

. Geode's of chalcedony, with crystals of quartz 
- in the iatehor. 



130 APPENDIX, NO. III. 

Nad^tein* apparently washed out of amyg- 
daloidal trap. 

Wood coal, resembling that found under the 
trap rodcs in the Western islands of Scotland. 

A flint, of the same nature as those found in 
the London gravel. 

Quartz, apparently from veins. 

From theae specim^u, a tolerable conjecture' 
may be formed of the general structure of this 
i^and ; some assistance having been also derived 
firom an accurate drawing of the north-east share, 
made by Captain Ross ; from Ivhich the relative 
^ace occupied by the tr^ rocks above indicated, 
seems capable of being determmed. 

The general outline of the interior, and of a 
considerable proportion o£ the north and east 
coasts, bespeaks the existence of primary rocks; 
the hills rising to an average height of one thou- 
sand feet, and presenting acute sunrnuts, declining 
by sharp [ovlonged tidgtsa. 

since ^especimeos of granite posaesa th* dia- 
racter of that substance as it is fouiid ivrmii^ 
mountain masses* it is probable that this rock 
(brms a portion at least of U)e country. Hie 
gneiss may be expected to constitute a much 
larg«r part, as fitr as a ju^mmtcazi bt formed 
from the characters of the hills as they ar&repcc- 
sented in the drawing. Both the quarts rook and 



AFP£N1>IX, NO. im 181 

the gjcay wacke schist h^ve the characters of these 
siAistances as they are found alternating with 
gneiss on the north-west coast of Sc<Ml«Qid y but 
no fiirth^ conjectures can be formed respecting 
thdr actual position. 

Captain Ross informs me» that the specimens 
of chalcedony were found on the side of a moun-^ 
tain of about fwe hundred &tet in dilation ; that 
the rocks were naked and vertical, and appeared 
like the ruiiis of buildings. On ecmsuUang his 
drawing, it is apparent that there is a ridge of 
hills <)^ the trap formation, skirting the shore fot 
a space of about four miles, and interrupted la 
twa places. This ric^ rises to about half the 
general elevation of the island, and presents thib 
vertical prismatic fracture at the summit, accom- 
panied by the usual rapid slope below. The 
specimens of claystone and amygdaloid, as well 
as the chalcedonies and the nadelstein, are evi- 
dently derived from this mads of rock. 

No specimens of secondary rocks were con- 
tained in this parcel, but the iron stones are 
similar to those found in the strata Which, in 
England, accompany coal, and they indicate the 
probable existence of a body of secondary strata 
subjacent to the trap. 

Of the origin of the flint, I cannot pretendTto 
oflfer any conjecture. It would have been inter- 

K 2 




Ids APPENDIX, NO. III. 

esting to have traced it to its native rock, as it 
does not appear that any gravel is found in this 
island, analogous to that which in this country 
contains tiiese flints. Should such flints be found 
an inmate of the trap rocks, it would throw light 
on a very interesting and difficult question in 
geology. 

The wood coal is an interesting specim^. 
The structure resembles that of oak, and it is 
obviously part of a tree of considerable size.; a 
circumstance of some curiosity in a spot where no 
tree now grows, or ever could have grown in the 
actual state of the climate. It presents a diffi- 
culty analogous to .that of the surtvirlHrand of 
Iceland. 



SPECIMENS FROM FOUR ISLAND POINT. 

tat. 70= *6', Long. 53" 3'. 

Granite. 

Different varieties of gneiss. One of tiie most 
remarkable of these consists of the most drd^ary 
ingredients, with the addition of green compact 
felspar. 

Hornblende schist. 

Actinolite schist. 

Argillaceous schists, varying between clay- 
slate and gray wack^. 



APPENDIX, NO. III. 133 

I 

A coarse grey sandstone, belonging apparently 
to the secondary strata. 

A very compact fine-grained basalt. 

Greenstone. 

Earthy amygdaloids, of a yellowish brown, 
and of a reddish colour ; containing chalcedony, 
quartz, calcsureous spar, and a yellowish chlorite, 
i4>parently in a state of decomposition. 

An amygdaloid with a basis of black pitch- 
stone, containing iron clay. 
: Chalcedonic nodules. 

Pale grey chert. 

Nodules of chalcedony. 

Nodules of radiating arragomte* 

Fibrous calcareous spar. 

Mesotype. 

Felspar, apparently/rom gneiss. 

Quartz, apparently from veins. 

Lieutenant Robertson informs me, that he here 
saw columns reseioibling those of Arthur's Seat^ 
near Edinburgh, resting on a ' thick bed of clay 
as bright as vermilion. Captain Ross not having 
been on shore, no other observation accompa- 
nies these specimens, which, like almost all the 
rest in this list, consist of casual fragments, col- 
lected at hazard. 



IjMl APHHDIX, NOi III. 

Froffi the granite, the gneiss, the hornbleiule 
•chist, the argillaceous schist, and the sandstone; 
it may be concluded that this part of the country 



pitoh$tene; appcdriiig to be as nearly mteime- 
cM^ between that substance and the rack ofs 
^gf -^ thiB 13 between pitchstone and basalt* 
It is an interesting circumstance, as adding one 
HMreto tiie numerous analogies already existing 
between those two rocks. 

The other specimens require no particular, 
notice; but it may be .remarked, tfa^t there is a 
gsnecal resemblance between all the rocks and 
minerals collected in this spot, and those brought 
ftem Waygatt's Island. As the distance between 
the two (daces is not above twenty miles, it may 
be imagined that the masses oftxBip in both, are 
^arts of a common ibrmation} and it is not un> 
Ukely, that the same general characters will be 
found to prevail to a greater extent aloi^ this 
coast. 



SPECIMENS FROM THE THREE ISLANDS OF 

BAFHN. 

Lat. 74^. 1', Long. ST 25'. 

- Gneiss, abounding in garnets, and <;ontaining 
molybdena. 

Massive brown garnet, breaking with flskt faces 
parallel to those of a crystal, and of a pseudorme- 
tattic lustre , it contmns attached* and i) 
crystals of brown hexagonal mica. 

K 4 



196. APPENDIX, NO. Itl. 

The gneiss is very reinaricable for'; the lia-ge: 
quantity ofgaroiBts it contains.' These are otten 
of a large size, and are invariiUily of a pale crilti-' 
son o^our, and transparent: they are all so 
much fissured as to be of no value ; but it must 
be rem&rliL'ed, that no specimens of fresh rock' 
were brought;^ the Srhole of them, on the con- 
traiy, being nearly rotten. This gneiss ^pejars 
to split into thin iind flat slates ; but whether 
that, also, is not the consequence of decompo-' 
aition, cannot be ascertained irom the state of 
the specimens. The existence of molybdena^n 
tiiis form is, I believe, a &ct hitherto unob^' 
served: it is in minute scales, dispersed all 
throu^ theiuek so as to form an integrant paai. 
of the/TOMS. .. . ■■'-.■ -_—'■■■■■■.'■: 



SPECIMENS FROM CAPE MELVILJ.E. 

Ghuirte. y-- ■ 
Porphyry. 

' it nnght.be presumed fro«i the appearance of 
Uiese i^»fiime^, that Uiis Cape is a tiiass of 
granite, traversed by veins of porphyry ; but the 
■draVring'seems to indicate stratification, from 
wtiich it would' be more natural to conclude that 
it consists of gneiss. Hie granite, however. 



APPENDIX, HO. in. Wf 

do^ftt not appear to have been derived from Veins. 
If; iB of little use to make conjectures on this^ 
subject. 



« 

r 



SPECIMENS FROM BUSHNAN'S ISLE- 
Lot. 76*» 04/, Lang. 65** 2S' JV. 

Granite. 

Gneiss. 

Micaceous schist. 

Claystone. 

Amygdkloidal claystone. 



SPECIMENS FRQM CAPE YORK, 

KWOWN TO THE NATIVES BT THE NAME OF ,INMALLICJKc' 

Lat. 76^, Long. 66^ 46' W. 

A porphyritic greenstone. .This is the sub- 
stance used by the natives in cutting ofFth^. 
iron from the masses. 



SPECIMENS FROM THE COAST BETWEEN CAPJE 
YORK AND CAPE DUDLEY DIGGElS. 

LaLjrom 75^ 4-5' to 76"* IC, Long, from 67° ^o.68* 40' 

The specimens from this coast, which includes 
the Crimson Cliifis, resemble those froni Bilshnah's 



late tor pndMly tiuKt^ ift ubneciMsuy te oau? 
msrBtertfaem. : > ..-:. ,l 



i ' 



■^ . (^ ' 



iti BB there we no observiiliQiis^ aeconyauymg 
these specimens, and the drawings of Abe e&9Sb 
have been taken from too great a distance to 
allow of anj judgment being Ibrmed re^ieeting 
the natitre of th^ rocts* . 

'•(.."■ ■ 

SP&CIMENS^SOM POSSBSSUSiN BAY, AS[{>i!APB 

BYAMMABTIN. 

Lai. 78* 3^', Lo$g. TT 9&^ 

Qf anite of ^wioas aqpteta') aottie iqfKmtiiani 
containing gaimets. 

^ GneJ9s €)f different kinds, 8(Hne ^pe<»i^ 
tmning pyrites, others girtiets^ and othflttviigiftny 
green compact felspar. ^ 

Qiiarti; roeki 

Red Jsandstdiieh ^ * ^^^ - 

B,ed s^e. ^ ^ 

Grey calcareous sandstone* 

Gfey argillaceous limestonew ^^ ^ 

' Siliceous schist.^ 

Purplish aind ociure^coloumd . attiygdilotdat 
ch^stono. 

Bhck foasiiltic porphyry. 

Grey bard ctaystone porf^ry* ^ ^ 
1 CSolcHired agates; ^ > ' • 

. Quartz, with imbedded gara^B. 

Felspar, with the same« 



t40 APPENDIX, NO. lit; 

Ttlie greater number of these specimeils con- 
sisted of rolled stones, gathered in the bed of a* 
river, oii a shingly beach, which is found near 
the sea at the foot of the clifis. The mountains 
in the interior are very lofty ; but no other in- 
formation of a geological nature can be collected 
from the oflScers who landed in this place : the' 
specimens, nevertheless,' indicate a more com- 
plete series of rocks in this place, than in any 
of thojse examined during the expedition. There 
can be no doubt, from the shape of the land, as^ 
represented in the drawings, that the primary 
rocks occupy the high mountains in the interior, 
and reach also to the shore near Possession 
Mount. It is not so easy to conjecture the posi. 
tion of the secondary rocks, of which no decided 
indications appear in the external form of the 
land : the series of these is, however, very per- 
fect, extending from the red sandstone upwards, 
and being finally covered, to all appearance, by 
a formation of trap. The jasper, .the siliceous 
schist, and the chert, resemble exactly those 
^ecimens which, are found in the Island of Sky, 
among the beds of shale, sandstone and lime- 
stone, when these are . immediately in contact 
with the larger masses of trap ; and, probably, 
they here also owe their origin to the same 
cause. 



APPENDIX, NO. III. 141 

The quartz and the felspar, containing gar- 
jne|ts, are probably derived from veins in gneiss, 
^here similar appearances are not unqommon. 

The agates must be referred to the trap. 

With respect to the gneiss, which contains 
green compact fel^ar, and which appears to be 
of common occurrence on this coast, it may be 
rei^iarked, that it is exactly similar to that which 
occurs abimdantly in the Western isles, and 
more particularly on the western coast of Ross- 
^hire, prevailing particnlarly about LJoch Ewand 
Loch Greinord. '" 



Specimens from agnes monument. 

Lot, W 37' N., Long. &!" W W. 

Granite. 
Gr^ywacke schist. 



/ 



APPENDIX, No. IV. 



ZOOLOGICAL MEMORANDA. 



ZOOLOGICAL MEMORANDA. 



"•■f- l t 



Class MAMMALIA. 

Genus, Homo (^Man). 

Two of the skulls found on Hare Island, 
as well as sketches of the natives found at 
Jacob's Bight, and Prince Regent's Bay, have 
been examined by Dr. Leach, who believes them 
to be pure Esquimaux. 



Genus, Phoca (^l^leat). 

Species 1^ Phoca Barbata, {Bearded Seal^) 
killed on the 11th of Jane, m lat. 6%"" ^ N., 
long. !i5^ i4' W. A seal in its second year, ac- 
cording to the judgment of our Esquimaux. 

Its length, from the^ of the nose to the ex- 
tremity of the tail, was eight feet j its circum- 

» 

TOIL. 11. L . 



14& AfraNDIX, NO. IV. 

ference, behind the fore flippers, five feet sevea 

inches ; weight, eight hundred tmd thiity pounds. 

Fore flippers measured in length 4evgn inches^ 

in breadth six inches; 
Hind flippers in lengtb.sixteeDinches, 

in breadth two feet^ 
when d^gKinded. 
The claws of the former were black, homy, idbi 
curved; those of the latter were long atid 
straight fingers iive, middle ones longest In 
f(H% flippers. The body covered with thick, 
coarse, short, dark grey hair. The eyes about 
the size of an ox's, furnished with a nictit^nt 
membrane, irides dark hazel ; the pupil elliptic 
perpendicular. No external ears} the auiy;ular 
^ertures placed about two inches behind the 
eyes. The upper lip broad, roundeciU fl^y, 
divided into two lobes by a deep sulci^, or ^iyt- 
sion, which is black and naked; each Io^.^iB 
provided with eight rows of strong white Iniatles, 
semi-pdlucid, and curled at the ends. The 
hfwer Up thin and pointed. Tongue thick» 
pointed, and cleft; upper sur&ce papilloiu. 
Tee^, upper front mx, truncate, (mail; tu^ 
soUtaiy, tmncate ; grindera three, the anterior 
one solitary; lower front four imperfectly de- 
vek^ed ; tusks smaU and obtuse^ grindeis seven, 
t^ tA^p .posterior inytejfectfy ipbed, tb@ rest 
'3 > 



APMNDIX,- NO, lV*r 147* 

being sniail long tuterosittes, scarcely produced' 
tiirough the gufnJ The heart about; th^' bulk of 
that df the &K^ its^texture strong; the foramen 
cnul^ dNii^iuted (a point on which there is yet 
Bomti discord among comparative anatomists). 
The aorth^ three* inches diameter, its coats two 
lines jfod a half in thickness j the calibre of the 
pi&iontliy artery nearly the same ; the thick- 
rie^ of its <;oat one line. Kidneys elliptic ; lobes 
one Mnidred and fifty to one hundred and sistty. 
Stomach filled with a "greenish dark fluid; its 
inner cdatfined with ascarides an inch and a half 
long; they held on with great tena;city, render- 
iiigit'diffifeate td detach them; the* small intes- 
titeea Itaitt tnfaaki^ed thickly with teniae, from one 
to-fi^e^brtinlelij^h. Eitcrementa of the large 
intestiiiesWefaatbUng thick rerdegris paint. Peals 
aboiik ^tei^kteen inches long, eight in circum- 
ference j the lobe about eight inches lotig, and 
three-SS* ?aiH:riimferaidfe the lower surface de- 
{Hessed'l^ the recejption of the urinary canal. 



1 « ««»♦- 



<r4 ' 



Sp6(Sim. ftfocA HispiDA? (P. FcEfmA? 
Pemumtiy ^TA* Rough Seal. This was caught 
in Jaccti's B^h% oA the ^SOth of June. It was 
four ibet^iri length J hair on the belly of a silvery 
grey,-i«^1fi¥-few«6bscure dusky spots : back and 
desky;^ bn the latter, numerous curved 

L.8 



four bristles, above the inner angl^ of tiie eyes. 
Upper lip Uiick, furnished with seven rows of 
whiskers ; lip divided by a lissure, covered with 
a black naked skin. Nose small. Teeth in up 
per jaw, four front acute, the t*o outer ones 
ko^est^ tu^ solitary, long, acute; grinders 
five* tricuspidate : lower front, four acute ; tuski 
sditaiy ; grinders five, lobed. Fore-flipper with 
fire &igers, the inner one longest; shorter in 
gi<adation, like the human foot: claws long, 
curved^ acuminate. Hind £ippers, also, wmed 
with acuminate curved claws. The heart of 
this aninral was examined, and in it the foramen 
ovale was found obliterated. 

As our specimen is young, I am not certain 
that it is referable to the e^cies qiwted, And 
have therefore added a note of doabt 1 



APPENDIX^ NO. IV. H9 



Genus Mustela (Weasety 

f 

Species, Mvstela Erminea {Ermmt Wea^et)^ 
in lat 73^ 37'> and long. 77^ 25', on the West 
side of Baffin's Bay, a small animal of this species 
was shot;, its length, from the tip of the nose 
to the insertion of the tail, eight inches and 
a half ; to the tip of the tail eleven inches and 

r 1 

a;.' half. Head^ back, and greater part of the 
tail> of a chesnut colour ; the end of the tail 
black. The chin, cheeksj^ circle round tjxe ears, 
and the toes, white j breast and belly pf ,a yel- 
Ip^sh white ; the yellow prevailing most ap- 
j^oximate to the chesnut. 

f - '. * 

This little animal, whiph has been compared 
with the common Ermine Weasel of Europe,, 
a^<ps with it in every character* In they^Uey 
where it w^s shot, there were found hares, miee^. 
^oA abundance of water birds, on tl^e egg;i of 
which these animals are known to feed* 

Dr. Leacb has received the same animal in its 
winter i^es^ frpip Hudson's Bay j it is wiiiter 
than British specimens. 



L 3 



iJO APPiaiDIXj NO. iv. 

Gemifif Unsffs (iSeor)- 



uidi and a half long, in the upper jaw sdltaiy, 
in the under jaw approximate to the f«s« teeth. 
Grinders four, above and below ; the anterior 
one vety small, the posterior very large, the in- 
terme^ate ones approximating in size to the 
latter. I^e'hair white, thick, and strong, very 
long <m the body, and more so on the limbs 
iodise bteck ; eyes dark hazeL 



Genus, Lefits (Hare). 

Spedsa Ispus Arctipus, Leach. The only 
one. of this ^ecies was shot in lat 73° 97', on 
ihe West side of the Stiaits. It was nearly the 
ssn^e nze as Lepus timidtts (the coipnion Qare) : 
the body was white, except that a f^ solltaiy 
black hairs, longer tiiaQ.the rest, were d^^>ersed 
ov^ every part, and which' appeared : to be 
raj^dly coming away ; the tips of ih»^ «i^ and 
the shoft hair within Uie ears, werehl^ckt.taU 

irst of September. Ano^er 
a Whaler, in May, at £[are 
Uttle fi:om &e above. Dr. 
be ver^ distinct from the 
of Scodand, (Lepus alAus^ 
' 10 from die Lkpvs tabu-^ 
Lppendix, No. V. 
L-4' ■' 



J59 4FPENDK, SO. eV. 

. Geumftf^BAnsm (Whale}, 



APFBSIHJL, NO. IV. 153 

one foot shore, and radier behind, tiie angle of 
the mouth. 

The fins are articujated about two feet ob- 
liquely behind and below the eyes. 

The anus Js placed about twelve feet before 
the extremity of the tail. 

The penis about two feet before the anus ; it 
is contained in a deep sulcus or groove^ two feet 
long, the lips of' which meet and conceal the 
prgan. This is about nine feet long in its re- 
laxed state, six inches in diameter at its base, 
gradually tapjeriiig to a pc^t. in which the 
uretlir» terminates. 

The under Up and the throat were :tvhite -y a 
brqad band -of white extended across, the abdo- 
men, between the penis and the anus, which 
almost met on the back; the middle part of the 
Jowersurfiice of the tail white, j on the edges of 
these white patches were many blaifk bjQtphes, 
•giving the aoimal* on the whole, a .pie<bald 
^»earance. 

I%e necesdty of taking advantage of a &ir 
wrna, sid elear vater> <&l»ed tts to cast ctf-^e 
curcBsc, iritfaoBt iiukja^ » nother exuninatipii. 



15* APPENDIX, sty.iy.- 

SfieSeJ* r. - 'SoJjA'TEwA-Si'EfcTAitLiir ""{A*^ 
Eider): * A':iiaironly'of this s^eties-^Hs shoi^'in 
about 1A"72°. 'S4*era%ere'sii!ll aShigl4'"i8 
74% wMhg *iAC!utl«S*rt's KB*." " Ifis gene- 
rally iftMeS-^h^'-Bk*."'- "" ■'""'" ■ '■' ''■'- 

ThifiWBtifcf t»*ild rtSeihiaeS'fta'of'Ae 
Anus il[«th*&''i:»e"'PSte'l4. j^: H'mS'^. 
UOikM-'ao') '. i-m ' t./o-i3' ■.■o.).. ■■■,. 

Ssay 'of the*S%«fe *ot in «(e -ftfihWitf 
June rtl4Ji«*)*i ISelWWSHat. 71f and'?4"f '°™ 

.-■■I ,1.- f.riJla ioisq:^;.^ ' T . ;r ^- - 

Spinas, ■''Ciii'^ft.i?*tAffiiM ■; (iiWaifc 

GtuTof). One only of this species^'ff^ sftptlu 

lat T*"®?^ bsis^ilqatc. 9'-:r^5j "io 92rr •. 

The »ulg#ttii»fe#J!«iff.?<!ifeS i^*: 



IX, NO.iv; 155 

lC circumstance connected 
jtistifuc^dfi^ 6f its trachea. 
^ tb? ) tfl^^^beb, ]al|out an 
ijij^mi of- eijc ^bQ«g[ofibs on 

)it^rp^teiri<^X' '^4iP«^ ^ 
dy they advance to complete 

inatjng abruptly^ they form 

3 oisniau tuberosities, leaving 

d^ p.t the Ipwerr th^ at the 

jcontinijuijy of ^he wall- of the 

tV Jni^ed^by i^^n&fof four 

o^^^si^ ;bpr|,^ ^(ppB^tiPg the 

^gethexv^^gjer wiri<lbi« JP^ a 

IT ^^balpy c^mpuj^ ilfibyrinth, 
ttom the right broncl^r tube 
m the fore and back pturts of this 

flibrana tympani of the ear, forming 
:eous ceQ, from which origoiates the 
a^t^lf'-'%Tl4^^8giWjlid8i be- 

Mi§s^^mmm:p^m^w^y 

! ^ tnese compHcated org^n^^ mote 
in <^f^ 4w<(H^dO%th>»L in an/vOther, 
be demonstrated by the physiologist. 



136 A?PEKDIX, NO. IV; 



GenuE>i Meroulus, Rm/ (Seadove). ' , 

Seadove,). popularly denominate Little Awk, or 
Boach,_ 

The size of a small dove ; breast and belly 
whit^,the rest of the bird black, except a white 
dot atove the eyps. In this state Of pluinage 
theywere found during the n^onths of June, July, 
and August, the old bird^ as well as the ; young 
in the nest. ■ ' 

At the end of September several were shot in 
lat. 66", in all of which a change of plumage had 
taken place. The chin, throat, c)i$eK8, had 
changed to white j the white feathers aUnort 
pieetmg upon the ,n^ ;, the breast black and 
white mixed j th§ feathers of the scrag aod in- 
terscapular re^ns intermixed also with 'soine 
hoary leathers j the tips of the primary, qu^ 
coverts^ and scapulars, white. In other rejects 
the bird remained as in the sumfper j^ndis. 

■JThese birds were found m myriads, in Jtdy aAd 
Aji^ist, in 75° and 76° latitude.' On .the' west 
coa^t of Greenland many hundrjeds were shot 
daily, and supplied to the ship's comp»}y. They 
^re extremely palatable ; and, altbpu^ Reding 
chiefly OP a wbM fugw^ of c^ac^, ^tb wbicb 



APPENDIX, NO. IV. 457 

the arctic seas abound, they were free from th^ 
taste of fish. , . ;>. ,. 

The Esquimaux of Prince Regent's B^y use' 
tlmsr flkin^ibt their iJiRisrd clot|»|ig. 

, Sp^jQJies 1. .Faoc££la]^ia Gl-^ciai-jls (Fulmar, 
l^efrel). This ,bird was foun^ i^ grpat. abund- 
ance in every part of. the iStrai^ spid Baffin's 
Bay. There were two states. The most nu- 
mefcm^ (the adul^) vr^^ of a Jio^,^ey^colour, 
ijdtha whfte, bar across tjie.vd^j^ ,cpverts when 
l^xpanded. \ The others, (the ycw;pig) were of any 
uniformly 4usky colour j in otHer resp<^ts they 

^dwt differ,. \ _, ; ; .r .^ ;. . , 

. Those bkds, live ifpsnj any 0% substance they 
jjpj5n4 pn the ?iwf^^Q. of.the, sea.' ;.'T;hw sto- 

flDfW?H^? g?P^<aJly, fQU»4 leaded withatandd 
l9JyL,'..w]^iph th^ dif^pf^e on Jbein^ wounded. 
They CQllectyi^^t pi^m^rs around the wfa^er^ 
Sjb^ft^iiy >*Ve c^u^ftjjpsh^ in ord^^^) pidc up 
^ ^^us^^whiqli th^, d^^O|ir>i|ti^ ^e^/jjlut* 
l,Q«y v; Thw fl(?sH ^ pjXtr^iniBl^ pffensiye.^ 






« 



Vw- • •• • > 



158 APPENDIX, NO. ly* 



Genus, G)^ffj«|iJiii,)^#fift^Vv^^ .-^ksip" 

{Scraber). 

on the^^Si^r^hkti id^^i^^j^lij^i^^ 

the bi];4ii|h«fi j^ag^Mv ll}wbp>^^U<dl^;dtt^ 

thel^,f|i4l!&ifofBM89o;pooi3(q lo nodD^lieq 

It is found in every part of B0l&BM^^Si9^^ 
two eggs, about the size of a pullet's, of a dirty 
white, with black spots ; makes its nest in the 

bole£^|^ ^di^^mifknmi^dfs^ 

on the shore. .(isviC j t^^^5S!A .aaTYaua 

A young one, shdt in the beginning of Augu^ 

and^w^t§inoa^ Sihip di|^QS^BS»d>«^^lv<lQ9be 
distii^ 9)t]|e«gl|]mi2^9d-^^ :4d6giKiaf|l$ apflttl^fl 
its bill blackj its legs and feet dusky, .odiniodcic 
Some others were killed in the month of 
November, in Shetland, in whom the plmoaige 
differed Utile from the 14tiv^^«ull»ai«gia^ 
feet had assumed the perfect mmson colour. 

nmun xiB'^ ei fcflfi ^iluO liiktu^d £ ei aixfT 



'-'^ -Tli ^1 --l^^^T^?^ -^ 



APPENDIX, NO. IV. 159 

Species 1. Uria Francsu, Leach {I^rank^s 

chiefly in the southern part of the Strait^ -' No 

iA:iditti««itkf6fll^'tb«na: ^iaiwXiSii9b,» (the 
Aolktl^Mlm^yAiik vr\m^^ fiftifi^tb^ im- 
perfection of de8criptio]ifi^oi^cRaf^iil!ldy^^.<^<S&e 

^dmu^'QiobiitEiic^olrftii^iftltiii^^ SHi^Mit.' 

EcDYTES, iZSg-er (Diver). •' i ^8 ? 

8tf(|Pfv9i^<(i|ii[(btoy^«ii oiidKl t^somd^^the 

specimen. x^^ei/b i-3si Lns tissi gji (icMifd l' - ' 
to dJnoni acB ni b&;Iii) , aw aiai;.^ ?mi- 
95j8.,oIq srii irc.ilw m ,bff ^^Sii'2 ni ^-^draf- " 
i£Bnn^lIakiluti(4Bi)iM^ moii ol^. o: . ■ 

••■viv.. oioa>r..'0 /j9i aq ddi h^ft ue.t,k i**- 
Species 1. Lasus Rissa (Kitlmake GtiS). 
TDm ,is a beaatifol GuU, and is very numerous 
i« the Straits. In the full-aged bird the bill 



160 AFtiBinOIX, NO. IV. 

is of a beautiful lemon yellow ; the orbits wd 
inside of the motttk oi ft beautiM sa^ou ^d» 
indes straw colour, legs of a livid colour ; the 
t6p of the head, the mpe, back, wings, of a fine 
ash cidour ; tij^s of the widg^coTerts biad(» the 
rest of th£ bird white. 

In several young birds, shot in September^ 
in lat 70% the bill and orbits were of a deep 
livid, in some the yellow was making its a]qmtf^ 
ance. The plumage differed fiom iU:>e old><tfMi| 
in the ash colour being deeper, and more gme* 
* ral in the upper parts of the bird ; many of the 
wing, wing-covert, and tail feathers, being tipped, 
otherwise marked with Uack ; the lowtr partQ» 
like the old birds, wjltte. In thia atage of 
plumage they are known as the Tarrock OuiL 

This bird is tathar laiyer than the laat. T)m 
bill of a dMp lead colour, the edges, ani lipi 
yellowish, two indies long from the angle of die 
mouth ; the orbits of the eyes red, the irides 
brown; 1^ and feet black;; tarsus <me inch 
and three quarters; the whole {^umage of an 
immaculate white. Length nineteen inches, 
breadth &rty«one inches. 

The young burda difl^md only flom tiia^bove 
(which wa9 a female) in being spottd folaek oii^ 



APPENDIX, MO. rv. IbJ 

diffe^nt parts of the wing-coverts and spurious 
wings. 



s III. Lards Gla^cus (Glaucous GuW). 
Bill li^ht hom colour, strong, gibbosity on the 
lower mandible, red ; no3tril3,'line£u; placed in 
the middle of the bill, no cerej-length of bill 
&om -the base two and half inches j from the 
ui^of the mouth, three inches; irides, straw 

&ttorscapulars, back, and wing-coverts, light 
ub.ei^aur; the rest of the plumage perfectly 
wfake. 

Wings as Iraig a» the tail, the tail cuneiform j 
thighs, l^B, and feet livid flesh colour; tarsus, 
two int^Ms and three quarters; length, from 
twenty-nrix to twenty-eight inches ; extent, from 
fifty-eight to sixty-four inches ; there is no dif- 
ference-between the male and the female. 

These Iwrds were found from lat. 65" to 76° ; 
nHMTBaiimeiouB to the northward. 

Ojk June 6th, in lat 65" 3^', a '' gull was 
shot, its length was twenty-six inches; ex- 
tent, fifty-nine inches; bfll of a dirty fie A co- 
lour ; the tip, dark hom colour; gibbosity, red ; 
legs wid feet livid flesh coloar; plumage, white, 
but mottled on the back; wing-coverts, and 



162 APPENDIX, HO. tV. 

breast, with indistiiict . shades of brown ; toes, 
four, hind one clawed and strong. 

June dth, in lat. 66" SO', killed another gull, 
whose character agreed in all respects with the 
last; except, that instead of being mottlef^ 
^ere Was onfy a alight shade of ash on ^ 
wing-coverte, the rest of the plumage being 
white. 

July 11th, in lat. 7*% two females were shot, 
difiering fro^ the. former in being smrdler, and 
in having jeUow bills ; the ash colour was also 
of a bluer hue, and was more general cm the 
back and mng& These are the only two birds 
that answer to the Larus Glaucus of Linnaeus 
and Pennant, the former are clearly a different 
species: No. 1. being the species in maturity ; 
Nos. S. and 3. verging towards complete plumage. 

T^e habits of this last are also the habits of 
the Burgermeister of the Dutch ; they build on 
iugh cli%, and they destroy and eat the smaller 
^uatic birds. We did not, absolutely, see them 
attack other Inrds, but when our parties were 
out shooting the little awk, these gulls, hov«ing 
over our heads, Would pounce upon the wounded 
birds, and carry them off. A female bird that 
was shot, disgorged a whtAe bird j and, beii^ 



A^pi^ENBix, no; ly. i:63E 



\ , 



brought dn board, it sme^ed so offensively, that 
it was immediately exaniined, and ^in its stomach 
was found another bird quite whole ; the stomach 
was.distended, and in a state of mortification as 
well as the small bird. T^he GuU, no doubt, 
had been unable to eject its prey, and the func* 
tiob bf the stomach being suspended by the dis* 
tens^Uf irrit^tioi^, inflapimatipn, ^d, at length, 
putre&ction, had ensued. 



£^ecieik L ^TmcoRABius Cepphujs, {Arctk 
Jdger^y cdmmon appellation, Arctic GulL Bill, 
one inch iuid a quaxtier .from the base, black; 
upper mandible, much curved at the point, with 
an odontoid procep j lower mandible, gibbous ; 
nostrils linear, sitiiated in, a, cere; tongue cleft; 
front, crown, and nape, dark brown; neck, 
d^eeks, chin, thraat, breast, and beUy, white ; 
^bpiit the Vept varied with brown ; all the rest 
0f the }>0^y% dusky ; ,wipgs, deeper coloured ; the 
two middle leathers of the taQ sev^n inches 
longer than the rest ; legs, lead coloiu-; . thighs 
and feet, black; hind toe, clawed; length, 
fwenfy-dne inches, including the two tail fea- 

M 2 



i64, 



APPENDIX, KO. lY. 



tilers ; breadth, thirty-seven inches ; irides» am^ 
ber brown. This is the fiiU-aged bird. 

Some young ones shot, July ^th, differed, in 
the, bill being lighter coloured; all the brown 
plumage of a lighter shade ; the white phima^ 
beneath less clear ; the neck, all round, and Idbe 
hii\d part of the abdomen, varied more or less 
with dusky feathers ; the tail-coverts, banred 
white ; wing and tail linings, mottled brown and 
white ; shafts of the two outer primary quiU 
feathers, white; the rest gradually browner; 
length from fourteen to fourteen inches and a 
half; breadth, thirty-six inches and a half to 
thirty-eight inches and a half; the two niiddle 
tail feathers in these three young ones, were 
from two to four inches only in length* 



Genus Xema, Leach. (Xeme.) 

This genus approaches to the Oull in the 

form of its beak, and to the Tern, in having a 

furcate tail, as weU as in the general form and 

proportion of its legs ; the only species hitherto 

' discovered is the following : — 

Species Xema Collaris (CoUared Xeme). 
This bird was found only on a smaU island, in 

lO 



APPENDIX, NO. IV. 165 

lat. ^5'* 20', on the west coast of Greenland; it 
was foimd assocwiting .with the greater Tern, 
and when it saw its nest in danger, like them, 
uttenag the 9anqpe clamorous notes, flew, with- 
oiil^fear, above its nest close to the head of the 
paH]r«^ Its e^s ^ere of the same size and form, 
atfdr nearly of the same colour, as those of the 
Tcati.^ 

fa* my first edition, I was not aware that it 
had been discovered before, and therefore 
ad^ed the name Larus Sabim^ which ap- 
peared in Thomson's Annals of Philosophy. 
I have since leaxnt that it has long been named 
Lotus coUaris in the Vienna Cabinet, by Pro- 
iesstur Schreibera. 

Larus collaris, Schr ethers. — Larus Sabini. 
Sabine J Thorn. Ann. qfPhilos. Vol. xiii. BiU, one 
inch and a half from the angle of the mouth, an 
inch long from the base; upper mandible^ a 
little curved at the point ; the Idwer mandible, 
with the angular gibbosity peculiar to the Gull; 
thevinner half of the biU black, the rest yeUow.; 
nostrils, linear, situated in the middle of the 
bill; tongue, long and cleft; inside of the 
mouth, and the naked orbits of the eyes, ver- 
milion ; irides, black ; the nape, throat, and 
whole head, of a very deep cinereous, bounded 
Jbya black riQg round the neck, two lines broad; 

W 3 



166 APFEKi>IX» NO. IV. 

a small white spot oncier the eye ; the neck, in- 
terscapular ; region, and all underneath, trMte ; 
back, wing^coverts, and scapulars, bright citie- 
reous ; spuriotis wings, black ; the shafts, outer 
webs, and half bf the inner webs of the &<stfive 
primary quill-feathers, black ; tips, whiter the 
innet half of the inner webs, whrte to wilhin 
an inch of their tips ; the sixth feather vidiite, 
with a little black in the middle ; all the 
rest bf the quiU-featheiis, white ; tail white ; 
outer feathers an inch longer than the middle 
ones ; wings an inch longer than the tail ; legs 
and feet, black; latter palmate four-toed ; the 
hind one, clawed small ; length, fourteen inches 
and a half; extent, thirty-four inches and a half; 
tarsus, one inch and a half: sex makes no dif- 
Terence in plumage ; weight of male bird, s^ven 
ounces and a half ; female six oimCes and a half. 

Genus JSteiika (Tern). 

Species 1. Sterna lImijm:>o (coniMM Tern). 
This beautiful bird is found in every part of the 
Straits near the land, associaflrig with the smaOer 
Gulls, particularly the Kittywake; their eggs 
are about the size of a pigeon's, of a dirty green 
hue, with small dark blotched ; the bill is beau- 
tifully subulate, crimson ; in One or two, sliot 
to the southwai^d, the lip Was black; fronts 






APPEITDIVf NO. IV. I<i7 

crown, uid D4p^ blade j back, wia^ ^g- 
eoverts, bid^t cinereous ; outer web of first ^•' 
maiy qnill-feia£her, black ; the outer web of the 
Mfaers, cinereous; tbe innerhalf of ^ the inner 
webs, cinereous ; tiie outer half wiike to n^ 
their tips, which are black ; taiLcoyertS, and 
ihe rest of the bird, white ^ in some, breast is 
tinged cinereous; tail, . foiiced ; the two outer 
fe^er^ longest ; their oilter webs, black ; legs 
and feet, crimson; wings as long as the t^; 
length, sixteen inches; extent, twenty-live inches. 

Genus Caliimus, Qevier ;(^ot). 

Species 1. Calidbis Ulaxidica (Zuhnd 
^ffo^, found about Hare Island, and Jacob's 
Si^ as high as lat 7S°- 



Genus Cinclus, S^, Pelidna, Cuvier 

Spmesl. CracLus Alfuhjs (^^^iReDtm&t). 

Genus LoBiFEs, Qtvier (Loh^f). 

Species 1. Losifes Htps^oasas, (i£«^Xo^- 
foQt,) qommooly mmed B^ phaloro^ found 
as ihighvos Jacob's .K^V 



importance, It' constant, to separate these birds 



DESCRIPTIONS 



OF 



THE NEW SPECIES OF ANIMALS; 

DISCOVERED 
BY HIS MAJESTTS SHIP ISABELLA, 

t' 

IN A VOYAGE TO THE ARCTIC REGIONS ; 

By Dr. W. E. Leach, 



Type VERTEBROSA. 

Class MAMMALIA. 
Genus Canis, of Authors (Dog). 

y 

* •* 

A variety approaching to the Wolf in many 
points of external character and in voice, was 
found in a domestic state amongst the inhabit- 
ants of Baffin's Bay. The great toe on the 
hinder feet is wanting. Dr. Blainville supposes 
kjto be the origin.of the Wolf-dog (the Chieii- 
Loup of the French). 




170 APPENDIX, NO. tV. 

Genus Lspus, c^ Authors (Hare). 

Species Gtdcialis. Atbus, vertice et dorso pilk 
nigricante-iuscis albo-fasciatis a^arsis, coUo late- 
ribufi nigricante alboq^ue mixtis, auribus apice 
extreme nigris* 

lliis animal, which mil lidlti^r agree wllih the 
Lepus albus of Brisson,>por the Lepus variabilis of 
Pallas, both of which are how before me, is of the 
size of the common Hare, (jLepus timidus,) and 
of a white cqlor. The back and top of the head 
are spririkledmth blackish-boown hair, which is 
banded vith white ; the sides of the neck are 
covered with hairs of the same colour inter- 
spersed with white. The extreme tips of the 
ears Are tipped with black, intermixed with 
whi^e ; tbe insides 6f tlie ears h^wid a few Mack 
hairs mingled with the white. ' 

laii^ sorry that^the skelefbii, (which would, 
in ijl probability, hjave furnishied a good specific 
dis^c^on,) was npt brought home. 






■■'\' '■, Class ,^ 



Glass ,^V15S (purdB). 
G^ppiUai^ of 4vt^*, (Cfuilaaioi> . 

mu^SSiaM mpsiioik «dbliixtii^ iopice iahmp^ 






APFENBIXy NO. IV. I7I 

Goldr albus: Dorsom pferfusccMiigrum ; Alae 
pailidd nigrieantes: Quia fuscesente-brunnea : 
Rostrum nificrum : mandibula inferior ad anini- 
lum inferiorem striga albida : P.des nigri. 

I first received this species from F. Franks^ 
Esq, who took it off Ferroe, and named it 
after him. e^biting a speamen of the bird, 
imder the name U. Francsii^ together with one 
of Uria TroilCf and drawipgs of both species, to 
the linnean Society in December. A notice of 
this bird, under the name of U. Frdncm^ is 
publii^ed itt Hionj^oh's Annals of Philosophy for 
January last ; it has siqce been republished in 
the first edition of Cs^tain Boss's yoyage. It 
was sent home by all the ships employed 
in the northern expedition, under the ^ame 
Trailer and it was even received as such, and 
believed to be no other, by the coflectors of 
birds in this country. I was the first who per- 
ceived the distinction, and that too without 
comparison, and I instantly endeavoured to 
convince tho^ewho entertained doubts <m the 
subject. Notiinthstaini^g Ihu, G&ptaiti Setbiiie 
who sent It iSnbe to ^ l»Mh«- £; iSatntt^ £sq. 
as tibe TifoOct.pBA w|»<>,i$^t l(^pst4S^pqi sg^^t 
lit in», a :dw^^,S|^»e«, ht^y^^s^j^jcf. 
f&kxkiBe yiixmewr 4o n^bfit I 1^ told J^nit 4ppB9» 
•posed to nameitflfter «n «rmtiiok)gisty who ws». 



172 APPENDIX, ND. IV.- 

i^brant enough to describe it under the name 
of. Tnfife,. and to give the true TVorfe, (one of 
the most common and best known of tiie 
European birds,) under a new name ! ' 



Type MOLLUSCA. 

Clato PTEROPODA. 
Genus, Clio, PaUas. ' 

Species, BoreaUs. 

I^ifi flpeta^s. occurred in great profusion ' in 
Baffin's Bay. 

Genus, Lihacina, Cuoier. 

Sjjtfi^i. ^rcirca.— Argonauta Arctica, O. Fa- 
brifU^. , . ■ 

'^tibis^^yrise occurred in enormous quant^es, 
but not one specimen reached England with its 

Class GASTEROPODA. 

■ ^)|ou8.Mabgahjta, Leach. 

Char. Testa anfiactibus subinflatis ; Spira 
tenniter devata: Apertura rotundsta tenuis,' 
intern^ imperfecta tUmlMlicusperfectus profun- 
dus : <^avulum' rotundatum, nadeo centndi. . 

Speciesl. Arelka, puipurascente-camea tenuis 



APPENDIX, NO. IV. ' 173 

'"' Baffin's Bay^ Captaiii Ross; Captain Sabine. 
' Species 2. Striata^ anfractibiis lon^tuHhialLter 
striatis et obliqu^ antiquatis. ' *" ' '^ 
Baffin's B^ Mr. Beverly. ^ ^ - 

Genus Natica, X^f7;i^im^. ^ 

Species 1. BeverUi, spira elevatiuscula, anfrac- 
tibus superioribus coilx^xkblcidtji. ; 

Baffin's Bay, Mr. Beverlj. 

Species 2. Fragilis, spira fer6 obsoleta, testa 
fragillissima, operculo hyalino. -''' Mvsq.- 
* Baffin's Bay, amongst the sddif(fi^g^1:atk^3 up 
by Captain Ross's instrament. ' ^^ ''^- ^ in. 

Genus Buccinum, of Authors. 

Species 1. Boreale, purpufascente-brtiilit^m, 
a{#actibus caqicellatp-striolatis, supra abbn^Vfe^to 
costl^tis, F%eis prominulis l-cahsQQctiui!fiiS^^pra- 
liter ascendentibus. ^ -^^ >q^ ^^o .uii . 

Baffin's Bay, on Hare Island, Mr. fi^fiSr^ 
The canal ctf tl^ anterior p^ of^ the shell, is 
of a moderate length. 

Species 2. JSo^^eC anfi^abtious' ti^f^ 

transvebiitn tfdMtis : feftt«?a5stis)^8upern6' iinper- 

fectis, anf^a<:;tibtis ^icdfif^ ^&tpfi!tiHbu3'gla||ris. 

BaSin's Baj^' Mr.'Bi¥fei^. /- ;. ;*. ^^ 

"tins kpiM^temthtmmfit9bii^(JBlw^ 

' Baniffium;(iliv^i^^^^^ may 



179* a:pwen0jex^ no. w, 

readily fae difitingiijrfied ky ^ number iof cos- 
tated svrhiiifi^ Ban0w» al^ajrs joying the. four 
basal ones ribbed. * 

Class CONCHiE. 
Family L Pholadidj9&? 

Geniis Pholeobia. Leach. 

CH.K. Testa eloog^U, portiC cl^ antic, 
hians : cardo edentulus : Ligamentum exterius 
prominens. 

Species Bugosa. rr- Mytillus rugo$ps» ^ j;^** 
Ush Authors. 

Kunily II. Myapim ? 

.Genus Pandoiia, Lamarck. 

^Specks Glot^a/r^r^ai^ den- 

t&ua.cfuttiimlibus cmssisswns* Tal^en up with 
Soundings in Baffin's Bay. Received al^o from 
Spitsbergen. 

In its general form it is allied to my Fandcra 
obtusa ; (Solen Pinna, Mo^U) a ,q^epi^,pQt,un- 
<pinmon in the Spui^d of Pl3rmQuth, but it may 
be readily distinguished by .the superior size of 
tibe teeth of the hinge. 

* Mr. Beverly commtinicated to me an Achatina, which 
hefiNUidonanidandinBaffiii's Bay, audits it is a tropical 
igm»$^ I ^fupi^ot refrain from notidng so ex^aordinary an 
occurrence. ^ 



* « 



176 APPENDIX, NO. IV* 

Genus Nicania, JLedch. 

Char. Testa triangulato-orbicularis, aequi-. 
valvis, clausa : Umbo prominens : cartilago ex- 
terna: Valva dextra^ den^ luno yaiido . bifido ; 
sinistra dentibus duobus integris divaricatis. 

Species 1. Banksii, glabruiscul^ p^t% .sub 
unibonibus impresso-excavato. ^ Ba#n^s * £t^9 
amongst soundings. Received also^ from the 
Spitzberg:en coast. 

Species @. Striata^ concentric^ striata, sttb 
umbonibus cordato-impressa. Jjat. 76^ 42' N. 
Long. 76° W. 



family IV. PxNNini^. 

Genus Modiola, Lamarck. 

Species 1. Arctica, alta, radiatimli^ stri^Uia* 
Baffin's Bay, on Hace Island, and among sound- 
ings. 

Species 2. Discrepans. •— Mytilus discrepans, 
Montagu. 

A fragment of a large specimen difiering in 
no degree from those of Scotland, occurred 
amragst the soundings fh>m Baffin's Bay. 



APPENDIX, NO. IV. 177 



I 



Genus Mytilus j^qf AtOhors). 

Species Pellucidos, JPennant 

Found on Hare Island, by Mr. Beverley. 



Class BR ACHIOPODA, C2^&i>r^ 

Genus, TIkrebratula (of Anthers). 

l!^ecies, SUbstriata^ testa radiatim et concen- 
tricS striolata. 

Lat. 76"" N. Long. 76^ 55' W. amongst sound- 
ing^l 



Type ANNULOSA. 

Oass CIRRIPEDES, Cuvier. 

Genus Balanus (of Authors). 
* S)^cies ^rcScz^, testis costato-elevatis : costis 
irregularibus rudis, interstitiis lamellato-striatis. 
Baffin^s Bay, on the rocks, common, Mr. Be* 
verley. Unfortunately the operculum of this 
fine species was lost. 



Class CRUSTACEA. 
Genus, Hippolyte, Leach. 

VOL. II. N 



1,78 APPENDIX, NO. TV. 

Speaies. •— Havinir mislaid th 
cannot ^ve a _ 

Genus, Gammarus, J^tb^ewe.^^ r , 

Speaes 1. Samm^ segmentis dorsaubas poatice 
lalcata-produGtis. _ ^ 

Baffin's Bay, Captain Sabine. 

Class ANNELEIDES, Cwkr. 
Genus» Nereis, Jamni. 

Specfes 7J(wi^: i^d^ d^^5fiji|i^ 
hirsutis, §quaoo4?, ^^#ius «^e|gffl^gii|(Bis. 
Baffin's B^, agwngs* som»<Jjjjgj|.^Tj ,?r, ;v/t :• 

liter elevato-lineola^j^ ,., ■ , rjinn'ohsff 'io oJ 
Lat.62°N. Lon^. 62% ^oio^^^foi^gll^ 

Type RADIATA. 

Class ECHINODERMATA. 

Genus, Gorgonocephalus, Leach (1815). 
EuRYALE, LamaarcTc (1816)^ 

Species Arcticus, corpore supra glal>ro radia- 



APPENDIX, NO. IV. 179 

tim costato : costis l^i&ercidatis, radiis longissU 
mis, tenmbtu^ siwra gnmiuans ; amcmis (api- 
cahbus pcffisertiml distincti3simi^ 

ansion two Teet. - Baffin sjps^. Captain 




Type AMORPHA. 
Class ACELEPHiE. 

^'IM e&ifi|j§#i«'lm«^ dfm&iSsaixhc^Sv^ were 

posable for me^t^ io guess at iStA geii^ra to 
-^iHiS^tiili^^fi^ie^g. Observations (H^ tiieiie ani. 
riliS^ikAi^ 'te'^a^ ac<;ieAii|^ by ax»nirate 
dtcwings, aie^iftetteces^ to render the pre- 
aorved specimens of iHay d^gr^ ctf use ; and it is 
t6%egx^Stl}^¥egretted, that no naturalist, capa* 
li^e of performing these indispensable parts of his 
d9te^'i<^:i^Jn$^ftmed the expedition. 



\ 



AT/v 



t ' •- \ w ^ , ^ 






-*'■>.- ' . X '■ ' 



■n 1 



• • 



•n .AUi/\^i*mi. 



f\ ■ T-f. ~ S " .-JX 






V 



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?TiU: 



■ ( 






'. ; ■"■» <■■*: 



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r 



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r-t 



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METEORIC IRON. 

FoK the following infonnation, raspectuig twa 
niF^tlR most interacting subjects in natmalluMwry 
^Mdb frena cdMerved in tiie vt^age <^ wUcb the 
Ho^atiTe has preceded^ I ain indebted to l^e 
kiwfaess of Dr. ATollaston. Of the acieuracy xad 
^' extent df his knoWledge it dides not become 
use to sfteatc, as t^ey have long ac^^ed for huii 
s'repBtatiM), to w&ch evra t^e pmse of ^ose 
^Ih) are aecompU^iedjuc^s of-faifracquiMm^ti 
om<add nothingi I shal£ intUteiio apdlo^ for 
giving in. hk own words, that whidi could'ili no 
other mty^be so well comfiMmioalied. 

**> With- respect to ^e elxact cMrigin of that 
" substance wlneb giveg^roliiess-fi^tb^nicnt'il 






182 APPENDIX, NO. V. 

"apprehend we niay ho6 be aHe to git« s 
'< decided (^iniofn, Ibr W£tt% Of a siificfeitt Jmcdi^'' 
« ledge of thd ^i^^dUdtic^ii^^br ti)«$0er^i<cgioii^ in 
« whifchitwafi*Ma#r.l*it?ftMa^^ 
^< stances df its appeft^aii6^iwi of tiitP^ 
«< which ^cGoiiipal^rit) I ^adv'sttim^ljr mcha»it0 
« thi^ ttib bfe bf yfeg^Statol^Marigte* Theored 
<< matter itself ccR^^Mi^ bf - liii^lfttW ^loboles fiom 
« ^»^W^7^\Pc^(Mrtoin^4tfaiiin 
«< their coat to be cdourless, and tluit the tried- 
neiss belongs wh^y ' to the con<i|0ntSr tiWch 
secj]^ €b be of an oily i^ature stnd not solUble 
*« iri'^^ter, but soluble in thclSAe&^spmti^ 6f 
^< wine ; ^hM the gl(di>ides ia^ higUy mie^ofosfied, 
** and 'teen with sufficletit H^> tbey^alpp^tt in- 
<< terni^y subdivided 4nto abduttSi or ^ 10;.oeQs. 
«.< l%f^ beito to be drkd by the heM of boBliag 
^ water, williout loss of colour. By.^destmative 
^ distillati(m they yield a fcBtid oil, acceaiqiamed 
with ammonia, which might lead to. tiie sup* 
position Ihat they are of a»imal qv^gm^bnt, 
since the seeds of various ^ants aim ^cUtfais 
^< product, and since the leaves of Fuei also yield 
^< ammonia by distillation^ I do lurt dascbvpr 
^* anything in the gk>bules themsekres which 
** shows distinctly from what souroe ihesy vgc^ 
<« derived* I fbd, howwestf^^kmg i^^tb tfaam, a 
*< small portion of a cellular substanee^ which 



4< 



APPENDIX, NO. V. 183 

• n«t Qnly ha% these globulea.adhereiit to kS sur- 
*^aoi(, tlmt^ibo coDtained .iti it& Ifvteiipr ; and 
•■ tWfl' s)bst«ntce, which I iQust thsrefoEp con- 
'< nderastf1bcM0AQi<mgi».viVl^jlj)«ni, fppears 

* hrT'.^its mo^ of bwmag' Wbsi decidedly vege- 
'* tatdcvv liknowf^DQ animal Bubstance which 
" soj idatantlyi bums away ta a white ash, as 
" BDcm as it,j$ heated to rednes^. 

*f Hile&^ooDC^ituNiiI ib1!teedastotbei^na- 
■' tore waa, that they might be the spawn of a 
" ainute ^eoies of shrimp, which is known to 
'* iibouBd ittL^tboii^ seas, and which might be 
■* d0V(^ired by the myriads of water-fowl ob- 
«-8en»4t!^ere, and voided with their dung; but, 
V; in. that cas^they ^ould undoubtedly be found 
«<f^niBtd wi&;the.exuviie of those animals, which 
^ irnottbft&ctj but they are found accpmpa^ 
*' nied'wBely by vegetable substances, in one of 
'*.ra!lp(d),diey are actually contained. 

''.-If' they are from the sea, there seems no 
**ii|iut;iiO the quantity, that may be carried to 
"Jttid^b^ a continued and violent wind; no 
'fi^natr, tft the" period during which they may 
*fitaxte aocmoulated* since lliey would remain 
*' ifrom year to year, undiminished by the pro- 
**vc«BiBs -of tiiawing and evi^raticm, which 
" ttmtne the snow with whidt they are mixed. 

" I regret that the scantiness of -our inform- 



/ 






184 APWKPIX, NO. V, 

i^ j&tion does 9^ fiM.bl6 ^ to come to sinry satis- 
f^ctQD^ iQMolusMa,^ aoid can oi%^fadpeiihdt 
futiw0r|i9^ataro mayiliapQe an c^ppcitomlkj^ of 
i^ ^ql^twg iiialte^i^ibittD e^ so i^ussdlis % 
5' ph^^iA^nflSI:*" X must ladd ito( Idiis a!ktc50ttiit 

8t^.tecti» Y^rjTnOfeiiJ^v^ iWStmUing.ii isistiir^ of 
fish-oil and dr3riqgK>il^ar^tliat> coarse psiilt '^o# 
in use f<w>paUi»des and;«itlier tvorks out of 
4ows.. •• • ;,': r:r . .: '; • •: ^ '■ ' '' 

Since the first edition of this work was pubr 
lished, ' ttie red siibstance which coloured^ tl\^ 
show* was determined , by Mr. Francis Bauer tQ 
be vegfetalrfe, olf tlie Genus^ livedo. This specyie? 
which has now been discovered is named by me 
Urmo mvafes f^atierj^ and is in the first instancy 
. bolonWess — gradually becoming red. Mr. 
Bauer is of opinion that it originates and . gen^- 
rates in: snow.' "The globules are in general 
T-r^o*> but iJiey are found from „V^ to y-??^ 
part bfan inch in size: . " . 

** W|tb i;«Bpect.to the irmi.ii'Df which you 
<< obligijigly g^im-J^^ fSpecMttn^ it appsam to 
** di£^ in no^rfifi^peotfi'mn those ifiasse? of wWch 



" The method which i employed to ascertain 
** this, was the following: 3 grains of the metal 
« were dissolved in diluted nitric acid, a small 
" quantity of blackish substance remained un- 
" dissolved; aqua ammonia in excess was added 
" to the solution, a precipitate of a brown colour 
" feU i the solution was filtered ; aqua potassa 
" was then added in excess, and the solution 



186 



APPENDIX, NO. V. 



boiled to drive off the ammonia, a precipitate 
of a greenish colour was gradually formed, 
which being washed and dried, weighed .1 6f 
a grain. Considering the acid of nickel as 
stated by Thomson to be a compound of 100 
metal and S9^6S oxigen, this denotes 2.56 
per cent, of nickel in the specimen of iron. 

(Signed) "^ A. Fyfe.** 



r.T^AJH i\ 



xc 



n.i, :mrcm 



T5^J50*^ 



-f io^bitt to bnB silt gydTshiBaoO nxfii^ 
li)i lo btiooqfiro:) t 9d 01 noSiiiOifiT ^{d i)9i£. 

APPENDIX, No. VI. 



LIST OF PLANTS, 

BY 

ROBERT BROWN, F.R.S. 



r ".■-- i-'3oon ■ 



CM A 



iA.is^ 



■•i#^~Ar'~> """""T- -jj-T ii » 






.iaa/":A.5>-;i 















LIST OF PLANTS, 

COLLECTED ON THE COASTS OF BAFFIN'S BAY, 
From Lai. 7(f W to 76^ l^y on the East Stde^ 



AND 
AT POSSESSION BAT, 

In Lai. 7S^, on the West Side. 



This List is formed from the Collections of the various 
XMcers and other persons who were sent on shore, for the 
purpose of collecting specimens of Natural History. 



Triandria. , Y 

£riophorum pdlystachion, Linn. ' 
Alopecurus alpinus. Smithy Fhr.- Brit. iii. 

p. 1386. 

Agrostis al^da, Fhipps^s Voy. p. 200. Wdh- 

lenb. Lapp.i^. 25. t. i. Gramen sui generis. 



[ 




)^ 4WCTBI*. »»' 'J- 



APFfiKDilt, NO. Vr. 



195 



-, fnictificatioiie nulla. 



Jungermannia — — 

Gyrophora hirsuta, Achar. Syn. p. 69- 

erosa, AtMr. Syh. p. 65. 

Cetraria islandica, Achar. Syn. p. 289* 
— — — nivalis, Achar ^ Stfn. p. 228. 
Cenomyce rangiferina, Achar. Syn. p. 277- 
'■~^--' ''■ llmbriata, Achar. Syrt, j); S54. ? 
Dufurea ? rugosa, itw. sp. 
Comicularia bicolor, Achwr. Syn. p. SOI. 

Usiiea? ^ n&o. sp.f absque scutelBs* 

IHira criapa. L^hlfi ScoL 972-^ '■ " - 



Algarum genus?? Confervis simplicissiinis et 
Tremellas cruentas (JSng. Bot. 1800.) quodam* 
modoaffine?? Minute globulesi, the colpnring 
matter of the Red Snow, of whic^. e:^niHve 
patches were seen in Lat 76® 25* N., and Long. 
65® W. 



* t^ 



^^^ ■. 



? If " 



'- * 



.:> 



\ 1 



iD 2 



APPENDIX, No. VIL 



An Account of the Going of the Chrono- 
meters which 'Were embarked on hoard 
H. M. S. Isabella and Alexander, dur- 
ing a Voyage of Discovery to the Arctic 
Region89 1818. 

. On the 14th of April, 1818," seveh chrono- 
meters were embarked on board H. M. S. Isa- 
bella, for the purpose of determining her lon- 
gitude at sea, of which the following is an ac- 
count: — 

No. 

Eamshaw's 8151 Fuj^jgij^d by the Ad- 
Arnold's - 369 V ^^.^jt 

Ditto - 2151J 

( The property of Captain 
Eamshaw's 1024^ Ross. 

A U SjS ) ^^® property of Henry 

I Browne, Esq. 

Ditto 5^ C Under charge of Captain 

^ Sabine. 

Parkinson &1 fSent on board by the 

Frodsham 3 \ makers. 

o3 



lended 
piece 
ention 
ihocks 



r.lixig 
Ittdto 
r()<ind 
1 floor, 
ed by 

ersbe- 
•d by 

IS3.of 
I tried 
ishaw, 
hs,for 



bout a 
to the' 
>e ex- 
le first 
f once 

a few 



APPENDIX, N0% VH.* Ifi9 

day«, when it was unfortunately forgottep to be 
wound up ; and oa iNo. ^23. Wai^a pocket watch, 
it altered veiyi much; by.the.e&ct ^f heat and 
C0I4 and was tk^refoare rejabted by me in the 
calculations for .the.longitu40^.an4 No. 2151 
having met .with m additional dccid^irt in falling 
out of my hsuKls^ was ajbo rejected for the 
voyage, and the Watches were m^d'^ W^ of for 
observing.. 

On the 14th of AprU, the corrections to 
mean time at Greenwich fef* the five bo?: chro- 
nometers {Ti9m which the loi^tude ia laidi down, 
were as f;dlow9 :— 

f 

No. 815 fast 58.7 gaining 0.^ (Jaily 

369 7^51 7.S5 

228 0.45 3. . 

1024 0.59 i. — ^ 

25 .51 ^. ^ 

Nos. 2151. and 5^3. are left (Wt, ds th^y w«re 
^ot used in my calculiEttienS. 

On the 1st of Mdy, 1^ observations token at 
Gardie-house, on the Island of Brassa, in Shet- 
land, its longitude was determined as follows :-*^ 

o4 



*» 



AI9ENDIX, 


NO. "I. 


By No. 815 


1 IS i». West, 


— 369 


1 09 SO ' 


2«8 


1 SS S4 — - 


1024 


1 16 82 


^— 35 


1 13 *S 


Mean9 


1 15 52 West, 



jbeing only 22" further west than my observations 
in 1814 ; and allowing Nos, 228. and 25, to 
balance each pther, I take 1" 13' to be the 
longtude of Gardie-house. ' 

On the 13th of May, the longtude was de- 
termined by lunar observation, and was found 
to be — 

Longitude, by means of &vp dis- 
tances of the Sun and Moon, , , ^^ 
taken by Captain Ross...; .31 0^8 8Q W. 

Longitude, by means of five box i 
phronometers -. 21 8 15 W, 

. ,' Wffi is 



e02 APPENDIX, SO. VtU 

Loi^tude, by means «f obsoT' 
ations, taken by lieut. Esuy ^ , » 
ontbeiceberg 53 49 00 W. 

Longitude, by means of aQ the 

officers of both ships 58 4fi 11 



The longitude^ by the means of the chronome- 
ters, did not materially differ from that obtained 
by so many hinar observationsi taken under such 
favourable drcflmstances; but flevcrflideSS, th^ 
were fotand considi^niUy tod^^ tfcm each «^r, 
and were accortBngly r^tihted eH^cOo^ln:-^' 

The longitude, hj^ means of my ^ . , „ 

obsCTvatiotts, being 53 47 53 W. 

And by the means of aU the 

officers of both ships 53 45 11 W. 

I take for my true longitude, 
themewis 53 46 32 W. 



At the same tinus, , No. 1024 ^ ^ ^^ 

gave longitude. .-...- «.. 53 46 32 W. 

I, therefore, consider that its rate hasremained 



time, in like manner— i >■ ■ 



22a||^ — 9.24 " —12.5 

Tbene r^tes p«nuiiencfl4 qp the l«t <rf Jijiie, 
2114.00 life ^ifi of ti»t ojcfltti, by Mar diwtvr 

tok«pl»fiei,-l»Bt, t)*«)«p tl»rt,S#e.!«ld % 1*A 
of September, no observ»tioa9 wbtch could be; 
4«peaded od were obt&iQed. Between ^ I8th 
an4 8iai of September, I had the foUmiag ob- 
servations— 

18 September, B from Aldaba.- , ,^ 

ran, E of her 7 00 W. 

«I ditto » from Pollux. 3 30 W. 

ei ditto t ditto 6 00 W. 

23 dit« 5 from O E. 

means of 3 sets 4 55 E. 

S4 ditto » from Alde- 

baran ,.'^,..; » .,« 4 15 E. 



204 APPEhDIX, Na vu. 

The means of observations W^ *, _, ^^ 

of the chronometer, being......... 6 l6 

And those E. of the chrono- 
meters being 4 35 



The mean was $>uni^ to be .., 474. 

or slow of Grre^wjch time. 

' By these observations it must appear evident, 
that any error arising from the above difiference, 
could not be perceptible on a chart, where the 
degrees of longitude amount only to fifteen 
miles }' and therefore the situation of the land 
deduced irbm" the ship's track must be correctly 
kid down ; but although the means of the chro- 
nometers were so satisfactory, their differences 
from each other were so considerable that it was 
found necessaiy to giyp them the following new 
rates, viz. ,., ,. , , / - - , ' 

No. 815 Ganing ,3 5 p^y'\ ' 

' .369 ", ,7-. '2. '. ,.'V-r-.'- '.' 

228 " —_■ .10 ',,'-;-" \ 
1024 Losing 3 , , — ' 
25 Gaining 9 . ' 



\ 



APPENDIX, NO. VII. 205: 

, On the 9d of November, the ships having re-' 
turned to Brassa Sound, allowing 2I4. seconds of 
time, or 5t miles. The longitude was found to 
be as follows:— 



No. 815 


. t /f 

1 15 05 W. 


369 


46 20 W. 


'228 


1 08 43 W. 


1024 


50 58 W. 


25 


1 20 46 W. 


' Means 

■:» ■■!■ 'i ;, > ■■'::■< ', •■ 


1 08 52^ 

* . ■ ■ ■. ^ - . 


\j • , - • • . ... 


'■'1 'is' 53 ' ' '-■ 



*' c 



Ditto, rejecting 369, which had gotfe iiregiK 
larly for some days. - 

The lunar observations inserted in the fore- 
going abstracts^ are only for the purpose of i^how- 
tng how the chronometers were regulated. The 
true longitude both by the lunar observations 
and the chronometers wiU be found in the en- 
graved tables, where the latitudes, variation, 
and magnetic dip are also to be found, as well 
as the meteorological observations. The lati- 
tudes and longitudes of the alphai>etical list of 
places in Baffin's Bay and iDavis* Strait, have 



996 AVFEvnUi 

been csniidfy token irdii 
coQStracted firom the most t 
iiuule in both ^riiips, by Mi 
lias since been deposited at 
Office in the Admiralty. "^ ' 

It ought to be ihentioned, 
voyage the ships never rettux 
place nor remained long enoii||^ 
for the usuil method of regulat 
ters^ 



t 



\ ' V 









V 






t ... 





V 




I Vl 


r.'.-^.- ' ^'S":'[' .r'^* -j'*^':\t^r''w 9(ii 




. .^■■./.^' 'T'J '\'.,^'^ fvi'^Vv^^vIo 


f.'^si . 




^ 't* 


*' .'^ ^5 '.■- -' .' "0 Jvi>vl .01 


VJ^i C-' 


1 ■. - ( T ,' . 1 ^ 


«» } r 






> << 

i «. 



APPENDIX, No. ;vm. 



jir I ^i 



,'f 



66SERVATl6^^ '" 

... .. '. «..* ' 

ON 

THE DIP iSECTOR 



The follpwiiig Observations, taken by the Dip 
Sector, were fbrnished by Mr« J» C Ross ; but 
the use of this iiistrument wis totally suspended 
ift Baffin's Bay, by the inequility of the dip, and 
the r^ractton in tiie natiural horizon, from which 
causes no result could be obtained by observing 
with it in the presence of ice. After leaving 
the ice, the weather was never again favourable 
f^i angr cbservi^ons with, this valuable inatru- 
ipeiit. 

Mtttf 13. Lat, &^ N. Long.^^ W. light ^s, 
and cloudy J temperature of the air 52^} water 



^08 AP]P£NIHX, NOi VIH. 

at the sur&ce *gei^fearomi«P«^*45'; hygro- 
meter 2' 8Sf. . M » , 

Pomts of ith^o^on observe^^Mt 8nd west 
clear, and y^L Se^d. 0^ 8» » 

INDEX t^rflRnfesT. INDEX %^ii:D. 

* 46 •^9 S?% ft S 

2 46 15 8 "^ 'SIT""" " 

2 45 40 Sr'^ ^ v^^ 



► ■ ■^iii . i — • t i ■ ■ r „j^ 1 



Mean 2 46 ($(9'''»^R^<^ %^ 



4) 1^ 12 ye 1- liQ 



4 S • Dip ob'served. 
. ■ 4 11 Tabidar Dip for 18 feet- 






P<»i86> girt^'N^W. -and SMf tl th?ll.l!k^%| 
horiaoh ^(fii^^sfeii? sUd Mm^i^aM^ kthe S:£« 

the ddi»!i9^«feS8aidttg MeSae^^asLf^-^^^ 

sionalglare,'but still well-de|ftietr;'1-? iI-JW?cr . 



^ .w ^ 



AppsifDix, .so. Tin. . 

INDEX UPM»1I0»T. .DOOS INTXKT« 

SMM 3 3 

« M 00 8 « M 

<MM 3 330 

. ZMOO 3 2 50 


Mem < M «0 
S S Si 


Mem 3 8 2^ 


' 


4) 19 l«i 




4 M Dip observed. 
4 11 TUiuluDip. 



Oitt + »Z 



Ar<^ {((„,. )L,^i3f,.N. LoBg. SO* W. 1' 3(f 
P.M. li^t iin N.N.W. dottdjr withers w«ter 
»t tkt lurfece 47;*i •" *7°i bajpmeter 29" 8'; 
h yy w y ta r 8* 76' » Mft omooth. Points observed 

N.L»ild, Sr\f« > Ae.l*-?- *y-'*W> '«»'- 
zoa^k, and ivdl defined. .la the S.W. the 
cloud* new the hpriaui 4uli> the bodion light, 
and not well definefiU -^ . -..).- 
vou n. - p 






o in 

!9'44 55 


• 




€45 20 


3^ 


2.-M« . 


1»44 la 


3. 




2-44-45 


> 3-'^8-45 


. -S-^* 10 


3 


i-d» 


# 44^ 25 


3-' 

1 


2 a 


Mean 2 44 37f 


Mean ^ 


^ M- 


3 2 4-I- 






<^ '*» '"l 


Dip observe! 
Tabular Dip 

4 
t<» . - - . 




4) 17 m 




4 21| 
4 12t 


for 1«| ieet. 


Diff. + 91 


• . • - * - - V 




A. 











ynrStNM.,SL good bre^ie, dfcy^dotfi^^1*fa»*5r 
at the »yaeSace\BSif', air «9*; bawAheter «9* W; 
hygrometer 8' 78'. Points obsov^d iu«th mA 
soutii, both rtPUiem clear «nd weB d^»ed. 



»5 



212 AVPENtolX, NO. Vlli, 

N. and S. points ofMserved oy Mr. J. C Ros^ 



*-t*OJ 




iis ss 


.S-*«0 


*** 


» !» SO 







2 44 
2 2 20 

4) :a Xt 



4 35 Dip eb ier v o d . 
4 14 DipfiU-lStAet. 



Vine 2. LidciiS* 41' N. iMg. S!f54i^'.% , At 
8" 30" P.M., light breezeSifcoiB E8»E.5,»e«*'ety 
smooth; a great quantity of ice in sight; water 
at the surface 31°; air 33°; barometer 29' 48'; 
liygrometer 5° DC. 



$14 it>FBimkx, m. vM. 



• J V- V 



t^ M 



By Mr. J.^ ۥ Ross only. 



• ♦ ^ 

INDEX INVERTED* 
<> / // 

2 59 45 
^59 55 
S 15 


INDEX UPPERMOST* 
e. i // 

^2 46 50 
-2 46 59 
2 4d 4l 


2 59 58 
« 46 50 


-2 46 50 




4) -IS » 


- • - >4 

4k ^ 


3 17 Dip 

'.. 4 11 Dip 


observed, 
fcr ife feet. 


DiflL —54 


* 



On tiie W^of August, lat. 74* l6' ^. Img^ 
81^ W. ; a pleasant breeze from W.Tsr.W, (true); 
horizoi^ clear, and well defined j one or two ice- 
bergs in sight J water at the surface S6**j air 
S8°; barometer 29725 hygrometer SJLOj 1& 
feet» height of the eye« 



APPEHPix, NO. vnr., 21A 

IKDEX UPPERMOST.. INDEX INVERTED, 

o / // ct / /# 

2 48 30 » t 65 

k 417 50 3 2 18 

2 48 as 3 3 25^ 

a 4Q SO 3 1 45 

2 47 32 3 2 35 

2 48 20 3 2 20 

2 48 10 3 2 4a 

2 48 45 3 ^. 30 



2 48 ll.is; 

III fl iii J I Km I I J ; 



Dip observed 
Dip fyr 18 feet 

DijQference 



^ ^31 

2 48 ii.5 


4)14 19.5 


$ 34.9 
ill 


— S6.1 



p 4 



• t 



- wf 



\j^iiOaite 5ril \o noit^fiimjtjilr edi eHil is Ami ^ 
oq TXJO^k b9fafls;tz9 giiij ^.bift ii.e'ip yd bsaus 

Xiev ^ 3f!j>i£fbiai ij? ^ boiijaqq/^gjib is Ik noof? 
c sfi:^ oi fljinss ^ili nioT^ bsj'i^b losiam ioBil 

LklitAint MMc^saitaaa, vAttm iiiltimiiviim» 
particularly directed to this phenomenojttjxlilwwk 
was not seen until late on our homeward pas* 
8^&£d I^io%^Q»gC&t0(l!tlilt,.1»lu^a^€eBre 

iniUQ HkhHo^ «i« i|iiftfly!it»tiai}wfte$ei^9iftafe< 
tnnwtkiccMiUqn^te MMdt^ '.^^i9l^8g]E;<sfttfiiqil» 

^doAinnibattslillegpbqe oof ^Jxitrii^tirqf^iife jptffiP^ 
iw^«Kitoifk9ie^<0«^ i^t it m»fi-W^ W 

'. .n9^8 sd c1 bu-:'5 c jo't . id- id enor'.?: ai&is 

iterAiitoi:9C<^|ABaliaj>«9d ^tfi^initbstniefMh 
the (isiii^or Bettiijyirf4jie i» t> rtahlMli l < ^»ai'i« 



or rather like the illiunmatipn of the atmosphere 
caused by ^eat fires ^ this extended four points 
of bearing | re^^eif^^di&iAdL^i^SkSd up per- 
pendicularly in bundles to £0'' altitude ; the Au* 
rora spread to S.£^»»kthout darting rays» and 
soon ^er disappeared ; at midnight a very bril- 
liant meteor darted from the zenith to the east- 
em horizon lftfe^iari:ocket,and-^a^'*en for 2" or 
3"'y the evening was fine, with a light breeze 
iBrbm^th^rweA^^rard, which shifted in.lJy^inofiiiBg 
t0 the Muthward, blowing fredi iitfh :Jbf^ 
iK^lher. 

September «6., in lat. &J*^ 50' N. long. 6l^ W^, 
alMfut nine in the evening, the Auroca BcMnlis 
^^l» seen very brilliant in eveiy point of basii^, 
i^&eoting bundles of rays of unequal length. to 
l^e zenith. This Aurora was first seen Idiioug^ 
a t&tdk liiist fai the zenith} as the misk ppaed 
away, the Aurora increased in bfilhaenqr,, Mie 
stars shone bright ; not a cloud to be seen* At 
el^n r^ie Aurora became less bi;illi^t^ jasi^ the 
Ay again obscured with mist; the horizon con- 
tinued hazy tOl two next morning, wlien the 
A3S»mL was again seen yery brilBant in>^^ ze- 
^Mk\ i'weather again became fipggyi theiwipl 
1M4U3 l^ht^ftom nortfawaid, wMeh'shHted^ 



P;M/ dlfSeH^d!:!^ •^<)ti»era ^^ bKilli<i&^ iroat 
1S. hy 'Eti td Si by^Wi^ ^If^^'afipeared from tie- 

fi^ta the west, wiiich Shifted to S. W. **- Mo- 

5^^fe*<'l®/' 'IM. 65"^ N. long.' 6S]f* W.-^ 'At 
tJitt 'W^^'^lh'^^liM^ tile Atur«r»; was ««HiJ«et7 
1^:ini^ ^Kifi^^tS^ W. "to'S. EJ :(mie i^isiiiDSii^) 
^WiRHiiig irayft to the altitude of 1^*^) uKudie 
YfionaSMijg of tlie 90th, it Was )^»itd .«il oitdr.tbe 

■-■-ft i;li "Cf" ••;. i.:"j-->. iifK. /•;:.:. -,.■ {jLf'ri-i* hi : ■ 'Mv 

^I^UaM t^' 19^/ &i-^ ^cfeO(tqfoittit.ilke 98M*e 
ther^'was a ' ve^£ ^te^ i^y«iia&*lsiiider .lie: 



Ai>PfeNDIX, NO. It. ^19 

parta^ SmsU bwadtea of fihMVpWtetJ.rajp were 
shot pvrpwtlif^lftr tstaxt i\i pript<4 «f| tAt aitoti to 
the aiUStrde oMO* About'tiiii tiirJ-wch-sWited 
more to tfifc «e^wardt mid <(>mi ^tta}ipMr#t}, 
fhMlr breen.il froln ' W S W. trua and clew ^^- 
1tghtv-uf-f(Air AM.-^ light mAdt) SI *W vAn- 
tuiuw^-all dftv wlti hiii\ Tvcather 

lOrfofter 6 Lat €0" N long 56" W Siteng 
(fales and squally, with snmn artd sleet, — cib 
%rved the nhtflc sky siidduiily iffluo^aled, for 
ifvc br-nx aihitAes* tbH ifijgM be Ule Aurora in 
^e-zenfith; wifad NVW tftodenktii:^ untarcb 
ikiofr 

^Bfetoter^ lat -59* N ilong ^50" W, At 
leaght hV the «f(intng, observed ^e Atwora ver> 
bnght on the true east quarter, shootw^ ^ca,'uSti 
"ful T&y^ in buhdh s frdin the horizon to tht ftlti- 
Iftdo ^ nOE^ ^ this ir^ fio6n 'ufncDri d by qqnalls 
■(ifa taow aAd sleet. From aloe to tvv^lve the 
:fciinM«r iraa seen in evei^ ptLVt of t))te iieavens 
itWote^^fldBams ofl^ht m every dffcct^oi^, satd 
itoiiiftbnlhaBl:, -appearing from N.,V^ toW.t^ 
?(: tii^c4>eiinngv; ;ttiMi«|f NViBtlt and sqHfUjfr^nfii 
decti firmi N W by V 'tru«, inu-ea^mg to a hinti 



SdO AJCPEKDIX, NO. IX. 

gide on ^ i»# ^^M'MS^Wf? *«> ^1®^ 
hard to noon of the tenth, when it iroderated. 



October 17. Lat 51° N. long. 25° W. At 
eight P.M. observ^^|}|^(^^^y(>ra to be^ in two 
concentric arches } th^ip*eate8t arch, from true 
east to west, pasang through the zenitii, the 

of 45% ekfOlMgl^ftM mpt ^oftcuJilMiparts, bat 
most brilliant from the western. At half-{>ast 
eight, thesftmN^lis> dlli^laǤd^^!a&d another 
niostanS^lil^dletWaifsbttv niok1ikJ4ifiliH}zeBW} 
th^^^6€3ftr^^«illifo^4A[rOIl^ tfa^ p(ik[itai)bd»«». 

tt^&mk ^foa^hiif^ i<h0]ed^mf iddQwaaiinB^ 
riifiis^ i»fifi6i{f iB0t<^'^'«>ithJUi>tthd( p^snlBtic 
cidi0UA.J^^^rhJl^ife9l|{wQtii«io«D faardkeii, ^aa&^ 
iUia(liP^ifedifi^dd<f4alJi>eBQ«ieU eomsiatidatdki 
dlftMliktd^48MMP^>c^ dfn&egniaenfa^ siiiflii^ 
fWpdfctc^'V&le -w9dAMtinl)^£lAit» MonnbdioqMiis- 
^fiftSM^Qfil «h«iVttiAyp«iaid tU* AxBoiannwaMiei. 
^SBkm d(8^i^paAill|p^fkr^iisp^siiig9iibr mllqtlHl. 
A0ui{>oQ4t^^(i3Q(» tiiri£Aiiflara8aH*ypratA1,9dte 

flfle<7 clouds in the slgr, which had.ifjdloib5|i|i- 

ider it It blew Ifard 




»^ ' 



,bajfii9bom ix naiw ,HJn3i-3rii lo noon oi k. 



t^iijiJ mo it idotB iBsi&^r^^iii i&ddoTB onimui 
■*ni ,riJin9s adi d^uotdi gmaaeq . ,ia9yr oi ci 

•ad <et[£qM^2B9^ f{» MdtfBRfttDl^ <°^ti> - 
isaq-lljeri iA .niajesw alii moii iasillhd 3i( 
ddion& bSeat^aiipi^UlA Q»0fiafiiQZddi Ml.' 

Kvatiop&jvbtaqtiife ^tfati^tflmi^TiiSfoiF^T^ 
^•tfianllaD«oi»hk1iodldeeibif» ^fl«6d»r^j|l^> 

KttomodKliiaeHt tiit&yhvuidh/^ ^i^fi^oJP^a^- 

IJudMbik. b&d li^idw (-^ia siii ni sbuoh \obt ' 
aifid vrsid dl •^^^^-'^ rSi^'ISBonadw 90ii6i*c 
'dbora iii'd ^S^ma ^umoT^re^*9iit moi 



AtPBNDIX, NO. X. 

heavy, it ceased ^to traver^ wlien the variation 
was llO', and the dip Sef: 7 ^ : , 

This instrument ani^^ered the purpose for 
which it was intended, and completely obviated 
the effect of los^lr'attracticfl^j biitrifae card being 
heavy, and the needle short and not very^ power- 
fully 'in^gtet^fea,t^it Beasfed* to act when^' the 
variatiSh^^ |4^^^^'^- - -"^ ^ - ■''''' ' ^ -■''-'' ,. 



■* ^'i 



Is depidedly superipr to aUtotb^s^x^^jqir^ 
and needle being w^ pcdpoftic^^dt a^^ iS^ 
friistion being fe^tei i«3W»|p{a^t6d^^by %\e xf^ 
nioiis miux^r of aiia|>en^<m> !IBt is ,i{$II^d#p^ 

whi^i aU otlfiershad cefts^ ta ad:- ^'tiii|ui. ^. 



Burrs Bifmacle am pte^rmg Qmipos^* 

This inYenuon has several p6cuhar|idv?intages. 
The facdity with wmch ilf is lighted m stormy 



weather, and the small j^oe it occupies, are 
gr^^^t advantage^; 1|5^^^^^ on 

board the Isabella ^as however tpo l^Tge,^ suid it 
was therefore the first which f^eajSed to act i but 

this mightiv e^wte ,b« pbi^wted^by iw^[m^^ 
lighter cards, accjcurdjiiig to t^e st^ of the 
weather. . *•■ •'' l>- 'v.- ... • • ,.-,■ 






I ' 



I p 






^ > > 



^?hi^ opmpass was.pp\^:esfa)ly jfiagnjeti^y and 
continued to tpayecse best^ aft^ 1^ Alexazi4^s> 
but the card was also too heavy where the dip 
and yw^tioJ^ w^e ^^at* |t^ i? an e^^^ 
pass for other pl^es whey ip these effects are not 
so^renuu^able/'-' ^ ' ^-^ ^'' -^^ "^ x'^-n: :-.-•. :.■ 

Tnmsit I^r^^e^MMi"^^' 
3%lepe 
^rUlaehts 




224 APPBNDIX, NO.X 

- No mt^^mtkmKtu^^^M^ 

time 





e'^ 



-r^ 



s. • * •- > 



was » »w i r i iHl ii iat .i>^-.lwi^Hifc.e^ «Be 

whii><iri< W i i f iaiMl Oft, liuMtcMiat 

to ft«i»«Mli«Mi vittMMt: 



IHi it aft iwft i i wM iiMtrmaeli^ «ii iMNmvjr 

nM«ii»i taw oviag to tfc« inniwiihatty «f 

IrnB ^i im wkm tfae card on which k alnidi » 
lena tk» fMikii «r our olMmitiMit on il cMMt 
be ^ m m m. Whm the dtp wm ri iwu a IT 
it cMriihMi kt kiyt in the nM»ida»^flil «#» 
n»«k tft Mii «f 4rtjr on one »di^ wo^iiwimk 
ca»be tmtit of whetever enor it im^ kmk 

be ilf iiiii i mmji, mm. i» * wmttm wiach 



had been made m ' ^ ilM L^ ^'feor ; this was 

had Mi^MlMtiHMfeMH^tllliH^^ 
however, the obsdrvntions (ligm WMftlj^w \i 
with those made <m Mr. Browne's, and I have 
no doubt ri gMHiH iHlHtfitl ilftMWriTf;. ^ 

»ent^^^#fKvl? 9fiy^e|j£^ .,^. ;.,.,^ |,^ jlilHfc 

TroughtoiCs Whirling Horizon, 

This in3trul$r%«t 'coiilif %^ ^^'d^^ftSed on, 
eveii 19. |j||l^gi9««tfae«t water; .fer-l MjMdmi iiligd^ 
bratif)n%'^;1^et( jROduced an|a|i«fin|9ddinl99i^.:^ 
the ^t^'i^eptfid (Ejects- 0|)encidi «l|dli«l|jttir\ c 
abo\!^^4t4i<af[p#^i«jii£ ti^ vm, in: QeinfBfiimMijolp, 
its ifl||i|^||i^ isMiai^ its horpKmtaa po«^ii9iii:«kftf& : 
the |il4pj|afji||i9ti$^, .--^i j*>»f'l*lk«»: 

'"^ ^MsTatentLog:' '' ^'*^ ""' ' 

: This instnim||||:«fvv^y|i^(B||Mi|ly well, 
but firom a.defect in the, materials wt 

f'-; . vfi'K^ aaSS^ »■<•»*■' «> « -''^^ * HMHNU^ wJMlMi 



was made, and which we were not ai 

VOL. II. "^ 




9^ AFFENDIXi NO. ;X« 

we could not use it after it wsfi damagecL I am 
of (q[>iQion» however, that this instrument would 
be of great use, particularly ,to aurveyipg, yej^spls, 
as it is capable of measuring a distance with 
great accuracy. 

Sir Humphrey Davy^s Water-Bottle 

Did not close so as to prevent the water from 
escaping or mixing with that nearer the surface 
as it came up. 

Kater^s Altitude -Instrument. 

Thi* is likely to become a valuable instru- 
ment; — it requires practice, and Mr. Bisson and 
Mr. Ross made great progress ii\ it \, but it was 
not sufficiently, near the truth to be depended on 
for working the time ; the general opinion was, 
that it was on too small a scale* 

Dip Sector. 

This valuable instrument was used when on 
our passage out and home ; but during the time 
w^ were in Baffin^s Bay its use was suspended 
by' the great inequality of refraction on the 
horizon. x ' 



Dip Micrometer. 

Thssi instmmeiit wa^ liot used. 

. • '■'.... 

Elet^tricat Apparatus. 

This apparatus being intended to be used 
when the ship was frozen up, or stationary, did 
not come into use ; there having been no op. 
portunity fit for the purpose during the whole 
voyage* 

S^nqMesometer. 

This instrument act9 as a marine barometer^ it^ 
has also the advantages of not being affected by 
the ship's motion, and of taking up very little 
room in the cabin. I am of opinion, that this 
instrument wiQ supersede the marine barometer 
when it is better known. 

The other instruments intended for this pur- 
pose require no reports. 

H3drem(ttr 



\ , 



Was commonly used in obtaining the specific 
gravity of the water. - 



Q 2 



33»> APPENDIX. MO. X. 

Ifie Sector and Micrometer 

Were used whenever it was possible, and the 
observations noted ; but it was seldom that the 
horizon could be found sufficiently clear when 
among the ice ; and afterwards, the ship had too 
much motion. 



Baine^s Log. 

This machine, owing to some defect in the 
workmanship, soon wore out by the friction of 
the spiral wheel ; it was aft;erwards repaired, but 
could not be shipped until our return to Shetland, 
when it was again set a going, and completely 
answered its purpose. 

Jemings^s Log and Glass. 

These instruments were very superior, and if 
generally used would save expense. 

» 

Burfs Buoy and Kmppers. 

This invention appears to be very perfect, but 
owing to the water being generally above 150 
fethoms, we had little opportunity of using it, 



APPENDIX, NO. X. SS9 

■ . ./■ • • ^ • 

Lieutenant Cowley^ s Boat. 

This l^pikt 13 g^ aa exqell^t plan, and had we 
been emplpy^ jin surveying the coast, would 
have beea useful in that respect, as well as in 
the principal one, that of saving our lives if 
driven to the boats. Although we fortunately 
never had occasion to use her, the reflection that 
such a resource was at hand, in instances where 
the>3hip9 were exposed to danger, could not fail 
to produce the best effects ; and when it may 
become necessary to stow men and provisions for 
a considerable time in a small compass, this boat 
po^Reasies many advantages. 

Mr. Plentty^s Cork Life-Boat. 

TTiis meritorious invention was in like manner 
of great service, for it evidently possessed the 
quality of sustaining the shock of striking on a 
rock or on ice without being in any way 
damaged ; and, therefore, in case of shipwreck 
would have easily saved the lives of the crew* 

JOHN ROSS, Captain* 



Q a 



APPENDIX, No. XL 



d 4r 



232 



APPENDIX, NO. XI. 




APSENmX, NO. XL. 



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■S36 APPENDIX. HO. XI. 



APPENDIX, NO. XI. 




APPENDIX, NO. XI. 



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APPENDIX, No XII. 



MsaBSBasBai 



I 



LATITUDES AND LONGITUDEI OF 

PLACES. 

^ Latitude. \ Umpx^t. 

Adaib, Cape - - .- 71 ^ ??) 00 

Agnes Monument — Rock JO 37 07 30 

Agnew, Cape , - - - 71 S4; Jj^ 45 

Alexander, Cape .- - 77 43 75 30 

-^ Bank .- - 69 9 fS 00 

Allison Bay - - - 74 40 37 56 

Antrobus, Cape ,- - .71 .57, J3 50 

Arabella Rock - - 76 35 70 34 

Ardrossan Bay - . - - 70 37 J^B 40 

Aston, Cape - - - 70 lO i^ 25 

Athol, Cape - .- - 76 ^ ^41 

Baffin's Islands - - - 74 01 57 25 

Banks' Bay . - - - 74 46 76 ios 

Barnard's Mountains - 75 55 00 

BarroVs Bay - .- - 73 40 ^45 

Bathurst Bay - - .-73 S3 ^6 24i 

Beatrice, Cape - - - 74 '32 80 30 



240 APPEKDiz, NO. xn. 

Bell's lak . ... . fl «7 f« 00 

BissomCipt - - - 69 t§-^'lib"~ 

Black Hook, Cipi - - 7^ «7 ■ lil ^Tf 
Booth'tS«adh - - . 76 49 '^"T^ M"^' 
Borthtridt '. - - 65 a4j*W*lJt) 



i 



Bowen, C^ \ - - 7« :«f t 74 *J^ 

Brodialh^ - ' '- - W^tX)^ ^' ^!f 

BrougfaUM, C«pto - . &t 47 ^ fear 96' 

BrpwiM's Idtnds - '- 75 ©"^ ^^flO^dS'^ 

Bru<« B«y -.** ". - 7Cr"«8 'iBfJf^ii 

BuBhfUui'a life • - 7^ <H 60 «6 

Bute Una - - - 70 «6'WiS^ 

Byani Mirtili. 1C«|« -. 79 i&::^:iO^^ 



• \ ' 



Cal«t0B,6ve - - 76 i«»^ 79 l«, 

CainylMB, C«p^ - - 64 06 '.65 1«^ 

CatfimMmt, Cafe ' - 71 »Z 7^ 96 ' 

Cai^i IdiHMb ., -" - 76 49 ''Z^ 10. 

Catkotee't Bay^ • • 19 90 U iiO 

duBkHCc Cipe • • 74 d!2 79 80 

CharWUaiid ■ - 6S 00 &^ d 

C\aikKf,C»9e ' •' - 68 STf '68 Hi 

ChiiitMiw Cape -■ - 70 93 O7 m 

Clawnce,Ci^ - * - 76 45 77 45 

ClepiuHM, Cape - - 65 54 61 

Clyde, River - - - 70 «r^ *) 






ATPENOU, NO. XII. 



■J5 sajj^ffs . V) 
74 

7«" 

71 

71 

76 

74 

65 36 61 . iro 

76 -^s 'TCS^I 



Ci^t, 



Edward's Bay ... 76 88' :}'8-3d 
Bglinton, Caj)^ - - 70 48 68-S* 

EUzabeth'i Bay - - 7S 30 -^Sd' *) 



Latitude. Longitude. 

Enderby, Ci^e - - - ^ 45 & SO 

£Keter Bay - . - 66 SO <«V ©0 

Fwishawe, Cape - - 73 40 70 £6 

Four Jsland Point . - 70 46 5a 03 

Frances, Cajpe - . - 76 «8 70 25 

Fiy» Cape - . - 65 06 68 25 

Gilbert Sound . - 67 48 5i3 20 

(Sfaham Mocire, Cap^ - 70 54 75 28 

Gamble Bay - . . 77 20 73 10 

Hackluit Island 

Haig's Island -, - 70 ^ 67 45 

Hamilton's Bay . - 7I ^ 70 40 

Hard^ckeCape - - 76 SQ 78 58 

Hathom, C^e . • . 71 so 72 20 

Hay, Cape - - - 73 S5 80 55 

Hope's Momun^ • - 72 26 8Q 45 

Hewett,Cape . - 70 87 ^ i8 

Kingston Bay - - 73 48 ^ 4D 

HoareBay - . - 65 18 6& ^ 

Hom(»Bay - - - 68 40 64 « 

Hooper, Cape - - 68 06 64 36 

Hopimer, C^ » - 76 fifl 5i«^ 4» 

Horse*!* HeM - - 74 4© m I^ 

Hi^rslnirgh,, Cape - - 74 «► 73 



f 


— ^— ji 

'I 

i 
3*8 


Latitude. 


Longitade. 


Hard, Cape - . 77 4& 
Hynd'i'Bay - . - 66 S3 


/ 

62 


Iliglislay 1 - . 65 47 
Inihallkk . . - 76 
Iron Mountains - - 76 10 
Isabella, Capf* * * -* 77 48 
Isabella's Baftk - . "69 SO 


61 60 \ 
66 46 

77 00 1 
6d OiDf 



Jacob'6 Bay, (or N.E^ Bay) 7I 00 53 OO 
Jfttoesoii, Cape - - 71 4ff 73 80 
Jones's Sound - . - 76 20 78 10 

Kiterj'tape *• - - 69 39 65 1* 

Lady Ann Hope'* Bay 
Libncafiier Sound! - 
Lawsoil, Capfe J - . 
Lfeifle Bay, (br Ldve Bay, q^ 

God Haaven 
L^opdld, Cape - . ^ 

Lewis; Cape * 

Lindsay, Cape 

Loch Ryan -» - 

Miicktlitosh^ Cap£ 
Mirtili-Motidtains ^ 

r2 



75 


54 


80 


00 


74 


19 


63 


50 


71 


41$ 


45 


36 


69 


10 


54, 


40 


75 


40 


18 


li 


75 


m 


59 


00 


76 


06 


79 


24 


65 


06 


63 


0«5 


&7 


OO 


63 


00 


73 


«« 


80 


00 



2** AFPENDIX, NO. XII. 

Lt te ai t . Longitode. 

Maiy Ana lakad • ■ 71 85 71 35 

M<CuUoch, Cape - .7^ 1» ft 14 

M«mfiai;lja^ - > . 71 ^ 71^ 48 

If *LSty, Ca|»e . - -70 15 6(5 185 

Meildehairi j €1^ - ■ . 65 18 <& '50 
MdviUe, Ba^ 

' - La.i 76* 5' to 75' 12^5 Xoi^. «6* to 6*^ 

Mdville, Cape - • - 76 05, 64* 30 

litelvflfe's Monument - 75 33 59 "l8 

MfercSkts' Bay - - 67 38 6i:^ 

l*ffleftl$ljm<i ;;. - 65 12 63 tiS 

JJforr^CaiJe - - - 76 09 62- "^0^ 

MouaVCape' '■' - - 77 29 78 %i 

MbrdoSh, Ckpe ' - - 76 08 61 *'^*8 

Miis,MGape-- - - 63 38 6^'' is 

Hl^^Ayr ' -^ . - 70 00 72 ''60 

North Bay Islands - 68 19 53 i7 

Nytth^Galld^^y ^ ^ , - 71 00 73 OO 

0|fenfi^ck : f. . 73 25 57 ^6 

08borfae.Ca^ S'y^l'-'-^-''^J4,-U 8I; "% 

Ri^t,VCape - - - 70 10 7^ 5S 

PiliTy,'^ape' - - - 77 06 71 23 

P^vaM!^ >. . - 76 U 6^0Q. 

^^^ee^nl^y - ' - - 73 33 77 ; 28 

Ptmd's Bay - - . 72 38 75 00 



APPENDIX, NO. XII. 34*5 

Latitnd*. Iio^gitudt. 

•; IT m :t; • i<a&'^'i :::i-AoY^' ' 

I»riii^^Re^t>3ay, , c:.C ,±0 JiO' : • 

llmcfiiWiliiwn'sXand - 72 "SCh. ,33 90 



w' V," ^iN-l 








(^1^ A]p,*s,Cj»pe ^ - . fi6 ^ 53 90 I 

' e^i Mount . - . 61 1# 61 30 

^ |fead . - - 74 55 53 44 

Jpid'^i^y, . . - . 66 48 61 40 

" ibei^n, Cape. - - 77 2* 71 36 

I^Cape .. - - 69 54 65 H) 

]|i^)sa^nd. Cape. - - 74 , 10 SS IV' 

S^^Jslai^ > . 75 39 60 0» 

$Eilmc|i Jslanids - - • 70 11 . 65 . j^ 
Sayage! Islands, (or Wild 

Jsl^i) ':. . . 67 44 58 40 

S^umarez, Cape - - 77 30 73 5S 

Sttpdfei:son'8 Tower - 64 50 i^ 4^ 

So|eal^ck (or iron^pklountldns 76 10 65 6!4 

Scott's iBay - - - 71 10 70 00 

Sbackl(eton, Cape - - 73 36 ^ 1^' 

S|ieffiddBay . - . 65 30 62 30 

Sid^n,Cape - - 75 17 4^ 00 

Skene's island • . . 76 07 68 d4 

Smith's Souni . - 77 55 .76 15 

B 3 



i 



346 A^FWfDlXf NO. 


xa- 








•• 


iMataAe. 


Longitude. 


South East Bay - ^ 


m 


00 


o 

50 


00 


BtaiiTf Caps ^ . . 


77 


4a 


70 


55 


St. Clair, Cape - 


Q4> 


15 


64 


55 


^uff kowalUck 


76 


00 


57 


00 


Sugar-Loaf Idand - 


74 


02 


57 


80 


Thorn Islands 


75 


40 


60 


00 


Throe Tslaads (of Baffin) - 


74 


01 


57 


«5 


Unkfiown Island - 


71 


00 


53 


45 


• 

"Walker, Cape - 


75- 


46 


59 


54 


Walsingham, Cape 


66 


00 


60 


50 


Walter Bathurst, Cape 


73 


03 


76 


22 


Warrender, Cape - 


74 


Id 


8* 


30 

1 


Waygatt Island, (N.E. side) 70 


m 






Strait (N. datrgnce) 70' 


^ 






.Whale Islands ... 


68 


57' 


53 


30 


Whale Sound - - - - 


77 


15 


71 


20 


White, Cape - - 


76 


35 


70 


36 


WUcox Paint - -* . • 


74 


10 


m 


45 


Wollaston Island - 


69 


25 


65 


20 


Wolfttenhome Island • 


76 


24 


70 


22 


WoLstenhome Sound 


76 


m 


70 


00 


Woifi^'s lalandfl^ 


72 


4d 


56 


40 


x 

York) Cape - - 


75 


55 


65 


as 



APPENDIX, No. XIII. 



DEEP SEA CLAMMS, 



iNrMtrrtD mt captjin j. mok a if. 

This instrument was invented by me on board 
His Majesty's ship Isabella, in the early part of 
our voyage to the Arctic Regions j many fruit- 
less . attempts had been made to procure sub- 
Stances from the bottom of the sea in deep water, 
by the instruments with which we were supplied; 
and I had an opportunity of observing the rea- 
son^ of this failure, which led to the discovery 
of that which I am about to describe ; and which, 
in almost every instance, completely succeeded 
in accomplishing that desirable object, of bring- 
ing up substances of any description, in consi- 
derable quantity, from any depth ; but it has 
also been found to preserve the temperature of 
these substances, if they are sof^ until it can 
be measured by the thermometer ; uid by these 
R 4 



Sis APPENPtX, ^6. Xnu 

means the temp^mtiut^ ^ ^ earlb can bcf nesurly 
aac0rtai4^>|l; jmyjfaj^^ In^ Md- 

yille Bay, on the 1st <^ Alkguirtl^ it bKougfaliiip, 
from &iv lumdi^ed itilA i^wen^jr^i^^niai^ mmo^ 
sqft mud^ into. whiQb the ^ thf noometer wasr im- 
mediately immerse^t ^d it |^ve SOt''; «ikthe 
same tfm«.thfi'sd£iPegi]^efiaig therpiometei^ at 
the depith o^tgm hundred aod tftn^lbomfc g»ve 
the v^oae teii^rature* In Prince Regent'a JBay, 
i^ fojiui hiW^^i^d and .fifty-five iii^om^ ifcigave 
the saiQjei temiMsratnre- In the entrance i^ \fif^ 
caf^r ^i^pd, , a-t the 4epth of siz lu^adred a^d 

^^@iM^3!hf^^^ ^^^^^' ti^e tem{>eraturejof themu4 
i^.aiso.^fl4!*obe^94^^i a«d, 5^tth§%he8t 
pi^jpf^tJi^el^ in which we soiindeid». the mud 
^^,f9UQd tp be» in six hundreds an4 fifty fa- 

tj^i^ns, 29% . 

9z3^^e,6tl^ of September, in ktit»de:72^ 2S' 
Nij'.jflj^ Ippgitwi^ ys"" 07f we^t, we sounded in 
qn^.3^0][^^d ^4 Jlf^^ from, which 

d^p^ l^e in9lt|;umept t^rpught i^p a^ pounds of 
vei^XrPpft i]^u4i^ th$ next day being quite cahn, 
"We tried the temperature of the sea .at five» six, 
8ev:ejif^jgight hu^dl!^ ;^d a thouaajad fathoms ; 
and found its ten^^ature decreased from thirty-^ 
five gradually to the sa^e temperat^il^ as the 
instrument gave % yrhich wa& twenty>e|^t three- 
quajl^ers ; altlu)iji|gjh^ ^ t^e ins may not 



APPENDIX, ' NO. XIII. S49 

hnhg up the mud ftt the etsXA temperatiire of 
that at the bottom, it may be supposed that it 
caiamo^ have su&red . much alteration from its 
agreeing so nearly with the self-re^tering ther- 
mometer, and that,, if it has altered, it must be 
to increase the degree o^ temperature ; hence it 
may always be ii^erred, that the mud at the 
bcMom is^ not -of a higher temperature than that 
brought up by the instrument. The reasons for 
ISO little alteration taking place, is the closeness 
with which the instrument confines the mud, 
whiish is such as not to allow even the water to 
^^istpe. If the instrument strikes among stones, 
which are small^enough to get between the for- 
ceps, it will bring up as many as are enclosed in 
them^ in one instance it brought up a stone 
which weighed two pounds and a half, fVom 
three huifidred fathoms^ and in anothei*,' it 
struck a rcick and cut a piece out, which it 
brought up from two hundred and sixteen fa- 
thoms. The instrument was made from the 
model by the ship's armourer, and succeeded on 
the first trial. 

To use the deep sea damms, it is necessary 
to be provided with whale lines, such as are used 
by the Greenland and South Sea ships, which are 
two and a half inches in circumference, made of 
the best heinp, and very pliable and easily coiled; 



i60 AnEHPlX, NO. XIIJL 

the lines ought to be policed together^ and&ked 
or coiled so as to run quite clear on the fore part 
of the ship's decks. In very de^ water, it is 
necessary that It should be calm or nearly so, to 
b^ certain that soimdings are obtained i^ 500 
fathoms ; but, in a light breeze, the instrument 
may be hung to a boat and towed in the direc^ 
tion of the ship's drift, and if thejre is any wind 
it is best to lower all the sails down. As oot- 
ijgger, fitted with a block, should be fixed on 
the weatherrquarter, through which the line 
^ught to be rove and bent to the instrument 
when it ought to be lowered untU it is a fathom 
below the surface, and then let go ; the instru- 
ments and lines may, however, be made for dif- 
ferent depths, and used accordingly \ for the 
North 3^a, I would recommend one of fifty 
pounds. The following are the dimensions and 
defitoription of the first that was made :-^ 
'..0 • ■■■ ••■ 

Description (^(l Machine^ talAng up Sound- 
ings from ihe Bottom of any Fathomable Bep^; 
invented by Captain John Ross, His Mcgesty^s 
Ship Isabella, and caUed by hm, A DEEP 
SEA CLAMM< 

A B. A hoUoyr parallelogram of cast iron 
(1 cwt), eighteen inches long, six by six, and 

12 



AFPEimix, Ko. xxn. 



«51 



three-quarter inches in the outside square, and 
in the inside fotxr by^flve inches vAde. 

C. Is a view of the top, and a strap of iron 
across it, through which the spindle passes, and 
two inches below another strap of the same kind 
is placed. 

D. Diagonal view of the forceps which are 
attached by a joint to the spindle, and which are 
kept extended by the joint bolt* No, 2. 

The cast-iron weight is, by the forceps being 
thus extended, kept u]p until the bolt touches 
the ground ; the joint bolts No. 2. are then de- 
tached by No. 3., and the cast-iron weight aUps 
down the spindle to which the rope is fixed^ and 
shuts the forceps, which are by this time on the 
ground, by the power of the inclined plane en- 
closing atid keeping fast the contents until 
taken out. 

JOHN ROSS, Captain, 

H.M: S. liabetta. 



059 APPENDIX, NO. Xm. 






=-** ifv riJ-Ter;.' r.: 




It itaiir«ier.ailiei^<!«ier 8^fefefifoiy-«(f^i»c^ 

Anittstnipi^£tettIiiiptittpds(^Wa#j'^co^ 
re<|i]i8yjit£^9iJlitto«8ir i mo^ffe&ekj^')< iminM^ 

hy 4i^SM^ {jmuttdaiBiiee* c£ tb« jyhitira^,- "^ 

'v^^v •t>r'-'a ' ii r-. .V ^ ......•■-...'.• « -^ ^-- -■ - 

the J)^y ,pf ;?i^l|ich is cylmdijo^? ^^I^ 

hay^^pq p^e gi4e a 9majl fii!«rti^e 4^} ^nlmit^f* 
water. ^ This is qc^yer^d \xy 9^j^^^ pjhii^ »l.. 
which another aperture is made to coincide with 
the former, ^en placed opfipjot^^^^^i^lQeur-de^ 
lis; a pov^^ i^jfitt^^^^^^ 
edge of\ wjfe^^, bWjQg diyitel 4pto^^^KX^ ^equal 



APPENDIX, NO. XIII. 253 

pj^rts, the aperture on the outside can be set to 
the required ^MiiSucfd^^^^^ side of 

the instrumf^i^t ^|l\^^Js,,a 4i4i9^ pfajteior wheels 
which moves the former; and both are turned 
l>y ^^^J^WS^r*^^ J^m^m^mt^dsecoA, by 
tl^^l^tS^i^lt^^ aepatrpar. 

iioS^ fk one^J^ 4;p .one ^mmks^ ^Tlie?ranes of 
th^ r^ rptatoi: .ace ipada ti9a iSL^ia anynaMmtion, 
which by actual e»en^$i0^ il^y bedfouadiJto be 
agiiUcfabl^ig^gsady^ it isjevi- 

dmk^^^l^*^^^^ ins«*iwfcec^rtic«I<Mr 

be,9^$s^ied^^ 

pl^teirgHli^^fega it hi»lieea4m©e>^flwyii 4x) 

sipff^i^itr (WiU:;i|M3t.be neeea^^ 
as the i^perture may be easily set to iM&^^itimc!t' 
depth from which t he water is required. At 
the top of the instrument there is a springvalyj^ 

eMi|Ci:^liii^ the^ater enters, kiiif to iSt iK<^ W 
entttt i^litn^'the'^ is .drawn off % Ifie slop- 
|ftdifr£a(fe tife iSottdtn^ aiid in the latter c^e<fthe 
val^fe ttNiflt behoved lip by. hand. 



*. ^n* f\ -r** w** 



-■i "I "T ~ ' 






1^ : ;: Jn tisa% ms Instrmiie/a-^ 



S54 AFPXNBIX, KO. XnV 

set by meaiig of. the rotatoTf at. the proper di&* 
tMoe fircnn tbe .fleur-de-lis, on the top of iht 
instmineDt. An outdgger and leadkig'-block 
should be fixed on the ship's weather-quarter^ 
and the whale-line beiilg rove and bent, the end 
ougiit to be stopped up to prevent its getting en- 
tttngkd with the rotator. If water is ^required 
from a conaideraUe depths weight most he 
added 4yf iiiakiiig fast a lead to the ear^fbr thai 
purpose on the skies of the cylmder ; if ou^t, 
to be carefully tended by a person outside of t^ 
^tikj^ in gating it out «r in boasd, a$ the vanei^ 
of 4beii»te«af >iAay becaatly d^wtiaged by atri^dng 
agaiMfe the «hqi.'a side} b«it at tJw »eeident wiU 
sM0itS8|«Svittiai^iidably 1^ spase vaneft ar« 

sraft >to MfdaC« ihooe whieh may be brdben. 
The Instrument must be allowed to deieend a 
few fatiioflisliekrw the depth itk setto^ in c^det 
to ettfure the aperture besn^ passed the fl^uf-de^ 
lid, and bf the pn^ttion between the leni^ ^ 
die line -veeired imd the nmnba- of degrees 
mwked on the graduated circle whidh^ 4itfre 
pitted >that pdnt^ the exact depth at fwhkh.tlli 
water came ilita the Instrnment ma^ be easily 
found. 

Instramestiof thiskindnlayibe madeof ^y 
gt2e, but ^S^aX jgoctttided for the ekpeditidn was 



18 inches in length besides the swivel, the cir- 
cumference of the cj^der 13^ inches, the whole 
weighing 787 pounds, and intended to contain 
about 3 English fints of , water. 



■■MMMMNMilMU 



DESCRIPTION. FIG. 2. 

t 

V ' ' c ' ^ 

>• _. -. -^. , •*■• 

« 

F —i- Section of the machinery. 
<ji- Oppet <part or rOp0 6f ^h^ i» i iif % i tf fei rt. 
£>-• T*e matromeilt totoplBt^ • ' 
No* 5>-^ VBm» of the totktat. ^ - ' -" ^ - 

*-*^*<iteti*w^ ''^ < r 

^ 7'i-*f!»tlaffgfe wheel tallied b^ 

»— Steiiffl^^eel onithe sftneajite,^.^ W&^^ 
9 — ^ccoticl laige wheel ttirfif«4 by ^Nd; ft 
10— - Swivd to which thtgf rope is atfadied* 
11-NiNigpfing ttTTidye. '^ ' ? '^ 

. . 1*— Aperture in the wheel eaih^dtig^^h 

one in i&tt ey&nder 't& ^A«It*watta5. : 

lA^Ilie e^PB for attaching^^^^aaffiKtftma* 

weights. 



Mr>«ii*- Stop edok. 









2^ APPENDIX, NO. xm; 



FIG. Sd. 

OKSCRHPTION OP A 

MARINE ARTIFICIAL HORIZON 

INVEKTBD Sr CAP f JIN J. MOSS9 R. N. 

Thm iattHuneBt eonsists <^ a box skiilar to 
that of a marmer's con^aBBj isospended fii^the 
same numner. The top of this is par^ t:otered 
witihi a plate of dark glass, by the sides of which 
i^irit leveb are attached at right angles, and in 
such a manner, Aat the reflected images of tiie 
sun and the bubbles of each level may be easily 
semi within the field of a tube or telescope ; at 
the bottom of the box, a weight is fixed with 
ai^usting screws, by which the instrument can 
be levelled nearly to the top of the box : four 
wires are fixed, and on each wire a moveable 
ball. The four balls being one*half the wei^t 
of the pluinmet below, and double its distance, 
fhmi the point of suspension, H is calculated 
that they may be adjusted so as to counteract 
vdmdy the momentum of the plummet below ; 
and to couHteract the vibration attendant on the 
motSMi jffS^dxkced by the roll of a ship, a line is 
f^^Wfd to 4ie plummet, this being loaded with 



'i.- 



■*'■ . /* 



APPENDIX, Np,.Xm. 257 

lea4 ^nd cork, and immersed in a vessel of 
water; but n wrappei;$of liffK^llen cloth will an- 
swer the same purpose, and is more qonvenient^ 
as it is then unneoesa^ry t^? jj^igjjj^jy: the vessel iof 
water. When the instrument is nearly levelled, 
the bubM^ "ikH, fee seen io pa^s slowl}? jfrbitt one 
end to the other of the spirit IgY^l^j^vP^nd^vWheri 
the limbs of the reflected images of the sun are 

observ^ $(j^^4» <jpBitoc*t*5wfe^» IJ^^ 
on tl^a^ifise inpjw»ii»g eaek^^^^ 

mu^c9^,;Cpi^^e9t*- v.hj ^ff^ ^^^Hfiscr* *^^ . 






' : 1^ no. Sr -*^^^^ 

H. Jlepreseatd the &ce or top of thfit^iiifttMenia: 
SO. l^Q Spirit Levels* . u l.> m^^^tod - 

2L Xf^B Plate of diu4: Gabtf^ 1 , w-iaa §v?5>^j/; 
23.;Tbe wpo4e^ Ga^e CQfttaini^e>rfteij^Sl?grt. , 

^v^tKrAgla«B Cover is nece$s§iry» tf jifenre i*: 
;. ;ipuqh,.wii.d. ' . .^.: :.^r.....^H:; 
iSr. . Si^^sents thje perspective !rieiRi^tio| i^gt. Ifhi 
strun^ent, the aides it>fe ihj^ ^k^^:^k(ii^i^; 

18. The foip* fl5i9veat>le Bjdls % ,si^i^§ti))g the 

Moi^entuxQu, 

19. The QixQiH^. . , . 

VOL. II. S 



: r ; I 









S98 J^MSmytKy KO* XIII. 

t6. Tlie Boi. 

17. The Flummet ^mtb aci^yslili^ Sesines* 

(to. Tl^e l^irit Levels. 

01« The dark GIms. 

d9. Tbe Vessel, containing water, in whidb tiie 

loaded line k inunerlBed. * 

99. The Wck)deh Case* 

Hds Intnunmt has beoi tnad, b«t skxI 
found sulld&a% corrert :fer finding appdrent 
time; and it requires great care and ptactioe 
even for a latitude, and the inverting tdescope 
cannot be used with it. 



4 



THE £ND< 



Printe dty jStoi han and Spotfli^ybecfc-, 

PnBlCIKSllimBlt X<Olldoil* 



I 



ae 



i 
It 

e