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Otbt 150 SDnunsi Toon by Rail, Coaoli. and. Steomar. 
Mr. a. CALTHROP, 301 Buchanan Streel 


Dolly PlBMUTB ElDUTBioni 




„ WEurss BAT, 


Jally plBEmrB Saillags. 


\ND. fl 



By New Qpamplan CoFFldoF 

P[om£DIHBORaH(FrlnoeBStTeet) and GLASQOWlBuahanan Street, .. 

StliUDE, OallanlBT, Obaa, BalluitiuIlBli, Fort WUllaia, Perth, Duudse, AberilMn, 

iBveniess, anl the Nortli of ScatlBind. 


O-LABOOW (Central) and £DINBUROH (PiinaBS StiBBt)— 65 mlnatBB' Jeoiney. 




LONDON (Euston) andi §g^"J'"°"*'.' 


In 13 EouTi. 
In 13 Bonn. 


OLABOOW (Oentntl), BDIHBUBaH (Piiiutei Btcsat), and alt porta ol Bcotluid. 

GmrWur OflrrtopM vAA Lunehffm, Dining, and Tea Cars on all 



(Tlie nnsBt in Bnrope— Annrded Oraud Pris, St, Louia BxhiWtion). 

RuRB and PlUowa supplied to PaBHDEers at a charse of bd. eacb. 

TourintB between BNOL.IND and the NORTH OF SCOTLANB may travel vii 

BDINBUFOH BBil break theirjoumBy tliere withont pitia chatge. Tlie Ualedonian 

Companr's TraioB froDi and to LONDON IBusUin) aud all parta gf ENGLAKD, as 

veil BB those from and to tho NOBTH OF SCOTLAND {includiiig tbe Grampian 

Coiridor), Mart from and arrive at BDINBURQe (PHucsb Street). 


Oi.uaow, IWfi. R. U [LLAR, Otxerai Mamgtr. 


' / 


lounsb nuUcrng «« „/««, Guide. -«>uv.uni«Uions 
*> Se adiiressae to the PxMithert. 

Aa rigku rtstrvtd 

\JBequest of cAlice ^eyer 'Buck, 1882-1979 
Stanford University Qbraries 

U' : \. 





Where dates alter Bliglitly the nearest approximation is given. 

1. General Holiday in Scotland. 
11. Thurso and Naver Salmon Rod- 
fishings open. 

1. Tweed Rod-fishing opens. 
1. Partridge and pheasant- shooting 

11. River Rod -fishings open gener- 
16. Esk (Forfarshire) Ro4- fishing 

25. Annan and Nith Rod-fishings open. 
27. Hare hunting ends. 

1. Lochleven Rod-fishing opens. 
13-14. Equinoctial Gales. 
20. Spring commences — day and night 
Court of Session rises for six weeks. 

April, near end of. 
Kelso Spring Races. 

4. Spring Medal of St. Andrews Golf 

15. Whitsunday half-yearly term-day. 
Clyde Steamer season commences. 

20. General Assembly of Church of 

Scotland meets. 


21. Summer commences — longest day. 

Glasgow Fair (second week). 
Clyde Regatta. 
3. Dog days begin. 
15. St. Swithin's Day. 
20. Court of Session rises. 

1. Lammas floods. 

11. Dog days end. 

12. Grouse and ptarmigan shooting 


20. Black-game shooting begins. 

Bimam Highland Games (last 
Thursday of Aagust). 
31. Lochleven Rod fishing closes. 

1. Partridge-shooting begins. 

Blair -Athole Higl^land gathering 
(second week). 

14. Thurso Rod-fishing closes. 
Inverness Northern Meeting (this 

22-24. Ayr Races. 
23. Equinoctial Gales. 
Autimm commences. 

29. Autumn Medal of St. Andrews 

Golf Club. 

30. Naver Rod-Fishing closes. 

1. Pheasant-shooting begins. 
5. Kelso Autumn Races. 
7, 8. Edinburgh Autumn Race Meet- 

10. Findhom Rod-fishings close. 
Steamers for Stafik, lona, etc., dis- 
continued about this time. 

15. Court of Session opens. 

Forth, Nairn, Ness, and Spey Rod- 
fishings close. 
81. Salmon Rod -fishing closes in all 
other Rivers, except those in 



1. Principal Clyde passenger steamers 

11. Martinmas half-yearly term-day. 
15. Annan and Nith Rod -fishings 

30. Tweed Rod-fishing closes. 


10. Grouse, black-cock, and ptarmigan 

shootings close. 
22. Shortest day — Winter commences. 

N.B. — With few exceptions all Net-Fishinqb close on 26th August. 
For complete List of Close Times in Scotch Salmon Rivers, see Oliver and Boyd's 

Edinburgh Almanac. 

Gesbbal Advice 

Glcusarjr of Gaelic W 


The City .... .... 1-59 

Leith, etc 6S.62 

Roaslyn, Hawthomden, Dftlkeith, etc. . . . fl3'70 

Moaselburgh, North Bervick, Haddington, etc . 71-77 
Dalineny, Forth Bridge, Quesnsferry, and Hopetoan 

House . ■ 77-7fi 

PentiaQd Hills 79-81 

West frok EDiuBUKaH — 

Linlithgow, Falkirk, Stirling and Bannockhurn . . 82-93 

South fboh Edibburoh^ 

Carlops.J'eeblea, Innerleithen, and Ashieatiel . . 93-96 
WiveiiLBS Route : Melroae, Abbotaford, Dryburgh 

Ahbej 96-106 

Selkirk and St Marj'a Loch, Vale of Ettriok , . 106-108 
Wavbklby Boutb ; Hawick, Jedbmgh, Eelso, Cold- 
stream, and Berwick-OQ-Tweed . . . . 108-116 
East Coast EoUTB 1 Berwick «nd Dunbar . . 116-122 

NoiiTH FROM Edinbdrqe md Forth BribqE: — 

Dunfermline, EiniosB, and Loch Leven . , 123-128 
Burutislanii, Djsart, Falkland Palace, Cupar, and St. 

Andrews , . , VMs-^VW. 


Stirling District— paou 
Alloa, Dollar, and the Rumbling Bridge .136-139 

Lake of Menteith, Aberfoyle, and Loch Ard . 139-142 
Bridge of Allan, Callander, The Trossachs, Loch 

Katrine, and Loch Lomond 142-158 

West Highland Railway 158 

Callander and Oban Railway — 
Pass of Leny, Strathyre, Balqahidder, Locheamhead, 

Killin, Dalmally, Loch Awe, etc 159-168 

Routes North fh>m Tyndmni to Glencoe, etc. 162- IGS 

Loch Earn, Comrie, and Crieff (Circular Tour) 168-174 

Perth and District — 

Stirling to Perth by Railway ; Perth City, etc. . . 175-181 

Perth to Crieff by Railway 181-182 

Perth to Dundee by Railway ; Dundee City, etc. . 182-188 
Dundee to Coupar-Angus, Alyth, Forfar, Arbroath, 

Montrose, and Bervie 188-193 

Perth to Killin, md Bimam, Dunkeld, Aberfeldy, 

Kenmore, and Loch Tay (Circular Tour) . . . 193-203 

Glen Lyon, etc. ... . . . 200 

Perth to Aberdeen and the North-East Counties 
by Railway — 
Coupar-Angus, Alyth and Glen Isla, Forfar, Kirriemuir 

and Clova, Brechin, Edzell and the North Esk, etc. 204-212 

Laurencekirk, Stonehaven, Dunnottar Castle, etc. . 213-215 

Aberdeen City, etc ' . . . 215-225 

Aberdeen to Banchory, Ballater, and Balmoral (Deeside) 226-236 

Tomintoul . ' 234 

Braemar, Cairngorm Mountains, and Grampian Passes, etc. 237-243 
Aberdeen to District of Buchan, Peterhead, and Fraser- 
burgh 244-246 

KIntore, Alford, Strathdon, and Dufftown . . • . 247-248 
Aberdeen to Inverurie, Fyvie, TurriflP, and Banff ; and 

thence to Fraserburgh, or Elgin .... 248-252 

Aberdeen to Huntly, Keith, Fochabers, and Elgin . 252-258 

Speyside Railway, Rothes, Craigellachte, -Ballindalloch 253 

Lossiemouth and Excursions from Elgin , , . 258-259 

Forres and the Findhorn River, etc 259-261 

Perth to Braemar (and Aberdeen) by Coach, vid . 

Blairgowrie and Glenshee . ... . . 261-262 



Perth to Inverness, by the Hiohland Railway — 

Ballinluig, Pitlochry, Strath Ardle, Strath Tummel, and 

Killiecrankie 263-267 

Blair- AthoU, Glen Tilt, Glen Bruar, etc. . . . 268-273 

Rannoch District 278-275 

Struan, Dalwhinnie, and Kingussie .... 275-277 

Kingussie to Fort- William, vid Loch Laggan, Glen Spean, 

and " Parallel Roads " of Glen Roy . . . 277-279 
Strathspey, Aviemore, Rothiemurchus, the Cairngorm 

Mountains, Grantown, etc 279-285 

Nairn, Cawdor Castle, etc. ... . . . 286-287 

Inverness . 287-290 

The South-Western Counties— 

Carlisle to Glasgow — 

Lockerbie, Moffat, and District, the Upper Clyde, 
Carstairs Junction, Motherwell, etc. . . . 291-293 

Dum friesshire — 
Dumfries Burgh and Neighbourhood .... 293-296 
Nithsdale — Railway to Ayrshire, vid Thomhill and 
Sanquhar, etc. 296-298 

Kirkcudbrightshire — 
Castle - Douglas, Kirkcudbright, Gatehouse -Of- Fleet, 

and Coast of the Solway, etc 298-300 

New Galloway and Loch Ken, etc. . . . • . 300 

Minnigaff and Loch Trool, etc 301 

Wigtownshire — 

Newton-Stewart, Wigtown, Glenluce, etc. . . . 301-302 
Stranraer, Portpatrick, and the Mull of Galloway . 303-304 
Stranraer to Ayr, vid Girvan (Ailsa Craig) and 
Maybole (Culzean Castle), etc. 304-307 

Glasgow and District — 

The City 

Excursions from it ... . 
Hamilton and Bothwell Castle , 
Coatbridge and Airdrie . . . 
Lanark, the Falls of Clyde, Douglas, etc. 
Barrhead, Stewarton, and Kilmarnock 


Kilmalcolm, Prince's Pier (Greenock), awA. \ivxvct\w\^, si\«.. "^"^^ 


Those marked with an asterisk are large-scale coloured map s. 


Aberdeen, Banff, and 

Elgin, etc. . ' . . 245 
Aberdeen, Plan op . .215 
Arisaig, Loch Eil, etc. . 436 
*Arran and the Lower 

Clyde . . . .368 
*Atholl District . . 263 
*AviEM0RB District . . 280 
Berwick - upon - Tweed, 

Plan op . . . 116 
*Braemar District , .237 
Bridge op Allan, Plan op 143 
Caithness . . .498 
*Caledonian Canal . . 407 
•Clyde : River and Firth 365 
*Crieff District . .170 
Crinan Canal, etc. . .389 
Cromarty District — In- 
verness TO Tain . . 473 
Dingwall and Skyb Rail- 
way .... 421 
Dundee, Plan op . . 1 88 
DuNKELD, Plan op . .196 
•Edinburgh, Environs of . 62 
Edinburgh, Plan of . 1 
EsK, North, etc. . .211 
Fife and Kinross . .122 
•Fort- William District . 408 
Galloway District . .293 
Glasgow Cathedral, Plan 

OP .... 320 

Glasgow, Environs of .331 
Glasgow, Greenock, and 

Ayr Railway . . 342 
Glasgow (Plan showing 

Hotels and Railways) . 308 
Glasgow, Plan of . .313 


Glen Isla, Glen Shee, etc. 206 
Greenock, Plan of . . 362 
Inverness, Plan of . .287 
Jura, Colonsay, etc. . 401 

•Kingussie District . . 276 
Lanark and Falls op 

Clyde . . . .338 
Lewis and Harris . . 454 
Loch Eil, Arisaig, etc. . 436 

•Loch Lomond . . .158 

•Loch Lomond, Loch Long, 

and Loch Fyne, etc. . 378 
Montrose, Plan op . .192 

•Oban District . . . 392 
Oban, Mull, vso, . . 394 
Oban, Plan op . . . 390 
Orkney Islands . , 501 
Peebles, Selkirk, and St. 
Mary's Loch . . 94 

•Perth, Loch Earn, and 

Loch Tay District . 168 
Perth, Plan op . .178 


den. Plan op . .67 
St. Andrews, Plan of .132 
Shetland Islands . . 520 
Skye and adjacent 

Coasts .... 443 

Staffa and Iona . . 395 

Stirling, Plan of . .88 

•Strathpbpper District . 427 

•Strome Ferry District . 468 

Sutherland . . . 494 

•Trossachs District . .154 

UisT, North and South, 

Barra, etc. . . . 452 
•West Highland Railway 164 

General Map op Scotland, in Pocket at end of Book. 


The time is past for prefaces giving dry geographical and niinera- 
logical facts at length. No doubt it is intrinsically interesting to 
know that the longest line that can be drawn in Scotland, from 
the Mnll of Galloway to Dunnet Head, is 297 miles, but that is 
the sort of infonnation to be found in a geography book rather 
than a guide, and it is not what the tourist wishing to enjoy a 
holiday in Scotland desires. He wants to know Firstly, how to get 
to the country ; Secondly, what it will cost him ; Thirdly, what 
he can best see in the time at his disposal. To these questions we 
endeavour to give answers. 

To reach Edinburgh from London there are three direct 
routes, viz. : — 

(1) The East Coast Route, consisting of the Great Northern, 
North-Eastem, and North British Railways ; this passes York, 
Newcastle, Berwick, etc. 

(2) The Wavbrley Route, by the Midland and North British 
Railways, which runs vid Carlisle, Hawick, and Melrose, and is so 
named because it passes through many of the scenes described in 
the Waverley Novels. 

(3) The West Coast Route of the London and North -Western 
and Caledonian Railways. 

Of these the first is the most direct. 

Any one who has seen Edinburgh and wishes to go straight to 
the Highlands had better travel by either number 1 or 3, but all 
the Companies' tickets are the same price, namely, tourist return 
during the summer months £2 : 14s. These tickets enable the 
holder to break the journey anywhere en route^ and are for practical 
purposes unlimited as to time (three months). It is advisable to 
get Murray's Time Table for Scotland, in which not only are all 
Scotch trains given with their English connections, but in which 
also much valuable information as to steamer routes and hotels 
may be gleaned from the advertisement pages &ti ^\i!^ ^lA. 


The difficulty that many persons experience on going to Scotland 
for the first time is to know where to go ; they want to see some 
of the places rich in historic association, some of the world-famous 
scenery, and yet they have so vague an idea of the country that 
they do not know where to begin. To those who want to get a 
general idea of the country and do the most in the shortest time, 
the Grand Tour is generally recommended. It starts from Perth, 
and may be taken either way. Its. line is vid Donne, Dunblane, 
Callander, Trossachs, to Oban, thence by steamer to Fort-William, 
up the Caledonian Canal to Inverness, and back by the Highland 
Railway to Perth. Thousands of people take this route annually. 
It is possible to do it in a fortnight, but the time can be prolonged 
to any extent, as at almost every one of the places named there are 
excursions for many days. These may be looked for in the body 
of the book. At Oban various steamer trips may be taken, and 
one that should certainly not be omitted is that by Staffa and 
lona. Given a fine day, this is a wonderful experience. It 
occupies ten hours, and the steamer starts at 8 A.M. Lest 
many people should be deterred by the thought of a choppy sea 
and so long an outing, it may be added that the sea is not always 
rough, and frequently is as calm as a lake, and that the boats are 
admirably and comfortably fitted up. Cost of ticket 15s., exclusive 
of food. For details see p. v*. 

Various other detours from the Grand Route can be made, of 
which, full description is given under the headings of the various 
places in the guide. 


Perth, Station Hotel — 

Excursions to Lochs Tummel and Tay, the Pass of Killiecrankie, 

Falls of Bruar ; also to St. Andrews and Stirling ; also to Crieff 

and Loch Earn. 
To Callander, thence Trossachs, Loch Katrine, Loch Lomond, 

Stronachlachar or Inversnaid Hotels. 
To Oban by rail. Hotels numerous. Staffa and lona steamer trip. 
To Ballachulish by steamer, thence coach or cycle up Pass of Glencoe. 

Continue same day by steamer to 
Fort- William. Hotels : Station, Chevalier. licave next morning for 

Caledonian Canal. Arrive same evening at 
Inverness, Royal Hotel, thence return by Highland Railway to Perth. 

The above can be amplified to any extent. 

The above route will cost the traveller in expenses at least an 


average of £1 a day, even with care. But everywhere he will fiDd 
hotels comfortable enough, at an average charge of from 3a. Gil. 
a bedroom, 4s. table d'hMe dinner, Is. 6d. attendance, 2b. 6(1. 
breakfast, 28. simple lunch of cold meat and cheese. 

The Scotch hotel-keeper has learned by the annual immigration 
of the Southerner to have things up to a certain level. In some 
nuezpected places the menu is very good indeed, equal to that of 
a first-class London restaurant, and even the smaller hotels all 
attain a certain point as yet unrealised by those of similar calibre 
in England. The ridiculous cost of baths (Is. and Is. 6d.) in 
bathrooms is, and will ever be, a source of annoyance, also the 
impost for attendance, which amounts to paying the servants' 
wages, and yet being expected to tip them, but (hese things are 
not peculiar to Scotland. 

Some care has been taken in the book to indicate the si)ecies 
of hotels. Those recognisedly the largest and best known are 
always placed first on the list, but those which are extremely 
comfortable and at the same time reasonable in their charges 
and are unreservedly recommended are starred. These have been 
tested by personal experience. Their number is necessarily limited, 
and the fact of a hotel not being starred is no indication that it 
may not belong to the same species. 

To return to routes. The general one described above, by reason 
of its comprehensiveness, is the most popular, but those who have 
already done it, or who desire to get further afield to less known 
spots, can go straight through either to Inverness or Aberdeen. 
Scotch railway systems are more complicated than English ones. 
As far as Perth the rivalry of the Caledonian and the North British 
reacts upon the passenger. He must be careful everywhere to book 
at the station (if two in one place) from whence he can go directly 
to his destination, or he may in all ignorance take a ticket without 
being told that he will have to go by roundabout routes and 
endure long waits, taking perhaps a couple of hours over a journey 
that by the rival line would have occupied half an hour. Or if 
the two companies share a station, as often happens, he must be 
oarefiil to get into a train belonging to the company which has 
issued his ticket. Otherwise a train may come into the station 
for the destination he desires, he may get into it, only to be 
ignominiously hustled out a station or two further on and hurried 
to the front of the same train (made up of m\M of carriages belong- 
ing to the two different companies), and also be compelled to pay 
over again the fare for that portion of the route he has already 


trayerBed in carriages drawn by the same engine over the same 
rails as that paid for. But the rival companies accept each other's 
return tickets from joint stations, experience having possibly shown 
them the direful muddle that would result if they did not 

Beyond Perth this confusion ceases. The Highland Railway 
runs alone in a direct line to the extreme North of Scotland, with 
branches, of which more anon. It is a marvellous piece of work 
this Highland system winding on and on through much of the 
loveliest and grandest scenery in Scotland. In England railways 
are strictly utilitarian, means to an end ; in Scotland they are often 
the end in themselves, and many a person who has never regarded 
railway travelling as a means of seeing scenery before, comes back 
from Scotland with new ideas. Owing to the mountainous nature 
of the country, road, river, and railway frequently travel side by 
side, crossing and recrossing each other at intervals. The section 
between Perth and Inverness may be so described for a great part 
of the way, and at any point one might get out to make a stay 
with the certainty of having chosen well (see pp. 26S-87). 

Inverness itself as a centre is distinctly underrated. People 
frequently stay there one night in rushing through elsewhere, but 
it is the capital of the Highlands, and is in touch with numerous 
routes of interest, and might well be made headquarters for a 
lengthened period. 

The line north goes on to Dingwall, Lairg, etc. Dingwall is the 
juuction for Skye (see below). Lairg is the starting-point for 
several coaches, mail cars, etc., by which yearly all those who seek 
the wilder, lonelier Highland scenery are taken to their destinations. 
From here it is quite a common thing to stai*t on a drive of 40 
miles to Loch Inver, Durness, Tongue, etc. 

The Skye and Dingwall line going west is admittedly one of the 
most beautiful in Scotland (p. 421). En route Strath peffer, the 
great watering-place, may be reached from Dingwall ; Loch Broom 
from Grarve ; Loch Maree from Achnasheen ; and thence connec- 
tion may be made by steamer from Gairloch to Skye (p. 442.) 

And the line beyond Achnasheen is a sight rarely equalled and 
never excelled. It runs to the Kyle of Lochalsh, near the southern- 
most end of Skye, and from hence steamers sail for Portree and 

Starting again from Inverness, we have liie eastern line of the 
Highland Railway by Nairn and Elgin, the Macbeth country, where 
gol£ng links aboimd. From this, w^ may reach also the Aberdeen 
district, under the control of the Great North of Scotland Railway, 


a district most excellent for the cyclist, with good roads aud a 
soil that dries up easily. The Great North of Scotland Railway 
runs specially-constructed cycle vans divided into two tiers of 
compartments. It may also be mentioned that these two com- 
panies run through trains between Aberdeen and Inverness either 
way. For more details see p. 244. 

This is a very general sketch, but even so there is yet one more 
comer of Scotland that must be commented on. That which 
includes the south-western counties, rich in historic memories, 
and the Galloway country that Mr. Crockett has made his own. 
These counties possess scenery that has caused them to be de- 
scribed as the Highlands of the south. From their accessibility 
they prove very atti'active to some people, and this is attested by 
the growing popularity of the^est Coast resorts. For detailed 
account see p. 293. 

The West Highland Railway, belonging to the North British 
Company, also stands by itself. It is generally considered the 
finest line in Scotland ; it ends at Mallaig, whence Skye can 
be reached. The MacBrayne steamers run between all the islands 
and peninsulas of the serrated western coast, and are deservedly 
popular. For these tours Oban is the best centre. Some pages 
of the steamer time tables are included on pp. v*-vii*, but for 
full particular it is better to apply at the Office, 119 Hope Street, 
Glasgow. There are other steamers run by the Railway Companies, 
but as these are included in the Railway Time Tables it has not 
been thought necessary to make any extracts. The Glasgow and 
South-Western Railway issue a separate steamer time-table. 

So much for a rough general survey, which will be found 
expanded in the book. To add a few of the neglected figures so 
dear to the heart of statisticians, we will state that the population 
of Scotland in 1901 was 4,472,103, consisting of 2,173,755 males and 
2,298,348 females, a total increase since the last census of 446,456 
persons. As the area of the country is about 29,796 square miles, 
this gives about 150 persons to a square mile, but the distribution 
is very unequal, the most sparsely populated county, Sutherland, 
here showing only 11 persons to each square mile. 




Aher, the month of a river. 

Abh, pronounced Av, water. 

Achadh (Anch, Ach, Acha), a field. 

Altt, a mountain stream. 

AWidh (ary) ; (1) a shieling for cattle, 

etc ; (2) a level green among the hills. 
Ardf high. 
Baile (bal, hoi, bally), a village, or 

JBaw, white. 
Baia, a boat. 
Beofir (beg), small. 
Betdaeh (Balloch, Beal), a mountain 

Beinn (Ben), a large mountain. 
Bhuidhe^ yellow. 
Blair (Biar), a large plain. 
BOf or BOf a cow 
Breac (brec), speckled. 
BuachaUlef a herdsman. 
Bun Ojbjq), the foot. 
Cool, or Caolas (kyle, chyllis, cbolish), 

a narrow sound. 
Cean (ken, kin), the head. 
Clachf a stone; Clachan (plural), a 

CoiU, a wood. 
CuU (coUX a neuk. 
Cruach (Cruch, Crachan), a stack or 

high hilL 
Dearg (derg), red. 
Drochaid (drochet), a bridge. 
Druim, the shoulder or ridge. 
Dvbh (du), black. 
Dun, a castle. 
EUean, an island, 
Fada (fad), long. 
Fiadh, a deer. 

Fion (finn, fin), fair, whitish. 
Froaeh, heather. 
Garbh (garve, gar, gir), rough, rugged, 


GUlean (gillen) ; (1) young lads : (2) 

OUiie (1) a hollow ; (2) a smalt valley. 

Applied generally to the hollows 

among the hills. 
Glass, gr&y. 

Gobhain (gowan), a smith. 
Gorm, blue. 
Gu'ibhas(gQi8e), a fir- wood ; Guibfiasach, 

a fir-forest 
Inbhir (Inner, Inver), the mouth of a 

N.B. Inver is the prevailing term 
on the west, Aber on the east 
coast of Scotland. 
Irvnis, ) (Inch), a level field beside a 
or Aisi ' river. 
Kin (caen, ken), the head. 
Kioch, a pap. 
Lag, a hollow. 
Laogh (lui), a calf. 
Larig, a mountain road. 
'Ldaih, hoary. 
Mam, a large round hilL 
Monadh (Monagh), a heathy height. 
Mor, great. 
Roinn (Rhin, Rhinns) ; (1) a point ; (2) 

a headland. 
Sgrorr, or) a mountain with a rocky 
Sguir J jutting top. 
SpideaJ (spittal), an hospital, or place 

of entertainment. 
Sruth (stru, struan), a stream; the 

generic name for all running water. 
Stob, a pointed rock. 
Tarbeart (Tarbet, Tarbert, Tarbat), an 

Tom (1) a bush ; (2) a .small wooded 

Uaine, green. 
Uisge (Esk), water ; the generic name 

for water under any form 


Hotels. — It is somewhat difficult to arrange and clamiify the hotels of 
Edinburgh. Roughly speaking, the first-class ones that lay themselves 
OHt for tourists aro all in the line of Princes Street. We cannot undertake 
to discriminate between the merits of these, a task which in any case 
might prove vain, as it is too frequently the stranger's experience, in the 
height of the season, to be sent from one to another till vacant quarters 
are found. Guests airiving early in the day have a better chance than 
those who come by evening trains without having engaged rooms. All 
the hotels given in our first list are somewhat exj>ensive, on the scale 
usual at tourist resorts — bedrooms with attendance from 4s. and 6s.. 
table d'hMe dinners about 6s. , and so on. Of these the N,B,IL Hotels 
opened 1902, is the largest : the lliyyal, PaXact, UaXinoral^ M'inds&r and 
Clarendon are all in Princes Street. The Carlton^ also Uige, is on the 
other side of the valley. 

Other hotels where the charges would not be quite so high are the 
Cockbium (C. and Temp.) ; the Central (Caled. Railway) ; the County ^ in 
Lothian Road ; the Rutland^ Rutland Place. 

For a family hotel at once both reasonable and oomfortable the 
Roocburghe, Charlotte Square, stands unrivalled. 

Good Temperance Hotels are Cranston's Waverley^ Darling*s Regent^ 
New Waverley, Maitland^ St, CuthherVsy etc. The principal commercial 
ones are the George, George Street ; the Imperialf Market Street ; 

Of course those that are mentioned are only a tithe of the whole 
number, but are selected as representative of their respective classes. 

Among private hotels may be mentioned Veitch*8, near west end of 
George Street ; Queen's, St. Colme Street. These formerly were rather 
temporary homes of a high class for habitttiSf but casual guests are by no 
means refused. 

Boarding-Houses do not seem to flourish in Scotland, but there are one 
or two such in the west end of Edinburgh. 

In the outskirts of the city are the new Braid JJills Hotel and the 
Edivhurgh Hydropathic at Craiglockhart, both first class and finely 
situated ; also the Bamton Hotel near Cramond Brig. 

Bestanrants . of all kinds are not wanting. Many of the chief con- 
fectioners have excellent luncheon and tea-rooms. The balcony at Mackie't 
overlooking Princes Street is much patronised. AWitie's is a formidable 
rival ; also Ferguson and Forrester, known as F. and F. Summers' is 
smaller, but very popular. Refreshment rooms will also be found in the 
three great shops of Princes Street, Cranston and Elliot's and Jenner's 
at the east end, and Mavle's at the west. 



f 4Wrf«T, to bUd™-7 ..m.. 12 b».,, 

Thnr., BOd Sat.. 8.<6 a.u.. ; arr. 10.46 

AIM from Aberdeen to Clnny, Echt. 

B^l^'owrie to Braenmt-ll a.n,.; nrr. 

and Uidmsi 1 Newbiirgli and CDl- 

6.!W p.m. 

lifflttan; MelliUolt: Tarry; Whit*. 


BW™ to ibaideeiws.40 «.jn.; 3. S n.n.. 
Bdddam to Pel6rliead-10.M s.m.; SsO, 

Aberfeldy to Kenniore-ll.i ».id. ; 3.5, 

Abi^S^le lo IMh K«trU«-9,60 ..m.; 

13.45, S.aB P.U.. 

AITatd to atnthdcm (Bsllabsg)— ll.lD;S.Tp,m.(aBts.) 


tmhani to Lalig-Mon., Wed., and 

Bmdldt to Kildqnan and I«Bg— In mn- 


Csrapbflltown to Tsrbert— S.IO a.m. 

CarloLi.and Babble's Howe rifl FeDloult 

—In eoHiiBction witb tralni. 

Aid'rishftig coscb meets mld-dRy steamer 

Cliinos lo Hi^an Bridge — 12.16 p.ln.; 


8»t., 8.B0E.m.; mt. B.OOa.m. 

l.-olrlln^linm' to ileston— 8, lasS s.rd.. 

Auchculieen to Loch Uniee ud Geir-,U.lU,&,; iLrr. 8.10, a.m., 

iocb~ia noou. 

Ayr to Olmm, Oolmonell, end BiUan- 

t»e—8uo., 7.40 B.ui.; art. la.BS p.rfl. 

Ballantrae to Cglmonell and Girvan- 

Dairy to Now Qaltowny Station- T. 60 

cntohBs S.aa tisin at Olrvau. 

1 BaUnntns to atianraoi-Wed. and Sat., 

DnauB Station 'in Thcrnihlll— a.m.) 

1 B»l&Br to Braemar— 10 u-m. ; 13.5, 

;?;.;.» •■"""'■ •■••■"■'•'■«■■ ■ 

1 amlriftSllch to TDmir.toi,l-il a.n,.; 

Dnimmore to Stranraer -T. 30 a.m.; H 

4.60 l>.m. H 
DuiiiMes to Nen Abbey and ilslbeattia ^1 

P BIT. l,4fi p.m., calling at Qlimllvirt, 

-Taes.,0a.n>. ■ 

.ndo. ■ 

DnniWea to Oaerlaverock and Powfoot- H 

B^"h^W°Bir^B District (Motot)- 

a.m.;arr. H,T.lBp.iii. 

1.50 p.m. ' ^m 

^^^^^^^^^^^^E • ^ij. ^^^^^^^^^^m 

il* 00ACHB8 

DiLntiiiHlh to l.jlBtof iiid TVlok— 8«i p. 

Dunkeld to KlairgoHrls, QleDBliiii!. uul 
BiMiBM— 8 B.m. ; Mf. B.SO r-lli, 

DuDtist to Mey— A.10,> u.m. : irr. 
8.M, 7.6 p."'- 

Dimnet to Thursu— 10 «.in., IIM n.iii. ; 
ur. ll.ffiH.u., I.GOv.m. 

Durneu to Lairg— T nui. : mr. fi p.m. 

Essdalfl la Ubw—tt a.ui, ; 1^.30 p.m. 
Bdiell to Fetterolro— 11.20, a.lD 

E^sU'ta Inverawrk— Muii., Wud., mid 

Sit., 8.46 1.111. 
EskdBle to LEddesdtlf— Tliur., O.W i.iit. 
BHkdile OlTEulu Tiiui— 9.45 ilni. 

(^Iklrk to LaurlBtoii— 9 s.iii. till 10 p.m. 
FBltarcHlin t« Edsell^ia.HI, t-Hi p.m. ; 

PlnieBn lo Bauchcffy (Motor)— T, ll.W 

Pochaliats to OrbJiilca Jimction— Smu., 
FDrC-WIUlBm to Qlui Nevbi(EDad oty- 

Foaa to Pi'tlochiy— l.BO p.m. ; arc. *.M 

FrsBorbuigTi tn Kow Abtrdour— fl.BB 

GAirlocll to AiichaiaheeD— B.IG ■.m. 
Gmne to Loohbroom imd Ullspool— 12 

tnln from tbe KOBtb. 
Qlrvan lo BalllntiW) Bad Colmrjnull— 

aion Clova fo Klrriemnir— 3 p.jii.; atr. 

Qlencoo tn' Ballachulliili— In rrDiiDectlon 

with Bt«aiiicn. 
GlenJsla to Alytb-«.40 a.m.. fl.lO, 8.80 ; arr. a.10 B.m., B.IB, p.m. 
Glen Nbtib (Head oO to PoruWllllBiii- 

Gl™^' te'illilrgo^e-;. V-ii a.m.; 

arr. 11.10 s.T><.,3.1Ep.D]. 
GouTock to Wemyss Bay— 10 a-io. ; 2 p.m. 

6 p.m. 

Helmsdale to Beirlslale, Dunbeatli, 
LatbernDWhiwI.iud Lybatec— 1.50 p.m. 

Bnatly Btadon to Aberebiidcr— 3.2S, 

HtiiiUy 'statfDU to Bogniehrae — 3.23, 

Buiitly StaUDD t« Cabrach— 8.30 p.m.; 
arr. I).30p.m. 

L Inveraroy tn ralinally— 2,20 p.m. 

a day in 

^^Bdmll-Hon.. Wtd.. ■> 

M 8t«macUaBlMU'-Si« Un» 


8.*) T. 

KflchalUn Bay to Rolbe-ay 

■■in. : 1. 1.30., n 

Klntni-iB lo Loch Laggaa- 


KloKUule to Tollorh— «.l»a. m 
Klnloohewa lo AocliDiahHu iJ 
Klnloclmwe loTorrtdon— 1.46 ,..._ 
KiDloch-ItanDDch lo Duwlutalr— 1 

Kirkmlcliatl to Fltlochiy— 1 
KMEnLUir"lo Glen Ouva-B 
KirrieiBUir to.Glan Ofjll- a 




Lairg 'to 



U.111.; BIT. V 


B.S6 a.™.; a 

UUrH Veto 

urie-B.B; »rr. 6 




gQfl— Tn 


«., Thuri., a 
ray-l p.m.: a 

joch Laggan to I 
arr. 18^20 p.m. 


NewburaU to Abeideen— ".IS 
yew OBlloway Slitiuii to CanpliBim— ! 


Pnrton to Balinsclellan— Hon. uid 8»t., 
Penh to Bi^^'owrie and Btllater— Sw 

Pitloctij to DunkBld— WoU. bihI T 

10.16 B-m. 
Pitlochry lo Killiecnnkie—Hon., ' 

Pitlochry to riimiiiel Bridge — MoDl 

BothHir lo KilchaCtan Bs;— 11 

SL Mary's Loch to Sslk 
Scsoorle to Lsint— tl.EO a. 

SpeiD Bridge to iQVBrgarrr—lO.lO iLUi. 

lo BBllBntriw— Wed. n 

atmthcaiTOn to SWoldaig, nnd Locb Tor- 

ridon— (wiilH train). 
atnthperTer toBesnlf— 
StTBlhpoffor to I'aUa of Bcurfe and Loch 

atTath|»fr«r to Kn nek liTTfl—K very dBJ-' 

StrBthTto-niurao— 7.3Cla^ 

Strichen to Biinir-~H o-m.; ur. lI.SDi.m. 

Strichen to NawAbenlour— <DiJl]i eioopt 

Than.)— S,40 B.m., S.4G p.m.; irr. 10 

Stroma Fotry to Auhtertyrs— S.BO 11.111.; 

Stniine Fbit; to Balmacnrm— I.SH 

arr. 9.&0 p.Di. _ 

StToinneH to Klrknlt — Horning rod' J 

fiUotachlBcluj' to loTimT 


. atmthy — tii.m.;i«iT.7.3 
Thurso to Tongne— T ».ni. ; Mr. 1 1 
TIUicoDlCrj to AIfr— lOLm., and 1 

tni B p.m. 
Totnintoul to BBlIlndiUoch— S.4r^ 

Troimdn to OslUndBi^ 

with tralnii. 
TullMIti to BlDEiiule— 7, 
Tiilloota to Loch IdiHan- 
TammBl Bridge to HUocl 

TurrilT to Aberchirdor— 0,23 

UlUpoot to Gsrva— T.ia B.ia., 


Caithness, Okkney, and Shetland Steamers. 

^'Roya.l MhU steal 

"St. Ola," from STBOMHEBSei 

., touching at 8vapa Pisr (Eirkwftll). theuue to ^nilister 1 
fier (THiirao), inndiDg Mail Bag hy boat at Simlli Ronaldahay. From I 
SCRABSTER PIEB (Thnrso). an receiving the Mnila at 4.S p.m., ' ' 
tDRcliIag nt ScB[ia Pier, th«dcfl to StroinLieaa. 

Other SlaamerH during the Hummar months as under, but tins time 
SHJliiig lire subject to alteratiou &oiu month to luoiitli : — 


From Leith and Aberdeen — 

To Lerwiok every Tuesday ftufl Friday. 

To Sottllowny and West Bide of Shetland every Mondny, 

To Kirkwall every Tuesday and Friday. 

To Stromneaa every Monday. 

Margaret's Hope ever)- allemate Monday. 

.To Thurso every Monday. 
:*ro Wiok every Monday and Friday. 
;To Stomoway, during May and Juai, every Monday. 

From Aberdeen direct to Lerwick- 

Lerwick every Monday, Tneaday, Tliureday, 
Scalloway every Weilntsday. 
Kirkwall every Tuesday and Friday. 
Stromness every Tliursday. 
Bt. Margaret's Hope every alternate Tlii 
Stomoway, during May and Juae 
Thnrso avery Wedaesilay. 

' every Wednesday and Saturday, 


ThffultiMing ii\f(mimCmi u gii-ai/hr the conciaiaice 0/ I\iasc«fi.-rf, 
Had ia not uvaiiiHlced, im chanyes may o<cvr. 

OtaBgow and Tarbert (for Inlay) and Ardrishaig for O'ban 
and Che North. 

Th» "Colnmba" and "lono" sail daily (Snndni' elMpffld), fts 
adTSTtiBed, froiii Glasgow &bout 7 a.h., snd sbont 1.30 P.M., ia connection 
with exprsBS truing from London and tbfl Soutb. Edinburgh nnd Glasgow, 
etc., enlling at Greenock, Gonroclc. Dnnoon, Innellan, Rothesny, Colin- 
traivEv TighDabmaicfa, &ad Tarbert, arriving at Ardriahaig alioiit 13.40 
P.U. Returning from ArdriBhaJg daily ahoat 5.4.1 a.m. and 1 P.M., 
Galling OB above, arriving Glasgow about 11 a.u. aud 6.45 f.h. 

Tlicte are additional Bailings daring tlie heigltta of the Beanon. There 
are daily BnUinga to nnd from Greenock, Tarbert, Islay, nnd Anlrisboig 
all the year round. 

ArdziBb&ig and Oban via Crinan. 

Steamer sails about 1 I'.M., arrivcB Crinan about 2..^S p.m., leaves 

Crinau about Z P.M., calliug at Crnij!;nisli, Liiiiig, Easdnii-, arriuia Obnii 

about 4.50 P.U. Returning from Oban daily aljout 8.30 a.m.. calling u» 

aboTB, arriving Ardriabaig about 12.30 P.M. 

Ardilahaig and Oban via Iioahawe. 

Coach leaves AidrishBig daily on arrival of "Columba" Bl>out 12.40 
P.M. Steamer leaves Ford about 3 P.M., Porttioiiacbaii about 4.20 p.m.. 
anivea Lochawe about 5.10 p.m. ; train arrives Oban about 6.30 P.M. 

Oban, BaUaahuUHh, Fort-WlUam, and Banavie. 

Steamer leaves Oban daily about 8 a.m., B.15 a.m., 12.30 P.M., and 
E.5 P.M., calling at Appiu, BalUchnlisb, Onioh, CDrrnn, and iirriveEt Fort- 
William about 8.45 a.m., 12 noon, 3.15 p.m., and 7.40 p.m. RetHming 
from Port-William about S.IO a.m., B *.M., 12,35 p.m., 3.30 P.M., calling 
aa above, arriving Oban about 7.55 A.u., 12.15 p.m., 3.30 p.m., snd 6.30 

Trains mu between Fort- William and Banavia. 

Banavle, Fort-Angnattu, and luveniMt. 

Steamer Hails dally from Banavie about 0.30 A.M.. calling at Gairlochy, 
Laggan, Cullochy, Port-Angustu!, Invennoristjjn, Foyers, luverfarigaig. 
Temple Pier, arriving Invemesa about 5.l6 p.m. Returning from 
tnvemeaB daUy about 7 a.m., calliug ax above, arriving Bauavie about 
3 P.H. A mall steamer lenvoa Fort-Augustua daily about 6 A.M., arrives 
rnvemeaa about S.20 A.M., aud returns in the afleruoou, leaviug Inverness 
about 3 F.U., and arriving at Fort-Augustus about 6.30 P.M., calling at tbe 
intermediate ports. 

Oban to Staffa and lona. 

Steamer sbU^ daily from Oban about & A.M., DuM!)ii(!iii.'is,"^«Sais 

■ud Fridays going by the Sonod of Mull. Anil i>n TncHlnyt, T 
and SatDrdayB retarnlag bf it. culling at Crstgiiiir*, Loohdlni^ f 
Tobennoiy, Stslfii, nnd lona. AnpU tim» !• ^wn tt Huih, ■d<1 aiao be 
lona, for tonriaU to visit the rarlotu poiuta of interMt. Tbe botta far 
landing at StofT* and lotm FSre specially bnilt for the iiurpoaa. ar« rtnh 
oapable of rarryiiig n largu number of patuDgen, ami are niaunad hj 
the most expeHenoed bnatnien. A grsuite slip or pkr liaa latolj' bMO 
bunt at lona. At StalTa eTcrythiug hue bsBii done for tbg ronifort and 
nTety of passengers. The steamer arriven back lalo Oluii abont S.80 fJI. 

Obsn, Skys, and Qoirlooh. 

Steamer aall) from Oban erery Tiieiilay. 'riiarsility. and Satardj^ 
alwat 7 i,"., caUing ever; Thnrsdny sad Saturliiy at Cnlgiiuro, Loelw- 
line, Salen, and Broadford ; on ToBiidayB at Lot^b Bcaralg ; and cvarf 
Toadsy. Tliursilay, nnd Saturday at Tobermory, Kl^. Mallalg, Armadklct 
blB Ornsay, Gtenelg. Baliviaoarm, Kyle-of-Lotb-Alsli, Kyis Akin, PortTM, 
arriving at Gairloch on TiiaiilayF about 8.30 r.H^ on Thuredaya tai 
Satnnlajs about Q.30 P.M. Returning from Oairloch svory Monday, 
Wmluesday, aud fViday about 8,30 *,«., calling as sbgve, arriving Oh«u 
aliout 5.30 P.M. 


Oban, Soimd of Hull, and Locb Snn&rt. 
1S.S0 P.X. sailing amtinuat aU the year rmtiid. 
Sl«BnieT learea Obsn daily abont 12.30 e.K.', aud every Mondfty, 
Wedaeadfly, oud Friday about 8 a.m., calling at Cralgnure. Louhaliiw, 
Salen, nnd Tobermory, proceediug to Salen, Loch Sunnrt cvi^ry Tuesday 
and Friday, aniviug about 6 P.h, Returning from Sultan, Loch Snoart 
every Wednenday anil Saturday about 6 a. v., calling as above, aniving 
Oban about lO.jS A.M. Also from Tobermory daily about 8 a.m. and 
3 P.M., calling as above, arriving Oban about 10.4E A.M. and S.3D f.k. 

Oban, Ooll, TlTM, and BnnMun. 

^ilittga contiiiUed all fhc f/raF rounds 
Steamer eaila from Oban every Monday, We;lnc)iday, and Friday abont 
5 A.M. (in July and August about S.IS A,H.)> calling at Croggan (neatber 
and tide pcrmitdng), Tobermory, Kildioan, Coll, Tiree, and arriving 
Banesaan about 4 p.m. Retnrnitig from Buniwsan every Tuesday, 
ninraday, and Saturday about 4 A.M., calling an alHive, nrriviug Oban 
about 2 P.M. 

Oban, CaBllebay, LoOhmaddy, DnnTegan, ate. 

.Sailings timtimied aU the year roawt, 

Steomer leavea Oban daily about 8 a.m., making the round trip back to 

Oban, rBvBrsing the joHmey on alternate days, calling at Tobermory, 

Costlebay, Lochboisdaie, Lochmaddy. Dunvegan, Loch I'ooiliel, and Locb 

Brocadale ; also on certoiii days at Canna and Uum. 

steamer leELves Mnllaig daily (in connection with mail train) about 
11.35 A.M., Kyle aiiout 1.2S i<,u., imcl aniveB Storunwuy aliout 7.25 f.U. 
Returning from Stornowaj abont 10.20 P.M., Kyle about 4.20 A.M., 
arriTing Atallaig about 6 a.m. (Steamer leavex fitornowny on SunrJay 
□jghts bnt not on Satnrdiiy nighta.) Also fram MaJ1ii% about 11.36 A..K., 
Kyle about l.SO P.M., catling at Kyle Ahin, Broodfaid, Baaiiay, and 
arriTing Portrea about 4 f.h. Returning fiom PoririH! about 7.15 A.X., 
Kyle aboat 0.20 A.m., culling aa above, and arriving Mallaig nbont 11.20 

Portree, HarriB. Locbmaddj, and SuiiTesaii. 

■"iiiiiiige contintial all Ike yutt round. 
Steamer sails from Port:reo every Tuesday, Thnraday, and Satunlay 
about 6 A.M., Galling at Torbert Harris, Haikl, Locbmadily, arriviDg 
DunvBgan abont 4.20 P.u. Betumiug fram Dunvegac every Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday al>out S a.m., calling at Stein, Uig, Locbmoddy. 
Bodel, ojid TarberC, Harris. Arriving Portree aboat H>45 P.U, 

£^ fiirlhtr detaiU see ilaoBrayne'a " Suiama- Tottri" 119 Hope Slretl, 
Qlaagovij and the Tourist Guide qftke Olaagowand S.-W. RaiUeay, 
"fc Eaodi'a Slalkn. 


ia situated in tlie aorthern [lart of tho county of Midiotbian, about 
two mUes from tbe estuary of tha sea called tliB Firth of Forth. 
In longth and breadtli It ia nearly equal, being ^liout two and a 
half miles in either (lircction. It occupioa a hilly and irrcgulof 
site, and is dividEd by an open valley lato Old and Nevr Towns, 
the former being niarltfld by a pictnresqne irregularity whicli 
contrasts well with the symmetry of the latter. Tho population, 
aoDording to the census of 1001, amounted to 319,823, while tluit 
of the neighbouring seaport of Leitb waa 77,439. Portobello (pop. 
fil80) was municipally ipcorpotatod with Ediuburgh in 1896. 

Edinburgh formed part of tha Northumbrian Kingdom for four 
eenturiea after its foundation, and its church (dedicated to St. 
Cathbert) was subject to tlio Bishop of lindiafarue. In the early 
part of the 11th century it was, with its castle, added to the 
Eingdoni of the Scots ; and about a century later, when King 
David I. granted a charter founding the Abbey of the Holy Rood, 
he refers to bis Burgh of Edinburgh, and to his garden, close to 
the Castle. Edinbnrgli was the favourite ca^itoi ol ftxa ftlMscrt. 


jKOiea II. in l^SO fortiflrJ it I] 

(cftllod the Wollliouae Tuwer) still reinaioa bslon ths i 
nek in the West Princu Street Osrd«D. The wall hwl • 
handsome gatss (i^alleil [Kuti), all of vhlch Imve dinppeat* 
except in ninie. James V. fouQtleci the Courta of Iaw, catlod ■* 
College of JuBtice." 

The NeV! Town of Edinburgh ia tlu growth of tbe last bui ~ 
yearn, the lirat plans being publis1i«d in 176S-1774. So r 
u tranalonnatiDD is remarkable in a town iinaiiteit by manufa«tii 
In the eotine of a centitry Che area, vliich wu lew tlian ■ «q 
mile, increaoed its borders sevonfold ; and the old-faahioned ti 
with ita ancient wall, burat forth into the modern city, ' 
aquarea, gardens, and uonunicuta, rivalling iu beauty even At 
of Greece.' 

Besides the netura! and arti6cial beauty of Edinburgh, niany of I 
the localitiea in and around the city have been invested with ■ 1 
romance by Sir Walter Scott, wlio nut only refrcski^d and t 
bellished the inndeuts of history, but conferred on man 
formerly unknown to fame, a reputation as enduring a 
itself. Groat improvements have been raaile in tlie city dar 
the last half-century. Same of the more denttuly bui' 

BdaatiDwl Eiublishoieati, Btswlag ud lUitllll'ig irn tbe principal Id 
triee. Printing ud tlie cogan^ tndea are earriDd ou to m. racy IjugQ oxi 
and Duny Important worka have Bmamled froin tbe Edlnbiujli prsaa. 
Kdlainiitsh Btvim, now tbs oldest of the qcarterlf Jonmals, wu commenoei _ 
ISOS ondei Jaffre)', Sydney Slnith, Boniar. and BmUBlum. SlarJniiaairiUagathti M 
was begun in 1S17 under the editorahip ul Lockhart and WllioD, C^bonten^ ■ 
Jmrnal (coninieucsd lS3i) waa one ot the Brat of ' 
Bco£l*a poet!cJLl works appeared at the beginning of 
nereaooQCDIlowedbytheiragirletyeiwIa. Shortly 
BoEland (lEOT) priutlng was eommeaceii In Edlahurgb by Wailsr Chepman 1 
and Andrew Uyllar, wlio liad racflivad tlie eEDiqaive privilege or prinUii^ I 
by royal patent Some of tbeli works atUl eitaot ace regarded as valuabli I 
relics. Ao EngUsb tianalatloD of tbe Bible was printed ia Edinburgh bj ^ 
e Thaa PMimophioB of the University liy Hanrj 

• This 

itty print ii 
sn, and othera, 
aoca between Bdinbnrgli and Atl. 

of The AntiipiMa ofAUKM, 

or "Modern Athcni 

, and h: 

d by la 

nrboedof Atbenj 
with tbe splendid remains of art ; and Mr. H. W. Willii 
oliaerved that tbe diitant rien ct Athena from the £§ 
Hke that of Bdinburgh from the Mrtb e( Fcrtb, adding 
"ttaaofih certainly the latter Uconaldenbly snperiai." 


of the Old Town have been opened up by new streets, and whole 
districts of streets and squares have sprung up on the outskirts of 
the town. 

The climate of Edinburgh is on the whole healthy and favour* 
able to longevity. The average rate of mortality is now only 
about 17 per 1000. The annual rainfall is moderate, but high 
winds are prevalent. 

The principal sights of Edinburgh include Princes Street, with 
its various public buildings — especially the National Gallery and 
Royal Institution, and the Scott Monument — the old town, with 
the Castle, High Street, and Holyrood. From Holyrood it is 
easy to ascend Arthur's Seat, or to drive round the hill by St. 
Margaret's and Dunsappie Lochs. 

At the south side of the town are the University, the Industrial 
Museum, George Heriot's Hospital, the Medical School, and the 
Infirmary. The Calton Hill, with its monuments and commanding 
views, is one of the features of Edinburgh, and is easily approached 
from the east end of Princes Street, passing along Waterloo Place 
to the steps opposite the JaiL The west end of the town contains 
many handsome modem streets and buildings, including Donaldson's 
Hospital and St. Mary's Cathedral. 

There are three Theatres in Edinburgh — the Lyceum, the 
Royal, and the more ** popular" Pavilion, as also the large Empire 
Music Hall. Golf is played at the Braid Hills (p. 58), and at 
Leith and Musselburgh ; but visitors are recommended to go 
to North Berwick or GuUane (pp. 72-73) to see the game to 
advantage. All these places have public links. 

There are Public Baths (Swimming, etc.) in Infirmary Street 
and at Dairy ; and Turkish Baths at 90 Piinces Street, 12 Stafford 
Street (with Ladies' section), and at Hope Street, foot of Leith 

Few cities have the advantage of such delightful Drives and 
Walks. These include Rosslyn and Hawthornden, the Braid and 
Pentland Hills, Dalmeny Park, Hopetoun House, Corstorphine, 
Newhaven, and Trinity. 


Table of Distances from Edinburgh 

Arthur's Seat, round 


Braid Hills, round 

Bamtisland, etc. {Fife)— hy 

Steamer . 
Ctolinton . 
Corstorphine . 
Craigmillar Castle 
Cramond yOlage, or Bridge 
Dalhousic . 
Dalkeith . 
Dalmeny . 
Dirleton . 

Forth Bridge (Qaeensferry) 
Granton .... 
Babble's Howe (C^lops) . 
Hawthomden . 
Hopetonn Honfie 



















Inveresk 6 

Jock's Loilge (riershill Barracks) 1 

Juniper Green . 


LasBwade . 

Liberton . 


Tx>anhead . 


Newhaven . 

North Berwick . 


Penicuik . 

Penthmd HIIIa (by Glencome) 

Portobello . 



•• Rest-and-be-Tljankfhl," Cor 

storphine Hill 














Princes Street is one of the famous places of Europe, unsur- 
passed in its picturesque situation, at once chief thoroughfare, 
street of business, promenade, and pride of the city. This single 
line of hotels, clubs, offices, and shops, nearly a mile in length, 
faced by gardens and monuments, has been indeed marred by 
some incongruities and affectations of architecture, which become 
more apparent from the other side of the valley. But the 
lively bustle of its pavement, and the tempting display of its 
shop windows give one little opportunity for dwelling on faults 
of datail that in the mass produce such a striking effect ; then 
nothing could be finer than the overhanging edge of the Old 
Town opposite, with its many-storied buildings, ancient and 
modem, crowned by the venerable pile of the Castle, looking 
down on the green garden slopes. The sight of these tall 
"lands," at the back of High Street, when their countless 
windows begin to twinkle out in the twilight, is one not easily 
forgotten ; and neither the Hradschin of Prague, nor the high 
perched city of Constantine in Algeria, to which it is sometimes 
compared, has a more romantic aspect than this "storied 
height, lying gray in sunshine," or even when shadowed by the 
cloud of smoke that makes " Auld Eeekie's " characteristic 
atmosphere. From the Old Town, in turn, there is a fine view 
of the long and straight but varied frontage of Princes Street, 
the tops of its gigantic hotels gay with flags, among which the 
Stars and Stripes are well represented in the tourist season ; 
while by night it displays a line of electric lamps, gleaming 
beneath the star-like illumination above. 


General Post Office 

[Entrance for Postf. Restante^ Strainrtrs* Ii'iniry Onim, and Sunday 
bosinesR, on east side of buiMin*;. next \Vat4>r1<>(- 1*1 at. SuuiUy delivery, 
on application, from 8 to 9 a.m.] 

We might be exi^cted to take the CVtli' firnt us the capital 
of Edinburgh ; hiit it seems more jiractical to h»'j»in with 
the Post Office, a handsome Italian hnildin;; which Htanda at 
the east end of Princes Sired ^ occiij)viiig tlie pite of the old 
Theatre Royal at one comer of the North lirvfor Cook's office 
is to be found in part of the building of the huge new North 
British Station Hotel, which has transformed the as|icct of this 
part of the street The North Bri<lge loads to the Old Town, 
over the railway; and the stranger who expects to see a ri\'er 
here must understand that the "Bridges" an* rather viaducts 
spanning depressions of ground. 

The Register House, depository lur tlie public recoitls and 
registers of Scotland, faces the Post Otiice, the oi>en space be- 
tween suggesting the Mansion House heart of the City of Londou 
as a central point of communication, though here traniwayi 
take the place of omnibuses. In front of this buihling is an 
equestrian bronze statue of the Duke of Wellington by Sir John 
Steell ; and on the wall may be consulted meteorological instru- 
ments and reports displayed for public information. The steeply 
descending street at the north-east corner is the main toch\ to Leith. 

The early Scottish records suffered from a series of misrcirtunes, some 
haying been carried off and destroyed by Edward I., and others by Oliver 
Cromwell. Some of the latter were returned at the l^estnration, but one 
of the vessels by which they were sent, with its couteuLs, was lost at eeiL 
The Earl of Morton, who was Lord Register of Scotland in the reign of 
George HI., has the merit of suggesting a suitable building for the pre- 
servation of these national documents, and he succeeded in obtaining a 
sum of £12,000 from the proceeds of forfeited estates for its erection, 
which was commenced in 1774. The Lord Clerk -Iicgister and Keeper of 
the Signet is at the head of the establishment, wliich includes various 
offices, such as those of the liords Commissioners for Teinds ; the clerks 
and extractors of the Court of Session, tljc Jury Court, and Court of 
Justiciary ; the Great and Privy Seal j the Registrar-General ; and the 
Lyon King-of-Arms. The principal building was designed liy Robert 
Adam. It forms a square of 200 ft., surmounted by a dome of 60 ft, 
diameter, and embraces upwards of 100 apartments for the transaction of 
public business. Among these, the Great Room, contnining the older 
records, is distinguished for its handsome proportions. 

The Calton Hill fi]la the vifitn eastward. Before taking the 
lino of Priuccs Struct, it might be as well to turn along it« 
eastern continuatiun Waterloo Place, so as to gain a general 
view of the city &om this prominent crag. On the way will ha 
noticed a feature occurring several times in Edinburgh streeto, 
the croBsing of those ou a tower level by a bridge, here known 
as the Begent Archway and admired for the lightness of its 
open colonnndcE. To the right stands the costeUated Jail, 
which, overlooking from its rocky site the North British Rail- 
way, may have been our first greeting to Ediiiliuryli. A flight 
of stairs on the right gives entrance to the Calton Burying- 
Qround, beside the Jail, where the most famous monument is 
that of David Hume, buried here 1776, but the most prominent 
the obelisk in honour of the Political Martyrs of 1794, tlio 
young advocate Muir and others, haniahed for opinions which 
would be now called commonplaces, but which by the lurid 
glow of the French Eevoltition seemed subversive of all law and 
order. This burying-gronnd formerly extended acroBs the road, 
some of the graves lying beneath the Calton Hill, to the walks 
of which we mount by a staircnse opposite the JaiL 


This abrupt height of S5b feet makes one of the most striking 
features of Eilinburgh, adorned by the elaasical monucnenta 
which illustrate her claim to be the modern Athens. Walks 
run round the steep siiles, offering pleasant strolk and fine views 
in every direction. To gain the top at once, from Ihe entrance 
stairway we turn np to the right, passing under the classical 
monument erected to Dugald Stewart, the famous Edinburgh 
Professor of Moral Philosophy, a reproduction, with Home 
variatiouB, of the Cbontgic nioniiiiient of Lysicrates. Thus we 
come out in front oF the City Obaerratory, adjoining which 
is the moniimeut to Professor Playfair, the mathematician. The 
older building a little to the west is the old Observatory. A 
new Boyal Obsjarvatoiy has now been established on Blaclcfijrd 
Hill, The Calton Hill buildings, thus suppkuJed in their 
scientific importance, are aeyerthelesa maintained by the city 
for public instructiun of a popular kind. 

Upon the summit stands Nelson's Monument (admistion 




Sd,\ a structure more like an obeerN'atory or a lighthouse than 
a monument The top, gained by a circular stair, is 460 ft 
above the level of the sea. A time-ball signal is attached to 
the flag-staff, and acts in concert with the firing of a gun from 
the Castle at one o'clock p.m. The views hence are striking and 
extensive. Looking westwards from Dugald Stewart's Monument^ 
the eye is carried along the vista of Princes Street to the 
Corstorphine Hill, and over the symmetrical lines of the New 
Town "flinging its white arms to the sea.'' To the south, 
beyond the intervening valley, are the crowded buildings of 
the Old Town, covering the ridge that slopes from the Castle 
to Holyrood with roofs and chimneys, their outline relieved 
by spires and towers. In this direction the view is finely 
framed by a semicircle of hills — Arthur's Seat, Salisbury Crags, 
Blackford, the Braids, and the Craiglockhart heights, with the 
Pentlands rising behind them. To the north are the seaports 
of Leith and Granton. On clear days Ben Lomond and Ben 
Ledi- will be visible. Eastwards, lie Portobello, Musselburgh, 
and Prestonpans ; North Berwick Law, the Bass Bock, and in 
the distance the Isle of May. The late R L. Stevenson justly 
pronounces this the best view -point of all the Edinburgh 
heights, since it takes in the Ceistle and Arthur's Seat, naturally 
omitted from their own prospect 

Between the Observatory and Nelson's Monument stands the 
National Monument, a partial reproduction of the Parthenon 
of Athens, erected by subscription to commemorate the heroes 
who fell at Waterloo, and as a national Walhalla. The de- 
sign and style were worthy of such a monument ; but funds 
not being forthcoming to complete the edifice, it remains un- 
finished — an illustration of a well-known text and a subject fop 
unkind jests, yet in its condition as an imposing fragment 
carrying out the suggested resemblance to the Areopagus of 

Below the Calton Hill, Waterloo Place is continued by the 
Regent Road which, above Holyrood, unites with the London 
Road for Portobello. Between these two roads the projecting 
shoulder of the Calton is occupied by a horse -shoe line of 
handsome and finely-situated houses, the Regent, Garlton, and 
Royal Terraces. 

On the southern slope, below the top of the hill, are the 

extenaivu buildings and ''yarJa" of ibe High School, ureuud 
here in last century after repeated removals bi-ouyht about 
by change of circumptanceB and the growth of the town, its 
original site having been within the precincla of Holyrood. 
The Htyle of the present building ia finely classical, the colunina 
of the portico being a reproduction froto the Temple ot Theseus 
at Athens. Tht.- &un[ looks MUthwanla, bo that to tee it tA 
advantage we must pasa along the Regent Road. 

Acro5B the roari, opposite the High School, rises Bnnu's 
Monument, in the style of a Greek peripteral temple, the 
cupola being an exact copy from the monument of Lysicraies 
at Athena. Ita original purpose was as a shiine for FlaxmanV 
inarljle statue of Bums, hut thia was removed to the National 
(Jallery. The monument, which ia not beautiful despite its 
classic model, ja now closed to the public, and the Bums relics 
which it enalirined hare been removed to the City Chambers 

Returning to our starting-point, let us now follow Princes 
Street westward Irom the Post Oliice. At once, on the open 
side, ia passed an edifice the existence of wliich may not be sns- 
pected by strungera, ita flat roof, on a level with the street, dis- 
guised &a a garUeu. This is the WaTerler Market, a spacious 
area often used for flower shows, concerts, and political demon- 
strations. It may easily be entered from the staiis here going 
down into the Waverley Station, the subterranean depths 
which have several side entrsnci^a, and for carriages an inclined 
plane from the Waverley Bridge. 

The Waverley Bridge is the first opening on the left, passing 
OTer the station ; it is continued by Cockbum Street running 
obliquely and steeply up to the High Street at the Tron Church 
(p. 34), while Mmiet Street mounts by the south side of the 
Gardens towards St. Giles's (p. 28). Opposite, to the right, St. 
Andrew and St. David Streets lead into St Andrew Square. 

Above the terraces and parterres of the Gardens, lacing the 
next block, rises the Scott Monoment (admisdon 2d.\ the top 
of which comuiRuds a view that might be called magnificent, if 
we had not to keep our superlatives for the same prospect see 
from points of greater vantage. The architect of this Ootlii 
spire was George Kemp, a young uion of great promise, who did 




not loofs eurvivo hia achicvciueuU Some of Ihn dcbula 
been apparently borrowed from Melrose Abbey. The prim 
nicheia are filled with Ggares of Scott'i person nijrs, anrl uadc^ 
neath the marble canopy is his statue by Sic John SUtell. 

In the same divMion of the Gardens aw ibrwi bronxe tutuci i 
of Livingtitotuf, the traveller ; of Ailam Slaek, llie publisber, LonI 
Provost and Member of Parliament fur Edinliurgh ; aud uf /V»- 
ftesor IViltim, better known as " Chriitupber North," Almost 
opposite the Scott Monument ia Jcnner'a new Ehop, wliich might 
be called a monument to tlic ori^nal proprietor, and can perhaps 
claim to be, architecturally, the most ambitious shop i 

The Gardens are now broken by the Mound, the hi 
name of the most stately bridging of this valLcy, where a el 
way and a curved road mount to the Old Town by the side* 
two classical Temples of Science and Art, both designed 
W. n. Playfair, to whom Edinburfjh ia indebted for maay of 
structures in this style. This point :nay be taken as 
Trrefnlgar Square of Edinburgh. 

The Koyal Institatios (facing the street), now that 
National MvMum of Antiquities baa been removed to Qi 
Street, is interesting ta atrangera chiefly for its Scalplart Oall 
containing costs from the best ancient work; 
modem date, and an admirable set of bnsts of celebrated Greej 
and Romans, known as the Albacini Oollection. 

The National Oallery, standing behind the Koya! Instil 
tion, containa a fine ciiUectiou of paintings, 
as to the Sculpture Gallery, daily from 10 to 4 free, except 
copying days, Thursday and Friday, when n chaise of 6d, 
mode. In the eastern wing ia held the Spring Exhibition 
the Btiyal Scottish Academy. 

Among the aid masters there are good Hpsotmens af Vantlykv, Veroni 
Watteau, Grenie, Van da Velde, Tenicrs, and many others, both of 
Ttalian and the northern schools. In modem art the principal picti 
ire of the Scottish school ; bnt tho "Judith " aeries by Btty, nnd tha; 
ramona portrait of Mrs, Grabam by Gatnaborongh, are of themselvca amplj, 
sufficient to represent English art. Reynolda, Hogarth, Ijradaeer, Wilion/I 
are also rairly represented ; and there is a good collection of ivatar-coloitti 
drawings beqneathed by the late John Boott, Mrs. Willinma, and othera. 
Few deoesseii artists of the Scottish school are nnrepreaenteil here, and tht 
enllection of modErn art is yearly Increasing, although no grants of public 
money ever cutue to uarich the Scottish Ffational Gallery. 



The Scottlsii scbool of painters ranks kmong ita anrnber nmnomaii 
celebrities. TliB Rret of an; note wm Gi;orge Juueson, Uorii at AlwrUeen 
in 1586. He studied under Rubens, sad boc&mB bo rnnions oa to be styled 
tbe Seottish Tandjlie. Chsries I. nat to him for bis portrait, as dh! Dthel 
great men of tlia period. To bim Bueoeoded Scongall ; John BsptisU 
Medina, a native of Brossels ; Aikman ; Allun Butuay, n son of the 
|X)et ; the two Biineirosjis, Brown, Nasmyth, David Allnn, OnihiiDi, Sir 
H. Raohurn, Wiikie, Thomson, Duncnn, David Scott, Harvey, David 
Roberta, John Phillip, Dnimmond, Bongh, Wataon Gordon. Fetlas 
Douglas, Pettie, ItCWhirteTi OrcliRTdson, LocliliKrt, and oiacy otfaera. 

The first octagon eantalns a valnnhle collection of portraits, of which 
the most interesting are: HnniE, the historian, bjA.Jtammy; Bnraa, 
the poet, Siamyth ; Gibson, the sculptor, GrahaJa Oiiberl ; Christopher 
North, iSV Henry Raeinern; Wilkie, tlie pslnter ; Guy, the poet ; Francis 
Homer ; BIc John Moore ; Ura. E<rr of Blackshitd;, O. Ranney, etc. 

Throughout the galleries there are some (^d marble busts hy modom 
artists. In the lost octagon will be found a coUeotion of atatnettes, etc, 
including a beautiful Torso of Venus, in gray marble. Hero too are three 
models In wax, time-dLicoloured and worn, hnt nndouhted works of Michel 
Angclo. Flaxman's statue of Bums facea tbe entrance. 

The Mownd divides Princes Street into two unequal parts. 
The JFert Princa Street Gardtm, formerly private but now open, 
are inoro eKtenaive and picturesque than the other section, 
extending beyond the railway up the slopes of the Castle Rock, 
where there is a fine view from the highest walk. A military 
hand in the kiosk here, on Wednesday and Friday afternoons, 
aasemblee a popular gathering. In the corner next the Royal 
Inetitution and opposite tlie New Olab (the chief Club in Scot- 
land), etandfl Sir John Stcell's marble elatiie of Allan Hamaiy, 
iiutiior of the "Oc^nilo Sbepliurd." Farther on, almost opposite 
the ■University Club, is one of Sir Ja/met Simpson, the fniiiona 
physician, by William Brodie, R.S.A, A little eaat of this the 
Liberal ant! ConserTative Cluba stand close together ; and among 
the gay shops of Princes Street opens a covered Arcade, as a 
refuge on wet days. 

Princes Street ends in a wide meeting-place of some half- 
doxea ways, the chief of them the Lothian Road, by which tbe 
trams go off southward for Merchiston and Momingside. At 
the comer rises the handsome new Station of the Cidedonvm 
Bmiaay. Hereahoute will be found a group of some important 
ecclesiastical buildings of the city, which may now be mentioned. 

Opposite the station, at the western comef of the Qsrdens, is 
St. John's Episcopal Chapel, an elegant atracture of VW^VtiTSi 



Gothic order, designed after the model of St George's Chapel, 
Windsor, to wliich a recent additiun haf) be«n made on the cast. 
Dean Ramsay, long incumbent of this rhnpt'l, and widely known 
from his Reminiscences of Scottish Life ami Cfiara>'terf lb cou- 
memorated by a tall lona Cross erected outside. 

St. Outhbert's or the West Church, recently restored, 
stands just below in striking contrast This, thrnugh the popu- 
larity of its present minister, Dr. MacGregor, is largely attended 
by curious strangers as well as by members of the Scottish 
Establishment, and here, as wull as at St Gili's's, has been intro- 
duced the innovation of daily service. Its architectural features 
are not the attraction. Formerly the Edinburgli pleasantry 
was that St. John's looked like a German toy, and St Cuth1>ert'8 
like the box it was taken from. After the restoration and en- 
largement of the latter the text was suggested as motto : " I will 
pull down my barns and build greater." Unfortunately thi« 
building is pretentious as well as unsuccessful, an<l rather forces 
itself upon attention in the magnificent view north-westwards 
from the Mound. De Quincey is one of tlic eminent men 
buried in the churchyard. 

A bequest of £100,000 was left in 1895 to build a large 
hall, to be called the Usher Hall, and to serve the purposes not 
provided for in the Municipal Buildings. It has been finally 
decided to adapt the U.P. Synod Hall in Castle Terrace to this 

St. Thomas's Chapel stands modestly half- hidden in the 
south-west angle of the opening that ends Princes Street This 
unpretentious edifice holds a peculiar place, as claiming to 
belong to the Church of England without being under the 
Scottish Bishops. A generation ago it was recognised by the 
then Bishop of Carlisle as affiliated to his diocese ; and the 
ministry of the Rev. D. T. K. Drummond made it a notable 
centre of Evangelical teaching after a school now almost extinct. 
There were some half-dozen chapels, all over Scotland, in the 
same anomalous position ; but most of them, we understand, 
have now conformed to the Scottish Episcopal order. 

At the farther comer of the first block of Maitland Stred, 
the almost straight continuation of Princes Street, rises the tower 
of U.F, St. George's Church, replaced on its old site by the 
Caledonian Station. This congregation, though not officially so 


(listingiuEhed, tuu all alung been pruclicatly the chief body o[ the 
U.F. Church iu Edinburgh, and one of the moat active centrea 
of Scottish rsligioua life ; a pre-eminence it owed to ita former 
minister, Dr. Candliah ; and the influence of bis BUcceaoor, 
Dr. Whyte, aeema no way diminished. 

From this point, by a side street Ud the right, or by the 
oblique line of Quefii$fem/ Street from the end of Princes Street, 
we at once gain the broad viata of Uelville Stieet, a generation 
ago the most faahlonable in Edinburgh, and still a choice place 
of realdence, though it and its side streets are now a good 
hunting-ground for Che more expensive kind of lodgings. At 
the western end, Melville Street is finely closed by St, Mary's 
Cathedral of the Scottish Episcopal Church. 

The srchltact, Sir Gilbert Bcott (who died a ytar before itt DOmpletioa], 
faunded hia desigu on the Early Pointed Style. Tbe pliin aoaiata ol 
choir, transept, and nnve, with north and aonth aislu ; library sad 
ohapter-housB ; a lofty spire at tbe intersection of the tranaepts, and two 
waatem spires, the latter not yet erected. The height of the central 
tower and aplre, including tbe iroa crosa on tbe snmmit, ia S96 feet. Lilco 
other spires of the aaroB architect, it ia criticised as baviog a too topbeavy 
effect. The tower contains a fine peal of 10 bells, the tenor (the largest) 
vreighine 42 awt, Tbe main cntrauDS to the Cathedral is by the Kest 

portal, Palmerston Place, consisting of a nobly-moulded doorway, Hanlted 
by arched rMeaaea, with red granitf ahafla. The interior, viewed from 
any point, ia very impressive. Witliin the enclosure, at the north end 
of the building stands JSast CooUs House, one of Ihe few examples of old 
Scottiah mansions yet eurviving in Eillnborgh, dow used aa a cliolr acbool. 
Tbe foundition ia owed to a mnnlGcent bsqaeat of the late MiBBea Walker 
of Coates, representatives of an old Epiaeopalian family. The opening 
curemonial took ptaue in 1379. The cost bitherto has been over £100,000 ; 
but fUuds are still to aaelt for completing the design. 

This grand church ia commonly Bpoken of by Episcopalians aa the 
Cathedral ; but English visitors should remember that In the eye of the 
law it is nothing but a dissenting chapel, while they most try to realise 
how in tbia country the position of diasenter is one of entire equality. 
Socially, the Catholic and Episcopnii.-in churches are perhaps at an advan- 
tage, their more (Esthetic forms of woraUp recommending themselves 
to the cultivated olaaa ; and, it may be said that, among tbe Presbyterian 
nhuicbes, the most f^hiouaUe are those that eihibjt tbe Cslvlniatie 
theology undergoing a process of sublimation. Aa betw 
Church and the Establishment, the aligbtest idea of in( 
occurs. The U.F. Church, coosistfag of the anislgamation of the Free 
and United Presbyterian Chnrchea recently carried out, baa welded in 
one all those who generally agree iu rejecting any control or sulisii^ 
rcligioas belief by the Slute, irrespective of small ditferenrea o( 


14 IHiLTTLLl fnttnt — OlOMX KrniCKT 

in rsganl to form of worship. lliB EslibliifacHl nnd V.f. C1>nrph< 
iudevd noQifiiilly the ume creed ; but, bealde* CIid cu> nitrktd dii 
uuce of opuiioa IndicatBd, diAerencei at UDtimcnt hiui riturU siii' 
even in Ibe coogregatlona who agne in r^ectiug Stale coutrol 
in matters of doctriue or diacipline hn ocpqireJ, and lin« of cl»»i 
nnd fcesh fusion may uot altogether b« tbiiiga of the lasL Ou 
volcaald aoil ws miuit tread tightly, uor wuujd it be eaty lu guide 
uninitiated through still ituouldering controveniea ; but u nnck 
been sold for the enlightenment of ceitoln itrangcni, too apt to exp 
olTcnsire waodor wheu they find that lioaien aa well u earth li 
always rnlcd tram the meridian of Greenwich or L»ml<elh. Onca 
for all, lot it be exptainud that we nse the word charch, when unqnalU 
for a building of tha Scottish Ealahhshmeat ; though of late the eha. 
aa they were foruierly styled, of tlie Epuii:u[ial and Catholic oommunloa 
!gin to taks the eanie title. 

After this digresaiun, we coji turn back to trace c 
tlirouglx the principal thoroughfarea of the New Town, befOD 
coming to ileal with the part more ricli in bist/jt ical a««ciatioiii^ 
It may be menticued here that the tramway line continuin 
Princes Street, westward between Ailu^l and Coates Cretctnt^ 
leads Btgaight in about half a, mile to the JJuyma/rhel SlaUtnC'^ 
which H.B.R. paasengerH from the nurth find convenient Tor ib^ 

At the eftit end of Melville Street risea the dome of "■*-' 
George's Oburch, one of the city'g conapicuoiiB landmarks, 
a passage from the back of this church may be entered OharlotW 
Square, of late yeara a good deal given np to doctors and prop 
feBaionaJ offices, lu the garden stands the Stotliih Natumai 
Msmovial to Prince Albert, a bronze equestrian statue deaigiied 
by Sir John Steell, the groups and bas-reliefa on the pedestal 
being by different artists. The gates leading to ihia are open. 

Qeorge Street opena on the east aide of thia square, a broad 
and stately street occupying the crest of the ridge behind 
Princes Street, comuiunicating with it by the descents of Caatli, 
Fredtritk, and Eanover Streeti, at the top of which respectively 
atAnd bronze statues of Dr. Chalmers, Pitt, and Qcorgc IV. 
Many of the finest buildings here are the offices of banks and 
other companies, and the George Street shops are at least 
good as those more likely to catch the eye of tourists in their, 
favourite haunt. No. 39 Castle Street, 

, should draw us aside as the town residence of Sir 
Walter Scott for more than a quarter of a century. The 


auction of this street rrumcs fur ua a vitw of the CiiBtle Rock, 
rather disfigured hy the pile of burrocki. At the iuierseclion of 
Frederick Street, on the left, we look down a eteep viita, cloecd 
by the taver of 51. Stepken'i Chwch, beyond which ia a glimpse 
of the sea. In the neit block, on the right, a plain building, 
with a portico and four Doric columns, contains the Hnsic 
Hall and Assembly Booms, chiellj used for coin^erla, but the 
Bceae of more than one famous public gatheriD^. Across the 
way is Mr. Blackwood's shop, so famed in literary annals. 
Then Hanover Street descends to Princes Street, whose shops 
have here overflowed round the comer. On Ilic north side, 
Frederick and Hanover Streets ran straight down under differ- 
ent nAmea for their continuation a, each of them the line of a 
cable tram route, to which we shall return presently. On the 
left of the eastern block of Geot^e Street ia St. Audrav's 
Gbnrcll, memorable aa the scene of the Dianiptioii of the 
Scottish Church in 1843. 

St. Andrew Square closes George Street at the east end, a 
principal place of buaiAesg, its centre ornamented by the bdl 
MtivilU Monument, erected 1821 to the flrat Lord Melville, of 
that Dundas family who, through the Tory domicution of the 
French war time, were almost the rulers of Scotland. Impeached 
for laxity in dealing with public money, he was acquitted by the 
House of Lords, but not altogether by public opinion ; ao that 
a well-known Radical orator, the father of Dr. Jameson of South 
African fame, alluding to the statue oa this monument in a line 
with those of George I¥. and Pitt, spoke of them as " Vice 
standing between Tyranny and Corruption," 

This sijuarc was once a favourite place of residence, in which 
David Hume and Lord Brougham lived ; but it is now rather 
a site for banks and other public offices. In the centre of the 
east side, standing back from the other buiMings, ia the Boyal 
Bank, containing a spacious telling-room, with dome-shaped 
roof, In front ia an equestrian statue of John, fourth Earl ot 
Hopetoun. On the south are the Britieh Lineit Company and 
Nalumal Banks. The former, an elegnnt building designed by 
the late David Bryce, R.S.A,, has a frontage of isolated Corinthian 
columns in the style of the Itoman triumphal arch, and the 
telling-room is adorned with polished pillars of solid granite. 
The olBcea of the great rival insurance compaiL\«&, vW ikoUijiJi 




IS (tamammaamr 

JVvlatet' Fund emii the ikoUuh Prvvidml Inttilution tn 1 
■ome buildings on the we»t and south siilea of llio «quu«. 
new building at the soutJi-ca»t oi 

From either aide of St Andrew Si^iibk Is a ehort tui 
ialo Queen Street, at th« eastern end af which, with the Uml 
Slatei ConfiilaU over the way, srand the new buildings ol I 
Scottish National Portrait Qallety, which alio contra | 
[Qonis of the Jioyai Hcotlish Geographical Soeitly, oiid the Uvi 
of Antiquities hitely iransferred here from the Royal loi 
tion. On Thursdays and Fridays there ia a oliarge < " " " 
admission to both collections ; on Mondays, Wedneadafi, ■ 
SatUpdnyB they are open free, 10 tj 

Thia hundBome buildina (R. R. Anileraon, LL.D., architect) ' 
erectod nt tlie eost of Mr. J. B. FimiUy (the priocipal pTopr" 
of The Sooliiaan cewepsper), who also gnvt £10,00~ 
foondktion of the eollectioa al portraits Itielf. The oolleotion » a] 
of much interest, Including portrnite of Buni», Bcott, <^lyle, ChaL 
Combe, ClaverhODSe, Hume, Ramsay, Wilkie, and many ot tbe S 
nabilitj. The chief drawback of each a collection la that it must in 
■oms bad pictuiai of lueU-knowii EharacCen, ai well M good on 
more obscure enhjBcta. OnenotJeeablBfeatara ia the i 

bjt the two Tajsics, a book nbout whom hiui been publisbed by Hr. J. J 

Gray, the late curator. 

The A nliqiiarian Museum hnsa good illustrated catalogue (le.)eip1ali 
lug the exhibits, which sre arraaged to trace the progress of civillaatlt 
and cullure 1b Scotlnud. 

Among the mlaceUaneoUB curiositle 
iiiatrumant of punishment made of in 
the purpose of serying "aa a com 
ihumbUcins, a well-known inatrumont 

CoTenantcrs, one of its laet victims beiug Priucipal Caratarei < 
the RerolntioD, got a preaent from the Privy Council of the p: 
thumb-screw, the preasnre of which he related with so mucli ci 
and which, when he tried it, King Willism ileclttred would e 
&om him any secret he possessed ; the ancient Scottish bebni 
maohlne, known aa The Maiden, that "dark ladye," as Coleridge n 
have called her, that la aaid to have bestowed her fatal c 
own inventOT ; Jo/m Knox's pulpU from St. Qilea'a Church, 
doubtfnl relic ; original eopioa of the Oodly Batid of 1557, the proga 
of all the Covenants ; the WaMonal Oooenanl of 1638, signed by HoniK 
when be begau hia career aa a Oovenonter ; the Solemn LeegvA o 
CoDBnan! ot 1643, with the aubscription of Archbishop Leightoa ; 
the bamiera of the Covenant borne by the Covenantera at the \a 
Botbwell Brig; the bhie ribbon worn by Prince Charles as a Knight « 
the Garter when in Scotland in 1746 | and a parting ring 
by Flora Macdonald. 

B are the braakt, ■ 
<n. and fsntencd upon tlie bead, f 
^etor of incorrigible scoldii " [ f 
ot torture, much used ai ' " 


Eastward, Queen Street is continued by York Place, at the 
north -east comer of which is St. Paul's Ohapel, the chief 
English church before the building of St. Mary's. Opposite it 
stands the Roman Catholic pro-OathedraL Behind this, at 
the comer of Leith Walk, will be found the Theatre Royal, 
rebuilt again and again after being destroyed by fire. 

We now return to Queen Street, which runs below George 
Street, with a fine look out northwards over the gardens (not 
public) forming one side of it. In the first block, westward from 
the Portrait Gallery, is passed the Philosophical Institution, an 
excellent library and reading-room, with a subscription beginning 
at 8s. a quarter, for which one has almost all the accommoda- 
tion of a club, besides high-class lectures and concerts usually 
given in the adjacent Queen Street HalL Beyond are an 
old-established boys' school, rather grandiloquently known as the 
Edinburgh Institution, the Hall of the Royal College of 
Physicians, and the United Service Club. Ofiices and shops 
have, to some extent, invaded this street, but many of the 
houses recall days when the New Town was a place of aristo- 
cratic resort At the comer of the west end, turning up te 
Charlotte Square, a memorial, looking like a miniature of the 
Scott Monument, has been erected to Miss Catherine Sinclair, 
the author of Holiday House, through whose benevolence 
fountains and other public accommodations were supplied to 
various parts of the city. 

Below Queen Street run Heriot Bow, with its complement 
Abercromby Place, then in turn Northumberland Street, Great 
King Street, Gv/mberland Street, and Fettes Bow, the last overlook- 
ing an open space, formerly the limit of the New Town, which 
beyond it has taken a new start in less regular form. 

At the west end of Queen Street let us turn down on the 
right into Moray Place, a stately polygon, still one of the most 
dignified quarters of the New Town, and chief of a chain of 
more or less circular openings that here diversify its rectangular 
lines. By these curves, bearing south-eastwards, we might come 
back to the road which, as Quemsferry Street, made an obtuse 
angle from the west end of Princes Street Taking this line to 
the right we soon gain Telford's grand Dean Bridge, spanning 
the Water of Leith, at a height of over 100 feet, where, with the 
new fashionable district of Drumsheugh at our bw^V., ^^ \wJ«l 



down the stream upon a deep glen wliirli makes one of the most 
picturesque views to be found within the bounds of any citj. 
The Water of Lcitli, that turns up hore and there in the 
Edinburgh streets, has lately been purified so as to do itself 
justice as the chief feature in this fine scene. The prospect 
upwards, somewhat disfigured by a distillery in the foreground, 
is well wooded and closed by the ridpe of Corstorpkine HilL 
Beyond the bridge, Trinity KpisrojKil Vhapcl stands as IHe du 
pont of a handsome and growing suburb. 

So far the leading features of the New Town may be 
perambulated in an hour or two. To its outskirts we will 
return with those readers who have time for a more leisurely 
survey. Now we pass at once to the Old Town, where the task 
of sight-seeing is not to be done in haste. 


Hkbb we no longer dalay our visit Ui the C'astif, to which the 
UBUftl waj from Prinoca Street ia up the Mouml, past the 
GaUerita. The atately building hehind, on the left, standing 
out like a buttress of the Old Town, is the Bank of Scotland, 
which strangers muat not take for a national institution, though 
it is the oldest among several oharteted hanks issnlng their own 
notes. Tlie head of the rise is faced by the 'U.F, High Church, 
making part of the block of buildinga that also contains the 
U.F. Church Colleee, and, behind, the Assembly Ball of the 
same body. By the iront of this edifice we turn up to the 
right, where cither a staircase may be taken direct into the top 
of High Street, or the steep Rameiy Lime beading up by a grouji 
of new buildings with red rooia, rather criard at present as a 
patch on the weathered gray, but no doubt to be mellowed by 
time. This edifice, incorporating Allan Bamany's honse, is 
called University Hall, established by Professor Putrick Geddea 
as a residence for students, artists, and other amateurB of plain 
living and high thinking, somewhat on the model of Toynbee 
Hall, an interesting eiperiment worthy of success. Two or 
three smaller institutions of the same kind, under a quasi- 
recognition from th" TTuiversitj, one of them for latlies, have 
done much to sweeten the old closes and wynds at the top of 
the High Street close by Into the end of this knowa as Castlo 
TTIll the lane emerges by an Outlook Tower (ndjiUssion 3d.), 
where a Camera Obscura supplies a favourite spectacle for 

Turning to the right, we come at once on the Ciidle Eepltmadf,, 
its north side displaying monumental crosses erected to the 
memory of comradea by different Scottish regiments, the south 
mil looking over the road which frama another kq^eqm^ 



circling the Rock, from the wost end of Princes Street Straight 
in front below the Jfalf-Moon Hattenj^ U the gate, (>])en all day 
till sunset (on Sundays alter 3.30). The apartiueuta, however, 
arc shown only 1 1 a.m. to 4 r.^ in suniiiior, and 1 1 A.if. tc 
3 P.M. in winter. At the drawhrid>;e will 1>c found a picket 
of coTnmissionaireff authorised t«i turn an honest siz])cnce by 
showing? strangers over the CaHtle ; hut tlu*rtf is no chai^ for 
admission to any jiart 


Edinburgh Castle stands upon a precipitous rock 300 feet 
high, forming the abrupt end of the ridge that rises from 
Holyrood. Before the invention of gunpowder it was almost 
impr^nable, but now its main use is as l>arracks, and very 
ugly and uncomfortable barracks they are that disfigure Buck 
a noble site. The only entrance is on the east side, where we 
cross the drawbridge unchallenged by the soldiers who guard it 
in their kilts and imposing plumes. To be in keeping with the 
modem sentiment, a Highland regiment is usually stationed 
here, though in old days philabeg and sporran were more like to 
be lodged in the Castle dungeons. 

The Highland Dress. — These kilted soldiers are not always Highland- 
men, their manly and picturesque dress tempting young men of all parts 
of the kingdom into famous regiments of our army, answering to the PreDch 
Zouaves or the A ustrian Jagers. Indeed it is said that lately certain recruits 
had to be turned out of the Black Watch because they spoke only Gaelic, 
and could not bend their wild Highland spirits to the restraints of discipline. 
But if the cult of the tartan be a piece of latter-day romance, it has taken 
deep root all over Scotland in the blood of a hundred battle-fields, endearing 
even the hearse-like plumes of the head-dress, which are quite a sartorial 
excrescence. Scoffers have gone so far as to assert tliat the Highland 
dress, in its present form, was the invention of an English tailor, nay, of a 
Quaker ; it has also been suggested that the patterns of tartan were 
introduced into Scotland by Malcolm Canmore's English queen. The 
favour of a later sovereign has certainly fostered the use of this costume, 
which is, of course, a modification of the simple plaid which the hardy 
clansmen belted round them for sufficient garment. Well adapted for 
activity and for military display, it answers to Dr. Jager's requirements, by 
giving an unusually thick covering round the middle of the body, a matter 
of importance both in hot and cold climates, for if the citadel of life be 
thus guarded, the extremities readily learn to defend themselves. In civil 
life, kilts seem to be coming back into favour, especially for juvenile wear 
and as evening dress for young men ; but it is rather the upper class who 
now affect what used to be a sign of inferiority, when, as Macaulay tells 


lu, tbiii drcsii suggested a tliier to low laui lent, and even a well-to-do thUfi 
sweetheart could IxMst of Iht (iilderi>y — 

IIo ru'ver wore a IKcIiIaimI iiIhM, 
Hut coatly silken rl<thfH I 

Strangers wlio may feel tempted to a<lopt tlu? **garb of old Gaul '* shoiiM 
know that it can hardly be worn to advantage withi>ut youthfiil fauiUuuity. 
"The white-kuee<l Cockney, conscious of his kilt," is like to cut a torry 
figure. But those bent on n)aking cxiN'rintent wouM find the proper tartMM 
of all the clans, and many others, in the 1 Winces St net shoiw. 

It is not amiss to take occasion, here and there, uf thus in- 
structing the tourist in such points us niiiy excite his curioeity. 

Now let us go on to visit Edinburgh Ctustlo, passing upwards 
from the entrance through the Portcullis Hate^ and underneath 
the old State prison in the Argyll Toicer^ restored at the expense 
of the late Mr. William Nelson, publisher. Thus we come out 
upon the Argyll Battery ^ commanding Princes Street Qardens and 
a fine view of the New Town. The favourite view-point, however, 
is the battery above, to which we mount either by the road 
winding to the left, or by steps leading up more directly |>ast 
the Argyll Tower. Going out on the roof of this tower, we 
should find the Old Town and Arthur's Seat brought into the 
prospect ; while the view northwards extends over the sea to 
the shores of Fife and the OchU Hills to the west, with the 
Grampians sometimes rising dimly beyond. 

The lion of the upper battery is Mons Meg^ a huge piece of 
artillery, said to have been made at Mons, in Belgium, 1476 ; 
but another story gives it out as forged by a Galloway black- 
smith and his sons. After doing good service to the Stuart 
kings it burst in the 17th century, and in the 18th was trans- 
ferred to the Tower of London, but restored by the Duke of 
Wellington on the petition of Sir Walter Scott 

Behind Mons Meg is St. Margaret's Chapel, probably the 
oldest building in Edinburgh, a relic of Norman architecture 
named after Malcolm Canmore's queen. This little chapel, 
long neglected and even used as a magazine, was in 1853 
restored through the efforts of Sir Daniel Wilson of Toronto, 
author of a well-known book on " Old Edinburgh " ; and of 
late years it has been further cared for, but still serves as 
nothing hetter than a bazaar for photographs and such like. 
■ To the right, we pass on to the Half-Moon Battery^ where at 

1 P.M. majr be witueaeed the TiriDg by electricity of the time- 
gun thiit startles every atranfjer within hearing, and atiiB mnny 
an Eiliiiburgli watch ijnim ita pocket. 

Below thia battery lies the gqiiare of I'aiicc Y<ird, iii which 
are the apartments open to Tisitore. 

Tht Crmcn Room, reached by a stair on the enat eide, con- 
tains the Scottish Kegalia, Crown, Sceptre, Swonl of State, 
and Lord Treaaurer'a wand ot olfice, exhibited to ciirioufl of 
covetouB eyoB in a strong cage within a bomb-proof vault 

The lloamiTs 0/ Scoltand. as these insignia were callci, hnva ou iukr- 

esUag history ; and. as Scott mmarks, wu cfinnat waniirr at ttie fond 
dasire wliich Scottiali antiquaries Iibtb shoiini to refer their dute to 
Days when gndo King Boborl rang. 

Juues T. tulded to the Crovm the two concentric circlea, bdiI u large 
cross paiee, upon which eco the charnotera J. R, V. The Sce)ilru was also 
mode in the same Teigit (most probal)l7 during the king's visit to Paris in 
1636), when preparing for his matriage aUionce with Franca. The Sword 
of State, B beantiful specimen of eariy art, has an earlier dale than the 
sceptre, having been pcesnntsd to King James IV. by Pope Julius IL ia 
1507. The crown served for tho Inst time at the Scottish caronatioa of 
Charles IL The sceptre perronnad its kst legislative office by ratifying 
the Treaty of Union with England on the IBth of January 1707. 

The interesting story of the Begalia, and their removal to 1 
Castle, is giveu at length in Sir Walter Scott's Provitiaal AnliquHita of 
Seotland. Patriotic Scots were so strongly agitated by the Treaty of 
Union with Engiajid, which they considereil as a wanton surrender of 
their independence, that the Government of the day thonght it pre " 
remove anything calculated to rouse the national feelings. The 
articles wore therefore thrown into aa oM ooli chasti and lockei 



the Gnjwn lioom, their existence aluuMt forigotteii until 181 7. wbea ■ 
(leHire arose to search for the loid treasure, and a committee (inclading Sir 
Walter Scott) jiroceeded to the K])ot. llie king's smith was commanded 
to force oi>cu the great chest, the keys of which had lieen aought for in 
vain ; and great was the joy when the varinuR articles were diMSOTcred, 
exactly as they had been surrendered by the Earl- Marshal about a himdnd 
and ten years before. 

Beside the Regalia are exhibited some other relics, the ]trincipal OM 
the Collar and George of the Garter, given by Queen Elizalieth to Junm. 
The miniature set in the oval jewel of the Garter l)equeatlied to King 
George IV. by Cardinal York, is considered to l)e a portrait of tlie 
Countess of Albany, wife of Prince CliarK'S Fldward, known also by her 
connection with A 1 fieri. 

Adjoining the Crown Room, but having u separate entrance 
from the square, is Qiieen Marxft Room^ wlicre, in the inner 
apartment, Mary Queen of Scots gave birtli to James VI. Tlie 
event is commemorated by the initials IT. and M., and the date 
1566 over the doorway. The original ceiling remains, and the 
initials I. R and M. R, surmounted by the royal crown, are 
wrought in the panels. On the wall is the following inscription, 
surmounted by the Scottish arms : 

Lord Jesu Chryst, that crounit was with Thornse, 
Preserve the Birth, qubais Badgie heir is borne. 
And send Hir Sonne successione, to Rcigne stifle, 
Lang in this Realme, if that it be thy will. 
Als grant, O Lord, qubat ever of Hir proceed, 
Be to Thy Honer, and Praise, sobied. 
igth IVNII, 1566. 

The south side of the square is taken up by the old Banqueting 
Holly in which the Scottish Parliament sometimes met This 
also was long treated with neglect, at one time turned into an 
hospital ; but now restored by the munificence of Mr. William 
Nelson, and finely ornamented by a collection of weapons and 
armour, it takes its due place as one of the Edinburgh sights. 

Edinburgh Castle has been the scene of many romantic events and 

daring exploits. 

The pond'rous wall, and massy bar, 

Grim rising o'er the rugged rock. 
Have oft withstood assailing war, 

And oft repell'd th' invader's shock. 

During the contest between Bruce and Baliol, it was taken by the 
English in 1296, and kept by thefti thirty years ; but was recovered by 
a midnight attack in 1318. The perilous expedition was undertaken 
by thirty men, commanded by Randolph, Earl of Moray, guided by 
BVancis, one of his own soldiers, who had been in the habit of descending 

tLe cliff euireptttiimBlf to tuji hi« sweelhrort The darkuaaa of the 
night, the st«epneivi of the precipice, aiicl the rlnngur of diacovary by 
the wntchmeD, rendereJ the eutcrprise such as might have appalled the 
bravest spirit. They scaled the wall by a ladder irhieh they hot) brought 
with tliam. FraacLq, the guide, aseandad flrst. Sir Andrew Gray wiia 
sceoiid, and £audoIph bimself third. Ere they had idl raouDlsd, howeveri 
the sentiDels caught the alurm, miseil the cry of "Tieasoul" and the 
constable of the Castle and others, rUBhing to the spot, made a vaJiant 
though ineffeatna! resiitance: Randolph wit for some time in grent 
peraonil danger, until the gallnnt constable was slnin, when his faUowers 
ded DC fell before the bands of the saiailanta. After this Bruce ardernl 
tha fortress to be damoliabad, lest it might be sgain occupied by the 

Biward HI., nn his wny from Perth, cruised it to be rebuilt and 
strongly garrisonei.1, bat it was retnhcn In 1341 by an Ingenious Etratngem. 
A man, pretending to be an English mcrohant, cftmo to the goramor, and 
told him that he had on board bis ship in the Forth some wine, boer. 
hiaonita, etc. A bargain being made, ho promised to dalivar the goods 
next morning at a very reoaowable rate ; at the time sppoiuteil, twelve 
men, dleguiKd in the habit of aallora, entered the Castle with the gooil^ 
aud supposed iiieiohont, and inatantly killed the portor and sentinels; 
Sir William Dougla-i, on a preconcertud sigual, then ntsbsd In with a 
band of armod men, and qoickl/ made biiaself master of the place, aftei 
having ont most of the garrison in pieces. 

The Castle has frequently aerred both as the residence and the prison 
of the Buttisli Kings. Thu ScotUsh hftront, under th« feudal 
nearly eqoallad their kings in riclias and in power, and sometime! 
possessed themselves of the royal person to sanction theii ami 
designs. Thus James 11. in 1438 was held here in a sort of honourable 
durance by Chancellor Crichton, till, by stratagem contrired by bis 
niotheTf ha was smuggled out in a trunk. Bnt he did not vary long 
enjoy his liberty, being soon after taken by a bend of armed men while 
hunting in the wooila of Stirling, and carried back to the Castle. It was 
hero also that William, the sixth Earl of Douglas, sntl his brother were 
put to death, having been enticed Into the Castle by Crichton, who ftinrcd 
the great power and wealth of the Douglases. 

In the year 1B73 the fortress was gallantly defended by Kirkaldy of 
Grange against the Earl of Morton and Sir William Dcnry, and ' 
it sustained a siege against Cromwell, hut yielded to a threat of 
In 174B it behi ont stonily for King George against Prince Charl^ 
Edward, while hia troops uecupied tlie city. 

Immediately undur the Bortli face of the Castle, within the 
Princei Street Gardens, will be found the ruina uf the WellhouBe 
Tower, which formed a part of the first town wall built in 
1460. It served also as an outwork of the Castle, and, oa ita 
name implies, secured to Ilia garrison iicEeas lo a spring of 
water at the taae of ilie rock. The well having fallen into 


I EdinbiLt'gb, one u( then 
1 of James V. and mofhei 

I The fiiBt meatiDe of tbs OenerH] ABsembl]' was hold In EiUnburgh la 
I 1S60. At {ireaent tlie A^sanibly uoutisU of soain iOO inenibeis, citrical 
r anil lay, elected by the laiioua presbytuiies into whicli the cwUDtry la 
divided, who ahooae nnsuiiliy ^m smocg their own number a president, 
nttinfld the Moderator. The Bovereijn is roprBBenlal by a commisiioner, 
usually a Soottuh peer, who resldea for the time at Bolyrood Palace. 
The meeting of Assembly lakes place in May. 

A little farther clown, on the north side of the Lawnmarket, 
is Jami^ Goart (erected aboiU 1735-27), where David Hume the 
hifltorian leaided before he removed to the New Tiiwu, auU Boawell 
pTondl; entertained that moat imgracioiia guest, Dr. Johnson. 
OppoHJte, on the right side, Riddl^t Glote contains one of the 
new Students' SettleuientB thai are doing bo muuh for the social 
deodoriaaliou of thia quarter. It ia well worth a vinit, nud will 
give a good idea of the acconiniodationB once thought lordly 
enough for aristocratic reuidentB. Then on the left cornea 
Lady Sta/ir'i Closs, named after EUiaheth, Dowager Countcsa of 
Stair, one of the m(«t interesting chsractera of Old Edinburgh, 
whose singular story is the groundwork of Scott'a tale of "My 
Aunt Margiiret's Mirror," Her houae has recently been 
restored, or rather rebuilt, by Lord Roauhery, her descendant ; 
and the old eloae ia almost entirely renovated. Tlie cloae 
adjoining, called Baxttr'a (oif No. 469 Lnwrnnarket), contjiins 
the lodging first occnpied hj Eohert Bama in 1760. 

Tall aa sume of these houaos are, they were built higher in 
the days when the Old Town included ell Edinburgh, some then 
having a dozen Btoriea or more, packed ivith inmates of ditTerent 

At the bottom of the Lawnmarket, George IV. Bridge goes off 
to the right, and Bank Street descends to the Jlound on the left. 
At the comer uf the former is a famous " sweetie " shop of 
absorbing inferest to juvenile viaitors. Opposite riaes the 
BcatFolding of the new County Hall, by the side of which 
we pass over an open apace towards St. GiUis GatJiedrai, 
where a heart-shaped deaign upon the paving atones near the 
Duke of Buccleuch'a statue murks the aite of that old Tolbooth 
and Jail famous as the Heart of Midlothian. Thia open space 
ia Parliament Square, its centre filled by St. Giles's, ita aide 
formed by the Lain Courts. In old daya the High Street here 
was blocked up by the " Luckenbooths " and other small shops 
known aa " Kraraea " built into the wall of the church. On the 



•uulli siili-, the Blcip« wlii-ru ttii- Coiirta n< 
churuhyanl j biit tliu only ti-.ui: i.f ili:« in a t 
marked I. K,, 1572, bvliuinl t» o>v.t tlu- n-iiii 
— thiis buried, aociirdiiiK to Dr. Jiilitii>un'< niii 
ft highway. 

[AtlniisHion R'l.. ncei't i>n Muiiilay* nii.l n'. PiTt 
Saturday.) i'lntniiu'e frnm High Slrm't.] 

itiinu in the parinf 
liiia or John Knn 
iharitable deain, ii 

The ancient Parish ChurcJi ' of Edinburgh is iiamcd afteir 
St. Qilea, abbot and confessor, and I'ntrou Saint of the Oity, 
whose ai'm, enshrined in sUver, was long preserved among 
lbs relica. The present building is the erection of varioaa 
periods, and suffered much from alterations and restoration dona 
in days when ecclesiBstical art seemed to Scotsmen a snaie of 
the evil one. Up to our own generation it was divided into 
three churches for separate worship ; but has now been worthily 

' Although ronunanl/ called Catliatral it Is, moiu Lomictly speiikiag, a 
CMtnA, hoacB oftsD catle<l "The Hi^ Churcb." There wm no Bish<qi*i 
obur {aU/i^iini} before the Eteforination. 


restored to its former Bpaoioui dignitv, at the instance and maintj 
at the expense of Dr. William Chambers. If famouB iiuthora 
have given that which they had to glorify this roniontic to 
of the Edinburgii publishers has v 
forward with mlver and gold in 

nutionnl ii^ternHt. Oripnnlly tba 

city coiuiBled or oim pariab, mid SL Giliss'e Cburcli hss the ouly plaos of 
worship. It ia flrat moutioncd in thu year 1259, in n charter of Uavid n., 
and Id the reign of Jamea III. {1466) It wiu mada coUegiatv, nnd placed in 
some leipacta under tlie direct Jnrisiliction ol the Pcjie, with Provost und 
Chapter. Tlie Scoltiali poet, tiaviu Uouglaa, was eleuted Dean or ProvoBt 
ia 1501. After the Reformatioa the church was greatly disfignred (as 
wei'e many aacred edlfii;e9 at that time}, (lartitloned into ae)>nrate pl&cei ol 
wnrahip, and tha nacriKl vefleels and relics were sold hy tbe mn^.itn ' 
de&ay the eipenae of the alterations. In 1603, liefore tha depwl 


Juum VL to tik* fomtMlau otibi Uiraa* el Sa^tsd, h*. 
■orvkt iu St. Gilet't, imi dolivvrad * toowall aiUiM) 1«^ 

mlyecU, uiuring Uien of hia tmiJlenlU iirKKon. WIUi tba< 
ot ipitaofocj ia SooUuii] uudcr C3iul« I., EillDbnieb ma i 
biihoprlc, and St Oilo'i (AdkIi wk ■ii]'>lnl«d the CiOiMlta]' 
lion wbloli deported with tlio »l»lllioii of KplKoimiy Ir •""=■ 
mula in 1036 to introduoe Uic usw "tigvko boak " 

tha ladlcroua Bcena *liaD Jbbd]' Gediliw tlirav li*r catty-'tool at Ih*! 

of Sdinburgh. On tbe ISih 0(rtnl«r 1643 tlin SalBUin Titfin mI 

Ca»Bn»nt, which li»d been prB|i»r«1 hy Alsiiii'lur I'"' 

to and anbniribad williiii tlic wnlls. 

Tbs exterior b»a not wbolly rooonreil from Ibo _ _ 

formor reatoms ; bnt it pnmDte notiw niiD fiwturM, partloularlj In 
crown uid spire, nnd in th« B.-ut wiadov,-. 'llie folciior ham ■ atiMf 
effect, enhnnFed b; tbs faded rcgimmbJ Higs baiigiug frotn the rtMt, m1 
tbe msuf Bno moiiumenta old sud oev, while Itideeil tbs number ud ttai 
of tlie ptllBTE, bnwaver admirable from aii irtiBtlc point, Mem a litll* to 
anflt the building for iU purpoHi u a parish chiu^li. 

The Choir ia Sltod ap vritb oaken aUlln fur lbi> juilgw and Diogletniln 
who stlead divine eorrice iu their robes oii apsrial "Ciiasiooa. In the tw 
aisle to the south, named after PreatcMi of (Soil«n, wbo bu<|U(Hitl>eii to Ut 
church the ann-hono of BU Giles, is the Royal Pew. ownpied lij- tin Ixgl 
High Commissioneir at the AssEinbly time. Adjaiulng it (marked B oc 
the plan) ia the small chapel founded by Chepman, the "Scottish Caiton." 
where also the lEmsiaa of the great Muquls of tlontroae were intcmd, 
eleTeO years after hia sieoutiOD, which tOOlt place in Biiubllfsb in 1650. 

Tlie ^aiB^the latest reatored portion of the building — ooQtaiiu Uw 
Moray and Albany aielus, the foriDor of which la Btted up aa a separate 
clispd, coutnining (A in plan) the tomb of lbs Regent Moray, who was 
interred here immediately after his asaaasinatian at Linlitligow, wben Um 
funeral sennon was preached by John Kuoi. The Allany aisle cont^t 
a pillar decorsted with the arm-i of Rolwrt, Dulio of Albany, and Arebibald, 
fourth Earl of Douglaa, who axe anpposed to have founded this i:bapcd aa 
an expiatory offering Ibr the murder of the Duke of Rothoay (eldest son 
of Robert III.) at FalUand, in 1402. 

Among the monnmenla, three are noticeable for the lavish use of colour 
shown in them, as well aa for their seulpture — Montrose's tomb, in the 
Ohgnnan Chapei (beside the organ) ; the mural monumant to tbe lata 
Lord JustlceOeiiorallngliaon tbcn'allof the/VcjIon Aids; and, recently 
added, In the llarainenncn' s or SI. Alay's Chnpr!, to the risltt of the 
entrance, the sumptuous Argyll monnmeut thai outdoes the others in 
glowing richness. 

SeTeral interesting Brasses will be noticed, one to 
Watch who died in Egypt, 18S2, and other regimanU 
is a Brass to WiUiam ChamberB, who might bo called the pious rafonni 
and a memorial window to another member of the family. The ohnnl., 
rioh in stained glass of varying merit. Tlio one beside the oi^an takra ! 
subject from secular history, the upper hslf slicwing the murder of ~ 
Moroy, and the lower John Knci preaching his funeral sermon. 
The Pidpil strikes one .i." rather too much in the confectioner; 


Thnre ia a Hne AUar, or what, in a Proibrtcriiui cliurcb, maj l>c called » 
compromiBe Tor nn altar. Tbe Font la a copf Trom ona bj TLorwalilton. 

To tbe boiTOr of s few trne'blne Preabytiiriiuit aUlt extant, t^t. GileaV 
baa a vi^ry gooil organ^ aad the servlcea are of a ritual aod musical t7p«, 
in stroug contrast with the old Hmplicity of Scoltiati wgrsliip. Thp 
military aervica at 9.IG on Snndafa mnkw a favouritu apcctaule rur 
itrangera. Daily aorviM is held at 3.30 in tbe Moray Aisle, oear wliioh 
a tablet on tlie floor preserves the memory of tlmt irreooncilabla Jsnni/ 
Oedda, who would Huraly turn in her e"^yt if she knew to what tlii< 
church bad come. 


the ancient mocting-place of the Scottiali Parliftraent, haa been 
appropriated since the time of the Union to the nae of the 
Supreme Courte. The present building was erected hctween the 
yeais 1632 and 1640, but subsequently, with the exception of 
tlie great hall, almost totally renewed. The public entrance is 
at the Bonth-west angle of the square, and there is free admission 
by a not very prominent doorway close tJj the comer of the 

The great hall or rariiamtnt Hoiue offers a lively scans during the 
altting of the Conrti, bdng the promenade of bnay or willing- to- be -linsy 
adTDcatea, conanlting witli dienta and lolieitors, nr ficlianging idle gosgi]!. 
which malies thia place tbe fncus of local vlt and acandal, ns well as of 
juistice. Advocate iathe Scotch synonym for harrfster, except at Aberdeen, 
where, by a freak of privilege, it has lioen extended to aolicitora, elsewhere 
known as tori/urs in Scotland. This hall, 132 feet by 4D, with a Infly 
root of carved oak, and adomad by statnos and portraits of distlngQished 
Bcottiali lawyBTB, ia well worth a visit for ita own sake. The snbjeot of 
tlie SlaiMd Otass Wind(np, on tlie aonth ai<!e of the hal). is the innugnm- 
ttnit of the Court In 1E37 by James V., who la in the act of presenting the 
deed of eonermalion by Pope Cloiiient VII. lo the Lord President. The 
other flgurca represent Dnnbar, Archbishop of Glasgow, the Abbot nf 
Cambnsksnneth, and judgiae and nobles of the time. Tliia window was 
B:[B(nited at Munich in 1S66, from a design by Kanlbach, and Cost £2000, 
The nde windows arfi also noticeable, as nre the great cnr\'ed HreplacoH. 

The OuttT i/ji«e, where the Lords Ordinary sit, is reached froin below 
thla window, and coniiigtB of fonr email oonrta, where civil cases nre triad 
tor the Bret Uine. Tlie /niter i/ouje is divided into two divisiona (First 
and Second), where appeal' are lienrd trom the Onter House and gherilT' 
Oourta. The 3ij/h Ctnirl of JimUeiary, the eupreme criminal tribunal of 
Scotland, is situated In another part of the building. 

The Jndges are thirteen in nnmber, a Lard Jialke Ounernl or Lord 
PraUienl, and a Lord Juitijx Clerk, mnking up tbe thirteen. Strangers 
ahonld apply to t^e nsbera for entrtrace into any of the courts, whe 
may be iiiterested by the forms nf legal procedure here. A jury i 
of twelve, eicept in criminal cases, when it numtieri fifteen. 





'I'he PsrliamoDt Honeo it built on « alopc. and ws nmit dcucend into 
the lower Btories for Tbe AdvooateB' Libruy (a«c«u ta whiuh la otiUioBd 
through the great ball of the PBrlismBnt Houm), one of tha five librariei 
in the Unitad Kingilom entitled to a copy of every book published in 
Grent BriUia. A. i^rga additional library hall was opened In 1884. It 
may he rviimrkBd tlist the collectiDo is bberully put at tbe lervlca of all 
who cau bIiow themselves able to nse it to good acconat. 

This library oontnins tlie most yaluabtB colleetioQ of books io Scotlimd, 
the printed works amounting to some 300,000 volmnei, iiclniling exceed- 
ingly rare >nd cnrioua works in Scottish poetry, of which there is ■ printed 
catalogne. The nwnnscript* »re eiteneife, and readily soooBsible by meui* 
of n catalogue, in 113., which occupies uine folio volnnjea. The most pro- 
minent piui consists of collcctio^ia rormed in the 17th century by Bir 
James Bllfonr and 3ir Robert SIbbald, and relating mainly to the dvil and 
ecclesiastical history of Scotland. The Gaelic MSB. collected hy the H^h- 
land Society during tbeir inquiry into the oathentiuity of Osaian'a Poema 
are also here. The funds of the library are chiefly derived from the entrance 
fesa of the members of the bar. In one of the lower apartments msy be 
seen Greensliield's statue of Sir Waltar Scott, the original manuacript of 
Waverleif, and the Con/esaioti i.f Faith, signed by James VI. and the 
ScottJEh nobles of the Privy Cooncil (1589-90). 

At the west cud of the Hall, we enter the roonu and LibTEU? of the 
Writer)) to the Signet^ an important body taking rank a)x)re ordinary 
:iaUcitor9. a^ practising only before the Court of Session and perforniinj; 
also duties of conveyancing generally performed by barriaters in England. 
Their library contains upwarils of 50,000 volumeo. and ii rich in tba 
arohsulogical department, eipeciolly in British and Irish history. 

At the back, cctupyiiig the upper part of a new boildiiig looking into 

the Cowgatfl, is ttio Library of the Bolidtora to the Suprems Court, 

another great legal corporation. Abbreviations of these professional 
qualities, »'.& and S.S.C.. are commonly used in Scolliind as titles of 
address ; as is C.A. (Chartered Accountant), initials which hiivo piiiilod 
strangers on floor-plates and letter headings. 

Leaving the Pttrliament House, and making for the other 
i!iid of the aquare, near Knox'u supposed grave, we find an 
equestrian Btatue of Charlu 11^ on a site Bald to have been 
originally intended for one of Cromwell, who would have made 
better company for the Btem Reformer. Beyond, at the east 
laid of St Giles's, the opening ia filled by the reatored Market 
Cross, the original of which stood hereabouta. This rcetoration 
was the gift of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, who had the 
saliafaction of witneasing its completion in December 1 886. 
The building is octagonal, surmounted by turrets, and having a 
door admitting to the top ou its east side. From the centre 
rises the original ahaft or pillar (surmonnted by the heraldic 
unicom), which had been carefully preserved after the destruc- 



ttOD or the previotu erecUou in 1706. Pnin lh« CSr 
Scottiih Uuralda a&d Punnivsnti (RothcMy, Albutj, 
mout, U&icorn, Csrrick, and Bute) are Wunt, mm of dd, 1 

proclaim royal edict* "in gloriou* trumpet duog." 

This group of public buildings hu iutcmiplcd, tin tbt r 
side, tha courae of High Strett prupcr, which «e now 
Opposite the Market Crosa, fruin the left of ibe street, opowaj 
archway into ttie Royal Exchange, a squaK encloiiag I 
lately recaiiBiructed ilunicijNil Buildiuga of Edinburgh. 
top there ia kept a Afuteum of civic curiositic 
which visitora are admitted. Tliu Oouncil Ohunber ^ 
fine bronze Btatuo iu lioman coBtuuie uf I'rJiica Cliarloi 

Stuart, which has a curious liistory. It is wiii 

cast in France, and waa chipped from Dutikiik to I^ithf'^ 
in unloading, it fell into the haibour, and luy for a time 1 
uerged. On its recovery it vas presenled by lUo poaseuor to ll 
city, without lii* daring to state that it rej'reai'nied the Pret« 

The Municipal Buildings have t«en touch improved ■ 
and are being so much extended that they promise^ wheu a 
pletc, to rank among the finest of their kind. Their e 
Las flbflorbed tha adjacent inn, once famous i» literary biat 
as John's Gqffee House. Not far from this is Craig't Olost, 8 
associated with the printing,'- press, containing as it did the 
printing-office of Andrew Hart, and the residences of ihs t 
famous bibhopoles, Creech and Oonslnble. Btyond, TV'S , 
chief newspaper of the north, loug had its iinartere, aljout | 
be tranafeiTed to a magnificent block of hujidiiigs ia the 
Bridge Street. 

On the right aide of the street, below Parliament Square, '|| 
the Police OfELce. Down this broad thorough fare, il 
pavement often brightened by the uniforms □! Highland snldiei 
its squalid closes once the residence of peers, bishopa, and judgt 
we desc«nd to where the Tron Church hlle a. square at the hea 
of Oockbwrn Strett (p, 9), where also High Street is intersected b 
the line of the North and Sonth Bridges, the former of whiclf 
beginning at the Poat Office Ijj. Q), is iidw being worthily readj 
vated as North Bridge Street. The church at this lively n 
of ways takes its name from the Tron or weighing beam, that ol 
served abo as a pillory to which offenders were nailed by the et 
Hare formerly, obstructing iho thoroughfare, stood the (hiard-Hou 

^'City Guard, a body of veteran DogberrieB as unpo]mlar a* 

BetoK desoeuding iuto the Ganortgate, a diversion may be 
made that will inclade several other prominent feHturea of Old 
Edinhurgh, aud some new anee, cnrrying ua round a devious 
course to the south of the line tnken fi'om the Cnstle. 

The Orasamarket we s>w lying below the Castle Ksplauadc. 
The simplest if not the shortest way to it is by u road ft'om the 
west end of Princes Street, dipping doMTj below St. C'ulhbert'» 
Church, skirting the Ganlens and the Coatle Bock, paaaing 
under an archway, and along "the King's Stables" by the site of 
the former Tilliug-yard, Ui enter the north-west comer of thia open 
space, now much modcmiBed, but still showing some traces of 
old city walls (not the oldest) on the Greyfriars' aide, and in the 
Vennel, a Eteep lane nmning up to Geoi^e Heriot'a Hospital. 
On Wednesdays the horse-fair here makes a lively scene. On the 
south dde is the Com Exchange, sometimes used for political 
demonstrations. At the east end whs the place of execution, 
i where suffered so many a victim of faction and tyranny, 
f The Oovgate ruDs out of the ea^t end of the Orassmarbet 

I under George IV. Bridge, roughly parallel with the High Street 
at a lower level This long gloomy street, once occupied by 
nobility and gentry, is now given up to the lowest clnsaes, and 
the pairs of policemen seen here and there at frequent intervale 
are a hint of its chAni,cter. Amateurs of the di^ueting and 
brutal sometimes visit this Alsatia on Saturday night under 
charge of the police ; but most tourists aie content with a 
peep down into it from the railed openings of the Bridges. Vet 
here are buildinge worth inspection, notably one of the most 
I ancient bits of Edinburgh, the Masdalen OhaiHl, containing 
. some remnants of what little old ecclesiastical glass remains in 
Scotland. This chapel, seen almost at once on the right of 
the street, used for mission serrices, and connected with the 
Livingstone DvperKary, may be visited for the trouble of ringing 
the bell. It contains also some relics of the Marquis of Argyll, 
executed 1661. Tlie new red pinnacled buildin;,- farther down, 
an excrescence from the Pariiament House, is the S.S.C. Library, 

Kl this point, sweetness and light must bnrdly be looked 
the Cowgate, whose moat striking ornament will be tha 

wanhinK displayed at the high-pilail windowi by il* 

iiihsbitanta, to a l&rgt fttciit Irinh. 

From the norLh-eaBtera <:oTnrr at the OrtMHiarket, ir« mOR 
U) QeoTge IV. Bridge by the windinf; wny of Vifiorim Stn 
replacing the old West Bow, down which (^pUia POftaa 

and many a belter moa were btirrivd to (.•xecutian. Ama 
Lhe tail building) that now line it will be noticed on ti 
right, SI. John'i Church, KcalUng how here wa« an abod« of fi 
Templars, afterwarda traSBfcrred to the Kai^hH of St. Joba 
Jerusaleni. The West Bow, in Ooldsmith'a time, aa he bii 
us, was the site of the Edinburgh Aseembly Rooms. 

The to;) of the ascent is faced by the Sheriff Oonit <o 
tiguoiM to the superior courts. Turning along Georgt TV. BHi 
southwards, on the right we have the Free Public 
endowed by Mr. A. Carnegie with .£50,000. Beyond 
bridge over the Cowgate, on tlie same side, at the jnnction « 
Oandlemaker Sow, by which we might have emerged from 
Qrafismarlcet, is the little nrnnument erected by Lady Bari 
Coutta to "Greyfriars' Bohby," the celebrated dog that died 
grief on {t« fflafiter'B grave in the adjoining churchyard. 

Here we reach the entrance to the f^dcn of the 
Greyfiiars' monastery, now a gi'aveyard, which has been ■% 
called the " WestminateP Abbey of Scotland," where bock 
back, after the Scottish manner, stand the Old and Neie Oi 
friar^ Chvrchee. The former, next the street, rebuilt in i 
century after a fire, is memorable for the ministratiour 
Robertson the historian, and later, for those of Dr. Robert Ki 
who, to the Presbyterian scandal of his day, introduced i 
ritualistic innovations or revivals that have since leavened I 
Church of Scotland, and even to some degree her rivals. 

This place saw the birth of a very diftflrent religions movBinent, 
hare in 1S3S waa signed the Naiiimal Conenant, written on a parc)im 
^' above Ha ell Hqnare," in which the Bahacribers swore to nijiiDt^Q Free' 
tarianism, and to leiiat whM they designated "contrary crrora, to 
atmoBt or tlieir power." After the docaoient had been signed in the chni 
it was carried to the burying-groiuid and 9pi«ad upon a flat sravestone i 
extant, namely that of Boan'eil of Anchinleak, to be subscribed by as nu 
as oonid approach. It ia mentioned as an eitraordlnary Inatance o( r 
gioua zeal, that hundieda not only added to their signatucea the words 
death, hut actually signed it with their blood. Copies may be seen in tli 
Advocates' Library and in the Antiqiurian Maseiiro. 

TTiB tombs represent some of the chief familiaa of Scotland, many 

them Bltiboratel7 fanereal in a hTgone Ityle, tad not > fcir long baiuited 
b; memoriea of b>U and BufFeriDg, like that of the "Blaid; Mackeoda" 
(aouth ffsll), Lacd AdTocata of a persecatiag gaiflrnnieat ; or lika tht 
:liz camjmt not far off. that long " alley of tombs " projeoting froni 
the south-west corner, where, after the battle of Bothwell Bridge, moie 
:han a thonBacd CoveDanten were penned np for months in the open air, 
^waiting sentenci.' It waa such oruoltlea that burned Into Scottiih 

S. Haclntyre (Gaelic poet). 

e. FftcairDfl (Or.) 

J. Old «!iilptinrod monumonL 

a. H'CrleftriognpharorKQo: 

Ai Tombi. 

U. BoaOi ground (Oorenanlare' piiaon), 
BlodSlliecli--— -— - -- 

1 RudiUman (inside o 

hearta the hatred of Prelacy only now beginning to heal. The Martyrs' 
Mmumenl is situated in the lower part of the ground, no« the city wall ; 
its inaoription relates the fata of the Marquis of Argyll, James Kanwiok, 
Mid liaw abont one huDilred noblemen, gentlemen, ministers, and others, 

■ MU luiw a 


''noble martyrs for Jeyua ClirUt, wvn- rxrvuic^l at Edmbargh al tlie tiat 
of the ilestoratioD, aiui int«rn-il hurt." 

Other noticeable toinl>!i will lie {ouu*\ iii:uk«Nl in our |ilau. 

Frdin O rev friars, the hIioH Ix'tnl almi^ Forrest Road brings w 
to the heiul of the Meadow ll'aik^ a liiu- avciiuu leading down to 
and across the spacioua ]»Ia\^'n)uiul of tho MeadowB, furmeri.T 
a marsh or lake honlerin^ ( )1<1 K«lin1)ui-^li to the south. On the 
right of this walk, are the new building's of the Royal Lk- 
firmaryi now indeed stinie qimrtcr of a century old, after the 
Scottish baronial style, on the modern Kvstcni of sejuirate blocka, 
and able to accommodate about GOO patients. On the left lies 
George Square, the largest in the city, still nn abode of sub- 
stantial gentility, and once the hfi^lit of Kdinhur^h faahioa 
Walter Scott's father lived at Xo. '2t} after reuKJving from hii 
house in College JP^ynd, the latter lung a^'o destroyed, but its 
probable site marked by a tabkt as a hint of the poet's birth- 
place. In Buccleuch PUicey behind the bottom of George Square^ 
was Francis Jeffi'ey's early marrii'd house, where a knot of hia 
and Sydney Smith's friends struck out the idea of the Edim- 
burgh Review, 

Hence iQt us turn back to the heiid of Meadow JValk^ when 
we have on the west side Lauriston, through which a tram- 
way runs communicating with the main line at Tollcroee, The 
large building and enclosure seen alniuut at once to the right 
here is Heriot's Hospital, the oldest of Edinburgh's many 
charitable endowments for education. A little farther, on the 
opposite side, is George Watson's School for boys, rather 
blocked up here at the bottom of Archibald Fl<ue^ but it is 
better seen from the Meadows. Tliis institution has been 
transformed so as to become the largest middle-class day Bcbod 
in the country. 

Heriot's Hospital has another kind of interest in its fme site and 
architecture. Admission daily, except Saturdays and Sundays, 
10 to 4 o'clock. 

This handsome edifice owes its foundation to George Heriot, jeweller 
to James VI., whose name will bo familiar to all readers of The Fortunes 
qf Nigel, Upon the Union of the Crowns, Heriot followed his royal 
master to London, where, doubtless, his trade became much more profit- 
able. He died in 1623, leaving the principal part of his estate (£28,000) ^ 
in trust to the magistrates and ministers of Edinburgh, to found an 

1 The AwMud Income of the Trtust ia now aboat €40,000 ! 

I hoBpiUl tor tbe Duiatenance and edneatioD of poor fathetleu bo]ri, soni 
of tnemea of tha city of Edisbnrgli, and to enUblisli ten buisarica at tlia 
University iif Edinburgh tor the «luoiitioii of so many poor scliQlsrs. The 
plan of tha huilding hiis been allribatad by Borae to Inlgn Jones, dy others 
to Bir Robert Aytoun the poet ; hut it is believed ihnt the ofigiiinl clonign 
protMeded rather from the King's llaster Ha«in of the lime, William 

The building conaiats of n quadrangle, with Inrge square towers at each 
angle. The north fcoul has a central tower higher than the rest, under 
which an archway leads to [fas inner cooH, which is ailjrned with the 
Btatna of the foander. The eonUi front oontains the chapel, and the 
western wing the dining-hall and council room. The ornamental detalli 
are diffeient in each window ; hut they present, when viewed aa a whole, 
perfect uniformity- The architecture of Harioft Hospital, Wintoun and 
llnkie Houses, etc., belongs to the same school, one peculiar to Scotland, 
seemingly oompounded of French, Flemish, and Italian elements, with 
native adaptations and developments— u a whole nallke anything in other 
countries, certainly nidinown In England. 

The Civil War breaking out Boon after the building was enisbed, the 
Grst inmates were the sick and wounded of Cromwell's army, after the 
battle of Dunbar ; nnd it was occnpied as a military hospital until 16&S, 
when Monk restored it to its rightful occupants. From that year down 
to 1886, it continued ki be both a sebool and place of rcaidenee for the 
snccesslve Heriot beneSciiiriee. Now, however, under the provisions of a 
Scheme iasDed by the Endowed Schools (Scotland) Commissioners, the 
foundfttf oners— " 1 50 poor orphans "— *re non-reaident, reeelvliig an annual 
illowancfl for board ; and the building is employed only for the purposes 
jf a day-school, to which fee-paying as well as frEe scholars are admitted. 

A good view of the Castle Rock is obtained from the terrace at the 
north aide of the Hospital, — looHag across the Grassmarket. 

After this aligbt divereion along Lauriston Placi, let ua take 
the line east trom the top of Meadow Walk to visit the Tarioua 
buildings of the University. At once, in Teviot Place, we find 
the Medical College close to the Infirmar;, oa is fitting, a 
handaoraa buildin;; in the early Italian Btyle, which will doubt- 
leBa turn out as nia.Dy good doctoi's as came front the former 
qnartera of this famoua schooL Beyond it, ia the mora ornate 
maaa of the M'Ewan Hall, recently presented to the University 
iy one of the city members, to serve as a theatre for nwidemical 
»nd other functions. It was also provided by the terms of the 
gift that the hall should fulfil some of the functions of a Town 
Hall, and it has already been the scene of some notable occasions, 
but it will probably be superseded in these reapeiits by the Usher 
Hall (Beep. 12). 

We are ndw at the back of the old Collcije, where the Arlu, 


Law, and Divinity fttcultiec are atill iiuartervd. 
(tout, one muBt pius by Lolhian Street and S<nUh Oai 
along tha south aide, unless lie turn up Brido Stretl on 
left, to approach more worthily by the broad thorongli&R 
Chambers Street, on the other side, adorned by a statue eft 
publisher to whom Edinburgh owea more than thie improreow 
The hunter of old-book shops will not complain if he Idiq 1 
way among the Bomewliat mean precincts of the Uni^ 
which faces on to the main thoronghfare continuing tha ItM 
the North ind South Bridges, 


Tlia Clollega or Uaiversit}' of Ediiiburgh datua ita eiiilaiica &x>m Uwji 
lfiS2, when Jumea VI. was Bliteon yein at age. Till thnt time thcni 
been bat thies UolTeraitica in Scottaod — St. Andrewi, Qla^ni^ ■ 
Aberdeen. The site was origJDiiUr a suburb, CDnsiiting majnly 
gardens and straggling building^ coatslning th« church or St. Han- 
the Fields, or Klrk-o'- Field, well kuoWQ ns tbo bccds af tbs mjwUvio 
innrder of Daniley. 

The Brat professor was Rohort Rollock, of St. Salvator (St. Andiv 
appoiatett in 1583, and aflerwardg inaile Principal. About the 1 

IQdO, bj means of benefactions from poblic bediea uid private indirioi 
the eatablishmeat hod attaijied a reapactable rank among similar ine^ 
tiooB. As a school of medicine it first roae into repute niidv. 
Alexander Monro, who became profeaaor of anutoiny in 17S0 ; and 
this department it has gained distinguished pre-eminence. Id tbeM 
branche.! of liiiowledge its reputation was advanced by Maolaurin, Bli 
Ferguson, Stewart, Bobison, Hamiltca, Forbes, Brewster, and ol 

The bnildlng is four stories In height and rectangular In form, the i 
sud west sidaa being 255 ft. in length, aJid the south and north ti 
358 ft The eotrajioe is trom South Bridge Street by a portico BOppoi 
by four single-btoek Dona columns, eacli 26 ft. in height, orer wMoh g 
the inscription: "Acadeiaia Jaeobi VI., Scotoram Regis Armo i 
Christum Hatwn, M.D.LXXXn. Imtitula. Amioqae M.DOC. LXXX 
RmomH coepta; Regnanit Qeorgio III., Prindpe MtttUJUeniiubi 
Urbii Edinmns Pre^mln, Tkotna Elder ; Acadetniai /Vimajw, 
Roberiioti; Anhilecio, Roberto Adam," The dome erected over t 
principal entrance, by bequest of the late Robert Cox, W.9., £dinbnt| 
Is crowned with a Sgure of Youth, designed by John Hutchison, R.fl. 
"Hie inner qnadrangle presents a cODtinnons range of massive bnHdui 
in a semi-Grecian style of architeEture, a stone balustradu farming 
riused gallery all the way ronud. At the angles, and on the west side, 
there are spacious piazzas ; and exactly opposite tbe main entrance is 
marble statue of Sir David Brevrster, by the late William Brodie, II.S.A, 
erected in 1870. 

*B TFi TmrvniHiTT " 

The Universily Lxbrary ' occaples nearly the whole of Che sontb rid« 
of the 9i|]iare ; the priur.Epal hoU being 198 It. long and its gilded aichad 
ceiling oiorB than 50 (I. in height. A series of marble busla Is arranged 
(dong eacl aide. The library contains upwards of 3:?0,000 vnlnniBa and 
about 7600 manusoripta. Among the latter is a fine copy of Fanbm't 
ScUickTOniam, in folio, from whiclj Goodall's Klition of 177E ww printed; 
and T/it ProUai by the noblea of Bolienua and Moravia, addressed to Ow 
Counoil of Constance in 1415, m reference to the burning of John Ensil 
and JeroniB of Pragae — n parchment document with 100 nlgnatHTec and 
as many seals. Tho library of Dnimmond of Hawthomden. the B^v^ 
oollectioii of Shakespeariaa literature, the library of GenerM Fteid, ud 
the H3. collections of the late Daiid Laing, are among the prindpat 
bequests. The Court-Room of the Senatus eontaias portraits of tha first 
Principal Eolloclt, of John Knoi, George Buchanan, Napier of MerchistoD, 
Thom.Hon the poet, EobertsoQ the histnrian, and others. 

Edinburgh University comptiees faculties of divinity, law, arts, aad 
medicine, the last being the most nnowned in our time. The gaiemnMBl 
and patronage were placed on their present tooting in 188B, under tlM 
Universities (Scotland) Act. Tlis curators are feven in namber,— fear 
elected by the Town Council, and three by the University. The appoint- 
ment to some of its chnira is made by the Crown, and to others bf the 
cnratore and the legal bodies. The head of the University ii th« 
Chancellor ; the other otBcials are the Rector, Principal, and Pulia- , 
luentary represeatative. The Lord Rector is elected every three yean hgl 
vote of the students, when there is usually a keen contest for the hondn^' 
into which immature politics generally enter, or the qneatioa may lia 
between some distinguished writer and some influential local notability, 
Tho two sessions begin respectively in October and Mny, the latter being 
confined to certain branches of study. There are uuarly 300 bniWKie^ 
scholarships, relloH'ships, and money prizes, foe the most port smaller In 
valne than at English Universities, but amounting to a large aggregate 

The number of stndenta is between threo and four thomaafl. 
Many of these, however, do not go through a complete course, but 
merely attend, or make show of attending certain cla.sses required to 
qualify for their professions ; while not a few used to be content 
with a casual smattering of knowledge which Scotsman are diapoBMl 
to hold in reverence ; but with this generation the praotlce of takbig 
a degree has been on the increase, and the standard of qualifieatiOB 
is higher. The onrriculnm here more reaemblea that of a Qormon than of 
an English University ; and there is a want of cohesion and social lift , 
among the undergraduates, many of them mere schoolboys prematunlj 
thrown on their own guidance, an ordeal out of which they seem able to 
come less harmfully than southern lads of the same age. Scattered 
among the population of a large city, free from all scholastic discipline 
out of class hours, men of very different ages and ranlis, often obliged to 
live with the narrowest economy, Soottish atndanta have seldom »iioll 
pleasant memories to look back on as the Oionian or Oiutab, yet here 

1 The Lnirarj is open dally from 10 In 1 in tha Winter Beesion ; from 10 to S 

^^h*y be better learned imrd leeaoiia of eiertion ami realruQt that bave 
^BkoukIiC 10 many to fame from \K>at begiouiugB. The one Scottish Uuirer- 
^^Hty which has s mrtain nir of Anglican dignity aud leltereil eexa, St. 
Andiens, seema to be blighted by east windi oS fortune ; lUid on 
attempt tbem to iatroiluce aometbing like the syBtem of collie life failed 
in Eoittng tlia indtpendeaca of Caleilooiaa nature. At Edinbnrgh some 
a nceegafal steps have lately been taken towanls cnltiTating social inter- 
faune emong the students, sepecially to the University Settlemeuta pro- 
oted by Profeuor Geddes. (Sue p. 19.] 

The main tliorouglifaco in front of the University leiuls on 
mthwarda as Nicolson Streit, and under other names, to the 
iburb of NiwinyUm. Almost at once it paasea on the left the 
aasu: front of the Boyal College of SurgeonB, whoae umseuni 
■open free 13 to 4 (except on Tuesdaye), On the other Bide 
'the street Ja a popular building of very different eharitcter, at 
jiioh it is to be feared Bome medii^l studenta waste too much 
* tlieir time, The Empire Music Mali. 

Turning aorthwarda from the University gate, by the street 

the right we reach the site of the old Infirmary, where is 
w another institution well known to students, the Corporation 
containing, with other baths, excellent swimming basins 
9 both aeiea, where a swim may be had for twopenue, except 
1 firet-clais days, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, when the 
large ia doubled and the water changed. A similar Bath, but 
ithout a female side, has recently been opened in Caledonian 
WKOa near the Dairy Road- 

OppoBite Infirmary Street, bounding the north aide of the 
iiiveraity, runs Chambers Street, by which we may have ap- 
wached from the end of George IV. Bridge. On the north side 
I this ia the Heriot-Wfttt College, a well-equipped technical 
iiool of old standing. On the other side, contiguoua to the 
Diversity Buildings, stands the Museum of Science and Art, 
le of whiuh any city might be proud. (Admission un week 
lya 10 to 4, aud also on Weduesdaj evenings 6 to lOjfree. 
D. Satardays it ie open free, 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., and on Sundays 
Dm a to 5 P.M. This Museum, opened in 1866, ia a branch 
fthe London Science and Art Department. 

Jkoh or the thraa main halls on the ground floor is the principal hall of 
19 ot the three departments of the Maaeuni, vii. the AH and Sthne- 
UpkUal, the Natural HUtury, and the TichnoUigimi Drqiarli, '- 
« retimiuing balls or g-.iUerie3 of each department being adjoin! 


4i itDBuni OF aoinwB asd ah 

orm IhMB. Th« Library (scceM by corridor to right of eBtnmee) M 
■boot 11,000 volumes, also ipcciQcklian* of Fiitetiti from tba jett 
to lbs preseot time, End aSbnla (ret nfennce to &!l British uid B 
AmericBii BUil liYeucb Patsati. On tlie Upper Jloor ovw tbe litarafyB 
iioiqiie calleetion of tbs Minsrals of ticotluict, ind lu t)>e gillsty m" * 
there ii the Geologtcnl Survey collection of the rochi of Bcotluul. 

llio ™itor enters the Muaeum on the north aide of the Orrot S 
passing under the great gitevBy from the Tope at Seochi, near Delhi, *^ 
the right are casts of Indian Tomlw and details l^nin IndiaD palscw; | 
huge Leaning Obelisk from Central America, and a group of CaldeM 
Runio Crosssa (typical eiaraplea are tbe Cellio cross alab from Njgti^ 
the Ruthwell Cross with interesting Rnnio inscri]itioD) ; Babytonlnt K 
Assyrian sculpture; Orsek sculpture. Including tho Order of the Hanaolif 
from Haliczariiassua with frieie aud colossal figures of Maniolu f 
Artemisia. On the eonth ride ara tbs Choir Bcreen ftvm Hildet' ' 
the Ronunesque doornay from Baifrststone Church, and ths tall, u 
cauls from tbe Csthedr^s at Chaclces, Amiens, and Bordeaux, rapt 
ing Gothic art of the 12th, 13th, and Hlh centuries rcspectjrely. 
elaborately sonlptured pulpits b; Niccala Pisnno |12<t0) and hU ^ 
(Hovanni (1240-1320) mark the lieginninga of Renaissanoe art in "" 
and among tbe Renaissance works at the easC end of the hall a 
Uhiberti Gates, the Marsuppiiil and other tombs ; a collection of arms 
and annonr, and several finely oioculed models reproducing tbe decoratloii 
ot Italian interiors. 

The Furniture Hail ia entered by the north-east corridor of the Qresl 
Hall, and contains a coUection of cabinets, choste, tables, cbairs, etc., at 
different periods and stylos, and a very large and fine panel of tapesti7, 
"Tba Triumph of Prudence." 

The main iVafuroJ UisCory Sail may lie culered here, Ou tba Qrimnd 
Floor is the colleotion of mammals, etc., and suspended at the level of Ub 
gallery the skeleton of a whale (Bibbald's Rorqual) 78 feet in Ico^ 
The collection of birds ou the first gallery shows on the east aids 4 
remains of extinct species, with, near the centre of this u-all. a Snetpeolni' 
of the nov extinct Great Auk. The fishes are on the second gsIUri^ 
remarkably fine collection of fossil spacimens occupyingthe east and toi 
sides ; the recent fishes are on tbe west side of the gallery. Beptflw ri 
fossil plants occupy the room opening off this gallery. 

Natural History Ball No. S contains on tbe ground floor a contlan* 
of the mammals ; note here two fine specimens of tbe Irish sitii^ 
Gigantic Deer. The collection of birds Is continued on the first gallcH 
from the adjoining one on the same Hoar ; shells are arranged in " 
ing cases. On the second gallery ia the general collection of mil 

NatuToi Eiitory Hall No. 3 (Britifih Zoology) includes a 

EoUection of British birda ; among the eggs are two specimens of — -™ 

the Great Auk. On the first gallery of this hall the shell collectloa'fl 
continued, and the second gallery contains the Zootogical educalional, T 
type collection, largely used by students. 

In the West Wing of the building the Mam Hall of the Tech 
DepartraeiU shows illustrations of Civil Engineering inclnding lighthoutL^ 
bridges, arches, etc., and of Mechanical Engineering, among those bellj 

the origio.1 '■ WyUin DlUjr " locomotive Mid me of Boulton and Watt'e 
. engines, and juodela of vsrioue fotuis of luuihinery (nbout 100 of tlieu 
were mtule iii tha Museum workshop, uid «ime of thsm csu nuw ha workod 
b; simply presaing an olectiid battoa) ; modila of ablpa and ■niriue 
enginea ; guaa and gunnery, and levaral dlagronimatio models wWch may 
be Bet ia motion by the visitor. 

Ascending tbe atair to the First Qallery of the Oreal Hall tba visitor 

is again in tlie Art coUectionE. To hia left is a case of Greek Pottery, and 

beyond it SBveral Hoor cases coutainiag a small collection illustrating 

Greek nod Roman archaeology, suoceediid by specimens of Uie miuor 

arts of Europe arranged in the cases viiack occupy the whole length 

6oth of the gallery and the corridor. The oast end of the corridor 

I opens Into a hall with, on the aonth aide, Bgyptiau and Asayriaa nnti- 

quitiea, and on the north side Chinese and Japanese work in nietal 

I lacquer, ivory, etc, Ketnrntog to the gallerf of Uie Great Hall, we find 

' on the south side specimens of glass, ancient and modem ; Chinese, 

I Japanese, Continental, and Britiah ceramics ; and near the clock at the 

west end several caaes with fine eiamplea of Italian and Hiaiaio-moresque 


Passing from this point under the arch which leads to the &nt gallery 
over the Machinery Ball, the visitor will dnd an extensive Mknographical 
CoUietion, showing the implements, weapons, dressea, etc,, of savage 
peoples. This collection begins in the railing cases to the right where the 
carvings and drawings on mammoth bones— the earliest evidence of man's 
BiistenCB— are associated with remains of the Palffiolithio pei'iod. Farther 
on ia an interesting mcdel of a dolmen and a large number of objects of 
tbe Neolithic time. The specimens in the wall cases are in geographical 
relation, and range from Arctic America to the Andaman Islands. At the 
north-west corner of the gallery the oollBotion passes to the adjoining ball 
With illuatralions of the arts of Siaro, Burma, Perais, and India. An open- 
ing on the east side of the Ethnographical Gallery leads to the Textile Hall, 
where, in addition to the general collection of textiles, a number of fine 
specimens of larx are eihihited. 

Ascending to tbe higher gallery of the Great Bull we find wall cases 
containing an extensive collection of Economic Botany, the speeiiueus set 
out on the floor being related munly to Forestry and Agliculture. The 
south-west gallery on this floor is devoted to Type oollectlona of Geology, 
Botany, and Physiology, with apparatus and appliances alt more eapeoiaUy 
of inteivst to those engaged in teaching. 

On the west side of a comer liouae in Chambers Street, on 
the opposite side to llie University, ia a stoae recording that in 
a house which stood near this spot Sir Wulter Scott was horn 
{see p. SB). 

Prom the College and Chambers Street, a lew minutes' wiilk 
along the tram line of the South Bridge, by the windows of 
nutny olothiers' shops, brings ua bock to High Street at the Tron 



Sigh Street (continneJ). — Beyond the inUTsection 
Bridges we enWr the narrowiug fumI stuciHjr end of lliw 
street, where the well-dreeeed atronger may find hinwelf p 
through coarse oonipany, enpeciallj if it be Saturday i 
when the way is barred by many a group now gathered I 
an ohBtreperouB drunkard, now round an open-t 
carrying on war against the roiaery and vice ao clearly h 
to light under the incongruous glare of electric lamps, 
is only fair to Bay that Edinburgh, like other cities, is impsD 
year by year aa education reaches the lower etiata o£ <j 

What oftGii strikes e. stmoger here h the prevalence of ilrunkoii 
even earl; in ths 6i.j, Bspeclall; at halidaj times. Tlii^ [s fndei. , 
national sin ; and there ia odB taunt to make a Scotsman be asham^ 
his couQtry, yet eomethini; may be sold to dimhiiah if not to eions 
apparent evil. The men leeu so helplessly overcoiue at iiooDdB;r 
perhaps of ordinarily sobei habits all the more readily alTeotec 
occasional indulgence in cheap and 9ery spirit. The nhlsky dnink 'bj 
lower elates here is a demon that takes no disguise. It seems that, 
there ia more brutal intoiication in Scotland, there may be leas b _ 
BOttlshneBS than in England. A man doss cot driuk so much, but « 
he doss give way it is with more scandatans effect. A woman freqnentU 
public-housea implies a lower depth of degradation. In the north, a ' 
proportion of the populatiou are abstainers ; yanng people and th 
ar domestic servants, for Instance, drink water where in English fi 
they would expect beer. In all classes, there are stUl too maoy Si 
men religiona in the worship of their native Bacchus, vulgar and ri 
deity as he is ; but every year, it is hoped, adds to the number of 
testants gainst this pervertaii fanntieism, anii helps on a mnch-di 
rsfonnatioa. By what ia called the Forbes Mackeuiie Act, all publlii-^ 
houses hive long been closed on Sunday, nhsn, however, in this part M~ 
] in othera, if all storiBs are tme, a good deal of lAefteminj fl 

Illicii drinkiDg goes on. It is nr 
aaBterity of Scotlisli SoblmtariBnisir 
and much !e to b« boped from tlie 
a help and nol c him 
t by atrangerfl a 


nroB.'jnniible to aupposa that the 
ves mrmy iato vicious inijulgenee ; 
■chea tnkisg an inlcreat in houest 
ce to reli^on. But a sneer often 
Bopposed Ijypocriay o 

Till deatroyed by recent improvemenls, st the left comer stood 
a qufiint timber- fronted house, noticeable aa having contained 
Allan Haaisaj's ehop. A little farther down a new bailding 

3 he seen, over the entrance to which is sculptured a boy'a 
a Bl*Hie, beJow the inscription Receve otoo', chaps; I'm no 
1 fit. This conimeraorates a tragedy that sent a thrill 
b the whole coimlty a generation ago, when on a Sunday 
e of the old "lands" collapsed, burying many 
its ruins. No. 135 is Ga/rruliber'i Close, where was 
Bned the first regular iilayhoiwe of Edinburgh, and also the 
it EpiBcopal Chapel, fitting company grim old PrcBbytfiriana 

t have thought. Playhovu Close, in the Canongate, farther 

down, was the sit« of the next theatre, in wliich the acting of 


Home's Dougku, as the wtirk of a clergyman, gsve rwc 
loud scandal. 

Jotm Knoz'a House i^roJecU iiiU) the Btreet (adoaiauiMi, 

to 4, by tickets at the »liop below, 6d. ). Qmve doubt baa I 
cast ou the connectiua of the Reformer with this iotereatii^ 
bulldiugj and the legend seems a modern one which inafcB 
hifl I'eaideuce while niiuiater of St. Giles's 1669-1672. C 
the iloor is the admonitory inscriptiun : 

9 oft . CB ett. ahont . al. mtb .|;i. nicljtliatrr. u. jL ulf. : — 
and, close beneath the window from which he ii said to i 
yieaxheA, a rude effigy points to the name of God carved tr 
a stone above in Greek, Latin, and English. 

A little below Knox'a House go off SI. Mnrj/t and Ji!^ 
Htreett, formed by the Improvement Commieaioners of Edinboi^ 
with the view of opening up the denser masses of old boil^ 
The Intter diverges northwards in a curve, and containa tiie ? 
constructed Trinity College Ohnrcli, which originally occupu 
a site lower down on the line of railway. This old church » 
founded in 1462 by Mary of QiieldrcB, consort of Jamaa I 
The stones were carefully numbered when the church was li 
down, and thus the original fabric, containing many One e] 
mens of carved work, waa preaevved. On the right, St 1 
Street runs across to the end of the Cowgate. 

Here once stood the Hetherhow, the lower gate of the d^ 
and now begins the Canongate, running dow^ to Holyiood, 
narrower line of street, till last century residence of o 
the ancient Scottish nobility, and main thorough friire \ 
the palace and the city. 

The first opening to the right is St. John Street, when, i 
No. 13, Lord Monboddo and the beautiful Miss Burnet residii 
and where Burns waa a frequent guest. No. 10 was the residau 
of James IBallantyue, the printer of the Waverley Nove 
Smollett lodged for some time in the old bonse with the b 
circular abutment. Almost to the present generatio: 
continued to be the home of respectable citizens. Below J 
John Street is Moray House, occupied by Oliver Cromwe 
during his visits to Edinburgh, before and after the battle o 
Dunbar. Tlie death of Charles I. and the Union hctwee 
Bngland and Scotland are both aaiii to have been hatched a 


tUis historic inansion, from wiucli, ou bis wedding day, Lbe 
Btory goes, Ai^U saw Moutrose led lo the execution that a 
few years later would be his own fate. The house is now used 
as a Normal School in connection with the Free Church of 

The OaBQnEate Tolbooth, on the oppoaite side, was erected 
in the reign of Jamea VI., and is a good specimen of the Freneh 
style of architecture adopted in Scotland. Over an archway ia 
the infloription — " Palria d poiteris, 1591"; and on a niche in 
the building are painted the anus of the Canongate, conaiating 
of a stag's head with a cross between the antlers, and the motto 
— " Sii; itu/r ad aitra," com memo rating the legend of the founding 
of Holyrood Abbey. 

In the churchyard of the Canongate Churcli — a large square 
building on tlie same side — are interred Adam Smith, Dugald 
Stewart, David Allan the artist, and Fergusaon the poet. Bums 
himself erected the simple atone over Ferguason's tomb. In our 
own day Sir J, W. Gordon, the President of the Scottish Academy, 
and Dr. Horatiiia Bonar were buried here. 

On the north side, a Board School for the Oanongate district 
lias been eKct^d on the site of MiUon Eoim, the manuon of 
Lonl Milton (1692-1 766), an eminent Scottish judge ; and lower 
down IB Queensbeiry House, now a House of Refuge for the 
Deslitat«, once roaidenc« of the nobleman who built Drumlanrig 
Castle in Dnmfrieaahire, at present represented by the Duke of 
Buccleuch. The poet Gay lived here tor a time under the 
patronage of the Duchess of Queenaberry. 

Near the foot of the Canongate, on the north side, eiileiing 
through White Borte Close, we And the former White Horse 
Inn, one of the oldest hostelries in the city, let in tenements 
by the Edinburgh Social Union. On the opposite aide ia the 
Abbey Oourt-HonBe, formerly a sanctuary for debtors. Up to 
the last generation, broken-down gentlemen and others were 
tain to take refuge in these precincts, which allowed them 
Arthur'a Seat and the Queen's Park as a playground, but only 
aa Sunday could they safely visit the city. Many amusing taiea 
were told of pent-up debtors who, venturing forth to play a sly 
game of golf, or lingering too long at Sabbath evening con- 
vivialities, had literally to outrun the constable, or lose their 
restricted liberty. 

Here wo liebouch upon tli« opcu (pace belure 
the centre of wliicb is the elabonte c«rveil fcnml&ui 
Prince Albert, a facsimile restoration of the mined 
quadrangle of Linlilhgotr Palace. We iniglit have gxincd 
opening by eitlier of the panitlel atreeU known na tbe Nt 
and the SmUh Back of CammgaU, oflurding, for the most ptrU< 
dreary apectncle of gaswork* and breweries, thi ' ' " 


ehowB aome attempt at architectural keeping made i 
buildings. This is a continuation of the Covjgaie, a peep, i 
which will be enough for all liut the most enlJmsiastic tat 
quariane. To the NotOi, Bade of CanongitlBf a path leads dow 
from the front of the High School by the Bums Monument, an 
a carnage drive winds upivorda from the north side of the -A-bb?^^ 
to that terraced road below the Calton Hill, which overlook 
auch a fine view beyond the prosaic features of the foregroui 
Visitora to the Palace should, at all events, turn aa far as t 
comer in this direction to eee the quaint little building calle 
Queen Mary's Bath, over which Rizzio'a murderers are a 
have escaped. 




The Palace IB open daily, II to 4 in winter and 10 I 
ammar, ^te, except when occupied by the Lord High C 
jnissioner, or otherwise. The entrance leads straight into 
courtyard ; and the historical apartmenta are entered at 
comer of the piazza to the left. 

This "boose of many memoriea " «aa origmally a oonvenl, ai 
ordinary name, TKi ^Moy, impliea, and iiWe w ninnj' oilier moii 

exisLuQua to Daviil L tbot "sur saint to the 
Crown," The legeud coiuiected with its rouudatlon is preserved in tho 
armoriiJ bearings of the iwrougli of CaooDgate. The king, it seeioa, abuitt 
the year 1128, huntiug iu tbe forest of DramshcDgh, was thrown to tba 
ground and attacked by a atug wLii^h had been brought to bay, but fled itt 
the sight of s cross mlriculonaly interposed betwlit it and the defonceleas 
monarch. In gratitude for tliis deliveranoe he founded and endowed the 
Church of the Boly Rood, granting to it, and to the canons legnlar of St. 
ATigustine serving God therein, the privilege of erecting a borough betwixt 
their church and the Netherbowgate of the city, which changed iti name 
to the " Canongato " or Gate of the Canons. Succeeding monnrrhs heaped 
faYours on the eatablisbment, so that at the diaaolntlon it i 
the most opulent abbey in Scotland. 

Tt does not appear how soon any part of the building w 
the purposes of a royal resideuce. Tha poems of Dunbar se 

that llw Ablwy was inhibited hy -lames IV. ns u pemiiuient ... 

It a osnertamed, howorer, by an inKiipUou upon the bnildln^ tint tlis 
towBT imd high-roofod bnildingB, cDntsmini; what are caUul (jiitfeu Uary'a 
BputmEnts, were baiU hy Jamea V. Nat long BTLerwiirds Ihs whole 
Abb«y, except the church, then a Que Gothic edlfloe, »u burned bj tlw 
English, who (1&44] limded and captured Loith, but weic rcpuLnd bwn 
the city by ■ weU-direcled Bre from the CoiitU. Both the ahb^ aoi 
palace recovered lyom the effecta of this disaster, to become ths prtnoipd! 
reaideuoe of the court, and the scene of important pnhlio Immiittfx 
during the reign of Queen 5Iary, that unfortunate princess of mwJ^ 
qneattoned character far whom austere Scotland has aiuce had aach a Boft 
place in Its heart, though one side of it va& bo hardened against her in llfto- 

The most romantic and Eainoui story of this period is the murder of Uw 
royal minioD Riudo, Damley, nho hooded tlie conspirators, entered 
Itrst, and caiting liis arm fondly round the Queen'i waiit, aoated himMll 
Iwslde her at table. Lord Buthven followed ia complete annour, looldng 
[lale anit ghastly, aa one scarcely recorerad from long siclineiis. Othen 
crowded in after them, till the closet vas foil of armed men. While the 
Queen demanded the pnrpose of their coming, llizrio, who saw tliut hli 
life was aimed at. got behind her and clasped the folds of her gown, that 
the respect due to her person might protect him. The a«£Bssina threw 
down the table and aelzed on the unfortunate object of their vengeano«^ 
while Damley himself took hold of the Qneon, and forded them asunder. 
It was their intention, doubtless, to have taken the favourite out of Xtij't 
presence, and to have killed him elsewhere ; but their fierce impaiienoB 
hurried them into instant murder. George Donglas, a natural brother 
of the Earl of Morton, set the example by striking Rizzio with the da^er 
which he had snatched from Darnley's bolt. Qs received manj other 
blows. They then drsf^fed him through the bedroom and ante-room, 
and despatched him at the head of the BtaircasB with no less than fitty-ds 

The whole of the palace, except the double tower with ttie a^joinliv 
building containing Queen Mary's apartments, was again burned attte 
olose of the Civil War. Charles 11. showed a liberal attentinn to the 
conditdon of his ancient melropolis, and he It was who erected the pretml 
palace, eonslBting of ft quadrangle, with piazzas, iu the French taste of Tjonli 
XlV.'a reign. James II. of England resided at Holyrood for a tima hefiM 
his accession to the throne, and by stately and formal courtesy toiraidi 
the proud aristocracy of Scotland, laid the foundation of that attachme&l 
to his person and family which afterwards showed itself in unsnccassM 
insurrectious. As Duhe of York and Albany ha bequeathed his nanto to 
"The Duke's Walk," a level space estending from the back of the paliM 
to the verge of the park, once shaded with lofty trees. In the eysutfAl 
years 1745-46. Charles Edward Btuart occupied the palace both befiyreMd 
after the battle of Prestonpana. At the end of last cenlury it serreil tb 
accommodate the Billed Oomte d'Artois, afterwards Charles X. of Trtatt^ 
with the emigrant nobility attached to his person. When again di^n* 
from his conntry by tho Revolution of 1830, the same unfortunate prinoa 
and his family found refuge here once more uutil 1B32, George IV., on 

Is Tieit to Edlnlnirgli in 1822, bebi levaeB in the palace, and it miiy still 
3 tised at an occasional rojal residencs. The Kiug and tho Dtike of 
rEdinlmrgh lived bere while attsnding tbe Uuivursity. 

Onu ■ yev, in May, the paluce wakes up to receive the Lord High 
lommiisioner to the An-'emblf, who, with mare or less state, plays the 
K{>art <rf Viceroy tot a fortnight. 

Another ceremony which tAket place at Oeneral Blection.i in the Pictora 

1. The Hctoro Oillorjf, 
S. Lord Damley'a Roomi ([armsi 
by iha Duke arHsmJIUin), 

5. Kddid ballt b; Charlea R. 
1. Queen Mbcj'b Apartmeul*. 

6. Tha Chapal-HoyaU 

' Gallery, Wore an audient* chiefly of ladies, is tlie Bsseoibliiig of eotua 
dolan pee™ to elect siiteen of their order »a repeaentitlTea in the House 

' of Lords. This [H<erage onght to ho a select body ; for the sovereign, who 
«v make belted tnighta by the score, can now no more create n Scottiflh 
peer than an bonent man, as ffas arranged at the Union. Many of the 
'Sflottiah nobility sit in the House of Lords by other titles, as pears of the 

, United Klnffdom, 

Driler lu vUloli viiiton m> eonduotod b; tlic gulilw, wbaa* i 

Thit Fictitre Oailary, Iht laigal aputmeat in 
n. by 27. It Is bung with Hme hundred portniu of S 
real or apocryphal, rnont at which on uaworthy of notice 1 
been maiiuractured in the 17th century by U» 
eicuptioa must be mode Tor the four picture! oco _ . ^ 
■crMUS at the end of the gallery. This double diptych is mpi 
ha»a been executed hy ui artist of the Van Eyck school M oltar-p 
TMnity College Church, and woe giTBu back from the royal oollectiail # I 
Hampton Court. The paintingi, fine and well - preaGrred speohneni (( 
IBtb-cautuiy work, represent Jaiuee IIL and his qaaeo, iiargutt tl 
nennmrk, at derotiona ; and on the reverse (dde, the Holy Trinity, and lb" 
ProTost of the Church. 

On the same floor are Lord Danilty'i Roopu, contilnliig tapatriM 
f'the prevailing design on which is uude boya climbing trees), and aba 
several portraits — nmong which are one taken to be young Lom Damltji 
No. 105 ; Charles IL in annour, No. 107 ; Queen Mary, No. 115 -p^''^ 
Anne of Denmark, Queen of James VI., No. lOS. In the hand* 
room to the left, amongst other portraits, are one of Jamee VI., No. 12tt 
and one of Douglas, eighth Duke of Hamilton, No. 124 ; also two andnc 
tapestries (one representing the appearance of a flaming cross H 
Constantine the Great). The bedroom contains eaveral more portralti 
le.g. first Duke of Hamilton, No. 181}, pictures, and tnpestriBB, Lc "^ 

D&mlsy had access &t)m tbe^e rooms by n private iniiir to the Qnw 

QufCn Mary's Aparimenia are the most interesting In the palace, « 
remain mnoh io the earae state as when oconpled by her. Passing lliron 
the Audience Chamber (where stands the bed of Charles I., on whi 
EVince Charlie slept In 174G-46), we enter Queen Mary's bedroom, with 
ancient beil and other fUmituie. The roof of this, as of the pni' 
room, la divided into panels, on which are painted various iuitialA 
coats -of-arms. On one side of the room is the door of the secret pust 
hy which the conspirators against the life of the Italian Elziio (1G( 
entereil, and adjoining is the little private snpper-room where they ton 
thsic victim. He was dragged out from this to ontsdc the door of 1 
4ndienee Chamber, and despatched at the head of the staircase. On i 
Sooring is shown a dark spot in which the eye of faith still sees the frti 
of his blood. 

The Chapfl Royal is entersd at the farther end of the piazza OD t 
same side. The fragment which remains forms the nave of the oinclc 
church, and amidst the additions of a later age, the original work of t 
12th century may still be traced. The west front, although partly tt 
work of different periods, Is on the whole in the most beautiful style .( 
Early English; and its scolptnred arcade, boldly-cut heads, and ria 
variety of ornament In the doorway, are much adrauKl. The Window 
above are additions of Charles I., who appears to have been desirooa fi 
me the chapel for the Episcopal service of the Reformed church ; oud b 
was crowned in It in 1633. James VIl., by an attempt to celebrate inaM 

popular dlapleuure, which ti 

withiD iU R&ltS, Tl 

the litiilding. 

The ckap«l cont^na several intereBtiog tombs ■ 
tbe bBlfry tower (i), at Hia N.W. eomar, is a well-sMcatod muble 
moDTunent W Lord Belhaven (1639). A row ol tomhs of several momhers 
of the Scottish oobility and others are raogcil nlnog the north aisle. In 
the royal Tault (c) were dapoBited the remaiiiB of David II., James I!., 
James V. and Magdalen his qaeea, tlenif Lord Damley, and atlier 
illuatrious persons. Dsmley's body is said to have been disinterred b; 
order of James VI^ and reburied at Westminster Abbey ; but acaiording 
to Dean Stanley {Mtm/rriaU of Walminster Abtey) it more likalj ri ' 

l-iiilmn — 111 '\ i 

here. On the remoyal of Trinity College Church, a body, believed to 
of its foundress, Mary of Gneldres, Queen of James 11., was reintorred 
here. On tbe south wall may be seen a monament to Adam Gothwell, 
Bishop of Orkney, who celebrated tlie unbappy morriuge of Qaeen Mary 
irith James Bepbnm, Earl of Butbwell. In tbe great hall of the pahu 
(ccordiag to tbe Protestant form then In use. Riszio's grave Is in t 
passage leading from the qnadrangle. A recent grave in the ohnpel ia that 
of the lata Countess of Caithness, a devont spiritualist, who believed that 
Qneea Mary was re-incarnated in her persou. 

The garJena of Holyrood are now open to the public i. 
Uondny aftcrnaonH. 


Behind, and to the side of Holyrood eiCends Hol^rrood 
Park, in the 'nilddle of which rises ^Wftu/s Seat {822 feet), "a 
hill for magnituda, a inoiiiitain ia virtue of its bold design," 
whose outline ia compared to tha- form of a sleeping lion. Hsro 

I to be oDa of Anhur*! mtnjr mil 

-isii can Ull Hound iu lia»e run* the cxedUl 

tBti callnt tlic Quaen's Drive, making a dttular w«]k J- 

hour, wliich couiuuDili Ix'niitiful sea- and Uiidscajies at a 
«vcry turn. 

Ilio bold wuU ur rouka uverlooking Uie cily ii 
OragH, Along tlieir curved face runs the walk kcowB ■ 
Hadiail Iloiid, n favourite resort of Sir W. Scolt, wliicli 1 
bring one down into tlic jiark ubovo the St l^oBard'a 
Slrangeri short of lime or breath might tnkc this walk aa 
•nbatitute for ascending Arlhur'a Seat^ but the fimt poll a 
little ateep ; and not every foot is to be trusted on the itt* 
■lopca belon the path. 

Between the Salisbitry Ciaga and Arthur's Scat 1 
known as tlie Hunter's Bog, to he explored uilli cairtion vk 
it ia being used as a rifle range. As one goes along t" 
in thia direction, a vanlt will be aeen on the hillside otmta 
■nnie fine old workuianxliip, which is ilie former shrine of St* 
Margaret's Well, transferred here from llenialrtg. 

On the farther ahoulder, overlooking St. M'lrgafct't Loch m 
the Parade Ground, atund the niins of St. AuthoUF'B ObV^ 
an old beacon for mariners, beside which is a famoue k ' ' ' 
well. Tliere ia a fine view of Edinbui^h from the ruins, 
scene is otherwise interesting from its association with i 
in Scotf a Heart of Midlothian. Near the eaat park gate a pile < 
stones, marking the spot where a man called Mii3cliat mnrdep 
hia wife in 1720, was the meeting-place of Jeanie Beona nd 
Robertson, " Oentleman Geoi^" By this gate, the park may\ 
left for the road loading by Jock's Lodge Barrackfl to Portobdiij 

Beyond SI. Margarei'i I^ch, the Drive mounts round I 
eastern end of the hill, where it akirts anotlier small loch calle 
l)u/n»appie. Then, lying below, to Llie aotith-eaat, comes the larg( 
Duddingston Lorh, a great resort of Edinburgh skaters, in the Irtd^ 
which some interesting prehistoric remains have been found. ' 
the village of Duddingston may be seen the house where Ohttr 
Edward slept before the battle of Prestonpans, also a fine o} 
Norman chttrch, of which Thomson, the well-known Scottia 
landscape artist, was minister. Beyond the village 
Duddingstott station of the Suburban lUilway. The manBioi 
and parks in the foreground are Duddinijilon House and FreOm 


Md, On an eminence about a mile to the south rises Oraig- 
nUUar GadUy a favourite residence of Queen Mary, which we 
ihall visit presently. 

The road now takes the south Hank of Arthur's Seat, passing 
oBcLer a remarkable range of porphyritic greenstone columns 
known as Samson's Bibs. Opposite this end of Salisbury Crags, 
we may turn down to the lodge at St. Leonard's Hill, near 
which is shown a cottage said to be Jeanie Deans's home. The 
Large new building here is the Messrs. Nelson's printing and 
publishing establishment, by which one might cut across to the 
Nfewington tram line for Princes Street Else, the circuit can 
be completed by passing beneath or along Salisbury Crags to 
the Holyrood gate of the park. 

No one who can should omit to make the ascent of Arthur^s 
Seatf which need not take half an hour. Tlie usual way is by 
St. Anthony's Chapel, keeping above the farther side of the 
Hunter's Bog, and following a track that winds to the summit. 
A somewhat easier but longer route is to attack the sloping back 
of the hill from Dunsappie Loch. Edinburgh lads know a 
shorter and steeper way up from the head of the Hunter's Bog ; 
but this is not recommendable to those who have reached years 
of discretion. In fine weather, some kind of modest refreshment 
can usually be had at the top ; and the view from the English 
border to the Qrampians is simply superb. 

{Momiiigside Traincar from Princes Street.) 

Th\B portion of Edinburgh embraces the districts of Newington, (Jrunge, 
Bruntsfield, Momingside, and Merchiston, all having a more or less agree- 
able southern exposure, while the large open spaces of the Meadows and 
Bruntsfield Links contribute both to health and amenity. A pleasant way 
to get a general view of these districts is to take an outside seat on the 
Tcar to Morningside, change at Churchhill (Newington), and so back to 
Princes Street. 


At the (iUANujs is .sitimti-il tlit* Siititheru Cemetoiy, where tlwlilc 
Dr. ClmliiierH, Hugh MiUcr, nml Dr. (tuthrin are interred. In tlie 
Kunu* locality is tlu* old nmuMioii-himsti of (iRinge, where KobertMin thi 
historian died, and whii-h w:i8 HuliSL>4piently the resideuce of Sir ThoDH 
Dick Lauder, Bart., author of the Xlomj/shire Flooda, Highland Ram- 
UeSf etc. Farther south in Hlackkoud Hill (dcRcribed in Marmim, 
Canto IV.), over which a pleasant, hrei-zy rauihle may be had. On ib 
eastern slope iH the new, tinely-equipped UoYAL Obsirvatort. Soatfa 
of Blackford Hill, and like it, a public park, are the Braid UiLUi 
with a good but often crowded //"//-iviwr^c (char^ge 2ti. ). There if i 
r^rcshmc7U-r(Htm near the pavilion, and a few hundred yards off is thi 
Braid HUU IhttH ; whence cars to Princes Street. 

The ground between Mornin^siile ami Itlackford Hill was formerif 
called the Borough Moor. Here James IV. arrayed his amiy prenoni 
to his departure for the fatal battle of Flodden (1513). The BOBI 
8ton£, to which the royal standard was athxed, has been built into 
the garden wall of a villa niljoining Morningsiile Church. A little way 
west is Mbrchiston Castlb (now converted into an academy, when 
the C6lebrate<l Napier, inventor of logarithms, was bom about fbe 
year 1550. A small upj^er room is pointed out as his study. Abont 
a mile south of the Castle are the buildings of the Royal Edinburgh 
Lunatic Asylum, of which the tastefully-built iWaig Houm section 
stands conspicuously on the flank of Craiqlockhakt Hill. At the 
biifle of Wester Craiglockhart Hill is the excellent HydropcUhic, 


The steep line of Pitt Street leads past Abercrouiby Place and 
Canonmills, to Inverleith Row, in which is the entrance to the 
Royal Botanic Garden and Arboretum. The main entrance to 
the Arboretum is however at the west side, and can be approached 
by Stockbridge. 

The Tourist should go down by car from Hanover Street, walk through the 
Gardens and Arboretum to near Fettes College (p. 67), and come upi by the 
car to Frederick Street. Gardens open {fre^ dally in summer to sunset ; 
on Sundays after 1 p.m. 

This garden, of which the Professor of Botany in the University 
is regius keeper, was founded in 1670 by Sir Robert Sibbald, Regius 
Professor of Botany in the University. Its first site was in the valley 
below the North Bridge, known as the Physic Garden ; but during 
the eighteenth century it was removed to Leith Walk, and thence, 
about eighty years ago, to Inverleith Row, since which it has been 

1 I3ut first notice No. 21 Ck>mely Bank, the residence of Carlyle, 1826-28 


aearly ilijabled by the nbeorptiaii of the Caledonian Hoiticnltural 
Sccietf 'b eiperimentuJ gardBii, and other pDrchuaea. 

The pard«n now measurea 27 Scotab icres, laid out with verj 
reniarksble lanitacape gardening akill, and incladea (1) a geaeral 
callectioa of hardf plaiiU arranged apcanllng lo their natural ordera ; 
(2) s collsction of British plants) (3) njediclnal plants; (4] a hog 
g^den itnd pond for water plants ; {&) a rock garden, with a [Bapeci- 
ally rBrnflrfeahla) collection of alpina plants ; (8) a pinetnni ; {7) lawns, 
shruliberiea, walks, etc There are alio varioua ranges of greenhouses 
and hathoiues, indudiug eitensire collections of plunts of scientlfle, 
iDBdlcal, horticultural, and economic Intareat ; an sicellent palm- 
house ; e. winter garden, and a aiuaeuin,^all open to the publio. The 
Arboretum extends over 34 acrea to the west of the garden, and was 
added Uter at a a^st of £i)4,000. 

One of the most charming views of Edinbui};h in to be had from a 
slight eminence on the west side of the gnrden, near the pond. 

The botanical teachfag of the UniverKitj is condnctsd here, with an 
average of between 400 and SOD students ench snnuuer seseiDU. Ad- 
joiaing the mosenm are the lecture-room and Uboratoriia, the latter 
being turoiahed with microscopes, etc, for students and private in- 
vestigators ; and near the centre of the garden stands tlie Herbarium, 
which can be consulted on application. 

laid oat with much taste, and commanding a beautiful view of the city. 
Xoar tlie eaatern gate an lona of West HIghkiiil erMA, with a bronze 
medallion by William Srodie, R.S.A., marks the grave of Aleiauiler 
Smith the poet. The late Sir James Y. Simpson, Bart, Horatio 
MBCoiilloch, artist, Adam Black, Lonl Neaves, Bir OeoTga Harrison, and 
other well-known citizens of Eiiinbnrgh, are interred in this cemetBry. 

At the south end of Inverleitli Bow (Canonmille), near some large 
gasometers, is Tanfiehl Hall, where, after the Siamption in 1S43, the 
Free Church held theh- first meeting of Assembly. 

Near Slockbridge, to the west, is the Edinburgh Aoademj Cricket 
Park, where most important cricket and football oiatcLes, both local 
and " intemationa] " etc., take place, 

LEITH iEolels). 
[Tramviay or Railway from. Princes Strcel.) 
Lbith, though a separate town, with a population of 77,439, and 
governed b J separate magistrates, may be tailed the seaport of Edin- 
burgh, from the centre of which it is distant about IJ mile. 

It is the principal port on the east coast of Scotland, and et^oys 
a Ivge and increasing traffic. It possesses magnificent docks, both 
Wet and Dry, including the Victoria Dock and the Old Wet Docks 
on the west, and the Albert and Edinburgh Wet Docks an the 
eMt The latter are the most recently eonstracted, and the bsaini 
oover nreaa of nearly II and 16 aorea rMpootiveVj, IW S,^!"! 'V^'n 

long, though barsly a linii uf tli&l in lM grvatcat brmltk. I 
BhHp« it m*y hn described u &□ irreguW trimigle with ita k 
aide parallel with tbo Uid-Lotbiiin shore. The rorUftoatiantM 
OTcati^d •>□ three heikdUuds, and an ooiillMt«it l>f a militwrn 
a mile and a half In length. The forts are «ntirel; isolated b 
the reat of the island by a ditch 20 ft. deep and almoat w 
broad, so that eoob ma; bo held b; the gartison, even altboo^ft 
enemy ahoDld obtain poiseasion of the island. The north & ' 
torts are mounted eaah with one ID-ineh or 18-ton gun, and N 
south amplacement with two. The parapet walU are ft. Al 
and about H ft. above tlio interior floor of the fort. The intffl 
in the oase of the north uid west batteries, generally epeaking, |i 
aeircular shape, anil the floor is formed of a solid maeaof oi 
several feet thick. In the centre an IS-ton giin turns on a j 
any point of a pretty wide are. The iaiand taksH its name fromttl | 
barony of Keith (Haddingtonshire), of whioh it formed a part.' 

The fortifioations of Inchkcith are supplemented by a sbwsg 
battf.ry on Einghom Ness, the nearest poittt of the Fife Doasti i 
tniles diataut. The dofenoes of the Forth ars further strengthened 
by the firat-class battleship stationed at Queeueferry [aninterestang 
contrast to which is the old wooden three-deuker C/iUdenia, 
moored near it, atilised in its deulining years as a trainin^-ship 
for yonng blaejackets). 

will be roniid io Slack', 

'ji tlioae jmmedjately bcreaFf^r descrlbud, tlm following x, 
rouRS (oil of which caa be made la a MLugle day^ Bud To 

Dued. (DeacriptlDca of tlie itisCricli [laiaad tl 

Es Imvmg tlie sea and u ^Toup d1 mountains at lU dooM,~i 
<urgh is fortunate in some very fina river Boenery close at 
Of Beveral Btreoma within a dozen miles, any one of 
worth exploring, the most beautiful and famous is the 
Esk, which, descending from the Pentlands to joiu the 
Exk below Dalkeith, falls into the sea at MuBFielbiii^h. 
name, given to so many rivers, is of course the same as 
Exe, Axe, and other Celtic words signifying water, Klntkey 
t them, which is a contraction ot tlie Gaelic uitge-beatka 
baugh) answering to ean de vie. 

le banks of the North Esk are not only most picturesque, 
Mociated with the memory of many authors who have hud 
home or sojourn here — Drummond of Hawthomden, Ben 
n, Allan Ramsay, the Tytlera of WoodhoUflelee, Scott, 
Juincey, "Delta," and Mrs. Oliphant, whose novel, 
Iwu and his Brother, gives some tempting glimpses of 
ie^ Poeta and novelists seem now to have deserted this 
i but it keeps up ita connection with literature, less 
bly, by means of the paper mills that too much disfigure 
parts of it One of the deaecrators, indeed, under the 
of "John Stralhesk," is himself known as an author for 
'it» fr<fm BlinlAonny, a good specimen of what may be 
the " Early Kailyard SchooL" 

IS most romantic spots here are Roslin and Hawtbornden, 
I make the ftivourite excursion for all Edinburgh tourists, 
they have seen the city and can get a fine day. The 
ice to Boslin is under 8 miles by the high road that 

. little < 

tdviBable to bind oneself to one particular c 
return fare, aa nothing ia saved thereby, and the I 
Roblin is limited. Tlie coaalieB go aud retnrn b/ i 
roftda. While lit Roalin, an hour anil a half or two lion 
lot at all too loDg, especially if the glen at Hawthorn 



Hiroagh the village to the Royal Ilotrl and the Original Inn 
Opposing each other at its foot, where the coochee atop. Heoco 
guide-boardB show ua the way to the Ckajml, open cm week-Hays, 
to 6, at a charge of la, and on Sniiilajs for the servicea 
(EpiBOopnl) at noon and in the afternooi). If we wiah to gain 
iver hunk, n-ithnut vi»itiiig tlie Cliapel, a path to the right 

juat short of it must he taken ; the road beyond the Chapel i* 
private. Thia patli leada to the Ckutlt close at band, where 6d. 
U charged for aJmi«aiaii ; but by pasaiug under the drawbridge, 
we can gain the o]>en path along the left bank of the river oa 
marked on the accompany ing plan The name Roilin, it will be 
ticed, ia spelt more elaborately iu the Castle and the ChapeL 

BoBilyn Chapel, one of tlie riRheat gems of Ootbtc architecture in 
Bcatlaad, remarknbla for the bold vuriety of its decoratinn, wai founded 
144S by Williim St. Clair. Gnrl of Orkney ind Lord of Rnsslju. Only 
tli« chancBl waa completed, and the tmiiaept be^a, of what had been 



griglully dealgned v w tUtel; CoUegiaU Church. At tlia Rerolntln 
I(IS9 part or It wu dcfued hj > saoh rroin EJiDburgh, but It wu rapui 
in tba follawiag csntnry bj GiDerel St. Ctair. Ttu 3rd Earl of Roul 
following Dp the work of hla pndeenaar, oompltted the repain ' 
•Crupuloiifl ttltBQtion to the pretarvatio!) of their original ohajscter, 
the Ulfl oari cooUtiiied the work in Tarioun wayi. The 3rd Earl, gn 
father of the present peer, built the small Chapel at the weat end ; hi 
bnriad in the churchyard, while many of hia ancestors He within '' 
Church, buried in their armour. The most remarkahle feature of 
Church is the richuera of ita detail both within and without. Thia enl 
anoe ihowa French or Spaoiab iDfluence. The itone ceiling, ■, 
plese of work, paaaed intact through the riota. 

or the elaborate details, the moat eelabrated feature In tbe " 'PrentJM^ 
raiar," with its finely -sculptured foliage. The legend goes, here aa els*, 
where, that the maatsr-hullder, unable to eiecute the design of this pitliii 
proceuded to Rome to atndj. During his absence the apprantica went M 
with the work ; and the mnater, stung with envy at lluillng it oomplMrf 
on his return, itmck thia presumptuous rival dead with his malleL 

Beneath the pavement of the chapel lie the Barons of Rosalyii, all 
whom, till tbe time of Jamea VII., were buried in complete umoor. T. 
grave of s 14th-century ancestor of the founder (William St CM 
la covered by a sculptured stone, repre)icnting the knight with a inf 
his feet ; the story being that in a raah momeut this St. Clair staked _ 
head to King Robert the Bruce against the eatala of Pentlsjid that M 
fsToorite dogs, " Help " and " Hold," would puU down a deer taefara I 
eromwd the GlencOTse burn, as thsy did sftsr an exciting ihiM, and llil 
baron, out of gratitude, bnilt the chapel of St. Katharine, now snbmeise* 
beneath the waters of the CompeuEstion Pond in Gloncorso. 

The Buperatitions belief that on the night bcfbre the death of any 
the Ijonia of Itos^lyn, the Chape! appears in daiueai is tbe subject 
Scott's fine ballad of " RosnbBlle " :— 

^heathfld in hia Iron pajiuply. 

The rnina of Eosalyn Caatla stand upon a peninsulai ro ^ ^^ 

the piotnteaque glen of the Esk, the only access being by a bridga throwl 
over a deep iuaision in the aolid rock. The ca.itle was long the s 
the St. Clair family, whcie titles. Sir Walter Scott remarks, at one p 
of history would have weoridd a heralit, yet who wore perhaps n 
wealthy aa an English yeoman. The eldest part la the Tower, built t 
the beginning of tbe 14th oentury. 

The fiimily name came from Prance in its original form Saini C 
Sir William Binclair, in the reign of Alexander I. (U07-I124 ,g 
obtained from that monarch the barony of Roaalyn. Hie grcnt-gran 
Henry, the second of tbe St. Clair line of the Earls of Orkney, bi^ 
the great keep or south-west- tower. A suceeeding baron, William, w 
one of the aubacribera to a letter sent by tlie nobility of Scotland to ' 
E^pe, asserting the indepencience of their country ; while William, i 


Atid other rivorfl. 

A ftroll through the gronnda of Hawthornden ia well norlh 
B BhilliDg ; but if we do not care to paj lax to the poet's 
descendaiit, the path takes us on along the left bank, lo an 
overhanging projection of which we can deBcend presently for a 
good view u! the house on the opposite cliff. 

This ahaded footpath gains the top of the bank, and after a 
time ca\Ji across the head of a long bend in the river to make a 
tarn on the left by the Hewing Cottage, said to be so called from 
(ome flkughterouB memory of the old battle-field. Beyond 
lluB, we might turn back by a road for Roslin, about 3 miles ; 
M, holding alwajB to the right, we presently rt'gain the high 
bank at a part where recent frosts or slips have made the 
piswge along its broken edge a matter of caution, and from it 
ileMend among the knot of chimneys where a bridge would 
un-y tu across to PolUm Station. 

But we may still hold down the left bank by a path which, 
fota time, makes a change for the worse. It improves, however, 
liter a mile or so, &s it rieee on the high ground about LaGSwa,de, 
uother place of paper mills and of suburban residences. 
Coming among these, one must keep one's eyes open to follow 
Ou path between iron railings ; but if one strayed up by the 
nwd, turning to the left froni the river, this divagation might be 
mvtuded by a sight of the partly- thatched cottage, opposite the 
gita of Dunes/: House, where Scott spent some of the happiest 
jaiB of his early married life. De Quincey's house was on 
Itie other side of the river, nearer Polton. 

The path takes us on before Dunesk House to Laigicadt 
Oltttrft and chiirchyard, enclosing a fragment of the old cburcli, 
«i3 beside it the tomb of the Drummonds, over the entrance to 
which a memorial tablet to the poet has recently been erected, 
(MM being trained upon the roof ia allusion to his own epitaph 
aw inscribed^ — 

About Laeawade we could find more than one railway 
Wiaa to help us home. If we would stUl trace the course of 



(22i uiiks), AND HADDINGTON (IS railea). 

A pliasiuit eicuTSion ma;^ be made along the east coast from 
'Smliiirgh, u above indiiateii, hy the North British Railway. 
HlB line prooeeda through a highly caltivated district with fine 
TOWa of tha Firth of Fortk 

The train leaves EJinburgli ftom Waverley Station, i>asses Holy- 
Md, Arthur's 8eat, and Jock's Lodge, and continoes tiy way of 
'fwtebello, Joppa (with its chnrming and nrtistic QuemCi Bay 
Snitl, a little ubove the railway station), luvenrok, and Preston- 
tnu. At Jock's Lodge are the Fiershill Oavslry Barracki, and a 
tittle to the uortb Reatalrig Chnroh, noticed at [laga 60. 

PoRTOBELLO (SoteU : Royal, Queen's Bay, and A rEylo— private, 
"ith baths) — popalation 9130— ia now incorporated with Edin- 
Inrgb. It awes its name to a villa bnilt on the shore by a retired 
■Ifil officer who had been present with Admiral Vernon at 
ttt capture of Porto Beila in the West Indies expedition of 1739. 
Tile sands along the coast are firm, with a geatle slope, and are 
well adapted for bathing, for which mnchitiBS are provided (charge 
4iL). There is a Marine Parade along the shore, recently enlarged, 
Ud now extending the whole length of the sea front froui 
Joppa to the King's Road, and on it a mflgoificetil and costly Baths 
fclabiiBhnieut, Portobello ia also united with Edinburgh by a 

Three miles by rail to the east of Portobello is the ancient tonn 
«f MUSSELBUROH '— pop, 8885— (Mugaelbargh Arms Hotil), deiiv- 
blf it) name &om a mnaarl-hank on the sea-shore. It is near the 
month of the river Eak, which is crossed here by three bridges— 
on* Bsid to have been built by the Romans, who had a station on 
Ibe neighbouring hill of Inrereak. By this old bridge the Scottish 
army marched to the battle of Knkie in 1647, on which occasion 
Mveraloftha Boldiers ware shot by the English, whose ships lay in 

1 Adjoining MuBdolburgh, on tie west eide nt Hie Bsk, Is the nubnrb of 
FlaniRROW, Mveiol oF tbe buust^s or which am said to bs built on Roman 
KiuuilatliNUU The barboiu was tbe Wrmliuition of Rumen nuds, tnuss uf 
"Ikh are rtlll psrcaiitible. 


Cha bay. Not f«r from tUe briiige, in au avc 
Mall, a Blatue is eracteU to the luemory ol' a, native of^ 
the lats Dr. DiTid Moir (" Delta " of Blackumati Mag, 
bflBides being a poet, was author oi Manrie Wau^' ■ 
delightful works. Tlie links of Musstlbnrgh are a favonrftK 
of golf- players, and they are also used as a 
Edinburgh race iiieetinga. Frevioas to the EefonnatioD, i 
existed at MusoKlhurgh a religious estaliliahcaeut tailed the Obifi 
of LorettJ), which belonged to the Abbooy of Dunfermlioe. ' 
chapel liiLB disappeared, but its place has beeo woithil; saj^tlia 
Luretto School for Boja. At the east end of the town g 
Pinkie Houae, the fine old mansion of Sir Alo-iander Hope, I 
oonaiating of tvo sides of a quadrangle, with a fountain of elabonl|| 
and beautiful arohiteElnre, ooevai with the bnusit, i 
Three miles is Carberi'j Hill, where Queen Maiyfl 
Tendered to the insurgent nobles in 1567 ; aud 3 mil?s eut il 
village of Frestonpans (pop. 17:^1), memnrable tor tie battle foi 
in its vieinity in 174£i, bstweeii the royal forces under Sir J^ 
Cope and tlie Highland army under Prince Charles Stuart, wlui 
forms such an intarestiiig episode in Scott's novel of f~ 
Prince Charles slept at Pinkie House on the night after the bt 

DODumt'Qt has beon erectsd to Colonel Girdiner, who fell el 

lide the wall of Baiiktou House park. Sliaw's Hospital, jn 
pans, baa been leased by the trustees of the late Miss U 

, ^ray, who bequeathed j;2l}.0OD (now incraai!ed to £30,000) (or ^ 

bMpital for the training of pour children as dui 

Near this may be seen, to the north of tha railway, Seton Bon 
and Church, which once belonged to the Setons, flarls of Wiutoo J 
The old house, or, as it used to be termed, the I'alace,' was d 
Strqyed by fire many years ago. 

At Longniddry station may be Been to tlie Jtart/i the woods si 
rounding Gosford House, the seat of tlie Karl of Wemyss. 
this are the tillage aud bay of Aburlady' (inn), and farther ei 
the Sua golQiig links of Luffnesa and OuUane {liolela). About 4 
miles to the mulk of Luuguiddry is Gladamuir, the birthplaoe of 
George Heriot, founder of the Hospital at Edinburgh. Dr. Bobeil-fl 
ion was olergyman of this pariah, and here composed his Sittarjf ^^ 
SoAlaiui. i miles east of Gladsmuir a column to the memDry af ~ 
the fourth Earl of llopetoun stands on one of tbo Garleton Hills. 



Proceeding oast from Longniddry to Drem ststion the branch 
liu« strikeB off, md Dirleton, to North Berwick. Dirlcton ii one 
or the neatest villages in Scotland, >nd hae a comfortable <nn. 
Adjoining the village are Arcberfield House (one of the seata of the 
Kisbet Hamilton bmil;), and the extenaiTS raina and Rardens of 
DirletOD Castle, which belonged at no early period to a branch of 
(he family of De Vallibus or De Vaui. Gardens open on Thursdays. 

In the reign of Robert Bruce Dirleton was acquired by the 
powerful family of Halibnrton. Dirleton eeems to have passed from 
the Haltburtons to the family of Kuthven, and it was the bribe 
which the unhappy Earl of Gowrie held out to the cupidity of Logan, 
his associate in the memorable conspiracy in 1600. " 1 care not," 
saya Logan in hia letters, "for all the other land 1 hare in the 
. kingdom, if I may grip of Dirleton, for I esteem it the pleasanteal 
dwelling in Scotland." Bat Dirleton, inctnded in Ruthven's for- 
feiture, passed to other hands, and was bestowed on Sit Tbomna 
Erskine, who hod lent the king active assistance against the 
oonspiiators, and was afterwards created Viscount Fenton Baron 
Dirleton. Dirleton Castle became, after the Restoration, the pro- 
perty of Sir John Nisbet, King's Advocate. 

NoKTH Bbbwick, 
[Roteb: liaiim; Rofal ; lmp«iiBl. Fop. 3SM.| 
22} miles east of Edinburgh, by Drem Junction, is a pleasant and 
fashionable watering-place, baring its origin in an old fishing vil- 
lage. A firm sandy beach, suitable forbathing,' extends along both 
sides of the town, and the coast is beautifully diversified with rooks 
and bays. A fine stretch of dunes or "links" extends westwards 
for several miles, and forms one of the best golfing greens inSoot- 
land. The golf club-houae occupies a site at the east end of the 
links. South of the town rises the cone-shaped hill called North 
Berwick Law (610 ft. in height), from which there is a fine view. 
Hot far from the railway etotioQ stand the ruins of an Abbey (or 
Ci»terciMi nunnery), founded in 1216 by Duncan, Earl of Fife, — re- 
ferred to in Marmion. (Canto Fifth, iiii.). The mat links, which 
were at first small, have been prolonged eastn'srd into the Rhodes 
Links, thus making an IS-hole course, and adding greatly to the 
attractions of this favourite golf centre. 

Off tlie coast the sea is dotted with aeverat rocky islets, of which 

the principal ».nOraigUUhB,riAFidra, the latter containing a ruined 

ohapel and a new lighthouse. The principal sights in the neigh- 

I In some [Arte, uid at Hime stagea of the tide, lattec dsngennu, 



'hood aro TantiLlloii Caatle and the Boss Rock. The Istter mi) I 

TiBiUd in favourable ireather direct ^m Nortb Berwick, oi ~ 
Uie inn at Cant; Baj, where a steam -Inunuh ma; be hired Tor Ih I 

The ruins of Tantallon, though with tittle grace of nrchitectiin, I 
have, from their eilent and striklag Bitoation, an impoaing eSeC^ I 
which has often exercised the sidll of the artiat. 

The existing fortreaa wia probahly erected b; Murdoch, Dnkifl 
Albany, in the 15th century, and nas added to In thB reign of JuhmW 
It is an irregular bexagou, occuppng the whole prornontory witti itM^ 
vails and high towers, and turrets designed ta flank theiti. The iaW 
contains, as usnal, a keep or Gothic citadel, with many other hiiil 
of great iriie and eitent, and vaulta beneath them. "The niind,"i 
Scott, " when we enter the dilapidated court of this ancient Bndfnii| 
ing ruin, u involuntarily carried back to the era of tbe mighty E 
of Doaglai, so long the Lords of Tautsllon, amidst whose nmu 
fortresses and houses of defence this was the principal on the u 
border, while that of Hermitage, equally solitary and formidable, 
on the more western skirts of the island, their cbief baronial a 
these were the eitrerae bnlwarka of a power which ««ended fro: 
to sea, matched and bade deSaoce to the authority of soTcroigns, 
but for a coucurreuoe of circumstanoea which could BCnrce have tieau 

pected, tbroatened to place their owners on the throne of Scotland." 

The castle stood several ategea, — the last in Cromwell's time. Since tbea 

It has heeu in ruins, which have recently (ISSa) undergone extensive cleai- 

operatlons under the superintendence of Su- Widtcr Hamiltan- 

irymple, the propiictor. revealing many interestlog Internal tlructurea 

Tub Bass Bock, 

" An Island salt and bare, 
of teals and ores and soa-mewi' clanf 
starts ont of the eea juat opposite to Tantallon. It is about 4S0l( 
In height and a mile in circumferenoa. Upon the top of the ?> 
sheep were fonnorly pastured, hut none have been here for the hi 
twenty y*ara ; tha chief inhabitants are aes-fowl, especially m 
geeae. A tasgnificout lighthouaa with a Bix-flash lautem of 39,0j 
candle illuminating power was openeii November 16D2. 

Though hardly accessible to boats save at one precariona M 
hazardooK passage, the island was long the cboaen stronghold 4 
the Landers, originally of that ilk, and afterwards called LtttdlT 
of the Bass, who in 1671 sold it to Government to b 
Into a fortress and prison. Precipitous and sheer on all side*,.^ 
has only one landing-placa on a shelf of rock overlooked by t" 
castle, the chief leature of which is a rampart, where in farmer daj] 
■ome heavy pieces of cannon defended the strait. Beneath t 
platform ore the grated windows of the Bmall arched dongeoas W^ 
prisonere ware confined. Landing on the Boas is 

lElLB or HAT 


difficnlt except in calm weather. To the tell of the luiding-plece, 
gdftrded b^ a loopholed tower, are the remains of the iron cnae 
oeed by the ganison for raising their boat to the outer trail. There 
i» a lemarkabla cava SO fL bigh, right through the rock — " a 
dftrk and dreary recesa full of chill aira and dropping damps. " 

The Bass was the nraal state prison for those accused of high 
treason, or who were guilty of opposing the arbitrary measiuea 
adopted in Scotland in the reigns of Charles II. and James VIl. 
John Blackadder, an eminent Covenanting diTtne, was long a 
prisoner in the caatle, and died there. At the time of the 
Revolutton the Bass was tbe last place of strength in Britain which 
disf^yed the flag of James VII., and it surendered to King 'William 
on honourable terms. The castle was then demolished. 

St Baldred, who lived at a very early date in a hermitage on the 
Bass, gives his name lo various places in the neighbourhood. 

Of the seats in the vicinity of North Berwick the principal are 
Luchie (Sir W. Hamilton -Dalrymple), Balgone House (Sir Q. Grant 
Sattie, Bart.), and Tyninghame, the seat of the Earl of Hadding- 
ton, famous for its woods, holly hei^es, and beech avenues. 

Ible of Mat. — Excursions are frequently made by steamer from 
Lrith or ITorth Berwick in summer to the Isle of May, lying at the 
month of the Firth of Forth. The island contains the remains of a 
chapel founded by St. Adrian, who, according to Winton, was mar- 
tyred here about the middle of tlie 9th century by the Noraemen. 
There is an important lighthouse on the island. 

The county of Haddington or East Lothian — of which ITortb 
Berwick is the northern extremity — has long had the reputation 
of being one of the most fertile in Scotland, and presents a beanti- 
fBl contrast of cultivated and natural conntiy. The county is 
bonnded on the south by the beautiful range of heathy hills so 
well known by the name of Lammermuirs, and tram which the 
Bast poetical of Scott's novels derives its title. These hUla are of 
considerable elevation, attaining at Lamm er the height of 1733 
(t. From them the country may be said to have a general slope 
downwards to tlie sea, broken, however, by the Oarletoo Hills to 
the north of Haddington, and by the isolated " Laws " of Trapiain 
and North Berwick, The cultivated part of Qie county is beauti- 
tally diveraified by woods and plantations and numerous seats of 
noUtmen and gentlemen. 

DiTKBAR, and the Coast towards Beewick-on-Tweid, are 
dewribed at pp. 118123. 

70 EAST fjfftmUtt 

Hadhinut'jn (IS mileB east from Edinburgh) 
[floWi ; Qeoigo, «nd BUok BulL Pop.miS.] 
ia reached by a bmnuh lino rrom Longniddry station. It 
an iiitereating Gothic clmroh.fonnerly, according to FonJun, calllj 
the "Lamp of Lothiiin " on aEcountol'its splendour 1 an' 
tional foundation dating from 1S79, and designated the EnozM 
Btitute, in honour of the Reformer, who was born in the Giflbrfl Ol" 
The Laiidordale monurimiit in one df the faulta of the chard 
worthy of mention ; and near at hand is the tombatono eraotMB 
the late Thomas Carlyle in memorjof bis wife. There are manjff 
prapertiea !n the neighbourhood, including Loimoxlova (D. Jot'' 
Esq.]^tbe early tiome of the subtle Uaitlaad of Lethiagton, W 
played bo remarkable a part in Scottish history in the dxjid 
Qaeen Mary and John Knoi, — Amisfield (Earl of WtmjlT 
Stevenson [Lady Sinclair, widow of 9th Bart,), CoalstoB (V. I 
Bronn, Esq.), and Aldoraton (Lndy Denman). The Garleton 0°^ 
(p. 72) are to the north of the toirn. 

Another interesting part of the oonnty may be reached bjB 
line from Edinburgh to Obmistob and Macmbrry vii Invetn' 
Jnnction. Ormiston village {inn) is pleasantly sitnattsd ; and, b 
the hedgerows and enclosures about it, approaches in appearance to 
an English village. There is an old cross in the centre supposed to 
mar^ the site of an old priory. A monument was erected in 188E 
at the east end of the village to the memory of Robert Moffat, 
missionary to South Africa, who was a native of Ormiston. It 
consists of an obelisk of Peterhead granite with bron;le alto relievo, 
the work of D. W. Stevenson, E,S,A. The neighbourhood is 
famona for its strawberries, which are cultivated in large fields. 
Near the village is Ormiston Hall, a Beat of the Marquis of 
Linlithgow, with a yetv-tree, said to he six centuiies olil, ami under 
whose ahade the martyr Wiahart, nho was aeiziid at Ormiston in 
1546, was in the habit of preaching. The burinl-vault of the 
Cockbum family, the former proprtetora, contains a Latin inscrip- 
tion said to have been written by George Buchanan. Adjoining 
Ormiston is FrestonhuU, the seat of H. Burn Callander, and on 
the oppoaite side of the river Tyne is Oxenford Castle, a seat of 
the Eurl ot Stair. To the east of Omiiston. near Winton Station, 
is Winton Castle, a, seat of Mrs. H. T. Niabet Hamilton Ogiivy, also 
of Biel and Arcberfield. The public rooms contain some fine 
■,«ailings. Within the grounds is the old honse of Pencaitland. 
pllboutamile and a half distant is the finely -wooded eet«t« of Snltoo 

QiFFORD, Brra 77 

(Joliu Fletelier).' The celebrated etatesman Andrew Fletcher of 
Salton waa for some years pupil of Bishop Barnet, who was some- 
time rector of tJiis parish. Holland cloth woe first iatrodaoed to 
Scotland here earlj in the eighteenth oentnry by the patriotic lady 
of Heary Fletcher, who travelled into Holland with two expert 
mechanics, got: models of the machinery, and brought home the 
aaerete of the manufactnre. Hera also the British linen Company 
established their first bleachGeld under the patronage of Lord Milton. 
Marcliiiig with Ormtaton is Fountain Hall (Archibald PefTere 
and P. Robertson). Elphinston Tower, seen on the rising ground 
in the neigh bonrhood, is the property of James R Yonag. 
Foot milea soath-eaat of Ormiston village is Keith House, an old 
possession of the Keiths, Earls Marischal of Scotland, sow the 
property of the Master of Polvarth. BeautiruOj sitnat^d at the 
foot of the Lammennuir Hilla, and 4 milea south from Hadding- 
ton (fioaeh), is the village of Giffukd (tnn),'and near it Yester 
House, the seat of the Mori^iiis of Tweeddsle, embowered in noble 
old woods. The lal« Dr. John Witharspoon, President of the Collage 
of New Jersey, and Dr. Charles Niabet, Preeideut of the College of 
Carlisle, North America, wera both natives of this parish. From 
GifCbid it is 23 miles by road, vid Longformacua, to Dane (p. 119). 


The direet rente from Edinburgh to the Forth Bridge, and so t« 
Perth (pp; 122, 126, 128, 176), leaves the North British Railway 
main line to Glasgow at Coratorphine, 3 milea from Edinburgh. 
There are several trains daily. The Almond river is crossed, 
and as we approach Qneensferry a delightful view is obtained of 
the Firth of Forth and the Fife coast. 

1 SoltOD ii tba reputed UrtiipUce of WflUam DudI»t, wbom Ellis stflea 
"the greatest poet that Scotjand has produced," and n-ho ma born la the 
latter half of tlie letll centarr. His "Dance or the Seven Deadiy Bins" will 
beu eompuiaon wltb CMIina'a "OdeonChe Pusions." 

■ Vrom Olffijrd to Ljinnaa (p, 97) 1> > good walk of IS mlleB over tbe 
Lammer Law (p. VG). 

* BAiLWkT RoDTsa to Qusaow (BiprenB trains IU> ntn.) -.— 
I. North BriHah By. irfd Linlithgow and polmonl, eta. (p. 83). 
n. caledonlaaBj.«UHld-Calder(p.Sl)uidUddiDgMoii(p.SB4^ 



Those who drive loave hy Princes Street, oroas tlis Deftn BriA 
Utd prooead along the Qneansforry Road. Craigloith Quarry, t 
vhioli most or the }£dinburgh building- stone woa obtaiiiedffl 
he right A short way beyond, on the lafli ia 1| 
RAveUton Hon^e, an old seat uf the Eaith Tainilj, fl 
little farther on Craigcrook, for many years the residenoB of d 
late Lord Jellrey. At liaeidaon^a Mains a road goea off D 
west by the railway station and LauristDn Castle, at 
the residence of John Liw (the pi'ojector of the 1 
Bciieme), to Cramond House and village. Following the ni 
road, however, we altirt the park of Barnton, now a golf-oc 
and presently we rcauh Uurnton Hotel, clusu to fiari 
(the tenninua) and the tDsteful Club-House. Next n 

"Brig," spanning the pictnresqce River Almond R 
Mid and West Ixithian ; with an hoUl at i 
We then come to the main east lodge to 


r Pari 

of the Enrl of Boscbery. The house is situated in i 
centra of the park, but close to the sea shore, and ii 
stands Bambougle Castle (an ancient seat of the Moiibrays'), i 
resiored in the old Scotoh baronial style to serve as an a^JM 
to theHonse, The village of I>alineny, with a small ohnroh to ^ 
purest Norman style, lies about a mile off the main road ; a 
mile to the west of it ia Dundaa Castle (Stewart Clark, Esq.),— 
1124 to 1875 the seat of the Dundases of Duiidas. ~ 

. and the ancient castle atandaidebj Bide. QitebnsfxKI 
ftp. 1850—{Batel: Queansferry Arms; the scene iu ohapterfl 
iflf Scott's AnlifUary is laid at the Hawes lun, liei- ' 
I^iii the Queea of Malcolm Caumore, Margaret, sister of £ 

Ig way nf appmichlng Qiieeogfeny from Bdinbntgh to 

J (61 miles), piMiug a 


HoFETOiTK HoDBE (giounds Dot opcD On any special days, t 
permissian lo view them may always be had on applieation t( 
factor) ia the seat of the Marquis of Linlithgow, aud stands al 
9 milea westward of Queenaferry. The House, occnpying a S 
position on a spacious lawn skirted by woods, i:o[itiiina soi 
I paintings. The [Kjlicies are well U\i\ out, and the 


u nolad foe it9 high eultivatifin. Tlie views from some of the 
ice-walks are very beautiful. Ou a peiiiiiaula to tha westward 
may be sees Blackness Castle, formerly a state prison, but now con- 
verted into a powder magazine ; and oti the opposite Booat, oloao by 
tbe fillage of Charleston, is Broom hall, the seat of tbe Eurl of lillgiri. 

Tub Forth Betdob, 
oonstrncUnI for the North British Railway, iicrosB the Firth of 
Forth at Queen aferry, B miles from Eiiinbnrgh. It was opeoeJ by 
King Edward VII,, then Prince of Wales, on the 4th March 
1890. Designed hy Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker 

tJie ancient and simple principle of the " ciintileTtr" (or 
balandng hrackets) — which combines the sitpporC of an arch with 
the teuaion of a sirspension bridge — it was erected in seven years 
under their auperintcndenco snd that of Sir WiUiain Arrol, the 
contractor, who displayed wonderful resource, ingenuity, and energy 
in overcoming Che' stupendous physical difficntties met in so gigantic 
a work. It consists of two bnge steel girder bridges of 1710 feet 
span, besides smaller ouea on either side, able to stand the enormous 
pressure of 112 lbs. on the aqnare foot. The northern central pier 
partly rests on luchgarvii; Islanit. It is the loftiest bridge in the 
world, and its total length is 1 mile and 1000 yards. Five miles 
north from North Queensferry, at the Fife end of the Bridge, is the 
anoient town of DunfermlinB [p. 1B3). 

At the point where the Forth Bridge crosses the Firth a tongue 
of land prujeoting from the northern ahoro narrows the Forth to 
half its Qsnal width, and siTords safe anchorage ou its western 
■ in the Bay of St Margaret's Hope. This hay, land-locked, 
and protected by the uplands of the Lothiana on the south and the 
Ferry Hills on the north, has been chosen as the site for the new 

lI base. Tha transformation will be gre;tt. In days to come 
this quiet bay may rival Fortamouth or Chatham In its world-wide 
im portauoe. 


There is a fine stretch of country to the south-west of Bdinbnrgh 
travelled by the Caledonian Railway, with a loop line to Colinton 
Hid Balerno, from which vlllngea tjie PeaUand Hills are oeat ap- 
proached. The loop line goes up a deep deli, beautifully wooded, 
down which runs the Water of Leith. Near Sleteford is Craiglock- 
bart Hydropathic Eatabliahuient, finely situat«d. Dregbora Caalle, 

' Booaly Tower lor many yars the residence of Ui>: lite Lonj 



. ooclipy line positions abont n mi!« luiutli of Colintoa. Tht 
lilla, wliioli form so attractive an ohjecl in the acencry about 
citeod for a length of 16 miles, snd their eilreme br«idtli 
II SmileK— the height of the BUmmits tarylng from 1400 to 1890 ft. 
Iti jinwnt FDoU liea along the north aide of the hiSln ; another TOad 
irtendi along the Boutharn elope.' 

Nwr Cnrrie, S^ miles from Gdiiiburglt, are the rains of Lennoi 
CuIIb, originally the property of the Earl^ of tb»i name, and fre- 
qnenllj tlie residence of Queen Mary ; Ricoartou (Sir James Gibaon- 
Cnig, Bart.) : and Dalmaboy (Dowager Coantesfi of Morton). The 
UnrtoDs reprtiseiit the Dongliuei. the preseul family bviii^ in 
dWdot boBt the Loohlevea brKneb. Dalmahoy Honae containe 
TiIuUi chartera, Belectiona from which have been printed by the 
Bmitjno Club ; aud numeroiia intereating papers regarding Quoun 
Vitf, inoluding the warraut for committing her tu l^ochleven Castle, 
Jim 16, 1667. Here also are preserved the keys that were thrown 
inlothe loi'h on Queen Mary's escape from Lochleren Castle. Adjoic- 
iaiDalinihoy, on the west, is Uatton House, a fine old nMnsIon, some 
I«rla of wtach are of very ancient date. 

Nnr Hid-CnMer statjon,' 3 miles farther (on the main line), Is 
Otldir HoBse, the seat of Lord Torphlchen, who represent!) the ancient 
Anuly of Sondilands, connected thrnngh the female line with the house 
tf Doqriaa The family is also connected with the Knights Templata 
b BcoUand, in whose eatatai it becMue vested at the time of the 
RafiinnBUon, and the Baron of the period was created preceptor of this 
iBant ardar. The same nenbei of ths fmiily was an ardent acBOciatv 
sfjolm Knoi. 

lbs railway continnes south ami west to Carlisle, Dumfries, lAuark. 
Olnagow, etc. (see pp. '291-293, 338, and U2). 

) Fcff dvsoription of many charming walks over t 
Bab^Oitr PaOu and raaa. (J. Bgrtholoninir & C 

> Then ii an Interesting cdd " DroTs Boad "—11 
Bhas 8Up," over tl 

m hills, see Tlit PmOand 


or Blatjon 

LDiith-weat along i 
I a 10.1 whence cub Drove Road, indicatsd by gulile-pusta of the lUgb 
tlWtJ SodBty, nun eonCh-easl aarosa the hills to West Linton (iHn), when 
•nlkta Bnxmla (Jni.X whera get train to Edinborgh. The reverse roulo 
esrlaMy not less ertloyable. In tPsir of nennulini, the lata B. L. Blereusi 

(3.) To UNLITHGOW and STIELIKG," md Fa-kirk 

ProoeBding wesfwwda from the Warcrley SUtion hy the foot of 
the Castle Rock, and through a tnnuel to HaymarkBt, tbe traTeller 
immsdia.tely after is witbin sight of CoTstorphiae Hill on the 
right, and the Pentlnnd HLIla on ths left. Three miles from Edin- 
burgh IB the station for Corstorphine, where the direct route to 
Perth vid the Forth Bridf;e (p. 77) goes off to the right From 
Rfttho, 4 milfls farther, throiigli a prettily wooded countiV, a hroDoh 
line procenls to Kirklistou and Dalmcny (p. 78), pasaing Dundira 
Caatla (Stewart Clark, Eaq.), which, aa already msntioiied, was 
the oiiginal seat of the Dundaa faniiij. The Almond Water is 

crossed hy a lofty viaduct Then to the right is spcn Ncwliaton 
(T. A, Hog, Esq.}, once belonging to the Ear! of Stair, who planted 
the woods smroundtnghis honse according to the dispoaitioa of tbe 
troops be comitiaDded at the battle of Dettingen. Asbott distance 
beyond, on tlio right, a glance may be obtained of the ruins of 
Niddry Castle, once a seat of the Seton family, and where Qafen 
Mary passed the Erst night after her escape from Lochleven Csatle. 
In the naighbourhood is the village of Winch burgh, where Edwardll, 
first drew bridle after the battle of Bannock burn. Seventeen miles 
from Edinburgh, on the margin of a small lake, is the county town of 

Jnnnifly lasde a 

LT BdinhorgTij^^^l 


(ffoWi .- Stw nd G»rtor (O.) ; Bt MLnhsBl'H ; PsImb. Popnlstion 4ST», 
IT miLea west of Bdlnburgb.] 
an old bnrgh dating from the 12th century, and until lately con- 
taining a number of old-fashioned houses which belonged to ths 

rfcZ31 ** ' 

**! """fir" ■ 






KnigbU of St John, nhose preoeptory at TorpMchen (5 m. 8.W. 
of IJnlithgow) ia, thongh ruined, worthy of a viait, Linlithgow 
eigoys an anoietit celebrity for wells — one of which, atandiug in 
front of the town-house, is elaborately carved, and was founded, 
as the inscription relolas, "upon the 4th of June 1807, and aie- 
cnt«d by Bobert Orey, stone mason, Edinbiugh, in imitation of the 
Ancient Cross Well of Linlithgow." A fountain in another part 
of fb« ttroet is sormounted by an effigy of St Michael, nnder which 
is the quaint It^end — " 1720 Saint Michael is kinde to Strangers. ' 


1 in Linlithgow that David Hamilton of Bothive 
the KegBct Murray, aa the latter was pasBin 
the town (1670). Tlie house from which the allot waa fired bebnglj 
at that period to the Archbishop of St. AndrewB ; it was iimntA 
•taly burnBd down hj Murray's adlieronta. 4 

On the margin of the lake stands LiULiTHOOW Palaoh 
bTOUiite seat of the kings of Scotland. The hnildiug is HfU 
rangnlar and eitcmailly rather heavy from the went of wmd(B 
but the interior is of mora elogaut constrnction. Over the |fl 
cipal gateway there is a niche which was formerly filled hy a bHH 
of Fops Julius II., who presented James Y. with the sword of ifl 
which forms part of the Scottish Riigalia. Ahore this entnfl 
WBB the Parliament Hall, begun by James IV., and fiuiahed bjfl 
anccessor. The west side ia the most ancient, and eontains fl 
room where Queen Mary was born, 7th December 1642.^ ^"1 
of the vaults James III. found shelter when he was in duig(H 
aaaassination from his rebellions subjects. The north side of fl 
quadrangle was built by James VI. shortly after his visit to Sfl 
land in 1617. In the centre of the court are the remains or9 
elaborately -carved fountain erected hy James V., which has ifl 
reproduced in front of Holyrood Palace by the late Prince Albofl 

The palace was reduced to ita present ruinous condition byH 
Elnglish dragoDoa under General Uawley, during the insurreofl 
in 1756.6. Some parts of the building liave been renewed,H 
means of a Government grant, and further dilapidation arreBt«^H 

The idJcini^S church of it, fHictiaEl's is one of the few spadlfl 
left of the ancient Scottish parish chnrch. It was founded by DM 
L, and dedicated to St. Michael, the patroa aaint of the town, ln^| 
wu omameuted chiefly by Oaoige Crichton, Bbhop of Dnnkeld. ■ 
WHS in as aisle of tills church that James IV. saw the strange ap fij 
tion which warned bim against his eipedition to Flodden nH 
At vanous subsequent penodn, in 1616 and in 1812, the interior o^B 
building was altered, certaiuly not for the better, bnt IC haa ifl 
been reatf^red tc something like ite original heanty. In 1821 fl 
croiwn was removed from tJie tower. Several beantifnl stained afl 
windows have tweii placed in the eburch, iuclnding one to Sir W)^| 
Tbomaon, the eminent naturalist, erected by the officers of V 
" ClMllenger " and others belonging to the neigbbourbood. ^t 

Proveodiiig westward from Unlithgow, the railway crossm ,t^ 
Avon valley viadnct, and enters Stirlingshire at Polmont Juuctua 
From this place the Duke of Haniltfla takes the title of BaxiA 
PoUnojit, conferred by Charles I. on William, 2nd Duke, win 
died in 1651 from wounds received at the Baltle of Worcester. 


Hsn ths main line to Olasoow (2B milAs) eiteods to tlu left 
through on unintereating country by Castleciiry, Lontia' (where there 
»re many villa resiiiencoa), and Cowlaire, with its eitunaJTe railway 
works. Glasgow is enterad by s tnunel neiirly H milo loug. 

From Folmont, a pleasant neighbourhood, the Csrse of Falkirk 
slopes northwards to the port of Qniugemoutb [ikti, jwp. 83SSJ, the 
eaatom terminatiouofthoFottbandClydeCanal. Callendar Uouae, 
formerly the seat of the Earla of Linlithgow and OUillondar, is passed 
on the left Nearitarethereuiainsof "Graham's Dyke," or wall of 
Antoninus (in terseated l>y the railway), an earthwork constructed by 
theEoniansBi^rosscDiiiitr;, bttwaeatha ForlK aaiCli/de, us a defence 
•gainst attacks of the Suots and Picts (j« p. 36S), The neit station 
isGrahamstown, forFALKiBB[fl'o<(i»;TheCrown,eto. Fop. 29,B801, 
iitrroundBd by ironworks, whose glare illuminates the ooiinUy. 

The principal of these works on the Carron Comjiany's {2 miles 
north). Falkirk is noted for its great cattle- markata or tryits, to wbicli 
vast numbers of Highland bestial are brought. The town dates from 
tlis 11th ceutury. In the churchyard are the graves of two Scottiah 
heroes — Sir John Graham, and Sh- JoLu Stewart of Bonkil, who fell at 
the defeat of Wallace at PaJtirk in 1208 ; and the monnment of two 
bravo officers. Sir Robert Miinro of Fonlia, and hia brother, Dr. Mimro, 
who fell in the battle of Falkirk Moir in 17J6, the last triumph of the 
Jaoobites in Scotland. 

Three miles beyond Grahnmstown is Larbbrt JirKOrloir, where 
OUT route is joined by the trains for the North, both &om Glasgow, 
and from Carlisle (p. 2S\). 

Here also a branch goes west to the manufacturing village of Denny, 
and — a abort way on — another goes north and over the Forth to Alloa 
{p. 137). Larbert Church, near the river Carron, is well seen from 
the railway. In the churchyard lies James Brace, the Abysainian 
traveller ; and Kinnaird, his patrimonial estate, is near. Two and a 
half miles from Lorhert, on the road to Stu-ling, is Torwood Castle, an 
ancient rmn. In Tomood Forest, long since disappeared. Sir Wm. 
Wallace reUred after his defeat at Falkirk. Near the site of a tree 
hero, called "Wallace's Oak," Cargill, the Covenanter, in 1680 ei- 
eommunicated Charles II. as a persecutor of the Presbyterians. At 
the highest point in the forest are remains of an ancient circular 
building (with paassges, etc., and where were discovered some caived 
stones), pronounced to be one of the only two "brochs" (common Id 
the far North) to be fonnd south of Inverness. 

Seven miles beyond Larbert we pass Banoockburn {ate p. 93), 
and— crossing the "burn" — soon after enter Stirltno. 

I A mile nnrtli of Lenils |g the dingjold townof KirktiiUllocli(j>iJ5i.ll,681i 
fftUli, on flie Fortli and Cljde Canal— built on the afle of i furt on the wall 

Stirling Btands above the river FortL, on a gradually 
eloping eoimence, go as to present some resemblance to 
tile Old Town of Ediiibiii^h. In tlie centre of Scotland 
Buch a site naturally euggested itself for an important 
fortress. There was a Roman station here, whence remains 
(it the old Roman road may still be traced towards 
Falliirk. The Castle dates from the early feudal period, 
though its ancient walls liave given way to lees romantic 
buildings. This Btronghold became a favourite residence 
of the Stuart kings, aud frequently protected the meetings 



of their parliaments during those lawless days, before 
Edinburgh took an assured position as the capital. The 
ancient dignity of the town is still preserved in some of 
its features, where the picturesque, the squalid, and the 
modern are mingled in a striking manner. The present 
population numbers over 18,000. Stirling is a junction 
of railways from all four points of the compas», and 
adjoins a thriving industrial district on one hand, as on 
the other the fine scenery of the Highlands. 

The Station lies below the Castle, to which we might ascend 
by more than one way. The most direct is to go through the 
arcade which faces the Station Mood, and on coming out in 
King Street at the other end to turn to the right ; but it is equally 
simple to torn left (by Station Hotel) on leaviug Station Roadt 
and take the next turn right into King Street. From this point 
the way is a long and steady ascent. At the bifurcating roads by 
the Btirgh Buildings it is best to choose the left ; the right would 
also lead to the Castle, but is a little more complicated. There is 
a walk also leading up to the Castle which can be entered by the 
Com Exchange to the left of Burgh Buildings (see p. 8). Con- 
tinuing by Spittal Street we pass the Royal Infirmary and High 
School, and later, in St, John Street, Erskine U.F. Church, and 
also the Military Prison, while to the right there is an opening into 
Broad ^reet, at one time the most important street of the town, 
and containing a number of fine old buildings with quaint inscrip- 
tions. A house, with this inscription on the front of the building, 
is at the foot of Broad Street : " Nursery of James VI. and his son. 
Prince Henry." The Old Town House, built in 1701, and the 
Cross, restored 1891, stand near the top. 

Mar's Work (the remains of a house built by the Earl of Mar) 
stands at the head of Broad Street, on the right. Its decorated 
architecture partakes of the ecclesiastical character ; tradition, 
indeed, says that it was built of stones taken from the ruins of 
Cambuskenneth, and that for this sacrilege its founder was cut ofif 
before it was finished. He engaged in more flagrant crimes, how- 
ever, than the selfish use of the consecrated stones, for he was 
laying his plots with Cecil and Morton for the assassination of 
Queen Mary, when death suddenly overtook him at Stirling in the 
year 1572, probably when he was overlooking the progress of this 

The Parish Church of Stirling was erected in 1494 by James 
IV., and some additions were made to the eastern portion by Arch- 
bishop James Beaton, uncle of the cardinal. It is a specimen of 
the later pointed Gothic, a typ^ of architecture peculiar to Scotland: 


g from about Vbe begianing of the %9i 
itury oMer thsa it is. The mnaiiiva Qot ^ 
ir rcmnin intKct, and tlie eitern^ walls m 
In ibis choroh the Ear! of j( . / 
kingdom, abjured Romauiani in 1543 ; and the corona 
joutliful James VL took place in the choir on the 29th si 
1G67, John Euoi preaching the coronation w 
Reformation it haa liqen diridad into two place 
the EaJit and Weat Cburcbei. In one or these Ebenezer^ 
otGciatsd before he seceded from the Church of Saotli 
beginniug of that flssion of "Auld Lioht" 
united with Free Chnrch forming U.P. CImroh. He waa E 
in the msiieoleum in front of the church i 
Jamea Guthrie (the "Martyr"), who was beheaded at B 
naa alao one of the mlniatera, and his moi 
close by. But (he ahovo datas must be accepted with o 
for undoubtedly there are parta of the charch of oonsM 
earlier date than the general rebuilding under Jamea I 
there was a church here In ll2i is definitely known, ai 
have then been old. It was for many centuries associ 
Dunfermline Abbey, and was called church of the Holy G 
Holy Rood. 

To I^B left here, behind Stirling Church, stands i 
BaapUiU, a quaint building anrmouuted by a turret ste 
of the most important charitable iustituttons of Stirli 
statue of its worshipful fonuder, cap in hand, looks down fi 
elevation with courtly dignity. The Guild H " • • ■ _ 
open to the public and contains some relics, A keepfr has ol 
of the keya of Oreyfriars' Church, a 2d. fee tor admiasion 
fifed by the Town Council. 

ArgyS't Lodging, not very far from the chnrc 
on the east aids of the Caatle Wynd, and is now i 
military hospital. With its pinnacled round towers a 
decorated windows, it offers an excellent specimen of tl 
castellated architecture so mnch used in Scotland, 
interesting hbtory. It belonged to the accomplished poet fl 
Willi am Alexander, who in the reign of Charles I, 
Earl of Stirling, and olitained a grant of the vast territory of No*t 
Scotia, to be partitionHd ofl' in baronies. The mansion afterwsBb 
(1«40) fell into the hands of the Argyll family, whose arms wert . 
substituted for those of the AloTanders. Charles II. here enjojc) 
the hoBpttolity of the Marquis of Argyll, who little thought thlk"^^ 
bla royal guest was a few years later to send him to the scaffold. 

The Oaatle atanda on the brow of a steep rook over 
looting the wilil Carse (Vale) of Stirling, It ie the 
headquarters of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanden. 


Strangera we admitted at all reasonable hotire (on Snnday 
aftemoonB 1 to 2 p.m. and 4 to 8.30 p.m.) hy the Draw- 
bridge at the Lead of the EBplanaile, whicli itself is worth 
reaching for the view thenee commnnded. 


a i^S^^^v^' \ 

The TO 

Stirling Caalle, aa alraaily said, Iiu been associateil with tiie 
hiatory of Scotland from aa early period. Alexander L died 
mtbin its walla in 1124, and in 1304 it lield ont for three months 
agwnat Ednard I. at the bead of a ponerfnl army. So resolute 
ma its defence on this oajasion, that it was found naceasaiy to 
procure all the besieging implements in tlia Tower of London, and 

t to B«]l upon all knlglU and adventurers to Join tha English & 

One of these engines, nailed the Wall, proved peculiarly dastruotlve 
■ breach wu mode, the ditcli was filied up with stones and iQbl:^li 
omd the CuUe taken. Stirling remained In ths possessloa of thi 
English for ten years after tliis, and of anoh importance wm ti 
considered, that to maintain its possession Eilward II. a«semlile£ 
a great army, and undertook that invasion of BooUind which 
terminated in his defeat at Bannockhnrn. Aftar tie death o 
Brace it was oaptnred by Edward Bnliol, the aapirant to tli_ 
Scottish throne, and from him it was recovered far King David 
only after a long and obstinaM uiege. It was the birthplace ' 
James in. and probably James IV. ; James V. was crowned hen 
and Jamea VI. ami bis eliknt son Prince Hem; were baptized 
within its walls. James UL added largely to its architectnre, and 
built, among other portions, the Parliament Honse, " 
favourite residemn of Jamea IV., aome amnsiiig incid 
nected with the oonrt of which gallant monarch are described ii 
the poems of William Dnnhar, " the Scottish Cliaucer." 

One of tbe most interesting parts of the building is the Falaet 
— hnilt by James V.— which occupies the soutli-weat part of th 
fortress, and is in the form of a quadrangle. The sculpture o 
this remarkable building produces an elTect of eminent richness 
when seen from a distani^e, but is somewhat grotesque when 
toolced at doss at haod. Passing through the npper square and 
by the side of the Chapel.royal, we reacb the Dtfliglo^ Itotym, where " 
William Eail of Douglai was assaednated by Eing James tL 

The view from the battlements (310 feet above the level of tl 
surrounding plain] is varied and eitensive. From that part of the 
wall called the " Queen's Look-ont " we have spread befo 
Yale of Mentelth, bounded "by Ben Lomond, which i 
graceful peak on the extreme west ; Ban Venue, Bea A'an, Ben 
Ledi, and the cone of Bon Vdrlich, follow in auceaBsion, ending 
with the humbler summit of Uam Vat. To tie north and east are 
the Oohil Hills, and the windings or " links " of the Forth. The 
Campaie Hills close the prospect to the south, and a little beyond 
the town on the north are the rains of Cambuskenneth Abbey, the 
Abbey Craig, the Wallace Mouument, and Bridge of Allan. 
Another favonrita station for a view la the " Lacly's Look-out," a 
email opening in the parapet wail of the garden, at the back of 
the governor's houee. 

Underneath the wall, on the north-east of tlis Castle, a road, 
called Baliongeich, famished the Sctitious name adopted by James 
y. in the various diagnlsea he was in the habit of assuming ' " 
purpose of seeing that justice was regularly administered, t 
heguenlly (him the less justiBahle niottve of gallantry. To the 
north of the Castle, on a space stiil called the " Heading Hill," the 
Dnke of Albany, with the Earl of Lennoi, his father-in 

he 1 
he I 



Ms two sons, were beheaded in 1424, within sight of their castle of 

The area on the south side of the esplanade has been laid out 
partly as a public park and partly as a beautiful cemetery. The 
latter contains several curious monuments, among others one 
which would have delighted Sydney Smith, raised by a partisan 
more zealous than considerate '*in commemoration of Protestant 

On a piece of ground near the Castle stands a monument (erected 
1877) to the Scottish hero-king Robert Bruce, facing the approach 
to the esplanade, and looking hi the direction of Bannockburn. 

A picturesque path, called the Baxik Walk, having its 
commencement at the lower part of the town, runs with 
a gradual ascent along the western side of the Castle rock. 
From this it is interesting to look down and see, still fresh 
and distinct, the turf embankments of the Kivt^s Garden. 
In the centre is an octagonal mound called the King's 
Knot, where the monarch and his courtiers engaged in the 
favourite amusement of the Round Table. Beyond this 
garden, to the south, is the King's Park, or Royal Chase, j 

now used for military reviews, golf, and cricket matches. 
The path passes along parts of the old town wall, and 
beside it stands the Trades Hall, founded, according to 
the inscription, by "Robert Spittall, Taylor to King 
James the Fourth, For Relief of decayed Tradesmen." 

Below the middle of this walk, in Dumbarton Road, is 
the Smith Institute, endowed by Thomas Stuart Smith, of 
Qlassinghall, Perthshire, and an artist of merit. Besides 
a collection of paintings in the picture-gallery, the build- 
ing contains a reading-room and museum, the latter in 
connection with South Kensington. 

By following the tram lines to the modem bridge, we 
may see the Old Bridge of Stirling, wWch existed long 
before there was any bridge upon the Tay, or any other 
stone bridge over the Forth, and it was thus absolutely the 
gate between the north and south of Scotland. Near it was 
fought the battle of Stirling, 13th September 1297, when 
the Scots under Wallace gained their first victory over the 

Not to speak of several fine seats in the vicinity of 


I Stirling, atrangera spending eonie little time here i 
" i directed to aevera.1 pointa of historic or picturesqu 
interest within easy reach. 



The Wallace Monument, so couspicuoua acroi 
river from Che Castle, is 2 itjiles off, and ma; be reachac 
bj the tram starting near the station (2d.). Raised 
our generation through the exertions of Dr. C, Bogei 
and other ardent patriots, it crowns the Abbey Oraig, 
(660 feet), a tinely-wooded mass of the same greea tragj 
rock as Ibrms the baee of the Castle. The mouumeiit i| 
in the fonn of h lofty haronial tower (designed by th^ 
kte Mr, Roohead of Glasgow), 220 feet in height. It 
conlaina memorials of other great Scotsmen, n 
additions being busts of Carlyle and Gladstone. Ths 
tovrer loay be ascended by a, staircase, wliich winds up 
one of the angles to the open crown at the top, whence 
there is an eiteUsive view of the surrounding country. 
The Craig is the property of the town of Stilling, slid 
approached by an easy winding walli from the village 
Caiieewayhead, on the Bridge of Allau Irani route. 

Bannockbum, 2 miles south of Stirling {CoatHi. 
This historical spot retains scarcely any memorials of 
the battle save the "Eore Stone" (in which the royal 
Btftudard was raised). Beaton's Mill, where James TTI: 
died, after having been thrown from bis horse alter tibe 
battle of Sauchie Sum, is only a few minutes' walk from 
the Eore Stone, * North-east is the village of St. Ninians, 
,Iiear which Bruce's left wing was defended against the 
El^lish cavalry by a number of concealed pita. In the i 
of the position occupied by the Scottish army is the Qilliea' 
Hill, where Brace stationed his baggage, under the chai^ 
of the retainers of the camp. At the critical mo 
wijen the Englii>h line was wavering, tliese gillies 
prompted either by the enthusiasm of the moment oi 


desire for plunder, suddenly appeared on the hill like a new 
army advancing to battle, and the English, seized with panic, 
fled in every direction. 

Cambuskemieth Abbey, one mile east of Stirling by the river 
and Abbey ferry, was foonded by David I. in 1147, for canons 
regular of the order of St. Augustine, and it is said to have been 
one of the richest in Scotland. At the Reformation its possessions 
were bestowed on the Earl of Mar by James VI. ; but about the 
year 1737 they were purchased by the Town Council of Stirling 
for the benefit of Cowane's. Hospital. Architecturally the remains 
afford a fine specimen of the Early English or First Pointed 
Gothic, though the tower, the only part entire, is of a more 
heavy, massive, and Norman-looking character than the pointed 
architecture generally assumes in England. Tradition having 
pointed out a spot near the high altar as the burial-place of James 
III. (in 1488) and his queen, excavations were undertaken in the 
year 1864, and led to the discovery of the bodies, reinterred under 
the present tomb erected by Queen Victoria in 1865. The tomb 
is ornamented with sculptures of the Scottish arms quartered with 
those of Denmark. (The key of the tower is kept at a neighboui'- 
ing cottage. ) 

For TOURS from STIRLING, see p, 136. 



PBNicJtJiK, Peebles, Innerleithen, and Galashiels. 


Trains from Waverley Bridge. Peebles is reached in an hour and a half. i 

By this route we are conveyed southwards from Edinburgh to \ 

the neighbouring county of Peebles. The railway is a branch of j 

the North British system, and leaves the main line near Eskbank, • 

about a mile from Dalkeith. Beyond this are Bonnyrigg and f 

Hawthomden stations, the latter being 11 miles from Edinburgh, ( 

and the point from which the house and grounds of Hawthornden, "i 

as already described, are most easily reached. Between this and 
Rosslyn-Lee a fine view is obtained of the Pentland Hills (see p. 
79), on the south-eastern slope of which is Woodhouselee (James 
W. Frasey-Tytler, Esq.), which belonged to the wife of Bothwell- 
haugh, the assassin of Regent Murray (1569). Near this is Glen- 
corse House, an ancient seat of the Earls of Bothwell, the property 
of Alex. W. Inglis, Esq. The vale of Glencorse is watered by the 
Logan Water, more commonly called Glencorse Bum, at the head 
of which are a picturesque ravine and waterfall, a favourite resort 
of picnic parties. The stream is dammed up and forms a reservoir 
called the( OojtPBNSATiON Ponp, in connection with the Edinburgh 


■ater-works. Sobmergt^d within tbi: pond are the ruins o( , 

_ ,iedicst«d to St. Katherice, said to have bean bailt b; St. Clair 
^ fiosaljn on the spot where the stag was kiUei! that aeitrly ol 
his life (see p. 66). At a place colled Rallion Green, in tii 
aeigbbonrliixid, the CoTenanters vera defeated, 28th Novemb 
1666, by Genersl Dalziel of Binns. Near Penicuik ntotioa (^ 
3574, iHJi) ara Pbnlouik Houkb (Sir George D. Clerk, Bart.), u 
the extensiye paper-milla of Mesfra. Cowan and Companj, 

Saren milaa aouth-wBal from Paniouit lies the pretty villagg 
Oablo» {iim) at ba!ie of the Peiitlande (Coaeh, Mon., Wed., and 9 
momlngs). Here is Habbib's Bdwh, a lovely rural Beene^ identifli 
with Allan Ramsay's QenUs'^h^hail. Carlopsniay olaobaapproadu 
froia Broomlee Btatioo (West IJntoo — inns) on the I>olphint<Mi ' 
line, which leaves our present ronte at Leadburn ; or by a p 
path over the Feotlands from Balerco (B milGS west of Bdin) 
vii BaVBlaw and Nina-niilo-bnm. Golf-coiu-M at West Linton. 

Beyond Leadbum a view is obtained, towardii the east, of the ISoi 

foot Hills, from which Ediabiirgh receives pare of its nater-anppl 

To the right is "Cowie's Linn." The railway descends to Feeld 

by the banlca of the Eddleetone bnm, passing, besides ntber v 

, Qasks&u., the seat of Lord filibanl^ on the right-hand side. 


Hydropathic is a truly , , _ . 

It ooDtainB awimming- baths, recreatiou rooms, conservatory, «t& 
in addition to the u.snal sets of rooms. Its s))ecialty is b&tha. a 
Qveiy description on the German system, and air and ano ba^ 
may be taken at the foot of pine-clothed bil^s. Feablea is t1 
BOene of the poem, generally attributed to James L, of T^it 
the Flay. The Chambeiui Institutb, a castellated building : 
the High Street — fotmi^rly a reBidence of the Queeiisbeny family- 
contaica a muaeum, reading-room, aud lecture hall, and wi_ 
presented to the town by Dr. William Chambers, who, with h 
bn>ther,Dr.Eobert Chambers, the well-known Edinburgh pubiishei 
was a native of Peebles. In the High Street atanda the shaft 
the old Town Ccobs, restored by Major W. Thotbura. Of the 
Church of St. Ajidrow, founded about 1195, nothing aa lefl ' 
the tower, the restoration of which was begun by the late Dt, 
William Chambers shortly before his death [1S82), and here 
vaa ioterced, "Peebles for pleasure" is an oft-quoted saw. and i 
with more truth in it than such sayinpa usually bava. There 

i^reral gentlemen's seats in the vicinity, and some of the lii.—. 

■^- ' '-■ Scotland baa been raised on the historic estate of Dawyok,* 



iMr to Stobo etatioi], a littla above Peebles, on a beaatifu] 
hs Tweed. Tho horse -chcEitaute and larcheB here were 
» first introduced into Scutland. 

le of the Tweed, botli above and below Peeblcia, ia remark- 
bhe peaceful beauty of its landscapea, and the graceful, 
oa contour of its hills. It contained a chain of etroog 
• aerre aa a defunce against the incuraiooe of English 
a. Betireen Drumnielzicr and Peebles, by Stobo, sereial 
les ma; be seen.' Neidpath CaalU, one of the most entire 
a dtoated about a mile west from Peebles, on a rock pro- 
'er the north bank of the Tweed, which here runs through 
U'TOW glen. Tbe castle was fonuerlj approached bj ID 

fine trees, all of which were cnt down by one of the last 
QneenabeTTy before it descended to tbe Earl of Wemyaa, 
t entail — a proceeding that drew forth an indignant aon- 

the poet Wordsworth. At Lyiu, i miles diituit, an 
Da of a RoniBO camp ; and the ruina of Drochell Castle, 
to have been erecti^d liy the Regent SlortOD shortly before 
, are 8 miles farthir up the Lyne Water on the ronte to 
ton (p. 94, 124 niika from Peebles), by Komanno Bridge. 
lUt of MiHOB aHbrda a deliglitful drive bota Peeblea, and 

■tiU be seen the cottage and grave of David Ritchie, the 
■ Sir Walter Seott's Illack Ihoatf. There is a high hill-road 
rians out of the head of Manor over to Meggat Water, by 
h Craig," and down to St. Mary's Loch (15 miles). A new 

been erected over the Tweed at Manorfoot, affordhig mon 
: access to the TsUay. 

le of rail ia its farther course follows closely the banks of 
1 to its junction with the Gala. Many beautiful vistas 
MDery are had from the railway. About 2J miles after 
wbles, we pass on the left the ruins of Horsbrugh Castle, 
' those old " peels " or castles already referred to. On the 

are the mins of the old church of Kailiie, the burying- 
la Horslirugh family—the oldest family in Peeblesshire, 
his and Innerleithen we pass Cardrona and Oleuonniiton. 


miles east of FeelAcB. Uotd: Traqnair Arms.' Pop. 2191.1 
I near the junttion of the river Leithen with the Tweed. 
{• was first brought into notice b; ita mineral well, sup- 
c upper Teuties of Twoeildale aie among flue green bills, and arc 

n, High Stnet, 


Fpoied by some to be the type of ScoU'a SI. Sonant's IfiH j 
nry ooiiBiderable mauufactnrs a! woollen gi 
About a. mile from the village is TraquaiT Souse (Hon. Mil' 
Stuart), the andent seat of the Earls of lYaquair. The paterij 
■neeator of tli'" ancient familf (now extinct in the male line} W 
James Stnart, Earl of Buchan, utorine brother to James 11. of Be' 
land. The maosion (said to be the oldest inhabited hoDW f 
Scotland, part of it having beea built about IDOD years ego) ii 
example of an old Scottish baron al den w h steep ra«f ■! 
tnrreted anglaa, which, generally peak ng b ars a strong n 
blanoa to the " Tnllyreolin " of (Pa ley It alT rded Ic " ' 
Queen Mary, and also to the great Mont se The old bears fan 
the snpportets of the family arms st II ta □ the podtion tXM 
entrance-gate. Close to Innerle th n are Th Pirn i 
HotsburRh family, and The Glen (?ir Cha les T nnant, Bart), i 
scene of " Lucy's Flitl in'." In the distance may bi 
of Minchmoor, over which Montrose fled after the battle of Phi] 
hangh (see p. 107). 

It is a Gne walk from Innerleithen to Temple and Cioreblj 
in Hidlatbiau (IS miles), up the Leithen Water far an hour, t 
np the Qlentrees Bum to "The Piper's Grave," down the B 

I tad DTer the Moorfoata byTorphichen Hill, from which a besQtJj 

Sow of the rich plain to the north is to be had. 

- About 2 miles below Innerleithen lies the manu^turing ^ 

f Walkerbom, and i from Innerleithen is Elibank Ton 

■ Nearer to Galoshicla are Ashieatiel, where Scott a 
his principal poems, the "Lay of the Last Miustrel" and "MarmLottfl 
and Tair, the seat of the Pringlos of Whytbank. Whan nea 
opposite Ashiestiel the line leaTea the valley of the Tweed, ■ 
erossea over by Clovenfords and Torwoodlee to the vale of the G 
K mile above Galashiels. At Clovenfords, 3J mili^a from Galasi 
ii the eeiebrated Tweed vineyard erected by Mr. Win. Thomi 

I horticulturist, and late gardener to the Duke of Bucdeuch, wh* 
■ome of the finest hothouse grapes are produced. 
"' This 
Die lin 

^^^■. Ab( 
^^^^^ Nearei 


MELROSE, Abbotbfore, *no Drtbuboh :— 

Hawick, and on to Carlisle. 

f This route introdaoes the stranger to some of the scones i 
Dciatad with the author of Waverley. Starting from Edinbni 
s line of railway intersects the Bouth-eastem portion of J 
btbiau, and gains Tweedfilde shortly beyond Galashiels. 

The CalT 
^_ _ tliere is t 

^^K Qalast 

^H the towi 


Foi' PorlobaHo, Eakbank (Dalkeitli), ainl Newbattle aee jip. 
71 and 70. The river Eak now draws near tiin I'ulway, wUJh 
shortly orter owjbs6b it. The valley lying on the right is pretty 
anil richly wooded. Aboat Gorebridgs, however, there ure 
coal-pita and other distignrementa. Borthwiok Caatle is a very 
iioticeable objeot oloae to the lino on the riglit. It is a square 
bailding, very solid, with an ancient double tower, erected iu the 
tfniB of James L by Sir William Bort}iiciok. Here Queea Mary re- 
sided three weeks after her unfortunate marriage with Both well, anil 
trim it she fled a few days afterwardB to Dunbai in the disguise 
of a page. It held out gallantly against Cromwoll, and the tlTect 
of his battery may be seen on the freestone facing of tlifl eastern 
aide. The ensile is the property of Lord Borthwick, of Crookstoti, 
whoao seat is passed farther south before reaching Stow station, 
In the old manse of Borthwick Dr. KubDrtson the historinn was 
born (see p. 72). 

Cbichtok Castle can be seen directly after, on the other side. 
It was once the residence of Sir William OriehtoD, Ohiuicvllor 
□f Suotland, whose inilnenoe during; the minority of James II, 
contributed much to destroy the formidable power of the Douglas 
funily. It is not nearly so im[iosii>g as Borthwick, but is well 
described in Scott's Ularmioii, Canto IV. )i. xL For admission to 
the Castle, apply at Crichtan Mains Old Farmbouse, where the 
key is obtained on payment of a fee of 3d. each. On the same 
farm is a very mteresting underground dwelling or "Fict'a Honae" 
(see The Jtrliquary of July 1898, BamtoBo k Sons, London), 

From Fonntainhall a light railway runs to Oxtnn and Lauder 
(eonnected on Sunday by a mail-car with Stow). For Lauder see 
also pp. 77 and 108 (inn, fairly good I rout-fishing). Near is 
Ihirlsstane Caatle (Earl of Lauderdale). Stow itself ia more like 
a small town than a village. Two large churches are conspieuona 
objects from the railway. Crossing the Gala we enter Roxburgh. 
The river, celebrated iu song, gives its name to the town uf 
Galashiels [Solila: Douglas; Cammercial ; Royal; Ahbotaford 
Arma : — pop. 17,249] ; now famoua for its "tweed" manufacturea. 
The Cairait, an ancient wall of vast length, passes neaj' liy ; and 
there ia an old fort on an eminence at Bink. 

liela is connected by a short railway branch (5 miles) with 

, of Selkirk (see p. 106), and those who wish to visit 

.^botsford from the nearest ]ioint attainable by railway may do ao 

'hbotsford -ferry station on this line. 

ling the Ttvecd at Bridgend, the woods of Abbotsfaixi may 

be Been on tbe right. Tite Pamlinn ataiicla beantifully gitnated at tlifl 
junction of the AlwjnWaUrwitlitheTwBBd. Aahortdiatanee west 
of Melroso liea tha viiliigo of DarnicV, with ita ancient [leEl-toweP. 


id AbboWtDid ; King's Artoa ; Wavi 

ysmllftr; Waverlej Hydnipilhlo, 

Mb) ed OpentUlU^.M. onmoc 

-Bdinimigh SJ luUea Jodbnrsh 19 ; Knlso 

KT,ROSF. is a pleasant 

qui el littlt placE (pop- 

SilB5). It is doHJi- 

Dated by the EihioK 

and lies in the valley of 

the Tweed. In the centre <X 

the market-place stands the 

□Id Cross, hearing the date 

1642, and the Abbey is within a short 

distance to wards tihe rirer. 

!Ef|t afibtg of 8t. Mary was founded by 
David I. in 1128, but the building wai 
not completed till 1116. The monlu 
ro brought from the Abbey of Kievaulx, 
a the Horth Eiding of Yorkshire, and 
wore the first of the CiBtotcian^ introdueed into Scotland. Along 
with the other religious houses on the Border, the building auRered 
from sni:ceBaive acts of violenca. Beautiful even in its raina, the 
grace and affluence of its style entitle it to be olostied among the 
moat perfect works of tha beet age of ecclesiastical arebitecture. 
The Duke of Buceleuch is the present custoJier of the Abbey. 

Melrose Abbey bIjowb a comhioation of lightness and strength ; 
flying buttresses and slender shafts support snbstantial masonry. 
The srohitacture is late Decorated and some of the tracery ie 
Flamboyant. The whole ahows much French influence. 

The HjlVE is entered by a wooden gate at the west end, near 
the site of the chief portal. It contains two aisles, and is inter- 
sected by what iras formerly a rood loft. 

Thp Transeit, with its beautiful carved work, is the finest 
part of the Abhoy, and is filly ilescribod by Sir Walter Scott : — 


** The keystone that locks each ribbed aisle, 
Is a fleur-de-lys or a qaatrefenille ; 
The corbels are carved grotesque and grim 
And the pillars with dnster'd shafts so trim, 
With base and with capital floorish'd aroand, 
Seem bundles of lances which garlands have bound." 

Over a door (south transept) leading to the triforium galleries are 
the emblems of John Morow, master mason of Melrose — the fleur- 
de-lis indicating that he was a native of France. Opposite is the 


chapel of St. Bridget, and in the adjoining aisle of St. Mary is 

the tomb of Michael Scott, the wizard. In the north transept a 

doorway admits to the Sacristy, where an inscription (Hic jacet 

Johanna d. Ross) on a step indicates the burial-place of Joanna, 

Queen of Alexander II. and sister of Henry III. 

The Ohanoel retains its beautifully fretted stone roof, and the 

"east oriel," though much defaced, still displays the 

" Slender shafts of shapely stone 
By foliaged tracery combined." 

In the chancel lie the remains of many a warrior and priest. 
A large dab of polished marble of a greenish -black colour is 
believed to cover the dust of Alexander II., who was interred 
beside the high altar under the east window. Here, also, the 
heart of King Robert the Bruce was deposited, after the heroic 
though onsaocessfnl attempt made by Lord Douglas to carry it to 
the Holy Land. Some of the powerful family of Douglas were 
buried in the ohorch — ^including William Douglas, ''the dark 

Ight of Liddeadale, " and James, aecond Earl of Dougltis, vl 
il at tliB battle nf Otterlwrn. Their toniba, wliicli ociMipiei ti 
crypts near tie liigh alfar, were defaeed by Sir RaljdiEvera amlS 
Brian Latoun — an insult signally avenged by their descendant, fil 
Sari of Aligns, at the battle of Ancmm Moor (sea note, p, iul9 
The tombstone of an old Border family beats the quaint in 
Hen lyis the Race of ye ffeiu of Yaii: 

The Cldistbrs are entered by a door at the north-eSBt el 
the nave, being tliD sujiposed poasage through which the monkM 























1 ~-^ap 


/ \_ B v^J* 









tho "Lay of the Last Minatrel " led William of Deloraine to the grftW 
of Michsel Seott The outer side of this doorway is o 
witli ilowers and laaTes hollowed out from behind, and so delicate] 
chiseled that a straw can penetrate the intersticea. 

Passing to the exterior of tho Abbey church, we find the at 
doorway encased in a square canopy beautifully sculptured, t 
above which is the south window, with ila gi'aeefijl i 
tracery. Going round to the east, tlie tn'o iigurca in 
posture at the top of the east window are supposed to 
King David, the founder, and his queen. At the eaat end of thd] 
BuiTounding diurchyard is the tombstoue erected by Sir Waltei 
Scott to his fttitliftil forester Tom Purdia. Sir David B[owstw,il 


who resided for manj years at Allerly, near Melrose, and died there 
in 1868, is buried under the fifth window of the nave. 

Betaming to the village, it is worth while to walk as far as the 
parish church, from the back of which there is a fine view of the 
Tweed, with its wooded banks, and the orchard village and house 
of Gattonside. A little below this the river is crossed by a chain 
footbridge. To the west of Melrose, on Skirmish Hill, stands the 
Waverley Hydropathic Establishment. 

The Eildon Hills (the reputed Tremontium of the Romans, and 
also traditionally said to have been cleft in three by Michael Scott, 
the famous wizard) rise on the south, their height is 1385 ft., and 
they may be reached by the Dingleton Koad, which diverges from 
Melrose at the railway station, and crosses Bowden Moor. In 
Bowden Church the Dukes of Rozburghe have their burial-place. 
Main " Waverley JRoute " continued at p, 108. 


the far-famed residence of Sir Walter Scott, and now the property 
of his great-grand-daughter the Hon. Mrs. Constable Maxwell Scott, 
is situated 3 miles west of Melrose, on the south bank of the river 
Tweed, which here makes a beautiful sweep. 

On the way thither from Melrose we cross Huntly Bum, where a 
road strikes off on the left to Chiefswood Cottage, the summer abode 
of Mr. and Mrs. Lockhart during Scott's lifetime. " Here," says Mr. 
Lockhart in his JA/e of Scott, "my wife and I spent the first (1821) of 
several seasons, which will ever dwell in my memory as the happiest 
of my life. We were near enough Abbotsford to partake as often as 
we liked of its brilliant society ; yet could do so without being ex- 
posed to the worry and exhaustion of spirit which the daily reception 
of new-comers entailed upon all the family except Sir Walter himself." 

About half a mile farther is the village of Damick, with an old 
peel-tower. A road strikes oflf to the left here to Huntly Bum House, 
which was long occupied by Scott's friend and companion, Sir Adam 
Fergnsson. A mountain brook, from which the house was named, 
finds its way from Cauldshields Loch through the Rhymer's Glen, one 
of Scott's &vourite retreats. The walk which he planned, and the 
mstic bridge, may still be seen. 

Taking the road to the left of the toll-house, we reach, about a 
mile farther, on the right-hand side of the road, the wicket-gate entrance 
to Abbotsford House, which lies hidden at the foot of the bank. 

1 Admission to Abbotsford House is granted by direction of the pro- 
prietor, every lawfol day between 10 a.h. and 6 p.m. Charge for admission 
la. tteh. 



The following rooiiis aro bIidwu to vidtars ;— Ths Stddt, ei^M 
muDicBtLDg nith the libriiry, nhere niB.y be seen the snthar*! »^H 
writing-table, and bis pluin arm-ohoiir covered with blnok le&ltov] 
There are a few books, ehiefly for roferenoe, and cocnd thiee mdw 
ia a light gallery whieh opens to a private Btain!a3e,by which he could 
doflcend from his bedroom nnobaerved. The room haa a ohanoing 
oatlook over a smooth green lawn surrounded by dipped jew hedged 

The Library, the lai'gest apartniBnt, with roof of tnrved oil:, 
chiefly designed from models taken from Roaaljn Chapel. Tlie 
collection of books ajiiounts to aboat 2D,000 volumes, nmnj o^ 

then extrenelj eandval able A list of h He f one of the 
Tolumes of the Banna jna Club s 1169. This nom onta us the 
bnst of ^cott sealpt red by Chnntrav m 1820 and over tl e fitft- 
place the full ength portra t of hu son Colonel Soo t by Sir 
Wm. Allan. Tliere are also interesting miniature pamtiiigs of Sir 
Walter sod Lady Svott, and several ]>opalar relics. 

The Drawinu-Eoom, a lofty saloon, with wood-wort of cedar, 
its antique ebony furniture and carved cabinets all of beantifnl 
worknanship. This ronm, besides various family likcncaseB, con- 
tains the portrait of Scott by Sir Henry Kitthura ; portraits of 


I ill snd Hogarth (the ktter by himself ), and the collection 
Kxtloor lirawinga by Tamer, designed for the illmtTBted 
of ScotfB Pnmmcial AaliquUia.' 
Ti9 Ahuoubv, intersecting tha hoose and coiuinuiiii»tiDg with 
tilt drawing and dining rooms to the right and left. Adjoining it 
ii the Him ., panelled with carnid obIi from the palace of Duu- 
tinnlms, and roofed with pointed arehca of the same matt^rial. 
nauDd the cornice there is t, line of blazoned coatS'armorial, 
Mcmgtng to the principal old Border familiea. The floor is nf 
Umkaad whit« ourble from the Hebrides, and the wnlla are Imng 
lith uideut armour and Tarious specimsna of military implements, 
ffliil many will view with interest are the body-clothea worn by 
Bialt previous to bia decease. The pulpit from whiuh Ralph 
laSnae naed to prenah at Dunfermline, and the iron by which 
t^Wt wsa fastened to tbe slake at St. Andrews, are also ebown. 
la tbe eiternsl walla of the house are many o)d oarved stones; 
ud tlio door of the old Tnlbnoth of Edinburgh, and other oorious 
nlics, may be seen. A " Catalogue of the Annour and Antiquities 
ilAhbotafocd,'' edited by Sir Walter's great-granddaughter, tlie 
HoiL Mrs. Maxwell Scott, is Eold at Abbotafurd (price la.). 

Tha mansion and ita woods wet« entirely the creation of Sir 
ffalterScott, "Tbe place itself," aajs Lockh art, "thonghnotto 
tha general observer n very attnotive one, bad long been one of 
peculiar interest for him. 1 have often heard him tell that, when 
Cnvelling in his boyhood with bis father from Selkirk to Melrose, 
the old man suddenly desired the carriage to halt at the foot of an 
nninence, and said ' We must get out here, Walter, and aee a thing 
quite in yoot lino.' His lather then conducted him to a rude atone 
(called Tam-again), on the edge of an acclivity about half a mile 
•bore the Tweed at Abbotaford, which marts the spot 

Reeked oa darli BIKofa Border Bpeat.' 
Thia was the conclusion of the battle of Melrose, fought in 152B, 
between the Earla of Angus and Home and the two chiefs of the 
race of Eer on the one aide, and Bnccleuch on tbe other, in aight of 
the jDnng King Jemea V., the possession of whose person was ths 


al^Mt of the Eontfltit. Inhisown futeredoinBiTifhc ^ 
had bsfora him the Boonfl of thu last great elan battle of tha Be 
Between Aliboteford and Mslrose, on the opposite bank 
Tweed, below ita junction with the Gala, is the vale of tlii 
or Alwyn Water, the "Glendearg" of Scott's Mon/islery. 

ffirgburgf) Hbhtg. 
The most direct wsy from Melroae to Dryburgh ia by railway *" 
St. Bobwkllb {inn— Zi m.), whence the Abbey ia IJ mile diatan *■ 
But the usual route is by road, of which there are two,— one by tt»* 
ferry, 4| miles, aiid another by Bemersida Hill, 6 miles. The latta:*^ 
though longer, ia more picCurssqae, and craaaea the Tweed by tlm^ 
Fljbridge, 2 miles below Melroste, near its junction with tha Leader*- 
( Dry grange House on left.) From the topof Bemcrside Hill ther^ 
18 ■ fine view of the vale of Melrose, including the mansions of 
Eavenanood and Gladawood. Sir Walter Scott always reined xrp 
his horse here to admire the prospect ; audit waa noticed the horaes 
drawing the bearae on that last sad funeral journey to Dryburgh 
stopped here also. A little farther on, in the vicinity of Dryburgh, 
are the modern mansion and old tower of Bemerside, the lands 
and barony of which have been iu the possession of the Haigs 
since the time of Maloolni IV., a perpetual lineal succession whioh 
fOTioa the burden of a rHyme ascribed to Thomas the Rhymer : — 
"Tide, tide, whate-CT betide. 
Tha'!! Sfs 1>e Hatgs In BenierBlds." 

Dryburgh Abbey' waa founded about the year IlEO, during the 
reigtt of David I., by Hugh de Moreville, Lord of Lauderdale and 
Oonatablo of Scotland. It ia situated upon a richly-weodcd bangh, 
ronnd which the Tweed makes a circuitous sweep. The monks 
were of the Premonstratenaian order, and were brought from the 
abbey founded at Alnwick n abort time bafora. Edward 11., in 
retreat from his unsuccessful invasion of Scotland (1322), encamped 
in tha grounds of Dryburgh, and burnt the monastery to the ground. 
Rohert I. contributed liberally towards its repair, but it has heon 
doubted whether it was ever fully restored to its original condition. 
It suffered atill further during a hostile iucursion of the English, 
under Bir George Bowen and Sir Brian Latonn. Like other ecclesi- 
astical properties in Scotland, it was erected into a temporal lord- 
ship after the Reformation, and conferred on the Earl of Mar by 
liD cnflUidJpr IWes at tbe ^itdgc upar the piindpai gate Isadiitg be 


yrArvBun wiVTs 


Jamaa VI. in tha year !flO*, Tiiia uoUeman (with tha title of Lord 
Canlross) made it over to liia third son Henry, ancBstor of Dovid, 
ninth Karl of Biithan. ■ Subaoquently it was aoM to the Ilaliburtona 
of Msrtoun, and by them to Colooul Tod, from whose heii-a it was 
repurtliased by Dand St«irart, eleventh lilarl of BiieLac. Like Mel- 
rose, it ooniiista of a church, in the usiiai cmciform rfiape, aiijoining 
the conventaal buildings. Bath arc butlt of the same stone (talicD 
ffoin. a quarry on the estate), possessing the proporty of hardening 
with age. The arctutectnre is of the earliest periods, disptaying 
both the Noruiiin and the Early Engliah Andi. 

The prinoipnl reiniuns of the Church are the westi>m gable of the 
onvs, tlie ends of tiie IraniiBpt, aad part of Die clioir. Under the high 
allJir is burieil James Stuart {of the Damley family), tha lost abbot. 
St. Mil y*s Aisle (ijnrt of the north transept) is at once the moEt beaa- 
tifiil and iiilcruatiug part of the mill. Hera Sir Walter Boott woa in- 
iBrreii on the Stilli i^ciilember 183'2, in the tomb of his maternal 
anL-eatora, the H.iUburlous of Newmaius, at one time proprietors of 
the abliey. On either hide are the tombs of his wife jtml eldest son ; 
and his son-in-lnw, Mr. l^eklmrt, was buried in the same plane in 18dJ. 
The same aisle is the plane uf sepulture of the Eruidnes of ShieldHeld 
Olid the Raiga of Bemorslde. Againit the aorth wall, to the left of the 
■itar, a tombstone is erected to Henry Ersliine, the father of Ralph aud 
IT Ersttoe, founders of the Seoeasion Church party in Scotland, 
KBt Modan's Chapel lie several memliers of the Biiclian family. 

t lbs nilDii of the monsatEc Lnildings bI6 ol caoBiderable eiteat. "^^^M 
nftotor; Qccupiea the front of the abbey to the soath. Beneatb it *^^H 
(ha wine and nlmonry oellare. The St. Cathajine'e circular windo^^W 
twelve feet in Jiameter, and much oi-ergrown with ivy, is a beautiw ™ 
I listuiB in this part of the ruins- In tho grounds nanrly opposite ttw 

) chaptar-honsestill flourishea a yew-treB, which ia suppoasd to have be^" 

planted won after the foundation of the abbey. 

Brtburgh Abbey Rouse, the mansion of the proprietor of tJ" ' 

Abbey (Lady Orr-Ewing), is in the imcnediate vicinity ; oa ■** 

mUo DBYmmoH House, the property and residence of Misa Bailll^^ 

3 miles below Dryburgh is Mertoun House (Lord Polnarth). 

The route vid Kbibo, etc., to BaawiCE is deaoribed at p. UO. 

H mflea (by branch line) north of St. Boawells ia th* village c^^ 

EarutOM,' the famed abode of Thomaa the Rhymer, the earliest Scottia^' 

oet, and author of a version of the romance of Sir TrUerem. The ruin^*_ 

: in which the Rhymer dwelt are at the west end of tl 

on a stone in the wall of the church it la related that 


Lies in thlsplice." 

The branch line of railway after leaving Earlston intersects tl 

fertile county of Berwick, passing many heautifal seats, and the ami 

quiet ogricultural county towna of Greenlaw and Dons (p. 119) tnn 

and the Tillage of Cbiroside. In the pleasant streams, Blackadderai 

, ^itadder, which run through this district, good " trouting " i 

Branch Raiitiiay from GalaskieU to SelJcirk — 5 mila. 

r conch thrina a week (Tuoada)', ThurBdsy, anii SatunlB)') from tho C 
Hotel, SiLEiRK, lo St. Mxiy'a Lixih, In coDuection wtth coacheirrDm ilor 
~ which meet a.t Tibbie SUeli'a Inn. Total distance B7 inHea from Selli 
tlLlSUOoMon Amu, JtoTibbieSbiels's, aDiHTtoUoChb TTalnb 
UoEkt to Edinburgh la evening by Caledonian Railway. C^ie taarmaylj 
taken, «l(Ji*r umv, In one day from Ediuburgh.) 
Bb'-kirk [HoleU: County; Cross Keys) ia sitnated on the rlnL 
Bttrick, a little below its junction with the Yarrow. It containa-l 
population of 8292, who are mostly engaged in industry aimiUr W 
that carried ou at Galsshiols. The citizens of Selkirk, who at an s^ 
I ptiiod bad a renown tor shoemaking, distingnished themselves by UiM 
L'ltllaniTy at the battle of Flndden. Eighty in number, and headed tl 
I'&wii' town-clerk, they joined their monarih on his entranr- — *■- ■" — 
" ' Tbia gave rise to the well-known lyrical poam, comi 
" Dp wl' the i!out«t« ot Selkirk, 
And donn wf the Enri at Hnms, 

That sew the ^ngle-aoled shoon.' 

' On the plain near PhQipbaugh, a mile westwards, on the north ti_ 

t the Etbick, a great battle was fought (13th September IfllS} tii 

1 Laider (p. 07} ii S milea north of Earlaton by rowL 




the Roxstitta under Moutm^ sail the CoYeuaDturs uuder Leslig. 
Leilis UTived. at Melrose the evuaiiig before the engogomeat, and next 
morning, favoured hy a tbick miet, reached Montrose's encampment at 
Phnipliaagli withont being descried. The aurjiiias teas complete ; and 
when the Marquis, who had been alarmed by the nolae of the firing, 
reached the acens of the battle, he beheld his army diipersed ia Irre- 
trievable rout. After a desperate but nnavsUing attempt to recover tlic 
fbrtanei of the dnj, he cut hia way tlirough a body of Lealie'a troopei^ 
and fled up Yarrow and over Minchmoor towards Peebles. This defeat 
dtutroyed ihe fruit of Moutrose'a sii splendid victoriea, and etTectoally 
rnined the royal cause in Scotland. 

Tlig route up Yarrow ie very beautifu]. 
I "Tliere not a strum tliit gllilei bctwHa 

On the triangular piece of ground at tlie confluence of the Ettricb and 
Tarrow stands, amid beautiful anrronn'lings, BoiohSl, a faronrite seat 
of the prBsent Duke of Buccleuch, to whose father Scott dedicated hia 
" Lay of the Ijist Minstrel, "^" Newark's stately tower," which here 
"Looks out from Yarrow's birchen bower," on the left side of the 
road, was buittby James IL, whose arms are engraved un the western 
aide. Within the courtyard Oeneral Leslie tarnished his victory at 
PhiMpbaogh by slaughtering, in cold blood, many of the prisoners whom 
he had taken after the battle. On the right Is the farm of FonlBhiele, 
where Mnngo Park, the African traveller, was bom (1771). We then 
paw the village of Yarrowford (from where the hill road oyer Minch- 
moor — BO delightfully described by the late Dr. John Brown — to Tra- 
qnaic leaves, see p. OH), Hangingshaw Castle, Deuchai Tower, and 
Yarrow Kirk. On a low moor to the west of the ku-k two tall unhewn 
masaes of atone mark the spot where the two knights, celebrated in the 
ballad of "The Bowie Dens of Yarrow," fell in single oombat. The 
Kanerj of this tragic tals inijpired the poet Wordsworth with his beauti- 
tnl odes^ — ^"Yarrow nnvlaited," "Yarrow visited," and "Yarrow ro- 
vlsttfid." Three miles fejther, and we come to Mount Bengar— a farm 
rent«d for snme years by the poet James Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd 
—and to the Gkirdon Arms Inn, and a lilte distance brings ua to St. 
Mary's Loch (SJ milca long — "Lone St. Mary's silent lake") beanti- 
fnlly denribed in " Marmion," Introduction to Csato 11. The drive up 
its atore ia a charming one. To the right in the site of St. Mary's Kirk, 
the scene in the principal incident in Hogg's beantiful ballarl of " Mary 
SootU" Meggat Water, a favourite trouting stream, flows in from the 
west (His a good hill walk up Meggat and down Tala to Tweedsmnir 
— 11 miles.) Near the head of the lake, on an elevated terrace, it 
fiodano ffofel, and on the neck of land between St. Mary's Loch and the 
■mall Loch o' the Lowes above stands the cottage-inii — " Tibbie Shiels'a " 
— onoe &eqn«nted by the Ettrick Shepherd and Christopher North (Pro- 
fluor WSim), and lovingly described in the Koctu AnArosiaiuB. 'Tlbbli 
Widf lUed in 1879, aged BS. Near at hand, to the right, is a monnraeiil 

H fiuorWi 

^^ WwlfiUi 



erected to Ui« Ettriek Staphert, who died rt 

thelskB, inI636. A local artist, Mr. Currie of ] 

For continuaQBe of route to Moffat by Bi: 

ViLK or Ettbiok. 
The Vale of EttricJi lies almort poralJel witrf 
wbat to the ranth, snd ita seenery is characterisel 
melancholy." A good road follows tti 
oroaaing at Ettriek Bridge, cootinuing ' 
a high hill of 2289 ft. elevation, and joining— 1^ 
with the Moffat and St. Mary's Loch road at T 
a road straight south from Ettriek over the hi 
(p. 109). The disUnce to Ettriek Cram Selkl 
way BTB passed Tnshielaw 7nn and Tower, til 
song ; Thirlestaue Cattle, the seat of Lord Nlj 
church of Ettriek, near which Hogg was born U 
yard a plain headstone marks the grave whera 
1S35, and Tihbie Shiela also liej) here. Therai 
Thoraea Boston, author of The Fovr/ald Slate Htl 
works. (A farm-road flora Tnahielaw Inn 
farm of Bncclooeh, the eonrf« of the great dm 

ContiuulQR eoutliwards fyom St. BoswellcJ 
(whence coaches twice daily to and fi 
Hassendefln. we reoch 

[M DiUea from Edinbu^h. Holelt; TbeTi 
situated at the junction of the r 
population (17,303) ia principally engaged ii 
woollen cloth. About 2J miles to the sontll-li 
the Teviot, is Branksome Tower (see SoottfiJ 
Minstrel "}, an early residence of the Baronsll 
wards arc Minto House [Earl of Minto) and tlj 
ivhere Leyden the poet wiis born. Proceeda 
miles from Hawick, wo pass, on the left, Stolli 
Eliott, Bart.) ; and, 2 milea forthar, WindMI 
Roman canips, and on its snnimit a small Im 
line hrings into view the conical hill namedg 
about three-quarters of a mile long jiiercoa thl 
Liddeadale, and, crossing the head of the Niu 
Riccorton Jntiution, whence the Border Cdtl 
to the left by the valley of North fyne to He^ 
land. Continuing from Riooarton, the tonrfal 
of the Liddel, ivith ita snug fflriiihousea onid 



of glassy hilla. Near Steele Boad station (2J miles) is Heuhitacb 
CastIiE, the scene of Leyden'a ballad of Lord Sonlia. 

It vas the leat of the Loida Soulis, and aCter their forfeiture, of the 
Doil|[IaBes, Lords of Liddeadale.' The castle is still very entire, and 
a porUoo of the loof remains. (The key is kept by the Duke ol 
Bncclench's gkmekeeper at Newlonds, on the rosdeide, ahoat half'Way 
between the station and the castle.) In one of the thick walls tbere 
ii a dungeoa 12 fL deep, to which the only opeoing is a bole in the 
top sbont IS io. sqaue. This ie pointed ont aa the place where Sir 
Alexander Ramsay was starved to death. On account of this and 
other iniquities perpetrated within its walls, it was believed that the 
esitle had portly sunk under ground ; and because ' ' Old Redcap " 
was supposed to keep posseaaion, its ruins were long regarded with 
teiTor. Qneen Mary visited Bothwell here in 1566. Near, in the 
Hermitage Water, is a deep pool, the scene of another of Leyden's 
ballads ("The Coat (Colt) of Keildor"). 

Beyond Steele Eoad, on a solitary hill-side, is the cemetery ol 
Caatleton ; balf a mile farther, among a clump of trees near the 
jnuctton of the Hermitage and the Liddel, is the parish clinrcb; 
■nd 2 mites on ia the viUage of New Castleton {inn), whence there 
is a croeS'road to LaDgholm, in the valley of the Esk — one of the 
moat lovely dales in Scotland. Below the village the railway 
crosses ttie Liddel, passing the remains of Mangerton Tower, an 
old stronghold of the Armstrongs. On the opposite bill-side may 
be seen Ettleton burying-groniid, and just below it, on the road- 
side, a stone cross, whioh commemorates one of the Arnistrongs of 
Mangerton, who had been murdered at Hermitage. At Eershope- 
foot the ndlway crosses the Border int'i England ; and, continuing 
amid scenery of increasing fertility, passes biddings Junction. 

Hence there is a bnnch railway to Cononbie and the town of 
LuiamoiM{3oleU: Back; Eakdale,TeJnyfra7i«), beautifully situatfld 
on the bank of the river Esk, over which there is a bandsome bridge 
connecting the old and new towns. The inhabitants are chiefly en- 
gaged in Tweed Mills. Idngbolm Lodge, I mile north of the town, is 
a favourite residence of the Dnke of Bucclencb. Fiom Langholm up 
Eskdale and over to Ettriok (28 milea to Tuahielaw fan, p. 103) ia a 
fine fresh breezy r£d, through bat little Tiequented and delightful 
pastoral hill country. Circular coaching tours from the Eskdil* 
l^mpeiance HoUl :— (1) Eskdsle Tour, daily, fare 3s. 6d. ; (2) Liddes- 
dale, Hermitage Gaetle, and Eweadale, Thursdays, fare 4s. Angling 
tickets for Esk and its tributaries bought from Mr. M'George, 
solicitor, Langholm. The Inna at Langholm and Canonbie equally 
anited for anglers ; also the inn at Bentpath, 5J m. from langholm. 

o a cODapiiacy a^nst Robert the 

•bastebn bordercootitrt 

EASTERN BORDER, Rajlwav Routs.' {^^ mi/es). 


This route foUcwa the river Tweod to its month, and after 
ujuncttonatSt. Boswells (inn, p. 104), passes through a heantjEi 
f bjr the stations of Maxton, Rntherford, and RoZBDEoi 

■ From here a branch of 7^ miles leads $oidJi to 

[Bolib; Sprexd Engle ; Rliyil. Populatloil SIS 
DIatmcB from EdinbniBh H inI1«. Meltoae 19, or bj co 
,y situated in the pretty Tallay of the Jed river 

s the CI 


^^^^^ bouring 

^^K«»;»d to 

^^^Fum it ya 
^^^" Wvedoni 
■ Wftl«r, ui 

town of Eoiburghshire, and seat of the circnit-coart of juaticiuji 
The old viUaga of Jedworth was founded bj Ecgred, Bishop o 
Lindiafarne, a.d. 815. So far back as the time of David L, .: 
appears to bavB been a royal burgh, and the chief ti 
BJiddle Matches. Defended by ita castle and nuine) 
and mrronnded b; the fastnesses of ita forest, it was frequent^ 
the rendezvona of the Scottish armies, and frequently asaaile^i 
pillaged, and burnt by the English. The town has been ntad^ 
improved. It ia well drained, and supplied with good w 

C|)C 9bbtg, foonded and endowed by David I. In lllS or 1147 R 
AngnstinB friora from Beauvala, asar Paris, occupies an elovatad poeiliD 
in the town, on the bauk of the river. In common with other mona» 
leries OD the Border, it suffered severely in the English invaaiana. F«{ 
two hours it was exposed to the artillery of the Earl of Surrey, wl|i 
besieged Jedburgh in the miBn of Henry VIIL At the lieformatloSi 
the Abbey and lands were couverted into a temporal lordship in fanm 
of Sir Andrew Eer of Femiehirst, and they ore now posseted by V 
deaceudant, the Marquess of LothlBn, to whom we are Indebted far ti 
prtservation and restoration of these interesting eoclealaatical rem 

In an architectural point of view Jedburgh Abl>ey (like the ni 
bouring Abbey of Kelso) is interesting for the m' ~ ' 

l> neighlK 


xclaEmed Co 
« or him 

This t 

Uteroily at tba Hiiie.8taDg Big. i dccUvit]' dsaoimdliig on 1 

tbose on wblcb thu fatnl cauldron wi 

^ A pleasant and Lotoreatlni! "Circular Tour" rroin EdLaUurgh □ 
laken cU Melrose, Jodburgb, Kelso, Berwlok, Donbir, DirbtoQ, etc., for 
Thionch ttekgU' an Inoed bftbe N.B.R;. Oompiny. 


aiches and a beautifully interlaced arcade. The principal entrance it r 

by the beantiful Norman west door. The sides of the gable are pro* j[ 

tected by two Norman buttresses, and the summit is pierced by a St. 

Catherine's window, in the Flamboyant style. The whole nave displays 

an array of graceful pillars and arches. The basement story consists 

of clustered pillars with deeply moulded pointed arches ; the triforium 

of a subdivided arcade, the including arches being semicircular, while 

the dividing ones are pointed ; and £be clerestory of a detached arcade 

of thirty-six pointed arches, the wall behind every alternate two being 

pierced for windows. The beautiful new cloister doorway in the south 

aisle wall is a facaxmUt of tlie one which had become very much decayed, 

(long looked upon as unique, in the late Norman style), and was erected 

by Dr. R. R. Anderson, architect, Edinburgh, under whose direction 

all the recent alterations on the Abbey were carried out. The 

material used for the whole fabric is the old red sandstone so common 

in the neighbourhood, and so picturesque when weatherworn. 

The north transept — the only one remaining and still entire — is 
Norman, and belongs to the early part of the 12th century. The 
lower part of the choir is also Norman, but the eastern extremity or 
chancel is entirely destroyed. The small chapel adjoining the Norman 
door, on the south side, was formerly the parish school, where Thomson, 
the author of The SeasonSf received part of his education. 

What is known as the Edgerston monument is a beautiful work of 
its kind, executed in the later Gothic style. The tower commands a 
fine view of the valley of the Jed and of the Cheviot Hills, which divide 
Scotland from England. 

An antique mansion in Queen Street is still extant, where Queen 
Mary lay sick for several weeks after her visit to Both well at Her- 
mitage Castle in 1566 (see p. 109). In Castlegate there is a house 
inhabited at one time by Prince Charles ; in the Canongate one 
which was the birthplace of Sir David Brewster, and another in 
which Burns stayed. Dr. Somerville, the historian, was upwards 
of fifty years minister of Jedburgh, and Mrs. Somerville, the 
gifted authoress of works on natural philosophy, was born in the 
manse. The old bridge is said to be coeval with the Abbey. 

On the eminence behind the town stands the jail, now closed, on 
the site of the old Castle of Jedburgh, a favourite residence of the 
Scottish Kings, and where Malcolm lY. died. Alexander III. was 
married to Jolande, daughter of the Count of Dreux (1285), in the 
Abbey Church, in presence of an assemblage of French and Scottish 
nobility. The burgh's Museum, contained in the Com Exchange 
buildings, was unfortunately annihilated by a fire on Oct. 24, 1898* 
Among its relics were banners from Bannockburn and Eilliecrankie. 

The ancient inhabitants of Jedburgh were celebrated for their 
dexterityin handling a peculiar sort of partizan, named the * * Jethart 
staff," and their timely aid is said to have turned the fortune of the 



day at the Border skirmifiL m 1[>7G known aa tlio Raid of the B 

' rt. Their war-cry was " Jethart'a here !" and their ooat-of-ai 
Is a mounted trooper advancing to the clinrge, with the mod 
"Stranue ot proapere." The proverb of "Jetliart juatioe " — 
" Where in tba morn men hang uniJ draw. 
And alt Lii JadgTii«Dt After " — 
appears to have taken its rise from aome instance of summary jnetice 
■leenteii on the Border marauders. 

Cloae to the town is Hartrigge (Lord Stratheden and Campbell}, 
In the neighbourhood ara Femiehirat Castle, an anciEut fortress of 
tlie Eerrs, ancestors of the Lothian lamil;, now carefully preserved; 
Mounleviot {Marquis of Lothian); Ancrum House' (Mins Scott); 
and Kirklands (Mrs. Gordon Ogiivie). 

The celebrated Roman causewny called Watling Slreei, which crossed 
the Cheviots after traversing England, pasaea about 3i miles from the 
town, and is still iu a gooil state of preservation. Near where it crosses 
the Oznam Water by a ford, oa the crown of a bluff, a very interesting 
Raman station was discovered In 1S87. Quantities of the stones have 
evidently been used (as is too oftenthe case with such historical remains) 
for local building ; but still much Homan liresaed masonry, bricks, and 
broken tiles, remain. 

The present high-road over by Carter Pell, Otterbourne, Id 
Northumberlaad, was a great thoroughfare before the days of 
the laCwsys. 

Three miles east of Boxburgh Junction lies 
{Boleli: Tlia Cross Keja ; Quran's Hetd. Popalatlni 
IB miles from Melroao, 6a Irem EdLubaigli. Races April and Ootober. 

This town occupies a beagtifnl situation at the jnnction of 
Tweed with the Teviot. It has four principal streetl, a spacioQi" 
square or market-place (with Town-ball, erectsd 181S), many 
well-built houses, and elegant shops. Thers ars a weekly com; 
and fortnightiy cattle and sales, markets, and four annual fairs.* 

The princitial building is the SbbcQ, which is partly Norman and 
partly Early Pointed. The form is that of a Greek cross with the peculiar 
Feature of having the choir at the western extremity. A massive square 


i north WIS fongbt tb 
[eni; VllL weie pnt 
nnnat ffreat sale of 1 

I flight by Iho Bootcli. 

m U^e Bngllih 



liHrer risB nver the interGsctioD d( tb« met;' reiitUig on laiir loft; 

(imlreil BTcliu supported by tall })iers of clustered eolumiu. 1'Leotlicr 

ircliea »n till either semiuirculat or stilted, and rest on iiillars with 

plain or ommnented puahion capitalj, 

or Nonnan imitation of CoriolliiBn. 

The entraace to the north tronaept 

ia much admired. The huilding was 

redni^ed to ite preseul nunous state 

hy the Earl of Hertford in 1545, 

and the only ports remaining nra the 

walla of the tranneptii, the contio 

tower, and the went end, and a small 

part of the choir. After the Re- 

formaticBi a low gloomy Tanlt was 

thrown over the transept to mako 

it wrvo as a parisU church, and it continued to ha need for tbia 

purpose till 1771, when one Smtduy tlie congregation wero alnnned by 

the fiiUing of a piece of plaster from the roof, and hurried out In terror, 

beKeviDg that (he vaijt over their heads was giving way. This, to- 

gsther with an ancient prophecy, attributed to Thomaa the Rhymer, 

"tliat tbe kirfc shonld fall when at ita fullest," caused the chorch to 

be deserted. In 15SS tbe lands and posnessioitE of Kelso Abbey were 

tonftirred upon Sir Robert Ker of Oasafard, aaceslor of the present 

' proprietor, the Duke of Roiburghe. 

Eelao Bridge ix a fsvonrits place from wbk'h to look up and 
dmrn tha broad water of rippling Tweed, It has live art^hea, and 
WHS bui!t by Renaie, the eolebrated Engiaew. The Mhsfuid and 
Library, on CballchBiigli Terrace, are open iiee on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, 12 to 3, and should be seen. 

The laosl conspiciuuH object about Eelso ia Floors CuMf, the 
»col of tbo Duke of RoiburgbB, which occupies a terraced lawn on 
tlia noitli bank of the Tweed, one mile west of the town. Tbo 
odgiiiBl edifice was built by Sir JoUu Yanbrugb in IHS, and was 
dutiDgniahed by his characterititic masBivoness. Since tlicn it 
onderweut great impcoTements uDdet the aupei'iuteiidence of the 
: 1at« W. H. Playfaii' of Edinbni'gli, and is tiow ona of the finest 
a of tbo Tudor atyle in Scotlaiid. Tlie [lark ia ejLtensive 

I •■ThtAW-ey," says the learnci editor of its oliartora, "lUmriB alone liHo 
' tone antlqiM Titan predominatiDg over tho dwarfs of a later ivorLd. B*^){uu 
I Id tin— IDil 10 tar oompletod as to roeeiie the tomb of Uie rguDder'ii bod, Bart 
Htaij of SortUonilwrland, in 1162— it was > Btntctore aomniensunita with ILe 
migiiincaiiH of ite endowments as the Brst-born of St. Unvld'a pioua zeal, aad 
■Uh Dm Intty pretenslDOB of ita mitied abbots, who long dlapoled pKcedeni^e 
with He pHora of metropolitan St. Andrews, and evon conlcndrf for anpcriority 
TUh the ixfcnt-bonie of l^ron Tn France, to whirh tills Soottlib danifMsi jjavo 
. BontlwnoDe ruler," — Qvarttr^ Bcviivi vol Jxxxv. 



!• and finely wood&l, A green mouiid marks tLe aita 0/ fluaii 
a urlj bulwui'k of the Border, which ia Bituated 
teak of land fomiBiJ bj the junction of the Tweed and the Teviot, 
THa fortress was formerly of great extant and importance, and 
figured conspicuonslj iu the earl; history of Scotland, but now 
only a few fragmento remain. A deep moat filled with water from 
the TeTiot formed part of its defences. At a. spot pointed out 
on the margin of the Tweed King James II. was killed by the 
hurating of a cannon at the siega of Kosburgb (a.d. 14B0). Of 
the old town of Roxburgh, one of the fimt four burghs tn Scotland, 
there are no remains. Admission is granted to the grounds and 
gardens of Floors on Wednesdays, by application at the NatioDsl 
Bank of Scotland in Eelso. 

There are niuneroaa gentlemen's seats abont Kela(», among which 
may be named — Springwood Park (Sir George B. Douglas, Bart) 1 
Hendersjde Park, 2 miles east on the Coldstream road (Sir B. 
J. Waldie-Giiffith, Bart.), containing a fine collection of picture^ 
mosaics, classical antiquities, and books (cards of admission may 
be obtained from Messrs. Robson and Smith, solicitors, Kelso) j 
Newton-Don (Charles B. Balfour, Esq.); Stitchel, a mausion 
built by the late George Baird, Esq., on the site of the old hoase; 
Hellerstaiu (Earl of Haddington) ; Hume Castle (ruinous), wbiob 
forms so conspicnoua an object in the landscape, long the r«8i- 
dence of the Earls of Homo, and uow the property of Sir J. Hume 
Campbell, Bart, Ednam, a seat of the EarJ of Dudley, from which 
he takes his second title, and the birthjilacs of Thomson the poet 
(p. 112), is 2 miles north of Kelao, on the hanks of the Eden, an 
afflnent of Tweed. Ybtholm (Inn), 8 miles south-east of Kelso, 
is noted as the home of n colony of gipsies. Oipsy royalty for 
centuries held its court here, and at one time was a real power 
of a questionable kind, The death in 1883 of Qaeeu Esther 
terminated the dynasty, nnd amnlgamation uith lliB general 
population is rapidly eitinguisliiug the tribe. Yetholm baa of 
lata become a place of summer resort ; the air is sslubrious, the 
angling in the Bowmont and other streams is good, and there is 
ample freedom to roam among the bills. - 

Immediately behind Newton-Don the river Ed 
abrupt rock of caDsidorahle height and forma the romantie wal 
fall of Stitchel Linn. Six miles north-west of Eelso 
knowe Tower, frequently referred to in the life of Sir "WalSI 
Scott *■ 



n (17 by mA). 
» pretty, though irregular, town, rtanding nbovt 
tbi ieH bank of the broad Tweed, nhiuli is lisre crossed by a luind- 
tMDfe bridge. The raOway Btation is aitnsted at Comhill, 2 miles 
from the towu, but toorists may leave nt Wark station, and ioapect 
the raim of the ancieDt castle of that nauie on tlieir way. At the 
exit from the town there is a monument to Sir Charles Maijoribanka, 
ereeted by the electoiB of BerwidtHhire for hia Barricas to the cause 
of reform in 1832. Dnring the winter of lflS9-G0 General Monk 
resided in the town before he marched into England to restore 
Charlea II., and here he raised the regiment which is still called 
die Coldstnam Guards, The seats in the neighbourhood ore — ' 
The Hirael (Earl of Home) ; I^ees (Lady Marjorihanks) ; Lennel 
HoUBO (Hon, Mre. Hamilton) ; and Twisol Castlo (D. Franda 
Blake), 6 miles east of Coldstream, where the anciant bridge over 
the nil is still ataniling by which the English crossed on their 
way to tbo Geld of FLcnDES.' Ou the other side of the river, 
opposite the TiUage of LadyVirk, standi Nobhah Cjistlr, the 
deMriptim of which, as it stood in the daya of ita strength, «i!l 
be familiar to readers of Scott's poem ot " Mamiioa," where it forms 
the opening scene. It was built in 1121 by Flambard, the warlike 
Bishop of Durham, anil upon his death was taken and destroyed by 
David I. of Scotland. Savoral eonrorencea were held hare between 
King John of England and William the Lion of Scotland, relating 
totheclaiinniBdeby the latter to the northern counties of England ; 
bat it is chiefly remarkable aa the place where Edward 1. resided as 
nmi^e in the disputed Scottish succession, and where he first dis- 
closed his ambitious designs against the independence of Scotland.* 

ofCotnliill, pn the WoolBrroid. It wan tougM on the fllh September IfilS. Tbe 
nmd aod diEKsr which Jiiuei tV. won od Ihe occulon ara pnaerrtd in the 
Hbi»1<Ib' CoU^e. London. It ia well kuonn how tlic flower of the Bcottlnh 
nohUlty fell around tieir aovorelgn. atid the nioaii o! tin dstlun we well 
Upr^eil in the deeply plainti™ «ong, "The Flowers ot the Forest," (om- 
pruHd by tliB l«to Mn. Cotlibnrn. 

> The Scottish bnroni, being Dow in the power of the crafty inonarch, wen 
imprlaaa to bHir that he clilmad to determiae the diapnte not as referee, bat 
ulordparsraonnlnf thflkingdom. The result l» well known ; the eompetito™ 

Idng with ttie whole tortreMCB of Bcotland, that he might gtre effeet lo fall 
decision. Hence aroM thiua deeolatiig wan between the two kingdoms, wbiob 
Hire terminated only oenCnrtes aflerwards by the nnioa of the Cvownji in tla 
~ ...... le of Qreit Britain \n J60a. 


I. Ea 


ttuat«d oil a Bttep bauk of the Tweed, about 6 miles aboi 
iek, it must evideutly, from its exteut, have lieen a pIiiCB 
great size and streugth, and being ofteD attacked by the Scots i 
their fugitive raida, was considered a post of great danger, Tl 
coitle, which had long stood in rains, has been partiuUy restored \ 
Hubert Jemiagham, its present owner. Two stdtiona mor 
wo cross the mquth of the Tweed to Bei-wiok. 

Bbew ick-dios ■Tweed. 

I BiMti 


Berwick is in many ways unique. It is situated neither i 
England nor iii Scotland, and its position haa entailed upon 
many bloody conflicts. The town itself is rather difficult 1 
describe ; it is neither very large nor very sninll, very cleaniu 
very dirty, but a Border market town in a pociiliatly fine situatii* 
Seen from the railway as it approaches on the south, it looks vei 
well. The old bridge apanning the Tweed was built in James I. 
reign, and Irom its peculiar architecture with the largest aroh nei 
the Berwick side, hD.s given rise to the saying that its ptinijip 
future is that the middle la at one end 1 

The sixth pillar was anciently the line of demarcation bstwM 

County Palatine of Durham and Berwick. 

The honaes rise above the ateep tree-cilad banks and overioe 

the red-tiled roofs of Tweedmouth on the further aide. Tl 

Railway Bridge itself is a remarkable piece of ongineeriiig woij 

It was built by Robert Stephenson, and opened by Queen Victor 

1850. It connects the North - Eastern and North Brltil 

Bailway aystems, and haa twonty-eight arches and rises to 

height of nearly 139 feet above the river bed. Its total length 


ition stands on the site of the old castlo, once one of M 
the Borders. It was in its banqueting hall that Eil 
.rd I. gave judgment on the claims of liobert Bruce at 
'ohn Baiiol to the Scottish throne, and in one of its chambers U 
iichan was confined in a cage for mnuy years fo 
having placed the Crown of Scotland on Bruca's head. There 
only a &aj[ment of the walls left standing on the left side of tit 
Btktion (going north). 

~a leaving the station if we go down to the High Street, 
beneitb Scots Cato, part of the "Id city wall. The wall 


are wondBrfhUj complete, aad it is possible to make a complete 
circuit ■wiiik upon them. Thej dale from the rei;^n ol (^ueen 
Elizabeth, though thore were origiiiBlly older walls built in Kiug 
Edwsrd L'b reigD. 

Some of the batteries and bastions are mouuted and used b; the 
Voluntfier Artillery and by the Northnmlierlaod Artillery Militia, 
wliD have their heidqiiarterB iu the town. From Scots Gst« it is 
but a few steps to Meg'a Mount, a grassy height trom which a line 
view is seen. Westward of the Castle rnins rises Halidon Hill, the 
scene of the liattla of Halidon in 1333. 

The palish church, dating from 1653, is away to the eaat. It was 
built of etona taken from the Castle. The Towq Hall, not unlike 
a church, blocks the tasia street, making a very narrow turn into 
Hide Hill. There is a Corn Eichange, nbere lar^e niaiketa are 
held weekly. 

A pier on the □orthcra side of the rivsr mouth pro touts the harbour 
from easterly and north-easferly galea. Being aboat S4 ft. wide, 
Bud extending 2900 ft. into the sea, it forma a splendid proaieaads. 
At the end there is a liglithouse more than 60 ft. high, and in 
■toimy weather the broken water may be seeo to mount completely 
over Uie top. Near the southem aide of the month of the river 
lies the fishing village of Spittal, which, with its splendid sea-beach, 
is a farourite bathing place. The salman -fisheries are a moat 
impottaut element in connection with Berwick, and large quanti- 
ties of fish are exported to London. Watching the capture of 
salmon at the various stations is an agreeable sourco of amusement. 
Berwick, together with Tweedmontb and Spittal and the libertiea 
of Berwick (or that portion of country north of the Tweed which 
is not included in Scotland), is governed by a mayor, a recorder, 
and justices. Since its final cession to the Eugliah in 1482, it has 
remained sulgect to the laws of England, Chough for parliamentary 
snd oounty representation it goes with Northumberland. The 
atL'cngth and importance of Berwick, often won and lost duriiig 
the 14th century, iadoced the English to bestow such eipense and 
ikill in fortifying it, that, after the year 1 4S2, it remained as a gate 
between the kingdoms, barred against the Scottish, but thiinigh 
trhieh the English could at pleasure make irmption. A strong 
garrison was maintained within iU nails, and to have kept Berwick- 
upon-Tweed wiiB of itself at one time a sofficient reputation lor a 
military man. 

Ten miles from Berwick, and accessible either from Goswick or 
Seal, by oroBaing the sands at low water (the track being mukiid 


^^_ Ord, n 
^^^^ EA 


b; posts), U Soly Mand, on whicli .110 tlie inina botli of Lindiafanie 
Abbey, one of the earliest seats of Christianity in Britain, and of a 
uagtle situsted ou a, lofty rock on the aouth-eaat side. The villagj 
lies on the west side, and ia principally inhabited bj fishermeii. 

A pleaui,nt day's eicnrsion may he made bj tuMng train to Bel- 
ford (20 minutes}, and from thence driTing throogh picturesque 
scenery to ChOliugham, celebrated for its wild cattle. By an early 
start, a visit might he paid to Bamboroagh Castle, the Bucient seat 
of the Kings of Northambria, and the headquarters of the charity 
instituted by Bishop Lord Crewe. From here the Fame Isla-a/it 
■re visited, but thia mti^uires a day to itwlT. 

A similar doy'a excomon may be obtained by taking t 
morning train to ComhiU-on-Tweed, sod tbeocB hiriiig and pra- 
eeeding into tlie heart of the Cheviota, by Mindrura to Heathpool, 
where the farmer will give tbe horses a rest, while the lino anf 
^ley are explored. The return route may lia varied so as to pu 
Flodden Field, Ford Castle, Etal, etc. ; or, dividing the excursim 
over two days. Ford Oaatle and Flodden Field may be made lUi 
princi[>iil objects one of the days, and can be reached either froK 
Comhill or Berwick. It was at Ford Caatle that the ill-fated Kii^ 
James IT. of Scotland slept the night before the battle of Flodden 
Recently llie caatle and grounds have been greatly beautified by tt 
owner, the Dowager MarcMoneas of Waterford. The park uai 
grounds are planted with great toate, and the site of the battle ctf 
Flodden hoa been marked off with plantations.' 

A short bnt pleasant eicuraion (4 hours for « pedestrian) 
t&ke the road along the base of Halidon Hill post Morduigton 
to Foulden, thence down to the valley of the Whitadder, ere 
■t Button Bridge ; thence across the country by PaxMn to the 
Tweed, crossing that river by the Union Bridge, a beantiW 
BtTucture, and we believe the first saspensioit briilge ever coci 
■tmcted in the United Kingdom ; thence bock by the village 
Ord, reaohing Berwick fram the south, along the old. bridge. Thi 
scenery of this route is very charming. 

EAST COAST ROUTE— Berwick, Dunbih, Ehinbdkou. 

The line of taOway bttweeu Berwick and Edinbargh contina** 
the Eoat Coast route from London, York, and Newcastle. ~ 
distance is S8 miles. In the main it follows the coast, and affordi 
some lino peepa of the sea. About 4 miles from Berwick an 

1 See alwi uotlL-D at Coldatreun, Flodiltp Field, Norliim CoiUe, el 

EA.STCai0E.BOnTH 119 

ruiuB ol Lsjubcvton Kirk, where, in 11^03, llargmcC, 
\ daughter of HaJiry VII., waa raarrieJ by proxy lo .Iiuiiea IV.— a 
marriage which nltimately led to the anion of the crowiu. At the 
bottom of & deep rtiTLno, da the soa-coust, nesr liiimiuouth station, 
is the romajitio fishing- village of the Eame name. A little to the 
east of the next station [the pleasant little town of Ajtau—inni 
st(U>da Aytou Caatia (E. liildoll Gmnger, Esq.] The hankn of 
the river Eye iieie alTord snine bold cliff acenerj, and at its mouth 
ia the fiahing-town of EvKMOuia {pop. 2i3fl ; SoUl), formerly a 
notorious baimt of the smuggler. Foot miles faither is Eeaton 
station, at the junction of the branah Una to Melroau, etc., vid 
Ohimside and Duns' (aoe p. 106). 

A few mileii north of Beston are the village of Coi.dikouau and 
Fast Castle. Coldingham la situated iu a valley about a suile 
distant from the s«a, and is remarkable for the ruins of its priory, 
fonnded by King Edgar, on the site of a proviona structure in 
honont of St. Cuthbert, a.d. 1098, and thus one of Scotland's most 
ancient monastic establishments ; hut only a few fragments now 
remain. Coaches between Beston aud Coldiugbam, aud the 
reverse way, run two or three times a day. For times see list, p. i*. 
North-east of Coldingham about 2 iniles is the promontory called 
St Ahb'a Head, consisfeig of two hills, the western of which is 
occupied liy an observatory, while the castarn, called the Kirkhill, 
Btill e^hibitfl the remains of a monastery and a chutcli. ITot far 
distant from it is Fast Castle, famous in Scottish histoiy, and the 
figurative "Wolfs Crag" of theBn^e of Lammermoin: Built upon 
the point of a precipitous headland, a wilder or more disconsolate 
situation ia difScult to conceive. Aboat the close of the 16th 
wntnrj it became the stronghold of Logan of Eeatalrig, one of tLe 
Gowrie conspirators, and it was to this place that they were to 
have conveyed the king. Fast Castle now belongs to Sir BasH F. 
Hall of Dunglass, Batt- The precipitona rocks on the coast are 
inhabited by an immense number of sea-fowl. 

Beyond Grant's House station, the tract of oonntry through 
which the railway passes ia broken up by numerous deep and narrow 
ravines, which afford heantiful glimpses of the sea. Tho most 
remarkable of these is the Featha, over which the celebrated Peaths 

fortnu, calloil Bdin'i Hjitl,'ik so-called "Flct[Bh brocb." TIib buUJlog forms 
IdrcleofLbuutsa Ft luteroil ami B2 external diainater— the whUb vatyhig ia 
ttianMa from 19 to 20 ft., and !n hpiglit IVom 2 to 9. Tlioeiternsl cltcum- 

Emient, Is Ixautitally siecuteil. 

ia 12 


■(or Pease) Bridge was thTown in 17S6 during the conatmctioil 
} the original post road, now superseded. This singular stmctd 
is 128 ft. in height. SCO ft. in length, and 16 ft. wide. ' 
former times the Peaths was so important a pitsa that Olitfl 
Oromwell, in a despatch 1^ Parliament after the battle of Dunbl 
describeB it us a place " where one man to hinder is better t! 
twelve to moke way." Hear Cockbpbnspath (a corruption of Col- 
hrandspath), the next station, are the ancient tower of Cofikhonia- 

Ppath, and Dunglaas Hoose, the mansion of Sir Basil F. Hall, Bart., 
ombosomed amid beantifal plantations, A sliort way beyond, on 
.the left, are the ruins of Innerwlclc Castle, situated on the edge 
of a jirecipitoUB glen ; and on the opposite aide of the glen stands 
irhomton Tower ; the former the fortalice of a Hamilton, and the 
latter of a Hume. A few miles farther od, towards the shore, ia 
Broxmonth Park, which served as Cromwell's headqnarters at the 
battle of Doonhill. Brosraontli (visited by H.M. Queen Victoria 
in the autumn of 1878) is the property of the Dnke of Koiburghe. 
The next station is 


[M miles from Edloburgli, and bslf-wa; [ram Berwick. 
Halefa; Boyal; SL Geotgi:; Belle-Vue; Roibnrghe Msrioe. Fop, BMl.I 

le of this town is supposad to be derived from two Celtie 
words, signifying the castle on the extremity. It was created a 
royal burgh by David IL, ostensibly to prevent English merchanta 
from bringing into and carrying out of the kingdom wool, hides, 
and other commodities, without the payment of cnstoni. The only 
public building worthy of notice is the parish church, erected in 


of the old collegiate church, the first of the kind 
founded in Scotland. It contains a monument to Sir George Hoi 
created Eirl of Dunbar and March by James TI. The gem 
design of tbia memorial, whii^h is coi^structed of alabaater, 
■omotimes been compared to that of Archbishop Sharpe at 
Andrews, but the artist's name is uakaown. At the entrani 
the town from the west are the remains of a monastery of the Orey 
JC'riars. Dunbar once contained a conrcnt of the White Friars j but 
the record says thay were banished to Peebles for their immorali^, 
llie coast in the neigbbourhood of Dunbar is rocky, and the 
■ntrance to the harbour intricate and perilous. Oliver Cromwell 
contributed three hundred pounds towards the erection of the 
eastern pier ; and a new harbour on tlia west has been oonatmcted 
JB the coarse of the ptesant centory at the joint expense of t 
ojid the FJAhery Board. Danbar House, one* a reridence 


th« B«rl of Lauderdale, now s military barracks, itandi at tha eud 
of tbeHij^b Street ; and about 200 yards north of it U CliD cglebrated 
Cutle of Dunbar. South of tbe town lie the "Golf Links." 

The anliqnity of thia ouce fomiidsble fortraaa is very great, and 
ID earl; as 1070 it w&s given, with the adjitcent manor, by Halcolm 
Oumiotc to Patrick, Earl of Northumberland, a princely noble, 
who fled from England at the Conquest, and became the progenitai 
of the family of Coapatricka, Earls of Dnnbar and March. It has 
passed through many Tarieties of fortune, but the most memotsbls 
incident in its history waa the gallunt and succeaaful defence made 
by Slack A^nts, Conutees of March, against an Engliab army under 
the EbtI of Saliabnry. After a aucceoBfiil defence, which lasted six 
weekt, the uege was abandoned by the English troops. Geoige, 
tenth Eiul of Dunbar and March, on a quarrel with Aleiander Duke 
of Albetiy, brothoc of Jamea III,, retreated into England. Hi* 
large estate was thereupon forfeited, and, with Dunbar Caatle, 
paaaed into the handa of the Duke of Albany, to vhom, 
memorabte escape from Edinburgh Civile, it afforded ahelter till he 
departed for France. lu the year 1567 Queen Mary conferred 
keeping of the stronghold on the iuramous Bothnell ; and here 
twies fooad shelter — once, after the murder of lUzdo, and a second 
time, when she made her escape from Borthwick Cutle in the dis- 
guise of a page. After her surrender at Corberrj Hill, Dunbar 
Castle was taken and completely destroyed by the Regent Murray. 
It is DOW the property of the Enrl of I^uderdale. 

Hear the town of Danbor were fought two battles — one in 1296, 
when Boliol was defeated by tbe forces of Edward 1. ; the other in 
lOCiO, when the Scottish army, nndf^r General Leslie, was routed 
with great slaughter by Cromwell at Doonhill, an eminence abant 
2 miles south from the town. This battle is still remembered by 
the people of Scotland under the opprobrious epithet of "the race 
of Dunbar," or "the Tyesday's chase," the en^gement having 
taken place on a Tuesday. 

Perhaps no part of the British coast affords a richer treat to the 
geologiat than that lying between this and St. Abb's Head. Over 
the whole of it, HatCon and Plnyfair and Sir James Hall hare 
freqaently wandered ; and from its pheuoniena some of their 
faionrite theories derive their oloareat illuHtrations. T!ie Emperor 
Kicholas of Russia, when he visited Dunbar as Prince Nicholas, 
was » charmed with a singularly beautiful formation of basalt that 
presents itself at the entrance of the harbour as to request that 
specimens of it should he forwarded to Russia. 

the I 


I toa 



iathe ] 

Le&riug Donbsr, tlia train proceeds wflBtwoidB through the 
of Spots and Bower House, which impart a sjb 
oh CDlu-field country. On the right, on tbe eea-c 
yiUage of BaUiaven, from tvtuch Lord BelhavfiD takes his title. 
little farther, about 2 niilea inland, is Bial House (H. T. Ntalwt 
Humiltou O^lvy, Esq.), with ita axtetiaive plantations and uharm- 
ing walks. Other good houses are in the viciiiity. NorthM'urds U 
Tjninghame House (Enrl of Haddington) (see p. 75). Inland, 
DVerhangiug tlm south bank of the Tyoe, are the ruins of Hailea 
Castle, whioh formerly belonged to the Hephurns, and was the 
chief residence of Queen Mary during her connection with Bothnell. 
South of the castle rises a rocky hill called Traprain Law, On the 
way weatnoril, betnean tbis and Drem, we have occasional glimpse>^ 
p} the right, of North Berwick Law and the Ba£s Bock. [p. 74). 

The remainder of the hoijtb between EDiUBFRflH and Di 
Longniddry acd Portobello, is described at pp. 71, 72. 


through FIFE and KINROSS. 

The North British Railway line orer the FoRTU Bbidob a 

' rough Glen Farg is now, of course, the short direct route from 

"inburgh to Perth and "the North."' The route as far as North 

Dsferry at tba north end of the bridge is described at pp. 77-79, 

f^pjjarming views both up and down the Pitth of Forth are obtaui«d 

■I we oto«8 the bridge, On a rocky promontory a little to the west 

of North Queensferry are the rains of Bosythe Castle, once the 

seat of the Stewarts of Roaythe, a branch of the royal house of 

Scotland, from which it ia said the motiier of Oliver Cromwell w 

descended. It now belongs to the Earl of Hopetoun. 

On the north shoreof the Pirth above QuEaniferry, there ai 

Fife l« roll DC iotfrest M the tourist and iDtlqiuiry, and, n 

] uKompBDying chart (p. laQ, it Duy be eDuvsnJencly vii 

rrom Ekllnbuigb, Perth, or Duudn. The cnunty at one lims 

greater part of the country latwoon lliH Forth and the Tsy. 

"kingdom," rtlll commonly ttiiplied to it, dates bora tta perlnd» 

iriUiln 11a tecrltorisL 

— ?^ 

uid. la ■ 




wvx '" , ^ , - j _J^ciC 

rL_ y~ "'Sd&^^^B''^^^^ 

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^^^QS^^^^l-' f^y 

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J^<^A»i™. ^'X ar^^Syir fo" t" 


-•j^oi ». .»-»«a.' ~tjiiff^^ 


^^^^^"* . 


^S^ IhL' ""'''' 

^^^,,^{^(4^" ° r^ 

s^^^r "" "^ '< ' ...jjr 

l^^p^^-V-^;" /j/j^^^r T' Jj^ 

^^5S^!^^^^^^^*^^^^44'=^" /" — ^^i 

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^^^^^0^^^^^^^^^'- '--t'" 

».«_.__„.^,.,..^„ .,„„,„, „.,,.^.„ 




old fiamily residences, among which may be mentioned Broomhall, the 
seat of the Earl of Elgin ; Culross Abbey, an old seat of the Brace 
family ; and Dunimarle Castle, near to which tradition fixes the scene 
of the murder of Lady Macduff and her children. The site of the 
Thane of Fife's castle is still pointed out on a wooded eminence which 
overhangs the Forth, about half a mile to the west of CoLBOSS, — an 
old royal burgh (Hotd) on a gentle slope, 6 miles west of Dunfermline. 
Its antiquated houses straggle upwards from the water-side to the hill- 
top, crowned by the venerable Cistercian Abbey and the palatial 
mansion of the old Earls of Kincardine. The climate and exposure 
of Culross are mild and pleasant. Four miles west of Culross is the 
** old-world" sea-town of KiNCABDims-oir-FoRTH (Inn) with good 
harbourage, and a ferry by which Airth Castle and Bunmore 
Park (p. 91) may easily be reached. North of the town is Tulliallan 
Castle. Alloa (p. 137) is 6 miles north-west of Kincardine- on-Forth, 
with which it is connected by rail ; and busses run regularly between 
Eancardine Station and Culross. Daily steamers to and from Leith and 
Stirling. A new line is projected from Kincardine to Dunfermline, 
with stations at Culross and Torrybum. 

Leaving North Queensferry the railway passes through a deep 
rock cutting and tunnel, after emerging from which iNVERKEiTHiNa 
Bay and Harbour are seen to the right, and the ancient town of 
that name is reached {pop. 1965; Hotel: Queen's). From here 
the railway by the coast to Aberdour and Burntisland ^ (p. 128) 
branches off to the right. It is a lovely walk, of five miles, from 
Inverkeithing to Aberdour (p. 128), through the grounds of Doni- 
bristle, a seat of Lord Moray's, 

Approaching Dunfermline a view of the Abbey is obtained to 
the left. {Route to Perth corUinued atp, 126.) 





[Hotels: City Arms ; Royal ; St. Margaret's ; ImperiaL 
FopiUation 25,250.] 

Sdinburgh (by Queensferry) 15 miles ; from Thornton Junction (p. 130) 16 miles 
Railway from Dunfermline to Alloa 14^ miles. 

is distinguished for its linen manufacture. In olden times it was 
a favourite residence of the Scottish kings, as commemorated in 
the ballad of Sir Patrick Spens — 

"The king sits in Dunfermline toun, 
Drinking the blude-red wine." 

1 Bz^ess throngh trains run from Edinborgh to Aberdeen over the Forth 
and Tay Bridges vid BunUUkmd, Kirkcaldy, CupoTt Dundee, ArbraUht and 




Malcolm III., samamed Cimtaore, wlio snoceeded to the otowd^^I 

the year 10S7i uaadlf resided in a, castle situated on a rugged pojfH 

insolar liill, wliieh continxied to be used as a royal reaidencs uitffl 

a palace was built closely adjomiiig. A fragment of tbia caatle, 

now in. private grounds, is i^till to be seen. 

The Falacb appears to bare been commeiiced early in the ]8th 
century, receiving many additiona up till tbe nccesaion of JamBs 
VI. to the crown of England. The ruina of only the south wall 
now reuiaio as a uioaument of thia cstonsive fabric, which oocupiaa 
a romantic sitaaCion. It was the birthplace of Charles I. and of 
bis aiatar Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of Bohemia, The last royal 
oconpaat was Charles II., who inhabited it in 1650 before his 
enconuter with Cromwell at Pitreavie, 3 miles southward, and it 
was here that he subscribed the National League and Covenant. 

The MoNiflTKBY of Dunfermliiie was founded by Malcolm ^ 
the instigation of his Queen, Margaret (granddaughter of Edmni 
Ironside), about the year 1075. The tomh of St. Margaret a 
hor royal eooHOrt Malcolm is still to be aeeu within 
walls of the Lady Chapel, where there are aome fine 
early 13th century decorative work. The tomb was thorougl 
repaired and eaoloaed by romniand of Queen Victoria. _ 

iflat stoaea cover tli6 graves at other aovereigna who wers buried on 
the north-eaat aide of the building, but these are now hidden u 
tiie floor of tbe new church. The laat sovereign who was interred 
■t Dunrermlios was Bobert the Bruce, who died at Cardross in 
Dninbartonshire in 1339, and, according to Fordun was buried hi 

His grave ia immediately under the lantern tower c 

1 On fb« e. 



olstioD Bruce enjol 


Douglas, the 

apmion oT bis sclti 

lire, to Odd 

to Jeroulim. 


1 deposit hia hear 

he Holy Bepulebre 


at a vow hs 

node Id formot yairs. Tli 

gallant knight 


forth. Holy Laaa Witt 

tbe beut of Ihu k 


ui, whiata Iw 

u hlB neok by n silver chain. ClrcumstancM led 
K^^Ia, when, whilst lasietlDg AlpboDSO IX. against tbe Uoon (i wiMsra at 
I '^i time held nearly In u bigb estiiDatlan u that aealnst tba Suaeeni), hi 
ni Bisin neu the MoarlBh capital of Qruiadi. His bodj, toeeUisr wttb Oh 
oueket conUloing lbs embslmed heart of the king, was conveyed to Scotland 
tmder charge of Bir William Keitii, and the Idng's heart was srterwardi burled 
St Mslmse Abbey by the Earl ot Moray. In ISIS eome norlimBn in clearing out 
the ground for the fouudo^on of the new chun^h, discovers! tbe royal tomb^ 

Itont of the prawnt pulpiti In w" ' " " " 

(Dtin. The remains were sFUr 




ctrareli. Of tlie l[ouastt'ry thcro still rumaiiiE tliu souUi and part 
of the west wall of tho fratcry, la the latter null is u very fine 

The Priory was raiwd to tha rank of an abbey by David I., but 
tlie btuldings, originally of great apUndoiu' imd vxtcDt, weie almost 
entirely ileatroyed bf the llJigHsh earl; in the 14tli Mntiuy. 

IL Boyal BuHnl-p]: 
C. Tonib of »t. Margaret. 
If.B.-The dotted L'aa 


U, Site of Ancient Abbey Crow at 

WillnFe'B Uotber'u Grave. 
E. BntmutB from Et llargaret'a Plac 

Tlie l!EI)lltrf|, iu 1360, fell a aatrifice to the hiiud leal of the eai'Iy 
BefomierB, who demolisbed all except ttie nave, which they cunverted 
into a pla^e of Freabytcriaii worship. It is of Normsn arcliitecture, and 
cDusidered a line example of that etj'le,— massive and plalii, yet lofty 
and elegant. There ia a beautiful weBtem doorway, and eome of the 
jiiers of the nave are omamenCed as In Dnrham and Peterboroagh. 
In the windows are goud Epeciuieas of stained glass, which have been 
erected from time to time ol recent yeaiB ; and on the walls a few 
interesting ancient monuinenta — a particntariy fine oiie being tiiat 
erected inl7D2 by Queen Anne to William Schaw, the king's architect. 
The nmains of tbe Ohnrch wore some years ago roofed, repaired, and 
in great part restored by Government, and placed, with the Monastery 
and FaUce, under the charge of a custodian. From the tower there 
are fine rtews, particularly of Edinliurgh and the yalley of the Fortli. 

Id the new chu]«h aome beautiful monuioeiita are erected to mem- 
bers of the family of the Bmces of Broomhnll (Enrls of Elgin). One 
of these, by Foley, to General Rotiert Brace, some tune Governor ol 
the yonng Prince of Walet, is deservedly admired. The thi'ea panels 
■re Illustrative of a journey made by the King when IMnce of Wales 
arid General Bruce to the Holy Land. In this transept there is aho a 
Hne monument by Miss Grant to Lady Augiuta Stauley, wife of Dean 
Stanley of Weatminster. 


^^^ and 
■ of tl 

The TowD-HousE (whioli conUina same interesting port 
of Sir Noel Paton's "Spirit of Religion," the 
of the artist himself, who is h native of Dunfermline), the County 
BnildingE, the Carnegie Library, and the Lauder TEolinical School 
(those two the gifla of Mr. Andrew Carnegie) are all noteworthy. 
A short distance from tho Town-House, situated in a doep git 
the partly natural cave oratory of SL Margaret, where Imdilit 
says she was in the hahit of paying private devotion. Dunfennlh 
has an extenBiTe pnhlic park, in a commanding sitastion. 

The 01 

KouTE TO Pebtu {conlinuedfrBm p. 
ntry for some way past Dunfermline contains rather Ul 

ightly coalfields and villages. From Crosagat^ Junction a 

"Ifl eastwards to Thornton Jnnction (p. 130). Proceeding north- 
Kward.s we gradually get into the more interesting and prettily 
country about Blairadam, with Benarty Hill to the ri^ht 
Blind the Cleish Hills to the left. Near Loch Leven Station a lovely 
Mtiew of the loch, lying peacefully at the base of the Fife Lomond^"" 
Bh obtained. (Soide la Perth amliniud at p. 128.) 

IBolOi: Rlrklaad's i Orsen (Hatrb's) ; Brldgeiid ■ ! 


KTNB03S, the capital of the small county of tlio sam 
pajtuatod at the north-west side of Lochleven, on the direct oUt 
' highway between Edinburgh and Perth, 27 miles from Edinbui; 
and 17 from Perth. 

There are also linos of railway from Kinross (1) eastwards thro' 

the centre of Fife from Miwcarse Junction (a few miles north of E 

. ro«s) by Auchtermuchtyto Ladybank Junction (p. 131), and (2) wett 

I wards b; the Crook of Devon and Dollar to Alloa and Stirling (p. 136). 

ha town contains 2136 inhabitants, and is well supplied with 

r'hotelB, provided principally for the aocommodation of anglers on 

the loeh. An opening on the east side of the town condacts to 

EinroBB Honse, a large neglected ediUce bnilt in ISB6 for the Dnke 

of York by Sir William Bruce, architeot of the modem jatt of 

Solyrood House, and other mansions of the reign of Charles IL 

The house, which ia now only a pii;ture.tque tragmeiit of ri ' 

is situated on a promontory (origiuHlly occupied by a stronghdj 

belonging to the Earls of Morton), and is approached by a 

avenue of old trees. 

LooBLEVEN is of an oval form, about 3J miles long by 2 b: 
Jilt aelebrated for its tront fishing, the aiie (1 to 3 lbs.) and qua 

of the fish bebjg exaelleuL Tbe eupjily baa been euppIemeuteJ by 
deposits of &7 in tlia river Gaimey and yonng trout in the iorh, 
rroiQ other Eoursea, but the Rsh are not quite so nameroiis as tiiey 
(cere. Angling soBBon,— April to September. 

Tbe fisbiuB is owned by the IiDoh1i<ven Angling A asociation, and 
the use of boats may be obtained from tbe tacksman, at stated 
charges per day or honr.' Ths river Leren fiawa from the lake on 
the east side of an artificial catting, and pursues an easterly course 
to the Firth of Forth. The vale tbrongh wLich it flows U ornn- 
mented with the woods around Lealie House, th? seat of the Rothes 
family. To the aouth of the loch are the properties of Blairadam 
and Benarty. The bills to the north-east are thn Fife Lomonde 
(1713 a) 

Upon a small island, about half a mile from tbe shore, stand the 
mins of LocHLBVBN Cabtle — B place of groat antiquity, and said 
to have been built by Congal, son of Dongart, King of the Picta. 
It was granted by Robert III. to Douglas, laird of Loi^hleven, Id 
1335 it sustained a memorable siege hy Sir John Stirling, apartiaan 
of Edward Baliol. Its chief historical interest, however, lies in its 
having been the place of Queen Mary's impriaonmant after she had 
anrrendered to the Confederated Lords at Carherry in tlia year 1567, 
and from which she made her escape, May 2, 1568. The boat is 
laid by genera! tradition to have put ashore on the lands of Coldon, 
at the aouth-ivest side of tbe lake, when the Qtiean was cnndncted 
by Lord Seton to Niddij Castle, near Wiiichljurgh. The Iieys of 
thecaatio, which were thrown into the lake, were found byayoung 
man belonging to Einrass, wbo presented them to the Earl of 
Morton, and they are still preserved at Dalmahoy, nuar Edinburgh 
(Dowager Countess of Morton). The oseapo nf the nnfortunala 
Qnean is graphically described in Sir Walter Scott's Mbat. The 
castle is now in a veiy ntinoua state. 

" Naked stand ^e Djelancholy walU, 

' For tront fiahlog, 2i. 6d. per honr, indudind odo booUnan. The othct 
boalmuD must he paid Tor bj the birei In addition. Sboidd one rod only bo 
used tbe ebarge of 3s. Inclades boUi boxtinsu. Minlmnm chsr)^ Is. Si. For 
perch tliblng iidnsively, Ix. 6d. per bour, Inclndlcg one man— ^MtnlmnDi 
ebaig*, St. For Lochleven Castle Sa., and M St. Serfs lalaod, 7s. 6d., nlth 

thrw m ^ latter. 

raid maf be obtained on application. 



And f leceiu«Al c 
Another larger talaad, name*! after St. Serf, a 
Priory, tlis Oi^t plane in Scotland given to the Ciildecs by the Piatia 

thflir ooQvereion to Christianity. The priory derived itr] 
■tmoalt from St. Moai, tha first Atliot. 


^H >Pr 

^^^^B RoiTTB TO Pbhth {dHtUitutd /rom p. 126). 

^^^^B Leaving Kinross behind, we soon rams to the villago of Milua- 
^^^^f CHoit with its pretty spire {Inn) on the leFC, and again obtain a 
pleasing view of Lochleven and the Lomoiids. Passing north irom 
Mawoarao Junction through some pretty undulating country lie 
picturesquelj-situated station of GLBir Farq {Inn) is reached, and 
ihortly afterwards enter on soma tramoadous rock enttinga and 
tunnels which continne through the beautiful and romantic pass of 
Olen Farg. The old coach road and the stream are 9eea ocoaaionally 
in the narrow wooded glen. Emerging from the last tnnnal a 
lovely prospect of the plain towards tho Firth of Tay is preaented 
bflow as ; and then we speedily descend to the Bridge of Earn, 
where our route connects with the old line through Fife (vid New- 
hnrgh, p. 131). After eroasiug the Earn another junction ia efleoted, 

P— with the Caledonian Railway from Stirling ; and shortly thoro^ 
after we arrive at the City of Perth, which is described at p. 171 



Granton (Edinburgh, p. 61) and Batntisland 


passBB ta the west of the island of Inohkeith (p. 61), with il« 
feitiUcatione and lighthouse. The railway from Edinburgh to 
Burntisland comes vi'd the Forth Bridge [p. 122) and Abeidour.^ 
BuRMTiBLAND (Forth Eotel) is an old burgh, with an excellent 
harbour, and a population of 4S4S. Above the harbour is Eosecnd 
Castle, the scene (15S3) of the amorous Cbaatelard's offence against 
Queen Mary, A fine golf-coutsa above the easteni end of the town 
has now eclipsed the older and smaller lAiJa. The railway for 
1 MlobaGl Bcuce. froiD wbom these linn sre quoWi], wssaimtiveofBiiiiien- 
wood, near Klnroaa, uid auUior ot » nomberof thoBcottiili pmphnuoa whioh 

SB 1NCBC01.H.— Aberdoor villsgo <a ntvDuilCe eea-lnthiDg 
loflaldB, Abordqnr, SUir, Forthview Temperauos, Bio.), indlW 


ircusb 11 

i spoiled by t^ 

some distance skirts tlie sea-ooist, passing Einghoni (/nn ; t>-hole 
golf-conrae), near which Aleiandor III. was killed (128e)lij failing 
over tlie ctilTs. We neict pass the manufscturing town of Kirk- 
OiLDY (pop- Zi,Q7S-~-IIoiel : George), which, with the incorporated 
suburbs of Sinolairtown and Palhhead, extends along the coast for 
nearly 2 mUcs. Id the immGdiate vicinily are the properties of 
Raith, DaDniUcr, and, 5 milea to the north, Inohdairnie Park. 
Bflf ond this are the royal burgh of Dysart, Dysart Eonw (a little 
west of the town), and Wcmyss Tillages. 

Dtbaht (jiop. 3Gfi2 ; IloCei), according to some, takes its Daine bom 
a caie on the sea-ahore, said to have been the retreat or daerlu'm of the 
Early missionary SL Serf. Similar oaves are found at Wemyss, 2 mCoa 
eistwsriU, to which St. Adrtnn and his companions resorted during 
their missionary taboocs ainoug tho I'icts of Fife. The walla of some 
of these cavos are covered with curious sculpturings, supposed to have 
been giaven hy their hands. Hear to Dysart is the Ravenaaratg at 
Scott's baUadofEoaalielle." Beside the shore-path between Oyaart 
and Wemyss; in a recess of the clilf, Is the sculptured " Prisoner of 
Chillon," carvHl by a Dyaart weaver in 1851. Wemyss Castle 
[Wamjss of Wemyss and Torrie) teems with historic associatlous. 
For thirty generations the line of Macduff, Thane of Fife, has had its 
seat here or at the oldtr and now ruined " Macduff's Castle," a Uttie 
to the east of East Wemyss. Along the shore from West Wemyss 
north -eaetward to Buckhaven are situated the caves referred to abote, 
eight or ten m number. Bnekharen (inn) and Methii {inn), two 
tbriving little seaports, me connected with Wecnyss and Tboruton 
Junction by the Wemysa and Methii rsilw&y. 

The raaiD line Irom Dyeart turns inlaod to Thornton Jtrao- 
TlON, whence, besides the little Wemyss and Methii line, the East 
of Fife branch deflects coastwards again to the town of LsVBN 
(f«p. 657?; Hotels: Caledonian and Star), near which is Durie 
House. Two miles on the way to Largo are the three "Standing 


ny to North Queenafs 

nj. ThennenilBBd 


an 01, 



rebel sen 

ualing the nave froB 

isie. Anexeunlon 








olm, whiGli Ilea 


tllO BhOK 

neieot sbbej of 



rcjunded in 1313. Tlifieiasa 




me EHiDp of buUdtn 






or the Stqartii, 

Bu-1. of Moray. 

haiULS of Donlbrietl 

f the murder of 

LherouOirul KOI 

1 of Mora 








ruverfcolthlngCp. 12! 






StoiiKi of Lundin," aupposed to mark tlie site of a battle with 
Daneo. Lasoo ia fatnouB as the birthplioe of Aleiander 
the prototype of Defoe'9 Roijinaon CrnBoe. Born in 1678. ho died 
17S1, lieing then a lientenant in the Ifavy. Ha went to sea in his 
yonth, and in the year 1703, while sailing master of the ahi;! 
" Cinque Ports," bound for the south eeaa, waa put asliora on the 
island of Juan Fernandez as a pnnishmeat for mutiny. In that 
aolitude he remained for four years, but he was at last reai^uod and 
brought to England. The cbest which he had with him in the 
island was for some time in the possession of his grandnephew, 
John Selkirk, weaycr iti Largo ; and his mlistcct was in tlie bonds 
of a gentleman in the neighbourhood. A etatne was erected to his 
moraory in the village in 1886. Above the villHge is Largo House, 
a property granted by James III. to Sir Andrew Wood, Master of 
the King's ship "Yellow EervEl," "to keep the ship in repair," 
Inland, in the centre of a beautiful bit of country, is Largo Law 
(BliS ft.), commanding a splendid view. Eastward of Largo lie the 
old bargbs of Elie {Hotels: Marine, Commercial] ; St. MomANOE, 
with its fine old Gothic Chnroh built about 1385 ; Pittbnwbbh ; 
ANBTBrTHEB, the birthplace of Dr. Chalmers, and of Tennant, 
the anthor of the poem " Anater Fair"; and Ckail (Bold: 
East Neuk) with ita old Collegiate ChuTch. At the East Neut, 
■bout 2 tnilea from Grail, is Balcomie Castle, whei« stress of weather 
eompelkd Mm? o^Oui^ie to Inml in 1536. Leveu, Largo, Elie, and 
Crailaromuehviaittdinaummer for Boa-bathing, and poaaesaesten- 
live goliiDg liiiks, and a steamer plies to Largo and Elie from Leith 
in summer. Near Elie and Goiinsburgh are the mansions of Elie, 
KOooHiiuhar.and BalcarreB,the first theproperty of Wm. Baird, Esq., 
and the latter of the Earl of Lindsay and of the Earl of Crawford 
respBctively. Towards Pittonweem lies the tine old mansion of Bd- 
□aakie (Sir Ealph W. Anstrnther, Bart). The railway is continued 
byAnstrnther, Crail, andBoarhills, toSt. Aiidrews(p. 132). There 
are imm at nearly all of these pleasant seaside towns in Fife. 

Returning to where the railway bends northward at Tbobstob 
JusonoN, whence a line leads to Dunfermline by the Orr Water 
(p. 123], we have in the ntiglibourhood of the village of Markinch 
(pop. 14BB) the old stronghold of Balgonia (where long resided the 
famoas Covenanting General Leslie, Earl of Leven], and Balbirnie 
House, the seat of the ancient family of Balfour. Three miles 
north-west of Markinch station is Falkland Koad station, from 
-whence a coaoh nma several times daily to the village of Falkland] 
^ial^at 3 mWes, Iiaa: Bruce Arms, and Oommercial. 

Falkland Palace 
_ y Jamea IIL or Jamea IV., and was comploted in 
1G37 b; Jamea Y. ; bat tlie earlier caatle, or wliicli na traca oow 
remaina, liad beea a froquent residence of Soottiali royaltj since 
the end of the fourteenth ceDtuiy. It was in this later palace 
that James V. died in 1542 ; and here, too, on ina.ny occasions, 
came Lis beautiful and Dnhsppj daughter Uarf. It was, more- 
OVBI, the favourite residence of James Vt., and was risitfld by hoth 
the Charleses, In 1654, its eaateru wing was accidentally hamt, 
perhaps during its occupation by CromweU'a soldiers ; but the 
interesting south fiout^ the oldest portion, rcmaina outwardly 
inlact. Tlie whole palace is undergoing an sjitenslve restoration, 
generoiisly undertaken by the present "Hereditary Keeper, " the 
Marqiieaa of Bute. Kiadtrs cf The Fair Maid 0/ PertA must he 
warned that the scene of the Duke of Kothesay's death, in 1403, 
was the older caatle, not the palace. In 1715 the palace was 
garrisoned by the famous Rob Roy. Falkland, a royal burgh since 
1 45S, and previously a seat of the Templars, is an citremcly quaint 
and pictnresq^OB little town. The grounds of Falkland House are 
well worth visiting. Admission by pass obtained at the palace. 

tmm TiADYBANE JuNonnN (inn) a brineh line (IS miles) rnna to 
ElnrosB, etc (p. 126), passing the olJ manufacturing burgh of Auehter- 
mnehty [kotel], and the qnaint quiet village of Strathmiglo (inn). 

In the neighbourhood of Newburgh {jxip. 1804), in the nortb- 
WBst comer of the ooun^, ii miles north of Ladybauk Junction, 
are the ruins of the Beoedictine Abbey of Lindores, fouuded in 
1178 by David, Karl of Huntingdon, brother to King William the 
Lion ; also the sonlptured stone at Mngdrum, and the pedestal of 
the cross of MacduET. On the banks of the loch of Lindores stands 
the modem mansion of Inchrye Abbey. From Newburgh the 
tajivay proceeds north-west to Febth (p. 178), which may be 
reached from Edinburgh io about 2| hours, or less, by this route. 

Five inilea east of Ladybauk Junction on the line for Ifewport 
(p. 188) and Dundee, is 

CupAB iSateU: Eoyal, and Tontine), 
the conntj town of Fireshire, oontaiuing 4511 inhabitants. A 
height to the east of the town, now crowned by the Academy 
baildings, was formerly occupied by one of the strongholds of the 
Hacdulfs. In the surroniiding country there are many line man- 
noDi, including Tarvit House, Caralogie Ciistle, Kilraaton, tiVe\ii>, 

OraJghaU, Wemjaa Hall, Nether and Over Eankeilloor, MolrflU 
Eonae (Earl of Lcven), and Crawfurd Priory. Tbe eastern portion 
of the last-named building was rebuilt by the lata Earl of Glasgow, 
and a portion of the interior converted into a ohapel, a Qothio 
tower rising from the aoutb-weat corner.' 

Dura Den, 2J milea east of Cupar, is widely celebrated for ita 
, leniarkabk fossil fish, Embedded in a stratum of sandstoDB. 

At Lbcchaks Juhotion, where paasengera change for St. Andrewa, 

iheie ia an interesting remnant of Norman church architecture. 

I ^^e chaocel and apse are among the best specimens of Norman 

■rohitecturo in Scotland, and supposed to hare baan hnilt about 

1100. Tbe nave, now Mod aa the pariah church, is modem. About 

a the east of Leuchars Junction station is the old manaion 

L of Earlshall. The great hall has a paioted ceiling, and the walls 

B Inscribed with ci 

Ls maxiras, i 

e of which runs thus: — 

» ir;t and a back di 
on makelli a rich tnu p< 

[Uottls: Rusai 
PopuUllon IB 


ne; Mnmn's Golf (at the Linis) ; ImperW! 
Aloiandra ; Hojal ; Crosa Ktja ; Slar.] 
. Twu liaurs rrom EdiobuTEh bj Rail fid Eortli BiUb«>' 
This ancient city stands upon an eminence hard by the sc 
bie bay, which opens at Fifeneas and stretuhea weatwards 
J-month of the rirer Edan, 8 miles below Cnpar, 

According to the common tradition St. Andrews becai 

»of St Kegulus, who waa aHpwreckcdon the coast about the 

d of the 1th century. The priory was erected by Bishop Robert, 

a the reign of Alexander I. (1120). The city was made a royal 

f .iurgh by David I. (IHO), and the charter of Malcolm II., 

ipon a small piece of parchment, is preserved in the Town HalL 

Tha Cstljelrral waa founded in the year 1159 by Bishop Am< 

If the I 

et Sir 





u «tat« tn tb 

a parUb at Monltn 

aU. Ul 


•Ur iuppoMd to ha« 

b«D bom Mtb sbont MM, alilougb bia proEmlton 

Jndaay. of B jraa, Haddingtonsht 

Dau.B Ltadaai 

hu been cberisbed by 

tha SMttiBh penpla with pecoU 

juige la their venisc: 

iilu dlal«:t, Id 

, >)™,j with 

tMlingB. HtB themea. 

wliils they en 

.brace aubjecta of 


interest. biTi 


ish aini. Few 

of his pieces bout of th 

e charm. Bo- 


m poetry j bnt 

grapWc Foinlliig, 


md depth of wtadom. 

iTB his pcouUar 

■quabtioa. Hlawi 


re Mid to haw 

I fttr^eKdtheReformatloninScotlaQd. "Het"eaya 
'%tgTTtnBti and John Knot only flowed the aecd." 


■— ■ 

but wM not finishBd tUl 131S. It was oda -t- 


of the largest' and mostnmgniliPL-i.l ii. Si;ot- J 

land, and Its style of aruliitet'tiir« wieius to I 


liBve been partly Nonnan an.! Early English. A 


It remained in a state of entirety imlil the .^^^ 





aermoD against Idalatt? preached by Jolin ^^^| 



Knox in the pa,ri3h church. The work uf ^^^| 


demolition has been graphically described ^^^| 

- J 

by Frofesaor Tennant in Lia amusing pocLi JK^^ 

callad " Papistry storaieU, or tlie Diugicg ^^E^| 


DoDQo'theCBthalral." Yestigi^sortlie ^kH 

Priory, which was of gr^t estent and - ^^H 


richly endowed, are still to be seen to the " yfl^H 

^^^ a 


The tower ot St. Ktgulus's Cilaiicl ^HH 


is one of the most iiiterasting relics of ^^^^H 


1 Tlie CJit)i<;i!raI is 'iroi Fthl rroiTi s A.u. to ^^^^| 

Bundaji. Botet by ■malt gila at Docth ^^H^^^^^^| 

mdotmn. iB^^^H 

-. - -^^wr -^fi^M^^H 


■IWP"" #* ■ - 1 . It 

---' — 

^ 9^tp'i 


[*lii,.^ If^^ilf 


V-N» ^^W^t^^E^ 

■5^^ '#^^^^^^5, 


1 ItaiAnaoFaT.iXDRXWBatTBEOSi^: wraiVBOTT. 




•wcleaittstical architecture at St Andrews, and ctatcB, according 
snthentic records, from flia Grat half of the 12th caututy. 
square priam of Romsneacjue order, with all the clmracter of the 
primitive style, but rising to a height (108 ft.) unpntalleied s-mong 
the square towers of the British Islands. A winding stair leads to 
the samiuit, from which there ia an extenaiva view. The stone 
iccllent a textui'e that, notwithstanding its long ezpoaure 

■ithe weather, it is still unimpaired. The choitof the chapel, 
oat of the tower, has an interesting arch. 

The Castlb. 

The remains of the archiepiscopal CastU of St, Andrawa st 
ipon a rock at a short distance narth-weat of tlie Cathedral, 
Overtooking the haj. It was founded about the year 1200 
one of the bishops of St Audrcwa, and repaired 
of the Hth century by Bishop Trail. 
Jamea III. was born within its walla (1446). On the open 
in front, the bnming of the Keformer George Wiahart took ph 
by order of Cardinal Beaton, who was himself in turn aurpf 
U)d aasassinnted within its walls by Norman Lesley and 
_ •SBOi:iatea (154S). A jeu after this the castle was partly demoli; 
■lid subsequently fell into decay. The castle grounds 

a pahlic park, and form a delightful resort on a amnmBl daju 
u the north-weat comer of the area is the bottle-shaped dungc ' 
it out of tiie solid rock, and bo placed that the miaerable prisoi 
nld hear the beating of the waves on the outer walls. 
The DsiVBBBiTY of St. Andrews— tlio oldest in Scot 
Iblinded in 1411 by Biabop Ward) aw— consists of tlii'ee col 
6t. Salvator'a and St. Leonard's, now united, and St. Mary' 
Salvator'i College was founded in 14&8 by Bishop Kennedy, bat the 
original atrueture having falli^n into decay, a grant was made by 
Fartiament for the erection of the present new class-rooms and 
other buildings of the Unitsd Collage. The original tower and the 
old Gothic Chattel still remain, the latter being nsed ita the XJni- 
TBTsity Chapel, and pariah Church of St. Leonard'a The tomb of 
Silhop Kennedy, within the church, is a piece of eiqnisite Gothic 
woikinajiBhip, though much injured by time and accidents. On 
opening it about the year 1663, six highly-omameuted silver maces 
were discovered, which had been concealed there in times of troable. 
The tops of these represent tlie figure of Christ surrounded b^ 
mngels and the iustrnmenti of his paaaion. Three are atill 
aerred in the UaiveTsitj, and one was presented to each of the c 



8T. ANDREWS 185 

time Scottish Uniyersities. AloDg with these interesting relics are 
shown John Knox's polpit, and some silver arrows inscribed with 
the arms and names of the victors at the annual archery competitions. 
Opposite the gate of St. Salvator's College Patrick Hamilton was 
martyred in 152S. St, Leonardos College j now in ruins, was founded 
by Ftior Hepburn in 1532, and stood within the Abbey wall near 
the CathedraL The ruined Chapel of the College contains some 
interesting tombstones. The name has now been inherited by St. 
Leonard's School for girls, nm on the lines of a public school, and 
one of the best known and most popular in the three kingdoms. 
8i. Mary's College occupies the site of the original Pedagogium 
founded by Bishop Wardlaw, but the present establishment was 
completed by Archbishops James and David Beaton, and their 
sncoessor, Hamilton, the last Roman Catholic Primate. On 
the north side of the quadrangle is the University Library, 
containing upwards of 120,000 volumes, and on the west are 
the divinity hall and Principal's house. At a parliament held 
in the lower hall of the library. Colonel N. Gordon, Sir Robert 
Spottiswood, and other prisoners taken by the Covenanting 
army at the battle of Philiphaugh, were tried and sentenced to 
be beheaded for their adherence to the royal cause. The axe by 
which they were decapitated is still kept iu the custody of the 
town-clerk of St. Andrews. 

The Madras College^ a higher class school, was founded in the 
year 1832 by the late Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell, Prebendary of West- 
minster, and for many years chaplain of the Orphan Hospital, 
Madras, who left the munificent sum of £60,000 in 3 per cent 
stock for its endowment Dr. Bell was a native of St. Andrews, 
and originator of the monitorial system. The buildings, which 
are elegant, stand on the site of the Blackfriars Monastery, and 
the fine old monastic chapel still retains its position within the 
grounds. The fees being nominal, the institution offers many 
advantages ; the number of scholars averages about 250. 

The Parish Church, erected in 1800 on the foundation of an 
older stmcture, contains a lofty monument of white marble, erected 
in honour of Archbishop Sharpe (Episcopal Primate of Scotland), 
who, in revenge for alleged oppression, was murdered by some of 
the exasperated Covenanters on Magus Moor, 3 miles west of the city. 

St. Andrews contains some antique houses, once occupied by 
persons of rank, and the West Port, a massive ancient gateway, 
and laige portions of the Abbey walls, still remain entire. 


The Idnks afford the beat si 

a Scofland for the gHma of golfl 

t favoured 

derotees of the untional game, and is quite ideutihed with it. The 
comiQodioas elab-hoQse of the Koyal and Ancient Oolf Club (ersuted 
in I8G3) is situated in Golf Place, at the eastern extremitj of the 
Linka. In ths vicinity of St Andrews ia Mount Mulville, th« 
residenua of the late G. J. Whyte- Melville, the novelist 

There is a pleasant shore-path enstwarjs from tba town to 
"Spindle Roclt." The const towns of Fife (p. 130) naay 
reoohed from St. Andrawa,^ — by rail viii BoarhiOs, or by road. 
Some of thflm may also be renched from Edinburgh in an inespen- 
tare fashion by the aid of the " 6allouay " steamers sailing from 
the West Pier, Leitb, to Elie, Metliil, and Aberdour, aa well oa 
round the Basa Kock, and to North Berwiek, and up the Firth toi- 
the Fortb Bridge, Ba'uess, Culross, Kincardine, Alloa, and Stirling 
"(Time Bills from M. P. Galloway, 2i Shore, Loith.) 


From the County of Fife int may twio convenienlly pass baek If 
Stirling (pp. 86-B3) through Ike inlervening eoaiiliu of Kinron 



I Jrom Stirling to the Vale of Devon can be traverw-d by rail H 
I. We pass "The Hill Foots," Alva, Dollar, Castle OampbaH 
Enmbling Bridge, etc. This ronte slcirts tho base of the OrJiUI 
Hills, and ia very popular. 

'o aaeend Dnn-niyat Hill, the moat picturesque of the OohU# 
(1375 ft.), walk to Blnirlogie, %\ miles. Passing np through thi' 
Tillage tho top is reached in two hoiira, or by tho back of old 
I togie chnrth the ascent ia not so difllciilt. 

For Ben Ciench, the highest (2363 ft.), train to Alva, 7 miles; 

■scending by the glen, the top can be reachod in S horn's. This _ 

f one of the most pipansivo and impressive views im Scotland, ^ 



Clackhankah [Ilolela : Roj^ Oak ; Coimtj. Pop. 1605). Hera 
tliei« u a 15t!i century Tower Kiid aa old Cross. Alloa (Bottl: 
RojalOak. /'nfi. 14,458), tliachief towuof [hetountj. iJJiuilciHWnt 
of Cl&ckmajiDaii, la a seaport of coneiderable trade ntid rnann- 
Stares, and a hirreditnry fame for tbe brewiog of good sle. Cloee 
b; are the modem mandoD-bauw of Alloa (Earl of Mnr and Eellie) 
and the remains of the anoient mansion of the Eurlit of Mar, with 
a conaiderablv strelch of ]>leaaure-grDQDd decorated with ujcestral 
tresH, which was laid out, in his gentler moods, by that turbulent 
ambitious Earl who headed tbe rebGllton of 1716. The sqaara 
grim rtana of old Ckckmannaa Tower stands coiiopienoiisly on a 
windy hill, 2 miles B. of Alloa. Tiita tower claims association 
with King Hubert Bruce, and it certainly was an abode of the 
Brace*. Kincardico- on- Forth [p. 123) ia 6 miles 8.E. [rail). At 
Alloa conjiuence the windings called the " Links of Forth." Tlieae 
windings form a great number of pcniDsulaa of very fertile soil, 
hence the old rhyme— 

" A birdihip 0* the bannle Link* o' Forth 
Is botMr Ihno M eMWoai o' tbs North." 

The distance by land from Alloa to Stirling Bridge is only C miles, 
whiieby water it ia 12. In Bumner thtre is daijj steamer connec- 
tion with Leith and Stirling, and the Ferry Steamer plies hourly 
between Alloa and South Alloa. The Forth is crossed at Alloa by 
a railway bridge ;' and there ia a line from Alloa to Dunfermline 
(Pl 123). A littls to the westward of Alloa is Tullibody House, 
Sir Ralph Abercromby was born here, and is buried in Che old ohnrch. 
TtLLlcoULTRY (Crown Hold) is a thriving manufacturing town 
of 3SltS inhabitants, at the fnot of Ben Clench [p. 136) ; and 4 mihis 
west, AiiVA {pop. 4624), readied by rail from OamhuE station, is 
now a place of considerable manufacturing importance. It has a 
good hMel, and near it is Alva douse. 

Dollar (pop. IBID) and Oastlk OAMPBELt. 

At the distniico of other 3 miles is the town of Don,An (Hotel: 
the Oastle Campbell], where tliere is an academy fomided by Captain 
John Macnab, a native of the parish, which supplies an excellent 
education. The cost of the building was £10,000, and the estab- 
lidiment is furnished with an endowment amounting to £SO,000. 
1 By tliiB bridge a lino connects wllb Larbert Junction (p. BE). 


Cabtlb,, called of old " The Castle of Gloom." IooImjI 
. on tlie village from the top of a high mid almost insnlati 
The pttthwB7 bj wbiuh it ia reached commences abont hi 
pimile to the north of Dollar, and extends for a mile and a ' 
f A remarkable narrow cot into the facB of the rock U 

'i Score, in memory of B wild freebooter, whose exploits ■ 
o have been Tery wonderful At the top of the Seaca ii 
nrin, with which the name of John KnoK is aasociuted. Knoi 
Bomo time at Oistle Campbtll as tlis guest of . 
"fourth Earl of A ryvll. 

( ' Ths arehitectnre of the castle is almost as remarkable as t)ie ai 
lot an air of great strength, but the other portiouH n 
^dentl; light, elegant, and decotited. There ia a nohle hall n 
Jbbed yanlting. This castle was a paaapssioii of the Argyll familji' 
Dthoogh distant from their Bemi-regal territories iu Argylt- 
It Buffered, along with the neighboaring village, for its 
Vnarship in the great civil war. The personal and politicaii^ 
nintosity of Montrose against the Marquis of Argyll, and ponibl;' 
" a i«sentment for the destmction of the " boiiuie Hoaie o' AiTlit) 
i Mm, on hhi way tfl Kilayth, to dsatroy tliia magnificeti 
J munaion. Earl; in this century Caatle Camplwll was uJk 
» Craufnrd Tait, Esq. of Harviestonn, father of the late Archbiaht^ 
tfHialerbarj: It is uuw the residence of Allan Ferguson, E 


Foar miles east of Dollar the river makes several romautio falls, 
the first of which is at 

The Rumbling Bridge. 

The groands at the Rambling Bridge Hotd ^ are oi>en to strangeni on tlie follow- 
ing terms :— Parties picnicking Is. each, passing visitf^rs 6d. The grounds 
are closed on Sundays to all but those living in the hotel. 

Here the stream has cat for itself a deep cavernous }iath through 
a barrier of the Ochils. Rocks, shining witli wet, or covered with 
a matting of creeping plants kept green by the spray ; trees, some 
old and rotting, others in their fresh youth, and at intervals, deep 
down, the white ravings of the furious river — such are the objects 
seen amid the din and hollow roaring which liave suggested the 
epithet applied to the bridge. Of the other Falls, the next is The 
DeviTs Millf which may be reached by a footpath close to the edge 
of the river. About a mile below is The Cauldron, and into it 
pours a splendid waterfall. At two bounds the river clears its 
way into the vale below. Friction and the force of water have bored 
many round holes in the basaltic rock. Such a hole being in 
SootJand known as a Cauldron ; one of the holes, very large, is 
at the stage between the two falls, where the stream makes an 
eccentric gyration before taking its second leap. ''The clear 
winding Devon " is the subject of a beautiful lyric by Burns. 

From the Rumbling Bridge it is 13 miles over the Ochils (good driving road), 
by Glen Devon and Glen Eagles, to Blackford (p. 175). 

The Baflway continues east by Crook of Devon and Fossoway to Kinross (p. 126). 

For farther Tours from Stirlirig see p. 142. 

Thefbllowlng Tours to Aberfoyle, The Trossachs, Loch Tjomond, etc., may be 
made from Edinburgh or Glasgow in one day, returning in the evening. 

Lake of Menteith and Aberfoyle. 

From Stirling by the Forth and Clyde Railway, or direct from Glasgow. Those 
desirous of only visiting the lake leave at Fort of Menteith station, 4 miles 
from hotel at lake. 

The railway from Stirling to Balloch follows the south side of 
the river Forth, and commands pleasant views. About 5 miles on 
Blairdrummond Castle and old Coldoch House are seen across the 
Kincardine Moss to the right. Farther on, on the left, is Boquhan 
House and Glen. The Lake of Menteith is about 3J miles from 

^ A cave was discovered m the grounds of this hoteL It has been named 
the " Hector Maceachin Gave," as having been the retreat of a 3aeo\>Y\A ot ^Xx'aXi 
nmeio J74& 


L Not' 


B.UeDteith station. It is a drcuW sliett of water alKmt 7 miles mI 
Ktircuml'erelice and of tonsiderable beauEy. It is sesn to most M^| 
Bwitage ou a atlta siimmer aveinug, wliac the Hunlight gilda tt^| 
^Bjouutaic aides, and i^aata streaks of li^ht thioogh the msB^riB 
Bb%ea into the recesses of the inlands witti their greenery and miai^l 
HThese two interesting islajids, Tslli and luelimahome, may bgl 
Kviaited liy boat from the Hotel at Fort of Menteith, situated 
KjA the lake side 4 miles from the railway statiou. Talla, c bB 
■"TTia Eari," containa ths mined fortalice of the great Earls oM 
■Menteith, which was Dccupisd down to the r^nod of the RerolttJ 
Kfion. The ruins consist of a ntrong square tower, with parasiticolH 
■buildings, hut possess no architectural peculiarity. V 

I Enriimaljonw, or the Ide of Rest (and mora perfect aeclnaian aaDno|fl 
be conceived), contains the remains of monastic ruioa of Early EngllslM 
or First Pointed BrchitEctnre with lancet windows. The westam doctJ 
Is richly mouMcil and sculptured. In the chuir are a crypt, a piscina, J 
and other uanal adjuncts of a medieval church. There is also a tA-fl 
cnmbent moniiinent of two figures, male and female, cut out of Dn^| 
large stone. The church waa fonnded by Walter Cumyng, Earl CjH 
Menteith, second son of William, Earl of Buchan, l>om ahout IlSfkfl 
The monastery was endowed at a later period for Augu'itine monks^| 
wsa dependent on the Abbey of Cambuskenueth ; and both pacee^| 
after tha Reformation, as a temporal lordship, to the Earl of Mar. "V 
It WHS Ifl this little Island that Queen Mary, then a cbUd of tlv^M 
waa conveyed aft^r the disaatrous battle of Pinkie, to be safe ttom tlu^| 
" rough wooing " of the English king on bsbalf of his eon ; and hflr>T 
she lived with her " tour Marys " — Mary Beaton, Mary Seaton, Mary ■ 
Uvingstone, and Mary Fleming — till next year she went to France u 
pmniiaed bride of the Daaphln. A summar-houDa and hawthom-trea 
are shown near the margin of the lake, as objects in which she took 
delight. The chestnut-trees on the island aie of great size and antiquity. 

At the east end of the lake is Kednock House ; adjoining it iU 
Cordross, and farther to the west Gartmore, 

The road from Lake Menteith to Aberfojle (E miles) condnch 
among dreary uplands which shoot forth from the Grampiai 
The desolate character of the track stretching from the Clyde 
the edges of these motmtains, is admirably described in Sob Bo]/,^ 
Not doomed, like him, to find a willow wand before the door as m J 
iblem that the place was tabooed, the tourist will be glad i9?fl 
the respectable hotel, where, under the auspices of ^ 
Bailie Nicol Jarvia and his renowned feat, he will liii^ 
Tory different reception from what the travellers ou that eTentW 
'itlomii in the primitiTe hostelry of their day. (See Heb Rog,.^ 
Iter* niiL -xtriii.) 


Therailway toBnlloch (p. 333) proKeeda south-west irii! GartDesa, 
Drymen, on tlie Emlriok Wntar (p. 155), Iim, H miles from Locli 
Lomond, sud CaMurian. 

AberfoVle (tee mnp, p. 154), 

ISottl : •■ The Buj'lir Nieol Jurvie."] 
By Ran ; from Stirling abont I hour ; from QlanKow, direct, ibout 3 houw bjr 
Hia BInna Valley liailway pW Lsiiuoitown aud KiUeflru. Jiiuctlou at 

By the eitonaion ot tba Blane Talley EailwBj and its jnnution 
vitli the Forth and Clyde line, this tract nf couutry has hean very 
mncli opened up. Aberfoylo occupias a rather striking situation at 
the haae of Craigmore, an ahrnpt hill 1271 ft. high, haiVing the sullen 
Forth (Avon Dhn or Black Water) ronning in front. CraigiDore 
and the Fsiries' Enowe, a heightoflosser elevation, sHbnl Bob Tiewe. 
Aberfoyle fomiB a good centre for either angler or SKcutsioniBt 

Abehpovlb to the Thossachs. 
From Afaerfoyle the Trosaaclis and Loch Katrine moiy be visited 
by meant of a road ooDstniated (at the expense of the Duke ot 
Montroao) aiiross the shonlder of Craigmora. The mnking of this 
Toad WB8 a work of some engineering difficulty and eipenss (over 
£3000), Its length to Achray Bridge, where it joios the old Trossaoha 
road, is EJ miles. AfttT an ase*iit, at times eiceeJingly steep, of 
about 2 milea from Aberfoyle, the alate-quarries of the district 
are passed. For half a mile beyond this the gradient increases, 
atilU a height of 760 ft. is attalDuiI, from which there is a 
magnificent view of Loch Achray and the Trossachs. For half a 
mile or so farther the road descends towards the head of Locfa 
Achray, whore it joins the road from Callander (p. 143). 

ABBKcorLB TO Stbonachlachar, B¥ Loona Ard ano Chon, 
From Aberfoyle up the rallay to 3trl>natklacli!i/r, at the head of 
Looh Katrine, is a walk of 12 miles (the road quite practicable to 
ojclists, though somewhat rough) through charmiug scenery ; and 
the Erst few miles are raniicrad doubly interestlug by their 
asBooiation with aoniB of tlie most Stirling passagas in Jiab Eoy. 
\t was up this narrow valley that Captain Thornton's regiment, 
guided by "tha Dougal ctealuro," advanced until they were 
arrested by the impoaiiig figure of Helen Macgregor. Looh Aao is 
raathed at 2 miles from Aberfoile. It is 2^ miles long by about 
half a mila wide. Near iW southero shore are Eiiean Oorm, " The 


Green Isle," and ths ruins of a csatle ; while abave its north. ~ 
weatsTn eitremitj are tie Falls o^ Lbdabd (4J miles From Abo^— 
foylfl). They fonn the scene of Osbaldistone's farewell t 
M»cgregor, B,nd the setting to Flora MaolTor's song— 

"There Is mist on the moiinlBJn, and nigbt on the isle, 
Bat man iaii la the sleep ol the eons of the Gael."— Soc 

Two milea np the TBilloy from Lnch Ard, the lower eKtcomlfy-BJ 
Lomi Chon (pronounced almost aa Can) is reached. 

Three miles more from the nppor end of Loch Chon, i 
stiff hill to diamouut cyclists, brings one to Sironaehlachar, a 
the margin of Loch Eatiiuo. 

STIRLING ra thj 
Sail, 18 mila; 

iUs; Total, SS miles. 

' etlr1ii«(Ra!Q.— Brid^ofAllanSiDlles-, DDohlnnefi; DatuieS}; 
(Boad) Kilmahog ToU— take road oa left— H mUe ; emus L 
CoIUntOBle Port 2i : Lnch Vononclisr i ; Diinoraggaii fl ; Br 
LaDh Auhnf r : Tnissantaa Holel S} ; Loch Kitriiie Sf ; EStroi 
LoohArklet 19; Invenuid Hotel (Loch Lomonil} :i. 
On leaving Stirling by this route we cross tha river Forth, and from 
the wide Htrath which succeeds ohtain a fine view of the Highland 
mountains on one side, and of the Abbey Craig end Wallace 
Monnioent on the other. After a short iiitervnl wo arrive at tllfl _ 


f ^/ 

\ I 



U* JB-/a.o}s „t\ n 

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\,.. P' 


^l,^ «^ar 

\^ a^er^ 





"i, \^ \j^ 

"■■^^^ W(f™' 

55A /io„. 









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This Scottish Leamington, with Stirling aa its Warwiolt, owes its 
repute to a saline spa, and atill mote to a mild and equahle winter 
climate eojojed through its position on tlie sheltering nlopen of 
the Ocliile to the nortli and east. 

From the Station, one goes up to the bridge, whence the chief 
stnet runs towards Stirliug. The Pump-Room and its grounds 
are in the higher part uudeithe finelj-wooded slope of the hill. At 
this not very pretentions hurhaus, for a small charge one maj 
read the papers and drink the waters, which are Dot enticing in 
flayonr, but claim to be all the more effective. Adjoining is a 
Bowling Breeit, a favourite resort of Scottish citizens. Bridge of 
Allan baa now a fairly good 9-liole golf-course. The Ma^ariaH* 


I Jfuaeum IB anatlier public institution, foiindi?!! Iiy b. local <x^H 

U, CloBo to the Pmnp-Room ia the ffydropaOi/k, one of those larga 

^MwwKmg 80 popular in Scotland. There would be plenty of room 

niere in the tourist season, which is not that of Bridge of Allan 

I iteaait ; and AmeriMiis would probably find themaalveB more at 

home in this estsblisiimeDt, with its fined daily chatgoa, tlian in 

the liotels of Stirling, so easOy reaohed by rail or tram. (Qii/aw 

Is.) Tlie inimediate neighbourhood is very attractiye. It has 

aeveral fine private parka, admisaion to which ia usually granted 

L -Du ono afternoon in the week. 

■ Nenrly Z miles on tiie way to Stirling, a road tnrns up over the 
L'-Ovhils. Soma 2 milea farther, an the right of this road, comes 

■ 'the " Wishing Gate," where one oan get on to the moors, and ill 
fclmtont IJ mile Teach the top of Danmyat, already mentioned. The 
Byroad mounts in 2 tuilGa more to the scene of the battle of SheriiT- 
Ltnntr, the Culloden of 1715, commemorated by a railed stone not Ear 
Bifrom the little inn. This ia above Dvmhlane, the next station, to 
fcwhioh there is a very pleasant hour's walk from the Bridge by a. 
H^th along " the banks of Allan Water," as also by a good driving 
Kpiad tbroogh a charmingly wocded glen. 

■I The railway runs on the other aide of this stream, and soon ■ 
Btatters Perthshire. ^ ^ ■ 

^ DcNBLANB {pop. 2516). \ 

Rgoltt.- StitUng Anns; Hydropathic, finely sitnsted on rising gioand. Hu ^ 
K' alectrm light baths, also Russian, brine, Nauheim baths, oto.] 

I The chief feature of Dunblane is its CTatfietiTal, wMcfa was 

nestored in 13S8-92, almost entirely at the cost of Mrs. Wallace 

Kof Glassingall, the architect being Dr. Rowand Anderson. The 

Bvlie^« Cathedral ia now used as the parish clrareh. 

H Foanded by David I. in 1140, the Cathedral was graduall/ enlarged 

f and beautified during the fuTu following centuries. It consists of a 

nave with aisles, choir, chfl.pter-houB6 (or ladj-chapel !), and a square 

12th-centHiy tower | the last being early Norman, and resembling 

the ohnrch-towera of Dunning, Mnthitl, Bt. Andrews, ancl Marliinoh. 

Hie rest of the building ia In the Early Pointed style of tbe beginning 

of the ISth century ; tbe nave being ISO ft. long by B8 ft. broad 

and 60 a tigb, and tbe choir 80 by 30 ft The west window, in the 

form of a "forest leaf," was greatly admired by Ruskin. The choir 

contains a number of oaken stalls of the Ifith century, with 

tabernacle work and miEercres, white in a recess of tbe wall ties the 

Mme-worn pffipy of a bishop ; and the three slabs of blue niorbla 

the tloor mark Qie graves of "Bonnie Margaret Drammond" and 

tTathallaii uid Strath earn, 
of tbc BtirliBge of Kippendavie snd of OstiIsd. 
corner standa ui ancient Caltio cross, 6^ feet liigli, with hnlf-obllterated 
animal emblema. The oaken roof is entirely new, and is emblazoned 
with the anna of the Scottish and later Britiah sovereigns, and of the 
ancient earla of Stralheam, the Catheiiral'a greateat benofaotors. The 
wliidowa are all filled with transpateat cathedra! glass, aaifntiing the 
building with a clear light. (Admissioti to visitors: 10 to 5 f.h., 
Ist April to 30th Seplamher ; and 10 to 3 P.M., !at October to 31rt 
March ; Satnrda,ja 10 to 5. Fee Si.) 

The iaoUted building, with outside stair, on the left hand aa one 
enters Cathedral Square, containa the LH/rary of Arohbiahop Leighton, 
Bishop of Dunblane, 1662-73, For key apply to the BagiBtrar, beside 
Scboolhouse. (ITo fee). Only the titles of tbe 1200 volumea can be 
re&d tbrough the wire netting of the casea. and those desiring to eon- 
att the bookt should write previously to the Kegiatrar. 

e charming lieech Tree Walk leads from the \ia\,e\ Vn 'l\it. 


Bridge of Allan through the groundBof Kippenrosa by the fiapar-niill 
and wfltaraide, 'every day open free by tiie Itiudneaa of the propriator, 
Mrs. Stirling. Abont a iiiilo and a half to the noith-eaBt (rf 
Dunblane the battle of Sberiflmuir or Dunblane was fought, in 
1715, between the Earl of Mar (for the Pretender) and the Kojal 
forces under the Duke of Arftyll- Tlio muir ia now fiartly covered 
with fir plantatioiiB ; but a railed stona, called "tlie battle-atone," 
marks tlie ecece. There is a drovers' inn close by. 

The Roman camp at Ardouli, 8 niilea north from Dunblans, ia 
described at p. ITS. From Dunblane the main line to Pitrth pro- 
ceeds N.£. ; while the branch to Callander crosses from the banks 
of the Allan to those of the Teith, and enters oil the auenery of tho 
Lady of the Lake, which commences Gtly with the village of 

DOUKB {Hotels: Woodside. and Tomiierance. Pop. 930) 
where the TtiCh ia spanneil Liy a noble bridge, the work uf una who, 
though by craft a tailor, waa truly a noble in heart. An inacrip- 
tion panelled in the left parapet, and transcribed more legibly on 
tbe other side, tcUa us that "in the year of God 1635, founded waa 
thia bridge by Robert Spittel, tailor to the meat noble Princaas 
Margaret, aponse to Jamea IV." Along with the narrative he 
boldly blazons a pair of scissors en aaltier. There ia a i^uaint air 
about the village, which contains, besides the Pariah and Free 
Churches, Episcopalian Church cloaa to the Woodside Hotel, and 
United Presbyterian Church at Bridge of Teith, good ahopa, and 
several branch banks. 

Abont half a mile below the bridge, on a peninsula fonned. by 
the junction of the Ardoch burn with the Teith, stands the Old 
Castle of Doune, still a majestic pile, with its two massive square 
towers, its machicolations, tnrrsts, and high embattled walla. Moat 
striking of all is the fine commanding site, over which the trees 
lining the steep banka of Teith spread their green foliage. The 
late Earl of Moray spent a large sum in partly restoring the Castle, 
which ia now open to viaitotH. (Small fee to custodian.) 

Its own incidental Liatory ia thus recorded by tbe minister of the 
parish, in bia atatiatical Aceonnt : — " It seema to be unquestionable 
that the Knight of Snowdnon had slept at Doune Castle on the night 
previous to the chase ;" and wa aball not gnmsay him. But there are 
events connected with it fnlly more distinctly aacortained. Murdocli, 
Duke of Albany, who governed the country when Jamea I. was a 
prisoner in Eugland, possessed this stronghold, and probably built it. 
The young king, when be returned, overwhehned the whole family of 
Alhuiy with fatal vengeance for the ambitton wbicb they had atioim ; 



tad Uu old gavemor bimaelJ waa executed on tbe caatlB-hill of Stitliag, 
Irliaiiee lie could see the towers of hL< oivii semi-regul fottresa. it 
becamo sabHeqnontlf a. royal reflideixcB ; and tha uamea of fieveral 
quBena of Scotland, indnduig Queen Mary, iu« mentluued as having 
been its inmates. Tbe reader of Waverley msj' remember tbat Douiie 
GaEtle %ureii there as a foitress, nitb a jauitur and a goTemor, Donald 
Stewart, " LiButeiiaat^Colonel In tbe Bervlee of bis KoyaJ Highness 
Princs Charlea Kdward." It was natural tbat the Jacobite armj 
ihoold make the most of it, for it was fcr some time liie only fortallce 
which tbef preserved in Seotlaud. Here John liouie, the autbor al 
Douglas, was actuaUy a prisoner in their bands, and performed an 
acbievemant for which he ever aftttrwards demned himself entitled to 
aasnniH tbe air of a great warrior. Home |jad been a Tulunteer, and 
was taken prisoner at tbe battle of Falkirk. With Qve others be was 
sbat up in a chamber sufficiently tar from tbe ground to render escape 
nnlikelif. Instigated, bawsTer, by the adventurous spirit of tbe poet, the 
prisonen twisted their bod-clothea into ropes, and descended one by one. 
Donns CVtle, once the home of "tbe bonnle Earl o' Moray " {alaiu 
1502}, has long been the property of that noble family, who derive ham 
it tbe secondary title of Lord Donne. Tbe family have now a smaUer 
and more convenient mansion (Donne Lodge) about a mile to tbe 
nmtt-wBst On the upper side of the river to tbe south lie the fine 
gronsds Of Sliur Drummond, a seat of Lleut.-Col. Stirling Home 
Dntmmond ; ajid Deanaton House and Mills. 

Prooaediog along the northern bunk of tbe river Teith, we see, 
on the opposite side, Lanriok Castle ; uid 3 miles farther we pass 
OambuBmare (J. B. BailLie Hamilton, Esq. of Amprior), where 
Sir Walter Scott spent several summeia during his yoath, and from 
whence he wandered beyond the Highland line into those scenes 
which became imprinted on his memory.' Through the plantations 
of Cambusmore the Eelty, a wild mountain-stream, which farther 
up forms the falls of Bracklinn, makes its way towards the Teith. 
Adjoimng Cambusmore ia Gart (C. J. C. Douglas, Esq.), which wa« 
loiig the Highland resort of the late Lord John RusselL Just befort 
irriTing at Callander there may be seen near the river u, grassy 

1 Hebuhiniselfglviuiaalu^tchofthemDreluUniBtiiigoliJectscutLlatauM- 
" Along thy banks, awUt Teltli I they ride. 




ie HooFs strike 



tbroqgti Ochtertyte ; 


and disappear 










possibly a natural fonnatioii. 

[HeWi : Dfoadntnighl, A 



Goir, tflnolB, Bud fiahiiig an til arailable wtthin the iDimedlate Doig^bonr- 
Hood of tho yillfigo, fit very moderato diargfls. Theflshhig In LochaVeonach&r, 
Ach»)', nod LubnaiB in fi-se ; bub boats an leqnired. Tickets for Sshiug Is 

trifling cliarge. 

This meetiiig-iilaee of Highlands and Lowlands on the banks of 
the Teith bas over IBOO inhabitants, largely recruited in aummet 
by holiday guests. It is situated at the foot of Ben Ledi, and 
forms a. good teotro. 

Among the favonrite sights of Callander are the Falla of Brack- 
linn (which signifies the apedclid or vihiie fomniTig pool) aboot 2 
miles to the north-east, and reached by a pathway commencing at 
the east end of the Tillsge. These falls consist of a series of 
shelving rapids and dark linns, formed by the liver Eelty, whioli 
leaps from a bank of red sandstone, among great masses of roelc 
beneath- A tustie bridge has been thrown over the chasm, wbere 
the brook precipitates itself from a height of 50 ft. 

Pedestriani may cross the hills to Comrie (16 miles) by ascending 
the Kolty Glen, and descending to "lone Glen Artney's haiel shade." 
In the descent " Unm Var " is to the right, Ben Voirlioh to the left 
From Callander to Oban by rail, see p. 159, 

Callander to thb Thobsachb (9 miles)- 
Starting from Callander by coach, we proceed westwards, passing. 
St Andrew's EpiHcoi>al Church and nnraeroua villas. On the right, ■ 
bcaDtifully situated, stands Leny House (J. Buchanan Hamiltot^ 
Esq-). At Eilmahog we turn to the left, crossingthe river Leny by 
KilTnahog bridge. The road winds along the side of Ben Ledi. On . 
the top of a spur of the mountain lies a large boulder called 
"Samson's Putting-stone," ready, apparently, to roll down at tha 
slightest touoh. On the neighbouring height of Dnnmore are the 
remains of a British fort, with three lines of ditches and roounds. 

I Bi'n Ledi b b Gnelic Dame, said io aienl^ " the hill of God," ind to hive 
orlglQat«d in the BelbuD in jaterioa vblcli used to be celebrated on its siiiDmll. 
U> belgbt li 1ST5 ft., and the mcent (which 1h buj) is EeDemllf msde rrom 
FDrtncUu, on the rlgbt side o[ Loch Venoachlr. 31 mili» dieUnt. Then in 
roBgh prveipiaa on the eutem fii4B tonpjils Loch Lnbnuig, ud t^M mon 
B>F7sidablt rackM OB ibe cortiiam ^nra of the niauDLain- 



lomH mow f 

On the nght is the BnuH fHrm of Coilanti^Ie, and in the hollow, 

w obliterated by modam water-works, was the CoilanlogU Ford 

of the "Lady of the Lake," where Roderick Dha challengea Fitz- 

I James to single combat. Loch Vennachar, which soon comes into 

I about 5 miles long and 1^ bread. There are roads on both 

sides, but the coach takes that on the north, the other being 

'ailnbla for cairiages only as far as Invertrossaclia House. A little 

to the woat of Inrertroaaachs lira a bonny amall loch called Drunkie. 

On the left of the road near the head of Loch VenuDchar is 

I Lanrick Mead, a flat meadow which was the gathering-greand □{ 

I the Claji-Alpine. Slanting up at this point, we come to the 

J thoaticg-box of LomriiA Lodge, after which the view towards the 

I Trosaaoha opens ant. The site of "Duncraggan's hnta" lies non 

ic left hand, near the old Bridge of Michael, while ou the right 

I ia the hamlet of Bridge of Tur^, with schoolhouse and poEt-office. 

I Theto commences here an intereflting path up the pictureaquely 

l> vooded GleaGnlas (the scene of Scott'a ballad), belonging to the Earl ol 

I Moray. The pftth cootiniiei np Uic easteni main bntnDli of Glen F 
[ths Alt MoanD) and crosaea the mouDtaiiis—wiUi Ben Vans o: 
riglit— to the loner part ofGleo BucMe and to BalqaUdder and Kiti| 
liouae Itm in Strflthyra (p. IHO), 18 milaa from Bridge at Tnrk. 
V Close upon tliis we cidbs tlia Briilge of Tnrk, and cDntinna along 
,llle margin of Acli my, aluoh afplHuid beauty, On tlie right is GIsq- 
^raack Housb, and fiictlivr, on tlie left, are the TrossiLcba Mam 
It la the way vith rapid ezonrsioiiists to take ouly the brief n 
aRbrdeil here fot lun<ihean ur other meal, and then to retniuie the o 
JDDrney to the pier (1^ m. farther on) at the lower end of Loch Ksti 
n-^EUH a email steamer airaits to oury them on to StrouBclilBahar, t 


the npper end u( that louli. From StronachJachsr one can proceed at 
once by cooeli to luiKTsmiid, on tiie Iwnks of Uoeb Lomon^l, and 
Uietice by Rifiamer And railway cantinne tbe day'a tonr to its temtinA- 
Won St Edinburgh or Glai^w. But to do thia ia only to obtain a 
passing glimpse of awnery which teemii with interest to avery reader 
of tbe norela and the poetry of Sir Walter Soott, Bad which, far its 
own intriniio beauty, has called forth the delighl«d praise of Worda- 
worth, Coleridge, Smollett, aiLd a host of other wrilcrs. 

The traveller who halts here has " Hotson's choice " of hostelry, 
which in the present case, liioltily, leaTes Uttle to ha doairtd. The 
Tnasachu Hotel is a large and excellent modern ohk, with such 
minor adrantagea aa a tennla-green, telegraph and po^t-nRice, and 
a flotilla of boats on Looh Aohraj (or the use of visitors. The 
fishiag is free and the trout are plentiful, averaging abont three to 
a pound. The toch also contains Balmon-tront, pike, and perch. 
But even if one catch nothing, he can And nothing moro (.'harming 
tlian to row out into the middle of the loch on a calm auoimer 
evening, and resting on his oars, survey the billowy range of wooded 
knolls that form "The Trosaachs," and, rising high above thera, 
the " forehottd bare " of Ben A'an. Several lielightfnl rambles and 
excnrsioDS maf be made from the hotel, such aa to Aberfof le and 
Loch Ard, Glenfinlaa, etc., and the neighbouring locha may be 
explored by small boats. The pyramidica! peak of Ben A'an (1750 
feat) is very well worth climbing. It may be noted, aa a matter 
of special interest to American visitors, tbat Nathaniel Hawthorne 
stayed at the Tirfflsaohs Hotel in July 1857 (sea hia Eaglish Note- 
Books, ToL ii. pp. 303-308). 

A» may be supposed from its i\r.e and appointments, the 
Trosaacha Hotel ia not for all pnrses ; but the only place in the 
vicinity where lodgings may be looked for, is the Brig o' Turk 
hamlet, which, to aome extant, lays itself out for such acuom- 

The remarkable defile called the Trosaachs (meaning "bristled 
territory ") extends from the hotal to nearly opposite Ellen's lale 
m Loch Katrine, a distance of about 2J miles. From the hotel to 
Looh Katrine pier, a distance of 1 mile, a well-made road traveraes 
the doll, with its rocks and profaso vegetation, recalling vividly 
the descriptian given in the Lady of t)ie Lake when the hotly- 
puraued stag 

His aolltary refngo took,' 
fcj-James's gallant steed "stumbles cxhaasleil in &b 1115;©^ 




dell." TliB place is called by poetic lirenee Bealach-an-Ihdtu 
30 imbued liaa the accnEry be<:omu with the story, that w 
almost tempted to loot fov the blanclied bones of the generous steeil. 
We are ushered on Loch Katrine in a. different uiaunei from 
what existed in the days of Scott, who informs na that ' ' until the 
preaent road was lUEide through the romantic pass there wi 
mode of issuing ont of the defile excepting by a sort of ladder J 
composed of the branches and roots of trees." A neat rnatic pier I 

has Veen coustmrtptt for the use of the steamer and small boats ^ 
which may be hired for fishing or rowing ^ 

k foot road, snilahle for light cars slcu^ the Dortliern shore, to 
Qlangyln, at the head of tlie lake au old possession of the MacgrLgur 
family, and which some years ago pasied by purtliasB to auotber 
adherent of the clan. The road conducts to the hilar Strand' a while J 
gravelly hay, where the fair Ellen first Interviewed the Knight qfJ 
Suowdoun, Farther on is Brenojihoit shooting-tAdge. 

Embarking in the steamer we sail by Ellon's Isle — 
" Bo clom with copaewood honmi, 
Nor track nor pathfray might de':1are 

This is the scene where the Douglas of the poem, having retreated J 
with his daughter Ellen, is followed by King James, ^the suleeqaent I 

1 Tto mtfi chargBii lOt theso boots are Is. ed., 3h. fld.,aBilSa. ed-forl, g.sii 
bouts respectjvely (wltbout boRtman) ; or Ss. for thti wbole day. '*Orflrfi 

. foor trips a day (Sunday excepted) fram oach and of the lo 

* The "Stmud" lam 

l*Tent« rasaltiiig in the tragic interest of the story. To the Bonth riacB 
■Ben VenuB (2393 ft.), with a nohte outlins. The corries and erngs 
&r« softened by diatanca ; and tha deep Tertical gush of Coir-nan- 
Uriaksn Gcems but a gentle opening in the sloping ridge. 

This mniirkable Bpecimen of the BlBhlaad cvnj ruolvea itaeir, on nnnr 
IpproBch, iolo the drtal Gnblln'i Cnvi, an other of Uie actaeBtn ths " Lwlj oTOa 
Idlu." I)]' ciinibing up tbrougb the niisbty dibrla, ■ »rt ot iDCk-BmaDsdcd 
platforiD uuk; be mched, trom ubich Uun Is a beautlTnl Tiuv. 

On the other side of tbe moontoia is Bealacb-nam-bo (the "pass 
of the cattle "), a birch-clad glade by whiuh the cattle taken in 
forays were conveyed within tha protcctioa of tha Trosaooha. About 
6 miles op the loch and IJ fiom Stronachlacbar ia tha opening of the 
condnit bj nhtch the water of Loch Katrine is conveyeil to Glasgow, 
a distance of 30 miles. The eugltteer was J. F. Bateman, C.E., 
and the ceremony of tapping the loch waa performed by Queen 
Victoria in person, Hth October 1859. 

At StrouBchlacbar, 2 miles from the head of the loch, passengers 
dUembark and walk up to the hotel,' thence coach to Invcisnaid 
Loch Lomond, fura Ss. fld. ; ooachmaa'a fi'e ad. ; distance 6 
[The road from Aberfoyle, vid Loeh Chon, comes in on 
le left— p. 141.) The small laks Arklat lias on the way, and 
huts at CorriaarklBt aro still pointed out na the original 
reaidenca of Rob Roy and the birthplace of Helen hia wife. A 
farm on the right marks the site of Inversnaid Fort, erected by 
QoTerumant in 1713 to check the turbulence of the Macgregor 
Clan.' This fort waa at one time the headriuartars of General 
I Wolfe. Deacendiug from this hy a rather ^Htrilous road, a beautiful 
of Loon Lo.-JOND meeta tlie eye. At tha bottom of the hill 

mda the holil of 


■dtnated on the east shore of the loch, about the centre, and where 

■tecelletit refreshments ore provided. A fine waterfall, formed here 

" ■ ■ r Arklet, and crossed by a slender footbridge, is the 

1 Stroawblacharl>Bgoodllebing3tstioTi,audbos.tsn:a7bebire<lBtUiehotal, 

t ao lately ae tho year l!ia Oiia district km 

opled b; that prnilnlory nee whnn eiploiU tumiahed Bir Walter Bcott with 

; Bcenee referred to \a hb novel of Rob Roy. "Rob'a own 

beappfiara to b&ve acquired a right or BOtne 



e of ■Wordsworth's " Highland Girl." A path lends np tbt 
waterside to a. large buulder, from which there ia a view of tlw 
upper reach of Loch Lomond, narrow and hemmed in by the lof^ 
Arrochar range of mountaina, including Ben Torlich (3092), Ben 
Vane (3004), Ben Ime (3300), and Ben Arthur, or " The Cohblar " 
(2690). On the hill above the hotel is Inveisnaid Lodge. At the 
pier of InTerEnaid tourists meet the Loch Lomond steamer, and 
proceed either np or down the loch, according to the ammgomeot 
of route. Tliero ia a ferry from Invorflnaid to the opposite ai ' 
the loch at Upper InTemglas, near which are Inyeruglas Isle, 
the TQina of an old etronghold of the Macfarlanes, and aoi 
called Wallace's Isle. 

LOCn LOMOND {see map, p. 168) 
is Hnqufstionahly the pride of Scottish lakea. Boasting innn 
ahle beantiful islandfi of every varying form — its northern extremity 
narrowing until it is lost among dusky and retreating mountains, 
while, gradually widening as it extends to the southward, it spreads 
its basearouud the indentures and promontories of a fair and fertQe 
land — this lake affords one of the moat aurpriaing, heautiful, and 
sublime apeotaolea in natore- Its length is ahout 23 utiles ; its 
breadth where grcateat, at, the southern oxtremity, ia 6 iui~ 
There is a good road running all along the western side. Foi 
few miles, however, this is very disappointing, aa ithaidly gem. 
the water, being hemmed io by privnte grounds. The accoant ffH 
below of the lake will be sufficient for those who aee it from the: 
I Route fkoh Balloch KoaTBwAKD by Stzambb.' 

I Proceeding by steamer from Balloch (S hotels ; see p. 333} at the 

Boutb end of the loch we notice, on the right, Balloi^h and Boturich 
Castles, and more close at hand, on the left, Cameron House, Auch- 
Endennan, Aliehinhejjlish, and Arden. Close to Arden is Glen Fmin, 
overhanging whicharethe rains of the CastleofBannaehra, anciently 
the residence of the Colquhouns, and where the chief of that clan 
was tiasely nrnnJered, in 1692, by one of the clan Macfarlane. 

In Gleo Fniln (Iho Glen of Sorrnw) an obatinntcl/ couleBted battle took 
pUce between tbe UioQregora ud Golqnhnimii the foniier coming off Tlotori- 
DDB. There bsd been a long and de&dly rend beWseD tbe UacOregora and the 
Laird or Lnaa, hesd of tbe funily of Colquboun. 

i. number of small islands are passed on the way to Loss, tht 
largest heing Inch Murrin, which ia preserved as a doer-park by 

1 AJtbon^b the uU op tbe loch eanDat be snipueed tn f: 
attucta, tbe road sinng Ute weitem Bbore Fruiu BiUook Id 
dBUebtfal mmiaa of riawlng Its beanliea. 


; iU 



the Duke of MontroM. At ita soatLem citremitf are the rmsa of 
LeDDOS Castle, former!; a residence of the Eflrla nf Lennox. Here 
Isabel, DachesB of Aibsny, resided after the ezecntioa of her 
husband, soos, and father at Stirling in 1421. The steamer next 
pnsaes Creeineh and Torrinch, and between Clnirinoii (from which 
the Buchanans took their slof^ or war-cry) and tach Cailliaeh 
[the Island of Women), eo called from its baviiig been the site of 
a nunner;. The last-named containa the old parish church of 
Buchanan, and the burial-ground of the M'acGregors, where there 
are seyeral monUmeDtB of the chiefs of the clao, and other fajcilici 
ulaiming descent from the Scottish King Alpin. 

On the eastern shore, opposite the islands, may he seen the 
conical hill of Duncrnin, Eoss Friory [Sir 0. H. Leith Buchanan, 
Bart), and Buchannn Castle, the principal eeat of His Grace the 
Dnke ot Montrose,' situated in the vale of Endrick (p. 141). 

Sailing northwards, we reach Baluaha, situated at the foot of 
Oonio Hill, the top of which is 1175 ft. high. The narrow psM 
of this name was in olden times au established road by which the 
Highlanders made raids into the Lowlands. 

The steamer crosses the loch to Lues, passing Inchfad (the 
Long Island), Inchcmin (the Round Island), and between Inch- 
lonaig (Isla of Tew-trees), and Inchoonnachan. Close to the latter 
is InchtaTanuch (Monk's Islo). 

The Tillage of LnsB (inn) is situated at the mouth of Glen Lass, 
DD the north of which rises a Gne mountain range, culminating in 
Ben Dubh (2108 ft.). From Stronbrac, near the village, a good view 
is obtained of the loch. To the south ai'e Camstraddon House and 
Bossdhu, the latter being the seat of Sir James Colq^uhoun, Bart. 
la the vicinity stands a tower of the ancient rastie of Luss. The 
lust heiress of Luas tnarried Colquhoun of Colquhoim. From Lnss 
a Toad crosses to Helensburgh on the Gareloeh, 9 miles (p. 361). 

The steamer recrosses the loch, passing the wooded promontory 
of Ross, to RowAXBBSNiu, the usual starting-point for the ascent 
of Ben Lomond, which rises immediately behind the hotel. The 
dist&nce from the hotel ' to the top (which is 3102 ft. high) is i miles, 
but the ascent is easy, and there is a pony-path to the summit 

1 Hemben ot Udi fsmllf Lgaie sLl throoeh the blstorr ot Scotland, culmiri- 

Bdblbmgh In ISfiO. At EUsfth, SO miloB cast of tills, he wan his greati'at 
vieloiT over the Covcnunlera in Ihe reign of Cliarles 1. 


The scene from tlie top comprahendB ou one side the Grain] 
Tnouatnina swelling northwarda, mound ofler mound 
the Argyllaliire tills ; and on the aonth and east the great S«o1 
Lowland district, with its minor mountain ranges. The moat ft 
ating ohject, however, ia the loch below, with 



ftaw, and Ayr, the Firth of Clyde, and the islands of Arran and 
Bute, to the south ; and the coantias of Stirling and the Lothians, 
with the winilinga of the Forth, and the castles of Stirling and 
Edinburgh, to the east. Opposite Rowariletiiiati is Glen Douglas 
(Inrerbeg J«n), from wliiuh a mountain path (partly indefinite) 
crosses to Locli Long. Ferry-boat t« Inmrbflg, 8d eaoli. 

After leaving Bowardennan the Btoamer skirts the base of Ben 

Lomond, on which are Ptarmigan ehooting-Ioilge anil Hob Jiog'i 

prison, the latter being an arch-shaped cavern some height above 

r.<i0 Bator, formed byhnge masses of fallen rocka,-— part of Craig 

~ 'ton. Oa the left »re Firkin Point and Stackgown House. 



In a fine position on the UKit side of the loch ataods Takbict, 
with its large and well-condacted hotel a short way above the pier. 

From Tarbet the distances to the following places by rowing- 
boata are calculated as follow : — 
ToArdimOiudofliicli) . SmilBa. I To Lnu .... » mllei. 

Tyndrum . . SI ,, 

This ia the landing-place far those who wish to cross the isthmus to 
Arrochar and Loch Long (p. 374), or to pursue the coach road 
through Glencroe, md " Reat-and-be-Thankful, " to Inveraray (p. 
375). At Tarhet there is a good view of Ben Lomond. It is a 
charming walk up the wooded side of the lake to Upper Inveruglas, 
ap whose pretty glen a path leads to the wild Loch SIoj, at the 
back of Ben Vorlicb (8092 ft.J, from which the Macfarlanes take 
their slogan. 



From Tar'bet the sUuuer oi 
pi ISS). About a mile above Inve 
Bob Sd^s Oam, « deep ettmn 
witll a narrow opening Three 
miles from tlie liead o( the lake 
is the BQiall piiia-wooded isian 1 
eaEed Eilan Vow, contaming tl a 
remains of a strongbolJ of tie /' 
Mucfu'laDus. A large rock, to b[ I 
SBBn on. tbo west strand, renunda Ip ' 
the visitor of the remote lonali 
noaa ef the country aronnd sei 
lug as it does far a pulp t a 
vestry, for it baa a cell ut into 
its fecB, with a door, ai i! here 
at intecvals a preacber n 1 Irosses 
the oongregati o a gathenng round 
him in the open air. At tbt 

bead of the loeh there ia at Ardlni (AotsI) a pier where toDrist» n 
dfBembark for 

The West Highland Railway^ (sm map, p. 16*) 
from Craigendorac on the Clyde, near Hulunsburgli, to Port-Williaiii 
fln Loch Licnbe, at the eoutbeni extremilj of the Caledonian 
Oanal, and almost at the base of Ben Nevis. From Fort- William 
B branch orosses N.W. tg Baiiavie, and this line baa been continued 
to Mallaig, on the Sound of Sleat, the nearest point to Skye. 

From Craigandoran the railway mos north up the east side 
of Oareloch (p. 364), passing through Helensburgh, Row, and 
Sbandon {hydropalhie), and affording on the left glimpses of the 
Clyde, and fine views of Gareloeb, backed on the larther (westBtn) 
side by the mountains of Argyllshire. A little beyond Garsloch- 
head (e miles from Craigendoran) the line strikss the eastern 
■bore of Loch Long (p. 373), nearly opposite to the entrance to Loch 
Goi], and then contiuues (9 miles) alongside the former, climbing as 
high as 400 feet above the loah ; on through Olen &Ia1lin, shot in 
by mouniaina which over-top it by a thousand feet; past the 
entrance to Glen Douglas (on the right) and the opening of 
Olencroe (on the loft, where observe the Cobbler or Ben Artbtir) ; 
Uld just above Tarbet (p. 157) crosses over the ridge to Looh 
1 Tbla l> B bmiivh of tba NoiIJi BilUAili GomjHay. sod is qiitt» distloct nnni 
:*J».*liiMMi/ Bailwty, wbieb goes nortti fronj Fertli. 


Lomond. The 8 miles bntneen Tsrbet uid Ardliii &t the head of 
Loch Lomottd give a delightful panarama of lake SLd monntain 
seenery, particularlj if the traveller glancea huaic Aowd the la<:h. 
Bslow on tha right glitter tbe waters of the Queen of Scottish 
lAkea, begemmed with emerald islets and mirrorlDg the greeu aud 
heatherf slopes of Ben Vorlich (left) and Ben Lomond (rigbt], and 
beyond on the opptisita shore lie Inveranaid with ita white water- 
Ul and Rob Boy's Cave (p. 156). At Ardlui (p. 158) there U a 
ttalion, where paasengers coming froni the Troasacha (p. 14S] ritl 
Inyersnaid by Btaamer can take the railway for Ohan (liom Crian- 
larich ; p. 162) or Fort William. The picturesque Glen Fallw:li 
b traversed between Ardlui and Criaolarich ({>} miles) ; Che 
jRincipal features of tha route being the wild gorge of the Dhubeu 
(Mich IS crossed by a girder-bridge 4311 ft. long and IIO ft. above 
ffi« stream), the Falia of lalloch (or Roh Roy'a Bath), a fr^ment 
c( the ancient Caledonian Forest, and the magnificent mountains 
itti every lisnd, most promiDent aiQcngBt them the Ben More 
gmap on the right. Looking back at the beginning of the journey 
Ap the glen, the traveller will be able to eommaud grand glimpses 
(f tiie mountains which fence in the head of Loch Lomond. At 
GHanlarieh (550 ft. above sea-level), the new line crosses the 
Qtllander and Oban railway by viadnct, and pushes on across 
fie river Fillan, over soft moory soil, up past Tyndrum 
[station ; ii miles ; see p. 162) to tho high bouudary- 
lino (1024 ft.) between Argyllshire and Perthshire. From this 
point, on the western slops of Ben Odbar (2760 ft.), the line 
dMcenda two hundred feet to Bridge of Orchy [station ; 7i miles 
from Tyndrnm), skirting on the way the western bases of the huge 
mountain masses of Ben Vurie, Ben Chaistel (2897 ft.}, and Ben 
Doirean or Doran (3538 ft) 

From Bridge of Orchj a conch goes daily ilown Glenoroliy (jip. 
162, 181) to Dalnially on the Callander and Olian raOway ; ami 
another proceeds north-west past MivroraJi Hotel to Glencoa, and so 
ea to Bnllaehulish (p. 105). 

Beyond Bridge of Orchy the route asceuda Glen Tulla, keeping 
on tbe east ude of Loch Tulla, a solitary sheet of water 4 miles 
Img. On the opposite shore is seen the Black Mount deer-forest, 
■nd near the uorthom estremity of the locli the tnins of Achallader 
(in Black) Castle, a former stronghold of the Breadalhanea. Then 
after tutting through another portion of the ancient Caledonian 
Foreat, tha railway line traverses the lonely gvandeiir& ot ftia \a.V»- 


land of Eannocli Moor, wMcii ia fully 1000 fast abova tho le»ol 
the saa, and one of the sternest and moat saToge districts, 
biUlDrtu one of the moat iuacceasjhle, ia tha westora HigblandE of 
Scotlaad. Aftar crosaing by a lofty viaduot tha rivai Gauar, we 
reach Eannoch station, where, in summer and autumn, a coach 
awaita the first down train to take passengers to Pitlouhry (31 
milea) on the Highland Eailwaj, whence auotber coach catcbeB 
the last up train at Ranuooh. Anglers going to Sitilach-BanTuich 
(17 miles from atatiou, see p. 273) bad better write to one of 
its two hotels for trap to meat train at Rannoch ; although the 
Pitlochry coaoh paasea through Ein loch-Ran noch. FromKannooh 
station the Una pas^ca Corrour Lodge (shooting- box) and the 
southern extremity of Loch Ossian (1269 ft. above sca-lBFel]> both 
on the right, and ceairhes the highest point of tha entire route, 
Luibruairidh (13S0 ft.]. From this S|>ot there ia a magoiScent 
riew to tboweat, towards Ben Chliaaig [2S43 ft.), with Ben Nevis 
to the sonth-west. Upon striking the deep-sunk basin of Loch 
Treig (784 ft.), whiob ia overahadowed by steep raountains (Garb 
Bheiim, Cnoo Dearg, Easain Klhoir) that rise to an altitude of 
somo 3500 ft., and whose surface lies 500 ft. below the traveller oil 
the loft, the direction beuomes due north again, and oontiuuei 
along the valley of the river Treig until Glen Spoan is reached, and 
the train atopa at Tulloch, whence eoachea ran tnice daily east to 
Loch Laggau and Kioguasie (see pp. 377, 278), where tha Highland 
Railway is struck. [It should be noted that .Tulloch has (1903) 
no kind of inn, and that the coaches (see time table, p. iii*) do not 
always euit the trains.] From Tullooh the line goes westward 
through tha narrow gorge of Muneasie, with its wild casoadea, to 
Boy Bridge (hotel], the stopping-place for the " Parallel Roade of 
Glen Roy." Four miles farther west we atop at tipean Bridge 
{hoCet}, the junction for the Invergarry and Fori-A-agustiis Raitviay. 
lUl this line ia opened, coacka run regularly from Spuan Bridge 
to these points. After Spean Bridge the line slants Eoutb-west, 
passing within sight of the ruins of old (p. 109) Inverlocby Caatle, 
of the new Inverlocby Caatle (the aeat of Lord Abingcr], the Ben 
Kevia distillery, Banavie (pp. 409, 413), Loch Eil and the entrance 
to the Caledonian Canal, I«ch Linnhe, and Ben Nevis (p. 410J 
nntil, after a run of B miles, Fort-William (p. 403) is reached. 
For continuation of the line to Banavio and Mnllaig see p. 410. 





^^^K Via KiLLJK Biid DalMalLV : flTIl LATERAL ROUTES. 
^^^^MiDle <l[9tance bMwtni EdiobnT^b (1^1 nill«<), or Olueum (IIT) aiiia), 
^^^^F and ObiD ukeii abuut rl liuurs. 

ftnlna stop at Laggsn or Ktiigiilionee ou notip* bplne givf n l« giiird. 
ThU rnihvny is one of tlie muat beautiful in Scotland, ami only 

6 of the old military road to Fort ^ llinin anl luis already 
n dflBcrilied as far aa CuUuuder (pp. 142-14S), TUe liae on crossing 
the Tuitli near Callander takta a curve to tlie tight, kueping cloaa 
iythebasBof Ben Ledi, audthea::e tlirough the PasaotLeny, which 
exteniU lietwaen Callander and Loch Luhnaig. At the bottom of 
the pass the river breaks iu harsh thunders, tumbling from ledge 
to ludge, sweeping round rocks and eddying in dark pools, forming 
the Falls of Lsuj.' A little onwards is tlie ehnrchyard of the 

Plhe ft1l» mi.y ba na.ihai from tin? r.BU by a siVM ui tbii wall, uii a Biimc- 

T|d*BgBroUB I»th aluna the sleep IpbejJi. 

Cbapel of St. Briilc, noticed in the "Lady of the Lake," and balfi 
mile beyond the river Leriy silently debouches from the basin of 


Tliia fine sbcet of wat*r ia about 5 miles long and 1 broad, and 
is surrounded by mountains on both sides.^ In a fltlll evening, 
the bright smooth wat«r, undisturbed aave b; the leap of the tront, 
or perhaps the splash of a salmon, makes a tine contrast with the 
dark boundary of rocks thrown into shadow by the retiring day. 
At one turn of the loeh we pass the huge ma^s of rock known 
Craig-na-GO-heily, and on the opposite side the farmhonse of Ania^ 
five miles from Callander by road is the farmhouse of Ardchul-^j 
Jary,' which was once the country house of Bruce, ths Abjssiaiaa 
traveller, who retired to this solitude from the siietrs of a sceptic^ 

After leaving Loeh Lubnaig the mOway croesea tha 
Balvaig, i miles from Callander, and reaches Strathyre (I'nni 
Maclaren'a}, where several villas have been built. A memorial 
drinking fountain has been erected here (16S3) to Dugald Buchanan, 
the Gaelic poet and evangelist, who was a native of this place. 
About 2} milea from Strathyre is Eingshouse, where trains sto[ 
when required by notice previously given. Thia station (netu 
which is a good wm) is the most eonrenient for visiting Bal- 
gnhidder and Loch Voil, distant 2 miles by a good road. 

The road proceeds westwards, passing tha ivy-covereil ruins of tha 

old chapel of Biilquhldder, Ascending to the old graveyard, it ' 

dilEeuIt to discover, a few paces in front of the eastern gal>Ie, the 
said to cover the grave of Bob Koy— a plain worn-out stone having 
several fanciful figures engraved on the surface. Theae betoken con- 
siderable antiquity, probably of a period centuries before Boh Roy'i 
birth— a circumstance which by no means militates against hia having 
been hnried hi this churchyard, since the stone is tar too old to have 
belonged as an auoeatral monument to any family. Close to it is a 
more hflndaome slab, with armorial bearings, raised over a son, and s 
third, mnrked with the symbol of a swonl, is popularly assigneil to tht 
grave of Helen Maeljregor, Bob Koy's wife. Another ancient slab, 
Bailed to tliiB day Clach Amait (the atone of Angus), contains a scalp, 




■toonling t< 

ntdltloii, M 

It was at the olil cliurcli of Bul- 
quhiilder tluit the MucGregorB giitli- 
cred round the nniputalcd h«ad of 
lliB king's doerkeepew, vowing to 
stoiicl by tho miinlerera. (Saa 
Stott'fj Leijtnd of MimtroK.) 

The uiudtirn church, ahadad hy 
II large plsjia-tree, itiuids & little 
uny abovu. Th«ni is no Inn at 
ndqiiluililer, Ijut horaes coo be 
baited at the villags. From tho 
bridge BCT099 the Balvaig sCreun a 
v'i'-yt of Locli Toil may he obtaineiL 
The pfliiaatrion uiaj proceed up 
Ulen Buckie auil r^isrosa Ilia Mils 
tn GleuSulaa uud the Bridge of 
Turk (Me(i. H9). 

Two miles from KmgBhanie 

is LOfHEARNHEAB Btatiou (IJ 

[iiile from the village), where h 
'bua awaits passengers. From this 
we proceed along a heSiVy eni- 
baiiknient, passing by a viadTict 
rho grouniis of Edinchip, tbe pro- 
perty of Lady Helen MacGregor. 
The village Rnd hotel of Loeb- 
of Loch Earn a ' ' 

a great 
itching t 

p. IBS). 

Ab we pass through Glen Ogle (a name not inappropriattly sig- 
nifyhig "The Terrific Glen "), we ai^e strnek by the cTident traces 
of some convulsion of iiatuta^arge boulders and masses of reek 
baring been, as it were, forcibly thrust from the bosom of the hill 
in all diteetiDnB, accompanied by ateep clefts, precipitous ridgea, 
and overhanging shelrcs. The railway is coustnicted upon, the 
sonth-west Bide of the gleu, at tho height of 300 or 400 ft. above 
the lowest level, bj means of several heavy cnttinga and viadacts. 
One of tbesG has twelve arches of 35 ft. in height, with a span 
throiighout ef 30 ft. As tho train is seen against tho bky line 
turning the comer from 0!en Ogle to LochiarnhBaA, (jvertn^Y™% 





fiLDtlutioally-slia.ped rocks, the elTect ia very atrlkijif;. At ElLLI 

JUHCTIOir, & short branoh railway (Si niilea) daecauda from thfl 

tins b; a ateep grndient, and after croasing tlie Docbort und Locha] 

rivers, termicates aX tbe wastern or upper ond of Loflh Tay, 

(atounei snil Coacli Hoata, Killis to Aeebfeijit, bbb pp. W3 and 

Tbe main line now follows tlie level coarse of Olen Dochart, to 

tha wsat, for about 6 mile.s, uatil it reaches Luib (inn), a fairly good 

fishing centre. Paaaing on bj the margin of Locb Dochart and base 

n More (3813 ft. high), the rail continues up tha glen till it 

res into the valley of StrathfiUau at CutANLAlLiaH (holil), 

f point for ascent of Bon More. Here our railway is oioBsed by 

I Wast Highland lino to Fort-William, and tranafereaee may ba' 

madfl from one to the other. 

(LooH LouoNV to FOBT-WiLi.iA» by rail, see 
The line then follows tha right bank of the river J 
on the othar side, St. Fillan's Chapel, with its Holy Pool, whei 
Bi superstitioua ceremony used to be practised in order 
influanoB of the saint for recovery front insanity. We soon aftar 
pus DaU Righ, or the King's Field, where Bruce, a fngiti' 
the battle of Methren, was encountered by the Lord of Lorn and 
his wild Highland followera. Three of the assaiLanta made a com- 
bined attauk, and were all killail by that accomplished knight {.j 
bnt the king's mantle remained in the dying gcuBp of 
men, and the brooch by whieh it was fastened is preserved al 
Danolly by the Loms. About C> milea beyond CrioDlarioh it] 
Tyhdkum {hold), situated between tha two railways, and having 
therefore a station on each ; so that here, again, one might go from 
tha Oban line to the " West Highland," but with more trouhla 
to luggage. From Tyndrum the following four mountain- 
may be made. 

At Tyndrum the old main toad strikes north throngh Glencoa tt 
Ballachnlish, a distance of 36 miles, viz. 10 to Inveroran, 10. t( 
King's House, and 16 to Ballachuiish. Those not iouliiieil to walk n 
cycle win of eoaise take train fiam Tyndrum to Bridge of Orcbf d 
»tation(7i miles), wheuoaooocSes rnn to Ballaohulish (as also down Glair J 
Orehy to Dalmslly on the Oban line). A Uttle beyond the Bridge ol ] 
Oicliy stanils tha comfortable hold of Inveroran, situated on the bank* I 
of Loob Tulla, a solitary sheet of water about 4 milea in length. Ott \ 
the north side is Lord Breadalbone'a shootuig- lodge of ArdvrBcknlHlLy I 
From this tbe road traverses broad and rouud-backed hills, amidt fcj 
V ot dreary uniformity. Tlie Moor of Ranuoch, perhaps t" 
in ScoUuid, is to be seen to the east from the b 


(orface of the BUck Mount. lu the iiiiilst of tljta wild Ecenery, ami 
OD the bordeni of Cleacoe, is situated Kiiig'a Uoiiiiu inn, Balla- 
CHCLISH, wberD we can join the Eteuner to Oban or luvenieaa b; tbe 
(MedoniiLn Canal, is IS raQea diituit (p. 40G}. 


At AuGh, aijout Si milea from Tyndmni, on the Ballaohnlish road, 
H mouDtaiii track aaceuds a lateiaJ glea to the north, aud eroiises to 
the east by a piva between Ben Fnaran and Bed Cum to Locli Lyon, 
vhenoe the pedestrian may proceed down r>len Lyon to Fortdngal 
(bob p. 200), Ben Creaahan (3540 ft.) may ho reached by keeping 
loniul the ridge to S.W. by N. of top of pass for aboat 3} miles. The 
new from Ben Crcachan to north, oier F^nnoch, etc., is grand. Only 
good walkers need atttmpt this route, ad it is 35 miles to Fortingal, 
the nearest inn. 
(3) ff/A-G'S UOUSK TO KIN LOCH- RANNOCM (33 mUes). 

A romuitic but dreary and somewhat adventurous walk is that 
from King's House across Ranaoch Moor to Kinlooh-Ranhdcb (see 
p. 273). Bat, since the West HigMand Railway has penetrated 
"those wilds traversed by few," this great waste is not so absolutely 
renwU bm formerly, aud the walk m now divided into two seotions. 
There is firet the wildest and most uncertain bit from King's House 
tuMward by the track that skirts the north ond of Locb Lydoch till 
Eannoch aCaiion is reached. Thereafter there is nothiug to do but 
follow the regular coach mad to Kinloch-Rannooh, which (ace p. 158") 
is traveraed by the conch daily, as well as by other occasional con- 
veyances. It should be added that there is no inn along the nmte. 
Tmnpflranoa rafresbmenls and rough lodgings uiay, however, be had 
at the "merchant's" shop at Bridge of Eiicht on the norlh side of 
Looh Rannoch, 2^ miles from Tighnaline. 

By Sie "Devil's Staircaie." 
The distance from King's House to Fort-WQIium hy the Devil's Stair- 
case is about 23 miles. From the eicecsive roughness and steepaess of a 
part of the Srst half of the road, it can be travelled only hy pedestrians. 
The Staircase diverges from the jnain road at a small cluster of shep- 
herd's houses, called Aitnafedh, where it may be well to obtain a g;uida 
for the firat 2 miles, the road being scarcely distinguishable among the 
rocks and loose stones which obstruct tha track. Having crossed the 
Staircase (1755 ft.}, Kinlochmore (p. 406] is reached at the head of 
Looh Laven, and the route thence is continued through Glen Tarliert by 
a better road to PoBT-WtLL[AH (p. i08). The only house where any 
rerreshment can be obtained is at Kinlochmoie, one of a very humble 
ordnr (about IS milos from Altnafedb), where drovers are accustomed 
lo lodge on their way from the north. 

Raauming our Railway Koute beyond Tyndrum the line soon 
ieaves rerthflhire and enters Argyllshire, runniug cWe \a) ft\elsjo\ 




of tlie old laari-mines.' Ths small Looh-Bn-Beaoli, pa 
Iflft, contains a. fair supply of trout. Glen Loohy is solitary ail| 
rlreary of aspect ; but farther on the beautiftil atratli of Glen O 
presents a splendid Etretch of Highland landscape. Coaeh d 
np Glan Orclij to Bridge of Orehy station (p. 158*). 

Dai.mallt (244 miles from Oban) ia situated opposite a 
island in tie river Orcliy, 2 miles from its Jiscliarge into I^och Amei 
The river is crossed bj two bridges, the southern of which is 
by the !uitel. The Glenorchy district was at one time peopled "b 
the Clan Gragor, the loss of whose possassions forms the subject si 
Scotf a gathering song of the clan : — 

" Olenorolij'B prooil moQot&ina, Coaluliaim and her iowe 
OlenHtraQ and Glen^rcm, no longer are rmia : 
We're landless, Uadleae, GreEsncb !" 

The old churchyard which surrouuda the parish church cont«JM 
some ancient gravestones of the clan, and the gallows-hiU of Glenw 
orchy is famed in Highland tradition as a place of execution 
aaceut of Ben Cruachan, noted for its bold proportions and 
fill ontline (3650 ft— view very grand, but dimb stilT), i 
made fi'om 2 milea weat of Dalmally, keeping the side af the at 
which rises at the foot of the eastern and highest peak. 
(3708 ft), 7 milts east of Dalmally, at wbose northern bageig tl 
highest source of the Tay, and the streams on the other 
which How to Lochs Awe, Fyuo, and Lomond rcspectiyely, is i 
worthy of ascent. 

(Cnaeh-Ronte to rH>Eiuiu.T, boo p. B88.) 

On leaving Dalmally the railway gradually descends d 
comes within a short distance of Loch Awe, where it croa 
Orchy by a viaduct a few hundred yards above the mouth of H 
stream. From the centre of this a good view is obtained of t] 
loch, with its nuitturous islets, and the ruius of Eilchum C 
(p. 166). About 2 miles heyonil Dalmally we reach 
LoDn Awe, 

[ffoldi.-— At Loch Awe iI^Udd sad at Dalnisllf. Birrellent h( 

one of the most pictttresijae of Highland loeha, 30 miles in 

1 Tlio lesd-mlna Here wroaglit for bib.hj' yearo by the late H 

Breadalbnne. Copper, lead, line, ctiroraate of Iron, bemsBls, pr 



This is a pleasing and piotitresqne route for ptdeatriana of abont 36 
mllBS. From the fenj at Bonnwe take the road north-went to Qlen 
Ssliicb and down to Barcaldme on Loch Creran, whlcli cross bj Cresgm 
Perrj. Thence up the nortli side nf rivar Craran till 3 miles past Fas- 
nacloidi. Here iiml.the hill-path about due north nrer to the LarocI: 
stTBDm and down to BaJlachulish (p. 405). 

For soD^a dMatiut the vieir of Lwh Etive is lost m the railway 
passes west of TaTnuilt, bnt it again opens npoQ a wide and 
pictoresqUB scene at Acli-na-cloich, where there is a pier. 
Across the water, at Ardehsttan, there is an old priory (IStli 
cejitary). Three miles farther on are the station aud fercy of 
Connel,' near which are the so-called Falls of Connel— the Ossianic 
FalU of Lora, caused by the rushing of the tide over a reef of rocks. 
The railway is carried on rnim here to Ballauhuliah, but is not 
yet working. {Koicl here.) At tbe entrance to Loch Etivs are the 
modern house and fine old niin of Dunstaffnsge Csstle (see p. 3fll).. 

From a point near Dunstaffiiagfl the railway passes throngli 
Olenomiten, on a steep iaclino, emerging on Oban through a deep 
euttiiig of the rock. 

Oban ia subsequently described (p. 390). 


is approached by rail from Callander (see p. 161) The illag«, 
where there is a good hotel, is situated at the weste n extremity of 
Loch Earn, and southern end of Glen Ogle. Th re a e many to 
wboin Loch Earn presents the perfection of lake sc nery — a 

J Two miles north of Oinnsl Is the mhiBl TitriRed 
(Bfroalled) : for a achniatly aooount of which aca Dr. Anpi 
and tJa 5otu □/ JJisiftas^i (Lojidon ; Macoilllan % IBTO). Access tq thiR placa 
and to tlie wtiolediatrlctof Appin wtll bo Tendered muohcaBleFD " 
pleUon of tliQ railway which starts from Connel Ferry, croasea th 
Loch BUre, and winds Its way northward lor 36 tnilea tn BallachDll 
ing a wild and picturesque ragioa twining with names familiar to tbe readers, 
of Ouian, ot Th« LorS nf ft* lite, and of R. L. Btevensgn'n KidiMj<jKA. 

a ret ng 

thie placa V 
n the com- Jfl 
e mouth of ^H 

-■ i 




mountain-boundary of fine outline on either side, and rich wood- 
lands, with a sprinkling of agricultural cultivation, and here and 
there a gentleman's seat. In tourist chronology it is the most 
ancient of the Highland lakes ; and, perhaps from its accessibility, 
it appears to have been visited, admired, and sketched, when the 
Trossachs were deemed a heap of unsightly rocks beyond the limits 
of civilisation. It is about 7 miles long, and contains trout and 
salmon. Boats with liberty to fish may be obtained from the hotel- 
keepers. About a mile from liOcheamhead Hotel stands the old 
castle of Edinample (a seat of the Breadalbane family), where a 
stream, descending Glen Ample, forms a considerable waterfall. 
Here also are the ruins of St. Blane's Chapel To the south are 
the h^ghts of Ben Voirlich (3224 ft.), and Stiic-a-Chr6in (3189 ft). 
Ben Voirlich may be ascended from Locheamhead. On the shore, 
below Ben Voirlich, stands Ardvorlich House, the "Darnlinvarach ** | 

of the Legend of Montrose, 

The coach road follows the north bank of the lake, by Ardveich 
Castle and the base of Sron Mh6r (2203 ft.) ; a little farther it 
crosses the mouth of Glen Tarken, and shortly after reaches the 
village of St. Fillans (Drummond Arms Hotel)', a name derived 
from a celebrated Scottish saint. ^ The railway from Crieff and 
Comrie has now reached St. Fillans, and train may be taken here 
if preferred. Notice St. Fillan's hill, which shoots up prominently 
from the middle of the valley. 

Passing through the valley of the Earn, which issues from the 
lake, we pass the mansions of Dunira, Dalchonzie, and Aberuchill 
Castle. The village of Comrie (Royal Hotel) is prettily situated ft 

on the north bank of the Earn, at its confluence with the RuchiU and 
Lednock, 6 miles from Crieff, and is a centre for many charming 
excursions. In one of the houses a seisometer has been erected to 


indicate and register the motion of earthquakes,* for which Comrie 
has acquired a notoriety. The antiquary will find on the other 

1 Fillan was a saint of great national importance in Scotland. His arm-bone 
was long kept as a relic in a silver shrine, and received high celebrity from 
having been borne by the abbot of Inchatnmy before the victorious Scots at the 
battle of Bannockbum. 

s These earthquakes have hitherto been more a source of alarm than of dan- 
ger. Three distinct shocks were felt In the village and neighbourhood on 
Sunday, 16th January 1876. The tremor of the earth was not great, but the 
shocks were as usual accompanied with a loud rumbling noise, resembling that 
of distant thunder or the discharge of cannon. The shocks apparently came 
from the south-west, and proceeded to the north-east, and were sufQciently 
severe to awaken the people at Lawers and the farms to the eastward. The 
weather during the time waB extremely mild and settled. 






■ids of the rirer Bome remarlcable remaiDB of a Roman ramp oallei] 
Dalgjnroas, aaid by some to be n (^Jirtiptiim of Galgucan, and to 
rapnisBnt the pUce where Galgacus, the Caledonian chief, mat 
Agricola, in what, from a false readiog in Tacitus, lued tt) he sailed 
the battk of the Grampiansf!). From here there U a beantifui 
rOftd lip Glen Artney, by which Callander may be reached (p. 148); 
andS.E.lita the road to Gretrtitoaniug, 13mi]eB(p. 176). Apiotor- 
ewjae golf course has hoeo laid out on the hillside above Comrie. 

About a mile to the nortli of Comrie the river Lednoek descends 
through a wild rarine, where a turbulent stream, ovorhnug by 
broken impending rocka, forms a Sne fall caJled the Devil's Cauldron. 
Just where the path leads to the fall, another ascends to the left 
to the hill of Dunmore, on which is erected a mounnieutal obelisk 
to Henry Duudaa, Srst Viscount HelviUs, who died in 1811. From 
this there is a fine view. The rosd up the stream, which leads over 
the hills to Ardeonaig on Loch Tsy (13 miles) — a fine old monutJUB 
pass— may be utilised, so far as Innergetciie, for the ascent of Ban 
Chonzie, the presiding monarch of thin region (3048 ft.), which rises 
right above the village of Comrie. Seven ruilca np Oleu Lednoek 
ta the eurioua waterfall Spout Rolls. 

In the train betn-een Comrie and Cuifff, wo i>asa Laners Hoose,, 
Cllathiok, Monzievaird cJiurch and manae, Sir David Daird's- 
monument, and Ouhtcrtyre. The railway is now (ia03) bsing 
extended westward to Locheamhcad, hy tho north aide of Loell. 

ns; Boyal(a); "Teiiii 

The lo»'n of Crieff ia situated 18 miles west of Perth 
north from Stirling, and contains 6208 inhabitants. Built npolT' 
the side of a steep bank sloping down towards the river Earn, it 
enjoys a southern exposure, and a delightful prospect of hills, woods, 
valleys, and rivers to the west and north. It is much resorted to 
in summer on account of its serene air and dry healthy situation. 
It contains a tolbootli (with spire and town-clock, and a good ball 
gifted in 1725, according to a J,fltin inscription, by Lord John 
Drummond, uncle of James, third Duke of Perth), and an 
assembly room. The town itself ia modern. A sculptured stona 
of apparent antiquity may bo seen in the High Street, and tha 
old town Cross aud "jonga " still remain. Tbo cross stands at 
the side of the Town ■ Hall door. Besides two Parish and other 
Presbyterian CVwmAvea hv ft^e Whti, tt«xa U an. Episcopal ChurcS 



andia viaw ot the vallaj ot tne Earn ana Higlilana ttilla.' 
Earn is joined above Criaif by the liarvick, Turret, and 
(ie. Crieff Bridge— the second atone bridge tlirown over the 
—was built out of the vacant stipend of tlie p^iriab between 
appressioD of Episcopac; in 1660 and the re-aiimiasioa of a 
yterian minister in 1699. 

ffi snviroDa of Crieff include nulneroua large estates. Chief 
g iheas is Drumhond Castlf,, to which quite recently a. 
tome wing haa been added, making it into a good resilience. 
■ the original seat of the Perth family, and is now that of 
larl of Ancaster, It is aituated 3 miles south of Crieff and 
B from Muthill.' Carriagea are allowed to drive up to the 

by the eiquiaite beech avenue, and the gardens and castle 
lown to vieitora on Tuesday, Tlmrsday, and Saturilay. The 
I ataDds upon a rock, and vas built about the year 1490. It 
nroofed and partly demolislied in 1689, yit the walla in some 
I were so sound that a partial repair fitted it again for occupa- 

Since it waa visited by Queen Victoria on her first tour 
1^ the Highlands (1842), it has undergone considerable 
AaonB, including the restoration of the donjon keep. The 
writing to 

[t. WUUim Cnlle 


nt, ths 

Aniertoin jjoi 

■ Ttrk Brmin; 

to PerUiBhlrs, 

■Bate of CrieCr— 




warm, I can 





gioi.. The a 


battleuieuCs of tlie custle commanil an exteiiBive and chamimg view. 
In front lies the Dutch-trinuaed garJeu, beautifully kid out and 
arnamEnted with statuca, while Cor nearly 30 miles round there 
is an unbi'Dken aweep of strath, forest, and mountnin. 

OcHTEBTYRB, tile seat of Sir Patriek Keith Marray, Bart., is 
S miles N.W. from Crififf, and approached by the Granite LoJga on 
the east. Entering here we pass the modem dibuboIguiii of the 
famQy, which ocoopies the site of ihe old parish church, founded 
by St. Sacf of MonzieTaird.' The grounds are ailomed by the Loch 



tlie BoeuB ol 



Scott In 1,19 


-"During th 

smsa IV. a 

^V great tea< 

Tij divided 

^^ PBrtiahii 

1 ... 

iier. hafng 1 




Monlvalrd, nn 


• pnieuLAn toph 173 

or UoDzievunl. na tba iiurtli boiik of wliiuli stand tlia ratiiuiiia •>! 
Castle Viaggj, dating frum thu 13lh ceutury, Tlia tbIo of the 
Toiret eihibits a rBriatj of romautic aceiieiy, and wna visited b; 
Burns wlulg eanra^iiiiig for his gaugarship. WhiU on a visit to 
Sit Williun Murray at Ochtertyre ho wrote " Blithe, Withe, and 
merty waa she," id hononr of Miaa Kupheniia Murray of Lintro»B, 
■who was called "TIib Flower of Strathmore." In the grounds, 
but >]m accesaible from the [rublic road to Loch Turret, there are 
t»o waterfalls tanned by the Turret. Not far eastward, beyond 
the Borrick, is Stonefield, alts of the battle of Mouiyaird, 100*, 
ID whjtih fell Kenneth, King of Alban, a relation of Lady Macbeth. 
Abont a mile to the north the Kelty Htrcam makes two caicadea, 
the lower of which ia trailed Sjiaut-bau (White Spout). On 
another Btream, called the Sliftj{gie, above Muniie, there occur 
three beautifnl falls. The Baryiok fall, nearer Crieff, is also worth 

MoNZUt Castlb, pronounced M(ma,' is 3 miles north from 
CrUlT, vid the village of Gilmerton. Id the grounds behind the 
boMse are Sve of the oldest larch-trees in Scotland, the circam- 
ference of one beiug 19 ft. 7 in. at 3 ft. from thir ground. 

There are ssTetBl other fine seats iti the vicinity of CrJeEf, auoh 
as Abercaimey (open to the public by card), the home of tlie ancient 
family of Dmiiimond Moray. 3 miles east. The castle and collegiate 
church of Innerptffiny, Bi miles S, E. of Crieff, preaeul some inter- 
esting pieces of architecture, and the latter is the burial-place of 
the Perth and Stiathallan families. Its valuable library waa 
foDHded and oudowed by David, Lord Madderty, in lti9I. A 
favourite walk, also, ia to the top of Tomachaistal. a conical pine- 
clad hill, which rises prominently io the valley of the Earn about 
3 miles westwards, and on which has been erected a monuDient to 
General Sir David Baird, Bart. The inscription relates that the 
colnron waa erected in 1832, in memory of the hero of Seringapatam. 
and of the march of the Anglo-lodiiin army across the desert froin 
KoBseir t« Alexandria in 1801. The monument [a copy of Cleo- 
patra's Needle) was shattered by lightning in 1878, but has been 
restored. The view of the vale of Glenartoej and Strntheam from 
this point ia remarkably fine. Torlmn Hill (1261 ft.) once claimed 
to be the Mgheet compleUli/ iBooded hill in Scotland, hut the trees 
on the north aide were laid Hat by the gale of 1893, and it ia now 
what its Gaelic names aigniltea, '^bare hilL" 

I ^bs temiinatloa nic lii Scottish nuoH is nBoillT pronouncsd j/ei or ic, tbe 
• Dot being really ■ i, but repreientlag an old totm Bounded u ui q. 




The lice south Inim CriefT, crossing the Enrn nnd passing Caldsei 
Coatle on tlie right {dbslt Muthill station), and then Strothalkn 
Cutis on the left, joins the main lina between Perth and Stirling 
■t Crieir Junction (p, 173). 

A line of railway (18 milia) Eonneots Crieff with Perth md 
InnerpsBray, Abecoairne;, Madderty, Balgowau, and Methvon (see 
p. 181). At Madderty may be Been the ruins of lucbalTray Abbey, 
a oni:B richly -endowed establishment, founded by Malise, £arl ol 
atratheme, in the year 1358. It was the Abbot of Tni-hafTray who 
said moss in sight of the Scottish army at Baunockburn. Tbc 
fragmentary remains of the abbay are now the pro£ierty of LonI 

From Crieff a pleasant Bxcuraion may !ih made, by Foulford Inn, 
to the Sua' Olen of the Almond. At' (IS milea) there 
is a comfortable inn with stables. 

The road, which is eicellent Ihrougliont, and is, indeed, the 
old military road through the central Htghlauds by Aberfeldy, 
Tnmmel Bridge, and Dalnacardoch, leaves CrielF by the east, 
passing Gilmerton viUago and Monrie grounds, and then strik- 
ing north, reaches Foalford (inn). Near Fendoch Farm, about a 
mile beyond tliia, are tlie remains of a Roman camp, and a mile 
Either a road branches off on the right (eastwards) to Bnehanty 
bridge, Glenalniond House, Glen Tulehan, the Caimies, and Trinity 
CoUegP,' one of the beat public aohooU in Scotland. The Sma' 
Ctlen road continaes north alon^ the banks of tlie Almond, oc 
Altnain Water, aa Wordsirortb calls it in his beautiful and exprea- 
aivB stanzas relating to the tradition that Ossian was buried here i — 

Slsepa Ob^bd Id the narrow glsn." 

This valley, from Buchanty eastward, is identified with Drum- 
tocJity, familiar to those who read Ian Muiilareu's books. The 
road to Amulrea leaves the Almond at Newton Bridge (9 milea 
from Cricfl) ; and from here there is a path up Glen Almond (north 
side) and over the Lilla to Ardtalnaig on Loch Tay— 141 miles 
from Newton Bridge. 

1 Prom Amulros Binuir. it 10 milea enslwirii by Stratlitraau ; Aberfeldy 
n mtlM northwards bj Glon Cuclini ; Konmoie 11 milea north-west by Loch 
FrsuehEe and Glen Qcuiich. Tliese are lUl biauCifnl routes (sn pp. IW, IBS, 
and 201). 

s TheeollegB(iamileaiiorth.eMtiitCri9(I,«id*nortJi-weato(Mothven),oii 

fOtindsrs and bcnatautors, and Uib " pil« reniinaa the apoculor or old college 
buildings on the btata ol ttwWiat the Cun." 

STIRLING TO FKRTH (33 milas). 
Ths arjiroacli to Perth from IJib bouUi liy the "West Coaii 
Ronte" is ind Stirling luid Duublane. Tlie mute entors the cuimty 
rf P»th & Uttle to the north of the Bridgu of AllftO (see p. IAS). 
Ou leaving DtmblBne tlie railw&y followa closely the Irasks of 
St Allan, puseing through Ibe heautiful strath of that name. 
Tlu: Srst station beyond Dunblane is Einhtii^k, where there are 
le woolleii iriills. Tht next ia Qreeuluauiiig, in the vicinity nl 
irhioh ia the 

Roman Cisii' ok Annocii, 



^H esteemed the most entire in the kingdoni, anil situated 2^ miSeS to the 
^V north, in tlie grouoda of Ar<loch House. General W&de's military read 
^B piiaaea over one of its Kides, Hie rentaine consist of a itaJion or citadel, 
with Ui^ psTmanent embankments ; adjacent to this on the north la a 
heptagonal area of a very distinct character, and finally to the north- 
ireat are tvio paraSdogram camps, such as anaiea throw up on the maroh. 
The aeveral ridgen of the square station tie nearly as sharp and distinct 
as the glacis of a modem fortress. The area within its entrsnclunents 
meaiares i20 ft. hj 37S ft lliere appear to have been three or fonr 
dihjhea, and aa many rampart walla, ft ia defended on the soutb-eaat by 
a deep morasa. and on the neat aide by the banks of the water of Knaick, 
whteh riaa to the height of GO feet. The Pnutnriutti, which risea above 

IOte leTsl of the camp, but la not precisely in the centre, forma a regular 
sqaare, mch aide being exactly 20 yards. The banks of the Enaiclc 
Water are pictnresqne, and ap its course lies the n>ad to Oomrle (p. I6B) 
From Gteonioamng we procGad to the village of BLAOKroar 
(.pop. 1639 ; ffotds .- Moray Arms, Bfactford), a Kttle to the aouth- 
eaat of which are the ruins of Castle Ogilvie, anppossd to hare been 
the retreat of Viscount Dimdeo when he was about to lake up arms 
□n behalf of the exiled monarch James VII. Above rise the Braea 
of Ogilvie, down which the river Allan flows from its source in tlic 
Oohil Hills. Through them, to the south, up the beautiful Glen 
Eagles, ia the road to The Rumbling Bridge, Glen Devon, 12 milos 
(p. 136). A little beyond, at Crieff Junction, passengers for Crieff 
change carriages. The branch is a short one of 9 miles, pussing 
in its course the ivooda of TnUlbanline, Strathallan, Culdecs, and 
Drnntmond Caatle (aee Crieff, p. 1< 1). 
Storting again from this juaetion, we cross the Riithven Wat«T 
(ft tributary of the Earn) which deseeuda from the Ochils through 
the glen of Kincardine. The mine of Eiocardine Castle, hers 
situated, have a traditionary interest aa the aeat of the family ot 
Montroae. The castle was dismantled by Atgyll in the great civil 
•jvar in retaliation for the destruction of Castle Campbe!]. Farthel 



up the glflo is GloDfaglfls House, the seat of tbe Earl of Canipflrdoi 
The atraggliiig town of AtiouriWAKDER {Hut-'li; Star; Crowii^ 
jwp. 2276), ia colehraUd in connection with the aventa whioh led 
to the disruption in the Chnreh of Scotland in 1843. IJ mite 
aoatA from Dunning station are Doncnib, the seB,t of Lord KoHo, 
and tha Tillage of Donning, pop, 701— inn), with itaeuriona old 
thorn tree ; and IJ mile north of the station stands, on eita of a 
Konian fort, Oaak (U^'.-Oen. Heniy Oliphant], the home of thi 


"theAuhi House" cIobh by, 

n 1745, when he hreikfastoti 

ot (hotel closa to tha river 

It ia taid that more lately 

a of the eaily ScottlBh kings. 

' " " i heautifnl "" 

s Naime, with the 
to which Prince Chailie wa. 
In "tlie low dining-room. 
Earn) la an ancisut Pictiali capital. 
Halyhill, w&a the site of a residenr 
On tbe north ia Dnpplin Castle, 
trees, the seat oC the Earl of Klnnonll {see p. 179). Passing 
Forgandenny, with a quajnt old churoh and the tine house of 
Freeland (C. L. Wood, Esq.) on the right, we ci'oss the Earn a 
little south of Hilton Junction, whore the Fife and Forth Bridge 
branchea of the North British Kailwaj join. Close to the Btntioa, 
on the eajtt, risss Monoreiile Hill, 7'iS ft. high, and commanding 
one of the noblcet views in Seotland, At its southern base ataud 
Moncieiffe House, the seatof Sir Robert D. Moncreiffe, Bart, the 
village of Bridge of Earn {hattl), Kilgraston House, and Pitkeathly 
Mineral Wells, where there are live mineral springs of saline 
compounds. Paasiug through Moncreiffe tunnel, IJ mile 
we I'each Perth. 




StaHon, much the largest ; al 
irge Street ; SUutatioa (C). Bont 


si: B(11n1)Dig)i IS miles b; Fotlh 
Lonii„n 438 b7 Bast Coast, Bi.a 


the I 

hly I 


ddge, ea bf Stlrli 
>e by WflBt Const, 

; Glasgow 08(.; 

Perth certainly doea not present its pleasantcet side to the 
TiaitoT arriving at the railway station.' The best way to aee the 
town is to go atraight up King's Place. He will soon reach the 
statue of Sir Walter Scott, atandiiig at the entrance to the public 
park k-nown as the South Inch, bocnded on tlio east by the quay 
and harbonr, accessible to vessels of considerable size. The Pai^ 

I norsa cars tun through the lo*n, cue lorniinus bciuf; ( 

pEipm iff 

though excellent &s s breathiDg gpace, is diBfigured bj clothas- 
linBS, sdU is ratlicr roughly kept. The Penitelitiaiy (Bouth aide) 
nsed to be the gecoral priioii for Scotland. Tho t«rrei» or em- 
bmkmHDt (Tay Street] wbich strelfliea north wanls »lon-! the right 
Innk of the river presents tine vjawb of Kionoull Hill o[ipo9tte, 
and CDDtsiiis the County Buildings, the West Free CbUTch, the 
Uiinimpal Buildingti, Hiddlo Free Charuh, the oen' Public Halls, 
and the Museuni belonpng to the Pertlishire Society of Niitnral 
Seienee (ojien to the pnblic frer of rharge). The Coantj Bnfld- 
ings, Mcnpying the site of the old Cowrie HoiiHe, were built in 
1S07, and present a Grecian fuvadu ; the hull coDtatna full-length 
portrait, hy Sir T. Lawrence, of the late Dnke of Athola, Lord 
Lynedouh, and Sir George Murray. The Church, an elegant Gothic 
8tni«tiire completed in 1871, contribntea much to the beauty of the 
city, especially by its graceful apire, Tay Street has lately been 
planted with treea on the river-side, hut it is not so well naxed for 
as it might be. At the northern extremity the old Bridge of 1771 
(nidened 1870) lesda acroaa to the auburl>s of Bridgend snil 
Kinnonll.' The Victoria Bridge crossea from the loot ot South 
Street to the Dundee Hoad ; and pedcstrima can find a third 
crossing by the Railway Viaduct at the Hoath end of Tay Street. 
The meadow called the North Inch is ornamented hy the Albert 
Statue (at eiitranee), and by the memorial to Ijord Lynedoch and 
the Both Light Itifantry. St. Niniana (Sciittish Episcopal) 
Catbeiirai ia situated in Athole Street ; in New Soott Street is the 
Sandeman Publio Library, a Sue building of red. sandstone, opened 
by the Earl of Boacbery on the 22nd October 18^3. The Hospital 
of James VL (let in tenements) is in Hospital Street, near the west 
end of South Street. The Marshall Monument in George Street 
oonteiua the Museum of the Liti<raty and Antiquarian Sooiety, 
founded in 1781, anil also a valuable collection of books, M8S., 
ooina, and medal.i The honee of the Fnir Maid of Perth in Curfew 
Row boa recently been restored and ia open to visitors. It is over 
500 years old, and in it is the end of a subterranoan insaaga aaid 
to be that in which King James I. was assassinated. 

The only building in Perth which can lay claim at once to some 
antiquity and to some architectural merit is the (rfjnrtl) lit St. Jolin, 

1 The Giampisn-i are nell men tlom thlB bridge. The neatest ire the hiUs 
BiuronndmK DmikeH: wliJle fnrthfir away is the penli of Deii Vnicky, and 
beyond tbal again Beu-y-gloe. A long spiir ending ia the CrieiT Wlla iaeeea 
on the left, Bnd on the rtglit the Lilla of Aberdeeualiiro stcetcli awaj lota Uifi 





l?a PERTH 

K large Gothic Luildiug surmoiuited by a luassivo sq^uaro tawor 159 
feet in height It was the scene of the famous sermon h; Joha 
Enoi iLgsinst idolatry that led to icauoclaatic ei<:«SEies wliich he 
neither foresaw nor approved. The tmildiag is now subdivided 
into three plai^eK of worebip, the East, Middle, aod West Chnrohas. 
Au anoieot and valuable sitTcr-gilt communion BFrvice, the gift of 
Qneen Mary to tbe ehurcb, ia still used in the Middle Ohurch. 

Perth (the " Fair City ") can boast of a great antiquity. By m»nj 
it used to be ideutiSed witli the " Victoria," believed on the authoritj 
of tbe paendo-Riphnrd of Cirenceater to been built atid fortified 
by Agricola, and the dedication of ita church and bridge to St. John 
the Baptist (whence the old name of St. Jobnatoan) is still nHnally 
laaigned to tbe obecnrity of the PIctish period. From about 1200 nntU 
the 15tb century, when the T^liament and Oouila of Justice were 
formaily tranriarred (1482) to Edinbiirgli by James IIL, the Fair City 
■raa tbe chief residence of the Scottish uioaarcbs, and here many im- 
portant Scottish parliaments as »c11 as national church councils were 
held. As a valaable military position it has been frequently seized 
and occupied in clvQ war ; in 1311 by Brace, in 1339 by the Lord 
High Steward Kobert, in ISti by Montrose, in 1651 by Cromwell, In 
1716 by the Earl of Mar, and in 1745 by the troops of tSarles Edward. 
Among the incldenta with which Perth is associated, may be mentioned 
the famous combat on the North Inch between the Clans Chattan and 
Qnhele (October 23. 1396). which has been described with masterly skill 
by ffir Walter Scott in his Fair Maid of PertK Other historical 
events were the murder of James I„ one of the wisest and best of 
the Scottish kingB.' by Sir Robert Graham and the Earl of Atlioll ; tbe 

' Tlio tmUi ot this great prines'i lite Is rtningef than flctton. His eld 
hrothM, DukeofBotheaiij. had fallsn a victtin to the criminal ambition ofl 
UECJs alhany (p. i:il) ; and ids father, Buhart in., in sffectionate anilety 

to the conrl of Prancii, The vnBsel In which he embarked was captured by 
BngllSb cruiser, and, although e trnse thon gnbaisted between tbe cuuntH< 
he waa detained prisoner b; Henrr IV. Hie captlvit? In Windsor Caal 
matured him ae a knight, a ictolar, a stoteaman, and a genOemaD. 1 
severity waa softened by the poetlo snsceptibllltlei of his ardent mla' 
hope and tlie name of tlie Lad; Joan Beaufort anstalned the Gnergiea of t 
c*ptive knight Alter nearly twenty jears of eille, the pobcy o 
□r the English Ocvcmuent penoitted his Tanaom. He retnmed with bis 
la Seotlaod: but ha eipeiieaced the fate commcn to refonners in adi 
■ """5 bora ill the restralnta of dvJUsaUoi 

a the above 

qnaUtles of a great mao, a patriot liin^ 
been ranked with Chaucer, His chiEf roema are 
(inirt, hMk}, a poem adorned villi beautifnl reHaci 
Hon, and the BtUlad cf Good CmnML The laog 
Biu^ol and elegant beyond what coold he eipectei 






iking of the manasterleB In conuectloii with one of Kbdi'b eBrlieBt 
LutiDn sttrmona in 1559 ; aDd the myateriona "Qowria Couapimoy" 
Jamas VL, which waflenncteii iii Gowrie Home in 1600. Though 
hiHtoKeal associstiona, Perth has now few really ancient monu- 

and EiNHUULL Hills, on the aoath and north Bides 
Uti the river respectively, to which there ia easy access by carriage 
nroada, are each worthy of a viait : and from <^acb thi're is a beanti- 
A Roman Catiiolic Redemptory (a ti.-troat for olargy 
and laity, and missionary centre) occapios one of tlie hnest and 
most commanding sites on the slope of the Kiunoull Hill. There 
are also some elegant villas, and near the foot ia Kinfauns Castle, 
built !□ 1S23. Tram-uara rnn almost every 20 minutes iiom Cherry- 
bank (passing Station entrance) and Cratgie, two southern suburbs, 
through Perth to New Scone ; whence 'bus to Balheggia (Mon. and 
EW. ). 'Bua from Perth to Stanley (daily ), and to Logiealmond (Fri. ). 
Ddppliji Castlb, the seat of the Earl of Kinnoall, is eituated 
about 5 mUea south-west of I'erth. The Uupplin Library ia well 
known (or its collection of rare and valuable edttiona of the classi<:s. 
On the north bank of the Earn, neat this spot, was fought the 
battle of Dnppliu, a-r 1332, in which the Scotch army nnder tbe 
I'Barl of Mar, regent of the kingdom, was eutptiaed during the night, 
id defeated with great slaughter by Eilward Baliol &nd the "dia- 
lled barons," wbo fonght to recover the crown from the Bruce 
:fcmily. In the woods of Dupplin there is a fine aianiple of the 
lancient sculptured stone monuments. Opposite Dapplin are the 
"Birks of iDVennay," celebrated in song, where there is atao a 
'Sculptnred stone, luvermay, once the aeat of the eld family ol 
the property of Lord Clinton. 
Scone Pm.aue, the seat "f the Enrl of Mansfield, who represouta 
" " family of Htoi-mont, la 2^ miles EOrth of Perth, on thi: left baufc 
of the Tay. It is a modem eastellated building, built upon or near 
the site of an ancient seat of tlie kings of Scotland. Much of the oM 
fumltuiG has beeu preserved fram the previous msndon (built hy the 
flori of Cowrie and Sir David Murray of Oospatrick), and among other 
relics there is a bed used by Jainea VI., and another with hangings of 
flowered erimaon velvet, said to have been wrouEht hy Queen Mary 
dating her imprisonment In Lochleveu Castle. The gallery, which is 
ISO feet lou^ occupies the place of the old ccroaation-hall, where 
CBurles II. was crownsii in 1S51. With the ancient Sbbtp of Scone 
■n bound up some of the meet interesting events in Scottiah hiatj>ry. 
U founded hy Alexander I. in 1115. The church of the Ahbe^ 
■n additional interest as the shrine iviiere was preMTved tic 

By tlia Trusty t N rti ojniton (1328), this atons was to 
to Scot^il ; but t I ns not thsUndiii; ever aince Tenia 
(.'onfeasor's cliipal ut Vie tminatflr. HowBVer, the Bardie prophecj I 
•abt /M)I«1— ■ 


Wlien tliey Chia alnnt tliall flnil.'* 
■ prwiiotion lielil to Ue verified wLen Jamea VI. aMonded the Kngllali 
Uirone. There it no admieiion to the Palace or Ahbty. 

■fliose wiio are interested in round towers will End a Gne apeeimen 
It Abkbhetht (fim), a rillage (10 miUa Bouth-east from Portli bj 
North British Railway) supposed lo hsTe been an ancient Pietish 
capiuL Tlie tower ia li ft. in hoight, and [unlike nome of the Iriah 
ronsd towers, which are of rough nibble work) is built of snusra 
stoneg carefiLlIj liewn. The tower \n locked, and the approach to 
the doorway guarded by an iran cage. An irou collar bangs out- 
side. There is no ilclinite i)ate aligned to tbia relic, 

Pbeth to Ceieff (18 miles). 
' The Almond Valley and Uotbveu Hnilway connects Perth with 
l.'CMefl'. The distauee is the same by road. This pleaaaot route 
conducts U4 by the ancient castle of Rutbven (now called Hunting- 
tower), siluated about 2J miles from Perth — occa the seat of the 
powerful Earls of GouTie, and the scene of the memorable incident 
(1582) known in Scottish history as the "Raid of RuthFBn"— on 
the plain of Tippermuir. AC the base of the hill of Kntbven, abaat 
a mile Eouthwards, the Marrjuis of Montrose achieved one of his 
greatest victories in 1644. 

Abont 6^ uiilcs &am Perth is Methven Junction, about a mile 
from the village of Slidtlivcn. WLtliin the grounds of Methven 
Castle {Ool. Smythe) there is an old oak-tree, called the Pepper- 
well Oak, with ti'uuk 18 feet in circumference. About \\ mile 
lo the north is Ljnedouh Cottage, the scene of the touching story 
of Bessie Bell and Mary Gray. Dronach Haugh, where these 
imJorionaie beauties were buried, is about half-a-mile west from 
the cottage, Htul on the gravestone is the iusmption :^"They 
lived— they Joyed — they died."' 

CriBDiliblp lubiiBted betwcso them. Biasie Bell. dauEtiter oT ILe Idlrd orKig. 
vild, bappened Mlw on s visit to Uniy Gray, at her fatlicr's house of Lynedecb, 
when tlie plague af IMH bioVs out. Tu ivaid the Infectton, the two yanng IsiJlea 
built IheuiBeWes a bower In a. isry retired and rouiaDtie ipot called the Butd- 
bnet, abaal Ume-qnuten or a mile weatwurd fttiDL L]>DBiloch House, Hherj 
the; resided Tot eoiiie tiuie, supjilied with rood, tt is laid, by a young gentlemaa 


Balgowan, to the nartli of the railway station of tlidt name, « 

fonnerl; the soat of Lord Lysedoch, ona of fbe most daring heroM 4 

the Pepinsular War, and here tho eelflbrated port;rait of his wife (tb( 
Hon. Mm. Ontliaiii), liy Gainsliorougb, vss found during alteratioaa 
BiMdt by a EulisBqiieiit proprietor mma llfCj years after hia deatli. It 
DOW hanga in tlie Natioual GaUer;, Edinburgh. About 4 miles to 
the Dortli-west of Methveu (12 from Perth) is Trinity College, Olsu 
almond, Tlie line is continued, b; Msddeity, Abercaimey, and Iod 
peffray, whicli are described in connection with CtieS (p. 174). 

Pbkth T(f Dundek (Cakdaaiaa Itailumy). 
Thia line of raUway passes tiirough the fertile Carse of Odwrio, 
where there are aevoml places nf interaat. About i miies from Perth 
Kinfaima Custle is aeon on the left, while a little farther on to the 
right, and oil the opposite bank of the Taj, are the ruins of Eloho 
Castle (Earl of Wsmyaa). The railway nest passes between lnchjrs 
House and Fitfour Castle, close to wUieh is the Eirk of St. Aladoes, 
where there is a curionslj-sculptiired stone motiumenL Fai-thei 
on, to the Bouth'Sast, lie Errol, from nhich the Hays assumed 
theic tdCle of Earl, a.nd Errol Park, a s]mcious modern mansion, 
adjoining which are the church and village. Megginch Castle, 
Btill pretty entire, and bnilt by a cadet of the family of Errol 
about 1B75, is aenu on the other sido of the line. To the north of 
Megginoh is the castle of Fingask (the seat of the Thrieplands), 
in which are preserved matiy interesting portraits and relics of 
the exiled Stnarta, to whose caaee, both ic 1715 atid 1716, the 
I'hrieplaud family were warmly devoted. A mile to the north-east 
of Fingask, tha ancient koop or donjon of Kinnaird Castle, adjoin- 
ing the parish choruh (restored), forms a, protuinent object. About 
3 miles to the north of lathture station ia the finely -aitnated 
mansion of Rossie Priory (Lord Kinnaird). On the same side, a 
few milea to the east, are acen the massive walls and tojrets of 
Caatb Huntly (formerly Caatio Lyou), built mostly by PatMck, 
third Earl of Kinghom, the same nobleman who added so much 
to the oiTiamentatiou of Glamis Castle. The Loiigforgan and luver- 
gowrie stations are next reached, and about a mile fran the latter 
vo the houses of Mylnefleld and Invergowrie. Near tho station at 
Invergowrie are the ruins of the old church, originally one of the 
first in Scotland, and where there ave still some singular examples 
of ancient sculptuced stone monuments. On crossing the ' 

Id rases of the plagun, tbay wero not bmled io the ordinary parochial 
npultUTB, but In this sequestered epot The Fate Lord Lyuedoch put 
i^tUng ronad the {vne, and planted sonn jrw-tr^'B beside It. 



gowrie Bum Iha traTaUer is in Forfarshire ; uid paaaiug along the 
uorth margin of tbe Tiy, whicli ia atiiAied with iiunierouB villas, is 
IsDded in the eaaiBe of a few minutes at ttagdalen Green, tli« 
west-end station of Dundee, sod a mile farther on at the South 
Dnion Street atalion, in Dutides, 

A deamrr ylUs itimwn Perth, and Dundet in awimnfr—a pleasant 
lail of Uiio Aours. 

[ffufcli.- TheQneen'a, 160 Nethcrgnlsi fUiyil, H NellietBiU; ili)y»l Brjtiali, t 
CuLle tjCeet; l^mb*! Teiu|mimiiiis, SB Befonn Street: Uithei's Cuin- 
niflrriBl (Tempi-fsnM), *liltfiluill Btreot Papalntion 181,173.] 
the tliird town in Scotland in populutioii, and the principal seat 
of the linen and jute trades of the United Kingdom, is aituateil on 
the north bank of the Tay, Like many other totiuB in sonlh 
Scotland, Dundee autfera from being OTer "railu-ayed." The 
North British Bailway and Caledonian Railway both hare stations 
here, and intending paaeengers must he careful to discover what 
line takes them direct to their deatination or they may spend two 
honiB on a journey requiring half an hour. Sjiacioua quays, a 
patent slip, careening beach, graving- docks, tide-liarhours, and 
dmlfSr-ponds stretch along tbe margin of the Tay for upwards of 
2 miles from east to west. In Dock Street are situated the Customs 
and Excise OlTicoa, and the Royal Arch, an ornamentAl structure 
built in Dommemoration of Quoau Victoria's visit in 1814. 

An Esplanade, or sea-wall, formiog a puhlic promenade, nisa 
From Magdalen Point to the Cmig Pier ; and from Magdiilcn I'oint 
the Tay Bridge carries the line of the North British Railway 
acroas the estuary.' 

The High Street, estending te Commercial Strfeot, contains at its 
north-east end a magnificent display of street architecture. The 
Town Bouse, on the south side of the High Street, was huilt in 
] 73*. and ia surmounted hy a steeple, with piazia underneath. At 
Ilia «aat end stands the Clydesdale Bank adorned with stataes ul 
Britannia, Industry, and Commerce- 
On the north side of the Nethergate, which diverges on the 
amith-west side of the High Street, are the tliree Town Churuhes, 
the entiance to the one named the Steeple Church heing under a 
square tower (the Old Steeple), 1S6 ft. in height, which ia oon- 
I Tba Best Taj Brlclge wke S41D yards la length <e mlleii leia SO jarde). 
After being In use about BlBhteen mmtbs, the central portjon— abonl I thirf 
isr a mile— wu, daring a treinendoui gale, blnnn dawn en the eveidrig of thg 
UUi DnMmbu 1S79. 


sidcredoneoftlienrchi hi -al n 8 and 
fuui,d«r of \hk ohmli B3 Ba d, ta Hnntrngd 

William the Lion. On lus uru & m PaleBtm aft laving. 

de Lion the perila ha 


Third Crmade, Smx\ Dayid 

0rW^ iL 

made a narrow esc*[i fron 

sMpwreuk on the shn f 

Taj, and a church, u w d 

A ^ 

Btrojed, of which th 

the belfry, was ert.: 

gratitudo for his .1 


anee. The toK-er, 


was repaired nude 




anperintendenceofth te 

Iff ii iirift 

Sir Gilbort Scott, con n 


a line ^leal of Iwlk. is 


open to the public < linn 



the summer moutlis 

payment of a ema f 

; mJiS 


The old Town Croas, a 

if mm 

kr IS feet high, snrm 


d by a un n wi 


^^^1^=' ""fgf^M 

nbed a t r 86 

Wii ' ,, 4pil 1 

h h tmillj t 

W 'ji^W 

th Htl St t h b 

11 „ 


u re t d n tl h 

jr&=v - 

:is'" "',^ft^»-^ 

TJpo tl south d of ^^M 3^"*H^ 

tl N tl g t ar St 

Pad Fb Ch rthfl IM 

^Hi^ iWflJ^ tR^^'^ 

Andrew H Roman Catholic 

^^^JbHiIIIm ■ ^"M^i^R^ 

Church i and on tbn north 

aide U St. Euoidi'a Estab- 

'Si'TTII' '^HJ-li 

lioltiu! rlmrMl. A Htllii 

farther wcat, on the Perth ""• ^*'"^ "'" "'"""^ 

Road, nra St. John's, St. llai'k's, St. Potcr's, and the M'Chejne 

Memorial Churchas. 

Uni^sit!/ CUfj'. IJBtweeii Park Place and SmalPa IVjnd in 

the NBthergflta, is constituted un.icr a trnst-deed {[ranted by llisa 

^L JiuxtLT of BalgRvies, s,ud the lai* John Hojrl ftiitor, LL.D. The 


BQUi of £100,000 has been set apa.rt t» an endowmout fuud, aurl 
£50,000 has been ex[)eiided iu purclinsiug uid eitiLijii>iii{; thelniilil- 
ings. There &re tkirteeu clinits eeteblished, r&ugin^ Fralii Mathe- 
matics ta Medieine ; and nine LectuTeahiiia. The TtchnUal lialUiitc, 
at tbe bauk of the College, was ojicued in 1888. £20,000 wae 
heiiueathed by Sir David Baxt«r for its erectioQ and eudow- 
ment, to ali'ord facilities for technical educatiou to the worliiug 

The Overgitlie, which enters from the north-west aide of High 
Street, is a narrow, dflcaelj inhabited atroot, off which ran TaUy, 
Banack, Lindsaj, and Tay Streets. In Liad(.ay Street are the 
offioaa of the Dundee Cou-ritr and Argus and tbe eztcnsiTe jat«- 
worka of Don, iJuiat, and Co., remarkable for their acchitectoral 
simplicity and elegance. 

CommsrciaJ Street, now reconstructed, perhaps excels in srchi- 
tectora! beanty any thoroughfai-o in the town. It extends liuin 
Albert Square to Dock Street. 

WMtehall Street, a spacious aew street bi-tween L'liiuii and 
Crichton Streets, la now complete and contains some Sne i'ao\>s. 
The GUlilliui Memorial Church, recently erected, preseota an 
imposing appearance to the Nethergste here. 

At tbe tap of the Seagate (aotith-east end of High Street} is 
St. PanVa Epijcopal Church (late Bishop Forbes), a building in 
the Deeoratfld Gothic, designed b; Sir Gilbert Scott It occupies 
tlie site of the old castle of Dundee.' 

Reform Straat, a tboronghfaTB of fine architecture, runs li'onL 
tbe north aiile of the High Street and terminates at t)is post-offlce, 
On its west side ia Bank Street, in which the Kinnaird Hall ia 
eituate, used for public meetings. Immediately opposite are the 
olEcea of the Dimda Advertiser. 

In West Boll StrBEt, adjoining the priaon, ia the SherilT and 
Justiciary Coun-bonae, a handaome Orei^ian building. The largest 
hall in the town is the Votuateer Hall, Parker Square. 

In Albert Square, opposite Panmnre Street, ia the Eoyal Ei. 
change, and on the south-west of the Sqaare ia the Eaiitem Cluh, 
both ornamental bnildings. The Albert Ijislilitle, a memorial build- 
ing in honour of the late Prince Consort, erected by subacriptions, 
chiefly within the town, amounting to upwards of £20,000, occupiea 
the middle of the Square. It was planned by Sir Gilbert Scott 

I it thB uKSt end of the Seagntii, where Blaefcieroft biglns, there stood, LIU 
OOBitahla of Wallace CwiJlH, lia oriftaal of Sir WaltBiBcotti" totti^VMi," 

DWmBE ■ 

the npper floor, in the great hall, 1b the Reference Libratj^ 
Taooe by the west stairoase), and on tLe lower tliG Free iJ6r(Wj| 
with lendiag departniBnt. There is b,1bo b. irmseum and picture 
gallery (no oh rge) th rth d f h Inatit t f ing 
the Hoyal E^^ B,iHb tat fQ Vtnsetod 

on B polished d gran t p d t 1 [ th las pel f f (1) her 
Marriage, (2) h t m 1844 (3) th De t f Cnmeon 

Veterans, (4) Symp thy with th t ] t! k f th Ute 

Harry Batas, A.R.A Tthlftft tatn f Georga 

Kinloch, firat M P f th h gh in th f m d pa 1 t of 

1832, by Sir John Sffldl,— alio mas also the sculptor ot the Btatne 
of Robert Burns, which stands close by. On the right of the lata 
Qneen is a stutue (John Hntohiaon, R.S.A.) nf James Camiiehaal, 
» Dundee oBgineer and inventor. 

A little to the south-weat of the Albert Institute is the Bbtpffi 
or old burial-ground of Dundee, oontaiDing a number of cnriotlt 
old tombstones. Op[>oaitB ia tho line new f oat OHice. 

Dndhopc Castle, onoe baiTscks, now an Industrial Mu 
the Beat of the ancient Qonatablea of Dundee, and is half a mite from 
the High Street. The celebrated John Grahams of Claverhouse, 
Visooant Dundee (the "Bonnie Dnndee" of the well-known Sootob 
song), waa constable of Dndhope Castle. After his death it wu 
forfeited to the eiown, and subsequently couTertsd to its preselj; 
Dse. A little to the eastward ia the Royal Infi-rmary, the largeda 
andmost conapicUQUsofthe public buildings of Dundee. The Lata) 
a round green hill (53& ft.), crowned with the ruins of an ancient 
fort, rises behind tlie town, and afforda the citizens a magniliceiit 
view northward acroge a richly cultivated plain to the SidlawHiUa 
utd tbe more distant peaii^ of the Grampians ; eastward 
Bell Sock Lighthouse and the North Sea ; and southward by 
bay and town of St. Andrews and the East Neuk of Fife. South-^l 
west of the Law is Balgay Hill, on the southern slopp of which iV 
situated the Tictoria Hospital Tor Incurables, opened on SOtlt 
August 1899 by H.K.H. the Diike of Oonnaught, who also tbefti 
uuvoiled the Queen's statue at the Albert Institute. '( 

The Ifcetei-n Naxopoiia, a romantically situated bnryingt, 
grouud, oooupiea the west portion of the hill of Balgay. ~ 
east division of the hill is laid oat as a public park. Separatii 
it from the Necropolis is a deep ravine, over which a liandsoiiAiD 
iroD bridge has been thrown. 

At the north-eastern extremity of the town is the Baxter Pari 
w&iob waa preaeated to the town in 1S63 by tiie late Sir Davi 



DtWDHB 187 

It is laid out in a tasteful miuiner, aud i^omminda an exlen- 
'. la the centra sianda a. marble Btatue of Sir David BsJlar, 
I>7 Sir Joha St«ell, subsnibed far by the inhabitnntB of Dnsdee. 

The iforgim SoapUal, a building in the Si^otch baronial Btj1« of 

.jrehiteotnre, ia situated to the oorth-west of the Baxter Park, its 

jfcundor, John Morgan, who beloDged tn the town, devoted the Uulk 

fortune (X70,0(IO) to the edacation of lOOboya. aons of decayed 

'tithlesmen of Dundee and other towns in the county of Foil'ar. 

Dundee was anciGiitl; a walled town, bnt noiv possesses scarcely 

y remains of the old walla except in the nttmea uf Boine of the 

■bmts and in the arch at the Cowgate Port, from the top of which 

Wiahart the martyr is said to havo preached to the people during 

the plague of 1511. A brass tablet in the wall commemorates 

this circumstance. At the Reformation Dundee was one of the 

■^Mt tomis in Scotland which puhliely renounced the Roman 

" itholio iiaith. The Qnean has granted a Charter to Dundee, dated 

Ith January 1889, confeniag on it the rank of a city. 

The town ii bmed for its manufactureof fabrics of linen, Jute, and 

'liemp, Tlieoonsumptionof jute ifl very great, a large direct import* 

lation being made from Calcutta ; and the "Eastlndiamen" beloug- 

Dundee form a large and valuable Qeet, Of late years great 

improvements have lieen made in the spinning-mills. Some of the 

works in extent, durability, and magniticence are unsnrpossL'd by 

the milU of any other town or country in the world. Among the 

prinoipal establishments maybe mentioned those of Baster Brothers 

' Co., Princes Street, and of Gilroj Brothers and Co., in Loclice 

Boad. The value of the mauufacturea of Dundee is estimated to 

tmbumt to nearly £8,000,000 annually ; and the number of perauna 

nmployed in the linen and jute trades is about 50,000. 

Electric tramiars have lately been introdaced, and there is a 
igular service of 'buses to the enburbs and Lochee. 
Dundee has produced many celebrated men ; Boece the Matorian ; 
Wedderbnm the poet ; Hulyburton, a lealous reformer ; Scrymgeonr, 
standard-bearer to Wallace ; Viscount Dundee ; Sir George Mac- 
kanrie ; Admiral Duncan ; George Dempster of Dunnichen. Hood, 
the poet, spent a portion of his youth in the town. J amea Chalmers, 
for aixay years a bookseUer in Castle Street, invented the adhesive 
stamp in 1S3i, which haa now been adopted for postal purposes 
by the dvilisad world. 

LooBBl, a thriving suburb within the extended royalty of Dun. 
dee, contains some handsome churches, including those of the 
United Presbyterian, Episcopal, and Pioman CathoJio bodies. The 


Camperdowi] Works (Coi Brothurs) employ aljoul 5000 handa, and 
cover nearly El acres of ground ; their chimney " stalk " rivals ill 
height and greatly eicris in beauty tlmt of St. Eollox of Glasgow. 

DuWNPlELD, a village not Ear from Lochae, near the Ealdovan 
station of the Nswtyla railway, has been much freqnented of late 
yaara hy Dundee people. It is considered highly salnhriou*. 

BaovHHTY SsRa.T(pop. 10,484: Irm), to which tbtrs is almost 
hourly access by railway from Dundee, is the chief reaidenca of the 
DiarcbautB of that town. It contains a number of handsome villa 
residences and some churches of considerable architectural beauty, 
Brtmghty Oastle is bnilt upon a rock which juts into the Tay. At 
the Links of Bamhill (north-east of Bronghty Ferry} some interest- 
ing archsological discoTories were made in 1876. Many villa 
reaideuces have been erected there. 

Newport is a pleasantly-situated village on the south side of the 
Tay, directly opposite Dnndse. Constant communication takes place 
by means of the Ferry and Tay Bridgo. It contama an hold, fivo 
chnrchaa, very many villas, and two stationa of the North British 
Hallway {p. 115). 

There are loo4L LUiHS of Rail north ftum Dnuiliie, viz.— 
(1) To Coufar-Ahqus ash Aitih by NEwrvr.K (12 m,, CuWrniian). 

The line passes by the New Lnnatic Asylum, Liff,' Camperdown 
House (Earl of Camperdown), Baldpvau House (Sir B. Ogilvy, Bnrt. ), 
Auohterhouse (W. D. Valentine) ; also Bannatyno Houfle, and thamins 
uf Hatton Castle, at Newtyle, in the former of which the well-known 
udlection of ancient Scotch poems is said to have been made hy 
Gbo[^ Bannatyne, in whose honour the tamona literary cluh was 
established. Ar.YTH Jdnctios is a mile aonth of the old pleasant 
village of Meigle (/nn), north of which the heautifid Dean Water 3o«i 
into tbe Isla. At Meigle the largest and most sinenlar collection ol 
Bcnlptored stones of Scotland is to be seen. In the vicinity is Behiiont 
CMtle (Right Hon. Sir Henry Campbell- Ban nermsn, M.P.). Coupar- 
Angiis (p. 204) is 6 miles west. A short railway braneli, 6 niilea in 
length, leads north to Algth (p. 204). 

(2) To FoBKAR, DlBBc-r (21 m., CWeifonmB). 

Starting from the Bast Station, Dundee, the Forfar tmin nins upon 
the Dundee and Arbroath line till it is abont a mile beyond Brought^ 
Ferry, where the Forfar branch tnms off to the left, crossing the 

I Near this, miles naith-wtst tram Dundee, is Uie Old ClivrA nfFovrHs Ea>(H-. 
B floB apoeimen of the grohitf eture of the IStli ncntnrj portod. The screen, which 
■epamtu the nave from the liurlal-Biala of the Loida Onj, ooi ' ' 
represenUtlon of the CruelBilDn. The usstle of FokKs is n< 
and the Uen of Balrodder;, s TtTOUtite field [or the geoIoglBt and botanlHt.^ 
In On oelghbouthood.— FWe Pneadinsi JnHj. Sw. tifSeoOmC 


EOOA«f Of fOflPAR tsi 

rosth lias on ■ high level liriilge, niid grtulunlljr riding u it advuicea 
fawnrd. AfSevk Caatle, the ReBsiraii of thii Dundee Wnter Oom- 
DIlaaionBrB at Monikie, the King's Well on the right, the cnrionn rulna 
of Hynii Cwitle on the left. Cartmddo Honae, ani! « Roinnn onmp, ire 
unccBssiVBly pameil, snd the riiilWBy grnrUmllj deaceniis to Forfar (p. 
20t)), pusnig DBor DHnnichea Hanse nod EiDgBmnir. 

»Pkrtb and Dunusb to AiiBROAra and Monihosr, 
BT THK Coast (50 miles). 
This pleasant and interesting excursion nlong the coisl of Foj^iir- 
SDire, described so far As Dundee on pp. 182-183, follows thence thi^ 
Bstmry of the Taj to its mouth at Broughty Feny (p. 188), whence 
a ferry steamer crosses the firth — horc Harrowed to a mile — to 
Tiyport in conneEtioa with the Fife railways. From Tayport a 
long tongue of barren sand shoots into the sea. OW the extreme 
point of this spot, cnlled Biiddon Ness, lis tho perilous shoals, 
which, from the deep monotonons moan of the snrf, have reeeiTeil 
the title of " Tks Koaring Lion.:' The cfistlo of Claypota, about n 
mile to the north of lirooghty Ferry, was, according to tradition, 
the residence of a mistress of Caiiiinal Beaton. 

Prom Bronghty Ffirry tho railway crosses the Monifioth and 
Barry Links to Carooastia, a rising watering-place of 5204 in- 
bubitauts, situated on the sliore. There are golGog links at both 
Monifiotli [Holel) and Csraouatit (Ifotel), the latter being admir. 
able. Ahout 2 miles north of Camaustie is Panmure House, a 

^^Mat of Lord Dalhouaie. The railw.iy follows the shore for other 

^^^uiiUa by Eastbaveu. and Elliot Junction (Kelly Caatle being ou 

^^^H north), until it reaches 

^^IP Arbroath (17 miles from Dundee). 

^^Sii.; Wlilbe Hsrt, nigh St. ; Imperial, at Hlation ; WnvHley Tempflraiieo.l 
This senpott aud nianuracturing town stands, in tho district of 
Angus, next to Thindee in point of trade and of population (82,888), 
bat poaaeaacs little to attraiit the touriat except its Abbey. The 
linrhour, which has been scooped out by art, is confined and of 
difficult access, and the towu depends mainly on its mauufaetures, 
the staple of nhich are sailcloth, canvas, coarse linens, and shoes. 

The abbra of Arbroath was founded by William the tion in 1173 
tor monks of the Tyronenslan order, and dedicated to the English 
martyr Thomas k Becket, The fonnder waa interred within its pre- 
cincts, snd a grave composed of hewn frteatone, near the site ot the 
high altar, ie supposed to contain his remaina The Seottiah nobility 

^MiBt hare in 1320, and drew up a spirited romonfitrauce to the Pope 

^■Main't the claims mode by Edward TT. unon tba sorerctglttv of th> 



.iiasokva ,.. 

kmgdoiu. The Uab abbot v/aa tlie fainnui CariUnnl Beaton, wki . 
at the same time Arcliblahap of SL Andrews, niul in the tniubles 
inooteded liis death fiuiatiiiam meiked its for; alike on the 
and its iuhabitauU. Tlie I'uiiis, tbongli greatly dilapid&ted, are inta- 
EHting, lucire OBpeoiollj in thdr dvtails. The western gable is NormBn, 
tilt tlie rest is Early Englisli. The chttiioel, from its remains, baa 
evidently lieoii tlie noblest part of the bnilding, and the Cntherine 
wheel window, in the gahle of the south ttsnaept, is still entire. The 
fl'isble natnre of the red saucistone of which the abbey is built is rerj 
apparent is sueh parts us are porticalarly exposed to the sea wind. 
Dr. Johnson, in his Jimrncy to the Walsm lalanda, remnrki, ' ' I 
shonid auartdy have regretted my Journey had it nfforded 
1 than the sight of Aberbrolkock." 


Aboat 10 tuilcs off the coast of Arbroath sfaiLds the In( 
l.ighthoUBE, on an iuanlated reef calleil the Bell Rock, fi 
beU which in former days the Abbot of Aberbrothock had 
jwoded as a wanting to mariners. A pirate who had wantonly 
cut it away met with a juBt retribution by himself lirifling on tho 
rock oil a stormy night, and perishing with his crew, — a tradition 
which fomu the sahject of Southey's gioptdar ballad. 

From Arbroath a light railway runs (7 miles) up coi 
village of CanHjllie, 000 font above the sea, famous for its ([Uarriea 
of "Arbroath pavement."' This, the first light railway 
land, was opened for paaaenger traffic on 1st Feb. 1900. 
goes up the valley of tlie Elliot Water, by beautifid Kelly 
and the old tower of Kelly Castle. The intermedtato 
Elliot JimctioD [where passengers (toin the south ic 
p branch line), Arbirlot, Cnthlie, and Denhrad. 

Close to Arbroath on the north is the old church of St. Vigc 

id bh*^^^^ 

1 thB 

) the 



(built in the Utli renturj, and reatored 1875), inUreating on ils 
owa occonnt aa well aa for its uicii^at sonlptured Bt«nes. 

A line of railway (7 miles) gooa inland Troui Arbroath bj Friock- 
beim lo Gnthrie Junction (p. 210), on the miiiii lins north from 
Perth to AberdMQ. 

Ou the seashore, about 3 miles to the east of Arbroath, ia the flih- 
ingriliage of Auehmithie(AD(e2), where there u'a some vast caves and 
perrorations in the rocks. Ancbmichie is the "Mussel Crag" of 
Scott's Aniiquary. From th;ence the promontor; of Rodbead (bo 
named irom the colour of the sandstone) is seen ta advantage. Pi'ior 
to the year 1793 this cape was the boundaij beyond which coal was 
prohibited from being carried northward without incurring a heavy 
duty, which was wisely commuted for an eicise on apirita. Near 
the extremity of the "head," a mass of chimneys, ahootiiig up trom 
the bosom of a venej-able grave, pniots oat Ethie House, a seat 
belonging to Lord Nortbeslt. Half-way between Arbroath and 
Montrose the coast is iDdented by Liman Bay, with ita tioe cliHs 
and sands, in the centre of which, aod near the deboudte of Lnnan 
Water, is Luuaji House in the hollow; and upon rising ground, on 
the west of Lnnaa Water, stands a ruinous pile, built of saml- 
atooe, and appi-opriately named Red Castle. Tradition makes it a 
fo^ourite residBOce di the aaUe munificent monarch who endowed 
the Abbey of Arbroath. There yet remain a quadrangnlar tower 
and aome dilapidated walls, boldly cresting the green mound on 
which they are perched. About 3 miles to the north of Lunau 
Bay the approach to Montrose discloses a fine proapect of that 
town end its environs. To the left rise the towers of Einnaird 
Caatle (Eurl of Southest), embosomed in thick woods ; beyond shoot 
up tlie spires of Brechin, and yet farther the giant Grampians. On 
Che right appear Dunninald House and tlie eastle of Kosaie, almost 
biuied ia picturssque foliage. In front spreads a apacions circular 
sheet of water, communicating with the ocean by a narrow strait, 
and crossed by a bridge of graceful proportion. On the flat penin- 
sula extending between this basin and the sea stands Montrose 
itself, cheerful and compact. The peuinsulu is low and verdant, 
where the hand of the builder has not doomed it to barrenness. Be- 
yond its farther eitremity in the north rise the high clifis of St. 
Cyras or Eoclesgreig, washed by the waves of the ocean, and crowned 
by a handsome church. A chain of small hills, tliickly studded with 
villa iiaidenees, sweeps round throe sides of the baaiu. Unless the 
weather be veiy fine and dry the red mud of the loads is peculiarly 
diiogreeable, and at tiiuea makes them impassable for cydista. 





(JfoWi; Stari; QuFtn'sCC.rcmjO; Central. Arbroath 13 miles. fVjp. 12,4^-1 
in a ueat tovin. It has two railway stations, CaliidoniiD aud 
North Britiah. In tbe High Street are atittuea of Sir Robert Peel, 
and the lute Joseph Hume, who was bom here in 1777. Extensiye 
linlfa extend between the burgh and the sea, affording ample scojie 
for the game of gnlf. The principal buildinga are tha TowD-Hidi, 
the Pai'ish Church, the Episcopal Churches, the Acadetof, aud the 
Moseum of natural and antiquarian objects. Montrose uarries on a 
considerable trade in shipping and linen maniifacliire. The basin 
formed by the mouth of the South Eslt serves as a sort of road- 
stead to tbe part, ajid at high water has a peculiarly striking and 
beautiful effect. Tbe channel by wMch Uie waters find their way 
to tlie sea is impeded by tbe island of Inchbrayock, upon which 
are an old churchyard and monumeuts. The island is reached from 
the south by a narrow channel and bridge, and on Vae north by 
a mogniticent suspension bridge of about 4SS ft. !□ length. At 
certain states of the tide the carrent is czoeedingly powerful, but 
the basin is shallow, and bo much of it is left dry at ebb tide that 
an attempt waa made at one time to reclaim a portion by means 
of dykes. Dykers were brought from Holland to anperintend the 
work of embankment, and it was on the eve of completion when it 
was destroyed in a few hours by a storm. 

It was at the port of Montrose that Sir Jatnea Douglas embarked 
in 1330, for the Holy Land, with the heart of King Robert Bruce. 
Tho Chevalier de St. George, sod of the expatriated James II., 
who had lauded at Peterhead disguised as a sailor on his unsuccess- 
fiil expedition of 171S, re-embarked here in the following year a 
fugitive for France, to head the sanguine adherents of his house, 
and bade a final adiea to the country of his fathers. In the subsa- 
qnent rising of 1745, the town was for some time the huadquartera 
of the Soyaliats, aud in tbe river between the town and village ol 
Fenrydeu, the "Hazard" sloop of war was captured by Caplain 
David Perrier of Brechin, a notorious Jacobite. The famons 
Marquis of Montrose, the hero of many warlike traditions, is said 
to have been bom here in 1612. Montrose is distinguished as 
the place in Scotland where the Greek langoage was first taught, 
and where the learned scholar and divine, Andrew Melville, re- 
ceived his education. 

There are a number of gentlemen's seats and places ofiiit«reBt in 
1 (C.) The eiitianca to the Star Is not pippussessiUK, but It will bo found a 
gwnlhoBteliToftheold-fiiShloned, well-eettbltahed kJn-i inside. 

PERTH TO KILLIN (/or map, see p. 263), 



the locality. The old mansion of Hedderwick, and the village of 
Hillside with its pretty villas, are within a couple of miles. The 
main line of rail to Aberdeen is reached by a short branch to 
Dubton Junction, about 2^ miles from Montrose. 

The Bebvie Railwat (12 miles) branches off from Montrose near 
the Victoria Bridge, passing along the links and muir south of the j 

mansion of Charleton, and north of that of Kinnaber. It crosses the | 

North Esk by means of a fine viaduct, and taking a line south of ; 

Kirkside House, and along the top of the cliffs which overhang the . 

old romantic burial-ground of St. Cyrus, reaches the station at Kirk- j 

town of St. Cyrus, to the north of which is Ecclesgreig House. j 

Leaving Lauriston station, the line crosses the Den of Lauriston, with j 

Lauriston Castle on the north. It then crosses Den Finella, by a 
high bridge of four arches, from which there is a fiue glimpse of the 
waterfall. From the fishing- village of Johnshaven the line runs close 
to the sea, and having on the left Brotherton House, Benholme Castle, 
the village of Gourdon, and Hallgreen Castle, it reaches the terminus 
at the town of Beryis {pop, 1207 — 2 inns). Bervie was created a ! 

royal burgh by David II. in commemoration of his landing there from ; 

France, with his consort Joanne, in 1341 ; and a rock called Craig-David i 

is a remarkable feature in the landscape. The view from the bridge | 

and up the water of Bervie, with Allardyce Castle and Arbuthnott House 
in the distance, is pleasing. The celebrated Dr. John Arbuthnott was 
bom in the neighbourhood. Dunnottar Castle is 8 miles, and Stone- i 

haven 9 miles, north by road (see pp. 213-215). i 

This favourite route goes through much of the most charming • 

scenery in Perthshire. The means of transit are now so well arranged I 

that the whole main line of the Tour, from even Edinburgh and I 

Glasgow (returning via Callander), may be made out in a single day. i 

But such a " run through " is not recommended as a satisfactory way { 

of enjoying the beauties of the Central Highlands. 

The first 24 miles of the route are by the main line of the 

Highland Railway as far as Ballinluig. The line starts from the 

General Station, Perth, and follows pretty nearly the right bank 

of the Tay, coming close on the river opposite Scone. Here it 

crosses the Almond, and a little farther passes Luncarty and its 

bleachfields. Near Luncarty, on the left bank of the Tay, are the 

Stormontfield Ponds for breeding salmon. They are free to the 

public, and are worth a visit to the naturalist and the angler. The 

fish are set free when between two and three years old. Similar 

ponds have also been constructed on Kinnoull Hill, near Perth. 

At Stanley Jtmction the Highland line properly commences, 

dirorging at this point northwaida — the Una to Alwrdecn going of! 
to the tight. Near tlie manufacturing village of Stanley (Whita'i 
Ntvs Hold) maj be seen, on the left banlc of the Tay, StobliBjl 
HouBS, the oiiginSil residence of the Earla of PecCh,' as well oa 
the chapel and the hiding-place of the Duke of Perth. HerD alao 
is the Linn of Campsie, where Eachin Maclan appeared to Catherine 
Glovoc after the bloody conteat and defeat of his clan on the North 
Inch of Perth (sea Scott's Fair Maid of Perth). The Isrge building 
seen &om Murthly station is a district lunatic aaylum, Tho atatioD 
for DunkclJ is at Biruam, a mile Irotn Dunkeld. 

Bot^: bhr-nam. 

atatiDD. In Dnnliold, Jfojial (Fisher'i 

BiBMAU and DcyiCBLD share a station between theni, thongh it is 
really at the lattor place. Birnam hotel is a lurge pleasant-looking 
building close to the station. On the south side of tho TorbiU on 
the banks of the Tay, approached from the back of Bimain Hotel, 
is Birnam House (J. Guthrie Lornie, Esq.), having in front the 
celEbrated twin trees of Birnam, an oak aod a sycamore. These 
magnificent trees, which are in perfect vigour, are supposed to be 
over 1000 years old, and the last of the famoiia Birasni Wood, with 
which the fate of the tyrant Macbeth is mysteriou-sly connected 
in Shakespeare's tragtdy.'' 

The hill of Birnam rises on the aonth to the height of 1324 ft., 
tie " Wood of Birnam," so celebrated in the tragedy of HaolMtb, 
grow on the slopes. A road of 3 milea reaches nearly to the 
anmmit, A'om which extensive views are obtained. 

The scenery all around forms, with its many charming 

1 atoWrallwaanriBinallyapcHSCssliHiortheDeMontifeirimiily.ononf wlom, 
Marj (dauehter or Blr WilUam de If ontifex), wu married lo 1360 to air John 
Dnuamond. Hie eldest danghter Annibella bacunetbe quean of Rabert III., 
■ndwu DTowDeilHlUi biiB ftt Scone in SupUmlHi ISSO; uid fiumthli alUanet 
llu ^lUsh ■ovemlgn and otlier cisvued beads of Enrope trace tlialr dncenU 
■ Duoelnniin Hill, cruwsed with Dtlnt vestiges of " U&cbeth's Castle," Ilea 8 
inflea norfh-Mst ol Parth, on the large estate of Dunslntian, wbich, after lo- 
mslnlig in tbe Naime family for many geaersHotu, passed in 1899 to the 
present proprietor, J. Mackay Bernard, Bnq. At St, Mart^i's, SmHee north ol 




mitn Mid drivM, > deliglitfiil Rentre for tourists. Tlie Bimsni 
Highland Csmes are held on the last TLurvIa; of Angnnt in vueli 
jesT, and sre well known as aoo of the priniiipal gatheringa of tho 
idad in ScotUnd. 

There are few jilacea of whiuh the first sight is so strilsiiig aa 
Dbskeld ; its fidfllj wooded mountaiuB, its uoble rirer, its mag- 
niQeent bridge, and its ancient cathedral combine to fonn a pictnre 
of IMS beauty. Part of the old town ia narrow and quaint, and 
■ImoBt bnried in the dark shade of Iniuriant treea. A fountain 
has heen erected to the memory of the late Duke of Athole, on the 
site of the Market Cross, in the Market Square, High Street. 

The Cl>tl)El)ml is entered from tho end of this street, and there 
are attendanta at the door, whose guidance is obtained for a small 
fee. The building, though in great part ruined, ia exceedingly 
interesting, and in some architectural renpects is probably unique ; 
it should not be missed. 

It ia believed that Dnakeld was originally a religious establishment, 
Inatitnted alxnit the year 570 by the disciples ot St- Colnmbt What 
tlie natnre of the or^nal church was is unknown, and the records of 
the present cathedral, althongb pisserved, are not without obscurity. 
The ckair (now the pariah church) waa founded by Bishop Sinclair in 
1318, bnt retains few of its ancient fealurea ; indesd it is so diafignred 
by niodem atrocities in the way of wiudows that it may be quickly 
paised through. T)ie only objects of interest are a couple of monu- 
ments in the Lady C'hapsl, described below. From this we pass to the 
ruined nave, a magnificent spectacle. The arcade arches are pointed, 
and rest on pillars which tor solidity and design may well be N'crman 
work. Above these, semicircular arches with flamboyant tracery 
occnpy the space below the clerestory windnws, which are of the 
Decorated period. The noiqne feature is the oonatmction of the Inter- 
mediate series of seminircular arches below the clerestory. The 
southern angle of t^e church ia faeed by an octangular watch-tower, 
containing a staircase, eommnnicatiag with the main tower by an 
ambulatmy. Tlie chapier-koat', north of the choir, was hullt by 
Bishop Lauder in HB9. In a vault beneath is the bHrial-plaos ot 
the AthoU family, and a room above waa used as the depository ol 
their charters. 

Of tliD ancient tomlB that hate Eurrived the general wreck, the 
most remarkable is to be seen ia the vestibule of the modem church. 
It is a remmb^t Ggoie in armour, the feet resting on a lion's head, 
and having the following inscription : — "Hie jacet Aleiandor Senes- 
calua, Rlina Roberti Regis Sootomm et Elisabethe More, Domiiius de 
Budhan et Budenocli, qui oiiiit A.D, 1381." This personage was the 
celebrated Wolf of Badenoch, third eon of Hubert II. There is hei« 
also an emblematical mural nioiiuuiunt of white 'marble, by Sir John 
Steell of Edinburgh, erected in 1872 by the officers oC ttie 41A 
Highlander? in nieiuory of [Jieir comrades who M\ in fl«. CvuMe».-Q 



war nod 1 


nio a Reginieni OQ the :i5'Ii Octnbei i;jc|, end ihc bit muiler look 
.740, in a field between TaybridBe and Aherfeldy, 
■■ Here, 'nuing the hills that nuraed each hardy Gael. 

Our votive niarble lelU the soldier's tale ; 

Art's magic power each perished friend lecalls, 

And hemes buint IhcM old Cathedral walls." 

The tomb of Kishop Sinolttir, who founded the choir, is still to bo 
Been in tbat part of the cBthedri] on the floor, markeil bf a eqiiara 
slab of blue iDarhla. This bishop was a brother of the laird of Rowlyn, 
and alike titled to commaDd in Church and State, being described 119 
"right hardy, meikle, and etark." But the moat illnstriona of the 
Bishops was Gavin Douglas,' »ho 

Gave to rafle Bcotlana Virgil's page." 

Tlie oathedral waa reduced to its present ruinous condition at the 
time of the Refunuation. 

After the battle of EilliecraJiIdG, in 1689, a regiment af Cemeronian 
recrnita, now the 26th Foot, took up its position in the chnrch and 
the Duke's house, where it withstood a furiona onslaught by the Higb- 
landers, who were returning southward Sashed with victory. Cleland, 
the oineer in command, and two others, fell in the contest, which 
terminated in the defeat of the Highliiudera. On the Idwn to the we.<!t 
of the cathedral are two of the earliest larch-trees introduced into 
Britain, having been brought from the Tyrol by Mr, Meuries ni 
Ciildaresin 1738. 

In the Park, to the west of the oathodial, h the new mansion 
of the Duke of Atholl. Entered by thi' large gate ' beyond Fisher's 
Hotel, THE GaouNDa of Dunkeld ttRbni a Buccesaion of fine riewe 
of sylran bcanty, in which the waters of the Tay and Braan play 
oonspicuons parts. A walk up the banks of the rirer Tay condncta 
to the so-called King's Seat and St. Colmc's Well. ToariBta are 
there ferried across tlie riTor and conducted by a pretty winding 
walk on the slope of Craigvinean to tba Falls of thb Bbaan, a 

1 Osrtn Douglas, tlie third son of Archibald, Barl of Anuns, was bom abont 

ic spirit of his ftraLlr by the eicellent la> 
les of visitors are inscrihod. Tourists sj 



stream which descends from Loch Freuchie (lying among the 
mountains to the west of Amulree), and joins the Tay opposite the 
cathedral. The first fall reached is at a summer -house called 
Ossian's Hall,^ fronting the cataract, and so placed that the fall 
is concealed from view until the door is drawn aside. The rocks 
here present a remarkable series of excavations or cauldrons formed 
by the boiling cascade. A little farther up we reach the Hermitaob, 
a charming cool retreat, suggestive of how delightful it may be to 
be a hermit, and pass a life of contemplation in listening to the 
waterfall. About half a mile farther is the Rumbling Bbidob, 
where the stream rumbles down a narrow, deep, chasm, into which 
a huge fragment of rock has fallen and formed a natural bridge. 
A better view of the fall is obtained from down a narrow path at 
its side. The Falls of Braan may be approached direct from 
Dunkeld by the public road,^ the highest fall (at Rumbling Bridge) 
being 2f miles distant from Bimam or Dunkeld. 

The hamlet of Inyer, X J mile west of Bimam, was the residence 
of Neil Gow, the celebrated composer of Scotch reel music. 

The wooded pyramidal hill of Craiq-y-barns, to the north of Dun- 
keld, forms a fine feature in the landscape. On the summit there is 
what used to be a rocking -stone. Beyond, to the north, a lovely 
walk may be taken through the woods to Loch Ordtb (5^ miles), 
whence the pedestrian may find his way over the hills by Loch Oisnach 
to Eirkmichael in Strathardle (16 miles from Dunkeld, see p. 263). 

A short way east of Dunkeld are the Lochs of the Lows, etc., on 
the road to Blairgowrie (see p. 261). 

MuRTHLY Castle, reached by a beautiful walk south from 
Bimam along the banks of the Tay of about 8J miles, and belong- 
ing to "Walter T. J. Scrymsoure-Steuart-Fothringham, Esq., of 
Fothringham, Forfarshire, was erected about 1826 by Mr. Gillespie 
Graham, architect, of Edinburgh, in the Elizabethan style, but left 
incomplete in consequence of the death of the then proprietor. The 
old castle of Murthly, which stands about 200 yards to the north of 
the new house, and is still inhabited, was used as a hunting-seat by 
some of the kings of Scotland. The pleasure grounds of Murthly 
extend for many miles east and west of the castle, on the banks of the 
Tay, and are open to strangers on applying to the factor at Murthly. 

Besides Dunkeld House and Murthly Castle, there are numerous 

^ This summer -house was maliciously destroyed some years ago; and, 
although repaired, is not now open to the public. 

3 The road continues up Strath Braan to Amulree (10 miles from Bimam, 
see p. 174) and is a heautiftil route. 


other eais in the noighbonrhood of Duiikeld. The high ro&d 
Pitloohrj [p. 263j ia woil wnrth walking or driving, aa it pui 
cLossly throllf^h charming nylvan scenery. 

Strathtay Dr strict. 

From Duuksld the railway skirts the valley of the Tay and croai 
the nver nrar Dalguise. liamediaCely after passing the atatioD, 
there nisy he seen on the left Dnlgaise Hense, wliioh belongs to 
John Nairu Durrant Stuart, Esq. At Bali.inlpio (Inn), near 
the junction of the Tay and the Tummel, the Aherfeldj branch 
turns off to the west aloDg the main river, while the Highland 
line contiuaBB north beside the lesser Btream (see p. 283). On the 
ton{;ue of land at the confluence staad the village of I^gierait (/nn) 
and a monument to the late Dalce of Athole. Baluaguard Inn, 1} mile 
west, on the sooth side of the river, was the scene of Mrs. Bnmton's 
novel of Self -Control ; and a little farther, on the other aide, lies 
Balleuhin, assoeiated with the old Suottish ballad of Sir James 
the Rose. At Grandtullyatatioa there is a comfortable Ao(eJ; and 
a recently made iron bridge across the Tay nffords a passage to the 
village of Tullypowrio and various villas situated hereabouta. Two 
miles beyond the station, the veneiahle castle of Grandtnlly appears 
on the left aurronnded by rows of stately elms. This mstle ia said 
to have been the model of Scott's " TnUyveolsn " aa deaeribed in 
Waverley. Ben Lawers comes into view soon after passing Grand- 
tully Castle. The peak seen to the north is Farragon, and that dose 
to the n-ater is Cluuio Hill. Three miles from this is the village at 

nb' I 

(Terminus). (For map, i 




f elfAt— 400 Feet. Goacta to Kunmore thre 
drcul&r Go&cb Tour vid Kunrnore, Qlen Ljon, rmd FottlngaL 
Immediately opgiOEite tha Breadslbaue Arms Hotel ia the entranei 
to the FaLU or Monhbs (charge of 6d. for admission), celebrated In 
Bnrns'B song of "Xiie Birks of Aberfeldy." The falls are tUree in 
number, and are a)>proached by a zigzag path. The highest, 2 miles 
U]t, is a perpeodicnlar torrent 50 feet high, and the whole scaoe is one 
of great beauty, aptly described in Bnrns'g lines ; — 

Tlie rosmt: 

O'ETliting wi' fmgraut sp 

e iDtty n. 


There are two roads to Loch Tay (7 m.). The more direct leaves 
the west side of the Market Square and continues in a straight line ; 
see further below. The other goes off at right angles from the 
first on the right side soon after leaving the market, and leads 
down past the church to the bridge over the river Tay. This is 
one of General Wade's bridges, memorable as the spot where the 
companies of the Black Watch were embodied into the 43rd, after- 
wards 42nd regiment. A picturesque " regimental '* monument was 
erected here in 1887. A golf links has been laid out near the Tay. 
Trout fishing is permitted on application to the Aberfeldy Angling 
Club. About a mile distant by this bridge is Weem, with 
church and Jiotel, From here the ascent of Farragon may be 
made. The road east from Weem to Logierait {inn) along the 
north bank of the Tay is extremely beautiful. A little west 
of Weem is Castle Menzies, erected in the 16th century, the 
seat of Sir Neil Menzies of that Ilk, Bart., the chief of the clan. 
This castle stands at the foot of a lofty range of rocky hills, and is 
surrounded by a park adorned with aged trees, among which are 
some planes of extraordinary size. Three miles westwards of Weem 
the road passes the village of Dull, boasting in remote times 
of an abbey, of which a stone cross is the only remnant. Two 
miles from Dull, a road on the left leads by Drummond Hill to 
Kenmore by an iron bridge over the river Lyon. The remains of 
Comrie Castle are surrounded by fine sycamores. Two miles on. 
wards is Coshieville (small inn) ; and 2 miles west of Coshieville is 
the handsome modem house of Garth, the seat of Sir Donald 
Currie, M.P., of Garth and Glenlyon. A road to the right, up 
the ravine of the Keltney burn, conducts to the old castle of Garth, 
situated on a rocky promontory about a mile from the inn. The 
castle must have been a fit abode for its original occupant, Stewart 
of the Buchan family, whose bloodthirstiness in expelling the 
M*Ivors from Glenlyon won for him the title of " Cuilean Cursta," 
or "fierce wolf.'* 

From Coshieville the road to Tummel Brtdoe (9^ miles), or Kinloch- 
Rannoch (12 miles), turns north, and crosses a high, wide, heathy 
pass at Loch Kinardochy. Here, where the ascent of the finely-peaked 
mountain of Schtbhallion (3547 ft. ) may well be made, the road to 
the left, along to the north base of Schiehallion, leads to Einloch-Rannoch 
(p. 273). TOie road to Turaniel Bridge, inn (p. 266), continues north. 
Pedestrians going east by Loch Tummel should turn to the right, about 
1 J mile beyond Loch Kinardochy, to Foss, near which there is a ferry. 
From Tummel Bridge the old route due north continues to Dalnacardoch 
in Glen Garry (p. 275) ; and there are roads also to Stru&n and Pitlochry. 



The road tlirongh Oleh Lton (dub of the finest of HiglilaDd gleosX 
aftei p&ssing Oarth House leads, a. mile farther weet (6 from Kenmon), 
to the villsKB of FoBTiBaALL, with a comfortable hoiei, post and telegraph 
offline. Near the Established Church are the renains of a famous yew- 
tree, proncuDced to be probably the oldest anthentio specimen of Tege- 
tatlon in finrope. It is now believed to be fully 3000 ye«rs old. Neai 
the village of FortlDgal] isOlenlyon House, the old home of Campbell of 
QlenlyoD, whose aneHviable share in the mdAaacre of Glencae ia well 
known. A short distance westward, ou the left side of tbe road, are 
the renmins of a Roman encampment. To the left a road stritei 
tirongh the hill, and joins the highway on the north side of Loch Tay 
at the pier of Stron-feaman (Tighanlosn Temperaura Inn), 3J niilea 
from Kenmore. West of the Ronian camp the road turns to the right, 
and places the traveller suddenly before the romantic narrow Pass qf 
QUiUyon or Chtsthttl, which extends for 3 miles. On emerging from 
the pass WB reach the house of Chesthill (Meniies). On the opposite 
side of the river here there ie a Bus waterfall with pictiircsqne bridge. 
Fasiiog the ruins of an old castle and Invervar House, we arriTe (10 
miles from Fortingal) at Innerwiek Church, near which if a hamlet 
where at one time there was a small Inn, now unfortunately non- 
eiistent. From Innerwiek thEre is a rough cart-road of tl miles north 
to Dall, on Loch Rannoch (p. 274). Half a mile west, striking 
south at Bridge of Balgay, ia the hiU-rood of Larig-an.locban, 
leading to Killiu [12 miles), and iialf a mile from BaJgay is Meggemie 
Castle (Mrs. Alei»Ddraiieeeh),ori)tinttlly the seat of 8ir John Stewart 
of Oardney (son of Robert II.), and subsequently of tha late Hanald 
Stewart Monzies of Cnldares. !t was built aliOHt the year 1600, and 
rep^ed 1673, and is approached from the east by an avenne of old 
llms-trees, half a mile in length. At Meggemie the best part of the 
road stops, although earri^es can go to Loch Lyon, 10 miles farther. 

From the foot of Loch Lyon Ben Oreadiau (3540 ft.) may be 
ascended from Qlcn Meran on the right. This Ben commands grand 
(lews across the Moor of Rannoch, etc The pedestrian who is un- 
willing to retrace his steps, and desires to reach the rood leading from 
Tyndrnm to Glencoe, may with ordinary caution find his way along 
the side of the loch to its head, and there strike off through a break 
in the hills on the right. After a little easy climbing the tourist will 
find himself in a glen opening to the south, down which he will follow 
the atreain, so as to strike the roail at Auch, about 3} miles north 
ihim Tyndrnm, and 6 south from Inveroran Hotel (see p. 162). 
Auch Is about 31 miles from Innerwiek. 

If we leare Aherfeldy by the south road, which is the coach 
route, we keep fairly olose to the river all the way. It ia hast to go 
this way if eyeliog, as tlie trend of the ground is more favonrabla 
than on the other aide of the valley, though both roads are of the 
nature of a switchback, with ascents and descents. One of the en- 
traaeBS to Taymouth Caitle is passed about a mOe before Kenmore, 
Tonriata are not admitted here, but at the Kenmore entranco only. 



[Hotd: The Breadalbane Arms ; EeiglU : 870 ft] 

The hotel is close to the principal entrance to Taymouth Castle, and 

within five minutes' walk of Loch Tay.^ The river Tay, which here 

issues from the loch, is crossed by a bridge, from which there is a 

view of Ben Lawers and the conical summit of Ben More. The 

scenery around Kenmore so captivated Bums that he gave vent to 

his admiration in the following lines, written on the mantelpiece 

of the inn parlour : — 

" Here poesy might wake her heaVn-taught lyre, 
And look through nature with creative fire." 

Taymouth Castle, the seat of the Marquis of Breadalbane, is sit- 
aated on a beautiful lawn ai the base of Drummond Hill, and within 
a mile of the village. The building is a dark gray pile of four stories, 
with comer towers, and terminating in a central pavilion. The first 
mansion was built by Sir Colin Campbell, sixth knight of Lochaw, in 
the year 1580, and was then called Balloch, from the Gaelic bealach, 
a word signifying the outlet of a lake or glen. The builder being asked 
why he had placed his house at the extremity of his estate, replied, 
" We*ll hriaz yant " (press onward), adding that' he intended Balloch 
shopld in time be the middle of it. The possessions of the family have 
extended in the opposite direction, and now reach from Aberfeldy to 
the sound of Mull, a space of upwards of 100 miles in. extent. The 
present castle was built on the site of the old house in 1801, with the 
exception of the west wing, which was added in 1842. Admission to 
the grounds is granted, as a rule, from 10 to 4, and to the castle at 
the same hours. Visitors must be accompanied by a guide, but there 
is no fixed remuneration, the place being shown free. The admission 
to the gardens, which extend for half a mile along the shore of Loch 
Tay, is by a gate at the north end of the bridge over the river at 

The best view of the castle is obtained from the hill in front, where 
there is a small fort. This prospect is said to have drawn forth the 
following impromptu from Robert Bums : — 

*' The meeting cliffs each deep sunk glen divides, 
The woods, wild scattered, clotlie their ample sides ; 
The outstretching lake, embosomed 'moug the hills, 
The eye with wonder and amazement fills ; 
The Tay, meandering sweet in infant pride ; 
The palace rising by his verdant side ; 
The lawns, wood-fringed, in nature's native taste ; 
The hillocks dropt in nature's careless haste ; 
The arches striding o'er the new-bom stream ; 
The village glittering in the noontide beam." 

1 Fishing for salmon in the loch is allowed to hotel visitors, but the salmon 
are sadly scarce compared with a few years ago. Any one may fish for trout 
anywhere in the loch. 



The pleasure-grmind! are laiii out with great tarta, and pfusess i 
striking comliination of beauty ami gi'andaur. Tlie STirroiinding hjlii 
areliDTiriantly wocxleil, andtha plain below J? adorned with ageA treen. 

A pleaaant excorsioQ may be maile from Kenmore to tlie IhlU oj 
Acham, a cascade 2 miles distant, ancJ half a mile off the road on 
the south Bide of the loch. Die fall is about SO feet high, and an 
excellent viaw of it ia obtained from the "hermit's moaay cell." 

The road soHth-east over to Amulrea (p. 174), 11 miles, by Glen 
Qnaich, is a Una moorlaiiJ walk bByunil the woods through which 

Loch Tat. 
upwards of 16 miles in length, and is from 
depth. It ie fed 'at its head by the united 


ima of Lochay and Dochart, while the Tay ia 
r Kenmore is a solitary island, on which ap 


priory, where ore deposited the 
Henry I. of England, and consi 
The fame of the lonh as a eslm 
that of its natural features, and s 
The ordinary tourist route ia t 
at stated intervals upon the loch 
rail, piers heing provided at vai 
Killin and Kenmore. The sail 

s ofa 
of Sibylla, daughter o( 
of Alexander I. of Scotland, 
fishing water probably eicels 
lets many anglers, 
made by steamer, which plies 
^onnectJOQ with the coach and 
s places and at both ends — 
hour il) minutea. There 

are roads on both aides, but the northern is preferable, being 16 
milea, while the southern ia 2 inilca longer and more hilly. Should 
the latter be followed, the places passed on the way are Acharn, 
2 miles from Eenmore ; some old copper and lead mines, about 4j 
milea farther, formerly worked by the late Marqnis of Bzeadalbane ; 
Ardeoneig Free Chltfch about half-way, 7 miles from Kenmore, 
where the Eidd bum falls ova a precipice GO fL high. There ia 
here a small inn (where boats may be hired for salaiou and trout 
fishing), and a ferry. A high mountain path leads over the bills 
from Ardeonaig to Glen Lednock, in which there is a road down to 
Comrie (13 miles— see p. 170). On the northern side of Loch Tay, 
rises Bun Lawbrs, one of the highest mountains in Scotland 
(3981, or with the cairn on the top 4000, ft. above the sea]. It ia 
composed mostly of micaceous schist, but its surfaue is remarkably 
verdant, and perhaps no moantain in the Highlanils produces 
more alpine plants. The ascent, which takes abont two hours, 
m«y be made from the Bon Lawers ffatel ' (Temperance), at the foot 
of the hill, where a guide raay be obtained. The roadway here ii 


itself about 700 ft. above the level of the sea. There is a ferry from 
Lawers to the south side of the loch (charge 6d. ) 

EiLLiN, — height: 480 ft. (wiap, p, 170), 
[Hotda : Killin, Ben Lawers, and (1 mile north of Killin) Lochay.] 

— a capital centre for excursions — is situated 1 J mile from the south- 
west extremity of Loch Tay, near the junction of the Dochai't with 
the Lochay. A branch line of 4 miles from the Callander and Oban 
Railway passes close to the village and proceeds to the steamboat 
quay on Loch Tay. Anciently it was the abode of the clan Macnab, 
whose burial-place is a pine-covered island in the river Dochart/ a 
little above the village. This clan, though small, had considerable 
renown in its day. Their country was the glen of the Dochart, 
and the house 6f their chief was Einnell, but the whole of the clan's 
property, with other petty estates, has been merged within the 
vast area of the Breadalbane possessions. In different places stand 
the old fortresses of the ancient lords of Glenorchy ; and Finlario 
Castle, overgrown with ivy, is their burial-place. The modem 
Breadalbane mausoleum occupies a solitary position near the old 
ruins. In a field to the north of the village, near the Free 
Church, a spot marked by a stone about two feet high is pointed out 
as Fingal's grave. Near Killin are the houses of Auchmore and 
Auchline, both belonging to the Marquis of Breadalbane. From the 
hill (1708 ft.) behind (west of) the village a capital view is obtained. 
Glen Lochay is one of the most beautiful glens in Scotland, and 
the river Lochay makes some very pretty falls about 3 miles up the 
glen. The key for the gate may be had at a little cottage at the 
entrance to the falls, and a small charge is made. The Forest of 
Mamlom, to the far west of the glen, and the Misty Glen, are 
celebrated in the songs of Duncan Ban Maclntyre. A coach from 
the Killin Hotel makes an excursion 7 miles up Glen Lochay. 
Pedestrians may cross the hills to Meggemie Castle (p. 200) in Glen 
Lyon, by the path " Larig-an-Lochan " (12 miles), from half a mile 
west of Tirarthur. The mountain of Tarmachan (3421 ft. ), to the 
west of this path, is worth ascending. 


Lochearuhead ... 8 miles. 
Canander. . . 22 ,, 

Aidlui (Loch Lomond) . 22 „ 
Tyndnim . . .19 

King's House (Glencoe) . S7 milet. 

Dalmally (Loch Awe) . Bl „ 

Eenmore . . . . 16 „ 

Portingal (Glen Lyon) . 17 „ 

The continaation of the Circular Tour from Perth, south from Killin by rail 
through Olen Ools, is described on p. 161 , and the Route West to Oban on p. 162. 

^ FmtIi are sometimes got out of tiUg river. 

Fromthedty otl'erlli, the "gato" to the Korthern Highlands, the«^ 
Bra Thbeb MaiN Rootkb lo the North, which fall naturally to b« 
described in the following order — beginning with the most eaatarly :— 
I. By BaILWat to Abegdebn, vi/l Caupar-AngnB, Forfar, Stone- 
hsveu ; and from Aberdeen throngh the north-east conntiea to 
Ihvebnbbs (pp. 204-261, and 285-2S7). 
It Bj railway lo Donkbld or BLAlBaOWHlS, and thence hy COAun 
throngh Qlenshsi to Bbaeuab aud Ballatbr, and thence by 
rail to Abebdeen (pp. 193, and 261-262). 
Ill, By the HioHLANB Railwat to Inverness, vii Blair-Atholl, Kin- 
gussie, Forres, and Nairn (pp. 263-287), with choice of tho short 
cnl &om Aviamora by Cair Bridge and Daviot (sea p. 281). 
Noa. I. and III. represent the routes lakan by the old mail coaches ; 
and Iba excellent roads are, of course, still available for oairiagea.' 

PERTH TO ABERDEEN by Rail (90 milea). 
Tho route as far as Stanley Junction (7i miles) haa already been 
doacribed (p, 193). Pour miles farther on the Tay is crossed a little 
way helon where it is joined by the Isla, and Cargill la reached. 
2 milea north of the station lie, beantifuUy between the two lirerB, 
and approached bj a famona old beeoh avenue, the house (Henry, 
Marqueaa of LansdovraeJ and village of McLkleour (with on 
ancient market -cross). Proceeding, with the Isla on our left, we 
arrive at Cuupas-Anbus (hotel; pop. 2061], once the seat of a 
Cistercian Abbey. Two miles 3.E. ofitiathe important under- 
ground "Pict'a House" of Pitunr (key at Hallyburton House), 
From Coupar-Aiigus a branch liue goes i miles N.W. to Blairgowrie 
(p. 261), the main line continuing along fertile Stbatuuoke, lying 
between the Grampians on the north and the Sidlaw Hills on the 
sonth, and shortly Alyth Junction (20 milts from Perth) is reached. 

< BtrlklDg south to 

TH (pop. 1B66) A 

Foe coac) 

undee, by Newtyle, is dosciibed or 
3 Glen Isla {map, p. 206). 
le pp. i* ■■- 

Five miles north from the junction, by Melgis (p. I8S), Is Alttb, 
a small thriving town {HoteL ; Airlie Arms; Commercial) pictur- 
esquely situated- From Alyth the best road to Glenisla [hotel) is that 
which malces the eastern cinuit of Alyth bill, and shirts the west side 
of Barrybill, upon the suminit of which there is a British fort or camp ; 
bnt the road across the Alyth hill Is shorter, and aflords a fine view of 

I There was, uid Is, bIsii tba aid military road porth throngli tlie Ceotrsl 
Highlanda Tmm CriolT, by AnnilrM, Aherftldy, Tnmniel Briage, Dulriacardoch, 
Dalffhtnnle, and the Gorryarrick to Fort Augustus. The lAit-raentloaed stagi 

^^^^^" OLEW TStA 205 

Ch« vale of Strattmiors Fhe latter road Is rteep, and not well inlted 
Tot TsMctea, thoagh fraqnentl; used. It may be traTelled on Toot in 
time to meet convejuicea on the D|ipoBite side, wlieTe tbe roads meeL 

A IlUla beyond tbia point there b again another meeting at two roads ; 
that on the right lends to tlie " Reeliie Linn," which is upon Iha Mi, 
near the Bridge of Craig, i miles froni Alyth. The deep winding 
ravine tbiongh whicli the IsU desceuds from Glenisla is liahl; wooded, 
and the rocks in many placm rise to a great height, and, from tbeir 
inMCessibility, afford safe nestling places to Tarioua hawks and other 
^nrdsof prey. Tholsln fonns in its course through this goi^a number 
of waterfalls, the most considerable ot which is the Reekie Linn, where 
thb whole waters of the Isia are precipitated into the Den la three 
inigDiHceRt leaps. When the water is high the opray so fills the 
Barraw raviue that it riaea in tbe form of smoke, and hence tbe appel- 
lation "Jtaekie linn." Apply at the cottage near by tor admission. 
Four miles dowu the rirer in Airlie Castle (Eiurl of Airlie) — the 
"BomdeEoose" of the old long. Near it, on tbe form of Bams of 
Airlie, there is an nndereround " Ptct's house" (see TO* .diriijuory, 
JnlylSBS, Elliot Stock, London); beyond which b the little churchyard 
of "the EirktoD," with its quaint old tombstone*. 

Leaving the fall, there is again a choice of two roaiis. One crosses 
13ie Bridge of Craig, and proi^eeils by the base or the Knock of Formal, 
a wooded hill right In front, and eaters Gleaisla about 5 miles ttiea 
Oit 'EiAUm. The other keeps on the west side of the river, and pro- 
eeedi np G!en Kilry and over Dmmderg, a bleak hill on the sou^ of 
tlie Eirkton. Both roads are usually in good coudition, Lut the latter, 
though Eteeper, is preferable, on occoant of the splendid view It sRbrds, 
udbecanee it is the shorter way to the upper part of the glen, into 
Wbioh it emerges nearly 2 miles aione the Kirkton, where is the only 
win in the glen, U miles from Alyth. {From Alyik coaches run daSy 
to SifS fiihKos. ) Near where the river is crossed by a atone bridge, S 
mSH above the Kirkton, is the farm of Alrick, from which the asceat 
of ItmaU Blair may be made in about IJ hour. 

This mountain [2441 ft.) commands an annsually extensive and 
tntereatiBg prospect on acooont of ita situation. Eastward, between 
the hills, the sejids of Montrose are discernible Ilka a line of gold j 
toirthwwd lies Strathiriore, with the long chain of Sjdiaw Hilk. A 
cloud of amoke issuing fiom behind these hills is from Dundee, distant, 
a« the crow dies, 26 miles. Nearly west are Ben Lawers, Schiehatlion, 
and in the eitreme distance part of the Glencoe hills. Close at hand 
is Ben Vracky, and over its weatera shoulder is seen the head of Ben 
Nevis. At our feet is Glensbee. North from Ben Vracky is Ben-y. 
rIob ; while farther to the right, between two hills, is seen the top of 
Ban-mac-dhni, on which are generally, even in midsummer, patches 
of mow, A high ridge of bare rock, stretching for about a mUe north- 
ward*, and presenting a most formidable aspect, is Craig Ugach Maer, 
near tie head of Glenisla. Adjoining it, on the right, is the Glosmeal, 
graeiL to the tup (3502 ft, ) To the right of this is the huge precipice 
overhanging Caenlochan, and due north is Lochoagar and the hills al 
head of Glen Prosen and Glen Clova. 



TwoBiidfthalfmilos north of Alrick thfl road, to Glansliee (p. 282) atrikel 
off DD ths left, b; the north bane of Mount B)air, through a narrow pasi 
callwl the Bdloch ; and a little to the north of tbia are the mina of tha 
caatle of Forter, which (as well aa Airlie Castle) waE destroyed by the 
Earl of Argyll during the" tronbiea" in 1640. Lady Ogilvy was under- 
atood to haie beea rebidiug at Forter Castle, and hencs it b associated 
with the " Bonnie House o' Airlie " referred to in the ballai" 

The walls of Forter Ciutle are of great thickuesa, and the portion tt 
occupies oommanda an eitensive view of the glen. 

The road to Braemar [2fi miles from Gleniala Hotel} beyond thi£, to 
the right, passes npOleniala, and is suitable only for pedestrians. Fire 
and a half miles above Forter ia The Tulchan, the Earl of Airlie'a 
handsome shooting- lodge, built at the entrance of Oten Bright;. Ob 
the light is the entrance to the glen of CaenloiAan, where the lala 
takeq iU rise between great iirecipicea. The path to Braemar {p. S87J, 
a mile beyond The Tnichan, climbs up — to the left — the ridge of 
Honega (2917 ft.}, and across the hill to the head of Qlen Climy, wltere 
it joins the coach road atabont S miles aonth af the Castlaton of Braeniiar. 
The well-marked brirlle-path was uaed, if not indeed made, In formar 
days by the smuggleis, as a meuus of transit between thia and the Mar 
country, and in spite of deer preserves the inhahitimts rcferre their 
right to it at all seasons, large stones being set ap along the sides to 
mark the tine when snuw is on the hills. From thia path the ascent, 
to the west, of Olasmeal, notwithstanding its height of 3502 ft, ia aa 
easy task. The counties of Aberdeen, Forfar, and Perth unite on the 
top, from which a line view of the Cainigorros is obtained. From near 
the top of the pass a route may be found to the east down to Glen 
Doll and thence to Clova (p. 209). 

Beturuiug to our i 
Aiyth Junction and i 
Glamia on the right, v 


route north bj rail, and after leaving 
; Eossie (with its old church, etc) and 

[anUii.- County ; Ho^al. i>i9laii«AG«PerChS3ninea^ DaniUeSL Fup. tI,S07,l 
Uie county towu, which ta of great antiquity, having been a royal 
residence in the time of Malcolm Canmors. Its chier trade is linen. 
Anciently it had two oaatles, one of which stood on a mount to the 
north of the town, the other upon a partially artificial island on the 
north-west side of the loch. In the county hall ia preserved a 
cnrioua instrument called "the witches' bridle," which was placed 
as a gag over the hi^ads of the miserable creatures accused of witch' 

tmtt, On the walls are hung portraits of AdmiraJ Ditncatl and 
atlian, by Opie, Rami e> Raeburn otc Ta the west oftlie rmlwRj 
aUtion and to the aooth west of the Conrt hooBes (erected for the 
Bharilf and County police eatabli^) ment) is tlic Keid Hall the gift 
of Mt. Peter Roid, who also gave Forfar its Public Park, Hii 
Btatna Bbnds at the Cross. lu Wast High Street is situated the 
haadsome UetTau Institute, which includes the li'ree Library, 
The ruins of the Priorj of Keatennet, where a son of Robert tha 
BnicB was buried, are aboat a mile to the east of the town ; and 
about G miks to the west stands Glauis Castlk, the hereditary 
seatof the Earl of Strathmora and Kinghoro, and interesting both on 
BCGomitbfitBhistDricaia.'isociatioiisand its arcbiterture. Pei-niission 
to Me over it may bs obtained by writing heforehand to the factor. 

"I -was only Ifl or SO years aid," saya Sir Walter Soott, "when I 
ih^tpened to pasa a uight in this magnificent old baroaial castle. The 
hoary oM pile oontainB much iu its apiiearance, and in the traditions 
leeted with it, impnifisive to 

ftff etAMla CABTLK' ' 

bbg murder of s9cottisb king of great antltjuity ; not iadsed the gnicIoUB 
Duncan, with whom tho name naturally aasociatsB it, but Malcolm II. 
It contains also a curious monument of the peril of feudal times, being 
a secret chamber, the eutrancs to whlcb, by the law or custom of the 
family, niuat only b« known to three persons at once — viz. the Eirl of 
Strathmore, bis belr-apparent, and any third perflnu whom they may 
take into their confidence. The eitrrane antiqnity of the bnilding is 
vouched by the immense thickness of tile walls, uud the wild and 
straggling arrangemeiit of the accommodatioQ within doors. I was con- 
ducted to my apartment in a distant comer of the bailding ; and I 
must own that, as I heard door after door shut after my conductor had 
retired, I began to consider myaeif too far from the living, and some- 
what loo near to the dead. We jiasseil through what is called ' the 
king'fl room,' a vaulted apartment garnished with etags' antlers, and 
similar trophies of tiia chase, and said by tradiUon to be the spot of 
Malcolm's murder."' 

The rooma shown are — the kitchens (modem and ancient), the 
billiard -room, the apartment where King Malcolm IL was mordBTed, 
Sir Walter Scott'a bedroom, the dining-room, azid the drawing-room or 
great ball (a magnificent apu-tment, with old arched ceiling, and por- 
traits of Ontbom of Claverhouse, Charles II., and James VIL, etc.), 
communicating with a quaint little chapel in the Jacobean (rtyla, 
decorated by namerona ap[iropriato paintings by De Witt (about 1888). 
The castle was frequently used as a resiLlence by the Scottish kings, more 
particularly by Alexander IIL in 1263-64. The thanedom of Glamis 
was bestowed by Robert II. on John Lyon, who married the king's 
second daughter by Eliiabeth Mure, and became the founder of ^e 
present family. The older port of the present edifice was completed 
by John, Earl of Sbathmore, about 1621, from plaus made chieHy by 
his father Patrick, Lord GlamLi. It was considerably adorned by tha 
succeeding generation ; and to this period belong the cnrious sun-dial 
near the entrance and the grotesque lignres on the north nnd south 
gateways.^ The Gardens are of great extent. 

The sculptured stone monameut of Coaflana—one of the finest 
apeoimens of its kind— is to be seen in a field in the neighbourhood 
of GlamiS. Fine examples are also upon the Hunters' Hill of Glamtl, 
and at the old kirk of Eassie. 

(TUe brsngh line iMitb to UuiiiIh has beea de«:ri)»l on pp. la^ ISU.) 

KlRRlEBUm (pep. 4096) AND Clova. 
A branch line of d miles leads north from Forfar lo KiUBiBBUIB 
(UoUU: AirUeArms; Ogilvy Arras). Chief traile, linen muuufaotnre- 
It poBsesees some curious Bcnlptured atones in the cemetery, has an 
extensive prospect from its Market Hill, is the " Thrums ■" of Mr. 
J. M. Barrie ; and, in addition to those attractions, the line glens to 
tha north are full of interest to the ordiuary ton list —especially the 

1 Scott'a fJHwwofo™ and Wilchemft. 
■• - ■ BeafllmiiiJi twaitlO'saFid JiUfc/aUia, by A Jervise. 


iWan — as well u to the liotatiist, tha gsologbit, and the artiat 
L«&ving Kirriemuir, the CIdth rnad la od the Dorth-east, passing ua the 
Tight the niina ot the fine old caaUe of luverqnharity dbout 2^ mUea 
from Kinlemiiir; Downippark (Earl ofAirlie) la aldo on the sanie 
^B, bnt is Been across the river South Esk, whi«h here trentis in a 
Kititb -easterly direction ; aad all along the road a good view Is 
obtuned of the entracue to the green hills and glen of Clova. Croasing 
Ike rngged channel and river of Prosen by a stone bridgB, the beantifnl 
jmlides of Cortachy Castle (Lord Airlie) are paaaed. Cortachy Castle 
was deatroyed by tire in tho year 1882, hnt wan later skilfnlly 
reatored hy Mr. Kinnear, an Ediaburgh architect. There is a nioe little 
ilm at Dykehea/i of Cortachy (5J milea fruni Kirriemuir), and here our 
route ia crossed by roads at right aiiglu. Tho road on the HgM oon- 
doett aaalward past the pretty parish church aud gateway of Cortachy 
Oartl^ crossing the Sonth Bnk by a fine stone tiridge, and coattnning 
its. course on the aouth to the Brechin and Forfar turnpike, and on the 
moctlL along the " Brass of Angus " to Ediell, etc (p. 2!1). The mad 
on thei^ winds through the beautiful and well-wooded glen of Promn 
by Coilliemie to Balnaboth. There i» a small inn abont 7 mites up 
Qtxs PaosBN, from whinh some pleasant lateral eicnrsions can ba made. 

The road to Clora continues north, dominated on both aides by 
baautiful green hills broken up here aud there by the trsp-rock of the 
district, and winds along the weat side of the South E^k river until, 
near the Hu/ton of Clova, it reaches a point commanding a mogni- 
ficant view of tha raonntains uloaiug in tha head of the glen. Oloae tfl 
the HilKin, with its picturesque irtn (Ogilvy Amis) and modest kirk 
(18 miles from Kirriemuir^ the road crossea the river by a ford (with 
H tbotbridge]. It was near iieie that Charles II., wearied and fatigued by 
hia long ride on horseback from Perth, was found lyhig in a mean room 
on an old bolster, when he enacted the eitraordinary eiploit known aa 
" The Start," which was simply an attemptto escape from the thraldom 
(rf the Covenanting party, with which he was then (1S51) identiRed. 
Clova Castle, a cmioua old ruin (calle'l the Feel), the romantic Lochs 
Brandr and Wharral, and Hole ot Weem, are in the vicinity, but what 
Is most striking is the lovely green hue of the aarrounding mnuutaina. 

From Clova there are two tine monntain rontaa to the north-west 
and north. The first and Quest is by Qlen Doll (a capital Beld for 
botanists, and a moat picturesque aud lovely glen) and Gleo Callater to 
Bnamai (IS miles), and the second hy Glen Mnick to Ballater (19 milen). 
They diverge at the farm of Braedounie (3 miles from Clova] where the 
Wliite Water comes down Glen Doll to join the South Esk. 

(1) The path to BkaBHab (an old drove road) koeps up the north 
aide of tha White Water, thence climbs up by "Jock's Road" over the 
wBte™hed(2500ft.)by "The CrawCrags," passing between the Tolmount 
and the Ksaps of Fafemie, and then down to Loch Callater (p. 240). 
The right of passage lo Braemar hy this route was established after a 
protracted litigation by the Scottish Eights of Way Society in 1888. 

(2) The route to Ballater coitinnos up the South Esk for about 
1} mSe &om Braedonnie, and then goes off to the right, at a bum, and 
Bp orer the Capel Monot to Loch Mukk. (The ¥iU(> ot %ia£QnB^&x«.„ 


H miles np tlia Sontli Eak from Braedonuia, are worlli visiting.) lln 
tob4, whicti is gteep for souie ilistauca, ami aiieeudH 2250 ft., paUHu 
niiarthe Luch uid Spital of Muick(wLera ia imrly ages stood a hoipice, 
similar In its parpose to that of St, Bsmard), and continues through 
Glenmuick, — paasiug dose to the falls of Muiek, — to Ballater (p. 281). 
From CapelMouDt, visited by Queeu Victoria ia 1S61, a very Sue view 
ta obtainad. 

Blan IhIb (p. SOe) may bo reach«i by a channlng mute acrofls the hLlla rrom 
OloIB (IB niiW) via Gbn Fiasm, GienIiE<ai], and GIru Uarkie; and Locblse 
(p. 113) is 11 uHlBfl over llie iiiountalna N.N.B. 

Sii miles oast from Forfar by the railway is Guthrie Junction, 
wlidDce there is a hrsDch oi> tlie riglit to Arbroath (p. 1S9), About 
9 miles farther on atiO, to the north, Kinnaird Caalle (Lord South- 
eak] is passed, an the left, and after croaaing tha South Esk river, 
Bridge of Dun eUtion is reached (49 inUes from Perth). The high 
road on the right crosses the Soath Eak bj a handsome three-arched 
bridge, built in 1787 ; and immodiately below it the river debonohBs 
into its landlocked estuary known as Montrose Easin (p. 192). 
From bere there is a abort branch (4 miles west) to 
{Holds: Coiumeicial; Crown; Dalhousia; Star.] 
B royal burgh of 8B41 inhabitants, situated on tho banka of tha 
South Esk. Manufaetoriea of linen and rope worka are carried on ; 
there are also two large nurseries, diatilleries, a paper-wort, and 
extenrive freestone i^uarries in the town and neighbourhood. The 
Mechanica' Institution (which containa several interesting historical 
portraits), and a Free Library, gifted by an anonymous donor, and 
some chnrehes are the oMof bnildinga. In ancient times it was a 
walled town with gates. It then contained an abbeyof Culdees, anda 
bishopric was subsequently established witliin it by David 1, in 1160. 

Tba datfiellral ffiljUTd) (iledltated ta the Holy Trinity), founded 
about the middle of the 18th century, was o stattly Gothic fabric 
With aisles, ate.; but these were sadly maltreated by the repairers of 
1806. However, in 1902, after a real " restoration " lasting two years, 
the cathedral was again opened for divine serriee. So extensive have 
been the operations that tlie only parte of the edifice left nntouehed 
are the west gable, with ita beantiful flamboyant window and Gothic 
door, the maaaive square tower, aed the famous round l«wer, which is 
allowed by antiquaries to date from the year 1000. John Honeyman, 
a.S, A., of Glasgow, has been tha latest architect. The modern stained 
glass in some of the chancel windows ia considered the tineat of its 
kind in Scotland. 

Bkechln Castle, a aunt of the Mania family, now represented bj 
tlie Earl of Dalhousie, stands on a precipitous rock in the immediate 


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neighbonrhood of the town. The i^stlo undorwetit a siego of twenty 
dajB, in 1303, from the English aiiiij under Edward I., and only 
aujTBndered on Sir Thomas Maula, ita lirave governor, heing killad. 
The library contains man; valuable MS3. ; among these ore the 
OhiutularieaofSt. Aadrows, Ureoliin, etc., also the correspondenoe ol 
Bnnia the [joBt with his friend George Tllomsoji. Among the paint- 
iginal portrait of the Marquis of Montrose by Honhonit, 
itimated ul p.. 

A little branch liae takus one rrom Brechin to Eikell, vi& Incfabarv, 
' In about 20 minnteE, — a very leisurely rate of progreaa. But those 
haring time to spare ought wrtainly to walk, ciJa, drive, or cyola 
not only to Eduill, but up the beautiful glen of the North Esk to 
Locblet, 23 miles from Breohin. The ruad on leaving Breehiii proceeds 
rtrsight northwsrda, poasiu)^ the manslon-hounea of Eeithoak and 
Newtonmill. Crossing the bridge of Cruick, a fine view in obtained of 
tbB Gramjjiaaa, with the celebrated torta of the two Caterthuiu, 
8 or 4 mJlea to the left. On the right Is the kirk of Slmcatkni, the 
S(i«i« of Sing John Bslinl'a suhmieaion to Edward I. in 1296. East 
of &e kirk is seen the Sue maneion-honae of Stracath^> ; and on the 



uorth-east the old turceted eostla of IngUsmaldio (Lord KIntore) ris«a 
above tlie ailjolning woods Hcroas the rirer. 

The nait bridge which ia oioaae'l is that of the West WntiT, and a 
dHve about '2} miles Hlong a good but lathtir hWk road brings the 
tmVBllei to EasBLL (two iniia; for public convejanceA, see ooach 
tima-tablB, p. i*). A mile to the left, along the Lethnot road, are 
the extuiBive mina of Ediell Ctuiile, tn old leat of the once powerful 
bmily o[ Lind.^ay, now the property of Lord Daibousie. The garden 
wall Ib ornajnentvd by a numbiir of elaboraU carvings ia atone : on the 
eaai wall are the celestial deities, on the south the sciences, and on the 
west the theological and cardinal virtues. The foundations of the old 
bathrooms wfra diaoovered at the soutli-west cornsr of the garden, 
and, along with the rains of the castle, they have been put into a good 
state of repair by the nohle proprietor, who has also fitted up the old 
piotureaque sumuiBr-honse for the reception of viaitoiB. 

Gatawchy Bridge and "The Bum" (Colouel M'lnroj), about I) 
mile north of Edzell village, an among the moat romantic spots in tlie 
nflighhourhooil. On crossing the bridge the Srst rood to the left atrikei 
off to Lochleo :— that to the right leads to Fetteronim (p. 213). Tha 
drive from EdMlltotheoldkirkyard-of Lochlee in a very pleasant one. 
Three miles from Gannochy, on the right, atood the eld castle of Auch- 
mull, where young Lindsay took refuge after hisacuidental murder of 
Lord Spynie on the High Street of Edinburgh In 1607. The snug shoot- 
ing-lodge of Millden ia about i miles farther on the left (Mount Battock. 
2S6S ft., is 3 miles due north) ; on the same side, at nearly a like dis- 
tance, ia the neat Free Church ; and then we pass the hamlet of Tar/dde, 
with EpiHcopal Church and scliqols, etc, Frnm here there is a hill path . 
north over by the head of Fengh Water to Cliarleston of Aboyue on the - 
Dee (p. 228, 15 miles from Tarfside). It crosses at 1S25 ft. I'hree 
miles beyond, the glen divides into two— that to the left containing the 
wild Loch Lee, which givss its name to the parish, anii to the right liee 
the narrow and piotoresqua Glen Mark. At their junction are the 
interesting and ruinous tower of luverniark Castle, Invermnrk Lodge 
(the shooting-quaitsra of the Earl of Salhousie), and the kirkyaid of 
LodUa. From Inlermark there is a pony-road to Ballater (13 miles) 
— see p. 231. The route [which was trarersed by Queen Victoria and 
the Prince Consort in 1861— sea Leavts from B.U. Jownal) continuM 
for 8 miles up the north bank of the Mark Water, past "The Prince's 
Well," and then turns due north up the " Ladder Bum " to Mount 
Keen, crossing steeply at 2500 feet over to the Tanar Water, and 
thence north-west over the hills to Dcesido a little above Ballatsr. 

Fnim LochliHj !tis1l nllles B.3.W. over tba hills to Olova (p. XISJ b)'auald 
*■ drove road." 

Two tniles beyond Bridge of Dun is Dubton Junction, where 
the littlo branch fram Montrose [p. 193) cotneB ap from the eaat. 
Id continuing the route northwards to Aberdeen, there are seen 
on the left the Sunnyside Lunatic Aaj'lum and Charltou House. 
The North Water Bridge, Craigo Linen Works, the mansion-house 
of Kirktonhill, au4 "ioa '(jieUil'j-avtimtfld. village of Marykirk, an 



-aiii approaclipa the viaduct whioh eroMf* 
i KiNCABDlNEsHlRE (or " Tlie Mearns"). 
es of Gallery and Hattan. The hilla of 
Jrirmn, Batlouk, Ciurn-o'-Moont, and 8trathBnla bonnd the viaw on 
e north, and on tlie aonth ia the long range of Ganack Hill a, 
n tha highest poiut. We next reach the viUage of 
E*ttrenoekitlc {pop. 1512j liin)— where Dr. Beattie was bom, and 
tnddiman was once nchoo] master. Fartlier on are Fordoim station 
^ith the salubi'ions village of Aachenblae, 2 miles off). 

A BOmewhat steep and hleak rnaii crosaea Garvouk HiU, od the 
t'Snth, froiD LaurGDCekirk to the cnast (6 miles). About 6 miles 
Borth-weat of Lauraucekirk, passing Tliornton Castle, are the village 
of FsTTEKcAtBN {inn) and the hoosea of Fasque (Sir J. R. Gladstone, 
Bart.) Mid FetWreairn House [Hou. C. F. Trofusis). A triumphal 
arch, comiaemorative of the rojal visit to Fsttercairn ia 1801, is 
erected at tb« small bridge which oraaaea the bum. The old stone 
Croat in the middle of the village of Fetteruaim was brought from 
the now extinct town of Kincardine, where it khs erected by the first 
Earl of Middtoton, who waa a native of the district. The rainaina of 
th« royal oaatte oF Kmcardine, whare tradition saya Kenneth III. 
was murdereil by Lady Finella in 99i, are on the north of the road 
leadiqg from Fettercairn to Fordoiin (6 niiles). There is some 
very pretty ounntry here np the Luther Water and the Braea of 
Finella i and there are two roads over to Deoside — (1) from Fett«r- 
Mini to Eincsidine O'Neil (20 miles) by the Clattering Bridge, 
Cum-o'-UouDt, Bridge of Dye, across the pretty trouting stream of 
Fengh, and Potarch Bridge (over the Dee) ; and (2) (rem Fordoun 
to Baochory,' hy the Cowio Water (14 miles, p. 228). 

Beyond Fordoun, and after urossiug the Bervie Water, Glfn- 
Bervle Bouse is on the left, and next came the station and village 
of Dnimlitliie, a little to the east of whiah is the old castle of Fiddos. 
Nearer the coast are the mansions of Fettereaao and Dunnottar, on 
passing which the trruD renuhes 


FLlUty; i 

3 from Perth, at 

Kthe county town of Elocardine. It has a population of j5n> is 
& bTourite resort for sea-bathing, and carries oti a fair trade in the 
cviing of herriogs. The "Slug Road" to Deeside crosses to the 
noitii-west at a high level (see p. 227). About 2 miles to the 
BQQth stand the ruins of Dunnottar Castle, ancieutly tha seat of 

El 1 Suudior]' niBj >1aa be reacLed by soalo (l) hy keeping <iov>i tbe Fengb 


tUe Keiths, Earls Marischal, u,fterwardB tha propertj of Sir Pdtrii'k 
Keith Monaj, Bart., now that ol' M»jor W. D. Iniiea. The rotk 
on which it ia built is washed by the ocean on three aidcB, and 
towards the land it is defended by > deep eharni, the only approach 
being by n steep and winding path. The n 
extant, covering nearly tliree acre* The first caatle wu built by 
Sir William Keith (aboat 1399), ukd the keep or donjon 

posed to be the oldest remaining poi-tion. Durhig the tirzie of 
Commonwealth it waa aeleeted on account of its strength for the 
ppeaemtion of the regalia. The garrisOB, under the command of 
Ogiivy of Barras, made a desperate resistance to the English anoyi 
bnt were at length compelled by famine to surrender. Previota tC 
this the regalia had been seeretly removed by Mrs. Granger, tho 
wife of the parish minister, and buried beneath the pulpit of tha 
ohorch of Kinneff ; while, to dirert thft suBpioions of tha enemy, 
the Countess of Marischal spread a report that these national 


treasiires had been carried abroad by Sir John Keith, her younger 
sOn (see the description of the regalia, Edinburgh Castle, p. 23). 

The castle was frequently used as a state prison ; and many a 
bitter sigh has ascended ^m the bosom of the rock, and many 
a despairing glance has wandered over the surrounding ocean. 
During the reign of Charles II. a body of Covenanters were without 
distinction packed into the "Whigs' Vault," a dungeon in front of 
a hnge precipice, having a window open to the sea. The " Martyrs' 
Monmnent," which Paterson, the prototype of **01d Mortality," 
was engaged in renovating when he was first seen by Sir Walter 
Scott, stands in the churchyard of Dunnottar. 

The whole of the adjacent coast is bold, and remarkable for its 
geological features. The face of the cliff displays a conglomerate 
formation of extraordinary thickness, which has all the appearance 
of having been originally a bed of soft argillaceous mortar, into 
which the waves had beat millions of water-worn pebbles. 

From the railway station at Stonehaven a good view is ob- 
tained of Urie House (Sir Alex. Baird). Captain Barclay Allar- 
dyce, former proprietor of the estate, was the lineal descendant. 
(rf the celebrated Robert Barclay, author of the Apology for the 
Quakers, The remarkably bleak and sterile country between Stone- 
haven and Aberdeen has been aptly celebrated by Scott as the 
"Muir of Drumthwacket." The ruins of the Kirk of Cowie, the 
old castle of Muchalls, with its large hall and fine stuccoed ceiling, 
and the bold line of the coast, are the chief objects worthy of notice. 


Hoids: Palace (lift from Railway Station. Great North of Scotland hotel. 
Takes rank with those in Princes Street, Edinburgh); Grand (Union 
Terrace) ; Imperial (Guild Street) ; also Station ; Central (both netxc 
station) ; Forsyth's (Jtemp.), Union Street, etc 

Hydropathic establishment 5 miles np Deeside. 

The joint station of the Caledonian Railway and Great North of Scotland 
Railway is situated in Guild Street. 

Bloctric cars run along Albyn Place^ Union, King, St. Nicholas, and George 
Sta^ets, etc., to Mannofleld and Woodside respectively; from Castle Street 
to the bathing station ; also by Union Terrace, Bosemount, and Fountain- 
hall Road, to Albyn Place. 

Steamers ply fh)m Aberdeen to Leith, Newcastle, Hull, and London ; also 
northwards to Wick, Thurso, Kirkwall, and Lerwick, and to Invome^s, 
Cromarty, and Invei^ordou. 

PopuUtion : 153,503. 

Aberdeen, £he ** Granite City," ranks next to Edinburgh and 
Glasgow in point of general importance. It has reason to be proud 
of itself as a pleasant and progressive town, with many splendid 




modern buildhiga. THmp aris all built of the local grey granite, a 
far finer mateiial tbaa most toivns iinii available. 

The bai:kI)one of the new town 'm Union Street, at the west end 
o[ wliinh ajo Albj-n Place and other popular reaidential atroets. 
The old part lies iioi'tliward, King StnaC stretabiug on into a long 
road leading to the Bridge of Don. This was the old coaeli road 
to laverne^. Beyond it eaatward la the beach, with its bathing- 
plane and gulf links. It runs southward to the new pior near thfl 
narrow atcait fonning tbe aattancie to the barbour and dooka. 

The Dee ia orosetd by lour bridges— a chain bridge, a raiiwaj 
bridge, a atone bridge of seven aruhea (" The Bridge of Dae"), and 
Victoria Bridge, opposite Market Street, a handaome granite erec- 
tion. The third ia of cooaiderable antiquity, having been bsgun 
by Bishop Elphinstone, and finished about 1G27 by Bishop Dunbar. 
It was almost entirely rebuilt in 1719-23, and widened by 11^ feet 
in 1842, A handsome promenade extends ap the uortii bank of 
the river from Victoria Bridge, past Duthie Park (p. 221), to Allen- 
vale Comoterj (p. 222). The Girdleneas Lighthouse is about 2 
milea from Victoria Biidge. 

Abertlocn is amongst the earliest and most important of the 
Scnttiah burgha. The first extant charter in its favoor is one of 
William the lion (1178) in which the king coDfirma previous 
Dorporate rights received from his gmiidfather David I. 

Ubion Stkbet, mentioned above, is about a mile in length, aurt 
containa the principal shops and buildings. Electric trams run up 
and down. On the north side of Union Street, opposite Market 
Street, is the Town and Ciwnty Bank, one of the finest buildings 
ia the oity, erected at a cost of £24,000. A little way east are 
the handsome new premisee of the free Press. At the top of 
Market Street is the National Bank of Seotland, and west of St. 
Nicholas Street standa the new inhsrmonioua Commercial Bank. 
Farther weat are the East and West Charckes of Saint Niehalal, 
separated from the street by an lonio fai^de. The West ChwrA, 
erected in the middle of the eighteenth century, contains a white 
marble monument by Bacon, which cost £1200, and another by 
Westmacott ; a t:urious moniimontal brass plate, commemorativB 
of Dr. Duncan Liddell, professor of mathematics in Marischal 
College from 1661 to 1687 ; and a stone effigy of Sir Eobert David- 
son, Provost of Aberdeen, who fall at the battle of Harlaw in 1411, 
The Eaal Okurch was built in the year 1 835, in the Gothic style. 
These obwchea are separated by Drum's Aisle (so called from its 
baibg the burift\-vlacB ot *e ancient family of Irvine of Drum), 



wbicli fonued ths tranEcpt of tho original church of St. Nicholas a 
io of the 12th centnry. Tlie old EBnlral tower, with leml- 
corend wooden spire, coiinei:tii]g tha two churches, contuned a 
fine peal of nine balls, ons of wbicli, Laurence oc "Lourie," witi 
in diameter at the mouth, 3J ft. high, and verj thick. It 
bore the date 1362. By a Ere in 187* the roof and interior of the 
East Church were liurnt, and the spire and the bells dsatrojed ; but 
the church baa been reatored, and the tower and spire rebuilt, at a 
to the municipality of £8500. A now peal ot 86 bells, east in 
Holland, was put in iu 1837 at a cost of £3000. CoDcnrrently 
with this, Collison's Aisle, which is conneuted with Drum's Aisle, 
been opened up and curefuUy restored. In the town's churuh- 
yard reposa the remains of Dr. Jsmea Beattie (the author of Thi 
/ItimCril), Principal Campbell, the learned Blackwell, Andrew Cant, 
" the apostle of the covenant, " etc. 

Part of Union Street is carried over the ravine of the Denburu (now 
the railway route) by means of a granite bridge. Close to the south- 
ut comer of this bridge is the Tradaf Ball, a line granite structure, 
a wbich Bra preaerved the shields of the diflerent crafts with 
nnooa inscnptiona, a rauiaikable set of oak carved antique chairs, 
ating from 1574, and some interesting portraits by Jameson, the 
Scottish painter, and other artists.' Going north we pass the South 
Pariah, CoiigrtgaLiuiial and Belmont Street U.K. Clnirclies, and at 
the top U.F. Bast ajid V.F. High Churches in one building. Over 
bridge is the Public Library, a fine building next to the U.F. 
South Cbnrch. The total nunibec of volumes is in round numbers 
Sa,700. The Library has several braucbea, and a donation of £10,600 
has recently been promisud by Mr. Carnegie for its extension. 

QroaslDK the Sntnan Vsllef by tlia new Viadttct we come, lit thR N.W. 
comer D( UDlon Temicii Gardens, to the brouzs >UtuB (IH ft. high) of Sir 
WlllUm Wallace, by W. G,ateven80n,K,B,A.,unvoiledbJ thoHirqnlaof Lcrua 
In IBSa. Tile KPtipn of Wallsco Mprasenta him nayiag to King Kdw»nl'> 
nnBKDger—" We i:uiDC act helf U) treat, but to JlgAl, aod set Scotland free 1" 

Beyond tJoioti Bridge, in the public garden, is a bronze statue of 
the Prince Consort bj Marochetti, and farther north one of Buins. 
Pacing this, across Uuion Street, are the Palace buildiu|^, containing 
hotel, shop.1, etc ; and occupying the opposite corner stand the 
handsome oMces of the Xbrtliem AasutaKce Gompaiiy, A little to 
the west of Bridge Street, and farallcl to it, is Ci'own Street, in 
whith is the Free Trinity Charoh, anil olV whith are an Episcopal 
1 Beo '■ Inacrtptlotii) from tii« ShleldB or I'antla of the Incorporated Trades 
InllnTiiiiltsBall, Abenieen"tbew)BSinilb, Abardeen). 



Chapel (St. JoliD'a] and B&ptist ami Metbadist Cbniwla. 
opposiu Orown Street a™ the Mtjbio Hall Buu.dis 
lundBome Ionic portico and excellent inti^rqal accamiuodation. 
j^WeBtward of tlio Mudo Hal! are the Northern Clul' nnd the rooms 
'of the Young Men's ChriBtiira Association. In Huntly Street, 
close by, ne hare the Blind AEyluru, and tlie Eoman CntholiE 
Cathedral with convent attached, a taetefn! Gothic fltrnctars in 
granite, wili spire and peal of bella. Farther west, on the left, 
il the Free West Clmrch, a Gothic edifice in MorayahirH aandatone. 
At the extreme west end of Union Street stands the Free Chi 
College ; and near the junction of Union Place and Moll 
Street new Episcopal and United I'resbyteiian Churches have 
erected. In Garden Place, a little to the north. 
Episcopal Chapel, an elaborate sjwcimen of the Second Poii 
style of arch Itec tare, in red gianite. 

At the east end of Union Streab, opposite Markbt Strkkt, 
is a bronze statue of Queen Victoria erected by the royal tra(J( 
of the town. At the lower comer of Market Street, 
Trinity Quay and near the railway station, is situated the' 
Office, which is about to be snporseded by 
building. In Hadden Stroat {off Slarket Street) is the Obm 
change. Amongst places of amusement may be mentioned the 
Falaix Theatre (Bridge Place, off Bridge Street), whore variety 
sntertsiDineutfl are given, and BerAfcyesty' a Theatre, io Guild Street; 
wbiDh nina hetwirt the quay and the railway station near by. 

Castle Stbbbt is a continuation of Union Street towards the 
east. Hera are situated the Munloipal and ConNTY Buildinbh, 
including the Sheriff Court-Hoiiso,— the whole constituting one 
of the largest and moat imposing granite edifices in Scotland. They 
were erected between 1867 and 13?8 after the designs of Meisn. 
Peddie and Kinnear, architects, Edinburgh. The style is rerj 
much that of Scotch baronial edifices of the sixteenth century, and 
from the aoath-wost corner a magnificent tower rises to a height of 
810 ft^a prominent landmark, visible for many miles around, from 
which a fine view of the city and surronndings is obtained. The 
whole frontage is of the finest tooled granite IVom Kemuay i^uarries. 
Thetotal cost, includingprice of site, wasabout £80,000. The main 
entrance is in the centre of the Castle Street frontage. It leads to 
the Conrt-rooms, and to the great ball which has an open timber 
ceiling and is finished with oak panelling round the walla. The 
Omuity Hall adjoins the great room, and there are a principal 

!Mr Sheriff Court-room. The n ' 


[nemues u tbrougli the baae of the tower. The wall of the Teatj' 
bnle bears the city anus executed iti freestone, while on a pedestiJ 
near this is a suit of armoui' said to have been worn, by the gallant 
ProTost Davidson, who fell at thti battle of Harlaw : and heru alao 
stands a marble statae of the late Provost James Blaikie, by Sir 
John Steell, the first public statue executed by the uutineut 
SoottiBh soulptor. Ascending a very sliort flight of steps we 
come to a marble statue of Queen Victoria by the late A, Brodie, 
a native sculptor. From this ]>oiiit a circular stair leads to the 
mnnicipal apartments, including the Council Chamber. On the 
■ame floor ia the moat gorgeous, though not the largest, apartment 
within the bailding — via. the Town Hall, richly and tastefully 
f^imiabed, the three massive old crystal chandeliers which adorned 
the old Town-Hall depending from the coiling over the tables. On 
tile walls are portraits by eminent artists of the late Frinca 
Consort, the premier £ar) of Aberdeen, and several distinguished 
local men. A fine inarhle bust of the late John PhOlip, K.A., by 
W. Brodie, H.S.A., ia in this room ; and MosBman's "View ot 
Aberdeen," and a few paintings in other parts of the building, art. 
Dot without interest. 



At the east end of tlie biiilciing is a tower of older date. Close 
La this, at the cornur uf Kiiig Streut, aie tlic ol^ces oJ' the North of 
Sootland Bank. The imncipal antranoe of the bank is under a 
carved portico aupportud by granite columns of the Corinthisn 
order, the capitals being executed with a delicacy and preoisioti 
long deemed unattainable in so intraotable b material. On the 
opposite aide of Castle Street is tbo Union Bank, a chaste build- 
ing, lu Marisohal Street, which here brancbea off towards the 
harbour, stands what used to be the old Tbeatre, now conyerted 
into an Established Church (Trinity Church), The miHtary bar- 
racks occupy a coiutoanding position to the east of Castle Street, 
on the site of the old castle. 

Tbb Cross stands at the npper end of CflHtle Street. It was 
bnilt in 1BS6 by John Montgomery, a local country ma^n, and is 
adorned with medallions of tbe Scottish monarchs, from James 1, 
to James VII., while from the ceotre springs a column sarmounted 
by the royal unicorn rampant bearing a shield. For bettor effect 
it was removed hither in 1812 from its original site, and reboilt in 
improved style. About 30 ft. in front of it is a granite statue of 
the last Duke of Gordon, designed by Mr. Campbell, London. 

Among the other public bnildinga are the Rotai, Infibmaiiy of 
Aberdeen at Woolmsnhill, and the Lnnatic Asylum is near Kose- 
mount, at the north part of the town. The Grammar gchool, 
dating from 1263, .was removed abont 1861-63 from an old building 
in the Schoolhill to another of imposing dimensions in the Scotch 
baronial style, off Skene Street west. Kobert Goudok'b ColLeoE, 
ut Schoolhill, owes ite foundation in 1 760 to Robert Gordon, a 
doBoandant of the Straloeh family, who bad made n oonsiderabU 
fortono. Tlie institution, formerly a hospital for the main- 
tenance and education of boys, was in 1881 reorganised as a day 
school for high-class secondary and technical instructiou, while 
there are separate eTeniug classes in Science, Technology, and 
Comnieroe. The number of day scholars enrolled (1889) is 822, 
of whom 120 are foundationers, and 110 are bursars; and of 
evening students the number enrolled is 1641. In front of the 
College bnildinga, facing School Hill, is an Art Gallery and Mueenm, 
provided by public auhacription, with the Gray Art School (the 
giftofMr. John Gray)] and near them is th F P bli L brary. 

In &oat of the entrance to Gordon's C liege tand lb broiue 
statue (by the late T. 8. Burnett, A.R.S.A.) f th lb 
C. C. OordoD, who died so nobly at Khart It w 

tie Mari]uis ofHaDtij in 1888. 


There an several Pdbwc Fahrs or plewurs-gronndB in Aberdcea 
—Victoria Park, 13 aerea in exUnt, with its eitenaion Westbum 
Park (13 screa) ; Union Terrace Gardena, an the hroe at the west 
side of the Denliuru Vall.'j ; Dutliia Park (p. 216), extending 
to nearly 50 acres, the gift of Miss EHzab«Cli Cromhie Dutbie of 
Bnthrieston to the town, on the north bank of the Dee ; and Stewart 
Park, Woodside (XI acres), called after Sir D. Stewart, Lord Proroat 
»u 1893. There is now an eleatrio car setvioe to the beaoh from 
Caatle Street. The Bathing Statjon has been enlarged and is very 
populdT. Alao the golf links which extend along tbe coast. 

Some Interesting exampli^ of ancient street architecture ma; be 
seen in the Shiprow, GueatroH, GaUowgat*. Netlierkirkgate (WaUaoe 
Ifook], and Broad Street ; and in the laat-namad street Lord Byron 
lived when a boy. 

MarIsCEAL CoLLItGB, nov forming (after a separate existence of 
266 years) the part of Aberdeen University in whioh its Law and 
Uedidne clui^ses are conducted, is sitcated in Broad. Street, and 
was founded by George iieith, fifth Earl Mariachal, in 1503, on 
the site of the Franciacan Monastery, which he had acquired with 
other monastic houses. The old buildings, which were tnostly of 
tbe 17th centm'y, were rebuilt in 1836-41 at a coat of about 
i£SO,000, partly at the expenae of Gov ernnmnt. But a nuoh larger 
acheme of extenaion has been in operation during recent years, at 
a fnrtber coat of £100,000. Of this smn £20,000 was contributed 
by the late Dr. Charles Mitchell, vihone hnndsomo graduation 
H*1I ("The Mitchell Hall ") forms a striking feature of the College. 
(Ths designs in its fine stained-glase window com mom orating the 
past wortbios of the College are admirably explained in a little 
local pamphlet by "E. A.") The beautiful eetitrsl towar ("The 
MiteheU Tower") and the Students' Union, Museum, Library, 
ete., are also noteworthy. In the sijuaie an obelisk of Peterhead 
granite, about 70 ft. in height, is erectsd to the memory of the 
late Sir Jamea M'Grigor, who was edneated here. 

Aberdeen possesses a good Uareoejr, on the improvement of 
which, together with the docks, large snms of money have been 
expended. The docks cover an area of 31 acres, and admit ships of 
the largest size. The north pier, built partly by Smeaton (1775-81) 
and partly by Telford (1810-16), is 2800 ft, in extent ; and a soathem 
breakwater, formed of concrete blocks, has been completed to tbe 
length of 1050 ft. Other improvements, including a graving dock, 
have since been effected ; and handsome offices, with a clock-tower, 
have been erected on Trinity Quay for tba Haibout ConamaKumwc*. 



^^^^H I There ore four Cbketerikb, one at Allenvale, on tho nnrtb bitl^^H 
^^■^ of the Dee, Iwatitifnlly situated and laid out (p. 216) ; Nellfield^l 

id I 


St, Peter's ; and Trinity, oc the slope butweeD King Street and 
the base of the Broad HilL Farther up tha Dee tliaa Allenval^ 
tasteful cfltt^es and villoB dot the landscape od the north bank ol 
the river, forming what ma; be regarded as a, suburb of the 
easy access being had by tram and railway. 

There are in Aberdeen end its Ticinity etCenBive ManhfagtobimI 
of paper, wool, cotton, flu, corobs, jute, and iron, which empl^i 
together about 14,000 hands; the Brnadford flazworks baveUi^ii, 
greatest number of operatives of any establisbuient in Abetdeeik 
Banner Mill is one of the most extpnsire cotton-manuriLCtoria^, 
la Scotland ; the paper-works of Messrs. Pirie are said to embrati-' 
the largest envelope- manii factor; in the kingdom. The dressed 
granite st^Qts, famous for their durability, chiefly used for street 
pavement, and for the building of bridges, docks, and light- 
houaes, form a staple export. Granite is also manafaetnred into 
polished vases, tables, chimney-pieces, fountains, sepaleliial 
monuments, and columns, with a skill and execution qnjta equal 
to the famous granite sculptures of Sweden or Rassia. Among 
other specinienB of this work may be mentioned the sarcophagna 
furnished for Prince Albert, the granite columns of &t. Qeorgs'a 
HsJl, Liverpool, and the statue of the Duke of Gordon in 
Castle Street, which ware executed at the granite wotka in Oon- 
atitution Street. The massive pillars of granite far the Holbom 
Talley Viaduct in London were polished by Messrs. Bower ~ 
Florenoe at the Spital granit«-warks. The blocks 
IVam the Duke of Ai^ll's quarries in Mull, and meastired 9 
length by B it, in diajaeter, weighing 13 tons each. Sbipbuili 
is carried en to a considerable extent. Aberdeen clipiwra waM 
proverbial for their speed in the days of wooden ships ; aud AlW* 
deen shipbuilders, though nuder the disadvantage of long distMlce 
from iron and coal, keep up a creditable I'eputatian ih tbi 
Btruction of iron vessels. The trawl-fishing industry has 
monsly increaueii in Aberdeen of late years, and now ruiks sj 
~ Mcond to Grimsby. 

OLt> Aberdekn 

ia the seat of the ancient university and catbcdral. It ties to Q 
north of Aberdeen, and extends for about a mile in length froi 
the anbarbs of the city to near the river Don. It boa: 
antiijnity, having, according to iioece, received vuriuui 





bota a certain Gn^iy the Great, who u ftll«ged to Lavs died in 
tfaa year 892, bat of whose leigu tliera are no (Utbentic records. 

Kino's Colleqe ia a veoeraliU, and must at the date of iti 
erectiaD have been considered a superb, edifice. It was foundeil 
in 1495 OD the model of the UoiveriiiC; of PorU bj William 
ElphinatDDB, Bishop of Aberdeen, Lord Chsncellor of Scotland in 
the reign of James III., ind Lord Privy Seal in that of Jamea IV.~ 
nho claimed the patronage, ajid from whom it took its name. The 
fabric is large and atatalj, in the form of a square : two aides have 
been latelj rehnilt, and an extensive wing adiled as a library. Id 
the chapel, nhich ia used for public worahtp during the Univeciil^ 
session, there remain the original fittings of tbe choir. These are 
of most tasteful design and high execution. The preservation of 
this fine work is due to the Princiial of the University at the time 
of the Reformatigo, who armed his people, and checked tbe blind 
zeal of the barons of tbe Mearns, The tower wna built about 
Uie-year 1516, and rebuilt about 1B38 at a coat of more than 
10,000 merks (£555). It exhibits those French characteristics 
nhich are observable in Scottish buildings of the 15th and 16th 
centuries. Tbo spire is vaulted, with a double cross arch, surmounted 
(lOO ft. above the grouad) by a sculptured crown, emblematic of 
the support the College long received from royalty. In the chapel 
are to be seen tbv tombs of the founder, and of Hector Boece, the 
first Principal and a friend of Erasmus. 

King's and Mscischal Colleges were united in 1360 into ons 
university, under tbe title of the University of Aberdeen. It has 
23 professors (each with 1 asaiatant) and 11 lecturers ; and than 
are numerous bursaries and aoholarahips annually open for com- 
petition. The University Library, of over 90,000 volumes, 
includes the valuable Latin library of the late Dr. Melvin, raotor 
of the Grammar School. The Law, Science, and Medicine collec- 
tions are at Marischal College ; Divinity and General at King's, 

Of the many eminent men who have been connected with tbe 
Colleges of Aberdeen wb may mention Gregory, Eaid, Beattie, 
Gerard, and Campbell. Jameson, the Scottish Vandyks, and Gibbs, 
the celebrated architect, were both natives of Aberdeen. Some of 
Jameson's paintings are to be seen in the hall of the College. 
Barbour, the elegant and faithful historian of " Tbe Bruce," also a 
native, was mitde Archdeai^on of Aberdeeo in 1356.' 

1 JOHa BiBBUDR, tbe ArsC at tbe Gcottlah poets n1io liu ducerded to in, 
iMlonp to the dtaa of Khymlng CbrDnlclan. He was a man at Intense thlral 
roT knoirledge, and »»gw\j anllsd hlmaell of Oie EneUali mdftn^A^ea. ^hVi 



The dri^flrrat of St. iKlacljat, a maasiva and statelj atnictn«5 
still naed aa tbe parish churcli, is sitnaUd ■ little to tda north a) 
tlie coUegs. Of all the Scottish cuthedrala it has exteroaU; the 
fewest architectural preteaBianfl. Aa it now exists, the choreh 
conaists only of the nave and Bide aisles. The windowa aro lancet- 
shaped in the west end, abore the great entrance. The nave ie 
nearly perfact ; and its western front (with two lofty spires), linilt 
of the obdurate granite of the uouutry, is stately in the severe 
Ejmmetry of its simple design. 

The See of Aberdeen is generally alleged to have been at Mort. 
kch, a parish and decayed hamlet in the county of Banff. Mal- 
colm II. ia the reputed founder, and he was induced to erect a 
church and monastery to perpetuate a, victory over the Dauea in 
the neighbourhood, about 1010. The time of the proper 
erection of tho See must be referred to the reign of David I., about 
1136, when Nectanus was appointed Bishop, and the seat of the 
dioceae transferred to Old Abenleen, The present cathedral, 
dedieatfld to St. Machar, occupies the site of the old church of 
Machar, and was begun by Bishop Eininmont, the second of 
name, who siin:e(KlBd to the See in 1356 ; but at his death 
the work had made but little progress, His anqeoaaoi? carried i»i 
the edifice according to their reaources, which, appear to have been 
very limited. It made great progress during the episcopate of 
Bishop Elphinstone, who rehnOt the ancient choir and completed 
the great ateeple (14S4-1511), placing in it three bells. Bishop 
Gavin Dunbar, who succeeded in 151S, finished the cathedral hy 
completing the two towers at the west end, and (about 1522) 
erected the aonth transept, which was known by the name of hia 
aisle. This church, in the days of its glory, enumerated as part of 
its richea upwards of a hundred pounds weight of gold and silver 
plate, beaidea a vast qnontity of jewels, a valuable library, and a 
splendid sacerdotal wardrobe ; but the Reformation swept all away. 
After the Berolntion, the central apire, which had been under- 
mined thirty years before by Cromwell's soldiers, gave way, 
omshlng the transepts in its fall. In the recent reconatmetion of 
the roof, the old shields and emblazonmenta of the fine old ceiling 
have been reproduced, and the interior proportions of the catbadrS. 
are now effectively displayed. The great west window 
with painted glass of good design and colour. 
1 writarDf TigoariDd even iweutneu. Qia poam "The Bracft" li 
ratbEDtlc hlalotr, and «u wriHen at the mqunt of Dsdd IL, Bruc 
riJaa tie poet taaeired iGlO, and od aouolt) at VK. lai life. 


f asj 

d iffll 

ledrd. I 



The Attld Brio o' Don, or Brig 6' Balgownie, as it is sometimes 
called, celebrated by Lord Byron in the tenth canto of "Don Juan,** 
is about a mile from Old Aberdeen : — 

" As ' Anld lang syne ' brings Scotland one and all, 

Scotch plaids, Scotch snoods, the blue hills, and clear streams, 
The Dee, the Don, Balgounie's Brig's black wall, 

All my boy feelings, all my gentler dreams 
Ot what I then dreamt, clothed in their own pall, 

Like Banqno's offspring ; — floating past me seems 
My childhood in this childishness of mind : 

I care not — 'tis a glimpse of ' Auld Lang Syne.' " 

"The Brig of Don,** adds the poet in a note, " near the *auld 
toun * of Aberdeen, with its one arch, and its deep black salmon 
stream below, is in my memory as yesterday. I still remember, 
though perhaps I may misquote, the awful proverb which made me 
pause to cross it, and yet lean over it with childish delight, being 
an only son, at least by the mother's side. The saying as recol- 
leoted by me, was this — but I have never heard or seen it since I 
was nine years of age : — 

" ' Brig of Balgownie, black's yonr wa' ; 
Wi' a wife's ae son and a mear's ae foal 

The bridge is said to have been built by Robert I. (14th century), 
and consists of a single (Gothic arch. 

A handsome new bridge of six arches was built more than forty 
years ago nearer the sea, from a fund left by Sir A. Hay, Lord 
Clerk Register, for maintenance of the old bridge. 

The Dee and Don, the principal rivers of Aberdeenshire, flow in 
an easterly direction — ^their courses being nearly parallel — through 
the southern districts of the county. The former is distinguished 
by its beautiful wooded banks and valuable salmon-fisheries. The 
Don is much less rapid than the Dee, and flows for a considerable 
part of its course through rich valleys. As an old rhyme says — 

" Ae rood o* Don's worth twa o* Dee, 
Except it be for fish, stane, and tree.** 

The Ythan and Ugie, within the county, and the Deveron on its 
boundaries^ are also considerable streams. At the mouth of the 
Ythan, 13 miles north of Aberdeen (cooc^ daily), is the pleasant 
seaport village of Newbttrgh {Hotel: Udny Arms), whei^ ^ij^Wkc^ 
trout fishing can be had free. li^eNvbwx^ \& ^ imi^ ^^x^iCs^-^.'svsX 


of EIloD Station (p, 214). North of this is tha aand-buried p 
of Farrie, whose coaat is remftrkablo for about the largest ai 
tion of blown aamt to be aeon in Scotland. 

Tlie "harvest of the sea'' off the Aberdeenshire coast ii 
bo mocB valuable than that of the land. The eount]'' baa also Doi 
obtained the position of the beat cattle-breeding conntj in Scotland, 
tho yearly export of cattle and meat to London, etc., reaching the 
Talua of aboat £1,000,000 sterling. About a tenth part of the 
whole anrface is under natural wood, chiefly of Scotch fir and birch. 
The mountain forests abound in red deer ; and grouse, partridgg 
and other kinds of game are plentiful. Dr. Dickie's 
Goids to AberdoeD, Banff, and Eincardtne, will be found of eerv 

elear da; to sacend Uie Blge Hill (iBi tt). whlcli la ibont 4} miles a.S.fr3 
ibordeen, pr 21 miles from "The BrtdsoDf Dos"(re(BiTed tnniip.2 " " 
thin ■ nrngniStcat Tlew la to be bad of the ctty iteeU, oF a line < 
negjlTfiO mQes In length horn Dnnnnttar CasUe to the Biidisn I 
the whole valley of the Dee and moet or its hunndu? bma. n Kerl 

BeD-a.Board, Ben A.' 

la long wild Glen I 

Before and during onr Toon round to Invhesess, wb m 
some important diatricta in Aberdeenahire, and ou the north-east cd 
which ean be readily reached from the city of Aberdeen. 

Abbrdbbh to Ballatkb akd Beibhar. 

(See maps, pp. SST, 346). 

By Railway to Bal]ater(4S miles), Chance by Goaeh (18 mUaa). 

The Deeside line of the Great North of Scotland Railway atauda 

bj itself apart from the rest of the system. It has the merit of 

being the most piotarosque route in this part of Scotland. Like 

all railways that follow riverB upward, the scenery grows grandar 

and finer the farther the line penetratas into the hilla. At fiist 

it passes through what may be termed the suburbs of Aberdeen, 

pleaaanC little places, rapidly growing — the homes of many Aberdeen 

manufacturera. Even bo far as Banchory this character ii 

tained, but afterwards the true Highland landscape, with 

reaching moora and grand hills, beoomea apparent. No one 

leave Aberdeen without traversing this line. The journey tn 

oalf^ Ij hours, and there h plenty of choice in trains. Many ■( 




deterred firom going because they imagine they mnst undertake 
the long coach drive at the end before they see anything worth 
seeing ; but this is not so. Ballater itself is exceptionally pretty. 
For detail, see p. 231. On the left, near Ruthrieston, the second 
station^ is Banchory House (Sir David Stewart), the scene in 1589 
of the rebellion of one of James VI. *s turbulent nobles. In 1639 
Montrose rested here before entering and plundering Aberdeen. 
From Cults we can see (left) right across the river, standing amid 
trees, Blairs College, a well-known Roman Catholic seminary. 
Here there is an authentic portrait of Queen Mary with a romantic 
history. After leaving Mwile (right) Dr. Stewart's new Deeside 
Hydropathic comes into view. Opposite Milltimber Station on 
the south bank of the river is Kingcausie (Arthur Irvine Fortescue, 
Esq.). The Corbie Linn, celebrated for its rare plants, is in the 
grounds. At Cutter there are large paper-mills ; also (right) Culter 
House, said to have been built by Sir Alexander Cumming in 
Queen Mary's time. On the south side of the line is Mary- 
oulter House, and the parish is called Peterculter. 

On the north side of the river, between it and the railway, is 
the Roman camp called '* Norman Dikes." Drum Castle (Alex. 
Forbes Irvine, Esq.) is a fine old building among scattered forest 
trees, dating from about two centuries back, but the keep or 
donjon is of much greater antiquity. The Irvines of Drum are 
one of the oldest families in the kingdom. On the north side of 
the Dee are Park House, and Crathes Castle (Sir Thomas Burnett 
of Leys, Bart.). 

Beyond Park House, to the south, rises Cairn -monearn (1245 ft.), 
the first of the Grampians on this side, and which commands a wide 
view of the sea, "the Howe {the lowland) o' the Mearns," as well 
as of the Deeside valley. The ''Slug Road" from Deeside to 
Stonehaven (15 miles from Banchory) is carried round one of the 
shoulders of Cairn-moneam at a high level. 

We now reach the pretty village of Banchory -Ternan, or 
Upper Banchory (pop. 1475). 

[17 miles from Aberdeen. Holds : The Burnett Arms ; Douglas Arms.] 
Motor-cars run from here to the district of Birse vid Strachan. 

A modem Gothic church surmounts the steep bank of the river, 
and along the slope to the west extend the straggling village and 
villas of various sizes. On the wooded hill of Scultie, at the 


ar the t^^| 

Mitnnee to the pleasant Tslley or the Fetigb, ia % memorial 
wHbIi ooroDiaiids an eKtensive and teautifol view. Near _ 

of thiB Mil are found not a few rare botanical treasures, among tbeni 
the Swedish plant Li%naa bartaiis. SJ miles np the Feugh is the 
Tillage of Strachan (inn) at foot of Glen Dje, up which i« the road to 
Fettercairn (p. 210). On west side of Glen Vje ahoota up a sin^lar- 
looking mouutain called Cloch-na-hen (ISii ft.), on the brow of 
whicli hangs an enonnoas rocky excrescence, resembling the remaina 
of a fortress. More to the east ma; be seen the conical aumuiit of 
Eerlach(1747 ft.) Two milea beyond Banchory, ou the south banb, 
is the modem castellated mansion of Blackball, approached by a long 
wide avenue. At Invercanny, a little above Banchory, are the 
lUtering-beda and prim:lpal reservoir for the water supply of Abet^ 

which the water flows in a doae culvert 18 miles in lenj 
Dn the north bank of the Dee (3 milea Irom Banchory) 
Lrlo Honne. 


north from Banchory is the flat Hill of Pare (li94 , 
ittraction escept the view. The " Howe of CorriEhie, 
a hollow on the south side, was the aeene of a fiarea enconnter in 
Queen Mary's reign. In fact the whole of this neigbbonrhood is full 
of aasociatioua of tlie rebellion of the Earl of Huntly, the Orat of 
Haiy's turbulent nobles who dared to raige the standard of revolt. 
Mary bad bean in Sootland lesa Iban a year when she started on a 
progreas to the north, a dangeroue undertaking in those daya. She 
was accompauicd by her balf-brother. Lord James, atterwarda Earl of 
Untray, uid weut by way of Stirling, Canpar^ Angus, etc., to Aberdeen, 
She bad intended to visit the Earl of Hontly, a CatboUo like herself 
whose seat was within three miles of Aberdeen (Strathbogie), but 
bearing rumonrs that made her suspicious, she went on to Invemeu 
without seeing him. He meantime gath^^ his forces and plotted 
to intercept her at the Spey on her retnm. She boldly loan^ed 
forward with a force three times as strong, aud compelled bisi to 
retire. Then enaned a fierce condict. The messengors sent.lB 
Strathbogie to seize Huntly were uoanccessfnl, the Earl escaping and 
settling down at Badenocb on the defendve with bis two sons. Al 
last, tired of inaction, he collected bis forces and marched on At 
where Hary was, but rather with the intention of making wt 
lier oonncillora than with any design upon her own parson, 
the Lord James and the Earta of Athole and Morton, be wai 
into a comer from which there was no retreat. Huntly 
and bis two sans were taken prlBOners, but the Earl fell dead 
his horee before be was takeu from the field. Some eay be 
of a liroken heart, others that he was trodden to death. His 
■on, Sir John Oordon, was eieoutcil three days later, and the '. 
forfeited. Snob was the battle of Corrichie. 



i A few miles N.E. of the Hill of Fare is Dun Eoht (Earl of 

3 f Crawfurd and Balcarres). Near the house is the Barmekyne. of 

I i Echt, one of the most remarkable fortified remains in Scotland. 

3 r Three miles south of Torphins is Kincardine O'Neil {Gordon Arms 

> HoUl)y a pretty village. Near Lumphanan, on the brow of a hill, 

is Maobeth's Cairn, where, it is said, Macbeth was killed in 


O'er the moanth they chased him there 
Intil the wood of Lumphanan. 

• • • • 

This Macbeth slew they there 

In the wood of Lamphanan.— ^Wyntoun's Chronidt\ 

[82^ miles firom Aberdeen. HoUX : The Huntly Anns.] 

is a rising village well adapted for summer quarters. In the centre 
- is a fine open expanse known as The Green, and there are many 
pretty villas about, while the village is surrounded by wide stretches 
' of forest-land and picturesquely-broken grouud. Aboyne Castle, 

one of the seats of the Marquis of Huntly, rears its many turrets 
from the woods on the right. It is an irregular structure, built 
apparently at different periods. It was so thoroughly restored 
in 1671 as to amount to a rebuilding, and since then has been 
much added to and altered. The Hill of Mortlich dominates 
the landscape, and it is crowned by an obelisk which has been 
erected to the memory of the late Marquis of Huntly. From the 
suspension-bridge a road strikes down the south side of the river, 
leading to the church of Birse, where there is a sculptured stone, 
and to the mansions of Balfour, Ballogie, and Finzean. Crossing 
the suspension-bridge, passing due south over some broken ground, 
and skirting a sort of loch, the pedestrian comes on a beautifully 
wooded narrow glen with a considerable stream and waterfalls. 
This is called the Fungal, and there is a path winding round the 
precipitous banks leading to the forest of Birse. About 6 miles 
by this route, among the hills, near the head of the Feugh Water, 
are the ruins of Birse Castle, where the road from Tarfside, on 
the North Esk, descends (p. 212). 

A little above Aboyne the river Tanar joins the Dee. The road 
up the riverside passes the mouth of Glen tanar, at the head of 
which is Mount Keen (3077 ft, see pp. 212, 234). The Glen of the 
Tanar underwent much change and improvement at the hands of 
the late proprietor, Sir W. Cunliffe Brooks, Bt. (d. 1900V Qii tt^ 

oi^meruiAB, tree 

of the TOclcB at the entrsncs to the glen, a lodge, presenting thj 
esra-Dce of an old Iteep with a projecting tnrret, hsa heei 
rf rnde maasea of granite from difFerent parts of the property. 
manaion-hoQBe in the g1en boa been rebailt and enlarged, and « 
pictnreaqQB chapel has be«n added. Tlie shooting-lodge and offices 
ihow altogether a sufprising extent of hnilding in a solid and 
characteristic style, and the drive np the Glen, with its milasof 
pines, is one of the fineat of the kind in Seatland. 
About half a mile beyend Aboyne tlie Tnrland road is crossed, 
to the north of which lies the district of Cromar, containing the 
village of Tarland.' The highest summit in this direction is 
Morven {2880 ft.) It is round, and somewhat flat in outline, bnt, 
to quote the Queen's Journal, "the view is more magnificent than 
can be described, so larga, and yet so near everything seemed, 
such seas of moantains with blue lights, and the colour 
fully beautiful." 

On reaching Dtnnet Station [FrafeU's Hoiel), half-way bet 
Aboyus and BaUater, we have a splendid view of Morven 
Culbleau, and see grand chains of hills surrounding 
of moorland, bleak enough, except in autumn, when crimsonsd by 
the richest heather. The Colblean slopes were the scene of a battle 
(1336) between David Brace and the Earl ot Atholl. For lOch 
Kinord, see p. 332. Cambua O'May, the nest station, is the 
prettiest on the whole railway. On one side great grey rocks 
ight down into the station, and are fringed in autunin 
with the richest heather. Eirah woods rise above, and close bel 

the Dee. Leaving the station we cross the ph 
ttid the Bum of Tnllich, and (right) Ballater House (IPsrquhl 
imi of Invercauld). So we reach the terminus of the railway 

i3, a^_ 



may bs roubed lu this direction 
r Mlgvle to Colquhoiinj'. One ot tJ 

Tiand, St the SlBck of TDlylodge. i 

ir br Castle oT Oorss Id 

and Coll 

. Tbi 

jgbbourhoDil. Tbete ai 
y, and also at 1 
iquary flloyinK at 

'iibindir^ or Tarland 
■nnimlB, Glenk Indie, 
at CUlsb, CrosilViM, 

^._ .-daya. liaittho 

_, and CutU News, iu Btrathdon, V 

and Miltoa of WliiMlioujie, all bi ■_ ___ „_ 

Castle Newe (9ir C, ParbBS, Birt.J, luvamrnin (Gen. Sit Jobs 
3.B.), etc., are near Colquhonny («« p. 248.) 








fHotds: Invercauld Arms ; Loirston House ; Dean's Temperance ; Alexaniiis.] 

Plaoks of Interest, with Distances from the Hotel. 

Lord Byron's Bed (Ballatrich) . 5 
Round Craigendarroch by the Pass 4} 
Linn of Muick .... 6 

Braemar . • . 
Balmoral .... 
BirkhaU .... 
Abergeldie Castle 
Shooting-Lodge, Loch Muick 
Morven Lodge 
Gomdavon Lodge 
Gaimshiel . ... 
Inrereauld House . 

Paaanich Wells . . . 
Bum of Vat 





Loch Muick 
Lochnagar . 

Do. Lake 
Loch Einord 
Loch Bullg . 
Mount Keen 
Cairn of Morven . 
Dubh Loch 





This village is particularly pretty. Surrounded by high hills, and 

standing high itself, its air is bracing. There are numerous walks 

and drives, and much open and broken ground. The large building 

near the station, called Albert Hall, contains Post Office, Council 

Chamber, two public halls, recreation room, and public library. 

It was built by a Mr. Gordon, brewer, a native of Ballater. There 

is an excellent supply of water, gifted by the late proprietor. 

Colonel Farqnharson of Invercauld ; and to this has been added 

an extensive drainage system. Craigendarroch (the Hill of Oaks) 

is a steep round knoll, about 600 ft. high (but 1250 above 

sea-level), rising above the village. It affords an extensive view, 

and one that can rarely be purchased with so small an expenditure 

of exertion. To the north lies the precipitous chasm called "the 

Pass of Ballater. '* Five miles to the east of the village is the 

rocky hill commemorated in Byron's couplet — 

" When I see some dark hill point its crest to the sky, 
I think of the rocks that o'ershadow Oolblean." 

The new granite bridge which crosses the Dee conducts to the 
chalybeate mineral wells of Pananich (hotel). The virtues of the 
water have long been famed in Highland tradition, and no doubt 
it was to this that Ballater originally owed its rise. But now 
Ballater is popular on account of other things than ife waters, and 
is much the better known place of the two. The distance from 
Ballater is about 2 miles. About 2 miles farther eastwards by the 
same road, along the south bank of the river, is the farmhouse of 
Ballatrich (or Ballaterach), where Byron spent his youthful years. 
The hill of Pananich, which rises to the south, is 1896 ft. in height. 

Well worthy of a visit is the Bum of the Vat, a huge chaRia uv 
the rocks at the mouth of a smaW ipt%cv^\\.ov3L'a ^etv *\w ^xji^^'^kxv. 


•tract 5 miles east of Ballater. It seaaa to 1id.tb been the n 
of a waterbll, round whii^li the water had swirled for a 
leap ovar the fall, smaotliing the enclosing rocks into a 
cnlar or vat fonn. Tha water haa gradually worn away the n 
6f the breastwork, and the pool and waterfall are no i 
Tlaitor may enter the strange chasm by crawling thrnngh t 
crevices. The whole apot, including the gorge above, has 
iarly weird appearance, especially in the twilight, the birch-ti 
high overhead adding to the piotnresquenesB of the see ^ 
ia a. near path to Ballater round the top of the rocks. At the n; 
end of the Vat ia a small waterfall, covering a singular cave in tiw 
rocks, usually call d R b R y C Loch K d th aogh 

which the h 
Caatle Island, 
demolished i 

J th 1 

y Ifri 

p 1 f h M ci 

pati by th H tly f m ^ 
and T&ii ti m kea it ( 
hnnting-seat f Mai Im C ni It it h t Edw rd £ 

lodged with h ray th Id 1306 f ght 

return from Loch-an-dorb (see p. 28J). Irately ancient rehcB, n 
U canoes and bronze spear-heods, have been discovered, 
titese are preserved in a little Museum on the shore of the lake. 
It i« a pleasant walk by the Old Kirk Rood to East Morven, m 
tit the Pass of Ballater, The mountain of Locbnao*B, with id 
Jlerennial snows, ia " the lion " of the Ballater scenery. The ascent 
I nay ba made by Glen Mulck, visiting on the way the linn and IwA of 
the same name. The Mnick joins the Dee 1 mile west of Ballater, 
and tlie traveller has but to keep by its rocky banks, along which 
there is a tolerable road. On a commanding eminence, about two 
miles ftem Ballater, stands Olen Mulck Honse. BirkhEdl is on Uie 
west side of the glen. At the linn (6^ miles] the watet- in a ean* 
BJdorable body huila llself over a precipice into a black -looking pML^ 
About 2 miles above the Linn tlie stream ia crossed, and IJ n "'" 
rlVther is Alt-na-Ointha-sach, the Royal Shooting Box, near tl 
1^ Loch Hoick, a sombre sheet of water encircled by preciplcei 

here the Bnmmlt of Lochnagar (3786 It.) is abont 4 miles'; 
e walking distance from Ballater being reckoned at 13 mi 
[ (Ascent from Castleton, etc., p. 240.) Part of Lord Eyrnn's eajiy lijl 
I fmn spent near Lochnagar — hence his well-kuown staniai, :- 

ThouKh «t1U they 

an aaond to tteaioia and ia 

'eC, Caledonia, bel< 

jVBd are thy mountains, 

Roonii tlieir whtt 

esBmmitathongl, elements V 

'huugh cotaracta fo 

*d, 'stead of aiiiooth-llo-iogl 



Ah I there my jonng footsteps in in&noi wnndei'd ; 
My cap was the bonnet, my piMkwaa theploii; 

As deily 1 strode throngt tlia pine-cover'd glade ; 
I louubC not nir home till the dsf'e dying glory 

Gave plnca to the rays or the bright polar Htar; 
Pot fancy ma cheer'd by traditional story, 
DIsalosedbytlie vatlveaofdsrk Loati DsGsrr."! 

The ailventuroQS travailer may estend his ronte from t 
ut Loch Muick to Dubh Loch, a smaller lake, wliose banks, except 
where the stieain issues, are huge precipices of grauite ; or by keeping 
the east side of the river and loch all the vdj he mny cross Mount 
Capel and descend via Clova (19 milea), to Kirriemuir (p. 208) 

A pedeatrian journey from Ballater, of considerable labour, but , 
much profit to health and eyes, may he made from the foot of Qlea . 
Mnick across to the upper ■psxt of Glen Tanar, and thence over Mount . 
Keen to Locblee (13 miles] in Forfarsbhre (p. 21-i). ' ^- 

The couch rood rnm Ballater to firaeuiar follows the nortbfl 
back of the river. Skirting the base of Craigendarrncb, i 
"Pb8s of Ballater," it crosses the Water of Qaim. ^ 

Up Glen Gairu goes the liue old driving road (now rather rouKb in 
some places) to Qranlown in Strathspey (39 milga from BallalCT), hy 
Rsinlonn, Conk Bridge, and the quaint high-lying moorland villaRe of 
Tomintoul [hotels), with its big Bomaa Oatholic Church. There is also 
n road up Glen GaJm — beyond Beiuloon— to Loch Bnilg, cDnneotiog 
there with the new driring road from Braemar {see p. 343). 

About 6 miles farther np the Dee, op|>osite the remains of a 
primitive Highland claclian, called Tbi! Micraa, staitda Ab«rgeldis 
Caetle, a shooting- lodge of H.M. the King. The castle ia ancient^ 
Inviiig B hirrated square tower, and some modern additions ot(\ 
various dates. A little beyond this is the village of Crathie,' with fm 
Its iiarish church. So far Balmoral has not been b" mi...« 
entrance lies over the iron bridge on the left. 
Balmoral Castli. 

A drive leading through some fins evergreens runs 
];irincipal entrance, which is on tlie south side. The first glimpse 1 1 
of the Castle gonerully gives rise to a sense of disappointment. It I 
is so very much smaller than ths pictures of it lead one to sugipose, fm 
and the situation, though pretty, lacks the element of granden. 
In fact, Balmoral stands so low, and is on the I'oad aide so shut j 
by trees, that, unlesa espeaitdly visited, it is very difficult to see 
1 From Crathle there Is i road S. to Inchbobart in Glen Uuiek, end i go 



at all. It is a plain building of grey granite, almost severe in 
style, with a high eastern tower, surmounted by a turret from 
which there is a splendid view. The west side, in which are the 
living rooms, looks down a long vista to the distant hills. There 
are a few flower-beds in front of this side, but the keynote of the 
place is nature untouched, and it is not difficult to understand 
why that should appeal so strongly to those whose lives are passed 
chiefly amid publio ceremonies. Clumps of irregularly grown trees, 
little hillocks and hollows, stud a park which runs right up to the 
castle with no dividing fence. 

The castle is quite a modern building, erected by the late Sir 
Robert Gordon, who did much to improve the estate, which had 
formerly belonged to the Farquharsons, descendants of the family 
of Inverey. The trustees of Sir Robert (Gordon sold the reversion 
of the lease to the Prince Consort, who later bought the whole 
I estate, and left it to Queen Victoria, so that it is the private 

property of the Royal family and not a national palace. The late 
Queen added greatly to the estate. It is interesting to hear how 
she described her first visit to it in her Highland Journal. 

The Queen arrived on her first visit to Balmoral on Friday, 
September 8, 1848. She thus describes it : — " It is a pretty little 
castle in the old Scottish style. There is a picturesque tower and 
garden in front, with a high wooded hill ; at the back there is 
wood down to the Dee ; and the hills rise all around. 

''There is a nice little hall, with a billiard-room ; next to it is 
the dining-roonL Upstairs (ascending by a good broad staircase), 
immediately to the right and above the dining-room, is our sitting- 
room (formerly the di'a wing-room), a fine large room, next to which 
is our bedroom, opening into a little dressing- room, which is Albert's. 
Opposite, down a few steps, are the children's and Miss Hildyard's 
three rooms. The ladies live below, and the gentlemen upstairs. 

''At half-past four we walked out and went up to the top of 
the wooded Mil opposite our windows, where there is a cairn, and 
up which there is a pretty winding path. The view from here, 
looking down upon the house, is charming. To the left you look 
towards the beautiful hills surrounding Lochnagar, and to the 
right towards Ballater, to the glen or valley, along which the Dee 
winds, with beautiful wooded hills, which reminded us very much 
of the Thimngerwald. It was so calm and so solitary it did one 
good as one gazed around, and the pure mountain air was so re- 
ireshing. All seemed to breathe freedom and peace, and to make 
one forget the world and all its sad t\xra\Q\\&.^^ 


About 100 yards to the south a. atone mnrks tha site of the 
old castle. The long one-storied room projecting from tha no 
the iron hall-room. The Inwer is geEerally ussd for the tu 
' modation of ministera ■who visit the castle. Since the a, 

t of King Edward the whole of the interior has been remocIelleS 

l^^^^^^d reGtted in modern style, with the addition oF a second corridor. 
^^^^VWben His Majesty is not in residence admission to the ground 
^^^^^Ht granted on Tuesdays and Tliursdajs by writing beforehand t 
^^^^^nEr. Michie, Factor, Eatatee OSce, Ralmoral. Adoiissiou to thfli 
^^^^K^tle itself is necessarily restricted, sbont fifty persona heinij 
^^^^^Ullowed to see over on one diiy, and those are gonerally they wl)» 
^^^^HlluTe written the soonest for permission. 
j^^^H^ To the westward are the remains of the old house of Monaltrie^ 
■ bnrned in 1745, and rebnilt as a farmhouse. A email village i 

' tie neighhonrhood ie called the Stroet of Monaltrie. Kear hera t,. 

1 oroBB-road for Reinloan in Glen Gajm strikeH north (see p. 23iJ. 

^^^^ A little farther on is the monnd called Caim-a-quheen (the Cairn <: ' 
^^^H^.Kernembranfe), a name used in the foraying days as tbe gathering 
^^^^B ay of Deeside, when the fiery cross passed through ths district. 
^^^^f Three and a half miles beyond Invbr (Inn: Invercauld Anna\ 
^^^^ tha trayeller crosses the Bridge of Invercauld, thrown over i rajnd. 
' Kxi rocky strait of the river. From the east of the bridge the ni 

road to Loch BuUg — -up among the mountains between Glen Gaiitf 

and Glen Avon — leaves. Soon after crossing the bridge the road 

winds round the foot of Craig Clnny, an abrupt bank partly clothed- 

with pine, bot with a sharp bare granite peak rising preeipitouily 

dose to the road. The fonndation of an old tower, called Hi* 

Laird of Cluny's Charter-Chest, about a third of the distance ftvmthia^ 

top, ifl a epecimen of old Highland enginearing Tha strath open(f 

bsyond Craig-Clnny, showing at the northern bend iNVEROArritf 

HousB(Alei. H. Faniuharaon, Esq. ),anirregularrilBof considerable 

, dze, the most beautifully situated mansion on Deeside. The hooM 

has been lately mncb enlarged, a lofty and massive tower of gray 

granite forming a conspicuous feature, and showing well agaiuBl 

the wooded hill. The river Doe hero winds qnietly through i 

boanldfnl green strath, about the centre of which, and on the aoulE 

side, stands Braetnar Castle. "With the exception of some modeW. 

I modifications of the main roof, it is essentially the original strnctura' 

' of 1433, and preserves, what is now rare in old Scottish castellated' 

! houses, the original open and embattled tatrets. 

ajtgled and Joopholed for mnsfcetry, was erected by the i 
Bvopa after the Hebellion otlTlB. ImmBiitMy^iwjcmiii 



Castlbton of Braemar.^ 

[Hotels: Invercsiild Aims ; Fife Arms ; Height, 1100 ft] 
This straggling collection of houses stands on a piece of irregolar 
ground, where the turbulent stream of the Clunie rushes down to 
join the Dee. Besides its two excellent hotels, the village contains 
several lodging-houses ; Established, Free, Episcopal, and Roman 
Catholio churches ; and two public halls, due to the Duke of 
Fife and the late Col. Farquharson respectively, commemorate the 
"Queen's Jubilee.*' On an eminence near the Invercauld Arms 
Hotel the Earl of Mar raised the standard of rebellion in 1715. The 
surrounding country is a region of deer forests, and comprehends 
those of Mar (Duke of Fife), stretching up Ben Muichdhui ; those of 
A. H. Farquharson, Esq. of Invercauld; Ballochbuie (H.M. the 
King), extending from the Falls of the Garrawalt by Lochnagar ; 
and Badenoch (Duke of Atholl), adjoining that of Mar. Connected 
with Ballochbuie are the royal forests of Abergeldie and BirkhaU, 
as well as those of Glenisla (Earl of Airlie), and Glenesk (Earl of 
Dalhousie). These cover some of the wildest and most unfrequented 
districts of the higher Grampians. 

Envibons of Bbaemab. 

The following are the principal short excursions from Braemar : — 

The main approach from Ballater has been described above. 

The Lion*B Face Walk by a path through the wood, from east end 
of Castleton and across the Queen's Drive, and so on the BaUater road. 

The Falls oftht OarratoaU are 5 miles east, on the declivity of 
the pine-forest of Ballochbuie. They are approached by turning off 
at the Bridge of Invercauld, by the road to the right. The Garra- 
walt Water rolls over several banks of considerable height, which, 
thoi^h not perpendicular, produce a thundering and foaming 
torrent A neat wooden bridge crosses the stream, and a fog-house 
is built at the side. The road along the south side of the Dee east 
of this is now a private road to Balmoral. 

Morrone Bill, above and between the junction of the Dee and 
dunie streams, is an easy climb of about 1) hour, and the views 
from the top are remarkably beautiful and extensive. 

The high road up Glen Clunie, and, 2^ miles up it — to the south- 
east — Glen OaUater, are delightful Highland walks. 

1 Bxaemar may also be reached from the south by Coach from Blaiigowrie 
(85 mllesX by the Spital of Glenshee (see coach time-table, p. i*\ from which 
oonnection can be made with Pitlochry vid Eirkmichael and Dalmlzian. Sm 
note, p. 268. 



^^^^^M TLe Hills of ComemulxU ara 3 miles westward rrom Custlet 
^^^^V The path atrikea oS the main roail beyond the third milestone, 
^^^^H leads hrst to a wooden seat commuidiiig a. view of the fall, 
^^^^H little farther down to a small rustic bridge across the stream. 
^^^^1 this It la contLDUcd up the other side of the glen, back to thi 
^^^^H toad. The ravine is a deep gash in the roclc, nurow an 
^^^^H Cipitons, softened by a. profusion of birch and creeping plants, 
^^^^^ft- &!! slides down, pearly white, throngh a winding slit in the rock, 
^^^^P irhere its sniface is in close companionship with Che wild fiowera 
^^^™ that are kept in continual fiBshnass by the apray. The high single 
r arch of tiie bridge forming part of the roadway al«)Te comes effeot- 

I ively into the landscape. Kew Mar Lodge (Duk« of Fife) ia close by, 

] Two miles beyond tha Falls of CorriemnlziB is the clachan of 

I Inverey, where a path strikes off on the south along the left bank of 

I the Ey to " I^ ColoneVs Bed " (IJ mile), one of the most etriklug 

I pieces of gorge scenery to be met with in the Braamar distriet. 

The bed itself consists of a low cavern raised a few feet above the 
I surface of the limpid water, which lies deep and still, the MckB 

' both sides rising perpendicularly to a considerable height' 

I The Linn of Dee. where tha water haa worn for itself a 

I passage through the rock, is 6j miles from Castleton, and 4 bey< 

Corriemukie. It ia not the height of fall, but the contraction of 
the stream, that is the object of interest here ; indeed, when the 
water is swollen, the ledges over which it &lls almost disappear. 
When it is not swollen, there ia almost alternately a rush of the 
olaarost water through a narrow aperture, then a dark, deep pt 
A descent may be made to the water's edge ; but the mass of w 
hurled together by tha stone walls raves with a deafening so 
and excites a sort of appcabeDsion that the stream may leap 
its prison, and overwhehu the spectator. The granite bridge a 
wa4 built in 1S57. 

The tirm of QuoiA, on tha north aide of the Dee (a eoupl»i 
miles below Old Mar Lodge), is of a different character. U 
bcmed by a powerful stream of that name which descends from 
Ban-a-hourd mountains. Tha cataract is produced by 











of precipitous Icdgoa, and the ecbist rock is ppdbrateii i: 

pUcea by the whirling watara into deep circnkr holes. 

There 1b a public road tiarlh at the Dee, all the way (11 milrs) em 

auld Bridge (p. an) to Lion of D« (p. ia»). 

Lova MoimTAEN EionRaioNH mnu BnAKUAR. 
^ BrBemar la one of tlie best centres in ScotUnil for tlie pbdwtrian 

' Kai mountaineer. As stated bernre, it ia aurrouncled by aome of tbe 
' Hildeat hill country in the north, throngh which a aorisa of old drove 
' roada and mountain paaaea converge from vanoua direetiooa upon 

Braemnr, and thna enable the active Bearcher for the snbllmo and tl 
! beantiinl in Natnra to penetrate into remote and almost Alpine r^i 
, Vi'b shall briefly indicate the more important of these roTitea j and 
, ikrough-nmiei mentioned are believed all to bs " Righta of Way. 
L tourlstDeedfaavenoheaitatlonin followlngtbem out. For the distani 
I imentlonad he muat allotr, at least, an hour for every 3 milee. 
I «ap and compaaa ahould nlways be taken. 

I. To Clova (iron), Forfarshire, by Glen Cai.latkr and Olbm 
r-JpOU.. Boule (18 nitleB):~Up Olon Clnnie for ij, mUea, and tlien 
Bi^BUth-eatt up the eaat aide of Glen Callat«r to Loch Callatei^ S^ loilei ; 

' side of Loch Callater, and thence ascend steeply to watei^ied 

;o aonth-east, between Tolmonnt and Knaps of Fatarniej ud 

I ^ence down " Jock 'a Road" and the extremely beatttifnl Glen DdU 

%. 209), the " Right of Way " through which was eatablisbed tn Cbe 

ConrtB In 1SS8 by tliB Scottish Eights of Way Society. 

II. Abdbnt of Loohnaoar — 3774 ft. — {lop aioul 12} mtZa fiom 
Braernar), From a little way up Loch Callater, past the Lodge, tun 
off to the lelt by a very ateep path np and round the south end of 
Cairn TaggarL Then east, keeping the top of Cairn Corbreach on the 
right hand. The summit of Locbuagar is not seen until it is within a 
comparatively short diatance ; nor is the Loch (/.ocft-ns-gar) seen 
i]ntil the top ascent of the monutsiu is reached, which is distinguished 
by ail artilidal cairu. The view from the top comprehends on a clew 
day the Oermas Orean on the east ; Morven Hill, Caithness-shire, on 
the north ; the Lomond Bills (Fife), and Pentlnnds (F^inburgli), on 
the south ; and many of the Grnmpion range on the wesL The view 
from norUi to aoutli'thua estends for about 200 miles, (For Uie 
asoeut from Ballater, see p. 232, ) Pouiea may be taken to the top. 

III. To Qlen Isla, Forfarshire, by Monega, etc. Ri>ule [25 miles „ 
to Glen lala Hold) : — 8 miles up the Glen Olnnie high-road, and then 
south-east over the mount^ua by the east aide of Glasmcnl. This 6sf, _ 
hill route ia described on p. 20O. It is the highest " ft " ' - ■■ - ■ 

IV. To BLAitt Atholl, by the Dee and Glen 1 
niles) ; — There is a drivinp: road for about 10 miles from Sraemar U 
the Bynack Lodge (Duke of Fife), by the Linn of Dee, etc. (p. 23S)ii 
Before leavuig the Dee a fine view Is had up its higher glen to tW8 
onrth iinong the precipitous CalmgGrras, Crossing a wild distrief | 
Bio OJen Tilt » grand view of Bea-y-gloe is obtained. The Tarfl 



Water is now crossed by ■, good bridge, erected by lliB Bcottieh RIgbtB 
e( W«y Society, Edinburgh, aided by privole anbscriptiona. [For 
ronte dawn Glea Tilt and charges Tor pddea and ponia see p. 271.] 

V. To Inbh or KisanasiE, by Glen Feshie, RtniU [33 tnilea):— 
For the first B roilBs or so the road is the same an No. IV. and then 
weat by the north side of the Oeldie or Oeaalay Water to near its 
source. The 7 or 8 miles up tbis glen are not very Interesting, and one 
IE <; to croRB into Olen Feabie (a low crosalog), wbicli Is very grand 
all the way down. Tlii5 route was oiwe travBrseil by Queen Viotoria 
About 10 tni1e« down Glen Feabie the road for Eingassie turns to the 
left (p. 276). Tbi^ro is an inn at Inab, and an hotel at EingUBsie. 

VI. To AviKMOBE, Strothapey, by the Wells of Dee, and the Larig 
GW Pass. Raule (83 miles) :— For the first 8 miles, same as No. IV., 
nhuD the wild and narrow Glea Dee la ascended by the east side o! 
the itream. This is cerUInly one of tbe most remarkable uiountain 
ezcomons in Scotland.' About & mUei up Glen Dee the aavage ciags 
ol the DevU's I'oiat sjid Cainitoul are ou the left, south and north of 
whifdl tumble down the rough high BtTeaiuB of the Geusachan and the 
GairarDhory ; nsd farther on the " Larig Ghru " (the " forbidding way "), 
lietweea its walb of ruj^ed granite, is entered; audit is up here between 
Bna-Tiapb and Ban Muichdhui that the celebrated " Wells of Dee " are 
pooied among the granite deliris. Tlie water in tbe pools is of au icy 
ooMneas. A few miles farther on the lovely hindscspe of Strathspey is 
Nwn far below to the north-west. The Alt Drui bum — flowing to the 
^ley — Boon makes itself heard aiiiuiig the boulders ; and about 2 mileB 
down, where the glen begins to broaden out a little, the path bears eon- 
riderably away to tbe right of the stream, gradually coming back to it, 
however, a£ the outskirts of lUithiemurchue Forest are entered. It then 
keelson Ihetop of the wooded bank al)ove tbe waterconrrc, aud not long 
iftwwarda is crossed by b cart read. The route turns to the lefi along 
this road, whicli a very little way farther on bears to the ri<')it across 
I small oasia of meadowland in the forest, along the west side of which 
Hows the now softly purling brook. A footbridge (now in ruins) is here 
seen crossing tlie water, but this should nol be gone over. Contiuoing 
on the road and shortly after re-euteiiug the wood a second footbridge 
IB wm crossiug the Emiach Water, which miut be crossed, and beside 
tbe stony remains of an old cottage in the corner of auotlior opening 
In the forest the route divides into two. Those going direct tfl Avie- 
more Btalion and neighbourhood should take the footpath to the right, 
lollowing the west aide of the stream Bud keeping near it all the way to 
Coylom Briilge. Lyuwilg Inn may ha reached either this way or by the 
route for the Kinrara district whioh keeps siraighl on by the broader 
cart track to the west, aud leads past the north end of lovely Loch-an- 
Bilan, and so out of the forest. Fiom the second footbridge before ro- 
Ferred to it is 4^ miles to Aviemore [p.2iiQ), aod 7 to Lyiiwi1g(p. SSV). 

VII. To Bkis Mdichdhui. Caihhcohh, and Loch A' AN, etc. With 
1 pony and guide at a walking-pace, the ascent and return Ihim Bea 
Muiehdiiul takes It hours, ao that it is advisable to tewit wBft-^\fi.'&». 

> Glen Deemay, iierhBpaprEteraWj,\*tBaiiaiBiirtn.Q.\Bii\*ia<*'^!«."*-^''*^ 


Rooming, and to oarry a supply of proviaions. Poniea do not mi 
'■go beyond the head of Glen Dorry, but ladiea may ride 
OairiBges may go 6 milee beyond the Linn of Dee. 

From the vast aninbabited de.iert lying between the atratbg of 
Dee nud Spey rUea the loftiest cluster of monntaiiia in l^e Uuil 
Kingdom. Among tbeni are Ben Mniehdhni, 429(1 ; Brae-risoli, iSlSJ" 
'Catratonl, 4241 ; Cairngorm, 4081 ; Ben-o-bourd, 3924 ; and B«»- 
1, 3920 ft. Althougb no part of tbia dietrict readies the line of 
^elntton, tbe snow lingers in tlie hallows during the anm- 
in aucb qnantities aa to give a perfectly wintry aspect to the higbu 
y 'ftaded glans. Several cataracts rash down the sides of the moi ' 
which are strongly marlted by liigh and nigged precipices and 
ow deep ravines. But the scenery is not without ita eofter fei 
and many of the most rugged hiBi are relieved by tbe veeping bircl 
Theionte to tbe snmmit of Ben Mnicbdhni commences by the L' 
of Dee. There it strikes up Qlens Lni and Deny, the former presi 
Ing a wide reacb of verdant turf, and the latter baving a profann 
deaolata appearance, with olumps of trees barklcss and blanche 
extending their blighted branches to the wind in all manner of 
totted shapes. Up Glen Lui-Beg, to the left, there is also a path 
the southern shoulder of Ben Mnlchdhui descending into theu]^itfQli 
Dee nearly opposite tbe Devil's Point (p. 241). From beat' ' "■" 
Derry the ascent is long and tedious, but the view down the 
oliEfs of tbe Corrie Etichan is very striking. The summit, which 
remarkably flat, is 4296 ft. above the level of the sea, Bert Bevis, 
highest mountain in Britain, being 4400 ft. It is composed of T*d 
granite, and the brow and upper regions are tot&lly devoid of vegeta- 
tion. The view &om the desolate plateau is of the same nugniflMnt 
obacacter as that from Caimgorm (see p. 243), only more eitondsd IQ 
the south and south-east, tbe prindpal abject of interest In the fot ~~ 
direction being the grand group of the domes of Ben-y-gloe. 
near view aciosa the Larig Glen of the great corries and rougb 
ridges of Btae-riach is also imposing to a remarkable degree. 

The north-eaatem ftont consists of ■ precipitous come, from 
to 1600 ft, in height, at the bottom of which Ilea TiOca A' is (AvoaJ, 
■ lake 1 i mile in length, of the deepest blue colour, with an edging d 
tiright yellow sand. On the eastern declivity, near the top, there ii a 
field of anow, out of which a considerable torrent tumblea down to 
the lake. At tbe west end of Loch A'an is the famous Clachdhian or 
Shelter Stone, a bnge block of granite resting on two others, and form- 
ing a cave BulGcieut to contain 12 or 16 persons— the only place in this 
wild desert which aflbrda a refuge to the wayworn or benighted traveller. 
It may be approached from the top of Ben Mulcbdbui by keeping on 
the ridge towards Cainigorni for nearly a mils, and then deacandlng bt 
the Feith Buidhe Bom (see ordnance map). The descent in vei? ste^ 


H Lui-I 

climbers not at all dangerous in clear westher. 

Anotlier route for ascending Ben Muichdbui is by the path up Q1s> 

._ _i . .i.-_j . . .r ■ Is right np from 

Id not be attempted. 




OtiRHOOBH, tlie Bnmmit of which is abnnt 4 milea due north of 
BeD Muichclhui, may he reacbfld with hardJj aaj descent froiD that 
■nannCain top, by following the jirenipitous riilge ihirtiug Loch A'bh. 
Tie view eomprehauds a womlerfnl Innd of hills. To the east and 
•oLith the gnat masaea of Beiti-DB-Bjnach, B«ti Miilohilliui, mid their 
Deighbours shut off any distiint view, hnt are themselves a striking 
pmornnm of craggy peak, anowy precipice, and [loiuieroiis mountain- 
lop. To the neat sad aoutb-west, hovever, the eye roains over ernlless 
urioB of monntainDiu ntngea knd deep valleys, reaching one beyond 
tha other faraway into the btoe distance, untU it rcatd n{K]n, some 60 
inileB away, the giant liead of Ben Nevia towering grandly above his 
fellows ; and Beu Wyvia loonis darkly in the distant north. 

A descent from CiiimKurra may be mode Into Olen More, to shove 
the east end of Loch Morlich (p, 282). 

Another moDatain e.icurslaa may be made from Coatlettin to Gek- 
A-Hoo&D, which ia i;e1ebratad for tlis prospect it commands of the 
various cbains of Highlanil monntains. It is reachei! by a path up the 
glen of Qnoich, keeping the left bank of the stream ; or by Glen Slugabi. 
The summit is almost void of vegetation. The corries near the top ale 
fsmoua for veins of beautiful rook -crystals, known as C'aimgoriua, 

VIII. To AbbrnethT, Btrothspaj, hy the Dhu Lochan and tha 
"Larig-an-Lnoigh" ("the way for the calves"). Jtinid (31 miles) la 
np Qlen Derry sa described in No. VII. , ami than due north by tha 
CllB Loehan throogh to Glen Avon, whii^h is crosseil by a ford a 
mile helow the foot of Loch A'an. It then aaceads to the north over 
to Strath Nethy, snd when within a mile or less of the Nethy Water 
the pedestrian should look out for a rougher track than the wdl-mBde 
sporteman^a road leading on down to the stream, which rongher track 
bean down more to the right and keeps well to the right of the main 
atmam till nearer Lvnmsogilbert, where it ultimately crosses the Nethy ; 
and less than 4 mi'lee farther an ia Nethy Bridge /im (p. 2tJ2). This 
roi^e, though not so grand as the "Larig Ghm,'^ ia wall worth tra- 
veraing, and commands most interflsting mountain conntry, 

IX. To TOKiNToni, by Loch Bnilg and Glen Avon. RouU (28 
miles) :— There is a driving road to Loch Builg from Invercanld Bridge 
(about IS milea), Irom which line viewn to the eaat are to be had. 
Qlco Avon, through which the path to Torainloul, by lochrory, pro- 
oeada, was ile-icribed by Queen Viotoriaaa "a solitude at once so wild— 
ao Bolemc — so serene — so sweet I " The stream ia ao clear that there 
Is a jjroverb — 

■Tff .luld bsBiiilB a mui 0' a huador yeiir I " 
Prom Tomintoul [p. 284), where there is an inn, there are good roads 
to Grantown or Bsllindallnch, in Strathspey (pp. 253, 233). COaeM 
daUj/ /rom TaoiiiUavl to BaUindaModi station. 

Bss A'an may be best ajiproaiihcd by the Looh Builg road. 


AsEKbSBH to iNVEEliEtiH (running o^ 
Elgin). Also lines to Gmden Bay, 
Macduff, Banff, Kaith, Ballater, etc. 

The principal lina runs through Kittybrewater [station for Old 

Abacdoan), Woodside, and Buuksbmn to Dyee JaDCtion ; from hence 

I ffae line goiivg to the places on the west coast IiifurcaUs ; folloW' 

I ing this we fiud Ihat at Ellon the Cruden Bay railway brsnchea 

off, and at Maud Junction that for pBterhead. 

The first section of the principal line te Dyca runs alalig the 
Tslley of the Don, through pleaaaut and well-wooded oouutry ; 
large paper and woollen milU Tear tall chiinneya in the valley, but 
the genera! effect is mml and not msnofaGtiiruig. On the left 
neat BucKBHtntN ia Tyrebagger Hill with gmnite qnarriea, and a 
&ne dTcle of standing atones. Dyo£ ia a rapidly -growing Tillage. 



The river Don ia crossed before reaching PAHKinLr., where the 
Bishop of Aberdeen once had a residence. The loch called Bishop's 
Loch, close to Parkhill House (A. Gordon Cumming Skene, Esq.). '"- 
calls this fact. Between this and New Machar there is a large new 
Innatio flsylutn, looting like a village in itself; this ia called KiNO- 
BBAT, and tradition tells that Malcolm Cannior?, King of Scotland, 
once sank down exhausted here, and when a draught of water was 
brought to him he pronounced it better than ale, which accounts 
also for the name Betteral Well in the neighbourhood. At Udny 
is TJdny Castle (J. H. Udny, Esq.), hidden among trees. It has been 
rebuilt. A mile farther on ia the mined castle of Tolpthon, the 
property of the Earl of Aberdeen. Haddo House, Loid Aberdeen's 
swt, is a few miles farther on. There is a mined castle at LouiB-.^ 
BuevK. Elloh, at which the Cmden line branches off (thro 
c»rriages from Aberdeen), is a prosperons and rapidly-g 
place. The Station Hotel adjoins the station, and there e 
three others in the village. Ellon Castle ie on the right a 
trees. - Three small stations intervene before CnvDBS Bat, i 
after it the lino runs to a teruiiius at Boddam (see p. 
Cmden Bay ia fast increasing IQ popularity, and it has 
requisite for a succeaaful seaside place. A splendid hotel ii 
nested with the atatian by half a mile of electric tramway, and the 
tram meets passengers and luggage on notice from the station- 
master at Ellon. The hotel is owned by the railway company, 
vid ia a companion to the f^ilace at Aberdeen. There 

eoQrtti, croquet Uwdb, aud a magnificeat golf courae of eigbteau 
holes, uid nine (ladiei). Tlie bearh is sandy and tbere la good aen- 
Inthing. Port £ttoU Ilea pkttireequi^ly under tha olilf tu tiia north. 
High above is Slaiia CasCU (iss p. S4fl), 

Besuaiing at Kllon, wb soon come to Maud Jubctcoh, wliere 
Due lioe goea to Frsnerburgh (p. 251), and the other to Peterhead. 
On the Peterhead lina wa posB (left) the ruins of Dier Abbay, 
founded by William Comya, Earl of Buahao, iu ISIS ; the [irett; 
little Tillage of Doer is on tbe right. 

[Hoftfa; BuytJ; NortU-EMtern. Population 11,7«,] 
tha moat eaateriy town in Scotland, created a burgh of barony 
by the Earl MariBcliil in 1593. For a long time it vas tbe chief 
scat of the Greenland trade ; dow a considerable traffic is pro- 
duced by ita shipping, boat-bnilding, and fishing. It possesses two 
good harbours united bj n cunal, which enables vessels to eater 
ud leave ju any wiod. Tha Conriut Prison for Scotland is 
sitnsted a mile to tbe south. The i^Dricta have for years been 
employed in making a great "harbour of refuge," an inunsnsB 
undertaking. The breakwater, of huge blocks of grautte concrete, 
will stretch from Boddam Point northwani across the bay. In 
the town there are many good buildings. In fcont of the old 
Tolbooth in tlio High Street is a bronze statue of Field-Marshal 
Keith, a favourite and successful general of Frederick the Great, 
which was orocted as a grateful memorial of the national esteem 
by the late Empoiflr of Germany, Feteriiead contains a good 
jnineral spring, which operates as a strong diuretic. On Keith 
Inch stood a castle, long a reE^idence of the Keith family. A 
small museum contains a Dumber of GDricsitiGS. 

ITie rniua of the old caatle of Ravenaoraig are situated about 2 miles 
to tbe west. The picturesque niiae of lnvenigie Castle (on the river 
Ugie), founded about 1380 by Sir John it, Keith, were still atandlng 
In January IsHS, but at that date the proprietor demolished them by 
uieina of dynamite, on the grouud tbat they were unsafs. 

The district of Bucban. of which Peterhead may be considered 
the capital, is flat, though of unequal surface. In ita midst, like 
tha Wrekin in Shropshire, stands the eoIBii-Bhapedhillof Jfbrmom^ 
frcm which the whole cooutry is to be seen. The coast, which 
nitjjeota farther llan any other part oi Scotland into the German 
mnrkablo for ita inagaificent rouk-scenery. This lies 
I south of Feterhead, from which it is about 6 mileii lUsr 

THE amiLBftS <fP snCHAN 

The road to it skirts the baya of Peterhead and InTemettll 
pasiting the Sshing-^illnge of Boddam, Tu the east of Boddam 
BuohRiiEeBS, where there is a large lighthnnsB, 130 ft. in height 
Ou a promontoTj, about a qnarter of a mile to the Eoiith, etands 
the caatle of Boddam, ao old aeat of a branch of the Keith &iailj. 
Since the opening of the lino from Ellon to Boddam {tee p. 248) in 
1697, the country lyiug south of the village ia easiest approached 
by tmiii from Ellon. Tlie coast at Crnden Bay has been alreiidy 
described, ao this account will only carry ua aouthward M br u 
that point. 

Ou the way south from Boddam is Stirling Hill, famons for its 
granite quarries ; and about 2 milee farther tha Butlers' (orSoaren) 
ofBuckan, a. huge rocky cauldron, into which the sea ruahea through 
a natural arch of rock. "The rocks," says Mr. Pratt, in his work 
on Bucban, "are probably 100 ft. in height, and perpendicular 
both to the interior of the ' pot, ' as it is locally called, and also on 
their sea-front — a narrow pathway being left, with the eioepti<m of 
a fuw feet, quite round the bauin. It is scarcely possible to over- 
state the imposing magniScence of these granite sea-wallg, wUcb 
■eem to bid an eternal defiance to wind and wave, the nstunj 
cleavage of the rocka greatly anhancing the beauty of the acene." 
" I walked round tha top," saya Sir Walter Scott, " in obb place 
the patli being only about 2 feet wide, and a monstrous precipice 
on either aide. We then rowed into the cauldron or bullar from 
beneath, and saw nothing arouod ua but a regular will of black 
rook, and nothing above but the blue sky. A fishing hamlet bad 
sent out its inhabitants, who, gazing from the brink, looked like 
sylphs looking down upon gnomes. In the side of the caoldion 
opens a deep black cavern. In a high gale the nacea rush in with 
incredible violence. An old ^her said he bad seen them flying 
OTer the natural wall of the Boiler.'' This was one of the scenei 
Tiaited by Johnson duriug his tour to the Hebrides, and ha WM 
greatly gratified with it, and obaarved, ' ' What an effect this Meae 
would have hod were we entering into an unknown place 1" The 
coast for half a mile southwards of the Buliers exhibits some delight 
ta\ aea-viewB. A mile farther on, and quite near Cmden Bay la 
Blai'na CastU, the seat of tha Earl of Erroll, built 
of the precipice that overhangs the ocean. Here Dr. Johnson 
Boswell were entertained in 1773, and the former, in speaking 
the castls, said, " the situation was the noblest he had ever 


3rd '■bullen"la conoectDd wilti tlie SweillihbiiJin-a>>d theDar 
9, crvsb, uproar. 



Five miles to the south are the ruins of the old castle of SlaiBS. 
near which there in the remarkabla " Dropping Cava " of the iimo- 
stone formation vrhioh makes stalactites and stalagmitos. 

■We now return to the line at Djco. 

A littls bsfond Dyc«, Fintray Houaa (Lord SemphiU ot Craigievai 
and Piatray), pleasaotly gitnated on the oppraite lank of the Don, ii 
wsU seeu from the line. We than reai:h Kintoiu (7 mllen Eroni ilfx) a 
Kniah uicieut buri;h (ffold), whence a Brascu Laia divergaa to A-llord, 
procaeding by which the traveller has on hia left the gmy mined tower 
of Halforest, said to baira been a hantmg-seat of Robert the Bmce, more 
lately occupied by the Earls Marischa! ; on the right are the noodiid 
hiU and hoiue of TbainEtone. Tlie line runa thrvugh a bleak district, 
pasaing Tary ettensive granite qnstries, until it reaches the station at 
Kemna; (4^ miles). Eemnay Honsa, not seen from tbe line, ia on the 
left J and the House of PattBraear (Leslie of Bak|iihain) ia beautifully 
ntnated on the north bank of the Dotl The Bishops of Aberdean had 
a pakCB here ; and for the good services which ihe ninth barou ol 
Balquhaiu rendered to that aye, by BSi-iag the cathedral of Aberdeen 
&om deetnictioD, Bishop Gordon nnvardad the family by a grant of the 
barony of Fettemear (ISG6). According to tradition, Sir W. Wallww 
took refnge in one of the towera in Fettemear ; and it ia certain that 
during the Civil Wan it was nnanccesafullj aanailed by the Coreoautera. 
A Bomaii Catholic chapel is also aeen from the Kemnay station ; and 
tfter passing through a wooded district Monymuak (7i niilea) ia reached. 
About a mile from tlie atatian are Ibe rilluge and castle of Monymusk 
(Sir Arthur H. Grant, Bart.) The lower part of the tower of the parish 
church i> in ths Norman style of architecture, aud may possibly be the 
lemaiDS of the priory foundaii hero by Malcolm Canmore. The modem 
■naniion of Cluny (Lady Gordon Cathcart), and the ruina of Tillycaim 
Oastle, anciently a aeat of the Lumsdena, are passed on the left ; and 
at TiUyfonne (lOJ milea), the Ihie, sweefiing through a granite cutting, 
eotera the beautiful Vala o[ Alford. The church and manse of Tough, 
the mansion -bouse of Toniey, and the old castle of Balfluig, are to ba 
aean on the left, while on the right are Whitehouee, Whitehaugh, and 
Hanghton. A riew is alao obtained of Castle Forbes (Lord Forbes), 2 
milea to the north, with the hiU of Benaobie in the background. The 
prospect /roid Castle Forbes Is very fine. The terminus of the branch 
railway ia at the rising village of Al,FimD (18 miles) ; Hotds : the 
Hanghton Arms Forba'a Arms at Bridge of Alforii, IJ mile west; 
carriages can be hired at both, and liberty obtained to fish on the Don. 
The battle of Alfonl (1345) was fought hi the neighbom-bood, between 
tha Marquis of Montrose and the Covenanters ; the former waa victorious, 
with the loss, however, of I.ord Oordou, eldest son of the Martinis of 
Huatty. 6 miles aouUi of Alford is Tillyfour (formerly owned by the 
late W. MNJomblB, Esq., M.P., the well-known stock-breeder), which 
Queen Victoria visited. 2J miles weat of Tillyfour is Cralglevar 
Caatle (Ijord Senipill). Alford is the best point from which to visit 
"w district of Strathdon {coach daily), which contains many objects 
sat, Buoh as the ruins of the castles of KUdiranm'j , 'SwsWi, 


E'Olenbncket, and Corearff. and Uie inansious of Glenhlndte, 
{slao visited by ths Queen), and InTerernan Houae. Tl 
qnary will feel interested in the weema or undergronnd thanibera at' 
GlBnkindio, Bnohaam, and in tbo guilens ot Castle Newe, etc There 
■re invs at Kildrummie, Olenkindie, Colqnlionnj, Lonach, and CorgariT, 
in Stratbdon, nsar all of which Irnut-flHhing ia generally obtainable. 
Tbe rotids $oulh to UeesidB are noted at p. S30. 
From Olenkindie, in vhose vicinity are reuiaina of some ancieni 
" earth housea," the road across Iba riteron the rigbt as we come from 
BmiTHIWS leads toAlford (12 miles), and tbat on tbe left to Huntly 
(20 milea), by Lnmsden village aud Rbynio, etc. Pedestrians should 
visit the Tap o' Noth {a bill 1830 ft. bigb with a remarkable vitrified 
fort an lt9 Bmnmit) team Kbynie, a Tillage within 3 milea ot Oartly 
station on tbe main line. A steep and m|^ed road leads weat from 
Rbynie, peat the old eastle of Lesmore, and through Cabnicb (jnn.- 
good fibbing) to Dufftown (IS miles), wbicb has a raQway staUon about 
a mile to the north (p. 368). Alford and Hunlly are the nearest hiring 
utatloDS to Rhynie. Tlie mail-oar passes daily, in summer, between 
the Gartley railway station and the post-ofllee at Kirk of Strathdon. 

The pleasantly sitnated vUlage of DufftOWs (rop. 1823), wbidl 
dates (mm 1817, is laid out in the ftmn of a cross, with a square and ■ 
he centre, but the arms of the cross are not straight, as tSB 
ai ot opinion that small towns ihonld have crookeil streets 
k te preTGot them being all seen at once. Tliere is a good inn, where 
jnct-horses can be procured. Within a mile Is the old castle of Balrenie 
of immemorial antiquitj, and asaaciated with the hietory of the WoU 
of Badenocb, and of Margaret, the Pair Maid of Galloway, along with 
' n it passed to Sir John Stewart, Earl of Atbole. The new castle 
e same nami;, a plslu structure, was built by James, second Eari of 
A little way south is tbe old Kirk of Mortlach, with soma curiOni 
Bionumeata. Ben Hinnea (2755 ft.), to the S.W., commands afineviewji 

Mais Like to Inveknebs— Conitnufrf. ^B 

Between Eintore and Iiivi^ramsay is the pleasant little towu.^l^] 

IkvbbbEIB {HoUl: the Kintote Arms, from which fishing in tlU 

L "Dtm and the Urie can be had], a royal and parliamentary bur(^; 

I (pop. 3155), nenr which is Keith Hall, the seat of tile Earl of 

£intore. From luTernrie, a branch line (of 5 miles) leads noriji 

Old Meldrum, a market town (iitn), erected into a burgh of 

barony in 167S. About 3 miles K.W. bora larerarie, upon the 

steep rocky bank of a brook, stands tbe old square ruined tower of 

Balquhaio, where Queen Mary spent two days in September IfiSS. 

Baliiuliain has been long in possession of tbe Leslits, sotne ot 

whom have been famous as scholars and soldiers, and have bean 

allied matrimonially to ssveral Gemian sovereigns. It is said tha^ 

through the good offices of a tenant on the property, the uastla w 

I mred from destruction by fire in IJJB. On the other side of th» 


isilmv bum Balijulinin 19 the battUGsld of Harlnw. wliei 

d other tncea of aotiquity have beeii found. 

'•Foe Danldeer an I am through. 

"InJnly, onSt. Jii 
TWQWa huodretl, t 

When ttins the rerity Ibey knsw, 
Tbe blcxxly battle ot Hirlav.' 
tittvB&AUBAT Jimecion tbB main line strikes n'estwarda 
(tet d«Beription, p. Sfi2), while the Ijianch line to Turrilf uid 
HtKdoff makes off to ths north. 

Branch :— Isvbramsay to Banst. 

Pnaaing by the manaiona and grounds of Warthil) and Rothie- 
Sonuan, we see (10 miles north of thn jnnction), piiat Fvvte station 
Hm), across the Ythan river on the right, Fyvie Castle, one 
of tbe luoat interesting specimens in Scotland of the ohatean or 
baronial style of architecture, in aome respacta eioelling Glamis. 
The original castle dates as fur back as the ISth ceatorj ; bat 
it is anpposed to be mostly indebted for its later ornamentation to 
Aleianiier Seton (fourth gon of Qeorga, fifth Lord Seton), who was 
created High Chancellor of Scotland and Earl of Dunfermline at 
tin beginning of the 17th century. The building is in a state of ei- 
oellent lirflaervation, and now belongs to Sir Cosmo E. Dnff Gordon, 
represeDtative of a younger bnnch of Lord Aberdeen's hmily.' 

Four milea north of Fyvie (near Auchterlesa station) is the old 
isatle of Towio BHn:laj, for many centuries the residence of the 
bmily of Barclay or Berkley, of which the celebrated Russian 
geneial Barclay de Toll; wag a cadet. The building has been ^dly 
1 AboQt 8 mLlaa to the lOHlh-Baat o( Fyvie Is HIlBdo Hodbb, tbo beiutimi 
■at of the mrl or Aberdeen. Nesr It ie the village of UeCliUc (duUy coack to 
DanJrt«tiun)Bad the rnina df ■■ the auld houao o' Glulit," of whidi the mother 

If Lord B 



nntdkted, bat the old h 
!■ Btill pretty elitire, O' 
tion, in comparatjvel; modem characters :- 

Sir AleiaDdsr Barclay of Tally, FuuDdalor, deCEtBt Anno Domini 113G. 
Passing on tha right Hattoii Castle, we reach the town of Tohhiff" 
ISbUU: Fife Anna, and CDiWQenJal), a plaeo of soma trade, and 
oontsiiting 2273 inlmbitaatB. The ruina of the old church, iu the 
Dhoir of which a, curious freeco -painting of St Ninian waa dil- 
covered, are pietureHiniely situated upou rising gronnd near the 
DeveroQ. The castle of Dolgatj (A. Douglaa AJnalie, Esq. ), which 
was huilt by cue of the Hays of E;iol, Is about 2 rnOea from the 
town ; and about 3 miles distant is that of Craigston (Captain 
Pollard -TJrqub art), containing Home curious paintinga, and a library 
of fine old editions of the clossics, and other works. An inscrip- 
tion upon CraigsCon Caatle bIiowb that it was founded by J. Urqufaart 
in 1604, and Gnished in 1607. Beyond Turriff the railway akirts 
the right bank of the Dcveron. On Ute left are ForglenHooBe (Sir 
0, W. AberCTomby, Bart), and Mouutblairy. Forglsn Honas ia 
one of those remarkable for ita inscriptions. Over the entry uc 
placed the Royal Arms, and below those of the owner of the hoosa 
at the time that part was erected (1577), Above the Royal Anna 
is inaoribed ffoifi of rcvaird cavia gvid servki. Passing through 
a bleak distriot, with the pretty parisli kirk of King Edward (or 
Kiu.Edar = Head of Valley), wa reach Macduff {Hold; Fife 
Arms). Owing to the difficulties of the ground, the line has not 
been carried into the town of Banff, which ia reached by a ataHon 
abont a mile aud a half south-east of it, and on the opposite side 
of the river from that on which Banff stands. Moodnff is a 
thriving seaport town, with a harhour which is said to ba miiTB 
accessible and xafer than that of Banff. The Cross of HiaiAvB 
stands in front of tho parish chnrob, on a high bank overlooU^; 
lie town and harbour. It bears this inBcription : — "MaodnS 
Cross, rebuilt at Macduff by tbe Eail of Fife in 17S3, when tl»t 
pLwe was constituted a royal burgh by George III. H&y it 
BouriBh and long increase in namhers and opulence I " The eout 
scenery here is verj lins, both east and west of Maodnff and BanC 
"" sake we here insert an account of Banff, which ia 

___TeiQhcd by a branch from the main tine at Grange Junction (p. 2G3). 
B/LHr? {Holela: the Fife Arms and Royal Cak), which isbeanti- 
fiilly situated at the mouth of t)io river Deveron, has a population 
CTsAlribr, a villig» 


BANFP 261 

of 3730, and coDtains aeveml haDdsoms public boildinga, biicL 

as Chalmaw'H Hospital, the ohnrches, and the publio Bclioola (in 

whicli is a museam oontainiDg a nuiubur of aatlj a^iccimeiiH of 

the mecliaiiioa! ganiua of FarguBon the astronomer, who was bom 

in tha neighbDurhooJ). T)ie tiiwn is built on a steep slope, and 

, oil the ah-Dulder of the bill next the sea stood the oostlu, at times a 

royal Teddenoe, and occupied for a day or two by Edward L in 

lasfl and 129S. The celebrated Archbiahop Sharpe was bom in it 

in tha year 1613. The only veatiges of this " warlick fort" now 

, remainiDg are a part of the outer wall and the fosse, tlie latter ei- 

. tending along the nnrthem and in pott along the eastern side of 

' the area ancientiy occnpied hy the caatlo buildings. A modem 

, boDBS has now luken the place of the old uistlo. At the und of 

I one of the ptinuipal streets is the entrance to Duff House, the 

I magnificent mansion of the Dulte of Fife, surrounded by estenaive 

plantationa. There are here some valnabte paiotln^, both by 

I aaoient and moilem maetacs, among n-hich are tha famous portraits 

of Oharles I. as Ptinea of Walea by Velasquez, and of Mrs. Abingdon 

by Reynolds, together with clioioe specimons uf Holhein, Rubens, 

Zuoearelli, Cuyp, etc. Tha park ia about 10 miles in cironiafersnce. 

There is a good golf links mar the town. The ruins of Inch- 

drswer Castle are about 3 miles to the south. 

SaUFF to FHiBEBBUHaa [23 milea— east). 
Tbia ia an iutoresting road, though a. very hilly one. The coast 
' ts bold and precipitous, anrl the road runa eome way inlaud, onttiug 
off the promontory of Troup Heed, with numerous eaves, one 90 ft. 
I long, and the romantically ailnated seaside villages of Qantenstown 
' ami FannaD. Faitfaei east alill are Aberdour and RoBebearty, andent 
rillagoa, and Dnndargia and Htsligo, ancient oastlea. Five milea east 
of Rosaheorty ('"«), we reach the Houtiahiug port and tuigh of 
PBAHSnBiniaH (iKipulatiou 9105), one of the most important eeats of 
tbeherring llsbitig in the north. It received ita first Royal Charter 
from Qneen Mary in 16H5, and ita history has all along been associated 
with that of the family of Frasars (Lord SalMun), whose nianaion— 
PhUorth House — la 2 miles from the town. Their older uostle on the 
top of KiuDurd Head, a rocky promontory close to the harbour, now 
bean a lighthouse. There are aeveral good bnilriinga and inns in the 
town, which oTerlooks a fine hay. There is 3 breakwater, aud a deep 
sea hjarboar of conBiderable eiteiit, one of the largei^t on this ooast. 
A soaeh runs two or three times a day between Fraserburgh aud Aber- 
dour (sea coach time-tablo, p. ii*). 

Banff to Eldim (38 miles— west) , 
Express trains between Aberdeen and Inserneaa loWufl ftoa wsa^fc 
ingtesd oftbit desciibud as main Una l,p. I&IV ^i»^ ^ 

I Elpre« 



west fcoin Banff, b; the old road, in tlie magDiHoent ruin of 
' pwUe of Bofne (an ancient " IbaaedDin "), in a romantic wcxid«d.g) 
A little way fartlier on ia the coast-Tillage of PoEiaor {inn), to whioh 
~ ~ goei round iiilaud by TiUynaugbt Junctitm. 
1 old roj-ftl bitrgh of Coi.len (12tL eentnTj}— 
of FtD'Uatsr Cnstle, llnely situated 
- " ■ ■ " " " w (E»rt 


the railway nrom BuntT goei 

Between Porlsoj e 

pop. 1 &S6, foifai— 

on the Doast neai a enrioua ea,va. Near the town ;s uuiien tiou: 

ol SeaGeld), greatly enlarged in 1861, and containing some lini 

of art and valnahle ancient cbarterB. A mile and a Lalf west of Collen 

la the pictaresqne fishing station of Portkaockie, and the thini station 
I An ia the large fishing Tillage of Bdckif. (pop. 8549, luite!), with ii 
I handsome Boinan Catholic Ohoroli and a. very good harbonr. Prom 

Buckie there ia a branch railway direct to Keith (p. SS3). 13 mllea 
ir the "old moor." Westward (roin Buckie, tbo liue croiBea 

tiio Spey (350 ft. in one span) at Fachabera-on-Spey, a station 4 mile! 
' north of Fochabers,' and 7 miles beyond connects with the r^WMM 

faetveen Loeaiennouth and Elgin (p. 258). ^H 

Maik Line to Isv&iiKEss—Cgniiiaied. ^j^t 

Between Invzkamsat and Kbits the main line, after passing 
Piti^sple Castle and Logie Elphiustone (George Milne, Esq.), on 
the right, witli the granitB liill of Benachie (1895 ft, a capital 
yievr-point), and ruins of Hvrthill, an old stcougliold of the 
Leiths, on the left, we reach tbe village and station of Otnb, 
where there is a view of the valley of tlie Gady, famous in Scnttiflh 
song. Near Insch (2 tnn^) station is the conical hill of Dunni- 
deer, with the remains of a curioua old eaatla upon its very aumiait 
Christ's Kirk, the supposed scene of King James V.'s poem of 
Chrisl Kirk on the Orten, is a, mile to the south of the station. 
The line, in skirting the south side of Dnnnideer, passes tbe 
mansion-houses of Wardhonse and Leith Hall. The Tap o' Noth 
M)d the Buck of the Oabrach aro hoth seen before reaching Oaetlt, 
Som which a eoaoh runs south to Strathiioa (p. 218}. The reilwaj 
Qow runs along Bo^eside to Himri-Y (pop. 41S6 ; Hotels: QoTdon 
Arms; Strathbogie; for coaches to Aherobirder, etc., see time-table, 
p. i'). On the south side is Scott's Hospital for aged persons ; 
tmd a statue of the late Duke of Richmond, by Brodie of Aberdeen, 
idsome town-hall. Near the 
if Hnntly Caatle, built hy George, firBt Marquia 

> I'roni Foobabers the Spay may tie follow 
and read. The following Is an CtinorBry :- 
Botheii, VIA OmigoUacMe BrIdBo, Abarbur, A 
Giantown, to Avltraore; BSJ ; Avlemora, eld 
% riS Climy Csftlt, to l.aggan Bridge, 
^jkidge, to Loeh Spey (p. S78), the source, IB' 

u Bridge, I 



of Huntlf ■ Tlie grounds ara o)i?u to nil well-behaved [leraons, who 
will keep ctT the grass, on any day but Suuday. This eastle was, 
next to tbat of Gordon, tbe principal stronghold of tho powerful 
family of that DotD?. The luudvTtL building of Huntly Lodge waa 
long the iesideii''e of the late Duchesa at Gordoo. who founded tbe 
Gordon Schools in honour of her late husband. 

After Rothiegiaj is Grange Junction, from whioh a liriinch 
line goes to Bans' (p. 251) am! Elgin vid Moray Filth coitat tine. 
KWTH (Hot^U: Gorilotl Arms; Seafield Arms; pop. 47fi3), is an 
old town of some importance, with a fine public halL flesr the 
Btatian nay be seen tlie ruins of Castle Olipbant, now called the 
"Milton Tower." The old bridge over the lala ia worth a visit. 
The Homao CatJioIic Church of this town contaius a fine jiitiuting 
of the iDcrediility of St. Thomas, which waa preaented by Charles X. 
of France. Tbe village of Kewmill stands on the sbping ground 
north of the railway station, auil that of Fife-Keith to the Bonth. 

Eeith was originally the tarniinua of tbo Great North of Scot- 
taiid EailwBj, but tbe line was continued to Dulftawu in 1862 
and thence to Craigellachio (sue below}. 

Kkiih to Boat ok Gistrn. 
From Keith the Great Nertli of Scotland Railway eitenda along 
Strath lala, aad passes the caslflllated mansion of Dnminiiiir, and, at 
10 milea, DuycrowN vilhige (p. 248], and shortly afterivards Craigel- 
Uohie (AnW), from which the Strathspey Bailwny braatbes off. "In 
one of the loveliest districts of Scotlsud, where the peat cottages are 
darheat, juat at the weatem foot of the great mo^ of th« Grampians 
whioh Bndrcle the sources of the Spey and the Due, the main road 
whioh traverses the chain winds round the foot of a broken rock called 
Crag or Craig Bllachie. Tliere is nothing remarkable in either its 
height or form ; It in darkened with a few scattered plne^ and lib-eh 
trees, and touched along tbe suiamft with a flush of heather ; bat it 
epnatltotes a kind of headland or leading promontory in the group of 
hills to whieh it Lelonp — a sort of initial letter of the mountains ; and 
thus stands in the minds of the inhabitants of the district — the Clan 
Grant — for a type of the country upou themselves. Their sense of 
this is beautifully indicated in the war-cry of the clan, 'Btand fast, 
Crm%allaohiB I " " (Rnskin's Km Paths). The Bpey is the second river 
in Scotland for volume, and nnsnrpasaed for beanty. The whole 
neighbourhood is ejcellant for fishing. Proceeding up the valley of 
the Spej, we see '.right) Ea-iter Elcbies, about 176 years old. and (left) 
Aberlour House. Farther on, on tbe same side of the jiver, is Wester 
Elchies, a veritable castle. Near Cbarlestown ia a splendid cataract 
of water ra a deep gorge, well worth seeing. The House of Laggan 
(Ht Hon. Sir Purd Korth) is a prominent obitei Hi:*! Cwrrm. 
The BridjTB of Carrtm ia amongst the moat pVtA^UKsa^ iii:«D«in- 


rhen tlis railwKy orcfiSea tile rtvnr, and we tee tile oniiauB pliiJii 
Cfjled thfl Mnk of Cnrron. backed b; Canoa BilL Alter lilsck's 
Boat the Avon joins tha Spay, and on tiie aame side in BallindallLwh 
i&atle (Sir O. M. Granl;, Bart. ), one of tha Hnest speciniBnH of an old 
Saottiisii baroDlal imstle extant. The magnilicent gateway, with the 
ftmlly arms and motto, "ToacH not the cat liot a glove," is n^U 
worth stop]iing ia see. Not far ftom the station ara tha Tu&ia of 
Sruid temiilea. Tvo more amall statLona sod we arrive st Grant 
(we p. SS3). 

Maik Link rsoit Cbaiqeluobib to Elqin. 



After Dandaleith, just before tha Spay leaves the railway,' 
I Jmdilly House, where is to be seen one of the oiiriona "sculpi 
a" of Scotland. It ia buUt into the wall of th 
bouse, and being about 2^ feet on each side it is nearly aqnam 
BoTHBB {Hotels: Station ; SeaGeld Arms ; pop. 1S21) is situated 
on a plain several miles in length, upon which tha lofty Ben. 
Kinnea (2755 ft.), the most northerly of the Grampian cW 
loolcB down. It lies nestled in the cook of this rich and hi 
cultivated plain, which has all the appearance of having 
the bottom of a lake until the river cut a way for itself 
the roolis at Soarden. Tha Olen Oraot and Rothes diatiUeriea, 
the vicinity, am among the largest estahlishments of the kind 
the north. Near the west end, and overlooking the Tillage, stands 
part of the walls of the ancient castle of Rothes, once the seat 
of the Leslies, Earls of Kothes, sup{iosed to date from tlie ISth 
century or earlier. The keep of the caatla was aeveral stones 
high, and vaulted to the top. A number of lower buildings Ii»d 
been connected with it, and the whole enclosed hy a lofty Wall,— 
a portion of which is the only leinnaut now standiog of 
ancient castle. A little to the west rises the Cone Rode, cot 
with fir trees, and it ia well worth while to climh to tho top' 

! order to see the view. The Spay has now braupheii off t 
^d we are in the Glen of Kothes. There is notJiing 
^terest to he noted until we reach Elgin. 


mty town, of Elgin or Morayshire, situated on 1 
Loasie, 5 miles from the ahuiB of the Moray Firth, is an e 
pleasant and in teres ting provincial town. The High Street extsntl 


for about a mile from east t« west, its unironnity being broken 
near tlie centre b; the Pariah ChuroL, a fine Grecian building of 
1838. Soar the east end is Anderson's luatitution, wberB a number 
of old men and women are maintained ajid poor children educated 
from a fund left for this pncpoae by Lieutenant- General AudersoD. 
At the Bitreme west of the town is Gray's Hospital) built and 
partly maiutained from funds bequeathed by AleKander Gray 
(1751-1808). There ia a prosperous club, with a handsome elnh- 
bouse. The Museum, at the east cud of High Street, contains 
some good specimens of old red saadstoue fossils, and an interesting 
let of speciraoDs from the reptiliferoua aandatones that have made 


the neighbourhood of Elgin so famous in the scientific world. The 
collections of local antiquities and uataral history objects are also 
good. A handsome town-hall has been erected on the aocth-west 
of the town. The pretty oummnding conntry and the windings of 
the Losaie may be viewed from the auinmit of the Ladyhill, to the 
west of the town, which still shows the reraains of a very old castle, 
Mid is crowned by a lofty column erected in 1839 in memory of the 
fifHi Duke of Gordon, and surmounted by his statue. 

(Elgin Ca t jl rt t a l is situated at the lower or north-eastern extremity 
of the town. Of all the Scottish catbeilrils (Glasgow perhaps ex- 
cepted) it was the most magnificent, and without exception the 
most omatnental. Although still imposing in its mios, and of the 
greatest interest to the student of architecture, it \b nn^ortnivi.'iA^ 
mndh dilapidated. 


h- It VB8 tbandftd b; the BiBhop of Moray In 1224, during tbc reigl^H 
■of Alsnander 11. [and iiopedom of Honorina), on Iha site or a ronoBri^^^ 
existiDg churcb. Like most buitdiiies at its kind, it snfiered botli from I 


cimrcb, Lilte most buildinga at its kind, it angered botli from 
accident and violence. Whether by sccideQt or design is not known, it 
vaa burnt in 1270, a.nd new buildings were erected of such magniSoenee 
■a to be described b; s contemporary writer as the "mirror of the 
country and tbe giory of the kiDgdom." In 1398 it vaa again bomt 
by the "Wolf of Bndenocb," > natond son of Robert IL, in reveiige 
for s Beatencs or exconimuaicatian issued agaiaet bim. The rebuilding 
was in progress in 1414, and completed some time after in a style 
seldain surpssaed in that age, in the form of a Jerasalem Cross, onu- 
mented with five towers, two of which were at the west end, two at 
the east, sud one in the centre. Mr. Billinga ia of opimou that 
the present ruins are inoally those of the earlier building, and that 
what has disappeared was of the inferior masonry of later dal«. "Hib 
church remained entire until 1506, when the great steeple, which roi 
at the intersection of the nase and transepts, and rested on tlie to\ 
central pillara, fell, and bad to be rebuilt between 1507 and 163B. 
■lately edifice escaped the violence of the mob at the Beformation 
to be dilapidated in a more deliberate manner. In 1608 the Pri*^' 
Cooncil, nndertha R^ent Murray, at a moment of exigence, when tfae 
troops were ill paid, resorted to the eipedient of robbing the building 
of its leaden roof, and exchanging the metal for gold ducats. It is said, 
haweier, that the ship which coutalued the sacrilegious cargo was loot 
ga lis voynge to HDlInnd, In I64D • laud of local baroas and olerg; 
jeatroyed the paintings and the rood-screen, the last remaining tracei 
if its ancient internal decorationa. To crown all, the great cecbv 
tower and spire, which, after its fall in 1506, had been rebuilt to the 
Idght of 19S ft., fell a second time on Easter day 1711 ; andi down' 
ia a late date, the ruins wei-e used as a general rinarry by the inhabitai ' 
In 1820 they were talieo po.iAessioa of In the name of the Crown, by 
Commi^loDcrs of Woods and Forests. 

The building (generally in the Earty English style] is 
a Jerusalem cross 2S9 ft, in length. The western entrance, witlt^ 
mouldings decorated by rich dog-tooth ornament, is well worth seeing^ 
Tbe interior of the arch haa many devices, and is rather lesa attrutive. 
The two splendid western towera are almost entire. In the chmical 
note the arcade lormed by the double line of lancet windows in the 
clerestory. The e»st window ia composed of five plain lancets, an»^ 
monntod by another five similar but smaller, and these again by A< 
rose window in which only indications of the tracery remain, 
decoration of all tbese windows is rich dog-tooth. 

The chapter-houae is the moat complete part of tbe building, 
owns a "restored" window. It is called the " 'Prentice Aisle," 
ceming the rearing of which a tradition is told similar to that of the 
pillar in Rosslyn Chapel. "In its centre a beantifnl Howered and 
clustered pillar sends forth 1ta brancliea to the dilTerent angles, eai2i 
with lis pecoUnr incrustation of rich decorations." Borne interestinv 
jOld monuments are here ; also ^'agmenta of carved stones, npoD 
Y'^i"'^, reatiag upon the moon, is a witeb aatride s. broom t 





ift chsptcrr-honw and the oorth (cloister ia tbs tavatory, 

mrkihlt as bHTing been the pliu» where the late brare LieDtenant- 
Qaneral Andersan (one of Elgin's greittest banefactora) was cradled and 
nnraed by his waafc-mindad mother, Mariory Gilioan. Passing from 
HiIb to tbe choir we enter the chancel, with ita splendid double rav of 
lancet-vindovrs, nnder which etood the high altar and the tomb of the 
rounder. Adji^ing is tit. Mary's Aisle, the buiial-plaoe of the ducal 
family of Gordinn. There are eeveral tombs hero ; the centre one on 
the eact, with recumbent figure, and dating 1470, ia that of the first 
Bail at Hnstly, who defeated the Esrl of Crawford at Brechin. In a 
reoeae opposite are the tomb acd effigy of Bishop Wincheater (1437-68), 
utd npOD the aicli above it angels are represented, in red ontiine, with 
mnch of the gnee and style of the early Italian masters. A brokeD 
atone coffin is shown (without the slightest ground] ns that in which 
the body of King Duncan was first buried, after his murder by Mocbetb, 
near Spynie. The north iTan«p( was dedicated to St. Thomas k 
Becfaat, and is known as the " Dunbar Aisle," haring been the burial- 
place of that once powerful nortbem family, several of whose monn- 
meota still remain. The natu has had double aisles on both aides, 
a feature by no means common. 

The bunal-gnmnd contains numerous interesting inscriptions. On 
the north side are the tombs of Joseph and Isaac Forsyth, the first of 
whom wrote a valuable work on the antiquities, arte, and letters 
Italy i while the latter did much, by pen &nd purse towards the im< 
jiFovemeDt of the town of Elgin. On the east wall, near a stone 
platform, from the top of which the best view is obtained of the interior 
of the cathedral, there is a mauument. with an inscription by Lord 
Cockbnm, to the memory of John Shanks, b poor gloreii 
waa the first to olear away the rubbish, and to put the ru 
creditable state. 

Near the cathedral, there aie other interesting ruins connected 
with Elgin. On leiiving the cathedinl we coiue again to a small 
arosa where three Btreets branch off. That on the south li 
ehapel in which are incorporated, the ojicient walla of a Franciscan 
convent. The convent was being rebuilt by the HtJ Earl of Bute 
when his death occurred, and it is not yet completed. The c 
tiuoaijon of the High Street eaet leada to the Watergate, or Fe 
Port, a strong arch, with groove for portcullis, part of the old 
boundary wall of the CoUege, To the north-west stand the r 
of the Bishop's town Tcsideoco, which still displays its crow-stepa 
and turrets, scrolls and armorial bearings. 

On the other side of Elgin, about 6 miles south-weat, are the rnlns 
of the JftiOtJ of laiUBCatSm, which may also be agreeably approached 
tam Forres vid Rnfford, distance 12 miles. 

The prioiy is sitnaled in a sheltered valley surrounded by hills 
clad with thriving wood. 1*6 creeping ivy upon the walla, and the 
nohle copper beaches that adorn the grouutU, uncart i. ■^\TOAKf*BS^>^ J 




to tiis effect of Uib minx. The prinry wsii fonnded by Alexandra: IT. 
in 1230, dedicated to St. Aadrew. nad Dcc^ipled by CiatercUn monka. 
It has been partly in the FirBt, and partly In the Second Pointed stylei. 
The nave seems never to have been bnilt ; but tbe choir, vhidi in 
nearly B7 ft. loiiR, and in nhich are traces of moral paintings, as veU 
aa the cttspter-hoDse, with its central alustereil pillar, tliH nfectory, 
the donnitoriea, bilohen, and other apartm ants, have continued in &fair 
state of preseCTBtion. Acquired by the Marquis of Bute in 1S97, the 
priory vill novr Qaderga a complete reetorstion, at an estlmftted coat 
of £100,000. The tourist can return from Flnacariloa hy the Ronuui- 
esquo church of Birnie, a few miles east, VFhere are a aciilptnted etone, 
a oarioua baptismal font, and the "Ronnel Bell," said to have been 
bronglit from Rome by the first Bishop of Moray (1115). 


BoTHBS and the ronte to Speyside nre described at p. 2G3. 

Loss[BU(!DTH {Hold .' Ststiou ; pop. 3901), the seaport of Elgin, and 
connected vith it by a branch line 6 milea in length, is situate at Om 
month of the river Lossie, on the southern shore of the Moray Fbth. 
BBtwenn Elgin and Lossiemouth, about If mile west of the rulway, 
on the margin of Loch Spynie, about 2 miles north o£ El^n, stand tike 
stately ruins of SpgniE l^alatE, formerly a strongly fortified rasidenoe cd 
the Bishops of Moray. The massive square tower (60 ft. high), with 
bartizaned battlemeuts, and walls about 9 fL thick, is called "DavieSi 
Tower," and is Bud to have been built by Biehop Dftvid Stevut (ItS^ 
76). Hear it is Pit^veny, one of the supposed localities where £iag 
Duncan was murdered hy Macbeth. 

Lossiemouth comprises really three villages — Lossiemouth, Bnndor- 
hn^h (inns), and Stotfield [Statjitld Holel and the Marine (new) 
are at Lossiemouth). Stotfield, the more feshionable quarter, fau 
many line villas. All this neighbourhood has became a favourite 
summer and sea-bathing resort, as, owing to its situation, it lias an 
invigorating breme an the hottest summer day, while it escapee tbe 
weather of the open sea by the shelter of the BanMire ami Sutiter^and 
coasts. From the month of the Lossie to the mouth of the Spey is an 
8 miles' stretch of sand ; and the view extends across the bay to the 
Banffshire coast, and includes the villages of Buckie, Port^ordon, 
Portesaie, Findochty, and others on the shore. To the weet are tlu 
magniUcent links of StotDeld and Covesea. From Covesea UghtbooH 
(2 miles) may be seen the " Sutors of Cromarty " (21 miles), aitnaMd 
at the entrance to the landlocked Cromarty Firth : and at night tbe 
lighthouse of Tarbetnoss, at the entrance to the Dornoch Firth (20 
miles), is visible. The Morayshire coast is a well-known resort of aea- 
birds, and ths Loch of Spynie Is a favourite breeiiing-plaee. From 
Covesea westward the coast is rocky, and the romantic cliffs and cavu 
of Covesea (with the curious sculptures discnvet«d in one of the cavai 
by Lady Duuhar) are remarkable objects. Fishing on the river Loads 
ind good sea-Hshing may be hnd in the bay. Iiossiemonth 
laguiGcent golf course, said by some to be superior even to 
if ai Doraocb. 



FoiiT milu to tbanorth-wast of Elgin nre the rains of DnffusCutle, 
■n mcieDt strouKholJ of tbe banius De Moravia. There ia an intarrat- 
ing oH porcli at Dufliia Church. Theau, with Gordonatoae House 
(ouoe the seat of Sir Robert Q^i'doo, historiao o! the Bajldom of 
authetland, more recantly of "Sir Rohsi-t the Wsrloefe"), Michael 
SSA (tliG burial-place of the baronets of Altjre], tbe Tillage of Lbsji- 
bijde, and the aid white toirer of Coxtou, etc., could be all visited iD 
a ininmer day's drive. 

Besiuniug one RotTTC to FontLE.1, we pass, 5 miles west of Elgin 
b;^ rul, Alvxa station, on the summit uf a low i-angu uf liilU com- 
mnndiug a line view of the Mora? Firth and the mountaina at the 
northern Highlanda. A branch line (5j| miles] leads from Alves to 
Bnrghead {inn), a viUsge on a jioiiit of land jutting out into 
tiie sea, Tbe ruins of a rentarka'ble fort and a coiiouB well dag 
out of the solid rock are to be seen bore ; and there ace also soma 
ancient sculptured stones in the churchyard. After Kinlosa station 
we pass tbe luius of Eiuloss Abbey, founded by King David iu 
1160, and occnpied for shiub time by Edward I. in 1303. The ait« 
commanda a view of tbe Moray Firth, hilla of Boas-shire, eto. ; 
ind 2i miles north ou tbe sand}' coast ia the village of Findhom. 
To tha south are the ruins of Bargie and Blervie Caatlea. Four 
miles Irom the mouth of the Findhorn river stands tlie town of 

IBeMt: MacdoBaJd'a Rnysl Station ; The Cooitoorcial ; Mur»y Anna. Hydiii- 

which consists mostly of one long street, with many of the older 
houBee presenting their gables to the street. The most prominent 
buildings are tbe jail and eourt-house, a town -cross of the decorated 
Gothic atylfl, and the Falconer Musenm, built with money bequeathed 
by tbe celebrated Dr. Hugh Falconer and his brother, and contain- 
ing among other noteworthy objects some most interesting fosi^ilB. 
At the west end a tall granite obelisk has been erected to the 
memory of Dr. Thomson, a native of Cromarty, whose devoted 
attention to the RuBsian wounded after the battle of Alma cost his 
own life. The monument occupies a mound which ia supposed to 
have been at one time the site of tho royal castle of Forres, no 
remains of which, however, now exist, the walla standing being 
thoae of a house areoted in 1712. On Clnnj Hill, rising above the 
town on the south, ia a tower erected (1808) in honour of Nelson's 
victories. Tiicre ia a. stair to the top, from which an estcnsive and 
varied view ia obtained, including tho " Sutova o^ CToavasXTj" i\iji. 



'Hie hills of SutharJandahire. Tha now Fotrea Golf Cou 
3 miles long, stretulies from Kinloss to Fiudhoru. 

lialf a mila to the east or tbe tovm aUnds the famous Fom 
Pillar, or "Sweno's Stone." Itisnenrthe roadEicle, u little bejotl 
the old toU-bsr, where the key of the encIoBiue muy be d~ 
The pillar is abont 23 ft. high, and is very elaborately carved w 
figures on one side, and a cross with Runic knntting and fi 
below on the other. The edges also show knotting. The nvne ii 
derived from a snppoaitian made by Bobcb that it con 
victory gained here by Sweno, son of Haralil, king of Denmark, 
A.D. 1003. Other anthorities have suppoged thut it was raised to 
oomniemorate the expulsion of the Danes in 1014 ; and still lata 
authorities, thnt it may record a struggle in A.D. 600 between 
Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, and Helbrigda, Mormaer of Moray. On 
tilB south side of the road farther to the west, at the foot of the 
hedge, is the "Witches' Stone," which is said to mark the spot 
where three of the weird sisterhood were pat to death. 

The neighhourliood of Forres, and especially the river Pindhom, — 
one of the most beautiful of Scottish rivere,^ — hm been invested vdth 
much interest by the writings of Charles Bt. John, and a dell^tAtl 
eicnrsion maj be made to view this scenery by following the road whleh 
proceeds etralght southwards from the railway station. At a distanoa 
of 3 or 4 miles is Altyre (Sir W. Gordon Cnmming, Bart.), where the 
riverside drives are open free to pedestrian^ cyclists, and private cairiagsi: 
Hired conveyances are admitted by a pass to be obtained &?om the gstate 
office on applicatlnn. The excursion shovdd he eihmded to the HeroBTy, 
but those who have sutbcient lime will endeavour to go as far as Relogu 
(in ■ most lovely sitnatlon at ths jnnction of the Divie Walar with the 
Kindhora), or Pemess, Up the Divie is Dunphail Castle {Lord Thnrlow) i 
and the valley of the Findbom (Strathdeara), for even 25 miles higher 
up by Dulsie Bridge, and rreeboni (inn), is full of picturesque beaaty. 
From the far head of the glen by the Eskia stream the pedestrian may 
oross by the south of "OBch Sgoilte" mountain to Loch KiHean on 
the Foyers river and down to Whitehridge /irn (32 mileafrom Fraebuni) 
on the road above the south-west end of Loch Ness (p. *17), '•■"■- 
Streens" abovs Dulsie, and "Dalmigavie Dell" above FiBebom, 
espBcially tine parts of the river. The great " Moray Flood " " 
did great havoc in this valley. 

Between Forres and Nairn stands Brodie House, an old castelli 
mansion with modem additions, the seat of the ancient family o( 
name. In the grounds a sculptured etone monument is to be teMt. 
Near this is Uerdmoar, the traditional meeting-place of Hacbeth and 
Banqua with the weird sisters. About a mile soutliwards is the Earl 
of Moray's due mansion of Damaway Castle, which has been built in 
eoBBectJoa with a curious arched hall, commonly supposed to be ■ 
^parHoii ofQiB &un(JD(r-Iodge of Thomas Bandolph, first Earl of Hony, 


tai Rigtut of Ecotlani], bot ia reality mucb more prob&bly erected li; 
AnhDidd Doaglu, Earl of Moray, or by King Jamea IL when he wu 
bene from 1455 to 1457. In it Queen Mary held a conncil in 1S62. 
IWe is aome curious old furaitare. llie forest of Damaway liei to 
Uw tonth of the castle, along the banks of the Findhorn. On the shora 
lO the north of Forres and weat of the mouth of the Findhom are Uie 
Cnlhin Sands, where the populoue and fertile barony of Cnlbin (over 
9000 icres) vtas overwbelmiid by sand, some of the sandhills being now 
over lOO ft. high. ThsM wonderful acerrations were formed by the 
inpetiu ftlone of the western gale, but Che time and cause of the de- 
nutation has escaped the notice of particular record. 
Kemainder of Boute to Ikvernegs, vi4 Nairn, (pp. SS3>287). 

PEETH TO iBERDEEN bt GLENSHEE (about 120 miles). 
ml Dunkeld, Blairgowrie, and Braeiuar (see m&jis, pp. 20Q, £37). 
Tiiia route is one of great beaaty, and indodea one of the 
fiDost Coftch Drivea in the kingdom, starting at Dunkeld (coni^li 
BTet; Tnoming ; aee time-table, p. i*). Queen Victoria and the 
Prince Consort often took this route on their way to Balmaral. 
The railway journey to Dankeld is described at p. 1B3. From 
Dnnkeld the road leads eastward by Clunie to Blairgowrie (12 
miles), through a charming valley boautiliod by a, seriea of small 
loohi, \ii. : The Lows, Craiglash, Butterstoue, Clunie, Msrlee, and 
Bae. At Clnnie Loch may be noted the largo mound on which 
stood the Castle where Edward I. of England spent five days in 
1295 : the islet with its small castle, re-edilied (c 1500) by George 
Bromi, Bishop of Dunkeld, and later the home of the Admirable 
CrichtoD ; and, on the north shore, Forneth House. We then pass 
the mansions of Ballied, Wester Einloi:h, and Marlee, with Marlet 
.Am and the school, church, sjid manse of Kinlocb. Farther on is 
the 17th-century mansion of Ardblair ; and before entering Blair- 
govprie, Kewton Castle, built on the site of one burnt by Cromwell. 
Bl^BGOWKiE {ffoUle : Queen's ; Boyal ; pop. 3378) poasesBes 
a BpadoUB market-place, some handsome dweliing- houses and 
vilhu, and may be reaehed by rail, vii Coupar-Angus (p. 204). 
The river Erieht furnishes water-power for numerous flax-spinning 
factories, which are in active operation. The thriving vJUagoa of 
Old and New Rattray, on the east bank of the Eiioht, are separated 
from Blairgowrie by the river. Ahout a mile north ia Craighall 
(Sir Jamea Clerk- Rattray, E.C.B.}, built on a high perpendionlar 
rock, on the banks of the Erieht. It is referred to by Mr. Lockhart 
as bearing a resemblance to the "TuUyveoIan" of Waverley. Fruit- 
growing in fields is now a staple industry in the a«\g\tWu\\.iKA. 


About 2 miles from this, ou tho margin of a deap ravi] 

mius of GlasclnDE Ca-itte, whic)i belonged of old to n bnuich of tt 

Blair family. 

From Blairgowrie the road to Braemar is continaed up tl 
bank of the Ericht to Callj Bridge {inn), where it meeta the m 
through Strathardle, by Kiikmichael (inn), to Pitlochrj — 
Hera there is a pretty peep of the Ardle spanned liy a 
Croasing the Ardle, our route ascends the BlacSiwater, having a 
the east the Forest of Alyth. At Persie /nn it is joined on V 
right by a road from Alytli ; and about it mile further oi 
left, at Dalrulriao, is tbe eross road to KirkmiL-hael (see noU^ 
p, 203). At Petsie ve enter Glenbbee, a wild valley lying hetw 
Mount Blair (3441 ft.), p. 202, on the caat, and Lamh Doarg [if 
ft.) on the west. From near the Free Church, some 4i miles Hi 
of ParsiB, a road crosses by the north of Mount Blair to 
(p. 206) in Glen Isla (4 miles). The whole of this district U at 
with cnnntry seats in magnificent situations. At the head of Q: 
shae, called Tftei^iita/ (i.e. hospital or "hospice," there having b( 
a monks' establishment here in olden time), is a good /wtel (IG m' 
from Braemar), at which leave foe trout-fishing may be ha4. t 

There is a hUl path from The Spital over to Enuochdow In Strit 
ardle (see p. 263), through a little pass caUed the " Quoen's GallBli 

From the hotel the coach runs up the picturesque Qlenl 
passing the klrb and manse. Across the glen is the Boar's 1.^1 
into which Fingal threw his golden goblet to tantalise the dj 
Diarmid, whose grave is near at hand. The road climbs ova'' 
CairnwflU mountain by a very steep "zigzag," known as ''\ 
Devil's Elbow," and crosses at a height of over 2200 ft,— the gH 
mountain of Glasmeal beiog on the right. Local legenda areti 
of wild encounters in this pass between Highland reitara anil 
farmers of Gleiishee, the flocks of the latter being a tempting pnS 
the former. At the top is a cairn showing the boundary line betln 
Perth and Aberdeen shires ; and a refreshing spring known M^ 
"Queen's Well" Tho descent of Glen Clunie to BiUBMAa (p:S 
commands grand views towards the loily Cairngorm monnUI 
with their great crags and mgged heads, the guardians of the ltd 
sources of the noble river Dee, whoso main valley is entered nf 
at the Caatleton^where our coach arrives late in the aftemoop 

The route from Braemar by road to Ballater, and thene 
rail to Aberdeen is described on pp. 226-236. 

B JO IsTsinBiS (144 milea} mS Blftir-Atholl and 3t™thap«~ 

This IB the aaual route to tha nortlieru Eigliltiids, &ad the 
journey is one fall of romsutio interest ami beauty. Tlia first 
stage baa already been deseribed on pp. 193-1S8, On leaving 
Dunheld statloa the line enteta on the great domains of the Duke 
of Atholl. Passing through a short tuuuel, the view on nil aides 
becomea more exteneive and diversified. At Dalguuiu the Tuy is 
crossed by a castellated viaduct of 3B0 ft. span, andat Ballinluio 
station we reach the junction for Aberfeliiy as already described 
(p. 198). Near this, to the left, aru seen the cunHueuce of the 
rivets I^y and Tummel and the monument to the late Duke ol 
Athole;' while, looking up the wide and beautiful Strath Tay, 
may be seen the distaut ridge of Sehiehalliou (p, S74). 

Prom Baliinlulg a pleasant hill path may be taken uorth-eaat over 
the high moors south of Loch Broom, and down Olen Derby to Kirk- 
lolchad (10 miles) in Strathardle, whence tbs walk may be continued 
to the SpitJd of Glenshee (9 milaa) uid Eanochdow [see note =J, 

Prooeeding up Strath Tunimel, Moutiiieam fannhuuse stands on 
tha hangh to the rif^ht ; and farther on (29 miles from Perth) is 


[Biilali : flBber'a ; ScotlBnit's ; Cnigower ; Doggart'n IVinpiTanne ; Refd't ; 

Attaoll, atid PiLlcH^ Hydrapabhlc EstibUstainBnU.) 

Bniin the Post Offiee (WmWn'a or Fisher's hotel) coacliea start every Aij In 

or tlu other or Iliese it vriU be foiind possible to reach any of tbe various 
Beighbaurliood an llmoat say iiay in tbe neek 

Theincreasingrillageof Pitlochry (330 ft. above the sea) occupies 
IB agreeable situation on the left bank of tbe river Tumme!. About 
Hlree-qnartersof amileeastof the statioD is thoAthoU Hydropathic 
KstebliBbnient, an imposing building on a rising ground, conapicu- 
otlB from the railway In approaching Pitlochry from the south. It 
ia stuTOunded by eitensiva pleaanre-groands. Aboat Ij mile above 

I Vha Tth Duke has resumed the undent Bpelliag of Atholl. 

■ PrnwaRV to KiBamcHAEL aad Bbaiiuh.— From Ficlochry thsrs w n 
food nvd (travellal hj nwil-gig daU;) u Dir as Klrkinidiael (tun), 12 miles, 
■M UoaliD and the pleauaoc quiet Stnthirdle. The dlatauce tAnux b; 
DalnilEtan (p. ifi'i) and thu fipltal ot Olaushee to Castletnn of Sisniniir ts SI 
hiilis— vit. to the Spliul ID. and itom that to Castlebon 15. The jKdeBtilBa 

MleroudBglheliillsb)-BdirBi:tps,th to tliiiSpltaI,tjy the south of B^n Barb 
— •niMgnBn peBli<2aiO It,) fFrom Klrkiftlchael Beo-'S-i|;\(ie \nas \ib sjjiRBS.1* 
oc ai*B rat reactiBif, vidGlca Feruat?,) 

^^^ thar 





, tott 

1 Pw«i 

the liotel are thayflkge {hulel) and parisli chnrcb of Moulin, 

Balledmnnd and Balnakoilly. Mouliu Castle, of whi< 
there are remains, was onoe the property ot the Gomyns, Earls of 
AthoU and BadeDoch. It U by the village of Mouliii, that the 
Mcent of ^eii Pracky (27E7 ft.) may be most easily made io about 
two boura. This mountain, thoagh second in point of BleTatinn to 
many of its ueigbbours, bas the compensating advantages of form 
and situation, and conimanda an eiuoptionally Eue view, particu- 
larly to the far viBit It raises its pointed liead above the Posa of 
Killieci'anld.e, and is equally acceseible from a road near to the 
railway station there situated. The surface is pleasingly varied by 
rock and heather. In Gaelic orthography the name is spelt Shrcae, 
which signifies "spotted," an appEllation not uafrequentiy applied 
to hills having a loose rocky face such as Ben Vracky bas. 
lovely and remarkable view (■""•'ing "P Strath Tummol, etc) 
also be got by the ascent oF the wooded hill of CraigoUT, about 
milva north of Moulin. 

About a mile south-east of Pitlochry ia Sprntl-Dka (the BIac£? 
Bpaut, a waterfall BO ft. in height, fomisd by the Edradour Bum; 

Acapital upland walk is that IoWebm or Aukhpei.dv (ationt 10 miles) 
fi-oni the ferry over tile Tummfl at Portnatratg — close to Pitlochry — 
then up throogh the WcWds to the south-west, over the moor by a httle 
loab, and down the TuJIyponriB burn to near Graudtully in Strath Tay. 
The descent into Sixath Tay on a fine summer evening is very chaim- 
ing ; and the high road up the nortli side of the river (past DercuKiJi), 
Clnnle, and KiUiehasaie) to Weem and Aberfeldy (see pp. IBS, IBS] A 

, Tununel Loch is about 80 miles from Pitlochry, and is 
excui'sion. The famons falls are passed on the way to 
Jills ars attractive not so much from llieir height as from the ga 
picturesqneneaa of their sniroundings. On leaving Pitlochry {< ._.. 
the main road continuing in the same direction as the railway. Vrtfj 
shortly there is a fork with a sign-post Indicating Falls of Tummel to 
tlie left. This leads to the falls by an undulating road, with a very 
bad atuface, hnt if it he chosen the tourist will find himself condsmned 
to follow it all the way to the loch, a5 there is no cro.iaing before fi 
ferry there ; ho will, however, see the falia withont leaving the roai 
The other (nocth) roaii has a capital snrlace. Care mnst be taki 
ta torn sharply left down to the Bridge of Garry before euterir 

l^sa of KilliBcraakie. The view hsra ia splendirL In foot for m 

e hard to choose between the two routes. Soon after 8 

igu-post on the left shows a roogh tracic leading at 
drenitously to the falls, at a distance of 1 mile. 

ing to the road, after atiout 2 miles we cross I 

:he road sweeps round to the luft. During tli 

!S the road is sharply curved, and the inclines are ver; 



. ThJH 
ry folloTS^ 

IfirthBr on is Allean. A short distnnce above the latter (4^ miles from 
Brid^ of Garry) an esteneive imii exquisitelj 'beaiitifiil ijrospect is 
Opened up af tie nindinga of the Tummel as it iieaeB from the loch. 
ITiis in cslled tlie " Queen's View," and it is nnnecessary tor thoa« who 
merely wish a. good view ot tlie loch to proceed ferther. 

Locli Tumiuel is 2} miles long. Ita Bouthern banks rise gently from 
the water in numerous indenting capes and bays, fringed with copse, 
and thickly clad with birehwood. The ground on the north side is 
(rable. On the sonth side rises a fine screen of wild hills, anrmnnnted by 
the rugged outline of Fnrrsgon (2SS9 ft.), and to the south-west appears 
lie tamtilHiIly simple and conical form of Scbiehallion (3547 ft.) The 
triple snd blue mountain seen in the remotest distance is part of that 
ridge of which BiiBchaille Eti«e is the chief, and which separates Glencoe 
from Loch Gtive. Loch Tummel contnins some eiceltent trout of large 
•lie, also pike. Towards the eouth-west of the loch stands Fobs, a 
nat of Sir R. Menzies, Bart.; and abont 2J miles above the head of 
ttie locTi — on the north side of the river — is the mansion of Bohally. 
Th« loch U CDO ft. above the level of the sen. 

dea|) tiiasin below, 
BuDOQg rocka and under pre- 
cipices or Dverahaxlowing 
foliage of wooiia. Here am 

' For n 

1 fror 


At Loch Tummfl I«n, half-way lip the loch on the north si 
miles from Pitioohiy), and heyond it at Tiiiaiuel Bridge Inn,' ■wliep 
the road for DaJnioBrdoch atrikcd north, thi^re is good acuommodat.' 

The road ia conljniied to 

KinloDh-Baiiiio<ih(p. ilS), 

20i mflee from Pitlochry, 

■ jpiuiag that ttam gtruaa ala- 

VAbont 2 miles noith of 

Rtlocluy U Faskaliy 

Konse, moat Iieautifally 

rltnateil at tlie foot of tha 

I Aeep eaateru hank of the 

I lirei Turamel immediateiy 

metion with tlia 

I soon after paas- 

Thb Pahs ov 


^y keeping chiefly on the 
p-handBJde of the rail way 
' !, ai much will be 
sMD of thegmiideiirof this 
ramarkable piece of High- 
land glen scenery as will 
satisfy those who are neither 
able nor willing to visit it 
on foot. For nearly a mile 
the banks rise steeply on 
Ktotb giden, and the rlvtr 
a for 1 

il Bridge tu Qleiaye 

3 The FoA ia TB&cIied by itnd ftoui ntlochiy, diatance a jhUbs- 
■d mm downtiill to tlie vniaga of Aldginolg, when Is Klllluisn] 
It Is poailbla to walk down nsorei to the river by a foatpath by 
(see DoClne-board), but this is not oecesHiry. It is, bonever, well worth wbfU 
to n™ back St Ihe heart of tbe deacsBt, by s road on Che li 
I. anUps ar Garry. Fnjin hen the I'atk uT Tuinmel may be itachrf (i 



of the water, as it ruiia, at one time silent and dark, at another 
boiling aad foaming, along its cont^Bx^ted 1>ed. The maimtainoug 
bank on the right of the atream riaea like a nail from the dark 
ohaam below, and to the very snmmit is covered with wood, through- 
oat which the rich green of the oak and alder ia intermingled with 
the trembling foliage of the birch, the light grean hazel, the deli- 
cate ash, and the dark tinta of the flr. The houaa upon the left, 
embowered among birchea and evergreens, ia Eilliecrankle Cottage 
(Miss Alston Stewart). Immediately below thia the Garry falls 
through a narrow paas called the " Solditr'i Leap," — so Dsnied from 
a feat performed by a Highlander who raved his life at the battle 
of Eilliccrankie by leaping over the chaam. At the north end of 
the pasa are the picturesque bridge and village of Altgimeg, and 
the station of Eillceoranxib. A little beyond, on the right, ia 
Orrard House, the acene of the last exploit of Viscount Dundee, 
or, as he was popularly Railed, " the bloody Clavers," in July 1889. 
Thia battle between the Highland clsna under Viscount Oundee 
and the troopa of King William commanded by General Mackay of 
Sconrie, ended in the entire rout of the Lowland army, and in the 
death of Dundee, who fell in the act of oheering on his men.* The 
mansion-houses of Lade (Wm. M'luroy, E^q.) aod Strathgarry 
(H. D. Stewart, Eaq.) occupy fine poaitions on the right and left 

Tha river Tilt, which at Blair-Atholl forma a junction with the 
Qarry, is crossed a little below. The glen of this river is con- 
ddeied the finest in Scotland, and many peraons atay at Blair- 
Athoil simply for the jiurpose of exploring it (see p. 271). 

1 "The battle ragod moat hntlj in tha flsldB and gsnlen Immodiately mr- 
nmading the hDOtia at Uirard, which. From a high wooded baDk, ovarlooks the 
Dortbem outlet or the pass. A grceQ TDouad, darkened by overhaTiglDg 





udd to have been a 

ilver hottoo eniplojed by a 


ftlK. behaved him 

attBn le^nst 




g hia 

wound (which wm 

atil), Dundee 


ra he bed been prevl 

Qilj reaiding, 



Iha e 

Bhitr. The h™« 

r nimrd bu 

been of late 


lUtered ud 


d, thoogh enough of 

tha cOd boUdlng nmtSm U 


the IDS 


f tta tradition, m 

the progreaa 

of these altei 


pen -. secret paa«ige, 

wherein were 

ound two ake 




B enmbatant having been porsned th 

» were left, fo 

rgotUn, to del 

0/ HfffSfaHd Minatrelty by Mrs. D 

Ogtivy. The 


nl without fDi 

odaMon. The 




of one 

of Aytnn's apWted Uifp tfO^ Cavali 


[Sotds: Atholl Arms,! Biidge-Df-Tiltk He^lvt-4M Ft.] 
Ill aatherLng aiid Qsiuob geueraUy about aecond woek of aeptanber.) 
n the midst of wild moontain aceoerj, and is the 
ceutre o! a, >iistnct HEfording some of the beet Eport in SrotUnd. 
So far hack as tUo year 1529, James V., aecompanied by the Qntui 
Dowager and the Pope's Legate, was invited to a magnificent hunt 
1 Tlie following la a note of obaigea tor tirriagca to and fiom tliB Falls of 
Btoar or Pass at EjUiecrsnkLB. One-borae carriage, to bold 3 j>ei9onA 1>eBl(lea 
drirar. Vs. M. Tn'o-borae eaxunge, lis. Both charges include <liivor. Two 
hours alloWBd for eacli aicuraiun. A carrisgo aid pair uiay be Engaged fop tha 
day al 25s., ami H. lo tlio ilrlvtt, top lungor driTos. Posting rates foe distiullea 
over S miles :—OnB-liaise canisgo. Is. per mile: Two-bom csrTiige,ls. H.; 
Driyer. 3d. pet mile. Ponlea am bo hin ' " ' " ' ~' 

^•jt leai al liatiBs ■w\iwi wopXiiai W. Iia >w 


given in their hunour by tbe Earl of Athole, who provided minptn- 
i>m eiitertiUBmeiit fnr liia royal gueiita und th«[r rstinue whilst tbe; 
coatinQed in this wild territory. Tbe hoot lasted for tiirse dayi, 
and a tetDpomrf residence was provided for the party at the north 
ndeof Ben'j'gloe. This grand mountain ia 3670 (t high, and may 
he aacendei ciS the Fender barn (»ee also pp. 283 and 372). The 
Gairy and Tilt contribnte greatly to the beanty of the scenery if 
Blair- Atholl, and the waterrolla of the Ftnder and Bmar, in the 
Dejghboarbood, are of a very attractive description. Nearly 
oppoiite the comfortable and witll-eouduuted Athuil Arms Hotel 
is the entrance to the groanda of Blair Castle, the seat of the Duk 
of Atholl, not ahovn to visitors on any occasion.' 

Bi.aJB Castle. 
The approach to the caatla is by a long avenue of lime-trees, 
aostlj planted in 1S44, terminated at ila apper extremity hj an 
architectural archway. The caatle presecta a pictoresijne and im- 
poring appearance, its turreted style harmoniaing well with tbe 
lurrounding scenery. It has many historic memoriea, and from the 
Grst has been a building of strength, being ori^ally the worl: of 
the great family of Comjn, and ifterwarda the proprty of the 
(unily of Mnrraj. Its oliieat portioD, " Comyn's Tower," waa 
bnilt in 1269 by John of Strathbogie, who was Earl of Athole ia 
right of his wife. In 1641 it waa occupied by Montroae, in 1653 by 
Cromwell's soldiers, and in 1S89 by Dundee previous to the battle 
of Eolliecranfcie. Again, in 1746, the caatle waa h?ld by the royal 
troops, under the Date of Cumberland and commanded by General 
Sir Andrew Agnew, against tbe Highland army of Prince Charles 
Stuart. AHsr its evacuation the two upper Htorie-i were removed, 
that it should never again be sabjeeted to such a fate, and it 
remained in this condition until 1S69, when large additions and 
atterattong were made from plana by the late David Bryce, R.S.A.' 
From the entrance to the groundfl tourists are conducted by the 
1 The gronnda and gardeikfl of BUir CosUe are, honever, ahowa to vMtora 
iMj rtom » to a on pajTiontof li. for one person, 1«. «d. tbr two paniona, etc 
* nt AIHOLL FtBiLY (MHrniy) cao trees tta way luck to Ua mfga a 
David t. (1130;, and It vat al i)u« time icveatwl with tbe KhaolQte aoverelgntji 
(rf tbB lale of Ifan. Aftar aiuaerooH r&miflfatlojia t^ rarEdooj waa coaf^ired 
lijr ChuLei T. an John Uomf. l^arl of TuUibardbne, and the ducal dignity was 
•ttalned Id 1103. Id feudal tjniei the i:hie& uf this noble fnniUy eonld master 

■aaacni amoog tbo moat iplrited warriors within tJis HIgblaud line. Tbe; 
iVfl fte^untly i-t Teod with tJie Campballa, aad la tlwlr \aab ?aii^r:X^^ii. ^:u 
ntgn of C3iinsi //., natOie wsal eod of Loch Tay, a gieiADim'MiiicnAi.'ai. 


StrMUt Walk, through gresu lawns and deep thicketB, past tU^B 
Oarden, Ipng in a bollon', and fa.ncirn11y laid out with ponde snf ^^ 
islands. Abave the aid bridge of Tilt tlic patb is continued ap the ' 
rndfl of a dark narrow ravine, tbrough. which ths Tilt flowi into ■ 
deap rocky hollow, to which descsnl maj ha mada by a rude atoir- 
caae. In the old church of Blair (sitnuted a. little above the ciutla, 
and accessible by the high road from the old bridge of Tilt) aeTeral 
membeTa of the Atholl fainily are interred, and the remaina of 
Viacomit Dundee were buried here after his death at Blair Oaatle. 

Moch leaa known but far lioBr than the Fails of Tummel are the 

Falls or Bbuab, 4 miles west of Blair, and 2 miles from Struan 

atatioD. On reaching Bruar, follow the walli on the right bj the 

stream to a lodge, wliere admission is granted free. A winiling 

p»th leada, through beautiful scenery, beneath the railway bridge 

to tiie first fall. Here cross over and continue on the other side 

(» the higher fall The first fall ia beautiful, the stream being 

precipitated orer a rough perpendicular channel and through s 

F ^tural arch in the rock. The sloping banks, which were onqj 

I tare of wood, were planted with fir-trees by the fourth Duke^ 

I Atholl in compliance with Buma's "Humble Petition." 

Mj lowLj banks Q 

f ilost of the trees, however, ware blown down in the great storm^ 
1818 (which destroyed the Tay Bridge), but the banks have haw 
again planted by the preseot Duke. The upper fall attains a 
height of about 200 ft. It may be conveniently seen from the upper 
BOtnoier-house, or from the stone bridge which spans the glen at ths 
top, below which the river forces its foaming and brawling course 
amidst innamerable obstructions. The whole walk is varied and 
wild. The Bruar springs from the skirts of Ben Dearg, or the Bad 
Hoantain, so called from the red colour of the granite of which it 
Is composed (see p. 272). 

Aoapital general now of the beautiful district around Blair-Atho 

is obtained from the Hiu. or Tulloch, south-weat of the hotel. 2 

Ii.t«MUng*0! tnnirtli™ may be tskcn to atrttharaie (p. * LI ii<pM),-<1) byti 

or (IJ b; the bock of Bn ryoefcvcia Qlen Oimatg >Dd aid 



Lochs Tammel D.iid RaDnocli may be GonTenieDtly Tisitid frotn 
Blair-Atholl. ani) the Pass of EiliiacranliiB and Falls of Tummel 
may bo talien [on foot) on the way. The diBtance to where Loch 
Tnmmel ia first visible (the " Queeu'a View," p. 28S) is 10 u.ilos. 



.nkie. . . Si 
1 (Oarrj Bridge) ll 

no (middle oflnch) > 


(b) by Gleo Ti 
PDRflt Lodge 
BridgaofTarir . 
Bynook Lodge ■ 


TaHODHH Glen Tili, to BBABMiR. 
This wild Higlilsnd gltn Sorias aSavaiaita eicorsiou from Btair, and 
the drive by road through the ducal grounds (far tvhich passes may be 
obtained at the hotols) is a charuiing one. The public roid and 
pedestrian route between BUir-Atholl and Braemsr (SO milca— 10 to 
11 hours' good walking) keeps east of the Till tor the first B miles. 
It may be mentioned that the "right of way" through the glen 
»aa EnoGessfUUy established many years ago by the Scottish Bights 
of Way Society in an action at law against the former Duke of Athole. 
There is a carriage-rond of 10 miles from Either eitremity (Blair and 
Braaniar), and a bridle-iiath, iu the centTe, of 10 miles. Thus by drii- 
ing to Forest Lodge (Glen Tilt), and fiom Bynack Lodge, where the 
Deeside road commences, the walking may be reduced to 10 miles. 
This may be done by arrangement with tba hotel -keeper.' 

1 Tlnftil10i*ingnot«lBiupp]:Hill)) 
betwMn FoTestind Bynick Lodges 
ilhoIL " _ 
BjiDiuk L(u%it. 
DD the *af . The cbsjga foi 
to BcuERiir aat. Two poDJe 

with guide ta BjhacIi Lodg« Li SOs,, i 
gutde to Bra«aai b^. 




Tha vdle; of Glea Tilt bnDchea off at Bliir-Athall into the man 
tain-isngBa of BBn.y-jlo^ uui tta lofty hills that form the iiorllian(_ 
pirt of the Atholl forest. The public road strikes olT at the Bridge of 
Tilt, passing along the briuk of precipices, with the river below. For 
about a mile snil a half it is a laborious ascent, from the top of vhich 
an excellent view is obtained in the direcljon of Blalr-AthoiL including 
the SuhlehallioD and Furagon mountains. A little beyond the old 
bridge of Tilt isd Middlebridge we cross the Fender bum, which 
deacands from Ben-f-gloe through a deep ravine, making in its course 
Beveral waterfalls. The Tilt is kept on the left as far as the tfariU 
l/idfft (S miles), a little beyond vhich it is crossed by a bridge. About 
S miles farther Is Foreat Lodge, H niile }-a--l which a betintiful casoade 
dflsceods Avm the precipitous slopes on the left. The road is here 
inaccessible for carriages, and the dreary mouotony of tha route ii 
relieved only by the windings and waterfalls of the Tilt. 

At a i-aiine which opeus ou the left (auciently called "The Pot of 
Tirff ■') we reach tha river Tarf, a stream precipitateil over s ledge at 
rock. The crossing of this ford bad always in times of flood been 
attended with danger, and unfortnnaUly in some cases with fatal resnltii 
A bridge, however, was erected in 18S6 by the Scottish Righto ot 
Way Society, Edinburgh, aided by private subscriptionB. Aboat 
half a mile farther on footpaths branch ofF right and left, and strike 
up the hills on the opposite sides. These paths tourists must be caro- 
fiil to avoid, by Icer^iing tht IHt alwoj/) on Ihi right /uind. From a 
high moorish tract subseqnently Attained, na have (looking back) a good 
Tiew of Ben-y-gloe (3870 0.), the chief mounUin in the great foreat of 
Atholl. The forest is said to be more than 40 miles long, aod in one psjt 
18 broad. By traversing the waste to the north, we enter Abardeen- 
ahire (18 miles from Blatr-Atholl, and 12 from Costleton). Here we 
leavB the Tilt to the right, aud crass to the fiynsfk (or Bretiaock), 
which gives its name to the neighbouring shooting-lodge of the Eari ol 
fife i and 2 miles farther we reach tlie commencement of the Deeside 
I'oad a little before coming upon the river Dee (p. 240). At Costieton 
of Braemar there are two good AoIcZj— Invorcanld and Fife Anns. 

THaoDQH Glen Bhitar, to KJnqussii. 
This is another pedestrian route, wilder and higher t3ian the path 
to Braemar. It goes up to nearly 2700 ft. The distance is aoont 
28 miles, some of it rough walking ; and the walk should only be taken. 
in clear weather. It is about S miles shorter than the high road throu^ . 
the Pass of Dmmouchter; which is left at Calvine (4( miles from QIairh 
and for 7 miles lartber the route is by the diiving rood to Qlen Brnu 
Lodge. The path then keeps up the east side of the strasm for abon^ 
3t miles, with Ben Dearg on the right, when the glea dliides right and 
left aiiiODg the steep hills. We crosa the right-hand stream, and ttint> 
jng aliglitly to the right, climb steeply— to the left — the hill immediataly 
north, and gain a level of 2500 ft. or thereby, when tbe path keeps along' 
the heights. This ii the old Minikaio Pau from Athoil to Badenocfa,i 
OBod rtjll for droves, and formeriy by aoldian going to Ruthven Barracks 
' ~' Tb» big bill on tha right ia Leathad-an-Taobhain, by 


tlie esit ajde of nhkh Olen Feahie may tw reoelied. But our psDi takea 
UB straigiiter north until it begins to deecenii townrds Glon Tromio by the 
north aide of the Ailt Bhran, a fina raltlijig etreani, which it follows to 
its junction with thaTroniiB Water. Hera the driving-rond np toGaick 
Lodge is joined, and may be followed down the glen ; but the old road 
goes straight acrosa to Ruthven and Klnguaaie b; the lower hills on 
tbe west eiria of Glan Tromie, There ia aome vary wild romantic acanery 
in the Forest of Gaick at tho haad of Glen Tromio, the lower pari o( 
vhieb ii alao remarkably picturesque and beautiful {p. 276). 

BiSsocB Dmtsun. 

The distancB from Blair-Atholl to KinlogH-RadhOoH, by Struan, 
la 18 miles. A coach nma from Struan to Kannoch daily, and the 
route is full of interest both to the tourist and the aportsDiaii. 

The road goea up the heathery Olen Errochie. passing, aome 4J 
miles on, the shooting lodge of Auchleeks among its trees on the right, 
and Boon after joining the old road south front DaJuacardoch at right 
angles. We then turn sharp to the left acrosa the Errochie to Trina- 
foar, a mile beyond which the road to Tummel Bridge Inn and Aber- 
[eldy strikes to the left. Before long a good view of the Talley of tha 
Tummel below ixich Rannoch is obtained ; and after passing through 
a fine opening in tha hilla, with BchiehalUon's grand ridga far in front, 
we reach the woods and grounds of Dunalistair, within which there ia 
much of intorest to see, — ^the region being connected with the history 
of both King Robert the Bruce and Rob Roy Macgregor I Dunallatair 
Hnnaa, with its surrouuiiing wooded grounds, which occupy a bold 
rooky hill, forma the Dentral object of a rich and singular InndScape. 
For much of the ornamental planting it ia indebted to the famous 
Robertson of Struan, a Jacobite warrior and poal, who was thrice out- 
lawed and exiled for his adherence to the Stuart cause. The extensive 
Urch forests abound with roe deer, and the grouse moors ore among 
tlie best In Perthshire. Immediately opposite, on the south aide of 
the water, ia Croa-imount House, with a noble background conaisliug of 
Sohiehallion, richly covered with scattered woods and rocka. A new 
Iron bridge (private] baa been thrown acroaa the Tummel here, im- 
proTing the acceaa to Rannoch from Aberfeldy and the south. The road 
GontiDneB np the river, by the haae of the huge Ben A'Chualloich (292G 
ft.), pasBiug Locbgarry House, and 3 miles farther reaches Kinlodh- 
Rahboch, situated at the eaatem extremity of tioch Rannoch, IS miles 
from Struan atation, 18 from Bkir-Atholl, ]8 from Aberfeldy, and 21 
from Pitlochry. There is a tel^raph office in connection with the poat ; 
and a poat gig goes mund the loch «Tary day. The Dunaliatalr Haiti ia 
eommodious and well anpplied, and has right of fishing in the loch or 
river. There la anothar hole! across the bridge, at Kinloch, called 
the Bunrannoch, where boata may be hired for fishing. In the centre 
of the Tillage an obaliak has been ererted to Dngald BnchBaan tha 
Gaelic poot ; and attached to tha Epiacopal Church, which atands 
opposite, ia the handEome mausoleum of Genera] Sir John and Lady 
Hacdonald. There are Eatablished and Free Churches. From the 
biidfte over the Tnromel tliere is a aoe vIot ot Uwfii.-at'iMt, l3!W.'L%iO\ 


m . LooH.a^MOoii . 

UeoU Garbh {804S), Cam Mairg (3419). Id the riciaity ajM t 
nodded glapea and mansion-housiis of Inuerbadden, Dalcfaamie, a 
Lassintulloch, which bib ruaohed bj Iha Al)6rfeldy road. Tha asct _ 
of ScHiKHALLION (3S47) iHaj be innde from Tainpar farm in about 2| 

It 1) 


and i 

aald 1 

tfforiisd a refuge to King Robert tJie Bruce after the battle of Methvi 
in 1806. Its Bides are very Gteeji and ita suilaue rocky, the norlhi 
decIMty preseatiug almost a rorbiddiug frout. The bag ridf 
DOliuinates in a peak at ita weBtem end, which— as seen from eae 
wert — rises like 8 Luge pyramid above the landBcape. The 
Aatrononier- Royal (Dr. Mukelyne) conducted apuu it eiperimenl 
to the " ftttracOon " at the earth. 

Loch Rnnnooh, which is 9J mUea loDg, abounds with trout 
char. Thure are good roada on both sides, and it is smTOUodec 
mountains coTered at tbeir base with natuial biich woods. On tbV 
north side are dagaaour aud Talladhablieithe (pronounced Talavey]^ 
two ahooting-lodges belonging to Sir Robert Msniies, Bart. Schlo. 
hallion, which only assnioes its singular i»aked appeaiance vihen 
Flawed from certain directious, is seen to most advautage ^m thia 
side of the ioch, abont the neighbourhood of Cragauour. Weatward 
from Talladhflbheithe (House among the birch) the Erfcbt WatBn 
which Bows from the locb of that name, empties itself into L ' 
damioch at Cnl a'Mhuiliun (pronounced Coul Voulin], where temi 
aDce refreshments and rough lodgings may be had at the " merehant'i 
Bfaop. From here it is an interesting and romantic pedestrian 
rion (11 hours) to DaLWHINNIB, by the eati side of the river EHotii* 
and the taeat aide of the wild Loch Ericht (p. 276), passing lYinca 
Charlie's Cave below the gigantic Ben Alder. On the $oulk aide of Locli 
Bannocb (5 miles from Einloch) ia the House of Dall, a bandaome 
manaioD of modem eiectloa. West from this the base of the hills fi 
coTBiBd with natural Scotch firwood, one of the few remnanta of tha 
old Caledonian forests, called tbe "Black Wood of fiaunoEh." B]f 
aatomologists this wood ia noted for some rare species of insecta, to 
which the wood gives its name, from Dall there is a rough road (S 
miles) over to Innerwick in Glsh Lton (see p. 200), 

At the westera extremity of tlie locU' are Baonoch I«dge, and The 
Batracks, the seat of RobertBon of Struan, the chief of his clan, aud 
rapresentfltive of one of the old Celtic Maormars, or princes of Alhole. 
Duncan, one of bis predcceasors, was the friend and follower of King 
Ilobert the Bruce, in whose time the clan was called Doanoquhy, oi 
the clan of Duncan. The house was called The Barrada, from its 
having been originally buijt for a detachment of troops under Ensi^ 
Mnnro (afterwards Sir Hector Munro, Commaadcr-in -Chief in India), 
who was stationed here to keep the peace after the rebellion of 171S, 
Adjacent to the Barracks is Tighnaline (pronounced Tyiiaiin). "Swx 
this end of the looh is a small island, on which are the modemiwd 
ruins of a stronghold of some broken men of the ClanOr^or, who took 
poaaession in deSance of the proprietor, hnt were expelled in 1531. 


The West HigMsail Raitwnf has rendersd the distriut of Ransoch 
easily accexBible horn its western boidur. From BoDnocb etatton, on ' 
that raUway, thora is a good road eaatwanj by the north abore of Loob ] 
Rsnnoch to Kinloch-Rannoch, and a daily ooai:b niiia hetweon Rannocl 
station and Pitlocbrle. vH Tilmmel Brirlge, during the sbbbdd. Con 
FoyancflB from the Klnloob-Baimocb botela meet thfl train at Kanaoeh 
when BpeoiftUy ordered. 

Bines the adveut of this vteatem railway, two long and rough 
pedeatrlan routes, of 20 and 30 miles respectively, have loat something 
of the loneliness and danger that formeil their ohnriii to daring 
trarellera. One of th^ae goes from Loch Raonoch to King's Hddbb, 
Id Glencoe ; the other by Loubs Oasian and Trsig to Spean Bridge. 

HlQHLAJO) Railwat Koutb— t7D7i(int«rf. 
NoKi'H oj BLiiH-AreoLi. 

From the raagnificcut and diversified scenery to be found below 
Blair-Atboll []>. 268), the railway passes on into a, bore and iulios- 
pitable country, very thinly populated, and showing scarcely any 
trace of human habitation. We proceed westrwnrda, with the Garry 
on the left and the poiinias of Blair Castla on the right, and 2 
miles Either on ocoss the Bniar Water (p. 270}, and soon after a 
viaduct over the Garry and reach the utation of Straan (hotel), 
the entrance to Oleu Erroahie, and road to Kinloch-Rannooh. Oa 
leaving Struan station the Hue continues its coarse thiough the 
property of Oalvine, the chief featurea being the singularly rugged 
channel of the Garry, eiteuflive rook-euttings in the line of railway, 
the ahooting-lodges of Clunes and Oalnamein, and the old staga- 
hooia of Dalnacardoch on the right. In August the glow of the 
heather is very beautiful here however. 

At Dalnacardoch the road for Tunimel Bridge (p. 266) goes straight 
south. There is also a way for pedestrians north to Kingussie up the 
Edandon Water, over by Locb an-t-Seilich sorroanded by its precipices, 
and throngh the wilds of Gaick into Glen Tromie (p. 376). 

Soon tlie upper end of Loch Garry appears, on the left, — near 
the station and shooting-lodge of DALNAeplDAL. Near this the 
oounties of Perth and Invernesa unite, and the watershed of the 
Tay and Spcy is attained iu the Pass of Drumonchter, through 
which the railway passes at a height of 1*81 ft. A post on right 
hand marks the cirnct summit. The well-known mountains, called 
the "Badenoch Boar" and " A thole Sow " (3176 ft.), both to the 
left, and the lonely shooting-lodge of Dramuuchter, on the right, 
are the only striking objects up to Dalwhjnnib, where the roads 
to InvNuess, Fort-Augustua (Corryarrick Pass), and Fort-WilUAm 
meet. A camp hece of Prince CliMiMai\HtwiW*'A'^l»-' 





Dalwhinllie ffotd provides favonrablB quirtera for BuglerB, tro 
fisMiig being free to tLoBO staying at the housfl. The rivar Tn 
Howa past the houaa, and, besides Loch Ericht (the liead of wh 
\aa,y be seen from the railway], some Bmaller locha are in 
neighbourhood. Looh Ericht, which is within s mile, is IBJ la 
loD^, with ao average breadth of about half a mile. It U a n 
and desolato icene, and in 1748 Prince Charles Edward foi 
vhelter in a care at ita aoulh end, near Beoalder shooting-lod 
Ita banks rise steeply from the water'a edge, and aro oi^casioiii 
omamentad with bcoahwood. From ita western shore ria«g ■ 
brood horizontal summit of Ben Alder (3757 ft), oneofthehigb 
mountains in Scotland, and forming part of the deer forest of ti 
name. There is a rongh ronta down the west aide of the lodi 
tbe head of Loch Rannoch (p. 274) ; and from about 2 miles DOi 
of Dalwhinnie Hotel the old road and drora path connecting w 
the Corryarricfc Pass (p. 277), strikea N.W. over to Strath Um) 
and aeroae to GaryamorB in Glen Spay. Great nnmbera of sheep fr 
the north are pat on the train at Dalwhinnie for the aonth. 

The railway here enters Badenoch, an immense tract of Hi( 
land territory, from which the ancient family of Comyn, afterwal 
a bmnch of the Stuarts, and more recently the Gordona, y, 
designated. Fasaing through Glentruim, with Cmbenmore Lod 
and Ettridge Bridge in the left foreground, and Glaotroii 
in the middle distance — beautifully aurrounded by woods ■ 
goarded by precipitous monntaina— we nest reach the 3pBy, 
is crossed by a bridge 300 ft, long. Half a mile below ai 
village and station of Newtonhore — Motels (two, both tiew, < 
Imnp.^^sa see p. 418) ; thence we soon arrive at Kinobssib (flbta 
PuUar's (C.) ; Royal ; ffeight, 760 ft,), where those alight whop 
oeed to TuHoch by coach (see p. 277). Kinguosie, from it* o' 
situation and bracing air, has become a place of resort for sumi 
qoarters. A golf conrae haa been made near the town. One of 1 
beat excuraions from this place is tbe walk or drive up Glen T 
by which the precipitooa wilds of the Forest of Gaict, inolndl 
Loch an-t-8eilich (p. 276), may ba reached. The mounlnin roi 
to Blair- Athole, by the Hinikaig Pass, has been described on p. 33 
and that liom the neigbbouring village of Insb, or Eingasaia, 
Braemar, np tbe fine Glen Feahia, on p. 241. In the vicini' 
village are the ruins of a chapel and the site of a monastery dedlcAl 
to St. Columba. On the othar aide of the Spey, which is ci 
by a bridge, may be seen tbe eitensive ruina of Euthven Barrai 
1A& i^-^V 'TaBUt. i^vA>;»d. voMi are all that remain i 


Ruthven, one ot the principal reaiJouMB of tlia Coniyns. The site 
IB peculiarly Etriking, and presents a good ainmple of ■ "rath," or 
mound lataed by the eddying of the waters. It was here tliat the 
rebel onuy, after being iefeatod at Culloilen, rallied under Lord 
George Murray to tlie number of several thouaaud men ; and tbey 
here alio received the aelflah moaaaigB which bade them ratum to 
their homes and await aubmisaively the exterminating sword of 
William, Duke of CombeflaDd. 

yrolu Kingussie the lice treudd in a north- eaitctly direction to 
Ariemore (see p. 230). 

KlNQUBSu TO FOBT-WlLUAU (60 mjles). 

By COKh to TnUoeh atafaon. Wnat Highland RiHway, 

There Ls uo inu of any aort at Tullocli. For uoachcs between 

Kingussie and Tnllorh, both ways, see coach time-table, p. ii*. But 

the connection between coaches and trains, thongb attempted, la not 

always gniracteed. 

On leaving tiiiguasle we keep tor a considerabla distance along the 
north side of the line of railway and the river Spey. Wa then pasa 
throngh the village of Newtonmore (p. 276), near whicb (1 miles) ia 
Speybridge. The road skirt* the baae of " Craig Dhu" (the ■'watch- 
word." of the MacphersoBs), a niagnilicent crag, while on the left tbe 
apay meanderfl along through a rish cultivated valley. Guny CmUb, 
the hereditary reaidcuce of the Cilany Macpheraons, appears through 
the Ireea crownioK a baak oa the nor^ 

Od reBcbing the Bridge of Lsggao' (11 miles from EJngussie), from 
whicb there is a driving road south to Dalwhinnie (8 uiilea), it ii 
impossible to pass the humble parish kirk without paying a tribute to 
the geoiui ami national enthusiafim of the late lira. Qrant of Laggan, 
whose Ltttera /rma the Uountaiai and other writii^ conferred on 
Badenoeb and strathspey a claasical ci^lebrity. Crossing the bridge 
over the Spey, we come to D-nangaik 7»n, a snug retreat, and then 
pass Ihningh Strathmasbia (with its xhooting-lodge), having, on the left 
the mountainous forest of Ben Alder. We soon come in sight of the 
eastern extremity of LncB Laoqan, which hera receives the waters ot 
the Fattack. Two miles above its i!^^vj>he, near a sharp tnruing iu 
l(a BOune, it hursts over a rocky ledge, and forms a small cataract 30 
1 Maahal Wide's military roa.1 eitends froin tlie up Glen Spey and throngh 
tlia Pass of CtprryaiTick to Fcprt-AHpisCus (E3 milei nmn Dalwhinnie, ami SI 

■Imnt It IDilsi above Lag^a Bridge ; but beyond cau new only be pjUBcd on 

ot the hilli. It aaqmd. firun a great prooipitous Hollow by a series of 17 
ilga^ toatielghtoC 2^07 t\. The deaceot by tlie itarTowQlea Tua'to Port, 
"a) is mora gradual, Knd cuminaads mOBt bosutdul vlf 



ft. In belghl Loob Laggnn Hotel Is at thin end of the lake, and 
by Is the old Kirk of Lnggaji. Loch L^gan b 7 milea in le: 
and abgnt 1 broad. The road winds aloog the north bank tin 
natuiul wooda gf birch, oak, and older, and cut^ra the wild district of 
Lociiaber. About midway ia the farmhonee of Alierarder, behind 
which towers the lofty Corryarder, with its gruat cleft, " the haunt of 
eagles and of cloQdB." On the opposite shoiv alanda Aidveiikie, the 
sbootiDg-lodge of Sir John Raninden, Bart. " The lake at this point 
containi two small wooded ialuoila, oo which are same fragments of 
huildinga of remote autiqnity. One ia called the Isle of Khiga, the 
other that of Dogs ; for there, it would appear, their CalBdonian 
Majesties, who had here a hunting-seat, nsed to confine Bran ind 
Luath, and all their other followers of the chase."' Upon a well- 
ehosen elta, at the west end of the lake, stands Moy Lodge, built by 
the late Richard Ansdell, R.A., for a Highland residence. Near here 
the coach stopa at a little inn for reA^hnieuta. 

The rirer Spean quits the lake In a gentle unmfiled stream, and 
tributaiy waters traiu Lochs Oasian and Qnlbin join it a abort 
below. The road here attains a height of 880 ft, and the ridge on 
south is pierced by norrow glens, eaoh of which sends forth a tribul 
torrent. One of these, issuing from Loch Treig, joins the Speoi 
TuUoch station, where coach paaaenffera meet the trains going to Fort- 
William or to the south (see p. I.'i8"). But cyclists and pedeatriani 
may continue westward by road fkim TuUoch, first endeavouring to 
trace the lowest of the famous PamlUl Roads, faintly discernible OD 
the north aide of Glen Spean, and afterwards pausing at Aehluaol 
hamlet (8 milea) with its quaint old Catholic churchyard. Two 
farther on is Roy Bridge (hotel and station], whence one naT ai 
Qian Koy to visit what are undoubtedly the Gnest specl 
great natural terrncea called "The ParallEl Roada." 

Roy Bridge /nn (IS miles from Fort-William) is situated ut 
mouth of Glen Roy ; the Parotid Roads in which extend several 
on each side. The Roadi are three in number, tlie lower less dii 
than the others, running boriEantally, and parallel to each other 
every nook and cleft at the hills. In some places they are from 60 
TO ft in breadth, and separated bam each other by at least twice th: 
extent, bearing out the conjecture that the Spean valley was at 
remote period crossed low down by a barrier of ice and so formed 
lake, the waters of which fonnd an outlet at three distinct intervalt 
leaving ss tokens of its different levels these pamlld roads, A tnioc, 
goes up the west side of Cilen Roy, and crDsses by l!«ch Spey tc ~ ' 
Yarrick, connecting with the Corryarrick Pass to Fort-AugustOB 
note on previous page). 

Proceeding along the banks of the Spean Jhtm Bridge 
the stream at one place tears its way through a solid ledge of raA, 
the sides of the trough appearing as smooth ami regular as if they had 
been finished by a chisel. In this chasm there ia a cataract of con- 
■fderable grandenr. A road to the right leads to Oairlochy (mn) 

' Un (irant's MiiTiStanOn Mavi 


'■orl- I 

Inn. ' 



ihe Caledonian CsiuU (p. 413). Ths 
Spe^a, whkta is ben a broad rirer, is 
crossad soon afttn- b; Spean Brid^,' 
a littla bejond wliieli USpean Bridge 
Boiri, n lairga comtortsUe houee (9 
luilH from Fort-William). (Near the 
briclgB, the " Lorig I.e«ilid«cli," — tlie 
routa irooi Loch Runiioch, described 
□n p. 275, descends from the sontb- 
east,) Wb lenya tbe H[xim at the 
the B]iU!k Kail, which eitenda alobg 
tlie foot or the gigBDtic piecipicea af 
BeiiNtvis. OntherigbtUtbemoileni 
Caatle of laverlochy, the seat of Lord 
Abiuger, A littla beyond this we 
eome upon the river Lmhy, oyer whioh 
there is a eiispensloa bridge ; thera- 
aFter, eroBsing the riTer NavU, and 
passii^ Bolford Hospital and the Port, 
we BiTive at Fort-WilUaoi (seep. 408). 
Between Si^eaii Bridga and Fort-Wll- 
Hfimaseries of ijioroina lines croas the 

North of KuwriwiR 
On lottving KiagOBsio there ia a 
Gne view of the Cairngorm moun- 
tains towards the east. The lanil- 
si^pe becomes more extensive and 
in teiestiiig, aud the embaubmcnta 
of the Spey, and fine maadows of 
Belleville, appear to great advan- 
tage. Ou tbo left ia the village of 
LjTichatt (Cat's Linn) ; north of 
which stands a small monument, or 
a rising ground, to James Macpher 
Gon of Bellaville, the tranalator of 

1 Biiean Bildga ilatlCFn ia ctaa JnncClon 
ror the Inwgarry tad Fort-Auguatas 


OsaLan. Belville Hoiiafi, anciently called Raits, lias a command- 
ing position on a nicely -wooded hill on the left, not far from 4 
good spscimoQ of ai " Fict'a boose." On the right across thfl 
river is the house of Milton, close by the village of insb, whets 
there is a small inn, whence thvre is a hill road by Glen FesUs 
to Braemar (p. 211) ; and to the south are the fine openings to 
Olena Tfomie and Feahie, near the latter of which ia the prettily- 
situated cottage-looldDg hoiiae of Inveresbie. On the left is tha 
house, aud lit a Geld below the old burial-place, of tlio Lairds □ 
Dunochton. The Loch of Insb, on the right, is beat 
aboDt this point, and after passing the locb will be s 
left the ruins of a chapel covered with ivy and enclosed bj watll 
KraCRAiG, the next aUtion, is a very pleasant sun 
Near it, on the left, is Einoraig House (F. M'Bain, Esq.). with 
pavilion roof. A mountain on the right is surmounted by a oafni 
called Argyll's Stone, which marks the spot where the Earl -o 
Argyll halted with his army before the battle of Olenlivet, wha 
he encountered and was drfe^ited by the " Popish Lords," heftd 
by the Earl of Huntly, in 1594. The pretty loch and pariah ohnr 
of Alvie are ne;it passed on the left. On the right is an is ~ 
hill called the Tor of Alvie, upon which is a cairn to 
ot the Highlanders who fell at Waterloo, also a monumental plllf^ 
to the last Duke of Gordon. Tor Alvie ia situated upon the Kinian 
portion ot the Gordon estates. From the top of this mountsf 
(about an hour's walk from Aviemore atation) one oF the fliMI 
Highland views ia obtained, whether for extent or variety of scena^ 
On passing Tor Alvie, the Douno of Rothiemurohos (J. P. Grianti 
~ .) and the immense pine- forests of Rotbiemurchiisand OlenmoH 
with the Cairngorm rajige and the lower Grampians, are aeen oa A 
right ; on Che left, beyond Lynwilg Inn, ts the rugged birch-olai 

italD of Craigetlachie (the Rock of Alarm), the rendezvous iv 
former times of the clan Grant, whose slogan or war-cry waa " Stan' 
fast, Craigellaehie." At the foot of CraigeUacbie is Locbbalade" 
where there is a Gne echo. Near, and towaida the west, is 
boandary between the districts of Badeuoch aud Stratliapoy. 

At Aviemore there has been built an immense new hotel wl 
faces a range of the Cairngorm Mountains, almost unanrpastad 
extent. Some of the most prominent peaks seen are as follow* 
Cairogorm (40S4 feet), Creag na Leacainn (34i8 feet), Ben Ml 
~lhui (4296 feet). Cam Elrick (2435 feet), Braeriach (124S. H 
" Mor (2313 feet), Creag Dubh (2766 feet), Sgoran D 
\l^h% fee,*C\, C)A ■BiKo. Iritis tselV and Creag Mhigeachaidh (S 


r)'^ -^^ 


fsflt). This is a capital place as a centre, for the walks, excursions, 
and drives are practically inexhaustible. It is also much patronised 
S| Ma health resort on account of the air and quietness. The hotel 
and a few small houses constitute the whole village, and the hotel 
stands by itself on the side of the hill. It is within 3 miles of 
;Loch-an-£ilan, (-''the loch of the island") that beautiful little 
*hke with its ruined castle, one of the few remaining haunts of the 
osprey in Scotland. The road to it, winding round the wooded 
-hill Ord Bain, is itself a charming walk and a fitting introduction 
to the lovely sylvan and other beauties of the loch. The nearer 
smaller hills present picturesque combinations of rock, pine, and 
birch, and across the great forests of Rothiemurchus the giant 
shoulders of the Cairngorms may be seen. The castle on the 
island was the stronghold of ''The Wolf of Badenoch," the 
ferocious son of Robert IL The great opening in the mountains 
to the east is the famous Larig Ghru Pass to Braemar (see p. 282). 

AviEMORE TO Inverness (see plan, p. 285). 

This line forms a "short cut" from Aviemore to Inverness, 
bong less by 26 miles than the route vid Grantown and Forres. 
After leaving Aviemore the first stop is Carr Bridge (7 miles). 
This is a rapidly growing place, and is pretty, the modem stone 
houses standing about amid forests of young fir-trees. There is 
a hotel, and lodgings can easily be found. The remains of 
(General Wade's high-pitched bridge across the Dulnain (a good 
trouting river) are here still visible. From this point also, one 
may visit Loch-an-Dorb (see p. 284), 9 miles distant. Our line 
then ascends and crosses the wild and desolate Monadh lAath 
(Grey Mountain) range, taking the rugged pass of the Slochd 
Min'f whose watershed sends affluents respectively to the Spey 
and the Findhom. Into the valley of this latter river we now 
descend, and traversing a handsome viaduct, we at length reach 
Tomatin (9 miles), where is the pretty little hotel of Freebum (a 
rendering of the Gaelic Allt na FrUhe), which has the right of 
fishing salmon and trout on the Findhom for 3} miles. The air 
of this mountain valley is most exhilarating, and Freebum forms 
a good centre for any one desiring to explore the upper parts of 
Strathdeam (see p. 260). Continuing towards Inverness, we pass 
Loch Moy, with, at its upper end, Moy Hall, still, as of yore^ the 
seat of the Mackintosh chiefs. There \& «\&o ^ «\».\K5s^ ^^"^ >Sl^^ 


(bat no iun). Four mil«a move brings us id tlie station of Daviot ; 
near which is the roadside tavern of Craggie, wheuca one may 
strike west up Strathnaim direct tn Inverfarigaig and Foyers on 
Loeh Nobs (]i, 417). From Daviot the line bridges tha. river 
Nairu, with Daviot House on the rigbt hand, and soon thereafter 
we reach tho station of Culloden Moor, only half a mile distant 
from the famous battlefield. Soon after the line croBaea that fimv 
Nairn and arrives at InvemGaB. The road from Aviemore to 
iuvernesii (32 miles), follon's the railway pretty closely as far aa 
Daviot, and ie good enough for cyclists as well aa pedestrians, 
altlioiigh somewhat hilJy. 

The viaduct across the Findhorn ia ii& yards long and 140 foot 
liigh, and is constructed of steel, supported by eight granite piers. 
The viaduct bridging the Nairn valley ia a red atone sti 
yards long and 130 feet high, with 29 arches, of which that a 
the river has a span of 100 feet, being twice the length of the other 
arehes. This viaduct coat £75,000. 

The CaiRNOOHji Moontamb, b' 

lU KinguBHte a 

m there are several available startiBg- 
s through and on to these great monntaina, vit 
lash, Lynwilg, Boat of Garten, and Nethy Bridge Ixnt; to which 
list the large new Bold at Aviemore makes a welcome addition. The 
hest nay of getth^ au insight Into this sceaery, which ia all on a 
largB scale, la to cross and reoross the monnl^ range by some 
two of the three routes finm Braeniar to dpeyside (to Insh, lo Avie- 
more, and to Nethy Bridge) deacilbad on pp. 241-243 ; somewhat 
arduous undertakings. But the mountaina may be ascended and 
many splendid eiciirsionB made from Speyaide alone. Some of these 
may be mentioned, viz. — 

I. Prom Insh:—(1) Explore Olen Feshie ; (2) aaoend the pie- 
cipltoiis Braeriach (4248 ft.— the third highest, and one of the most 
romarltable, of the mountains m Scotland) from Achlean ; — also Caim- 
tonl (4241 ft.), with its wild cn^s and corriea. 

IL From Li/nvTUg .■—(!) Visit Loch-an-Eilan (see p. 280) and Glen 
Bunaoh (or Euuich) with its precipice-bound loch, and ascend Bgor-an- 
Huhh, or Braeriach. There is a path up Qlen Eunach, (2) To " Tha 
Wells of Dee " by Auldrui and the Larlg Ghru Pass, which may be 
approached either hy Coylum Bridge, east of Aviemore, or by Bottiie- 

L UaeoDoelile. (SnllA, Alerittn.) 

II Mulch D\vi 


mnrcbm W Einrnra, and the north esd of LoGh-an-Ellim ; 
Mnich Dliiii (p. 241) may be rucended &om oeu the Wells. (8> I 
Ascent of CBirugmm [tlie Blue Moantain, p. 243) from the eiat end 
of Loch Uorlich in Qlen More, {i) Wallt or dfive through Olen Mor« 
nud Strath Nethy to AbflrHelhy hy the litlla Green Loch and Ryuettiiu 
ThiB in a peculiarly henutiful and interesting e: 

,.17. From JVelAy.SH^it.— (1) ExploreStrathNethyaaditshigliec. I 
waters, "The Gamyault," from the head of which a eroasing to Lacli 
A'an (ii- 242) may be mada, (2) Aaoend Cairngorm by its long north 
riiigo dbove upper Strath Nethy — road ao far I'll Rynettin. (3) Ascend 
the peaked Bein-nit-Bynach viA Lynmaegilbert and the "Larig-an- 
Laoigh " (p. 243). (4) Walk or dri™ through Btrath Nethy and Glen 
More — (see un4er 11, above). 

Vid Gbantows anb Jobkeb. 
At Boat or Gabten Jnnotion— ftofeZ— (6 miles north of Avia- 
nore) the Great North of Scotlaod KaOway branches otf down the 
WSt ilde of Strathspey, by Ifethy Bridge, Cromdale, and Aberbnr 
(ntiBr which is Aberlonr House], to Craigelluchie Junction (S3 
mQea), and thence to Elgin or Keith (bbs p. 2E3). 


n Forth 

tlio capital of Strathspey (i 
about a raile north of the rife 
and la much frequented In f 
ont near the town, which wi 
of Grant, Bart. 

;h some 1500 inhabitants), aituiited. 
jpej. The town has a bracing uliinat« 
nmer. A golf eourao has been kid 
fouaded in 1776 by Sir James Grant 
everal branch ban^, and an Orphan 
In the Grant Arms Hutel Queen Victoria passed a night in 
1860. In ita ricinity is Castle Grant, the principal aeat of the Earl 
of SoiGeld,^ in which there are some interesting paintings, some by 
Juneson, the Scottish Vandyke. About a mile to the north is 
Lord Himtlj's Cave, so named from ita having been the place of 
ooncealment of Qeorge, Marqais of Huntly, during Montrose'a 
campaign, 1644-45. At Spey bridge, on theaonthaidEafthe Tillage^ 
1 TMa faniily orJglnBtea with Oic house of AirlU, hut inBrgcd into that ol 
Onint, of nhlch It !b tha head. James, the 4th earl, noCed as a lawyer, held 
moCfieslTelf the offlcea of aoUettor^Ooneral and Secrelaiy of SlaLe for Scotland ; 
aadltwai be vbo made a notlnn In the BDnnuTLardi (ins)to dlaaolve Che 
Union Willi Scotland, Bhlcti vaa IcM by onlj (an loUa 



three HMds meet— one leading to RothiBmurchna, by Abernoth] 
another to Abcrlour, b; the haugha of Cromdale ;* itDd a third 
Sttathdon and Strathdu, by Tomintonl (p. 234). Theas, and 
two railways, reiuler GtaQtown a capital centra fo] 
There ia also the ro^ to Strathnaim by Dathil &od Moy (p. 281] 

LeaTing Grantowti, the railway enters Braa Moray, a wild diat 
of country. Two milfis to the wast of Data station ia the desolata 
Loch-an-Dorb, with the I'uins of an extensive castle, which figured 
as a royal fortraas in the early history of Scotland. In mors recent 
timBa it was possessed by the Earls of Moray, and passed from tb^ 
hands into those of the Campbells of Cawdor. "1 have seen, 
Sir Thomas Dick-Lander in his ffigkland Bamble$, "at Cai 
Castle a roBSsive iron gate, believed to have been that of the 
of Looh-an-Dorb, which tradition says was carried off from theni 
by Sir Donald Campbell of Candor, who bore it on his back all tha 
way across the moora, till he sat it down where it is now in ose, the 
distance being not less than 12 or 15 miles." Loch-an-Dorb Lodga 
ia ntnatad on the eaat shore. The railway crosses the cha 
the Divie by means of a magnificent viaduct of seven arches, 
high ; below which are seen the manse, church, and bnrial- 
of Edenklllie. We next reach Ddhphail atation, in the ncighl 
hood of whiJh are Dunphail House (Lord Thurlow), and the 
of an old castle. Belugas, the favourite residence of the la 
Thomas Dick-Lauder, occupies a romantic site on an eminenc 
the junction of the Divie and Findhom. A district of cr 
succeeds, studded with numerous gentlemen's seats, among 
ars conspicuous Altyre {Sir Wm. G. Gordon -Cumm in g, Bart.) 
Damaway Castle (H^rl of Moray) ; and at times excellent 
obtained of the Moray Firth, the Sutors of Cromarty, and 
mountains of Sutherland. The church and village of RaBbrd, 
the old whitewashed town of Blervie, are seen to the right : 

3 TbB "HBOghB of Cromrtalo," on the opposite side nf tba Spey, ■[ 

betwem King William's troops uid the HighUnd clana, BdhereDts of 
of 8ta«t. Tha Bjghlandpra wero BUrpriaod at eirly dawn ne»I the o 


&« left is Sanqniiar House, with its besntifDl grounila and parka. 
At the town of Fore?* (k* p. 2.19) a eonnectiim ia effected with 
llie Great North of Scotland Railvav from Aherdfen, nhich joins 
the HighUnJ line at Keith (me p. 263). 

from Forres to Inverness (2G miles), and after 
5 the beautiful river Findhom, ve jiasa on the right, about 
3 milea on, the fine old Bredia Castle (Brodie of Brodie) among ita 
wooda. 2J iiiilea south is Darnaway CEistle (Earl of Moray). A 
KWe fartlier, ou the left, ia the "blasted heatli," where, near n 
dump of fir-treea, Maehath met tlie three witches ; and soon after 
Nairn by a hacdsoine stone bridge to the town of 

' : station : Qolf ^air,] 

llloldi: Imperial Golf; Uaiine; Bli 
a royal burgh, pleasantly .situated on the Moray Firth. (PopolatioD 
1487.) It contains several puhliu liuildiogs and nuinoroua bsiDdaome 
private residences. On account of its healthy poaition and adTHn- 
tages for Bca-bathing, it has became a fasliionshle ri^sort Id sommerl 
Ita climate ia salubrious and cqaable, and, according to tbe statidiot 
of the Meteorological Bociety, it ia one of the driest towns in Scot- 
land. The beach ia of great extent, and ia formed in a Gne gentla 
slope nith a smooth surface. The town also poBseases two excellent . 
snites of in-door baths, and a large swimming bath, affording R 
swimming eonrsa of 100 yarda. A golf course has recently 
been laid out. The mins of Bait Oartle, a former seat of 
a branch of the Mackintoshes, more anciently of the Eaits, are 
about 3 miles south -east of Nairn) and in tbe wooded vale 
of Strathnatrn. about 5 mites south, h Cavtdok Castle ; ' open on 
Thursdays, 3 to fi ; gronnds can be seen any day with a pass from. 
Estate factor, Nairn, The royal license for the erection of the older 
part was granted by Jamea II. in US*, and there ig a curious tradition 
that B wise man counselled tlie Thane of Oawdor to load ao ass withi 
a chest full of gold, ajid to build his castle, with the money, at th^ 
third hawtborn-tree at which the animal should stop. The sdvica 
wttB followed ; the castle was built round the tree, and in the loweali 
apartment of the tower tho stem of b. haHthorn-triio atiU. ramaini,| 
The tower, built in 1 464, bHU stands, but the test of the buildings 
are of different dates ftom 1639 to IflBB. Never having undergon» 
any modem improvement, the caatle affords a fine specimen of th<r 
true baronial mansion, appropriately approached by a narrow draw- 
bridge, and environed on all sides by trees, many of them of great) 
age. It ia in excellent pieservation, being nsed as a summer resi' 
denoe by the proprietor. The principal apartments are shown. 
Some of the rooms ate hung with old tapestry, and a fine view i* 
obtoised from the battlements. There is a legend that King 
Duncan was murdered by Macbeth in Cawdor Castle. At tha 
village of Cawdor, near the castle-gate, there is an tnn (the Cawdoq 
Anna). The garden and gronnds of Kilravock Caatle (built in lieO)» 
the seat of Miyor James Kose, in whose family the estate has Con* 
tinned uninterruptedly since 1290, are much admired. Near thif 
is the Loch of the Clans, where there are some ouriona examples o( 
erannogs or lacustrine dwellings. The tourist may return to Kaim 
1 A ba» nuis at and S.4S Hum Nairn to Cawdot. 


by rail from Gollanfield Junction. At the village of Auldearn, 
2i miles east of Nairn, Montrose achieved one of his celebrated 
victories (1645) over the Covenanters, commanded by General 
Hurry. The loss of the Covenanters was estimated at over 2000. 

Perhaps in no county in Scotland has the reclamation of waste 
land made such progress of late as in the small county of Nairn. 
There are several cases of the arable acreage of farms being doubled 
within a very short period ; and one special instance of improve- 
ment is the farm of Drumore (the property of Earl Cawdor). 

The next station west of Nairn is Gollanfield Junction, 
whence a little branch line goes (If mile) north to Campbell- 
town for Fort-George, Moray Firth. The old fort, now used as 
barracks, is capable of holding 2000 men. There is a feiTy (1 
mile) over to Fortrose in the ''Black Isle," and the old military 
road goes straight south to Grantown by Cawdor, the picturesque 
bridge of Dulsie (on the Findhorn), and Dava. Five miles west 
of Gollanfield Junction, the ruins of Castle Stuart (Earl of Moray), 
with' its graceful tvirrets, are passed on the right ; and about 2 
miles farther, on the left, is Culloden Moor (see p. 290). • In a 
few minutes after, . passing through a very pretty bit of country, 
with distant mountain views to the north-west, we enter 


[Hotels: Royal,i and Station, close to station ; Palace, and Victoria, both on 
west bank of river, near Suspension Bridge ; Caledonian ; Imperial ; 
Waverley, Union Street, and Washington, Hamilton Street, both Tem- 

The Northern Meeting, Northern Rifle Competition, and Games, are held in 
September, when there is a considerable demand for accommodation. 

/>i*tonce»— Fort- William, 62; Aberdeen, 109; Perth, 144; Edinburgh, 189 or 
213 ; Glasgow, 206^ ; London, 583 miles. Population 23,066. 

Steamers ply to Aberdeen. 

Inverness, "the capital of the Highlands," and chief town of 
the county, is situated (as the name implies) at the mouth of 
the river Ness. Although built principally upon the right bank 
of the river, it is connected with the other by four bridges — two 
for ordinary trafl&c, and two for foot-passengers. The town was 
erected into a royal burgh by a charter from William the Lion 
(116.5-1214), but the remains of antiquity are not numerous, and 
the town presents a wholly modern appearance. The railway 
station is situated in Academy Street ^ and from it diverges Union 

1 The Royal is well worth a visit on its own account, being furnished 
throughout like a luxiu-ious and refined private house. ThA vc>a.\N»%«v£i^\^ S& 
quite in keeping with the appointments, and \)\i^ qYax^^k wk; T&KAst^X^ 


rect. lu UhiireJi, Street is the Hlgli CbuwL. Tlia slight t 

irueptiblo ill tliix tnwiT wss eaiiHul by a Bbock i>f earth<)utike in 

!16. Tlie nigh Slrtel is the most ancient purt of the town, ■nit 

DBw inniiieipal buildings (cost £12,000), fommlly! 

opened liy the I>iike of Edictlurgh in 1SS2. In front stands tha' 

as a, resting-jiUoe for the women carrying water fram 
lie stone has be«ti carefallj preserved since the battle 
of Harlaw, fonght in 1411 botween Donald, Lord of the lalag,' 
and tlio Karl of Moi-, for tlio title of Earldom of Ross, tbon Taei 

Tlie Castj.e of luvemesa ia a. inodej'n building with a splen 

is situated on a couimaniling eminence. It was planned, 
by Ur. TI11111, architeut, and ia oecupied as a CDimty hall, couTt- 
hooae, anil, until recently, aa the jail. The old ca!,tlo is said tiv 
have bEcn one of tbe strongholils of Macbetli. James I. held b 
parliament within its wnlls in 1427. to which the northern chieb 
and baroiifl wore aummoned ; and three of them were executed for 
persistently maintaining an independent sovereignty. In 1662: 
Queen Mary visited Inverness in course of a tour to the north,, 
undertakeu for suppraaaiiig the iaaurrection of the Earl of Huntly. 
She was refused admission to tbe castle, the governor being in the 
interest of the Earl, but it was shortly after taken by her troops, 
and the governor banged. During the civil wars it was repeatedly 
taken and occupied by the rival forces. The Hanoverian soldiers 
in 1716 found it couveniont as barracks ; and it was eventually 
blown np by the trooi>s of Princo Cliarlea Stuart in 1746. New 
military barracks have been erected three-quarters of a mile » 
the Exeliange ; and a. new jail 600 yards to the south of flora 
Macdouald's monuuieut on Castle Hill. 

From the castle it is easy to pass by the suspension bridge t< 
the west side of the river, where is situated the Episoopal 
Cathedb*l of St. Andiirw, the work of Dr. Alexander Rosa, 
LL.D., of Inverness, who has adapted the Decorated Gothic style. 
EzteruaUy it exhibits a nave witb side aisles, transepta, and, 
apsidal chancel of equal height. The transepts, according to some 
other Scottish models, project oaly slightly beyond the aisles, and 
an octagonal chapter-hunse is situated at the north-east. 

Q used is a pink freestone, proeurod from a quarry at Conon, 
r Dingwall, the dressings being of a warm cream tint, fruin 
Ooveaea, near Elgin. 

Tiio Nortliftii Mcetiug, wliioli Will's place alwut the third weak I 
iu Septuniber, is the great ersnt of the year. Then overj' hotel is i 
omomed, aad raoma &r6 nt a ^iremiiiin. Gaiuea, contests, i 
inilitaTy displajrs fill up the days, and balU aud duiiceK the ev 
iiiga of this tim gayeat waek in tlie year. 

-nwi t' 

There is an eTcellent Acabbmt in Invemesa, inuorporated hy 
royal charter, aud cudon-td. Asaociatcd with it ia a fund of 
£15,000, left by the late Captain W. Maciutoah fnr the odncatinii 
□f bays of certain fatniliea of that name. The tonn alaa contains 
a fKe liljrary, public newaroom, several banting -ha uses, printing 
ests^lishuienta, and has three newapajHrrs. 


A mile to the weiit of InTemeaa is Craig Phadrkk, a wooded hill 550 
ft. high, where there is a vitrified fort, anpposed to have been the site 
of tiie reBidence of Bnide, King of the Picta, who was Tisited by 
Columba in the 6th century. The Cemetery is Eitnatfld ahont a mile 
to the sontb-west, nnd Inld Diit upon the singulsrly-ehaped mount called 
Tomnahnricb, or the "hill of the fnirisfl." The hill ia covered with treea 
and tombstones, ia intersected with walks and flower-beda, and com- 
manda a line view of the tow» and adjacent country and out to the sea. i 

A pleasant walk may Ub takeu uj: the bank of the Nana, oi 
ride, to the islands (alwut a mile above tbe town.\, ^\i\a\i B.Te'XtiA ""^3 
»a pleaanre-gTonnds, aud connected witli Iha mKnAwAV 


[ 'bliiJeeS' CKUBWallH I'oct, Boar Uie liBrboiir, vaa erootsd by Cronnn , 
tjt an elip«uss of £SO,OOD, but it was deinolialied st the Beatoratlou. .. 

OaSoden (or Dnaninossie) Moor, whera the ill-fated ijnuidfiini of'' 
JiunBs VII. bnzariiBd aad lost his last cast for a cFOWn (IStli April 
1746], io half a mile from OuUoden Moor station, on the Aviemore and 
Daviot line, i miles from CvUodtn statloQ on the cosst Una, uiil B 
fram Inverness by the high rosd. The luoor is ss giira and Fhdterlesa 
a waste HS veugcanco could desire for an enemy's grave. A low hill, on 
the slope of which the battle waa fought, ia crowuad by a straggling 
flr plantation, The level natnra of Ihe ground rendei-ed it peonliariy 
unBt for the movemenla of the Highland srmf against cavalry and 
artillery. The number at Highlanders slain was abont 1000 ; and 
stones benring the names of the cIhus were In 18B1 areetad at the head 
' of each trench, where they lie buried, by D. Forbes, Esq., of Calloden. 
A ntonumental coim marks the spot where part of the uouHict took 
place, Bsd a large boulder stone where the Duke of Cumberland took 

' fa position. 

_he vietoiy at Oulloden finally eitingnished the hopes of the lion 
of Stuait, bnt the cruelties eiercised by the Duke of Cumberland aT 
the battle have stamped his memory with indelible infamy, '111 
horrors have been deioribed by Smollett in hie JTeor* qf Sev&md .■- 

■■ Tet, when the n^e of battle ceaseil. 

DoTonrlng Bamei and mordering steeL ' ' 

mile to the north of Culloden Moor is the historic mansloa ^ 
Collodeu House, where Prince Charles lodged the night preceding ti 
battle, and whicli, at the time of the rebellion, belonged to the patiii ' 
^ ^n Forbes, President of the Court of Session. About the « 
distance eonth, on the opposite bank of the river Nairn, is the plain 
o( Olava, an interesting spot, covered with prehistoric remains, oon- 
riiting of stauding-stoues, circles, ami cairns. Culloden House was 
long famous for its collectlou of Jacobite relics and works of art, bi 
on the deatli of the tenth laird, Duncan Forbes, Esq., this was dispa 
by auction in July 1887, many of the relics obtaining "record" pi 

The BocTES TTortu from Inveiinebs ore described 1 
fubgequent Section of this Book {see p. 420). 

f Sa/vins described Ihe Eastsra and Cerdrul parts {(f ScoiCand touth 
Junemees, — the northern limit af many trmnsta, — ii 
to the SoiUh Olid give some aecimTU of tke Routes and Places of 
Interest in the Western pOTliotu of Scotland. Tfie Tourist wtZI 
subeequmS^ be conducted back to Jnva^ess from, the South- Wat, 
byOie CMfdanian Canal (see pp. 404-41ti). 


The port of Scotiand lying south of a Hue disnn frinn Edin- 
lilirgh to Glasgow ma; Ttmghl J be sabilmiled hj the main line of 
the Calwlonisn Rnilwuy. The district lying to the east of this haa 
been treated utnler Eiiinliurgb. For the district to the west 
p. 2S3. The Caledouinti line crosses the border by Sark. 
Gretna Green (see p, 293) the Glasgow and South -Wtetcm itirerges I 
from it.' The Csledonian then passes by varioiia Kmall stitt' 
through Ect'lofechiin,' the birtii-placo of Cavljlo, and Tiooltorbio ! 
{ffirtel; Kiog'a Arms), 

MofTAT {pr^. 2153), 
[BatrU: AaoiudaSeAinm; Buccleucli Attua. Beight, 3M It-l 
a placa of snmmer resort, situated in a fine healthy district, amid ' 
hills and streams, and famed for lis mineral water. There ia > 
large Uydropathie E^blisluneut, and eicQlleot loilgioga may bo 
ohtained in the Tillage. The Well-House, whele the sulphnrona 
mineral water is procured, is situated on the side of a beautiful 
hnn IJ mile aboTe the town, and may be reached every morning 
by omnibus. Eartfell Spa, a chalybeate spring, is 5 mxlsa north of 
the town. Moffat ia sniTonnded by hills, among which ia the Eart- 
fell group, the highest in the south of Scotland, ranging from 2000 
to 2300 ft. The principal seats in the ueighbonrhood are — fiaehills 
(HopD JohnstoDe, Esq.), Aachen Castle, and Dumerieff (Lord 
Kollo) ', and many charming rambks may be had. 

Moffat is a oonveuienl spot from whioh to visit the Gray Ma™' 
Tail and St, Mary's Loch, to which a coach runs three timee a week 
(Q^UEaday, Thursday, Sntnrday), in connection with the coaoh from 
Selkirk. (The coachen meet at head of St. Mary's Loch.) The conch 
leaves Moffat at 10,16 A.M. The load winds through the vale of tha 
Moffat Water by hills and gloiia which were the lurking-pi acea of tha 
Coveuantera. Cralgiehnm Woo<l, the subject of one of Burns's aongH, 
is {wAseil on the way, and the farm of Bodsbeek, from which Hogg's 
tale of the "Brownie of Bodsbeek," takes ita mune. Prom here there 
i» a hill roiid over to Ettrick (ii- 108). About 10 miles from Moffat 
we reach the Gray Mar^s TaU, n Dne waterfall, nearly 200 ft. high, 
which pa.^senger3 are allowed time to visit. The coach then proceedR 
>iji a slee]) wimling road for a conple of miles to the hostelry nt Blrk- ' 
Mil, about 2 miioa west of which (and connected by o rough path) if 

1 G!bs MIiItaDd Ban«a7 tralni Eo to Olasgow by Aunaii, Diunfriea, and 
NitliBdBle (p. 29B). 

' I mtles N. of BcclofcchaB rlaea BBrrHttor* HW, oa wVooV i.\b laiW; 
Dwiiui Furlii soil Citinps, A good v^ew is o^ite\D«SLfKiin W 


llie Locli Skem of "Marniion," a wild and ileaolatB tarn, with noi 
K<K>d fishiDg. Deaueiidiiig the hill on thu other hide, the iiil'itiit "" 
AfteCB short courae, niSTKes into a small lake called Loch o' the Lol 
(For rest of route to Sslkirk, by St. Mary's Loch, w« p. 108). 

Prom Moffat, the old cosch road to Eiliiibargh goes norOi np 
Annan Water, over the liills fay the Devil's Beof Tub [see Soott'8 S 
!/«millfl, chap, xi.) and Tweedsmuir, and doon the valley of the Tvr 
to Brooghton (as miles) (leinperancB inn), on the branch line to Ped 
(c« bfiovi). The great green hill of Broadlnw (ij725 ft.), east of Twee 
ninir, commands a grand view liom tlie EngUsli Border to the Ger 
Ocean ; and the Croak Irm (p. B5) is IG miles on by this road, 
railwiiy up from Brougbton to Tweedsmnir is prei^eatly Tsservid 
tlie operations at Tails, where a nno resercoir/or KdinhMtgh IE m 

Beyond Bcattouk the line asceuds the Evan Water, follow 
the course or the coB<:h road and also of an old Roman ro»d, i 
— -OTOSsing the snmniit (1000 ft.) among the steep green hill 
desoends to the valley of the Clyda, The aoureoa of the 'Fweed 
3 miles over the hills on the riglit ; and on the left flow down ft 
the Bonth the conjoined streams of the "Potrair'and the "Dm 
FarOlBr on Elvanfoot, wliiish is now connected by a light raill 
with Lead liills and Wanlockbead, where there are lead and Bil 
minea— worked for at least seven centnries, From Leadhiils 
the higheia villnge in Scotland [1325 ft.— iim), there is 
picKirMqiie bridle-path over the Enterkio Pass tlirough 1 
Lowther Hilla to above Thomhill iii Nithsdale (p. 298), a. n 
anocssaively deacribed by Daniel Defoe and Dr. John Brown (aW 
or Sab and his IHtnds). From Elvanfoot, also, there axa 
carriagB roads to Nithsdale vid the DalvecLi and Menoclc Pm 
respectively. ITie pretty villages of Craivford {golf courwi) % 
Abington are the next stations {innt) ; and 7 miles on, we 
the right Lamiugton House (l^rd Lainington). The coaieal 1 
tfl the west is Tinto (2200 ft.), wliioh ooraniandsa fineTJew. F' 
SyiuiDgtou station, near its fuot, a branch line runs east, by B 
{inn}, to Peebles (p. 94). Oarsfaii's Junction' (mn) ie soon reai 
where the lines for F.dinbnrgh (27 miles) and Glasgow (29 mil 
diverge. The former goes east over Camwath Moss to Midoal 
l\i. 81) : and the latter passes through the north of Lanarkst 
bj Carluke, Law Junction (where the direct through ronWW 
Stirling and the iiortii inlil Larbert (p. 85) branches to the ri^ 
lliroiigli MirrHRRiVKi:!, utiil so to Glasgow. For Riithorglen 
p. 333. 

1 Pmin tlaretaini the htaneh lo Lanark {for Falls ur tilj.lB, p. S3S), 





TLs sontL-westvni t-oiiiitieB uf Suatlind rorin n district hy tliutii- 
xelvea, a district rich iti iiistorical lUEOciation, and NbonmliDg in 
fine Ecenery. It is nlso fai' more acceaaibic, and, what ma; be ail 
additional attraction to many, not nearly so wnil known us the 
HigbluidB. The Glasgow and South -Western lines form (rouglliy) 
a tmngle from Glaagon' to Stranraer, thence to Uumfriea, and eo 
again to Glasgoir. OF this, part of the southern line, known as the 
Port()atriok and Wigtown, ia jointly owned by other compHtiies. 
The Glasgow and Soutli -Western trains ran also to Carlisle. By 
neans of tiiis great triangle and various small oiT-shoots the whole 
of the district is rendered accemible. 

Entering Scotland at the same point as the Catodonian, namely, 
over the water of Sark, near Gretna Green, famous for its muaway 
tnatchss, the line trends westward ami gaei to Annan (see p. 295), 
Near Kuthwell there is an ancient and iiitoiesting cross sttribnted 
lo Oiedmon, who died about 680 A.B. The haiidet of Brow, dose 
by, was the place to which Bnms went in ))is last illness, and here 
be wrate his last song, "Fairest Maid on Devon's Bank." For 
C'aerUvoTock Castle, 6 miles away, sa; )>. 2!la. The great heath 
known as Locbar Moss is next crossed, and Criffel (IStiti ft.) is 
prominent in the background soon after we reach 


[ffoAds.- BUtion (fKile princeis): CniDiusi-i^isI, Biut otlii^ii. Pup. 14,144.] 
Gift Fiirrs from itatton to any poiut in DiuiifrieK la.; Cnerlaveivjcli CMtlo 
Ts.; LiDcliiden an; Neiv Abbity Tb.; lialf-fUr" retnmlng. 

DuDifnes is a royal burjih dating from the 12th century. It is 
oidy Be]«ratod from Maxwelltown by the river, yet the two towns 
.ire muQicipally distinct, as well as being in two dilferent eountiesj 
Dumfries and Kirkcudbright. Dumfries (the town] is not nearly 
well-known enongh as a centre, in B]^te of thi' fact that the Glasgow 
nnd South- Western Railway offer 1st class return fares from Glasgow 
for week-ends, withrambined hotel aecommoiiatiOD, f'U'£l :10s. The 
Station hotel is one of the three owned by this company, and iu 
ttttin^s and aocomniodatiun is supoi'b, Tno town itself is largely 
old, witli narrow winding Rtrcets paved with cobbles or "ietts, ' 
Yet thci-e is a sufficient blending of the modom to add self-respect- 
The new Free Library, due in its origin to the liberality of Mr. 
Carnegie and Hr. and Miss M'Rie of Moat House, comes under 
this heading. There is a good cycle shop (Drysdale) near the 
Academy (nchoo!). Not for from it, in front of Greyfriars Church, 
ia a statu? of Bnnis. Tlie church is ]<artly on the site of tlie 
monastery of Greyfriars, before the nltai' of which Robert Broce 
stabbed the Bed Comyn to the heart. There is still an entry 
called Comyn's Oonrt, The long mar>(et-pl*ca has in the centre 
a ijuaiut old red-towered building with ovipila, OT\^'n»W.'^'0&B'^<i"«a 

far Tebicalar traffic, tlia old stone bricigE farther Jown, i ^ 

it IooVb, being only for foot imssangers. as is also the siBpensiw 
bridga The old bridge wis built by Devorgilla, dsiigliter of th 
lait Lord of Oillovny, snd mother oF John lialiol (aec New Abbe} 
p. 286). It had origiualty nine arches, now rednced to mx. 

S/etaraing to the murliet-piaRB we see ma,ay shojis, tlioneh n^--.— 
very large, and roUowing the High Stri'et (which eoes doKiibil 
and trends left) wv comp, lo tlia Church of St. lliehaol, whio] 
standa high, anrronnded by a crowded grayeyurd. In thB sbatW 
eut comer ia the BuniB manBolHom, where the poet himBelf i 
Imried, his wife, Jean Armour, and other members of hi* famtl}) 
HortiB lived for Che Iobc three veara of hia life in Damfnea ani 
died here. On leaving tlie chorchjard we see two bifurcatinj 
streets, and b^ taking the rigbt-hand one we come in half < 
minute to a dingy little house with s tahlet telling us tSist 1 
was the poet's residence. In Maxnelltown ia the Observatoij 
wllli a jiieco of scnlptura eepreaenting "Old Mortality." 

This slight aketcb hardly docs justice to the t^wu, which it 
very ]i1eB9aut one to stay in. Tbe roads arnund are good ill 
i.-ydiing, and the interostttig places within eaey rearli are numeroiu 
Tq moat of IhesB there are coaches on difTerfnt days, t ~ 
S.-W. Tourist Programme. Chief of these are— 

LiuoLODW ABHEr, dating from 1185 and now in rail 
Bams eompos(,-[| several of his poems, iocladrng "The Visioa a 
LiberUe," which btgios : 

When walESaver aceata die dew 
Where 11.6 gwlot mourns in her ivy 

And UD> tbe mldntEtit moon hsr 
. A tew miles to the north is Dalswinto.-i Hocsk, rendered classic^ 
as the cradle of stcarn uavigation. When Biu-ua viaited BdiaUugh; 
on the publication of a second edition of his poenn, he bei 
acquainted with Mr. Patrick Miller (at that time the jiropriBtt 
Dalswiziton, and wiio on the little lake here launched the tirst sti 
boat) ; and it was on his invitation that he entered aa teuant on th«- 
farm of Ellialand, then a portion of the Dalawinton estate. At Kill*, 
land he produced bis iamoua ]Joem of "I'am o' Sliauter," aad th* 
pathetic ode to "Mary in Heaven"; and there hla son, Colons 
William Ninol Buma, was bam. 

At a short diatance from the adjacent wooden railway bridge is 
ninnsion -house of Fb;*B3' CaRsi;, where " the Bard of i;oilB " was ... 
luilrequeiitly an honoured guext. Hera his kind and amiable frieni 
Captain Riddell dispeuswi a generous hospitality, and at bis table th« 
well-known content for "the whistle" took place in the old Scandi, 
iiavian fasbirjii. TIU a.d. 1600, If not later, a community of frUr^ 
was ia poasesalon of the lands, as the name uuplles. Within th* 
^ounilg or Friars' Carse stood a llttla sonmier-bouse called the Hnv 


tnittge. from the ovner of wliich Bunia reueive 

eckt in Bllken stnle, 

LocHMADEN (Itottla : King's Arms ; Ctowu [ 10 miles nurth-aiBl 
on the milvTRy to Ltir.kerbie ; 8 iiulu b; rosd) is a small roysl bnrgli 
(pop. 13SS), UHmeii Bfter uumerous lochs by whiah it is environed. 
Tliere iheata of water are, when fiTMWn, a great raaort of curlers.' 
The Tail va7 passes oeartl^e side of the principal loch, andsflbrda a dk- 
taat view of Bruce's Cs-itle, which catitests with Tiimherry the honoDT 
nf hsTing heen the birthplace u( ilobert the Bmce. The mins are on 
a peninsula an the farther side of the loeh. The paridh ofanrch has 
m old 1«11 which is believed to hava bean a present from tlia Pope to 
King Robert after tlieir recondliatioo. A statue of the patriot-king 
stands in front of the Town-Hall. Lochmaben was celebrated for its 
Utcid harper, and the ballad whicb alnga his fame in, aays Scott, tht 

AmJiH {Bntds : Qneenaberry Armi ; Bocli ; pop. 6805), ■ very 
Mident burgh, repeatedly burned in Border warfare, and, during the 
ndgD of Qaeen Mary, twieo raided by southern moss-troopers. It wis 
the birthplace of Edwaril Irving, founder of tha seat known by his 
Bstne. It is mostly luiilt of red sandstone. From Seatield on the 
BMst {\\ mile distant) the viadnot of tha Solway Janctinn Railway 
oTOBBes tl:e nrth to the opposite coast of Cumbeiland, a distance of 
more than a mile. It is constructed of iron pUlars girded together on 
poles driven through the sand and gravel, the bed underneath being 
tandstone. Annan Hill eommnmla a magnificent view. 

Oasblavbhocs Castlb, 8 laUee from Dummies, is really worth 
piingto see, being ureal "picture" castle and not merely a fragment 
of ruin. Brakes from ttie town mn every day in sammer, but Uieir 
MethodB are dilatory. The G. and B.-W. coscb goes on Thnrsday« 
(tea Toorist Programme], but the independence of the cycle is beat of 
all. Follow the High Street past Bt Michael's Church. After the 
Infirmary choose the miiidJe of three diverging roads. This leads 
along by the Nith as it widens to the Solway Firth. Passing Olen- 
oaple, B little Hahlug village, the rosd trenda gradually enEtwsrd, tlien 
by ■ sharp turn northward. A gate and field-path on the right lead 
to the castle. It is of red sandstone with two great rounded towers 
flanking the entranca, over which are the Maxwell arms. The blue 
hills behind, the reeds rustling in the water that laps the base, and 
the iVy climliing over the battlemonta complete a vary perfect picturf. 
r^erlaverork was linilt originally by I,lewiirob Og, am if a Britisli 

' CurllnE, B 6«inB poonllar to Scotland, is i>lH)'e(i on the Ico with large 
■tones welgliin),' about SA lbs. These are slid along the rink to the tee or 
vrlnnlu^ prdnL. The principle of the game Is similar to that of boivls. Th? 
loogtli of a rink Is K jurda. 



imet, iw IhB (ttli eautnry, but has boon re!"iilt. Oo right iiii 
it, suil Kix the gnli!en-lk-lit>ii.-rl rnniii^ts riuing olwve tliti red ri 
dsd ruin;, Tho caEtli was ruiavd in 1570, biit restoieil in 164; 
Than is Dnue of the original norlc remaining. It belonged to tl 
Maxwells, Eorla of Nitbsdale, whoro descendunt. Lord Berries, bU 
holds it. It wu besieged h; Edwurd I. in 1300, and stood a 
days' aiegB though only garrisoned by sixty men. 

In the old chnrchyBrd of Cawlaverwok a hnniblo niDnnraei 
oreotefl to Boiwrt Paterson, the " OM Mortality " of Sir Walter 8 
who was buried there in February 1801. 

In the DOigbbourhDod ia also Comlangan Caatle, the saeue '< 
Wandering Willie's Tale in RedgnmUlet. The G. and S.-W. t ^ 
mahes a detour in returning and paaue near this. 

It is possible to see Cneriaverock and New Abbey |nn the opponii 
aide of the river) in one day. Return to GlenDB]>le, hire a boat, 
if you are not stuck on a sandbank you will be louilud on wide 
marshes intersected with broad dituhes, yet witli care theae are p 
abls, «ven with h HcycU, Thenee by a atony road r^oin the n 
road near New Abbey Tillage. The Abbey itself remains aa wi alu 
perfeot shell, and is well worth seeing. It was built by DeToiglllal 
enslirine the heari of liei husband, John Baliol, hence its seeon 
title, "Sweetheart Abliey." The devoted widow, who had sncvlv* 
her loss 21 years, was buried here and the liesri^ planed on her bo^ 
ill aocordancB with her wi»h. The place is dominated by the gre 
hill of CrilTel. The mail baFk to Dumfries (7 miles) is delightfo) 
smooth. A coach mna on Tuesdays to Sweetheart Abbey, and Te* 
viA. Dalbeattm. 

of ft nillea west to Killynban tA 

and IlioNoRAl (6 miles), will 1 
■kasnut eKcursion from Dumfriea. Tcrregles, formerly tl 
residenceof the Earl of Nithsdale, gave shelter to Qneen Mary wM 
she arrived a worn and desperate woman on her fatal fllgtit I 
Eugland, anil various relics of that visit are sti!) preserVBd i 
Terregles House. The ganUnr' ore noted fbr tbeir loveliness. Ird 
gray chnrchyard contains a handsome table monument erected by b 
author of WiiTerleji to the memory of Helen Walker (the "Jew: 
Deans " of the Htart qf Midlothian), who via bnrle<l liere in 17 Bl. 

DnwFitifis to Atrshibe, n|) Nithsbalb, 
This pleasant route is taken Ly the Soutb-Westem Kailwaj, i 
well as by a good higli-i'oad. The valley as far as Sanqahar 
very beautiCul anil lioli in variegated landscape, and the lougrir 
(some GO miles) aflbrde some fab tront fishing. Some miles norl 
of DalswintoQ (p. 294), after passing on the left the pietursaqii 
" A.uWgitAv V,Xi%" which Thomas Carljle's father helped to bsifa 



irn rtiuii Clo-wMm Nail, nn antirnt BBot of tlifl Kirkpalritks, one 
of whom viae tlie associnte of Robert Biuue in tlie sianglitei of 
Comyn, and frnm whom Engeiiie, ei-Emprexs of the FrEnch, is a 
ilescendant in the maternal line. North of the village of Closebum 
(inn), is th<^ romantic cosca/le called Crichopti Linn, said to be the 
hiding-iilaoe of Balfour of Barley (see Scott's Old KortalUy). 

The next atatioD to Cloaebum ia Thomhill {HoUl: Bticclench 
and Qneenabeny Anns — 1 i milea from Dumfrioa, pop. about 1182), 
one of the neatest villages in Scotland. S miles west, and for some 
ilislance a cooapicDons feature in the landscape, stands Drumlanbio 
Casti.r, a seat of the Duke of Buccleueh and QneeBsberry. 

"This eitraordinsry pile," says a writer in the Builder, "occupied 
tan yesrg in coitgtrDctiiin, and hears the date of 16Se, It conaiata of 1 
hollow sqiiare, slioot 1*5 (t. of eiternal walls, anrmoimted with tnr- 
rcts capped and spired at its angkii, and presentiug such an array of 
windows that them fa a local proverb to the effect that they are ■■ 
numerous as the days of the year. The staircaaes enter from the Inner 
potirt. The principal gateway looWng to the north consists of a heavy 
Gothic srchway, and although there ia no portcullis, there ia a vary 
thick and quaintly- panelled door oF osk, as Well as a ponderona iron 
gate. There are no medns left of aacertaining the cost of this Hingular 
csstle. It was built by WilHam, ilia first Duke of Qneensljerry, who 
In said to have slept only one night within its walla. He had eipended 
anoh enormons sums of hia princely revenue in completing it, that ho 
packed np the bUls of cost In a parcel, on the outside nf which he 
wrote — 'May the devil pick ont the eyes of any of my deecendants 
who dare to inquire into thia ! ' " 

Dnimlanrig was the principal residence of the family of Qneeusberry, 
1iHt on the death of Charles, the thirl duke — the/amOT« duke — with- 
ont male issue, it passed, along with the Queansberry titles, to William, 
Earl of March, and upon the death of the hitter in 1810 it descended 
by entail to the Duke of Bucdench. In 174E it was much defaced by 
the Highland rebels, and a portrait of WiUiam III., by Godfrey Kneller, 
still bears the marks of their violence— the tradition being that Prince 
Charles stuck hia dagger into it aa the picture met his view on wakli^ 
from sleep In the morning. Tlie late noble proprietor, at hia majority 
in 1827, adopted Dmmlanrig as his favourite residence ; and brought 
the castle it?plf, and the beautiful grounds, into the Sne condition in 
which we now see them. In style of afohllectar« Dmmlanrig approzi- 
uiat«s to Bariot's Hospititl in Kdinburgh, the designs of both being 
Utribnteil to luigo Jones. It ia open to the public on TuesdayE and 
IMdaya. Tlie gardens are laid out with exquii-tte taste, and the park, 
taterseoted by the liver Nith, is of great aitent and beauty. 

An excursion of 8 miles may he made from Thomhill to Afimi- 
(Um rUlage (Z I'lMt), passing an ancient sculptured cross on the farm 
of Boatford ; Tynron Doon, a conical hill, presenting the beat specimen, 
ritl the eiception nf Bumawark near EccUtecHiui, it itsrtSi^^i™ii <si 



I tile <^H 


; uid MaxvreltoQ Erass nnd Houte, famed ii: 

" Bonnie Annie Laurie." MoniMTo, a prettily -sltuatfd villHge, oonM 

lonument to Reanick the martyr, a nativn of this parish. A coaoh 

s daily between Monisive and Thornhill ; bnt. the Caim FaHey 

light Bnilinayta DuiuMoa (10 milea) will soon offer nn altcraAtive 

jnl«. Craigenpntlccit, with its memorisa of Cnriyle, and baqnenUied 

W^Y hiin to Edinbur^ Univergity, lies b few miles to the west of MoiiiaiM 

2 inilea beyond ThomMll, the picturesqua CurroD WaleriB cr 

1 by (L fine viadact at CarroD Bridge Station. From thia tile fl 

r Eoach mad to Elranfoot (p. 292), 14 mileB, goas north tlirough 6 

Bteep Lowther IliJis by tbe green Dalvecn Past, long oonaidHTod m 

of the finest gleni in Scotland ; and the " Well Path " (a Roman 

toad) via Dnrisdeer (with an old cliorch), farther south than the 

DalveeB Paan, ta worth exploring. It is 2 milea shorter. A little 

I Arther north is the foot of the EnUrkin Fase over from Leadhills 

Pfp. 292). Soon the smnll royal burgh of Sanquhar is reaohad with 

j'tts httndaome church and tower, and two hoUU (pop. 1315). CloBt 

f Jq the town U the picturesque ruin of Sanquhar Castle, OTcrlook- 

ing the Nith. There are eome other ioteresting antiqnitiea in tha 

neighbonrhood, and the receasea of the surrounding hillH wen fte 

frequent retreat of the persecuted Covenauters. There is a hill-pnHi 

[19 miles) over to Carsphairn in Galloway {p. 300) ; and from 2 mita 

Ljonth of Sanqvihar the ruad for Ahington (IS miles) and Elvanfoof 

¥^ 2112) tarns N.E, np the fiaa Mmock Pass, and on by Wanloo 

'Had and Leadhilla. 

The railway follows the Nith into Ayrshire, and goes north 1^ 
fcOnmnock (p, 357), and Kilmarnaok (p. 342). 

Thia is one of the finest lines m the south of Scotland and runs 

_ hrough a district sometimes called the "Southern Highlands." 

nftfter leaving Dumfriea there are several deep cuttings. The 

mtry is attraotive and rather desolate. Dalbeattib (Maxwell 

us) (14^ milea ; pop. 34H9) is a fairly large place, though its oprai 

■ abound amid the houses, whiuh are scattered irregularly, redeem 
T'lt from being a prosaio town. There are here granite qaBrriei. 

llilee milea farther, on the right side of the line, and quite nq 
il the felebratod Moat of Urr, being tarracea round a hillock, n 
rounded liy a moat, tiio scene of ancient Galloway "CourtB"'' 
JnstiiW. On the coa^t € miles south, ia some fine scenery. 

■ JBlIea farther, after crossing the river Urr, we reach Oabtlk-Dot 
Iffetel; Doii^as Arms), rather a dull little town (^lop. 2S70)^ 

r, redeem 



Close by ia Carliiiijwtirk Ijoch, lUidiled with pictureaqus liRle 
blonds, Thnavt CasiU, an old atraiighold of tlie Dauglaeea — 2} 
miloa wast— ia pEctnreGqnolf aitULited on an island oq the river Die, 
und wM rebuilt abont the olosa of tha 14th cantury by Archibald 
Dougloa tlie Grim, a natural Bon or Earl Jamea, who tell at Otterbum. 
Abova tha gnteway is a projecting block of granite, called tlie 
"hanginB-atona;" of which William tba eighth Bart of Doaglaa 
boaated tliat " the gallowa-knot of Tlireave had not wanted a tasael for 
the last Gft; jeaj^" It wiia here this aavage baron pat to death, in 
li52, Sir John Herrioa of TorTBglea and Sk Patrick Macldlan 
Sheriff of Kirkeudbriijht, with nggravated craelty and contempt of tha 
royul anthority, which lerl aooa after to hie own munler at Stirling 
Oantle, In H6S It was aeifed fii:im the Douglnsea by King Junes II. 
About ID miles weat from Caistle-Donglas is Lodimbncfc ^pa {hotel), a 
chalybeate apriufj ia repute as a cure for dyspepsia, etc The didve 
Qiere, by Iianriiiton. is Uirongh a charciiiig country ; and thenoe there 
is a good road oyer tha moora and down to Qstehonsa (8 milei^ see p. 
300). 8 miles aonth of Castle-Douglas, and reached by eoaiA flrom 
Dalbeattie twice a week, Is the pretty village and bay of Aiaktacaim 
(hm), and on the nay thereto Bengaim. (1250 ft.} miLy ba climbed. 

KraKcmjHRiaHT akd thb Coast. 

A branch line of railway of abont 10 milaa unites Castle- Donglaa 
with KrRKOUDBBlQHT [tfotei .-— tha Royal. Fopnlution— 2S86), the 
ancient capital of the county, which is aitnntad 8 miles below the con- 
fluance of the Dee with tha Tarf^ these rivers hero forming an eatnary 
oallad Kirkcuiibright Bay, where there Is a harbour. The ronle ia 
through a very pretty country, the fine rirer Dee bemg crossed twice ; 
and 00 the way we paaa, among other plaeea, Compstona House (where 
Montgomerie wrote his poem gf "The Cherry and tboSlae"), and Tong- 
tanil, where an old abbey once stood. Kirkcudbright is surrounded 
witli terraced woods and romantie walks, and is fall of historical 
associations from tha times of Agricola downwardEi, It is stated that 
it was here the Spaniiih AmioJa inCeiuted to land. It ia connected with 
the liglit aide of the Dee by a banclsome metal bridge, which cost 
£1 0,000. The modem pariah church is a conapicaoua object, contraating 
with the ivy-covered rniuB of the old caatla of the Madellans. St. Mary'a 
lala, the seat of the Eari of Selkirk, ia situated on a beautifully-wooded 
peninsula a mile and a half to the soutli of tbe town. Six miles to 
the south-east is D-undnnttan Al^bey, fonnded a.d. II42. Qneen 
Mary came hers after the defeat of her troops at Langsiilc, and it is 
supposed that ahe, under ita roof, epent the Inat night before her 
flight into England. The ramaining portion of the abbey has been 
repaired by the Commissioners of Woods and Forests. At the village ' 
UM rafreahmanta may ba obtained ; and about S^ miles soath la the 
pretty ciaaat Tillage of Bitm/ool, where eea-bathiiig may be enjoyed. 
About fl miles west alrmg tha cUlfs and mcky shore, at the entrance 'u 
Kirkcudbright Bay, is Torr'a Cave, supposed to beonaof Dirk Hatteraick' 
rtflorta, as described in Scott's Guy 3famiering. KViW, % wSi'*. ■ww*. 




Kirl:ciiilljr[)(ht (caich liail)/) is Die pretty little town' of Oaiirocisi 
i)S-FlKKT— [lop. 1013 I mul: Hun-ay Aruia— (hetwaet 
Dromora station ou tha Portpatrick line tbxre is duo a coach 6aS, 
—a. hill urivQ of 7 miles, following the river Fleet], tien the tova U 
the muialon imd graundB of CoUf House, one of the flaeat leata in tl 
county. From shove tlie town eliarroing views o! the tMckiy !»■ 
Fleet Be; and tlic Solway are obtfiinsd, and the road (14 miles) ronii 
the coast to Creetown (see p. 301) hy EaveoBhall has hem describa 
aF "perhaps the most beauHfiil shore-road iu Brltiiin." 

The village of CroBsmiohael, which comes next, is a pleMiui 
little villnge witli an old-fuahioned ohurcb. Iu the neighbourhoQ 
are several andent ''moats." The river Dog here rceemhles a loci 
but its flat sliores pravent its being piBtty. Heyoad Parton at 
{coach daily to D»liy — me p. i') the line passes west botwea 
tlie head or this lake am! the foot of Loch Ken ; and 2 miles a 
we reach llie station for 

New Gallowat (and the "Olehksns" Disthict). 

A pretty town-village and a Eoyal Burgh, though boasting only 37 
Inlmhttants, 6 miles north from.tbe station. Tlie road up the side ( 
Loah Ken is very beautiful, reminding one of some nf the Highland Ink 
scenery, tbe loch being well wooded and lying at the base of fine hQli 
On an eminence at the head of the loch, and most piotureaqnely dtnkti 
is KeHihiiTe CWffe (with an avenue of tine old lime-trees], which oi 
belonged to a branch of the Gordou family, ennobled by the titles < 
Viscount Eenmnn and Lord LocMnvor. They were staunch Jacobitol 
andhytheiractioninl7I5forfeit«dtheirtitlBSBndest»tes. ~ " 
subsequently restored, but the title has been dormant sinci 
niedintely lieyond is the pleoaaut little royal burgh of Nam GaLUIWa 
{Inns; Keuuiure Arma and Cross Keys). Within amiie, at KenBrin 
is the Spalding Arms Hotel, beautifully situated, and with fairly gi 
Hahing in the vicinity. 12 miles np tbe valley (iu which lies th 
viltage of Dalrg [good Aolel], and near it Lochinvar ^ Hutel [eiceUentJ 
with good fishing and ploassnt ranibleal, on the road to Oalmd 
liugton (p. 364}, in Ayiahlre, is the mountain hamlet of Cartp/Loin 
(inn), from which the great hill Calraamore of Caraphnira (2812 ft, 
may bs ascended and the wUd Loch Doon (p. 351) rlsiteii. Fron 
Carsphsim there is a hiil path to Sanquhar (p. 268), and a good road b 
Moniaive (p. 298), 17 miles, by the Teliow Craig. In the remol« wild 
of the Sells Mountains, S.W. of Caraphaim, eagles are occasionally seen 

Prom New Galloway to Newtou-Stewart (p. 301), IB miles, thep 
Is a good old stage-ooacb roail act^issa high moorland country, througl 
which the wild "Black Water of Dee" runa ilown from the ramot 
Loch Dee (p. 301). This district is the scene of Mr. Crockett's Aiv£er 
and several of his short stories. The road posses the "Murra; 

^ Sue Lady Qerca'a song iu " ^siiit 

<B by Borgno (inn). 


ar.EN TROOT, 301 

Mnniiiaent," ereote<l to a alicplierii lioy, born lliBro in 177S, wlio 
Iwcuna a Profesiaor or Oriental Languages at Edinlmrgb University. 

Bejonil Hew Gallowfty atation the railway passis Loth Stmaa 
,iiid then Louh Sken'ow, both hi a gi'audlj desolate duttrict of 
moorland, set as thick with broken rock aa if a giant hailutorm 
had deMoniied. Near hers OlaverhoiiBs shot four Covonantera in 
1634. Then to Dbomobb atatioa (for Gatehonse, p. 300) among 
the heath-clad liillx. The nLilway now climhs through > pass t« 
CliRETOWN {village 1 mile away at head of Wigtown Bay), a 
lileaaant, quiet little place {Barholm Arms Hotd), at which sea- 
bathing may be enjoyed. In the vicinity are several valnable 
granite iiaarries, from whioh the atone for the Liverpool and 
athec docica was obtained. Dr. Thomaa Brown, the distiuguiahed 
philcBoplier, was born in the parish tuunsu in 1773 ; and be was 
buried in the old churchyard. Creetown ia anppoaGd to be tlie - 
"Portan ferry" of uy MlTmeHwj, while Barholm, an old castto 
e milea diatant, is aaid to be Ellaugowau, a title disjiutcd by 
CaerlHverook. Thu railway now tnrna north. 

We enter Wigtownshire at NiwroN.STHWABT (pop. 259B ; Hotd: 
Galloway Arms), situated on the banks of the Cree (abounding in 
salmon). The town haa an exueptioually ohnnning aitnation, For 
long one giant group baa dominated the railway and iiovi ia seen 
supreme ; this is " Caij'nsmore of Fleet," whose rounded sununit 
of smooth granite (S3I30 ft.) towers high above ita neighbouiB. 

Tliere are two main roadu north and north-weet from N'ewtou- 
Stawart into the Carrick disti'ict in Ayrshire ; the Gr^t crossing at « 
ooniirteroble elevation near Loch Moan, out of which the Cree runs ; 
and the second, farther west, by the beantiful Loch Maberry, to Barr- 
hin (p. 304), 20 uiiles— in»i(-iMr every morning. (For rond to New 
Galloway, seep. 300.) 

A little way north of the town is the roniautioally situate<l village 
of Minnig^ff, on the east aide of the Cree, where the monntain bnm ol 
Fenliill joins it. This extensive parish contains the Sneat mountain 
scenery in the Bonth of Scotland. Some ]0 mile^ north, up the eastern 
branch of the Penkill and over the watershed, ia tbu wild and lonely 
Lvch, Det, surrounded by great mountains and granite rocks. Then 
igaiu, by going for 8 miles up the Croa to the " Bii^h Biidge," through 
■ lovely valley with a road on either side (l^e rougher oiie ou the eut 
ilde being the more picturesque], we may explore Olea TtooI, with iti 
ftnely wooded loch among the hills. (Tliero ia an inn called "The 
Honao o" the Hill" near the High Bridge.) A driving road pioceed.i 
aa far aa the Earl of Galloway's shoating lodge, well situated on thr 
north aide of the loch, Near the foot oF it six Covenanten were 
put V) death in ISSS by Colonel Douglaa. lu the glen of the Bucfaau 
Bare, beyond the Lodge, there ia a fine witeriaii \n Tl to^tft l^^t. 


ITp b; Glen Buchui tlie mouataiiieer able for a loiig: roagL mucli lu^^^B 
iDd bii war to tbe cistfly crest of MenieJc (2764 ft.), tbs \ottiam' ^V 
moimtain Koath of t1ie GrsBipinus, from which a gmnJ view is obttdned. I 
Umler its eastem EhoaJder liea the strange rocli-baain Loch Enoch, 
oaa of the sonrces of "the Bonnie Ddob " of Ayrshire (p. 3S4). 

From Newlon-Stewart there is a branch railwa}' (Wigtcnmihire) fm 
19 milea to the towns of Wigtown, Garliealown, and Whithorn. 

On a alight eminenca, overlookiug its fine bay, is Wiqtown (Hotel: 
Qttlloway Arms), the capital ofthe conntj, with a popnlation of 1 3-29. 
Many of the housBS arc fitirl; large, and the principal street is wide 
enough to admit a large bou'ling-green in ita centre. The pariah 
choi^ ia modeni. In tbe old ehurebyard tbere ia an intereettng 
laemarial of the two female martyn who were drowned, tied to staliea ikt 
low tide, in 16B5 ; aud on the height aboTo, a monument haa been 
erected to their memory. Nine niilea to the south liea the seaport of 
ffurliubnm, in the viciaily of which is Galloway Hou^e, the prmoipal 
teat of the Earl of Galloway. Htrre there is a pti-tureeqas birbonr. ' 
from which a iteamerpliFs to LiTerpool twice a moolh. At WhitBOrk, 
pop. 1188(2 mm), is tlieCathedral Chnroh of Galloway, bailt ha«d»«t 
the end of the 12tb i.<eotiiry. Little reinaiua except a rooflesa otuncel, 
occupying probably the site of the crypt of an extensire chnreh. Rwa^ 
well-proportioned apeciojcn of the Early En^jlish style, and wjtbin tbe 
last hsif-century was nied aa the parish chnrch. Tbe western doflrtray 
ti in fine preservation and worthy of a careful eiamination. Near Whtt- 
horn, op the rocky coast of Physgill, a cave ia pointed out as tbe r{4feat qL 
tbe 8cott[ah saint Ninian, who founded bia White Church in the neigb- 
bourhood at the end of tbe 4th century. About 6 miles south of 
Whithorn is the promontory of Buiroa Head, with its bold cGlh 
pierced by csvea, and a natural archway called the ** Devil's Sridgfe** 
There is an old mined fort bare ; and the distance due south to Ad 
Point of Ayre at the uorth end of the Isle of Man is only 20 miles. 
Nine miles west of Whithorn on the shore of the beautiful axpaase of 
LncB Bay. ia the little villagB of Port William {Inn : blonreith Arms, 
okkK froni Whauphill Station. 7 ndlea), and in tbe vieinity la the mas- 
aiou of Mcnreitb (the Right Hon. Sir Herbert EoatacB MaiweB, 3aa.\ 

Hetnming to the main line we proceed west, across WigtowhshirB, 
from Newton - Stewart by the vilkgs of Clkmlucb (mn), about 
1^ mile from tbe most inland point of Laoe Bay. A mile a 
half nortli-weat of the town are the ruinsofGlenlace Abbey, foui 
A.II. 1190 by Alan, Lord of Galloway. The original bnildinga 
have been extensive, but the chapter-houHe ia tbe only portfc. 
in fair preaervation. Jamea IV. fraqnently repaired to the shiiQi 
of St. Niniao's at Whithorn, and on one occasion whan 
panied by his qneeu he visited Glenluce Abbey, "where be 
donation to the gardener of four sluUinga." Tbe large garden and 
orchard, extending to 12 Scotch acres, was one of the sights of thi^ 
west of Scnthnd. Passing Caatle KnnnBdy Btnti'in wc reach ' 



HI mllDB fmiu Ayr. add TB tram DumfrlM. 
k seaport lown, situated nt tlic head or Loch Ryan, ' It is connected 
by rail trith Dumfrioa and tile aoutli on one ^e, and Ayr and the 
uortli ou the other ; and there is a daUy mail servii:e by eti^a 
Larue in Ireland. Thv town Laa rapidly iucregaed in sw>, style of 
buildings, weatlli, and population, nod contoiUB a liandsame u 
Town-Hall and Court -Ho use, and several banlia. lu the vicinity 
i) LocHTNCH, the reaidence of the Earl of Stair, a lar^ modern 
manBioti in the Scotch liiironial style of architecture, b 
vith an eitensive park nearly 4000 acres in extent, partly laid nut 
in the madom English style of lEindBoftpe-gariietiing, Tl 
CjUTLK KENHEnv, about a mile distant, on a slightly elevated 
panilisula betwiten two large locbs (called the "White and Black 
Loche"), are within the park ; and the castle was formerly the 
home of the Earla of Cassills, who fur upwards of three CEntnries 
took a loading part in Gailoway afTaira. It was accidentally 
burned in 1715, and has since remained in ita present condition. 
On an island in the Black Loch the remains of lake dwellings bare 
been discovered, while the pleasure-grounds around Castle Kennedy 
are in the ancient style of gardening, in avenues, groups of planta- 
tbo, and shrubberies, open lawns, and sloping grass terraces. The 
olimate, being unuBUnlly mild und salubrimts, admits of many of 
the rarer trees and sbmbE being planted. The pinetum, occupying ! 
tally 20 acres in extent, is one of the finest collections of coniferous , 
trees in KuiMpe. Castle Kennedy is a favourite r«sort of tourists, 
and is open to the public on Wednesdays and Saturdays, at all 
hours. Castle Kennedy station, on the Portpatrii^k railway, is 
within a mile of the old castle ond about 3 miles from Stranraur. 
Aboat the same distance to tbe south-east is Soulseat Locfa, on a 
promontory of which, in a lovely situation, stood the moat ancient 
monastery in Galloway {founded about 1150 by Fergus, Lord of 
Galloway, for mouks of the Premonstratenaiao order), hut the place 
is now occupied as the manse of the parish of Inch. 

PouTPATBiCK (Belli : Downshire Anns), about 8 miles by rail 
from Stranmer, is only Sli miles distant from the Irish coast, 
and lies at the foot of surroiincHng clills, with a delightful soath- 
' Loch Ryan Is an inlet of the ana, aj miles lung md posaeasing siteoMve 
orster-beda. On Its «ut cnmt.^i inUea uorth of Stranraer, Is tbe vltrineii most 
rBiwniiasui, Ideotlliiid ty Mr. ftkenn (CrfWfl SaUhmd, vol. 1. r. TB) will. I.lis 
Harigonium ot Ptolnn j (see also n. 168 nt this \gxK). 




F Western eipoaiire to the sen. Ita Bpleiidid harbour, on whioli 
' than 0, qnarter of a million has bean oxjiaiideii, ia fast bacomii 
tfiiin, but the town is now much frequented as a wateiing-pli 
tlie climOita being reputed the mildast in ScotUud. Duiiakey Glen 
and Castle, both in tlie ylcinity, ara worth 3eeio& and there 
some fine comt scenery in the neighbouring baya und creeks. ~ 
town owes its nnme to b. viMt from St, Patrick, who is liiud t* 
sU/iped scroas fiuiu Ireland one day I 

The M^iU of Gatloway (the extremity of the peninsula uUed 

"lUiinus of Galloway," and the most southerly point in Scotluid) 

forms an inlflreatiug day's azcoraion from Stranraer or Fortpatriek. 

The rowl Is by Simdbead and Ununmare, tbe latter of which has a 

comfortable little inn, and a cjxiclt from Stranraar. The lij;hthouse is 

I distant an hour's walk f^m Drummore. Tlie rooks of the Mull, SOO 

U to 300 ft, lligh, are almost perpBndicalar, and the view from the point 

K)b teTy exteusive, and, during a stonn, exceedingly grand. The bins 

E)u11b i^ the Isle of Man (fiO miles distant) look dose at hand. At 

^fort Logan, i miles north of Drummore and on the west eida of 

• Khiuus," there is a sea- Pish pond, where numbers of Ssh are kept 

Stbahbaeb t 



Tho Glasgow and South -Western Railway turns direct north al 

7 miles east of Stranraer, and pasi^es into Canick, the southern diviaion 
of Ayrshire, about 12 miles thereaRer. Aa the ancient history of 
Uaniok ww closely connected with that of CtaUoway, and as our present 
Koute IB tbe direot one Id Glasgow in oonnectiou with tbe mail etTviaa 
bota Belfast vii Stianraer, it may he ci 

iixiptiDn of the aouth-westera districts as far north as the t4iwn^ 

'B,^that interesting locality Itself bidng. nfterwarde desdifii 
'■^■p. 351) in eonnaotiou with the ragiona reached from Glasgow, " " 

Leaving the line for Newton-Stewart we pasa (right) tho r; 
of Glenluce Abbey (p. 302) in the vaUey of the Luoe, p 
atill on tbjB rigltt among the woods — the village of New L 
ohurch in msmorj of Pedeu the Proi>het (1660) being a BnvU jl 
covered boililing. A alone viaduot carries the line m 
at a, point Vfliere its banks offer delightful scenery, and .aboii 
miles afterwards we come alongside of the Cross Water o 
right, ^ — near which we keep until daaa to its source at Chim 
Hill, where we pass into Ayrshire at a level of near^ 700 J 
lit^roBsidg a tableland of moor, we deacend into the wooded vallM 

■ right,— near wluci 

^^^^B Hill, where we p 
^^^^^Lit^roBsitig a tablelai 
^^^Vtlie Duisk at the 
^^^^FValley below (mai 
^^^^^ in^ up this valley 
r Kirkendbrigh tahin 

1 for ihfl vOJage of BaiTliill lying ii 

3 Newton-Stawart, eee p. 301). ' 

xag up this valley, to the soutli-eaat, some of t|ie gieati 


UiUtiugau, ouil thereafter a heavj rock-cutting, we sodu para uloac 
to the pioturesqae niin of Pinwheny Cuatle (nn ancient stronghold 
of the Kennedies) and, crossing the Dnisk, reach E^nwheny station 
at its junction with the Stinchar rirer. 

Ten miles west, at the mouth of the iatter Btreoni, is the coosl 
village of Ballantrae' — hetai — (with a good haibout cut oat of the 
roolu), the oentn of the loath-weitern fisheries. 

The railway crosses the Stiuchsr near the olil- fashioned mansion 
of Daljarroch, and anay to the left may be aeen the old tower of 
Craigneil and the conical hill of Knoi^kiloliaii, known to aeunen nt 
the " False Crag." We oroaa the gorge of the Aldons and reach 
Finmore ststton, near which, on the right, is the mnnsiaa of Pin- 
more {Captain Hamilton), in a lorely well-wooded HJtnslion. 

Sa miles np the Stinchaj-, at the village nf Bar. gond tront-fishiDg 
■nay be had by puiuiiaaion front the proprietor. 

Ascending Irom the Assel we cross the watershed by a tauuel, 
and then descending towards the sea, with tine vjons at Aiisa Orsig 
in mid distance, rench the town of GmvAN {Hofel .- King's Anns. 
Pop. 402i— 21i miles from Ayr), whioh though a trading-town is 
still pleasant, and is rapidly growing. The river Girvan, which 
hu aocompiDJed the railway from the north for Borae distance, 
here flans into the sea. Girran has rieen into some favour as a 
sea-bathing resort and has a oonaidorable trade, la miles off, but 
looking almost as if one might strike it with a weU-thrown stone, is 

AiLSA Ceiaid, 
{Boats htTtd) 

a huge rocky island (composed of oolmnnsi' sexeiietic trap) rii.iug 
abruptly from the sea, and somewhat similar in features to Uie Ba^a 
BOck on the east coast It is 1100 ft. high, about 2 miles in cir- 
citmference at the base, and its nearest distance to land is about 10 
miles. The ronjtia the property of the Marquis of Ailaa, who takes 
from it his title as a British peer. "The only point at which a landing 
can he effected is on the norlh-east aide, where ia a small gravelly 
beach. But it is on the east side that the chief attraction lies. Thii 
tees of the rock, flattened and abtnpyy precipitous, is composed of a 
range of columns Tarylng lu height from 70 to 400 ft. Though lacking 
As apparent rtgularlty of the columns at Staifji, or the geometrical 
[egulanty of the Giant's Causeway, yet tram their great height they 
ha»6 an imposing graudeiir of their own. In point of colouring, too, 
these cliffs have an adiantage— ' The sobriety of their pale gray stone,' 
says Br. M'Culloch, 'not only harmonising witli the subdued tints of 
grsea and with the colours of the sea and sliy, but setting off to ad- 
nstage all the IntricacieB of the colomnai Etmcttne.' I&i^'iivta&ea t>\ 
iJtl»»»pi<a'™Mtdrlre—IJmIloe— by tliB coach ttom air5».n^»'ft*^i»n- 





ntbbiU nod a lew gOHts toatcive to pick u 
on the somniit of which aia sajd to he tnc _ 
A-t the height of aboat 250 ft. are the remains ol an old eutle o: 
wnlch-tower. The house oa the beach is the nbode of s tscksQian, 
wbci lives ou the ishmd througbuut the summer, fowling and Rshing, 
or making curling-atones. Mjriada of sea-fowl annually build their 
nests on the elilFii. tiaiinets or solmi geese are the iiiost abundant, 
Imt there are also kitttwakes, herring gulls, razor-bills, gnillnnDts, 
[inffinB, rotclies, cormorants, and oecaaiDnallj the little ant. These 
birds fur the most part remain only during the snmmer, and towards 
niitunin take their departure (or utlier regions. Numbers are captured 
Tor the aake of their feathers, but in spitti of this the number of the 
aea-fowl indicates no perceptible diminution. A Ughtlionae and fog- 
dignal statioQ hnve been erected on M.S. siiieof the inland, and thi 
"siren" fog trumpet can be distinctly liesni at Girvan. 

Tiio new Light Railway isj the cuaat, from Girvaii to Ayr (Ifl 
miles) via Ttirnherry, The Maidens, Coljaan, Dunure, aixl 
AUowHj, will prove most attractive, n-)iBii completeil, as it will be 
in 1905. No better cycling dixtrii^t than this could lie foiuid, vith 
its capital roaile, varying scenery, aud mnny objects of intcrast. 
It IS a pity il la not more kuown. About la miles from Girvan wa 
leiiLh the tonn of JIatdot,e {Hold: Kinj^'s Arras. Popalatiin 
bS'il) the ancient capital of the diitridt of Carrick, 9 milei fhia 
A>r In the good old times " it oontaiucd the "town reaidaticei 
of some 25 of the Carriok barons ; but now almost the only OJ 
remaming 13 the mansion-house of the CossiliH faniily. called J7k# 
' aalle with ita tuneta and "tllrnpilte atairs." A considerablo 
luanufactnrs of agricultural implements and siloes is carried o 
in the town About 2 miles soathwards are the rains of the 
ancient Abbey of Crosaragiifil, a dependency of the Abbey of 
1 aisloy, and founded by Duncan, Urst Earl of Carrick, about thft 
year 1210. All this coast is very pretty, with views of tbe laland 
of Arran lying away in the aea. Glimpses of Ailsa Craig miiy 
also be seen. 

Oulsean (or Colyean] Castle, llie principal seat of the Marqnia of 
Ailso, is situateil about i miles to the west of Maybole. This pictur- 
esque mansion was boilt in 1777 by David, tenth earl, on the site of ' 
the old honss of The Cove, erected about the middle of Uia ISth 
century by Sir Thomas Keimedy, second sou of Oilbert, Barl of 
Casdlis. It standi) upon the verge of a massive basaltic cliff OVM- 
hanging the sea, presenting a, range of lofty castellated maases, wilii 
Gothic windowfl, a terraced gaj^en in fVont, and a bridge of appnuuib. 
The castle is open to visitors on Wednesdays ; cards of admiaiiaii 
must first he obtained at the estate ofBce, Maybolb The iotsiioi 
<;0Qt»n& Ka »)Aiua.Na and valuable collection of arms and simour,, 


Directly underneath the castle are the Coves of Culzean, six in number, 
according to popular report a favourite haunt of fairies, and also known 
to have afforded shelter, after the Revolution, to Sir Archibald Kennedy 
of Culzean, who acquired an unenviable notoriety as a persecutor during 
the reigns of Charles II. and James VII. 

A few miles to the south stand the ruins of Twrnberry Castle — 

" Where Bruce once ruled the martial ranks, 
And shook his Carrick spear " 

during the 12th and 13th centuries the principal seat of the Earls of 
Carrick, who possessed the supreme influence in this region previous 
to the rise of the Kennedies.^ In 1271 Robert Bruce, son of the Lord 
of Annandale, married the widowed Countess of Carrick, to whom the 
earldom had descended, and from this union sprang Robert Bruce, 
King of Scotland, who, if not born in Turnberry Castle, must at least 
have spent many of his youthful years in it. 

The ruin occupies the brink of a level plain of about 2 miles in 
extent and elevated above the water some 40 or 50 ft. 

It was here the fire was seen frt)m the Isle of Arran, which, being 
mistaken for an appointed signal, brought Bruce prematurely over to 
the mainland with his handful of followers to attempt the deliverance 
of his country, as related by Barbour, Sir Walter Scott, and others. 
Local historians of a prosaic turn have hazarded the guess that the 
light rose from a kiln fire ; but the favourite tradition cherished in the 
neighbourhood is the one embodied by Sir Walter in his *' Lord of the 
Isles," that the light was of mystic origin, and still rises to com- 
memorate Bruce's crossing on the anniversary of the incident. An 
elegant lighthouse has been built on the spot, the height of which is 
40 fU, and this light is a revolving one of intermittent flashes. Turn- 
berry is the property of the Marquis of Ailsa. 

5 miles north of Culzean the ruins of Dunure Castle, an ancient 
seat of the Kennedies, are picturesquely situated on the coast. 

On the road between Maybole and Turnberry lies Kirkoswald 
village, — a picturesque old place with a good inn. Here Bums spent 
his 17th summer ; and in the burying-ground are the graves of " Tarn 
0* Shanter " and ** Souter Johnnie." 

A few miles beyond Maybole we cross the valley of the Doon — 
described in connection with Ayr (pp. 361-357) — and soon reach 
that town, which tourists generally approach from Glasgow. 

1 The Kennedies have long held a prominent place among the aristocracy of 
Ayrshire. According to the old rhyme — 

" *Twixt Wigton and the town of Ayr, 
Port-Patrick and the Croives of Cree, 
No man may think for to bide there. 
Unless he court Saint Kennedie." 

This powerful family was first ennobled in 1466, by the title of Lord Keune<ly ; 
(n 1510 they attained the dignity of Earls of Casailis ; and in I8&\ ficcviJo^Xk^A^ 
the twelfth earl, was created Marquis of M\aa. 

(O. *B. W.); CEBTBiL (CbL 

eKtemJiid) ; Wibdsob, MO St. Vlneont Btteet; K 

Square ; also— Aleiaudra, US Batli Street ; Bsth, 1 

fiUO Sauchiehnll 8troet ; RoyBt, 60 Qeorge Squute ; 

; Wttveriej (Cnmaton'B). 1 

Btraat ; and CocSburn, 141 1 
Prinolpal OommBraial Hotsls. 

Btreet, oarner of Argyle Bill 
RSBtanrants and Dining Booms. Fergui 


ATCTleStreat; Bt«l, 
; Blytbswood, 32D Argyle Stree 

Street (atand-D] 


len Btniet; 

OotddpattBBt; ( 
Brown'a. 19 St. Vincent Streets OtoBveane (Now), Ggraon Bt, 
CsledaaiHU BtAtlon ; Corn ExcLange, ii Ouulou Street : Cltf Com 
M^SII Union BlreetfTemiMrBnca}; North Dritiah Hotel ; Skinuer's, Chnrlng 
CtOHS. Seraml flrst-elisa Tea-rooraa, Oianiton'a. etc., in ATSJia Arado, 
Quaen Btreet, Ingram Slreet, BHohaoBn Street, St. Vlnoenl Sqa»n. 

PoBt Offim, Osorga Square, Open from B A.u. to p.h, ; Ssta. IC 
Siindttys. 3 a.m. to 9 a.h. Lost De£p. 8., 10 p.m. 

Tolograpli Offloo (in Geoi^ Square), open st kll tuceo. 

ItBl.tiriied Letter Bnocb snd FoaUii Inquiry Ofioe open ttoia 10 x-u. to i 

Ballwa; BtaElDng. OnilTal— (dledonisn), ror Carllile and Booth (par Landon 
& S. W, By,), Bothwall, HaaiUton, Bdinburgli, ContbrldKB, Palslaj', 
GrBBoock, Sourook, Wemyas Bay, Ardtoetai 

Btlrnnjt, PetUi, Dundee, Aiarteen, and 

SL Eni>e!i—i,QlBagov and Soutb.Westwa), lor KUmarn 
South (per MidliLod Rallnay), Paisley, Oreenwk, . 
Stnniaer ;.aUo City Union Statioae, 
Qvtn S(TB(— North British— (Hist Iisrf), for Bd^b 
Perth, Absrdeoa, the BOHtli by East Coaat, Fort-Willii 
etc. ; (Lew Level), Dumbarton, Qelenaborgh, BallDoh 
la Weat ; — And Goatbrld^ Airdrle, Bathgste, fiotliwel 
StoamBrs. Strcmboat Qtiay and llroomi^w, for all the ] 
Clyde, alao Millport^ Armn, Ardrisbsig, Oban, Foi 
Londonderry, Doblin, LIvDrpoal. Passlogere genera 
GreenoclE, Gooiock, or Craigendoran (HelBQaburgh), 
rcBchBB of the rirer. 

Tramways in every dlrccUoa at minimum Ikre of jd. The prjuolpal eara ti 
every few minutoa at faroa averaging Id. per mile. Tlie chief point 

every extremity of Ilia oity may be reached, 

Iioasan, Ayr, a 

;h, Fife, Dondee, 
(West Blghland), 
r Loch Lomond), 

lUam, BellaaL, 
lios the opper 

ironlar line. 

TOUC'^lllBB, Cia%miA4i*'**'5i*"'>i 

of And. 

He ; QWn 

[Tifei-(VJt and EDtertaJnmflnt. 
ii;U acUoul, Blmtmuli. Sticcl ; G 

OoUegeB— Ch. o 
Abtluiu.— Blind, lOS Ctaatla Street ; Hoyal I 

(IXTBBDBAt, top orHigd StTEpt— free. 

BigbthUt, Nortl>°of 'sc'^RallDi^ Souther 
London kusd : Citbifart. New Cathurt ; 

CSORt Hobies, fnot or Sallmiirki-t. 

Bxm*inixB— Ro;a1, qaeen Street: Stock, Bachiiuin St. ; Cnm, 

PomiL Qrovk, In Whiteluch P«-li, west of Psrtick. 

n bhe Cathedral; Wastem, Ollniai 

UnlveiHly ; ! 

ir FiHi Ahts, Bns new bulMLnB 

n Kelvlngiove Fsrk. 

at Phi8ii;ianii'| !43 8t Vincent Si. Prootu 
[Ofunv BiBHUuiB— HsTThOL 

Bobert Bnro», Lord Cljde, Sir Jolin 11.- 
;9r Bobert Peel, Thm. Ciiiipinll, liaviil i 
MhtGKH^Ktiarel; Piti, in Oarpimtioi, ' . 
DotB ot WellinBlon (Bquesti iaii), (roiic bi 
■ JaniMLQiiiii.leii,frnpt ofBuyallnflrainT, ^ 
Jsmta Anhnr, CBthednlBqutre; Sin{i Will 

[nlvRnOtj, Oilraorehill— fld, OnaMviiDBT, kic— 
leatre, Bart End Hall, and Panple'i Palace. 

ncTUHi OkU-XB-ttelCBTparalim), TiH Saachlehsll SI 

GUegow Otoen (lu Pco[plH'ii iSilace am! Winter,, sim .i umiiii 
Art Qalleri, 17B BSaoJilohall Street. Witnr Coloura, 163 Siuchie hall Sir 

HiKK>i>RDU1L— SSO Bau^lehall Sti-eet, beyond Corporation Art Galleiy. 
TeiuTRBs— Boyil, 77 Oowoufldenii ; Boynltj', 70 Sanchiphall Street; Orn 
ItO Cowoartdapi; Boyni Prlnceai, Main Street, GDrbals; M^trop 




NoTHiKO suiprises Ulij one on a first viait to Olasoow so 
Bs its liilliness. Tlii« great streets eaat and west alti, i 
«veuta at the westeni ead, ofteu mere tcrrooeB oosueotod bj 
atreetfi as steep as huuse - roofs, and as inipoBiuilile Tor borsi 
traflic. The spurt o! the Soottii^h HighlauiU oonie within j 
few miles of the town, rcuuliiug the shores of tlie Clyde as tb 
Kilpatricl: Hills at Old Kilpatrick, 10 miles below the town, biv 
thence passing in a north -easterly direction as the Cempsie Hilla 
These ranges bound the horizon to the north-west and north of tht 
eity ; but, catching the moisture -laden breezes from the wei 
sea, they eauae a considerable jireclpitatioii of rain in their m 
bourhood, and thus the rainfall of Glasgow reaches the high atimnj 
aveiajjB of 46 inches. Tlie climate, hou'ever, though moist, f^ 
comparatirely eqnable and temperate, and the acerbity of spring 
cast winds is moderated. 

At the Reformation Glasgow was a iMiinparatiTely unimportant 
town, with a population of Isaa than 5000, and at the Union of 
less than 13,000 persons ; and it was not until about the eod of tbJ 
IGth century that its rapid growth eonimenoBd. During 1 
century it increased from 77,385, till in the year 18D1 the popula- 
tion within the municipal boundary was returned as 5IJB,000' 
second city in numbers in the kiu};;doni. The latest i«nsus returm 
sliow that the city population amounts to 77a,Hfl7. Districti 
wbioli bad a papulation of U2,S17 luLVe, howevei', been added fa 
the city. The population caDtains a Urge Celtic element, dmwtt 
ft^m the West Highlands, of which Glasgow may be regarded a> 
the capital, and from Ireland, whence large drafts of tlie labour- 
ing population have been obtained. 

The origin and nieaniug uf tlie name Glasgow have been the lutjed 
of much iuvestigiilLon and debate. It is a term of Celtic origi 
high antiijuity, among the numerons and coallicting deQuitions of whicli 
are "the gray smith," "the gray hound," "the dark glen," " the green 
wood," sad "the beloved green spot." Although the wealth and ci 
mercial preponderance of Glasgow are of uioilein date, the town it 
can he traced hack to a very I'emote period, and hi Scottish history 
Glasgow has played an interesting and not uniinportant pait. The see 
of Glasgow was founded about 560 by Kentigem, known also aa Bt. 
Mungo, one of the earliest piooeera of Chri.qtianity in Scotland. Littlt 
is known of the place till the lapse of annther 560 years, when, in 11]S« 
the see was re-established hy David, PrincD of Combria, afterwards^ 
David L la 1 1 7S the town was, hy charter of Witliam the Lion, erected 
into a borgh of Iwrony under the bishop's rale ; hy Charles I., in 1 B36f] 
it was raised to the dignity of a royal burgh, but its magistracy c"- 
tlmied under the nominal control of its eccleatastii^al lords or th 



(auiliord sueec4sara, till William uid Mary, in 1690. coDfctTcd oe 
town tbe privilege of chooaiiig iU owu civic rulers. In ScoIUbIi 
occleBiaalicftl hinlory Glasgow in famoiia for its usenilily of 16SS, Liild , 
ia tha cathedral, wliich voted tlia renunoijitiiiii or Epiacnpncy. Ou tbe 
abdication o( James VTl. the celelirHted Cameronian (2ath) reginiBnl 
vM raised in Glusgow. 

Public inlercBt in OSssgow caatres uiare in the ninrvellmiB growth. 
«ipuiBioD, and variety of il« iudiiatriBa and oommercial pnrsnits than 
Ib ita uitiquity and histoncgl aBBociations. Immediately nfter the 
•iU.b1ifihment of the bishop's burgh, the privilege of an anniinl fair wu 
concciled, and thai fair, which takB» pliic« in July, has not waned in 
popnlarity to the preaeat time, although it ia now continued only u 
ao aunnal holldu; season of the indnatrtal classes. The first event 
which gave i decided impulse to the trade of Glasgow was the Trusty 
of Unioa, and its beueflcial effects on the city were noted hy Daniel 
Defoe a few years afler the eiBnt. The American colonies opened up 
a source of trade for which the Clyde was famnrahly situated, itnd th* 
merchants of Glaegow promptly availed thentaelves of their advantage. 
Tobacco and sugar became tbe staple imparts brim America ; and it is 
estimated that at the ontbreak of the War of Inrlependeace, Glasgow 
coDtrollcd the half of the tobacco trade of the kingdom. The tr«rte 
WM centred in comparatiyely tew hands, and on the declaration of 
war, when tobucco increased la value about 2000 per cent, i few 
fortunate holdeiB of the Virginian weed realisied colossal fortnnes. 
aome of the wealthiest county famllleg around QlaBgow owe the origin 
of their fortnnes to that event. On the other hand, tbe American War 
was one of the moat seriouB blona ever directed against Glasgow tracle, 
and it entailed on the community a vast aggregate of loss aud distress. 

Blenching and calico printing were established in Glacgow earlier 
than in Lancashire, and these industries still prosper. In Glasgow 
chlorine was used for bleaching before it was introduced into any other 
British locality, and its introduction was due to the advice and informa- 
tion James Watt communicated to his &ther-in-law. lu Glasgow also 
bleaching powder (chloride of lime) was discovered by Mr. Charles 
Tennant, who titareby laid the foimdation not only of the gigantic St. 
KoUoi chemical works, bat gave the Srat impetus to the chemical in- 
dustries generally. Prom remote times hand-loom weaving was the 
principal occupation in many rural villages around Glasgow ; and with 
the steam-engine discoveries of Watt, and the inventions of Arkwright, 
Uargresvea, Cartwright, and others, the textile industries came to be 
centred in great factories, and these for now a century past form on« 
of the leading industries of Glasgow. 

Tha fact that Glasgow is built over a coal-field which la rich in seams 
of Ironstooe, has, more than any other circumstance, oontributed to the 
rapid industrial growth of the city. It was in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Glasgow that the first eiperiment with Neilson'a hot-blasi 
iron - furnaces was mode; and the remarkable economy thereby 
eSCcted developed tha iron industry of Scotland at a rate which long 
distanced all competition. Glasgow la Mceptional in h.ivinB blast 
fumices HCtualty within Its municipal bounds, and the «!»tjtnv laA 



Mutb-eostern faorizoaB glov nighttj willi tJiaii glnre. Thna e. 
itanced, the heaij iron fomi din;; sjid engineemig tnules lave nal 
tonnd camEaniftl aoil iu tho city. Great forgee with powerfnl 
haiiuuBTB and other appliances, pipe-founding works, sud malleable- tv 
works, bailer- ruaking, locomotive- engine building, sugor-mb 

and moat important industrial features otGlos^n. 

The river Clyde has been a goutcb of great proflperit; and wealUi 
the dt; ; and tiie g^antic works hj which its utility has been t3ia 
created have been aSecled at a cost of npwarda of ill!, 260,000. 
1769 Jamea Watt, wlio had been couiniiBaioned to examine and Eon 
tba river, reported a depth of nnter at the Broomielaw of 14 in. at L 
water and 3 it. 3 in, at high ivater. Sow, as the result of irtifia 
deepfining bj dredging, vessels drawing 24 ft. of water float, ■ 
the great armour-plated vessels of tlie Rojol Navy sail freel 
llio length of quay wall in the harbour now amounU to ful 
S miles, iuoluding an eiteasiou of dock accommodatian on t 
soath bank of the river, covering 35 acrea, directly oppocita 1 
Queeu'e Dock, and named the Frlni^e'ii Dock, which was opened 
1897 by the Duke of York. The ernnes and bridge at the Qneol 
Dock are worked od the hydraulic system patenteil by Sir Willi! 
Armstrong, and aloug the harbour at intervals there are aboat 
iteam and other enmea bavijig a lifting power up 
lorn. In 1780 the revenue ot the Clyde Trust was £1515; 
now amounts to about £350,000. The harbour poBseasea neai 
30 acres of sLed accommodation fbc the storage of goods, and ' 
both ridea it b approached and served hy railway lines, fwhb 
connecting with all the trunk Bystems, ramify aLont the qni 
the extent of Sj milee. 

In 1763 the illuetiioua James Watt began that memorable se 
siperimeDta which resulted in the ^ucce^aful appiicntion of itea 
^'eat motive power; and in 1B12 Mr. Henry Bull launched on 1 
Clyde his tirst steam-vessel. The name of this vessel wastha "Coma 
and she was dtted up with on engine of three horae-power. She co 
ntenced plying between Glasgow and Greenock on the ISth of Januj 
1812, and Was the first steouier not only on the Clyde but in Enrol 
l'he9uccesHofthelittle"Cuniet"immeUiatelyled the wayto thaapn 
of steam navigation on the Clyde and other rivets. A luonnment w 
erected to Bell at Duiiglnss, on the northern bank of the Clyde, 
miles below Qlaagow, on a commanding situation (p. 355). The lot 
development of steam navigation greatly stimulated the ahiphuildi 
industries, which hjid lung nourished an the lower reaches ol the ri 
Shipbuilding and ujariae engineering yards were estahliahed in L 
naniber in the second quarter of the century juiit below Glasgow harbm 
DD both sides of tbe river. The ;)iuueei's of tlicse industries — I 
Napiera, John Elder, Charles Randolph, etc.— are held in de»er» 
gateem thronghout the world, and &om the worka established by thi 
men have been launched the most perfect examples of naval conatri 
lion and eugiueering skill that have ever beea prmiitced. The to 

& ■jBuiV] &D VW Cl^de iDcreiaed with marvellous rapiility 


the second hilf of tlia cantury; iu 1886 thoTB were oomplatsil 
'ia'i vatseU of & csapuaity of 124,513 toos; in 1674 the 22& staipi ' 
lauDohed had u toniiBge ol 2(1(1,800; and iu 1833, 413 tcbmIs 
wore put In the water, roprsMnting the uapreaedented total of 416,693 
tons. The "laanches" in 1802 were 312 sMps with ■ tonnage of 
618,270, for whioh eiifrinra of 373,824 "horae-power" were required. 
The tolil number oF ships Batering Glasgow in ISDl wa2lS,2!<l, with 
tonnage 4,3S6.423. 

Threa Bica!lBn(; termmnl Railway Btatious bring tratfio to the heart 
of the town, respectively serving the three greut Scottifh tiuuk linen 
— tha Caledonian, Nortli British, oud Glo^ow and South -West em. 
By menuB of these railwaye aiid tfaeii loool branches, as well aa by the 
magnificfu' fle«t of fi™'' steauiara, travelling facilities to and from the 
aity in all directions are very grent. From the Aleiandrii Park, on 
the north-east, to Pollokshields, aouth'West, the City Union Railway 
travereea the town, and connectB the North British Bathgate line with 
St EuoLjh stallion and the South-Weatern system. Two undaigroiinll 
r^ways, belonging to the North British aud baladosinn Railway 
Oompanles respectively, huva their chief stations beaeatli the blgh- 
level termini of those companies, and form oonaectiona with the 
suburbs ; also with Dumbarton, Helensburgh, and Loch Lomolid to 
the west, and Hamilton to the south-east. A circular cable sub- 
way has ilis principnl station in Bt. Euoob Square, whence it proceeds 
round by Kelrin Bridge, Partiefc, and Oovan. Within the city electrlo ■ 

cars traver^ alrnost every iniportuit thorough fAi'c, and extend into ^^^J 
tlie suburbs aud neighbouring towns. , ^^^^M 

The Bnger of time has left few relics of ancient Clasgow, and thSi^^^H 
growths of iDOdern tiuies have quite smotberEd into lusignlHfancs tbil^^^^l 
traces of the esily rity. In the year 1866 an Improvemeut Act wall ^^^^| 
obtained by the city, the operations under which have served as modda '^^^^ 
tor all other great liOTuniercial towns. ITbe works have been carried outat 
a coat of over X2,i)00,Q0l}, while only £1 ,072,000 has yet been realised 
from the .mle of sites. The realisatioa of the property now remaiuing in , 

the possession of the Trust will reduce the cost to the ralepayera from ^^^J 
first to last to about £690,000 in all, including worts. 50,000 pamiifii ^^^H 
|i have been displaced, and many streete have been entirely rafonnedV^^^^I 

l> but the ie.Bult in that dena of scjuolor have been swept away. A nav ^^^^| 

■ draln^ sclieme to cany all the sewage down to settling tanks beloy ^^^H 

^L Whiteinch is being organised ; aud Qlasgovr has an uueiiualled wattt ^^^^| 

^^H Glasgow is a very hsudsooialy and substantially built town, 'i'ha .^^^^M 

^tw ' ^° P'^°<:'P^ supply of water for Gloflgow is obliined froai Loch Satrlst ^^^H 

(a diatance of as miles). The dally supply tumtsheLi to QlasgowBpd oel^- ^^^^ 
boarliuud latS.OOO.OOO^IloDi, or aboat 50 gallons per h^ad, supplied (oc about 
a penny per JM gallons, [n 1SS6 an Act of Parliament was ohtahied to la- 

gsUonH, and tooUd l,Vlfl,uOO,OOI) fallonsatomBB in Loali Aililut. I'he nuaduct ^^U 

to 50 gallGUa per day tea popalablaiLoCl^&UU,QW'^er&<nA. *^^^^H 



atone used was at firs! a liglit grey snuiiatoue, liut tliia is now supar- 
sedod by the DuinfrieiBhire led Hniidstone and lod gtuiiitu from Unll 
and elacwhera : tbese liliukea rapidly in the smoke. The utreeta, u t, 
rale, ire hid olt' trithremnrkahle symmetry, iiiiiiiing either parallel with 
or ftt right angles to the course ol the river. Thef are iu general hrokd, 
■tralght, and well made, uid their position and gmdifals are mch aa will 
permit of an iudefiDitH aipaniuan DftraOie. The two siclea of tberiw 
are jomed by live arched, two eg spension, and three railway bridges, and 
at uamerous intervals along the river, in and below the harboar. l^ere are 
steain feiry-boats coustautly plying. The tisest business portion of 
Qlaegow is that which lies botweea thi; Uitee imtiu rtulwny sUititms 
— the Central, St. Enoch, and Queen StresL George Squme, St. 
Vincent Place, Buchanan Street, and Queen Street bristle with fine 
banks, Insurance and newspaper offices, in addition to the public 
niuiiici]>al bnildiiiga which form such a striking filature of the city. 

For the pur;iossa ol topograph icid notice, the town may be divided 
into EASTsaN, western, and aoniHEUN sbctiOks : the eaatora eompra- 
hends all to the east side of Buchanan Street, In which is invluded 
Uie main bniinesa part of the town and whatever ia of antiqnarifta 
interest; the weelern is the principal and beat reaidential division; 
and the south ia cliieDy reuiarkuble for uumeromi great public works. 


BtlCflAKAtI Sl'itEBT, 

the most important, wealthy, and handsome utrect in Gla^on', ii 
situated in the centre of the city, and ulose to the priucipal railway 
Btatious. It coQtains several public buildings, including the SUde 
Kechmige, a recent building of Veaetisu Gothic type, and the 
Western Olitb, a much odmired building, by David Hamilton. 
The banks and mercantile establishments here, and iu the im- 
mediately adjacent portions of St. Yiuceiit Street, West Gqurge 
Street, and GordoD Street, are architecturally rich, luid ivorthy of 
the imporiADt commercial interests they serve. Attention may be 
specially drawn to the ornate Italian Renaissance of the JiuuAy 
Library in West George Street, bahimi St. George's Church i ' and ti) 
the Atheiis>um in St. George's Place, with library, class-rooms, etc 
The Clydmiale Bank and Nrio Naiioaal £uiita, tie Coimitensial 
Baiti in Gordon Street, and the jmlalial buildings of the rmuig 
Mm'» Christian Astociation in Botliwell Street, are all notable 
features of the immediate neighbourhood of Buchanan Street, 
and in tlie latter are Che new premises of the National Bank. 


Deeeriiiig uf naticc nlso, Tut dignity and handtomeiieRS of appoint 
mentH, hm tha oIKcea of tie Glasgoie Herald and Svening Timet, the 
(nacliina-room of which ia open for inapection ernry afternoon. Tbe 
shops, towards the lower rnd of the atreet.are not eqnalled in anj 
town for spauiooaneBa and magnificence of display. The Aroadr, 
ranning from the east aide and turning iatji ArgyU Street, ii 
most such erections, devoted prinripally to the aale of toys, a 


Georor Sqdarr 

is in maiiy senses the real coHtra of the city. On it^ north.wert 
nids ia the princijal station of tha North British Railway. Tha 
western side ia occupied by the MercliarU^ Bimse and the Bank of 
Scotland — two buildings of a highly ornate Italian chnmcter, quite 
worthy of their magnificent position. On the aonth side, the prin. 
cipal building ia tJie Omeral Post-Ofiix. The whole of the eastern 
[rido is occupied by the New Municipal BuiLDisoa. The rapid 
growth of GlaagDWia strikingly eSBroplified by the fact that no fewer 
than fonr timea in tha course of llireo-quartera of a century have the 
tnunicipsl authorities been obliged to seek new and enTarged accom- 
iDodatioii fur public offices. In 1810 the municipal offices were rs- 
moved irom the ancient Tolbooth to the splendid classical bnildinga 
facing tbe Green, now used as a Justiciary Court. Thence, in 1S4S, 
they were transferred to new buildingsin Wilson Street, now occupied 
as a Sberiif-Coart and County offices: and again, in 1S75, the mnnici- 
pal departments were transferred to Ingram Street, where a building 
was erected forming one block with the Sheriff-courts, etc. Within 
a very few years this increased aocoramodation was found to b« 
quite in^equate, and now ahuililing on a vast scale has been ereated, 
which, it may be etpscted, will suffice for many generations. The 
designs, aelected after two competitions, are by Mr. William Yoaag 
of London (a native of Paisley), who has produced a series of eleva- 
tions of a strikingly imposing character in the Venetian Renaissance 
stylo. TheCouncilChamberis placed over the grand entraace,fBcing 
George Square ; and the Banqueting Hall, with suite of reception- 
rooms, occupies the George Street frontage. The centre and winga 
of the principal elevation to George Square project and rise an 
additional story, the centie being capped with a pediment flanked 
by two domical towers, and the wings end in rich domaa and 
lanterna. In the centre, over the entrance lo^a, a tower riaet 
~ mt 100 ft: above the main parapet— in all more than SQO Rk 
PiVoni Ao itreot level. A teatraie o( live attMiftoi* "ia 'One. ^naViin. mn- 


ploy mcut of fltotusiy groiipa and fi)^res (bj Geo. Lawaon, B. R, S. A, . 
and others), far the eiuriclimeiit of its various members. The profass 
employment of alabaster, marble, and coloured tilpa to the principal 
staircases, halls, and cotridara give tlie interior a rioh and gorgeous 
jppaarance. The entire cost of the pile, including £170,000 for 
ths site, bfli exceeled ^500,000. The buildings were risited ti; 

The sqnnre itaulf ia the modem Walhalla of Glasgow, and con- 
Uina uuiiieroiis monumenUl erertiocs and statues. 

Tlie centre in occupied with the Scott monnmEnt— a flut«d 
column with massive base, rising 80 ft., and eunnonnlfld witii a 
colossal statue. Flanking it, on east and west, arc equestrian 
bronire statues of Her Uajost; and tho Prinao Cousort, both in 
weak style of Baroa Jlarochetb". There are also stataary fignnn 
of James Watt, hy Chantrey ; Sir John Moore (a native of Qlas' 
gowj,— exquisitely modelled liy Flaiman ; Lord Clyde (alao s 
native), by Foley ; Dr. Tbomaa Graham, formerly Master of the 
Mint, by W. Brodie, R.3.A. ; James Oswald, M.P. ; Dr. David 
Liviugstone the traveller, by John Mossman ; Thomas OanipbeU 
the poet, and Sir Eohoct Peel, by tha same ; and Robert Hums, 
liy George E. Ewlng. The latest addition is Bt Eon. W. E. 
Gladstone, M.l'., near the Mnnicipal Buildings, unveiled by Lord 
Uoficboiy in 1902, and designeii by Hamo Thomeyci'oft. ' 

At the norlli-e«3t comer of the square with ftontagea to Frederict 
Street and Qeorge Street are the Inland Revenue oiUces. A little eiaat- 
irard In George Stteet etands the Andersonian College, aad behind it, 
entering from John Street, the Old High School of Glasgow, now the 
City Public Schools, erected at the beginning of the 17tb oentuir. 
The Andersmian vita the pioneer of Mechanics' Institiitions, and has 
had connected with it some eminent mco, among otheiB Dr. Thoma* 
(jraham, Mnster of the Mint, and Dr. Andrew Ure, 

Qdkbk Strrit rans parallel with Buchanan Street and oomes 
next to it in importance. Its principal feature is 

TiiH EoVAL Exchange, 
a handsome building in the Florid Corinthian style, bnilt in 1829 
at a coat of £50.000, The news-room, to which there is free ad- 
mittance for strangers, has a richly-ornamented arched roof Bop- 
ported by Corinthian columns. The Exchange ia one of the most 
anecessJhl works of Mr. David Hamilton, a Scotlish architect ol 
great originality, who obtained the second premium in the competi- 
tion rf designs for the now Honaes of Pariiament In front of tha 


liuildiug aUnilu a colussail eqUBstrlan bronze btatiie of tlio Dulie 
Wellington, by Moroi^hettL 

Facing the Royal Exchange U Inorah Street, n'lierc mnn; of. 
the larger mercantile establishmentH and public buildings 
aitnntsd. MMte/itsrm'.i Hiispilal, Hall, and oHicoB, an early work ofi 
David Hamilton, ia embellished with statnary figurua of the piona 
foundora, the brothers Gearge and Thomaa Hatcheaou. The hospital 
is a wealthy (corporation, partly educational and partly charitable in 
its objects, with a rapidly increasing annual revenue, which in 1884 
Diceeded £I8,D00. It ia tlie Glasgow parallid of the more famona 
Heriofs Hospital in Edinburgh. Farther eaal are St. David'a PariBh 
Clmroh and burying-ground [popularly called the Hamshnm). 

On the south side of Ingram Street we have a massiTO and im- 
posing building, which extanda 340 ft, ending in Wilson Street, 
and forma together the Sheriff-C'm.rt and Ilia Cmmly Suildings. 
The Wilson Street eleration haa a podium or baaement of consider* 
able elevation in the centre, along which, about the height of the 
eje, is a aoulptored hand of singular beauty. Over this rises n 
magEificent portico of six Ionic cDliimua. The Union BanJo, niti 
an Bictremely rich elevation, crowned with symbolical atatuoty 
figures, ia nwrer Queen Street ; and occupying a long Btreteh in 
bath Ingram Street and Queen Street are the warehouses of Meun. 
Arthur and Co., the moat eitensive soft goods stores in the king 
dom. Passing down Queen Street, various other excellent enamples 
of warehouse and commercial architecture may be noted. 

St. Enoch Sqoaef. 
Crossing Arfrylo Street from Buchanan Street, St. Enoch Square U i 
antered. SI. Saoch's Parish Chiureh posaessea a happily concoivad | 
spire in the manner of Sir Christopher Wren, and was erected i* I 
1780. The east aide oC the square is occupied with the ^(Uim | 
buildings, nearly doubled by recent additions, and the cj^cellent 1 
hotel in (.'onticctilin with the G. and S.-W. Kailway. The centre oC I 
the square ia occupied by the new station of the Circular Subway (g^ 1 
313). At one time St. Enoch Square was a rural churchyard witi) I 
a church dedicated to St. Tanow, the mother of Kentigern, and by* 1 
corruption of that ancient name we arrive at the modern SLEnochj 

Arovlb Stbebt, 
the haokbone of the oit^, mna in the main parallel to the ri 
with its contimiation to the West as Main Street mA ^-crateKtfa!™, J 



Kuail, and to lliu vaal iiujoc tlio namoa of TioiijfatB uid Gallop 
guto, it fqi-niH a ceutroil lino of commuuiDRtioii (tan tvni extremiti 
of tliB lomi, stretching to a diatajira of about 6 miles. Argj 
StTHBt has been oovored over by tho new railway bridge of tl 
Cnledoniftii Company to tha extent of 130 yards, mid lliia part w 
bo lighted aJl day witli electric arc lamp. 

Several good Imslnesa atiBBts rnu off at riglit aiiglea from Argy 
StreeL Nonr of thase Htreete, eiceiiliiiB CnucllBrlgga, dates f«tlu 
back than the lecond half of the 18th century. Miller 3trmt it t) 
home of the public libraries of Olaiigow. At No. 23, a spBciona Mli 
log rormerly DCCiipk'd aa tho Water Ol&cea of Qlaagow has been tnn 
formed into a oapacions and handaoiue hoiiie for tLe MilcheB Lfbror] 
a large and important but still rapidly increasing refiranoe llbrai 
which ie open daily free to all comers. The library, which fa govenu 
by tha Town Cotincit, was founded tinder a beqneat by Mr. 3tajA< 
Mitchell, who deaKned nearly £70,000 foi the institittloD. It ha*bM 
in opeiatiou since 1877. and bos been in that tuna the redplent < 
aeveral iiiigiortaDt gifts aod bequeets, among nhich was tTie library I 
Mr. Janiea Moir, with a money legacy which will in the end amonat 1 
abont £12,000, In 48 Miller Street are Slirling'i L^miry, a ralnab 
collection, and the Baitlif. lAbrmy, endowed liy a Glasgow ■olidfan 6 
that naroii. Both an free for conaultation. Virginia Street, as its nam 
indicates, ia a monnment of the tobncco and sugar trade with the Golonii 
ahont tha middle of last century. Candlerigga, a Tnore ancient street 
the centre of the ]>roviBioii tr.iOe, :i?id has in it tlie public Ijaiaar aod tl 
OUy SaS, tlie l.itter a huiliiing of which fllnngow has not murh reus 
to be prouil. 

At llie east end of the TroDgate, close to the new Glasgow C^ 
station, was tho CVoraof Glaagow, the ancient civic centre of the cil 
Id the neighbourhood are to be fonnd the vary few remuuin 
buildings which, with the Gathedral, aerre to connect the [ 
with the past. One or two tenements near the eastern extremity ( 
Trongato, with their oorbelled gables and steep roofs, may be reHu 
of tha 17tli oentuty. The ancient Tolbooth cr prison of Olaagon 
occtipipd the site at the corner of tho High Street and Trongat 
(renewed iu 1626). It was a spacious ere lition, Htb stories high, w 
turrets and a very chBa'i.B crown -finished tower in the Jacobean sty ll 
and waa celebrated as the scene of the midnight adventure of Bo 
Boy with Francis Osbaldistona. But of tho struchiA there n 
only temains the tower known as the (Trass Steeple, in which there i 
a set of mnaic hslla, which were renewed in 1881. The contignov 
building in Troogate is all that now remains of the Old Tmm Sal 
the arcade of which— formerly a place of local note — is nowab 
«vlo aVo^ ^Tooti. ^c \Vi WseftV w, fttwA is an eiyiBatrian statue a 


William III., presented to the bui-gh in 1735 by James Macrae, 
Governor of Madras. On the other side of the street projects the 
Tron Steeple, a venerable but stunted spire, dating from 1637. A 
great change has been wrought on this locality by the operations 
of the Improvement Trust, and a further alteration has been made 
whereby tne width of the Trongate at the Cross is doubled. The 
centre of the increased street area is occupied by an access to the 
Cross Station of the Central Railway. 

Glasgow Green. — This, the proletarian park of Glasgow, extends 
for a considerable distance between the river and what was once a 
residential part of the well-to-do of Glasgow. The Corporation has 
done its best to make it even now attractive, having erected a 
handsome Art Gallery and Winter Garden (free), about | mile from 
the Cross, and laid out floral parterres. It is further embellished 
by a very fine historic fountain, presented, after the last Exhibition, 
by Sir Henrv Doulton, and a Nelson column of the heavy character 
of the period at which it was erected. 

Outside the entrance gates in the Saltmarket "spouters" of all 
manner of thinking, mostly ranters and socialists, make Sunday 
evening hideous with their lusty declamations. 

Ancient Stkkbts. 

From the Cross as a centre diverge several ancient and historical 
streets of Glasgow. To the north, towards the Cathedral, extends 
the High Street^ eastwards is the old Gallowgate and its bifurcating 
London Street, aud to the south is the classic Saltmarket. The 
whole neighbourhood has within a few years been greatly improved, 
from a sanitary point of view, by the operations of the Improve- 
ment Trust. Otf the Saltmarket runs the Briggaie^ a once fashion- 
able and busy street, which led to the ancient bridge of the city. 
Notwithstanding its intersection by railways, the Briggate is one 
of the few streets in Glasgow which still wear a 17th-century 
aspect. Near its farther extremity there yet remains the Briggate 
Steeple^ now maintained by the Corporation as a relic of the 
Merchants' House built in 1659 by Sir William Bruce of Kinross, 
the architect of the more modem part of Holyrood Palace. In the 
words of M'Ure, the Glasgow historian, ''the steeple is of height 
164 foot, the foundation is 20 foot square : it haui three battle- 
ments of curious architecture above one another, and a curious 
clock of molten brass, the spire whereof [of the steeple] is mounted 
with a ship of copper finely gilded, in place of a weather-cock. " 
On the east side of the Saltmarket the short St. Andrew's Street 
leads into the square of the same name, in which is St. Andrew's 
Churchy a building modelled after St. Martin's -in -the -Fields, 
London, with a fine Roman portico, bold in mass and rich in 
detail. The High Street, which extends from the Trongate to the 
Cathedral, embraces the most ancient part of the city. Now it is 
neither old nor new. The College railway offices <ic«MtY3 ^'^ «*^ 

of the 

-set B^^H 


I of t!ie olil CliLsgow College buildiugs, nliicli were Bibaudoiiail fl 
'sily purposes in 1670, and now no trace of tlie ij 
I7th-(H!Btury Htruolnre remains. The elegant soulptured Sooto- 
French daorwaj, which formed one of the finest features of the 
bnilding, has been preserved, &nd ia now incorporated in an 
entrance-lodge and gateway at the Uairerait; gioiinda, Hillhegi 
Thia work was carried out at the expense of the late Sir Will 
PMroe, Bart, M.P. Op[>oaite, at the corner of High !" 
College Street, stands the house in which Thomas Campbell & 
jtoet residcii during his atudont-Hfe in Glasgow. 

Artcr passing Duko Street, ths High Street aacenda what if 
oallfld the ■•Bell of Uie Brae," where, in the year 1300, a severe 
action took pls4^e betwixt the English and Scots ; tbe former com- 
manded h; Percy and Bishop Beik, and the latter by the famous 
Sir William Wallace. The Englisli were defeated with the loss of 
tbeic commander. Before reaching the cathedral we pass the new 
pumping sCstioQ of tlie Corporation Waterworks, aud next to it, 
acroiis tlie street, the Baron/y Chu/nh is passed, a fine Gothic 
Btructuro erected at a cost of about £24,000 in 1889. The Barony 
parish embraces the principal portion of the citj ; and the living 

' "' - - — ' .J!-! — whom was tlie late 

itne has b««n 
e street clow 

This fine old minster (the only une in Scotland besides ^t. Magnui 
at Kirkwall, still tn good preservation) is dedicated to St. Kentigem,' 
or St Mmigo m he is familiarly termed, the reputed founder of tht 
3ee of Glasgow. In the year &Z9 he came from the Orkney Islands [o 
preach tlie gospel to the Strathclyde Britons. After labooring among 
them for some years he wiis expelled the conntry by Morten, their 
king, who had heoome jealous of bis influence, and was E0mpsll»d to 
lake refuge in Wales, where he founded the See of St. Asaph. Re 
was recalled by Rederech, the sncceasor of Morken, and about the year 
&6D he erected a church on the spot where the cathedral now atamls. 
Tradition alleges that the holy man died in 603, and was burled at the 
east end of the ground on which the cathedml stands, his tomb being 
pointed ont in the crypt below. The annala of the See, from tb* 
middle of the 6lh to the early part of the 12th century, are involved 
in obscurity. Amid the intestine fends and revolutions of that period 

id mliaolM -wTtiotht by at. Kaat 


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all traces of the churoli of St. Kentigem disappear, but David I., before 
his acReAsioa to tha Scottish throne, proniDted his chaplain, John 
Aohaina, to the fiishopric of Glasgow in 1116, and sndowtd the church 
vbich that prelate erected and dedicated in 1136. 

Tho chnroli then erected was destroyed hy Ere, bat cefltored by 
Bldiop JoHceline in 1197. The atrueturs received Urge additioux at 
ths bande of later hlahopa, especially Bishops Baodington, Lauder, 
and Cameron, by the latter of whom it was practically brought to its 
present fona in 1446. AC tlie h^inidng of the Htb ceatarY ft>B 
Episcopal clinir waa occnpied by the patriotto Rij\i«rt ^idot-rt., ■&* 



I. ^rm friend of WsUaca uul Brucs, wlio furniabed from hia own vud- 
I tobe the roliea in wliicb the vindicator of the independanos of Scotland 
inw crowned, for whidi act he auffarod iniprisonment tor soidb yean 
■t the handa of Ednard I. Tlie See of (ilaagoir was made Archi- 
qdacopal in 1491 at the Instance of James IV., who waa an honorar; 
ouioii of the cathedral, Duriu|{ the &i of destructive enthusiasm which 
ftiUowed Uie ReforojutioD, the building waa savod from injury by the 
WbIdub activity of the craftsmen of GloGgow, who forbade the Mhl- 
toent of au edict which bad gone Ccrtb for the deatruetion of the 
1'idalatrous moanuient." The etmcture was carefully repaired by 
fiartalu of the Protestant Archbiahops, notably by Bishop law, ^ ' 
Oioniuneut may be seen In the Lady Chapel. 

The cathedral is in length, from east ta weat, 319 ft. ; 
ft. ; Iba general character of the whole structure being Kaily GngS 
it waa deeignsd to be in the form of a cro-is, hut the transepts H 
ftAVer erected, although the foundation of the southern one hia h 
bid. The interior contains 147 pillars, and the whole is U 
iGS windows, many of them of eiqdsite workmanahip. "': 
position of the nave and choir, " eaya Mr. Riiikman, " is diffsrent, ■ 
wry good. In the choir the capitals are flowered, in the na« ' 
ThoM in the ehoir very much resomblfl some capitals )u the tr 
■t York Minater, anil are equally well executed. The west door" i« 
Dm of great rlcbaeBs and beauty, B-ud bears a strong resemblance lo 
the doors of the Continental churches, being a donbie door with ■ 
iquare head to each npertare, and the space above filled with nichel. 
T^B general design of the doorway ia French, but the mouldinga and 
it/ttHs lis English." A splendid tower, sitrmonnted by a short but 
tlDt Dngracsfid spire, rises ^om the ceutre. The grand entrance was at 
i3lB waat end, but that is closed, and we now enter by the south door. 
ale beautiful duHr. locally known ae the High Church, ia now nied 
te one of the citr ohurehes, and haa received a gift of a magnifiesnt 
ttgim- The eitreme eaat end of the oboir forma the Lmiy Chapel ; 
IXA &am the nort^-weat comer projects the chapter-hoiue. The latter, 
iritli its groined ceiling supported by a pillar 20 fL in hQight, waa 
, Adit early in the 15th century, and it rather Injurea the geneial 
: £annoDy of the building. The dripping aisle, so called From the 
I ^inietnal dropping of water irom the roof, ia the lower part of the 
^finished transept, long a place of sepulture for the parochial incom- 
benta of Glasgow. The cr^pt under the choir ia not surpasaed by any 
aimilar structure in Britain. Properly speaking it is not a cryp^ but 
■ lower church foimed on the eloping ground of the right bonk of the 
Uolendtuar,' It is supported by 65 pillars, and is illuminatad with 
11 windows. The cluster columns poaseaa remarkable syinmetry and 
grace, and the aculptured ornament of the capitals and of the bojoei of 
tlie groined vaulting is of eiquiaitfl design, and in beantifol prassrvation. 
Edward Irving, the famouadivine and early friend of Carlyle, waabnriad 
here (p. 323). In the south-west corner is St. Mungo'a Well, the 


tradilioaal ipot where the foniidei SrsL eatsbliiihed hi* cell and 
church. At Lhe etat end of the ciTpt is au old recumbent aUtu* 
known na St. Muugo'a Tomb, but belieied to be connected with the 
lamb of Bishop Wiahui (131S): 

During the first half of thia century Mr. Edward Blore, undoi 
direction of the GoTemmect, repaired uid renewed certain parbi of 
the bnilding which hud fallen into decay, maintainiug with scrupulani 
Bdelitf thB geasral chamctcr and style of the origioaL At the same 
time the ancient tower and consiatory house on the west face of ths 
cathedral were remoTud, an indiscretion which has been lamenltd mom 
on antiquarian than ou architectural grounds. During the progress of 
the operations seferal fragments of niouldingi were found, which had 
been used aa " E!ling-up " in some of the walla, of a much older date tbui 
any part of the cathedral, thus proving the oiistenoe of a previoiia 
atrnotnrc on or near the same site. Those monldings are of beantifnl 
workmanship. The nave waa then opened up and restored to It* 
original simplicity and grandeur. 

Catbbdhal Winhowb, 

In theyeailSBSlt was resolved by a committee of citizens and others 
to enhance the beauty of the ancient edifice by a series of stained-glaaa 
windows. The local eifort was conntcnanced by Government, who 
defrayed the cost of the easteru window, one of the finaat of the series. 
The fiist window waa erected in 1859, and the laat in 1S61, when the 
whole (81 in number) were formally presented to the Crown. The 
windows in the navu, transepta, and Lady Chapel, were all eiecuted 
at Munich ; those In the chapter-honse and erypU by various BrJtiah 
and foreign artiata, whose names, as well aa those of the donora, are 
given in the dcKcriptive catalogue sold in the cathedraL The snhjeots 
are arranged with a certain regard to chronological order, commencisg 
at the north-weat oomer of the nave with the eipulsion of Adam lud 
Eve, and continued to the south-weat angle with other Old Testament 
characters. The grent weal leindoie contains subjects taken from the 
history of the Jens ; and the north transept aindow figures of the 
prophets and John the Baptist. The snbjects in the choir illustrate 
the parables ; those in the Lady Chapel are figures of the apostles ; 
and those in the great eMrm taituiau^, the evaneelista. The cdereBtoi^ 
windows are as yet only partially filled with st^ued glass. One of the 
moat deservedly admired windows is tho mGmoriBl one to EdwSkrd 
Irving, in the crypt, liy Bertini of Milan. 

The revenues of the See of Glasgow were at one time very consider- 
■Ue, as, beaides Hie royalty and Ijaroniea of Glasgow, 18 baronies of 
luid in various parte of the Idngdom and a large estate in Cumberland 
— deaominaled tho spiritual dukedom — belonged to it Parte of thciia 
revenues have fallan to the University of Glasgow, and port to the 

The cathedral [a surrounded by a graveyard literally paved with 
prostrate tombstones. On the north side of the cathedral is a mi 
rlkl tablet with doggral rhyme to nine persons who, in 1H6B 
1884, anfl'ered martyrdom for their adherence to te. Cwiewa^. "^va 
each side of the onlinarj eutmnce AonTW^s «' ■** M.'Cce&iii- 



memorials of the brothera BatchesoD, t 
Ui8 city, Mil of Mr. George Baillia, n 
poblic educstiona] porposes. Without its gate, on tlie nnrtli sida, is the 


a building whicb occupies the site of the Archiepiacopal palacs or 
Bishop's Castle of Glasgow. The last remains of tlio castle dis- 
appnared towards the and of the lath ceatnry, and a part of the 
materials was token to build the Saracen Inn in the. l^allongate. 
The principal architectural feature of the Iiiflrmar;, which wai 
deaigusd by the brothers Adam, and opened in 1791, is the ceatral 
dome, which fonoa a roof to the lecture and operating theatre. 
The iustitution contaioB B32 beds, aiid in front of the building ia a 
bronze statue of Sir James Lnmaden, a former Lord Provost, who 
for a long period rendered valuable services to the charitj. To the 
north of tlie InfimiBry are new buildings for the Medical School, 
Tai! NKfnorciuB, 
Tlie eminence which forms the Necropolis, or Fir Park Cemetery, 
rises steeply to a lieight of from 200 to 300 ft,, forming, with its 
rich shrabberies and multitudinous monuments, a noble background 
to the cathedral ; aud the entire surface of tbe rock is intersected 
by walks, and bristlea with column^ and with every varie^ ol 
monumental erections, individually interesting, but as a whole most 
oppressive. The cemetery is the property^af the Mercbante' Hbnsa, 
by which body the gronnds, in large part belonging to the estate of 
Weater Ctaigs, were acquired in 1850 from Sir Ludovio Stewwt of 
Minto. It is reached from Ohureh Lane, south of the cathedral yard, 
by the " Bridge of Sighs," specially thrown over the Molendinar 
valley to give acceaa to the grounds. Among the moat conapioaona 
monuments are— the column to John Knox, tlie monuments t« Dr. 
WiUiam Black, Mr. William M'Giivin, Geo. Coventry, Merohant (Ionic 
Temple), the Eev. Dr. Heagh, Major Montaith, Charlea Tennant of 
St. RoUox, Colin Dunlop of Tollcroaa, Principal M;ii"farlan, the 
poet Motherwell, Sheridan Enowles, and Edward Irving, the latter 
of whom is buried in the crypt of the cathedral. From the 
of this hill of tombs the speetatDr may survey the city in 
its most striking aspects ; — the masaive and venerable cathedral, the 
great sea of bAiildings around, from which spring up countless spitM 
and chimney -stalks, and the broad, ship-laden Clyde "" 
meat to John Snoi — a Doric pillar, snrmounted by a statue of tlu 
Refonner— was erected by pablic subscription in 16-21, Kverkt yettn 
before there was any thought of making the Fir Park into 


ooneUry, An iatereatiiig earner of tlie Necropolis ix tbe Jews' 
burying-gronnd, aeparsted on the north-weat side from tile general 
portion, ami reached b; a, hacdaomo gateway erected at the eipeuM 
of tlie Merchant Hoiiee of Glasgow. The first hody placed ii 
oemetery was that of a Jew, who was buried in 1832, 
St. Rollox. 

Paaaiiiif in a line with the High Street by the Royal lufinualTk I 
northward through Castle Street (so named ficm tlie Bishop i{ ■ 

Oaatie), Cha Moukliiid Canal ia croaaed, and the visitor ' 

finds himaelf in the grimiest of manufacturing regions, 
one band BTe the great malleable -iron works of the Glasgow Iron 
Comiiaiiy. Ou the left hand, stretching aloug the canal banb, aie 
the iamous St. fioUcn Chemical Worka of Charles Temiant and 
Company, The morka are diBtiognished by the great chimney 
staUc, 43S ft. high, long the pride aod boast of Gla!!gaw, natil aQ 
ambitious rival erected another a few Teet higher, designed by the 
Inte Profsaaor Macqnorn Rankiiie. 

The Ai.rxasdka 1'ai!K, 
one of the niimerous public plcasurc-gronnds within the oil^, ia 
situated at the extreaie east, and can be reached by tramway mini 
George Square or Duke Street. It was aequired at a coat of £10,00" 

is Bompo.sed. It contains a 

.S.ittcHJEiiALi. Street. 

ij means of reaching the Kelvingrove 

The main avenue to the west end ol'Gliisgow is Sauchiehall Street, 
which is traversed throngliont by tramway oars every few niiiintes 
for Charing Cross andOvornewton, ecoisingArgyle Street at Ji 
Street and Union Street. It oontflins the Etnjalty Theatre and th? 
Empire Palate; the Tkealre-ltoynl ia farther on, in CoweaddenjH 
Street. On the left-hand side, at No. 173, ia the hislitvU of Fi^M 
. AtIi, a recent erection containing an elegant suite of galloriffifl 
periodical exhibitions of modern art. At the suniraWB 
jf .the gentle ascent, on the right-hand side. No. 270, ia a statdgi^ 
j^ock containing tlio ConronATioN Cali.rries of Art.' TheajH 
^^leries possess an extensive, and in many respects ricli ano^ ] 
"klnable, collection of Dutch, Flemiah, Italian, and niodera 
Brili.ih works of art. Many of the Duteh pietnres are especi- 
ally interesting. Two famous ones are, St. Victor and Donor 
(Q. Van de Goes), and The Man ia Armour (Rembrandt). 
"' ■ ' 1 rich collection of statuary and busts of IomJ 
t Glaasow Grcira (In People's Palace), iiid nt CanmliW.. 




notables, but the gem of the sculpture ie a marble statne of Pitt, 
eiecated by Flagman in 1812, a classical work nortlij inall respects 
of him whnm it cotiimemoratea as well as of the great urtiat who 
produced it. The Ralleries are open/n;e daily 10 to 6 ; Sat 10 to 
10 ] Tuea.. Thuts. 10 to 4 ; 7 to 10. Winter, 10 to 4 Mon., Wed,, 
Fri. ; Sat 10 to 10. OatiilogUB of the collection 6d.— Is. with 
photographs. Just beyond is a circular erection used for Titanic 
panorama, with a restaurant attached. In this vicinity is BlyUa- 
vioad Square, a spacious and handsome residential localitjr, and 
there are around it many beautiful churchea, the architectural 
featnres of which dcaerye notice. That especially at the comer of 
Pitt Street and St. Vincent Street [the St. Vincent Stred V.F. 
CMrch) by Alasander Thomson, known as Greek Thomaon from 
his devotion to strictly classical architecture, ia one of the happiest 
of modem eipresaiona of taste based on BUfient models. The 
High School of Glasgow in Elmbank Street ia an erection in the 
FloreDtine style, with a range of statuary Rguros by Mossman. 

At Charing Cross stauda the Qrand Hotel, end from thu point 
westward extends the fashionable reaidential quarter of the city. 

Tub 9t. Andrew's Halls, situated in Berkeley Street and 
Kent Road, off Sauchiehall Street, were opened in 1877-78. The 
Great Hall accommodBtos an andience of aboat 3000 ; and the 
orchestra, 650 performers. The bnildings coat upwards of £80,000, 
are now the property of the Corporation. They have been enlarged, 
with the idea of adding a number of small lialla. 

Kblvinorovr Park and Museum. 

At the western extremity of Sauchiehall Street are a number ai 
elegant modern terraces and streets. The highly picturesquo lands of 
Woodlands and KolvingroTB, ooromem orated in song, were pDrahasad 
by the Corporation at a cost of nearly £120,000, and form " The 
Kelvingrave Park." The ground was beautifuUy laid out by Sir 
Joseph Pa!:ton. A handsome mumoTial fountain has been erected in 
the park, to oommemorate the services of Lord Provost Stcirart and 
others associated with him io promoting the introduction of Looh 
Katrine water into the oity. The surmounting bronze figure ia that 
of the " Lady of the Lake." The base contains a nicdaUIon portrait 
of Lord Provost Stewart, with some allegorical designs. 

In the south-west comer of Kelvin Grove is what was the Oitii 
Industrial Mussmh, a highly popular institution, the nucleoa of 
which was collccteJ in what was formerly Kolviugrove House. 


The aalleotions embrace natuml history, ethnology, and eapedally tbe 
industrial aria. A very due series of binli, both Britiah uid eiotic, 
luu been already acquired. It was open dul<r /rte, and was vUitsd 
by about a quarter of a million persona amiaally. The building 
formed an. important part of the grent Exhibition of IBOl, being 
uaed for the Ijoan Collection of pictures and other eihibiti. The 
Museum colleutioDS have now been transferred ta the Fhie Act 

OrerlooMng the Park are Park and Woodlands Terraca!, Park 
Gardens, Claremont Terrace, and many elegarit streets and squarwt ; 
also Park Charch (Established) and the Free Church CoUege. 

Thb Units hs ITT. 

Tte UnlvBiBity of Glasgow, a building of which tbe city may be jnstl j 
proud, is sitnated on the summit of Oilmore Bill, on the north bonk 
of tiie Kelvin, bounding with KelTingrove Park. It owes its origin to 
Bishop Tnrnbull, the charter in its favour having been granted to him by 
June) II. at Stirling, in 1443, and the bull for its establishment by Pope 
Nichola* V. in 1450.' After encountering many difficulties, ariaing from 
tliB unsettled character of the times, the institution rose, towarda the 
end of the I7tk century, to the highest fame. Among the many 
eminent names which adorn its annals, and have shed a lustre over 
the literary and civil history of Scotland, may be menlioneii Melville, 
Boillie, Burnet, Simpson, Butchison, Cullen, Adam Smith, Reid, Millar, 
Kichardson, Jardine, Young (one of tbe most eminent Oreek soholars 
of his day), aud Sandford (also distinguished as a Greek scholar and 
orator). The government of the University is entrusted ia a ITQiveTsity 
Court, consisting of a lord rector and his assessor, the principal, a 
dean of faculty, and three assessors, appointed respectively by the 
Obancellor, the University Council and the Seuatus. The Chaacellor- 
skip is a permanent office, and the rector is appointed trtennially by 
the votes of the students grouped into tour "nalaona." 

The architect was tbe late Sir Q. Gilbert Scott, and the general style 
adopted is that of the Early Engliuh, with an infiision of the Bcoto- 
Frenoh domestic and secular architecture of a lal«r period. Tbe 
foundation was laid by the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1868, and 
tbe opening ceremony took place in 1 370. The best view of the stmctiurs 
as a whole is obtained from the higher walks in the West-End Park. 

The ^Tc, rising 300 ft. from the ground, and the dominant feature 
of the principal fa^e, was erected in ISSS, — the coat being covered 
by a bequest of itSOOO from Mr. A. Cuuniugham, Deputy Town-(!!lark, 
It was designed, in open Gothic tracery, by ilrlr, J. O. Scott, aoo of 
the architect of the building. 

T)ie lloor-apaee in the boildinga amounts to more than 30,000 

tlmi, and biv« been prlntgd by the UaltUnd Club under the alitctship □[ Ur. 
OowDD InneL Saveial DBS. in tba Hnnterian Huseum belonging to On 
Ulilf MVlty an wortby of noldce.— Vftl. WSS, CoiHm%nWiv,iQV.'ioa. 



!e of library and n 
Dinstf-sigbt sppropriaUii Apartments, siid eacti the 
Dlus-room witb its retiiing roam, aud, vtheneTer ueocssarf, al 
BdlUMe Isboratarien and apparatus roooiB. A vnr; large and com- 
modions public reading-room has been provided for the atudenla in 
oonneotion with the library ; and, principaUy by the benatacHon of 
Dr. John Mlntyra— wbo made a gift of ^£5000 for tlis pnrpose— a 
*^ Student' M Union" baa been erected in IJie College gronndi^^ 
. Tbe Common Hall of the Univeraity— known la the Bute Ball— 
is one of the most itiiportant architeutural features of the buildlnga. 
It forms the central >nd moiD portion of a pile nhich interseet*, Tron 
north to south, the great quadrangle, nnd binds togather the yarioui 
publio departments, senale hall, library, reading-room, and musanm ol 
tbe college. The Bute Hall rises over a range of clolatera, and inter- 
nally is of grand proportions. The Bttinga throughout are riebly 
wrought in the Gothic style, and a niagnificent Gatbic acceen. at the 
aouUi end separates this noble apartment tiom the smaller BsndaljAi 
Hal!, which connects with the Senate Hall, etc. At tbe north end Um 
Grand Randolph Staircase supplies the principal en 
anoeaa also to the reading-room, Hnnterion Museum, eto. lliB 
Hall waa erected at the expense of the Marquis of Bute ; the 
the Bandclph Hall aud staircase falls on the bequest to the Unlvt 
by Qiarles Randolph, shipbuilder ; uml the cloiatera 
raected by public subscription. 

The TJniveraity Library is specially rich in philosophic^ and 
logical literature, and contains among olher collections the librarj' 
the late BIr William Hauilton. In the Huntorian Library there is'« 
most valnabls series of Carton's, Pynaon's, and other early prloted 
books, and several fine plotnres. The JfiweBjn is well supplied wMl 
mineralogical and geological specimens, besides which it cout^ns a good 
general coUoction of natural history. It alaa contains on InnlHatfaj 
collection of coins and medals which may be inspected in detail' 
giving a few days' notice to the keeper of the Museum. It is 
^ily from 12 till 8 or 4 o'clock ; admiseion 6d. 

In Univeraity Avenue, at the north-west corner of ths 
Dniveraity huildlngs, there is a new Botanical Clais-RwiB 
Hnaenm, the gift of an nnons-moni donor. 


TTiB lar^e red-stone buildiiig with ornale towei* opjMBite H 
BOiithem face of the University is the Hoyal Institute of lineA 
(wsii.327), the roundationof which was laid by I1.R.H. theB 
of Yor> on 10th Septeratier 1897. 

The Wehtebn Infikuary. 

In cloae jiroiimity to the Univorsity ia tlio Waatcrn Inflnno^ 

The inatitntioQ contains 100 beds, and is largely aged J 

aJ/oical instrncthn in connection witli tbe Medical School of tj 

■nyM I, 



Unfvariitj. The ground on whicli it atanda is about 12 anres in 
extent, and the eizs uf tlie main buildiog is about 160 b; 260 Tt. 
Adjoining the Infirmary sre the Childrca's Hoapital and th« 
recently erected buildings of Anderson's Medical School. 
Botanic QAtiDKHS, eto. 

Acyacent to the fashionable reaideotial sabuibs Hillhaad and Kelvin- 
■irle, aud lying to the nortli- west of the College, are the Botanic Gardens 
and the Kibble Crystal Palace. Admission /ree. TIis Gardens are 
pleasantl; situated and eitensire, with a splendid range of hothoune, 
iacluding the SUdlt Palace, a largo coaaervatory 150 It. in diameter. 
At ths north end of t)ie Garduna a hanilnome neir bridge cmssea the 
Kelvin. At tlist end and at the south entrauoe tliere are "Low 
Level" Etationa (" Eirklea" and " Botanic Gardena "). but one may 
return M the city by the tramway lino alon^ the Great Weatem Aoad 
and New City Road, strat-^hing in a straight line npwarda of a mile 
and a half, by Cowcnddeus, to iha junction of Renfleld and Sanchieliall 
Street.- Thia (anas one of the great trunk routes of the city. 

Beyond the Kelvingrove Park and the Weatem InBrnjory ia tbe 
andent village of Farlick. now a large and thriving independent burgh, 
and to the north-west of the city, by New City Road, lies the aubnrban 
burgh of MaryhiU. with the new military barracka. Beyond Maryhill 
wo oome to BearsdeK, a beniitlftilly wooded rertdential snburb. 

It will be convenient, before crossiug to the south side of Glasgow, 
to notice the river and the variona objects of interest along its bsnta 
as it takes its coarse througti the city. Beginning at SiUh^glen 
Bridge, the most ancient structure of that kind left in the city, 
although it dates only from 177E, and following the course of the 
river a short distance, we arrive at the eastern eitrem ity of QUugow 
Oreen. Thia famous park, the property of the citiiens of Glasgow, 
extends upwards of a mile along the north batik of the river, and 
measures almost Vifi acres in extent. It has been acquired by 
the Magistrates and Council of Glasgow by jinrchase at various 
times between the years leaS and 17S2. The OW Oreen of Glaagow 
was situated farther west, and is now completely bnilt over. When 
it first became common property is not known ; bat a portion ot it 
ia supposed to have been included in a grant by James II. to Bishop 
Tnmbull (H50). St. Andreia's SvspensUm Bridge connects the 
Green for foot-passengers with Hutchesontown at the ]Iumane 
Society's Houae, and the Nelson Momiment ia a conspicuous object 
towanis the west sjJe of the Green. The monument — an obelisJl 
H3 ft, in height— is said to be an securate representation ol ono 


nv in the Piuza del Popolo at Rome. The adjoicing foontain i| 
} tiie gift of HesBra. Doulton and Co, Glasgow Green ia 
lesorC for the east-end population of QUsggw, who oaii oowada;^ 
End recreation and inatmction in the museum and winter-garden 
tlia PeapWi Palace — the large handsomE huildiog on the north sidf .1 
of the Giaen, opened by the Eatl of Roseborj on 2and January lefiS* J 
LThs Moorish red-aud-ycLow brick building to the eaet of it ia k 
■5»rpot factory. Neat it ia a "Low Losel" railway station. 

At the lower end the river ia crosaeii by the Albcrl Bridge, n 
I extremely handsome structure in three spans, which cocuects tt* 
classic "Sautmarket" of Bailia Nicol Jarvie with Hutchenntowl 
S dJBtrict of which the Hutcheaon Hospital CorporatioB is the bnd 
superior. Just above the bridge a tidal dam costing £60,000 b 
tnen erected. An old-clothea market, formerly held ii 

■urket, is sow under the control of Uie Coiporatlon, an< . 

r nodated in a apecinlly construoteil building in Ureenilyke Street, fa 
FAe Green. The portion of Ssltmarket nearest the bridb-e is called JO^ 
r. ^piaTc, and was formerly the place of public esecntion. The . 
«Md Court ffoua in Jail Square, facing the Green, is a beantifnl ei 
of Greek architecture, the most imposing feature of which i> the dignified 
Doric portico. It was erected, 18X0-14, from desigoa by W, Startc, 
and at first aerred as municipal offices after the removal of the andent 
Tolbooth. Lower down, the river is crossed by the girder bridge of the 
Glasgow and SonCh.WeBUrn and City Uaion Raihoay; and near it 
crosses the Vicloria Bridge, a granite stmctnre, which i> the modem 
representative of the original bridge of Glasgow, thrown aixose the 
water about the year 1345, by the exertions of Bishop Rae. IHiat 
venanble structare was linnlly abandooed and removed hi 1847 ; aad 
the Victoria Bridge, begun in 3851, was, at an eipenae of nearly 
£40,000, opened for traffic in 1868. Next in order comes PortLurf 
Street Sa^iension Bridge for foot-paasengera, erected hi 1853, giv^pg oon- 
vailBut BCceaa from the South Side to St. Enoch Square and Bnchanaji 
StreeL Host important of aU la the Jamaica Street or Glasgow Bridge, 
bnllt of granite in 1835 from designs by Telford. After uadei^oing • 
thorough reconatcuctlon, thia bridge wss again opened on 24tii Hay 
1899 by Lady Richmond, wife of Sir David Richmond, Lord Provost 
Jnit below it is the new OdUdonian RaUviay Bridge, a massii-e piece 
of engineering, which, however, spoils the eflect ot Glasgow Bndgik ] 
Below thia no bridge crosses the Clyde. J 

At this point bsgitia the Broomielaw, tbs liarboor of QlaagosiB 
which may be said to extend on both aides of the river with lit^sa 
interruption for a mile and a half, to where the Kelvin jaiaa UmI 
Clyde. In addition to the quay apace there are three BpaoiowV 
docks — Kingston Dock and Prince's Dock on the south, and Qasen^'l 
Dock (see p. 312) near the lower extremity of the harbour o 
ortli aide. The steamboat quay at the Broomiolaw presi^nt? during I 



the summer months a scene of great animation, and a little lower 
down, at the berths of the Irish, Liverpool, and Highland boats, 
there is also usually much bustle. Lower down the river stately 
examples of naval architecture may be seen at Lancefield, Finnieston, 
Mavisbank, and Plantation^ quays on both sides of the water 
Engines, boilers, and heavy machinery, are usually put into new 
vessels at the 75-ton crane at Finnieston. The river and harbour 
from Victoria Bridge to Whiteinch have been made a convenient 
highway by the introduction of small steamers — *'Cluthas" — which 
ply at frequent intervals, touching at convenient points, and afford- 
ing an excellent means of iDspecting the harbour and shipping. 
At intervals for some miles farther down the river there occur great 
shipbuilding and marine engineering establishments, the yards of 
Elder or Napier at Govan, or of Brown & Co, at Clydebank, being 
especially noteworthy. 


The portion of the city on the south side of the Clyde comprises 
the districts of Hutchesontown, Laurieston, Tradeston, and King- 
ston partly in the barony of Gorbals ; beyond which lie the dis- 
tricts of Kinning Park, Pollokshields, Strathbungo, Govanhill, 
Crossbill, and Crossmyloof. These districts are chiefly industrial. 
Eglinton Street, a continuation of Bridge Street, leads straight 
to Crossbill and the Queen's Park. On the left-hand side, at 
some distance, are the great blast furnaces and ironworks of William 
Dixon (Lim.), which nightly illumine the south-eastern sky of Glas- 
gow. The Queen's Park (100 acres) And Richmond Park (44 acres) are 
both in this quarter. The former, from which commanding views 
of the city may be obtained, was laid out by Sir Joseph Paxton. 
The latter takes its name from Lord Provost Sir David Richmond, 
who declared it open on 27 th Sept. 1899. From Govanhill aD 
electric tramway goes north to Glasgow Cross and Springburn. 


South of Queen's Park is the Southern Infirmary of Glasgow, 
which was opened in 1889, at present containing 80 beds. A little 
beyond is the village of Langside^ where Queen Mary met with her 
final defeat (May 13, 1568), an event which "settled the fate of 
Scotland, affected the future of England, and had its influence over 
all Europe." This battle took place shortly after the Queen's 
escape from Lochleven Castle. She had been joined by a coil- 
siderable party of fiiends, who laA&^d. wi «rcK^ ^il ^^'^'^ ts^js^^ 



wimmainieti by Argyll, to rdnaiatu on the throne. This 
army ^vis uu ita march hum Harailtou to Diinibarton CastU 
(ooiiaiderad than impregnuljlfl), when it encountoied tha Hflgent 
Murray, nho had concentrated liis forces an the ridge of Langside 
Rill. The struggle lasted only three- Quarters of hq honr. Tha 
Queen's army was entirely routed, and Mary herself, wiio witnessed 
tlie battle from a hilloali near Cathcnrt Castle, a tiiile anil a half to 
the east of Langside. fled to tlie Borders, and took refoge in 
Kngland. A memorial, composed of two gjantte Blabs ueighing 
ubout two tons, has been erected by Eail Cathcart, on M-liat is 
known as the Qucpn's Enowe, at Catiicart, to mark the ajut where 
Queen Mary witnessed the diaasier. A public memorial bas been 
erected in the village of Langside, at a cost of about £1000. It 
was designed by Mr. Akx. Skirring, and consists of an ornamental 
column surmounted by the (igure or a lion. Ruiiud the hnsa are 
emblematic "arma" of the period. 

A P^RK of uO atres was in 1886 preseiite.i to the citi^eua by Mr. 
James Dick, a hoot manQfacturer in Olaegow. 'llie park is situated on 
CaUikin Braes, beyond Rutherglen, about SJ miles aoutb-east of the 
aity bonndary. From ttie ao-ralled Quean's View at " (Jneon Mary's 
Stone" within this park the most exteasive and varied view oTthedyile 
valley m^y be obtained. Tha city lies expanded like a map to Uu 
north-west, having for a hackgronnd Iha CampHia Hilla, to the west of 
which are Ben Loiaonil and the mgged monntains of Argyllshirfl. 

r IKIEHBST at a wilier radius 
from Glasgow. Several to the east and north linve already been de- 
scribed in connection with Edinburgh, and may be hero named, vit — 
To Loch Lomokq, Tbossachs, etc., viA Ballocb (pp. 150-168), 
To Abbrfoylk, cid Lenzie, Kirkintilloch, LannoWown, and Killeam 

(pp. SG and 141). 
ToSTmiJNo,mflBallooh and Buoklyvie (pp. 139-40); md LarbBrt(p.S5). 
To BBiHBDBaH (1) by North British Railway, vid Falkirk, Polmonl, 
■nd UnlithEOw(p|i. 82-S , ;or (2) by Caledonian Railway, -mi Mid- 
calilei (p, 8] ). 

The Rflii.WAtfl TO DoMBiHTON — North British and Caledonian, 
starting from the respective low-level stations of each company — along 
the north bank of tha Clyde pass the same objects of interest as an the 
saU down the river described on pp. 357-359. From Dumbarton one 
branch goes north, up the Vala of Leven, bv Renlon, Bonhill, and 
Alexandria, to BiL ch 1 n th k p 1 g th coast to 

Helgnbburoh (p. 3G1) 

Puraaing the Rod e t Balloch f Lo h L m d aa abov;, wa 
pass tha mannfactoring vdlage f P nt f unded b Mra Smollett 
of Bonhill in 1782 and na I Inn f h I ghter-hi-)aw. 


Hre. Itenton of l.iinDirrtou. It cantaiuB an obuli^ to Cliu niciuoi; 
ut Toblu Smollett, the novelist, wbo was born in 1731 iu the 
ueighbonrhooil, near Bonliill House, the old aent o! the Sniollettii. 
OpiKwitB Rentoa is Strathleven Honse. The villugea of Bonhiil and 
Aleiamlria — inn — (nnited hy s bridge over Ote Loven) contnin ■ largs 
population, engii^:ed in tlie gormuTidiDg blesch and print worka, which 
owe their o.lgin uud eSicienay to the eicelleat quality and abuntlanl 
mppiy nf water, llie stream. Sowing deep, unootb, and silent, be- 
tween it. lavel green hirnks, waa^once on n time— well deseril)ed by 

Xd roeka lin^udd thy dlTnpling luiur^e, 

WLt7< whitti roLind [iDliahisl pebbles spivrul." 

SoiB, we eau bari^ly iningina Smollett enjoying his morning iHith. 
Shortly before reaching Ball ooli wepasi on the lelt TulliechensD Caatle 
(James C&mpboll, Esq.), a new building in the baroniU atyle, occupy- 
ing a commanding position, and auiroundwi by extensive and beautiful 
grounds. The railway terminates at Balloch, where are two hoMt 
{Jialioch, and ^TnUiechrtBait Temperance). Paraengera are carried 
straight on to the pier, and to the aide of the steamer which mmgaten 

LoDH Lomond (i>. 164). 

The lemaining routes fruni (jlasgo» will be Found below. 


.Ifolili at Hauilton :— Hoyal, being OiJedoniaD iHatlan: CDrnmerdal, main 

Uian>U|{hEi>rs. At BoianiLL :— The Clyde, close bf Konh British statioa. 

DuKi Bf AdmiMlcn, Tuesday niid Friiiay (JO to 3)- Tuesday only to Botliwell 

VtBtOi BrlHshcr Caledoulan.taTTddingatonstation. Tbenca walk to BotliweU 
Ckatle {1 m.), and thanca another mile to Bothwdl station (S.B.), wlience take 
train Ca HriuiiltDn (S m.}, returning to Olasgow fcom either ilaCion a> 

Travelling to Hamilton by the Caiedomari Bailwa;, wa pass the 
town of RuTHEBQLKN shortly after leaving Glasgow. Thia town, 
cue of the most ancient royal barghs in Scotland, at an early 
period Bierdscd certain rights over Glasgow wUii«.'i}D&\&Niwx'«%&<iOtT^ 
a biahop's burgh. A liandaovne tawo-^vuiYjSiKtti* c«ii! 


in tliB old Scottish bsronial Btjie, was erected in 186! ; and beside 1 
it is thB Hpire of the ancient church of Rnthorglan, which data ■ 
back to ttie 12th ciDtury, On the left-hand side, aod on the (^ 
bank of the Cljds, are the Cljde Ironworks, among the oldest mil 
of blast furnaces now in Scotland, and where the Dxperimenta ware 
carried on which led to the introducttan ofNeJlsou's hot-blsst, and 
the great reforms in metallnrgy thereby etfccted. To the soath are 
Cathkin Braea (p. 332). At Neinton, where the Hamilton bmnch 
leaves the main line, are the huge works of the Steel Company ol 
Scotland, the first erected in Scotland for the taannfacture of mild I 
steel by the Siemens- Martin process. About] J mile to the eas^ ,« 
across the river on the main line to Carstaire (p. 292), b Ihi J 
pleasant modern town of Uddinqston {Hulel : the Royal), with 1 
handsome villas belonging to Glasgow merchants, and commanding 
lovely views of the vale of Clyde, 

Hamilton (10 mfleB sonth-east of Glasgow) is the capital of the 
Middle Ward of Lanarkshire, and an ancient parliamentary borgh, 
with 32,775 inhabitanta. It formerly carried on s oonsidemhle 
trade in weaving and tarn homing, bat now it depends chieiljr en the 
mineral wealth in the midst of which it is situated. It naed (or- 
merlf to be note^i for its flower and fruit gardens. la the old town 
a spot called Queenzie Neuk is still pointed out, where Queen Marj J 
rested on her journey to Laugside. The old steeple and pilloij I 
were built in the reign of Charles I. The Moat Hill, or andent 1 
seat of justice, the Runic cross nenr it, and the carved gateway, all 1 
in the palace park, qnita close to the Mausoleum, mark the dte of 
the original portion of the town, which was known as the Netharton. 
The modern town contains a handsome town-hall, erected in 1883 ; 
a suite of county buildings and court-houses classical in s^lu, 
of an earlier date ; an old tolbaoth aud a modern prison, uid ui 
extensive range of military barracks, used for both the regtllU'- 
troopa aud militia battalions. The Dutch gardens of Bum- 
cleuth, cou9tiuct<:d in terraces on the steep banks of the Arm, 
1 mile S.E, of the town, with their fantastically triinmed shrubbery 
and quaint lurniture, form a must attractive object. The gardeiu 
were laid out by John Hamilton, an ancestor of Lord Bdhavan, 
about 1BS3, and are now the property of Lord Ruthvan, 



P&rk oil tlie naith tule. The Low Futka are open Lo llie publia [tM 
twice a week, on Tuesdsj' lurl Friday from 10 to 6. Od otlier liays 
oTderi of wlmiuion cko be olitAined ti the Estates OSice, which is 
at the Pllocs. "Bern nlso orders Die iesued to udioit visiton to the 
Higli Parka of Bamiltmi, where may be seen the mim uf C'adzow 
Cuatle, tlia uncient oiiIch, and llts wild nhite mttlu on the luft btiok 
of the Avoii, and the deer-park, with Chatulhocuult on the opiioslto 
Bid«. The Interior oi tliu pnlnue in not nhoviD. 

"Rie old palaee was a plain editioe, wallod olT from the main street 
df the Notherton, and the most annient pnrt was removed to make 
room for it? modem enhatltnla. Ths front of the new structure ii a 
spedmen of the enriched Corinthian order, with n projecting pillared 
portico, after the style of the Temple of Jnpiter Stator at Rome, 264 
ft. in length and 60 ft. in height. The 12 pillars of the portico are 
formed of Bolid blacha of Ktono, qiiarricd in Dnlaerf, and ?aeh reqnired 
90 fanreas to draw it to Ita position. 

The interior of the palace ri richly decorated, llio principal holli ^ 
and apartments are the marble hull and grand staircase, the new 9tat» 
rooms, the pf rturB-gallBry and old stnle-rooms, the library, the Beekford 
Ubrary, the dining asloon, the dnchesa'a rooms, and the charter-room ; 
but since the di;ipuraal by sale of the goigeoUB fnmititre, magnifloent 
plctuns, and books, which it one time rendered Hamilton Palace tbc 
most aotable tceiuu re-house i f art in Scotland, the interior is of little 
interest. There aj^, however, sciue few good piutnrus by Van Dyck 
and other well-known artists a till rumaiuiiig. 

Within the groimda is the Mnnsolcum, a structure resembling in 
general design that of the Emperor Hadrian at Rome (now the Castello 
di SI- Angelo). Under the floor are vanlts. arranged according to the 
faahioo of a catacomb. The rustic basement contains eOigiee of Life, 
Death, and Eternity, each personiRed by a human visage. The chapel 
ddora are formed of bronss panels, copied &am the famona Ohiberti 
gates at Florence. Ita floor ie a beautiful mosaic of rare and coatly 
marbles, granitcEi, end porphyries. In one of the recesses is the tomb 
of the tenth Dnke Alexander, who erected the mausoleum, an ancient 
I^ptian sarcophagna of black marble covered with hieroglyphics, 
•nie chapel resonnda to the Bmallest noise with a musical and long, 
drawn-out echo of singular sweetness. The erection woa deaigned by 
tha late David Bryce. R.S.A., aod is said, from first i" last, to hare 
nost nearly iUL'.OOi. 

About 2 miles south-east of Hamilton, within the weatern high 
park, are the ruins of Cadiow CatiU (the original baronial residencB 
of the H.imiltoa family, and the subject of Scott'a spirited ballad^ 

ancient anrt powerfnl famll)! of Doiinlas, Tlio royal connection of the family 
inn from the second marringe of Jimsa, the Brat Lord BaBidton, with Prlncesi 
Uary, eldeat elsterof James III. Bf this tiiirrla^ be had ■ sua, Jam«, hli 
anecotsoT ■ and i dang}it«r, Blinheth, nhn being married tn Katthew Btewart, 
Ttarl of Lennoi, hecania gianrimother to Heary DamlEy, hither of James Vl 
Othsr members of tliB family were oreateil Earl of Amin hy Jamea IV.,miA 
Unka Dt Chatetbemult bj Henry II. of ¥n,nca 





noble r.hose arc the aniiiiiiit oaks, the remains of tha Culeiloniaii Forest, 
where still browse eonie of the breed of Scottish wild cittle, ot the 
saniB breed as those still preBBTved at Oliillingliani. It used to be the 
Cnstora to BlHUglitar several of these every year in order to aflbrd a 
New Year's Day dinner to the poor of tlie town. 

In the eastern ilear-park, add nearly opiiositti Gadzow Castle, la the 
chatemi so-callci of Chateiherault, fiaely s 
eminence rising from the side of the Avon. The walls of the chief 
B|iaitiiients exhibit some fair speclmeus of Preneh deooratjve art, of 
tlia era of Louia Quatorte, in TviMd-carving and stucco. The hmlding 
l!, however, but a poor "imitation" one, and only a "front," and has 
been mneh injured by the coal workingn beneatK 

BotkmU Bridge, which croeies the Clyde 'i miles uDith of Hamilton, 
is the scene of the encounter which took place in 1B;H between the 
royal forces under the Duke of Monmuutli aud the CoveDauUra, on 
which occasion EDO of the latter were killed, aud double that number 
taken piiBonara. ' The bridge haa been much altered, but a part of the 
ancient structure still remaim. The reader may be remindod of 
the spirited description given of this engagemeut in Scott's Old Uor- 
lality, as well as in the ballad contained in the MiialTdty qf t/u 
ScoUitk Bonier. The level grounds which stretch from BothWeU 
Bridge along the north-east bank of the river once formed the patri- 
monial estate of Hamilton of Botliwellhaugh, the assssniu of the Regent 
Murray. The site of bis house is within 100 yards of the present fsrm- 
house of Bothwellhaugh, and is marked by a very old genn-tree (wild 
cherry). The estate was a " hawk's-flight " al land, giante ' " 
to its hrst possessor. About a quarter of a mile east of thi 
tbeSanthOaldBrisBpaQcedbyaui>]d Roman bridge. Halfi 
of Bothwell Bridge la BotkvrtU Village. Is the manse Joanna B>ilUs 
was born, her father baving been minister of this parish (or 
years. The old church, which is still etanding, is an a 
Gothic fabric. It has lately been well restored, and b cartaioljr 
worth a visit. It is now joined ' ' .... 

as a part of it. Within its walls the uufurtanate Robert, Duke 
□f Rothesay, who was afterwards starved to death in Falkland 
Palace, was married to a daughter of Archibald the Qrlm, Sari 
of Itonglaa. The ruins of BnlhtoeU Cattle' stand on the right 
bank of tlie Clyde, about a mile from the village. They exhibit 
~B of the most perfect examples of the Gothic style of avchi- 

!t of a large oblong quadrangle, Banked, towards tha 


by l» 

circular t< 
ft. in height 

wera. Some 
The fosee at 

parts of the walls are 11 ft. 1 
d new part can stdl be traced. | 


oftly before this U. 

led 11 mUes souUi of 
has been erscMid to 

CM, the 


lUBDloa. Lo 

r AynMia. 

Snundoi 1 









^t the east end are the remains of the chapel, with shafted windows, 
accompanied by a font, altar-stance, etc., in the open space beyond. 
A circular dungeon, called Wallace's Beef-barrel, is still shown. Tlie 
walls are carefully preserved, though still a most picturesque ruin, 
covered with ivy, wild roses, and yellow wallflower ; — 

\ « The tufted grass lines Both well's ancieut hall. 

The fox peeps cautious from the creviced wall, 
Where once proud Murray, Clydesdale's ancient lord, 
A mimic sovereign, held the festive board." 

The Clyde here makes a beautiful sweep, and forms the semicircular 
declivity (celebrated in Scottish Song as Bothwell Bank. A fog-house 
on the river's brink affords the best view of the ruins. The castle is 
the property of the Earl of Home. The modem residence (a plain 
structure), standing on a lawn near the old cnstle, was built by the 
young Earl of Forfar, who was killed at the battle of Sheriffmuir. 

Blantyre Priory (very scanty remains), on a finely-wooded site 
across the river, was founded in the 18th century. One of the priors 
was the emissary of the Scottish commissioners appointed to negotiate 
the ransom of King David Bruce after the battle of Durham in 1846. 
It is the property of Lord Blantyre, but the ground is held on lease 
by the owner of Bothwell Castle. David Livingstone, the African 
traveller, was bom and spent his early years in the village of Blantyre, 
2 miles south, in the centre of a great coal and iron district. Here in 
1877 a most disastrous mine explosion occurred, 220 lives being lost. 
On the river Botten Calder, in the parish of Blantyre, there are a 
number of fine seats, among which is Calderwood Castle (Capt. Dundas 
Gill), worthy of a visit for the picturesque character of its walks and 
grounds, and for the fine suite of public rooms in the Castle. 

The busy little town of Motherwell is 2^ miles by road (3^ by 
rail) N.E. of Hamilton. The road follows the south side of the Park 
and nearly half-way crosses the Clyde just at its junction with the 
Avon, a picturesque spot. Half-a-mile beyond Motherwell the Calder 
is crossed. On its banks are a number of family seats, including, 2^ 
miles E. of Motherwell, Wishaw House (the old seat of the Belhaven 
family). Dalzell House (Lord Hamilton), built 1649, is on the north 
side of the Clyde, 1} miles S.E. of Motherwell. It has a curious peak 
tower in the old Scotch baronial style. 

At J^rcUhiwen, 7} miles south of Hamilton {ffotel\ are the ruins 
of the fine old casUe of Avondale, where the good Duchess Anne of 
Hamilton found shelter during the invasion of Scotland by Oliver 
Cromwell. The ruins stand on a rocky eminence on the banks of a 
small river called Pomilion, which falls into the Avon about a mile 
below. Close by is a monument erected to James Wilson, who was 
executed at Glasgow for his political off'ences. 

About 7 miles to the north of Hamilton lie 

CoATBBiDGR (pop. 36,991) and AiRDBifi (pop. 22,288)^ 
the centre of the iron trade oi ^(iot\Mi^, ^Jaa \«wa& wv^ ^is^««i^ 





^^^^^B otbers in the iinmediatB DoiglibaurliDail having been practii 
^^^^^B ' (mated by tlie industry. ^Vithin a. limited aren tliere 
V blast- furnaoea, and a greater output or iron, tlian are Ui bo found in 

I Any other region in tlie world. In ordinary IJines about BO 

I furnaces may be seen in blast in the distiict. Tlie manufacture oE 

I malleablB iton, of iron wire, and of all tbe h<iavier metallorguul 

I industries, are extensively prosecuted at Coatbridge. Coatbridgnj 

I may be reached either from the Central [low-level), BuohanuiT 

m - St., or Queen St. (low-level). 

DlstsflCs or Lfliis. 

to visit the Falls uf Clyde from Edinburgh or Glasgow. 
ca«e it is the best way to go bj tbe Ciiledonian Railway to 
irUch is witMn 1} miles of the river. Most of the < 
(high-level) li'alas brajich ofit at Cleghom (26 m.), the lut 
belbre Cantairs Jnnction, for Lanark ; ftiiin Edinburgh they 
through Carstairs (274 miles). A circular tour is run daily ' 
botb citieB by Laaark to the Falls, rotoming by CroBafotd, S 
from Lauaik, to Tilltetuillem station, tbe cIiEtauce ^m Lan^. 

to Crossfbnl (/nn) being coveivil by coach, nnd from Cnnafiiri' 

to Tillietudlem Statiuu (2 jn.] on foot. Half-a-mlla short of tUfl 
latter are the interesting and piotnreaque luins of Orai^nelhim OaaBt 
(wrongly Identiflod with the " Tillietudlem " of Boott's Old Mbri^Og) 
above the left bank of the Nettian Water, in the midst of beantUal 
md romantic scenery (Queen Mary is said to have resided here befOTe 
the ^ttla of Lsngside in 1668). Fanu for tbe round; — From 
I CHasgow, Sb. and r>s. dJ. ; Edinburgh, lis, Gd. and 7a. 6d. IJunoh 
Ht Clyilesdnle Hotel. Cheap ticket.^ are also issued from botb eltiM 
Ibr the round every day by train leaving 2 p.m. Edinburgh, 7». 8d^ 
is. lOd. ; Glasgow, 5s., 3s. 9d. 

The KoAD (river-side) Boirri!: &ani Hamilton to Lanark (14^ in.)j 
very pleasant, passing through a wooded country famoua for orohardt. 
The old county town of Lasark. ' (population 6567) is pleasantly 
situated. Tho inhabitants are engaged chiefly In tbeootton-spinning 
mills, and tho large " fancy- wood " works. It is hjatorioally in- 
teresting as the scene of many of the exploits of the Scottish patriot 
Wallace. A statue of tbe hoto is placed above the entraaoe to the 
parish church, and a number of places in the vioinity are assocrated 
with his namo. 

I TickQU o! udmisHinTi to Pslla (M.) gbtaioeil at Ucark Hotala (fSiita. 
>le: tm doH by atation : Bluk Rnll), Entnnca rroni coach -rouCs by Weatfl 
4^ OBlj-fSJ m. from Iknark, i from KirkGeMbftDk Un). ^H 



The Falls of Cljde are three in uuoiber, Bouninj^toa, Corra 
Linn, and Stonoliyrea, the two upper — lionuiogtou nod CuJ'l'o^— 
lieing laspeotively 2 and 2^ luilea above, while Stonebyres is 2^ 
miles below Lanark. Ai the two tipper fullB ocoiir within the 
private groimda o£ Bonnington Hovise and C'otohoiise, visitors re- 
quiro to be provided with tickets, or vith the toar tickota of die 
Caledonian, Hailwaj. The Falls may he visited (a) from the far — 
weataru^aide (adm, 6d.), deacendiog from the town to Eirkfield- 
bank I'rom station (IJ lii.)i ^°'' thaa taming south for 2 miles to ,m 
tbe West Lodge, which is the only entrance permitted on the Cora- 
house aide. Hence to Corra Linn is about hslf-a-milo ; to Bou- 
nington Fall, a mile. For a front view of the latter thia side a 
the better : for Oorra Linn, the other Hide ; (fi) from the other — 
eaatara — aide (adm. 6d.) Far this pntpoae take the road south from 
Lanaik, past the Blaok Bnll, and then, a mile from the Etatian, 
take a branch road, which divei'ges to the village of Ifew Lanark, ., 
originally established in tha year 1783, by David Dale of Glasgow, 
who transformed what was a rocky waste into a thriving viQttge 
and the seat of the then largest spinning iactory in Scotland. At ' 
Bankhead farmhouse descend by a nCeep braa to tha Bonctngton 
grounds (Sir Charh's Ross, Bait.), and proceed along the avenue, 
passing a small fall called DundaS' Linn. Tlie tiukuta of admis- 
sion are dolivered up at a second wicket, whsra the footpath leaves 
the road and eonducta through woods to Cobba Lins, whioh is 
generally considered the finest of the Falls. The river here makes 
three diatinot leaps, but these when the water is awollen become 
merged into one, and Che cataract descends 84 ft. int« the 

It mmta into tbe boiatoraati irheBllDi; giilpli ; 

WblU wblts the v&Dlbed founi at time* dlsplajs 

An iris Broil, thrown liglit from rock to rock."— tft-nftom. 

Tho beauty of the scene is enhanced hy tlie wooJ-covoicd rocks 
and the trees stretching their arms here and there almost across the 
fall At a considerable height above stand the ruins of the old 
costla at Corra, formerly a residence of a branch of the Somerville 
family. More distant from the river is their modem mansion ol 
Coreliousc, almoat hidden by lofty trees. The bust view of the 
fall is from the bed of the riviir, which may be reached by a rustie 
Btaircose. Here there is an additional effect produced by tllB '', 
precipitous amphitheatre which aurrounds 

" The abyss, in mhlcli the dowiiWBrd mlus !■ plunged.' 
Above the fall, Sir James Carmichacl, then of Bonninglfin (I70ff), 
fitted up a pavilion with mirrors so arranged as to give the cataract 
tlio appearanee of being preaipitated npon thespe;:ta[or. Thisrnstia 
buildbghas fallen into nceleot. Proooedio^.^tdiii'-A.'H^Tsia.-j'Vi'St _ 
cautiously from the top of the took o-vet w\v\Oft Ws ■Ki.^R.t ^^S\.a, ™*J 
which aJso sfibrdi a good view o? ttie o\i o».»tt"-- 


^^^ Ltv. 

fkvr.% or "ciTDE 

'* After leaving Com the same w&lk leads along to BoHNnroTOin 
L:HN. Tlie rirer between tlie two (alia Sowa throngh a preeijrifmii a 
channel, at some places about ]DD ft. in deptli. One spat is mlled 
"The Lover'a Leap." Though not ao high aa either of the other 
falls, BoniiingtoD Linn haa the diatinctive feature of being nabrokeiL 
Above the cataract the river moves vary slowly but all at ones it 
bands towards the nnrtb-weat and dividing tta current on eithsi 
sido, throws itaelf io one broad sheet over a perpendicular rock itf 
about 30 ft. into a deep basin. 

In one ImpeCuou 

toireut, dow 

n theilj 

It IhoDderlng il 

dU, and shukea the a'-. 

sheet. It rus 

Tbop whitentag by degreoa as 

prone HI 

And (torn the lo 

rocks bel 

Dashed In a clou 

. of fcam, it b 





An irou bridge leads to a rocky islet in mid-atream. 

Stokebyhes, the lareost fall, is 2^ miles below Iianark 

(unless the Corehousa Bide bo adoptad) a visit to it requir . 

retrace our stepa to Lanark, and then follow the roaif down th« 
river (eroasiug it at EirkSeldbauk), and entering at a lodge (fee 3d.). 
This fall bears a general likeness to Corra Linn, but it is of nther 
a less striking charaoter, althougli the river is here broador, and 
rushes over its precipitous bed with great grandeur. The fUl jg 
three times broken, but when full it has the appearaaoe of an mkl 
broken sheet precipitated aboat 70 ft. into a deep basin, called '^"^ 
Salmon-pool, being the point beyond which the nab cannot 

Cartlaiui Crags and WalliKes Cave form a romantic 
Mouse WateroppositeKirkEeldbanlr.amileN.W. orLanark. The 
stream flows through a deep chasm, formed apjjarently by an 
aarthqnake, instead of following a much more natural channel a 
little farther to the south. Tiie rocks on the north side rise to a 
height o[ nearly 400 ft. About 40 years ago a bridge was thrown 
acroas tbb ravins, consisting of three orchei 128 ft. in. height. A 
short distance beneatb is a narrow bridge, supposed tfl be of Boman 
origin. On the north side of the stream, a few yards abova the 
new bridge, "Wallace's Cave" is still pointed out as the hero'* 
hiding-plaoo after he had killed Easelrig, the English aheri£, 

Jtrviswood, the ancient seat of the illustrious John Baillia, who 
was murdered under the forma uF law during the reign of Charles 
U., is about a mila and a half northward from Lanark, on ths 
south aide of the Mouse. The attainder of Jerviswood wosrevataed 
by the Convention Parliament at the Revolution. Lee Rouse, the 
Mat of Sir Siiuon Macdonald Locbhart, Bart,, ia situated ii 
piotureaquB yiUej about 8 milea north-vest ol! IjLuaik. It hat 




been iDoilBmised in the osstellated Btylt^, and containi 
coUectiun of pictures. Here in kept tbe Fatuoua Lee Peony, tttafl 
ooe wada of which in Scott's no»el of The Talimian may btM 
familiar ta the reader. 

DoitaLAB Cabtlk. 
About a imle above Bounington Linn the Clyde receives the triliu- 
tary of the Douglas Water, which rises in a high liill called Cairntablo 
(17 niiles south of Lauarli] and Bowa through the pastoral Douglas 
Dale. Here are situated the ancient village of Douglas (pop. 1206, 
Dovglmi Amui Battl) and the Castle whidi forms the scene of Scott's 
norel Ceulie Dangsrous, and was the last place to which hs made a 
pUgrima^ in Scotland. The patpose of this excnrsion was, as he 
relates, " to exatnine the remains of the famous Castie, the Sirl ' 
of St. Bride of Douglas, the patron-saint of that great family, 
the various localities alluded to by Godscroft in his account of 
eatly adventures of good Sir James. " Theremaiuaof tbeoldCaat 
of Dnogtaa he describes as inconsiderable. " They consist of 
mined tnwer standing at a short distance from the modern 
which itself is only a fragment of the design on which the Duke 
Douglas meant to reconstruct the edlQco attor its last auiidentil 
destruction by Ere. There remains at the heail of the adjoining 
bourg the choir of the ancient church of St. Bride, having beneath 
It the vault which was need till lately as the hurial-place of this 
princely race. Here a silver cose containing the duat of what was 
once the brave heart of good Sir James is still pointed out ; and in 
the dilapidated choir above appears, though in a sorely ruiDons state, 
the once TDSgnificent tomb of the warrior himsel£ " ' This intereat- 
g scene may he reached by a run of about 12 miles from Lanark, 
the railway which leads into Aytahiru by Muirkirk and Cnm- 
k. The town of Atb (p. Stil) may conveniently be reached 
H Edinburgh {vid Carstairs) by this route, vid Jluirkirk (p. 357), 
flsing through some pleasing scenery. 

of Ue eatite, eioiied th< 



Tho built-up wLnaoi 

and or limes the Fat, wha M 

GLASGOW, TUflouGH Eekfbb«sbibb. in AYBfiHIBE. 

^^ ' The SoiUli-WeHtern Bailwiy is tiie chief nunuas of inte 

Uoii Utvtegn aliu«liw Hdd Eanfrew, Ayr, Dmufries (p, 233). Wigb 

(p. 302), anil Kirkcudbright (|>. 299) — comitisi iireienting m 

objscti (if great iateriifit. Ttiiit all LclongB to the Soath-Wectn 

OonntiM section, which wufbiokeu off on reorbing Ayr (p. 30?) ji_ 

I iMdttt thai thiH iiorlion, ivhlch U usuallj rmclicd rroni Ola^^w. ahouU 

iMlnclailed niKler thitt heading. 

Olabociw to KiLUABHOCK direct, vid BAiuiHEiD and 

TliiBisoDe ot the maiu linea of tlie 0. auil S.-W 
(3 iu.) Pallokskatuji, a manul'octiiiing town pleanantly dtuoted tnt] 
tllo White Cirt livei', in a fertile oountrj, and now »lmo9t 
ol'Oliugow. From this point for the uext few miles tlieveia nothlOf | 
to remark upon. Tliu lino iiaasea savernl large ami rapidly growing 
plioM, suvli itaBanheaxl auil fleilatou, wliero there is a 15tb-suitnq[:' 
)virisli vliurch, and amid a delightful hindauapa. To tlie noltli-l 
ire the Ferenele Hills, one of whieh particularly — Corklndale Law 
(S90 fL ] — commundB a view of wonderful exteut and beantj. fa- 
the east, on the bordoni of Renfrew sod Lanark, ore the importiuit' 
viJlagoa, partly manufacturing and partly agricultural, of ^isbjl 
MeaniB, and Eagleshaui, all occupying agreeable aitea in a fim 
nutornl country. Loch Liba, 2 miles beyond Keilaton on the 
milway, is n charming ivell-woadcd sheet of water. The first plluMi 
of interest in Ayrshire wo airive at ia Dunlop, where Barbara 
Oilinour, a peasant woman, fir«t introduced into Scotland 
17th uentury the making of the cheese from imakinunad 
which haa ever sinoe benii widely known as "Dunlop 
The uiut sLalion i> tlio pretty town of SCtuiartaa (populaLii 
oil tho Atinick Water, a. seat of wooUeii mauufauturra. About 
miles south, jiaiuiug the uld town ol' Kiijnaura, we reaoh 

I Hotel.- aeani'! 

the largest tawn iu Aymliii's (jiopuliiffoa 3&,u31), ait\iated kt<lM 
midat of one of the richest coal and iron liclds in SeotU&d. 
lUtesfrom the 16th century, and both the town and tieigMraUrliOoa. 
figure iu the history of the Covenanters. Kilmarnock haa Qie 
honour of being the place where the first edition of Bums's poaBH 
was published. It also contains a capital Literary Institntn and 
Library, and a theatre ; and there is a statne of Sir James Shaw,. 
Lord Mayor ot Lou Jon in lSOfl-7, who waabom here. The towu, 




stauds in a low sitmtion on both sidas of the Kiliii.iruock Wat 
tribatiiry of tha irrme Water. It wss long noted for the m. 
facture of brottd flat bouneta, once muoh worn in Scotland, and of 
the red and blue striped nightcaps kuown as Kilmsi'Uiwk cowls. 
Its presont manufactureB consist of llnisaels aad Tarkej carpets, 
knitted St.'otch caps, worsted shawls, and boots and shoes. There 
are beaidea some large foundrioa, Engiuearing and print works ; and J 
the town is also celebrated for its daii'jpiodace and cboese, of whicli J 
thefe is ajuiually a large show, A luiJe east are the niiui of tha T 
Caiilt of Dean, «i ancient seat of the Boy ds, Eai'ls of Eilmamoi^. 
Btlljifld House and policies, bequeathed to the town by the late 'j 
MiBsas Baehanan, are open to visitors. Close to the railway lies 
the Kay Park, in which the Bums Memorial was erected Angnst 
1879. The Park is a gift of Mr. Aleiander Kay, a native of Kil- 
mamock, who amassed a fortuna as an insurance broker in Glasgow, 
and in 1S88 bequeathed £16,000 to "Auld Killie "— £6000 foe the 
erection and aodownieut of two schools, and the remainder for the 
purchase of a public park. Sonie land on the estate of the Dnke 
of Portland, was purchased for £9000, and has been tastefully laid 
ont Besides thp Bums monument, the grounds contain a heantiful 

Tl.e Bit! of the monnm 

jit m very 

overloeks vbut mm ones ^^^H 

tbE Uttlo pttntme-offloe 


hnny," the prints 

iiorthallntKUiULiiiock ^^^H 


a. Toth 

le-Bhsped hlU of London, ^^^H 

and beyonil tha (Hleton 

doora, and 

the scene uf'lla 

ui:Mine Holy Fair.' To ^^^H 

tamed, the rising gronnd ^^H 

hldtog aU but . T.»rrow 

atrip of t 

he eituiry whieli 

ep.rateatheiat»,db«D ^^H 

Che miiDlBDd. To bbs 

ha Dbaerved th 

meted, iO tradition say. 

on the apot whete the hero 

bnminB of the bam« of 

JT. Not 

many niUea diata 

nt are "The Banha and ^^H 

■ana 0- Bonole Dnoo," ■ 

LugWa .rinding strtam,- 

Auld Hermit Ayr," and ^^^H 

otler localltlH rMdored Biiuoii> bj 

the OLUM of the Ayrshin plouahnu. ^^^^H 

Ths raoouiaBnt ti of Soottiili buonlal dialgn, the 

oruainental hoildlng in ^^^H 

which tbg aume la eaabr 

DOd CODBtSliDg of two StOd 

e and » lower rising to ^^^^ 

tho height of sg n. Two 

Hlehta of 

mice whe«. In an al^oie 1 

lifLhlgKfuins theao 

th, tl,= . 

jtus Is plaoad, nraplo apace being left to 1 

etaUt vlaiton to mik 

round tl 

flgnre. On a 1b«1 -ith the alcore la ■ 

beiidea a 

large number of 

niipuaeripta, Inclodhig | 

turday Bight," 

Twa DogB," "Epiatle 1 

to ■ Voang Friend," ■' Holy Will 

e'l Pmyer," "LaEt May a draw wooer," ) 


p(ntr«lti of Bunu, ona 

eood CO 

y of thst by Naa 

■Dj-th: besldea portiiilti 1 

ofllr.K*T. tha donor of 


i third flight or lUpi le 

>di Irani 


\*\«,wi -.VvAi torn* ^"^^^^^1 

The main S.W, Hailwajr lino contimieB south from Kilmsmool 
vU Hanchltne (p. 356), Camnoek [;>. 357), and SanqaliBr 


Ewlwaritii from Eilu]arucx:k, ■ branch tiDe of rail leada by " London 
bonny wondi iknil braes " to the local towns of lialsCon (pap, 4S7A' 
Mtt) and NaOnilnt (pop, Ml—kuUl), near which in the scime oTo 
or BIr WUlIam Wallara'a saecesaful ■kinnishei agumt the Enpi^ . 

(huUoow TO Ath, etc., vid Faiblbt and Dalbt. 
Tbii nilwBj route, farther west thau that (Useiibed above, 
Ifi minatei brings na to 

[EoUU: Onunty; Globe; OeurgB (Teniii,) oppoall* Tonn HilL Pop.. T»,« 
BailiMia fraa aioBaoiat—Bja. ftB,-W,, trooi St. Biioch*H station ; bj'O* 
honi Oentnl or Bridge BbreeC ttAUooa. Two statloos :— GUmnur Sir 
{CM. and G. it S.-W,), olose to centra at town ; Cmai (O. A B,'W.), xm 

aitualcd in the county of Rsnlraw on the hanks of the White Oal 
It WM erected into s rojal biirgh by James IV., by charter dated , 
Stirling in 146S, "for the stiigular reaiwct we bare for the glorioi 
confessor St. Mirren, and our monastery of Paisloy, founded by « 
moot Ulliatrious progenitora, where very many of the bodies of a 
ancestors are buried, and are at rest," The town is seooaU to mm 
in Scotland for its threat), and is one of the largest thread mait 
factories in the worlij. The old and new towns arc connected 1 
several bridges. The new town is on level ground on tl 
east aide of tbo river. Tlie funious Paisley shawls of ol 
grandtnolbera' times had their origin here ; they replaced tJ 
muslin Bnii linen industry, and ware themselves snpersedod 1 
thread. Among other public buildings are the High and otb 
churches, the Qrammar School, established under royal cbactar : 
lfi76, ihe John Neilson Public School, the Free Library si 
Museum, a handsome Temperance Public Hall, the Clark Ton 
Hall, ami the Observatory. The Free Library and Masatm vt 
erected at the expense of the late Sir Peter Coats, Tits Huaeui 
to which a ]>icture gallery was added iu 1882, contains inteniati^ 
btc&l «nti<\uitie9 and relir:s, a fine collection of birds, and 
olYawV^ ii\mi'n,W'm\*», '^\iefAwtTn>nir^,-s.^SS.Va *.\stt town 



tJio late Mr. Thomaa Coats, is niiiiai' tlie care of the Paisley Philo' ^ 
Bophii:al Sooiaty. No. 40 High Street is the house in whiofc ' 
Professor Wilson (ChrialophtT North) was born. Sir Noel Faton 
was once employed ns a designar Id a warehouse. 

The C0AT8 Memorial CnunfH (Baptist), fw& minutes' walk 
IWini Qilmour Street station, ia, with the eice])tion of St. Mary's 
Catheiiral at Edinburgh, the finest modem esamplo of eeclosiasticri .j 
aiuhitectnre in Scotland. It ia built of red snndstoue, is eninfonn i| 
in shape, with a fine tower anrmoiinted by an imperial e 
The atjla ia Early English and Decorated. It will ultimately 
havo coat from £100,000 to ilSO.OOO. The floor and sittings are 
oE oat ; tha baptistery of marble ; the organ, one ot the finest in 
Scotland, by Hill. Tha ohurch has- been erected in memory of the 
Utfl Thomas Coats of Fergualie by hw family. It was designed hy 
Hippolyte Blano, R,S,A. 

lie JfviTses' Ham* in Odkshaw Street and the Technical CW/ajf, 
in Qeorge Street, are both tlie outoome of the Peter Brongh 
Bequest of £140,000. The Town Hall was built by MeBBrai J 
Clark, and when completed and furnished with a, grand orgaa|f 
etc., at the cost of upwards of £100,000, was 'gifted by them tsi 
the town. At the nortli-eaiit angle of the fauildiiig is a statne sT 1 
Hr. George A. Clark, wlioss bec^uest of £20,000 for this purpose 
led to the erection of the hall. Provost Mackenzie, Cliief Magni- 
tnte from 18B7-1000, preaented the town with an Eye InErmary. 
From all these gifts it is easy to see that Paisley is exceptionally 
lucky in the liberality of its citizens. The County BiiildingB and 
Oourt House are in St. Jamea Straat. 

Tha Stbhcj (EltUtrfi of Paisley was founded aa a priory in the 
year llflB by Walter Pitzalan, first High Steward of Scotland, 
and auoeator of the royal family of Scotland. The abbey was 
sndowed for the eouls of King Henry of England, of King David, 
•nd King Malcolm, and dediLatcd to the Virgin, St, Jamea, St. 
Milborga of Wenlock, whence its first monks came, and St. Mirrin 
nns, the patron saint of Paisley, who was a contemporary 
CoUimba. In 12J8 the priory hecame an abbey. It was 
rpiitly burnt by the English during the War of Independence, but 

la rebuilt after Bannockburn ; and when the Stuarts came to the 
throne Paisley obtained the royal patronage. Queen Yiotorin, who 
viaited Paisley in 1SS8, plH<:ed a sculptured memorial at the altar 
to King Bobert III. and others of the royal race buried here. 
"DiB abbey ia 270 feet in length, and its p?».\in,t \rt«ifii.fti ■■«■ ■^■'»''- 
fcet It conaiBts of a. nsye, ■wtiwt \a m ftia ttroBi^waw^ ™-'>- 

348 PAT96HY ^^ 

Deuorated atjloa, auil contains aix bajr) dirided bj mBiwife pillMH 
17 feet in liei/^lit, nitli siuipk but n'«11-uiouldcd i^aplUla, theivuH 
also north uiid uouth transepts and na aieleless ehoir. Of tlid 
choir, lioweyer, nidy tUe walls to tlia heiglit of 10 fflst, with thM 
font sedilia, credenci^ niche nnd piscina, remain. The whole abbey:] 
is undergoing a thorough ivstoiatioii, and the transepU, fomwrlyj 
in part iii ruins, IiEive rewntly been testorsd on tlie original line^j ' 
ajt liaa also the central tower (10 feet square) to some height aliova' 
the ridge of tlie nave roof. The toner fell aonio time before Qtoi 
Befbrmation. It in iuterjdeil to restore both it and choir Don-j 
pletel;, and when the restomtion is finished an intended, it will b« I 
134 feet in height. j 

St. Mirrin's chapol was formerly called tlio Sounding Aisle; ' 
from the eclio, which was very strong ; this echo has been greotlj 
lessened by opening ap the arches between the chnpel and truseptt 
according to its oiiginal state, to which this part of the buU^ng 
has thu!^ been restored. There are also now views of ths tiava 
from the cbajiel and vice Terna, whiuh are well worth seeing, and 
hays been pronounced by a high authority on architecture to iM , 
among tlic most beautiful architectural compoaitions hi 

St. Mirrin's Oha|>ol caiitains the remains of the mamotial 
tablet of the last Abbot Ai'dibisbop, John Hamilton, and 
that erected by Cloud Hamilton, first Lord Paialay, in memory at 
his children. Lord Paisley was a zealons partisan of Mary, QomS 
of Scots, and commanded the vanguard at the lata! battle of Lang- 
aide, when the Qneen lost all and tied to England. He naa oon- 
sei^uently ontlaweil and his estate forfeited, but in 1S73 James 
VL restored bim to rank and fortuua. His pvasent representative 
is ths Duke of Abercom, who owns property in Paisley. 

In St. Mirrin's Chapel there is alao a secias (incomplete) al 
very interesting sculpture nnder the eastern window, dajncttng 
incidents in the life of St. Mirrin. They are evidently of ditt 
date than the abbey, and are believed to have formed ]iart cf an 
earlier Celtic cell. There is here also a tomb, sniinouitted bjr 
recumbent female figure, which is supposed to represent Maija^, 
daughter of King Robert the Brace, and wife of Walter th« 
Steward, who was killed by a fall from hia horse in the neigbbonr- 
bood, and was buried before the High Altar in the Abbey. 

In tho Camotcry adjoining the abbey nianiimental statue* have 
been erected to the poet Tannahill and to Wil<=on, the Aniarieia 
omitbologist, vfho \ras n native of Taislev. 





Tliere is a beautiful Cemetery at the weat end of the 

PalEley aiA9iimi.-d importune ae u maiiMfadiirmg t 
close of the eightseiith ceatuij. It is situated ou the dvar Oai-t, 
stream whioh rivals the Irwell at Manolieatec iu tho inky 
aotev of its wabiiiL Mnuli money \mh been spent, at Tarimia t 
ill the effort to make tlie Csrt a navigable rivor, Init ao fu the 
uffotL has not been crowned with much sucoesa. Id addition to 
tho trade msntianed already, there is a good dea! of fane; and 
figure weaving, the nianufactiiro of soap, atarch, Indian ooru, and 
machinery, and some ahiphuilding. The two principal thread 
firms, the Ferguslie (J. and P. Coats), and Anchor Mills (Olark 
and Oo.), whose iMsncfaotiqns to tha town have Iwon so ertra- 
ordinarily lilieral, arc now incorporated in one comiNiny, with a 
oalntal of over £r>,(IOO,00fl. 

Adjoining the town is Tlix Fi/Miilain Uardens, a public park, 
7} acrea in extent, presented by the late Mr. Thomas Coats of 
Fergaalie ; in tbe centre of which stands a handsonic iron 
foimtain. On the sonthoro outskirts of the town is the " Brodie*^ 
public park, so named after its donor. About 34 milea to tli4< 
west of Paisley is the village of EidersUe, where the renownaSI 
Sir William Wallace wns bom about 1380. The site of the lioua* 
is occupied by another of later date, situated at the woat end of 
the Tillage. A " Wallace's oak," which ia said tniiave sheltered the 
Snight of Elderslie with three hundred of bia men, stood for many 
oenturies in the centre of the village, until it succumbed to age and 
decay. A scion of the original tree, however, was preserved, and 
Boumhea now in the Foontain Gardens of PaJaley. 

About 3 miles to the south of Paisley are the Braes of Oleniffer, 
■ bvonrite resort of tho inhabitants, and rendei'ed classical by 
tho Scottish poet Tannahill, who was bom in Paisley in 1774. 
The braes, which rise to upwards of 700 ft, at Dnchal Law and 
Sergeant Law, command an extensive and beitutirul view of tbe 
Clyde and Argylrahire moontaina. About 2^ miles soath-eaat of 
Pusley, on the banks of the White Cal't, are the ruins of Crookston 
Castie, the maison de plaisanee where Queen Mary is said to have 
been betrothed to Darnley. Crookston was an old seat of the 
Lennox family, and is now the property ot Sir John Stirling- 
Maxwell of Keir and Pollok, Bart. Hot far from Crookston is 
Hawlchead Bouse, till recently a seat of the lilarl of Glasgow. 

From Paisley the C4i.BDornAB RiiLWAV turns to the norlh-west to 
OiB Clyde, approaching it by a deep cutting and tiuHisl yiinKa:^ ' 
rook UBSr the village of ifislvoplou, TV« \ui« VVft^ VHkwi 'Caft 


'l-Glasgina (p. 361), Greenork (ii. 362), uid 
From beyond Port-Glasgow a hraucli keeps up 
Lo the pretty village ol /juariip (inn), attootrf) 
Doded glen, on the Clyde opposite Inaellan, and so an to that dhsH 
l^lysltnated little -wBtering-placB, Wrm.yesBay{^.S&%),KaAISidmal 

"' e Hydropathic Eatnljliahiuent merlooking tlis 

The SonTB-WESTBHN line to Orcanock brmclies to the vest at Jol 
stone, 8J milea beyond Paisley, and S miles tlience pt 

7'ri»ce'a J'ier i 

(pop. 2220), wbore there i 

and bracing aitnation. Greenook ia reaelied a 

where the Clyde steamers oal). 

Leaving Faialeyfor Ayni^HiaB, wesoonreacli the tnuiu&otuE 
oS Joliiiatone (pop, 11,331: 2 heleU}, Bitnated on the BlaokQ 

tiTBT. In the neighbourliDod of the towii, tc 

Castle (G. Houston), aud to the neat is Milliken House (A. U^ 

kenzie), both modern mansions. Two miles to the west, in th 

ofextellsivecaallieldBgis A'i^Iiarc/iA!i(pap.2SSa); oud there, in 

of the town steeple, may ba Bean a atatue (1822) of Habbie Sf 

the piper of Kilbarchan, who died about the beginning of ti 

Ifth century, and ia commemorated in a contemporaiy poeoi t 

^bert SeiDpill of Belltrees. Passing Cochrane-Mill al 
of Elliston Tower on the left, the train 
Leekteistmch (inn) — a pleasant village on the banks of Castlt^ 
iple Loch, a favottritB skating and cnrUng resort The kk|V 
fonnerl; mnch larger, covera more than 200 acres, and has thr^ 
small wooded islands. On the north bank ia the u 
Mmple, with a park of about 1000 acres. Here a 
a Collegiate church, with Si three-sided apsidal termination, fbnndtf 
by Jolm, first Lord Sempiil, in 150*. In the neighbourhood 1 
BacT House, near a I5th century ruined tower of the same ne 
£tUh Station is 1^ mile from the thriving village of that.n 

<{pap. 1963), and near to it ia the ruin of GiUen Castle, an old an 

lof the Montgomery family. Kilbimie village (pop, 4G71), D 
the station, stands on the banks of the Garnock, within ainfle« 
Kilbimie Loch, a fine sheet of water about 1^ mile in length K 
about a mile in breadth. Destroyed by fire about the middle of ti^ 
eigliteenth oenlnry, the old Castle of Kllbirnie, an ancient H 
theEarlaofCrawford, i a near the more modern sdi lice. J}alT)i,ni^ 
reached, is a considerable town (pop. 5816 ; S hoUU). In thi 
neighbourhood are the Blair Ironworks, Bluir House, andj^ 
Ktalaatite cave called Elf Houae, 30 ft. deep, the i: 

Jing the aisle of a Pointed church. From Dairy Junction the mais 
goeasoalh-east to Kilmarnook (p. 312]. 


Up to Daily wa hare been traTelliuf; ou one of tlie [triuoipa] 
liues o! the Q. and S.-W. RaOivay, aud bere begins the branch M 
Atii. On this wo ].>aBs noxt kilwinning [14 milea from Ayr, 
26 from GliiSHOw), an Micienb town of 4440 inhabitants (Kotd: 
■fglintoD Arms), wbicb takes its uaiue from St. AVinuing, a hi 
; abbot of the 7th or 8th century, whose name is stiil 

itod by St. Winning's Well, Caerwinning HiJI, and i» a 
laily fair on St. Winning's Day. There is here a fine fragment 
in abbey church, founded in 1140 by Hugh de Morrille, Lord of 
lingbam and Constable o! Scotland, for monks of the TyroD- 
ensian (BenedJctiaB) Order, from Kelao. The town ia traditionally 
diatinguiahed as the placa where freemasonry was first introduced 
into Scotland, the Eilninning Lodge being considered the parent of 
all the Scottish Lodges. The members of the local company of 
archert, whiuh is said to dab: from 1G03, meet ojinually, in July, 
Co pmctiae shooting at tlie Papingo or Popinjay, a sport described 
by Sir Walter Scott in his Old MorUilily. One mile from Kil- 
vfinning, in the inidille of a beantifol park, is Eglintou Castle, 
the sent of the Ear! of Eglinton and Winton, built in the Eng- 
lish ciistcllated style by Hugh, thetwelilhEarl, about 1800. Here, 
in 1839, was hold the famous "Eglinton toumaniont," at which 
Louia Napoleon, late Emperor of the French, was present. Half; 
a-mile beyond Kilwinning are the Eglinton Ironworks (Measra^l 
Baird). , 


From Kilwinning there is a branch line to Ajdrossan, Stereiuton, 
Saltcoals, West Kilbride, Fairlie, and Largs, At Sterenston are the 
Merry aud Cunoinghame ironnorke, and aniong the sand-dunes on the 
coast, a mile south, is the factory of Nobel's Explosives Company, 
where the greater part of the dynamite and other powerful eipIosiveB 
used In engineering are made. The works occupy an area of a mill 
square, the Tnrians departments being scattered about in separate huts, 
to minimise Ihe risk and deatruDtive effects of any eiplosion. About 
360 peraoDi of both seies are employeil, all being dressed in spec)*] 
costumes while at work. Contiguous to Saltcoats (pop. 8120, i«vi), n 
olean, old-fashioned town with quaint narrow slreets, aud a pictur- 
esque pier, is thfl rapidly growing summer resort of AnDBOSSAN {Bold: 
Eglinton Arms ; pDp.<iOT7), projected by Hugh, twelfth Earl of ^liuton. 
The harbour, begiiu (1806-181fl) at a cost of £100,000, has been greatly 
Bitendfld of late years. From Ardroisnn there are numeroua ateamei 
trips to Airan (14 miles), and a variety of summer circular tours (one 
of a week's duration) to the Isle of Man, Liverpool, Dublin, and Belfast. 
After this there are splendid views of the Monntains of Acran beroce we 
woob West Kilbride (inn— pop. 1400); Law CwWift "vi «o. ^-'i t-**. ^S- 
the station. Other 4 miles aoTl.t-«eiewAi\Xift (i'iiKrai-&*-s wSiojft*^ 'SA- 

iKosIde viUage of Fairli^t — KdljarM Anita {o^yoaiti^ Ihe idrwil of OttinJ 
brae in tlis Fictb of Clyde), fsmoua for its yacht-building, and wftil u3 
□Id WBhJi tower. Fcoteeding up ihe coual, wa pais, on tile rfuU 
Kelbume Castle (sent of Ea\^ or Glabgvw) sad reach Labub (p. 330). | 

Thn!B milfs beyond Kilwinning wb I'eaoh Irvine {ffaUlu: EiUg'ft.i 
Anns ; Eglinton Arms), nn old i-oyal bnryli (ISOS), with a populgi' 
tion of 961 S, situated near the Tuoiith of the liver Irvine, abOTe a< 
line beud of the sti'eam before its junction with the Ganiock. It 
is a busy thriving town with an important shipping connactioi). 
There is a late Romanesijue doonray in a rninotis houso in the 
Seagate, said to have been a mansion of tlie Earls of EgtintcU. 
Irvine was the birthplace of John Gait (b. 177fl, d, 1839), ntfaor 
of the Annals qf Ike Parish, and of the poet Jamea Montgomeiy 
(b, 1772, d. 1851). It was hare also, from June 1781 to March 1782, 
that Bums struggled to earn a. livelihood as a Hai-dresser, nnti] his 
shop was burned to the ground. A colossal statue of the po«t by 
P. Magillivray, A.R.S.A., has lately beru eiuctod. The ptinoijHJ 
tradf of the plaee is in coal. 

i'lOOflsding from Irvine, tliero may be SL'en on the left the ruins 
of the Oastle of Duiidonald on a rising ground about 2 miles 
distant. Since 1669 it has given the title of Earl to the family of 
Cochrane; but the caitle itself and five rooda of land are BU'tbat 
now remain to them of their once large domains in Ayrshit^ 
Dnndonald of old belonged to the Stuwarta, and King Robert H. 
died hero in 1390. Near it are the remains of an ancient oliurch 
popularly called " Onr Lady's Kirk of Kyle," to which King Jwom 
IV. was wont to make olTerinp. Piva miles from Irvine and S freicl 
Ayr is the seaport ot Troon {Inn : So. Beach {gn\?mg),PortlandATms; 
pop. 2400], a sea-bathing resort, posaeaaed of extensive golfing <ink& 
It hoa an eicellBnt harbour caustructed by the Duke of Portland at 
a cost of more than £5O,0DD, nheace are exported large qoaotities 
of cooL From here there is a cross line of railway to KUmamock. 
Farther south, amid extensive woods, is Fullarton House, aaeatof 
the Duke of Portland. North of Troon and west of DundonWld, on 
a small eminence, stands Auchans House, a tuneted Sooteh maoor- 
place of tha year 1641, with the remains of a small oruhard trllioh 
once produced a floe pear, well known in Scotland by the noma of 
Anchana. In 1773 Dr. Johnaon viBlted Auchans. then occupied by 
the once beautiful Susanna, Conntesa of Eglinton, to whom Allan 
Ramsay dedicated his " Gentle Shepherd " ; she died here in 17B0 
in her 9Ist year. One mile north from Auchans, on Hb 
Irriae, is Shewalton (James Kenneth, Esq. ), and 2 miles 



HilUiouse (K. M. M'Eetrfl], Esq.) Oue of ths latter family is 
to have taken prisoner Sir Bali>h Perej, brother to Ho.tBpor, st 
OttoriiUrn. At HimkUm are to be found ranmins of a Ute Roman- 
esque clmrpli on tlie aeaatiore. Fredwitk {Koyal) Laa one of the 
ing greens in Scotland. Ayr is 3 m. ferther. 


;'b Anna ; WaUington (prlval^ J 

expendlUre. For Coacliea boo Q. and B.-tV. Ballns; 

of Ayr is one of the heat knovrn of the county towns 
on ocuount of its asanoiattona with Burns. Of the public buildings 
the principal are the County and Town Buildings (the latter oon- 
taining AsBemhlyand Beading roonta, aunnonnted by aapire 226 ft 
high) — the Town Hall was some years ago injured by fire, butU 
now jeatorud^a Public Library, Churuhes, Barracks, and l^fl 
Academy. The "Wallace Tower," iu wbicb Wallaoe ia aaid ftiT 
been confined, was a rude old building in High Street, at the 
of the Mill Yennel. Having become ruinous, it was replaced 
iu 1835 by a Gothic tower, containing the "drowsy Dungeon 
clock " and bulla of the Dangson steeple, and a atatiia of Wallace 
executed by Mr. Thorn, a seif-taught scalptor. Another BtatQe of 
Wallace was placed by a citizen of Ayr on the front of a house at 
of Newmarket Street which occnpiea the aits of the 
In tlie Square near the station stands a statue 
of Burns by G. A. Lawsou, erected by the Ayr Bums Club iu 1S91. 
The fragments of the fort bstwean town and sea are remnaota 
of the work of Oliver Cromwell, who thus ntiliaed the ancient 
ohurah of St. John, founded in tlie 12th century upon the site of 
a Greyfriars convent. It wu in this churuh that at a Parliament 
of 131£i the Buccesaion of the Scottish Crown was settled apon 
Edward Bruce, brother of King liobert Brnce. An old tower, 
recently moderuiseil and fitted up as a private residenoe, was port 
of the fort and of the older church. Cromwell gave the inhabitants 
of Ayr £150 in compenaition toward the erection of the present 
old church. The ancient castle of Ayr, built by William the Lion, 
who oonstituted Ayr a royal burgh, ia supposed to have stood at 
the north-eastern angle of the fort, cloae \i^«tt 'Ons \is^tiw« . "Vo. 
Fort Green are the barraoka. Ttt titWM oct«3.-?S!fa ^s«Ol^ aA™ '*■ 

ir projflol 


from the New Bridge to the sea. The south piei 
soma distance into the sea, and at the north side there i 
breakwater, with spacious new dry dock biuLt at a cost of £170,0(H 
Od the south of the harbour a Guo esplanade has been coostructad 
which fonns an ngreeshlii promenade. The yiews fiom the bay q 
&yr are very line, and comprise the hiJls of Bute and Arran, Ails 
Craig, and the coast of Ireland. Shipbuilding is carried on to 
considerable eitent, and there is a large manufacture of carpets ai 
other woollen fabrics. Ayr is possessed of a fine racecourse, where t 
Western Meeting takes ]>1ace in September. To the otha 

of Ayr it is au^ested to add a Promenade Pier a 

"Parilion, " the latter to be devoted to popular entertainmeutB. . 

The Ayr i' crossed by three bridges, two of them termed tlie AdI 

and New— "Thfl Twa Briga " of Burne's poem. T!ie Auld Bi 

said tp have been built in the reign of Aleiander III. (1246-81 , , 

■ ' ' "le name ol Low, whose effigies were carvsd a 

the eastern parapet, near the soulk end of the fabric 'Jlie new brldg 
was ereoteil in 1788, dhitfly through the eiertions of Piovost B*Jlan 
tyuB, to whom Bums dedicated his poem, but it gave way in 187! 
and another had to be built in its place. Even that proved inaecnr^ 
shortly afterwards, so that the prophecy which Bums put in the niou( 
of the " Auld Brig " came literally true — 

" Coneeltsd gowk I pulTd up wl' winflj pridi 

' tild t'l 

D- tide : 

The third bridge, the Victoria, ai 

the railway -bridge, was opeued in 1898. 

The aea-ooast, which near the town of Ayr is comparatively Hat tn 
•andy, rises on tile south into bold rocky headlands, among which ai 
the " Heads of Ayr," well-known landmarks to mariners. Two mUe 
in this direction are the ruins of Oreonan Castle, overhanging the sea 
and commanding an extensive seaward view ; and Dunure Castle, a tal 
empty tower, the remains of an old strDnjhold of the Kennedies. Heni) 
Allan Stewart, Commandator of the Abbey of Crossraguel, v 
befoi-a a alow Bre by Gilbert, fourth Earl of Cassilis, to 
surrender of certain lands. The castle, which has been in ruins slnci 
the 17th century, now gives a territorial designation to a hraach ol thtf 
Kennedy family. 

BuBsa's CoTT*OK, Monument, a.nd Alloway Kibi, 

By means of the electric cara, or on foot or bicycle, alongaplaaaaul 

tree-aboded road, the tourist may visit some of the more interestiof 

1 connected with tlie poet Buma. Tlie town is do aoonar laf 
tbaa various localitien are reached meationed in " Tarn o' Slw|lt«r.! 
Two wSie& S, of the ate.tioii and l&O yards from Slaphou» Bridge i 

Aljout 100 yards rrom the "ford," and about 20 from the roBi, 1 
la the plat of ftronad behiad tba house accnpiDd by the ftoioUl j 
gamekeeper, is the 

Whare diiinki.n ChaMit brafs Deck-bfliie." 
Pawing on the left the mansion of Eozello, at a Jistinco of about 2 
milea from Ayr we reach the cottage where Bums was born, 25th 
January 175B. The original erection was a clay Mggiii, conaiating 
of two apartments, the kitchen and the aptnct or sitting-room. 
The cottage was built on part of 7 acres of ground, of which 
BuTDs'a father took a perpetual lease from Dr. Oampbell, physician 
in Ayr, with the riew of commencing business as nurseryman 
gardener. Having built this house with his own hands, he married, i 
in December 1757, Agues Brown, the mother of the poet : and 1 
after heooming gardener and overseer to Mr. Ferguson of DooB- ' 
holm (now James Kennedy, 'Esq.), he abandoned his design of 
foriiing a nursery. Ha continued to reside in the cottage till 
Wbit-iunday 1766. On removing to Lodilea he sold his leasehold 
to the corporation of shoemakers in Ayr. The cottage is now the 
pKjperty of the Ayr Burus Monument Trustees ; it is restored to 
its original condition. Close by is a neat house, set apart as ■ 
museum for the relics of the poet ; admission to cottage, etc., 3d. 
In the interior of the kitchen is a recess where the poet was bom. 
On an eminence about Ij nnle t« the south-east of the cottage 
stands the farm of Mount Oliphant, to which Buriis's father remaned 
on leaving the cottage, and where the family lived for eleven years- 
Proceeding toward.i Buras's mooament, we perceive in a field a 
nngle tree, enclosed with ■ paling, the last remnant of a group 
which covered 

" The rairp 
Whnre htintdn fuiil the tnutder'd baitu." 
The position of the " cairu," and also of the "ford," at a distance 
from the highway, is acfounled for by the old road from Ayr, hy 
vUch the poet supposed his hero to have approached AUoway Kirk, 
having been to the west of the present line. Beyond this stands 

roofless, but with walls pretty well preserved, and still retainin* J 
fta bell at the east snii. The woodwork has all been taken away fo 
form anuff-boies and other memorials. In the area o^'Aia^-^t'Ci*. 
httt Lord AUoway, one of the 3ii4gea ot ftio Comi^. at %bshi^'r> 



laltmd ; anJ acar die ftate ui tha Aaithnsd it ihe gnTc of BmWi 
fitber uuiiwd b; ■ plain lonbatone, a Koen] of Ibc orig 
vhicb vaa carri«i] am; in tngraenla. Xcar the nmud kirk, 
betwwD 200 and SOD yarda off lh« pablk road, ii UuDga'i Wdl, 

" Whan Mnn^i miUker bu^d henet*.' 
(C ii nached b; a [oolpatli, and (Ju ipot, bejond ita interest, ia Ut 
Uie ipwUtor ODE of ibe lorelitst on tbe banks of Doon. 
" DtCon hiBL DwD pimF* kJI bia fliMida ; 

The doobUn^ itona roan Hied' t^ ttDods.' 
Tlw Bjvea vbleh tbu wiitingi of Btms ^vf oelebritj. rln 
I'j'hDl the auns umt. about I mOa In keDrth, iitiu4(d in tbc mbienl dtabKlol 
^iii(>uUiiifr(>x,pap.lut(laBiU*>bylnaAnn(romATr. Good Bthineaa b 
lia4lB Lot 11 lJuiiibTiUringatUutauaC Ddm^Ungha). On a buD (aUnd 
(U!U Ui< upl>tr citreiuit; uf Ui* Ivcli. m tlis miu of ao ui:ii9il cditl^ sbld 
flgured Id tbfi wum betwten Bufjlabd and Bfotlaod during the tJme of Bob^ 
^nJCA- The river ha«a course 4rf IS inllei, tfarotighobt which it ampZjnalaia 
tlari^tto thaHtliof "BoDnTDocm;" Hi taoluarv indeed "ftrab and ftiiri' 
and in Uic (iiiuiiiei-CliDC capeciailf m dwdntflT lidan oilh SonJ nebnge 
add Intutf. Tbe tcaurj of the Seu Glen, Hbiub ii alwul f isll«a fam 
Dalualllugton, and Ihroogh vhlub Uie liTer nuu immediatelj iftcr Mniai 
rroni the 1ali«, ti iroodr and plcturesqne : the glen 1> dc oiil; opan to tbi 
liuWic on 8«turd«r«. Farther down, Bear the villAgu of Dalrjmple. *« conn 
I'pon Bonui romantja green liilla in Uie nfilffbbonrbood ot CasitUiA Bouh 
(llirqula ot Ailuk the inciant aaat of the Eul of CaeailiE, vblch fonn the 

The new parish cburcli of Alloway stands an the opposite aids of 
tlie road from Mungo'a Well, and iu the immetliate viciaitj aretfae 
mausious of Cambiuduon (Mra. Baird), Doonholm (James Kemiei^, 
Xmi,), aud DooDside (W. H. Dunlop, Esq.). 

fittUKB's UontiHKNT, whicb itands oloee by on a conapionoua 
position, is a building in the usual style of the first few decaJee 
of the nineteenth centnry, when taste was at iia lowest ebb. 
It matubes the liunis's monument in Edinburgh, and the cost 
waa upwards of £3300, Tlie surrounding grounils measnre about 
an flcffl, and are cartfully Inid out. In a ciruular apartment 
0)1 tlie ground lloor there are exhibited several appropnitto articlea 
—various editions of the poet's works, a snuff-box made iroa 
woodwork of Alloway Kirk, a copy of th8 original portrait of 
Bums by Nasmjth, and the Uible given by Buma to his Highland 
Mary. A atairi^asH oondncts to the upper part of the manameut, 
from which a view is obtained of the surrounding scenety. 
small grotto at the south side of the enclosed ground ue 


Tlie electric cars run as Tar as Llie new briilgo, where standa 
liurnB Arms Inn (Gotheiibiu-g syatem), tlirough wliieli sdmiasiooi 
to the wooded banka of the riTer cnn ha obtained (2d. ). 
and new bridges are somewhat reminisacnt of thoBG near Aberdeen. 

Snrna's subsequent career Cakes na to a more diatant part of 
county, and to the of the town of kyt. Borns's father, 
the death of hia landlord, Provoat Ferguson, removed fcam Monat Oli- 
phant, lnl777,toLochleB, in theporiab of, and Smiles fram the Tillage 
of, TarboUim (inn), that eaji be reached by rail (7 mjlea) from Ayr, by 
the line to Uauchline. While residing ia this farm tlie poet established a 
Bachelors' Club in Tarboltou, in the latter part of the yesr 1780 ; and 
here, ia 1783, he was initiated into the mysteiiea of treemaionry. 
About 200 yards north ot the village on the roid leading to Galstoa, 
liea the scene of "Death and Dr. Hornbook." "Willie's Mill," 
alluded to in the poem, was the Mill of Tarbolton, situated on the 
Fade, abont 200 yarda eaat of the village, and was called by the Dame 
osed in the poem in conaequence of its being then occapied by Williun 
Muir, a friend of the Bums family. About half a mile from Tarbolton 
stands the niausion -house of CoilsSeld, designateil by Surua "The 
Castle o' Mnntgotnery," from its being in bis time tiis residence of 
Colonel llagh Montgomery, afterwards Karl of EglintOQ, HtTe Mary 
Oftinpboli, Buma'a " Highland Mary," lived in the humble capacity e( 
dairymaid. And In this neighhonrhood, near the junction of the river 
FaUe with the Ayr, lies the scene of the parting which the poet has 
described in such eiqaislte terms. 

' According to unvarying tradition, Coilsfleld derived its designatioir 
from "Auld King Coil, ''^ who is said to have been overthrown andl 
■lllii in thia naighbourliood in 
Bnma alludea to this tradition 

the ^^^H 
old; ^^1 

tb« ^^H 

TSey Btrnde along." 

The " martial race " here referred to arc the Montgoitieries. C0II4. 
field baa now the more poetic^tl name of " Moutgomerle, " 

On the death of Buina'a father, hia ividow .i.nd family removed to 
Uoeegiel, a farm about n mile north of the clean and neat village ot 
JfoucA/tne (10} miles from Ayr — "Loudon Arma"), which tbe poet and 
hts brother Gilbert had tnhen aome months before. Hera Gums lived 
from his !5th to bis 33th year, the period daring which he wrote his 
principal poems. The spenct of thia farmhouae is the scene described 
in the opening of "The Vision," and ia tlie " atable-lofb, " where be 
slept, many of his moat admired poems were written. The vlUBgc 
is prettily sitiiateil on the face of a slope, about a mile fhim the river 
Ayr, and coutahjs about 1767 iuhnbitauU. It la fivnwi^ ^-n vvd. 
niannfaoture of auulT-boieB, etc., anil \U ■\\QSa6 ^I'va-, t,Mft,\^,-«M. ^p* 
KxaeoUhe "Holy Fair," and qIAib'-JqW-j Bcsgita" Ml^^*sG <*.-»«* 



Jobn Doie, Nsnaa Tinnock, " Daddy Anlcl," and other characters who 
figure oonspiouously in Iha poet's writiugs. Tha ehurchyard was the 
eceae of the " Boly Fair," but the presout charcb is a recant aabstitnlc 
toi the ohl bam-like edffice nblch eilated in Bnms's time. Near tbe 
charch is the " Whit«fnord A.rma Inn," where Burns wrnte on H pane 
of glass the amusing epitaph on the Landlord John Dovs. Nearly 
apposite the churchyard gate is the bouse of "Auld Name Tinnnek," 
bearing over the dooi the dale 1741. "Pooste Nannie's," tlie soena 
of the "Jolly Beggars," is itill a popnlar little Inn. Close behind 
the chnrchyani is the honae in whioh Mr, Oavia Hamilton, the 
early Iriand of Buma, lived, and here is shown the room in whioh 
Bums oompoied the satirical poem entitled "Tbe Calf." This 
TDOni is further remarkable aa thu one in which the poet was married. 

The BOenes of some of Bums'e most admired lyrics are to be found 
on the banks of the river Ayr, at « short distance from Mauchline, 
The "Braes of Baltochmyle," the scene of his exquisite eone "The 
Laaa o' Ballochmyle," are attnntad a mile from the village, e: 
along the N. bank of the Ayr, between Catrina and Howford S „ 
They form part of the pleasure-grounds connected with Ballochnqrle 
Honsa (Sir Claud Alenander, Bart.), which was at one tinit the 
property of the Whitofonrds, an old and once powerful AyrflWre 
family. Colonel Allan Whltefoord, one of the members of this family, 
was the original of the character of Colonel Talbot, deacribed in tbe 
novel of W'iMTlei/. Another of them, Caleb Wbitefoord, "the liest- 
iiatnred man with the worst-natored iiiuEe," bas been immurtaliaed b; 
Goldsmith in a postscript to his witty poem entitli'd " RetaJiaHon." 
Sir John Wliitefaord, the Tepreseatative of tlie family in the time of 
Burns, having been forced to part with his estate in conaequence of 
redaced drcmnatancee. Bums wrote some plaintive rerses on the 
occaaion, referring t« tbe grief of Maria Wbitefoord, afterwards Mrs. 
Craiistuun, on leaviug tbe family inberitauce : — 
" Thtough ^ded gmveB Marls sang. 
Herael' \a beauty's bloom the while. 
And aye the wild-wood eclioes rang, 
[■■areweel flie bmes of BallMhmyle.- 
BBlloclliIiyle was purchased by Claud Aleiander, Esq., and shortly 
after that gentleman had takeu possession of tbe mansion, bis sister 
Miss WUhelmina Alexander, g famed beauty, walking out along tbe 
braes one evening In July 17S6, encountered Burns, musing aa he 
leaned against one of the trees. The result waa that the poet, during 
bis homeward walk, conipoaed the well-known song above alluded to. 
The spot where the meeting took place is uow distinguished by a nisUc 
grotto or nioss-house, omamentird with appropriate devlres, In the baok 
of which there is inscribed on a tablet a facsimile of two of the rarsw 
of the poem, aa it appeared in tbe holograph of the author. 

Near Balloeliiuyle is' tho manufacturing village of Catrine, famous 
for its big wheel, second only in size to that of Laiey, in the Isle of Man. 
Close by was the seat of Dr. Stewart, fatter of Profeasor Dugald Stewart 
To tlitio &KnB allndes In Uia following stanza in " The Tjlon " j — 


BBrskimiuiug Eaane (Sir W. F. Miller of OlcMilee, But.), ! m11« 

rTom Mauchline, is ramBntically aituatcd oa tha banks of the Ayr, whoss 

■Mnery here la very beautiful. Barskimmlng and its then proprietor, 

Lord Presiilent Miller, are thus alluded to in the above poem : — 

'*ThroiiEh many fc Willi roniatitic grate, 

Sear many a herTDlt-fanalail aove, 

A ehdrt distance farther up the i 
Lugar joiuB, is the spot w 

Maiichliae (p. 35d, connected with Ayr hy a hranch line of rail) it 
on the main Sonth-Weatarn lice from Glasgow to DumfrleB [p. 293). 

S miles S.E. of Manchline, an the main line (past Auchinleek rillaee. 
inn, and Honae — built by tie father of James Boswell, anil visited 
by Dr. Johnson), is the pleasant, sheltered town of CiMinui:* (pop. 3088 
— Domfrles Arms) on the Lugar Water, near which are sodib valnable 
Biinecftls. Cnmnoclt contains the ashes of the Prophet Pednn (see 
p. S04). Here tbe Caleilonian Bailway's line from Ediahui|^ to Ayr 
((•ill Carstalrs and Lanark— p. S3S) crosses the South- Western Una at 
right angles. Oa the former, 10 miles north-east froni Cumnock, is 
MMMctiii (inn, pop. S8B2i with \arge. iron-works. On the rather 
bleak hitla aronnd there is good grouse and other shootiUg. 

It is customsiy for |>assenger3 by the steamera to Ardrishaig, 
etc., to go by train to Greenock [G. and 8.-W.} or Gourock (Cal. RIy.) 
and join the boat there. Bat either in going or returning, the 
sail down or up the Clfde should certainly not he missed,' though 
fur pieaaurc it is essential to choose a high tide. The stcanii 
leavD the quay by the Glasgow Bridge and pass between the t 
great ahipbnilding districts of Govan and Particfc. Here on either 
aide are the two immenBe dry docks, bnown as I'rinces (south) ai 
Queen's (north) dock, where the largest vesaels in the world c 
bs laid n;i. A ferry In two storeys like a great house, by which 
horaes and carts are bodily taken serosa the river, ti^ay ba seen a 
1 It la piefBrahle to do this on mlnm as tlia samn ol waKe>^*s*B'".'™>^»* 
UHnerwIth the light of the weitetn son ttianVn'iitt^te^ ifl sKft^ -numioa 



work betVDen tlic two. Great iroucUds ttiriKid out to the lost 
rivet awaiting lliair lauoolimg, and the clang of a hundred 
huomers on iron makes a peculiar resonant muaic. The wonder 
of it IS that this rivor which has brought wealth and industry 
thousands, is, tu a great extent, a "made " river, CErefulIj scooped 
out, and kept by coan's art. Many are the hideous iroQ dredgers 
daily at work. Farther on (north) is Wliiteinth with hnay yards, 
the seoond largest on the river. Then (south) Kenrrew, an unrient 
burgh of S296 inhabitttuts. Close to it is Elderalie House near 
which Somerleil, Tliaoe of Argyll uid Lord of the Isles, who had, 
rebelled against Maleolm IV., was defealod and slain, 11B4. 
Beyond Renfrew is Blythswooil House (Lord Blythswood) whero' 
Queen Victoria once stayed. Here the collected waters of the 
two Carta and the Gryfe flow into the Clyde. A large block of 
stone un the estate marks the B{iot where the unfortunate Earl of 
Argyll was captured nhile endeavouring to niake his escape i 
disguise of a peasant after hia unsuocessful expedition in 
Directly opposite is Clydebank, with the largest shipbuilding yardi' 
on the Clyde. It ia the birthplace of tlie Terrible. The place ha» 
a population of over 21,000, aloiost wholly operatives and work' 
men at the yards. Butwceii it and Dalmuir are the in;inetiai 
factoriss of Messi's. Singers (sewing machines) with tall clock' 
tower. Then we pass an the same side Dalmuir, and (neai 
Kilpatrick) Erakine Ferry, crossing to Erskino Hoase (Lord 
Blantyre). From hure to Dumbarton a curious wall of 
running hetween light-houao towers defines tlie limits of the 
navigable river bed. On the right is Dalnottar Hill (753 fl.), 
from which tliere is a Gne view ; the heights immediately t 
north are the Kilpatrick Hills, and the village on the narrow plain 
between them and the river ia Old Ell.FA'rRlOK, said to have 
heen the birlhplaoa of St. Patrick, the tutfllarj saint ef Ireland. 
All along the pleasaut southern bank are palatial mansions built 
by wealthy Glasgow merchants among tlie trees. At Bowling lli« 
river widens and the Forth and Clyde Canal, which nnitei 
Firths of Forth and Clyde, joins the latter at this place. Dm 
Point is supposed to he the western tenniaation of the Roman Wall 
of Antoninus (see p. 85), erected in a.d. 140, and locally known 
as Graham's Dyke {griem diog, the strong trench). Or 
promontory are Dunglass House and the ruins of Dunglass Oastls 
(formerly the property of the Colquliouns of Lass). The obelisk; 
standing amid the ruins was erected in memory of Henry Bdl, 


Long before tl a t1 e extrv 4 
ord nary tw a lump of rovk (210 
feet) wt lii n arka Duubautok 

LumfeFCnCG, and terminiLtea in two 
peaks, the higlier of which is still called 
"Wallace's Scat," while a, part of the 
castlo lieara tha name of "Wallace's 
071 oF the Scottish lifro, who was confined 
[1.E is of great antiquity, and is generally 
auppoaad to have been the principal Mat of the British tribe which 
tnhabited the Vale of Clyde after the departnre of the Romans. It 
was one of the principal strongholds of the Earl of Lennox, who 
aasanied an historical importance ao far back as the period of William 
the Lion, and of such reputed atreugth as to be styled by Buchanan 
"aix iiiGxpiignabilia."' None of the buildings erected on the rock 
1 TtiD adroitness wltll wLii?li Robert Brai», allet \«. VaA WiItKn. ^'c.™- "i^i^ 


mtiquity, but it is likoly tl 
lassive buililiags ma.; be vi 
Rancient. From the first gate the ascent ia hy 
■ tnilt in a natural SsBuru of tlie ronk, A uarr 
■'ItBed as a portcullia, on Bither Bide of which 
Beeo rudo ■well-wom hcada of Wallace, 
and Menteith hia hetrayer. Tlio latter is re- 
presented with his linger in his cbeek, whicli 
ia said to have been the sign given hj the 

to ascend to the summit, where the renjaiiis of a Roman fort are 
pointed ont, and from which ia an eitensive view, WhEn QueflQ 
Mary was sent to France, to be educated at the French Court, she 
was brouglit from the monastery of Incliuahome, intbe Lake of 
Menteith, to the castle of Dumbarton on 2Sth Febraarj 16i7-18, 
anJonl7th March embarked from it for the jialfice of St. Germain. 
During the wars wliich desolated Scotland in licr aulisequent reign, 
this fortress was taken by an ingenious stratagem by Captain Craw- 
ford of Jordaohill, a distinguished adherent of the liing'a party, acd 
there esiata in the archivea of the Duka of Moutroae a letter of James 
VI., written in hia flth year, addreasad to Oaptain Crawford.' 

DmtBARTOH {ffoUl : Elephant) is an uninteresting town, but an J 
John Menteith, wbo was then its keeper, promised to anrreiiiiar H to hin cmlyfl 
on entraygBm' aonditions, which wore, howevtt, agreed npan. Bnt ha poF-l 
posed, w^ea Bruofl shnuld coma to rencive poMegskiD, to ci&Jte him a jniaonn^ 
to the Englluh, and hsd sBCKted In a cellai' a body uf armed Enellsh ooldiers 
for the pui'poaa of arrostli^ hliii, whilst lie had a ship in the Clyde ready to 
traiiBiutt hiiu to London. On his was to the Coatle, at the Invitation of 
Mentcitli, Druce was warned of his danger; bnt he, notwitlistandiiig, piocesded 
with nnirip attendnntH, and was welcomed with profeBsions of the ntmoM 

dueled bliii through It. Brue« obaarvod that he was not admitted iato a 
particular L-'ellor which he passed, and reqaeated that he tniglit be allowed to 
see inta It. Meiitoith heailsteO, but Bruce hislsted, and the door belCEOpeoed, 
tbe EngliBli soldiers were dlacuYonsl, who, oyfitaned on being examtntd, abn- 
fessed the whole conspliacy. By the ordered Bruce, Menteith 
in t^iatvery tellar: bat be was aftaiwarda pardoDOdby thsgcuamuam 
1 " Taking advsnlogo of a misty and raooiileu nl^tit tn bring te tin 

lo lock tl 

almg la 

terrible experiment the placi 
less pains were taken to icsp a regular guard. This tin 
for tbt tint ladder bmke with the weight of tbs men who a 
and the noise ot the lail most have betiayed them had ther 
within hearing. Crawford, assisted by t soldier who had 
cutle, and was acting oi lila gulile, renewed the attempt in 
aartiabled Dp to s projecting ledge ot rock where there was 


of county .^ 
froia tlui^H 


imjtirtant scat of the inm-aliipbuildlug industry and 
trades, with a popiilntion of 19.985. lu Chureli Street 
ftted the county buildings, stkI tlio Dumbartou Academy, a hand- 
some building, bamed in 1383 aad ra-srected, with a gfaceful 
toWW-steeplB, Iq tho same street may be seen the rainains of an 
old archway, which, according to an inscriptioii built into an ad- 
joining wall, is "one of the tower archea of St. Patrick's Collegiate 
Church, founded mccoci., and the sole remnant of a once exteniire 
pile, removed to its proBent site in 1850." Dumbarton owes much 
to the Dennj family (from whom tha suhurb of Daunystonu takes 
its name), and to Lord Overtoun, who presented tha town with the 
site of the uew municipal buildings at College Park. The Leved 
flows through the town, and debouches into Che Clyde near the 
castle rock. The ground here, 32 acres, at the west of the town,, 
was purchased and presented to the town as a public park by Uessru 
Peter Denny and John M'Jlillaa. It cost £^0,000, and 
fiue trees, including two magnificent cedars of Lebanon. Twenty 
acres are set apart for games. Dumbarton is an iiiii)ortant rat^voy 
jutKlifn, for Ballocb [Loch Lomoud), page 333, and Helansbuigb, 
pagt 361. On the coast, or about 1 miles from Dumbarton, 
the village of Cardkodb, betwcou which and Dumbarton foiiuerly 
btood the old castle of Cardross, where King Sobert Bmce died 
7th Juno 1329. Enautly opposite Dumbarton is Langbank, 
then we pass in snc(^e>u<ion Fiulajstou Houss, Broaddold, sud tht 
rnina of Newark Castle, a quadrangular building close to the ton^a 
of Fort-GlasgoTO. Fort-Glasgow was made, as its name impli 
while Olasguw was still an inland town. Naturally siuoe 1 
navigation of the Clyde bj large vessels, its importance 1 
decreased, but it has very large shipyards, where ironclads as w 
as other craft are turned ont. Pop. 16,8^7. (.S'!^r Hotel.) 

trlved to Duke 

rut tlie 


la- b/ lyLt 


tl*o roots of a 


whicli gnw 


midway u| 


Hers tho: 

1 . einUl flat . 


■d tootlm 

tbe »holi 

1 party 

rM. Hiry few 

flbir. Inr 

icallng 1 

iocand pn 


anothsi icclde 

Dt t 

ook pl«.:- , 



, suyect 

.pueptld fii 

afiized bj one 

of tl 

1.™ .tiaek.; 1 

breught «> perl 


, in the art of 

.btaB «p ai ] 



:in either to sa 



luld bave been 

1 oipsdleBt, 1*8 


that tUe fall 

, boily tea 


T might h»Te «1 

Brmed tbe ifarriiDi 

1. CrawtDrd 

anied liim, thei 

a-n. tc 

lied ta th. 



:nrocd tbe 


. Cliui oio- 

body of the 

•pUaptic peiaoii. 

P-rty g»i. 


hul tiii^e t 


irm, Bnde«stW»o*ptWa'flDt8\' 

«ii«BAn% ««*«»3l 


iwl trnaCed 


. UiBiecDi 











line. For StoftTmj™ Isklrig tlio trips dosoribod i" tlie following pKgm^ 
■ud BduUi- Wests Ri CDinpany to be procnied at ths slsOoi 

OHRBVoas liaa a good saa front, and a pleasant rsaidential qi 
M weil as a biisineaa part. In the beginning of the llth o 
the tonn coTiaiKted merely of a single rnw of thablh-c 
hnta ; and it was not niltil the com in en cement of ths 1 
oentary that the lirst liarbonr was begun. On its dock R 
barbonr accommodation upwardn of £800,000 has now been 4 
pended. In the autumn of 188S the James Watt Rarbo 
includiug graving dorks and tiiial basin— was fornislly open wi 
Hlereby more than doubling the availaiile harbour space. Th« 

James Watt Dock alnnc contains a water area nf 90 ai 

8 quay 

walls extending to upwards of 3 milea, along which the raila of both 
the Caledonian and the Glasgow and 8 ontli -Western Railways are 
laid. Greenoct competes suceossfully with Glasgow for a targe share 
of tbe shipbuiidjng of the Clyde, and some of the Greenock " yards " 
are among the oldest and most estceniBd. The town possesses 
numaroua engineering establish men ta and irnn foundries, and its 
name a closely connected with the sugar- refining imiastry. AU 
the river steamers call at Greenock, and most passengers proeeed- 
ing from there to Glasgow prefer doing so by rail (pp. 347-8). Off 
Greenock also, the great ocean steamers lying at the "Tail of the 
Bank " receive their complement of pajisengera and mails. 

Although the town oT Greenock is not very prepossessiog, tlw 
aituation is at once beautiful, and convenient for commeroe. Tlur 
view from the shore embraces the mountains of Argyllshire ind 
Dumbartonshire ; and the Wbinhill (the rising ground at the back 
over which a new road lias been made at great expense) commaodl 
a Htill more extenaire prospect. Close upon the ateamboat-qinf 
stands the Oustom -house, a lat^e and handsome classical hnildin^ 
The most important thoroughfare in the town is Cathcarl StrMlL 
with its continuation Hamilton Street, westward from Cathcart 
Square. Along tliese there are several handaome bnuka and other 
pablie building^ and in Cathcart Square is a Gne ornamental 
/bantaia. Tbe mDru'cipnl buildings foini a mnst imposing pile at 






UiB corner of Csthcart Sguara and Hamilton Streat. Tho buUding 
if » veiy oinatu exiimple of lUliiin Rcnai^Gauce architecture f^nni 
fhe dBEigns of H. and D, Barclu-j of Glasgow, and waa completed 
in 1887 at a coat of £150,000. The Post OlEce (upened in 1899) 
is in CathuBrt Street, near the Caledonian Station. Connecting 
Cathcart Street and Eaat Shaw Street ia an arcade coDStructecl is 
I87B. The court-house ia in Nelson Street ; and the theatre mil 
be found in Ardgowao Street. The somewhat mean and tortuoua 
Itreeta in the business part of the town have been greatlj improred 
under the praviatona of a Local ImproTainent Act The principal 
private dwelliug-houses are situated on the south and along the 
shore, to the west of the town, where a magnificent esplanade haa 
heen conatnicted. In the burying-ground of the old West Kirk of 
Greenock, Burna's "Highland Mary" is interred. The churoh 
itself contains a series of four remarkable stained-glass windows, 
by Mr. William Morris through Mr. Allan Park Paton, on the 
recomiDEDdation of the late Mr. Hossetti. The eitenaire ship- 
building yards of Messrs. Caird and Co., Steele and Co., and Scott 
and Co. are on the shore of the firth. In Union Street {west end of ' 
the town) the Watt Institution was erected by the UCa Mr. Watt ol 
Soho, son of the great Watt, to contain the Public Library ; Hud 
^hite marble replica of Chautloy's beautiful statue of his father, 
it of which was defrayed by pablic suhscription, adoms the 
Etrance. The inscription (by Lord Jefirey) states that 

bitanU of Gnecac)! hsve erected this statue or Jimes Watt, not to 
>me ulnsdy identlfled with the minclea of stnun, but to leillTy the 

On the back is the figure of an elephant, suggestive of JeSrey'a 
eimtls of the stcaui- engine, which, like that animal's trunk, "is 
equally adapted to lift a piu or rend aa oak." Among the portraits 
on the walls of tliis building is one of John Gait, the novelist, who 
WKS buried in Greenock. The Public Library, which has eiiatud 
since 17S3, is a valuable one ; and contains some unique memoriaU 
of Shakespeare, and the Watt Scientific Library. In the same block 
there are also a museum and lectore-hall, which were erected at the 
expense of the late Mr. James M'Lean, and opeaod in 1S70. 

An extensive sandbank, commencing near Dumbarton, (arminatet 
a little below Greenock in what ia called the " Tail of the Bank," 
which affords the best anchorage-ground iu the Firth, ot GVjie- ^i= J 
the ihoro between Greenock ani GomotV await ■^oiX.-'^iaiC-M 

battery. Tho Marinere' AByliim near this wiib f( 
G»brial Wood for the benefit of aged merahaul Bear 
way lioe runs througb Qreenock, and is continued t^ 

GOUROCK (pop. 6281) 
(Sotels : Queen's ; Ashton), where there ia a Dne pier, to whi^ thl 
train runs down. Ttio bay atTordx safe auuhorage. The 
of the Caledonian Railway renders Gourock an important 
ujd connects the Clyde steamer raut«s directly with the CaUdoidai 
and London and North-WeaCern System CWeat Coast Route). TT 
line, tbougl) short, baa been difficult and costly, a great part of 
being tunnelled. One tunoel, at the Greenock end, passes mda 
a tunnel of the G. and S.W. By., and is IJ mile long—tbi 
in Scotland. Gouroek oommandB fine views of tha Clyde, inoludi 
ing the openings to the Garelocli, Loch Long, and Holy Loclk 
AshtoD, the more pleasant part, extends from Eampock Point ti 
the Clocb lighthouse, an important beacon. Near Gourock 
Gourock Castle, Gourook House, and Levan Castle. 
The Garb loch. 

OppoaitB Greenock, on the north coast of thf Clyde, is the Be«! 
basin oalled Gareloch, which begins at Helensburgh, and 
north for about 7^ miles. Ita sborea are attractive, and studded 
with villas. The beautifully wooded point jutting out 3 miles S.Ej 
of Helensburgh is Ardmore. on which stands Ardmore House. 

Helenbbuegh [MbUla: Queen 'a ; Imperial — population, S5B4),- 
a commodious town, was coiamencied in 1777 by the first Sir Jamat 
ColquhouQ, to whose estate it and nearly the whole parish belong 
The streets are laid ont on a regular plan, stretch for about a m'' 
along the coast, and contain a Town Hall, churches, hanka, ahops, 
and other buildings of a xiublic nature, intermixed with elegaiil 
villas. Helenahurgli may be most easily reached by railway tn 
Dumbarton (p. 357), The traina, which are frequent, atart tioti 
QuL'en Street Station, Glasgow (low level ; the " Went Highland " 
through trains start from the high level, anil run by CowlairF)^ 
The pier at Crai<;Gndoran, to the east of the town, has hetH 

erected by the North British Railway Company for tht , 

modation of coast traffio tiy the Helensburgh line, and during th( 
tourist aeaaon the Hervica of trains and steamers to and from tbi 
pier is very completo aud commodious. There is a 
Loch Lomoud (8 miles). 

V/mr HiOHLAHD Railway. This railway, wliich ia sorpasael 


passea, was firBt opeued in 1S94, aud has becu ehica extendGj to 
Mallaig(S6e p. IfiS). Tlie trains ruu through CiaigeDdoran, lear- 
tng the ihort branch to Helensliuigh on the left. The line ascends 
rajiidly and gives Sue views over the Gareloch. Il folldWE the course 
of Loth Long and anivea at the nnrtow neck of land betweon 
it and Loch Lomond : from tlience it traverses the ivestem ahore 
of the latttT loch. Thia railway lielonga to the North British 
ByBtetD, though, as it is called Wast Highland, it ia often 
confnsed with the Highland Railway, from which it ia qoile 

The steamer sails np the loch from Helensburgh, and we soon 
pass, on the light, Ardencnplo Castle, foriuerly a seat of the Argyll 
family, and tlie birlhiilaoe of the 8th Duke of ArgyLl. The 
original mauaion was built in the 12th centary, hut the pieseiit 
elegant tniTflted Btrncture is of recent date, A little beyond ii the 
viOagB o[ iiwn; (pronounced Aw — cape), with its nuniproiis villas. • 
In the graveyard surroanding the prettily built church rest the 
remains of Henry Bell, many of whose experimenta iu steam oavi- 
gation were inade on the Gareloch. In the old church of Row, 
now completely vanishod, the "Kow heresy" originated. On tiie 
opposite side of the loch ia Jtoaewath (Temperance Hotel), on the 
adge of a Sue hay. The village, with ita neat modern pariah 
cbOFCh, is about J mile from the pier. An avenue of ancient 
yew-trees lead;: to the ruins of the old church, surronnded by an 
ancient giavejard. On a beautifully wooded promontory Itands 
Koseueath Castle, oua of the seats of the Argyll family— a lairly 
modern building (1803) in the Italian style of architecture, with 
its principal front to thenorth, overlooking the bay, and another to 
the south, looking down the Clyde. A circular tower rises from the 
centre, from which, as well as from the grounds in Front, there ia a 
heautifiit proapect. A gate near the entrance to Roaeneath House 
(about I mile from the villaga) gives admission to a path through 
B wood, where may be seen Adam and Eve, two of the largest and 
moat bcantiful liher fir-trtts in the country, measuring 13 ft. in 
girth. RoBEneathisabout li mils from Hulenahutgh by water, and 
about the same distanoe &om Eilcreggan (lee iflow) bj the road 
across the point of the peninsula. 

The steamer proceeds np the loch, passing Clynder {hotal), 
celebrated for ita han?y, and Ruhane on the west side, and on 
the right (ea.^t) back, Blairvadoch, East Shandoo, and West 
Shandon Hydropathic Establishment. The last building (GircDKi<.-^ 
the manaion of Eobact Napiet, S&<\^., ft\6 w\*sia\aft. *;v" 


CDTnmaiida u (ine view, and is BiirroundBil by bea\ltifal rt 
whitli eonlain among other attractions a fiiia golf I'ourse. 
village of GAJiBLuau-HKAii, witli pier and good kottl, a situ: 
Lhe liead of the loch. A well-mnde road of 2 miles in length 
the ridge which separateu the Uoreloch from Loch Long. Near thft 
lop of tha pass stands Whistlsfield Inn, where a striking *' 
obtained of both lochs, aa well as of the toot of Loch Goil. 
road contiiiues to Arrochar(3 miles, |>. 374 J, and b; it the Loch Long 
ateamer may be caught at PortiQcapIe, 2 miles from Garslueh-hesd< 

The Gareloi^b is so froo from commotion of wind and tide, that 
Is a favourite resort of newly- constructed vsissols on their trial-ttips] 
and of ships that need to adjust their compasses. 

On the south ami west sides of the pninsnla between the Qare^ 
loch and Loch Long are the watering-iilacea of tCilereggan and Cot* 
(p. Srj], whose villaa command views of the Clyde and Loch Long.. 

Arran (p. 3BSJ may be reached from Glasgow — 
I. By AJtOHOsSAN (the easiest and most eipeditioua route), wd t 
Giaagow and South- Western Railway (St. Enoch's) to Ardn««M 
(p. 319). Tho Company runs liae steaniers io connection with "■ 
traiue. Visitors can go vid Brodick to Whiting; Bay and tlience 
oooch to Kildonan and Lag. ^_ 

2. By swift BteamBT round the Kyles of Bute (p. 3S7). Til 
Steamer may ba reached either hy Craigendoran Pier, HsLENBBtJBar 
(vid the North British Rulwsy, p. 365) ; or by Prince's Pier, GUWBOOI 
{vid the South- Western RaQway, p. S62) ; or by GooilOOK di 
Whmis4 Bat ivid the Caledonian Railway, p. 364). i 

3. By the " Davaab " or other steamers from Glasgow in tbe m«lq 
ing. Bid Greenock, Goiirock, DuaoDo, Botbesay, etc. 

i. By the CAUrasLTOWN (Eintyre) steamers, calling at Gteenoi^ 
and Gourock and— in the aeaaon— at Pairlie (p. 360) on the Ayrshh! 
eoast^ to Lscb Rsnia Iv: An'an, and theuoe down the EllbrannDn Sonixl 
This boat [uus to Lochnmui and Camplieltowu, returning in tb^ 
afternoon. , 

By the Eyles Sute ou we cross from Greenock and Gooroct 
to Eirn and Duno n nd ul at Rothesay and Tighnabruaich on th 
Kyles. Then e o Co n B ek, Lamlaah, and King's Crow "^ 
Arran ; Wein » Bay w h ts well -sheltered snbstantial pier a 
good Kolel ; and h is H d pathic Establishment a mile do' 
tbe ooa^t near Sk liuo e. Wemyss Bay, likeits neighboi 
consists of vil aa bu m of the red sandstone of tne ai 
Castie Weniyss h e. o Lord Inverdyde, of the "Cunard 
of Atlantic steamers , E 1 y was lately rebuilt by Mr. Steven, ship 
biulder ; and Ardgowan House, the tnnclsome mansion of Sr M. Shsul 


Stewart, Bart, (a direct descendant of King Robert III.), '"ho lux 
IftrgG estates bere, la about i miles nortb, prut Innerklp (p. 34S). 
coast road south to Larga (S miles) is a charming drive. 

Prom Wemyss Buy tbe iteainer sails south-west across to Rotbi 
io Bute (p. 388). For Weniysa Cavea see p. 129. 


The ateamet fbr Largs snd Millport (iu Cumbrae) ikirta slong the 
iijmhire eosat from Wvmyaa Bay, paaaing Knock Caatls and Brisbsae 
House. LiBOfl (Brisbane Arma and White Hart) is a conaiderable 
town (pop. 3246), it hu been ciiHed the "Town oC Spires," and it is 
one of tbe yachting central of tbe Clyde. It has fine viewa of Arran 
BeawarilB. The battle of Larga, betneea the Scottiah army and that 
of Haco, king of Norway, in which the latter was defeated with great 
daughtec, took place la 126S, on the southern portion o( the gilain on 
which the town now atanda. (There ie a railway from Largs, down the 
coast to Aidroaaan — 12 miles — aee p. 349.} 

Leaving larga the aleamer paaaea, a mile and a half to the aoutli, 
Eelbume CaalJe (Earl of Ol&^ow), a Hna old place sheltered by trees 
at foot of a wooded glen ; and Immeil lately thereafter Fairlie, with a 
mined castle and glen also, the latter open for picnics. Next, on Great 
Ourahrae Island is Mit.LPOBT {Botds: Cnmbrae ; Royal George; 
Kelburue), a Bnmmar reiort stretching far about 2 miles along 
a, bay at the south of the Breater Omairae Island. There are a 
good pier and harbour for the accommodation of tbe coasting trade. 
The population in 1901 was 1663, tiut this is gcnarnlly doubled 
by risitors in aumnier. There are Churchaa of all denominations, 
Inolnding EstahliRhed, United Frea, Episcopalian, and Baptist. The 
picturesque mariueresiilance called "TheOarrison," stands in the centre 
of the village. Tbe College and Collegiate Cliuruli, founded in 1849 by 
tbe late Jiu-I of Olasgow, and formally opened in 1851, is a graceftil 
Gothic building occupying i fine site on a rising ground behind the 
town. In 1876 the Collegiate Cnurch was consecrated as the Cathe- 
dml tf Oui Ilia, and tfaera is tiaily service. Within Ave minutes' 
walk of the rtll^e there is an excellent golfing green. Nol«worthy 
also are the Marint Biological Siaiioa auil the Ladj/ Marga.Tet HospHal 
(for iufectioiis dise.isea), tbe latter a red sandstone building over- 
looking the bay. With a southern eiposure, Millport lias a warm but 
bracing atnioaphere, and a drier climate than the surrounding diatricta of 
Ayrshire and Argyll. Of late years much has been done by the Com- 
missioners of tbe bui^hto improve tbe amenityof tbe village andahorea. 

I The Rer. Jsoiei Adam, who, for the Drat tbirty years of the century «u 
mialster of the parlnh, will ioug bo renieinbErod for his ihrewdnoi of diar- 
aoter and pungency a! eijireisjon. Many of hia MylDgi are still comnt, 
but he II perhaps best kiiDwQ b; the weekly pnyer he offered for the 


tlalAg Gl«sa«. 



The isliod ia 4 miles long by 3 bro*!. There are goo4 roaiii round at 
aaaitii it, anil iluring summer a aenriee o! cars. The nartb end is lom 
bnt in tbe ea.'jt uid vreal tonirda Millport tbe coast sbDwa bol 
■nd n rocky aliors. TlierB ue nnmerona basaltic dykes running thrODgt 
the island, one of wbich, on tbe east abore, koown as the Lion 
tuMumes a grotesqne rejiresentation of a linn entering n cave. 

Tbe Little Ciitnbrae lies 1} mile to tbs toutb of MiIli)ort. On it 
soutbein ebore are a cumber of caves wrought In tbe atratiSed nwk 
by the action of the sea, the largest of which ii called tbe King's Can 
Oil B small island, off the eastern shore, are the mins of an o' ' 
battled square tower, said to have been a safety retreat of tbe E) 
family. Tbe niius of tbe rhapel and tnmb of St. Vey are di 
top of tbe amnll hill in tbe island, the pmparty of the Earl of Eg 

llie mid-day and evening ateameni cross from Millport to the 
little bay and hamlet of Kilchatt&n, in tbe aonlh of Bute (p. S87} 
ElevBD miles aoDlh-vest of Millport lies 

[fr<J(elist Brodick 

Tliia island belongs to the county of Bute, and ia, about 20iiiil^ 
long and 11 bropjl. It we.9 biongbt very much into Gridence i 
1902 oviug to tlie visit of the King and Queen. The aosiu 
is very atriliing, and Home of ths bills most precipitous, 
belongs chiefly to Lady Mary Douglas Hamillon. Amn gi 
the title of eiirl to the chief of the house of Ilnniilton, w 
nos Regent during the minority of Mary Queen of fiaota, ■ 
who micceodtid to the earldom on the fugitation of its previoi 
poasessor Tbamag Boyd. He received the islaud aa a gift fi 
James IV. for having negotiated the King's marriage with t 
Princeas Margaret of England. The mountains are mostly c 
posed of granite, rising into pinnacles and spires of grotesque 
or extending downwards in amooth blocks or naked rock. Towart 
tho anmmit they are either destitnite of vegetattoi 
a slight covering of alpine plants and mosses. The steamer Iro) 
Wemyss Bay or Glasgow on approaching the shore passes the moat 
of Glen Sannox, and shortly aft^r calls at Cobrie, a small porj 
which takes its name from a rugged hollow in the high n; 
above [Binoein, 2172 ft.). Conie noiv posaeaaea a auitable piei; 
near which is a good Hotel. 

Brodick' is the best place of residence for tomiats on theiilan! 
It ia provided with a pier and a large, Acf^ (The Douglas 

\ fro 

th tl 

1 The village ■ 

and srhoolhDDi 

nay b 





"^f "^ 


f;;; % 



_ ^t^^ 



commanding fine views. At the base of tha chief monntain 
the ialand, namelj Goatfol), is Brodick Castle (Lad; Hamilti 
where tlie King and Qacan were enlertaiuud. Hrodick Castle' 
a revival of the old castle enlarged aod rem[>delled. 
oaatle was formerly a pUce of aorae strength, and was captai 
bf Ring Bibert the Bruce and a small bod; of faUowers during 
bis unhappy wanderings throngh the Western Islands ; and 
was trom its battlements that he saw the Hams on tbe coast of 
Carrick (aea p, 3D7), which induced him to go over prematurely 
to the mainland fcr the assertion of bis rights, as related by 
Barbour, and Soott in tba "Lord of tbe Isles." The castle also 
figures in other periods of Scottish history. 

lioatfell, with Ita sharp serrated outline, is 2866 feet above the 
level of the sea, aiiil the highest niountaia iu tbe islaud. The 
aacent commences at the south entrance to the ducal ])arl[ (by 
permission of Lady Hamilton), and after paasing through the park 
and keeping the kcnuels on the right the pnth enters (by a small 
iron gate on the left) a plantation, through which the moor ia 
gained at a height of SOO fL, close by the Cnocan Bum. The 
route from thence is simple, as there is a path (though rough) all 
tlie way to the top by the loft side of this streamlet. The climb ia 
somewhat laboriouB, otdiig to the rocky nature of the ground, and 
it ocoupiei from 2 to 2^ bonra. The summit is eurronoded by a 
sea of jagged peaks aud massive boulders, and beyoud the island 
there is an extensive view on every side, including the Mull of 
Kiotyre, Looh Fyne, the Firth of Clyde, the islands ef Argyllahire, 
and the coast of Ireland. A variation in the route may ba made 
by descending on Glen Rosa by Glenahant Hill, and gaining the 
footpath on the right bank of tha Glenroaa Water— rough going. 

Several ExcomtoNs may be taken from Bi'odick, anch aa to Lag by 
Lamlaah direct, returning by coaat ; to Cnrrie, Oleu Sannoi, and Loch 
Ranza (visiting the Fallen Rocks) ; to3hiakin(good inn).Iilactwalerfoot, 
and the King's Cavea. The dilferent glans (Qoy, Rosa, and Snnnoi) 
ara especially worthy of being visited ; a very grand and alinoBt alpine 
eicnrsioii being to cross over tha steep rooky saddle from the head of 
Glen Rosa into the head of Glen Sannoi. The descent Is very rough 
and Bteop, and requires care at the beginning. The "Caatle Peaks" 
above Glen Sannoi are partioularly beautiful wild moun tain -tops. 

The distaiice from the hotel at Brodluk to Loch Rnnm is IH miles, 
Carrie being 6 miles, and ttie reminder of the road 10. The first pari 
of tbe road ia level and good, but on getting into N. Glen SannoT and 
Glen Chalmadale, it becomes sleep ami stony. Parties in vehicles re- 
qaire to walk part of tha way. The viilago of LoCB.S.iST.k.^aOTBBjia.'A-a. 
uumber of scattered cottl^es, 3.niV ttiete is & gaoi Hotel- ^^Kio. ». t,t-^' 


nng ■ 

d it 



penlDBUli, near the eutrance of Ihe locli, a.n the ruloi of bd old u 
which was enumerntEd In the year 13S0 among the hunting -sea,ta □ 
Scottish aoTareigna. Tho Convent of St. Bride, " the lonely abode of tKi^ 
Usid of Lorn," occupied a site near the castle ; bnt all traces of thlTfl 
building are swept away. The whole scene in Loch Rimza Bay is one 
the most lotely in Scotland [sea Sootfa " Lard ot tha IsIbb,"— Can 
IV. (18) and V. (1)]. There ia da.ily oanrainnication dnring snmmer ' 
between Glasgow and Loch Rnnia hy the Campheltowu steamera. 

On leaving Brodick Bay tha stearaar sails round CorrygillB and 
Clachland Points into Lamlash Bat, which ia ao sheltered by the 
Holy latand that it forms an excellent harbour for ships of all sizes. 
lAmlasli has a piar, and in the village are two small SoUls and ft 
tamiieraiice /jib. The Holy Isle (an irregular cone, 900 feet liigli) 
was once the site of an ancient churcli, said to liave been foanded 
by St. Molioa, a discij>1e of St. Colnmba. The Gave where the aaint 
resided ia still to be seen on the sea-shore, with the shelf of rook 
which formed bia had. Ee is said to hare spent the latter part of 
his life at Loch Ranza, and to have died there at the advanced age 
of 120 years. His remains, however, repose in the burjing-gj-onnd 
of Clachan, a hamlet on the roadside between Brodick and Blaok- 
waterfoot^ which is about 2 milea from tha latter place. The spot 
is marked by a radelyfignred toTubstone. 

At the southerly point of Lamlash Bay (3 miles from I^mladiY 
ia King'a-croBS, whore steamers eall. Robert Bruce and his foUowi " 
are said to havo embarked hence for the coast of Carrick, in Ajrshi 
(p. 307). A simple slab or nionnlitli marks the site.' Fartber 
south is Whiting Bay {Inn), with a new pier, whence thd 
steamers return at onee. Near it ia Glen Ashdale, where thet« are 
two caseades ; and 2 miles south is Dibbiii Lodge, a mile or two 
south of which is Kildonac (Tnn), and Pladda Island with it» light- 
house and telegraph station. 

The tcur round tha ialsad may he made (walking) in three daya. 
ITie distance is 55 milea, and may be best divided as follows :— (1} 
Brodick to Lag or Sl.iekin (the Shedog of the Ordnai'ce Map), at both 
of which there are eotnfortable inns. (2) Visit King's Caiva on the 

1 ThBTS are a numbm or places in Arran tradJtlonaJly cODnected with tha 
romantio career of King Robert the Brace. "Tha King's Cave," said to haW 
been his Erst abode after arriving ia thelBland, ii iltQil«d on the went aa«M ot 
tha Island, about a mile rroin the road at Blacliwaterfoot Ct^rnpemm <«], ■ 
little U tho north of tliB point ot Druiuldoon, and t miles fr 
the wall at the entiaDC« are Inscribfld the Ifl 
cut ngares ars said, tfaoceh nlth little probability, to have 
the fugitive monarch. The cave li 114 It. long, U broad, and tl{ high. 
tif/O/Biag caves art equally Urge; one being called the King's Kitchen 1 1 

bar ^ 

uliotu (fot which llio luBiatance of s guide vlll expedite), thence procee4« I 
to Loch Rauia {hold). (3) Loch Ranzn to Corrie, where there 1^ «. 
good hotul, and theuce to Brodick, aa previoDsIy described. About 6 
uulea Dorfh of Shinldn ia Dugary Lodge, a ahootlng-boi of the Samiltoaa,' J 

Arran posseBSBB some specimens of rude eapnlchral pillars, o 
attil circles. An erect moDiimental stone may he seen on the coad- 
aide near Uie schoalhonae at Brodick ; there are two others in a Seld 
not far ilistant ; and a more remarkable group— com priaing aevaral 
remains of circles and three upright columne of old red sandstone, 
rising 15 ft. above ground — is sitnated at Torraore, on the weat 
co^t of the islund, ueiir Mauobrie Waterfoot. Thebe atones have 
been miButelj described by Dr. Landsborongh. 

The shoroa of Arran are for the most part formed of beautiful 
red sandstone, which is tolerably coutinnous from Brodick b 
donun Castle, where it is obscured or displaced by a, body of trap. 1 
The rocks which are next moat conspii:uau8 are of a Bchistose nature, M 
and of various composition. 

To the botanist the island preseuta very interesting featuretol 
The numerous varieties of soil give birth each to its own systemil 
of reg^tution ; and thus we have plants of the ses-shore, of thtcl 
secluded gtec, of the open morass, and of the bleak moi 
within the compass of a few miles. In cryptogamic plants i 
ia peculiarly rich, though few of it£ moasca laa strictly locaL 


Opposite Arran, across the beautiful Kilhranniin Sound, extend* 1 
the long peninsula of Eintyre, There are some pleasant bays and | 
nooka on its eastern shore, wbOe the weatern — towards the Atlantic ' 
— is more bold and pictureHquo, A chain of heathery hills n 
down its centre, bnt there is a very conaiderahle amount of culti- 
vated laud. It extends about 40 miles from north to south, with on 
average breadth of 6^, but at its nock (where it joins the mainland 
at Tarbert) it is Little over a mile. It was once proposed to form a 
ship canal between East and West Lochs Tarbert, at a coat o( 
£140,000, but the scheme haa not bean earried out. 

The steamer from Greenock calls at the pretty little bay of 
Carradalo, about half-waj dotcn the peninsula ; and 12 milea farther | 
south saOa up the lino bay of Camfhzltown (While Hart, Argyll, [ 
Arms). This ia the chief town in Argyllshire, containing apopulation, I 
of 823S, and it is famed for the number of ita distilUriea. The | 
town is weli built, and contains a beautifully sculptured, vnu'cuju 
cross, a copy of which, may ba seen ui ftie k"cOM?iM\an.^''i'««*-'i 



nburgh. Almost the whole of CBmpbeltoBn and the Krathi 

[ portion of the peuinauln belong to the Duko of Argyll, who 

■ sbootiag-lodge, named Ma^hrircoch, heot the southem eitrem 

I S mUea from Southend and 11 from Campbeltown. The lodge 

kn aacient buUdiDg with modem additions, and ita position aoi 

mSQcts a fine view of the islands of Sanda, Arran, and Ailsa Crai^ 

as well aa of St. Georgii's Channel and Ireland. Two milea west of 

it is the bold promoutor; of Duiiaverty, on which once stood the 

castle of Dnnaverty, a stronghold of Macilonald of the Isles, and 

often referred to in the history of the clans. This clan was di*- 

poaaeaaed by the Campbells in the beginning of the 17th centnty. 

Six miles nest of the village of SorTHEND {Inn] is the wild sontliera 

headland well known as the ifuU of Kmiyre, round which the 

Atlantic waves storm and rage. This point is the 

I (Tnited Kingdom to Ireland (only 13 miles). 

Straight serosa the penin.inla from Campbeltown (G miles] 
the wide sandy hay of MothrOuinish, into which the ocea 
tumbles with anreatricted power, Konnd the bay eitend 
the best golfing links in Scotland, a fine view across to the Jon 
mountains, adding to their charms. There is a comfortable Hold 
■t the links, apd south from it a little way is soms fine cliff 

A eoaeh leaves Campbeltown abont 6 A.M. for Tarhen on Loofa 
Fyne {35 miles; 10s.), to meet the steamer fram ISlaBgow going 
to Ardrishaig. See tiilile p. v*. There i^ an inn. at Tayiuloan, 
rather mora than half-way, and another at Clachan, 10 miles CnuBi] 
l^bert fl 


U the moat picturesque of all the caniitiea of Scotland, and, with !(■>■ 
aiea of 32GS square miles, it ranks gecond in point of extent, or atti 
to iDveniess. On the two sides which border (he sea it is avsrywhen 
indented with deep bays and creeks winding in a variety of directions, 
BO as to form a aeriei of peninsulas and islands. Tbis extensive distriet 
was at aa early period of history (Stb century) the kingdi 
aboriginal Scots nnder Fergus Mac-Erc, who emigroted at tl 
from the north of Ireland, with a number of followers. In the 11 
century, Sonierled, a succeeding potentate, " became, if not the sovel 
of the Isles and of Ai^ll, certainly the holder of the chief power 
these districts, nnd the traditions of nearly all the clans in the Weat' 
Highlands and Isles carry back the anceatry of their chief to tbl* 
mysterious Sonierled," ' 

Besides tbe parochial divisions, the county is divided into dlstrkrta, 
the principal of the latter being Kintyre, Cownl, Argyll, Lorn, Monw^, 

'» iHrtuTi ofSmaaikd, n 



«nd Ardnamorehan. Its general appearance is wild and mountainous, 
especially in the more northern parts bordering on Perth and Inverness 
shires, which, notwithstanding, are frequently interspersed with fertile 
valleys, where there is generally a considerable amount of arable land. 
The rivers and lochs are numerous, and most of them abound with trout 
and salmon. A great part of the mainland of the county was once 
covered with wood, of which every moss still shows the remains. It 
must have been at one time as desirable to get rid of some of the 
wood as it is now to rear it: But it is most usual to run from one . 
extreme td the other, and the loss was severely felt before any attempt 
was made to repair it. The first example in taking advantage of the 
soil for planting was shown at Inveraray Castle, where the woods and 
plantations now rank among the finest in Scotland. There are numer- 
ous antiquities in the county in the shape of old castles, and sculptured 
as well as standing stones. 

Loch Long and Loch Goil ; and Routes to Invera&at, etc. 

The scenery of these lochs is attractive, and the sail is one of 
the most popular on the Clyde. A delightful day's circular tour is 
afforded by the Railway Companies whose lines cover the district 
in question— sailing from and round Roseneath Point and up 
Loch Long, and returning down Loch Lomond to Balloch. On 
leaving Greenock the steamer calls at Gourook, and then crosses 
the Firth to Dunoon (p. 386). 

BOUTE to INVERARAY vid LOCH ECK (map p. 878). 

There is a good route from Dunoon to Loch Fyne side by Kilmun 
(p. 886), LocH EcK, and the valley of the Cur (16 miles). The scenery 
is very striking. This is the shortest of the several routes to Inveraray. 
The terminus on Loch Fyne is at Creggans Pier, Strachur {Inns — 
p. 878), and coaches run from Dunoon and Strachur in connection with 
the steamers on Loch Eck and Loch Fyne. The lovely Loch Eck is closely 
encompassed by bold and picturesque hills, and resembles in many 
respects some of the lakes in the north of England. One and four miles 
up the loch on the east side are Coylrt and Whistlefield Inns, where good 
fishing may be had, and where carriages can put up. Circular Umr 
tickets to Inveraray by this route, and ba^k by the Kyles of Bute, etc. , 
are issued. Fare lis. 

Loch Long. 

From Dunoon the steamer turns due north, and, passing the 
mouth of the Holy Loch (p. 885), enters Loch Long. This arm of 
the sea is about 24 miles in length and 2 in breadth, and separates 
the counties of Argyll and Dumbarton. At the entrance tA '^jea 
loch, on the left, is BLJLiRiiOBLT&, & ^«t3 wcmJ\ .\i^\Rit\xi%-^'^»w^ 


built npoQ the slope of the Kilmun hill, which riaea to the heigU 
of 1535 ft, BUirmore bill being 1402 ft. The scenery is goi>ii| 
■iDd the shore is well Riinpted for boating and bathing. ' 

ImmBdiately opposite la Cove {to wtiich the steamer cr 
where there are some large and handsume Till&a, including Hartfiol 
House and Cntigrowuie Castle. Fiirtlier up the loch, oa its westeni 
■-hore, is the village of ArdaUiTiny, with its chapei and Mm, ■ plaoi 
oelebratfid in Tannaliill'a song of "The Lass o' Arranteeni." TM 
poet, iu leaving the salitary hostel, or rather hut, had left his heapj 
behind him ; and on returoing to hia loam — for it was at thi ' 
alone his muse found happiest utterance — he gave vent to has pai| 
■ion in the lay wbiirh coQimeuces with these beautiful lines ;- 

•■ Far lone amoog the Highland WIIb, 

WiCh wsuT nep 1 wuidei." 

From ArdeDtinny the Kilmun hills extend aoath-westwEkrds i 
while amrorous Cruachi and Bctu, attaining heights varying frou 
1000 to 2000 ft. , rise on the north of the bay. 

"Argyll's Bawling Oreeu," the popular Dameof this wild regioil 
forms a peninsula of confused and irregular mountains, intarspem^ 
with bui;e rocks, caverns, and precipices. GleadimBrt V 
(H. F. Desehallas, Esq.) stands ou an extent 
at the foot of the "Ccnachft Chaise" or Cheeae Hill [208B ftjj 
A well-made carriage-road, conneoting Loch Long with Looh Eokj 
(p. S73), strikes olT from Ardentiuny through Glen Finnart, ■ 
distance of 4 miles, alTording one of the most agreeable drives iA 
the diatrict. 

Passing the mouth of Looh Goil (p, 370), we reach 7Wtnai)>^ 
where there is a ferry and a road across to the Gareloch (p, 86&)i 
Beyond this, northwards, Looh Long is not more than two-thircii 
of a mile in breadth. At this more secluded part, on the east aidnj 
lie the beautiful seats of Finnajl; and Arddarroch, In sailing n^ 
we have uow an excellent view of the Arrochar range of lulls, c 
spicuous among wliich are The Brack (2500 IL) and Ben Arthur 
the "Cobbler" {2750 It.) — whose rocky summit is craekad anj 
shattered into various fanciful forms. 

At the head of the looh is Arrochar (Hotel: "ArTocliar"i 
and Temperance inn). This is the place where those who an 
making the round by Loch Lomond describeii on the prevloD 
mse, GX^Aa diet Vi "i.&x'at\ <JuiU[\. It is ^raible also to gat 



glimpse of Loch Lomond, even continuing by the other route, 
as the steamer stops 1} hour. There is a station between 
Arrochar and Tarhet {see p. 158*), with 'bus connection to 
both of these places. A coach also connects the Loch Long 
and Loch Lomond steamers. Arrochar is very quiet and pretty. 
It was formerly the seat of the chief of the Clan Macfarlane, but 
is now the property of Sir James Colquhoun of Luss. 

The ascent of the Cobbler may be made from Ardgarten, opposite 
Ardmay Point, and at the commencement of the road through Glencroe. 
There is a path up Glen Loin and over to the Inveruglas Glen and 
Loch Sloy (p. 157). From Arrochar to Loch Gk)il-head by Glencroe 
is 12 miles ; by the footpath, which ia very rugged, it is 8 miles. 


(20^ miles). Starting from the pier the road winds round the head 
of Loch Long; and, crossing the Water of Loin, enters Argyllshire. 
It then skirts the western shore of the loch until it turns to the north, 
at Ardgarten House, into Glencroe, a desolate glen about 6 miles in 
length, exhibitmg some sublime scenery. The road through the glen 
was made by the 22d Regiment, and is good, except at the last mile, 
attaining there the height of 860 ft., where it is carried in a zig-zag 
manner up the top of the hill, where it meets a road from " Hell's 
Glen " (p. 377). Here the well-known seat, inscribed " Rest-and-be- 
Thankful," has been erected for the benefit of weary travellers, and 
alluded to in Wordsworth's sonnet — 

" Doubling and doubling with laborious walk. 
Who that has gained at length the wished-for height. 
This brief, this simple wayside call can slight, 
And rest not thankful 7 " 

Passing on the left a small sheet of water called Loch Restil, the 
road gradually descends towards Loch Fyne by the side of the Einglas 
Water. On reaching the loch side, where it ia joined by the road fi^m 
St. Catherine's (p. 377) on the south, there is, on the left, the triple- 
turreted castle of Ardkiiiglass (G. F. W. Callander, Esq.), an old seat 
of a cadet of the Campbell family. Turning northwanis along the 
shore a little beyond this, Caimdow church, hotel, and school are 
passed on the right, after which the road keeps round the head of Loch 
Fyne. Almost opposite (and 5 miles from) Ardkinglass are the ruins 
of Dundarave (or Dunderawe) Castle, a stronghold of the MacNaughtens. 
The castle, consisting of a strong tower with turrets at each angle, 
is built close upon the sea-shore, from which it must usually have 
been approached. By getting round Strone Point and the head of 
Loch Shrra, 4^ miles from this, we reach In/oeraray (p. 379), and thence 
Dalmally (p. 164) on the Oban Railway. 




Tho nrni of ths sea branching off from Looh Long it tlw w 
Biije of Argyll's liDulii]^ Green la calleil Loch Goil. It is 6 mi 
in length, from 1 to Z in breotitli, nnd atretchea in a, northerli 
direction. Ou entering the iocii the covit on tliv tight is bol 
Btecp, and the hills high and oraggy, but agreeably diversified b 
eitenaire natnral woods of liazel. The mountains on the weM 
side have ■ fine apjicarance from the toch, and rise to a height a 
from BOO to 2000 ft. sboTe the eeo. On this side Carrick Cojltk 
(□ear which there ia an inn), an old stronghold of the Donmorl 
tamil;, atanda upon a low and nearly aea-girt rock, pieaenting % 
good specimen of mediaeval strength of the 15tb century. Ranking 
as one of the royal castles, it was, like aeveral other [Hjste, placed 
under the hereditary keeporship of the Argyll family ; and thithen 
in 1651, the Manjuis of Argyll retired and fortified the pMitiou 
in expectation of a sieKo by the forces of the ConimotiwejJth, 
Some years later it was burnt by the Athole-men, and might dd^ 
answer to Cmnpbell'a lines written on viaitiug the " home of h 

nra of twtllghfs oontemplntiYB lioer. 


To blB hi 


Al the steamer proceeds towsrda the heail of tlie loch the to 
may be reminded of Thomas Campbell's pathetic ballad nf "Loi) 
Ullin's Daughter," the scone of which, however, is not here, bat a 
Loch -oa- Kyle in tlic island of MulL The rudely-outliued mountain^ 
eoDti'ost strongly with the peaoeful little village of Loehgnlhtaa 
at which ue now arrive. The village contains an hotel: and ecaCtei 
along tbe shore are numerous villaa. Tlie biirial-aiales of the Ounp 
bells of Ardkinglnss and of Strachnr now form part of the poriil 
church, in which are ths remains of some of their tomba. Fron 
the pier there is a good view of the mountains. Ben Donioh (27Ti 
ft.), dose on the M.E. , between us and Clsncrue, being the bigbest 

' Tlier* Is Oailv Diiiniuuiiiaatian bi'stianiifrhetwtBnGlBeeQWabd Loe 





A strong] y-liuilt faur-horse coacli laaa iq conneotiun with 
■teumer rrom LochgoilhB&u to St. Catherine's pier, opposite lavin-ari 
diBlanCG of ID miles ; hut the roaci — paasing thraugh ffelt'i GUn, i 
wild Tsllcy aliDDBt pBrallsl with Glencroe — Is so steep Bad hilly tkat ■ 
good pedeatrian may outstrip the vehicle with little eiertioo. The four 
miliu of Bsceut afford picturesque glimpaes of wild luouataia scBDery. 
At the Tourth mile, at the height of some 800 ft., the descent towards 
St. Catherine's commenoes, UiscloBing the basin of Looh Fyne, with 
InTeraiuy and the neighbouring country. At Si, Calherine'i (where 
there is an hotel) a steamer awaits the arrival of the psssangers, and 
conieys them across the loch (2 miles] to luveraray. This is also a 
regular pnhlii: ferry, wall served by steamer and open boati. The ner 
rulnay uonnecting St. Catherine's and Arrochar will probably aOect 
the Loch Goil-hearl triffic aa well as that round Looh Fyne (p. 375). 

Strachur (p. 378) is about 5 miles KMlh, and CEiiradow (p. 3761 1 

GLASGOW TO OBAN tid Loch Fvnk and Inverabat 
(Sfe m'i> p. 378), 

There nre various ways in which this jonmsy may be taken.' J 
The priQL-ijjal one, the "Royal Route," is that by Anlrishaig, ' 
Ciioan Canal, etc., and is desoribed at pp. 365-390. As a 
variation on tliie, coach may be takeu on arriving at Ardrishaig 
(p. 389) for Ford a distance of 14 mlies, tho coaches running in con- 
nection with Mr. MauBray lie's steamers, "Culumba" and " lona." 
At Ford another steamer awnita passengers who can sail 
whole length of Loch Awe, and take train for the last part atm 
the journey at Loch Awe Station. This of course makes a loajj 
day, necessitating an early start from Glasgow, 7 a.m., if by steamw'T 
dawn the Clyde, and about an hour loiter if the boat ha met at 
Greenock or Ooiirock, but, as it is the only route which includes a 
sail on Loch Awe, it is well worth the trouble. The whole route 
oocupies about twelve hours. As an alternative there is "The 
Lord of tlie Isles" route {M. T. Clark, 5 Oswald Street, Glasgow) 
which follows the Hnme cDiirso as the " Colnmba, " etc. , thougli with 
fewer stops, but iustead of stopping at ArilrisbaSg goes on up 
Loch Fynu to Inveraray, from whence coach can be taken to the 
head of Loch Awe. Tliis route is given in detad tieWx . 

Aft«r passing the montU ot Lock QiWg, 'Un^ "S^mb -MtciM^v 




^^^^K considembly, the breadth varying from I 1« 2 mile 
^^^1 though the flanking liilla are by no means gtaud i 
V proportioiis, the scenery is line. The elopeB ou either iide a 

I adorned with fir plantationa and oak coppice, luxuriant growtha 

L of fern, and here and tbere a few etrctchea ol green pastnre-laod 

^^^_ Bl^oining some liill farm. About 6 miles rartbri up, on tha 
^^^L side, we pasa a gmall land-locked indentatiou, Lochgair (i,s. ' 
^^^^ft Short ljO«h"), which gires its came to the adjoining e 
^^^F (GdL Maclver Campbell) and manor-bouse, near the head of tfijl' 
^^^ loch, lurroundod by some fine oM trees. Above Loohgair lies tlis ' 
- Hmall inland hoiHi Glashon. In a few minutes we are abreast of 
Minard Castle, formerly a domeane of the Campbells of Kilberry, 
a hsTtdsome mansion, standing on a bisautifully rounded laini, 
which projects a little into the sea. Several roclfj islets stand ia 
mid-channel, all remarkably rounded and polished by ice action 
during the glacial period : beyond the first of these, on tha eut 
shore, is seen Caatle Lachlan, an old stronghold ruin in good pre- 
servation, at the mouth of Stratblachlan Glen. The steamer, in 
pasaing the islands, has to keep pretty close to the west sht^e, 
where may be seen in succession the granite (aneniie) qnariisi of 
Orarat laidFiimaa, both of which supply Bicelleut paving material. 
The quarries are well known for the sliilful blasting opelationi 
which are conducted on an extensive scale. At the fanntf A 
lamentshle accident occurred in September 1S6Q, when several 
visitors approaching the quarry too soon after au explosion wars 
fatally choked by the resulting gasea or "choke-damp." Cntna 
is on the Cumlodden property, belonging to Sir A. S. L. Campbell, 
Bart, of Garsonbe ; while at Furnace, about a mile onwards, we 
first reach the confines of the Duke.of Argyll's principal estate, 
B miles from the county town and His Grace's castle of Jnvenmf. 
The Loch Fyae Gunpowder Company has a factory at Puniua. A 
mile or so beyond are Pennymora House, and then the Bshiajf' 
and-farming village of Kenmore. The headlands here aie bold n 
finely wooded to their summits, and the landscape generally at 
a more distinctive character as we approach Inveraray. 

Inclining towards the eastern shore, tho steamer makes i\ 
Creggans Pier (tmn), a mile from Stracbor (vm), near 
Loch fyne is believed to attain its greatest depth, S2 fa 
lelegiaph wires cross here by submarine cable. 

Stbachuh is the western terminus of a branch route (] 8 mile*) ■ 
maoectioD vitb ibie one, proceeding through the ploturBsque reg' 
Coca ScK (p. 373}, cm which a small steamer (\i«a to meet the M 




i.% either end. The scenery is very striking. Passengers take the 
Loch Eck route hy landing at Dunoon (p. 385). The Strachur estate 
was of old the property of the Macarthurs, the oldest stock, there is 
reason to believe, of the clan Campbell. It is entailed on a branch of 
the Argyll family ; one of the lairds long resident at the mansion- 
house (Strachur Park) wa& General Campbell, the officer employed 
by Grovemment, after the rebellion of '45, to superintend the con 
staction of roads and bridges throughout Argyllshire. 

From the pier (at Creggans), we get the first view of Inveraray, 
about 4, miles farther up, and on the opposite side of the loch. 
Along the Strachur shore are several neat villas with an excellent 
aspect to the south-west, while on the west side of the loch, a little 
inland, may be seen, on a beautiful slope amid hills and woods, 
one of the late Duke of Argyll's ''farm touns," Auchnagoul, the 
domicile of several joint tenants. In a quarter of an hour from 
learing Strachur pier the steamer is opposite Inveraray, and an 
excellent view of the town, castle, and pounds is afiforded as it 
sweeps round the lovely bay. The eighth Duke — one of the most 
eminent of his line, whether as statesman, author, or landed 
proprietor — died on the 24th of April 1900, and was succeeded by 
his oldest son, the Marquis of Lome. 


f [Hotels: The Argyll Arms ; The George.] Population 678. 

\ Ck)ach to Dolmally (Loch Awe) during the summer.^ A coach runs from St. 

i Catherine's Ferry to Lochgoilhead to meet steamers to and from Greenock. 

(The ferry fkre is Is.) 

the county town of Argyllshire, is situated at the lower end of a 
I small bay, where the river Aray falls into Loch Fyne. It was 

erected into a royal burgh in 1648 by Charles I. while a prisoner 
in Carisbrooke Castle, and has been for a long period the principal 
seat of the family of Ai^U, who have laid out large sums of money 
in improving and adorning the town and neighbourhood. Near 
the church, which stands about the centre of the town, a monument 
has been erected to several members of the clan who, sharing with 
their chief the disastrous consequences of the Duke of Monmouth's 
« rebellion, were massacred near the spot in 1685. The ancient 

I market-cross is a fine example of the Scottish sculptured stones. 

It is about 8 ft. high, and, according to the inscription, was 
I erected by the noble family of "Dondcan MeicGyllichomghan " 

(i.e. Duncan Mac Gilli Comyn). 

Parties staying at the Argyll Arms Hotel may have excellent 
i salmon and trout fishing in the rivers Aray and Douglas, while sea- 

' I A railway is projected from liivetvn.i \« \)^tqi^i . 


Hshing may Iw trioii in Loch Pyne. On the west aide of 01e)l^^| 
Aray, an estcnt of about 5 square miles, chiatl; truadcd land, wn^H 
BDoloaed b; tlie late Diiko with an iron fenoe as a deer foreat. ^^H 
Ikteharay CAsTLit, the seat of tlie Ehike of Argyll,' was built ^^i^^H 
the thin! Duke (Archibald) ia 1744-01, after a plan by Adam. It w^| 

1 The distineulBhod femtlyof ArgylT, hoad of (he grcal clan Campbell. tni:H 

Omit chieruiDB. nud it i> diOleuU to say whether Its giliice la geaealoglc*] 
uitiqixlt; □[ hiitaiical interest U the gruter. Bd far back as eight irDliuiv 
ago, a allleeple <{.!. Archibald} Campbell anqnlred by iitarrUge the Iwdlhip of 
Lixlvne, in AcgyllBhirs, and froin him iprang Hit irai Coltn, the ant nniaHi- 
able progDnltoT dT tlia clan (p. IfiS). Colin, ■et'oiid Litrd Campbell, wajB crfla^ 
Earl or Argyll fnl43T: yiirioDS earia AnAOald Bucceeded-tbe Hoondfell at 
Flodden ; tlie rnnrth vex the Rrst nnblemtn in Scotland who declared h<Dis«1t 
a Prptestant 1 the Bfth was famous as a supporter of Queen Mary ; tlio aighth, 
and tint Uarquli, called "tlie groat " (ISIO), had an eventful poHtlcal nteer, 
aapDUHiDg the cause or the Presbyterian party anil Cnven£nl«[B, becoming at 
len^hthelrrecognieedlead^^ LeadlnghiBclADBUienagaiiiBttheRoyalliittrciopa 
he was signally defeated by MoulniM at InvBrloehy in 1)145 (p. lOB). In IWl >• 

bumh for higti treBson, co 

demnad to death, and eiecuted an the 2Mh a1 Kay. 

rmia public dnties this grest msn found time to 

embelllsb hli eatate by a 

eitsnslve syBtera of planting, the frulM of wlilf* 


pen the admirable /Mlrmtion. lo n Son, and ItMw 

Uken part In the rliring 

of the Duke of Hoamouth. met w<tl| Qie laBM 

il for vHiioui services wse raised to the Dnli»- 

dom in ITOl, being sue 

c«.led by his son Jolm, second, wIwh 

procured for him > monument in WeatoiliialBr 

Abbey. Hlecuverwaaaca 

nibinDtioDDf sientful military and political BdtTff^, 

Bntaring the array in IBM 

he was appointed Comrnuider.lD-chief oftbe fonai 

In SeoUand on the breaWn 

HoeU. On the death of h 

> ^tlier he <•*« made a Privy Councillor and ou ol 

the Lords of Seeslon, lak 

with England. He was c 

reated a peer of England by (he title, of Bartm ol 

Chatham and E&rl or Oree 

Hoh. In tlie House or Lords he took a pronHnNit 

part In the bumieg discnst 

nns of the period, rising and falling In tlie datliii*- 

tlon and favour of his save 

reigns (Oeorge I. and 1 i.) according u hi. Indepnidp 

cnce nf rnndnet end actio 

met wltl. thefrapprovaL The hitter part of hta 

, a men eminent alike for his political abUlHsa ant 

literary accomplish mcnts. 

He wa. appoinUid Keeper d! the PtItt Seal in 

nss, and wasaflerwardse 

ttusted with the prineipsl rasnagement of BeotlUh . 

iiS^js. !u 1734 he "B8 made Keeper of the Qreat Seal, an offlce -hlch he h»W 

U7/ bli Jettb In 1781. 




a massiys qnaHrunguIar building toiuitraet«ii of chlor 

cousistB of two stories and u Blink Itoor flanked with round overtapgiiRg'' 

towBTB, and surmoimtei! in the centre Ijy a square winged pavilion. 

which through its Oothio-shopcd casenienta, adniiti light tn th« interior. 

Aa restored, after being partially destroyed by fire in 1877, the csitla 

hasg'instead oi the original battlements with flat or platform raof, t 

iloping raof with dormer windows. It stands on tlie right bank of the 

I liTBT Arny, and near the site »r the old baronial oastle, built in the 

\ UmD of the Hrvt Earl of Argyll (1*53-93). Clustering aronnd thia 

t pile, or strnggling along the nlope towards the river, lay In 

I Kirmer times the old town of Inveraray, which has also long sinee 

1 dinappeared. At the date of Ponnanfs tour through Scotland (1768), 

I thi old town was described as " conipnaed of the niont wretched hOTals 

Lthat conld be imi;g1ned." Tlie fnttnder of the new castle, howerer, 

I , wepared the wny for the entire removal of this rather unsightly hamlet 

t.iqr laying out aud actnally commencing a new township about a qjiarter 

■■ to the Bonth of the castle, nud facing the little hay at the 

tK Thongh Duke Arcbiliald did not live to see his designi 

■jfDlly carried out, the present neat and beautifully situated town of 

f&venraj, the work of his iminetlinte snccesaors, bears teatimocy 

[to the excellence of the original plan. Upwards of £300,000 ii 

" ve bean expended during the first fifty years upon the mansion 

I ind groui^ds. 

F The principal entrance to Inveraray Ca»t1e is on the north front, 
I where a stone bridge spanning the sunk area, and covered in by ■ 
I strong iron-frameil plate glass structure, fonns an ele^nt vestibnla. 
[ The outer hall given access to a lotly guard-room, overarched by the 
[ etntral tower of the building, and provided with armorjat omamenti 
befitting the home of B.gTeat Highland chief. 

The walls eihibit ysrioua kindsof weapons, representing the warlike 
equipment of almost every age and country. Among these are the flint- 
lock mnskets. about 200 in all, of the old county militia or Fendblea, 
who did good service for king and country on the field of Culloden ; 
likewise a iar^e nuniber of pikes or Lochabar aies, shields, trophiea, 
etc — the whole artistically arranged along the walls. From tUa 
central hall (which is now chiefly used as a billiard -room), as also frnm 
the entrance hall, there is communication, either direct or by corridors, 
with all the principal apartments, as well as with the ample staircau 
anil galleries leading to the rooms above. In the dimensions, arrange- 
ment, and fitting up of the interior, it is everywhere apparent that 
convenience and elegance have been equ.illy consulted ; and in turning 
from the entrance hall to the principal rooms, many of them are finished 
with eiqnislto taste. Alrave the great staircase, a broad and airy range 
PitfBiilleriBsrnns completely round the open space under the lofty central 
Ipme, and nverlooks the large hall beneath. The north gallery oon- 
llicts 1« another suite of apartments chiefly facing Loch Fyne, and 
■'eemmanding a view of the natural amphitheatre shut In by the beanti- 
■ ■ Wly-wooiled peak of Duniquoich on the left, the distant Arroehlir 
heights in front, and the hills of Cowal to tU T\tVi.. 'Yx« iwska 
whence this fine view is oUained were QtttM?\ei \i-j ^juhsu N\*«e" 


.0 the late Duk« and Duchess of Argyll in the ai 

during her yi 


The C'luUe ia thmm to itrangeri when the family is oiwut. 
To the great Marquis of Argyll (1640) Inveraray is ind 

many of Itb fins trees a,nil avenues, 

wliicb remain a memorial of his 

good taataand diBCornment in plant- 
ing. The trees consist chiefly of < 

lan^hea, New England pines, spruce, . 

ir fir. One i 


formed of ^ed boBches, utrikes off 
at a three-arched gateway near the 
hotel, and passing behind the town, 
conducts to a romantic gkn aTxiut 
2 miles distant, called f^choean 
(i.e. Lmtra' Olen], where there ia a 
email cascade. On the way luay be 
seen s wonderfli! baech-tree, CBllefl 
"Tlie Marriage Tree," on account 
of the peculiar manner tn which its 
tnrnk !a united. 

Dvnupioick Uill, a conapicnons 
cone-sliaped hill (900 ft.), ravereil 
with wood, overlooks tlie town and 
castle of Inveraray. It is reached 
by entering at the first lodge on the 
left from the hotel, and proceed- 
ing through the grounds, which, hy 
the liberality of the noble proprietor, 
are open to the pobllc. After pass- 
ing the Cherry Park, where are the 
Dnke's sUbles, and the Pavilion (a 
wooden Btmctare erected for the 
festivities at the home - coming of jg^ , 

tiie Marquis of Lome with bis royal 
bride the Princess Louise in 1871), the road for 
Glen Aray, which here presents rich meadows, int 
trees of vorions kinds, and ornamented hy sevei 
lakes, etc A patb winds ronnd the hill to its su 

persed with stately 
arUflciol cascades, 
oit, where a lovely 

The walks and Jrivus around Inroraray are much admired, and 
gave eojoyment to Quean Victoria during her visit in 1875. Sir 
Walter Scott has given a fine picture of the scenerj abont Inveraray 
in his Zegend of Mtmtrose (chap. xi. )' In the water at tbe foot of 

1 "Emljarked on the bosom of Locli FyUB, CaptAin Dalgctty might have ad- 
mlreil ubo of tho grandest scenes which nature affonla. Ho might have noticed 
the rival rivers Aray and Shlray, whlol pay tribute to tbe lake, eaoh isanlDB 
tloia Va oi^ tUt\i. iu>d.iiai)ded retreat. He tbI^IiC have niiirlted. an tbe soft and 

the pastoral Glen S 
that up Glen Fj-no, 

are manj trout ; uuil u plea. 

jfoju of Loeh AvK at p. 164. 
A coach, in oonnectdon with the steamer "Lord of the Isles" 
leaves Inveraray etsry day during the aenBou for Daliuully (see 
ooauli timc-tablo p. ii"), tfl join the CallandiT and Oban liiie. 
The drive, a partii:ularly &ue one, occupies 2^ huurs, paaaiug 
up Glflunniy, and then, after a duaoont of a few miles, along the 
shora of Lnch Awe. Glenaray, especially tbe lower half, ia 
beantifullj wooded, A little paat the Tliroa Bridges there is a 
beautiful waterfall od the Aray, called Liiiaghlutain, and nearly 
opposite this point, behind a plantation on the left, is the site of 
one of SL Mungo's missionary churches — the farmhouse which now 
ocaupies the spot still bearing, like several other plarea in Argyll. 
shire, the nama of Kilnmn. Beyond this, overlooking a wide 
" ooiTifl," is Cmach Mhor (1982 ft.), the highest point between Loch 
Pyne aud Loch Awe, from the top of which may he obtained a 
distant view of the Hebrides and of the open sea to the south of 
Uoll. At Tullieb, 2 miles on, is shown a knoll where in former 
times the Justiciary Court of the diatHct was h«M under the open 
canopy of heaven, the presiding judge being the "Captain" of 
Glenaray. Not far from Tullich, on the opposite side of ths glen, 
may be seen the ruins of a once populons hamlet, Camus hy name, 
which, tradition states, was anciently a place of sanctuary under 
protection of the Church ; but afterwards, under the Argylla, it 
would appear to have been converted into an ordinary holding. In 
common with other homesteads in the district, Carnns in Glenaray 

*»i Bi the pictorasquo ta ooEcurned, prew 
than tiin present maastve uid qnifere:! mjL 
dajk wood^ wliicli for many jl mile aorros 
tug : ud his Bye mlglit have dsElE on tl 
■lartine ahcupllj trom Che lake, and mlsli 
mlitdle sty, while a lolllsry watch-tower 

apeat much niotn atrOdDg 

itrong lod piinetl]' dwell- 
peak of Duniquoich, 


WB3 pillsged by the Athole-meu diiriug the raids of 16S5, the cat 
lifted, and tho people slain. The road continues easy till Tighnanli 
fead,' once a nayside tavern, is reached. Here we quit the duel] 
domains, and begin to BunQount the ridge tbat Bcparates the head 
of Glenaray from the basin of Loch Ave. 

As the road ascends, an extensive view is got of the surroonding 
ujdands. These form excellent sheep-runs and grouse mooiB, 
toining also numerous small locha well stocked mitb troDt. Hen 
and there, in some sheltered hollow, and beside a lochan or 
ing streaai, the traveller comes across smooth green spots amid thi 
heather— grassy monnds with moss-covered nilna, marking whars 
once st«ad sMelicgs or summer huts of old Highland farming days. 

The first view of Loch Awo cumea very much as a surprisa, 
complete in loveliness and grandeur, and exhibiting a remaikahls 
combination of the beautiful and sublime— the lake, here . 
widest, with green -bowered isles slumbering on its bosom 
vimling shores, also richly fringed with trees ; while in the back- 
ground the giant Ben Cruachan looks down, as if keeping 
and ward over the scene. As we descend the steep incline towudi 
the lake, we see stretching away on the other side, as far aa the eye 
can reach, an irregular series of hills, in most cases green to tbui 
summit ; this is the far-famed land of Lorna. 

At a bend of the old road a recess used to be pointed out whdrs 
it was customary to kneel on coming in sight of tlie sacred 
Inishail (see p. 165), which, with its church and "Cross of Pkhi- 
tration" (avis-an-l'-schleiichdailJi), was regarded with veneration.' 

At Cladieh, near the shore of the lake, the Dulmally road turnl 
suddenly to the right, while another branches off to the left towards 
PortEOnachan. After passing luistrynich, with its mansion-honn 

■ Tighjiaioftad (GmIIc, "House ot the Whiatls"), bo 
practice of the mounted traveller blowing a whiiUe ffhei 
meDt tor himself or his staod. Comparo alsa the ippolL 
eomnma in other part* of the eoiintty for similar liooeea u 

' Tbiflieilao the Bul^iioinlilroni which to Dbaene the geolo^olHiDtaniuh 

Qoa of tiie Loch Awe hollow. The Uke is s bjbcIIiisI 

sjatBm [or which Argrllsliire ia mainly composed), Bei 





eralty re 

Ulte Loch Etlve D 





rnrmed iftet 




ter flndin 

oot by 

It the butt or ' 
ition wlOi the i 
nd there, and Oil 



Htanding amongst tieua, the attantiou is aLlracted t)j a oonaijic 
DOS object fltanJing on a height to the riglit. Thia is a mouuine 
erected in houoar of Duncan Ban M'iMtyre, the moat popular 
modem Gaelic bards, who was a, native of the parish, and died 
(1812) in Edinburgh, aged 69 years. The rood paases over a ridgs 
ncaf the monuiuenl. Here one of the beat views is got of Glen 
Strae and tlie braes of Glenorchay, openiag up to the north and eoEt 
in all their wild beauty, Eilchum Castle also ataniling in tiie fote- 
grouud below. A short rim dowii bill inkea us to DalmaLLV (ace 
p. 104), whence the rail may be taken to Oban. 

GLASGOW TO OBAN :— The "Cdlumb4" Route— wd Dunoon, 

(121 milei. Tlie sliole journey lu oi from OWi occupies about UJ honii ;- 
luvlngBdin burgh ibout T.2a a.k., Qlssguw S.SO (Central), Oreeoock about 

{Sec map p. 384). 
The Columba goes only so far as Ardrishaig, and passengers for 
Oban change here to a smaller ateamer for the Criuau ConaL 
Po&sengeTB for Islay may olao go by the Colucaha as far as Tarbert 
(see p. 3aa). The Columba has the reputation of facing the most 
popular boat in the MouBrayue fleet, and the trip in always nell 
patronised. For the Clyde (Glasgow, Greenock, and Gourook) 
see p. 367. 

UTiMir ; The Ate;!! ; U'OaU'e, adjomiUK the Castle HiU, and «lth pilTate 

CS(«iHFWrs ply betweoo Dunoon and Halannburgli (Oralgendomn)— p. 395.) 
one of the largest watcring-placoa on the Clyde, containing a populs- 
tiou of about 677S. Besides the pariah church, which occupies a 
conspicuous poaition overlooking the pier, there are t\vo Epiacopnl 
and several Presbyterian churches. On a conical hill above the main 
yaer stand the fragmenta of Duuoon Castle, the hereditary keeper- 
Khip of whiob was conferred by Robert Bruce on the iamily of Sir 
Colin Caml>bel1 of Loch Awe, an ancestor of the Duke of Argyll. 
Near at hsndis a statue of "Higliland Mary" (deep. 855). 

ViUaa extend from DuBoon along the coOBt by Kim {inn) and 
Simler'a Quag {huUl) to Hot? LOOH, a short arm of the aea, at the head 
of which ore some fine mountains. Just above the pier at Hunter's 
Quay stands the Eoyal Clyde Yacht Cluh's house (and a first-class 
koed), from which the regatta races are run annually in spring. 



Ob Ibc wmtlMcn ibtm of Ud; Loch b Uk n 
bitber on 1* the tillage of Sandbank a A rjautdam, with a piod pier 
and hoUl. At the bud of the ioeb ii " The Cothotuc," Bt one tinu a 
faTourile inn for wngltn. The niki and drirea from Ibe bead of 
Holy Ixicb, bj I^cb KA, Glen Sf okd. sod Glen Latie, tru highlj' pic- 
Mraqua ; and tbcre ia a toad doe vest thioB^ the district of ComtX 
to Oner Ferrj on Loch fjne (IS miles), br the haads of Lodia Strifen 
and Kiilden (p. S8S), and acnKi the beautiful Glendsrud— in (ay 
which then iaa road to near -Strachnr, p. 37S). Bt Otter Ferry Locbgilp- 
hesd ma; h« reached. There ia also a well-msile road from DuDoon to 
Cnssaoi Pier, Strachur, on Loch Fyne ^de bjr Loch Eck and tiie ntllnr 
of the Cur {Simmer on Loeh Jidt and CoocAu at nlAer eaJ, lee p. 373t- 
On the noitb aide of the Holf Locb \i the Tillage of KUtiatn (with 
AoM), where there are the niiiu of a Collegiate Chapel, fbnnded is 
1J42 by Sir Duncan Campbell of Loch Awe, and uaed as the burying 
place of the Arin'll familf. Eaat of KilJoUD ia Slrmie iBotel], i 
cbanolng watering-place, built on the point of laad between Hoi; 
Loeh and Loch Long. 

Leaving Dunoon, the steamer skiiU tbe shore to I>, 
with a tine (>f abojis, anil nmuy houses standing about amid tree& 
Bebincl, wide opon moorland awBeja upwards. There is a partiou- 
larly large hotel (file Boyal). The peninsula of CokoI terminate* 
> few inilea lower, at Toward Point, on which there is a lighthon 
Keir this is Caitle-Towsril, and the niina of an old cutle of tlie 
Lamont family. We now steer atraight across to the island of 

BtriE {map, p. 364), 
tlie clifDat« of wbioh is so mild that it has been compared to that 
of Devonshire. 

RoTUtEAY (BoUla: Royal; Bute Arms; 
(Glenhum Hydropathic Eacab. ), tho chief town of the ootmty of 
Bate, contains 9878 inhabitants. RotheBay Bay ia well fcnewn 
from tho popular song of that name in vogue 
ago. The bay ia certainly very fine, ^tartioularly looking 
acroia to Loch striven. The line of houses now eiteudf 
along the bay. Thero is no beach, hut an esplanade 
public gardens lino tho shore. There ia a vary large pier 
laUilj oxtouded. On the north and south aides of tho bay 
the hills rise behind Ihe houses. In the centre lies the principal 
jiart of the town with its motiy hotels very oonspicaDus. 
Ttnthesay Castle was a royal residence in the time of Bobert IL 
iiiid Robert III It is now in ruioa, having bean burnt in 168 
III Npiteofbeingalittia too much " Margatized," Rothesay Bay h 
an unrivalled situation, and many other advantages. About 2 milee 
aoufti-MBJS. lit '9kcMi«sB5 \^Kft y^e obaimiua little Loch Fad, t 


shore of which is a pretty cottage built by K Eean the tragedian 
for his own use, and afterwards occupied by Sheridan Enowles. 

On the east side of the island, 5 miles from Rothesay, is Mount- 
Stuart, the seat of the Marquis of Bute.^ The original house was 
destroyed by fire in December 1877, and the present new mansion 
has been erected under the superintendence of Dr. R. R. Anderson, 
architect, Edinburgh, on the same site. It is in the Gothic style, 
and, built at immense cost, is one of the most splendid private 
mansions in Scotland. The principal feature is a large Central 
Court, round which the principal apartments are grouped. There 
is a magnificent Staircase and several Halls, and variously coloured 
marbles are used throughout the hous9. A few miles south is the 
pretty coast village, KikhaUanf a capital sea-bathing place {hotel). 

On leaving Rothesay, the steamer passes on the left Port BcumO' 

tyne, — where there is a comfortable hydropathic establishment, — 

and the bay and castle of Eames, and enters the Etles of Bute, 

a sound or strait lying between the northern part of the island of 

Bute and the coast of the district of CowaL On the tongue of land, 

formed by Lochs Striven and Ridden, is South Hall, where the 

trees have been planted to represent the positions of the British and 

French armies at the battle of ^Vaterloo. Colintraive comes next, 

a very small place, only a few scattered houses and a hotel. From 

here a coach runs to GlendarueL Between Colintraive and Loch 

Ridden the Channel is contracted by four small islands, one of which 

(Eilean Dearg, or Red Island) contains the ruins of a fort erected by 

the Earl of Argyll during the unfortunate rebellion of 1685 in concert 

1 The Bute family is descended from John Stuart, a son of Robert II., who 
granted him possession of the island. Sir James Stuart (1672) was a member 
of the Privy Council, and the first of the family elected to the peerage by the 
title of Earl of Bute, etc. He was a strong opponent of the Union of Scotland 
with England, and on its accomplishment retired trom public life in disgust. 
The greatest interest of the family centres in John, third earl, who succeeded 
his father in 1723, and married the only daughter of the celebrated Lady Mary 
Wortley-Montague, an alliance which subsequently brought with it the large 
Wortley estates. He held several high offices of state, and in 1762 was for s 
short time Prime Minister under George III. "It is curious to reflect on a 
family thus springing at a remote period from a regal origin sinking into the 
feudal lords of a barren island, where they slept for ages in the silent shades 
of heraldry ; then after emerging among the nobles of a dependent kingdom, 
rising in the third generation to the pinnacle of power." His son John, fourth 
Earl, who had previously been created Baron Cardiff of Cardiff Castle, was 
advanced to the Viscounty of Mountjoy in Isle of Wight, Earldom of Win- 
chester, and Marquisate of Bute ; while John, second Marquis, who had 
assumed the surname and arms of Crichton, succeeded to the Earldom of Dxuxv. 
fries on the death of his maternal gr&ndftt^w,'e«X.ftf3R,'8aA^\\yQrov\^'ai>.>» 
1803. The present holder of the tlUea \a 3 oVm ^«.\a\<X^ XXj^t^^MNaxosc^^. 



witb the Dnke of MoRBioQtb. Tbe riew op Loch Bidden tomrda 
(i\e:nAtruel'(Miep.i66)itverjgniui: ntsc the en tnoK stanU Glen 
CaUdh Boom (K. Ingham Olaric, Esq., ■ well-taown jscht owora'). 

Almoct ciactl; op|H«ite, on Bute, &re tvo cnrioat ivcka lookdog' 
like two nuiden* teaud aide hj dde, and call^ " The Maids of 
Bute." Tighiubnuich (Tinuiihraick) in the next itop. iSatdt: 
"Royal," "Tighnslmiaich.") The oune ngnifiea House of the 
Bcae, w there was for long only one house here, bat there is 
a coiuidenble village. We h«ve on the right Karnes powder-nilla^ 
where a rood strikea across to Lorh Tyim ; on the left the ialet of 
Indimenjock, with the mins of a chapel ; and on the right, after 
turning Lanioiit Point, Afdlamont House. Opposite, on the left,' 
in Kintyre (p. 371) ; and right ahead the gr«nd Ktrated hilla oF 
Arran can be «een. 

Theflnrt stoppage up Loch FynHiHiit Tarbert (JruUU: '■Colnmbt," 
"Tatbert," and " Coinmuroia] "). TirUrl ia a particularly pi 
little fishing Tillage aa yet unspoilt by bamJatanda and esplanadeB. 
The bsy is edged tiy broken rock icenery, and elomia of yooii^ 
fir trees crown the heights. There ws^ an idea of eonneoUng the- 
bay [East Loch) with West Tarhert Loch by a canal, but it ci 
to nothing. Loch Fjne herringa are celebrated, sud Tarbert 
dooi ita Bhare in gathering the harveBt. During the hemng- 
Hshing season an imnionBe num^jcr of boats collect here, and make 
a lively sceue. The ruins of an old castle, built by Robert Bruce 
in I82n, nveiJook the harbour. 

Krom Tarhert daily coaohia to the head of West Loch Tarhert (IJ 
mile) convey paisengeni and mails for lalay. Tlie eul ou this loch by 
the daily swift iteanier to and from Islsy la a ohanuing one. 

A eoach aleo rung to CamptiiiltowQ (35 dj. ; 10a. ; pp. 3/1-2), aloTely 
coast drive.— poaalng near the island of Gigha. There are uHu 
(Jlaolian, 10 miles from Tarbert, and Tnyinloau, nearly half-way. 

Bailing north from Tarbert we pass close by a rocky wall- 
wooded coast, anil two country seald, StoneSeld anil IiiTcrneiL 

Prom the liitter (8 miles from Tarljurt) a road goes over the round 
lillhi of Knapdala to the pretty sea-Looh KllliHport. on the western 
shore of wldch (at Cove) is a curiona cave chapel, aaid to be Columba's 
llrst Churah in ticotluul. 

Tell luiloa north from Tarbcrt w 

r Loob Gilp, and land a 

I Ormlrlnle 1h ruithwl hj steameni froqoeiitly from GlauBOH and 
Uloiiilnriifl Hcitol, where Balling may bo had, ifl [ilMsantly altuatal 


Abvriskaio' (Uottl: Tlie Bojal), 
the south -eiistera Urmiuus of the CiinaD Canal, a imiLil viilmge 
surionnded by several villu which bare spruag up sines the 
opening of the canal. The larger town of Lac/vjUphaid {Ilalda : 
ViotorU, Stag, Argyll) atatids, ai ita name implies, at the inner 
end of Loch Gilp, and on the east aide, oppoBiCa Ardriahsig, it 
Kilmory Holsb (Sir Arthur J, Cam()beI10rdo, BarL). On the 
chore of Loch il'yne, acroas the laud to the east of Lochj^ilphead, 
la Otter Ferr;, commauicstiu^ with tlie Cowal diatrict ; and Cha 
upper put of Loch Fjna is described at pp. S77-8. 

The Crinan Canai vaa formed about the year ISOO to avoiil the 
drcmtona pasaags of 70 miles round the Mull of Eiotyre. It is 
9 miles in length, with iifteen locks, thirteeo of which are BO feet 
long, £1 feet wiile, and about 12 doep. Two are IDS feet long and 
27 wide. Ths canal is navigable b; craft of £00 tons burden. 
The small passage-ateamers accomplish the distance, including the 
locks, in about two houra. On the left, S miles from Ariliisbaig, 
Is the iv;-covered mansion of Aiicbindarrocb (Alex. Campbell, GBq,)i 
and on the right, Bishopston. farthor oiii3Cairnbaan/n«(2'omp,) 
{a good station for anglers), from about a mile beyond which a road 
goes south tbrouKh tlie hills to Loch Sweu ' [G miles). Passing 
throngb a TaUey by a close Buries of 1dc!:s we emerge on an extensive 
plain, and the house amidst woods on the rising ground far to the 
right ta Poltalloeh (Lord Malcalm of Poltallocb). A good view 
ftwa; to the Mnll hills iu the far north-west may now be obtained, 
and we soon reach Bellanoch Bay and ita bonny little village. Two 
miles through beautiful aceneiy bring ua to Crinan (inn), with its 
old Tillage built upon a rook, insulated at high water. North- 
ward acrosa the bay atanda the ruined Castle of Duntroon, an 
» Fcom Arilrtahuig h ooach maa dnrdng suninwr (on the anival df ttammer) 
to Vta6 OD Loch AWB, where a ateamer conveys pasaengera to Cha head ot 

Aldrtobilit and tViid puses the vlUige or Kilmartin, fnmonsfOr it« ecalptured 
BtoBB (6S mllea to Ohan bj tlifa ronW). Another cowh goes liy Kflronrtin. 
Khitnn, ami Faas or Melbrt to OUo (40 mllea), (see p. 377). 

1 Loch Swen or SwIii atreli^hea aboat 10 milea Into Knapdale, Dau\y 
appOBLta Ardrishiig, and iU ecenary has beea pronounced by Dr. M'Oonoch an 
nMtMUMo a* that of Loch Katrine. On a rock overhanglnB the ontrvnca lathe 
loeli stanil tbe aoolfnt walla ot Oiatla Swtn. whose fbinidatfcn is Hacrlbed by 
Imsunuitlal tndition to Sweio, Prince of Uonniaik. The caette — bom ita 
position a plaoB of rnuth Importance in its liny— wn» taken by Robflrt the 
bsM from Aleiander of the Islea, anil heitoweJ on t)ie fimily nf Hentelth, 
Itmhaaqneiitly revailMl (otheCrowji. 


ancient seat of the Campbells, which continueri to b« occnpied until 
7th June 189B, wlien all bnt one wing was d^atroycd by fire. 

The sail bj the Urge steamer from Crinan to Obsn (29 miles] 
ocsupies two honrs, and diimeT is served on board immediatelj 
leaving Crinan. The steamer proceeds through the Dorui Mbr ot 
Great Gate, between the point of Craigoisli and one of tlie chain 
islets here aitnated. On the right ia Oraignish Cadle laid ~ 
the latter scrring the district between Loch Mclfort and 
Awe, while to the sonth-west are the islands of Islaj and 3\ 
(with its three great peaks or " Paps") ; and between itanorthf 
point and Soarba the dreaded tide or rruielslroTii of Conyvreokalj 
rushes in from the Atlantic at 18 miles an honr. 

Passing through the saniiil of Liling, between the islands i 
Luing and Srarba, a view is obtained of Benmore (3179 ft.), tl 
liigliest mountain in Mull. Two miles from the point of Lning 
BlackDiill Bay, opposite to which ia the island of Lunga. THm 
miles farther north is the slate island of Balnahuaj, and farther t 
the west the Garveloch Isles, associated with the histoiy of 81 
Colnmlia. We now steer north-east, and stop generally at tl 
islet of Easdala {hotel), celebrated for its si ate .quarries, and sepa 
ated from the island of Sell by a verj narrow, rock j strait, t!iron( 
which the steamer iMssea.' Tlien, after sailing up the coast of " 
with the great hills of Mull to the north-west, we may see belling 
u> the high bridge connecting 9ei1 Island with the maiuliadi 
Farther north the beautiftil Loch Feochen opens on the right, np 
which may be seen the doubte-peaked Ben Cruachan ; and, pasdl [ 
through the Sound ofKarrora, with the pretty and iDtcrestingialool 
the saine name on our left, and the picturesque ruins of Dunoiy 
Uastlc right ahead, we steam quietly into the lovely hay of Oban. 


[lloMs: Aleiandra; TlieG™t WBitem ; aintinn: Caleiiotiiaii ; Ki 
Oalumbs ; Qaei^n'a ; STid n^an; ctljeia. Pup. &4ST. I'nvatd <u 

"Through" ToBiiata Idt InveroBas vie! Onledonisn Canal do not stop ban, blA 

contlnncthelrjonmey til? nsme clay to Fort Wminniln. 418). 
Oban has eiceptional natural advantages. Its pretty little land- 
locked bay with the hills rising beliind and the islands away^ 
seaward ia at all times picturesque, but especially when seVei 
1 Four milfa from Bnndalo, on fiie roart to 01j.i(i, is Tigli-an.Tniisli Hoi 

gracflfiil ynchts lie at anchor in the bine water. The pl«c 
oyer, in a fnir way to being spoilt by tlie tiinltitHdfl of "vroek--^ 
enders" which its prosdmity to Glasgow brings. Every Eecond 
bonao is a LoteJ, and "lodgings to let" seems to be the stgiple 
occnpatioD of the inhabitants. The great coliseum standing on the 
hill behind the town, M'Caig's Tower, was begnn by a benevolent 
inhabitant to give work tu hia feUow townsmen. The imfiniahed 
hydro, standing among the woocis also attracts attention, it is a 
standing esainpla of the man who did not count the cost before 
beiginning to bnild. Oban is a good centre for e 
by land and sen.' For the latter, see Mr. MacBrayne 
Gnide.' The Argyllshire gathering, followed by the Regatta, tak^ 
place in the eecond week in September annually. 

On Eerrera Island Alasandor 11. died during an expedition tl 
the Western Highlands in 1249. Upon the sonth point 
niina of Cn^tle Gylen, a stronghold of the Macdoiigalls. 

At the north and of Oban are the ruina of Dcnohib CiSTLif^ 
sitnated on a promontory overhanging the bay. Access to the 
ruins ia granted Mon., Wed,, and Fri., at the lodge of the modem 
mansion.* An upright fiagnient of rock upon the shore, about a 
quarter of a mile liom the castle, is called Clach-a-choin, or the 
Dog'fl Pillar, to which, it is said, Fingal bound liia favourite dofe 


Three miles uorth of Oban, upon a promontory where the walen of " 
LodIl Etive debouch into Iiooh Llnnhe, stand the ruiaa of DanataJfnage 
Castlo, to which there is admittance at all times, (The key may be 
obtained at the gardoavr's honse dose by.) The aita is siugulailjr 

commanding. DuustaCfnage is siud to have been the aoat of tha 

Scottish monarchy until the overthrow of the Picta, whan that hi 

a descHpUon of tbe rs 

■xy to CuUondcr, tid DcliiiBlly, Kllliii, 
Klce a daji to IsJand ot Sell, hi 
ties from CH»ri, Tlgh-M-TniiBh H 
le mr>re dialflnt Sorth-Weatem 
DJnyinoro," "Dunara Castla," "Hebrlde^J 
, and wivBrtl.winentaatliarbDDrij 
MinoUy la one of the oHniit In tk 
la controntad and detOited King 1 

nch Rojalidtii ; 

of tlis RebalUun oF ITM. 




was trsjisfoired to Scoae ; a-aA it in siill uomuiillj tlie pcoportjrlofifl 
Crown, the Doka of Argyll boiug here'iitary keeper. The real rig fl 
however, ia in the family of Dunateffnago, V> whom it wis usigiied i^" 
an appnnsge at An early perioii. What roniBias of ths buiUing hears 
rnarkB of aitrenio nrtlquity. It ia Bqiinre in form, with roniid towera 
at tbiee of the angles, and la altnated upon a lofty precipice, carefnlly 
soarped on all sides. The entrance is by a Btaircise, Whioh cQHduBb__ 
to a wooden landing in fVontof the portnl. This landing oonldfonne^ 
he ralfied at pleaanro, on the plan of a drawbridge, when tiie only an 
left waa nnder an arch with a low vault (the porter's Inlge) on-the r} 
hand, Hanked by loopholes throngh which any viaitor could ba flredir| 
TTiia arch gives ndnilsaion to the inner conrt, which is about 8i 
aquare, and cODtains two buildlogs, one a! which, dating from ahonl 
1500, was Dccnpied by the &mi1y down to the year ISIQ. There is 
splendid prospect from the ramparts, whera may be seen a brass canni 
taken from the wreck of the Spanish Armada, and an iron cannon said^ 
to be one of the oldest made in Scotland. A cranny in the waHof ttfl 
cattle ia pointed out as the original repository of the f 
Destiny (called tia Fail), which now forms the support of the oc 
chair in Weatniinster Abbey, and was removed from DunBtaftiu^ % 
Scone in the reign of Kenneth II. (sa Scone, p, 179). J 

A little westward from the old castle there are the remusa of a 
Gothic chapel, ahonC 60 ft. long by 20 broad, surrounded by a bnrlal- 
gtonnd, which, like lona, has been honoured with the dnat of kingi 
and chieftains. A portion of the chapel, divided Irom the other b]r« 
wall, la used aa tie family borying-grouad of the proprietor. 


ra ahonl 

non said 

m^na of & I 


Ford [Looh Awe} vid Pass of Melfort, 
(30 milea). 

The coach starts from M.'Oregor's oilies near Station Hotel 
travela by Soroba to Glen Feochan, formerly tho hoina of 

SteveHBona, but now the property of T. W. Marraj-Allan, 

Before reaching the head of Loch Feochan we pass, on tlie lel^l 
Cleigh Inn,' where fishing may be had on the loch and rivet KelL 
Looh Feochan ia a tidal lake, along which we travel abont i 
milea to Kilninver. Thence we branch aonthwarJa along the river 
Enehar, which flows from Loch Scatiiadale, and ia ^mons for 
salmon and sea-trout. Creasing Lagganmore bridge, we follow 
the road to Glen Gallon, finely wooded, on the Breodalbane pro- 
perty. To the left of Blarn are Oorry Lorn and Looh Tralaift 
the latter abounding with trout. Suhsequently we join the 
rivet Oude ; on oiir right is " William's Leap," where we enter tbci 
famoita pass of Melfort from the northero aido, where 
atriking view of its beauty ia to bo seen. After two houiB' dA\ 
from Oban tho coach arrives at Cufl/al Hotel, Kilmeltbrd,. 

' fur Cro: 

. Kcutj 


g»3 , 

esnetly half-way, ISJ miles. Hare freah horsBSaie yoked. Liberty 
can be obtained here tn Gab iipon the neigbbouiitig locha, inolud- 
ing Drimmin, which has been atochod with I^oh Laven ttont. 
(Pi'destriauH may cross direct to Loch Awe side from Kilmelford, 
12 miles, by the beautiful Loch ATioh.) Travelling thence 
towardd Loch Melfort, to the left is Glenmore House, and 2 mile* 
farther, Glenmore Farm. At Aaknisb we come in view of Scarbs. 1 
ami Jura, between which ia tha Whirlpool of CorryTreckau, the I 
noise of which can be heard for 20 miles. Passing Loch Craignish I 
(on the right), ws come to Kintraw Brae, then descend from tha I 
watershed to Kilmartin Glen, in which are aome famous sculptared | 
Etoneu. At Ford there is the option of sailing up Loch Awe, t 
joining the Olian railway at Loch Awe station (p. ISi) ; Or p 
ceeding south to Ardrishaig (passing Cnmasary Castle], to m 
the steamer "Columba" (p. 389). This same ronta, above 
described, can be yavied by either rail or steamer, ^oing from Obon 
to Lodi Awe station, and thence sailing down the Loch to Ford, 
or by steamer to Crinan and Ardrishaig, and thi^nce to Ford, and 
returning another nay. 

Obsn to Pass of B!!andeb an 


liooli Awe, Beu Cruacbaii, eto. By roi 

id or rail— 25 

See pp. 164-168.) 

Oban to Glen Etitb, Qlkncok, a.NB BALLACHtllJBH, kto. 
(By rail, steamer, and cooob — BO miles). 

■ I Tt ia possible to do the charming little eiourBioo lo Loch Etlve b/ 

) I train Irom Oban to Achnacloich, and there taking steamer to LoQh Etlva I 

, I Uead. This takes altogether itJUghly only about two hours, bo that it i 

' may be done in an afternoon. The tour to BallachiUish and Glen 

s takes much longer, and it is best to go direct by steamer to Ba! 

' I chullflh (IJ fir.), theiice ooaiih, which rnna in connection ; even then the 

> I whole trip, there and back, takes more than six hours. For details, 

i i see coach and steamer time-tables. These two may be comhined as 

.( follows : train to Achnaoloioh, ate.iroer to Loch Etite Head, coach to 
Ball&chulish, steamer return to Oban ; but this takes the wiiole day and 
1 does not allow time for Glencoe. 

I 1 Tlie ecach drive from the head of the loch up Glen Btive to Sink's 

S ' ffffuiefwhereitjoins the roadfrnm Tyndrnm to GlenEUe, p. 162), is 1 

* of muah interest and beauty — the alpine peaks of Bnacbaille Etivo 

¥ (3341) ft.) and her still higher noiehbours being seen to great udvauti 

I PeJcstrinn route :— Bonawe to Ballaohulliah, wd Cw™.!!, »«.<; ■^. ' 


OBAB, BOtlNO Min.7., TO Stafpa a 

ND loica, BK3, 

tn fine wrather tbe sail w^cgpiu D to ID honn, Blln 
Bton* and lona. PuseugeisueUuded at bat 
rougTi weather the landing at UUktb is on the n 


j> the ontnuite of Flngi 

This is a trip thut should on no account be missed, tliongh i 
requires sonie little courage to get ap in time to board the atesiH^ 
St 8 o'clock, and start on a day of ten hours. The fare ia l^tj 
I exolusire of food, bat if the day is fine and reasonably emooth th 
B.ijrill certainly he no reason to grudge the TnQoey. We first il 
pXlffmore (p. 404). Due west, shutting out the Atlantic Ocean, 1 
the great island of Mull (population 71S4), with its "1)ig 'bSi' 
("Een More," 3185 ft.) in the centre. Oppoflite Lismore lighf 
house may be oliaerved nt low water the Lady's Rock, a i 
reef on which Maclean of Duart exposed his wife (who 
daaghter of the secoad Eart of Argyll) intending that she ahoD 
be swept away by tlie returning tide, an incident made the autjM 
of Joanna Baillie's drama of "The Family Legend." The raid 
Castle of Duart stands out on the neighbonring point of Mad 

sod close to it on the aauth is tlie Lighthoase bnilt to oomnie 
William Black. 

On the right we pass the mouth of Loch Aline, which r 
into the district of Morvcn (p. 435).' On a promontory stand t| 
dark ruina of Ardtornish Castle, mentioned — with other old eagti 
in Moll— in Scott's Lm^ of IJte Jalea, where interesting informK^ 
regarding the district will be found. The steamer next passe 
the left — in Mull — Saien, situated inn bay of the same name, 11 
there are a pier and a small hotel, l^niije north, in a pretty c( 
at mouth of Aros river (flowing ont of Loch Freisa, see btloto), tk 
Atos Hold. Aros Castle is a powerful rock-built fortresa on the left 
■hore, about half-way from cither snd uf the Sound. Onoe a seat 
of the Lords of the Isles, it is now the property of D. CaiBMW 
Haclachlan, Esq., of Aros, to whom the Sahings in Aros RinvHld 
in Loch Freisa belong. It is not far (torn tliis that we Teach Hat 
pretty little bay of Tobermory, with the houaea standing on lieigbti 
that are tree-dad, a very unusual feature in Mull. Tobbbmort 
(signifying the Well of Our Lady St Mary), the only viUage of any 
uKe in Mull (population 117S ; ^HoUli; Mishnish, Mull, and 


> FJer BDd inn at Looh Aline. ^H 

■C " The lurptBt Hotfl, " ThB WesLttn li\ea," i» uon clused. ^H 


'•"'■« '^FnTr^ 


Opposite TobBMHOrj' lighthouso is the eotrance to Loch SuDHit 
(p, 43B), aad on the left Eloodn Ban, ^lie aceue of a cka battle 
(BBS DunTBgmn, Skj-B, p. iBO), Sailing round Aidmore Foiut we 
]ia>ifl Bt the dietaace of 7 miles ironi Tobermory, the rained oaetla of 
MingaiTy, anciently a reaideoce of the Lords of tliB lalea. To the 
north may be eean the lighthouse erected 160 ft. above the level of 
the sen on Ardnamurchan Foiut (the Cape of the Great Seas), — the 
most veaterly point in the British Mainland, and also, in clear 
weather, the wild hills of Eigg, Enm, and Skya ; and to the West 
thelonglow»horoaofthuialaudsQrCW;[tiHi)and rires (Temperance 
inn), famous during the " Crofter Agitation " in 1866, oome in view 
some 10 miles out un the Atlantic. (Tbey may be reached by some 
steamer from Oban on Monday, Tueadfty, Wednesday, and Friday.) 
On the left, about 8 miles frunj Tobermory, is Olengorni Castle 
(modem), foiTnerly called Sorn Castle, a mansion built in the 
Scottish style of architecture. Up the narrow Loch Cuan is Bella- 
chroy EoUl (8 miles overland from Tobermory), where flailing may 
be had : and beyond Caliach and Tresnish Points we reach the 
singulaF-lookiog group of ialanda of Tresniah, known to sailors as 
the Dutchman's Foit. In fine weather a view may here be 
obtained of tha Skcrryvore lighthouse (30 miles W.S.W.j. It 
ia only now that the full beauty cf the western isles can ho 
appreciated. Approaching Staffa we eee the black-capped mash- 
room of an island witli white aea-hirdj^ ranged on the ledges 
of gold lichen-covered rock ; this rises against a baokgronnd 
of cobalt, while on the distant islands is a silver bluo light, 
as it might be the dawn of tha llrst day. There is actually 
no one living on Stall's, and it is startling when a boat appears 
with boatmen ready to take passengers across from the steamer to 
the island. Theaa men aio in tha employ of Mr, MacBrayne, and 
row hve miles out every day from the island of Gometra to meet 
the steamer. Before its arrival they have decided on the moat 
suitable place for landing in accordance with the wind and tide. 
Even on a calm day the landing is a matter of some difficulty, and not 
to be recommended to those who are not agile. On a rongh day 
it is, of course, impossible. When calm enough for the venture 
the stoemer waits in the offing, and several boats work ta and fro 
until all who wish are landed on the curione broken-short coIuqids 
which stretch down to the sea. Siafpa means the iale of columns, 
and often as wa have heard of it, and imagined it. it is impossible 
not to be impressed and almost awestrook by this extraordinax; 
natuiHl phenomenon. Why the mAtoehb Aum^ -Msiq ■»&. ""(R 



beiognniil, vrh; they alioald get to acerUin height and then te 
jointly in a,u earthy cup, vhy some ehonld have atoppod ghor 
or broken off and form a, sort of teriuco or breakwater oab 
side the caves, all these are questions which at c 
thomselvett. Like many other things they are simple whsl 
BXplaineii. In ages gone by, a mighty volcano belched up baaaiti 
lara into a caae or cone ; while molten, it remained in one mai 
but when it cooied. nature broke it Up into frEigments each preasii 
and pressed upon by otliera so that they were foi'oed into t 
priamatic form, and of that chiefly the hexagonal, whieh ia of i 
the most erouomical, and whieb ia found for the same reaaon 
the houeycomb of the bee. In the course of further agea. denodft 
tion by ana and air, wavea and wind, wore away the eitomal cap 
and left only the hard core of hasalt. On this, wandering sea^bitdl 
restei, detritus gathered, until a soil nos formed, and eeed 
brought by the birda took root, and the grassy cap was formed 
This explanation refers to the whule structure as far as the Giant^i 
Causeway in Ireland, where it can be seen in grandeur. TIm 
broken off columns ara what they seem, namely, those which hcinj 
the moat exposed have the soonest succumbed to the forcea ai 
against them, and have fallen. 

The island is about li mile in circuit, and its highest point ii 
Hi feet It ia honeycotulicd with i:aves, the largest of via 
Fingal's Cave, ia that where visiters are usually landed. I 
besides tLia there are numerous otheis, such as Clam-ahell Cava 
the Boat Cave, the Cormorant'd Cave, varying from eighteen 
Qfty fset iu height. Bat there ia no time to explore these. Hi 
would be bold indeed who ventured to take proviaions and oam] 
here for a night, with the prospeut of being called for by t 
steamer next day if the wind were not too boisterous ; nor ham 
we ever heard of such a feat being attempted, thungh there woolt 
be oompeiisation for such a course that would make it worth t 

The archway of Fikqal'b Cave ia nearly 70 ft. iu height, and i 
supports a massive entablature of 30 ft. additional. Its raoedinj 
depth is about 230 ft. Both the entire front and the aides 
composed of oountlesa ranges of columna, beautifully jointed, i 
of symmetrical though somewhat varied forms. The roof exhibit 
a rich grouping of overliaiiging pillars of varied and beanttAi 
ooloura — some of snowy whiteuess, owing to calcuraoua inomsts 
tinns. "Uow often have we since recalled to miad," says Hi 
'7|i^n'uv\u£ycfyijLQBTU>in>^Vh« dnaftqf StatLiauL, " the regularity^ 

miguitiidu, and loftmeas of thoae colainiiB, the fine o'erbanging 
clitf of small priamatic basalt to wbioh thej giTo aupport, ■ 
hj the miirmurmg waves of many thouaaud jears into the aemb- J 
lance of BomB Btupenilous Gothic arch, 

" ' Wharo, ttirougli ttu long-drawn aisJo 8ni3 frettsd vault,' 
the wild waters ever urge their waj, — and tlie receding sides 
that great templB, mnning inwards in solemn perspective, yet ever 
and anon, aa ooean heaves and falls, rendered visible ia its far 
Banetuary liy tha broad and flashing light reflected by the foaming 
surges sweeping onwards from below. Theo the braken aud 
irregolar gallery which overhaags that subterranean fli 
from which, looking upwards and around, wo behold tha rich I 
and various hues of red, green, and gold, which give such splendid 
relief to tho deep and sombre- coloured oolnmua — tha clear bright 
tints which sparkle beneath our feet from the wavering yet trans- 
lucent Boa — tha whole accompaniad by the wild yet melbw and 
BOnarons moon of each successive billow, which rises up the sides, 
or rolls over the finely-formed crowns of the lowlier and disjointad i 
pillars." The other caves are nil of less extent and baBDtf, and 
not usually visited. These are the Boat Cave, Mackinnon's or ths 
Cormorant's Cave, and the Clam or Scallop'Shell Cava. Tlie last- 
named presents the aitraordinary ]ibenomeDon of having its baaal- 
tic columns bent like the ribs of a ship, while the apposite wall ia 
made np of the ends of horizontal columns, resembling the surface 
of the honeycomb. This cave is 30 ft. in height, and 16 or 18 in 
breadth at the entrance, its length being 130 ft. The noted rook 
Buachaille, or the Herdsman, is a coooidal pile of columns ahout 
80 fL high, passed in walking along the colonnade whiuh ejitends 
along the whole face of the cliff to neai the ladders which afiord 
access to the top of the island. 

Nine miles south of Staff a is tho famous isle of 

The island is nearly 3J miles in length and 1) in breadth, aj 
oontains a village of about 200 inhabitauts, with a small kolci {Tha l 
St. Columbu,). The celabritj of lona as an early seat of Christianity 
is tu be traced hack to tiaint Calum (or Colnniba), an liish Cliristian 
missionary who took np his abode liere in the year 563- His 
eiamplary life and sanctity of manners procured for him universal 
respect, and he died in the arms of his disciples in the 77th year of 
his age. Whethor or not he was buried on the island is disputed. 
His grave is still pointed oat, but Wa tb^s «i* £^^&. ^/ ^ 

iBstin; J 

havo forDtold tlio dtistm; 
e following lines; — 

A few centuries after hie death tlio island u^s invaded by the 
Noraemen and Dttnes, who aaeailed the nion^tery, slew soma of 
the monlca, and Torued tbe reioBinder to seek safety in flight.' 

The MoNABTio Ruins consist principally of the Cathedral, 
Nnnnery, and Chapel. It ia well to go strajght at Brat to the 
Nunnery of St. Mary, supposed to hasa been erected ahout 
the close of the 12th century, a few years later thiu 3t. Oran's 
Chapel. Being thns the second in order of antiquity, it is in com. 
paratively good prescrTTitian, and the chancel and narc and part of 
the vaulted roof remain. Within the church is the tomb of the 
Prioress Anna, vith data 1G43, and other defaced monumezitBl 
stone slabs may be seen an the floor and outside. The nuns, who 
followed the rule of St. Augustine, wore not displaced nntil aomo 
time after the Rsformation. Their original settlement was in & 
uei^hbonriDg small island, called the Isle of Nuns. 

From the Nunnery it is usual to proceed along the "' 9traid-na- 
Marbh," or street of the dead, to the bv-rial-ground of lona, called 
Bcilig Oran. One of those celebrated Rnuio crosses for which this 
island is femons, named Maclean's Cross, is passed on the way ; its 
probable data is later than the ISth century. The stone is very 
thin, bnt the carving \% of the usual scroll work, and a beautlM 
example of rare monnmental art. 

The tombs in the burying-ground have been resuscitated by the 
Biertions of the lona Clnb, and are disposed in rows, one being the 
ridge of kings, another that of tbecliieis, Macdoualds, Macleans, etc. 

As a specimen of Celtic art, the linest tomh is that of the 
Four Priors, sixth from the end in the row nearest the sea." 

1 Tbe chair sijil nave of tbe Cathedral arc now roor^d in, aud Qm bnllding 
i< being otlierwlss "reeloFWl,' owing to ths " patriotic aad ploui" actlaa o[ 
GBoTBe, aih Dnka of AtgyU^ wbo on Zand 8opt, W9B oieooMd a dsal Uanafcr- 
rlug tha ovtnoTBhip ot these hit-totlo toius, possessed by his fiHutly for flilly 
three ccututioB, tn a body orapeclfled tmsteaa, who are tu act "foe behoof nt 
tbe Ohureh ol ScolUnd aa at present by liw Batabllflhed." 

a It Ilea between ecelytured figures of Hacleans, and is In lour panels. 
¥iaWii^aiaii\SQA,-«tiui.H.iu!Kgadof tbe name and lUi of these Friorii, died. 


"All thefle laoniunenta, even tha most anoiant of tlioiQ, belong 
to so age rGiuoToJ by many hundred years from Colamba'a time. 
But they represent the lasting Tesercniifl which hda nama has 
inspired during so many generations, and the desire of a long 
BuocessioD of chiefs and wariiors, tbtough the Middle Ages, and 
down almost to our own time, to be buried in the soil he trod." 
It ie evidence that many famiitea of distijiation in the Highlands 
had bnrying-places in lona, that rotive chapela and crosses existed 
in vatioua parts of tlie island, 

SL Chan'a Cha-pet appears to be the most ancient building in 
lona, having been erected partly about the close of the 11th ceotury 
(sa Dr. Beeves, the antiquarian, supposes) by the pious Margaret, 
Quean of Malcolm Canmore, on the site of St. Oolumba'a original 
cell. It is of small extent (29 ft, hy 16 ft), and of rode Norman 
architecture. It contains some interesting moauments both on the 
walls KuA pavement. The aappoaed hurkl-place of St, Ocan is 
pointed out, and in a canopied recess is the broken shaft of Lachlan 
Mackiunou'smemorial cross, ofdate 1489. A much -worn sculptured 
stone bears tha name of Macdonald of Isla, and in a corner is the 
tombstone of one of tha Argyll family. The freestooe arch on south 
side is of lator date than the rest of the Chapel, The Nortnan door 
way has been beautifully sculptured, though now wont by exposure. 
The present Chapel probably occupies the sit* of an older one. 

Near the Cathedral, St, Maitin's Cross may he seen and the shaft 
of St, Jolin's Cross, and on top of Tor Ahb (the Abbot's Mount] the 
fragment of another. These are all that remain of the SBO crosses 
said to have once existed in the island, hut which were thrown into 
tha sea, hy order of the Synod of Argyll, during the Keformation. 

Of the oroEsea already mentioned, the mutilated one of St. John 
is the oldest, while St. Martin's (14 ft. high)ia considerably older than 
Macleaji's. The high crass was not a sepulchral monument, but 
dedicatory or commemorativB ; a close examination of these ra- 
maining examples will show that tliey are not copies of each other, 
but tjpical of the development of sculpture from the 10th to the 
14th centuries. 

The Calhedral Church of St. Mary is built in the usual form of 
a cross. Itoonsists of nave, transepts, and choir, at the north aide 
of which is a sacristy with side chapels on the aoath. It is chiefly 
in the First Pointed style of architecture, but, as in otlier buildings 
of the same kind in Scotland, there is a mixture of the Koniauesque 
and Second Pointed styles, indicating different gerioda sit tttiAurei., 
ranging from the 13th to the lQt!h ceotuncs. 

400 tONA 

The tower, which is divided into three storias, is supported by 
four arches reHting on f^raoeful pillars with sculptured capital) of 
grotewjue figures. One of these represents an Biigcl weighing souls 
in a pair of scales, one of which is kept down by a deril's paw. 
The traoer; of the windowsis verjpecnliarand shoald be obterved 
from outside, those on tlfrae siilen have sqaare fraiiiBa ooniplotely 
Riled with mouldings. Tlie high altar, whiah iras of whits marble, 
was in existence at the time Mr. FeDnant Tisited the Island, but it 
has now dinapiwared, and the only portion known to erist is oon- 
tained in the Andersonian Mnseum at Olaegow. Very near the 
place where it sCoad in the atcne elligy of Abliot Hackinnon, 
wlioao cross is in SL Oran'a Chai*! ; and oppoaita, on the other 
side, is on^ of Abbot Eenneth Uackenzie. In the centre of the 
ohancel is the tomb of Macleod of Mncleod, the largest tombatons 
in lona, and said at one time to have had a brass. There is ali 
the tomb of Maclean of Ross (Mull), the chief of a sept called t1 
" race of the iron sword." In an iron cage below the east window 
is deposited the stone said to bare served as St. Colutnha'a pillow. 
On the north of the Cathedral are the ruins of the cloister^ o; 
Tnouastic buildings, consisting of the chapter-house and libTary.'near 
which ia the spot pointed to aa St. Columba'a tomb. The Abbot's 
honae is also shown. In the neiglihoiirhood of this a pattionlai 
spot ispointed out oa the place of concealment o! iiia Blaek Slomt of 
lona, on which it was cnstomary to swear \a contracts and allisnoea. 

Brery one must he stnick by the beauty of the rocks and the 
pretty patches of sandy beaoh along the ahorea of the island, in 
relation to which the Duke of Argyll remarks in bis book already 
qnoted^" Strangers visiting lona, who have time to do to, should 
take a boat from the knding-]ilaoH to the FoH-na-Chnraieh, the 
creek on the west shore whoie Ooluraba landed. The hoach 
conaista of (ragments of rock rolled and polished by the sarf, and 
is almost like a beach of precious stones." " 

There is a Fcrrg from lona to the BasioSM-aU. croaalnK the narrow Sound ot 
lona, and a Fonyeysace Is genorsUy In waiting for pasHengera b; ths Obar 

1 Thers 



t within this 

libmry th 


bo found the 

luet bDoka or 

Uvy, and G 

t in a no 

Dmtni aad FaU of tin Bima 

n Emfitt. Sate 

ciuTing on el 

spur hou 

M irclie 

St. John's, on 


Mtfd tjrMfisra. Bteionww 



Board. The 

k or erecUQ 

m, and ofcupled all years. 


lantern K el 



lilgh-watEr, B 

nd the light b, 


white light 

Brad 11 



tS-to™. MA^X^-^^rt.,^-™**. 

is odI; at this sUge that the great attTBctiou of Mull, its intense 
' e fully appreciated. At timoB the steamer keeps 
quite close to the shore, and «t other times haa to avoid it for its 
dangeroiiii rovks. Near Caraaig it is verj rocky, and shortly after, 
some cnrions natnral arches are aoen. Sflvural times on the liorae- 
wanl way, a Iwat comes out apparently from a bleak and homulasa 
shore, to take olT and ssnd letters and parcels. Tho prci^ipitoue 
diffi tower to a height of iiOO feet, and their steruiiOiEj is broken by 
cataracts of white water, which have carved and chiselled channels 
tor thflmselres. The liigheat of these, after rounding Ardalaniah 
Point, is called Oorry'i Leap, and the legend is that " GoiTy " 
having been pnnished fay Maclaine of Lochbuie, in hia pride and 
desire for revenge leapt oJT this headland into the sea with tlie young 
lairdof Lochbniein hi.iarma. Thcold snd new l^astlos of Lochbuie 
are at the bead of that loch. We arrive back at Oban between five 
and six o'clock in the uvening. 

COLONHAT, [slat, *ND JuKA. 

The " lonely " island of Co^oruay lies 11 miles S. of the Ross of Mull. 
Tliera are few more lovely places in the kingdom than this small 
ieland, only some 8 mUea long. At its north-west shores are some 
magcifioent clilla, aflbrding very picturesque rock scenery, one spot 
particularly — known as the "Pigs' Paradise"— being unique in it> 
strange beauty. It la rather difficult of access. At various points 
round the coast are eiquisite sandy beaches, — Killoran Bay being 
perhaps the finest. A bathe hero on a warm day is a moat oxhilarat- 
ing and luxurious sensation ; and in the neighbour]) ood are some 
extensive caves. Colonsay House (Sir John M'Neill) is pleasantly 
situated south of this bay, and is approached by a romantic high road 
fki(D Scalasaig (pier and inn) on the east coast, at which tho steamers 
"Hehrides" aud " Dunara Caatlo " (leaving Glasgow every Monday 
and Thuraday respectively) call. Near Scalasaig is a granite obelisk 
in memory of the late Lord Colonsay (a distinguished Scotch 
lawyer, died 1874). On the west coast, opposite Scalasaig, lies 
EilchatUo Bay, where there is an extensive golf-course, naturally 
good, but said to suffer somewhat from want of attention. 

Olose to the south end of Colonsay, and separated from it by ■ 
qilita narrow sandy strait, fordable at Low water, is Oronnay, on 
which are the ruius of an ancient monastery, and a remarkably Qua 
earl; Christian Cross. 




"The ialaniia of Colonaay and Oronsay ara named after St. 
Columba and hia companion St Oran. They canstituted the firat 
insular settlatnont of Columba within the tBrritorieB of the Cbristian 
Scots, hefore he converted the heathen Ficta, who afterwaida 
tusigacd to him lona. A Coldee establishment was founded at 
this time in Colonaay, called (after St. Oran) Killouran, Iha site 
being still indicated by the name of the existing uiansion-houae. 
The existing mins at Oronsay are those of an abbey founded by the 

Lord of the Isles subsequent tu their connection mth tlis StnmCs, 
' in the middle of the Itth century. It was one of uaaona-Mgolai 
brought from Holyrood." 

[Beautiful in their lotieliuess as these isknds are, that looelinesa 
involies inaccessibility, and it is not possible for any one staying 
only a rev days at Oban to reach Cbem.] 

Beyond Culonsuy (some fl to 6 miles south and south-eoEt) lie 
the two considorablo islands of Isky and Jura, the former heing 
comparatively flat and the latter monutainotis. Ist.AV may he 
regarded as the richest and most productive of the Hobrides, 
and neit to 8kye in its population, which is about 7777. 
miJesloBg by IS in breadth, but the great biqlil of Loch-in-di 


JURA 403 

divides the western extremity into a large peninsula, so that there 

t is no continuous breadth equal to that just named. It contains 

1 some really good scenery. The principal village is Port Ellen, 

, which has 863 inhabitants, many of whom are employed in the 

^ well-known distilleries. Here are a golf course, and a good vnn 

J (The White Hart) at the south end of the island. From the 

summit of the Mull of Oa (800 ft.) a lovely view is obtained, and 

about 10 miles north is the remarkable cave Slochd Mhaol Doraidh. 

At Bowmore (mn), 14 miles farther up Loch-in-daal, are large 

distilleries. Islay House, the ancient seat of the Campbells of 

Islay, stands at the head of Loch-in-daal. There are many 

interesting recollections connected with the island, which was 

originally a favourite residence of the Lords of the Isles. But 

here,. as at Eintyre, after many vicissitudes, their power passed 

over to their rivals the Campbells about 1616 a.d. There are inra 

at Bridgend (near the mansion-house), and at Port Askaig. 

Jura is separated from Islay by the Sound of Islay, a narrow 
strait (through which the tides flow with great force), only half a 
mile broad at the picturesque .fishing -station of Port Askaig in 
Islay, where there is a ferry. Like the Mull of Kintyre it is nearly 
cut in two at the centre by a loch of the same name, Tarbert, the 
neck of land being only three-quarters of a mile in breadth. It is 
27 miles long, and, excepting in the centre, from 3 to 8 broad. 
The southern and larger portion belongs to Campbell of Jura, 
whose mansion (Jura House) stands at the extreme south. The 
Paps of Jura, two mountains in the centre of the lower division of 
the island, are conspicuous objects, and rise to the height of about 
2500 ft., and the whole scenery of the island is wild and rugged, 
and interspersed with numerous small rocks. The greater part is 
deer-forest There are inris at Lagg and Craighouse, both on the 
east coast ; and there is a ferry from the former to Keills on the 
mainland at Loch Swen. 

There are steamers to Islay and Jura from Glasgow every 
Monday (" Hebrides,*' J. M'Callum, 10 Ann Street, Glasgow). It 
is also possible to go by the " Columba " to Tarbert ; here change 
for "West Loch Tarbert and cross to Islay, past Gigha. This is a 
beautiful sail. 

In the Sound of Jura and off the mouth of Loch Swen (p. 389), 
lie two small islands, Cor and Mor (or Mohr). Mor contains the 
ruins of a chapel, or convent, built by O'Chariadig, an Irish a&ixLt 
who died and was buried here. H\b ViiciNi \a «NJ^ \»\s^ ^gRK^.^^^^'^w 


hnndted yards from the ruins. On the summit of the uland 12 
is a atone croiis hearing a rudely raiTed cruciGxion, and in tha H 
of the hill thei'e 13 a vaulted cell, whieb was used as an ori.tor}'..J 
The KouTE from OniN to Skvb and the NofiTH.'WBST'J 
described in a subsequent Section of this liook (.set p. 133). 


Few sails in Scotland ean compare with tliis for splendid com- 
bination of mountain and loch scenery. The predominating 
mountains are Ben Cmacbaii, with its dual jieak, aud those of 
Morveu, on the one side ; and of Ballachulish and Glencoe on the 
other. These mountains are among the highest and moat im- 
pressive in appearance in tho Highlands. Passing the island of 
Kerrera an the left, and the mins of DunoUie on the right, the 
steamer erosaes to the island of Liamore, ot " Lioa-mohr " [signify- 
ing "Great Garden," a name acquired probably by the richness of 
its soil and pasture), at the month of Loch Linnhe. Liamore ia 
about fl miles long, and 2 in breadth, and was anciently the 
dence of the Biahops of Argyll — "Episcopi Liamorienses." 
large white houae aoon among a clamp of trees is Eilcharan, wl 
was originally a Roman Catholic Baminary accommodating 
students. The estate of Eilcheran was sold on the removal of 
institute, and is now the property of the Duke of Argyll The 
island is one of much interest, and although appearing comparatirely 
flat from a distance, is, on closer inspection, cut up by deep fissures 
in the limestone rock of which the island is composed, covered with 
iry and other creeping plants. The coast is bold, with mins of 
several castles, and there are some curious caves. There are throe 
amall &^sh-water lochs in the island, two of which, Eilcheran and 
Fiart, contain ejrcelknt Irout, and are also frequented by wild 
ducks. The steamer calls at the pier of Auchnachrosan, where 
there la a village with poat-oSce. The Bov. Johu Macanlaj [Lord 
Macanlay's grandfather) and Rev. Donald M'Nieol (author of En- 
marka oa Z>r. JohnsMi's Tour through the Utbrida) were miniateci 
of Lismors, and resided in the manse near the north of the ialoud. 

The Book of Ike Dean of Lismore consists of a US. collection of 
poems, Gaelic and English, made by James M'Gregor, Dean of Lia- 
more, 1514-51. The publication of parts of this work has 
bated to give a genuine hiatorical solution of the Oasianio prohh 



On the peninsula to the east, sitnated between Lochs Etive and 
Creran, are the mountainous districts of Benderloch and Ard- 
chattan. Some of the summits rise to a great height, such as Ben 
Bhreac (2324 ft.), Creach Bheinn (2857), and Ben Sguliaird (3058). 
On the eastern portion of the peninsula stand the ruins of Lochnell 
House (Campbell), the Lochnell Observatory, and Barcaldine 
House (Cameron). In the centre of the fine bay of Ardmucknish 
is the site of Beregonium (see note, p. 168). At the mouth of 
Loch Creran lies the island of Eriska. 

The steamer calls at Port Appin (temperance hotel), where there 
is a ferry to Lismore. Two interesting old castles are next passed, 
— Island-Stalker, built by Duncan Stewart of Appin for James lY. 
during his hunting expeditions ; and Shuna, on the island of that 
name. Opposite, on the mainland, is Appin House. The country 
inland — "the Airds of Appin" — is very pretty. After passing 
Ardsheal House, 6 miles on, the steamer skirts the base of the 
massive Ben Yair (8300 ft ), and enters Loch Leven. 


[Hotela: " Ballachulish," 1 ni. from Pier towards Village ; 
" Loch Leven Temperance," on other side of the narrows.] 

occupies a picturesque situation near the mouth of Loch Leven, 
which is an arm of j;he wider and more expansive Loch Linnhe. It 
is backed by the huge mountains lying to the west and south of 
Glencoe^ some of which tower upwards with peaks of prominent 
contour to the height of from 2000 to 3300 ft. It is a straggling 
place — the pier, hotel, and village being all apart from each other. 
The village, 2 miles east of the hotel, is well known from its exten- 
sive quarries of slate for house-roofing, which is of excellent quality. 
At the end of the loch rises the conical hill called the " Pap of 
Glencoe." Near are Ballachulish House, Aultuashellaoh ; and 
Callert and Cuilcheanna Houses on opposite side of the loch. 

The railway from Connel Ferry runs near the shore ; it will 
probably be opened in the summer of 1903. 

The sail up to Banayie is resumed at p. 407. 


This waterfall, in the opinion of many, is finer even than Foyers. The 
distance from Ballachallsh is about 10 miles, and the drive one of the most 
« beautiful in the West Highlands. If preferred, a boat may be taken from the 
ferry to the head of the loch, from which the falls are distant about a mile 
and easily accessible. Tliey are formed by a mountain torrent, carrying a 
large volume of water, first fklllng in cascade over some 25 feet of shelving 
rock, and then by a sheer descent of about 100 feet^ ^\\!i\\i%\SNSsa!L's^iw^ v*s^ 
in the bubbling, hissing, seething "wa^ftxa ol «. ^"W^ ^a^ ^^osJ^XjsJ^w. k 



yillage is dirty and di.^greBable, and tS 


everywhere appsrent, Tho road HnteW 

Brii^a of Cod. Thfl stately, red-roofed, 

a knoll flbore llie old House of Inyercoe 



of Lord Strathoona and Mount RojaH 


pnrehaaad the anoient heritage of the H 


After oroasing the bridge the road U 

the stn^Bm may he xeen the lolia Gtt 


deacendant of the Maodooalds in meai 




road then shirts the river Coe betn 





Sgor-na-Cicha (2430 ft. } on the north, a 





south, and Bonia green patches and rd 





indicate the place whero the massacrq 

to this Bcena haa beau aptly called th 
extent from east to west is from fl to ; 

and alders growing, in profusion on its 
native road across the other side of ti; 


longer, and cornea ont near the mom 


1 grandeur of the pass itaolf is indoacri 

^^^^^^H ^^^H^^H 

1 rise flharplj, not smooth and grass-cap 


and deeply striated. The black shadoj 

^^_ the purple distance. The valley is t 

^^^^^^^^^^^^HH^^^K Coe runs thraugli and t^ 


nrged the olQcera Id commaad to eiecnte their ordara with the i 

" Campbell of Glenlyon, a cajitsia in Argyll's regiment, aoconiinglv^ 
repaired to Oluritoe od the 1st of Febraary, with a hundred e 
twenty men. Buing uncle to young Macdonald's wife, he wan receii 
by the chief witli the utmost friendship and liiupitality, and the mm jl 
were lodged with tree qBartatH in the honsea of the olan. Till the 13th 
of the month the troops lived in the ntmoat barmouy and familiarity 
with the people, and on the very night of the maisai^re Glenlyon passed 
the evening at cards in his own quarters with Macdonald's sona. In 
the night Lieutenant Lindsay, with a party of soldiers, called in a 
friBUiily tUBDuer at the chieftain's houae, and was instantly admitted. 1 
Macdonald, while in the act of dresniog himself and giving orders t(wV 
refTBEhmeDta to be procured for hii visitura, was shot dead al ' ~ 
bedside. The aiaughtor became general, and neither age noi 
apaied. Several who Red to the mounteina perished by famine and 
Uie inclemency of the season." 

Olachaig hotel (small) comes a mile beforB tho little lalte Trio- 
cBatan, fed b; the streamlet Coe or Cona, celebrated bj Ossian, 
who is Baid to have been burn on its banks, and whose cave is 
piHated oDt beyond the second loch, rising above whiuh ia liidean- 
nftm-Bian, tbe liigheat peak of t