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THE 



Border Magazine 



AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY. 



EDITED BY 
WILLIAM SANDERSON, 

Author of "Scottish Life and Character*' (A & C. Black), "The Soft Lowland 

Tongue o' the Borders," &c. 



VOL XII. 

JANUARY— DECEMBER, 1907. 



JOHN MENZIES & CO., 
EDINBURGH and GLASGOW, and also at ABERDEEN, DUNDEE and CARLISLE. 
LONDON : D. R. DUNCAN, 186 Fleet Street. 



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Galashiels : 

A. WALKER & SON, 

Printers. 



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INDEX. 



Anderson, David Brown, 161 

" After the Toil of the Day," 43 

Author of Waverley on South Side of Border, 
103, 126, 15< 163, 193, 206 
♦Autumn, 236. 

Ba', The, 183 

BaUantyne, Sir Henrv, 1 

"Berwick's Walls and Ramparts," 18 

Birkhill and Beyond, 116 

Bonshaw Tower, 208 
*Borderer's Lament, 49 
♦Borderland, The, 196 

On Tramp in, 47 

Border Abolutionist, A, 219 

Angler, A Successful, 97 

Archueologi', An Afternoon among, 231 

Bookcase, >4, 94, 108, 134, 144, 174, 

200, 204, 226 

Country, In the, 36 

— , -. Decorators 34 

Keep, The,' 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, 130, 

150, 170, 190, 210, 228. 
Literary Chronicle 19, 39, 59, 79 

Literatinre, Present-day, 59 

The Literature of the Scottish, 138 

* Maiden, 163 

Musician, 46 

Notes and Queries, 6, 44, 87, 105, 128, 

157, 163, 188, 204, 225 

Raids, The Last of, 197 

* Singers, Ballad of, 109 

* Town, A, 44 

VaUey, A, 135 

Village and Kirk, 24 

Borland, Rev. Robert, 81 
Bosell'fi Fair, 76 

Boston of Ettrick's Life, 235 

Boston U.F. Church, Jedburgh, 214 

Brockie's Hole, 140 

Burns' Beauteous Rosebud, 107 

Carlyle's Village, 57 

Castlecraig and Drochil Castle, 75 

Christmas Tramp, 15 

Cochrane, The late John, 116 

Cockbumspath, 233 

Cooper, James Fenimore, 185 

Croall, The late Mr George, 124 

Davidson, Captain Robert, 101 . -f 

Dogden Moss, The Kames of, 178 

Dookin' in Tweed, 37 

Drennan, Rev. Hugh, 61 

Dryte Sands, Battle of, 114 

Dimdrennan Abbey, 3 

Eddington, Mr Alexander, 21 
*Elibank, 14 

Elliot, S. D., Presentation to, 14 
♦Exiled, 184 

Poetical Pieces marked thus *, 



" Fairshiels,'' 24 
*Ferniehirst, Lines to, 169 
*Flodden, 219 

Four Towns, T;he, 98 

Galashiels Centenarian (The late James Bell),. 
198 
*Gift of God, The, 45 

Gouinlock, The late Walter, 200 

HaU, The late Ex-Bailie, 17 

Haunted House, The Legend of a, 176 
♦Hawick, A Legend of, 69 
♦Home Again, 33 

Hutchinson, A. T., 181 . 

Laidlaw, William, 12, 28 

Lessudden, Notes on, 217 

Lewis, The late Mr George, 53 

Liddesdale, Reminiscences of, 112, 132, 152 
♦ A Dream of, 223 ^ 

Livingston, John, of Ancrum, 72, 92 
♦Logan Burn, The, 189 

Lynn, The late Francis, 121 

Macrae, Late Rev. David, 109 

M'Gall, The late John, 141 

"Maggie EUiot," 58 
♦Marches, To a Maid of the, 180 

Moffat to Hawick, Walk from, 159 

Murray, The late Alex. Davidson, 160 

Nelson's Famous Signal, 19 

Newcastleton, 54 

Newstead Roman Militarv Station, 53 

Old Pocket Book, An, 212 

Pentlands, Winter Walk on, 35 

Proclamation of the Sovereign, 85 

Provand's Lordship, 192, 227 
♦Queen Bess and the Border Chief, 199 

Queen Mary's House, Jedburgh, 201, 230 

Rab's Friend, In the Footsteps of, 7 

" Rainbow and Witches," 9 

Riddings, Battle of, 149 
♦Roman Charioteer, The, 220 

Rutherford, William Gunion, 216 

Sanderson, The late Robert, 41 

Sark, The Battle of, 64 

Scott and Leyden, 172 

and Operatic Composers, 68 

Sir Walter, A Criticism, 119 

at Hallyards, 32 

Scottish Song, To Foster, 6 

Smailholm and Sir Walter Scott, 52 

" Social Life in Scotland— 18th Century," 37 

Threi Days wi' Bluid, 96 

Tramp Poet, A, 196 

"Tron Kirk, Edinburgh," 26 
♦Tweed, By the, 140' 

Tweeddale, 65 
Vanishing of the Scots " Old Nobility," 236. 

Westerkirk, 224 
Reviews in Quotation Markg^ 

uigiiizea oy VjOOQ IC 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Frontispibcb. 

Queen Mary's Jedburgh Tapestry. 

Portrait Supplbmbnts. 

Anderson, David Brown, 161 
Ballantyne, Sir Henry, 1 
Black, Professor E. Charlton, 221 
Borland, Rev. Robert, 81 
Davidson, Captain Robert, 101 
Drennan, Rev, Hugh, 61 
Eddington, Alexander, 21 
Hutchinson, A. T., 181 
Lynn, The late Francis, 121 
Mary Queen of Scots, 201 
M'GaU, The late John, 141 
Sanderson, The late Robert, 41 

BORDBR SOBNBRT, PORTRAITS, &C, 

After the Toil of the Day, 43 
Anna, Scene on the, 215 
Auckland Castle, 207 
Aytoun Hill, View from, 142 
Ballantyne, Mr George, 46 
Baiiiard Castle, 104 
Bell, Late Mr James, 198 
Berwick Bell Tower, 18 
Berwickshire, Old Map of East, 141 
Boston, Rev. Thomas, 214 
Cochrane, Late Mr John, 116 
Cockbumspath Church, 234 
Coldingham from the East, 141 

Priory, 141 

Cooper, J. Fenimore, 185 



Cooper's Cave, 187 
Dundrennan Abbey, 4 
Durham Cathedral, 208 
Elliot, Councillor S. D., 14 
Ewes Valley, The, 136 
Exchange of the Nations, 35 
Eyemouth Harbour, 22 

in a Storm, 146 

Gainford, 155 

Glen's Falls, 186 

Gilsland, 164 

Gouinlock, Late Mr Walter, 200 

Hall, Late Ex-Bailie, 17 

Hajlydown from the West, 141 

Hawkeye, Statue of, 188 

Jedburgh Bannockburn Flag, 95 

Laidlaw, Tomb of William, 28 

Lewis, Late Mr George, 53 

Lindisfame Priory, 195 

McDougall, Mr James, 227 

Mumps Ha', 165 

Peebles from the South, 174 

Queen Mary's House, Jedburgh, 203 

Raby CasUe, 127 

Reid, Mr Allan, 6 

Rokeby House, 103 

Staindrop Church, 126 

Tait, George Hope, 34 

TumbuU, Robert, 97 

Urquhart, Rev. Alexander, 216 

Welsh, Matthew, 68 

Whitby Abbey, 194 

Winston Bridge over Tees, 156 

Westerkirk, 224 

Yarrow Kirk, 82, 83 



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SUPPLEMENT to the " BORDER MAGAZINE," VoU XU., No. !«. 




SIR HENRY BALLANTYNE, OF MINDEN, PEEBLES. 



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AMiLLUStaATEO nOHTHLY 



DEVOTED TO 

Border Biography, History, Literature, and 
Folklore. 

Edited by William Sanderson. 



Vol. XII., No. 13 



JANUARV, 1907. [all rights reserved. 



SIR HENRY BALLANTYNE, 

OF MINDEN, PEEBLES. 

By the Editor. 




) HE youuger politicians of the present 
day can form little idea of the lively 
election tijnes we had when open 
voting was the mode of ascertaining 
the will of th© people, but the excitement w^as 
by no means confined to the polling day. The 
day set apart for the nomination of the caii- 
. didates for political honours is a very tame 
affair nowadays, but long ago it was far other- 
wise. A wooden platform was erected in a 
prominent part of the principal town of the 
constituency, and there the candidates were 
nominated in public and addressed the assem- 
bled crowds. The proceedings were presided 
over by the Sheriff, but even the presence of 
that august personage did not prevent the 
multitude (most of whom had not the privi- 
lege of voting) from making things very lively 
for the candidate and his supporters who were 
not on the popular aide. We can recall the last 
busting at Peebles in 1868, and the scene there 
enacted is indelibly printed on our memory. 

Our age at that particular time certainly did 
not entitle us to a vote, but the hoys and lads 



of a burgh town can ;jmke their influence felt 
on such occasions, as we did then. Among 
our section of the community there was a 
bright youth of, thirteen summers, who was 
receiving a. superior education at that time at 
Bonniugton Park School, Peebles. He was a 
born Radical, and doubtless felt the remark- 
able scene at the Peebles hustings to be his 
political baptism, even then being struck with 
the injustice which denied the vote to the 
working-man. How few of us dreamt 
that the bright lad referred to would some 
(lay be the Provost of the Royal Burgh of 
Peebles and the President of the Liberal As- 
sociation, and that his municipal and political 
labours would be acknowledged by a knight- 
hood 1 But such has been the case, for the lad 
who entered so heartily into the election ex- 
citement of 1868 is now Sir Henry Ballantyne, 
of Minden, Peebles. 

Sir Henry was born in Galashiels at the 
time Avhen his grandfather, the late Henry 
Ballantyne, and his numerous sons were busy 
founding Tweedvale Mills at Walkerburn, near 



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THE BORDEK MAGAZINE. 



Innerleithen, which well-known tweed factory 
wa« the b^inning of that movement which 
changed a shepherd's cottage into a thriving 
village of ove^r 1500 iiihabitanU. As a length- 
ened sketch of Walkerbum and the found- 
ing thereof appeared in the Border Maoa- 
ziNB of February, 1905, we need not now give 
further details. 

When about two years old Sir Henry re- 
moved with his parents to Walkerburn, where 
on the slope of Caberston Hills his father built 
a fine house, and gave it the appropriate name 
of Sunnybrae. He received his first educa- 
tion at Innerleithen in the private establish- 
ment of Mrs Morrison, Hillhouse, an estimable 
lady who was well qualified to impart know- 
ledge to her pupils. From there he went to 
Walkerburn Public School, which had recently 
been opened. His first master was the late 
Mr John Scott, afterwards of Drummelzier, 
who died a short time ago in Peebles, hon- 
oured a»id revered by all who knew him. 
Amongst his other teachers at that school was 
Mr Thomas Weir, who recently retired after 
many years' service at Innerleithen. 

In 1866 Sir Henry went to Bennington Park 
School, Peebles, then a private school owne<l 
by Mr James Gibson, with, whom the young 
pupil stayed' as a weekly boarder foi four 
years. From there he went t. the Edin- 
burgh Institution ^or a year, boarding with 
the heodmojjter, Dr R. M. Fergusson. 

In 1871 it was found that the Tweedvale 
Mills, Walkerburn, was rather a limited field 
for so many energetic business men, ?ind three 
of the sons left and started the Waverley 
Mills, Innerleithen. The grandfather having 
died some yeai-s previously, Sir Henry's 
father, David, and his uncle John now carried 
on the business under the original same of 
Henry Ballantyne tfe Sons. Sir Henry then 
left school to learn the business of tweed manu- 
facturer, and for the next twelve years he 
was actively associated with the business at 
Tweedvale Mills. 

Both partners had numerous sons, and as 
they grew it was once more found that the 
old establishment offered too little scope, so 
in 1883 the partnership was dissolved, and Mr 
John Ballantyne remained as sole proprietor. 

Mr David Ballantyne and his sons endea- 
voured to secure a suitable site at Innerleithen 
for a new mill, but that little town once more 
suffered from the difficulties placed in the 
way of building by the landed proprietors. 
With some reluctance, which was partly out- 
weighed by the circumstances that there were 



two railways in Peebles, and that a good site 
was offered on moderate terms, the new firm 
went to Peebles and built the now well- 
known March Street Mills, which were 
started in 1885 by this new firm of D. 
Ballantyne & Co. Sir Henry threw himself 
with great energy into what was at first up- 
hill work, but the new business proved success- 
ful. The finn has always had a good reputa- 
tion for turning out honest work, and this al- 
ways tells in the long run. 

Sir Henry has always held it to be the duty 
of every employer of labour to do everything 
possible to improve the relations between capi- 
tal and labour, and his attention having been 
drawn to profit-sharing, he studied the subject 
in all its bearings, with the result that the 
firm established in 1892 their now well-tried 
system of profit-shaiing. At first the profit- 
snaring scheme did not apply to the younger 
hands, but at the request of those who did parti- 
cipate it was soon after extended to embrace 
every one who has been in the firm's employ- 
ment for the whole of the year during which 
the profit has been earned ; and it is interests 
ing to know that for the year ending August 
last the number of participants was 428. The 
scheme has undoubtedly done much good, and 
the firm has never regretted the adoption of it. 

Caerlee Mills, Innerleithen, one of the old- 
est manufactories in the Borderland, founded 
in the eighteenth century, had passed into the 
hands of the proprietors of the Waverley Mills, 
and they — the uncles of Sir Henry — disposed 
of Caerlee Mills to his firm, who thus employ 
between 600 and 700 people. 

We have already indicated Sir Henry's poli- 
tical leanings, and we can recall the active 
part he took in the election of 1880, when the 
late Sir Charles Tennant, Bart., won the seqt 
which had so long been held by the Conser-. 
vative party, and the late Mr W. E. Glad- 
stone visite<^l the district while on his famous 
Midlothian campaign. At the time of the 
Home Rule split, Sir Henry was elected chair- 
man of the Liberal Association of Peebles, 
and he has held that position ever since, work- 
ing strenuously against difficulties which can 
only be estimated by those who thoroughly un- 
derstand the constituency. The Master of 
Elibank, M.P., owes not a little of his success 
at the last flection to the untiring energy of 
Sir Henry Ballantyne. 

We have long maintained that no man is a 
true citizen who does not take a deep interest 
in what might be termed local politics, and Sir 
Henrv has realised our ideal to the full. He 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



early threw himself into the work of the Town 
Council of Peebles, and not a -few of the fine 
improvements in that model Border town owe 
much to his guiding hand. Some years ago 
he was honoured by being appointed Provost 
of the Royal Burgh, and ever since he has been 
most successful in. guiding the deliberations 
of the Town Council. 

Sir Heniy is a capable musician, and we re- 
call that he played the organ accompaniments 
at the performance of the " Messiah," given 
in the Parish Church of Innerleithen, some 
time in the later seventies. This was the sec- 
ond time Handel's masterpiece had been per- 
formed in the Borderland— Selkirk having the 
honour of leading in this ^ matter. He is also 
an enthusiastic golfer and curler, and was a 
member of the Canadian-Sooto Curling Team 
four years ago. He indulges in motoring, but 
is noted for his consideration for those who 
use the roads by other forms of locomotion. 

Sir Henry has in Lady Ballantyne an ex- 
cellent helpmate, and we trust that they will 
long be spared to enjoy the honour which the 
King has bestowed upon them and the Bor- 
derland. 




Dundrennan Abbey: Its Architectural 

Features and Historical 

Associations. 

By David Pattbrson. 

JF the many historic ruins to be found 
in the South of Scotland few are 
more attractive or worthy of a visit 
than Dundrennan Abbey, situated 
in a delightfully sequestered valley seven miles 
south-east from the ancient town of Kirkcud- 
bright. A finer situation for a monastery 
would be difficult to find. Here the soil is of 
the richest, and the general landscape, with its 
wooded dells and gently sloping hillsides, lend 
a solemn, yet withal a delightful aspect to 
the scene. The projectors of such religious 
houses knew well where to plant them down, 
and exhibited their usual taste in selecting 
this beautiful valley for such a purpose, .and 
nlthoiiirh even at the present day well removed 
from any centre of commerce, the village which 
has grown up under the shadow of its vener- 
able walls is extremely well provided with 
conveniences and facilities for the benefits of 
tourists who hail from all parts of the globe to 
view this gem of antiquity. The ruins now 
standing are almost covered with pale grey- 
ooloured lichens, with wild flowei^ peeping 
out between the seams of the walls, which give 



a character of peculiar and airy lightness to 
the clustered columns and pointed arches. 

Dundrennan Abbey belonged to the Cister- 
cian Order of Monks, whose habits was to seek 
seclusion, hence the position of this magnificent 
ruin. Little is recorded of its history pre- 
vious to the War of Independence, and from its 
ruined stone-work we have to learn much of its 
earlier history and splendour. That David I. 
of Scotland was the founder there is little 
doubt, although several writers have ascribed 
it to Fergus Lord of Galloway. At tiiis period 
what is kn9wn as the Transitional period in 
architecture became conspicuous in the erec- 
tion of church buildings, and forms a strong 
epoch in the history of ecclesiastical architec- 
ture, between the Norman and the Gothic, and 
may be further regarded as a step forward, 
which finds its root in the same spirit which 
undoubtedly created the Noble Gothic in its 
earlier period — that of enoblement — for were 
not the architects of that period guided by the 
exalted desire to elevate, and by the symboli- 
cal preach the words sacred of truth in im- 
mortal stone, that the eye of the bdiolder 
might lead the soul up, up above the vaulted 
roof, as did the mighty grove of forest oaks the 
soul of the ancient Druid. The ruins of the 
Abbey present to-day but a very faint sem- 
blance to what it must have done in its en- 
tirety, yet enough remains to enable the stud- 
ent of architecture to bring before his mind's 
eye the general features of the entire edifice. 
Like most of the ruined buildings to be met 
with of the Transition period, it is somewhat 
difficult to arrive at the exact truth respecting 
the true architectural character and order of 
Dundrennan Abbey, for here we are confronted 
by Norman, Gothic, and composite, together 
with work added by reason of repair or altera- 
tion, where little regard for order seems to 
have been observed. Much of this latter work, 
however, is of comparatively recent date, and 
can therefore be traced out and laid aside, 
enough remaining of the original work to en- 
able one to reconstruct and lay down a descrip- 
tion aod plan which mugt embrace much truth, 
if not the whole truth. As is well known, 
Norman architecture was introduced into Brit- 
ain about A.D. 1166, and remained the order 
until about the end of the twelfth century, 
when the Early English or first pointed Gothic 
order was introduced, when a period of transi- 
tion begins, which shews its existence in many 
of the buildings erected at that time. The 
existence of pointed arches in conjunction with 
Norman architecture has by many writers been 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



laid down as evidence of the Transitional per- 
iod having existed and guided the architecture 
of edifices which were erected prior to the 
twelfth centijry. This is a mistake, which can 
easily be proved by examination of the early 
Norman piers in the famous Abbey of Mal- 
mesbury, which is, of course, a rare example, 
and though found in such cases it may be gen- 
erally taken for granted that such an admix- 
ture of orders or styles represent the Transi- 
tional period. Of such is Dundrennan Abbey. 
Norman predominating, most conspicuously in 
the transepts, the whole work bearing very 
distinct traces of the exercise of individual 
peculiarity or eccentricity on the part of the 
masons engaged, who, there is little doubt, 
were native workmen. There is, however, 



The Abbey is entered from the western 
front, the original wall on this side still re- 
maining to a considerable height, and faced 
outwardly with modern work, and thickly 
overgrown with ivy. Tlie doorway is formed 
externally by an Early English or Gothic 
arch, wiUi four sets of plain mouldings, sup- 
ported on either side by three attached plain 
round shafts with capitals resembling those 
of Early English tpye, a small " dog tooth ' * 
(not " nail head '* as asserted by some) orna- 
ments appearing on the capitals. The arch 
internally is supported on each side by triple 
clustered shafts. 

The southern door is an Arri^re Vous&ure — 
its round head on one side and pointed on the 
other being designed as a door for opening or 




DrXDRKNNAN ABBKV. 



some reason to suppose that Italian workmen 
were engaged upon certain parts, notably the 
windows on the west side of the chapter house. 
Critical examination will reveal peculiarities 
of handling which indicates Italian workman- 
ship, and as has been already hinted, a free 
hand has been given to the home workman, 
who has left us a variety of styles, which 
clearly proves the age to have been one of 
movement from the usual beiiten traxik. The 
little corbals to be found on the north wall, 
and part of the east wall of the Cloister Courts 
will shew examples of work which go to prove 
much of the above opinion. We will now 
proceed to give a brief description of various 
characteristics of the architecture, noted dur- 
ing a few flying visits to this ancient shrine. 



shutting either way. Tliis door seems to have 
been the entrance fioni the business depart- 
ments to the sacred of this institution, and 
shows little ornainents on the outer side and 
none whatever on the inside. 

On the western door leading from the -Clois- 
ter Court to the Chapter House, we have strong 
evidence of the work having been executed by 
a different class of workmen from those who 
were engaged on the already-named doorways. 
Here the doorway is Ciuquefoil headed — the 
windows also on each side being of the same 
chao-acter. On the outside of tlie Cinquefoiled 
head of the door the cusps are sculptured in 
bass relief, the ornaments being a trefoliated 
plant, with stems and leaves of rather stiff 
arrangement. The stems are interlaced, but 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



the whole work is extremely weatherworn. 
Each side of the door has been supported by 
six columns, which have, however, disap- 
peared ; the capitals remain with arch mould- 
ings, which fihow clearly the nature of those 
now missing. The inside of the door is simi- 
lar in its mouldings, but of a plainer character. 
The jambs of the side of the door are cham- 
fered in a most peculiar manner, instead of 
clustered columns as on the outside. The 
work is entirely Early English. In the Chap- 
ter House on each side of the above-mentioned 
doorway are two windows of ornamental char- 
acter. Both are recised. The hood moulding 
of the north window rests upon small floral 
corbals, and those over the south window on 
corbals with a ram's-horn ornamentation; 
tooth ornaments intersect the mouldings, 
which continue down to the low string course. 
The windows are, or have been, divided into 
three lancet lights, the round division shafts 
have, however, disappeared. Over the lancet 
lights the northern window has a cross on a 
quatrefoil of four fir cones, pointing outwards, 
and divided by fleurs-de-lis, very faintly 
carved. On the inside of the window is a 
similar cross of lilies pointing outwards. In 
the same position over the lights of the south 
window is a St Andrew's Cross in a six foil of 
lilies, and a similar cross inside with four 
lilies pointing inwards. 

The roof of the Chapter House was sup- 
ported by six octagonal pillars or columns ; 
only a small portion of these now remain. 
Only small traces of the vaultings of the roof 
remain. In the north aisle one rib remains 
of triple clustered rounds with plain Boss rest- 
ing upon a Norman shaft, and a very similar 
half rib on the south aisle. The roofs of the 
cellars along the entire west of the cloisters 
are nearly complete ; only one of these being 
now accessible by a modern door — ^the others, 
which have slightly fallen in, are of various 
dimensions. These cellars would undoubtedly 
be used as store-rooms or offices for the use of 
the monks. Over these would in all likelihood 
be the dormitories, and the passage which en- 
tered at a door now blocked up would connect 
these cellars with the upper apartments by a 
central staircase. The only staircase now in 
the Abbey reaches the Triforium passage, 
which passes through the west wall and north 
wall of the north and south transepts, but 
shows evidence of having reached the top of 
the building when complete. The staircase is 
lighted by a narrow window in the north and 
on the west, and is deeply splayed. 



HISTORICAL AS80CUTI0N8. 

There are no authentic historical records of 
the Abbey, and the chartular}' does not appear 
to be extant, but one or two charters, granted 
by Abbots, are preserved in the Chapter House 
at Westminster. The first Abbot of Dundren- 
nan was Sylvanus, who died in the Abbey in 
1188, and a subsequent Abbot sat in the great 
Parliament at Brigham in 1290, for settling 
the succession of the Crown. In the begin- 
ning of the fifteenth century, Thomas, who 
was Abbot, sat in the two celebrated councils 
of Constance and Basil. The last Abbot was 
Edward Maxwell, son of Lord Herries. At 
his death Bishop Hamilton obtained a grant 
of the Abbey, and in 1621 James VI. annexed 
It to his Royal Chapel of Stirling. But the 
most interesting of all the associations con- 
nected with the Abbey is the visit paid to it 
by the unfortunate Mary Queen of Scots after 
her disastrous defeat at the battle of Langside. 
Many writers have tried to deprive Dundren- 
nan Abbey of the honour of having been an 
asylum to the persecuted Queen, but there is 
no reason whatever to doubt the evidence of 
historians who have handed down to us much 
that goes far to prove that the Queen not only 
visited the monastery, but slept within its 
walls on the la«t night of her stay in Scotland. 
It IS impossible to tread this classic spot with- 
out being impressed by the last sad scene en- 
acted during the hurried consultation of her 
attendants, and sad recollections follow the 
resolution of seeking protection from the 
Queen of England. 

The tourist visiting this romantic vale will 
find much food for reflection, amidst the re- 
lics of a Queen's flying visit, and the rustic 
will willingly point out (with evident pride in 
his historical knowledge) the great entrance ^ 
door where the Abbot is said to have wel- 
comed the Queen. Here also on the shore at 
Burnfoot is pointed out the boulder from which 
the Queen is supposed to have stepped into 
the boat that conveyed her to her doom, " the 
block of Fotheringay." 

''She smiled; but Time, the old Saturnian seer. 

?i?Sf<^ ^^ *^e J^i^K as her foot pressed the strand. 

With step prelusive to a long array 

Of woes and degradations hand in hand. 

Weeping captivity, and shuddering fear. 

Still by the ensanguined block of Fotheringay/' 

"Curse not the rich in your bedchamber," 
saith the son of Sirach ; for a bird of the air 
shall carry the clatter, and pint-stoups hae lane 
lugs.— "Rob Roy." ^ *- 6 



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MK AIJ^VN RKID. 



To Foster Scottish Song. 

JN important meeting of ladiee and gen- 
tlemen interested in the encourage- 
ment of Scottish Song was held in 
the Bible Society's Rooms, Edin- 
burgh, recently. Mr Allan Reid presided, and 
stated that there had been some preliminary 
meetings held, at which 
the rules and constitu- 
tion of the proposed 
association for the en- 
couragement and fos- 
tering of Scottish song, 
music, literature, and 
kindred subjects had 
been considered. They 
proposed to call the 
association the Scot- 
tish National Song 
Society ; to hold an 
annual Sangschaw, at 
which prizes would be 
awarded for profici- 
ency in the render- 
ing of Scottish music, vocal and* instrumen- 
tal ; and to orj^anise concerts, lectures, and 
(leuionstrationsi to further these objects. The 
meeting unanimously resolved to form such a 
Society, and Mr Allan Reid was apjK>inted 
president, and Mr John Wilson, Jamaica Street, 
Crhisfrow, secretary- and treasurer. The life- 
nienil>erRhip was fixed at £2 2s for gentlemen 
and £1 Is for ladies, and the aniuial subscrip- 
tion at 5s and 2s 6d respectively. In the 
course of an intere«tin«: discussion on the pros- 
pects of the Society Mr Adamson, Dundee, 
said the Scottish nation had a wealth of mel- 
ody that no other nation had, but they had not 
embraced their opportunities. All music was 
]:»layed upon two niodes — major and minor — 
but the peculiarity of Scottish music was that 
it was written in foiu" modes ; some people 
paid even six modes, hence the great variety 
of their songs Their Scottish music had been 
modernised until it had lost its Scottish effect. 
AVhat they wanted in Scotland was a Scotch 
Elgar, who would aris? and harmonise their 
national melodies. They had Ik^u taught that 
the Ray and La mode could not be hannoaiised, 
but for such work he had ffreat faith in such 
young" men as Mr David Steven, Dunfermline. 
Mr Sneddon pointed out that, in the realisa- 
tion of their Society's objects, they must have 
regard to modem taste. They wanted the 
Scotch miusic to take the place of the music of 
the music-hall. This oould l)e done if Scotch 
music was modernised avS tlie folk-song of Nor- 



way had been handled by Greig. The adulter- 
ation of the melody, the speaker thought, was 
worse than the adulteration of the haimonies. 
There was no antagonismi between the folb- 
6ong» and classical music. What they wanted 
was to foster the old spirit in the new form. 



Border Notes and Queries. 

Can any reader inform me where the follow- 
ing verses occur : — 

"Three wooere came riding out of the west. 
Booted and spurred, as ye well may see. 

And they lichted at Moesfeeman yett, 
A little below the Logan Tvee." 

The Rev. W. S. Crockett, in his " Soott 
Country," refers to this, and says it is from 
the " Bridal of Polmood." Perhaps some of 
your readers may be able to throw some light 
on the matter, as I have sought for it in 
Hogg's •' Bridal of Polmood," but have failed 
to find it. M. J. G. 



JEDBURGH ABBEY^ 

Can any oiP the readers of the Border Magazine 
throw light upon the date of the picture of Jed- 
burgh Abbey presented with the December num- 
ber.^ The Bell To"'er on the top of the Abbey was 
taken down in 1876, while the bridge in the left 
corner of the picture was constructed a century 
and a quarter ago. Further, the wall cloBing up 
the south transept, which is sho\im entire in the 
ilhustration of the Abbey dated 1793 (see Border 
Magazine for 1900. p. 164), is almost wholly re- 
moved, while the old smithy which stood adjoining 
the rampart, and which was demolished about 45 
years ago, had not yet— unless the artist has 
omitted it or removed it much to the south of its 
true position — been erected. The cross over Cath- 
erine's Wheel, not in the view of 1793 or those of 
earlier date, is visible. Is it to give due display 
to the sacred edifice that the artist leaves out the 
manse, which figures so prominently in the fore- 
ground in the picture of 1793? If the manse was 
not standing when the drawing was made the pic- 
ture must be exactly a century old, as the old 
manse was removed and a new one erected in its 
place in the year 1806. 

Auntie Queer Ane. 

« « « 

LANTON. 

It was with some disappointment that, on look- 
ing into Jefi'rey's ''History of Roxburghshire" to 
see what he had to say upon this subject, I found 
that he had not thought it worthy of a place in 
his work. Perhaps he had overlooked it. This is 
all the more wonderful, as Lanton figures in a 
modest way in ecclesiastical, in civil, and in liter- 
arj" history. In the charter granted by Prince 
Henry, in or before 1152, confirming that by which 



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his father Bavid I. founded the monastery of Jed- 
burgh, reference is made to the "teinds of the 
villagoe of the whole parish [of Jedburgh]," which 
were bestowed upon the said monastery. Among 
these villages "Langton" is cpecified, the name 
indicating that the place owed its appellation to 
what is the distinctive feature of the "lang toun" 
of Kirkcaldy. From the charter granted by Wil- 
liam the Lion to the canons of Jedburgh Abbey we 
learn that Bichard Anglus [English or Inglis] gave 
to them "two oxgangs of land in Langetun." Bob- 
ertson, in his "Index of Charters," gives an epi- 
tome of David I.'s charter as confirmed by Bobert 
Bruce, in which mention is again made of "Lang- 
toun ; *' and in the same work he refers to a char- 
ter also granted by Robert I., in which *^'four oxen- 
gates of land in Langtoun" t»re conferred upon 
Jedburgh Abbey. 

In November, 1513, during a raid into Scotland 
by Lord Thomas Dacre, "Sir Boger Fenwike, with 
ceo. men, burnt the town of Langton, and destroy- 
ed all the cornes therein; which [town is] in the 
hert of the count re. ii. miles bey9nd Jed worth, 
upon the watter of Chevyot" [i.e., Teviot]. There 
in still in the village a fortalioe, of no mean 
strength and eize, called Lanton Tower, which has 
probably borne the brunt of some of these Englifi-h 
invasions. It is still in excellent condition, fonns 
a substantial mansion, and is inhabited by T. 
Bobson Scott, Esq. Much information regarding 
the changing of hands of lands end tenements in 
Lanton may be found in the "Begister of the Great 
Seal" and "Abbreviatio Botulorum." In his latter 
days the Bev. William Veitch, LL.D., author of 
a well-known work on "Greek Irregular Verbs," 
and himself known in consequence as the "Greek 
Verb," spent two months of his vacation periods 
every year with his sisters at Lanton, where they 
had taken up residence in 1823. G. W. 



HASSENDEAN. 

Hassendean boasts of a considerable antiquity; 
but the mention of the "town" or "village" ("vil- 
la") on the page of record is as unsatisfactory as 
the appearance of Melchizedek in the sacred annals 
— having "neither beginning of days, nor end," 
assigned to it. On the occasion of the marriage 
of Alexander II. of Scotland to Joanna, sister of 
the English king, on 25th June, 1221, the former 
bestowed upon his wife certain rents to the amount 
of jBIOOO yearJy, to be drawn from Jedburgh, Les- 
Huden (St Boswells), Hassendean, and Kinghom. 
.Vs the first, second, and fourth of these were oom- 
mTpities, probably the third also was then a 
village or "toun." [In the middle ages the term 
"toun" was frequently applied to what we would 
at the present day call a "village."] 

The earliest explicit mention I have of the ex- 
istence of a community at Hassendean is on 23rd 
September, 1334, when Edward III. granted to 
Henry Percy certain lands, etc., including the 
"touns" of Jedburgh, Bonjedvvard, and Hassen- 
dean, and all lands and tenements belonging to 
these places. On 28rd February, 1341-42, a war- 
rant, in which there is mention of the "vills of 
Jeddeworth, Bonjedworthe, and Hassyndene," was 
granted by the English king to pay Henry Percy 
the Bum of .£200 ("cal. of documents"). In another 
mandate by the English king, dated 18th May, 
1S56, reference i« made to the "villas de Jedde- 



worth, Bond Jeddeworth, et Hassenden" ("Botuli 
Sootiffi"). In a document dated 19th August, 1397, 
the English king recites the grant of his grand- 
father, "King Edward III., to Sir Henry Percy, 
grandfather o'f the Earl of Northumberland, and 
his heirs, "of the castle of Jedworth, and the 
vills of Bond Jedworthe and Hassindene, etc.'^ 
("cal. of documents")* In the beginning of 1408 
King Henry IV. granted to his third son, John, the 
castle, etc., of Jedburgh, and also the "towns 
(villsB) of Jeddeworth, Bondieddevorth, and Hassin- 
den," etc. ("cal. Botulorum Patentium," p. 253— 
printed 1802). 

I have not tra<^ed the existence of the commun- 
ity further. An exhaustive and informative series 
of papers on the "Parish and Kirk of Hassen- 
dean," from the able pen of Mr J. J. Vernon, 
appears in Hawick Archaeological Society s Trans- 
actions for 1879. Further information on the 
lands, etc., of Hassendean will l)e found in the 
"Calendar of Documents," "Begister of the Great 
Seal," "Betours," "Close" and "Patent Bolls," 
etc., etc. 

While leaving to others to make* reply regarding 
the query of "A. G. S." as to the historical basK* 
of Scott's "Jock o' Haaeldean," I cannot refrain 
from pointing out that Sir Walter, when stating 
in a note to his "Lay of the I^ist Minstrel" that 
"Hassendean" is a corruption of "Hazeldean," 
is in error, as the reverse is actually the case. 

G. W. 




In the Footsteps of " Rab's " Friend. 

By J. M. H. 

[ N a mid-June afternoon we climbed 
Minchmoor. The genial author of 
"Bab and his Friends" had cast a 
glamour over this moorland road 
whioh neither of us could resist for another 
day. So over the heather on "the high Minch- • 
muir" we wended our way from Twe«i to Yai*- 
row. TVeed and Quair had many attractions 
for us that day. We had visited the gates of 
the old mansion before, but another peep would 
take nothing from our interest and perhaps add 
pleasure to the day's proceedings. Tradition 
says that the gates have not been opened since 
the "Forty-five." The grass-grown avenue of 
forest monarchs tell not what has passed under 
their umbragJeous arms since then: silence 
reigns in the greenwood, and is only broken by 
the lowing of cattle and the songs of birds. 
The huge Bradwardine sentinels grin but in- 
effectively upon the quiet scene. We were 
tempted to say "Ichabod" as we turned our 
back to this remnant of feudal glory, but the 
rouse had visited my friend and we wandered 
on to "The Bush abune Traquair" with the 
thougiit unuttered. The 'auld scrunts of birk 
i' the hillside lirk" looked melancholy enough ; 
and but for the song ajid the poem associated 
with them might have escaped attention alto' 



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gether. A feeling of dreaminess, which finds 
so sweet an accompaxiimejnt in the sound of 
running water, in-fused the sense ae Quair 
wimpled on its way to Tweed. Yonder lay the 
green kirkyaird— quiet and shaded; the kirk 
in the centre reminding that alone are left the 
living to praise. R. L. Stevenson's immortal 
pictures of the country kirk in "The Lowden 
Sabbath mom" nished to memoiy's jxirtals, 
and peopled again "the kirkward mile" with 
forms and faces dear to many in Old Traquair. 
Here was Jock and Jenny in loving dalliance 
under the ash tree. In the shadow of the high 
wall stood the old cottars, who talked of the 
days when therj', too, were young. The laird's 
gig rumbled into the loaning — a hat touched 
here and there as he passed. Groups- of old 
and young of both sexes gathered round "the 
prentit stanes ;" and here and there a whisper 
of the "craps" and the "lams" is passed from 
one to another. The "clinkum clank" of the 
bell soon called them to worship. Gradually 
the men, "perplexed wi' leisure," filed into 
the straight-backed pews with many an amat- 
eur attempt at gracefulness. The doors are 
"snecked ; " bibles deposited on the book-board 
with a thud of no small importance ; the beadle 
took iip "The Buik ; " and finally minister and 
precentor were seated in their respective places 
in the pulpit and "the dask." A moment's 
pause, then prayer, fallowed by praise in the 
12l8t Psalm^ resounds on "fancy's ear;" and 
the spell of that old tune recalled us to our 
journey and the stem fact of swiftly passing 
time. / 

The road is well defined from Traquair to 
the gate at the base of the hill. After that 
point is left it stretches in vague but never 
uncertain tracJks to the famous Cheese Well. 
Here we rested aaid feasted our eyes on the 
Peeblesshire hills and the valley of the Tweed. 
A long quafF of its clean, cold water is niectar 
to the thirsty p)ede8trian. It is a veritable 
oasis in the desert, with the distinction that 
the crisp brown heather is all around instead 
of arid sand. Its comforting coolness must be 
as welcome; Dr John Brown has imaged the 
well in his delightful essay. "Near the top, 
on the Tweed side, its waters trotting away 
cheerily to the glen at Bold, is the famous 
Cheese Well. Here every traveller — Duchess, 
shepherd, or houseless mugger — stops, rests, 
and is thankful ; doubtless so did Montrose, 
poor fellow, and his young nobles and their 
jaded steeds, on their scurry from Lesly and 
his Dragoons. It is called the Clieese Well 
from those who rest thbre dropping in bits of 
their provisions to the fairies whose especial 



haunt this mountain was." As we satisfied our 
thirst the fervent wish escaped our lips that the 
Cheese Well might sooner lose its romance 
than the cool clarity of its waters. 

A stiff climb brought us to the sunmiit. As 
when "Rab" viewed it, "the great ro-und-back- 
ed, kindly, solemn hills of Tweed, Yarrow 
and Ettrick lay all about like sleeping mastiffs 
— ^too plain to be grand, too ample and beouti- • 
ful to be oommon-plaoe." All the familiar 
peaks and landmarks of the storied Borderland 
lay before us. The genial essayist names them 
all with pictui-esque exactness from mention 
of the "Maiden-Paps" in Liddesdale to Soutra 
in the distaiit Lsimmermoors. Williamhope 
Ridge, where Scott and Park parted for the 
last time, lies due east from the summit. Mid- 
way, in the cyrection of Williamhope^ Wallace's 
Trench is defined on the hill-side ; and under 
the lee of Foulshiels rests the remains of the 
unfortunate, con science- struck woman who 
hanged herself at the tliought of having stolen 
a penny ! On a simple unhewn stoaie may be 
read the initials and the date, "I. T., 1790." 

The wind whistled eerily in the cairn ; and 
as though to accentuate the sense of loneliness 
a nest with eggs of the red grouse lay forsaken 
and cold. What had disturbed the instincts 
of parentage on this lonely height? We left 
the question unsolved, the better to get the 
full idea of this spacious hill. Miles of heath- 
er spread carpet-like over this interminahlo 
waste with evidences of cultivation at rai-e 
intervals on its fringe. The desire to ramble 
i.s as strong as the attraction of large spaces can 
maike it. Sydney Smith has said that "there 
is moral as well as bodily wholesomeness in a 
mountain walk, if the walker has the under- 
standing heart and eschews picnics. . . . 
It is well to be in places where man is little and 
Cod is great. ... It aba.ted and rectifies 
a man if he is worth the process." . Minchmoor 
in this respect must surely be an eloquent ser- 
mon. 

But time tugs at the chain of reverie ; we 
must descend our Pisgah to the valley. The 
sun has gone down, and the shadows drawn out 
by the receding orb have settled into the grey 
of evening. Our track was through the heath- 
er until we struck the road for Yarrow. We 
rambled along until we reached Birkendale 
Brae — peak after peek subsiding in rapid suc- 
cession behind one another. The blythe young 
shepherd and his faithful "Jed" had long pass- 
ed before us, down those grassy slopes, sweet 
scented with broom and shaded with "birk'* 
and hazel. My friend was in a "day. dream," 
but not so oblivious to our suiTOundings that 



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his keen eye could miss the prime liedgehog 
which lay in our path. At our approach this 
armed raider prepared for possible attack by 
bringing his bayonets into position. Being 
more curious than inimical, we allowed him 
to pursue his predatory errand in peace. There 
were voices in the copse, thoiigh many a feath- 
ered songster had gone to rest. Night had 
fallen gently ; a soft wind stirred in the treee ; 
and in its murmur there came the music of 
ballad jiotee borne out of long aga The an- 
cestral oaks at Hangingshaw shared the secret 
of that ballad story of the bold outlaw whose 
tower had stood deep in their shadow. Tlie 
old "makars" liad kept tryst with the modern 
singers. Yarrow still crooned its song of 
"diSe;" the last minstrel of the Forest streams 
learned well tihe secret of its charm. 
"No 80und, no word, from field to ford, 

Nor breath of wind to float a feather. 
While Yarrow's murmuring waters poured 

A lonely music through the heather." 

''What stream and valley," asks *'Rab," 
"was ever so be-sung ? You wonder at first w hy 
this has been, but the longer you look the less 
you wonder. . . . The huge, sunny hills 
in which it is embosomed give it a look at 
once geiitle and serious. They are great, and 
their gentleness make them greater." 

It was a fitting close to a glorious afternoon 
to find ourselves in the classic valley. A walk 
from Tweed to Yarrow over Minchmoor was 
a subject for a poet to dream over, — for a baJ- 
ladist to construe. My pleasure was great 
when, two days after, tliis pretty fragment 
reached me. It is happily headed — "The ten- 
der grace of a day that is dead," and i? now 
published for the first time : — 

The lift abun« was fair 

When oo climbed the high Minchmuir, 
Lookin' doon on grey Traquair 

An' its singin' burn— 
Frae the hills of heather dun, 

Mixed wi' yellow broom and whun, 
An' Tweed blinkin' i' the sun 

At ilka twist an' turn. 
Sweet was the bumie's croon 

Through the simmer's efternune. 
When the laverock's lonely tune 

Was oor lullabie— 
Wi' the muircock an' the plover 

Wheelin' roond abune the cover. 
An' the blue sky like a lover 

Bendin' owre the lea. 

Them that hevna listened still 

To the song that haunts the hill; 
Nor felt their heart's strings thrill 

At its witcherie — 
Have something still to hear. 

For its liltin' low an' clear 
Can charm the heart an' ear 

By its minstrelsy. 



For though the day is gane 

Whan a'm sittin* a* ma lane, 
Minchmuir often oomes again 

To ma dreamin' e'e— 
An a' see the birk leaves sheen, 

Whaur the licht sklents saft atween, 
Doon on gress that is as green 

As a' e'er will see. 

An' a' hear the burnie's croon 

Whaur the Quair comes singin' doon 
By cot and ferm toon 

I' the lirk o' the hill- 
Days may come and days may gang; 

Years be short or years be lang; 
In ma hert the burnie's sang 

Will be singin' still." 




''Rainbows and Witches." 

UCH is the original title of the latest 
book of poems by Mr Will H. 
Ogilvie, who has favoured the col- 
umns of the Border Magazine at 
various times with his stirring* verses. When 
we read a poem by Mr Ogilvie w^e feel at once 
that w^e are face to face w^ith a true poet, who, 
w^idely as he is alread\ inown, has yet brighter 
laurels in store for him. A sketch and por- 
trait of Mr Ogilvie appeared in the Border 
Magazine for January, 1906. The present 
volume appears in the Vigo Cabinet Series, 
published by Elkin Matthews, London, and 
costs (only one shil(ling. We heai'tily com- 
mend the book to our readers. Its author is 
" Leal to the Border " through and through, 
as the following poem from the above volume 
will show : — 

KELSO BRIDGE. 

There is one spot where memory grnides 

From time to time my retitless heart — 
A fair, fair spot, where silver tides 

Break on grey piers and drift apart 
Round pillars spun with water- weed, 

Down channels* where the foam is whirled; 
So beats my love of home, oh, Tweed! 

Against the barriem of the world! 

Sunlit or swept by ■\Wnt€r's blast 

The old bridge stands, a link between 
The Abbey's hoar and wrinkled past 

And the young elm-bud's waking green; 
The nesting rooks above it wheel 

From elm to elm on eable wings; 
Beneath it, racing I'ound the reel. 

The line upon the bent rod eings. 

Across the world hope's bridges bear 

The wanderer's never-resting feet, 
But peace and rest are mingled where 

Earth's fairest rivere. mingling, meet. 
On pillars twined w^ith water-weed 

Your silver tide is ceaseless hurled; 
So beats niy love of home, oh, Tweed ! 

Against the barriers of the world! 



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TO COMJtJeSPONDSNTS. TO ADVERTISERS. 

AUcommwwxUiatu relating to LtUraryrnatUrasJufuld AU Busifwt maOers, AdveHiaing Rates, dx,,8hmad 

be addressed to the EdUor, Mr William Sakdbbson, he referred to the Publishers, A. Walkbb & 8oK, 

81 Oxford Drive, Glasgow. High Street, Oalashiels 



THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 

JANUARY, 1907. 
LIST OF CONTENTS. 

81K Heney Bau^antynk, MiNDKN, PiEBLi'^. Portrait Supplement. 

DuNDKEMNAN Abbey : It8 AKCiiiTKCrruRAL Fkatcrks asd Histokioal Associations. One Illustration. 

By David Patterson. ' 

To Foster Scottish Song. .... - - 

Border Notes and Queries. 

In The Footsteps of Rab's Friend. By J. M. H. .... / 

Review : Rainbows and Witches. 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson. \o 

W11J.IAM Laidlaw. Part VII. By (}eor«e Watson. 1I 

Presentation to Mr Stuart Douolas Elliot. One Xllustration. •*"■"■* 

Poetry: Elibank, 

A Chriotmas Tramp. By Eremite. ^ 

The Late Ex-Bailie Hall, St Andrews. One Illustration. ^' 

Berwick's Walls and Ramparts. One Illustration. - - 18 

Border CJonntsction with Nelson's Famous Siunal. *^ 

A Border Literary Chbonici.e. 



EDITORIAL NOTES. 

As we liegin our twelfth volume we desire t« express our deep indebtedness to our sul^scrilwrs and 
contributors for the encouraging support they have given us. It has l^en our earnest wish U) establish a 
distinctly Boi-der monthly, and the ftwt that no previous attempt passed the second year of publication, pi-oves 
that we have succeeded. Our magazine has always been appreciated by literary people, luid we are at prewnt 
suffering from an excess of riches in regard to suitable manuscripts sent in. Many of these are in type, but our 
gpace being limited we crave the indulgence of our oontributoi-s. 

The Border Keep, 

A Guid New Year to au€ and a*! Once more the taken place in Scotland. This i« the era of anni- 
Klad sad season of New Year has come round, and versaries, and the two hundredth anniversary of 

the panorama of memory begins to unroll. To the t^^^/^^.^^^.^^Tu bt^rj«^%?''»**''^ "?^ P^^ 

xne panomma ui ux: j Lfnr^ f ham ^h^ afart laid falls to be celebrated. The removal of the 

young, with al ^J^^^^^^'^ bef^^^^^^ Scots Greys fwm Scotland, by the War Office, has 

of a new year is full of brightness and ^opevf nd ^^^ ^^^ g^^^^j^ ^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^^ afore-mention. 

sad thoughts have no place amidst the merriment ^^ celebration may take another form than was 

and joy. To the old, however, the season calls up expected. We have been i» accustomed to think- 

soenes and faces long since vanished, and an old ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ Union as a great boon to Scotland that 

dominie like myself caniiot refrain from falling yy^ have forgot to ask what the other party got, 

into a train of thought which is apt to blot out and how the Treaty has been kept by oui friends 

the living present. To some extent we live by across the Border. It is not at all certain that 

the past, and happy is he who, drawing lessons Scotland would have been worse off had the Union 

from daye of yore, can yet live his life over again, not taken place. Even Wallace had sucl^ a grip 

as he looks at the happy facea of the young folks. of commercial intercourse with other nations and 

From the retirement of the Border Keep I look kindred matters as would have raised his l>eloved 

out upon the busy world and delight to seiKe upon land high among the nations, had England's es- 

any movement which is of national importance. cutcheon not been stained with his blood. I give 

Being a great believer in the Imperial value of the below an article from a prominent evening paper, 

distinctly national customs, etc., of the various and, though the text is unsigned, I have little 

nations which make up our great Empire. I re. doubt that it i^ from the pen of an eminent Scot, 

joice to see the awakening which has recently tish writer, but I shall preserve hie anonymity. 



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"Scotland ha« of late eo fervently celebrated the 
anniversaricB of such important national events as 
the foundation of the Universitiee and the birth o>f 
George Buchanan, that it is surprieing that no 
one seems to have spoken as yet of any recognition 
of a great national anniversary dne on let May of 
this year. I refer to the Union of Parliaments 
of Scotland and England, which was consnmmated 
exactly two hundred yeara ago from that date. 
Will the bi-centenary of the Union pass without 
any national recognition ? Whether the Union was 
or was not desirable in 1707 when it was brought 
about mainly by the shrewdness with which Wil- 
liam III. used the Darien scheme to reduce Scot- 
land as close as possible on lankruptcy, and so 
induce her to throw herself into the arms of our 
good neighbour, ie a question no longer of any 
importance. Doubt Ices S^ootland gained a great 
deal by the Union, but if it had been postponed 
till touday it possibly might never, take place. We 
had only, for the first time in our history, secured 
a really representative, intelligent, and useful 
Parliament, when it was abolished. It was a Par- 
liament that might have got for Scotland all the 
advantages of that free trade which was the chief 
gain of our Parliamentary alliance with England. 
What we lose by having our national identity 
wholly surrendered for the sake of concentration in 
London is, to most i>eopl€L on^y slightly obvious 
when an English War Office does so unusually 
graphic a thing as transfer all the cavalry of the 
country South of the Border— though that is a 
trifle compared with the perpetual reminders we 
have that Scotland is now only a province of Eng- 
land. We have seen, in the case of the decision in 
the Free Church question, the vital interests of all 
Scotland entrusted irrevocably to a tribunal of 
six English Lords and one Scottish one, with what 
deplorable results! But the final court for all 
appealed Scottish law cases is this same House of 
Lords, where the majority of the men who com- 
pose the tribunal are confessedly without know- 
ledge of the Scottish Law as to whose doctrines 
they are called upon to decide. 



"It was estimated by the late Mai-quees of Bute 
that the annual dead loss of money which is now- 
adays entailed upon Scotland by the Union of 
1707 is about eight or ten millions, since the chief 
land-owners of Scotland spend the greater part of 
their annual income in London, becoming est rang, 
ed from the dwellers on their own estates, alien- 
ating their sympathies, and exacerbating class dis- 
tinctions. There is also a steady brain.tax by 
England upon this country so many able men 
being induf«d to leave it by the greater attractions 
offered to ambition in England, a movement con- 
stantly stimulated by the steady action taken in 
the way of cutting down the number of honour- 
able and lucrative offices in Scotland itself. Then 
there are the scantiness of Government orders for 
Scotland, and the absence of Government works, 
such as arsenals, or of harbours, which would at 
once aid the industries of the country, and at the 
same time be a protection to the lives of those 
engaged in them. Unfortunately the social con- 
sequences of the Union are widely accepted as a 
matter of habit. People are accustomed to see 
the clever and aspiring go to seek a career in Eng- 
land, and that the wealthy land-owners, the repre- 



sentatives perhaps of great historical races, and 
the proprietors of great tracts of the country, 
should either let their castles on long leases to 
alien strangers, or visit their properties only for 
a few weeks during the shooting season, is accepted 
as a matter of course. 



"Of course, all these offsets to the advantages 
of Union were foreseen by the Scots people two 
hundred years ago. Lord Belhaven, the most elo- 
quent and brilliant of Scots rhetoricians at the 
time made a sfpeeoh which is historical, and when 
published was powerful in fomenting popular pass, 
ion, as it depicted in lurid terms the awful dis^ 
asters that awaited his land when the Union was 
accomplished— peero of glorious ancestry sinking 
into servitude to Englishmen; Scots barons dumb 
before their masters; lawyers mute in a strange 
land; merchants ^excluded from trade, while Eng- 
lish tradesmen imported their goods; artisans 
starving from want of custom; gentry living in 
abject poverty; while all should be taxed till the 
Soots must drink water; the salt burdened with 
duty till he oould not cure a herring; and the far. 
mer would die cursing the day of his birth, and 
dreading the expense of his burial. It is said that 
this speech of rhodomontado, which was so influ- 
ential with the populace when issued as a pamph- 
let, was heard in the Scottish House of Parlia- 
ment with indiflference, and members chatted as 
his lordship orated. The effect wa« cruelly spoiled 
by Tx)rd Marchmont, who got up to reply and ,8aid 
he had been much struck by the noble lord s vis- 
ion, but that it could be expounded in a few words, 
'I awoke, and behold it was a dream.' The 'flying 
squadron,' or the 'stalwarts' of the period, voted 
en mass for the Union when the debate was ended. 
They had been bribed by the Government to do so, 
and the result was that 'the end o' an auld 
sang* was agreed to against the will of the whole 
nation, irrespective of party. 



"The Scots members of Parliament, Lords and 
Commoners, quickly found that their old power 
and dignity in the Scots Parliainent had be^ ex- 
changed for obscurity and contempt in England. 
Sixteen peers and forty-five commoners were ut- 
terly insignificant at St Stephen's. Even when 
they took part in matters which affected their 
own country they found themselves ignored and 
outvoted. Innumerable slights and insults united 
the Scotsmen— peer and commoner, Whiy and 
Tory, together demanding the rescinding of the 
Union six years after it was passed. So high was 
the feeling that the very men who had been most 
anxious for the Union became foremost in the 
efforts to revoke it. In the House of Lords in 
1718 the abrogation of the Union was demanded, 
and, after a keen debate, on which a momentous 
issue hung, the vote was taken. The members pre- 
sent were equally divided, but by a majority of 
four proxies the motion wae defeated. Had the 
balance been slightly turned, the history of the 
whole country might have been changed. Are we 
not to have a national opportunity <rf going over 
the whole story again, and striking profit and loss 
account of the Union, this year ?" 

DOMINIB BamfBOS 



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William Laidlaw 

(Author of " Lucy's Flittin' "). 

Part VII. 

By Gkorgk Watson. 

^OM Purdie's death, which occurred on 
29th October, 1829, was felt by 
Scott most keenly. He wrote from 
Abbotfiford on 3I»t October inform- 
ing Laidlaw of their friend's decease. 
In the course of a letter to an acquaintance, 
dated 5th November, Laidlaw states: — "Sir 
Walter wrote to me, in great distress, to come 
down. I did so on Sunday, and on Tuesday I 
went to poor Tom's funeral. Sir Walter had 
my pony put in again, and naade me stay all 
day. He was in very great distress about 
Tom, and will miss him continually, and in 
many ways that come nearest to him. Sir 
Walter wants us to return to Kaeside at Whit- 
sunday. Kindness of heart is positively the - 
reigning quality of Sir Walter's heart." To 
the return of Laidlaw to Kaeside, mentioned 
in this communication, Scott, indeed had al- 
ways looked forward. On 4th March, 1829, 
Laidlaw had dined with his friend, and then 
Sir Walter informed him of the prospect that 
in a short time he yould be reinstated in full 
power in Abbotsford, at which news Laidlaw 
was greatly elated. " I hope," writes Scott 
in his "Journal" under this date, "I shall 
have him once more at Kaeside to debate, as 
we used to do, on religion and politics." Ac- 
cordingly Laidlaw was welcomed back to Kae- 
side at the May term, 1830. In March pre- 
vious to this he had written to Scott, asking 
him to speak to the Duke of Buccleuch on 
behalf of their friend Hogg, who was then 
fighting bravely but unavailingly against ad- 
versity. Scott, however, was unable to do 
anything to further Hogg's interests. 

Laidlaw 's biography would be incomplete 
were prominence not given to the fact that he 
acted as amanuensis to Scott in writing some 
of the "Waverley Novels.' Owing to his 
serious illness in April, 1819, Sir Walter was 
obliged to obtain the help of others for the 
mechanical duty of writing while he dictated. 
In this way the " Bride of Lammermoor " was 
issued, his amanuenses being William Laidlaw 
and John Ballantyne. Of these Scott preferred 
the latter, not only on account of the fact that 
he was the faster writer, but also because that 
he kept more continuously at his task, his eyes 
only showing how much he was pleased with 
those brilliant passages at which the more 
ardent Laidlaw would exclaim with surprise 



mingled with delight : " Gude keep us a' ! — 
the like o' that! — eh sirs! — eh sirs!" or 
again : " Did ye ever ? Whatever put that in 
your head ? Ye maun gie me a minute to hae 
a bit laugh!" Sometimes, however, Laidlaw 
became so interested in the story that his pen 
went faster than Scott's words, and he ex- 
claimed: "Get on, Mr Scott, get on!" to 
which Sir Walter with a smile would reply : 
" Softly, Willie ; you know I have to make 
the story," or some similar remark. Lock- 
hart often heard Laidlaw and Ballantyne state 
how astonished they were at the grim deter- 
mination displayed by Scott when pursuing 
this work through their medium. While the 
novelist, amidst ostensible suffering, was thus 
dictating, Laidlaw would beseech him to take 
some rest. "Nay, Willie," was Scott's reply, 
" only see that the doors are fast. I would 
fain keep all the cry as well as all the wool to 
ourselves ; but as to giving over work, that 
can only be when I am in woollen."* 

By the hands of these two secretaries, but 
chiefly of Laidlaw, who was always neai* by, by 
far the greater part of " The Bride of Lam- 
mermoor," the whole of the " Legend of Mon- 
trose," and almost all of " Ivanhoe" was pro- 
duced. " He was particularly anxious," Laid- 
law records, "reepecting the success of Re- 
becca in ' Ivanhoe. ' One morning, as we were 
walking in the woods after our forenoon's lab- 
our, I expressed my admiration of the char- 
acter, and after a short pause he broke out 
with : * Well, I think I shall make something 
of my Jewess.' " 

When Laidlaw in 1830 again took up his 
quarters at Kaeside it was arranged that he 
should act as Scott's amanuensis. Accordingly 
we find him in January, 1831, writing to the 
dictation of Scott the work " Count Robert of 
Paris." In this month Macdonald the sculp- 
tor visited Abbotsford to make a model of the 
novelist's head, and Sir Walter foimd it neces- 
sary to dictate his story to Laidlaw while the 
sculptor was making his cast, Scott sitting on a 
stool which was mounted on a packing-box — ^for 
the benefit of the artist, while Laidlaw worked 
without intermission at his task. From Jan- 



•On the evening of Slst October, 1826, when in 
Paris, Scott went to eee "Ivanhoe" acted on the 
stage. In his "Journal" against that date he 
records the following :—" It was strange to hear 
anything like the words which I (then in agony 
of pain with spasms in ray stc^mach), dictated to 
William Laidlaw at Abbotsford, now recited in a 
foreign tongue, and for the amusement of a 
strange people. I little thought to have survived 
the completing of this novel." 



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uary to April the amanuensis continued to 
write "Count Robert," thus rendering inval- 
uable assistance to the novelist. Against the 
date 20th January, 1831, we find the follow- 
ing interesting note in Scott's " Journal " : — 
" Borrow honest Laidlaw's fingers in the even- 
ing. I hope his pay will recompense him : it 
is better than * grieve-ing ' or playing Triptole- 
mus. Should be, if I am working hard, 100 
guineas, which, w^ith his house, cow, and free 
rent, * would save, I believe, some painful 
thoughts to hkn and his aniiable wife and 
children. We will see how the matter fudges." 
Meanwhile Scott was suffering from the ef- 
fects of having overtaxed his mind; it was 
obvious that he was becoming the victim of 
brain -softening. The great novelist, it seem- 
ed, had escaped financial failure only to fall a 
victim to failure of mental powder. His rela- 
tives saw the inevitable disaster in the near 
future ; and what must have been the thoughts 
of the faithful amanuensis when he obs^ved 
his revered friend slowly but surely becoming 
the victim of mental decay? A more delicate 
task, writes Scott's biographer, never devolved 
upon any man than that which fell to Laidlaw 
at this time. He could not watch the novel- 
ist hour by hour, and write to his dictation, 
without gradually, however reluctantly, being 
convinced that that great mind, which he had 
honoured and revered for thirty years, had al- 
ready lost some of its energy, and was daily 
losing more. Laidlaw endeavoured to spur on 
his friend to greater exertions. Referring to 
the writing of " Count Robert," Scott notes in 
his "Journal": — "Laidlaw begins to smite 
the rock for not giving forth the water in 
quantity sufficient. I remarked to him that 
this would not profit much." Upon this point 
the following extract from a letter from Laid- 
law to his friend Lockhart regarding Sir Wal- 
ter's state of health sheds much light : — 

"What he dictates of 'Robert of Paris' is, 
much of it, as good as anything he ever wrote. 
He does not go on so fast; but I do not see that 
he is much more apt to make blunders — ^that is, 
to let his imagination get ahead of his speech— 
than when he wrote 'Ivanhoo.' The worst busi- 
ness was that accursed nonsensical petition ipi the 
name of the magistrates, justices of the peace, and 
freeholders of the extensive, influential, and popu- 
lous county of Selkirk ! We were more than three 
days at it. At the beginning of the third day he 
wadked backwards and forwards, enunciating the 
half-sentences with a deep and awful voice, his eye- 
brows seemingly more shaggy than ever, and his 
eyes more fierce and glaring— altogether, like the 
royal beast in his cage! It suddenly came over 
me, as politics was always Sir Walter's weak 
point, that he was crazy, and that I should have 



to come down to Abbotsford, and write on and 
away at the. petition until the crack of doom ! I 
was seized at the same moment with an inclina- 
tion, almost uncontrollable, to burst into laugh- 
ter." 

The occasion referred to in this let- 
ter was* in connection with the Reform 
Bill, the discussion of which was then 
agitating the country, as it promised 
to bring in a new era. In political and re- 
ligious views Laidlaw and Scott were of dif- 
ferent opinions, but this did not materially 
affect their friendship. Laidlaw was a staunch 
Whig, and hailed the prospective changes as 
the ushering in of a political millenium. 
Nevertheless, when Scott, at the instance of 
Mr Pringle of Whytbank, drew up, on March 
7-10, an address reprobatory of the Bill, Laid- 
law acted as his amanuensis. " From the un- 
compromising style," Scott writes in his 
" Journal," ** it would have attracted atten- 
tion. Mr Laidlaw, though he is Mr Other Side 
[? on t'other side] on the subject, thinks it is 
the best thing I ever wrote ; and I myself am 
happy to find it cannot be said to smell of 
apoplexy." Possibly Laidlaw did express 
his opinion to this effect, but he was too true 
a Whig to write the address without due critic- 
ism. Scott does not hint that any such inter- 
ruptions as the following (as the amanuensis 
afterwards told his friends) took place: — 
"Hout tout, Sir Walter, that will never do." 
" Go on, Willie, go on," was Scott's reply. It 
ultimately proved that Laidlaw was right. 
Scott's Bill, to his great chagrin, was rejected. 

In September this year Scott started from 
Abbotsford for his Mediterranean voyage. Be- 
fore departing, however, he gave Laidlaw a 
mandate empowering him to represent him at 
county meetings ; and also directions for keep- 
ing his mansion, his books, and his garden in 
order. About the same time the Laidlaws 
were astonished one morning to see Sir Walter, 
with his night-cap on, approach their abode. 
After the customary salutations Scott said he 
had come to have a last look at Melrose Abbey. 
Having proceeded to a sort of eminence whence 
he could view the town and abbey, he gazed 
long and steadfastly on the scene, and saying 
slowly " It is a venerable ruin I" he turned and 
retraced his steps to Abbotsford. 

While on his Mediterranean cruise Scott con- 
tinued to send letters to Laidlaw. The latter, 
writing to a friend, says : — " You will see by 
the newspapers that Sir Walter is coming home 
to die, I fear, or worse. It has come to what 
I always feared since he told me that Mr Cadell 



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had half the proceeds of the great new edi- 
tion." 

Scott returned to Abbotsford in July, 1832. 
According to his own account, Laidlaw was 
standing at the door when the great novelist 
arrived. He was accompanied by Mr and Mrs 
Lockhart, and Miss Scott, who told- Laidlaw 
that her father's mental condition wa« so low 
that she did not think Scott would recognise 
him. Sir Walter, who had an uncommonly 
stupid stare, was carried into the dining-room, 
whither Laidlaw followed him. When Scott 
had been placed in a low arm-chair, Mrs Lock- 
hart made a sign for Laidlaw to come forward, 
to see if Sir Walter would know who he was. 
" Mr Laidlaw, papa," said she to her father, 
who exclaimed, holding out his hand and rais- 
ing his eyes a little : " Good God, Mr Laid- 
law ! I have thought of you a thousand 
times." Having been put to bed, Scott sent 
for Laidlaw, and made inquiries of him, though 
apparently with a clouded mind, respecting the 
welfare of the people on the estate. 

During the few remaining days of Scott's 
life Laidlaw and Lockhart wheeled Scott, in a 
bath chair which had been procured for the 
purpose, before the door of the house, or up 
and down on the turf, or among the rose-beds. 
Sad days indeed these must have been for the 
faithful attendants ! On one of these occasions 
Laidlaw took his turn after Lockhart, and 
during his period of wheeling Scott had a short 
sleep. Laidlaw then said to his friend Lock- 
hart: "Sir Walter has had a little repose." 
"No, Willie," said Scott, awaking at that 
instant, " no rest for Sir Walter but in the 
grave." When Scott died on 2l8t September, 
1832, no one mourned him more deeply than 
his faithful friend, companion, and amanuensis 
William Laidlaw. 

In October after the death of Sir Walter, 
his son — Major Walter Scott — sent to Laidlaw, 
along with a very gratifying letter, the locket 
which Scott had constantly worn about his 
neck, and which had been presented to the 
novelist by Major Scott and his wife on the day 
of their marriage. This memento Laidlaw 
ever after held in the greatest regard, and 
wore it until his death. By Scott himself 
Laidlaw had been presented with the desk in 
a drawer of which Sir Walter found the for- 
gotten MS. of " Waverley " among his fishing 
tackle — a gift which Laidlaw greatly esteemed. 
To be OorUinued 



Presentation to 
Mr Stuart Douglas Elliot. 

HE thirty-third annual festival of 
Edinburgh Borderers' Union wa« 
held in the Masonic Hall there on 
7th December. Bailie Douglas occu- 
pied the chair, and there was a representative 
gathering. Occasion was taken of the meeting 
to present Councillor Stuai-t Douglas Elliot, the 





After all, women are weathercocks, that is 
the truth on't.— "Fair Maid of Perth." 



COlNCILUm STl'ART l>OrOIiA8 ELLIOT. j^k^a, 

lat^ secretary of the Union, with a handsome 
case of silver, and Mrs Elliot with a gold 
bracelet, on the occasion of his retiral from the 
office of secretary, after 25 years' service. The 
proceedings were of an enjoyable and enthus- 
iastic character. We trust Mr Elliot may have 
many more years of usefulness and prosperity. 
He is a. typical Borderer, and will always find 
an lionoui4d place wherever Borderers fore- 
gather. 

Elibank. 

The moon is rising o'er the wooded hill 

Where grimly wtiindH the ruined Keep. 
Beneath, the twining river r\int> 

A down a valley hushed in sleep. 
From out the shaded nooks of long ago 

The gray, gaunt ghosts of past arise, 
And once again the frowning tower 

Is vibrant with their lusty criefi. 
The supple steel, long rusted red, 

Awakes orice more and flashes fire; 
The grim mot?s-troopere, long since dead. 

From out forgotten graves again suspire. 

But see! Tlie yellow dawn already streaks the 
East— 
The vision fade«— the past sinks once again to 
sleep. 
The rifling sun, now i)eeping o'er the smiling hills, 
Seee but the ruins of an ancient Keep. 

James Eeddie. 



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A Christmas Tramp. 

JNY railway director who has the honour 
of the reader^s acquaintance will be able 
to recall the year of the last century, 
whose closing week found time-tables of 
no use to intending travellers for the 
Cbristmas holidays. Perhaps it was the last of 
the eighties or the first of tiie nineties, but I was 
never good at dates, And my maiden aunt is not 
within call. It was the eve of Christmas Eve, when 
a few bachelors, including the writer, were gath- 
ered in the parlour of the principal howfi of P , 

at the foot of the P Hills, which vil— I beg 

pardon — ^town, is not entirely unconnected with 
p— ^r-making. Their purpose was to exchange the 
compliments of the season on parting for their 
various destinations, and the uncertainty of book- 
ing passages on the morrow was the topic de re- 
sistance. The craze for pedestrianism was not; 
and it required all my powers of persuasion to 
coax a crony of a Saturday afternoon as far as 
Boslin or Habbie's Howe. Once two stout chums 
set out for Peebles, and returned with unques- 
tionable evidence that they had reached that 
paradise of " pleesure ;" but it transpired that the 
iron horse had obliged for the middle and length- 
iest section of the road. Thus was I often left to 
gang my ain gait when early spring would tempt 
me to a five-mile matutinal appetizer across the 
moor or through the woods. . As for this dead sea- 
son, a walk out to the Watering Stone and- back 
was deemed sufficient to induce a sound sleep, and 
if I proposed to wend further afield, I was dubbed 
a road-raker or stravaigin' gangrel. 

Here, then, was the occasion and the excuse for 
a real walk, for the strike was at its height; and 
when the railway man of the company could give 
us no reliable information as to transit, I boldly 
announced my intention to get home on " shank's 
naigie." "Are ye weel shod the noo?** asked 
Larry, and the rest eyed me coldly, and no doubt 
marvelled that half a bottle of invalid stout should 
have so swelled my head and animated my breast 
with Dutch courage. Some who were aware of my 
raiding propensities kindly hinted that I would 
think better of it in the morning; and then the 
whole crowd, with engaging inconsistency, began 
to swagger of long tramps each had accomplished 
in record time on such and such apocryphal occa- 
sions. Their drivel bored me, and I retired early, 
after telling the landlady to have breakfast at 
seven sharp. Scarce had I reached the pillows, as 
it seemed, when the rattle of dishes awoke me, and 
I realised that I was pledged to a fifty-mile walk 
or a face ashamed. Nearly thirty had to be done 
the first day, so after a hasty toilet and bolted 
breakfast, I don jny Highland cloak, grip my 
"Saturday to Monday," and with nibby in hand 
take the plunge. 

Dark, raw, a suspicion of sleety drizzle, the road 
'twixt frost and fresh, slippery. Down the wide, 
sleeping street, we note that Larry's window is 
still dark, but dare not permit a qualm of envy 
of his beauty sleep. Southwards across the bridge, 
and we have three miles of collar-work for a start. 
It is dismal enough, but we step lively, and warm 
to the work, for it is not easy going. Leadburn is 
reached in forty-five minutes, and with an air of 
bumptious humility we step on the railway plat- 
form, and meekly inquire for the next train to 
Galashiels. If anything is known, nothing is guar- 



anteed; we change our demeanour, snap our fin- 
gers, and haughtily absquatulate. Under the 
bridge, up the final brae, and we pass from the 
Lothian slope to the Tweeddale basin. The Moor- 
foots form the bleak horizon, but behind them the 
dawn broadens and brightens, the long bare rib- 
bon of road is reeled off rapidly, and at every fur- 
long of the gradual descent the spiritual ther- 
mometer goes up a degree. By the time the nar- 
row vale, where road and stream run side by side, 
is reached, it is a fine morning, and our tackets 
beat a merry accompaniment to the guvgling £d- 
dleston. Here the road is dry and hard. The 
railway is there too, but it is only a blot on the 
landscape. This is glorious, and I think with pity 
of the poor creatures behind, mooning about the 
booking-office, and vainly badgering discontented 
officials about trains. My train of thought is 
broken by a rumble in the rear, and in a moment 
an empty passenger crashes past. I have barely 
time to throw down my bag and wave my hat at 
the end of my stick to the crew. I am certain the 
guard sees me. Perhaps they are black-legs, per- 
haps he thinks my antics are signals of distress, 
but, if so, he errs egregiously. 

The only fly in the ointment is the wee black 
bag, which seems to have gained a considerable 
accession of avoirdupois when I stoop to lift it. 
Perhaps it weighs three or four pounds at the 
most, for a clean collar, pair sox, ditto skates, are 
its sole contents. It is positively warm, and were 
it not for the bag, I would doff my cloak. Pre- 
sently a shaddry-dan, motored by a pony, and 
manned by a halflin' wielding an ash plant, turns 
out of a loaning, and luffs Peebles-ward. This is 
the first human we have encountered on the road, 
so in gratuitous lowland fashion I tell him it's a 
fine day. He admits " It's no' bad for the time o' 
year," and invites me to jump in. I explain that 
the state of my health demands walking exercise, 
but would he oblige by relieving me of my luggage, 
and leaving same at Mrs So-and-So's in the North- 
gate till speered for. He readily assents, pulls the 
lever, and doucely ambles round the corner and 
out of sight. Greatly relieved, I doff the cloak, 
make some passes with the left arm to bring the 
benumbed wrist to the proper flexibility, and mend 
the pace, and overtake the baggage- waggon. More 
ash plant, and they are leading by three lengths; 
I creep up abreast, talk horse for a bit, and soon 
become aware that my breakfast has more stay 
than the Galloway's oats, and am compelled to in- 
sult the poor beast by cancelling the contract. 
Past the clachan of Eddleston other two miles 
brings Peebles in view, and at 10.45 exactly we 
stump under the arch and across the cobble-paved 
yard and crook our hough at the quaint hostelry 
which claims to have been the model for Meg 
Dodd's public. The thirteen miles have been done 
in 3 hours 15 minutes— a good performance, and 
deserves a biscuit, which with appropriate mois- 
ture is promptly served and deliberately assimi- 
lated. We satisfy the decorous curiosity of mine 
host as to our whence and whither, regret we 
cannot stay for dinner, and after a pipeful of 
brown twist we leave the snug tap before our 
joints have time to stiffen. With an appreciative 
glance along the pretty perspective of the High 
Street we turn by way of the Eastgate to follow 
for six miles or so the windings of Tweed's siller 
stream. The hundred windows of the stately 
" Hydro " flash back the level rays of the sun, 



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which barely clears the heights over the Drove 
Road to the south. Every Edinburgh cyclist 
knows the road, but not every one has seen it on 
foot and at the winter solstice. In jovial June and 
mellow October it is lovely, but even December has 
its compensations. Through the open network of 
bare branches we get more frequent glimpses of 
the river, and of the snug cottages, steadings, and 
stackyards on either side. The heights of Glen- 
tress Forest shelter us from any Boreal bitterness, 
and when we are past Horsburgh Castle the whole 
\ alley opens out bathed in the shimmering winter 
haae. At the foot of the long straight (which we 
were wont to coast with legs over handles on the 
old 64 in.) we stop to look into the Dirl Pot op- 
posite Cardrona, perhaps so-called as it seems to 
serve as a sort of sediment settler for the impuri- 
ties gathered from the mills of Peebles. The Pot 
is boiling to-day, for it is swarming with salmon, 
most of them, alas, twisting and writhing and 
piebald with the loathsome fungus. The water 
looks black, and the fish would be invisible but for 
their feverish antics, and the patches of sickly 
white mould that disfigure their yard-long pro- 
portions. The sight is saddening, and after rins- 
ing our mouth at the horse-trough, we trudge on. 
The bank of hazels on the steep hillside is bare of 
leaves, and the squirrels know best where the 
fruit is stored. Clear of the wood, we get a still 
wider prospect, and notice that the southern and 
more distant hills are all white with snow. These 
we must penetrate before the shades of eve, and we 
hurry on to dinner at Innerleithen. Our healthy 
appetite is the best sauce, and after our repast we 
feel good enough for anything. Lees than nine miles 
remain, and we wax communicative. Ostler ad- 
visee a trap to Gala, where he is sure " the Pull- 
man " is still doing business. Like the rest of his 
cult he has no respect for walking jgentlemen, 
and as it is hopeless to convince him that I am 
tramping for preference, I plead poverty, and he 
allows me to leave the yard once more driving 
my own pair. At the level-crossing we spurn the 
metals and scrape the rime from our boots in con- 
temptuous farewell, for now our boats are burned; 
we will see no more of the rail till our journey's 
end. I can never cross a bridge without gazing 
for a minute into the water,— no doubt another- 
evidence of my predatory instiucte,— and here I 
spy a small boy— a mere infant-— dragging ashore a 
salmon which 'must weigh almost as many pounds 
as its captor. I sternly hail him, and threaten 
him with the Shirra: but he shows no alarm, and 
coolly remarks that " It's rotten." 

Now we get a better view than ever before of 
the steep-roofed chateau of'Traquair, with its ir- 
regular rows of little windows piercing its ancient 
walls. A buirdly acquaintance, who accosts me 
from the wood, shows little surprise to see me 
here, but rather resents my having dined at the 
inn when so near his hospitable board. However, 
he volunteers to set me part of the way, and as 
the afternoon is short and already waning, he 
presses me only half-a-dozen times to stay for a 
cup of tea. I doggedly decline, and we set off up 
the glen. He is no more of an antiquary than my- 
self, and cannot tell which of the little birks on 
the skirts of the high Minchmuir is the "Bush 
abune Traquair/' but we have much solid talk of 
fish, fur, and feather, as we paddle through the 
deepening snow to the foot of the Paddy Slacks. 
Here we part with a hearty Merry Christmas, and 



I am alone on the mountain. I whistle np-i-dee 
till I require all my breath for the arduous climb. 
Near th^ summit the snow is two inches deep. 
The darkness is gathering, the flakes are now 
swirling, and the clear-lit window of Glenlude is 
almost blotted out. I have regained my breath 
and start to whistle "O'er the lave o't," when a 
dark figure in front gives me pause. I had been 
vain enough to imagine that no other soul would 
be facing the blast on such a night, but lo, the 
figure comes on, the upper part resolves itself into 
an umbrella, and a little dame, not old, but two 
decades uast her priipe, politely enquires 
whether I ken if ony trains are rinnin' 
to Galashiels. Surely the occasion must be 
urgent that brings her out in such weather; 
she is five Scotch miles from the station, 
and when there, ha^ only a remote chance of get- 
ting further. I tell her all I have gathered, which 
is little enough, and with old-world courtesy she 
thanks me kindly, bids me guid-nicht. and dis- 
appears in the murky smother. I whistle no more, 
but ponder on the calibre of our grandmothers and 
the degeneracy of our " new " women. It is now 
too dark to make out much more than the road 
and the skyline. A gig. with two hooded figures, 
which I hope will sit close and make room for the 
Koman Matron, is all I meet till I reach the 
Yarrow Bead, and halt at the door of " The Gor- 
don." It is locked, and I have to knock more 
than once before a buxom maid cautiously opens, 
" spiers my wull,'* and my credentials being sat- 
isfactory, admits me to the cosy comfort and glow- 
ing hearth of the front parlour. She explains that 
the raaister and mistress are awa' frae hame, that 
the only other guest is oot for a daunder, and that 
yin can never tell what sort o* tramps are gaun 
aboot the noo. I pardon the locked door, and she 
soon makes amends by promptly hurrying up a 
touzy tea. Before I have finished this welcome le- 
freshment the other man comes in. and proves to 
be a kindred spirit, shunning a city's festivities, 
and rusticating fo:' a day or two in the wilds. 
As the night wears on the landlord returns; we 
have a douce crack over a steaming negus, and 
making no objection to a " pig" of hot water to 
our weary trotters we are soon wrapped oblivious 
between the blankets. 



The grey morning finds me awake and 'anxiously 
scanning the weather. The morning star, just 
clear of the opposite hill, shines with unearthly 
lustre on the hoary valley. Not a breath of wind, 
all cold and hard and still, for this is the vale of 
silence. It must have been blowing overnight, 
however, for when we have crossed the Yarrow, we 
find the road swept almost clear of snow, just suf- 
ficient left to form a pile for our iron-shod boots 
to grip. At every step little needles of ice tinkle 
along the road. In the first four miles we climb 
as many hundred feet, but the gradient is perfect. 
No doubt the mercury is away down under, but 
the stillness and the exercise make us insensible 
to the cold, and the air seems charged with some 
pungent essence more exhilarating than all the 
spiced perfumes of Araby. On the right is Altrieve 
Lake, which is no lake now, if ever it deserved the 
name. Which of the few habitations in sight was 
" The Shepherd's " hold we know not, nor do we 
much care. The immortal part of him remains, 
and can be carried about in our pocket. At the 



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17 



watershed the road from the head of St Mary's 
joins, and here, as if to a tryst, comes the vener- 
able carrier and his weekly commissariat. Well 
met, honest Tam, you have ample room for my 
baggage under your tarpaulin, and you know 
where to dump it, perhaps the day after to-mor- 
row. If your yaud is deliberate, he mak's siccar. 
I promise to wait at the brig-end to clinch the 
bargain, and am well out of hail before I realise 
that the surface of the road has changed, probably 
with yesterday's sunshine, to glassy ice, and that I 
might have slid into Ettrick on my skates without 
an effort. Keeping to the rough sheugh, or the dead 
turf at the side, I make rattling progress, and have 
half-an-hour'g smoke at Tushielaw before Tam's 
cart stops at the door. 

The sky is again overcast, and I remark to the 
landlady that I don't think I will take the short 
cut to-day. " Never think o* siccan thing !" she 
retorts, with emphasis, and Tam, who is "' Wush- 
in' me a safe journey" in something hot in the 
passage, adds the weight of his counsel as we see 
through the open door that the snow-flakes are 
already descending. I promise obedience (with a 
mental reservation), and swither as usual for the 
first mile up the Eankle which way to take. I 
know the termini of the short cut, but nothing 
more. My voyage so far has been of the penny 
plain description, with no colour of adventure, 
and, moved by what my friends describe as my 
perverse cussedness, I turn from the wheel road 
and clamber up the March Syke. It is real climbing 
now; there is little or no track, but so long ae the 
Syke is there we have no difficulty. The Syke dis- 
appears in frozen well-heads, there is no track; 
and the snow comee on in earnest. The tussocks of 
bent make the walking a succession of stumbles, 
the air is thick and grey with snow, but the v-md 
is steady, and if I keep the snow on my right 
cheek I am sure of my direction. Only a few 
steps in front can be seen, but in that space, and 
at this pace, we will be able to apply the brake 
and stop before plunging in the mere. It is just 
exciting enough, and I can easily understand how 
even shepherds, who know every bunch of rushes 
on their hills, may be dumbfounded and lost in a 
blizzard. This is no blizzard, however; the snow 
stops in a moment and di^loeee a blue rift of 
sky reflected in the blue mirror of Clearburn Loch. 
Compared with Highland lochs this little sheet 
might be called a pool or pond, but nevertheless 
Mr Andrew Lang has confessed that he must keep 
outside of a radius of twenty miles of it if he 
wishes to overcome its attraction. As a faithful 
disciple of St Izaak my veracity will not be im- 
pugned when I say that since then my record creel 
from Clearburn is seven fair-sized trout. But I 
have seen — I have heard — others have done much 
better. There are no March Browns, Blae Wings, 
or Bloody Doctors to tempt them to disturb with a 
single ripple the steely surface to-day ; we flounder 
on through the bog and soon regain the road. It 
has been a short cut, but I have never taken it 
since. By doing so we miss the clench where the 
buck was slain, and which tradition avers gives its 
name to the noble proprietor of most of the coun- 
try round. 

But now the road is all plain sailing, as, indeed, 
it has been all the way, and as we saunter 
leisurely along the head reaches of the Ale and 
dip down the Borthwick to bonnie Teviotdale, we 
wonder, as wiser and wittier have wondered, what 



is the glamour irresistible that perennially brings 
us back to the dales and the hopes and the burns 
of this bare Borderland. We have driven and hiked 
the roads in every season of the year, we may 
even in time be induced to do them in a ''Daim- 
ler," but we never expect to enjoy the route quite 
so much as on that personally-conducted and inde- 
pendent Christmas tramp. 

" Ebbmitb." 



The Late Ex-Baillie Hall, 
St Andrews. 

HE death occurred on the 6th Decem- 
ber, after a short illness, of ex- 
Bailie Jesse Hall, St Andrews, a 
Borderer whose career has been one 

of more than usual interest and usefulness. 

For a long period Mr Hall had been closely 





THK LATE EX-BAIIJ.IE HALL. 

identified with the public life of the Fifeshire 
city, and as he was going about a few days 
before his death the sad event came as a 
painful surprise to the citizens. 

Mr Hairs parents, Thomas Hall and Agnes 
Stirling, were natives of Roxburghshire, he 
being the youngest of a family of nine sons 
and two daughters. Jesse was born at East- 
field, near Bowden, Roxburghshire, on the 
10th January, 1820. In 1826 the family re- 
moved to Galashiels, and in 1835 he was ap- 



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prenticed to his brother, Robert, to learn the 
mason trade. He afterwards took charge of 
workmen and work for his brother, who was 
a large contractor in the counties of Roxburgh, 
Selkirk, Peebles, and Berwick shires. 

While taking charge of work in Berwick- 
shire, for which Mr Nixon, superintendent of 
the Gk)vernment Works in Scotland, wjis ar- 
chitect, that gentleman asked Mr Hall if he 
would come to Edinburgh, and take ch&rge of 
the construction of a large sewer to drain the 
base of Salisbury Crags, and thus prepare for 
and commence the now famous drive towards 
Arthur Seat in the King's Park near Holy- 
rood. Mr Hall went to Edinburgh, and suc- 
ceeded in gaining Mr Nixon's confidence, so 
that in 1845 he was promoted and transferred 
to St Andrews to take charge of an extensive 
addition which was then made to the United 
College, and at which Sheriff Campbell Smith, 
Dundee, worked as a mason. 

It was, however, as manager of St Andrews 
Gas Company that Mr Hall was best known. 
He was appointed to that position in 1850, 
and was thus the oldest gas manager in Scot- 
land. This position he faithfully held to the 
end, with the utmost credit to himself and to 
the Comjyany, though latterly his son, Mr 
Robert Hall, has been associated with him in 
the management. 

Mr Hall was predeceased by his wife some 
veal's ago, but is survived by a family of three 
sons and four daughters. His funeral to St 
Andrews Cathedral Burying-ground was a pub- 
lic one, and was largely attend e<l. 




Berwick's Walls and Ramparts. 

jUCH attention has recently been 
turned to the priceless national 
treasures which are to be found 
in Ber\vick -upon -Tweed, owing to 
the proposed destruction of portions of the 
walls, &c., by the^Town Council. Indigna- 
tion was expressed by all ranks and conditions 
of men, from the King downwards, but it was 
with the greatest difficulty that the work of 
demolition was stopped. The Rev. James 
King, M.A., B.D., Vicar of St Mary's, Ber- 
wiok-on-Tweed, has worked and written in 
season and out of season to preserve to the 
United Kingdom these most valuable monu- 
ments, and it to be hoped that his untiring 
efforts will be crowned with success. He has 
just published at 1/1 post free an excellent 
treatise entitled "The Edwardian Walls and 



Elizabethan Ramparts of Berwick-upon- 
Tweed," and we counsel all who are interested 
in the history of Scotland and England to pro- 
cure the book from the author. By doing so 
they will gain much valuable and intensely 
interesting information, while at the same 
time helping the sacred cause of charity, as 
the book is published " on behalf of the poor." 
The author, who is an antiquarian of a high 
order, says : — 




BERWICK BELL TOWER. 

In summer I usually write a little book on some 
homely topic, on behalf of humble lade and the 
aged poor^ thus raising funds to warm and feed 
them during the storms of winter. I have this 
year chosen "The Walls of Berwick/* because 
great national interest has recently been shown on 
this subject, and large numbers from many lands 
have lately visited our town to gaze upon her fam- 
ous ramparts. The nation is fast realising that 
the stirring history of the sister kingdoms of Eng- 
land and Scotland is largely written in Berwick's 
decaying walls, and that her ancient monuments 
make our town to be one of the most interesting 
in the I'nited Kingdom. 



There is as much promise atween the twa 
boards of the Testament as wad save the warst 
o' us, could we but think sae. — "The Anti- 
quary." 



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Border Connection with Nelson's 
Famous Signal. 

^HUS writes an esteemed correspondent: 
— "The enclosed cutting from the 
"Kilsyth Journal" (which I am 
sending you with the lady writer's 
permission) will, I feel sure, be of great in- 
terest to many of your readers as describing 
a Border gentleman's intimate tx)nnection 
with Nelson's last and greatest victory. Of 
greater value, however, is the light it throws 
on the hoisting of the famous signal. It has 
been stated that the officer who hoisted it 
expressed it in other words than Nelson had 
ordered, but this story shows how the message 
grew during the discussion with Hardy, and 
that it was the latter who suggested the alter- 
ation in the wording. Nelson generously and 
enthusiastically adopted the word " England " 
in place of the personal expression intended. 
Thus the world -famed message took form." 

My father, who went to live in BoxburghBhire 
in 1830, became intimately acquainted with Cap- 
tain Sibbald, R.N., who resided at Benrig. Born 
in 1800, my father well remembered the historical 
events of the early part of the century. One even- 
ing, when at Benrig, Mrs Sibbald said she had 
been displeased with both of them for sitting so 
late the last time her husband had been at my 
father's, and that she had all the lights put out 
before his return, so that ho had to find his way 
in the dark. My father said this was very hard 
hearted of her, and she replied, " Oh, he thinks 
nothing of it— he was used to that sort of thing 
on board, when in active service." My father said, 
"Were you ever in action. Captain Sibbald?" 
"Yes." "Where?" "Copenhagen" (1801). "You 
must have been very young*— what was your 
• rank?" "Midshipman. I had just joined; would 
you like to see my commission ?" It was read with 
deep interest, signed by Nelson. Collingwood, 
Hardy, Ac. Asked if he had been in any other en- 
gagement, he said. " I was at Trafalgar." What 
was the name of your ship?" "The Victory." 
" What was your rank there?" "Signal Midship- 
man." "Was it you who hoisted the famous sig- 
nal?** "I received orders to do so, and would 
have done it, had not another officer taken my 
place, to let me have breakfast— it had been going 
on while I was waiting orders, and was now over. 
I had been told that a message to the Fleet was 
imder consideration, and that I was to remain on 
deck. Nelson and Hardy were walking up and 
down, conversing, and as they repeatedly passed 
me, I heard the discussion. I listened eagerly— 
I was very hungry — anxious to know the message, 
and prepare quicUy the hoisting. Few flags were 
to be used— the message was to be short and ex- 
pressive, and to be easily interpreted by the Fleet. 
They altered it now and again. At last Nelson 
said, * Let it be ' The Admiral expects every man 
will do his duty.' Hardy replied, ' Would it not 
be better, England, instead of Admiral .?' 'Eight, 
Hardy, you are right; that is better.' The order 
was given to hoist that message. Hardy was 



studying the arrangement of flags, in suggesting 
the word, but Nelson was delighted with the 
amendment, as revealing the depth of his mean- 
ing, and the greatness of the issue at stake. His 
pleasure in the message, as now developed to his 
satisfaction, could be best understood by one who 
was listening to the discussion, and aware of the 
intensity of Nelson's feelings, on the approach of 
the crisis, and his desire that all should share in 
'them; yet also feeling hampered by the limited 
instruments at hie disposal for conveying in few 
words the thought which he wished should ani- 
mate every man. Si'jbald was in the act of climb- 
ing the mast, when a Lieutenant came upstairs, 
and called to him, asking if he had had breakfast 
—told him to go down and get it, and he would 
take his place, adding, if he did not go at once, 
he would never get it, as they were going into ac- 
tion immediately. Sibbald was glad to be relieved, 
and the officer undertook to do the work. 

When Nelson was carried downstairs, there was 
great disorder surrounding him. Search was made 
for a pillow, but one could not be found. Sibbald 
was present— thought of his bag of dirty clothes; 
brought it, and it was under Nelsbn's head when 
he lay dying. 

"I remember Captain Sibbald," the lady said 
to our representative. " He was a very gentle, 
quiet-looking man. It was always with some re- 
luctance he recalled his experience, and spoke of 
it. Any information about engagements had to be 
drawn out of him — his remembrance of the terrible 
contests was vivid, and it gave him pain to refer 
to them. 



A Border Literary Chronicle, with 
Brief Biographical Notes. 

PART VI 1. 

IiEB, RoBEBT, D.D. (b. at Tweedmouth, Nov. 11, 
1804— d. March U, 1868), minister of Old Grey- 
friars, Edinburgh, 1843; professor of Biblical 
Criticism, 1847-60; introduced certain "inno- 
vations" in the Scottish Church; wrote "The 
Reform of the Church in Worship, Govern- 
ment and -Doctrine," 1864, and other works 
on theology. Life by Dr R. H. Story (Prin- 
cipal of Glasgow University). 

Lbyden, De John (b. at Denholm, Sept. 8, 1775— d. 
at Batavia in Java, Aug. 28, 1811), great Orien- 
tal scholar and poet; entered Edinburgh Uni- 
versity in 1790; studied for the Church, and 
licensed in 17i^, but devoted himself to litera- 
ture; assisted Sir Walter Scott in the com- 
pilation of the Border Minstrelsy, to which he 
contributed "Lord Soulis" and the "Cout of 
Keeldar;" edited "The Complaynt of Scot- 
land," 1802; best known as the author of 
" Scenes of Infancy " (a large portion of which 
was written at Lasswade Cottage, while on a 
visit to SccH), poems descriptive of his native 
vale of Teviot ; went to India in 1803, and rose 
to rank and office through the influence of his 
patron. Lord Minto. His "Poetical Remains, 
with Memoir," by Rev. James Morton, pub- 
lished in 1819. His "Tour in the Highlands 
and Western Islands" was published by Mr 
James Rinton in 1903, after lying in MS. for 
over a century. (B.M. i. 133, 149; viii. 186). 



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LzviNOSTOini, Bbt. John (b. 1603-1672), educated at 
Glasgow University; licensed to preach, 1625; 
minister at Stranraer, 1638-48, and at Ancrnm 
from 1648-62; banished at the Restoration, and 
died at Rotterdam. His " Life " first published 
in 1754, 

LocKiB, WiLLUM (b. Dec. 9, 1788— d. Aug. 30, 1853), 
educated at Wilton School, Hawick; school- 
master at Stouslea for thirty-seven years; 
wrote several songs and poems. 

LuNN, John (b. 1812— d. 1871), a native of the par- 
ish of Lilliesleaf; wrote occasional pieces for 
the local press. (B.M. iii. 175). 

Lttb, Rev. Henbt Fbancib (h. at Ednam West 
Mains, near Kelso, June 1, 1793— d. at Nice, 
Nov. 20, 1847), son of au officer in the army; 
studied at Trinity College, Dublin, took orders 
in the English Church, and became Rector of 
Brizham, on the shores of Torbay; author of 
"Abide with me,'' "Pleasant are Thy courts 
above," and other well-known hymns; pub- 
lished in 1833 a vol. of " Poems Chiefly Relig- 
ious." His "Remains," with Memoir ap- 
peared in 1850. 

McCrie, Thomas, D.D. (b. at Duns, 172a-d. 18d5), 
professor of divinity, Edinburgh, 1816-18; bio- 
grapher of John Knox, 1812, and Andrew Mel- 
ville, 1819 ; wrote also histories of the Reforma- 
tion in Italy, 1827; and in Spain, 1829; also a 
vindication of the Covenanters, in which he 
combated the views of tiir Walter Scott in 
"Old Mortality." 

MiHCKNioHT, Jambs, D.D. (b. 1721— d. July 13, 1800), 
educated at Glasgow and Leyden Universities; 
ordained minister of Jedburgh 1769 ; translated 
to Edinburgh 1772 ; author of a " Harmony of 
the Gbspels," 1759; and a "Translation of all 
the Apostolical Epistles," 1795. 

Maitland, Sib Richard, op Lbthington (b. 1496— d. 
1586), educated at St Andrews and Paris; an- 
cestor of the Dukes of Lauderdale and father 
of the famous Secretary Maitland, was the 
most popular poet of his time, and also a col- 
lector and preserver of old Scottish poetry. 
His collection of poems consists of ^o vols., 
folio and a quarto. He also wrote a "^Historic 
of the Hous of Seytoun." 

Maxwell, Capt. George (b. at Canonbie, 1762— 
d. 1812), author of "First Survey of the River 
Congo,*' mentioned by Carlyle in hie essay on 
Mungo Park, and in Park's "Journal and 
Life" (1815). Maxwell, who had vifiited the 
Congo, had come to the conclusion that it was 
but a continuation of the Niger, an idea adopt- 
ed by Park aleo, but afterwards found to be 
erroneous. Maxwell, in 1795, married a ai«i<^r 
of I^njaniin Bell, the celebrated surgeon, and 
was instrunienttU in raising the ** Kskdale 
and Liddosdale Volunteers." to which he was 
commissioned in October, 1803. 

MAXWZLI^ George (b. at Canonbie, 1797— d. there 
1879). Eldest son of the preceding; educated 
at the "Nest Academy," Jedburgh; studied 
law at Edinburgh University and became a 
W.S. ; published in 1826 a treatise on the cui> 
rency, in which the principle of uniformity was 
advocated, and in 1845 issued a series of "Let- 
ters to the People of Canonbie," in which he 
upheld the Established Church. He was a 
J.P. for the county of Dumfries, and devoted 
much time to the studies of astronomy and 
Biblical exegesis. 



Maxwbll, Willla^v Gbaham, M.D. (b. 180&~-d. in 
India, 1869), brother of the preceding, and also 
educated at the "Nest," Jedburgh; studied 
medicine at Edinburgh and graduated as 
L.R.C.S and M.D. ; was nominated for the 
Indian Civil Service, 1825, and app<Mnted to 
the 8th Light Cavalry ; rose to oe Super- 
intending Surgeon of the Madran Presi- 
dency; retired in 1858. He wrote a treatise on 
measles ("De Rubiola"), and "A Practical 
Treatise on Epidemic Cholera, Ague, and Dy- 
sentery" (1888). He also contributed articles 
to the 'Times" on medical and military sub- 
jects, and war sketches to the "Illustrated 
London News." 

Mbbceb, Andrew (b. at Selkirk, 1775— d. at Dun- 
fermline, June 11, 1842), poet, painter, and 
topographer ; gave up the study of theology and 
took to miniature painting; wrote for the 
magazines in Edinburgh; friend of Leyden, 
Campbell, and Park; settled at Dunfermline, 
1810, where he taught drawing; wrote "Dun- 
fermline Abbey : a Poem, with historical notes 
and illustrations," 1819 ; " The History of Dun- 
fermline," 1828 ; " Summer Months among the 
Mountains " (a vol. of poems), 1838. 

MiCKLE, WttLiAM Julius (b. Sep. 29, 1734— d. Oct. 
28, 1788), son of the minister of Langholm; 
educated at the Edinburgh High School ; wrote 
"Pollio," an elegy, 1765, and "The Concubine," 
1767, a moral poem after the manner of Spen- 
ser; best known as the translator of "The 
Lusiad," 1776, and writer of the ballad of 
"Cumnor Hall," said to have suggested to 
Scott the idea of " Kenilworth." He was also 
most probably the author of the well-known 
song "There's nae luck aboot the house. * 
The last piece he wrote was " Eskdale Braes." 
(B.M. iv. 237). 

Milne, Rev. Adam (b. 1680 P—d. June 8, 1747). minis- 
ter of Melrose from 1711-47 ; wrote a " Descrip- 
tion of the Parish of Melrose," 1743, of which 
a new edition appeared in 1782. Mr Milne was 
married to a daughter of the Rev. William 
Hunter of Lilliesleaf. 

NicoL, Rev. James (b. at Innerleithen, Sept. 30, 1769 
— d. Nov. 5, 1819), minister of Traquair, 1802- 
19; published "Poems chiefly in the Scottish 
Dialect," 2 vols., 1815. His half-humorous 
"Halucket Meg." and his fine lyric, "Where 
Quair runs sweet among the flowers " (ad- 
dressed to the lady who afterwards became 
his wife), are well known. He also contributed 
to the "Edinburgh Encyclopeedia." One of his 
sons, James Nicol, was professor of Natural 
Science in Aberdeen University, 1853-78. 

Noble, John (b. near Jedburgh— d. at Gateshead, 
1816), wrote several pieces of poetry, including 
an Ode on Thomsqji. He is the author of the 
lines on the Wallace Monument near Dry- 
burgh, beginning "The peerless knight of El- 
lerslie, who waved on Ayr's romantic shore 
the beaming torch of liberty," &c. (B.M. vii. 
230). 

To he Continued, 



Erratum.— In the December part of the "Chron- 
icle" the name "Thomas" Kennedy should 
have been given a« "Robert" Kennedy, as a 
correspondent has kindly pointed out. 



Printed and Published by A- Walker ft Son, Galashiels. 

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SUPPLEMENT to the ' BORDER MAGAZINE," Vol. XII., No. 134. 









' 















MR ALEXANDER EDDINGTON, F.J. I., EDINBURGH. 



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Vol. XII. , No. 134. FEBRUARY, 1907. [all rights reserved. 



Mr ALEXANDER EDDINdTON, F.J.I., Edinburgh, 

JOURNALIST, LITTERATEUR, AND CRITIC. 




* N the now fairly long roll of fame of 
the lioHDKR Maijazink there have 
appeared from time to time slvetcheu 
of men who in different spheres of 
life have made their mark on the country or 
the connuunity by i)ublic service or by faith- 
ful work in more Inuuble places. The ser- 
vices which some have given have been in the 
fierce light which iK)wadays beats on those who 
week t6 derve their cimntiy in public life, while 
others have dont& their duty and given effective 
service under less searching scrutiny. But 
whether in the senate, the council board, the 
pulpit, or the Frees, the representation in the 
BoRDBR Magazine's galaxy is one of which the 
district, geographically known as the Borders, 
may well be proud. And the subject of the 
present sketch is, we think, well entitled to 
his place in this honourable mil. 

Mr Alexander Eddington, F.J. I., belongs to 
what is popularly known as the " fourth 
estate,'' and is a true son of the Borderland. 
He iB a native of Eyemouth, Berwickshire, a 
county of probably more varied and striking 
scenery than any of the others which are com- 
prehended under the designation of the '' Bor- 



ders." It has in one part or another all the 
features of natural scenery, sea, river, wood, 
hill, valley, and moorland. In no part of Scot- 
land are more fertile and well -tilled fields to 
be seen than in the'Merse, and in this county 
the Twee<l, the classic Border river, comes to 
its full maturity, and fiows with stately sweep 
to lose itself in the Geniian Oceon. On 
the historic side, too, Berwickshire has many 
points of interest. Adjoining the English 
county of Northumberland with the important 
towni of Berwick, almost in its territory, in- 
deed for many years counted so to be, the men 
of the Merse had to bear the brunt of many an 
English attack. 

Mr Eddington was originally intended for 
the Church, but the state of his health forbade 
this, and for some years wa« iu business with 
his father in his native town. But the town of 
Eyemouth was not sufficient to occupy his en- 
ergies. He had the literary instinct, and the 
aphorism " that a poet is born, not made," 
applies with equal truth to the journalist. It 
is interesting to note that he tried his " 'pren- 
tice hand " in acting as a correspondent to a 
local newspaper, and the opportunities thib 



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tHE feOkDfek MA6A2lNfi. 



afforded gave him the impetus aud all the pre- 
liminary training he ever received before set- 
ting out on his career on a metropolitan paper. 
He joined the staff of the " Edinburgh Even- 
ing News " in 1876 — thi^ee years after the 
paper had been launched. With the exception 
of a short interval of about eighteen months 
on the now defunct " Edinburgh Courant," the 
old organ of Scottish Toryism, he has been 
con necte<l with the " News." He is at present, 
and has for many years been the chief of the 
rept)rting staff witli the control of the home 
district news. During his connection with the 



tioned the Midlothian campaigns when the 
'' Gmnd Old Man " set the heather on fire. He 
was in the thick of the fight in 1879, and had- 
to do more or less with then; all vnih. the ex- 
ception of the one in 1892. He was also pre- 
sent at the famous trial of Chantrelle, the 
Frenchman, whose case in interest and com- 
plexity almost rivalled tliat of Madelii^ Smith, ' 
and was present when the Frenchman 
paid the last penalty. The City of Glasgow 
liank direct(>i*8'' was aaiother trial whicji was 
"done" by him for his pa])er. Many* Other 
incidents in the national, civic, and ecclasiaB- 




KVEMOITH n.XRBOl R. 



jnipcr he has witnessed great developments in 
journalism in the adaptation of means to ends. 
And to the prestige which the "Evening News" 
enjoys as on© of the simirtest and most ujv 
to-date evening newspapers in the country, he, 
in his department, has contributed no small 
part by the care, accuracy, and foresight he 
has shown, combined with his admirable pow- 
ers of organisation. 

Mr Eddington recalls many incidents and 
scenes in which he took j>art in his reporting 
days. Among the more famous may be men- 



tical life of the oountr}^ came under his pro- 
fessional purview ; of the last may be men- 
tioned the Hev. David Macrae heresy case, 
and the Professor Robertson Smith case, both 
"causes celebres " in the ecclesiastical world 
at the time. 

In connection with the Institute of Journal- 
ists, Mr Eddington has done excellent work. 
He was a member of the National Association 
of Journalists, out of which the present Insti- 
tute sprang, and when the Edinburgh and East 
of Scotland branch was formed he was chosen 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



5^3 



secretary, a post he filled for three years,' and 
laboured hard to make t^e branch a force in, 
and representative of, the journalism of the 
district. It was during his term as secretary 
that the first conference of the Institute was 
held in Scotland, at the annual dinner in con- 
nection with which Lord Rosebery proposed the 
toast of "The Institute." A great deal of 
labour, clerical and otherwise, fell to his lot. 
But he carried it all through, and the success 
which attended the conference was in great 
part due to the business qualities he displayed, 
and the large personal labour which was so 
freely given. In recognition of his work the 
branch made him a handsome presentation, 
and shortly after he was elected chairman of 
the district, a post, it may be remarked, which 
he has twice. filled. Some years ago the Insti- 
tute elected him a Fellow, which is the highest 
dignity in the journalistic hierarchy. 

Mr Eddington is, however, a many-sided, 
cultured gentleman, and has most catholic in- 
terests and tastes, and a large part of his pro- 
fessional duties has been of the critical and 
creative character. He is the art critic of the 
" News," and in this capacity has visited the 
principal English and Scottish exhibitions, and, 
in addition, has, written on art subjects in art 
journals. But his interest in and love of art 
has not been confined merely to writing on the 
subject, as he has endeavoured, with no small 
measure of success, to give expression to his 
artistic feelings both in water-colour and in 
oils. He is a great admirer of the work of the 
late Mr G. F. Watts, R.A., of the lessons 
which that great painter endeavours to convey, 
and the moral and spiritual truths which he 
.seeks to enforce in all his great picture*. The 
didafctio and ethical idea« underlying Watt's 
work Mr Eddington has admirably expressed 
in a lecture entitled "Motive in Art." 

Akin to his appreciation in art matters, is 
the interest which he has for a long time taken 
in photography. He is a first-rate amateur 
photographer, and there are few spots of note, 
and also of those not so well known to the 
seeker after places of beauty, in the Border- 
land, but he has visited and photographed. 
He has for several years been a member of 
council of the Edinburgh Photographic Society, 
and for two years he occupied the post of pre- 
sident. During his term of office the Society 
attained its highest membership, and became 
the second largest organisation of its kind in 
the kingdom. He originated a pictorial sur- 
vey of Edinburgh and district with a view of 
qoilecting a record of the Edinburgh of the 



past and preserving an authentic oflScial mem- 
orial 'of the city as it now is, with pictures in 
a permanent photographic process of the 
streets and public buildings, as well as illus- 
trating social customs and historic events. 
This survey has now attained considerable 
dimensions, and promisee to be a valuable ad- 
dition to the munerous literary records of 
Edinburgh. 

Some people have had the glamour of the 
Borders over them all their lives ; others have 
realised this in maturer years. With the later 
class the subject of our sketch may be classed. 
Not that he had not the feeling which every 
true Border-bred Scotchman has for the dis- 
trict hallowed! by romance and deeds of der- 
ring-do ; but the Borderland, its scenery and 
aesaciations, legendaoy, historical, and ro- 
mantic was not what Wordsworth calls the 
"appetite" and the "passion" which they 
have since become. He had long, and still has 
for that matter, a great admiration for High- 
land scenery, and in his earlier years his tastes 
and inclinations led him more to the wild and 
picturesque scenery which abounds in the 
Highlands, especially those places made fam- 
ous by the genius of Sir Walter Scott. I do 
not know what switched him off the Highlands 
to the Bordert^ but he now knows the Border- 
land, its history, its legends, its associations 
as few people do. With his camera as an in- 
dispensable, he has driven, cycled, or walked 
throughout the greater part of it, exploring the 
valleys of the Tweed, the Teviot, the Jed, the 
Ettrick and Yarrow, Eskdale, Liddesdale, and 
Annandale, while, of course, he is thoroughly 
at home in the highways and byways of his 
native county. Some of the results of his per- 
ambulations he has given in admirable illus- 
trated lectures, under such titles as " The 
Tweed from its Source to the Sea," " The Bor- 
derland in Song and Story," Arc. TTieee lec- 
tures have been delivered to appreciative aud- 
iences in Edinburgh and other places. For it 
is a particular trait of his character that he is 
ever ready to help op any good caiuse or do 
anything to contribute to the sum of human 
happiness or enjoyment. His public lectures 
have not, however, been confined to the Bor- 
derland, but his "repertoire" extends over a 
great variety of subjects. 

In addition to having written several local 
guides, Mr Eddington has contributed the vol- 
ume on Edinburgh and the Lothians to a 
county series. He has also devoted a 
good deal of study to the ethical and 
structural development of the novel. He 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



is one of the hon. vice-presidents of the Edin- 
burgh branch of the Dickens Fellowship, and 
is a member both of the FAlinburgh Borderers' 
Union and the Border Counties Association. 
At the dinner in Edinburgh to celebrate the 
centenary of the " False Alarm,'* Mr Edding- 
ton pix)posed the toast of " Border Literature ' ' 
in an excellent speech, which was felt to be 
quite one of the features of the evening. 

Ecclesiastically, the subject of our sketch 
belongs to the United Presbyterian branch of 
the Unitefl Free Church, and is an elder in 
North Morningside (^hurch — the Rev. Dr For- 
rest's. In church matters he takes a consid- 
erable interest, and is a member of several of 
the committees of the Church. 

Another fact may be mention^. One of his 
bye-studies is geology, and he has made him- 
self familiar with the field geology of the Lnth- 
ians and the Fife coast. 

It only remains to be said that Mr Edding- 
ton is a gentleman of liigh-toned character, 
ready at all times to advance any good object 
or cause, and is held in the highest efltecm by 
his colleagues in the profession. 

Fairshiels. 

(HE above pleafiont sounding name is the 
title of a book just published by th« 
well kno^vu firm of Oliphant, Anderson 
& Ferrier, not a few of whose publica- 
tions have been reviewed in these col- 
umns. The firm have a good name for printing 
and binding, and the present volume, which is 
pnblishe<l at 2/fi, will in no way detract from 
their reputation. The sub-title of the volume is 
" Memories of a Lammermoor Parish," which 
gives a slight indication of the contents. Not a 
few of us look upon the life of a coimtry minister, 
who has literary and floricultural tastes, as an 
ideal existence, and a perusal of the present vol- 
ume will certainly strengthen us in that opinion. 
The author, T. Ratcliffe Barnett, has an observant 
eye, a sympathetic heart, and a ready pen — a 
combination which is certain to produce a read- 
able book. But " Fairshiels " is more than read- 
able, and much of it is poetic prose of a high 
order. Were our space not so limited we would 
quote freely, but we must content ourselves with 
urging our readers to procure this delightful pen- 
picture of the simple, sweet, cleanly life of a 
little hamlet on the northern fringe of the Bor- 
derland, where the turmoil of the city has not 
penetrated, and the simple life — so much talked 
of in the present day—can be seen in all its fresh 
originality. In addition to the pen-pictures, the 
volume is enhanced by a dozen reproductions of 
photographs of the quiet village and its people. 
To read this book is like having a holiday in the 
country, and our estimate of its worth in this dir- 
ection may be seen in the fact that we have sent it 
as part of the outfit of a clerical friend who is 
off to the East to escape for a few weeks from the 
strain of a city charge. 





A Border Village and Its Auld Kirk. 

}HK village of Ikjwden, in Roxburghshire, 
is situated on the left bank of Bowdeu 
Bum, some throe miles south of Mel- 
rose, and on the southern slope of the 
triple Kildons--*'our Eildoos, one yet 
three." It is a place of great antiquity, and is 
found mentioned in old documents and charters 
ari Bothendenam, Botheldene, Bonldene, Boidene, 
Boudoun, of which the modern name is a cor- 
ruption, just as Lilliesleaf is from Lylliscliff, 
.\ncrum from Alncromb, and Ednam from Eden- 
ham. The village consiiits of a number of houses, 
extending about a quarter of a mile in length, 
most of them being comparatively modem, with a 
few neat villas with gardens in front. At the east 
end of the village ia the United Free Church, 
wliich Avas erected at the time of the Disruption 
in 1843. There are also in the village a public 
tjchool, a post-office, a handsome modem fountain, 
and a public hall, as well as an ancient market- 
cross, or, rather, the remains of one, consisting of 
the base and capital only, for the shaft has long 
8inco disappeajed. It is supposed to be as old as 
the time of Alexander— "third monarch of that 
war-like name"— or even older. As is the case, un- 
fortunately, with most of our Border villages, the 
population of Bowden has, of late years, been 
gradually diminishing, owing to the general influx 
from the country into the larger towns and the 
want of employment for the people. 
< Bowden has the honour of being the bii*th-place 
of Thomas Aird, poet and journalist, the son of 
an anti-burgher "portioner," whose family for 
generations was connected with the village. The 
house where he was born— .'\ugU'it 28, 1802— is now 
the village ])ost-ofiice, and a tablet has been affixed 
to the wall«, commemorating that event, by the 
Edinburgh Border Counties Association (1902). 
Aird acted as editor of the "Dumfries Herald" for 
Home twenty-eight years, and died at Dumfries, 
April 25, 1876, where he lies buried in St Michael's 
Churchyard, near to the grave of Robert Burns. 
He is best known as the author of "The Old Bach- 
elor in the Old Scottish Village," and of that 
wonderful and weird piece of imagination, "The 
Devil's Dream." Another poet-son of Bowden wa« 
Andi-ew Scott (1757-1837), who, in early life, served 
as a soldier during the American War of Inde- 
pendence, and afterwards settled at Bowden, acting 
as beadle in the Parish Church. He lies buried 
in the village churchyard. He was the author of 
61-veral volumes of poetry, chiefly in the Scottish 
dialect. "Symon and Janet: a Tale of the False 
Alarm," and "The Quid Farmer," are well- 
known pieces of his. James Thomson, too, was 
a native of the village, though he spent the grreater 
part of his life in Hawick. In 1870 he issued a 
volume of poetry, 'T)oric T^ays and Lyrics," which 
contains several pieces of merit. His "Star o* 
Robbie Burns," "The Border Queen." "Up wi' the 
Banner," "Oor Jock," "The Auld Smiddy End.'' 
are all deservedly popular and well-known pieces. 
The following lines from his pen, in which he 
makes kind inquiries for his "ain folk" at Bow- 
den, may, perhaps, be not out of place here: — 

"HoAv are a' the folk o' Bowden 

Beside the Eildons three? 
Are they hearty, hale, and happy. 
And as kind's they used to bef 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



25 



kre the carles still as canty. 

And the Mfies a' as crouse? 
Is ilk ane the lairdie 

O* a wee bit theekit hoose? 

Do donee anld folk the door still lock 

When sounds the aught hour's horn? 
Are there touslin' in the hay nuik, 

And kempin' in the corn? 
Do elders 'tween the preachings meet 

Besid^ the kirkyaird stile? 
Are curly pows still keekin* 

Through the stainchels 0* the aisle? 

I fain would deem an unchanged scene. 

Though changed it well may be. 
For weary years and langsome miles 

Ha'e pairted hame and me; 
And the nearest and the dearest anet* 

Will vanish from our ken. 
And empty seats and eerie blanks 

In ilka but and ben. 

Sair wad I miss ilk weel-kenn'd face. 

The couthie. kind, and free; 
I oouldna brook the stranger's look 

Where iinither ane should be. 
Oh mournfu' tale, nae friend to hail 

The wanderer's return ; 
I'll eeek them in you auid kirkyaird 

Beside the Bowden Burn." 

Sir Thomas Lauder Brunton, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 
a distinguished ornament of the medical profess- 
ion, and author of many learned works on medi- 
cal stibjects, is also a native of the village, where 
he was born in 1844. 

Bowden, as we have said, is a place of great 
antiquity, and is mentioned in a charter of David 
I. granted in favour of the monks of Kelso. The 
monks had a grange at Bowden, and their lands 
there were cultivated by their tenants of various 
ranks as serfs or villeins ("nativi"), "cottars," and 
"husbandi." (See Sir George Douglas's "History 
of Roxburghshire,'* pp. 70-73. and preface to the 
"Liber de Calchou"). They had also a mill and 
four brewing houses, where they, no doubt, made 
"guid ale" for the monks of Kelso, who were pi-o- 
bably like their brothers at Melrose, of whom it 
is recorded :-- 

"The monks of Melrose madp guid kail 
On Fridays when they fasted; 
Nor wanted they guid beef and ale, 
As lang's their neighbours' lasted." 

The chief 'interest of Bowden, however, centres in 
its old Parish Church and churchjard. where "the 
rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep." 

"The old kirk by the Bowden Burn 

Stands hoary, ivy-clad. 
Enshrined in a necropolis 
Of generations fled." 

The church belonged to the monks of Kelso Abbey 
down to the Reformation, and is a most interest- 
ing old building. The crypt of the chancel, which 
18 not used as part of the church, has served, for 
centuries, as the burinl-plai^e of the Dnkes of 
Roxburghe. Here some 22 Kero of the Roxburghc 
line have been laid to rest. On each side of the 
pulpit are two beautiful stained glass windows, the 
one "in memory of Vice-Admiral Rid dell Carre of 
Cavers/' and the other "in memory of Elizabeth 



Rid dell Maclachlan wife of Walter Riddell Carre 
of Cavers," the author of "Border Memories," the 
north transept of the church being the burial-place 
of' the Xers of Cavers. Among those who have 
served the church was a descendant of John Knox, 
and his tombstone, built into the back wall of the 
church, bears the following inscription: — "Hear 
lyes Master James Knix,* minister of Bowden, who 
departed this lyfe upon the 24th of August, 1680." 
It will l-e i^membered that the second wife of the 
great Reformer, Margaret Stewart, daughter of 
the second Lord Ochiltree, inarried, after her 
husband's death, the son of Sir Andrew Ker of 
Fawdonside, and this connection may have obtain- 
ed for Knox'the apix)intment at Bowden. Another 
descendant was the second minister of Melrose 
after the Reformation, The old churchyard, where 
'heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap," is 
of t'onsiderable extent, and contains some interest- 
ing old tombstones. It is a quiet spot, shaded by 
TimbrageoUN trees, where one, as he gaze« on the 
tombstones and the ivy-clad, weather-stained walls 
of the old church, which, it may be, for the last 
800 ypars "hath kept watch o'er man's mortality," 
n^ay profitably .spend an hour m meditation en the 
changes and chances "which fleeting time pro- 
cureth." 

"Hark how the f^acred calm that breathes around 

Bids every fierce tumultuous passion cease; 
In still, small accents whisp'ring from the ground 
A grateful earnest of eternal peace." 

.At present there is a movement on foot for the 
restoration of this old and interesting church, of 
which the Rev. Mr Burr is minister, being the 
fourteenth in succession since the Reformation. 
Regarding this a correspondent recently wrote in 
the "Scotsman" a.s follows: — 

"There are few churches in Scotland Avhich have 
the honour of having been continuously used for 
religious services for close on 800 years, but the 
Parish Cliurch of Bowden can claim that distinc- 
:ion, and now efforts are being made to i^estore 
the building and pres-erve this notable historic 
monument for future generations. If only for the 
fact that beneath or near the church lie the re- 
mains of some of the most notable of old Border 
warriors, the church merits the keen interest of 
the Borderer or student of history. About 1644 
the crypt of the chancel was appropriated by the 
Roxburghe family for burial purposes, and in the 
vault beneath the church stand the cofiins, some 
of them having been placed there over 300 years 
ago. An aisle at the back of the church contains 
the ashes of the family of Minto. and in the north 
transept is the burying-place of the Kers of Cav- 



* This .Tames Knox appears to have lieen the 
great-great-grandnephew of the Reformer, Avhile 
the Melrose minister, .Tohn Knox, was probablv 
his grand-nephew. He dietl in 1623, and was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas Forrester, who appears to have 
been of Episcopalian tendencies and to have been 
deposed by the Glasgow Assembly of 1638. He was 
somewhat eccentric, and is said to have prayed in 
his litany to be delivered " from all the knock- 
down race of Knoxes." There Avas also a John 
Knox of Bowden (ordained in 1621, died 1659), who 
was probably a son of the Melrose minister. Ac- 
cording to Prof. Hume Brown, , " as far as has 
been ascertained, no lineal descendant of Knox 
exists." ("Life of Knox," vol. ii. 289). 



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ere. In the gallery, aho, facing the pulpit, 10 a 
perfect specimen of the "Laird's Loft/' It dates 
from 1661, and belongs to the Carres of Cavers 
Carre. The chancel, which is not included in the 
present church, is a fifteenth century addition, its 
builder having been the Abbot of Kelso, who was 
a member of the Cavers Carre house. An interest- 
ing reminder of the time when the building was 
used for the Raman Catholic form of worehip can 
be seen in th« remains of the high altar. Bowden 
was erected into a regality in 13^, and the barony 
remained in the hands of the monks of Kelso, 
who had removed from Selkirk, till the Reforma- 
tion, when it passed into the possession of the 
family of Ceesford. The monks had at that time 
86 cottages in town, with land for each cottage, and 
the annual rental ttus 55s 8d, with nine days' work 
in harvest and the providing of a man for wash- 
ing and shearing sheep. Every house had also to 
furnish the Abbot with a hen at Christmas for a 
half-penny. There were four brew-houses, and 
each of these had to sell the Abbot a lagan and a 
half of ale for one penny. As a lagan was equal 
to 7 quarts, it can be imagined that the Abbot got 
his poultry and his ale p.heaply enough. At the 
end of the 13th century there were 70 families in 
Bowden, so the population then would probably 
be about 400. In 1273 ihe monks of Melx*ose and 
Kelso met in the church to settle a dispute about 
the tithes of Moil, on the Bowmout, but since 1568 
tlie building ha« been in the possession of the 
Protestants. At the latter date there was inducted 
the first Protestant pastor, and altogether there 
have been fourteen ministers in charge, the pre- 
sent minister, the Rev. John Burr, having been 
inducted in 1899. Another minister of the charge, 
whose name figures prominently in the ecclesiasti- 
cal history of the Borderland, was the Rev. James 
Hume, whose enforced sett.'^nent as parish min- 
ister in 1741 caused the secession to Midlem, or 
Midholm, and the strengthen in.:; of the Secession 
movement in the south of Scutlnnd. The Rev. Mr 
Burr, who is a son of the Rev. Dr Burr of Lundie 
and Fowlis, is now busy with i»lanii for raising the 
necessary funds. The sum required will be large, 
and it is expected that a chancel will be added, but 
the building is of such historic interest that it is 
to be hoped no great difficulty will be ciperienced 
in securing the requisite amount." 

A Okahau. 
[A sketch of Sir Thomas Bruaton, with portrait, 
^vas given in the "B. M." for Mnr^h, 1902. A sketch 
of Aird, with portrait, and an account of the Cen- 
tenary Celebrations, with other articles, appeared 
in the "B. M." for August and September. 1902.— 
Ed., "B. M/T 




The Iron Kirk of Edinburgh. * 

fHERE are good grounds for holding 
that the present Tron Kirk of Edin- 
burgh is the representative of the 
original kirk of St Giles, and this 
means a lineage more ancient, perhaps, than 
the municipality itself. An English chronicler, 

• The Tron Kirk of Edinburgh, or Christ's Kirk 
at the Tron: A History by the Rev. D. Butler, 
M.A., minister of the Tron Parish, Edinburgh. 
Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier, Edinburgh and 
London. 1906. 



Symeon of Durham, includes Edinburgh in a 
list of ninth century churches belonging to the 
bishopric of Lindeafarne in the district of 
Northumbria, and though this has been some- 
times regarded as applying to St Cuthbert's 
church, Dr David Laing gives reasons for be- 
lieving that Symeon referred to the church of 
the " castle and town." As for the "town " 
of that day it probably embraced only a few 
scattered dwellings at the base of Edwines 
" burch " or castle, and what developed into 
the principal street of a noble city would then 
be no more than the beaten track by which the 
'* burch " was reached. Giles or Egidius was 
a seventh century saint, who migrated from 
ancient Athens to a forest in France, where he 
founded a monastery, and, from an incident in 
his career, he became the patron saint of crip- 
ples. Religious houses dedicated to his mem- 
ory such as that in the Cripplegate of London, 
were placed in leading thoroughfares on the 
outskirts of towns with accommodation for the 
relief of disabled wayfarers, and there is no- 
thing improbable in the supposition that the 
church of St Giles in Edinburgh originated in 
this way. At a later period, by which time 
the Lothians had been incorporated with the 
Scottish kingdom, the parish church of St 
Giles in Edinburgh is frequently noticed in his- 
torical docmnents. Adopted by the city as its 
patron, St Giles was depicted on its seal, and 
it was a great day in Edinburgh when a neigh- 
bouring laird returned from France and pro- 
duced " the arine bane of Sant Gele," which he 
had secured by diligent labour and at much 
expense, **tlie quhilk bane he frely left to oure 
mother kirk of Sant Gele of Edinburgh." The 
precious relic, encased in silver, was carefully 
preserved till the Reformation, when it wa's 
sold, and at that time the citizens had nothing 
but a series of acts of contumely to inflict upon 
their former guardian. A wooden figure of St 
Giles, which formed a conspicuous object in an 
annual procession, was stolen in 1558, 
" drowned in the North Loch," and afterwards 
burnt ; a substituted image was destroyed by a 
mob ; ajid in 1562 the magistrates ordered his 
portrait to be cut out of the town's standard 
and " the thrissill " to be put in its place. 
But the hind which, according to legend, nur- 
tured the forest recluse, is still represented in 
one of the* supporters on the city's arms. 

The church of St Giles, made collegiate in 
1466, had been enlarged from time to time, 
and was served by several canons, but only a 
small portion of thd extensive building was re- 
quired as a place of worship under the re- 



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formed system. The space at disposal, after 
allowing for churches, was sufficient to provide 
a tolbooth, school, and town-clerk's chamber. 
Knox was at first the only minister, but a col- 
league, John Oaig, was appointed in 1562, 
and subsequently the number of ministers wag 
increased. In 1598 the city was divided into 
four parishes, and to the district correspond- 
ing to the future Tron parish was assigned tlie 
division of the church of St Giles called the 
"Great Kirk" where Knox had preached. 
Thirty-five years afterwards Edinburgh was 
erected into a bishopric, the space which had 
been formerly occupied by two chiuxihee was, 
by the costing down of a partition wall, con- 
verted into one for the bishop, and the building 
of a new church on a site adjoining the "tron" 
or weighing- place was begun in 1637 and fin- 
ished in 1663. The Tron Kirk thus erected 
was built irom designs by a famous architect, 
John Mylne, the King^s master mason of Scot- 
land. It was reduced in size and somewhat 
altered in architectural appearance in conse- 
quence of the street changes following on the 
formation of the South Bridge in 1785, and a 
new spire, to replax^e the fonner one destroyed 
by fire, was ei'ected in 1827. 

The Tron Parish included the densely-popu- 
lated part- of the old High Street and Cowgate. 
On this subject Mr Butler remarks : — 

" The city inc-reasetl by utilising the passtiges in 
wynds and cIos(*h, by building on open warden 
grounds or by adding flat to flat until even fifteen 
storeys rose erect from the ground. The crowd- 
ing of all classes together within such a limited 
area sustained simplicity, neighbourliness, and 
kindly feeling, not fostered by present conditions, 
and an example of the social life of the time 
may be taken from the old tenement that towered 
upwards from the Cowgate on the site of the 
former prebendal manses. The building here of 
1665 sheltered the Lord President and most of 
the lords of session, with many good and great 
families; my Lady Hartfield, Napier of Merchis- 
ton, and Lord Mersington. Up the same stair 
were the residences of Sir James Mackenzie, Sir 
Patrick Aikenhead, Lady Harvieston, and Lady 
Colston, with bailies, merchants, and humbler 
citisens. We can still review the domestic ar- 
rangements of some of the select occupants of 
this fashionable rookery. Sir George Campbell of 
Cessnock, ancestor of the Earls of Marchmont, 
occupied a lodging on the fourth storey above the 
close, ' consisting of seven fire-rooms and a closet 
with ane fire,' at a yearly rent of 550 merks Scots 
(jeSO sterling). Above him was Sir William Bin- 
ning of Wallyford, in the fifth storey, with equal 
accommodation at a somewhat lower rental. Lord 
Mersington's lodging was also on the fifth floor, 
and included eight fire-rooms and a cellar, at the 
rent of .£200 Scots; and so . . . from the 
plebeian renters of garrets and 'laigh houses 
beneath the ground,' at an annuLl rate of .£12 
Scots {£\. sterling), to my Lord Crossrig, who 



pays JBSOO Scots for his flats and share t)f the 
common stair." 

The "chronicle" of the Kirk from 1637 to 1822, 
occupying 120 printed pages, contains the 
namee of prominent seat-holders, including 
members of the nobility, statesmen, lords of 
session, college professors, and other eminent 
citizens. George Buchanan lived for a short 
time in the parish and died there. There, also, 
David Hume was bom. Goldsmith lodged, and 
Sir Walter Scott, whose mother and grand- 
mother wefie members of the Tron Eirk, passed 
his earliest days. In his "Memorials" Lord 
Cockbum recalls an incident connected with the 
burning of the church spire in 1824. Gowned 
and wigged, he and other advocates had rushed 
from, the court aiud ascended the tower of St 
Giles to witness the conflagration. When it 
was all over and they were "about to return, 
Soott, who was one of the group, lingered a 
moment and said, with a profound heave, ''Eh, 
sirs, mony a weary, weary sermon ha'e I heard 
beneath that steeple." 

Towards the end ol Uie eighteenth century, 
when the more prosperous of the inliabitants 
migrated to the New Town and a crowded popu- 
lation of the poorer sort occupied their place, 
the ministers and Kirk Session cheerfully tack- 
led the changed circumstances and manifested 
their interest in the welfare of the parishioners. 
A school for the benefit of poor children was 
opened as early as 1778, and continuous efforts, 
perhaps with fluctuating degrees of energy, 
nave since been put forward for meeting both 
the spiritual ajid bodily wants of the needy. 
Dr MacGregor, now senior minister of St Cuth- 
bert's, gives an interesting account of parochial 
supervision and philanthropic exertion during 
his incumbency of the Tron, and Mr Butler, 
without entering upon particulars, vouches that 
"the duties, which ever press for service, arouse 
at once the Christian devotion and courage of 
the present earnest congregation and the noble 
band of workers whom it sustains and in- 
spires." 

Apart from the ecclesiastical interest attach- 
ing to this volume, a haiidsome quarto of about 
400 pages, beautifully illustrated with numer- 
ous views, portraits, and maps, there is much 
information of a more' general nature. The 
published records, edited by Sir Jamies Mar- 
wick, to whom the book is dedicated, have 
yielded valuable selections, and these are sup- 
plemented by extracts from the MS. Council 
registers and city's accounts, supplied by the 
town-clerk and city chamberlain. Evidently 
both time and money have been freely expend- 
ed upon the production of the work, which is, 



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in every respect, ib wwlhy addition to the auth- 
or's other litei'ar}' output, and, at the same 
time, a substantial contribution to Edinburjrh 
liistory. R. R. 




William Laidlaw 

(Author of •• Lucy's Flittin' "). 

Part VIII. 

By (iEoRCK Watson. 

|MONGST the many changes at Abbots- 
ford following the death of Sir 
Walter was the removal -for the 
secood time — of Jjaidlaw from Kae- 
side. We find him next as factor of the 
Ross-shire property of Mrs Stewai*t Mackenzie 
of Seaforth.* He aftenvards acte<l in the same 
capacity for the estate of Sir Charles Lockhart 
Ross of Balnagowan, also in Ross-shire. A 
letter from Lockhart to Laidlaw, dated Lon- 
don, 19th January, 1837, has too much interest 
to be passed over. In it Liockhail refers to 
the publication of his '* Life of Scott," and 
states that he will instruct Cadell the pub- 
lisher to forward the volumes to Laidlaw as 
they are published. After acknowledging re- 
ceipt of some game sent by Laidlaw, liockhart 
writes : — 

*' The account you give of voiir situation at pre- 
sent is, considering how the worUl wags, not un- 
satisfactory. Would it were possible to find my- 
self placed in something of a similar locality, and 
with the means of enjoying the country by day 
and my books at night, without the necessity of 
dividing most of ray time between the labours of 
the desk— mere drudge-labours mostly — and the 
harrassing turmoil of worldly society, for which I 
never had much, and nowadays have rarely indeetl 
any, relish ! . . . Your letters of the closing 
period [of Scott's life] I wish you would send to 
me; and of these I am sure some use. and some 
good use, may be made, as of those addressed to 



* When factor of these lands William Laidlaw 
lived in the beautifully situated Brnhan Castle, 
in the parish of Urray. When T. T. Stoddart was 
up in Ross-shire, he ventured one day to fish in 
the Kaasay water, but wim warned by a tall ancl 
pleasant-looking man with a Border accent that 
that part of the river was preserved. The admoni- 
tor proved to be James, the brother of William 
Laidlaw, and this incident led to an introduc- 
tion of the angler to the latter. " Some notes 
from Mr Laidlaw." writes Miss Stoddart, *' show 
that through his kindly offices my father secured 
introductions to such local anglers as were versed 
in the fishing lore of the district. He dined and 
breakfasted on several occasions at Brahan Castle, 
and had much interesting talk with Mr Laidlaw, 
whom he always remembered with special re- 
gard.'* 



myself at the same time, which all, however mel- 
ancholy to compare with those of the better day, 
have traces of the man. Out of these confused 
and painful scraps I think I can contrive to put 
together a picture that will be highly touching of 
a great mind shattered, but never degraded, and 
jdways to the last noble, as his heart continued 
pure and warm as long as it could beat.—^Ever 
affectionately yours, J. G. Lockhart." 

It was early in 1842, apparently, that Laid- 
law became slightly paralytical. ^Yriting to 
Laidlaw from London on .'iOth April of that 
year, Lockhart thanks him for taking care to 
warn him in his own handwriting of the attack, 
which shows ** that neithei- mind nor the nobler 
functions of the body have suffered." . After 
bidding Laidlaw be of good cheer, he rociuests 
him to jjive his love to " Mrs Laidlaw and the 
voune: ladies." 






TO.MB OK WILIJAM LAIDLAW. 

From another letter written by Tx)ckhai't to 
Laidlaw, and datt^d 25th May, 1813, the "Ab- 
botsford Notanda" gives an exti*act dealing 
with Major Sw>tt in India. 

It was about this time, as before said, th^t 
F^aidlaw wrote his * Recollections of Sir Walter 
Scott." In August, 1844, he was unfortunate- 
ly struck down by paralysis, ajid accordingly 
retired to the farm-house of his brother James 
(who wiu* a sheejrvfanner), at Contin, where he 
died nine months afterwards. In the church- 
yard of Contin the renuuns of this <lear friend 
of the great novelist weie interred, far from 
his Border home, but ajuid similar scenery. 
The retired churchyard is under tlie shade 
of mighty Tor-Achilitv, one of the loftiest and 



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grandest of the Koss-Bhire hills. To his iiie<in- 
oiy a tomb, with ai marble tablet, wag erected 
hj Sir Greorge S. Mackenzie of Coul, Bart., the 
lord of the manor. Many years afterwards 
Laidlaw's wife was interred in the same place. 
Upon th« marble tablet is the fallowing in- 
scription: — 

" Hbbe lie the remains of Wxlluk Laidlaw» born 
at Blackhouse, in Yarrow, November 1780, died at 
Contin, May 18, 1845 ; and his wife Janbt Ballantyne, 
who died at Contin, 15th July, 1861." 

The character of Laidlaw, delightful in all 
respects, will have been sufficiently evident in 
this sketch of his career. Yet a few further 
references thereanent may not be tedious. 
Speaking of the time when Laidlaw first made 
the acquaintance of Scott, Lockhart says: — 

*• He was then a very youug man, but the extent 
of his acquirements was already as noticeable as 
the vigour and originality of his mind; and their 
correspondence where ' Sir ' passes, at a tew 
bounds, through 'Dear Sir,' and 'Dear Mr Laid- 
law,' to 'Dear Willie,' shews how speedily this 
new acquaintance had warmed into a very tender 
affection. Laidlaw's zeal about the ballads was 
repaid by Scott's anxious endeavours to get him 
removed from a sphere for which, he writes, ' it 
is no flattery to say that you are much too good.' 
It was then, and always continued to be, his 
opiAion, that his friend was particularly qualified 
for entering with advantage on the study of the 
medical profession; but such designs, if Laidlaw 
himself ever took them up seriously, were net 
ultimately persevered in : and I ((uestion whether 
any worldly success coul. I. after all, have over- 
halanced the retrospect of an honourable life 
spent happily in the open air of nature, amidst 
scenes the most captivating to the eye of genius, 
and in the intimate confidence of, perhaps, the 
greatest of contemporary minds." 

Not only was Laidlaw a man of letters, he 
was also, says Dr Rogers, "an amateur physic- 
ian, a student in botajiy and entomology, and a 
considerable ireologist." In stature, according 
to the same authority, he "was Momewiiat under 
the middle height, but was well formed and 
slightly athletic, and his fresh -coloured com- 
plexion beamed a generous benignity.'^ 

It will have been seen, during tlie course of 
these articles, tliat Laidlaw was sometimeft the 
victim of ill-health. It actually seems, from 
what we leani in Hogg's "Domestic Manners," 
that this was a clii*onic complaint with him. 
At one time Sir Walter Scott recommended him 
as factor to Lord Mansfield : but after consider- 
ation Scott had to withdraw Laidlaw' a name, 
in consequence of the precarious state of his 
health. 

It was in the sunshine of such a life as that 
of Scott that Laidlnw's shone in all its fulness, 



and it doubtless would have shown more brill- 
iantly had it not been for his extreme mod- 
esty, proof of which has already been adduced. 
Even had he never met Scott, however, his name 
would have been entitled to a prominent place 
among the ballad -writers of our count i-y, if only 
for having written the admir.ible gem, "Lucy's 
Flittin'." Vigour and originality of mind were 
conspicuously his, and so greatly was Laidlaw 
naturally endoweil with luetic talent, that he 
only required to cultivate it to have won for 
himself a much higher place among the poets 
of Scotland. It is therefors to be regretted 
that he did fiot stir hinisielf to greater exertions. 
But a* an acxiuaintance of his sivys, "he was 
content to admire the genius of others, rather 
than display his own." In addition to the 
well-known lyric already mentioned, he wrote 
the meritoriouR ballads entitled "Alake 
for the Lassie," and "Her Bonnie Black E'e.'* 
Laidlaw wrote also the article "Selkirkshire" 
for Brewster s "Edinburgh Encyclopaedia^" and 
(according to Dr Russell) "Tlie Statistical Ac- 
count of the Parish of Innerleithen" came from 
his pen. The Rev. Mr l^rhuid ("Yarraw : its 
Poets and Poetr}^") states tliat 'lie also wrote 
on Scottish Superstitions' to the 'Edinburgh 
Magazine,' contributed several articles to the 
'EncyclopSBdia,' and was the author of a geo- 
logical description of his native county." Laid- 
law also sent many valuable contributions to 
agricultural and literary journals. He mijrht 
have made his name more widely known had 
he complied with a request that he should write 
a work dealing with the table-talk and the inner 
life of his revered master : but he indignantly 
repudiated the suggestion, deeming this too 
.sacred a theme to be written up and laid before 
a curious public. This spe^aks highly for his 
sense of honour ; but we believe, notwithstand- 
ing that it has been said that Laidlaw had 
not the qualifications of a Boswell, that he 
would have bequeathed to succeeding genera- 
tions much valuable information regarding the 
preat novelist. 

In the review of such a life as this one feels 
a natural pride in ranking him aiiiong Border- 
ers of pre-eminence. His muse was pensive, 
he sung in the minor key : but tliat is not sur- 
prising in one who was brought up in Yarrow, 
whose poetry is so characteristically touching 
and plaintive — features that are prominent in 
Laidlaw's masterpiece " Lucy's Flittin'." And 
so long as the name of Sir Walter Scott is 
reverenced, so long will honour be given to his 
friend, amanuensis, and adviser William 
Laidlaw. 



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30 THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS, TO ADVERTISERS. 

Allc(mmuni€ationa relating to Literary maUera should All Buwiuu matiers, Advertiiing Rates, <fcc., sfunUd 

be addressed to the Editor, Mr William Sakdebson, be referred to the Publishers, A. Walksb & Son, 

1 Oxford Dnve, Glasgow. High Street, Galashiels 

THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



FEBRUARY, 1907. 

LIST OF CONTENTS. 



PAGB 



Mb Alixan'dkb Eddinoton, J.L, Edinbuiwh. Porti-ait Supplement. Oiie Illustration. By "A Man 

OF THE MEBSE." 21 

Review: Faibshiels. 24 

The Tron Kirk of Edixbuiujh. By R. R. 28 

William Laidl.\w. Part VIII. By George Watson. One Illustration. • - ^ - - - 28 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson. ' - - - 30 

SiB Walter Soott at Hallyard. By D. Brown Anderson. 32 

PoETBY : Home Again. By A. E. M. 33 

Border Decorators. Two DlustrationH. 34 

A Winter Walk on the Pkntlands. Bv R. C. 35 

In THE BOBDER COUSTRY. - . ." ^ .... 36 

Social Life in Scotland in the Eighteenth Cbntuhy. 37 

Dookin' in Tweed. Bv A. L. A. Sudden. 37 

A Border Literary CThronicle. Part VIII. 39 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 

The nunil)er of Border Unions and Assueiations is steadily increasing, and we heartily rejoice at this 
welcome sign of healthy Border Brotherhood, l)ut \i^y should there Iw no federation of these separate societies ?^ 
Union is strength, and we once more offer some of cmr space to the various secretaries who do so 43uich for our 
common kinship. Why should the B.M. not become the official organ of these associations ? Boixierers abixiad 
liighly appreciate our magazine, and we again urge upon our reatlers to send copies to far awa' freen's. Their 
pel usal of our pages will open tlie floodgates of memory and keep them leal to the Border. 

The Border Keep, 

Every true patriot is proud of his country, and ' nation * we should turn to Scotland. Her nat- 

it is one of the outstanding features in the char- ionality is no abstraction, but a tingling reality; 

acter of the Borderer that he glories in the past a living organism, and not a mere legend of the 

of his beloved Borderland, and cherishes an un- poets. She has all the stern virtues of a nation 

dying fondness for its soft vales, purple tinted and all the fantastic punctilios. The love and 

hills, and clear flowing streams. But the Borderer fidelity of her children scattered in the four cor- 

is not parochial, and his love extends from Scott neis of the world, are proofs which stand fast 

Land to the wider Scotland which owes so much against the scorner. Her valour, her arrogance, 

to the hero of Abbotsford. In a powerful book on her belief in her own destiny, have not been 

American Union, entitled " Alexander Hamilton.'' quenched by the free citiaenship of a wider em- 

and published bv Messrs Archibald Constable & Pi'e. Her traditions have suffered no wound or 

Co., I find the following pithy paragraph, which is injury in a loyal co-operation. Uith the example 

a complete answer to* those^ short-sighted indivi- of Scotland before us it is wise to have confidence, 

duals who cannot reconcile the two ideals of Em- The meaning of Empire to a free people is not a 

pire and separate nationality, and are ever fearing stunting and overshadowing growth, but a proud 

that any encouragement of national feeling will ""d willing subordination. Its aim is the security 

lead to Imperial disaster. As a rule, such fearful of a great inheritance, and while it will augment 

ones have no objection to the encouragement of ^^^ resources and the power of every member of 

•* English " nationalitv. The author of the above the Union, it will also touch each separate State 

mentioned volume, Mr Frederick Scott Oliver, and private citizen with a firmer courage and a 

says :—" Scotland retains, as England also retains, ^^er dignity." 
every characteristic of a proud and self-reliant ♦ » » 

nation. The national life of Scotland is the The teaching of Scottish History is being 

growth of a thousand years. For more than ten brotight very prominently before the educational 

centuries Scots kings have ruled and Scots pride authorities at present, and not a moment too 

has remained unbroken. If we were in search of soon. In one of the histories used in some of our 

u type to illustrate the meaning of the word schools, in 235 pages there are G58 errors in the 

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use of the national names, England and English 
b«ing substituted for the legal terms Britain and 
British. The Convention of Koyal Burghs did a 
noble piece of work when it drew attention to 
this mean method of trying to obliterate Scotland 
from British history, and it is pleasing to note 
in this bi-centenary year of the Union of the two 
Parliaments that there is every chance of the 
errors being rectified. 

• * • 

Not to mention the wider issues, fancy, our 
schoolboys and girls growing up ignorant, so far 
as their school books are ooncerned, of the im- 
portant part played by the Borderland (the Buffer 
State) in the history of the two nations. To 
quote the Convention's manifesto on the subject: 
— "Even when a proper title, such- as 'British 
History,' is given to a book professing to give the 
history of Scotland as well as England, Scotland, 
in the case of the books objected to, receives 
neither fair nor adequate treatment. It is looked 
at from a purely English standpoint; its history 
is dealt with in a casual and fragmentary way; 
and is referred to mainly where, and mainly be- 
cause — as with the War of Independence— it af- 
fected the contemporary history of England. Great 
events in Scotland's history, such as the Reforma- 
tion and the Covenanting struggle— events of 
world-wide influence — are, if not ignored, touched 
upon in a perfunctory and biassed manner. The 
' making of England ' bulks everywhere ; the mak- 
ing of Scotland nowhere. The history that at- 
tracted the attention and won the admiration of 
the world is shorn of its greatness and dignity ; its 
honours, by being described as ''English,' are 
taken from Scotland to add to the glory of an- 
other country to which they do not belong; and 
Scotland's history, thus Lelittled, is made to ap- 
pear as a mere series of episodes in the history 
of England. Thus, ' through many of the books 
from which our young people should be learning 
the history of their country, they are receiving 
defective and inaccurate views of it; and are be- 
ing thus deprived of the inspiration and power 
that a true history of Scotland is fitted to give, 
and that did so much to make the Scottish people 
what they are." All this means no ill-feeling to- 
wards the sister kingdom, but simply a demand 
for fairness and honesty. 

» » » 

Onoe indispensable to all sections of the com- 
munity, the old-fashioned quill pen seems to be 
completely ousted from popular favour. The selec- 
tion of a suitable quill or its subsequent trans- 
formation into a pen called for an amount of leis- 
ure incompatible with the age of the type-writer. 
Of the change that this implies I was reminded by 
a recent visit to Springwood Park, the residence 
of Sir George Douglas. Among other curios, the 
literary baronet possesses several quill -peiye, that 
were once used by Lady John Scott, the authoress 
of the popular version of "Annie Laurie." Up to 
1900, the year of her death, this venerable lady 
continued to write with the instrument that had 
been familiar to her during her youthful days. 
Lady John's devotion to the past also found ex- 
pression in strenuous efforts to resuscitate many 
time-honoured usages and customs. It may be 
added that a family- ooach reminiscent of the days 
of postillions and outriders was among her Lady- 
ship's most ti-easui'ed possesions. 



A correspondent of "Notes and Queries" points 
out a curious ooincidence which (in a fashion) 
links Scott and Dickens— "St Bonan's Well" and 
"Pickwick." In the former novel Mr Peregrine 
S. Touchwood makes play with his initials: — "I 
use Sit present P. S. Touchwood. I had an old 
acquaintance in the city who loved his jest— he 
alwuys called me Postscript Touchwood." This, 
of course, reminds one of Mr Peter Magnus, who 
addressed Mr Pickwick in similar vein. "Curious 
circumstance about those initials, sir." "Curious 
observer— P.M.— post meridian. In hasty notes to 
intimate acquaintance, I sometimes sign myself 
'Afternoon.' It amuses my friends very much, Mr 
Pickwick." 

« * * 

In the "Sootsman" of September ytn, 1906, 
appeared the following most interesting para- 
giuph : — 

This week Mr Cornelius Lundie, on a tour 
through the Border district, has paid a visit to his 
native burgh, Kelso. Mr Lundie is in his 92nd 
year, and is wonderfully hale and hearty, with 
all his faculties well preserved. Mr Lundie is a 
son of the manse; his grandfather, Cornelius, 
was minister of the parish of Kelso for half a 
century, and, after a short interval, the son suc- 
ceeded, being minister for a quarter of a century. 
What Mr Lundie treasures most in his memory 
is the fact that he has the unique distinction 
amongst the living of having seen and conversed 
with Sir Walter Scott. His father was on inti- 
mate terms with the Ballantynes, as also with Sir 
Walter, who often visited Kelso Manse, and he 
remembers on one occasion of accompanying his 
father and Mr James Ballantyne to Abbotsford, 
where they were cordially welcomed by Sir Wal- 
ter, and afterwards served with lunch. He was a 
boy of ten or twelve at the time, and his father 
drove his horse, " Marmion," in a phaeton. Mr 
Lundie, when in Edinburgh the other day, met 
Miss Thomson, daughter of a former minister of 
Maxton. He happened to relate his Sir Walter 
reminiscence, and Miss Thomson followed with a 
hitherto unknown anecdote of her father. Sir 
Walter was of a party invited to dinner at some 
house on the Mertoun side of the Tweed, and Mr 
Thomson was also to be of the party. A storm 
broke, however, and the river came down in heavy 
flood, rendering the fords impassable. Not to dis- 
appoint his host, however, Mr Thomson travelled 
through St Boswells and across Mertoun Bridge, 
arriving very late. Sir Walter gave him a kindly 
greeting, and said, jokingly, that he had almost 
made up his mind that to him would fall the 
duty of writing an obituary notice of the minister 
of Maxton, drowned in the Tweed. " Then," 
promptly replied the minister, "I would have 
been immortalised." Through his mother Mr 
Lundie traces connection with two well-known Bor- 
der families— the Greys of Milfield, and the Boyds 
of Cherrytrees— and he is the last survivor of his 
family. His elder brother "came out" at the 
Disruption, and went to Liverpool, where his name 
was greatly honoured. His elder sister was well 
known in the literary world as Mrs Mary LUndie 
Duncan, and the younger one became the wife of 
Dr Horatius Bonar. Mr Lundie is now resident 
in Cardiff, and he only retired from active duty 
about a year ago. 

DoMiNiB Sampson, 



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Sir Walter Scott at Hallyards. 

• hough it is recorded by Lockhart, 
and corroborated by Robert Cham- 
bers and by George Gilfillan that 
Sir Walter, more than a century 
ago, visited Manor Water and was the guest of 
Professor Adam Fergusson, at Hallyards, yet, 
unfortunately, no details of that visit, save the 
one very remarkable one of his wonderful in- 
terview with David Ritchie, the Woodhouse 
recluse (who became the original of the 
*• Black Dwarf "), have been given. Now, the 
public in general, and more particularly those 
familiar with the Vale of Manor, would have 
greatly prized any such particulars had they 
been forthcoming, and had the biographers of 
Scott known of any occurrences beyond the 
great novelist's interview with David Ritchie 
— which has been so freqiiently narrated as to 
be well known — they would doubtless have 
given them to us ; in the absence of such re- 
coixl, we are left to conjecture the impressions 
made on Scott's mind by his vision of Manor 
in that memorable montli of July, 1797, mem- 
orable to him in particular, for he had just be- 
come engaged to be marrieil. In a letter to 
his relative, Miss Christian Rutherford, Sir 
Walter tells the story : " I am in a very fair 
way of being maiTied to a very amiable young 
woman with whom I formed an attachment in 
the course of my tour. She was bom in 
France ; her parents were of English extrac- 
tion, the name Carpenter. . She was left an 
orphan early iihlife, and educated in England, 
and is at present under the care of a Miss 
Nicolson, a daughter of the late Dean of 
Exeter, who was on a visit to her relations in 
C'mnberland. Miss Carpenter is of age, but 
as siie lies under great obligations to the Mai- 
quis of Downshire, who was her guardian, she 
cannot take a step of such importance without 
his consent — and I daily expect his final an- 
swer upon the subject. Her fortune is de- 
))endent, in a great measure, upon an only and 
very affectionate brother. He is coiinnercial 
resident at Salen in India, and has settle<l upon 
her an annuity of £600. Of her personal ac- 
complishments T shall only say that she pos- 
sesses very good sense, with uncommon good 
temper, which I have seen put to most severe 
trials." 

To be practical, this income of the lady 
would bo of no small importance to Scott at 
such a juncture of his life, for at that time, 
his fifth year at the Bar, he was earning some- 
thing short of £150 a year! and hence, given 



the lady's amiable qualities and her good 
tocher, we may be sure that Scott, when set 
free for this joyful summer holiday on the 
rising of the Court in July, 1797, was in the 
highest spirits. It is probable that he tra- 
velled direc't fix>m Edinbui^h, because Lock- 
hart says that, accompanied by his brother 
John and Adam Fergusson, Scott set out on a 
tour to the English lakes. " Their first stage 
was Hallyards, in Tweeddale, then inhabited 
by his friend's father, the philosopher and 
historian ; and they staid there for a day or 
two, in the course of which Scott had his first 
and only interview with David Ritchie, the 
original of the ' Black Dwarf.' " 

In the stirring life of Sir Walter, the«e few 
days were of comparatively little consequence, 
and, moreover, the Vale was so quiet and un- 
peopled, that Fergusson woulil have been some- 
what at a loss for men to introduce to his dis- 
tinguished guest ; consequently he fell back on 
this dwarf, a recluse, a misanthrope, but, with- 
al, exactly the man for Scott's genius to found 
a romance upon I and it is no disparagement 
to say that the novel of the " Black Dwarf,*' 
taking rank as it does only in the second de- 
gree of the Waverley Novels, is still a work 
of considerable interest coming from the hands 
of the greatest writer of fiction of the eigh- 
teenth century. It is generally recognised 
that Scott, taking David Ritchie and his cot- 
tage — close to the farmhouse of Woodhouse, 
and both still existing, thoiigh there have been 
material additions made to both since the year 
1797 — made this recluse and his small hut the 
basis of his novel, but that he afterwards 
transferred the scene to another part of Scot- 
land, and introduced fresh local characters into 
his novel ; and it is abundantly authenticateil 
that David Ritciiie's personal appearance and 
characteristics, gigantic strength (small man 
as he was), together with all the salient points 
of the dwarf and his surroundings, as seen by 
Sir Walter Avhen at Hallyards, have been hit 
off by the novelist with vivid portraiture. 
"The tigure they had seen the night before,'* 
says the novelist in the "Black Dwarf/' 
** seemed slowly and toilsomely labouring to 
pile the large stones one upon another, as if 
to form a small inclosure. Materials lay round 
him in great plenty, but the labour of carrying 
on the work was immense, from the size of 
most of the stones ; and it seemed astonishing 
that he should have succeeded in moving sev- 
eral which he had already arranged for the 
foundation of his edifice. ... To judge 
from the difficulties he had alreadv sur- 



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mounted, he must have been of Herculean 
powers ; for some of the stones he had suc- 
ceeded in raising apparently required two 
men's strength to have moved them." 

Now, this is exactly the description given 
to the present day by local guides at the 
"Dwarf's Cottage," Manor, of the man Rit- 
chie, of his prodigious strength, which enabled 
him unaided to build the substantial wall of 
the garden at the back of his hut ; and seeing 
that Scott's visit to Hallyards was limited to 
three days, the inference seems plain that he 
had minutely concentrated his attention on 
this remarkable character and his hut' and 
garden to the exclusion almost of other ob- 
jects in the parish, although it is matter of 
reasonable conjecture that the host would take 
the guest to view the old tower of Barns, a 
mile distant from Hallyards. This conjecture 
is strengtheneil by the description Scott him- 
self has given in the *' Black Dwarf " of such 
an edifice. He calls it the tower of Westburn- 
flat, *' one of the few remaining strongholds 
formerly so numerous upon the Borders. The 
tower was a small square building of the most 
gloomy aspect. The walls were of great thick- 
ness, and the windows or slits, which served 
the purpose of windows, seemetl rather cal- 
culated to afford the defenders the means of 
employing missile weapons than for admitting 
air or light to the apartments within. 
A single turret at one angle, defended by a 
door studded with huge iron nails, rose above 
the battlement, and gave access to the roof 
from within, by the spiral staircase which it 
enclosed." Tlien is it not highly probable 
that from the old tower of Barns, Fergusson 
would guide Scott up to Caverhill, comn)and- 
ing as that place does a view of the Tweed 
sweeping piust Barns to the Neidpath woods, 
as well as a view of the lower part of the 
Manor? Donl)tless, too, a <lrive would lx» 
taken to Posso, where falcons once abounded, 
a supposition strengthened by William Cliam- 
bers, who records that " in * Tales of my Land- 
lord,' Henry, son of Sir William Ash ton of 
Ravenswood Castle, gets his hawks from Posso 
— an allusion traceable to Sir Walter Scott's 
visit to the parish of Manor." 

The story of the great Wizard's remarkable 
interview and conversation with David Rit- 
chie has been so often told by various writers 
that I simply refer to it here, and inform 
readers ignorant of it that the fidl narrative 
is given in Chambers' "Peeblesshire," under 
the head, "Manor." With comparatively 
trifling, yet with vastly improving changes, 



the general appearance of the house and poli- 
cies at Hallyards is at the present day nearly 
the same as it was when Scott basked in the 
sunshine of July at tliis delicious old place a 
hundred and ten years ago. Since then a 
stone statue of the 'Black Dwarf," grim and 
weird, has been placed on the lawn ; some 
water-colour portraits of him and relics from 
his hut have found their way here, as well as 
to the Chambers' Institute at Peebles. Can 
it be wondeixnl at that we like to picture the 
great man welcomejil here to stroll through 
garden and grounds, receiving and writing 
love-letters to Miss Carpenter, his joyful face 
at Fergusson's table, and finally taking leave 
of Hallyards to journey onwards to his des- 
tination, the English lakes I Fergusson lihn- 
self was no small celebrity, and he has left his 
mark on the place by the erection of a garden 
sundial: "Soliposuit. A Fergusson. 1803." 
Mimgo Park had also been his guest, but to 
this day the chief liistorical interest attached 
to the place and parish is the visit that was 
paid to l)oth by a man whose name and fame 
were to Ix* illustrious. 

D. BiiowN Anderson. 



Home Again. 

We're home agniu! We're home again! 
We've reached our Border home again, 
And many a day will pass away 
Before we go and roam again I 

I would I had nice powers of speech. 
Or, better far, the poet's pen. 
To ev'ry listening ear I'd teach 
The joys of coming home again. 

We've not been gone a year or more. 
But only days some nine or ten : 
And yet it seemed of weeks a score ! 
So, doubly sweet is home again. 

We've travelled North, we've travelled West* 
W^e've gazed on Highland lake and ** Ben;" 
But our loved Borderland is best. 
Its hills and dales spell "home" again. 

Our dog he met us at the door. 

O'er joyed to see us home again ; 

Our joy was his, and something more^ 

We shall not lightly roam again. 

• 

'Tis well to view the world outside. 
The thronged and busy haunts of men; 
But oh ! it cannot be denied 
'Tis best to be at home again. 

All round is autumn's mellow glow; 
The robin pipes in yonder glen; 
But we shall see the roses blow. 
Before we leave our home again, 

Koberton Manse. A. E. M. 



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Border Decorators. 

JE people in these northern climes 
have been slow to learn the les- 
son that a little colour, tastefully 
applied to the interior or exter- 
ior of pur dwellings, adds materially to the joy 
of life, and casts no more than the sombre lack 
of ornament we have been too long accustomed 
to. A decided change haa set in, However, and 
the decorative trades are waking up to the 
wants of a public whose taste has been grad- 
ually educated up to higher things. 

The master painters and decorators of Soot- 
land have done much to improve their craft by 
competitions among the aj^prenticee, and the 
annual exhibitions which they have now estab- 
lished are having a decided effect upon the 
public mind. We had the pleasure of paying 
some visits to the splendid exhibition held in 
the Royal Institute of Fine Arts, Glasgow, dur- 
ing the Cliristmas and New Year weeks. The 
exhibition was a great success, both from the 
trade and public points of view, and was a sur- 
prise to many who have not been aware how 
far we have advanced in the art of house de- 
coration. 

This is not the place for aaiy lengthened de- 
scription of tlie exhibits, but we cannot refrain 
from taking notice of the fact that one of the 
most notable shows was the stall of Messrs Tait 
Brothers, Galashiels and Melroso'. As far as 
space was coaicenied the exhibit was not large, 
but the contents were so striking that the trade, 
the Press, and the public at once saw that here 
was something unique which could not be pass- 
ed over with a cursory glance. 

The display embraced about fifty items, as 
different in subject and treatment aa they were 
l)eautiful and original in design. These were 
carried out in a variety of material — so com- 
prehensive and choice in effect and finish that 
to examine them closely was a. most profitable 
and delightful task. Many of the objects had 
a structural importance that went far to en- 
hance their smfacea The firm has its archi- 
tectural side — Mr Harry M. Tait being a spec- 
ialist in decorative construction — and the stall 
had many examples of his craftsmanship in 
this department. 

Messrs Tait Brothers have an en- 
thusiasm for their craft, which car- 
ries them far beyond the commercial 
side of the business, and they have so instilled 
their own ideas into their workers that several 
of their apprentices have carried off the leading 
prizes. On the occasion of this recent exhibi- 
tion the apprentice who gainod the gold medal 



got his special training from this 
firm. The Brothers Tait are natives of Inner- 
leithen, and have done much to elevate the 
public taste in their native town. 

The exhibit above referred to was under the 
charge of Mr George Hope Tait, one of the 
brothers, who is a recognised authority on de- 
corative art, and delivered a lecture on "Decor- 
ation" to the National Association of Master 
Painters and Decorators of England and Wales, 
at Nottingham, at their great meeting on 23rd 




MR GEO. HOPE TAIT, 

Fellow of the. Imtitute of British DeeorcUors. 

September, 19Q3. The lecture was a most elo- 
quent production, and it is quite a literary 
treat to read it. 

Commenting on Mr G. Hope Tait's lecture, 
the "Journal of Decorative Art" says: — "The 
paper by Mr G. Hope Tait, of Galashiels, was a 
plea from a painter to painters for a higher 
conception of his calling. Robed in language 
of true eloquence, it was almost from the first 
line down to its closing sentences sustained on 
the highest level of oratory, and showed the 
writer to be not only an enthusiastic craftsman, 
bvt a man who has a large sense of his work, 
and who haa scholarly gifts to express it. We 
have had many papers in the past, but nevQX 



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one more eloquently phra-sed or most eameetly 
expressed. One of the speakers of the Con- 
vention later on said we had had some papers 
which were 'too high up.' We cannot agree 
with him — nay, we would say that you cannot 
be too high up in your views of what your 
calling is capable of; and for a deoorator to 
limit his aspirations at aU is to put a curb on 
his faculties which may well cripple and stunt 
his own life. We welcome Mr Tait's paper as 
one of the most wholesome contributions to the 
question of what a decorator should aiim. at 
which we have had for many a long year. If 
there were more who took his large conception 
of his work, we should soon see a great trans- 
formation in the trade. The paper reinforced 
the plea, made by Mr Foster for a wider out- 



tion among British master painters. The 
brothers are comparatively young men, and 
we trust that they will continue to gain fresh 
laurels for themselves and the Borderland. 



A Winter Walk on the Pentlands. 

I^HE 10.30 a.m. train from the Caledon- 
ian on New Yecir's Day 
disgorged a goodly number 
of passengers at each station 
before Balerno was reach. There was a won- 
derful number brave enough on New Year's Day 
morning to pass through Balerno, by Bedford, 
Bavelaw, and by the Pentland Pass that brings 
the pedestrian to the Logan Bum, Logan Lee, 





'•The Exchange of the Nations," Bv^Geo. Hope Tait, f.i.b.d. 



look as to what should constitute the training 
of a deoorator, and for the cultivation of a love 
of what the old writers called Humanities. 
A sympathy for all that elevates and enlarges 
the mind, whether it be in literature or the 
arts. By every such addition a man is made 
more of a man, his s3Tnpathie8 are 
enlarged and quickened, his intelligence 
awakened, and his storehouse of information 
made fuller and more complete, and in every 
way the better equipped for the conduct of his 
business. By all means let us get the spirit of 
Mr Tait's paper as part of our daily food." 

We have pleasure in reproducing the design 
by which Mr Tait gained the first prize (One 
Month in Rottne) in the Intemationa-l competi- 



and Glencorse. No Pentland walk is finer than 
this, but when there is a residue of snow on the 
j>ath," and the hills are bewitching and fairy- 
like in a white mantle, only the bravest will 
venture. The day was fine, the air exhilarat- 
ing, and the snow did little to hinder a winter 
tramp. How 'merry this mixed party of young 
folks are, and how tingling with life and energy 
in every limb, as they negotiate the winding 
path above Bavelaw. We might be in the 
Highlands : there is Scaldlaw in front, where, 
tradition says, was the scene of the gatherings 
of the old Norse minstrels, singling the Scalds 
of the Vikings and Berserks. James V. hunted 
around B«ivelaw, and Queen Mary came over 
from Lennox Castle on the Water of Leith to 



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hawk here. Covenaiiters, flying wounded from 
Rullion Green, fell, and bodies have been found 
in the nK)«s here. 

The watei-fall at the head of the Logan Burn 
is still frozen; its watei"s creep away with a 
muffled sound. Four adventurous spirits climb 
the steep banfk and examine the strata above 
the waterfall, in the bum, a conglomerate, 
which is rather a rare outcrop on the Pentlands. 
What an exquisite view down towards Logan- 
lefe as. we descend from tlie upper reach of the 
bum from this high plateau. Looking back, two 
black figures are struggling through the snow 
along the side of the Hare Hill ; there, on the 
slope of Scaldlaw, and near the top, four black 
figures have nlmost conquered that eminence. 
A welcome halt at the waterman's cottage at 
Loganlee affords time for a rest and some re- 
fresliment. An array of tea-pots stand on the 
dyke outside, for a pai-ty of ten is exi>ected 
hungiy from the hills. The empty churn has 
diserorged that flaky white butter on the plate, 
lUid the half-dozen rosy children who live here, 
four mile« from the ne«\re«t school, and six 
miles from Penicuik, are enjoying themselves 
snow-balling outside. The waterman's wife 
walked- six miles on the day previous, when it 
was snowiner, to sell her eggs and make pur- 
chases. While renting, one of the party reads 
from Will. H. Ogilvie's recently-publislied 
little booklet of poetry, "Rainbows and Witdi- 
ee." "In Pentland Wine,'' cut from the "Scots- 
man," is also I'ead, and is so far in harmony 
with the scene, except that to-day all is quiet, 
and it is not true that 

" The west wind, wanton, is chiding 

.Qlencorsft with the scourge of his whips. 
And the wild duck over it riding 
Are tossing like storm-tossed ships." 

For the wild-ducks pass above our heads, and 
a couple of giouse cross the upi>er end of Glen- 
corse with gurgling discoaitent at being dis- 
turbed. All appreciate these versea of Ogil- 
vie's, which come home in the silence of the 
hilljs here with new delight, malking allowance 
for the winter season: — 

The Kingship of the Hills 
*' Born in the purple, the red grouse cry ; 
Born in the purple, the whaups reply; 
Born in the purple, the clouds are kings 
Sailing away on their snow-white wings. 
The eagle high on the ruby peak 
Has the scorn o' the vale in his curling beak; 
And every hour that goes dancing down 
Has a purple robe and a silver crown. 
The lightnings ffash like a jewelled band; 
The thunder rolls like a king's command; 
With a palace roof of the windy stars, 
Where God looks over His golden bars. 



Here, in the pride of all iiigh-bom things. 
The red-deer go with the gait of kings; 
And only a step from their cottage-doors 
The rough hill-shepherds are eniperors." 

As we are now, when we step outside, below 
the shadow of Camethy, and faee Castlelaw, 
which blocks the vallev to the eastward, for we 
are now on the road leading deviously round 
the south of the Pentlands, by Woodhouselee, 
towards Hillend and Lothianbum. It is a 
short-cut to skirt Castlelajw, climb along past 
Castlelaw Farnii, and by the policies of Wood- 
houselee and coroe out on the old Biggar road, 
at Easter-Howgate. By the time we are back 
to town fourteen miles (including that detour 
on the hill behind the waterfall) have been 
negotiated since leaving Balenio. But the way 
is shortened bv story-telling, and one Avho has 
just returned from Spain relates an endless 
narrative of his adventures and mis-adventures, 
with a visit to the Alhambra thrown in. The 
glories of the Alhambra \y\le before a well-earn- 
ed evening meal, and there is the calm satis- 
fnction ill the bro*»«t- of ea,ch that "something 
attempted, something done, has earaed a 
night's repose.*' R. C. 




*♦ In the Border Couiltpy.'' 

'.^.\T an advance has taken place 
within the last few years in the 
matter of printing in colours ! 
Formerly the difficulties in repro- 
ducing were so many and the pro- 
cess so costly that colour books of good qualitv 
could only fall into the hands of those who had 
long purses. Now all this is changed, and really 
high-class colour booku are within the reach of 
all. Among the latest triumphs in this direction 
is the handsome volume hearing the above title, 
which has been issued by the well known firm of 
Hodder & Stoughton, London. When we mention 
that the text, which is largely historical, is by 
the Rev. VV. S. Crockett, minister of Tweedsrauir, 
we need say little more to recommend that por- 
tion of the book (dedicated to the memory of Sir 
Walter Scott) as the author is well known to all 
the readers of the Boedbe Magazine, and his ex- 
tensive knowledge of Border matters gives him an 
authority which few possess. 

While we nil have our own ideas of what con- 
stitutes the true Borders, we are glad to see that 
Mr Crockett has no cramped and confined no- 
tions on that subject. He says:— "A line drawn 
on the map from Coquetmonth to * Merrie Car- 
lisle,' thence to the town of Dumfries, and. 
again, almost due north, to Tweedsmuir (the 
source of the Tweed) in Peeblessshire and to 
Peebles itself, and from Peebles eastward by the 
Moorfoots and the Jiamraermoors to the German 
Ocean at St Abbs." 

A writer in an evening paper thus refers to the 
subject ;—" Of that country Mr Crockett treats in 
a very cQmprehensive and interesting way, grap- 



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hically narrating the history of this battle-ground 
of racee from the days when the Brigantes check- 
ed for a time the northern progress of the Rom- 
ans down through the centuries when Scots and 
English reived one another's cattle and fought 
for the mere love of fechtin'. Under the guid- 
ance of one who is so familiar with it all, we 
travel pleasantly through the distiicts which he 
has classified under the heading :s— * The English 
Border : Northumberland, " Merrie Carlisle '* ' ; 
* The Tweed and Its Associations.' ' Pleasant Tev- 
iotdale/ ' In the Ballad Country,* * The I^eader 
Valley,' and * Liddesdale.' Knowing most of the 
county, we can vouch for Mr Crockett's accuracy, 
and we are sure that others will read his pages 
with equal delight to our own. One slip may be 
noted, the reference to ' Cadzow, in Renfrew- 
shire;' it should, of course, be Lanarkshire. A 
specially attractive feature of this handsome vol- 
ume, with its clear type, good paper, and broad 
margins, is furnished by 25 charming water-col- 
our sketches by Mr Or rock, artistically repro- 
duced in colour and mounted on brown paper. 
These are a pleasing change from the photo- 
graphic views with which we are so familiar." 

The artist has looked at the scenery through 
English eyes, and hence ih each picture we have 
th« softness of the Borderland emphasised and 
made the outstanding feature. The very novelty 
of this treatment of Border scenery will make the 
volume, which is published at 7/6, a welcome 
addition to the homes of all true Borderers. 




'' Social Life in Scotland in tlie 
Eighteentli Century." 

rTITDENTS of history who love to study 
the social habits of the people rather 
than the great national events, arp 
aware that the eighteenth century in 
Scotland is one of the most interesting 
epochs in our country's story. Probably the most 
important work dealing with this subject is the 
volume bearing the above title. It is from the 
able pen of Mr Henry Grey Qraham, and is pub- 
lished by Messrs A. &, C. Black, London, at the 
remarkably low price of 5/. The book is a perfect 
mine of information, which is so presented to the 
reader that there is not a dull page among the 
,•550 which form the volume. The men and wo- 
men of those times pass before us with all the 
life and vigour of the characters in a novel, and 
the student, or even the ordinary reader, rises 
from a perusal of Mr Graham's attractive pages 
with a feeling that he has been conversing vith 
people with ^hom he^is intimately acquainted. 
A new edition has recently been issued, and ve 
cull a few opinion from the leading papers 

" Here is a book we believe to be without a rival 
in the same field— a work in which the author 
takes us into the inner life of a community — 
recalling to us, as from the time of oblivion, the 
homes and habits and labours of the Scottish 
peasantry; the modes and manners and thou,;nts 
of society; showing us what the people oelieve.l 
and what they practised, how they farmed and 
how they tradetl, how their children were tarjiht, 
how their bodies were nourished, and npw their 



souls were tended. It is indeed a product of im- 
mense industry and reading, and presents a c'cmr 
and correct view of that considerable portion of 
the national history with which it is cont'erQed. 
There is not a page in the volume which does i.ot 
contribute some details to make up a singularly 
vivid and interesting picture of our country's 
past. Mr Graham's picture of the domestic life 
and industry, the rural economy, the religious 
customs and theological opinions, the superstitu- 
tions, the laws, and the educational institutions 
of the ^e of our great-grandfathers, is as vivid 
in colouring and effective in grouping and com- 
position as it is authentic and trustworthy as a 
piece of history. The volume is the outcome of 
wide and wise reading, this is a book to be highly 
commended. ... A thoughtful, humorous, and 
vivid exposition of Scottish men and manners in 
the eighteenth century." 



Doolcin' in Tweed. 




^WEEl) was — 1 cannot say what law 
holdR now — always spoken of as 
"Tweeil." It did not need the 
definite article. You might occa- 
sionally gang doon to the Tweed, but you 
fished and dooked and waded in Tweed. 

I suppose it means that for Lessudden folks, 
and especially for Lessudden laddies, there was 
no river worthy of the name of river but 
"Tweed." 

There was "the Xewtoon burn," 
"the burn," "the pound'- in the 
back green, and "the Back Green Burn," over 
the last of which we tried our grow- 
ing leaping jiowers, often at the expense of wet 
feet and trousers, hut for all that there was 
only one stream for us, and it was Tweed. 

We had heard rumours of the "Yil water," 
the *Teit," and the Gala water. Occasionally we 
knew of men and boys who went to fish in those 
streams ; but we regarded such wanderers more 
with surprise and sorrow than with anger. 
Some madness had seized them. 

VVlien the nver was in top flood 
we told each otlier how big it 
was, and we measured its rise by other 
floods. The older folks went to the Braeheads 
to see for themselves ; the younger male mem- 
bers of the commimity went down to the river 
itself and tried to catch the logs of wood and 
other things that the river brought do\\Ti. The 
hoy who could say that he had seen a sheep or 
a pig being rolled down by the flood was a hero, 
and his company was much sought after, and 
his story was repeated a thousand times. 

Tweed in its bigness and littleness was the 
only river for us. But it is of dookin' in 
Tweed that I mean to write to-day. 



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For a goodly number of years there was a 
set of very keen bathers. They were at it as 
early as possible in the season — ^the chances of 
Tweed being warm enough were keenly dis- 
cussed — and they kept it up till the fateful 
ninth of October came round. On October 
ninth or thereabouts the school re-opened after 
the summer holidays. 

When you were newly breeched, or even be- 
fore that, you dooked ^t the " Plainstane. " 
That was a set of smooth flag-stones in the 
river just above the "Burnfit." There was 
there a big boulder — perhaps we would not 
think it is big now — and from it we could fall 
into the water. We did not, you may be sure, 
call it falling into the water : we dived in, we 
plunged in o£E the stane. 

You did not bathe for long at 
the "Plainstane," if in you was 
the true spirit of the bather. Tra- 
ditionally there was a vague theory that 
as your legs grew longer you bathed first at 
the first, and then at the second and third and 
fourth cairn, but, practically, I don't think that 
was ever done. From the " Plainstane ' ' you 
went direct to the " Boat-hole," or as near it 
as you could. 

If you were not able to swim you entered 
the water a little lower down, and went in as 
deep as you could. If you could swim it was 
" infra dig " to enter anywhere but at the 
" Boat-hole." 

How we envied those who could enter there 
and swim right across the river. There was 
one who swam, lifting half his body out of the 
water at every stroke; what a fine swimmer 
we thought he was. But the test of being a 
swimmer of the first rank was to enter the 
water at the " Boat-hole " and sfwim up against 
the current to the "Island." 

There was one who was so keen to be in that 
front rank that he used to go down time and 
again by himself and practise. 

By the way, many, if not most of us, were 
only supposed to dook once a day. Every time 
we dooked we were told that we lost an ounce 
of blood : but we risked that. We always re- 
ligiously let our home folks know of one bathe 
a day. On that occasion we openly and osten- 
tatiously took a towel, or even asked for one. 
Of the other occasions we said nothing, and we 
did not take a tofwel. We dried ourselves with 
our shirts, and remained out long enough for 
our hair to dry. Wet hair was the incriminat- 
ing evidence. Sometimes we were accom- 
panied on the recognised occasion for " dook- 
in' " by a father or an elder brother, but on 



the other occasions we did not seek their com- 
pany. Instead, we anxiously scanned the 
Braeheads to see if they were hanging any- 
where about. If the popular notion were true 
about the loss of the ounce of blood, some of us 
must have lost more than a quarter of a pound 
each warm day. It is to be hoped that it was 
an ounce troy, and not an ounce avoirdupois. 

But to return to our keen swimmer whom we 
left going on the quiet to practise. I have 
heard him speak enthusiastically of the thrill 
that went through him when, for the first time, 
he felt the touch of the gravel at the tail of the 
Island on his breast. 

To awim and look up at the " Hair-Craig " 
from the Avater, or to swim across the river, 
lie on the sand and birsle in the sun^ to run 
races in the Dryburgh park, to play with the 
boats that were at that side of the river, to 
splash one another with water, to dive to the 
bottom and bring up a stone, to plunge off the 
yellow stane : ah ! it was all delightful. Hours 
could be, and were, spent in that way. It is 
good even to recall those hours to memory. 

The " Boat-hole " was not the only bathing- 
place. In the summer, when the water was 
low, you could go by way of the " Sker-fit " to 
the " Haugh." The path ran along the top of 
the skers — that is the Scaurs — but that, though 
not to be despised as a road, was not to be 
compared with the precarious and no-road that 
could be traversed at the "Sker-fit." Some- 
times vou could almost go dry-shod from the 
" Burn-fit " to the " Haugh " by this way. At 
other times it only meant a little wading. 

That way was for most of us a forbidden 
road. Stones might come rolling down the 
" Skers." People might fling things down, for 
then, as now, the Braeheads were a free coup ; 
we might get our feet cut by the broken glass 
or other rubbish. But parental prohibitions 
notwithstanding, we went. We fished there, 
we tried to stick eels with forks, we even 
dooked there; but that last very seldom. 
Once one of an adventurous company of bathers 
there had his foot very badly cut. Handker- 
chiefs were a scarce commodity, so we bound 
his foot up with his shirt, got him home, and 
departed ourselves, thanking our stars that our 
share in the journey was unknown. 

Going by the " Sker-fit " you came out at 
" Brockie's hole." Why " Brockie's hole " I 
kn^ not for certain. There was a rumour 
that a man called " Brockie " had once driven 
in there with a cart and been drowned. Be 
that as it may, " Brockie's hole " was never a 
favourite bathing place. In fact, I only know 



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39 



of two or three who swam across Tweed there, 
ant that more for the sake of doing a dare than 
anything else. 

Further down there was the "Gullet . ' ' There, 
as the name implies, the river was very narrow, 
and to our hoyish ideas the foaming river was 
something like the whirlpool at Niagara. Only 
a few of the bolder spirits dared to swim here. 
There was no chance of swimming against the 
current, but you went in above the narrowest 
place and flung yourself into the current. You 
were carried through the waves, and after 
swallowing some water you were cast out a 
little further down. 

The " Saugh busses " was another bathing 
place, a little below the "Gullet:" but the 
" Haugh," was not in it with the " Boat -hole," 
or, indeed, with any part of the river by the 
"waiter side." There were drawbacks to 
dookin' by the "waiter side." The footpath 
ran close beside the water, and occasionally 
there were passers-by. That mattered little 
if you were in the water, but it \v&8 inconven- 
ient if you were at certain stages of your un- 
dressing or dressing. We thought people very 
inconsiderate. 

Oiice an exti-emely modest and 
shy youth had emerged from the water, and 
was running towards the place where he had 
imdressed, when, coming full speed round a 
corner, he ran right into the arms of a young 
woman, who was coming in the opposite direc- 
tion. Both turneil and ran, and I am afraid 
that those in the water, or at safe stages of 
dressing, were not sympathetic. 

Once, however, an engaged couple came to 
the village for holidays, and to them it seemed 
that the bank by the '* Boat hole " was an ideal 
place to sit and have communion with each 
other, and they were so deaf and blind to all 
the many hints they got. 

Neither undressing nor dressing took any 
great length of time, for the summer wear of 
the average Tweedside boy consisted only of 
shirt, trousers, jacket, and cap, and these gar- 
ments were sometimes stripped off as one ran 
to the bathing place, so that one arrived ready 
to jump in. But on one occasion even that 
scanty number of garments was too many, for 
a couple, in their desire for retirement, un- 
dressed and laid their clothes down on the top 
of a wasp-bike. There were lively times when 
dressing came to be done. 

What a horror all bathers had of eels 1 How 
we feared and hated them ! They were popu- 
larly supposed to be able to inflict deep wounds 
on our feet with their tails, and there were tra- 



ditions of monster eels — congers, we called 
them — which pursued and attacked bathers. 
Our fear and hatred of them drove us to take 
offensive measures. We fished for them, we 
attempted to catch tliem with forks, or to stab 
them with knives, and every one flung out we 
reckoned as an enemy slain. To kill them it 
was necessary to cut off their heads, and put a 
knife through their tails. Tlie beheading you 
might omit, but on no account must you forget 
to slit their tails ; otherwise they would crawl 
back to the river and be as lively as ever. 

The idea of eating eels was utterly repugnant 
to us. Once two fishers had caught a fair 
number, which were lying squirming on the 
bank, each decapitated and tail slitted. It was 
the fair time, and a mugger who happened to 
pass asked permission to take the catch. He 
did so, and one of the fishers made an e3q)edi- 
tion up to the tents to see if the eels were 
actually eaten. We had heard that people did 
eat them, but we had never seen them doing so. 
However, *' seeing's believing," and those of 
us who had not seen wei'e assured that ever}' 
scrap of the eels was devoured. 

I have bathed in Tweed when on a visit to 
mine ancient haunts, but the holes have appar- 
ently got filled up a bit, and the stones are 
dreadfully bard on our poor feet. 

A. L. A. Sudden. 



A Border Literary Chronicle, with 
Brief Biographical Notes. 

PART VIII. 

OuvBB, WiLLUM, of Langraw, on Rule Water, Rox- 
burghshire (b. 180i-<l. at Edinburgh. 1878). 
wrote several pieces of verse, such as "The 
Capon Tree," " The Last Fairy/' " The Tushie- 
hiw Thorn." "The Angel Stars," &c. His 
mother, Mrs Oliver (Jane Scott), was a cousin 
of Sir Walter Scott, being the eldest daughter 
of Thomas Scott, uncle of Sir Walter, who died 
at Monklaw, near Jedburgh, Jan. 27, 1823, aged 
90. 

Park, Munqo (b. at Foulshiels, Selkirkshire, Sept. 
10, 1771— d. 1806), African traveller and ex- 
plorer; studied medicine with Dr Anderson of 
Selkirk, whose daughter he afterwards mar- 
ried ; first expedition to Africa in 1795 ; returned 
home two years afterwards and published his 
Travels in 1799; practised as a surgeon for a 
short time at Peebles; second expedition (in 
which he met his death), 1805, an account of 
which appeared in 1815. (B.M. i. 94). 

Paterson, Rev. Nathaniel, D.D. (b. July 3. 1787— d. 
1871), a grandson of "Old Mortality" (Robert 
Paterson, 1716-1801) ; ordained minister of Gala- 
shiels in 1821 ; author of " The Manse Garden," 
1838; in 1843 he joined the Free Church and 
became minister of Free St Andrew's, Glasgow ; 
in 1850 he was chosen Moderator. He was a 
friend of Sir Walter Scott. (B.M. ix. 282). 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



Paulin, Qsoboi (b. at Horndean, parish of Lady- 
kirk, Berwickshire, Aug. 16, 1812— d. Jan. 11, 
1898), educated at Selkirk and Edinburgh Uni- 
versity; rector of Irvine Academy from 1844- 
77; wrote a vol. of verse, "Hallowed Ground 
and Other Poems," 1876. 

Pbnnbcuik, ,I>b Albxambib, of Newhall and Bomanno, 
Peeblesshire (b. 165i^-<i. 1722), son of a surgeon 
who had served in the Swedish arn^y; author 
of a Historical Description of Tweeddale, with 
a Ck)llection of Scottish Poems, 1715. His 
"Complete Works" appeared in 1815. He is 
said to have suggested to Allan Bamsay the 
plot of the "Gentle Shepherd," the scenes of 
which lie round Newhall. 

Pbnnkuu, Alkxandbb, probably nephew of the pre- 
ceding; chief works are Britannia Triumphaus, 
1713; Streams from Helicon, 1720; wrote also 
Lampoons, Satires, &c. ; gave way to drink, 
and died in destitution, 1790. 

Plummeb, Db Akdbbw, of Sunderland Hall, Selkirk- 
shire; studied medicine at Edinburgh and Ley- 
den, where he graduated in 1722; returned to 
Edinburgh and practised his profession; in 
1726 appointed professor of chemistry, an 
office he held till 1755; died 1756. 

Pbinolb, Albxandeb, B.D. (b. at Blakelaw, parish 
of Linton, near Kelso--d. Aug 12, 1839), minis- 
ter of the Secession Church, Perth, for sixty- 
one years; wrote a vol. entitled "Scripture 
Gleanings," published a few months before his 
death; ordained in 1777; D.D. of Aberdeen, 
1819. 

Pbinolb, John Alexandeb (b. at Yair, April 17, 
1792— d. Jan. 3, 1839), second son of Alexander 
Pringle of Yair; entered the Bengal Civil Ser- 
vice; wrote a vol. of poetry — " Select Eemains " 
—published posthumously ih 1841. 

Pbinole. Szb John, M.D., F.K.S., Babonet (b. in 
Roxburghshire, April 10, 1707— d. Jan. 18, 1782), 
physician; fourth son of Sir John Pringle of 
Stitchel, by Magdalen, daughter of Sir Gilbert 
Elliot of Stobs; educated at St Andrews and 
Edinburgh, where he studied medicine; grad- 
uated at Leyden ; professor of moral philosophy 
at Edinburgh, 173444; published several medi- 
cal works, the chief being a " Treatise on the 
Diseases of the Army." He afterwards re- 
moved to London, received a baronetcy from 
George III., and became president of tl^e Royal 
Society; has a monument in Westminster 
Abbey. 

Pbinole, Thomas (b. at Blakelaw, near Kelso, Jan. 
5, 1709— d. in London, Dec. 5, 1834), educated 
at Kelso Grammar School and Edinburgh Uni- 
versity (his companion and life-long friend 
being Robert Story, afterwards minister of 
Roseneath, and father of Principal Story of 
Glasgow); started in 1818 and edited "The 
Edinburgh Monthly Magazine," having for 
contributors Scott, Hogg, Dr Brewster, Prof 
Wilson, and Lockhart. afterwards disposed of 
to Messrs Blackwood, becoming their still 
popular "Blackwood's Magazine." He after- 
wards emigrated to the Cape, having obtained 
by Scott's influence a grant of land there in 
1820; librarian at Cape Town; returned to 
London, where he died and was buried in 
Bunhill Fields, near the graves of Bunyan and 
Defoe; wrote "Scenes of Teviotdale." 1819; 
" Bphemerides," 1828; and "South African 
Sketches/' 1834. His poetical works with 



sketch of his life by Leith Ritchie appeared 
in 1838. His best known piece is " The Scottish 
Emigrant's Farewell." (B.M. v. 76, 84). 

RiocALTON, Rev. Robbbt (b. 1691— d. 1769), miiiister 
of Hobkirk, Roxburghshire from 1725-69; wrote 
several works published after hie death— ^ vols, 
of Sermons and Essays on Human Nature, &c. ; 
also wrote a poem (though never published) 
on " Winter," which suggested to Thomson the 
idea of the " Seasons." Riccalton lived in the 
parish of Southdean (of which Thomson's 
I father was minister), l)efore he went to Hob- 
kirk in 1725, the year Thomson went to Lon- 
don. 

RiooELL, Henby ScoTr (b. at Sorbie, near Lang- 
holm, Sept. 23, 1798— d. July 30, 1870)» shep- 
herd in Ettrick, friend of Hogg and Wm. 
Knox, who held the Wrae farm, near Sorbie; 
studied at Edinburgh for the Church, and 
acted as parish minister of Teviothead for 
some years, when hie mind gave way ; recov- 
ered, but never resumed ministeried duties; 
wrote "Songs of the Ark," 1831; "Poems, 
Songs, and Miscellaneous Pieces," 1847; best 
known as the author of "Scotland Yet," 
"Scotia's Thistle," "Oor Ain Folk," "The 
wild glen sae green," "The Crook and the 
Plaid," "The Dowie Dens o' Yarrow," &c. 
His Memoirs and Works were edited by his 
friend, Dr Brydon, of Hawick, 2 vols., 1871. 
(B.M. iu. 85. 212, 233). 

RiDPATH, Rev. Gbobge (b. at Ladykirk Manse, Ber- 
wickshire, 1717— d. 1772), minister of Stitchell, 
1742-72; author of "The Border History of 
England and Scotland;" edited and published 
in 1776 by his brother, and dedicated to Hugh, 
second Duke of Northumberland. 

RiDPATR, Rev. Philip (b. 1721— d. 1788), minister of 
Hutton, Berwickshire, 1759-88, who, besides 
editing his brother's work, published an edi- 
tion of Boethius's "Consolations of Philo- 
sophy." 

RrrcHiE, David Gbobge (b. at Jedburgh, 1853— d. at 
St Andrews. Feb. 3. 1903). only son of Dr Geo. 
Ritchie, minister of Jedburgh ; educated at the 
Nest Academy, Jedburgh, and Edinburgh Uni- 
. versity, where he had a distinguished career, 
then proceeded to Oxford, where he took a 
first class in "Litt. Hum., 1878; Fellow of 
Jesus College, 1878, and tutor there, 1881-4. also 
tutor of Balliol, 1882-86; left Oxford in 1894 to 
become professor of Logic and Metaphysics at 
St Andrews ; wrote various philosophical works, 
"Darwin and Politics," "Darwin and Hegel," 
"Natural Rights." "Studies in Social and 
Political Ethics;" edited "The Early Letters 
of Jane Welsh Carlyle ;" translated Bluntschli's 
"Theory of the State." 

To be Continued. 



The Bobbeb Almanac, 1907.— Once more this fami- 
liar yearly publication from the old-established 
press of J. & J. H. Rutherfurd, Kelso, lies before 
us. To the Border farmer, who is invariably an 
intelligent man. the Almanac provides a mass of 
most useful information condensed in quite a re- 
markable way, while the ordinary reader will dis- 
cover many interesting and historically valuable 
paragraphs. Not the least valuable feature in the 
book are the obituary notices of prominent Bor- 
derers who have passed away during the year. 



Printed and Published by A. Walker & Son, Galashiels. 



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SUPPLEMENT to the "BORDER MAGAZINE," Vol. XII., No. 13s 




The Late MR ROBERT SANDERSON, STOW. 



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-v>^ AM IlLUSf RATED nOHTHLY 

DEVOTED TO 

Border Biography, History, Literature, and 
Folklore. , 

Edited by WiiUam Sanderson. 



Vol. XIL, No. 135 



MARCH, 1907. [all rights reserved. 



The Late Mr ROBERT SANDERSON, Stow. 




\ ULL of years and service, Mr Robert 
Sauderson, Stow, Midlothian, passed 
away on November 11th, 1906. A 
cliaracteristio Scot, an account of his 
career is well worth preserving in the pages of 
the Border Magazine. 

Mr Sanderson waa boni in Galashiels on 
18th September, 1824, and was by parentage 
a Gala Water man. He went to day schools in 
his native town, taught by Mr Fyshe and Mr 
Robert Whitson, but, being of a studious dis- 
position, he took every opportunity of further 
acquiring knowledge, attending night schools 
after he had started to work, aa opportunity 
offered, and, being a keen reader, he- was to 
no little extent self-taught. He served a full 
apprenticeship to the woollen manufacturing 
trade, learning all its branches, and worked for 
some time as a spinner in Galashiels and In- 
nerleithen. In 1850 or 1851 he took charge 
of a set of machines in Stow Mill, and there 
in the following ye«r he settled. Finding in 
the village an opening for the conmioner ar- 
ticles of the stationery trade, as well as for 
the sale of Bibles, picture books, etc., and the 
comparatively few periodicals in existence, he 
started business in tliese in a small way, and 
afterwards as a merchant on his own account, 
addingi on the lines of his original venture, and 
local, weakly, and daily newspapers, as the 



demand for these aroee after the abolition of 
the Stamp Duty in 1855, and the repeal of the 
Paper Duty in 1861. He wa« thus the pioneer 
in the distribution of the daily and weekly 
newspaper, and kindred publications in the 
parish. About this time he became con'e»- 
pondent to the various local newspapers. In 
1871 he built new business premises, and ten 
years later he became associated with his 
youngest son in tlie printing and stationery 
trade. In this branch, however, he never took 
a very active interest, and he retii-ed altogether 
from the tirm a sliort time before his death. 

Mr Sanderson's connection with the public 
life of Stow may therefore be roughly set down 
as of fifty years' duration. No public move^ 
ment was complete without his presence, and 
his helpful aid was always freely offered when 
the welfare of the community was concerned. 
Possibly the first body with which he became 
associated was the Paiish Church Sunday 
School. Tlie' Literary Institute, founded by 
the late Mr Mitchell of Stow in 1857, had in 
Mr Sanderson a wann. supporter. For many 
years ho was secretary. As such, he was large- 
ly responsible for the arrangements in con- 
nection with the annual course of lectures, 
given during the winter months, which then, 
as now, was a feature of this institution. On 
several occasions he himself lectured on popu- 



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lar subject* — the last of which was "A History 
of Stow," delivered fully twenty years ago. 
Possessing some little gift and aibility as a 
speaker, he frequently appeared on the public 
platform, locally, in support\ of the cauaes 
which he espoused, particularly that of total 
abstinence, and such publicity exposed him at 
times to not a little hostile criticism ; but lie 
was usually able, alike by tongue and. pen, to 
give good reason, for the faith that was in 
him. He topk much interest in a Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Society which was form- 
ed in 1882, and which existed' for. several years, 
and was a frequent contributor in essay and 
debate. Indeed, in e^verything pertaining to 
the welfare of tlie village and community he 
took a prominent part, and his full shaire of 
the work thereby involved. A life-long a.b- 
stainer, he was amongst the first to assist in 
the forraationi of a total abstinence society in 
the village, and w^hen Good Templary was 
introduced into this country he was one of the 
founders of the local Lodge, being its first 
Chief Templar ; while, for many years, he was 
a leading mem.l:>er of District Lodge, holding 
all the principal offices therein, with the ex- 
ception of that of District Deputy, which de- 
mands up(5n his time otherwise made it im- 
possible for him to accept. He, however, was 
mainly instrumental in founding in the village 
a Juvenile Lodge of Good Templars, of which 
he continued to be superintendent for a num- 
ber of years. In respect to purely village 
affaii-8, he had to do with Avater and lighting 
practically all the time that these affairs re- 
mained under the direct control of the villagers 
— that is from their introduction until the for-' 
niation of special water and lighting districts 
under recent Local Government legislation. 
He was a member of the Parochial Board, and 
auditor of its accounts for a long period of 
years. About 1880, finding it inconvenient 
to liontiuue his connection with the Baptist 
body at Galashiels, he withdrew therefrom, 
and joined the conuminion of the Church of 
Scotland. In 1882 he was elected an elder 
in Stoiv Parish Clmrch, and five years later he 
was appointed session-clerk, which office he 
held for the next sixteen years. 

His long connection with the National Bible 
Society of Scotland stt» Treasurer of the Local 
Auxiliary was honoured a few yeans ago by a 
letter of recognition of long sei^vice from the 
Society, and notice in its proceedings. In pol- 
itics, he was a staunch supporter of the Liberal 
Party and Mr Gladstone until the Home Rule 
split, and was a member of that eminent statesr 
man's committee when he was so victoriously 



returned for Midlothian in 1880. In later 
years he took oompa<ratively little interest in 
politics. 

No notice of the deceased would be cooi- 
plete without reference to his long coonection 
with, and la.boura on behalf ol, the Masonio 
craft in the Border district, also to the litenuy 
work in connectioii with Freemasonry, which' 
as a yoauiger man he engaged in, and these 
are very concisely and appreciatively summaf- 
ised in Vernon's "History of Freemasonry in 
the province of Roxburgh, Peebles, and Sd- 
kirk shires." "Bro. Sanderson,"^ says the auth- 
or, "besides giving to tlie world the history ol 
Haughfoot Lodge (which he published in tlie 
^Freemasons' Magazine,' 1869-70), has also re- 
printed the records of the old Lodge of Peeb- 
les, and 18 ever ready to give willingly and 
ungrudgingly his assistance or advice in any 
matter connected with the welfare or advance- 
ment of the craft. Bro. Sanderson first saw 
Masonic light in St John's Lodge, Stow, in 
1862, and from that time was much enamour- 
ed with its principles, and zealously devoted 
himself not only to their study, but to th^ 
active undertaking of themi His influence 
upon the Lodge is very apparent^ as step by 
step he ascended to the highest honour the 
Lodge has in its power to bestow, filling the 
chair and discharging the duties of his office 
during the years 1882-83-84 with rare ability 
and tact. In 1863 he was appointed by the 
late Mr Henry Ingles of Torsonce, Provincial 
Grand Master of Peebles aaid Selkirk, to the 
secretaiyship of the Province. As a token of 
the estimation in which he was held, the breth- 
ren of the Province of Roxburgh and Selkirk 
(the district havhig undergone re-arrangement 
a year or two ago) pi^esented him last year 
(18^3) with a very handsome gold watch and 
illuminated address, along with "their heart- 
iest felicitations on the completion of 27 yeojrs 
of faithful service in the discharge of his oner- 
ous dutie-?." 

As in all his other underta^kings, he brt>ught. 
a higli degreQ of ability to boir on all his 
litertuy work. His aim was ever to promote 
the welfare of the people by keeping to the 
front their interests, and by giving themi a 
straight and disinterested lead where such was 
necessary. No matter of any moment escaped 
his notice ; he wrote because his heart was in 
his work and his interest was the interest of 
the men and women aiound him. Staunch in 
his principles, he was ever mindful of the feel- 
ings of otners ; well read, original in his treat- 
ment of all questions of public importance, he 
was a correspondent greatly valued by the pro- 



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prietorg of the various journals for which he 
itcted. 

Mr Sanderson's shrewd business capacity, 
his good, sound common-sense, his suave and 
Itindly bearing with all he came in contact, 
his conscientious discharge of duty, his deep 
.83rmpathy with all arouiid him in trouble or 
want, and his spotless and irreproachable 
Christian character, were the traits which 
shall keep his name fresh beyond the limited 
bounds of Gala Water. 



After the Toil of the Day. 

' N the quiet hours of evening a very 
large number of our resident Bor- 
derers find rest and refreshment 
fronu the toils of the day by indulg- 
ing in gardening. To some this recreation 
may appear a toil, but such have to learn 




tural Association, 92 Long Acre, London, W.C. 
It is interesting to note that this valuable 
publication was started at the same time as 
the Border Magazine. As an example of the 
style of the letterpress we quote a portion of 
Ella Oswald's interesting article on *'Tlie Col- 
our of Flowers" : — 

Brilliant and deligfhtful to the eye as are the 
colours of 80 many flowers, for what reason are 
they adorned with these varied hues? Nothing is 
without its purpose in Nature's economy, but the 
subject received little attention till about 100 years 
ago, when the celebrated scientist Sprengel first 
showed that the colour and scent of flowers were 
connected with the visits of insects. The later re- 
searches of Darwin, Wallace, Lubbock, and Muller 
have proved how great a part these colours play 
in the power of the plant to form its seeds and 
thus reproduce its species. 

In the simplest flower, fertilization of its em- 
bryo seeds, or ovules, is effected by a grain, of 




AFTER TJHE TOIL OF THE DAY. 



that rest is often to be found in a change of 
employment. There are a thousand and one 
books (Ml the subject of gardening, but few 
take a more pleasant and practical form as 
"'One & Air Gardening," the annual issue of 
which is now before us. The book of 200 pages 
is full of most readable and informative ar- 
tielee by eminent writers, while the text is 
helped by a large number of illustratioois, one 
of which we reproduce. The annual can be 
had through the booksellers for the small 
diarge of 2d, or sent per post for 4W by the 
publishers, The Agricultural and Horticul- 



the pollen-dust from its own stamens falling on a 
sensitized portion of the unripened seed-vessel, or 
ovary, round which these stand. The pollen-grain, 
through a little tube which reaches the ovule, fer- 
tilizes it, causing its later transformation into 
the ripe seed. 

Many plants produce only insignificant, often 
greenish flowers, such as those of grasses, trees, or 
so-called weeds. These are mostly fertilized in 
this manner, or receive the pollen from other 
flowers through the agency of the wind. 

The more highly-developed plants are, however, 
not self -fertilized, but depend on pollen from other 
flowers, brought them on the legs and bodies of 
insects, who, in search of honey,' visit flower after 
flower and unconsciously effect what is termed 



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cross- fertilization. The flowers that most people 
are familiar with are these highly-developed forms 
which possess large, expanded, coloured surfaces 
to attract their insect fertilizers. To allure these 
and induce them to visit one flower after another 
of the same species, the plants have developed, 
near the stamens and the ovary to be fertilized, 
small quantities of honey, and, in addition, the 
gaily-coloured petals which, so to say, advertise 
the presence of the honey. 

Why should the colours of flowers vary? This 
can be explained on the theory of evolution, so 
universally acknowledged now in all branches of 
natural science, and so admirably applied to this 
particular subject by the late Mr Grant Allen. 
Goethe and Wolf held the theory— generally ac- 
cepted—that all parts of the flower are modified 
leaves, a general transition being traceable from 
leaf, through bract, green sepal, coloured petal, 
and stamen to ovary. However, in the oldest type 
of flower at present surviving, the cycads, geologi- 
cally earlier than any other flowering plant, the 
flower consists merely of, on Jhe one hand, naked 
ovules, and, on the other, clusters of stamens in 
a kind of cone-»-the essential organs alon« are -pre- 
sent. This proves the coloured petals and green 
outer sepals to be later in origin than stamens 
and ovary, therefore they can hardly mark a 
transitional form from leaves to the latter. 
Though, of course, it cannot be denied that the 
stamens and ovary are originally modified leaves, 
the petals and sepals can, in face of this evidence, 
no longer be regarded as the intermediate stages. 
It is more than probable that they have been 
produced by a flattening of some of the outer 
stamens, by a reversion of these stamens to the 
original leaf form, to serve a special purpose, 
that of attracting insect visitors to aid the plant 
in setting the seeds. 

In the white water lily this transition is clearly 
visible, from the ordinary stamens in the centre, 
with rounded stalks of filaments and yellow an- 
thers full of pollen, to the flat, full-sized white 
petals, the smaller intervening petals often having 
abortive anthers on them. Moreover, in double 
roses and almost all double flowers, the extra pet- 
als are formed, under cultivation, from the num- 
erous stamens of the centre of the flower, as every 
hoiticulturalist knows. 



A Border Town, 

"A town of extremes."— LoED Eosebeby. 

Old town among the Border hills ! 

Gray warder of the moors ! 

What though To-day have clashing mills. 

Your old-world Moat endures! 

You dream by nights of Flodden yet. 

While Teviot seeks the sea, 

What though your days in toil are set. 

You have your history! 

What though, at times, the moorland mist 

Creeps up by wynd and street ! 

Your spires peer out above, sunkist. 

To guide the stumbling feet. 

Yoiir children praise you. Border town. 

O'er leagues of raging sea, 

Your image calls them, looking down 

Through mists of memory. 

R. S. C 



Border Notes and Queries. 

THE BALLAD OF MOSSFENNAN; OR, THE 
LOGAN LEE. 

The following account of the above is from Pro- 
fessor Veitch's " History and Poetry of the Scot- 
tish Border," vol. ii. pp. 236-241, and may perhaps 
prove interesting to '* M. J. G.," and other read- 
ers of the Boeder Magazine :— 

"Certain unconnected stanzas of an old ballad 
referring to an heiress of Mossfennan, with which 
the estate of Logan, or the Logan Lee, was then a» 
now conjoined, have floated for long in the mem- 
ory of old people about Broughton and Tweeds- 
muir. Some of these were known to Miss Jeanie 
M. W^atson, who was born and lived near Brough- 
ton, and who was well accomplished in the old 
lore and story of the district. She has printed 
those stanzas in her interesting book, "Life in 
Our Village," but no complete or consistent ver- 
sion of the ballad has as yet been given. I have 
been able to recover several stanzas from oral 
recitation, which, compared and taken along with 
Miss Watson's verses, seem to make up the bal- 
lad. The stanzas now printed for the first time 
were obtained from William Welsh, the Peebles- 
shire cottar and poet, to whom I am also indebted 
for the new version of " The Dowie Dens." His 
statement was that he had heard it recited by an 
old woman named Jenny Moffat, who died at 
Romanno Bridge in 1874, in her ninety-ninth year. 
Certain stanzas of it, including the last, were 
also sung"* by his mother. 

Stanzas 1, 2, 3, 10, or stanzas corresponding to 
them, were known to Miss Watson; the others, 
seven in all, are due to W. Welsh. The arrange* 
ment of them is chiefly mine. 

The Ballad of Mossfennan ; oa, The Logan Lbe. 

There cam three wooers out o* the west. 
Booted and spurred as ye weel micht see, 

And they lichted a' at Mossfennan Y^ett, 
A little below the Logan Lee. 

Three cam east, and three cam west. 
And three cam frae the north countrie; 

The rest cam a^ frae Moffat side. 
And lichted at the Logan Lee. 

" Is the mistress o' this house within, 
The bonnie lass we've come to see?" 

"Fm th« leddy o' this place, 
And ' madam ' when ye speak to me." 

" If ye be the leddy o* this house. 

That we hae come sae far to see. 
There's many a servant lass in our country side^ 

That far excels the Leddy o' the Logan Lee." 

" Then ifs no to be my weel-faured face 

That ye hae come sae far to see, 
But it's a' for the bonny bob-tailed yowes. 

That trinle alang the Logan Lee. 

But be I black, or be I fair. 

Be I comely for to see; 
It mak's nae matter what I be. 

While I have mony a bonny yowe on the Logan 
Lee. 

I have seven yowe-milkers a* in a bught, 
Wi* their coaties kilted abune their knee. 

And ye may seek a wife among them. 
But ye'll ne'er get the TpHd\ o' the Logan Lee."" 



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" Be she black, or be she fair, 
I carena a boddle what she may be; 

I wad rather hae ane without a plack, 
Than wed the Leddy o' the Logan Lee.'* 

"Some say I lo'e young Powmood, 

Other some says he lo'es na' me; 
But I weel may compare wi' his bastard blood. 

Though I hadna a yowe on the Logan Lee. 

Graham o* Slipperfield and his gray mere. 
Young Powmood wi' his greyhounds three, 

Charlie and his pistols clear — 
Ye'll ne'er hae a yowe on the Logan Lee. 

But young John Graham is a weel-faured man. 
And a cunning man he seem^ to be; 

But a better lad, wi' less parade. 

And he'll be the Laird o' the I^gan Lee. 

We can form some opinion of the approximate 
date of the incident of this ballad. The estate of 
Mossfennan, after being in early times the pro- 
perty of the family of Purveys (Purves), passed 
into the hands of the Flemings of Biggar. One of 
them, Malcolm, third Lord Fleming, son of the 
Lord John murdered by the Tweedies on the 
heights of Kingledoors, got the lands erected into 
a free barony in 1538. After the Flemings, the 
barony passed to a family of the name of Scott, 
who held it until about the middle of last cen- 
tury, when it was acquired by the Welshes (1759). 
The reference to Powmood or Polmood as being 
of "bustard blood," fixes the date as after the 
year 1689; for in that year died Robert Hunter of 
Polmood, the last of the legitimate line of the 
Hunters of Polmood. Through some arrangement 
on the part, of this Robert Hunter, the estate of 
Polmood passed to descendants of George Hunter, 
his illegitimate son. Thomas Hunter, the last de- 
scendant of this George Hunter, died a young 
man, and unmarried, in 1765. This sickly youth 
on his death-bed made a will assigning the estate 
to a person of the name of Alexander Hunter, with 
whom he had resided in England, but who was no 
relation whatever to the family of Polmood. A 
daughter of this Alexander Hunter became Bar- 
oness Forbes, and carried the estate into that 
family. The incident of the ballad is thus re- 
stricted to the period between 1689 and '1765; and 
we may take it as having occurred about the first 
Quarter of last century [18th]. We find, indeed, 
from the book of '* Retours," under January 9, 
1685, two ladies, Janneta and Grizalda Scott, re- 
turned as heirs-portioners of their brother-ger- 
man, William Scott of Mossfennan, in this estate, 
and also in half of the quarter of Logan, called 
also the quarter of Mossfennan. The heiress was 
thus in all probability either Janet or Grisell 
Scott. According to the statement made to me by 
William Welsh, the date would quite tally with 
that I have inferred. He said that Jenny Moffat 
got the ballad from a neighbour— that is, a fel- 
low-servant — who as a young woman was in the 
house of Mossfennan when the incident occurred— 
was, in fact, serving with the heiress. The lady 
of the house, she said, composed it herself, and 
used to repeat the stanzas to this confidential 
waiting-woman, whose memory fully retained 
them. This is quite compatible with the dates. 
Jenny Moffat died in 1874, at the age of ninety- 
nine. This takes her birth back to 1775. She 
might quite well have known a fellow-servant who 
was in Mossfennan in the first quarter or half of 



the eighteenth century, and who knew the story 
and the ballad itself.". 

The Logan Lee recalls Burns' " Willie Wastle," 
the face of whose wife the poet declared " wad 
fyle the Logan water." Linkumdoddie, where 
Willie " dwalt on Tweed," is now an extinct weav- 
ing hamlet. A solitary ash-tree marks the spot, 
and close by is a commemorative tablet with the 
inscription, '* The spot 'they ca'ed it Linkumdod- 
die." 

A. G., S. 
* * * 

A BORDER DANCER OF THE OLDEN TIME. 

" Nancy Dawson, the famous hornpipe dancer, 
died this year. May 27th [1767], at Hampstead: 
she was buried behind the Foundling Hospital, in 
the ground belonging to St George the Martyr, 
where there is a tombstone to her memory, simply 
stating * Here lies Nancy Dawson.' Every verse 
of a song in praise of her declares the poet to be 
dying for Nancy Dawson; and its tune, which 
many of my readers must recollect, is. in my 
opinion, as lively as that of * Sir Roger de Cover- 
ly.' I have been informed that Nancy, when a 
girl, set up the skittles at a tavern in High Street, 
Marylel)one. Sir William Musgrove in his 'Ad- 
versaria ' (No. 6719), in the British Museum, sa^s 
that ' Nancy Dawson was the wife of a publican 
near Kelso, on the borders of Scotland.' " — From 
" A Book for a Rainy Day." By John Thomas 
Smith. Third ed. revised. London : Richard 
Bently. 1861." A new edition of this volume was 
published in 1906. 

J. C. 



The Gift of God. 

We would not give this land beyond (Compare, 
This winding of clean waterways, this lift 

Of purple hills, tHis sweep of valleys fair 
For all the world. We hold it as God's gift. 

From North Sea to the Solway stand ou^ farms 
Fringed with green woodland as the seas with 
foam. 

The low hills wind about them their strong arms. 
The grey smoke climbs above them. It is home. 

We need not envy when the South sets forth 
Her story, or the East her magic tale ! 

Not all the wonder-legends of the North 
Charm like the legends of our hill and vale ! 

Our breed is of the marches, in our veins 
The blood still quickens to a hoof-stroke heard. 

Still stand we ready with our gathered reins 
When by the chase our quiet fields are stirred. 

No troopers gather on the open moss. 
Our farms are held upon no sword-lease now. 

And if in rivalry the march we cross 
^Tis but with produce of the pen or plough! 

Dear land beloved! Here at your side we stand; 

No spears to guard you need our hands uplift ; 
Our hearts shall guard your honour. Borderland, 

Land of our fathers and their fame ; God's gift ! 



Wnx. H. Ogilvie. 

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A Border Musician. 

^HERE was produced, with preat suc- 
cess, in the VoJuiiteer Hall, Gala- 
shiels, on February 15th and 16th. 
the kinderspiel entitled "The Gip- 
sies," by Mr George Ballaiityne, orpianist, Jed- 
burgh Parish Church, the subject of this short 
sketch. The piece is very much above the 
average of such compositions, and was staged 
by Mr Maclaehlan, who has won a name for 
such woi^k. Mr Maclachlan considered this to 
be his biggest effort in this line, neither eac- 
pense nor time being spared to give the play a 
creditable rendering. In view of the fact that 
the composer is a native of the town^ and a 
musician who is fit for even greciter things, it 
should interest our readers to learn something 
of his career. Mr Ballaiityne is the son of Mr 
G. B. Ballantyne, draper, High Street, Gala- 




enjoyable and educative series of lectures (witli 
musical illustrations) on the **Great Masters," 
and in 1894: he was appointed organist to the 
West U.F. Church, Coldstream, where he re- 
sided till 1898, when he received his present 
appointment to Jedburgh Parish Church. At 
both Coldstream, and Jedburgh he has shown 
a similar activity in musical matters, and to 
demonstrate tliat he has not "rested on his 
oai*s" it is only necessary to give a list of the 
work that he has published, which includes: — 
Historical poems, "1825 in Jedburgh," *'Queen 
Mary: An incident of 1 566 ; " anthems, "Come 
unto Me," "Sanctus," "Hallelujah," "Shout 
aloud for joy," "Gedworth," "Monteviot," 
"Sweet Vale,"" "Ancrum. Toon," "The Sing- 
ers," and the operettas, "The Village Queen" 
and "The Gipsies." As previously stated, p^*- 
haps his latest — "Tlie Gipsies" — is his most 
ambitious work. With unbounded zeal and 
love of his art, Mr Ballantyne is able to infuse 
his own enthusiasm into his pupils and work, 
which, in large measure aecooints for his mark- 
ed success. By his lectures and recitals Mr 
Ballantyne has done a great deal to foster tlie 
taste for good music in his various scenes of 
laboui:. 



MR GEORdK BALLANTYNE. 

shiels, and was bom in 1870. He was edu- 
cated at the Academy under the late Mr Fair- 
ley, and from his early days showed a distinct 
passion for music. While serving his appren- 
ticeship in his father's place of business he was 
busy educating himself musically, to such an 
extent that he might justly be termed self-edu- 
cated. While yet a lad of only fifteen years 
he was apix>inted organist of Ladhope Free 
Church, and in the following year he organ- 
ised and conducted the Galashiels Select 
Clioir, and did some good work during his 
three years* connection therewith. In 1888 he 
was selected as accompanist to Galasliiels 
Choral Union, which at that time was on the 
wave of prosperity, and giving performances 
of the "Messiah," "Samson,*' "Jephtta," 
"Joshua," and "Creation." Mr Ballantyne 
undertook in 1890-1 what proved to be a most 



** It's Winter Fairly." 

[Horace. Ode i.9. Turned intil ScottU.] 

'* When a* the hills are covered wi' snaw, 
I'm sure it's winter fairly." 

See how the triple Eildon taps 

Stand Rlitterin' white wi* snaw. 
How wuds are groanin* 'neath their wecht. 

And burns are frozen a*. 

BiK high the peats upon the hearth, 

And melt the oauld a wee. 
Syne frae the auld Soots tappit hen 

We'll pree the barley-bree. 

Leave a' your cares to heaven abune, 

Wha stills the winds that blaw, 
Then gloomy fir and •roddan-tree 

Ne'er wag their taps at a'. 

As for the morn ne'er fash your thoora. 

But coont as gain ilk day ; 
While crabbit age is far off yet, 

To love and dance gi'e way. 

Now let the park and lovers* loan. 

While 'tis within your power. 
And whispers in the gloamin' sweet 

Be sought at trystiu' hour. 

And eke the laugh o' lassie sweet 

That i* the corner lingers. 
And forfeit whuppit frae her airm. 
And her half-willin' fingers. 
January 1, 19(17. A. G., S. 

* An old Scots name for the more familiar 
rowan-tree, or mountain ash. 



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On Tramp in the Borderland. 

fN these days, when votaries of the 
cycle and mot6r abound on every 
highway, the old-fashioned pedee- 
triau, jogging along with knapsack 
on back and dusty boots, is rarely to be met 
with. He belongs to an order of things which 
have well-nigh passed away. Rapidity of 
locomotion is apparently now desired by all 
classes, and the comparatively slow% though in 
many respects innnensely more pleasurable, 
pedestrian tour is seldom und«rtaken. How- 
ever great may be the satisfaction of 
rushing through the country at an excessive 
speed, and of covering hundreds of miles in a 
brief period, the fact remains that many of the 
most interesting details of the journey are of 
necessity unobserved. The attention is dir- 
ected to such matters as the condition of the 
roads, the passing traffic, and many other 
things, which to the free and unrestrained 
pedestrian are of little or no account. Among 
the readers of the Border Magazine there may 
yet be some who prefer the freedom of 
" shanks' naig " to the restraint imposed by 
the use of any mechanical contrivance, and to 
such the following brief sketch of a five days' 
tour on foot through a considerable portion 
of the Borderland may, we trust, be of inter- 
est. 

On a Tuesday morning in late September 
we left Auld Reekie for the south. Tlie wea- 
ther conditions were somewhat dubious, but 
until one is well out of the influence of the 
city atmosphere it is not alwcrvs safe to specu- 
late on what we may expect to find in the 
open country. Our destination by rail w^as 
the busy junction of Newtown St Boswells, 
and on our arrival there we found an uncloud- 
ed sky and a soft autimm sunshine, under 
which the beautiful valley of Tweed wa« seen 
at its bef?t. These exceptionally favourable 
conditions continued during the remainder of 
our tour. From the station we made our w^ay 
through St Boswells Green, by Longnewton 
forest and the lovely woods of Ancrum, to the 
village of that name, where w^e renewed ac- 
quaintance with the Auld Kirkyaird, the Lint 
Mill Brig, and the wooded banks of Ale. Leav- 
ing Ancrum we proceede<l by Jedfoot and 
Crailing down sweet Teviotside to Eckford, up 
Kalewater to Morebattle, and on to Yetholm, 
where we halted for the night. The shades 
of evening were rapidly descending as we en- 
tereii the village, and we were glad to seek the 
friendly shelter of the "Plough." Aher a 



rest and an ample meal we sauntered, in the 
faint light of a young moon breaking through 
silvery clouds, to the gipsy village of Kirk 
Yetholm, overshadowed by the grey bulk of 
Stairough and and the adjacent Cheviots. So 
long accustomed to the numerous and inces- 
sant sounds of the city, the quiet of the little 
country village was to us very noticeable. 
When we returned to our quarters for the 
night silence reigned supreme, but for the 
spasmodic efforts of an itinerant musician, who 
fearfully mutilated some of our most familiar 
Scottish airs on that instrument of torture 
known as a tin whistle. Lack of patronage 
apparently caused him to give up his efforts 
in disgust, and with his retiral all sounds of 
life ceased. On the following morning we 
were early astir, and before breakfast again 
visited Kirk Yetholm, which — like its more 
important neighbour and also Morebattle — we 
found greatly altered and improved since the 
days when, with the light-hearted enthusiasm ^ 
of youth, we delighted to roam the banks of 
Kale and Bowmont. September days are 
short, and on an extended tour an early 
start is necessary, sb before long we had once 
more retraced our steps to Morebattle, admir- 
ing, as we walked, the beautiful effect of the 
morning light on the shoulders of the green 
Cheviots. Our next halting place was Cess- 
ford, where we were interested in examining 
the ruins of the great Castle of the Kers, sit- 
uated, like so many other Border strongholds, 
on a conspicuous eminence. By mid-day we 
arrived in Jedburgh, in which most interesting 
and romantically-situated burgh we spent an 
enjoyable hour. Up Castlegate to the Dunion 
is a steep climb^ and we expected to be re- 
warded by an extensive panorama of the Bor- 
derland. We were disappointed. The land- 
scape was smothered in a heat haze, and even 
the near hills were grey and indistinct. At 
Denholm we halted to view^ the monument to 
John Leyden, that true-hearted Borderer, for 
whose gifts and attainments we have always 
had the most profound admiration, and who, 
we venture to think, has not even yet received 
the appreciation his life and work deserve. 
From Denholm to Hornshole is not a far cry, 
and at the famous bridge we crossed the Teviot 
and proceeded by the footpath on the north 
bank of the river to Hawick. The factories 
were '* scaling " as we entered the town, and 
the crowds of operatives on the streets gave us 
some idea of what a hive of industry the 
flourishing Border burgh is. On the evenings 
of Wednesday and Thursday we made our 



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headquarters in the Central Hotel, where we 
were much interested and entertained by the 
racy remarks and conmients on matters in 
general of the genial landlord. Thursday we 
devoted to a visit to Mosspaul. Above Haw- 
ick Teviot well deserves the* appellation of 
"crystal," but in the pools at Hornshole we 
noticed on the previous afternoon that the 
condition of the river was far from satisfac- 
tory. Long may Hawick flourish, but we 
trust that her prosperity does not necessar- 
ily involve the pollution of the sweet river 
whose praises her many poetical sons so love to 
sing. In Upper Teviotdale the monument to 
Henry Scott Riddell is very conspicuous, but 
we should like to know why such a peculiar 
structure — it bears a striking resemblance to 
a badly-shaped extinguisher — has been erected 
to his memory. The motor and the cycle — 
we are often tempted to use uncomplimentary 
language regarding the former, as with its 
weirdly-apparelled occupants it rushes past us 
Sn a cloud of dust — have brought new life to 
the old highway, and the comfortable hostelry 
at the water-shed is a convenitjnt and welcome 
halting-place. The day wears on, and as we 
leave lonely Mosspaul and start on our return 
journey we recollect having heard it said that 
it. is a mistake to go and return by the same 
route. We venture to differ. Objects missed 
in going are seen on returning, and in the 
afternoon light the hills wear a different aspect, 
giving to some extent the c^ffect of novelty. 

On Friday we left Hawick — siomewhat re- 
luctantly be it confessed, for we like the old 
town — and set out for the solitudes of Ettrick 
and Yarrow. We greatly admired the grounds 
of Wilton Lodge as we passed through them in 
the early morning. In no town or city we 
have visited do we remember to have seen such 
a beautiful natural park. If forms an asset 
of which Hawick may well be proud. Soon 
after leaving Wilton Lodge we said good-byo 
to Teviot, and for some miles followed the 
course of Borthwick Water, passing the lonelv 
church of Roberton. Thence to Alemuir and 
Clearburn — two inky pools in the hollow of the 
moorland — and by Buccleuch and Rankleburn 
to Tushielaw. From Tushielaw we crossed to 
Yarrow, and, as the sun was sinking low in 
the western sky, descended the hill to Tib- 
bie's — no fuller description, surely, is neces- 
sary to a. Borderer — ^where we spent the last 
night of our tour. We knew the world-famous 
cottage in the days when only the little 
"wren's nest " stood by the side of the Loch. 
Now the original building is overshadowed and 



eclipsed by the additions recently made, which 
no doubt modern requirements necessitated. 
That evening at St Mary's we shall number 
among the happiest we have ever spent, al-, 
though we passed it in solitude. The associa- 
tions of the place, combined with the exceediag 
beauty of the night — the moon had risen in an 
unclouded sky and the twin lochs had scarce a 
ripple on their surface — raised a feeling akin 
to awe as we thought of the great dead, not 
one or two, but many, who loved those silent 
hills with a love that only ended with death. 
There are many shrinee of genius in Scotland, 
but only one " Tibbie's." We visited Hogg s 
monument on the hillside overlooking the 
lochs. Shame on those who have rendered 
necessary the elaborate fencing by which it is 
now protected. One cannot imagine a Bor- 
derer laying rude hands on the statue of the 
Ettrick Shepherd. The seriee of visitors* 
books, which we were privileged to examine, 
contain much that is interesting, some entries 
that are amusing, and many that are merely 
silly. In this respect visitors' books do not, 
as a rule, vary much. At night there was a 
keen frost, and when we came to view the 
outer world on Saturday morning we f(»und 
everything white as in midwinter. The power- 
ful rays of a brilliant sun, however, soon dis- 
pelled all traces of the Winter King's handi- 
work, and a more beautiful scene than St 
Mary's in the morning light cannot well be 
imagined. Especially striking was the effect 
produced by the sunlit slopes of the hills — In 
places brown with withered heather and golden 
with dying bracken — contrasted with the deep 
blue shadows in the hollows and glens. Good- 
bye St Mary's and the Lowes. Once more we 
are on the road. Soon we pass Cappercleuch 
and Dryhope Tower. The auld kirkyaird of 
St Mary's lies up there on the hillside. 

St Mary 6 Loch lies shimmering still, 
But St Mary's Kirk bell's lang dune ringing! 

There's naething now but the graveetane hill 
To tell o' a' their loud psalm-singing! 

After passing Douglas Burn we lose sight of 
the loch, and the vale of Yarrow lies before 
us. At the Gordon Arms, that well-known re- 
sort of honest anglers, we turn northwards 
towards Paddyslacks. Ere long we have left 
Yarrow valley bdiind us, and in front rise the 
hills of Tweed. The sky is ot an intense blue, 
the few fleecy clouds that are scattered here 
and there of a silvery whiteness, but far-off on 
the northern horizon is an ominous line of 
murky hue. Strange as it may seem, we are 
already within sight of home. That dark line^ 



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more than thirty miles away we know, denotes 
the whereabouts of the capital and its sur- 
roundings. By the bum sides plant life is 
fltill in full vigour. In a shady place, among 
loose stones, we find luxuriant specimens of the 
oak fern. Fain would we take a plant to our 
city home. But why remove these delicate 
creatures from their moist surroundings to the 
polluted atmosphere of the city? For them 
we know that in time the change means cer- 
tain death, so we leave them alone. "Lone 
Glenlude" and Newhall are quickly passed, 
and we find ourselves on familiar ground. The 
Kirk of Traquair lies there on our left. Beau- 
tiful in their autumn colouring are the sur- 
rounding woods. The end of our long journey 
is now in sight. Before us is St Ronan's, that 
little town we " took to " when first we saw it, 
more years ago than we care to remember, and 
which is still a favourite haunt when we are 
free to escape to Tweedside. Quiet and peace- 
ful we found the place, as of yore, and alter a 
needed, rest we entrained for Edinburgh, where, 
after the delays which invariably seem to be 
associated with the " N.B.," we eventually ar- 
rived. As we emerged from the Waverley 
Station we found that a fog overhung the city. 
On a Saturday evening Princes Street **hum8," 
and never before did it appear to us so crowded 
and so unattractive. Fresh from the solitudes 
of the Border hills, we were glad to escape from 
its rush and roar. Though we cannot boast of 
the speed of our Edinburgh cars we arrived, 
without undue delay, at our home in the west- 
em suburbs of the city. After all, home is 
home, and however well we may have been 
searved there is no chair so comfortable as our 
own particular axm-chair, nor any glow so 
cheerful as the light of our ain fireside. 

We have brought to our city home many 
impressions of our tramp in the Borderland. 
There is neither grandeur nor ruggedness in 
the scenery we have witnessed, no huge pre- 
cipices like those of " dark Lochtlagar," which 
we saw only a few days previously from an 
outlying spur of the Grampians, but there is 
everjrwhere a sense of infinite peace, peace after 
warfare, rest after strife, and in that to a great 
extent consists the charm of our Borderland. 
Another feature which struck us, accustomed 
as we are to the isolation of city life, was that 
on every hand were kindly greetings and words 
of welcome. The postmen, policemen, road- 
men, all others we met on our journey, had 
their "Fine day, sir; grand weather for the 
harvest," or some similar greeting, in the hon- 
est Border tongue, which sent a thrill to our 



heart We remembered the days when our 
home was in the Borderland, and we shrinked 
from the thought of leaving it. 

A few practical hints to the intending ped- 
estrian may not be out of place. Walking is, 
in our view, one of the best of recreations. Out 
it is not an exercise to be undertaken by any 
one at a moment's notice. At least average 
strength and a certain amount of training are 
required. There are two golden rules — ^pever 
exert yourself to the verge of exhaustion, and 
take care of the feet. Strong and well-fitting 
boots — nails are not necessary unless hill- 
climbing is included in the programme — are 
essential. Our remarks have no bearing on 
the subject of professional pedestrianism. 
Mileage is a matter of no concern with us, 
and we know nothing of reoordrmaking or 
breaking. All we have endeavoured to show 
is that, with the exercise of common -sense, any 
one of average vigour may spend on foot, with 
comparatively little expenditure of energy, a 
delightful holiday among the hills and valleys 
of the Borderland. 

W. M. 



A Borderer's Lament. 

(Patriae quia exul se quoque fugit.) 
Oh ! were I once more home again, though I should 
only see 
The oold grey haar from off the sea across the 
wide glen drift. 
And blot out all the distance; if a blink of sun 
should be, 
I would welcome it with gladness, for I know 
the mist would lift 
And show me all the hillside. Yet what care I in 
what weather 
I see the place where I was born? I know it out 
and in : 
I see in dreams the grey green and the purple of 
the heather, 
And am half blind with the glory of the honey- 
scented whin. 

The wimpling burn goes flowing, with its waters 
brown with peat, 
I feel my cheek a-tingle with the cold wet north- 
ern air: 
I weary of this, southern land, its blue skies and 
its heat. 
And I sigh in vain for Scotland, and yet what 
should take me there? 
A grave is in a lone kirkyard, where once I laid 
you, dearie. 
And should I e'er win home again 'twould be 
near you to lie; 
I want to rest beside you, though the place 19 
strange and eerie. 
And one hears no sound about it but the whaup's 
wild shuddering cry. 

Mabu Steuakt. 



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TO CORRSSPONDBNTS. TO ADVBRTISSRS, 

Allcommrmicatumsrelating to Literary matUrs should AU 3unne»$ maUers, Advertising Rates, dte., Oumid 

he addressed to the Editor, Mr William Sanderson, he referred to the Publishers, A. Walkke ft Son, 

81 Oxford Drive, Glasgow. High Street, Galashiels 

THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



MARCH, 1907. 
LIST OF CONTENTS. pao. 

The Late Mr Robkrt 8andkrson, Stow. Portrait Supplemejit. 41 

After thk Toil of the Day. One Illustration. By W.S. - - ^ 43 

Poetry : A Border Town. By R. 8. C. 44 

Border Notes and Queries. 44 

Poetry : The Gift of God. By Wili^. H. Ooilvie. 45^ 

A Border Musician. One Uliistration. 4ft 

Poetry: "It's Winter Fairly." By A. G. S. 4ft 

On Tramp in the Borderland. By W. M. 47 

A Borderer's Lament. By Maria Steuart. 4^ 

The BijRDER Keep. By Dominie SAtdPSON. 50 

8MAILH0LM AND Sir Walter Scott By D. Brown Anderson. 5tZ 

The R0.MAN Military Station at Newstead — Ax Appeal. 53- 

The Late Mr Qkorge Lewis. One Illustration. 53 

Newcastleton— LiDDESDALE. Bv James F. Whyte. 54 

Carlyle's Village. By M. E. Hulse. 57 

Maggie Elliot : " A Homance of the Ewes." By 6. M. R. 5ft 

Present Day Border Literature. ; 51^ 

A Border Literary Chr<:»nic?lk. Part IX, 5^ 

EDITORIAL N0TIC8. 

As we stated in a previous issue, we are suffering from an embarraisment of riches, in so far as suitable 
articles are concerned, and we have to draw the attention of our contributors to our short article in tliis issue on 
** Present Day Border Literature." We have occasionally referred' to the suitableness of our bound volumes aft 
presents for Borderers in distant parts, and we have no hesitation in saving the 5/6 so expended will seem sniftll 
when the amount of genuine pleasure to lie derived therefrom is t«ken into consideration. We have abundant 
proof of this in the letters we occasionally receive from ** far ayont the sea." 

The Bopicler Keep, 

The wave of patriotism which has passed over who know much about Border subjects, and to give 
Scotland during these recent months has been the necessary impetus to those who are but be- 
proved to be no mere frothy outburst of senti- ginning the entrancing study. It is pleasant to 
ment, but a deep-rooted desire on the part of all read in the letters I receive from old friends in 
classes to obtain bare justice for our native land. distant lands how the Border Maoazinb comes to 
One healthy sign of the new national movement them as a waft of perfume from the heather hills- 
is that it is not confined to any particular poli- of home and wakens a thousand happy memories, 
tical party, and that men of all shades of opinion * * ♦ 
are beginning to see that the encouragement of a Captain Waring, the new member of Parliament 
true national feeling is the surest way to streng- fo^ Banflshire, is the proprietor of the historic 
then the cords and stakes of our vast Empire. Border estate of Lennel. Though within the con- 
Hold fast to everything that is trueet and best in fines of Scotland, this fair domain is in close prox- 
Scottish character. Keep well before the eyes of imjtv to Merry England. In the eves of the anti- 
the young generation the facts of our stirr^g his- quarv. it claims an interest from the fact that 
tory, and impress upon them that it is possible to the Border Marriage House is situated on the 
attain to the highest position in Imperial affairs grounds. In the good old davs of run-away mar- 
without losing one jot of Scottish nationality. riages this humble dwelling was the obje<'tive of 
* * * many a love-stricken couple. Among these votar- 

I am indebted for the foregoing paragraph to ies of Hymen were numbered Lord Brougham, and 
the '* Glasgow News," and also for those which not a few who afterwards attained eminence in 
follow. It is very pleasing to see so many refer- the service of their country. Captain Waring has 
ences in the daily and evening newspapers to pure- made the unpretentious cottage the object of his 
ly Bonier subjects, and it proves once more that special care, and despite its weather-worn appear- 
there is a glamour about the Borderland and its ance, the quaint-tiled roof and the whitewwashed 
literature which should be prized by every true \*alls are likely to withstand the storms of many 
Borderer. One way of keeping true to our tradi- years. Though an enthusiastic Liberal, the gaU 
tions is by supporting the Border Magazine, which lant Captain has established a link with the Con* 
endeavours to give pleasant reminders to those servative party in the person of his wife. Lady 



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Clementina Waring, who is a daughter of the 
Marquis of Tweeddale. 

* * « 

Recent references to James Grieve, the oldest 
living Scotsman, recall a still more remarkable 
instance of longevity. In the churchyard of Kirk- 
cudbright there is a tombstone erected in memory 
of Billy Marshall, a Qallovidian gipsy chief, who 
is said to have died at the venerable age of 120. 
Born in 1666, Billy fought for King William at 
the battle of the Boyne. and continued to guide 
the fortunes of the Marshall clan at the time when 
the National Bard was struggling against the 
caprice© of fortune. This remarkable record can 
scarcely be regarded as a reward for a temper- 
ate and a' well-regulated life, as- Billy was an 
ardent devotee of the flowing bowl, and the deeds 
of violence that were popularly laid to his charge 
included at least one act of murder. Joseph Train, 
the author of an interesting volume entitled, " The 
Buchauites from First to Last," supplied Sir Wal- 
ter Scott with a narrative of the outstanding in- 
cidents in Billyhs career; and the gipsj-'s consort. 
Flora Marshall, is generally supposed to have sug- 
gested some of the characteristics of Meg Merri- 
lees. Pi««vo6t M'Cormick, of Newton-Stewart, who 
has left no stone unturned to collect all the stray 
anecdotes regarding Billy, has thrown fresh light 
on the escapades of the gipsy patriarch in the 
recently-published " Tinker Gipsies of Galloway." 
* * * 

AVith reference to the foregoing paragraph re- 
garding Billy Marshall, it may be of interest to 
know that a descendant of his is livpg at the 
present day. He was born in Girvan about 
seventy 3 ears ago, and inherits the name as well 
as some ^f the " pe<ruliaritie8 " of his more fam- 
ous namesake. He is a well-known figure in Car- 
rick, where he pursues his trade of bass-making, 
and does it well, too, for, no matter how far 
" gone " a mat may be, Billy does not refuse it. 
In his day he was one of the finest runners in 
Scotland, and won the Powderhall Handicap twice 
OP thrice in succession. A great admirer of the 
National Bard, it is his proud boast that no one 
can ask any question regarding the poems he can- 
not aUHwer. The last time I saw him we had a 
talk together, and the information above I got 
from himself. Billy is proud of his descent, and 
of the monument in Kirkcudbright church (where 
the first Billy is buried) with the scutcheon de- 
corated with two tup's horns and two cutty spoons. 
•X- # # # 

I am possessed of sufficient 'Confidence in the lit- 
erary disoiimination of the readers of 'Xorgnette" 
to believe that they are acquainted with the writ- 
ings of him who once was styled " The Wizard of 
the North," and particularly with " The Heart of 
Midlothian," one of his most popular works. Yet 
I wonder how many could answer straight away 
the question — ** What was the name of Madge 
Wildfire's mother?" The question was propound- 
ed the other day by one of a company of* three, 
who had been discussing the book. All three are 
thoroughly familiar with the various scenes and 
incidents of the novel, were aware, that Madge's 
mother was a scoundrelly old hag, and knew ex- 
actly whetk and where she appears, and what she 
does and attempts to do. but not one could answer 
the question. Hack their memories as they would, 
the name would not come, although each had it 



"on the tip of his tongue." A tantalising pause 
occurred in the conversation, and latterly it was 
tacitly agreed to change the subject.- Next day the 
three friends again met. '* Oh, I say," said the 
first, "I've got that name." *' It's 'Meg Murdotk- 
son,' " said the second. *' Of course," remarked 
the third. But all three admitted that they had 
looked it up the previous evening. 
•N- « « « 

There is no doubt that we live in a much more 
enlightened age than our fathers, but it is some- 
what surprising to find that it was only a bun- 
dled years ago since gas was first used aS an 
illuminant, and Pall Mall, London, was the first 
street of any city to be lighted. The iuventor was 
a William Murdoch, a native of Ayrshire, engaged 
at the Kedneth mines, Cornwall, and made his 
first experiments in 1792. The credit of bringing 
the light to London belongs to a German, named 
^^'inser. It is astonishing to find Sir Walter Scott 
writing from London that ^ there was a madman 
proposing to light liondon with— what do you 
think ?— smoke. It was not until 5th of Septem* 
ber, I8I9, that it was introduced into Glasgow. It 
was in the window of James Hamilton, grocer, 
128 Trongate. that the g:as first " saw the light/' 
The event created great consternation among the 
old wives of the city, who prophesied that the very 
smell would spoil 4:he flavour of the tea and other 
household goods. However, he stuck to his experi- 
ment " for twa or three nichts to see how the 
light -got on. However, his shop instead of being 
deserted became highly popular, and a great at- 
traction to the young folks. 

# * « # 

In placing the ancient sand-glass near the pul- 
pit of the parish church, the kirk-session of llothe- 
say have made a departure, that might well b© 
widely copied. In the good old days of long ser- 
mons, a sand-glass kept the congregation in touch 
with the progress of the sermon, and was conse* 
quently an object of interest to many eager eyes* 
Bound the time recorder of Sanquhar Church an 
interesting story centres. In the days of perse- 
cution, the curate of this parish was a genial 
divine named Kirkwood. One Saturday afternoon 
this reverend gentleman was summoned to Sanqu- 
har Castle, where the Marquis of Queensberry 
was entertaining Lord Airly. The curate's jokes 
and stories provided no little merriment for the 
company, and every time he attempted to leave 
the room. Lord Airly arrested his progress with 
the words, " One glass more, and then." At the 
service of the following day, the curate preached 
from the text. " The Lord will destroy the wicked, 
and that early." And his audience were not slow 
to recojzfiise that the word early was always pro- 
nounced^with an added emphasis, and a knowing 
glance at the gallery, where the boon companions 
of the previous evening were seated. At the close 
of a sermon of unusual length, the preacher shout- 
ed to his precentor. ** Jasper, turn the sand-glass, 
for I mean to have another glass, and then." A 
second time the sand ran its course, and again 
the same command was issued. Not until an 
ample revenge had been exacted was the congre- 
gation dismissed; and it is unnecessary to add 
that, long before the moment of release, the coun- 
tenances of the unfortunate noblemen indicated 
that they had paid a heavy penalty for their re- 
cent conviviality. Dominie Sampson. 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 




Smailholm and Sir Walter Scott. 

THOUGH Abbotsford, Meb-ose, and 
Dryburgh will always be the 
sbrines to which pilgrims will 
flock to do homage to the memory 
of Sir Walter Scott, it is most fitting that 
any place connected with him from infancy to 
age should be regaitied with interest, and 
have that interest stamped with the sign of a 
memorial ; therefore it is with great satisfac- 
tion we have to record the recent gathering 
at the Parish Church of Smailholm, where a 
dedication service was held on the occasion of 
there being unveiled a memorial window to 
Scott's memory, the unveiling being done by 
Lord Binning, who afterwards gave to the 
audience an appreciation of Scott in words 90 
eloquent as to manifest that his lordship is 
a man of considerable gifts. Previous to this 
"appreciation,** a sermxwi was preached by the 
Rev. William L. Sime, M.A., minister of the 
parish, and the audience viewed the window 
on which there is inscribed "1907. To the giory 
of God and in memory of Sir Walter Scott, 
Bart., whose home wa* in this parish, 1773- 
1778." It will be in the kno^vledge of many 
readers that for five years the infapt Scott, 
of delicate frame and feeble health, was care- 
fully tended by his grandpa-rents at the farm 
of Sandyknowe, near Smailholm, and that, 
having been nurtured here with the greatest 
kindness, the young mind drank in such in- 
spiration as he was capable of, while through 
after life he cherished in fondest memory 
Smailholm Tower, the Crags, the farm-liouse 
and fields, all so vividly imprinted on his in- 
fant memory. 

So great has be6«i the enthusiasm raised by 
Scott's influence and popularity that it is a 
great wonder why no memorial had hitherto 
been placed at Smailholm to record his youth- 
ful days spent here. ' Of course, a good deal 
has been said regarding these five years in 
"The Life" and in Scott's own Journal, but 
this tangible commemoration was wanting to 
complete his identification with Smailholm. 
The Earl of Haddington is the chiej local 
proprietor, and Lord Binning, his son and 
heir, was the chief speaker at the inauguration 
of the window, which represents in one light 
a figure of St Giles for Edinburgh, in the 
other of St Outhbert for Smailholm^ the 
saint's home in youth. St Giles is represent- 
ed as preaching and pointing to his pilgrim 
BtaS, which forms a cross. St Outhbert 
stands on the green surf-beaten rodk at Lin- 
disfame, clasping the Holy Book, emblematic 
of his devotion to sacred learning, while be- 



hind in the distance is a church, significant 
of his fame as a founder of churches. Lord 
Binning, a gallant soldier, is also a true 
Borderer, with the well-known family ability, 
and in our opinion no better speech could 
have been delivered than that which came 
from his lordship's lips. "It was hard by 
there," said Lord Binning, "that a little lam© 
boy first looked out over the country famous 
in Border history, and with his earliest imr 
pressions eagerly drank in the legends of 
doughty deeds and the echoes of minstrelsy." 
The view from/ his child's seat on the rocks 
imder the tower was described, and the silver 
Tweed he loved ; by Tweed he built his 
stately mansion, and when the last moments 
came its gentle ripple lulled him to sleep. 
Scott's genius invested Scotland with a new. 
lustre, a source of endless delight and study 
for generatioi^s to come ; his lilting stanzas 
ring on the ear like the jingling of bridle and . 
stirrup, the clash of steei, or the measured 
beat of a good horse's stride. Wliile dis- 
claiming the r61e of preacher, Lord Binning 
gave a deeply impressive lay sermon on the 
Job-like spirit and philosophy with which our 
hero, ruined by financial entanglement at the 
age of 55, ^set himself to the taik from which . 
men twenty years younger might have 
shnink in sheer dismay — ^the herculean task of 
paying off a gigantic debt. Did they say the 
author's reputation suffered by the feverish 
liaste of writing with the sands of life running 
out? then what of his reputation as a man? 
Broken in health, broken in spirit, to the last 
bravely striving, he gave gold for silver, the 
gold of his genius and human kindliness. To 
quote a favourite author: "If to such a one 
there remains barely enough silver to moke a 
plate for his coffin, surely the srold he' gave is 
still in his possession, and has beeiii beaten 
out into an imperishable crown for him in 
heaven." Concluding his remarks on this, 
the saddest and most tragic phase of Scott's 
life, struck from the height of his prosi>erity 
and the summit of his ambition, and denied 
his well-earned repose in the house he had 
built for his declining years, Loixl Binning 
said : "This, then, I think, is the most im- 
pressive lesson of a noble life, fortitude, 
single-heartedness, and the undaunted cour- 
age of the Scottish Borderer, which is our 
birtliright ; and when I think of the brave old 
man battling to the last with the storm of 
cares and troubles whicli was overwhelming 
him, I am irresistibly reminded of a fine 
stanza in 'The Lay of the Last Minstrel,' 
when the hardy mosstrooper, William of 



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Deloraine, swims the river on his journey to 
Mehx)8e: 

Never heavier man and horse 
Stemm'd a midnight torrent's force, 
Yet through good heart and our Ladye's 

grace 
At length he gained the landing place. 

Yesl through good heart! and when the 
old hero passed the river we may be sure 
that, as for Christian in "Pilgrim's Progrefis," 
the trumpet sounded for him on the other 
side, and even as the cliisel of "Old 
Mortality" kept green the memory of more 
ignoble clay, so may this beautiful window for 
years to oome (keep ever green with us the 
memory of' one of Scotland's greatest sons." 
Those readers who may not know Smail- 
holm will find a succinct account of the place 
in the "Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland," in 
which Scott's connection with the place is 
beautifully told. 

D. Brown Andebson. 




The Roman Military Station at 
Newstead. 

(AN APPEAL). 

fEVERAL articles on the wonderful 
discoveries of Roman remains at 
Newstead, near Melrose, have ap- 
peared in the pagee of the Border 
Magazine, 'and therefore we have no hesita- 
tion in giving publicity to the appeal for funds 
which has recently been issued by the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, which bears the 
entire expense of the excavations — a burden 
which shoidd really be borne by the nation. 
The appeal is signed by the president, Sir Her- 
bert Maxwell, Bart., and runs thus - — 

The results of the exploration of the Roman 
station at Newstead, so far as it has been accom- 
plished, are described in the report herewith. It 
will bd seen that the number and quality of the 
objects recovered, and the light thrown upon the 
structure and arrangements of this great station, 
are of the highest importance to archaeology. But 
much remains to be done, and it would be disap- 
I>ointing to have to discontinue work which has 
been so fruitful until the whole site has been ex- 
amined. The funds already subscribed have been 
applied most carefully under the personal super- 
vision of Mr James Curie, who, fortunately for 
the interests of archaeology, resides close to the 
spot. 

But these funds are well-nigh exhausted, and 
part of the camp itself has not been opened; the 
northern and western defences are untouched; the 
eastern annex has not been fully excavated; and 
the western annex contains buildings which it is 



very desirable to examine, as being likely to yield 
indications of dates of occupation. The cemetery 
has not yet been discovered, nor has the founda- 
tion of the bridge across the Tweed. r* 
In these circumstances, 1 venture ^o make a 
strong appeal to Fellows of the Society and others 
interested in the early history of our country to 
contribute ^o the completion of the work so well 
begun and carried on. Subscriptions of any 
amount, however small, may be sent either to 
Joseph Anderson, Esq., LL.D., National Museuii 
of Antiquities, Queen Street, Edinburgh; or te 
James Curie, Esq., Priorwood, Melrose. 



The Late Mr George Lewis. 

N the issue of the Border Magazine 
for 1901 (No. 69, Vol. VI.) will be- 
found an account of the interesting 
and strenuous life-history of 
Mr George Lewis, Selkirk, who died on 
January 14, 1907, aged eighty-two years. Mr 
Lewis' character wa« many-sided, and his later 
years were characteristic of his whole career. 





THE LATE MR (JEURGE LEWIS. 

With unwearied purpose and firm faith in God 
he sought to bring into public life that spirit 
of righteousness which alone can make a peo- 
ple both great and happy. Whatever militat- 
ed against that spirit seemed to him- a thing 
to be utterly abhorred, and to be trodden 
under foot by every earnest-minded man. 
Hence the strong position which he took up 
towards such questions as social reform, tem- 
perance, politics, and religion. 



Honour is a homicide and a bloodspiller, that 
gangs about making frays in the street ; but 
Credit is a decent honest man, that sits at harae 
and makes the pat play. — "Rob Roy." 



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Newcastleton— Llddesdale. 

jIDDESDALE before the Union of uie 
Crowns was the scene of many a 
Border raid, and viewing the pea£e- 
ful village of Newcastleton from the 
Holm Hill, the thought come« into 
one's mind that Sir Walter had the hangh or 
i^eadow ujx>n which it stands befoi'e his eyes, 
as the place where the English crossed the 
river, when he wrote the Ihies in the "Lay of 
the Last Minstrel," in which Watt Tinl inn from 
the Liddellgide describes the approach of the 
Englisii foe : — 

Belted Will Howard is marching here, 
And hot Lord Dacre with many a spear. 
And all the German hack-but men 
Who have long lain at Askerten ; 
They croesed the Liddell at curfew hour. 
And burned my little, lonely tower. 

The village is pleasantly situated on the 
liorth-west bank of the Liddell Water, about 
three miles from the bordei-s of Cumberland. 
It is of comparatively modem construction, 
having been built little over A, hundred years 
ago. The earliest housefB bear the date 1793, 
the year in whicli building was commenced. 
To a stranger entering the village for the first 
time tJie most striking feature* are the width 
and regularity of the streets and squares, the 
marvellous air of cleanliness and tidiness which 
prevails everywhere, and the fact that eveiy- 
body 'keeps a collie dog. The main street is 
on the line of the road from Canonbie to Jed- 
burgh, and from this street several cross streets 
run at rijrht angles. In the centre tliere is a 
large square, and near the south and north ends 
there are smaller squares. The large centre 
square, where the houses ai-e all two stories 
in heiglit, was used as a market place before 
the ef?tajl>lishment of an auction mart in the 
village. There are also a immber of houses 
facing Liddell Water. In many cases the older 
houses liave been replaced by houses of modern 
build and more substantial size. Tlie Duke 
of Buccleuch is superior of the village, and is 
the only landed proprietoi" in the immediate 
neigh]x)ur]io()d, except the proprietor of the 
estate of Whithaugh, on the eastern side of 
the Liddell. The house**, with one-eighth of 
an acre of o^arden ground to each, were origin- 
ally held of the Duke on long leases of ninety- 
nine years' duration. On« the expiry of these 
len^ies al>0'Ut ten years ago, the householders 
wore given the option, of having their holdings 
converted into feus on fair terms as to pur- 
chase price and feu-duty, and this the majority 
of them agreed to. Each householder has right 



to a cow's grass on the common grazing oi» 
Holm Hill, for which he pays an annual sum^ 
This common grazing was formerly managed by 
a committee of three* "bailies," as they >^ere 
called, elected by the householders, but the 
management is now in the hands of the .Duke. 
During the months when the oows are grazed 
on the Common it is^an interesting sight to 
see the large herd coming home in the even- 
ing, and to watch the sagacious creatures mak- 
ing for their respective byres. Besides the 
right to a cow's grass, each householder ha^ 
about two acres of Holm land. Stretching out 
southwards on both sides of Liddell Water for 
nearly a nule, and extending up the faces of 
the hills to the dykes separating them from the 
lough hill pasture, are to be observed small 
areas of ground enclosed by beautiful hedges. 
These are the acres of holm land. They are 
all laid down in grass, with here and there a 
small patch of potatoes. They look exactly 
like crofts, but they are never ploughed — ^the 
tenants preferring to cut the natural grass in 
early autumn and make hay of it to serve for 
fodder for their cows in winter. After the hay 
is gathered in, they put on their oows and 
calves, or a few sheep, to eat off the after- 
math. 

When tlie village was built hopes were enter-, 
tained that it would develop into a large in- 
dustrial centre like Galasiiiels or Hawick. The 
situatic^i was good : there was the close 
proximity to an unlimited supply of water, 
which could be used for all purposes where 
power waa necessary ; peats were to be had on 
all sides ; and it lay in the centre of a pastoral 
district affording wool in abundance. With 
such advantages eveiything pointed to New- 
castleton becoming a centre of the woollen in- 
dustry. However, even* with the advent of the 
railway, nothing was ever done in this direction, 
whether it wais, as is most probable, from the 
lack of some man of enterprise to make a be- 
ginning, or from some other cause. With the 
exception! of the shopkeepers and a few artizans, 
such as masons, joiners, shoemakers, and 
^'doggers," the inliabitants are all engaged i» 
pastoiul pursuits. Indeed, the village owes its 
size and importance to the fact that instead of 
being spread over the country — a house on each 
croft, as one sees in the Highlands—the houses 
where the crofters live have been built in 
streets. Many of the inhabitants are retired 
shepherds, and during the ha}^ hai'vest one may 
see these men and their wive* and unmarried 
daughters busily engaged on the small fields. 
The climate is very healthy, a» is testified by 



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the number of old people wHomi one meets 
-walking on, the roads to and from their hay- 
making, and by the sturdy, fair-haired children 
(who nearly all wear dogs) playing in the 
fitreeta. 

Although little frequented by tourists and 
Bumoner visitors, those in search of a quiet, 
restful holiday could discover no more attrac- ' 
tive haven. Tliere are many delightful walks 
in the neighbourhood, and good fishing in the 
streams. To mention the name of Liddesdale 
is to conjure up wealth Of historical recollec- 
tions. The road from Canonbie to Jedburgh 
passes through the village. Leaving the vil- 
lage from the northern end, the road runs 
within sight of Liddell Water and the beauti- 
ful woods on Whithaugh estate for about a 
mile and a-haJf, when we come to Hermitage 
AVater at its junction with Liddell. Here the 
Hermitage is spanned by a substantial stone 
bridge, erected in 1792. At the junction of 
the waters on the further side of the bridge 
stands Castleton Parish Kirk, and further up 
the river Liddell on the opposite bank stood 
the Liddell Tower or Castle which gave name 
to the parish (Castletown), with the old village 
of Castleton adjoining. Few traces of these 
ancient buildings remain. Soon after passing 
the church, we have the manse on our left, 
standing within a fine garden. The road now 
rises high, and from the cemetery a splendid 
view of the hills on both sides of the dale, 
and of the more distant mountains to thd west 
of the Cheviot range, presents itself. 

Retracing our steps to the bridge over the 
Hermitage, we find the road to Hawick on our 
right hand. This road lies along the left bank 
of the gently-flowing Hermitage Water, and 
for a mile or two the banks of that stream 
are well wooded. Further on the wood dis- 
appears, and the country assumes more of a 
moorland character. Four and a-half miles 
from ihe bridge, we reach the famous Hermitage 
Castle. It is said to be the best preserved 
of the border castles, and has been in the hands 
of many noble families. Here lived the wizard 
Lord Soulis, and close at haind are the Druid 
remflins known as the Nine Stane Rig, upon 
which was set the cauldron in which the wizard 
was boiled. Here gallant Sir Alexander de 
Ramsay was foully stan^ed fo death by the 
Flower of Chivalry, Sir W^illiam de Douglas, 
whom Sir Walter Scott styles "Dark Knight of 
Liddesdale." The Reverend Jajnes Arkle, 
lAinister of the parish, who wrote the Old 
Statistical Account in 1793, mentions that some 
years, previous to that date a mason who was 



building a dyke in the neighbourhood had the 
curiosity to penetrate into a vault at the east 
end of the castle. In this vault he found 
several human bones, a sword, a saddle, and 
a bridle. Hie bit was of unconimoci size. 
King David II. had appointed Ramsay to be 
Sheriff of Teviotdale in room of Douglas. Con- 
sumed by jealousy, the Knight of Liddesdale 
burst in upon the Shei-iff when he was holding 
a Court, carried him off to Hermitage, and 
cast him, along with his horse furniture, into a 
dungeon. It is highly probable that the 
bones were those of Sir Alexander. Tlie niini- 
feter states that the curb of t!he bit is in the 
possession of "Walter Scott, Esq., Advocate." 
Something in Sir Walter's line we shooild sny ! 
Queen Mary came to Hermitage on one occa*«iion 
to visit Bothwell, who was lying there wounded. 
She came from Jedburgh and leturned in one 
day. Surely an extraordinary feat for a lady 
in those days, when we remember tliat the road 
was over mountains and through morasses al- 
most impassable. 

What is now known as the parish of Castle- 
t-on (which, by the way, is the largest parish in 
the South of Scotland, being eighteen miles in 
length by fourteen miles in breadth) was of old 
ki.own £S Liddlesdale — the dale watered by the 
Liddell. Prior to the War of Independence, 
Liddesdale was in the hands of a NonnaJi family 
of the name of Wake, and by the Treaty of 
Northampton King Robert the Bruce should 
have restoi^ these lands to their owners. They 
had, however, been given to the Douglases, and 
for fear of stirring up discontent nearer home 
the Treaty was never carried out As Sir 
Herbert Maxwell tells in his interesting "His- 
tory of the House of Douglas/" the Flower of 
Chivalry coerced or cajoled the lands of Liddes^ 
dale from Hugh the Dull, brother of the good 
Lord James^ and son of Sir William le Hardi, 
Hugh was palish priest of Old Roxburgh, with 
no taste aiid no training for warfare (hence his 
sobriquet "Tlie Dull''), and therefore, in the 
opinion of a doughty champion like Sir William, 
ill-fitted to hold a frontier estate. After this 
tramsactioij. Sir William, who was of the family 
of Douglas of Lothian, is always known as the 
"Knight of Liddesdale." Somehow it would 
seem that this Flower of Chivalry was at times 
engaged in deeds which were the reverse of 
chivalrous. Liddesdale remained in the 
Douglas family until 1441, when it was given 
to the Earl of Bothwell, James IV. deeming it 
very undesirable that such a doubtful patriot 
a.j Archibald "Bell the Cat" should hold lands 
on the frontier. 



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Varying our walk, tkis time we leave New- 
. castletoii from the southern end. Straight 
ahead lies the road to Canonbie. The road 
runs for about a mile through the meadorw land 
on the right bank of the Liddell. In the last 
of the small fields on our right hand, at a place 
called Milnholm, just at the foot of the road 
leading up to the quaintly-situated Ettletawn 
churchyard, and looking across the river to 
Mangerton, stands a cross of stone eight feet 
four inches high, set in a base one foot eight 
inches. On the face of the cross is cut a re- 
presentation of a sword, and above the sword 
are several letters. Tradition hath it that this 
cross was set up in memiory of the treacherous 
murder of Armstrong of Mangerton (''Kinmont 
Willie'") by a governor of Hermitage — either a 
Lord 8oulis or a Lord Douglas — who was 
secretly jealous of the power and influence of 
Armstrong, and that, notwithstanding that 
Armstrong had just saved his life in an en- 
counter little to the credit of the Governor. 
The Governor was in turn killed by "Jook o' 
the Side,'* Armstrong's brother. 

The road is now beautifully wooded for some 
distance, c^ommanding very fine views of the 
Liddell and the woods on the opposite share 
above where Mangerton Tower stood, and higher 
up the conspicuous eminence called Carby Hill. 
Emerging from the wood, a wide stretch of open 
country lies before our eyes, with green hills 
and many fertile farms, recalling memories of 
"Dandie Dinmont" and the "Charlieshope." 

Close to the southern end of Newcastleton, 
the Canonbie roaxi is joined by another road on 
the left. On one ai'm of the finger-post we 
read, "Brampton, 20 niilesi" Following lh«j 
road, we cross the Liddell by a good bridge, 
built in 1793, and a little further on we cro^s 
the romantic Tweeden Bum (famous for its 
petrifying spring) flowing through a beautiful 
wood to join the Liddell. Ascending the brae, 
we come in sight of Carby Hill, with the re- 
nwdns of a Roman Camp on its summit. This 
hill is detached from all others, and commands 
a wide pixDspect embracing a large part of 
Cumberland, and on a clear day the distant 
Solway and the blue outline of the Dumfries- 
shire hilla About three miles from Newcastle- 
ton we reach the Kershope Bum, which is here 
the boundary between Engls/jd and Scotland. 
This is a wild mountain stream running among 
green hills — just an ideal spot for tlie angler 
who delights in fishing the hill bums. On the 
way back to Newcastleton the view of the hills 
ia lovely. The verdant wooded hills on either 
side of the dale and the more distant mountain 



barrier form a picture which one never tires of 
gazing upon. 

Many other fine walks are to be had in the 
la^nes between the crofts and by the banks of 
the Liddell and the Black Bum, with its beau- 
tifying cascades and natural bridge, but we 
must not forget the Langholm Koad. Cross- 
ing the railway, we strike a, steep mountain 
road through part of the common grazing on 
Holm Hill, and turning to the south-west adong 
the back of that hill. This is the road to 
Langholm. It is entirely unfenced, and is the 
most exclusively highland road in the neigh- 
bourhood. A magnificent panorama of the 
town and of the whole district is to be had 
from it. One catches glimpses of the smoke 
from the trains on the railway as they wind 
their way among the hills, even as far off as 
Riccarton Junction. On either side of this 
road are to be seen the mosses from which tlie 
villagers cut their supplies of peat. 

One remarkable feature of all the roads is 
their solitude- A tramp is "rara avis," and 
very seldom do we meet with anyone walking, 
on the roads after we have got out a short 
distance from the village. The day before one 
of the large auction sales is, however, an ex- 
ception. Then the roads are crowded with, 
flocks of sheep, or with cattle coming from all 
directions. 

Tlie roads are of comparatively modem con- 
struction, as may be seen from the following- 
extract, taken from a long paragraph, in which 
the writer of the old statistical account bewails 
the want of roads in his day. 

It must appear stranga to any person acquainted 
with the improvements which other parts of Scot- 
land have received b^ means of roads when it is 
mentioned that in this very extensive country not 
a yard of road had ever been attempted to be 
formed till within thee© few years. For about 16 
miles along the Liddell the road lay rather in the- 
river than upon it« banks, the only path being in 
what is called the Watergate, and the unhappy 
traveller must cross it at least twenty-four times 
in that extent. The same thing still takes place 
ia respect to the Hermitage so far as it runs. 
There is much intercourse with both Hawick and" 
Langholm by weekly markets, fains, &c., and the 
difficulty of travelling to those places is inconceiv- 
able. Every article must be carried on horseback, 
and through these deep and broken bogs and mosses 
we must crawl, to the great fatigue of ourselves, but 
to the much greater injury of our horses, without 
the hope of a more comfortable mode of travelling. 

Truly, we may well say in this twentieth- 
century that our lives have fallen in pleasant 
places. 

The fishing is under the control of the Esk. 



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and Liddell Fisheries Association, whose head- 
quarters are at Langholm. Tickets, Is 6d per 
day and 12s for the season, can be obtained 
from the local representative of the County 
Police, who is himself a keen angler. Trout 
fishing is good in the Liddell and Hermitage 
waters, and in the Kershope and Black bums, 
all within easy reach. In autumn sea trout 
and herling are caught in the Liddell. 

The district abounds in game, and even close 
to the roads, grouse, black-game, hares, and 
rabbits are frequently seen. In one of the 
small fields close to the village the writer ob- 
served three hares disporting themselves quite 
unconcernedly. Weasels often dart across the 
road, and sometimes a craigit' heron rises from 
the bed of the river, disturbed at its fishing. 
The owl and the hawk are also met with occas- 
ionally. But enough has been said to prove 
the varied interest of Newcastleton. 

Jam^s F. Whtte. 




Carlyle's Village. 

iHREE things help greatly to due 
appreciation of Tliomas Carlyle as 
a. man, — Whistler's portrait of 
him in Glasgow Fine Art Galler- 
ies ; Ecclefechan ; and *'Sartor Resartus." 

"All is vanity'* might well have been 
written under the picture of the world-weary, 
introspective old man. He gave great 
wealth of thought to mankind, but mingled 
with it so much contemptuous straight 
speaking that it is scarcely to be wondered at 
that recognition of his greatness was slow in 
coming. 

Impatient of worries, irritable through ill- 
health, married to a wife from a diflFerent 
station of life, thrown into a society he despis- 
ed, it was impossible for him to find happi- 
He writes: — *'I sojourned in that 
tuberosity of civilised life, the 
England, and meditated, and 
de«tiny, under that ink sea of 
. . and was one lone soul amid 
those grinding millions." 

He was a true son of the lowland Scottish 
village where he was bom on December 4th, 
1795. He broke loose from the stern 
theology, but never fromi the strict naorality 
of the people to whom he belonged, and his 
parents represented to him the highest types 
of humanity. 

So it comes that Ecclefechan has a special 



monstrous 
capital of 
questioned 
vapour, 



interest to Carlyle's admirers, and the 
humble white-washed house in the village 
street where he was bom, together with the 
plain enclosure in the churchyard where he 
was laid to rest in February, 1881, have 
many visitors. 

An ordinary Border village is this of Eccle- 
fechan, principally consisting of one long 
street, which widens into a market square in 
the centre. But let Carlyle describe it. "The 
traveller, when turning some hill range in 
his desert road descries, lying far below 

. . the fair town ... Its white 
steeple is then truly a starward-pointing 
figure. . . . What thousand thoughts 
unite, if the place has to ourselves been the 
arena of joyous or mournful experiences ; if 
perhaps the cradle we were rocked in still 
stands there, if our loving ones still dwell 
there, if our buried ones there slumber." 

Entepfuhl does not reproduce Ecclefechan 
with photographic exactitude, but the real 
and the ideal villages alike stand "in trust- 
ful derangement among the woody slopes," 
and "the little Kuhbach gushes kindly by 
among beech rows," in both. 

The ^ikind beech rows of Entepfuhl,'* an 
avenue of great trees leading to the 
parish church at Hoddom, about two miles 
away, give the place a quite* distinctive char- 
acter, especially on a hot August day ; when, 
through the trees, are seen "the toil-worn 
craftsmen" binding the wheat or barley into 
sheaves, toiling "for the altogether indispens- 
able, for daily bread." 

Alas, for a prophet in his own country I 
The birthplace, one of a row of white- 
washed cottages, built by Carlyle's father, is 
well kept up, and the room devoted to por- 
traits and relics is intelligently shown, but 
what would Carlyle have said to a "Resartus 
Reading Room"? Perhaps the alliteration 
appealed to the namers, regardless of sense I 

The woman in charge of the churchyard 
remembers Carlyle quite well, but "did not 
think much of him" I 

Another native said that her family for 
four generations back lay in Hoddom kirk- 
yard, but she had "never troubled to read 
any o' Carlyle's books, and lots o' folks in 
Ecclefechan 'hadn't." 

Perhaps that is scarcely strange ; for, 
though the great writer was so decidedly a 
man of the people, and' such a thorough-going 
champion of work and workers, his style was 
somewhat too obscure and pedantic at times 
to be easily understood by simple folk. 



M. E. HuLSB. 



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Magrgie Elliot: A ''Romance of 
the Ewes." 

^BS!P|[^^B E have yet another book from 
^K^np^^ the Border, the home of poets 
gp HM Ig and poetry. Tliis time the 
^^fc«S> volume hails from the pastoral 
valley of the Ewee, whose natural beauties 
And stirring associations have frequently in- 
spired the divine flow of eloquence aiid song. 
Afifain and again the picturesque dale, from 
tv'hich poets have sprung, has set in motion 



spontaneous, with not a little swing and 
buoyance. Whilst many of the pieces show a 
marked vein of himiour, others have a deej), 
earnest, religious tome. That the writer is a 
lover of the true and beautiful in man and in 
nature is evident throughout the boo'k. 

The "Romance of the Ewes," which 
furnishes a name for the volume, takes the 
reader back to the timee of the raiders, and 
tells a story of the tragic love of a typical 
Borderer and a lovely maiden of the Elliot 
clan. The interest is well maintained 




9?7.au^ l^^-l 



the pen« of many in no way connected with 
the Borderland. 

The author of the volume with the above 
attractive title, Mr Matthew Welsh, whose 
verses are well known to readers of Border 
newspapers, is a native of Eweedale. Here 
he has spent his more than three score and 
ten years. Writing poetry has been a hobby 
with him during the larger part of his life. 
The book before us now is part of the fruits 
of those years, and a most creditable produc- 
tion it is. 

The volume runs into 264 pages and 
covers a wide range. There are sonnets, 
hymns, memoriam, political, and numerous 
miscellaneous pieces, in addition to the prin- 
ciple poem. These show a style pleasing and 



throughout the poeniL Its vivid and vigoi'ous 
pictures recall the towers, keeps, feuds, 
forays, and daring Border deeds of those far- 
off days. Under the spell of the romance 
the poetic mind sees the delightful 
dell through which the Ewes flows as it was 
when the Elliots and Armstrongs held sway 
in the Borderland. 

It would ha.ve been a pleasure to give eoc- 
tracts from the romance and the other 
shoater pieces, as these are full of quotable 
material. Space, however, only permits of two 
extracts from Mr Welsh's verses. There are 
several poems on the ]x»et's native and 
''queen of Border glens,'' the Ewes. Hero 
js a sample: — 



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Sec^uestered vale ! my loved, my native Ewes, 

Thy beauty's worthy of a nobler song, 

Nor can these broken notes express the strong 

Unnttered thoughts that thrill my rustic muse. 

Nor can she the congenial task refuse 

l^o sing thy limpid streams that wend among 

The stately hills, whose outlines sweep along 

The azure sky in peaceful lines profuse, 

And when the shady eve distils its dews. 

The swell and cadence of thy gushing rills 

Murmuring soft music to the listening hills, 

Can o'er the soul a soothing bliss diffuse ; 

Vale of the Kwes no fairer gem I trow 

Is in the crown that circles Scotia's brow," 

Among the poems where tlie author is seen at 
his be«t "Destitute'* must find u, place. With 
tender touch and much patlios the story of 
a woman bereft of all is finely told. She 
lives her life over again on the night of her 
death, and: — 

*' Again she entered with womanly pride, 
Through the cottage door a happy young bride ; 
Acain her heart danced to the music sweet, 
. Of her childrens' pattering romping feet. 
As they ran out and in with boisterous glee. 
And played round the door or rolled on the lea ; 
Again she was stroking their golden hair. 
As they lisped in her lap their evening prayer." 

Rather thaji quote further we urge our 
readers to procure a copy for themfielves. 
He boo^k is published by Mr R. Scott, Laiig- 
hobn, and is well got up. It ought to be a 
welcome additiou to Border libraries. TIio 
illustrations of local scenery and portrait^5 of 
Border men greatly enhance the volume, and 
are sure to make it acceptable to Borderers 
abroad. 

Tlie • Rev. George Orr writes the introduc- 
tion with much sympatJiy and skill. The 
preliminary sketch by the author is a bit of 
delightful reading. Life in the south in the 
early part of last century is depicted in a 
manner which creates an appetite for moi-e. 
Indeed, Mr Welsh would do well to give his 
autobiography at greater length. Few could 
furnish a bett-er picture of the valley of the 
Ewiefl in the old times. 

G. M. R. 



Present Day Border Literature. 

HEN tlie Border Magazine was 
first started, twelve years ago, 
a friend and contributor ex- 
preeaed the fear that we would 
not be able to confine the publication to strict- 
ly Border matters owing to the lack of mater- 
ial, but we felt confident that the supply would 
not become exhausted. Since that time the 
flood-gateB seem to have been opened, and 




Bordei' articles and notes find an honouiuble 
place in most of our newspapers and maga- 
zines. The Borderland and its wonderful story 
of battles and ballads, its songs and folklore, 
combine to form a clear-flowing stream which 
seems perennial. Tliis is a good sign of the 
times, for there is a healthy intellectual tone 
in everything relating to Bordei' literature 
which is bound to luive a beneficial effect on 
the head and heart of the reader. In regard to 
our own humble corner of the harvest-field, the 
crop is almost too abundant, and we have such 
an overflowing supply of articles on hand at 
present that we cannot promise to insert any 
new contributions sent in for some time to 
come. To our large number of valued cobtri- 
butora we tender our most hearty thaidcs for 
their kind support-, and, though we are com- 
j)elled to call a halt for a month or two, we 
hope to hiive many articles from themi in the 
future. Intending contributotis might please 
note that, owing to our limited space, short 
articles from 1000 to 1500 words will have the 
]) reference. When a subject cannot be pro- 
(lerly dealt with in one issue of the magazine 
the article should be divided up under separate 
headings, so tliat, while the subject may be 
continued, each instalment can be read as a 
complete article. In mast cases this can eas- 
ily be done. 

A Border Literary Chronicle, with 
Brief Biogrraphical Notes* 

PART IX. 

I^iDDBLL, William B. C. (b. at Flex, near Hawick, 
Dec. 16, 183&— d. July 20, 1856). son of the pre- 
ceding ; educated chiefly at John Watson's Hos- 
pital and Edinburgh University; a yonth of 
great promise, who wrote "The Lament of 
Wallace/* which appeared in several collec- 
tions of Scottish verse. 

KoBBBTsoN, Abbaham (b. at Duns, 1751— d. 1826), 
astronomer and mathematician; rose from 
pedlar boy to high academical distinction; 
M.A. Christ Church. Oxford, 1782; P.R.S.. 1795; 
Savilian professor of geometry, 1797-1810, and 
of astronomy, 1810-26; chief work, " Sectionum 
Conicarum Libri. vii.,'* 1792. 

BuiCKBis, Jambs (d. 1829), a native of Inner- 
leithen, and a miller to trade; friend of the 
Ettrick Shepherd, Prof. W^ilson, Allan Cun- 
ningham, H. S. Riddell, Wm. Knox, &c. ; wrote 
an "Elegy on the Death of Whisky." 1801; 
"The W^ayside Cottager, Pieces in Prose and 
Verse/' 1807. 

KussBLL, William, LL.D. (b. at Windydoors, Sel- 
kirkshire, 1741— d. 1793), historian; educated at 
Innerleithen and Edinburgh; served his ap- 
prenticeship with a bookseller and printer in 
Edinburgh, and afterwards went to London; 
author of "History of Modern Europe," in 3 
vols., 1779-84; also published a "History of 
America," 1779, and other works. 



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Rutherford, Elizabeth, Mrs Scott op Wadchopb (b. 
1729— d. 1789), daughter of David Rutherford 
of Capehope, advocate, and a niece of Mrs 
Cockburn ; the poetical- correspondent of Burns, 
who visited her in 1787; married to Walter 
Scott of Wauchope; wrote "The Lover's Ad- 
dress to a Rosebud," and other pieces, chiefly 
elegiac; in 1801 a selection of pieces appeared, 
entitled ''Alonza and Cora." (B.M. iv. 77). 
Rutherford, Dr Daniel (b. 1749— d. 1819), son of 
Dr John Rutherford by his second wife and 
uncle of Sir Walter Scott; succeeded Dr John 
Hope as professor of botany in Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, 1786-1820; studied in France and Italy. 
Rutherford, Dr John (b. 1695— d. 1765), son of the 
Rev. Dr John Rutherford (1641-1710), minister 
of Yarrow, maternal grandfather of Sir W. 
Scott; one of the founders of the Edinburgh 
Medical School; M.D. of Rheims; professor of 
the Theory and Practice of Medicine, 1726-65; 
was educated at Selkirk, and studied at Edin- 
burgh, Leyden, Paris, and Rheims. Anne 
Rutherford, his only child by his first mar- 
riage was mother of Sir W. Scott, having mar- 
ried Walter Scott, W.S., in 1758". 
Rutherford, John, a native of Jedbui-gh;- studied 
at Bordeaux and Paris ; became principal of St 
Salvator's College, St Andrews, and minister 
of Cults; a colleague of George Buchanan, 
1560; in 1570 he had as his pupil James Crich- 
ton, afterwards known as " the admirable 
Crichton ;" wrote a " Treatise on the Logic and 
Poetics of Aristotle." Died 1577. 
Rutherford, Samuel (b. at Nisbet, near Jedburgh, 
circa, 1600— d. at St Andrews, March 20, 
1661), studied and graduated at Edinburgh; 
elected Regent and Professor of Humanity in 
that University, 1623-26; became minister of 
Anwoth, Kirkcudbright, 1627; professor of div- 
inity, St Mary's College, St Andrews, principal 
in 1651; wrote in 1644 the well-known treatise 
"Lex Rex," but best known as the author of 
a vol. of Familiar Letters published after his 
death.v (B.M. ii. 181). 
Rutherford, William, M.D., F.R.S. (b. at Ancrum 
Craig. April 20, 1839-d. Feb. 21, 1899), physio- 
logist ; educated at Jedburgh and Edinburgh 
University, where he studied medicine, grad- 
uating M.D. in 1863; studied also on the Con- 
tinent; professor of physiology at King's Col- 
lege, London, 1869-74, and at Edinburgh, 1874- 
99; published among other works a text 
book of physiology, 1880. 
ScoTT, Andrew (b. at Bowden, April 19, 1757— d. 
May 22, 1839), poet; served as a soldier for five 
campaigns in the American War of Independ- 
ence; returned home in 1792 and settled at 
Bowden, acting as beadle in the Parish Church ; 
wrote several vols, of poetry during his life- 
time—a small vol. of verse in 1805, "Poems 
chiefly in the Scottish Dialect," 1811 ; a vol. in 
1821, and another in 1826. His " Symon and 
Janet," a tale of the False Alarm, and " The 
Guid Farmer " are well-known pieces. 
Soott, George (b. at Dingleton, near Melrose, 1777 
— d. 1853), educated at Melrose and Galashiels; 
schoolmaster of Lilliesleaf, 1805-50; patronised 
by Sir John Riddell of Riddell and Sir Walter 
Scott; wrote a vol. of poems entitled "Heath 
Flowers, or Mountain Vt'lodies." 1820; also 



wrote a Statistical Account of Rexburghshire, 
but never published. (B.M. iv. 108). 
Scott, Lady John, of Spottiswoodb (b. 1810— d. 
March 2, 1900), married Lord John Scott, sec- 
ond son of Charles, fourth Duke of Buccleuch. 
who died in 1860 ; wrote an improved version of 
the song "• Annie Laurie,^' originally written by 
Mr Douglas of Fingland in honour of Anne, 
daughter of Sir Robert Laurie of Maxwelton, 
and other pieces. (B.M. v. 101). 
Scott, Sir Walter, of Abbotsford (b. at Edinburgh, 
Aug. 5, 1771— d. Sept. 21, 1832), poet, historian, 
novelist; studied at Edinburgh University, 
passed advocate^ 1792, and became Sheriff of 
Selkirkshire. 1799; read ballad literature at an 
early age, and history and romance; translated 
poems of Burger and Goethe; "Minstrelsy of 
the Scottish Border" appeared in 1802-3; in 
1805 " The Lay of the Last Minstrel ;" in 1808 
" Marmion;" in 1810 "Lady of the lake;" fol- 
lowed next year by the " Vision of Don Roder- 
ick," "Rokeby" in 1813; and "The Lord of 
the Isles " in 1815. The appearance of " Wav- 
erley" in 1814 marks an epoch in modern lit- 
erature; this was followed by "Guy Manner- 
ing," "The Antiquary," "Old Mortality," 
"Rob. Roy," "The Heart of Midlothian," 
"Ivanhoe," &c., which formed the Waverley 
Novels published anonymously, their author 
being the " Great Unknown " till 1827. " His 
Life " (one of the best biographies in the lan- 
guage) by his son-in-law, John Lockhart, ap- 
peared in 1838 in 7 vols. 

ScoTT, Captain Walter, op Satchells (b. 1613— d. 
1694), genealogist; a great-grandson of the 
Laird of Sinton, and son of Robert Scott of 
Satchells, in the parish of Lilliesleaf, by a 
daughter of Riddell of Riddell; spent his boy- 
hood in herding cattle; served in Holland un- 
der Walter Scott, first Earl of Buccleuch, 1629; 
wrote (or dictated) "A True History of Sev- 
eral Honourable Families of the Right Hon- 
ourable name of Scott," published in 1688. 
New editions have appeared since. (B.M. i. 
77; vi. 219). 

Scott, William b. at Hawick, 1795— d. at Belfast, 
1859), was an intimate friend of Andrew Ley- 
den, brother of John Leyden of Penholm ; pub- 
lished in 1826 a (foUection of occasional poetry 
of considerable merit. 

Scott, Sir William, op Thirlestane (b. eirea, 
1670— d. 1725), wrote Latin poems, twenty-four 
of which appeared in " Selecta Poemata," 
Edin., 1727. In 1699 he married the Mistress 
of Napier, heiress of the Napier peerage, and 
from this union was descended the late Lord 
Napier and Ettrick. 

Shields, Alexander (b. at Haughhead, near Earl- 
ston, 1661— d. June 14, 1700), Covenanter; grad- 
uated M.A. of Edinburgh, 1675; studied theo- 
logy of Utrecht ; imprisoned on the Bass ; after 
the Revolution, joined the Church of Scotland, 
and in 1697 became minister of St Andrews ; in 
1699 accompanied the Darien Expedition along 
with his brother Michael; died of fever in 
Jamaica ; author of " A Hind Let Loose," 1687 ; 
"Life and Death of James Ren wick," 1724 
(posthumous), and other Covenanting treatises. 



To he Continued, 



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SUPPLEMENT to the "BORDER MAGAZINE," Vol. XII., No. tjfi. 




The Rev. HUGH DRENNAN. 

VETERAN OF THE INDIAN MUTINY AND CRIMEAN WAR— 1907- 



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1 AliilLUSmTEOnoHTHLY 

DEVOTED TO 

Border Biography, History, Literature, and 
Folklore. 

Edited by William Sanderson. 



Vol. XI I. , No. 136 



APRIL, 1907. 



[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



REV. HUGH DRENNAN, 

VETERAN OF THE CRIMEA AND INDIAN MUTINY. 




was Coniniuiiion Sabbath in the 
Parish Church of Peebles^ but to 
some at least of those present it was 
by no means an ordinary sacra- 
mental occasion. There was something of the 
historic that marked the celebration in an 
especial manner, for at the one hand of the 
minister there sat the dignifieil and revered 
form of a veteran soldier of the Cross, and at 
the other a well-known former Moderator of 
the Church — tlie Rev. Hugh Drennan, and the 
Rev. Dr Charter is. 

Mr Drennan has been for some years a fami- 
liar figure on the streets and country roads of 
Peel;>les, whether passing leisurely along its 
sunny High Street accompanied by his wife, 
or met by the summer visitor on its rural 
highways and byways marching with military 
stride and erect figure round by the Swire, or 
over the Drove Road, or down by the pleasant 
riverside. And yet what a contrast is this 
leisured autunm of age to the strenuous heroic 
life that lies behind! Tliose. clear blue eyes 
have sought out the wounded soldier in the 
firing line of many a stricken battlefield ; that 
calm, benignant countenance has bent in beni- 
8on over many a cliolera-laden cot; those firm 



and sinewey hands have conveyed to many a 
dying man the consolations of tlie blessed sac- 
rament. Jieloved by officer and private alike, 
there are alive to-day those who revere the 
name and memory of Chaplain Drennan. 

He wants now but one year of fourscore. 
Born at Tarbelton in 1828 ; educated at Lin- 
lithgow Burgh Scliool ; trained at the Univer- 
sity of St Andre, vs ; licensed by the Presbvterv 
of Linlithgow, Mr Drerman acteil as assistant 
in Soutli Leith Parish Church to the Rev. Dr 
Stevenson, and finally was ordained by the 
Presbytery of Edinburgh. 

His true vocation was at hand ; the oppor- 
tunity had come, the max was not wanting. 
The Moderator of the Church nominated Mr 
Drennan Chaplain to the Forces engaged in 
the Crimean War, and on 18th October, 1854, 
he set sail for the East. At Scutari Chaplain 
Drennan was detained on urgent duty by or- 
ders of the Commandant Lord W. Paulet, and 
he served in the hospitals there until the 
month of August, 1855. The awful horrors of 
the war were realised to the full by him while 
on hospital duty. Dr William Russell and 
Miss Nightingale made the British public 
acquainteil with the sufferings of the troops, 



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with the inadequacy, of their treatment, and 
the insuiiiciehcy oJ: stores and medicines. Mr 
Diennan experienced them all. He next pro- 
ceeded by instructions from headquarters to 
the Crimea, where he did duty chiefly with tlie 
Highland Division until the end of the war. 
when he returned to Britain along with the 
staff of the Division, landing at Portsmouth 
in July, 1856. While in the Crimea, the regi- 
ments with which Mr Drennan worked were 
principally the 92nd, the 93rd, and the Scots 
Gieys. Sir Colin Campbell commanded the 
Division ; he became greatly attached to Mr 
Drennan, and ever after manifested the warm- 
est regard for him. The Rev. Dr Campbell, 
now minister of Balmerino, was the only other 
Scottish chaplain in the Crimea, and he and 
Mr Drennan have continued fast friends to 
this day. 

The next chapter of our hero's life opens in 
India. On the 20th September, 1857, he was 
appointed by the Secretary of State for War 
officiating chaplain to the Presbyterian troops 
in India, and he proceeded tliither in tlie P. it 
0. steamer on October 20. Landing at Cal- 
cutta, he went up country with all possible 
speed, and reported himself to the Comman- 
der-in-Cliief at Cawnpore, who appointed him 
to serve with the 93rd Highlanders and such 
other Presbyterians as might conje within his 
reach. He arrived at Lucknow during the 
memorable siege with all its historical in- 
stances of individual heroism, and in the end 
witnessed its fall. Service at AUaliabad fol- 
lowed ; severe engagements at Umbeyla still 
further revealed the stuff of whicli the chap- 
lain was made, and perhaps most of all, tlie 
stealthy death-dealing cholera, which, tries 
even the bravest, but emphasised what already 
every man knew, that in Mr Drennan they 
possessed a chaplain of heroic soul, of never- 
flagging courage, and undaunted self-abnega- 
tion. Not men alone, but women and child- 
ren realised the true friend they possessed in 
^his calm and courteous Scot of kindly heart 
and resolute manner. 

When the fighting was over, Mr Drennan, in 
the onlinary course, ought to have been sent 
home, but the ofticers having learned this, sent 
to the In<lian (iovemment a round-robin signed 
by every member of the mess requesting that 
as he had made himself so much beloved by 
every one, he might be permitted to remain 
with the regiment as long as it was in 
India. This was at once heartily granted, and 
he remained on full pay in India with the 
regiment, returning with it in 1871, after 



nearly thirteen years' service in India. Dur- 
ing those years Mr Drennan marched hundredfi 
of miles with the men ; was very often imder 
tire ; was present at the capture of many im- 
portant towns, such as Futtehgurh, Bareilly, 
itc, and during many hot seasons saw the 
rank and file fall down from sunstroke in 
scores. In the Peshawur Valley in 1862 he 
passed through a severe cholera epidemic, dur- 
ing which he read the burial service over 
ninety-three of all ranks, including men, 
women, and children. Here Mr Di^ennan 
suffered himself from cholera, and in Central 
India from intermittent fever repeatedly, 
which clung to him for many months. After 
so many years with the 93rd Regiment it is 
not to be wondered at that the men of all 
ranks Ijecanie devotedly attached to their chap- 
lain, who had shared all their dangers, cheered 
their sick, marched by their side, won their 
confidence, and shown himself a brave man 
both under fire and during the cholera scourge. 
Those were the men, too, who, recognising 
their want of a comiriunion chalice, contributed 
each man from his hoard of silver coins, and 
caused them to be wrought and hammered 
into a beautiful cup for the service of the sac- 
rament. Instances such as those greatly 
cheered Mr Drennan in his duty, and in India, 
as in the Crimea, he was honoured with the 
friendship and respect of his old chief, Sir 
Colin Campbell. Memories like these carry 
the veteran padre in thought far away back 
to India and Russia, although it is all but im- 
possible to get this most modest of men to 
speak of liis own achievements. 

Mr Drennan, after an interval, now entered 
upon liis last stage of service in the Army. 
In the first week of the year 1876 he was ap- 
pointed Presl)yterian chaplain to the troops 
stationed at Shoeburyness. There he remained 
for over twenty-one years, and then feeling the 
need for rest, he resigned his appointment. 
His period of duty with the soldiers may l>e 
thus reckoned: — In the Crimea, one year and " 
nine months ; in India, twelve years and six 
months ; in Shoeburyness, over twenty-one 
years ; total, over thirty-five years' service. 

To this period of home service belong two 
ceremonies — that of tlie consecration by Mr 
Drennan of the new colours for his regiment, 
which the DuoheSs of Sutherland presented; 
and his marriage to a Yorkshire lady. Miss 
Mary W^alker. And now one must relate here 
what most people will consider to be alrdost 
incredible. Mr Drennan uix>n his retirement 
did not receive the pension to which he was 



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63 



very naturally entitled, after having spent the 
best part of his life at home and abroad in the 
service of his Queen and country. Persistent 
efforts were made to this end, both by Mr 
Drennan personally and by his military 
friends, but without avail. The military 
authorities fully realised not only his great 
services to the troops, but also his outstanding 
claims to honourable recognition. But at that 
time the Horse Guards was even more than 
now swathed in voluminous rolls 
of red-tape. The officials there re- 

ferred him to the India Office, 
and the arm-chair Jack- in -office of that De- 
partment sent him back to the War Office! 
Mr Drennan had all along hoped that a Com- 
mission in the Army might be granted to him, 
and so ante-dated that when he came to retire 
it would carry a pension with it. But this 
brave man, as others have done, realised that 
the years had passed. A generation had 
gi'own up who did not know him ; the absent 
are soon forgotten. Backstair influence was a 
method that Mr Drennan disdained to use. 
The officials of the War Office had the claims 
of their own relatives to keep in mind. Mr 
Drennan' 8 self-respect was wounded. He 
knew, and his brother officers knew, and the 
privates all knew, the kind of man they had 
had all those years as their chaplain, and all 
united to make representations to the authori- 
ties. Then Mr Drennan fell ill. After many 
months he recovered, but the spirit was weak- 
ened by disappointment, worry, and the ef- 
fects of the malady. He was of too sensitive 
a nature to persist in the pushing of his 
claims, as was es.sential at the time. So the 
matter died down. A great wrong was per- 
petrated. 

But this brief account of a worthy man must 
not close on the minor key. Those things had 
to be chronicled, but they do not rankle ; the 
subject of this article is too large-hearted for 
that. He lives in the knowledge of the one 
supreme fact that matters — ^hb did his duty. 
Por this he is the proud wearer of four medals, 
the British Crimean, the Turkish Crimean, 
the Indian Mutiny with clasp for Lucknow, 
and the Frontier medal with clasp for Um- 
beyla. Money could not purchase these ; they 
have been gained by a strenuous devotion to 
Queen and country. 

Very many officers have written of their re- 
gard for Mr Drennan ; only one of these may 
be allowed to speak, Lieut. -General Burroughs, 
" I have very great pleasure in adding my tes- 
timony to the great worth and excellence in 



e^ery way of my very good friend the Rev. 
Hugh Drennan, who, I think, for some fifteen 
years served with me in the 93rd Sutherland 
Highlanders. I retiember his joining the 
regiment as Presbyterian chaplain in 1854, 
and his leaving the regiment, to the very great 
regret of all in it, on our return to England in 
1871. For some ten years of this time I was 
in command of the 93rd, and had special op- 
portunities of estimating the worth or other- 
wise of all in it. I know no better or wor- 
thier man than Mr Drennan. In a quiet, un- 
obtrusive way he did an immense deal of good. 
He did his duty fearlessly to God and man, 
and earned the love and respect of all in the 
regiment. He was with us in the Crimean, 
Indian Mutiny, and Umbeyla Wars, and 
through at least two visitations of cholera, 
and notably in 1862, when the regiment was 
literally decimated by the pestilence in the 
valley of Peshawur. I was myself in command 
of the regiment at the time and witnessed Mr 
Drennan's fearless devotion to his duty, and 
although suffering himself, he never deserted 
his post, but wafl constantly by the side of 
the suffering and dying. I cannot speak too 
highly in his favour. If any man ever de- 
served well of his country, Mr Drennan is one 
of these men. He has richly earned any re- 
ward or pension that may be bestowed upon 
him." 

And now to conclude. One likes to think 
of this war-worn hero attending the muster of 
veterans at Edinburgh Castle, and doing hom- 
age to King Edward on his first visit to the 
capital. But there was another pageant, may 
be of lesser note though of no less loyalty, in 
which he was for a moment the central figure. 
As this article began with the Church, so it 
^ill close with the Church. The spacious 
building was crowded with the burghers of 
Peebles of all denominations. It was the 
memorial service for Queen Victoria, whom he 
had served so well. The minister of the Par- 
ish and other clergymen had conducted the 
worship, which was now closing. A solemn 
and silent sadness pervaded the sacred build- 
ing. A tall, military form ascended the pul* 
pit. It was the dead monarch's oldest ser 
vant. Chaplain Drennan, wearing the medals 
she had bestowed, over his loyal heart. He 
raised his unwavering hands on high, and im- 
plored that benediction, which all his friends 
silently breathe for him: — "The Lord bless 
thee and keep thee, the Lord lift up His 
countenance upon thee and give thee peace!" 

C. B. G. 



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The Battle of Sark. 

" J looked on the field where the batt^ was spread. 
Where thousands -stood forth in their glancing 
array ; 
And the beam from the steel of the valiant was 
shed. 
Through the dun rolling clouds that o'ershad- 
owed the fray." 

^H£ Sark is obd of the smallest of Scot^ 
tish riyera. It is found in the ex- 
trenie south of Dumfriesshire. The 
coming together of several small 
bums cause its fonnation. It is barely twenty 
miles in length. For some distance it divides 
the parishes of Canonbie and HaIfm<H-ton, and 
for over seven miles separatee the latter and 
Gretna froim Cumberland. In its course it 
passes through the lower reaches of E^dale and 
the plains that skirt Solway Moss, and is joined 
by the Black Sark near Springfield. 

bi the "good old times*' when the turbulent 
spirit dominiated the Borders and wasteful 
incursiodis were the order of the day Sark wit- 
nessed terrible doings. What with the foravs 
of the English and the retaliatory raids of the 
Scots, its neighbourhood suffered from fire 
and sword for many generations. Strugglee, 
fierce long, and d€«dly, were waged on its 
banks, and its waters were ofttimes red with 
blood. 

During the sway of the Douglases the Earl 
of Salisbury crossed the little E&rder Rubicon, 
swept along the Solway shore, and pounced 
upon the county town. Having sacked the 
dwellings and fired the burgh, he returned, 
greatly enriched by the foray. James Douglas 
soon after retaliated and put Alnwick through 
a similar experience. 

Though a seven years* treaty was made be- 
tween the kingdoms after the burning of Aln- 
wick a laiTge body of men crossed the Sark and 
laid Annandale waste during the following year. 
This incursion, like many more, was made be- 
cause of alleged insults and injuries from Scot- 
tish Borderera As the marauders returned 
with their booty they were overtaken by Doug- 
las, who not only hastened their retreat but 
relieved them of their spoil. Not content, the 
Douglas soon aftei-wards mustered a large army 
and made a ferocious raid on Cumberland, pil- 
laging and reducing the whole countryside to a 
very desert in his merciless severity. 

England, aggrieved and indignant, called for 
vensreiajice, and soon took steps to exact her 
pound of flesh. Early in 1449 an army, var- 
iously estimated at from 14,000 to 40,000, en- 
camped on the Sark. Tlie Earl of Northum- 
berlaud and son were in command. The latter. 



anxious to wipe out the disgrace of hi» recent 
rout at the hands of Douglas, hastened tho oon- 
fiict, which historians speak of as t>eing one of 
the greatest fought between the nations from 
the time of Hocnildon (1402) till Flodden 
(1513). 

The invaders were out marauding when they 
learned of the approach of 12,000 Scots, under 
Douglas's brother, George, Earl of Ormood. 
Choosing their own ground, a favourable pitch 
adjoining their tents, the English made ready 
for the coming onset. Notable leaders were on 
both sides. Ormond addressed his men in spir* 
ited words on the justice of their cause, and 
urged them to anticipate victory. 

The battle had not been long in progress 
when it seemed as if it would go against the 
Soots. Their pikes and spears were no match 
against the bows and arrows of the English 
archers. Prom their vantage ground they rain- 
ed missiles on the attadking army and made 
great ga.p>s in the ranks long before the latter 
could strike a blow. In their helpless plight 
confusion, panic, and flight were imminent. 
Wallace of Craigie, an ancestor of -Sir William, 
taking in the situation, called on his men to 
follow him, that they might join in hand-to- 
hand strokes, where true valour was to be seen. 
Two thousand spearmen, who had not the pass- 
ive endmrance to stand and be mown down, 
were re-animated, across the intervening ground 
in a trice, and in close quarters with tb^ir en^ 
emy. A terrific conflict ensued. 

Tlie ranks of the English archers were soon 
thinned and reeling. Leaders like Magnus the 
Redbeard for a time stood aghast at the terr- 
ibleness of the onslaught The latter sought to 
encourage his followers, but in vain. Nothing 
could arrest the onward, merciless march of 
, the assailants. Magnus, however, stood his 
ground, advanced in the teeth of a forest of 
pike and spear, and fell where the slain lay 
thickest. 

The death of Magnus and overthrow of the 
right division under his command greatly dis- 
couraged the English, who had counted on their 
archers deciding the battle in their favour. 
They, however, fought dogeredly for a time. 
But, pressed on every side by a fierce, impet- 
uous, and exulting foe, they gave way along 
their whole line. The retreat which followed 
was an awful scene of slaughter. Three thou- 
sand fell whilst the battle raged, and a vastly 
greater number were cut down bv the hand of 
the pursuer. The ground, whereon merry was- 
sal had been held, was littered with the dving 
and dead, and the Sark, swollrn by the tide, ran 
red with blood. 



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The younger Percy and Sir John PenningtOD 
were made prisoners, together with hundreds 
of gentlemen and common soldiers. Buchanan 
tells how that the apoil in money, arms, and 
equipments were greater than had ever been 
known in any former battle. Fabulous heaps 
of gold were found by rustics, and for genersr 
tions after evidences of the extent of the de- 
struction were ever turning up. Even in the 
hording days of the writer implements of the 
far-off battle were unearthed on the banks of 
the Sark. 

On the side of the Scots six hundred men, 
in addition to the wounded, were slain. To the 
great regret of the Borders, and Scotland gen- 
erally, brave Wallace of Craigie, to whom the 
victory was largely due, died of his wounds 
some three months later. A truce followed in 
the train of the memorable battle, and for a 
considerable time the frontier county waa free 
from the incursions of the English. 

.G. M. R. 






Tweeddale : A Glimpse at the Past. 

E have frequently seen quoted the 
story of " a person of rank from 
England,*' who had been on a 
tour in Tweeddale about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, and who, on 
being asked what he thought of the country, 
replied that " he believed he could describe its 
surface in three words, as it almost everywhere 
consisted of only a hill, a road, and a water." 
But the comment made by him who first relates 
this story is not so well known. He continues 
the narrative thus: — "Which, indeed, with the 
addition of another hill rising inmiediately 
from the opposite brink of the accompanying 
stream below the road, generally constitute the 
sum total of the objects which present them- 
selves to a traveller. A flat through which its 
glittering current meanders and ripples over 
a pebbly channel ; a shepherd's cot at the side 
of a rill, in a recess, sometimes sheltered by a 
few trees or bushes, a cairn pointing the sum- 
mit of a pyramidal mountain, a ring once ne- 
cessary to secure the herds and flocks, sur- 
rounding the upper part of an eminence, a de- 
serted tower on the brow of a projecting 
height, erected for habitation, for defence, and 
for beacons ; and at times a mansion embos- 
omed in woods : occasionally, however, ani- 
mates the prospect, surprises by the sudden- 
ness of its appearance, and with the varied 
shapes, and smooth enlivening verdure of the 
surrounding hills, gives spirit and interest to 



the primitively simple and truly genuine pas- 
toral scenes of this sequestered district." This 
picture of the road, the river, the hill, the 
shepherd's cot, the cairn, the pyramidal moun- 
tain, the ring for the sheep, the deserted tower, 
the mansion embosomed in woods, is still a 
faithful representation of scenery in Tweed- 
dale. 

" And the pure mountains, and the gentle Tweed, 
And the green, silent pastnres yet remain." 

But there have been changes. Dr Pennicuik, 
who published his " Description of Tweeddale" 
in 1y15, says, "Their greatest want here is 
timber. Little planting is to be seen in Tweed- 
dale except it be some few bushes of trees 
about the houses of the gentry ; and not one 
wood worth naming in all this open and windy 
country," and the writer of the notes to the 
1815 edition of Pennicuik' s works, remarks 
that " proofs of this penury of wood still re- 
main. Some of the oldest houses in the coun- 
try have vaulted roofs entirely of stone and 
lime, and many cottages have a row of rugged 
arches of the same material, from gable to 
gable, called Stone Couples, instead of tim- 
bers across which to lay the rough spars and 
support the thatch. Sometimes a churchyard, 
and generally a walled garden adjoining (a 
house) that has been the residence of a landed 
proprietor, is surrounded with a row of vener- 
able ash or plane trees, but exae^tiug these, 
there is hardly a planted tree to be met with 
that has yet been in the ground above seventy 
years in the whole country, unless in one or 
two solitary instances to the contrary where a 
patch has been planted for shelter or where 
an avenue has been added in front of the man- 
sion as a proof of the proprietor's superior 
taste." " Since then," Professor Veitch saya, 
" there has been a great deal of planting, but 
unfortunately not of a commendable sort. 
Most of the plantations are absolutely mono- 
tonous, wholly fir or larch, unenlivened by the 
slightest mixture of other trees. Here and 
there, particularly on the heights that sur- 
round the House of Dawyck, there appears, as 
the product of a cultured yet natural taste, 
woods rich in variety of leafage, and set in 
wonderfully harmonious outlines. But taking 
the valley as a whole, it was more pleasing to 
the eye in the last century (eighteenth), ere 
the hand of man had touched and marred it. 
The slopes of the hills that ran down to the 
great haugh of the Tweed were, as yet, green 
pastoral braes, unknown by plo\igh and har- 
row, and unadorned by means of larch poles. 



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each looking like a half-opened umbrella in 
summer, and the whole like a dull brown 
blanket in autumn. . . . The people of 
last century were spared appearances of this 
sort, and instead of these they had simply hills, 
roads, and waters." There seems, however, 
to have been a feeling that woods were re- 
quired to complete the natural beauty of the 
scenery, for not only Dr Pennicuik laments 
the scarcity of timber, but the agricultural 
survey of Peeblesshire, published in 1802, and 
quoted in the notes of Pennicuik' s works, has 
the following reference to the treeless state of 
Tweeddale : — " In this country the variety of 
hill and dale and "water might furnish scenes 
of great natural beauty or even grandeur, were 
it not for the almost total want of natural 
wood. For though tradition reports that a 
great deal of wood once grew in the country, 
at present few vestiges of it remain, and where 
any are found upon the banks of the waters 
and the skirts of the hills, it is mere brush- 
wood. With reference to the tradition that 
the South of Scotland was a well-wooded coun- 
try. Professor Veitch says, " The old idea that 
a forest implied a wood is, of course, exploded, 
but it is certainly a mistake to suppose, as we 
find done in these days, that the forest lands 
of the lowlands were not originally and for a 
long period well-wooded demesnes. There is 
quite cogent historical proof of this apart from^ 
the geological evidence . . . and now 
were the sheep taken off that lowland country, 
we should find that in a very short time hill 
and glen would be clothed with the birch, hazel, 
rowan, all indigenous to the country. The 
words of the old ballad are : — 

'' The king was cumin' through Caddon Ford, 

And full five thousand men was he; 

They saw the derke forest them before. 

They thought it awsome for to see." 

The use of the word "derke" surely implies 
that the forest was darkened with the abund- 
ance of the trees, yet in the same ballad we 
read that, — 

" Ettrick foreste is a feir foreste, 
In it grows many a semelie tree, 
There hart and hynd, and dae and rae, 
And of a* wild bestis greate plentie." 

But the planting of woods is not the only 
change that has come over the face of the 
country. A railway has entered the valley of 
Tweed, and the old peel towers from Ashiestiel 
to Tinnie's Castle, that formerly saw the 
beacon fires light up the darkness of the night. 



now look down on the puffing of the steam 
engine as it rushes swiftly by in the vaUey 
beneath. 

And a civilising injfluence has come with the 
introduction of the railway. In the notes of 
Dr Pennicuik's " Description," the writer 
says : — " Half a century ago a great part of 
the cottages of the Scots day-labourers were 
built with walls of turf, stone buttresses or 
wooden posts built into the wall, supporting 
the heavy timbers of the roof. The house is 
18 or 20 ft. by 15 or 16 ft. within walls; the 
door is in front, close by one of the gables ; 
two close beds form the cross partition, divid- 
ing the space occupied by the family from a 
space of four feet from the gable at which you 
enter, where stands the cow behind one of the 
beds, with her tail to the door of the house. 
Tliere is one window in front near the fire 
gable, opposite to which at the opposite wall 
stands the ambry or shelved wooden press in 
which the cow's milk and other family daily 
provisions are locked up, and above it, lying 
against the slant of the roof, is the skelf, a 
frame containing shelves with cross bars in 
front to prevent the utensils upon the shelves 
from tumbling o£E from its over-hanging posi- 
tion, the show of the house depending much 
upon the quality and arrangement of the 
crockery and other utensils placed thus in 
open view upon the skelf." Allan Ramsay 
thus describes such a house : — 

" It's Symon's house : please to step in, 
And vissy't round and round. 
There's nought superfluous to gie pain 
Or costly to be found, 
Tet a' is clean : a clean peat ingle 
Glances amidst the floor : 
The green horn spoons : beech luggies mingle 
On skelf s foregainst the door." 

" A chest containing the family wardrobe 
stands in front of one of the close beds, serv- 
ing also for seats. The close beds are also fur- 
nished with a shelf at head and foot, upon 
which part of the family apparel is deposited 
to preserve it from dust." A wooden chair, a 
few stools, a plunge churn, a barrel for salted 
flesh, and another for meal " complete the in- 
ventory of the household furniture." Truly, 
as honest Allan says, " there's nought super- 
fluous to gie pain." 

We also read in the notes that prior to 
1770 the most usual construction of the bet- 
ter farm dwellings was that of a long house of 
only 6 ft. wall in height, the apartments all 
upon the ground, the dimensions about 45 by 
15 or 16 ft, in breadth within walls, but the 



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67 



cross partition effected by close beds, set end 
to end with a passage between them. 

" A snug thack house : before the door a green : 
Hens Iq the midden, ducks in dubs are seen. 
On this side stands a barn, on that a byre, 
A peat stack joins and forms a rural square." 

Allan Ramsay, who wrote the above, evi- 
dently looks with a cheerful optimism on the 
comforts and sanitary conditions of the dwell- 
ing he describes. Cosmo Innes takes a less 
favourable view, and relates that '^ old men still 
remember when the dwelling of the Scotch 
peasant farmer was not secure against wind 
or rain, with no window — or none made to 
open — ^with the damp earth for floor, with the 
dung-hill and green pestilent pool at the door." 

Again, it is related that *' after the fatigues 
of the day the guidman sat or reclined on d 
wooden sofa, listening, in those timeg so dearth- 
ful of intelligence, to the news collected by the 
wandering beggar, or feasting his imagination 
upon the wonders of the lame soldier or sailor 
who had visited foreign countries." Concern- 
ing one matter, Dr Pennicuik and Allan Ram- 
say seem to hold different views. Dr Penni- 
cuik says, '^ Both sexes are conspicuous for as 
comely features as any other country in the 
kingdom, would but the meaner sort take a 
little more pains to keep their bodies and 
dwellings clean, which is too much neglected 
among them, and pity it is to see a clear com- 
plexion and lovely countenance appear with so 
much disadvantage through the foul disguise 
of smoke and dirt." And the author of the 
notes says, " Dirt and smoke, they say, 
keep them warm; to their persons washing 
often is weakening, unwholesome, and trouble- 
some, and is expensive in their clothes by the 
tubs, soap, labour, and the time it consumes." 
A young woman being asked how she came to 
be so dun, replied, " Wi' becking ourselves in 
ihe sun a' sunmier, and smeeking our heads 
o'er the fire a' winter, we country lassies never 
come to our right colour." Allan Ramsay, 
however, describing Symon's house, says, " all 
is clean," and speaks thus of a country lass : — 

"Her coats were kiltit, and did sweetly shaw 
Her straight bare legs that whiter were than 

snaw; 
Her cheeks sae ruddy, and her een sae clear, 

' And, oh! her mouth's like ony hinny pear. 
Neat, neat she was in bustine waistcoat clean, 
As she came skiffing o'er the dewy green." 

Whichever description comes nearest to the 
truth, it may not be superfluous to quote W. 
Chambers^ who writes : — " It is scarcely neces- 
sary to remark that since the days of Penni- 



cuik a great improvement has taken place in 
point of personal and domestic cleanliness." 

A custom that has fallen into desuetude was 
that of milking the ewes as well as the cows. 
This practice is described by Jane Elliot, 
daughter of Sir Gilbert Elliot, second baronet 
of Minto, in her beautiful version of Hie 
" Flowers of the Forest " : — 

" I've heard them lilting at our yowe milking. 
Lasses a' lilting before the dawn o' day. 
But now they are moaning on ilka green' loaning. 
The Flowers of the Forest are a' wede away. 
At buchts in the morning, nae blythe lads are 

scorning. 
The lasses are lonely, and dowie, and wae, 
Nae daffin', nae gabbin', but sighing and sabbing. 
Ilk ane lifts her leglin and hies her away.'' 

Lady Grizel Baillie also charmingly writes : — 

" Oh ! the ewe buchten's bonnie, baith evening and 
morn. 

When our blythe shepherds play on the bog 
reed and horn : 

While we're milking, they're lilting baith pleas- 
ant and clear. 

But my heart's like to break when I think on 
my dear." 

ThiB practice, however, starved the lambs and 
exhausted the ewes, " stinting the flocks them- 
selves in their growth and powers of breeding, 
and enduring tie hardships of winter;" the 
gain from the butter and cheese that ysL^ made 
from the milk being comparatively small be- 
side that derived from " vigorous and unex- 
hausted flocks." Turning from the peasantry, 
let us now look at the conditions under which 
the old peel tower was inhabited. From 
" Scotland in the Middle Ages," by Cosmo 
Innes, we take the following picture : — " When 
again with some breathing time of peace, and 
by the efforts of James I. agriculture had a little 
revived, and the (rovernment encouraged build- 
ing and * policy ' in the desolate country, the 
buildings were like the people, poor and mean 
in taste. The chief thing aimed at was secur- 
ity against marauding bands and unfriendly 
neighbours. I need not describe to you the 
Scotch castle of that time, the single square 
gaunt tower rising storey above storey, each 
floor consisting of but one apartment ; the door 
placed high for safety, the walls thick, the win- 
dow openings narrow and jealous. Such a 
dwelling, and we have plenty of them, though 
few in their unmitigated bareness, recalls the 
time when the rural baron and his family, visi- 
tors, vassals, retainers, servants, rural and 
domestic, lived and scrambled for their food 
all crojwded together in one hall — a gloomy, 
cold apartment, when the offal of the board was 



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fought for by the. dogs below it> and the garb- ^ 
age was hid among the foul straw, which might 
be renewed when harvest produced a supply — 
when the furniture was limited to the movable 
boards on which the meat was served, and a 
few stools and settles of deal — when carpets, 
curtains,, window glass, comfort, cleanliness, 
were unknown, when the women had no separ- 
ate apartment but their sleeping room, and no 
tastes that made such life irksome." "The 
internal fittings," says Professor Veitch, " were 
no doubt rude enough. The upper or oomer 
part of the vaulted roof of each storey was 
usually covered with a wooden floor, and as a 
precursor of the modern carpet the boards were 
generally strewn with the bent grass of the 
moors or the rushes of the haughs. With these 
were intermingled sweet-smelling herbs, such 
as thyme, bedstiaw (galium), or fresh-odoured 
heather." 

Of the lord of the tower, Dr Johnstone gives 
us this picture: — "These castles," he says, 
"afford another evidence that the fictions of 
romantic chivalry had for their basis the real 
manner of the feudal times, when every lord of 
seigniory lived in his own hold, lawless and 
unaccountable with all the licentiousness and 
insolence of uncontested superiority and un- 
principled power. The traveller, whoever he 
might be, coming to the fortified habitation of 
a chieftain would probably have been inter- 
rogated from the battlements, admitted /"with 
caution at the gate, introduced to a petty nM>n- 
arch fierce with habitual hostility and vigilant 
with ignorant superstition, who, according to 
his general temper or accidental humour, would 
have seated a stranger as his guest at the 
table, or as a spy confined him in his dungeon. 
We live in other times : — 

" The raider sleeps : his age has passed away, 
His castle walls have cnimbled into dust,, 
The spear he hurled has long lain low in rust, 
And where his charger pranced in stern array 
Now gentle steeds with plough-share till the 

clay. 
Those fears that trembled for the lance's thrust. 
The midnight foray or the robber's lust. 
Come not to us again. Peace loves to sway 
The nation with a mild yet firmer hand. 
And tame the fiercer passions of man's breast, 
But Time will see a great and deeper love 
Triumphant rule far over sea and land. 
When right shall prosper, every life be blest. 
And all the world be one with God above." 

"Portcullis," in "Border Telegraph." 




0, what a tangled web we weave. 
When first we practice to deceive I 

"Marmion/' 



Scott and Operatic Composers. 

HE opera of " Lucia di Lammermoor " 
has long been off the British stage 
— ^we remember seeing it performed 
in the Crystal Palace, London, in 
1869 or 1870 — ^but Ik)nizetti's musical inter- 
pretation of Scott's " Bride of Lammermoor " 
has recently been revived. Referring to the 
subject, a writer in the " Glasgow Evening 
News," says: — 

There used to be a legend current that Doni- 
zetti was of Scottish extraction ; his name 
being derived from Donald Izzett. At all 
events he was certainly born at Bergamo in 
1798 (six years after Bossini), and the idea of 
his connection with Scotland was probably en- 
gendered to explain his partiality for librettos 
on Scottish, and also on English subjects. Be- 
sides his " Lucia," " Elizabetta a Kenilworth," 
and " II Castello di Kenilworth," recall Sir 
Walter, the other operas connected with this 
country being " Emilia di Liverpool," " Anna 
Bolena" (with which he first won European 
fame), " Rosamunda d' Inghilterra," and 
"Maria Stuarda." 

It is curious to review the process by which 
the whirligig of time has modified the opinion 
of the musical world contemporary with Ros- 
sini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Verdi — the fam- 
ous quartette of Italians who held the operatic 
public of Europe in thrall for half-a-century. 
That estimate placed the composers exactly in 
the order named. Yet Verdi, who was depre- 
ciated until recentlv, when he produced 
"Aida," "OtheUo," and "Falstaff/' is now con- 
sidered the greatest genius of the four. His 
works no doubt wear better, but unquestion- 
ably Rossini must still be called his superior 
as a musician. The reason why Rossini's 
operas — apart fmm " Guillaume Tell " and 
" II Barbiere di Seviglia " — are no longer per- 
formed is to be found in the decay of the art 
of florid vocalisation. Rossini is paying the 
penalty of over-indulgence in ornamentation. 
Equally remarkable is the survival of Doni- 
zetti with "Lucia," " Lucrezia Borgia," "La 
Favorite," "La Fille du Regiment," "L' Elisir 
d* Amore," " Don Pasquale," and even "Linda 
di Chamounix " (more finished in workmanship 
than the others), whilst Bellini, once regarded 
as his better, is neglected. 

Curious, also, is the fact that Sir Walter 
Scott, an author so typically national in all 
respects, should be indebted to the inspiration 
of an Italian (typical, also, despite the apo- 
cryphal Donald Izzett), for the musical iUus- 



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69 



tration of the romantic qualities of his ^' Bride 
of Lammermoor." But Donizetti is not the 
only foreigner whom Scott has touched, as wit- 
ness Bizet with his " Jolie Fille de Perth," 
Boieldieu with his " Dame Blanche/' and Ros- 
sinni with his '' Donna di Lago," and his 
"Robert Bruce" — ^but that is another story, 
not drawn from Scott. There are others, but 
we cannot recall them at i^e moment. 

^ore curiosities. Does anyone remember 
Mr Calcraft's five-act drama, "The Bride of 
Lammermoor," written presumably shortly af- 
ter Scott's romance was published, which " un- 
animously received the meed of public appro- 
bation"? We daresay not; nor the melo- 
drama that preceded it, " remarkable as having 
been the medium of introducing the all-sur- 
passing genius of the illustrious Clarkson Stan- 
^eld, who first burst upon the public in this 
piece, like some brilliant meteor, with a scene 
^f Wolf's Crag by moonlight : the magical ef- 
fect of which gave full promise to the proud 
pre-eminence he has since attained, causing one 
-of our greatest painters, who happened to h^ 
in the theatre the first night the piece was re- 
presented to exclaim, " What 1 have we at last 
giants in the art? We have 1 we have 1 or how 
could so great, so beautiful a picture ever 
have been pXKluced." Heinl that smAcks of 
•early Tletorian enthusiasm and grandiloquence. 

Alast we do not remember these things. 
But there is the " Ravenswood " of H. C. 
Merivale, written for Henry Irving and Ellen 
Terry ; only, it is to be feared that this further 
Attempt to enter the magic circle of the Wiz- 
ard of the North will likewise be followed by 
the nemesis of oblivion. 

In France, in 1828, Victor Ducange, a gifted 
and once-popular dramatist, dared to put 
Scott's " Bride " on the stage. In this piece, 
with its almost literally transoribed title, " La 
Fiancee de Lanw»en«oor,", we are told by a 
contemporary scribbler tiiat " the mother has 
been very judiciously transformed into a 
mother-in-law^ rendering her conduct less re- 
pulsive to our ideas of maternal love and 
Ihuman nature ** 1 1 ! Well, despite all the in- 
•genuiities expended on this " adaptation," and 
on another by D'Artois (a comedy) called, " Le 
'Caleb de Si/ Walter Scott," they failed, and 
are now lon^ dead. 

The moral is obvious. It points to the pe- 
'Culiar power of music to breathe life into, iud 
io perpetuate the existence of, literature— even 
bad Uterature. The libretto of Salvatore Cam- 
marano, which served to inspire Donizetti >n 
1835, is hardly superior to the dramatic con- 



coctions we have glanced at, but his opera 
lives, thanks to Donizetti's enchanting music» 
which has the mysterious power of transporting 
the imagination to the essential qualities < f Sir 
Walter's romance. ^ B 



A Legend of Hawick. 

Oe, long ago in the ancient days 

Of this good old Border town» 
Lived "Hab of Hawick/' a bnrgher bold. 

Who cared not for king nor crown ! 

King James of Scotland— he oft had heard 

Of Hab and his sayings fine. 
So sent a message that Hab must come 

To his Tower that night by nine. 

Bat Hab, who sat by his ingle-nook. 

Was cross as he well could be; 
" Oh, ne'er 111 stir from my ain fireside 

To speak to His Majesty!" 

And when the messenger had come back, 

He said, "Go tell to tne King, 
That Hab of Hawick sits bere to-night, 

A fig for the King and kin I" 

Itight angry men were the courtiers all, 
Who heard the strange tale one day, , 

"Oh, pnnish this insolent old man," 
They said, " without more delay !" 

But good King James dearly loved a joke, 

And he deemed it better far 
To teach poor old Hab without the boot 

That Kings' words important are. 

So, soon to the Scottish capital, 

Auld Hab a prisoner came; 
Trembling and weeping for evermore. 

Since he had to leave his hame ! 

Buccleuch, he brought his vassal so bold 
Before the monarch's grand seat, 

And loudly for mercy humbled Hab 
Cried now at his monarch's feet! 

Then drawing closer in to the fire. 

King James he began to say, 
" A fig for Hab an' a' of his kin ! 

In Scotland I hold the sway. 

" And, Hab of Hawick, if we be friends. 
As X would like us to be, , 

Then you must obey your King's commands. 
And be loyal aye to me! 

''And though I do much admire a man 
With courage right staunch and true; 

I scorn the insolent who can dare 
To show their false pride like you I" 

" Forgiven now is your daring deed. 

Forgotten shall be the same; 
Now rise and mount upon this good steed, 

And hasten to Hawick hame!" 

And, as the quaint old legend still goes. 

The old man soon took his way 
To Hawick town, where he loyal lived 

Right on till his dying day ! 

Elizabeth M. McIknes. 



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70 THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. TO ADVERTISERS, 

All c<mmufUe(Ui<m8 rtlcUing to LitereuymaUera should AU Sutineu matUra, Advertising Rales, d^, slumUi 

he addressed to the Editor, Mr William Sandbbson, he referred to the Publishers, A. Walkkb & 8oHt 

8t Rmians, Rutherglen, near Olasgcw. High Street, Oalashiels 

THE B ORDER MA GAZINE. 

APRIL, 1907. 
LIST OF CONTENTS. ,;,„ 

Rev. HiTGH Drennan, Veteran of the Indian Mutiny. Portrait Supplement. By C. B, G. - * 61 

The Battle of Sabk. By G. M. R. 64 

Tweeddale: A Glimpse of the Past. By "Pobtcullis." 65- 

8cx>TT AKD Operatic Ck>HPOSEBS. By B. 68^ 

Poetry — A Legend of Hawick. By Elizabeth M. McInkes. 69 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson. TO* 

John Livingston of Ancrum. Part L 72. 

The Border Bookcase. 74 

Castlecraig and Drochil Castle. By D. Brown Anderson. 75- 

**BosELLs Fair." A. L. A. Sudden. - , 77 

A Border Literary Chronicle, with Brief Biographical Notes. .... ... 79, 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 

This month we have held over several Illustrated Articles in order to publish some other interesting^ 
matter, for which we have diffioulty in finding room. Therefore, the Border Magazine for this month has no 
pictures. We hope bv this means to get through the mass of MSS. with which we are at prc^sent embarrassed. 
Contributors will Kindly note the change in the address of the Editor, which will be found at the top of this 
page. As a rule the B.M. is typographically correct, but we regret that in the opening lines of our leading 
article in last month's issue the date 1907 was printed instead of 1906. Those who keep their copies for 
binding should alter the figure so as to ensure historical accuracy. 

The Border Keep, 

(In which are preserved paragraphs from various publications, to the authors and editors of which 

we express our indebtedness.) 

In a month we will celebrate (or otherwise) the ial sense there is no English party or English* 

bi-centenary of a great national event, and it is Constitution. 

Well to remember certain facts which are thus For the benefit of present-day writers of articles- 
touched upon by a writer :— ^ England, including Anglo-Scots, the following is^ 

,,^, „ ... , , „ „ , . , a copy from the Acts of the Parliaments of Scot- 

"The Scottish readers of even well-conducted i^nd in the Register House, Edinburgh, touching 

English papers are constantly offended at the mis- the Union : 

use of the terms England and English in an Im- 'Conventio apnd Edinburgh. 1707, Oet. 3. Cap. 

perial sense instead of Britain and British. 7, Act ratifying and approving the Treaty of 

To illustrate this, in an article in ' The Speaker * Union of the two kingdoms of Scotland and Eng- 
on the British Constitution, the writer spoke of land. Cap. 6, Act settling the manner of elect- 
English history, English people, English dress, ing th<> 16 Peers and 45 Commoners to represent 
English political ideas, and the two great English Scotland in the Parliament of Great Britain.' 
parties. In a later article from the same paper These Acts are erroneously stated in Haydn's Diet., 
on Algeciras— and afterwards, England is used of Bates, 22nd Ed., page 1149, as 16th January^ 
four times instead of Britain. 1707. 

How is such ignorance in a sixpenny weekly with I^ England the Union was ratified and con-- 

some pretence to culture and learning to be ac- firmed by statute 5, Anne, cap. 8, in 25 articles^, 

oounted for ? Let it be noted that Scottish read- whereof the first article is as follows : — 

ers of English papers do not object to read in them 'That on the first of May, 1707, and for ever, 

of pride, the national vice of England, intemper- the kingdoms of England and Scotland shall be- 

ance in England, decline of manly sports in Eng- tmited in one kingdom by the name of Great 

land, Christmas in England, lack of table con- Britain." 

versation in England, street music in England, ♦ ♦ ♦ 

dread of the Spaniards in the sixteenth century Few villages can boast so many usages that are- 

by England, and so on ad lib. redolent of the olden times as the picturesque- 

What we in Scotland object to is to find that Border hamlet of Kirk Yetholm. It will, however,, 

where the united country is referred to it is surprise many to learn that the gipsy capital pos- 

called England instead of Britain. In this Imper- sesses an Archbishop. The other day (writes a 

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71 



correspondent) I enjoyed a lengthened chat with 
the holder of this distinguished office. Though in- 
vested with little of the pomp and dignity which 
one associates with tbe Episcopal hierarchy. Arch- 
bishop Gladstone can lay claim to a stl:iking in- 
dividuality. His pretentious title he owes to the 
fact that he is village blacksmith. At the corona- 
tion of King Charles Faa Blythe Rutherford in 
the summer of 1898, "Bauldy,'' as he is locally 
called, exercised his priestly functions for the first 
and last time. On that occasion it was remarked 
that his office might be considered a hereditary 
one, as his father, George Gladstone, had perform- 
ed a similar service for Queen Esther Faa Blythe 
in the winter of 1861. The tin crown which did 
duty during that ceremony was fashioned by the 
skilful hands of the elder blacksmith. "Bauldy" 
possesses an interesting link with numberless gipsy 
festivals in the shape of an old sword, that was 
presented to him by the widow of the late King 
Charles. 

« « « « 

Ingratitude is so generally regarded as a gipsy 
characteristic that a movement, which recently or- 
iginated among the nomads of the Border, is not 
without interest. From time immemorial, the 
wandering tribes have been in the habit of camp- 
ing in Beanston Loaning, an old right-of-way near 
the East Lothian village of Linton. A few months 
ago, several neighbouring proprietors determined 
to close the lane. Chutwo different occasions the 
attempt was made, and as often foiled by the pub- 
lic spirit of a gardener named Sinclair, who, arm- 
ed with saw and axe, speedily removed the barri- 
cades. For this distinguished service to the child- 
ren of Egypt, it is now intimated that Sinclair has 
lost his situation. The sequel has evoked much 
sjrmpathy, and several gipsy potentates are endea- 
vouring to raise a sum of money which will more 
than counterbalance the monetary loss. As there 
are seldom fewer than fifty camps in the loaning 
during the summer season, It is confidently ex- 
pected that the appeal for subscriptions will meet 
with a hearty and spontaneous response. 
« « « « 

Searching for gold (not in the usual commercial 
sense) has not been unknown in the Borderland. 
Some of our older readers may remember the ex- 
citement caused by the discovery of gold in Glen- 
gaber Burn, between Traquair and St Mary's Loch. 
"Towards the close of the sixteenth century, a 
Dutchman named Cornelius De Vois secured a 
licence to search for gold in any part of Scotland. 
According to one biographer, the adventurer ' had 
six score men at work in valleys and dales. He 
employed both lads and lassies, idle men and wo- 
men, which before went abegging. He profited by 
their work, and they lived well and contented.' 
Stories of these halcyon days appealed powerfully 
to the popular imagination, as a tourist, who vis- 
ited the village of Crawford in 1619, records that 
he conversed with an old man named John Gibson, 
whose happy lot it had been to gather gold pieces 
'like birds' eyes and birds' eggs.' ^n these scep- 
tical days there is a tendency to consider stories 
of this deflcription somewhat mythical; but their 
authenticity is supported by the fact that the Reg- 
ent Morton is known to have presented the King 
of France with ' a very fine deep basin of natural 
gold,' which was made from precious metal found 
in the neighbourhood of Wanlockheiui." 



Apropos the intimation that the Prince and 
Princess of Wales are to spend a few days ivt 
Floors Castle, on the occasion of their approach'' 
ing visit to Scotland, it may interest many to 
loarn that this imposing edifice is situated near 
the junction of the Teviot with the Tweed. "The 
modern mansion of Floors" (writes Sir Walter 
Scott), " with its terrace, its woods, and its exten- 
sive lawn, form altogether a kingdom for Oberou 
or Titania to dwell in, or any spirit who, before 
their time, might love scenery, of which the ma- 
jesty and even the beauty impress the mind with 
a sense of awe mingled with pleasure." Confront- 
ing the mansion, but on the opposite side of the 
Tweed, stands the ruins of the old castle of Box- 
burgh, which formed a royal residence during the 
early years of the Stuart dynasty. Here James II< 
met an untimely death by the bursting of a can« 
non with which he had been making experiments, 
and popular tradition avers that an old thorn 
tree, whose venerable aspect serves to distinguish 
it from its fellows, marks the spot where the 
monarch fell. Modern Floors was built by Sir 
John Vanbrugh for the first Duke of Roxburgh 
in T718, but was reconstructed and considerably 
enlarged in 1839. 



In the beginning of this year there passed away, 
in his 94th year, Mr James Geddes, long a familiar 
figure in the parish of Tweedsmuir. Mr Geddes 
was born at the Moat of Hearthstane (now ex- 
tinct), his father being connected with the coach- 
ing operations of by-past days. After a round of 
employment at various places in the neighbour- 
ho(xl, James Geddes settled down in his native 
parish as shepherd at Oliver, where he spent half 
a century of faithful and devoted service under 
no fewer than three proprietors of that old Tweed- 
side domain. A man of intelligence much above 
the average, a voracious reader, a bit of a poet 
too, a mimic, and a born story-teller, Mr Geddes 
was naturally one of the best known and most 
popular personages in these uplands. He was for 
many years librarian of the original Tweedsmuir 
Library, founded by the late Rev. Archibald Tod, 
and in not a few other capacities he did his best 
for the social and intellectual life of the commun- 
ity. He was in all respects a most worthy type of 
the old Scots shepherd, and with whom it was 
always pleasant and interesting to converse for the 
sake of the "auld memories," of which, as be- 
fitted one of his age, he possessed such an abund- 
ant store. Mr Geddes retired some twenty years 
ago, but was a constant visitor to his old haunts 
up to within a comparatively recent period; and 
now he .has been laid beside many who were his 
comrades in days gone by — many whom he has 
long survived in life's stress and struggle. Peace 
be to his ashes ! 



Andrew Lang bays that a Scotchman who un- 
derstands the distinction between "will" and 
" shall " is not a good Scotsman. He tells of a 
Scotch reporter who had joined the staff of an 
English newspaper. His first night on duty he 
knocked on the editor's door and asked—" Will I 
come in?" "God knows," replied the editor. 

Dominie Sampson. 



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John Livingston of Anorum. 

1603-1672. 
Part I. 

I OHN LIVINGSTON was the son of the 
Rev. Williajna Livingston, A.M., min- 
ister of Kilsyth, and his wife Agnes 
Livingston of Dunipace («). He de- 
scribes his father as ^'all his days straight and 
zealous in the work o€ r^ormation," and* his 
mother a& "a rare pattern of piety and meek- 
ness," and these traits in their characters were 
in large measure inherited by their son. He 
was born at Kilsyth, 2 1st January, 1603, and 
at tlie age of ten he was sent to the Grammar 
School of Stirling to be educated there under 
'^Madster" William Wallace (*), whom he after- 
wards described as a ''good man and learned 
humanist," and with whom, he tells us,^e 
spent "the most profitable year he had in the 
schools." He was not destined, however, to 
continue long under Mr Wallace, and pursue 
his studies in the 'little chamber" above the 
old Grammcur School of Stirling, as his father 
was shortly afterwards, in 1614, translated to 
Lanark, while he himself proceeded in October, 
1617, lo the University of Glasgow, where he 
graduated A.M. in July, 1621. While still a 
student he gave proof of non-conformist prin- 
ciples in disobeying the Articles of Perth (c), 
for he and two or three other young men were 
obliged to remove from the communion-table 
in. 1619 by order of Archbishop Law (d), who 
was a firm upholder of Episcopal forms, as they 
had refused to receive the elements in a kneel- 
ing posture. At first he had thoughts of fol- 
lowing the medical profession, but afterwards 
resolved to enter the Church, though his father 
had intended him to lead the life of a country 
gentleman on the estate* which he possessed. 
After studying under the famous Principal Rob- 
ert Boyd of ^Trochrig, he was licensed to preach 
in Januaiy, 1625, and for sometime he appears 
to have officiated occasionally for his father 
at Lanark, and in other places about, but re- 
mained unordained as he, like many others, 
refused obedience to the Articles of Perth. 
Various places were eager to have him. for their 
minister — ^Anwoth, Torphichen, North Leith, 
Linlithgow and Kirkcaldy — but the bishops in 
each case refused to ordain and prevented a 
settlement on account of his non-conformity, 
and so for some five years he remained without 
a settled charge. In 1627 we find him. acting 
AS domestic chaplain to the Earl of Wigton at 
Cumbernauld, which he continued to do for 



two jes^ and a half, and while there he was 
instiTimental in promoting the great revival of 
religion at the Kirk of Shotts, where he offic- 
iated at t)ie communion on June 20, 1630, and 
preached on the following Monday at the re- 
quest of the people who were eager to hear 
him. This is sc^id to have been the first occas- 
ion of having a service on the Monday following 
the Conmiunion — ^a custom which afterwards 
became quite conmioin. In the August of this 
year he went to Ireland and became minister 
of Killinchy in County Down, with a stipend of 
£i a year, to which charge he was ordained by 
Andrew, Bishop oi Raphoei, who appears to have 
been more liberal-minded than some of his 
Episcopal bretJiren. Here he and others of 
like principles became obnoxious to the Church 
authorities, more intolerant than his Grace of 
Ra^hoe, and in the following year he was sus- 
pended by the Bishop of Down for non-con- 
formity, but soon after he was restored on the 
intercession of Archbishop Usher, Primate of 
Armagh. He was deposed again, however, and 
for the same reason. May 4, 1632, and, seeing 
but small prospects of aiiy alteration in the 
state of affairs then prevailing, he proposed 
going to New England in 1634. Meeting with 
contrary winds, however, he gave up his de- 
sign, returned, and was restored to his minis- 
try in May of the same year. He was again, 
however, deposed in the following November 
by the new bishop of Down, and by his order, 
shortly afterwards, finally excommunicated. 
He seems to have been in Scotland at the be- 
ginning of 1634, as he talks of paying a visit 
to Ireland in February of that year, and in 
November we find him preaching at Antrim. 
On the previous Friday he met the lady, whom 
he had kno\^Ti before and who afterwards be- 
came his wife, as she was going to Antrim to 
attend a religious meeting. Four or five days 
after he " propounded " the matter to her, 
and after a week or two visited her at her 
mother's house and obtained her consent. He 
married the lady in June 23, 1635. ShesWas 
the eldest daughter of one Bartholomew Flem- 
ing, an Edinburgh merchant, " of most worthy 
memory," and in her he found a help-meet 
worthy of him in every way. Not long after 
this we find him and some of his non-conform- 
ing friends building a ship near Belfast, of 
150 tons burden, which they called "The 
Eagle Wing," intending once more to proceed 
to the land of the Pilgrim Fathers. They 
started on the 9th of September, 1636, but 
met with such storms on the voyage that they 
concluded it was not the will of the Almighty 



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they they should proceed further or settle in 
.that country, and accordingly they abandoned 
ihe design when near Newfoundland, and after 
A perilous voyage they returned, and in Novem- 
ber reached Ulster in safety. Orders being issu- 
ed for his apprehension, he returned to Scotland 
and stayed with his father for some time, 
preaching occasionally at Lanark and else- 
where. In February 28th, 1638, we find him 
at Lanark and other places, where he wit- 
nessed the people signing the National Coven- 
ant. In this year (c) Presbyter ianism was once 
more in the ascendant, and he received caUs 
from Stranraer and Straiton in Midlothian. 
The latter place he would have preferred him- 
self, but his father and some of his friends per- 
suaded him to accept Stranraer, whereupon ho 
was admitted (at Stoneykirk) 5th July, 1638, 
in which year he was a member of Assembly, 
and for all the succeeding years till his trans- 
lation to Ancrum in 1648. At Stranraer he 
remained for some ten years, where he seems 
to have been more successful than in Ireland. 
The place was " but little and poor," he tells 
us, but he found the people " very tractable 
and respectful," and he was "sometimes well 
satisfied and refreshed." On July 13th, 1647, 
he was presented by the Earl of Lothian to the 
parish of Ancrum (f), and was inducted on 
August 25th of the following year. Next year 
he was a member of Asseml^ly, and also of the 
Commission for visiting the College of Edin- 
burgh. At Ancrum he laboured for some 
fourteen years with much acceptance, and 
gained the respect and love of his parishioners. 
In February, 1650, he was appointed by the 
Assembly one of the Commissioners to proceed 
•(along with James Wood, George Hutcheson, 
the Earl of Cassilis, the Earl of Lothian, and 
Alexander Brodie) to Breda in Holland, to 
negotiate with Charles with a view to his ac- 
cepting the Crown and returning to Scotland. 
He had not much heart in this business thtis 
imposed on him, and would rather have de- 
clined the unwelcome errand, as he had but 
little faith in the sincerity of 'Charles, and so 
returned dissatisfied with the way in which 
the pttoceedings were conducted. However, 
Charles satisfied them by giving his oath of 
fidelity to the Church, and was duly crowned 
with great pomp and ceremony at Scone by 
Robert Douglas, who more than hinted at the 
suspicions which prevailed as to the King's 
sincerity. After the sermon Charles swore to 
and subscribed the Covenants, and so the sol- 
emn farce was concluded. Sbotland, no doubt, 
acted from a sense of loyalty, but was soon 



destined to pay dearly for it at Dunbar and 
Worcester. Of all the Stuart kings, Charles 
n. was the most contemptible. He was a man 
of pleasure, of winning manners, but without 
principle, dissolute and licentious to a degree ; 
oaths and promises even the most solemn he 
was always ready enough to give, but to keep 
them was, for him, another matter. Living- 
ston, who seems to have seen through the dup- 
licity and hypocrisy of the King at this time 
more dearly than some of the others, was op- 
posed to the Coronation. About this time a 
most unhappy division took place in the 
Church regarding the King, some adhering to 
certain " resolutions " in his favour, others 
protesting against them, hence respectively 
called " Resolutioners " and " Protesters." In 
1651 Livingston took part with the Protesters, 
and at a general meeting of the party in 
October of that year was elected their Modera- 
tor, 

(a) William Livingston was born 1576; gradu- 
ated A.M. at Glasgow in 1595 ; ordained to Kilsyth, 
1596; was deposed in 1613 for opposing the restora- 
tion of episcopacy and not submitting to the can- 
ons and ceremonies of the Church, but afterwards 
was restored and became minister of Lanark in 
1614, and died in 1641, aged 65. His wife, Agnes 
Livingston, died in 1617, aged 32. 

(b) William Wallace, A.M., was master of the 
Grammar School of Stirling from 1612 to 1617, 
when he removed to Glasgow to hold a similar 
position there. He died in 1641. He appears to 
have written a poetical address in Latin to the 
King when he visited Stirling in the summer of 
1617.— " History of High School of Stirling,'' by 
A. F. Hutchison, M.A., pp. 43-49. 

(e) These may be briefly stated as follows :~ 
(1) Kneeling at the Communion; (2) Private com- 
municating in case of the sick; (3) Private bap- 
tism to be allowed; (4) Episcopal confirmation; (5) 
the observance of certain holidays, as Christmas, 
Good Friday, Easter, Ac. They were passed by 
the Assembly which met at Perth, 1618, and con- 
firmed by Parliament. They were keenly opposed, 
however, by the Presbyterians, who regarded them 
as a return to Popery, and, besides, they did not 
like to have them thrust upon them by the King 
against their will. They remained in force, 
though only partially ' observed in many of the 
churches, till swept away by the Glasgow Assembly 
of 1638. 

(d) James Law, the successor of Archibald Spot- 
tiswood, held the see from 1615 to 1632, and was a 
staunch upholder of Episcopal forms. On the oc- 
casion referred to, Principal Robert Boyd of 
Tochrig is said to hav» expostulated with him next 
day for dealing " at Christ's table as imperiously 
as if removing his horse-boys from the bye-board.'* 
Boyd, who was one of the greatest scholars of his 
age, was Principal of Glasgow University from 
1614 to 1621. He was the son of Archbishop Boyd 



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(1572-81>, and cousm of Zachary Boyd, minister 
of the Barony Church, 1623-53. Trochrague 
(Trochrig), the family estate, is near Girvan. A 
very pleasing account of this learned scholar is to 
be found in Hewat's " In the Olden Times." 

(e) The Greneral Assembly which met in the 
nave of Glasgow Cathedral on November 21st, 
1638, is famous in the ecclesiastical annals of Scot- 
land. The Marquis of Hamilton acted as Lord 
High Commissioner from His Majesty, while Alex- 
ander Henderson was elected Moderator. The 
Assembly was dissolved by the Commissioner dur- 
ing their seventh sederunt, but notwithstanding 
they continued in session till the 20th of December, 
and proceeded to abolish Epiecopacy, the High 
Commission, the Articles of Perth, the Canons 
and Liturgy, and to overthrow the whole fabric 
which James and Charles had been trying to set 
up with so much care and policy. The proceed- 
ings of the Assembly contributed in no small de- 
gree to the subsequent fate which overtook Charles 
in 1649. A full account of its proceedings is to be 
found in the quaint and interesting letters of 
Robert Baillie, who was a member of this Assem- 
bly and afterwards Principal of the University 
of Glasgow. 

« 

(f) Ancrum (Alncrumb, the bend on the Ale), 
is a small village of Roxburghshire, on Ale Water, 
which joins the Teviot, a little south of the place. 
Though now quite modern in appearance it is of 
great antiquity, and has a cross said to be of the 
time of Alexander III. In pre-Reformation times 
it was a prebend of the see of Glasgow, and was a 
favourite residence of the Bishops, especially such 
as were Border men— Jocelin (1175-99), Bondington 
(1233-58), Turnbull of the house of Minto, founder 
of Glasgow University (1448-M), and others. Bis- 
hop Bondington died here in 1258, and was buried 
in Melrose Abbey, near the high altar. Near to 
the village is Ancrum House, the residence of Sir 
W. Scott, and Mounteviot, a seat of the Marquis 
of Lothian, where Miss Jean Elliot, the author of 
" The Flowers of the Forest," died in 1805. In the 
immediate neighbourhood is the well-known Bor- 
der land-mark, Penielheugh Monument, built by a 
former Marquis of Lothian, to commemorate Wel- 
lington and Waterloo. Ancrum Moor, scene of 
the famous battle between the Scotch and English 
in 1545, lies about 1^ miles north-east of Ancrum 
House. In later times Ancrum was tlfe birth- 
place of William Buchan, M.D., author of the 
well-known and popular work "Domestic Medi- 
cine," referred to by Burns in his " Death and Dr 
Hornbook." Buchan died in London, 1805, and is 
buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 

To be CofUimted. 



What, man, ne'er lack a draught, when the full 

can 
Stands at thine elbow, and craves emptying 1 — 
Nay, fear not me, for I have no delight 
To watch men's vices, since I have myself 
Of virtue natight to boast of. 

Motto ("Kenilworth.") 



The Border Bookcase. 

^M?SQ7 USKIN was a great admirer of the writ* 
HBOflL ings of Sir Walter Scott, and the great 
TSSjKi ^T^^ critic's fine description of the 
ItMMo Tweed near Ashiestiel shows that he 
•^^^^1^ also loved the Scottish Borderland. 
Owing to the high price charged for 
Ruskin's works they have been sealed books to 
the large mass of the people, but now that the 
copyrights have run out, there will be a competi- 
tion among publishers for the reproduction in 
cheap form of the masterpieces of that great ex- 
ponent of the gospel of art. Foremost among 
such enterprising firms is the famous house of 
George Routledge & Sons. Already this firm has 
issued fifteen volumes of Ruskin^s most important 
works, and mere will follow as the copyrights 
expire. There is a peculiar satisfaction in pos- 
sessing one of these unabridged books, containing 
all the original illustrations, and handsomely 
bound in cloth with gold lettering, for the small 
sum of Is net. Take the volume lying before us, 
"The Seven Lamps of Architecture,'' as an ex- 
ample. It contains over 230 page's of dear print- 
ed matter on fine paper, and fourteen full-page 
illustrations. The thing is a marvel of beauty 
and cheapness. 



"THE TINKLER-GYPSIES OF GALLOWAY." 

The true Borderer has always a warm side to 
the swarthy nomadic race which has so long had 
a home in the Borderland, but it is not every one 
who has the time or special talents necessary for 
a close study of the history and folklore of this 
peculiar people. Provost Andrew M'Cormick, of 
Newton-Stewart, however, is an exception in this 
resi)ect, for he has spared neither time nor money 
in gathering into a handsome volume of nearly 
500 pages much of the Romany lore, which but 
for such researches would soon be lost. Althougk 
quite recently published by Messrs J. Maxwell 
& Son, Dumfries, the volume, which contains over, 
100 illustrations, is already out of print. We 
understand the author's material is not yet ex- 
hausted, so we look forward to a new and en- 
larged edition of his valuable work. 



THE WONDERS OF LIFE. 

So many marvels surround us in earth, air,- 
and sea, and they become so common to us that 
we lose the power of seeing them. It is well, 
then, that we should occasionally be reminded 
of our environment, and this has been admirably 
done by Mr Allan Sutcliffe, headmaster of St 
John's School, Jedburgh, in a booklet bearing th«)^ 
above title, and published at 3d by Mr T. S. 
Smail, Jedburgh. The author has the happy fac* 
ulty of clothing in simple language the great 
truths and mysteries of Nature. Beginning with 
the speck of dust dancing in the sunbeam, we are- 
led en till we reach the stellar world. To our 
young readers in particular we would recommend 
this little publication as a key to open up the 
avenues of knowledge. 



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CHRISTIANITY: ITS UNITY IN DIVERSITY. 

This is the title of a sermon by the genial min- 
ister of Traquair, the Rev. Jardine Wallace, 
B.A., which has been recently published by 
Messrs Wm. Blackwood & Son. The sermon is re- 
markable alike for its whole-hearted plea for 
Christian nnity, and for the fact that it was de- 
livered ovet twenty years ago, when the "middle 
wall of partition'' was much stronger than it is 
now. Mr Wallace says: — "There is no reason to 
prevent the most cordial co-operation at present 
on the part of sister Churches, but rather every 
argument for it. Adhering to their respective 
communions, the members might well combine 
in spreading that blessed Gospel which is dear to 
us all, in maintaining with each other the most 
brotherly intercourse and intercommunion, and 
in reciprocating the ordinary courtesies of life. 
There is a wide field for their United energies at 
home and abroad — ^a world of sin, ignorance, and 
misery." In the prefatory note there is repro- 
' duced a hitherto im.published letter by Thomas 
Carlyle, who says that he read the sermon " with 
«*atie«faction and at^sent." Surely this is the 
high-water mark of praise. 



MORE CHEAP BOOKS. 

We have become so familiar 'with cheap re- 
prints in these recent times that we are apt to 
forget the sixpenny edition of the "Waver ley 
Novels," which has held the field for nearly forty 
years. This was owing to the enterprise of the 
old-established firm of A. & C. Black, who are 
now famous as pioneers in the production of high- 
class colour books. Formerly the trouble with 
cheap reprints was that the paper covers soon 
came off, but now we have the Amalgamated 
Press, Ltd., bringing out their "Daily Mail" 
series of sixpenny novels with strong flexibl'* 
cloth covers, which enable the reader to use the 
book without fear of destruction, but with the 
same freedom as he handled the paper covers. 
The series has begun well with Hall Caine's 
"Eternal City," Robert Hichens' "The Woman 
*with the Fan." and W. B. Maxwell's " Vivien "-- 
all new standard novels. If the competition in 
the publishing world goes on as at present, we 
will all be able to be our own Carnegies, so far 
as library formation is concerned. 



SCOTIA. 

Such is the truly national name of the new 
•quarterly issued by the recently-formed St An- 
drew Society. This association has met with 
marked success, and it has already an imposing 
list of prominent national names upon its roll. 
The headquarters are in Edinburgh, and it has 
been formed to carry on similar work to that of 
ttie Scottish Patriotic Association, to which the 
new Society owes its origin. " Scotia " is a bulky 
budget of most interesting articles, which in 
every case appeal to our national sentiment — a 
sentiment which strengthens the bonds of the 
Empire. The quarterly is published at Is, and 
its blue cover with the white St Andrew Cross 
may be seen on many bookstalls, and we trust 
In many Scottish households. 




Castlecraig and Drochil Castle. 

^HESE contiguous places, the first a 
spacious mansion embroidered with 
woods which expand around the 
domain and the estate ; the second, 
a historical and picturesque ruin, are situate 
eight miles from Peebles and seven from 
Biggar, and are therefore not remote from 
access by railway, while the region round 
about them is one wherein you may, if so dis- 
posed, have the "ultima thule of quiet;" on . 
the other hand, you may have " quietude lim- 
ited," varied in summer by the gaiety of the 
visitors who seek out the mansions, farms, and 
lodgings available to them s» tenants. Re- 
garding shooting, fishing, the motor, the cycle, 
and the golf club, where are these not to be 
had 1 Climb the braes beyond Drochil Castle, 
from which you look across to Castlecraig, and 
equally on the road, bordering the river Tarth, 
or by the Lyne, you will see and hear a fair 
amount of summer life in its different aspects. 
This bit of country between Tarth bridge, past 
Castlecraig to Skirling and Biggar, may be 
termed a good land and u large; one you 
would do well to traverse on a summer day. 

Our first remembrance of Castlecraig is in 
the distant days when it was (continuing till 
quite recently) in the hands of the Gibson- 
Carmichael family, whose high social status, 
vast acreage, and political influence gave them 
an important position in a county of which the 
late Lord Wemyss was then the head as Lord- 
Lieutenant, though not resident therein, and 
which was in Parliament represented in turns 
by the Montgomerys, Forbes-Mackenzie, and 
the Gibsoij-Carmichaels. There is an excel- 
lent public road running, as it were, through 
the policies of Castlecraig, with the mansion 
on the left a large house reposing on a 
wooded bank, and surrounded by a perfect for- 
est of leafy shade. In the immediate neigh- 
bourhood is the old house of Scotston, the 
kirk and manse of Kirkurd, the hamlet of 
Blythbridge, the mansion of Netherurd, and all 
these are in proximity to a small stream yield- 
ing plenty trout, the Tarth, which joins the 
Lyne at Tarth Bridge. Beyond doubt it is 
Castlecraig which for many miles dominates 
the district, with its intense beauty of wood 
and its grassy undulation, its agricultural 
farms, trim cottages, hay meadows, gardens 
and orchards ; the eye is meemerically attract- 
ed to Castlecraig as the place between Biggar 
and Peebles, via Skirling and Lyne, and we 
cannot fancy any residence more suitable for a 



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gentlejnan who has done, and may still be do- 
ing, active work, obtaining herein whatever 
degree of restfulness he may find desirable. 
Stepping from the front-door on a July day 
is the flower lawn, wafting its scent of honey- 
suckle and roses ; the papers are read, and a 
stroll into the forest yields a gladsome shade. 
Here the laird makes his plans for the after- 
noon drive, which, whether it be to Peebles or 
to Biggar, has the best of roads and the 
prime of lowland scenery. Happy and grate- 
ful man I The close of this summer day finds 
him on good terms with mankind and himself, 
and on the Sunday he contributes to the plate 
of Kirkurd Church, a sovereign gleaming 
bright among the dusky pennies or the dim- 
med " saxpence!'* 

Scotston has this much of historical interest, 
that it once belonged to the Telfers, near re- 
latives of Tobias Smollett, historian and nov- 
elist, who visited the place more than once. 
We see here the remains of an interesting old 
mansion, now used as a farmhouse, while the 
property of Scotston and Knocknowes came by 
purchase to the Gibson-Carmichaels exactly a 
century ago. But for historical interest more 
palpal}le let us now visit Drochil Castle, which 
the Earl of Morton of his day commenced to 
build, but which he did not live to complete, 
he having been executed at the Cross of Edin- 
burgh as being art and part in the murder 
of Lord Darnley. In Chambers' " History of 
Peeblesshire " it is thus referred to: — " Tlie 
ruin is open throughout, except some of the 
vaults and passages, and the whole, a kind of 
pendicle of the farm -steading of Drochill, may 
readily be inspected by the tourist. The sit- 
uation of the Castle, though dull and lonely, 
has not been ill-chosen. It commands a view 
of the valleys of the Lyne, Tarth, and Tweed, 
and could not have been easily taken by sur- 
prise;" and Pennicuik's decription supple- 
ments that of Chambers : — " The Nether 
Drochill hath been desigpied more for a palace 
than a castle of defence, and is of mighty 
bulk ; founded and more than half built, but 
never finished by the then great and powerful 
Regent James Douglas, Earl of Morton. Upon 
the front of the south entry of this Castle was 
J.E.O.M., James, Earl of Morton, in raised 
letters, with the fetter-lock, as Warden of 
the Borders. This mighty Earl, for the plea- 
sure of the place and the salubrity of the air, 
designed here a noble recess and retirement 
from worldy business, but was prevented by 
his unfortunate and inexorable death, three 
years after, Anno 1581." Taken in connec- 



tion with Castlecraig, Drochil is made inter- 
esting as a most important adjunct of old- 
world architecture, well preserved amidst it» 
general decay, and its remains constitute, says 
Chambers, " the grandest of the ruined castles 
in the county." Now residing far away from 
it, we turn in memory to the days when it 
was frequently visited, and the '* rim of the- 
place " was freely accorded us by James Mur- 
ray of Craigend, the respected tenant of the- 
farm of Drochill, where he resided during sev- 
eral leases under the lairdship of the last E^rl 
of Wemyss, and this worthy gentleman (Mur- 
ray) lived to an age prolonged enough to 
make him weather-beaten and rugged like the 
very Castle itself. Superintending his staff 
of farm-servants, and interesting himself in his 
flocks and farm produce, "Old Drochil," as he 
came to be called, though not a celebrity, was 
a very popular man on the banks of the Lyne, 
where his son, also James Murray, laird of 
Callands, resided at the mansion of the latter, 
near to Newlands manse. Hie family -worship 
at Drochil, which included several of the out- 
door servants, commenced by the master him- 
self raising the tune of the Psalm, followed by 
his reading and devotional exercises, and it 
was a pleasant sight to observe Mr Murray 
returning from kirk or market up the Castle 
brae to his peaceful domestic home, which he 
so long enjoyed, and where there was dispensed' 
much cordial hospitality. Being quite the 
fathp^v of the household, and prominent as the 
patriarch of the district, we cinnot help asso- 
ciatintr this vpneraMe man with these parishes 
of Newlands and Kirkurd ; but the jays are* 
now cawing their evening melody around th^ 
Castle, and thus we finish our imperfect sketch 
of Castlecraig, <fec. 

D. Brown Anderson. 



Ne'er did Grecian chisel trace 
A Nymph, a Naiad, or a Grace, 
Of finer form, or lovelier face ! 
What though the sun, with ardent frown, 
Had slightly tinged her cheek with brown I 
— *liady of the Lake." 
« • » » 

Glide-will is a geizened tub, that huads in nae- 
liquor, and gude deed's like the cask, tight, 
round, and sound, that will baud liquor for the- 
•king. — "Bride of Lammermoor." 
* « ♦ * 

Set roasted beef and pudding on the opposite - 
side o' the pit of Tophet, and an Englishman 
will make a spang at it. — "Rob Roy.'' 



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" Bosells Fair/* 

OSELLS FAIR I" What memories 
these words suggest in the mind 
of a Lessudden laddie 1 "The 
Fair I" There was only one fair, 
neither Lammas Fair nor James' Fair counted. 
They were outside the Lessudden horizon. 

For at least a fortnight before, the days 
were counted, and when the » Green became 
"common" caps were metaphorically thrown 
in the air, arid it was ,with a delicious sense of 
proprietorship that we scampered across the 
grass. It was ours, and not even the Duke 
could put us off. We were keen on our rights. 
The first coming of the muggers was eagerly 
looked for, and we counted them as they ar- 
rived. It was a cause of congratulation when 
their numbers exceeded that of the previous 
year. ** There's just aboot the same number 
on the front green as there was last year." 
This, said rather sorrowfully. "Ay, man," 
comes the response from one who has been to 
see, " but 'e should see them on the back green. 
There's a gey lot there. Their camps are doon 
by the pound and up near to Merwick gate." 

The muggers' horses were things of delight 
tempered with fear. How the muggers rode I 
What daring, dashing fellows they were I and 
how delightful to ride on horseback to Tweed, 
and splash through the cool shallows at the 
"Burn-fit" and the " Plainstane. " In addi- 
tion to the fascination of the horses, there was 
that of dwelling in tents. How that appealed 
to us, too! 

There were few muggers forty years ago udio 
had houses on wheels, as they have now. The 
tents for the most part then were made of 
stuff of some sort — plaids, blankets, horse- 
rugs, and the like — stretched on a wooden 
framework. The fire was outside, and the 
meals were cooked in pots, and kettles hung 
on tripods over the fire. 

Even for the mugger children there were 
bed-time, washings, and combings of hair, but 
how fine and free to sleep on straw in the open 
air. The week in which the Green was " com- 
mon " was, we thought, a seven days' picnic 
for tliem. We knew many of the muggers, 
too. The arrival of a new family for the first 
time was noted with satisfaction, and we man- 
aged somehow to find out how they were re- 
lated to the other members of the fraternity. 

Tabor, of " Tabor take a tattie, ay, Tabor, 
take twae," was there ; Hawick Wattie, with 
his one song, was a frequent visitor ; the Doug- 
lases, and many others never failed, and we 



spoke familiarly of them by their christian 
names, and felt a proprietary interest in them, 
for they came to " oor green " and " oor fair." 
School holidays in these days did not b^in 
till some time in August. This, I fancy, was od 
account of the harvest, and so we had to make 
our visits to the Green when " the school was 
not in;" even "leave-time" allowed us, at 
the risk of a palmy for being late, to run up 
and just take a hurried peep. We always got 
a holiday of two or three days for the fair, and 
we felt that Providence was distinctly unfair 
when the fair fell on a Friday or a Monday. 
For it to, fall on a Saturday, of course, was 
rankest injustice. We maintained that the 
least that the school authorities could do In 
such a case was to give us the days all the 
same, but they did not. The day before the 
fair we sang : — 

" The morn's the fair, and I'll be there. 
And I'll have on ma curly hair ; 
I'll meet ma lass at the fit o' the stair. 
And gie her a glass and a wee drap mair." 

On the day itself we were up before breakfast. 
I once knew a boy who spent all his coppers 
before breakfast. What a day he put in I but 
he did not leave the fair ; neither did he ever 
err in that particular way again. After break- 
fast and after dinner we were " up " again — 
it was always " up the Green " — and after tea 
we took a final look round. Then we made 
ourselves as unobtrusive as possible whenever 
any of the Home authorities appeared, 
lest they should say, "Home, bed." If such 
an one appeared we discovered we had business 
in another part of the fair. 

Before the Marts were established at New- 
town the fair was a great sheep and cattle 
market, and it was one of the traditions of 
boyhood that coppers, to what seemed to us a 
fabulous amount, might be made by acting as 
assistant drovers. Nice supple ash plants were 
cut from the '" Braes " some time previous — 
we had a great belief in what were called 
" ground ashes " — ^and (we were ready when 
the sheep and cattle came on the groi\nd, but, 
truth to tell, coppers were not plentiful. One 
Irish drover had a little way of enlisting drov- 
ers, and promising to pay big money; but 
when pay-time was drawing near he made a 
practice of shouting some order, then, pretend- 
ing that it had not been carried out, he worked 
himself into a great rage, and rushed at his 
assistant with uplifted stick. The amateur 
drover usually took to his heeli without wait- 
ing for payment. He got sen-ice for nothing 
in this wnv. 



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There were, as wai^ natural, some farmers 
^nd cattle-dealers who objected, to the Marts. 
Human nature, even among farmers, is in- 
tensely conservative. A few of them made an 
organised attempt to buy and sell their beasts 
on the Green by private bargain, as they had 
been accustomed to do, and as their fathers 
had done before them ; but Messrs Swan cap- 
tured one of the leaders in this movement and 
made him their agent. In addition, the Marts 
commended themselves, and now cattle and 
sheep are conspicuous by their absence. I can 
remember the last solitary lot of sheep that 
was on the Green. They, or it, stood on the 
Green on the other side of the road from the 
Bmiddy, and they looked forlorn. 

The horse market was held on the back 
Green, and, again, to go there w^s a delight 
tempered with fear, for you never knew when 
a horse was coming charging down at full-tilt, 
one man hanging on to its head, and seller and 
probable buyer watching its paces. 

The muggers were all horse-coupers. Many 
of them had good beasts, but they were always 
willing to make a swap, and, as a rule, what 
they did not know about horse-flesh was not 
worth knowing. They were past-masters in 
the art of doctoring an aged staid horse so that 
it capered and danced with the youngest and 
freshest. 

Tlie day before the fair, or, perhaps, 
even the day before that, the shofws, shooting 
galleries, and hobby-horses arrived, and were 
duly set up in their stances. All those were 
more primitive than these we are accustomed 
to see to-day. So far as I remember, the mo- 
tive power for the hobby-horses was a man, 
who perspired freely as he turned a big wheel. 
The better class had a horse or a pony which 
did the work. Now they have steam-power 
and electric light, and even the organ — no, it is 
a full orchestra — is driven by steam. 

The " kraraes " — id est the stalls — were an- 
other source of delight. There used to be an 
old woman who came evei-y year, for long, with 
a large stall, in which she displayed toys. To 
us they seemed marvellous, but I fancy that 
children to-day would turn up their noses at 
them. Among other things, she had a stock 
of fancy canes, and it was the correct thing, 
after you came to a certain age, to buy one of 
those swagger-sticks and carry it all day. 
They rarely lasted beyond the day, but you got 
one all the same, and you compared yours with 
your neighbours. 

It was that stall that was responsible for 
emptying the pockets of the boy whom I men- 



tioned a little ago, and insult was added to 
injury too, for later on in the day, when he 
was asking the price of something, he was or- 
dered away because he had no money. That 
was the largest krame of the kind there, and it 
always stood in the same position on the Green 
quite near to the smiddy. From it other stalls 
stretched in an irr^ular, broken line over to 
the road that leads to the cross-roads and up 
the side of it fpr a little way.. 

There you could get sherbet drinks, for a 
ha'penny; yellow gooseberries, popularly sup- 
posed to be ripe by the fair ; sweets of many 
hues and various degrees of indigestibility, and 
so on. There were the usual cocoa-nut shies 
and aunt-sallies. On one occasion, at least, I 
have seen the nimble-fingered thimble rigger 
there, but he had short shrift, for the law made 
him move on. 

Occasionally, too, there came the auctioneer, 
who offered bargains and made startling pre- 
sents. You bought a sixpenceworth, and you 
got your sixpence back — at least one or two 
did. The others who came in then with a rush 
did not. 

The Duke of Buccleuch is owner of the 
ground on which the fair is held, and thirty 
years ago there was a quaint custom in vogue. 
Some time in the forenoon a procession was 
formed. There was a man with a drum, and 
others with some sort of weapon or symbol of 
office on their shoulders, and to the tuck of 
drum they marched through the fair. Whether 
this was a relic of the " Court of the dusty 
feet" — a court that used to be constituted to 
tr^ and punish offences committed in the fair, 
or a proclamation of the Duke of Buccleuch's 
over-lordship, I cannot say. 

I have the impression that I once saw a man 
committed to the stocks on the fair day. The 
stocks lay near the old police station on the 
Green, and were unused most of the yeai. I 
certainly saw a man confined, but I am not so 
sure that it was on the fair day, and I do not 
know by whose authority he was put there. 
Perhaps some of the older readers of the Bor- 
der Magazine can throw some light on the 
origin and meaning of this custom and on the 
fate of the stocks. 

I think that the late Mr Charles Lamb, of 
St Boswells, was one of the officials who 
marched through the fair. 

Beyond the time that my memory recalls, I 
believe that the day after the fair was de- 
voted to games and horse-racing. The mug- 
gers played a great part as horsemen. One 
year, however, a young man, a native of the 



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79 



village, was killed while riding, and after that 
sad event the games and races were stopped. 

I re-visited the fair some yeai*s ago, aftei- an 
absence of many years, and saw many changes. 
The cattle and sheep had vanished ; the mug- 
gers are now only allowed on the (ireen on the 
fair day, a few hours before, and a few hour* 
afterwards. I suppose if they cared to insist 
on their ancient rights they might occupy the 
Green for seven days as formerly, but it is 
not worth "while. The horse market is as busy 
as ever ; wool is still sold ; the shows are more 
numerous and better appointed ; the muggers 
have mostly got houses on wheels now, and the 
tent is a thing of the past. The old stocks 
have disappeared, and so has the quaint pro- 
cession of which I spoke. 

The old folks used to say, " Bosells fair, 
Bosells flood," and occasionally the 18th of 
July is a day of rain, but when I was there 
last the sun .shone gloriously, and one could 
only move about with effort. Lammas fair 
has gone, but Bosells fair gives evidence of 
nourishing for many years. That this may be 
80 is the wish of A. L. A. Sudden. 



A Border Literary Chronicle, with 
Brief Biographical Notes. 

PART X. 

iSiBBALD, Jambs (b. at Whitelaw, Roxburghshire, 
1747— d. at Leith, 1803); educated at Selkirk; 
after trying farming went to Edinburgh and 
set up as a bookseller; wrote in 1802 "The 
Chronicles of Scottish Poetry from the 13th 
Century to the Union of the Crowns;" edited 
the "Edinburgh Magazine" from 1785-92; 
friend of Burns; had a circulating lihrary in 
Parliament Square, which young Walter Scott 
used to frequent. (6.M. iv. 93). 

Shanks, Key. Alexakdbk (h. 1731), was Burgher min- 
ister at Jedburgh from 1760 till 1799; "was a 
man of great simplicity of character, but very 
considerable talents." He publishecl several 
sermons, one on " Peace and Order " attracted 
the attention of Qovernment, a^nd in conse- 
quence he was offered a pension, whicli he mod- 
estly declined. 

tfMiBBET, Thomas (b. at Peebles, 1810— d. at Edin- 
burgh, 1854), practised as a surgeon at Inner- 
leithen; wrote for "Chambers's Journal," of 
which he acted as sub-aditor, and in the same 
capacity for the "Scotsman;" published in 
1851 a vol. of poems, " lo Anche I Poems chiefly 
Lyrical." His best piece is "The Scottish 
Widow's Lament ;" his " Conde's Wife " was 
acted at Edinburgh, 1842; published also "Clans 
of the Highlands." 1850. 

SoMiEViLLE. Riv. Thomas, D.D., F.R.S.E. (b. ai 
Hawick, 1741-Hi. May 16, 1830). minister of 
Minto, 1767-72; succeeded Dr MacKnight at 
Jedburgh, 1772; wrote histories of the Restora- 
tion and Fall cf the Stuarts, 1792, and of 
Queen Anne, 1798; and an interesting autobio- 



graphy, " My own Life and Times," from 1741- 
1814, published in 1861. He was uncle and 
father-in-law to 

SoMBRViLLB, Maey (b. 1780— <l. 1872), daughter of 
Admiral W. Geo. Fairfax, the hero of the 
battle of Camperdown; married (1) in 1804 her 
cousin, Samuel Greig, who died in 1807, and 
(2) in 1812 another cousin, William Somer- 
ville (1771-1860), physician to Chelsea Hospital, 
eldest son of Dr Thos. Somerville; devoted her- 
self to science and wrote on the Spectrum and 
Laplace; "The Mechanism of the Heavens" 
appeared in 1831 ; " The Connection of the Phy- 
sical Sciences," in 1834; and her "Physical 
Goography " in 1848. In later life she settled 
in Italy, and died at Naples in Nov. 1872. 

Steblb, Andbbw (b. at Coldstream, 1811 — d. Feb. 
20, 1882), was a shoemaker to trade; contri- 
buted poetry to the Border newspapers; pub- 
lished a vol. of poems in 1871. 

Stoddabt, Thomas Tod (b. Feb. 14, 1810-^. Nov. 22, 
1880), " the Scottish Walton " ; was educated 
for the bar and passed as advocate, but gave 
up law and settled down for life at Kelso, 
1836 ; wrote numerous angling songs and poems 
—"Art of Angling," 1835; "Angling Remini- 
scences,'' 1837; "Songs and Poems," 1839; 
"Angler's Companion," 1847; "An Angler's 
Rambles" and "Angling Songs," 1866; "Songs 
of the Seasons and other Poems," 1873. His 
daughter, Anna M. Stoddart, is the biographer 
of Prof. Blackie. whose forbears belonged to 
Kelso. 

Stoey, Robert (b. at Yetholm, March 3, 1790 — d. 
18 ), schoolmaster at Yetholm, afterwards 
minister of Roseneath, the intimate friend of 
Chalmers, Irving, Thos. Pringle, Dr Norman 
Macleod, Dr Robert Lees, Ac. ; father of Prin- 
cipal Story, who wrote his Memoir, 1862. 

Tblfbr, James (b. at Southdean, 1800 — d. Jan. 18, 
1862), balladist; schoolmaster at Saughtree, on 
the Liddell; wrote a vol. of "Border Ballads 
and Miscellaneous Poems" (1824), dedicated to 
the Ettrick Shepherd, also the Border story of 
"Barbara Grav," 1835, and a vol. of "Tales 
and Sketches." about 1855. (B.M. v. 55, 68). 

Thomson, James (b. at Ednam, near Kelso, Sept. 
11, 1700— (1. at Richmond, Aug, 27, 1748), poet 
of the " Seasons ;" third son of the minister 
of Ednara, afterwards of Southdean, near 
Jedburgh, where the poet spent his early 
years; educated at Jedburgh Grammar School, 
and studied at Edinburgh for the Church ; pat- 
ronised by Lord Cranston, Sir W. Bennet, and 
Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto, at whose ii'f-id- 
ence he spent some of his vacations; remo/iHl 
to London in 1725; puV)li8hed "Winter" in 
1726; "Summer" and "Spring," 1728; 
"Seasons" complete, 1730; "Castle of Indol- 
ence," 1748; wrote also several plays — " Sophon- 
isba," "Agamemnon," "The Masque of Al- 
fred " (which contains the famous song "Rule, 
Britannia"), " Tancred and Sigismunda;" 
"Coriolanus"; died at Richmond, to which he 
had removed, in 1736. (B.M. v. 163, 166; vi. 16). 

Thomson, Anobbw, D.D. (b. at Langholm, 1779— d. 
1831), minister of Sprouston, 1802; translated in 
1808 to Perth, and afterwards became minister 
of St George's, Edinburgh : a prominent h-ader 
and orator in the Church Courts; wrote on 
public questions of the day. 



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Thomson, Jamiss (b. at Bowden, July 4, 1827— died 
at Hawick. l>ec. 21, 1888), spent the greater 
part of his life at Hawick; published in 1870 
a small vol. entitled "Doric Lays and LyrioB." 
"Up wi' the Banner," "The Border Queen," 
"The Auld Smiddy End," "Star o' Robbie 
Burns," "Oor Jock," are some of hie better 
known pieces. (B.M. iv. 133). 

TuBNBULL, William, a son of TurnbuU of Bedrule; 
Bishop of Glasgow, 1448-64. In 1450 he pro- 
cured a bull from Pope Nicholas V. for the 
founding of Glasgow University. He is said 
to have founded Jedburgh Grammar School, 
and was Archdeacon of Lothian, Keeper of the 
Privy Seal, and Bishop of Dunkeld, before he 
was promoted to the see of Glasgow. 

Vbitoh, James, of Inchbonny, near Jedburgh (b. 1770 
d. 1838), a self-taught astronomer and philo- 
sopher; friend of Sir Walter Scott and Sir 
David Brewster, who spent much of his boy- 
hood in Veitch's shop; constructed telescopes, 
Ac, and wrote articles on mechanical subjects 
to the " Edinburgh Cyclopeedia." (B.M. v. 15, 
34. 45). 

Veitch, John, LL.D. (b. at Peebles, Oct. 29, 1829— 
d. Sept. 3, 1894), was professor of Logic and 
Rhetoric, St Andrews, I860; occfupied the same 
chair at Glasgow from 1864 till* his death; 
wrote "History and Poetry of the Scottish 
Border," 1878; "Hillside Rhymes," 1872; 
" Tweed and other Poems," 1875 ; " Feeling for 
Nature in Scottish Poetry," 1887 ; " Merlin and 
other Poems," 1889; "Border Essays," 1896. 
B.M. i. 214; 198). 

VBrrcH, William, LL.D. (b. at Lanton, near Jed- 
burgh, 1794— d. 1885), educated at Jedburgh and 
Edinburgh University, and a licentiate of the 
Church of Scotland; devoted himself to the 
study and teaching of Greek in Edinburgh from 
1843; known to scholars as the author of 
" Greek Verbs, Irregular and Defective," 1848. 
He was an excellent Greek scholar, and as- 
sisted in revising Liddell and Scott's Greek 
Lexicon. 

Wadb, Jambs A., author of "A History of Melrose 
Abbey;" edited the "Border Magazine," 1863- 
64. 

Watt, William (b. at West Linton, 1792— d. 1859), 
poet; author of a vol. of songs published in 
1835; 2nd edit, in 1845. "Kate Dalrymple," 
"The Tinkler's Waddln'." "Merrily danced 
the Quaker's Wife," "Auld John Paul," 
" Katie Christie," are some of his better known 
pieces. 

Watts. Thcmas (b. at Duns, 1845— d. 1888?), pub- 
lished in 1880 a collection of his poems under 
the title of " Woodland Echoes." 

Watson, Rev. James Hibam (b. at Eccles, Berwick- 
shire, 1852— <1. Jan. 24, 1903), son of the Rev. 
James Watson, minister of Eccles ; educated at 
Eccles and Edinburgh University, where he 
studied for the Church; contributed to the 
magazines and periodicals; chief work, "Pro- 
verbs, Proverbial Expressions and Popular 
Rhymes of Scotland." 

Watson, Jambs (b. at Jedburgh, April 1, 18a5— d. 
April 13, 1898), wrote "History of Jedburgh 
Abbey : Historical and Descriptive," 1877 ; 
" Living Bards of the Border," 1859 ; and var- 
ious interesting literary papers. (B.M. iv. 136, 
152. 165). 



WAaoH, Alexanobb, D.D. (b. near Earlston, Aug. 
16, 1754— d. Dec. 14. 1827), educated at Earl- 
ston, Edinburgh University, and Aberdeen; 
licensed to preach in 1779; minister of New- 
town, near Melrose, 1780-82, and of Wells Street 
Congregational Church, London, 1782; pub- 
lished a vol. of " Sermons," 1825. 

Wilson, Jambs Hood, D.D. (b. at Duns, 1829— d. 
18 ), minister of the Barclay Church, Edin- 
burgh. (B.M. i. 201). 

Wilson, John Mackay (b. at Tweedmouth, 1803— d. 
1835), poet and dramatist ; editor of the " Tales 
of the Border " and of the " Berwick Adver- 
tiser." 1832-35. (B.M. ix. 134). 

Wilson, James (b. at Hawick, 1805— d. 1861), for 
some time carried on business as a hatter, but 
afterwards devoted himself to literature and 
economical questions; in 18;59 published a vol. 
on " The Influence of the Corn Laws -** in 1848 
editor of the "Economist"; in 1847 elected 
M.P. ; was Secretary to the Board of Control 
and Financial Secretary to the Treasury; in 
1860 sent by the Government on a political 
mission to India, but died in the following 
year. 

Wilson, Robert (b. 1772— d. Sept. 7» 1837), wrote a 
"History of Hawick," 1825, and a "Disquisi- 
tion on the Corn Laws," 1826; was a leading 
citizen of Hawick, and took great interest in 
the political questions of the day. 

Young, John, D.D. (b. 1744— d. March 25. 1806). 
anti-burgher minister of Hawick, 1767-1806: 
wrote several vols, of Sermons and Essays, and 
a History of the French War in 2 vols. 

Youngbb, John (b. at Longnewton, parish of An- 
crum, July 5, 1785— d. June 19, 1860), a shoe- 
maker to trade; a man of great intelligence 
and sterling honesty, who could "heuk a 
saumon and write a guid sang," for "in both 
was he equally skilful;" lived at St Boswells: 
published "Thoughts as they rise," a vol. of 
poems, 1834: "River Angling for Salmon and 
Trout." 1839; left MS. Memories, published in 
" Autogiography of John Younger." Kelso. 
1881. (B.M. ii. 33). 

« « « 

With the present month our "Chronicle" 
comes to an end. It is more than likely that 
some names may have escaped the compiler, and 
readers of the Border Magazine would confer a 
favour if they would -kindly send to the Editor 
any brief notices of Border worthies which have 
br^en omitted from the list. These oonld be added 
later on by way of supplement. No names, how- 
over, of persons still living should be given. 
A. Graham, 
(Compiler of "Chronicle.") 



Love's darts 
Cleave hearts 
Through mail shirts. 

"Fair Maid of Perth." 
* « « 

Too much rest in rust, 

There's ever cheer in changing ; 
We tyne be too much trust, 

So we'll be up and ranging. 

Motto ("Tlie Betrothed.") 



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SUPPLEMENT to the "BORDER MAGAZINE," Vol XII.. No. 137. 




REV. ROBERT BORLAND, YARROW. 



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REV. ROBCRT BORLAND^ 

MiraSTeS Of VAMOW. 




" Oh Yarrow garlanded with rhyme. 
That clothee thee in a mournful glory/' 

I O enter this lovely valley even with a 
soul no grester than the common- 
plaoe tourist is to realise the pres- 
sure of an atmosph^e whioh caniiot 
be explained in terms of the laws of physics. 
The air is spiritualised; ballad, legend, 
romance, and chivalry conjure shapes of some 
old unhappy far-off time that move across the 
soft, green-rownded hills, peep from every bush, 
nestle among the bracken and heather, and 
murmur in the sweet wave of Yarrow flowing. 
To attempt an analysis of one's feelings is to 
run the risk of materialising one's concep- 
tions; better to feel and be silent else the 
dream of glaraourie and of fairyland will van- 
ish. 

Yarrow has a literature all its own, and no 
student of our language can be said to know 
the finer essence of that which is peculiarly 
Scottish till his mind has assimilated the 
spirit of the Border ballads, especially the 
group that centres in the love and tragedy of 
this fascinating valley. Wordsworth felt it, 
English though he was ; the poetic interpreter 
of nature was at home the moment his eye 



caught the contour of the hills and his ear 
heard the ripple of tlie stream, if familiar- 
ity does iK)t always breed contemptj it eeldom 
fails to dull the vision, even when the acting 
influences are more or less spiritual ; but the 
late Mr James Brown, Selkirk, who lived all 
his life within sight of this valley, could write 
in middle life of Yarrow as if his soul had just 
been caught on a fresliet of poetic experience. 
His poems ei^ress that subtle charm peculiar 
to his environment which show how thorough- 
ly the spirit of the valley had penetrated his 
life. 

Yarrow has outstanding names associated 
with its history and romance : Dr Rutherford, 
Scott, Hogg, Christopher North, Mimgo Park, 
and Veitch rise easily in oiie's memory ; but 
while they are recognised as having given the 
valley its setting in Scottish literature, the 
real life of the people resident gathers round 
the manse, and centres in the lives of those 
ministers who for centuries, even before the 
Reformation, administered the ordinances of 
the church. Notable among tliese are, Ruth- 
erford, the great-grandfather of Sir Walter 
Scott, and the two Russells, father and son, but 
not less (vtriking has been the incumbency of 



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the present minister, the Rev. Robert Borland. 
No one can meet Mr Borland without feeling 
in touch with an interesting personality. His 
tall, straight figure, inches beyond the six feet, 
abundant hair that crowns his head like a 
miniature snowdrift, and his keen, sharp eyes 
stamp him as a man whom you cannot pass 
without notice. Bom in Dalserf, in the 
Middle Ward of Lanarkshire, fully a half-cen- 
tury ago, and educated in the village school at 
Stonehouse, he early set his heart upon being 
a minister, but he could not enter the Church . 
of Scotland, for Calvinism at that time in its 
severer aspects dominated the teaching of the 
pulpit and repelled him. His sympathies were 



that quieter times had set in, permeating the 
pulpit ; and Mr Borland, recognising the trend 
of thought, resolved to follow the lead which 
his experience of church life and work had 
given him. In 1880 he was admitted a stud- 
ent in Theology in the University of Glasgow, 
and became a probationer of the Church of 
Scotland. His recognised ability as a prea- 
cher secured for him at once a call to Kirkton 
parish, which he declined in favour of another 
call to Ladhope in Galashiels. Here he lab- 
oured for about a year and. a half with much 
acceptance^ preaching Sunday after Sunday to 
crowded congregations. The church and par- 
ish of Yarrow became vacant in January, 1883, 




YARROW KIRK. 



with the views of Morison, who founded the 
Evangelical Union, and he entered the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow to qualify for that church, 
eventually occupying charges at Langholm and 
Kilmarnock. But Mr Borlana was not long 
in realising that the three "universalities" 
which lay at the basis of the teaching of the 
Evangelical Union Church had begun to pene- 
trate the thought and life of the Church of 
Scotland. The teaching of Campbell of Row, 
in many respects akin to Morison 's, and for 
many years sterilised by the cold blasts of con- 
troversy that blew between the Church and the 
State, which ended in the Disruption, was, now 



by tlie death of Dr Russell ; and Mr Borland, 
sent by his Presbytery to supply in accord- 
ance with the laws and practice of the Church, 
so caj)tivated the people with his eloquence 
that they resolved to give him a call. This 
he accepted. For twenty-four years he has 
been minister of this beautiful and historic 
parish, endearing himself to his people by the 
beauty of his services and the charm of his 
manner. 

Relief from the strain of a town charge has 
provided him with the leisure requisite for 
literary work, and the years have been fruit- 
ful. " Yarrow : Its Poets and Poetry," " Bor- 



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der Raids and Reivers," " A Memoir of James 
Hogg," "A Holiday in Norway," and "A 
Word in Season," besides articles to numerous 
magazines and newspapers, have followed in 
regular succession, all indicating a cultured 
and well-informed mind. Mr Borland has 
thoroughly assimilated the history, literature, 
and spirit of the Yarrow valley. There is not 
a single question of antiquarian or literary 
interest which has not exercised his mind, and 
regarding which he has not given proofs of 
independent study. 

A man of affairs, he touches and moulds 
the social and educational, as well as the re- 



in the Courts of the Church his voice is 
often heard, but he never speaks without im- 
pressing the brethren with his grasp of detail 
and intelligent insight. He is an ecclesiastic 
of the best type — large-minded and warm- 
hearted — and though he frequents Queen 
Street, No. 22, as a member of numerous Com- 
mittees, they have failed to put the brand of 
that fatal number upon him. 

Those of us who listened to Mr Borland's 
preaching nearly a quarter of a century ago 
can never forget the sonorous roll of his voice, 
his vigorous eloquence, and closely-compacted 
thought, and to one inclined to forecast the 



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YARROW KIRK, SHOWING ALTERATIONS. 



From a Photo by 



ligious side of his parish at all points. Chair- 
man of the School Board, and the Parish 
Council, member of the County Council, and of 
the County Committee on Secondary Educa- 
tion, he lives as busy a life as the minister of 
a city parish, afad exercises an influence few 
city ministers wield. As a testimony to 
his breath of view and practical insight, the 
Chairmen of the School Boards within the 
County of Selkirk elected him to represent 
them on the Provincial Committee for the 
Training of Teachers. He is an F.S.A. (Scot.), 
and takes part in the studies and business of 
numerous other societies. 



J. R, Brown, SoUcirk, 

years, there was the danger that when the 
fires glowed with less heat, he might rea<jh 
the unpopularity of over -burdened thought ; 
but Yarrow has saved him from the severities 
of the logical mind. The rich colour of poetic 
thought has checked and corrected latent ten- 
dencies, giving to the pulpit utterances of lat^r 
years a more emotional and imaginative 
strain. And yet, while the years have made 
him more of the poet, he is still the keen dia- 
lectician, reading all the best theological lit- 
erature as it issues from the Press, never losing 
interest in a " problem," and eager to discuss 
with whomsoever will. As a conversational- 



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ist^ he is '^ facile princeps '^ among all the min- 
isters of my acquaintance, and hours spent 
with him are the most cherished memories of 
life. 

It is well known that our Universities are 
endowed with travelling scholarships assoc- 
iated with theology, the classics, and science; 
but why should the Church of Scotland not 
Save a travelling lectureship as an adjunct to 
the literary department of the Young Men's 
Guilcl ? There could be no difficulty in decid- 
ing as to the minister who should receive the 
first appointment. Mr Borland's claims are 
pre-eminent, for his fame as a lecturer is wide- 
ly acknowledged. He has done valuable ser- 
vice to the Church in her several parishes, 
where he has been called back time and again 
to deliver lectures, which never fail to charm 
with their humour and pathos, as well as their 
exact scholarship and literary grace. 

Though Mr Borland is conservative in many 
respects, with a strong love for all that the 
Church has inherited of the beautifid and the 
true, he has come to recognise that Yarrow 
Kirk, built in 1640, has fallen behind the 
aesthetic needs of the time, and with the aid 
of sympathetic heritors, members and friends, 
he has executed a scheme of thorough renova- 
tion and adapted it to modern requirements. 
A beautiful apse has been built on the south 
wall of the church, in which there have been 
placed three handsome stained-glass windows. 
The interior has been completely renewed, the 
whole woodwork being of oak, with much 
lovely panelling and screen work. The cost 
has amounted to £1700, and the bulk of this 
sum was raised by Mr Borland's lectures in 
different parts of the country. Everywhere 
he went the people evinced the keenest inter- 
est in the work, and responded to his appeals 
with a heartiness which astonished the lec- 
turer. 

A day in Yarrow has always been associated 
in my memory with a day at the manse. A 
warm welcome and generous hospitality from 
Mrs, as well as Mr, Borland never fails to meet 
one. To sit at the study window and look 
out on Deuchar Swire, with the soft, green, 
rounded hill behind, where the shadows play 
like fairies on the slopes, while the lonely 
music of the river mingles with the hum of 
conversation — to think of Yarrow, its legends, 
romance, chivalry, and song, and weave all as 
parts of our common life — these are memories 
that touch sources of feeling, hope, and in- 
spiration as near the religious as it is possible 
for one to experience outside the Christian 
faith. Alkx. Loudon. 



Regarding Yarrow Kirk restoration, Mr 
Dimcan Fraser, writing in the " Southeru 
Reporter " of 18th April, says: — 

" A THING OF BHAUTT IS A JOT FOB BVBR.'* 

We have heard a good deal about the sue- 
CjBSsful restoration of Yarrow Kirk, but cir- 
cumstances had not allowed us to see and judge 
for ourselves, until last Sunday. It was a 
lovely April day, cold, but clear, with every 
hill standing bold against the blue sky, dis- 
tinct as a cameo. Four miles down the valley 
on such a day was ideal church going. Sa 
seemed to think many of the good folk of the 
district, for they hied on their way in good 
numbers, considering the claims of the season 
upon the shepherd worshippers. The impres- 
sion made upon our minds when we entered 
the gate of the -churchyard was, that somehow 
the ground covered more space than of old, or 
that the various gravestones were at least more 
distinctly brought into view. It was with 
mingled feelings that we saw the names of 
many who, in bygone days, were wont to await 
the ringing of the kirk-bell, even as we were 
doing that day. The exterior of Yarrow Kirk 
has much of its old familiar look, save for the 
semi -octagonal bulge of the apse, and its ad- 
ditional length. The interior — ahl Who 
can describe the alteration there? Graceful 
in form, artistic in wood and stone, spacious 
in its pews, and grateful to the senses in its 
chaste colouring — there was nothing obtrus- 
ive, but much that was helpful to devotion. 
We have known Yarrow Kirk when its dim 
religious light was too real for comfort ; and 
when the fresh air from the glorious adjacent 
hills was too rigorously excluded. But for all 
that we revered it for its history, and for the 
eminence and piety of the famous men who* 
successively filled its pulpit. But neither re- 
ligious tradition nor manse piety is endan- 
gered by the beautiful house of worship now 
placed at the disposal of the dwellers in the 
classic vale. Old associations are precious I 
Here they are not endangered, but enhanced. 
Older folk treasure their memories, but we 
almost envy the children the impressions and 
memories they are laying up around their 
beautiful church. While Mr Borland wa«r 
earnestly delivering his message, we could not 
help recalling the aphorism of the political 
economists — that he who makes two blades of 
grass grow instead of one is a benefactor of 
mankind ; and we thought how much more is 
he a benefactor of mankind who can raise a 
" house beautiful " upon the sombre founda- 
tion of an old one. 



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The Proclamation of the Sovereign. 

SOME RECORDS OP JEDBURGH. 

By Pboyost Hilson. 

[fLNCE 1901 this subject, as relating to Scot- 
tish jurisdiction, has from time to time 
occupied the attention of the Convention 
of Royal Burghs. The burgh represen- 
tatives were compelled to deal seriously 
with it, owing to the procedure which 
took place throughout Scotland at the ascension 
of His Majesty King Edward in 1901. Till then 
the belief was prevalent that in the ancient Royal 
burghs of ScotlaLnd a King or Queen ought to be 
proclaimed at the Mercat Cross, and that the 
lieges had an immemorial right to hear the all- 
important message from the mouths of their Pro- 
vosts and Magistrates. This claim was believed to 
be founded on immemorial usage,, maturing under 
the rights and privileges conferred by the Royal 
charters which called these burghs into independ- 
ent corporate being. Mr Cosmo Innes, in his 
" Scottish Legal Antiquities," says that " the very 
essence of Royal Burgh tenure is that the burgh 
holds immediately of the Crown," and that the 
Parliament in the time of David II. declared it 
illegal for the King to interpose any persons be- 
tween him and his vassals. He sets forth in 
ample historical detail the inherent powers of self- 
government which the Royal Burghs for centuries 
enjoyed. By the twenty-first article of the tTnion 
it was enacted that "the rights and privileges of 
the Royal Burghs of Scotland as they now are do 
remain entire after the Union, and notwithstand- 
ing thereof." Round the Mercat Cross linger 
many memories of the past, and to the indwellers 
it is a spot really sanctified by tradition. But in 
1901, when King Edward was proclaimed, the Mer- 
cat Cross was no longer held inviolate in not a few 
of the Royal Burghs. Owing to the operation of 
an ill-considered Order in Council, dated 11th 
August, 1881, a new procedure was set up, whereby 
copies of all Royal Proclamations, except those for 
further proroguing Parliament, were directed 
to be sent to the Sheriffs of all counties in Scot- 
land, who were directed to make them known *' in 
the manner accustomed." Had the latter instruc- 
tion been punctiliously observed much conflict of 
■ opinion and irritation might have been avoided. 
In a good many burghs the lieges at the proclama- 
tion of Edward saw their Provost and Magistrates 
ignored altogether, and the Sheriff in supreme 
authority at the Mercat Cross. Indignation and 
ill-feeling were created, and it is not too much to 
say that the heartiness and loyalty of a memor- 
able occasion were marred to a considerable extent 
in many an old Royal Burgh. To do the Sheriffs 
justice, they acted in some cases with caution, and 
did not avail themselves of their utmost author- 
ity. This was notably the case at Edinburgh, 
Aberdeen, Perth, and Dundee. In Glasgow the 
new King was proclaimed by the Sheriff in George 
Square, and it is stated there is no record of the 
occasion in the Council minutes. 

In 1901, on the motion of the Provost of Forres, 
the Convention opened up the question with the 
Scottish Home OflBce, and initiated the slow pro- 
cess of obtaining redress. For its guidance the 
late Mr William Officer, agent of the Convention, 
prepared a memorial, which was addressed to Lord 



Balfour of Burleigh, Secretary for Scotland. It 
was a document of great interest and value» as 
Mr Officer had collected many historical data on 
the subject and cited numerous precedents. He 
had also investigated the procedure which had 
taken place at the recent proclamation of Edward, 
and tabulated the results. In his print of the 
claims of the Royal Burghs, Mr Officer stated that 
in thirty-seven of these the Magistrates proclaimed 
the ascension of the Sovereign, and that in thirty- 
two the Sheriffs did so. Of the latter he mentions 
that twenty-four were head Royal Burghs of 
Counties, and seven of them possessed an express 
grant of Sheriffship. Now that the Convention 
has received a final report from the sub-committee 
appointed, Mr Officer's elucidation of a somewhat 
knotty constitutional point must be gratefully re- 
called and acknowledged. 

To the student of burghal customs it may be of 
interest to get a glimpse into the ceremonial of 
olden times associated with one of the older 
Royal Burghs, namely, Jedburgh. At the same 
time it will help to illustrate the grievances set 
forth under the title of this article. The Queen's 
birthday was always a notable event in the humble 
life of the lieges, and was celebrated befittingly. 
The Town Council met on 6th February, 1706, and 
the minute of meeting tells that " In respect that 
this is the Queen's birthday (Queen Anne), 
appoynts the Magistrates and Counsell to convein 
in the Counsell-hous about thrie o'cloak in the 
afternoon in ordour for ther gooing to the Croce 
for solemnizing therof. Appoynts the bells to be 
rung and the drum to beate at twa o'cloak." The 
previous year the ceremony was more imposing, 
as a " feu de joie " was given in the market place, 
and with a parsimony thus quaintly expressed — 
'* The Counsell, seeing Tewsday is the Queen's 
birthday, appoynts the trade companie. with four 
of each of the eight trades, to meit in the church- 
yeard betwixt thrie and four in the afternoon, to 
attend the Magistrates at the Croce, and ther to 
fyre when ordoured. And ordaines the thresaurer 
to give them thrie pund of puder to be distribut 
amongst them, which, with a pund on Wedinsday 
last, makes four pund in the haill." The burgh 
was then in a position to supply a volunteer com- 
pany for such special occasions as this. In Jan- 
uary, 1705, at a meeting of Council the Provost 
had represented, "That maist pairts of the king- 
dom are putting themselves in a posture of de- 
fence conforme to Act of Parliament, and that it 
is necessar this plaice doe the -same as any plaice 
in the kingdom. And for that end produced a 
leet of young men fitt for to take armes. Also 
named some persons in the toune to be officers to 
traine those, who shall ingadge." The Council 
also drew upon the trades for their quota, enjoin- 
ing "the aught deacones to meit and consider 
amang themselves how to make up ane companie 
of ane hunderth men or therby, and to mount 
them with sufficient armes to goe out with ther 
deacons, or such of them as they shall" choyse, to 
be ther officers. And to attend the Magistrates 
and ther companie whenever they goe out for the 
good of the burgh." As time went on the newly- 
appointed town's guard showed its utility at var- 
ious crises in the history of the town. At the 
celebration of the Queen's birthday in 1711 the 
Magistrates recommended the inhabitants "to set 
out ther luminaries and lights," and the bells to 



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ring from four to eight in the evening. There 
being a company of dragoons stationed in Jed- 
burgh at this time, the treasurer was instructed 
to invite the officers to come to the Cross. 

At a meeting of Council held 11th August, 1712, 
the Provost represented "That maist pairt of the 
burrowes of Scotland had addrest her Majestie 
upon the accoumpt of the Peace. And therefor 
presented to them ane draught by this burgh, 
which was approven of by the Counsell, and the 
Provost appoynted to seign the samyn." At a 
subsequent meeting the Provost produced a letter 
which he had received from Sir David Dalrymple 
of Hailles, advocate, "wherein he shows a great 
dale of cyndes and affection he hes for this 
burgh, and promising to serve the Counsell and 
communitie therof to the best of his capacity. 
And how honorably he had gott the toun's ad- 
dress to the Queen, presented to her by his Grace 
the Duke of fiamllton, and which he wytts was 
graciously receaved by her Majestie." It may be 
stated that "the Peace" referred to was anterior 
to the famous nine-fold treaty of Utrecht, con- 
cluded on 11th April, 1713. The news of it at last 
reached the burgh on 15th May of that year. The 
Council is specially convened, and the Provost 
stated that "A proclamation came this day for the 
Peace, which accordingly he had caused proclaim- 
ed. And that he had now conveined them how to 
signifie the same and to propose a solemnitie for 
drinking her Majestie's health, and that the bells 
should be rung, and bonfyres, and luminaries." 
At the next meeting of Council the treasurer 
handed in his account for the " wyn and glasses 
at the Croce," amounting to <£12, 128 Od pounds 
Scots, equal to 2l8 present-day value. 

But Queen Anne's reign draws to a close. On 
5th August, 1714, Provost Simpson has a grave 
announcement to make to his Bailies and Council- 
lors. He produces " ane letter from the Lord 
Justice Generall, Lordes of Justiciarie, her Majes- 
tie's advooat and Barrones of Excheaqr, giving 
accompt that on Ffryday last her Majestie is in 
a verrie dangerous conditione. And for prevent- 
ing of any disturbance to fall out heir." These 
last words are interesting in their import, as 
they indicate the fact of there being Jacobite sym- 
pathies in the burgh, and these the Magistrates 
kept in check with a stern hand, as is clearly set 
forth by the following Council record : — " The 
Counsell appoynts conform to the directiones of 
the letter of the tonne's guird to be doabled. And 
everie deacon of crafte to give advertishment to 
ther respect, trades to be' in readiness in c€ise of 
disturbance, and that non be on the guird but 
sufficient able men, who are to continue till sex 
o'cloak in the morning. And each officer to wait 
on the guird by course each night." Such, then, 
was the martial state of matters prevailing in 
this old Boyal Burgh on the night of 5th August, 
1714. The letter with these grave concerns is then 
handed back to Provost Simpson, of Sharplaw, 
" being daited at Edinbrugh the third day of Aug- 
ust instant." The Council meets again the fol- 
lowing day, and the Jedburgh Provost at once 
states that "he has receaved sade news of her 
Majestie Queen Anne's death, which happened 
upon Sabeth morning last, the first of August 
instant. And that George, Duke of Bruntsweik 
Leunenburg, is proclaimed King of thes realmes 
alreadie at Londone, and yesterday at Edinbrugh. 



And expects the same to be sent heir this day 
or to-morrow at far rest. And that sua soon as 
the proclamatione comes the same must be pro- 
claimed instantlie therafter — sua that it's necessar 
the tresaurer provyde for the solemnitie to be 
made at the proclamation. And also that it's 
proper that the Magistrates' seatt in the kirk 
should be coveird with black cloath." The Coun- 
cil unanimously agreed to the Provost's proposals, 
and they empowered the treasurer to make all 
necessary arrangements for the forthcoming im- 
portant function, at the same time authorising 
him with the Magistrates "to buy as much black 
cloath as will cover ther seatt, not to exceid sex 
shill. per yaird." The outlays for this mark of 
respect to the memory of Queen Anne are after- 
wards set forth in an account due " Robert Rich- 
ardson, baillie, for dailies and black cloath to the 
Magistrates' seat in the kirk, ane hundert and 
four pund fyve shill. Scotts." 

But the state of the burgh and the temper 
of the lieges still gave cause for anxiety^ Conse- 
quently the Magistrates instructed the guard to 
continue on its existing footing and to remain so 
till further orders, and by public intimation of 
the drummer each member was warned to attend 
every night when the drum beat at eight o'clock. 
Yet another step the authorities took in the in- 
terests of public safety, for they re-enacted an old 
regulation regarding the entertaining of strangers. 
This warning they immediately caused " to be 
intimat threw the burgh by toake of drum dis- 
charging the said inhabitants to receave any 
strangers without acquainting the Magistrates 
therwith under the paine of ane hunderth pund 
Scots." Succeeding events showed the wisdom of 
the precautions taken, as in the following year 
Jacobite demonstrations became somewhat prom- 
inent in and around Jedburgh. They, however, 
never acquired proportions of a really threaten- 
ing aspect, for, as Sir George Douglas points out 
in his history of Roxburghshire, the Borderers 
did not take an acute interest in the question of 
dynastic succession at issue, and the peace of the 
Borders was more to them than the risks, how- 
ever heroic, of espousing a dubious cause. The 
coronation day of George I. was celebrated at 
Jedburgh with great warmth and loyalty of sen- 
timent. The county gentlemen were invited to at- 
tend at the Mercat Cross, the trades were mar- 
shalled with their colours flying, wine and glasses 
provided at the Cross, and at the Anna, a 
well-known open space by the side of the Jed, 
and a large bonfire was lighted. Subsequently the 
Magistrates and Council drew up a dutiful and 
loyal address to the King, for at the September 
meeting of Council the Provost stated that 
" severall burghes hes addressed his Majestie King 
Greorge. And that the shire are preparing ther 
address lykewayes. And the tonne's address being 
readie, the Counsell condiscends that the samyn 
should be seigned instantlie." The King's birth- 
day continued to be a red-letter day for the towns- 
people, and the spirit in which it was celebrated 
may be imagined from an entry in 1715 recom- 
mending that "The officers of the twa troupes 
lying in the toun be invited," and that "the sol- 
emnitie be handsomlie done for the honour of the 
burgh." 

The proclamation of Queen Victoria took place 
in the maricet place, and was carried through by 



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instructions of Samuel Wood, the town clerk» with 
a rigid observance of precedent and all ceremonies 
used and wont, the declaration being made not 
only at the Cross, but at the various "ports" of 
the burgh. A vivid and picturesque narrative of 
the procee<lings has been left by the late ex-Pro- 
vost George Hilson, solicitor, who has described 
the scene in the market place and its pomp and 
circumstance with great fidelity of detail. In 
1901, at the proclamation of King Edward, an un- 
toward shifting of the scene took place. The 
Sheriff occupied the place of honour to the ex- 
clusion of the Provost and Magistrates, and con- 
stitutional usage, and the picturesque memories 
of the past associated with the grand ceremony 
were all brushed aside as if naught. The Council, 
however, had the melancholy privilege of paying 
the cost of the stand from which the Royal an- 
nouncement was made. Since 1902 the Convention 
has made numerous representations to the Secre- 
tary for Scotland, and at last an important de- 
liverance has recently been given in reply to the 
oft-repeated pressure of the Convention. Sir 
Eeglnald Macleod has written from the Scottish 
Office, Whitehall, that copies of these proclama- 
tions are in future to be sent to the Sheriffs and 
to the Provosts of all burghs, the procedure to be 
mutually arranged in the towns which are head 
burghs of their respective counties. In these a 
joint proclamation will be made both by the Sher- 
iff and the Provost of the burgh, if so determined. 
In the other burghs the Lord Provost or Provost 
will take the necessary steps to effect the proclama- 
tion. It may be granted that the prayer of the 
Convention has been substantially conceded, and 
at the annual meeting held last month in the 
Old Parliament Hall in Edinburgh, the communi- 
cation from the Scottish Office was finally ap- 
proved, thus terminating a long-continued contro- 
versy. 



Border Notes and Queries. 

JOCK O' HAZELDEAN. 

In the Border Magazine for December last there 
was a " query " as to the historical basis of 
Scott's well-known song, "Jock o' Hazeldean." 
The following correspondence on the subject, 
which recently appeared in the "Scotsman" 
newspaper, may perhaps interest readers of the 
Border Magazine : — 

April 2, 1907. 

Sir,— It has sometimes been asked, "Was Jock 
o* Hazeldean a real flesh and blood man, or 
merely a character born in the brain of Sir WaK 
ter Scott?" I am informed by a trustworthy 
connection that he was a real man — a miller at 
Hassendean— Hazeldean. The remains of his mill 
are still to be seen on the south side of the west 
end of the Hassendean mill pond, and the late Mr 
Robert Falla. builder, Hassendean Common, near 
Lilliesleaf, was his great-grandson. Mr Falla's 
father's name was John, and most likely he was 
named after his grandfather, the said Jock. So 
much for Jock ; but who the sorely-tried lady was 
who "let the tear doon fa' for Jock o' Hazel- 
dean" I do not know, nor can I locate Frank, 
the chief of Errington and lord of Langleydale, 
wherever these places were. Perhaps some of 
your readers, who may have access to parish rec* 



ords, particularly the records of the old church 
of Hazeldean, if any are still extant, may be able 
to throw some light on the subject. — I am, &c., 

J. A. G. 

The Manse, Tweedsmuir, April 3, 1907. 
Sir,— Scott never caught the spirit of Scottish 
song more perfectly than in the above-named 
lyric, which was first printed in Campbell's 
"Albyn's Anthology" in 1816. It must not be 
forgotten, however, that the opening stanza is 
not Scott's at all, but was transferred from an 
older ballad, " John (or Sir John) of Hazelgreen," 
on Which the subject of the modern song is un- 
mistakably founded. "Hazelgreen" exists in se- 
veral copies, of which Professor Child gives at 
least four. It is extremely unlikely that the, in- 
cident has any real reference to Hassendean, Scott 
having merely changed the older Hazelgreen into 
the more euphonious Hazeldean, a name he had 
already used in the "Lay" for Hassendean or 
Halstaneden (probably from kalig ttan derm* 
the dean, or wooded dell of the holy dtone.) 

Tradition may associate a local family with the 
romance indicated in the song, but of direct evi- 
dence there is absolutely none. In one version of 
" Hazelgreen " the following stanza occurs : — 
"He takes this pretty maid him behind. 

And fast he spurred his horse. 
And they're away to Biggar toun, 

Then on to Biggar Cross. 
Their lodging was for sought. 

And so was it foreseen; 
But still she let the tears doun fall 

For pleasant Hazelgreen." 
Biggar, in Lanarkshire, is certainly a far cry 
from Hassendean in Teviotdale. Langleydale is 
quite likely to have been taken from a jplace of 
that name in Northumberland, where Scott spent 
some enjoyable weeks in 1791. There is, I think, 
an Errington in the same district. — I am, &c,, 

W. S. Crockett. 

Greenlaw, April 2, 1907. 
Sir,— Your correspondent "J. A. G." in to-day'» 
paper expresses a wish for information as to the 
place-names in the ballad, and as one thoroughly 
acquainted with them for more than fifty years 
my knowledge may be of some use to him. Without 
making any claim in opposition to his adoption of 
"Hassendean," I may say that in a map of Ber- 
wickshire dated 1771 I have Heshilldean in Car- 
frae Water, between Tollishill and Longhope, near 
the head of Lauderdale. The Erriu^ons, an an- 
cient family of South Northumberland, whose 
principal seat was Beaufront Castle, near Hex- 
ham, were owners of extensive estates, including 
that of Errington Castle (now a ruin), which in- 
cluded the district named Erringside, through 
which the Erring Burn flows to the North Tyne 
near Chollerford. The last of the Erringtons on 
the male side was well known in the early part 
of last century as "The Chief," and one of his 
two daughters married a Stanley of Haggerston, 
whose descendants, the Stanley-Erringtons, are 
still the owners of the larger portion of the 
estates. Langleydale is a few miles west of Hex- 
ham, near to Haydonbridge, and in its dale the 
grand old Langley Castle still stands in perfect 
preservation. — I am, Ac, 

W. C. T. 



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April 2, 1907. 
Sir, — With reference to the letter in to-day^s 
"Scotsman" bearing on the above, I find in a 
MS. copy of the song, written in January, 1817, by 
a person with whom Sir Walter Scott was very 
intimate, that Hazeldean is spelt with an ** 6." 
In the seventh line " loot " reads " let," and " Er- 
rington" appears as ** Erlington." "Ladie" also 
is written " leddie," and '* church *' takes the 
place of "kirk" in the last verse. The writing 
generally is clear and distinct, so that there is 
no mistaking what is meant by the copyist. — I am, 
Ac., J. L. H. 

April 2, 1907. 
Sir, — Eeferring to the letter of your correspond- 
ent, "J. A. G.," in your issue of to-day, may I 
say that there is nothing to connect Sir Walter 
Scott's song, ** Jock o' Hazeldean " (itself founded 
on an older metrical fragment) with Hasseudean. 
That name is derived not from hazel, but from 
halse, the throat (A.S. heale, Ger. Hals), a term 
eminently appropriate to the situation and nat- 
ural features of the place. — I am, Ac, 

Madame Roland. 

St Andrews, N.B. 
Sir,— "W. C. T." is slightly inaccurate regard- 
ing the Stanleys and Erringtons. Sir Thomas 
Stanley of Hooton married a Haggerstone, and his 
second son. Sir Rowland, assumed the name of ' 
Errington. Sir Rowland left two daughters, and 
was succeeded by his brother, Sir John, who 
died without issue in 1893, when the baronetcy be- 
came extinct. The Stanleys may now be said to 
be represented by the children of Lord Cromer, 
whose first wife was daughter of Sir Rowland 
(Stanley) Errington, and also by Sir Richard Wil- 
liams Bulkeley, whose grandmother was daughter 
of Sir Thomas Stanley of Hooton above-mentioned. 
The Hooton Stanleys were the senior branch of 
the historic house of Stanley. Sir John, the last 
baronet, was once well known on the turf, and 
won the Derby with Teddington in, I think, 1852. 
—I am, &c.. P. K. Q. 

Sir, — Erington was one of the castles or peel 
towers that guarded the ford of Cholerford, where 
the Roman wall crossed the North Tyue. Lang- 
ley Castle, again, still stands on the right bank 
pf the South Tyne, near to Hadou Bridge, and 
about seven miles south-west of Erington, both 
places being within three to five miles of Hexham. 

Hazeldean is most probably a local corruption 
of " Axellodunum " (the dunura in the axil), by 
which name the territory upon which Hexham 
stands was known in Roman times. An "axil" 
is literally the armpit of ground formed by the 
meeting of two streams, and Hexham is so en- 
closed by the Tyne on the north and by the 
Devil's Burn on the south. These three localities 
—Erington, Langley, and Axellodunum— are all 
marked on the map of Northumberland in " Cam- 
den's Britannia," published 1695.— I am, Ac, 

S. 

Scott himself has given us no information as to 
the composition of his famous song, except that 
he tells us the first stanza is ancient and that 
the others were written for Campbell's "Albyn's 
Anthology." The first volume of this work ap- 



peared in 1816, and the second in 1818. It con- 
tained contributions from Sir Walter Scott, James 
Hogg, Mrs Grant of Laggan, and others. Scott, 
in his "Journal," makes a passing reference to 
the song, but that is all. The song reminds one 
of "Lochinvar," which Scott makes Lady Heron 
sing in Holyrood to beguile James IV. (Marmion, 
Canto 5). He founded this song on the early bal- 
lad of Katherine Janfarie, of which there are 
several versions. Perhaps some reader of the 
BosDBB Magazine could give the editor a copy of 
the original ballad (or fragment) of "Jock o' 
Hazelgreen," in order to see how far Scott fol- 
lowed it. Hazeldean, Errington, and Langleydale 
were probably introduced for local colouring. 

Readers of " Lockhart " will remember how Sir 
Walter, feeble in body and brain, while travelling 
in Italy, on one occasion twice recited with pathos 
his ballad of " Jock p* Hazeldean." 

A. G.. S. 



THE EWE-MILKING. 

In an article on Tweeddale in the April number 
of the BoBDBB Magazine reference was made to the 
practice of milking the ewes, as described in the 
"Flowers of the Forest" and in the well-known 
lines of Lady Grizell Baillie. The following ex- 
tract from the late Rev. H. G. Graham's "Scot- 
tish Men of Letters " (p. 327-8) may perhaps prove 
interesting to the readers of this Magazine :— 
"High-born ladies of those daye did not keep 
aloof from the common affair^ of the common 
people; they spoke the broad Scots tongue them- 
selves, and the work of the byre and barn, the 
wooing of servants and ploughmen, were of lively 
interest to them in their parlour and drawing- 
room, and did not seem themes unworthy of their 
verse. This we find in the fragmentary verses of 
Lady Grizell Baillie :— 

'O, the ewe-buchtin's bonnie, baith e'ening and 

morn. 
When our blithe shepherds play on the bag, 

reed, and horn; 
When we're milking, they're lilting baitl\ 

pleasant and clear; 
But my heart's like to break ivhen I think on 

my dear.' 

The scenes of the ewe-milking in Lady Grizell's 
verse and in Miss Jean Elliot's 'Flowers of the 
Forest' are reminiscent of an aspect of rural life 
which has long ago vanished. Up to the end of 
the century it was still the practice of the farm- 
ers of Ettrick forest to milk ewes for seven or 
eight weeks after the lambs were weaned. In the 
evening were hundreds of ewes all gathered, and 
the voices of the peasantry would be heard 'lilt- 
ing,' while the men ' buchted ' (folded) the sheep, 
and the women sat on their 'leglans' m.ilking. 
Those were days when the women as they worked 
sang songs which their grandmothers had sung 
before them, and when men as they ploughed 
whistled ancient tunes — so different from tonday, 
when old songs have died out, and whistling is 
heard no more in the fields." 

In Scottish song there is frequent reference to 
this practice of ewe-milking. Thus in Allan Ram- 
say's " Yellow-Hair'd Laddie":— 



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"The yellow-hair'd laddie sat doun on yon brae. 
Cried, 'Milk the yowes, lassie, let nane of them 

gae;' 
And aye as she milkit, she merrily sang, 
'The yellow-hair'd laddie shall be my gndeman.' 
And aye as she milkit, she merrily sang, 
'The yellow-hairM laddie shall be my gude- 
man,'" 

and in his "Peggy and Patie," "Pegary'* opens 
the dialogue thus — 

" When first my dear laddie gaed to the green hill. 
And I at ewe-milking first seyed my young skill. 
To bear the milk bowie nae pain was to me 
When I at the buchting foregathered with thee." 

The original ballad of the "Broom of Cowden- 
knowes" opens thus— 

"O the broom, and the bonny, bonny broom. 
And the broom of the Cowdenknowes ! 
And aye sae sweet as the lassie sang, 
I' the bought, milking the ewes;" 

And in Crawford's version this pleasing stanza 
occurs— 

"More pleasing far are Cowdenknowes, 
My peaceful, happy home. 
Where I was wont to milk my ewes, 
At e'en amang the broom." 

The classic passages, however, occur in Lady 
Orizell Baillie's well-known lines (completed by 
Thomas Pringle) and in Miss Elliot's version of 
the " Flowers of the Forest," already given in the 
April number of the Bobdeb Magazine. 

A. G., S. 



WAS JEDBUEGH A WALLED TOWN? 

Can any reader of the Bobdeb Magazine provide 
me with information regarding the walls of Jed- 
burgh? When visiting that town I have failed to 
see any traces of these, and, indeed, have not 
heard their existence even alluded to. Professor 
Veitch, however, in his "History and Poetry of 
the Scottish Border" (second edition), vol. I., 
p. 263, when referring to the Border towns, states 
that "the most of those burghs, especially along 
the Tweed from Jedburgh to Peebles, were walled 
towns." On the other hand, the late Mr George 
Hilson, solicitor, Jedburgh, in his "Jedburgh a 
Hundred Tears Ago," casts doubt upon the mat- 
ter. Beferring to the capture of Jedburgh in 1523 
by the Earl of Surrey, and the destruction of the 
town, he states that "as to the walls, alleged by 
Sir Walter [Scott], in his 'Tales of a Grand- 
father,' to have existed, there are not the slightest 
grounds for his assertion, or anything of the 
kind." Can any one reconcile the contrary state- 
ments here attributed to Mr George Hilson on the 
one hand, and Sir Walter Scott and Professor 
Veitch on the other? 

Auntie Qubeb Ane. 

* * * « 

WROTH SILVER. 

On the Buke of Buccleuch's Warwickshire 
estates a cnrious custom survives from a remote 
period, in the payment by certain parishes of 
annual dues called "wroth silver." The collec- 
tion is made annually in November, and early in 



the morning, "before sunrising," under a clump of 
fir trees, at Knightlow Cross. An agent from the 
Duke's Estate Office at Dunchurch meets the com- 
pany about seven o'clock at the Cross, and reads 
out the charter of assembly. This charter calls 
upon seven-aud-tw^uty parishes to pay the wroth 
silver under a penalty of twenty shillings for every 
penny, or a white bull with red ears and a red 
nose. The sums vary much, for each parish pays 
according to the value of its cattle, and not ac- 
cording to the value of its land. For instance, in 
1903 the majority paid from Id up to 4d each, one 
12d, one 2s 3d, and another 2s 3H« while the par- 
ish of Ryton-on-Dunsmore, in which the custom 
is held, is let off without paying. The money is 
thrown into a stone trough, as each parish is 
named, and taken out by the Duke's agent. One 
of the parishes bears the famous name of Waver- 
ley. 

After the dues have been collected, the company 
adjourn to the Dun Cow Inn, where breakfast is 
served to all and sundry, " by order of his Grace," 
who pays for twenty-five guests, but everybody 
contributes something, "colts" being charged an 
extra sixpence. Sometimes as many as seventy 
persons, including some ladies, have attended, 
many coming from Rugby and Coventry, and one 
old labourer is said to have attended every meet- 
ing since 1839. After a hearty meal the custom is 
always for glasses of hot rum and milk (known 
as the wroth silver beverage), with long church- 
warden pipes, and an ample supply of tobacco to 
be brought in. The rest of the morning is spent 
in toast-giving and harmony, which sometimes 
lasts until midday, when the meeting breaks up. 

"And each took off his several way. 
Resolved to meet some other day." 

A view of the wroth silver ceremony was engraved 
on a piece of silver-plate, presented to Lord Dal- 
keith on the occasion of his marriage. 

The origin of the custom dates back to a very 
remote period; some antiquaries say from the 
Druids, but it certainly can be traced from the 
time of the Saxons. In early times in England, a 
district supposed to contain a hundred families, 
was called a Hundred, and the Duke of Buccleuch, 
as the lord of a Hundred, claims these dues. At 
that time there were only tracks through the for- 
ests and wastes, and the owners of all cattle go- 
ing to market over these tracks had to pay tribute 
to the lord of the Hundred, over whose land they 
passed. The white bull with the red ears and red 
nose required as an alternative penalty for non- 
payment was one of the native white cattle of 
Britain. The herd of white cattle at Chillingham 
Castle in Northumberland have red ears and 
brownish muzzles, and are said to be descendants 
of the native cattle. The name wroth silver is 
probably an altered form of the old English word 
" r other " for cattle, or of the Anglo-Saxon word 
"hryther," an ox — ^with final "er" worn off in 
course of time, as happens to many old words. 

This old custom of collecting the wroth silver is 
said to be kept up by the Duke not as a monetary 
gain to himself, but with the idea of keeping an 
interesting old custom from lapsing into oblivion, 
while the merry meeting of friends and neigh- 
bours serves "to soften down the rugged way of 
life." 

A Linton Lad. 



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90 THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. TO ADVERTISERS, 

All eommunicatums rel(Uing to LUerari/ rnoMera 8?u>uld All JSuainess maUers, Advertising Rates, dbc,, sJunUd 

be addressed to the Editor, Mr William Sandebson, he referred to the Publishers, A. Walesb & SoN, 

8t R^nans, RtUherglen, near Glasgow, High Street, Galashiels 

THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



MAY, 1907. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. pao. 

Rev. Robert Boelanp. Portrait Supplement and 2 Illustrations. By the Rev. A. Locdon, M.A., B.D., 

Falkirk. 81 

The Proclamation or thk Sovereign'. Some Jeclburgh Records. By Provost Hilson. - - - 85 

Border Notes axd Qiieries. 87 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson. 90 

John Livingston op Ancrum. Part I. 9^ 

The Border Bookcase. W 

Appreciations. OS* 

"Threi Days wi'Bluid." By G. Watson. 96 

A SuccESSFtTL Border Angler. One Illustration. 97 

The Four Towns. By. G. M. R. 98^ 

Jedburgh "Wren> Nest" Reminiscences. 9^ 

The Late Mr Francis Lynn. - - - lOO 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 

We have still plenty of matter on hand, but we have no desire to prevent our valued contributors from 
preparing articles for future use. To these friends we would once more recall the limited space we can afford 
for each article, and suggest the maximum of 2000 words. Contributors would save ub some trouble if the 
approximate number of words were marked at the top of their manuscripts. We have abundant evidence that 
their contributions are highly appreciated, even in remote parts of the world. 

The Border Keep, 

(In which are preserved paragraphs from various publications, to the authors and editors of which 

we express our indebtedness.) 

A brother Dominie, and a classical master to late twenties of last century, that Mrs Fraser 
boot, has sent me the following links with Sir had her one glimpse of Scott, coming unexpected- 
Walter Scott, and doubtless the readers of this ly upon him near the Register House, as she was 
column will feel grateful to my friend for thus walking with a relative, who told her to look 
employing his " learned leisure " in culling bits well at the man approaching them. In later life 
of Scott lore for their information :— she accounted herself happy to have seen the 

TT 1 r X r 1. J great magician, and was fond of dwelling on the 

Upwards of seventy-four years have now sped « ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ j^i^^ pleasant face which had 

^"^""^^^W^^} Border Wizard breathed his last j^^ ^ssed her girlish mind. Many summer* 

at Abbotsford, with the gentle ripple of the ^ ^^^ ^^ Yarrow had deepened her love of Sir 

Tweed sounding in his ears. Comparatively few, ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^is country, and one of her keenest 

indeed, now su^ive who can say they knew, or Measures during the last winter of her life waa 

even saw. Sir Walter in the flesh, yet from time ^ re-reading of Lockhart's 'Life.' 

to time as ane by ane they gang awa we hear " 

of the passing away of " links " which bound the ♦ * » » 

present with the past in memory's magic chain "Survivors are now few who can say that they 

Two such hnks-Mrs Campbell Fraser wife of o^^n ^^t ^jth the great wi«ard. The pase- 

Emeritns-Professor Campbell Fraser. of Edin- V ^ « privilege-Mrs C^p- 

bnrghUmyersity and Miss Eobb. an Edinburgh ^fj praser-was recorded yesterday Another 

lady-have lately disappeared as we learn from ^^nerable Edinburgh lady, whose earthly remains 

interesting notices m the Scotsman news- ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ j^j| ^^ ^^^^ ^ q^^^^^ Cemetery, 

paper . * * * ♦ could also say not only that she had seen, but 

that she had conversed with. Sir Walter. This 

"The death of Mrs Campbell Fraser on Easter was Miss Robb, who long resided in Palmerston 
Eve, in her 88th year, removes a figure long well Road, and who lately died there at the ripe age 
known in Edinburgh society, and one of the few of nearly ninety-four. She was the posthumous 
remaining links connecting the present generation child of Captain Robb of the Royal Navy, and 
with the days of Sir Walter Scott. ... It waa was named after him, ' Charles Robb ;' and, har- 
as a young girl, on a visit to Edinburgh in the ing been a naval pensioner from her birth, she 



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was in the enjoyment of a State subsidy for the 
considerable period of ninety-three years/' 
« * « « 

Miss Bobb spoke with zest of her meeting with 
Scott, which occurred in this wise. While she 
was a young girl at boarding-school in Edin- 
burgh, she was taken, along with the other pup- 
ils, to a concert, and happened to be sitting at 
the end of a row next the passage. The hall was 
full, and just before the concert began, an old 
gentleman with a limp came forward and took up 
a position just where she was sitting. The young 
girl, not liking to see him without a seat, rose 
and offered him her own. Patting her on the 
shoulder, he said — " Never mind, my dear, keep 
your place !" She did so for a little, but feeling 
uncomfortable and selfish in retaining it, she 
pressed him to take her chair. With some re- 
luctance he complied, and at th.e close of the en- 
tertainment cordially thanked her for her cour- 
tesy. Miss Robb was quite unaware to whom she 
had extended the kindness that had earned such 
gratitude. But a lady came forward to her and 
said — " Do you know who that it you were speak- 
ing to? I wish I had been in your place. That is 
Sir Walter Scott!" 

The incident is a very interesting and pleasant 
one, and recalls to our mind the lines of Tenny- 
son— 

"O great and gallant Scott, 
True gentleman, heart, blood and bone, 
I would it had been my lot 
To have seen thee, and heard thee, and known I" 

* « * 

Here is an account of still another interesting 
link from the same source, given (April 10) in 
connection with the Bi-centenary celebration of 
the Journeymen Lodge of Freemasons, Edin- 
burgh. "The first centenary of the Journeymen 
Lodge (of Freemasons) was celebrated on 19th 
March, 1807, and the third jubilee of the Lodge 
on Idth August, 1857, when an excursion was 
made to Roslin, and an imposing ceremony was 
carried through in the ancient chapel hallowed 
to the memory of its founder, Wm. St Clair, 
Prince of Orkney, whose office of Grand Master 
Mason of Scotland continued in his family for 
nearly three hundred years from the time when 
the honour was bestowed on its original holder 
by James II. With the inauguration of their 
present hall in 1871, the Journeymen celebrated 
the centenary of Sir Walter Scott. On that oc- 
casion Bailie Howden, in replying to the toast of 
the Corporation of Edinburgh, narrated the in- 
teresting reminiscence that he was present at the 
Theatrical Fund dinner on 23rd February, 1827, 
when Sir Walter Scott acknowledged himself the 
sole author of the Waverley Novels. He had, he 
said, a vivid recollection of Scott proposing the 
health of Mr Mackay, so distinguished for his 
representation of Bailie Nicol Jarvie. Sir Wal- 
ter Scott said he was sure that when the author 
of Rob Roy' drank to the health of Bailie 
Nicol Jarvie, it would be responded to with that 
degree of applause to which the Bailie had always 
been accustomed, and that on the present occa- 
sion they would take care that it would be 'pro- 
digious.' All eyes were then turned on Mr Mac- 
kay, when, after a pause, he rose, and in his 
weU-known character of the Bailie, exclaimed — 



* My conscience ! My worthy f aither the deacon 
couldna ha'e believed that sican an honour should 
befa' me, his son, as to ha'e sae high a compli- 
ment paid me by the "Great Unknown.'" 'Not 
'unknown now. Bailie,' interjected Sir Wal- 
ter, and the toast was received with immense 
applause." 

♦ * * * 

Two hundred years ago Scotland gave up her 
Parliamentary independence, and while we note 
the two hundredth anniversary of the first meet- 
ing of the Parliament of Great Britain, and en- 
deavour to estimate the advantages derived from 
that union, it is well to look also at the opposite 
side of the shield. In countless ways our south- 
ern neighbours have violated the compact, and 
by misusing the national names, &c., have arous- 
ed feelings in Scotland which, while not hostile 
to the union, will not rest until justice is done to 
the northern kingdom, which is as thoroughly 
Scottish as it was two hundred years ago. 



Mr G. Sutherland, Sculptor, Galashiels, pre- 
pared a tablet of silver grey granite, which was 
inserted in the pedestal of the Mungo Park 
monument at Selkirk as a memorial of the two 
companions of the great African explorer, who 
went with him from Selkirkshire, and who per- 
ished before Park was killed on the Niger, and 
also of Park's son, who lost his life in searching 
for his father :— The inscription on the tablet is 
as follows : — " This inscription is to commemor- 
ate the death of Mungo Park's companions during 
his second expedition : Alexander Anderson, M.D., 
Selkirk, who died at Sansanding on the Niger, 
28th October, 1805; and George Scott, Singlie. Sel- 
kirk, died August, 1805 Also of Thomas Park, 
son of Mungo Park, died in Aquambee, West 
Africa, in 1827, while endeavouring to obtain 
traces of his distinguished father." 
« * « * 

The announcement that Glasgow will henceforth 
be entitled to send four representatives to the Con- 
vention of Royal Burghe forme a tribute to the 
growing importance of the city. Originally known 
as the Court of the Four Burghs, the right of re- 
presentation at this annual gathering was long 
limited to Edinburgh, Berwick, Roxburgh, and 
Stirling. During the War of Independence, Ber- 
wick passed into the hands of the English, while 
Roxburgh gradually sank to the condition of an 
insignificant village. Under these circumstances, 
the privilege was transferred from them to the 
towns of Perth and Linlithgow. With the pro- 
gress of time, the growing commercial prosperity 
of the nation gradually brought other burghs with- 
in the sphere of the Court's jurisdiction, and it 
wae ultimately decided that the capital should 
have the honour of sending two delegates. At the 
beginning of last century, the Convention was de- 
prived of all the judicial and legislative powers 
that it originally held; but within recent years it 
has done much to encourage municipal activities 
and reforms. In view of the homage that hae now 
been paid to Glasgow, it is no empty boast to as- 
sert that many of these movements owe their in- 
itiation to the energy and enterprise of the Second 
City. 

Dominie Sampson. 



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John Livingston of Ancrum. 

1603-1672. 

Part II. 

OR the next ten years during the 
Cromwelliau interregnum, he seems 
to have lived in comparative peace 
and quiet. " Presbyterianism,'* 
says Professor Flint, " was dominant, but was 
broken up into parties which hated and reviled 
one another. The enthusiasm for Presbyter- 
ianism had greatly declined in consequence of 
its internal dissensions and the national mis- 
fortunes to which they had led. The clergy 
were, however, in general, notably faithful and 
earnest ministers of the Word ; and their flocks 
were sincerely attached to them. . . . Re- 
ligious toleration was enforced ; but this was 
felt to be a sore grievance and a deadly sin." 
In April, 1654, Livingston was invited by the 
Protector to visit him at London to render 
assistance in settling the affairs of the Church, 
and had the honour of preaching before his 
Grace, who subsequently, August 8th, 1654, 
appointed him one of those for certifying to 
the fitness of applicants for admission to a 
benefice. In March, 1655, he was called. to 
Antrim ; in November to Killinchy, his old 
charge ; and in May 7th, 1659, to Glasgow by 
the Kirk-Session, though the Town Council 
had fixed upon another, Ralph Rodger, who, 
like so many others, was driven from his church 
in 1662. In 1660 came the Restoration, which 
was welcomed everywhere throughout the 
country with great rejoicing, though in Scot- 
land not without misgiving. At first all went 
well, but Charles very soon came out in his 
true colours ; and by the aid of his minions 
and worthless favourites did his best to over- 
turn Presbyterianism and set- up Prelacy and 
despotism in Scotland. He found a ready tool 
in Middleton, who, with the aid of his packed 
parliament (commonly known as the " drunken 
parliament ") proceeded to pass measures for 
the overthrow alike of civil and religious lib- 
erty — ^an act of supremacy, by which the King 
was made supreme in all matters civil and 
ecclesiastical ; an oath of allegiance, in which 
no jurisdiction was valid but that of the King, 
and which was afterwards used as a test and 
criterion of loyalty, and all who refused to 
swear to it, in its widest sense, were incapaci- 
tated for holding public trust, or declared 
guilty of rebellion ; and finally a general rescis- 
sory Act, by which all proceedings of the Scot- 
tish parliament were declared null and void. 



The hierarchy was established with full pow- 
ers ; all who had been ordained since 1649 had 
to be presented anew and " collated " by the 
bishops of the diocese; those who refused to 
comply within four months forfeited all right 
to manse and stipend, their churches were to be 
declared vacant, and if patrons refused to pre- 
sent, the right devolved lipon the bishop. 
Diocesan meetings were to be held in October, 
to which the clergy were cited to repair to 
receive canonical admission to their benefices 
from the hands of the bishops. As very few 
appeared, Middleton then passed the iniquitous 
Glasgow Act, 1662, by which all who had not 
episcopal ordination were ordered to remove 
with their families by the 1st of November 
beyond the bounds of their presbytery, or be 
forcibly ejected by the military, while the 
people were forbidden to own them as their 
lawful pastors, to attend their services or pay 
their current stipend. (Wodrow, Historv i. 
119-125). 

In consequence of this cruel Act about 350 
parish churches were closed. The effect of the 
Act was felt more especially in the west and 
south. " Edinburgh was left with a single 
minister, Mr Robert Lawrie, of the Tron 
Church, who, on account of his conformity to 
Episcopacy, was nicknamed the * Nest Egg.' *' 
Many of the ministers had to leave their homes 
and manses in the middle of winter, without 
support and without knowing where to find 
shelter or subsistence, yet they did not hesi- 
tate as to their course of action, and they had 
the sympathy and support of the people so far 
as they could give it. These men believed that 
they were fighting for law, liberty, and con- 
science, and we who live in happier times and 
have entered into their labours, cannot but 
admire the firmness and constancy — doumeJsSj 
if you will, for that is their chief glory — of 
these men, so long as we believe, with old 
Barbour, that " f reedome is a nobil thing." 
Shortly afterwards as a natural result arose 
field-preachings and conventicles, while the 
government employed every means that in- 
genuity could invent for putting them down." 
And this "crowned and mitred tyranny,*' with 
persecution, fire and sword in its train, con- 
tinued more or less till the Revolution swept 
away the Stuart name and race and their doc- 
trine of the " divine right of kings." But this 
is to anticipate somewhat — 

"The Solemn League and Covenant 

Now brings a smile, now brings a tear: 
But sacred Freedom, too, was theirs; 
If thou'rt a slave, indulge thy sneer." 



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In times like these there was no room for 
such a man as John Livingston, who, whatever 
faults and failings he may have had (and the 
Scottish Covenanters of his and later times 
were by no means free of such) p>osse8sed at 
least a back-bone and a mind of his own, and 
could say, like the old Huguenot merchant, 
^* Loyal au Roy, mais ma Foy est k Moy." And 
so he had to bid farewell to Aiicrura and to 
Scotlapd and seek a refuge in a more friendly 
land. On October l^th, 1662, he held his 
last Communion at Ancrum, and at the -Mon- 
day service he took an affectionate farewell of 
his parishioners, many of whom were much 
moved, knowing well that probably the part- 
ing would be final, and that they would see his 
face no more. And so it proved. " We have 
been labouring among you," he said, " for 
these fourteen years, and have that conviction 
that we have not taken the pains in private or 
public, which we ought ; yet in some sort, we 
hope we may say it without pride, we have not 
sought yours but you. We cared not to be 
rich and great in this world. In as far as we 
have given offence, less or more, to any in 
this congregation, or any that have interest in 
it, or any way about it, or any that are here 
present, or any of the people of God elsewhere, 
we crave God's pardon, and crave also your 
forgiveness." And so the good man had to 
leave his home and manse by the Ale with its 
caves and scaurs and craggy' knolls,' "the 
green pastures and the still waters," beside 
which he had hoped, no doubt, to end his days 
in peace. 

On December 11th he appeared before the 
Privy Council, and was chaf ged with " turbul- 
ency and sedition." He acknowledged the 
King's civil supremacy, but refused to take, 
unqualified, the oath of allegiance (a). The 
Chancellor offered to adjourn the Court to give 
him time to consider his refusal. " I humbly 
thank your Lordship," Livingston replied ; " it 
is a favour which, if I had any doubt, I would 
willingly accept. But if, after seeking God 
and advising anent the matter, I should take 
time, it would import that I have unclearness 
or hesitation which I have not." The Council 
then passed sentence that the prisoner was to 
leave His Majesty's dominions within two 
months, and within forty-eight hours remove 
from Edinburgh to the north side of the Tay. 
He was refused admission to pay a short visit 
to his home that he might have some talk with 
his wife and children. " At last," to quote 
his own words, "on the 9th of Aprile, 1663, 
I went aboarde in old John Allan's ship, and 



in eight days came to Rotterdam " — the city 
of Erasmus, which then and subsequently af- 
forded a friendly shelter and refuge to many a 
poor persecuted exile from Scotland. Here he 
remained, devoting himself to biblical study 
and occasional preaching in the Scots Kirk of 
that city, till his death on the 9 th of August, 
1672, in the seventieth year of his age and 
forty-second of his ministry. Such, in brief, 
was the career of the " godly John Living- 
ston," as he was often called by his contem- 
poraries, of that lad of parts who, some sixty 
years before, had in a " little chamber " con- 
ned his Latin grammar and " gone through the 
most parte of the choice Latine writers, both 
poets and others," under that "learned hum- 
anist," worthy Maister William Wnllace, A.M., 
of the old Grammar School on the Castle hill 
of Stirling." 

Livingston was one of the most popular 
preachers of his day, and at the same time a 
man of very considerable attainments and 
learning, but withal of deep piety and modesty. 
He knew Hebrew and Chaldee, and " somewhat 
also of the Syriacke," and was proficient in 
French, Italian, and Dutch, and could read the 
Bible in Spanish and German. As a student, 
he was fond of music, " wherein he had some 
little skill," as he tells us. "Modest in man- 
ner," says Dr Scott in his "Fasti," "and 
sweet in temper, he was of retired and con- 
templative habits, so that, though he joined the 
more extreme Presbyterians, in liis moderation 
he deeply lamented the divisions that had torn 
the Church asunder. As a preacher, he was 
so singularly esteemed and so signally favoured 
as to be the means of working a change on 
hundreds of his audience, even bv one sermon, 
and perhaps to have had more of the counten- 
ance of his Master than any other from the 
days of the Apostles." 

In 1671 he published at Rotterdam a "Letter 
to his Parishioners of Ancrum," and he also 
wrote " A Brief Historical Relation of his 
Life" and "Memorable Characteristics exem- 
plified in the Lives of Divines and Private 
Christians," which were published at Glas- 
gow, long after his death, in 1754. On his re- 
turn from Breda, he was urged by the General 
Assembly to write a history of the Cliurch of 
Scotland from 1638, and the Synod of Merse 
and Teviotdale, in October, 1650, reconnnended 
ev^ry member who had any historical observa- 
tions to send them to him, but he does not 
appear to have undertaken the work. During 
his exile in Holland he occupied much of his 
time in making a new translation of the Old 



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Testament into Latin, which, though highly 
spoken of by some of the Dutch scholars, has 
never been published. 

He married, as we have said, the eldest 
daughter of an Edinburgh merchant in 1635. 
In his Memoirs he gives us some interesting 
and curious details of his courtship. In 1650 
she is said to have had a narrow escape from 
falling into a mill-dam, but survived. In 
June, 1G74, after her husband's death, we find 
her bravely undertaking the somewhat dan- 
gerous task of presenting a petition to the Lord 
Chancellor, the Earl of Rothes, praying that 
the Presbyterian ministers might have liberty 
to preach the gospel. Few men would have 
ventured to beard the lion in his den. By this 
lady he had a family of sons and daughters — 
John ; James, a merchant in Edinburgh ; Wil- 
liam, who suffered in the days of persecution ; 
a daughter, Marion, who married the Rev. 
John Scott, minister of Hawick (A), and others. 
(Scott: "Fasti.") Another of his sons, Rob- 
ert, born at Ancrum, 1654, emigrated to Amer- 
ica in 1673, settled at Albany, and received a 
grant of a vast tract of land. He died in 1725. 
He had two grandsons who rose to distinction. 
Philip (1716-78) who signed the Declaration of 
Independence, and William (1723-90), who was 
the first and able Governor of New Jersey 
(1776-90), while two of his great-grandsons 
attained to high positions at the American 
bar, and were both members of Congress — 
Robert (1746-1813) who was one of the five 
appointed to draw up the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, was Chancellor of New York State, 
and assisted Fulton to construct his first 
steamer ; and Edward (1764-1836), who filled 
several hi^h Government offices, being mayor 
of New York, member of Congress for New 
Orleans, and afterwards in 1836 went to 
France to act as plenopotentiary. He died 
23rd May, 1836. [There are portraits of John 
Livinp:ston and his wife in Gosford House, be- 
longing to the Earl of Wemyss]. 

In a Rubsequent paper we shall see how it 
fared with the parishioners of Ancrum when 
Livingston's successor was inducted in 1665. 

Stirling. A. Graham. 

(j7) None of the Covenanters at this time re- 
fused to take the oath of allegiance, provided it 
were qualified with the word " civil " supremacy, 
but this was not permitted. It was purposely am- 
biguous in order to lay them under a dilemma, 
for if they swore it absolutely, they were bound, 
in consistency, to submit to bishops, while ^f ihey 
refused, they were liable to punishment for deny- 
ing allegiance to the King. (Burnet's Hist, i., 
146: Wodrow, 1.. 133). 

(h) John Scott graduated A.M. at Edinburgh, 



July 15, 1650, and hecame minister of Hawick in 
1657, but "deprived" by the Privy Council, Oct. 
1, 1662. In 1681 he assisted the Earl of Argyll in 
his escape to London. He survived to the Revolu- 
tion, but does not seem to have returned to the 
charge at Hawick. Marion Livingston was his 
first wife. 



The Border Bookcase. 

" CANADA— NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS." 
Of the 15,846 Scots who emigrated to our great 
Western Empire last year not a few hailed from 
the Borderland, and consequently any reliable in- 
formation on the subject will be welcomed to 
many of our readers. Mr Walter Easton, junr.» 
Jedburgh, made an extended tour in the "New 
Dominion," as Canada used to be called, and on 
his return he gave his interesting experiences to 
the public in a series of articles which appeared 
in the columns of the " Jedburgh Gazette." These 
articles have been reproduced in book form at 
the very low price of threepence. The book is 
well illustrated, and is prefixed by an excellent 
index. The author's style is racy, his experiences 
many and varied, and the whole production is so 
readable that we strongly advise all interested in 
Canada and the Canadians to send five stamps to 
the office of the " Jedburgh Gasette " for a copy of 
Mr Easton's book. 

« « « * 

"ODDS AND ENDS IN RHYME." 
Mr John Alston, of Motherwell — a native of the 
Borderland — has produced a third edition of his 
poems under the above title. The previous edi- 
tions were^ reviewed in our columns, and we need 
only say that the present issue contains several 
additions, and is got up in excellent style — in. 
paper covers at 1/ and in cloth at 1/6. Mr Alston 
is a poet of whom the Borderland has no reason 
to be ashamed, and the notices he has received 
from the Press, including the "Academy," "Book- 
seller," Ac, show how he is appreciated in liter- 
ary organs. 

* * * * 

If Solomon said of the very limited publishers' 
output of his day, " Of making books there is no 
end," what would have been his opinion of the 
overwhelming issues and re-issues of our times. 
If any one remains ignorant of the fountains of 
knowledge it is not the fault of the publishers, as 
every firm seems to vie with the others in pro- 
ducing cheaper and cheaper issues of the world's 
best literature. But in this rapid age we are 
more and more inclined to receive knowledge by 
means of illustrations, and to this to some extent 
may be attributed the extraordinary popularity 
of the picture post-card. So many beautiful re- 
productions of Border scenery have appeared in 
this way that the man who is wealthy enough to 
secure them all must have a collection which will 
provide delight for a lifetime. We have referred 
occasionally to the issues of these cards in connec- 
tion with various towns, and we have just received 
a new set from Jedburgh, issued through the en- 
terprise of Mr T. S. Smail. In this case scenery 
is confined to a fine reproduction of "Light Pipe 
Hall, Jedburgh," which was demolished in 1879. 
This once well-known row of cottages stood on the 
knoll beyond the second bridge on the Jed. The 
spot is now covered with trees, but the auld folkp 



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will be pleased to see this bit of lang. syne so for- 
cibly recalled. Going further back to 1802, we 
have Andrew Lumsden, Town Crier, represented. 
The scene is in the Canongate of Jedburgh, and 
the original picture was painted by John Scott, 
who was a lawyer's clerk in that locality. The 
gem of the lot is a reproduction in colours of the 
flag taken from, the English at Bannockburn by 
the weavers of Jedburgh on 24th June, 1314, a 
priceless relic which was unfortunately lost in the 
disastrous fire of 17th October, 1898, when the 
local museum was destroyed. Another card will 
give much amusement to all true Jethart folks 
by reason of the clever way in which the names 
of prominent citizens have been formed into a 
humorous and continuous narrative. This card 
is a very clever piece of work, and we do not think 
the publisher and author live far apart. 

Long- before sport in all its varied forms had 
received the present-day wide acceptance, the 
Borderland was famous for its athletes and sports- 
men. As the Borderers of our own time are still 



Magazine very much, writes : — " We have j ust re- 
ceived a letter from a correspondent in Nairobi, 
British East Africa, who says, * Very many thanks 
for sending on the Bobdeb Magazine, which I thor- 
oughly enjoyed, I can assure you, as it is the first 
one I have seen, and, although small, every bit of 
it is readable.' " 

* * » * 

The Provost of a Border town, himself an im- 
portant folkloreist, writes:— "I intend to get the 
BoBDBB Magazine regularly. The value of such 
work as you are doing will be best understood 
fifty years and more hereafter — and meantime you 
must be content to find that here and there people 
do recognise and appreciate the good work you 
are doing in preserving local history, literature, 
and folklore." 

* « » « 

The Edinburgh correspondent of a well-known 
Border newspaper thus refers to the Bobdbb Maoa- , 
ziNE : — " I would again urge upon readers of the 




FLAG TAKEN FROM THE ENGLISH AT BANNOCKBURN BY THE WEAVERS OF JEDBURGH, 

ON 24TH JUNE, 1314, (Block kindly lent by T. S. Smail, Jedburg^h.) 



fond of all athletic sports, we desire to recommend 
to them the "Record of Sports," issued by the 
Royal Insurance Company, 28 Lombard Street, 
London, E.O. The results of the past year's im- 
portant matches and competitions are tabulated in 
a finely printed book, which may be had free by 
any of the readers of the Bobdeb Magazine who 
apply for it to the above address. The neat little 
volume deals with nearly every class of sport, and 
contains no advertisements from first to last page 
— for this reason we recommend it. 



Appreciations. 

We have often pointed out how much pleasure 
a copy of the Bobdeb Magazine would bring to a 
Borderer who was resident in some distant land. 
A Border gentleman, who has done much for 
Border literature, and has helped on the Bobdeb 



' Kelso Chronicle ' the value of our contemporary 
the Bobdeb Magazine as a store-house of Border 
lore and literature. The twelfth volume is now 
well in progress of publication, and when, as the 
Editor pointed out in the January number, it is 
considered that no previous attempt to establish 
a distinctly Border monthly passed the second 
year of publication, we have reason to congratu- 
late ourselves upon the fact that our literature 
and history are at last finding recognition. So 
much so is this the case in fact, that the publica- 
tion under review is experiencing diflBcuIty in 
keeping abreast of the current of articles, Ac, 
which keep pouring in. Such a state of affairs 
must be exceedingly encouraging to the Editor, 
but other forms of encouragement are alno neces- 
sary, and the most helpful of all is that of each of 
us becoming a regular subscriber. Tt may now be 
said to be the accredited organ of Border affairs, 
and there seems to be no reason why a copy should 



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not every month find its way into each honsehold 
in the Borders. Even in other parts of Scotland 
it may profitably be £akeu, and is taken, for, after 
all, south of the Celtic fringe at least, the history 
of Scotland generally was to a very large extent 
bound up in that of the marches and their con- 
tiguous country." 




Threi Days wi' Bluid." 

I N the course of rambling in the Bor- 
derland the^ present writer has at 
times come across a curious bit of 
folklore which is worthy of being 
put on record. This is found in connection 
with places where tradition asserts that a battle 
was at one time fought; and the country 
people there state that so great was the slaugh- 
ter that the neighbouring burn ran red " threi 
days wi' bluid." The age is, of course, too far 
advanced for us to undertake to prove the 
verity or the falsity of the phrase in applica- 
tion to the combats in question ; but as some 
of these fights were only small skirmishes, it is 
probable that the phrase is no more than a 
strange feature of folklore. 

It is borne in mind that at the time when 
Scotland and England were intermittently at 
war, blood was spilt in quantity much greater 
to the number of casualties than would be the 
case at the present day. With our present- 
day methods of warfare much less blood is shed 
even where the number of deaths may be 
greater ; for wounds caused by shot do not 
result in tlie loss of much blood. But in the 
middle ages lighting was always at close quar- 
ters, and ghastly wounds were inflicted by 
long slashing blades or by pikes, in conse- 
quence of which there was considerably more 
effusion of blood. At the battle of Pinkie, 
fought near the river Esk in the year 1547, 
the Scots were defeated by the English with 
dreadful loss. So great was the slaughter that 
Patten, who was with the English anny, states 
that " the ryvere ran al red with blode." Of 
the other battles where rivers ran with gore, 
that of Towton Moor — fought in 1461 — may be 
singled out. Here for six houi-s a battle raged 
between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians, — 
the former being the victors, — and when it 
finished :i3,000 were left dead upon the moor. 
The snow was dyed crimson with the blood of 
the wounded and the slain, and the river 
Wharfe ran red with gore. But of no such 
magnitude were the most of the fights to 
which the phrase above-mentioned has been. 
attache<l. 

Although the phrase cannot be traced back 



to the time of any of the skirmishes, etc., with 
which it is now associated, it is not one of 
recent creation, reference being made to it 
in the ballad entitled "The Lads of Wamph- 
ray,*' printed in Scott's "Minstrelsy of the 
Scottish Border'' fully a century ago. This 
poem describes the fight which took place in 
1593, when the incensed Criohtons intercepted 
the plundering lads of Wamphray, headed by 
Willie of Kirkhill, at Biddes Law. Right 
noble were the deeds then done by Willie and 
his men, and great was the slaughter of the 
discomfited Crichtons, who, a short time pre- 
viously, had hanged the Galliard, Kirkhill' s 
uncle. It was afterwards said that the ad- 
joining burn was discoloured for three days 
with the crimson blood of the wounded and 
the slain : — 

Out through the Crichtons Willie he ran. 
And dang them down baith horse and man ; 
O but the Johnstones were wondrous rude, 
When the Biddes-burn ran three-days blood ' 

" Now, sirs, we have done a noble deed. 
We have avenged the Galliard's bleid. 
For every finger of the Galliard's hand, 
I vow this day I've kill'd a man." 

At Bloodylaws Hill, in Oxnam Water, and 
about eight miles from Jedburgh, a battle i& 
stated to have been fought so sanguinarily that 
in consequence the elevation is said to have 
been named Bloodylaws. So great, it is re- 
ported, was the spilling of the vital fluid on 
that occasion that the burn which flows down 
from that hill to join the Oxnam is said ta 
have been augmented for " threi days wi' 
bluid." 

In the valley of the Rule, not far from 
Fodderlie, tradition reports that there took 
place a bloody battle between the English and 
the Scots, and that for " threi days " the life- 
blood of the combatants stained the pure wat- 
ers of the Rule. This battle is easily identi- 
fied with the running fight between Dacre'& 
men and the warriors of Teviotdale during a 
raid by the former into these regions in Sep- 
tember, 1513. The Soots overtook the Eng- 
lish at Slaterford, and " bickered " with them 
there ; but the number of casualties on that 
occasion was so small that it gives little basis 
to the traditional shedding of much blood. 

At Rutherford, on the Tweed, a similar tra- 
dition prevails. Here, according to legend, 
two rival armies faced each other for a consid- 
erable time. The Scottish forces were located 
in a ravine still termed " Scots' Hole," while 
the English, who were of greater numbers, 
lay on the opposite bank of the river. At 



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length, having eiliausted their patience, the 
English, trusting in their superior numbers, 
forded the river, and were thereupon assailed 
by the Scots on rising ground still known as 
the "Plea Brae,'' and, beitig totally discom- 
fited, were forced back through the river 
again. So great was the slaughter — as the 
present writer was informed by one who dwelt 
in that locality — that the River Tweed "ran 
red wi' bluid for threi days." From this 
wholesale slaughter, it is said, the locality pro- 
cured its name. The English undoubtedly 
would " rue the ford "-ing of the river; but it 
is more probable that this ancient ford at 
Rutherford obtained its name from the col- 
our of the soil in the locality rather than from 
the lamentation of the English in consequence 
of their defeat. 

At Skaithmuir, about two miles to the north 
of Coldstream, there is a tradition to the ef- 
fect that at the ford of the Leit in the vicinity 
there was a battle fought in which so many 
were slain that the rivulet ran red with blood. 
The first time I heard the story it was added 
that it ran thus "for threi days." This tra- 
dition about the skirmish — leaving out of ac- 
count the inevitable phrase concerning the ex- 
traordinary amount of gore that was shed — is 
on a good basis, for here, in 1317, Sir James 
Douglas, having issued forth with his forces 
from his forest retreat at Lintalee, overtook 
the Gascons and others who had come forth 
from Berwick Castle and who were now re- 
turning with a number of cattle for the suc- 
cour of the famishing English garrison. It 
was a sharp, bloody conflict, and the Gascon 
forces, though superior in numbers, were put 
t3 flight, Douglas had overtaken them at the 
ford near Skaithmoor (or Scamore), and doubt- 
less the blood spilt on that occasion helped to 
swell the volume of the brook ; but the number 
slain does not warrant us to suppose that the 
waters were augmented for so long a time as 
three days. 

Near Flodden Field there is a brooklet nam- 
ed Pallinsburn, which also is said to have run 
red for three days with valiant blood. The 
association of the disastrous battle of Flodden 
with this tradition is only too obvious. There 
are doubtless many bums, rivulets, and rivers 
on both sides of the Border to which this grim 
and gory phrase appliee ; and it would be in- 
teresting to have a catalogue of their names 
printed in the Border Magazine, as the above 
subject is undoubtedly a curious piece of folk- 
lore connected with the Borders. 

G. Watson. 



A Sneeessful Border Angler. 

It is not the sphere of a magazine such as this 
to record or take part in the present contro- 
versy regarding the future of public rights to 
fishing in the Tweed and its tributaries, but we 
have pleasure in noting the contest for the 1906 
Loch Leven Championship, which resulted in 
the victory of Mr Robert TumbuU, fishing 
tackle manufacturer, 10 Hanover Street, Edin- 
bui^h, who is a native of Kelso, where his 
'prentice hand was introduced to the mysteries 
of the " gentle art." 

On the Championship day, 3rd September^ 
thirty-two champions of clubs competed. 




MR ROBERT TURNBLLL. 

Mr TumbuU, who carried off first honours 
and won the distinction of being champion for 
the year, had a catch of si^ trout, 5 lb. 1 J oz. He 
fished all day from the south shore, (iifting in 
a south-westerly direction, and used an 11 ft. 
Walton rod of his own make. Two of his trout 
were got with the Butcher, two with Teal and 
Red, one with the Bloody Doctor, and one with 
his own invention, "Tumbull's Favourite." 
Last year's Champion was Mr Wm. Watson of 
the Fifeshire club, who had a catch of 11 trout. 



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10 lb. 6 oz. Mr TumbuU was fifth with 9 trout, 
6 lb. 7 oz. On both occasions Mr Turnbull re- 
presented the Walton Club of Edinburgh. The 
Championship competition was instituted in 
1872, and the blue riband of Loch Leven has 
twice been carried off by a representative of the 
"Walton"— in 1876 and 1906. 




Robert 
sidence. 



The Four Towns. 

Unparalleled Rustic and Lilliputian 
Aristocracy. 

I HERE are few more interesting par- 
ishes in Scotland than that of Ix>ch- 
maben. It claims the honour of 
having been the birthplace of King 
Bruce, and conWns his ancestral re- 
The town which gives name to the 
parish is beautifully situated in the vale of the 
Annan, and figures largely in early history. 
Its old-time inhabitants were not backward in 
feud or foray, and were wont to give and take 
hard knocks.' Its castle was of great strength, 
and figured frequently in Border wars. Not a 
few Annandale freebooters found shelter within 
its borders, the most noted of these being 
John Cock, or O'Cock, who was surrounded 
when asleep by the King's foresters, and laid 
seven of them dead at his feet before he could 
be overpowered. 

The parish is unique, in that it contains the 
four towns — four villages with commonage 
land held direct from the Crown, Greenhill, 
Smallholm, Heck, and Hightae. From a very 
early date the inhabitants of these were known 
as "the King's 'kindly tenants," or the "ren- 
tallers " of the Crown. 

The lands around the four towns and in 
touch with Lochmaben Castle were amongst 
the most fertile on the Annan, and were held 
by a species of tenant wholly unknown in Scot- 
land, save perhaps in Orkney. They belonged 
to the Kings of the country, and are believed 
to have been granted by Bruce to his domestic 
servants or the garrison of the Castle. 

The " rentallers '* were bound to carry arms 
in defence of the royal fortress, and were re- 
sponsible for its provision. They were without 
charter or seisin, and held their title by pos- 
session, and could part with their property by 
a sort of deed of conveyance. The new pos- 
sessor, who paid a small fee, took up his suc- 
cession without service, and maintained his 
claim by actual possession as in the case of 
the original tenant. 

These privileged tenants wei^e frequently 



harassed by those in authority, who cast en- 
vious eyes on their land, and more than once 
appealed to the Crown. During the reign of 
James VI. and Charles II. they obtained orders 
under the royal sign-manual to remain in un- 
disturbed possession of their unique rights. 
On several occasions subsequently these rights 
were upheld by the Court of Session and House 
of Lords. 

A large portion of the "rentallers' " land, up 
to the middle of the seventeenth century, ex- 
isted as a common, but then, by mutual agree- 
ment, was divided. To the portions were 
. added neat farmhouses, and the land was 
brought under cultivation, and soon became 
greatly enhanced in value compared with the 
original allotments nearer the villages. 

As time advanced much of the commonage 
was disposed off piecemeal. The neighbouring 
proprietor of Rammerscales secured a goodly 
share. But portions still remain as origin- 
ally set apart, and as one writer puts it,, " ex- 
hibit in the person of their owners a specimen 
of rustic and Lilliputian aristocracy unparal- 
led in the kingdom." 

If the possession of landed property, says 
the same authority, in a regular line of an- 
cestry for several generations is what confers 
the dignity of gentleman, that title" may be 
justly claimed by this community, whose fath- 
ers have owned and occupied their ridges and 
acres from the thirteenth century. 

The names of those who form^ " the King's 
kindly tenants" predominate in Annandale. 
They were for the most part Raes, Kennedys, 
Nicholsons, Wrights, and Richardsons, the lat- 
ter being the most common. These names, 
observes some one, were borne by companions 
of Wallace and Bruce in their struggles against 
the usurping Edward. 

Of the village themselves little need be said. 
The names of the two first, Greenhill and 
Smallholm, are derived from their situation. 
Heck takes its name from what in olden times 
was the hiU of the heck. The ground on which 
it stands was frequently surrounded by water, 
and as often looked like an island in a lake. 
A rack was placed on the high ground so that 
the cattle might be fed, hence the name. 
Hightae is the largest of the four towns, and 
stands on a fertile tract of land, with its 
church, school, post office, and a lake with 
numerous fish. A charter granted by James 
VI. gave the ancient royal burghites the right 
to fish here, as in the other six lochs in the 
parish. 

G. M. R. 



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Jedburgrh "Wren's Nest" 
Reminiscences. 

T is good even to recall those hours 
to memory," A. L. A. Sudden says 
in that breezy ai*ticle of his on 
''Dookin' in Tweed" in the February 
number of the Bobdbb Magazinb, and I agree 
with him. 

I have felt it good, but with not a few 
touches of sadness in the memories, to recall 
similar days of dookin' in the Jed, for there we 
did, 70 years ago, use the definite article, and 
had no jealousy in allowing the majestic Tweed 
to be known without it. 

I often wonder how many of us are living 
who were daily let out by Mr Pringle, a part- 
ner witii Mr Burnet in the boarding school 
known as "The Nest" — I recall only four, 
but there must surely be more. 

The "Nest Academy" — or, as it was orig- 
inally called, the "Wren's Nest," by Mr Bur- 
net, the first proprietor, after the favourite 
little busy bustling "Kitty Wren," with its 
numerous fledglings — was at that time one of 
the most famous and successful high-class 
schools in the South of Scotland, the students 
coming from all parts of the country, and 
some even from the Continent. 

All through the warm days of summer the 
school was "let out" about twelve, and, under 
the guidance and care of Mr Pringle, we 
marched in order, or, perhaps, spealcing more 
correctly, in disorder to the pool just below 
the second bridge, whei-e the haugh was speed- 
ily littered with clothes and the river swarm- 
ing with bright, clean, healthy boys, morally 
and physically, who tumbled over each other, 
regardless of appearances or consequences — 
some good fearless swimmera, others timid 
and anxious, but longing for and believing in 
the time when they would do as the best of 
them. 

I learnt to swim in my eleventh year in this 
wise. On the opposite or wooded bank, un- 
derneath an overhanging scaur, there was a 
flat "clint" with perhaps not more than two 
to two and a half feet of water over it in the 
summer time, which you could reach by wad- 
ing above and round on to it, and from this 
"clint" all the good swinmiers dived and fro- 
licked into a pool, which then had, and pro- 
bably has to-day, at least six to eight feet, or 
more, of water. 

An old schoolboy had promised to swim 
across with me, and without hesitation or fear 
I put my hands on his shoulders and we 
launched out; but — ^his name was Douglas — 
Douglas had fun in his veins, and in the mid- 



dle of the deepest part he dived and left me 
to sink or swim. Of course, I promptly did 
the latter, and I have thanked him ever since. 
I met him once afterwards when he was in 
a lawyer's office in Edinburgh, and we talked 
of swimming in the sea ss much easier 
than swinaming in the fresh water of the Jed. 
I am next reminded that we thought Mr 
Pringle a magnificent hero when he plunged 
in with all his clothes on to rescue a boy named 
Emerson — how is it that when you think of 
a place, a name and an incident come so easily 
to your memory, where they have lain for over 
sixty years, but out of which wild horses could 
not have drawn them in any other connection ? 
— ^who was in inmiinent danger of being 
drowned. 

That was either 1845 or '46, and, although 
I began to write under the inspiration of A. L. 
A. Suddens' lead on bathing and on clear pools, 
over which the freshest air under the heavens 
always blows, I shall go along on my tangent 
of school memories for a little longer and tell 
briefly the story of a noble life. 

The headmaster of the "Wren's Nest" kept 
a pony carriage for the use of dear Mrs Bur- 
net, a true and affectionate mother to all the 
fledglings of the "Nest," and to take charge 
of pony and do other necessary rough work of 
the school a sharp little, capital fellow, of the 
name of Timson, was engaged. "Wullie" soon 
became a great favourite with all of us, the 
healthy tone of a healthy school leaving no 
"side" in any one ; if it were there with a new 
boy it was very quickly knocked out of him, 
for his future good, so that when "Wullie," 
the son of a widow woman down Bon jed ward 
way, who had all the boy's wages sent to her 
every week, took it into his plucky little head 
that he also would like to learn French and 
Greek, he had every boy's books at his dis- 
posal, and more willing teachers than falls to 
the lot of most boys. 

By and bye the story of it all reached the 
headmaster's ears, and opportunities were 
given him, which he was quick to lay hold 
of and under which he advanced step by step 
until — well — all who have followed me thus 
far know, without being told, what it led to. 
At that stage I left the "Nest," and for some 
years entirely lost sight of Wullie Timson, 
only hearing occasionally that he was a school- 
master somewhere or other. 

One day, probably in 1857, I was walking 
along Princes Street, Edinburgh, when a well- 
dressed, firmly-set young student passed me, 
whose face was familiar, but I could not name 
Him, and, as he did not recognise me, we 



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pMsed each other, but a yard more, and the 
weU-kiK>wn manly face of Wullie Timson was 
in my ey€, and, und^r the impulse of it, I 
speedily overhauled him, much to his delight 
and mine. 

He had gone through his College course 
with credit in the Edinburgh University, had 
attended the Theological Hall of the United 
Presbyterian Church, and was about to be 
licensed. 

Thia is a. common story of Scotch student 
lile, but it bears being re-told. 

That^ however, is not all about him. After 
his ordination he decided to become a mission- 
ary, and, applying to the Foreign Mission 
Committee, was accepted and sent abroad with 
his wife. 

In the spring of 1858 I received an appoint- 
ment to proceed to Old Calabar, West Africa, 
on business, and, arriving there on 24th May 
in the good steamer "Hope," we anchored at 
sundown in the broad river, opposite Duke 
Town, eighty miles from tlie sea'. 

Immediately the anchor was over the side 
& numb^ of six-oared gigs, with their white 
owners eagerly waiting for letters and news, 
pulled alongside, and the first on deck was — 
Wullie Timson. 

During the five years I remained there we 
saw each other often — though he shortly after- 
wards was sent by the Presbytery to an up 
station. He was a most excellent missionary, 
and had broad ideas, often of an unconven- 
tional type — ^for instance, one day, coming 
through tile town, he saw a chief very badly 
ill-treating one- of his slaves, and, finding that 
kindness and reason were of no use, and that, 
very probably, the poor creature would be 
killed, the Rev. Wni. Timson became once 
more the rough and tumble schoolboy of 
" Jethart," who did not even stay to doff his 
coat, but promptly, with Nature's weapons, 
felled the chief to the ground. 

And he was all the more respected by the 
natives, who acknowledged he had acted 
rightly. 

He has long since gone to his reward, and 
his photograph is one of my cherished pos- 
sessions. 

But this is a rather long digression froon 
that of dookita' in the Jed. 

There were many pools, the first just above 
"the cauld;" the second, already referred to, 
at the second bridge; a third was known as 
"Tammy White's Pool,'* nearly up to the third 
bridge, and immediately under the highest 
peak of the scaurs — ^Mr Sudden uses, I see, 
the vernaculai*, ''skerfit," which, for the sake 



of days long eone by, I wfllingly, accept. 
"Tammy White^ Pool" was too deep and sullen 
to be such a favourite bathing place as th» 
second bridge, but some of us, on very warm 
days, in a (kring mood, and without Mr Pnn- 
gle, had our swim in it. I suppose no one <ean 
tell why it was called "Tammy White's Pool?" 
I often asked the question in those days, but 
never got an answer, and, for want of it, we 
concluded some one of that name had been 
drowned there. 

It is an interesting fact that just of^xmite 
the scaurs from this pool lliomson of the 
seasons wrote his poem on "Summer," sitting 
on a sloping bank near an old, lonely schocA 
building, which was there, though not in use, 
in my earliest days. 

My recollections have run on in a very de- 
sultory manner, and I must close — ^but anoUier 
time I may say something more about those 
unique and glorious scaurs and refer to odd 
holidays and Saturday half-holidays spent in 
climbing out and into the caves cut o«t of the 
face of those at the '^fourth bridge," a feat I 
cannot now think of without a Judder, but 
which, when the brain was clear and nerves 
unknown, was done with exhilarating fear- 
lessness. 

Claughton. Jamhs iRTun. 

The Late Mr Francis Lynn. 

The death, says the **St Ronan's Standard," 
occurred suddeiily on 23rd April, at his resi- 
dence in Livingstone Terrace, Galashiels, of 
Mr Francis Lynn, F.S.A. Scot. Mr Lynn, wlio 
was sixty-eight years of age, had been in busi- 
ness as an upholsterer and cabinetmaker in 
Galashiels for nearly forty years, and was 
highly respected by all classes of the commun- 
ity. *Mr Lvnn was an enthusiastic antiquar- 
ian, and was well known throughout the coun- 
try as an authority on that subject, and he 
contributed papers of considerable value and 
interest on subjects such as the Catrail Hill 
forts and artificial caves to the meetings of the 
Scottish Society of Antiquaries, of which be 
was a Fellow. In the affairs of the Berwick- 
shire Naturalists' dub he- took an actiw 
interest, and was a highly esteeptied member, 
his services as guide to the Club in their ram- 
bles in the Border district and the North of 
England being greatly appreciated. His 
name appears in the list of excursions for liiis 
season. We were purposing a sketch of him 
in the "B. M.," and may still carry out our 
intention, though death lias called our friend 
homa 



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SUPPLEMENT to the "BORDER MAGAZINE/' Vol. XII., No 138. 




CAPTAIN ROBERT DAVIDSON, DALMUIR, CLYDEBANK. 

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CAPTAIN ROBERT DAVIDSON, 

DALMUIR, CLYDEBANK. 

A SUCCESSFUL BORDER GENTLEMAN. 




I HE subject of our sketch is that of 
Captain Robert Davidson, Ist 
D.R.V., who is likewise Quarter- 
master of the regiment and a Town 
Councillor to boot for the Dalmuir Ward of 
Clydebank — ^the home of ships and sewing 
machines — succeeding ex-Provost Francis 
Spite, and has had the distinguished honour 
of being thrice returned unopposed as one of 
the three representatives on the Council of 
this particular Ward. It will be in the recol- 
lection of our readers that Captain Davidson 
was lately honoured by our well-beloved King 
in being commanded to attend the levee in 
St James' Palace, London, for presentation to 
His Majesty — ^he being the only representative 
from Scotland present on that occasion — thus 
bringing honour not only on himself, the 
"risingest" Burgh of Clydebank, and the 
Ward thereof of which he is a bright and 
shining light, but on Borderers all o'er. Still 
in the heyday of manhood, or, rather, youth, 
for, as our readers can see from our block, he 
looks quite the youth, and, what is more and 
better, feels it, tot he has yet a long journey 



to travel before he crosses over from the sunny 
to the autumn side of fifty. Bom in the 
pleasant little Border village of Yetholm, 
which nestles at the foot of the Cheviot hills, 
he spent a portion of his boyhood amid scenes 
which are dear to every lover of Scott, and 
which are famous in several ways in Scottish 
history. His parents having removed to Jed- 
burgh to engage in farming, he, perforce, ac- 
companied them to Hundalee, a large and 
well-stocked farm, of which his grandfather 
had a lease from the Marquis of Lothian. 
Here young Davidson set about making a way 
for himself in this busy world, and here he 
first exhibited that tact, energy, and unflinch- 
ing devotion to duty that has not only stood 
him in good stead, but has brought about an 
honoured and deserved reward, and that, too, 
at such a comparatively early age as falls to 
the lot of few. He served his apprenticeship 
with the firm of Messrs Noble, wine merchants, 
Jedburgh and Berwick-on -Tweed, and after- 
wards transferred his services to Messrs Hil- 
son, Jedburgh, where, after four years' faithful 
work, he hied himself to Glasgow, for the bet- 



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THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



ter scope and enlargement of his undoubted 
talents, amid the best wishes of his past em- 
ployers and fellow-employees. After a short 
spell of city life and city experience,. Captain 
Davidson removed to Clydebank some twenty- 
one years ago, when the district was but in its 
infancy, and he rapidly blossomed into a popu- 
lar young man, adding success to success, and 
making friends aU along the line. Acquiring 
the licensed premises, corner of Dumbar- 
ton Road and Buchanan Street, Dalmuir, then 
owned by Mr John McLaughlan, Dun tocher, 
he soon succeeded in adding to and building 
up the business, and on Mr McLaughlan 's 
death he bought his wide range of property 
in Buchanan Street and Dumbarton Road. 
Lately he transferred his business to new and 
more central premises at the corner of Trafal- 
gar Street and Dumbarton Road. His manner 
at all times has been characterised by cour- 
tesy, energy, and tact. Captain Davidson has 
had since his earliest days the best interests of 
the Volunteer Forces at heart, having served 
with the Border Rifles first in 1882, under 
the command of the late Sir George Douglas, 
Bart., before leaving his native heath. Com- 
ing to Clydebank, he, as soon as business ar- 
rangements permitted, attached himself to the 
Yoker (L) Coy. Ist D.R.V. After a short 
spell in the ranks, it was at once seen that 
he was an acquisition to the corps, and got 
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant (1896), 
receiving on his appointment the warmest con- 
gratulations from, among others. Colonel 
Denny, late member of Parliament, and then 
commandant of the regiment. His rise in the 
service has been as rapid as it was deserved. 
On the retiral of Lieut. -Colonel Birrell, he was 
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant -Quar- 
termaster, and later on to his present rank of 
Staff-Officer Captain Quartermaster. At each 
camp held under his management and personal 
supervision, he has at the close of each been 
personally thanked and complimented by the 
Commanding Officer for the careful and effi- 
cient manner he had carried out the entire 
arrangements for the comfort of both officers 
and men. Notwithstanding his extensive 
business and public duties, he succeeds in find- 
ing time for pleasure and recreation. An 
early riser, he gets through a vast amount of 
work, and then, in season, hies himself to some 
of the waters, for he is a most ardent and en- 
thusiastic angler, and for this season holds 
the record catch of salmon on Loch Tay. 
Shooting also claims a portion of his time, as 
might be expected, and he is a noted marks- 



man with both riBe and revolver. With the 
latter he twice won the Denny 100 guinea 
challenge cup, and is looked on as the crack 
revolver shot of the county. With the fowling 
piece he has twice lifted the Old Kilpatrick 
glass ball and clay pigeon trophy. In fact, 
on one occasion he won it right out, and was 
presented with it, but on an opponent putting 
in an appearance after the event was over, 
Captain Davidson waived his claim, and on 
the opponent retiring from the mark it was 
found he had beaten the Captain's score by a 
point. The Captain, by his action, thus only 
showed one of his many outstanding traits of 
character and sporting spirit with which he 
is imbued. 

Those who know the Captain best, know him 
for his sportsmanlike nature, genial 
character, and kindly disposition, . ever 
ready to unloosen his purse strings 
and give bountifully and ungrudgingly of his 
means to those in distress, and especially when 
it is the cry of the widow and fatherless. As 
a Freemason he could have filled any office he 
chose in Lodge St John, Dalmuir, No. 543, 
but it can readily be seen that he succeeds in 
putting a lot of work into a short space of 
time, and a limit must be struck somewhere. 
Still he takes more than a passive interest in 
the craft and all pertaining thereto. 

Some fourteen years ago the Borderers re- 
sident in Clydebank foregathered together and 
became desirous of forming themselves into a 
Borderers' Association. At the time Captain 
Davidson was approached, and, as becomes 
him, he threw himself heart and soul into the 
suggestion, and was made president of the new 
body. Under his care and watchful eye the 
Association, which first met under his wel- 
comed roof, has grown so well that it is now 
one of the recognised institutions of the 
" risingest " burghs of Scotland, the success 
of which has been greatly contributed to by 
Borderers, but by none more so than by Cap- 
tain Davidson. 

We offer Captain Davidson our heartiest 
congratulations on his many achievements, 
and trust he will be long spared to be an hon- 
our to the town in which he has cast his lot 
and a credit to Borderers at home and abroad. 

B. C. 



A long story is, next to a good evening 
draught and a warm nightcap, the best shoeing- 
horn for drawing on a sound sleep. — "Leg^uJ 
of Montrose.'* 



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103 



The Author of '' Waverley *' on the 
South Side of the Border. 

Bt Waltbb Scott, Gjjnford. 

Part I. 

Ak English peer, with Scottish blood in his 
veins, wrote: — 

"England, thy beauties are tame and domestic 
To one who has roamed o'er the mountains afar ; 

Oh, for the crags that are wild and majestic. 
The steep frowning glories of dark Loch-na-gar." 

And since his day many have been the com- 
parisons drawn between the quietude, and al- 
most tameness, of the scenery in the south^n 
kingdom and the grandeur of loch, mountain, 



could give expression to the true patriot's feel- 
ing in the lines: — 

"O Caledonia! stern and wild. 

Meet nurse fsor a poetic child! 

Land of brown heath and shaggy wood, 

Land of the mountain and the flood. 

Land of my sires, what mortal hand 

Can e'er untie the filial band 

That knits me to thy rugged strand!" 

And so, annually, there is a stream, of every 
kindred and people, making the pilgrimage to 
Abbotsford, Dryburgh, the Trossachs, and 
wherever the foot of the mighty magician trod. 
And yet the scenery of many of his poems and 
novels is to be found in the country of the 
southron. So, not to go over the Ivanhoe 
country, that of Kenilworth, the sylvan beauty 
of Woodstock, or the diversity of the Peak 




ROKEBY HOUSE. 



and glen in Scotland. Hie truth is, there are 
beauties of scenery and entrancing views in 
both countries. In England, for the most 
part, what we see and admire are the results 
of aees of occupation and cultivation — "the 
stat^y homes of England," the old-world 
farm-houses, quaint country hoetelries, its syl- 
van scenery, and ecclesiastical buildings of 
note in almost every parish. In the northern 
part of the island nature has been lavish in 
providing the grandeur of rugged mountains, 
shimmering lochs, impetuous streams, and all 
that beauty ol her own which "unadorned is 
adorned tlie most." 

All the world knows how Sir Walter loved 
his country and how, in undying verse, he 
opened its beauties to the world. He only 



country, all vividly described and peopled by 
real men and women who live in our memor- 
ies, a short note of interesting places in the 
Border counties of Northumberland, Durham, 
Westmoreland, Cumberland, and North York- 
shire, associated with Scott or his works, may 
be interesting to the readers of this magazine. 
He knew these counties well, and had friends 
in them all. But the one friend of the greatest 
intimacy wad the genial and scholarly Lord 
of Rokeby, in the North Riding of the County 
of York, within a mile of the junction of the 
Greta with the Tees, the latter being the boun- 
dary between the "county of broad acres" and 
Durham. 

And how surely his all-observing eye noted 
every place he saw and its surrounding char- 



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acteristics. In illustration of this faculty let 
VLB just glance through the pages of "Rokeby," 
the poem he wrote in honour of his friend, 
John B. Sawrey Morrit, "one of the most ac- 
oomplished men that ever shared Scott's con- 
fidence." One of the heirlooms left by him 
wa« that famous Velasquez picture, leoently 
the subject of so many newspaper articles be- 
fore it was secured for the nation by a pay- 
ment of £40,000. Morrit frequently visited 
Abbotsford, and was also Scott's host at Roke- 
by on many occasions. It was on one of these 
latter that he began the poem "Rokeby.' 
When published it was received with great 
favour, though its popularity was overshad- 
owed by the fame which had oome to its pre- 



causing alternations of darkness and silvery 
light, when the first incidents of the poem 
occur : — 

"Such vivid hues the warder sees 
Beflected on the woodland Tees." 

It is the time of civil conflict, King against 
Parliament, and here, in this castle, the plot 
between Oswald Wycliffe and Bertram of Ris- 
ingham is hatched. The object is to obtain 
the treasure of the Liord of Mortham (a keep 
on the side of the Greta further from Rokeby), 
supposed to have been slain by Bertram in 
the battle of Mcu'ston Moor, recently fought. 
Another aim of the plotters is to obtain the 
hand of Rokeby's daughter for WyclifFe's son, 




BARNARD CASTLE 



decessors, riie Lady of the Lake," "The Lay 
of the Last Minstrel,'' and "Marmion." 

The scene of "Rokeby" is, of course, princi- 
pally at that place, and moves to Barnard 
Castle and other places in the neighbourhood. 
It opens in Barnard Castle,, that proud guar- 
dian of the Teesside frontier built by Barnard 
Baliol, the grandfather of him who, for a short 
time, wore the crown of Scotland. Around 
the castle grew a town ; and for centuries it has 
been an important market for South Durham 
and North Yorkshire. It has had its vicissi- 
tudes, like most old places, some of its older 
inhabitants even yet remembering the grand 
old days of stage coaches and crowded hostel- 
riee on its famed market. 

It is a breezy and rainy night, scudding 
clouds shrouding the pale face of the moon, 



who was of a very different nature from that 
of his scheming and unscrupulous father : — 

"He loved the quiet joys that wake 
By lonely stream and silent lake. 
In Beepdale's solitude to lie. 
Where all is cliff and copse and sky; 
To climb Catcastle's dizzy peak. 
Or lone Pendragon's mound to seek/' 

The first two of these places are up the Tees 
from Barnard Castle, well suited to attract 
the admiration of a nature-lover like Scott; 
and to-day the solitude of cliff, copse, and sky 
in Deepdale is only rarely broken ; Catcastle's 
dizzy peak is as it was then ; and lone Pen- 
dragon's Mound, near Penrith, is the puzzle 
of archflBologist and antiquarian. 

Bv the plotters it was arranged 
that Wilfrid, the son of Wycliffe, 



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105 



should accompany Bertram to Morth- 
am Tower to take possession of the treasure on 
that night when 

"Three banners floating o'er the Tees 
The woe-foreboding peasant sees; 
In concert oft they braved of old 
The bordering Scots' incursion bold." 

These were the banners of Rokeby, Mortham, 
and Barnard Castle. To this day many small 
land owners pay "Barnard Castle guard rent" 
to Lord Barnard, who represents the old fam- 
ily who protected tho flocks and herds of their 
predecessors. But at the time of the story 
Rokeby was for the King, Mortham for the 
Parliament, and Wycliffe held Barnard Castle 
for Vane, who wanted to see first which side 
was likely to be victorious. 

Bertram and Wilfrid waited not for sunrise, 
nor turned to view what the clear moon would 
have revealed : — 

"The moon was cloudless now and clear. 
But pale, and soon to disappear; 
The thin grey clouds wax dimly light 
On Brusselton and Houghton height, 

• And the rich dale that eastward lav- 
Waited the touch of wakening day. ' 

[To Bb Continued.] 



Border Notes and Queries. 

JEDBURGH «* WREN'S NEST," Etc. 
I am one of the many who read Mr James Irvine's 
*' Reminiscences " of the above in last number of the 
Border Mixgazine with both interest and pleasure. 
He seems to fall into two mistakes, however, which I 
venture to correct, not in the spirit of criticism, but 
for the purpose of effacing any false impression made 
upon the readers of the article., He refers to ''the 

* Nest Academy ' or, as it was originally called, the 

* Wren's Nest,' by Mr Burnett, the first proprietor, 
after the favourite Uttle busy bustling * Kitty Wren,' 
with its numerous fledglings." Far from it having re- 
ceived this name from Mr Burnett, however, it is 
specified in a charter (or perhaps charters) granted by 
King James VI. of Scotland to LK>rd Home two centuries 
before Mr Burnett's time. Eight or nine years ago 
I saw an extract from the charter to Lord Home, in 
which there occurs the phrase " All haill ze lands of 
. . . and of ze Wren's Nest," etc. (As I am 
quoting entirely from memory, I cannot pretend to be 
UtenUly accurate.) In No. 5 of his '* Yesterdays in 
a Royal Burgh " (reprinted from the Jedburgh OazeUe "), 
also, B£r Lindsay Hilson cites a charter from the Crown, 
and dated 1671, in which reference is made to *' The 
Abbay Kirk of Jedburgh, with these three houses 
commonly caUed ' Dobies Tour,' * Wran's Nest,' and 
" Old HaU,' " etc. These facts put the matter beyond 
question that Mr Burnett did not originally give the 
place its name. 

Of the school to which Mr Irvine refers, and which 
was exactly at the first milestone from Jedburgh, not 
a vestige now remains. There must be some mistake 
in Mr Irvine^ statement that Thomson, the poet of 



the " Seasons," wrote Ws poem on " Summer " on 
the embankment near this school. In 1715, Thomson, 
then aged fifteen, left Southdean for Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, and in the following year, in consequence of 
the death of his father, the household removed to 
Edinburgh. (I have not read anywhere that the poet 
again visited Jedwater.) Nine years later, Thomson, 
having removed to England, commenced " Winter," 
the first poem of the " Seasons," which appeared in 
1726. " Summer " was published in the succeeding 
year, and therefore could not have been written when 
Thomson lived on the Borders. ' 

Regarding Mr Irvine's query as to the derivation of 
the name " Tammy White's Pool," I may say that his 
conclusion that some one of that name was drowned 
there is very probable. In more recent times than 
those of which ne writes it was given me' as the actual 
reason why the awsome pool was so named. No data, 
however, were given along with the simple statement. 

G. WATSON. 



JOCK 0' &AZELDEAN. 

The following additional correspondence on this 
subject has appeared in the SeoUman: — 

Edinburgh, April 20, 1907. 

Sir, — ^Hazeldean must have stood between Hawick 
and Minto. In the ** Lay of the Last Minstrel," 
canto I., stanza 25, in describing Sir William of Delo- 
rajne's ride from Branksome to Melrose, Scott says : — 

" And soon the Teviot side he won. 

Eastward the wooded path he rode, 

Green hazels o'er his basnet nod ; 

He passed the Peel of Goldiland, 

And cross'd the Borthwick's roaring strand. 

Dimly he viewed the Moat-hill's mound 

Where Druid shades still flitted round ; 

In Hawick twinkled many a light ; 

Behind him soon they set in night ; 

And soon he spurred his courser keen 

Beneath the tower of Hazeldean." 
— I am, &c. J. B. Fairgrieve. 

StirUng, April 24, 1907. 
Sir, — ^There can be little doubt, I think, that the 
Hazeldean of the " Lay " and the ballad are the same. 
As to the Hazeldean of the *' Lay," every one knows 
that it is Hassendean in TeviotdaJe, as Scott himself 
has told us in a note to the poem, in which he says that 
*' the estate of Hazeldean, corruptly Hassendean, 
belonged formerly to a family of Scotts." Scott is here 
mistaken, for undoubtedly Hassendean, or Halstane- 
den, JB the old form of the name. Scott and Leyden 
both use Hazeldean, and it is to be remembered that 
the " Lay." appeared in January 1805, while Leyden, 
who had sailed for India in April 1803, had been 
previously staying with Scott at Lasswade, busy with 
the old Border ballads and his Scenes of Infancy, It 
is therefore rather curious to find Scott saying that 
Hassendean is a corruption of Hazeldean, when pro- 
bably either Leyden or himself was the first to use 
that form of the place. I am not aware of its previous 
use by any one else. 

I doubt your correspondent " S." is rather wide of 
the mark when he seeks to identify Hazeldean with the 
Roman AzeUodunwn, near Hexham. He will find a 
more Ukely explanation of that place in Taylor's 
" Words and Places " (under Axelholme) than the one 
he suggests. 



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I am afraid the history of " Jock '* and the laorimose 
" ladie *' who " loot the tears down fa*/* whether as 
set forth in the old ballad or in Soott's song, is likely to 
lemain a mystery, though one would like to know the 
story of the pair.— I am, &c., 

A. GRAHAM. 

There are still in connection with this subject some 
points on which further information would be accept- 
able. Where is Hazdgreen of the old ballad, and was 
the form Hazeldean (t.e. Hassendean) erer used by 
any one else before Scott and Leyden ? Perhaps some 
reader who may have access to Professor Child's 
Tolumes {Engliah and SeoUiah BaUads, 8 vols., 1861) 
could furnish us with some additional information not 
brought out in the above correspondence. 

In a letter of Scott's (dated September 30, 1792) to 
his friend William Clerk, Esq., he speaks of an *' ex- 
pedition " he had lately had through Hexham and 
partiB of Northumberland, which, he says, " would 
have delighted the very cockles of your heart," 
Ac. He sulds : " I was particularly charmed with the 
situation of Beaufront, a house belonging to a* mad 
sort of genius, whom, I am sure, I have told you some 
stories about. He used to caU himself the Noble 
Errington, but of late has assumed the title of Duke 
of Hexham." Scott may have remembered the name 
when he composed his song some twenty-four years 
after, as Mr Crockett suggests in his letter. 

It may perhaps be worth while to add that it was 
lately intimated in the Scotsman that there was to be 
offered for sale by auction in London a collection of 
important autograph letters and documents relating 
to Scotland, and amongst these Sir Walter Scott's 
signed manuscript of the famous song *' Jock o' Hazel- 
dean." A. G., S. 
« » « « 

HIGH PRICE FOR A BURNS'S RELIC. 
** A tnost interesting relic of Bums was sold yester- 
day at Christie's, London. It was the poet's seal, 
formed of a Scottish pebble engraved with his coat of 
arms, and mounted in gold. The arms of the bard 
are characteristic, and were cut in Edinburgh. Above 
a shield cont^aining a horn, pastoral crook, and bush, 
a bird sings, and it is surmounted with the words, 
" Wood notes wild," while on the sides of the shield is 
the inscription, " Better a bush than nae bield." 
This object is referred to by the poet in letters 213 in 
the seventh volume of Cunningham's " Life and 
Works" of Bums. Tl^e poet says : — " I have gotten 
one of your Highland pebbles, which I fancy would 
make a very decent seal, and I want to cut my armorial 
heading in it." The seal hung at Bums's watch for 
several years, and it passed from him to his son Robert, 
then to his daughter Eliza (who married Dr Everett), 
falling to her daughter, the late Martha Burhs Thomas, 
who bequeathed it to her cousin, the late owner. 
Keen competition raised the price for the tiny trinket 
to £210 before Mr Dunlop, a private collector, secured 
iu"— Scotsman, May 1, 1907.— " We are informed 
that the purchaser of the poet Bums's seal at Christ'e's, 
London, on Tuesday, is Mr W. H. Dunlop of Doonside, 
and that the relic is to be placed in Bump's Cott4tge, 
near Ayr." — Scotsman, May 2. 

« « * * 

WAS JEDBURGH A WALLED TOWN T 
fVIt was with much interest that I read the query, pro- 
pounded by a writer signing himself *' Auntie Queer 



Ane,'* which appeared in the last number. The in- 
formation which I have been able to collect upon the 
subject enables me to answer the question negatively. 
Before producing this scanty material, it may be staled 
that there are no remains or traces of any kind to 
indicate that walls surrounded the town, and in the 
hundreds of references to Jedburgh in medieeval times 
which I have seen in contemporary documents, not 
once are the hypothetical walls referred to. 
, It was not the custom of the Scots to build walls 
round their towns ; they rather trusted in their abili^ 
to defend them by bravery and by foroe of arms. *' The 
Scots," says John Major, the Scottish historian and 
divine, " do not hold themselves to need walled cities ; 
and the reason of this may be, that they thus get them 
face to face with the enemy with no delay, and build 
their cities, as it were, of men. If a force 20,000 strong 
were to inrade Scotland at dawn, a working day of 
twelve hours would scarcely pass before her people 
were in conflict with the enemy." The case of Jed- 
burgh, unfortunately, illustrates by no means favour- 
ably tjiis policy of the Scots in these troublous times, as 
this Border town was burned by the English no fewer 
than six times within the one hundred and thirty-six 
years following the capture and demolition of the 
castle in 1409 by the Scots, after it had been possessed 
by the Southrons for seventy-five years. 

Don Pedro de Ayala visited Scotland in the year 1498, 
and in the account of his visit he states that there was 
then not more than one fortified town in Scotland, " as 
the kings do not allow their subjects to fortify them." 
John IM^jor also, writing in 1521, states that Perth was 
the only waUed town in Scotland. In addition to Perth, 
however, Edinburgh itself had ere this been fortified, 
having in 1460, immediately after the battle of Sark, 
been enclosed by walls, which were further strengthened 
after Flodden in 1513. Writing in 1647-52, David 
Buchanan, when he refers to " the custom of the Scots 
being able to defend their cities with arms and not 
with waUs," corroborates Major's previous statement. 
These references seem to exclude the idea that Jedburgh 
was a walled town. 

From the " History of Scotland," written about 1582 
by the famous George Buchanan, more direct proof can 
be adduced that Jedburgh had no walls round it. 
Alluding to the projected attack upon it in 1572 by 
Kerr of Femiherst, Buchanan states ih&t Jedburgh 
was **a small town (" oppidulum "),^ unfortified, as is 
the cxtstom of the country, but inhabited by the Ivavest 
of citizens, who in former years had always strenuously 
resisted the attempts of the rebels." If more conclusive 
proof than this be required, it is found in the fact that 
in the same work, when this writer deals with the Earl 
of Surrey's successful assault on Jedburgh in 1523, he 
refers to the town as ** unwalled, according to the 
Scottish custom." ' These facts prove the case beyond 
doubt, and answer the question in the negative. 

I would be edified to learn Professor Veitch's author- 
ity for his erroneous statement. Mr George Hilson was 
obviously in error in stating that Sir Walter Scott alleged 
the walls of Jedburgh *' to have existed." He evident- 
ly has in mind the passage in Chapter XXV. of the 
" Tales of a Grandfather," where Scott thus ralers to 
Surrey's capture of Jedburgh in 1523 : — " But the foroe 
of numbers prevailed, and the English carried the 
place by assault. There were six strong towers within 
the town, which continued their defence after the 
waUs were surmounted. These were the residenoes of 
persons of rank, uniUffd round, and capable of strong 



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107 



resistanoe." The words I liare emphasised show that 
it was not the wiJls of the town, but those Soott sup- 
poses to have sniromided the bastel towers, that that 
author alluded to. Even these walls, it may be pointed 
out in closing, have no existence in Surrey's memorable 
letter, printed in the "Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border, from whioh communication Sir Walter 
evidently obtained his information respecting the 
capture of Jedburgh in 1523. 

G. WATSON. 




Burns's ''Beauteous Rosebud..'* 

)T the Stirling Fine Art Exhibition, held in 
the Smith Institute during the months of 
February and March, there was exhibited a 
very interesting portrait of Bums*s heroine, 
Jenny Cruiokshank, the " Beauteous Rose- 
bud " of his poems. This portrait, which is un- 
donbtedly authentic, and has never been publicly 
exhibited before, is a small canvas, 20 inches by 14, and 
shows the girFs figure in three-quarter length. She 
has a sweet face, with rosy cheeks, and wears Ui;e quaint 
cap according to the fasiiion then prevailing. In her 
arms she holds a Prince Charlie spaniel. The artist is 
unknown, but the work artistically appears io be fairly 
well done, and is not without a certain delicacy and 
oharm. 

William Cruickshank, the father of the " heroine," 
was a colleague of William Niool, the Willie who brewed 
the peck o* maut, of the Edinburgh High School, and 
both were intimate friends of Bums. Bums, it will be 
remembered, on the advice of Dr Blacklock, set out to 
Edinburgh in order to get a second edition of his poems 
brought out there. He reached Edinburgh on the 28th 
of November, 1786, and was soon lionised and patronised 
by sll the fashionable literaU of the place-nlaw lords, 
professors, clergymen, and blue stockings. His poems, 
an issue of 2800 copies, duly appeared on the 21st of 
April, and soon after, on the 5th of Mav, Bums, 
mounted on "Jenny Geddes," along with his friend 
Robert Ainslie, set out on his Border tour, in the 
course of which he visited Duns, Coldstream, Kelso, 
Dryburgh, Melrose, Jedburgh, and Selkirk, besides 
other places on the other side of the Border. On the 
4th of June he reached Dumfries, and on the 9th 
Mauchline, and was received, after an absence of seven 
months, by his brother, sisters, and mother, who is 
said to have welcomed him back with the simple words, 
*' Oh, Robbie ! " Soon after, in the month of August, 
he returned to Edinburgh, and on the 25th, along with 
his friend William Nicol, a man with some good qualities 
and some not so good, started on his northern tour. 
They visited Stirling and Bannockbum, then proceeded 
through Perthshire, and on to Inverness and CuUoden, 
Aberdeen and Montrose, where the poet was kindly 
received by his relations whom he had never seen before, 
and returned to Edinburgh, which was reached on the 
16th of September. Then in October he again, along 
with his friend, a Dr Adair, set out on a ten days* tour, 
when he visited his old friends at Harviesfon, Sir 
William Murray of Ochtertyre, and Mr Ramsay of 
Oohtertyrd (near Stirling), returning to the Capital on 
the 20th of 0<^ber, ill with a cold contracted on the 
journey. On this occasion Bums lodged with his 
friend William Cruickshank, who occupied a house at 
30 St James's Square.* The poet*s room was a high 
upper chamber looking down into a green plot behind 



the Register House, and here he chiefly employed his 
time in composing songs for Johnson's Muaewn^ 
and in hearing young Jexiny Craiokshank, at this time 
a girl of some twelve years of age, play the melodies on 
her harpsichord. And here also it was that he penned 
some of those stupid amatory epistles to Clarinda, 
whoso acquaintance he had made towards the close of 
the year. Professor Walker, who had occasion to oall 
upon Bums at this time, says : " I found him seated by 
the harpsichord of this young lady, listening with the 
keenest interest to his own verses, which she sang and 
accompanied, and adjusting them to the music by 
repeated trials of the effect. In this occupation he was 
so totally absorbed that it was difficult to draw his 
attention from it for a moment. " Would not " Robbie" 
and the " Rosebud " with her harpsichord have formed 
an admirable and charming subject for the painter ? 
It was probably about this time that Bums composed 
his song '' A Rosebud by my Early Walk," ** in whioh 
he makes graoeful reference to the accomplishments 
of his young friend who could tune such strains " on 
trembling string or vocal air." In Febmary, 1789, 
Bums paid another visit to Edinburgh, when he is 
supposed to have written and inscribed to Miss Cruiok* 
shank the poem beginning : — 

" Beauteous rosebud, young and gay. 
Blooming in thy early May." 

It was written on the blank leaf of a book presented 
by the poet to the young lady. It would be interestiog 
to ascertain if this book with the poem is still in exist- 
ence. In June, 1804, Miss Craickshank became the 
wife' of a Mr James Henderson, writer in Jedburgh. 
She died in 1836, and she and her husband lie buried in 
the Abbey Churchyard of Jedburgh. 

About the beginning of August, 1887, there was 
erected in this churchyard a tombstone of Aberdeen 
granite, of a plain but neat desimi, to mark the resting- 
place of Bums*s heroine. It bears the following in- 
scription : — " In memory of James Henderson, writer, 
Jedburgh, who died 1839, and Jean Cruickshankt his 
wife, one of Bums's heroines, who died 1835 ; also of 
their five sons and three daughters. This stone is 
erected by the children of Anctew, third son of the 
above, who died at Berwick, 1846." Another of their 
sons, it may be added, Mr William Cmickshank Hender- 
son, was a banker, who, on retiring, settled at Stirling. 
In 1869 he married a Miss Scott, a native of Kelso, and 
died in 1882, and was buried in 8t Ninians Churchyard. 
His widow still survives, and the portrait to *whieh 
reference has been made, remains a cherished treasure 
in the possession of that lady. 

A. GRAHAM. 

* On the death of Cruiokshank, Bums wrote the 
following hues :— 

** Honest Will *s to heaven gane. 
And mony shall lament him; 
His faults they a' in Latin lay. 
In English nane e'er kent them." 

-^lines not over-complimentary to the Latinity of the 
Edinburgh High School classioal master ! 

** At a sale of Bums MSS. at Sotheby's, London, 
March 16th of the present year, these lines amongst 
others were disposed of to a Mr Maitland. The vendor 
was a descendant of Bums's friend, Alexander Eraser 
Tytler, afterwards Lord Woodhouselee. 



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The Border Bookcase. 

|H0 that has read the works of 
Sir Walter Scott intelligently, 
has not wished that he could re- 
tain in his memory even a hun- 
dredth part of the wise sayings he met in the 
living pages, or even longed that he had time 
to imitate Captain Cuttle, and " make a note 
of it ?" So much of 

THE WISDOM OF SIR WALTER 
is thus lost to the general reader that we hail 
with delight a volume bearing this appropriate 
title from ' the famous publishing house of 
Messrs A. & C. Black. The volume is by 
Owen Redfem, who has done his work well, 
while the pdblishers have produced a hand- 
some book at 5/ which should find a place in 
every Border library. There is a melancholy 
interest in the fact that the preface ia from the 
pen of the late Rev. John Watson, D.D. (Ian 
Maclaren). He says : — 

'* The mind of Scott is always worth having, because 
it ia so honest and fair, so charitable and friendly, so 
shrewd and sagacious. He is not clerer : he is wise ; 
he does not tickle you with epigrams : he sums up a 
situation. When you have read what he says about 
pride and remorse, about religion and friendship, about 
English gallantry and English good-nature, about 
women and children, about OUver Cromwell and the 
Puritans, about selfishness and happiness, about dogs 
and horses, about honour and love, and a hundred 
other subjects within the range of life, then you are 
bound to have a saner as well as friendlier outlook upon 
your fellow-creatures. This book will serve a double 
purpose : it will excite an appetite for Scott among 
strangers ; it will be a handy iK)ok of reference for his 
friends. And nowhere can one find a weightier or 
kindlier teacher of practical wisdom than Sir Walter." 

As an example of the style of this new work 
we quote one of the pages : — 

««Hom6. The Bride of Lammermoor. Chap. XVII., 
p. 420. 

Sir, stay at home, and take an old man's 

counsel; 
Seek not to bask you by a stranger's hearth ; 
Our own blue smoke is warmer than their fire ; 
Domestic food is wholesome, though 'tis 

homely, 
And foreign dainties poisonous, though 
tasteful 

TJie French Courkxan, 
HonMty. Life of Scott. Vol VII., p. 100. 

You ought never to leave a country without 
clearing every penny of debt. 
Honour. Quentin Durward. Intro., p. 2. 

A man of honour. His word generally ac- 
counted the most sacred test of a man's 
character, and the least impeachment of 
which is a capital offenoe by the code of 
honour. 



Rob Roy. Chap. XII., p. 672. 

True honour consisted not in defending, but 
in apologising for, an injury so much dispro- 
portioned to any provocation I might have to 
all^e. 

Hope. Life of Scott. Vol. IX., p. 177. 

Our hope, heavenly and earthly, is poorly 
anchored, if the cable parts upon the stream. 
I believe in God, who can change evil into 
good; and I am confident that what befalls 
us is always ultimately for the best. 

Rob Roy. Chap. III., p. 637. 

Hope, that never forsakes the young and 
hsidy. 

Redgauntlet. Chap. IX., p. 464. ' 

Hope will catch at the mast feeble twig for 
support in extremity. 

Horse-riding. Castle Dangerous. Chap. III., p. 820. 
Any one acquainted with equestrian exercise 
is aware that no means of refreshment carries 
away the sense of fatigue from over-walking 
so easily as the exchange to riding, which 
calls into play another set of muscles, and 
leaves those which have been over-exerted 
an opportunity of resting, through change of 
motion, more completely than they could in 
absolute repoee." 

•N- -N- « « 

BRITAIN'S GENERAL DEBILITY : 

Its Causes, Effects and Remedy. 

Bearing the above striking title Mr Alex- 
ander Laing, M.P.S., has published a lecture 
addressed to the people of the British Empire 
at Home, and has included also in the book 
another lecture entitled " The Evolution of 
Jack the Giant Killer." Mr Laing, who is a 
native of Kelso, and was for many years pro- 
minently connected with the work of the 
Glasgow Border Counties Association, is a most 
original thinker, and a perusal of these two 
lectures will well reward the reader. The 
booklet is published at 6d., by John E. Smith 
375 Great Western Road, Glasgow. Mr Laing, 
who is the author of " The True Hero and other 
poems," reviewed in our columns some years 
ago, says in his preface to the present publica- 
tion : — 

Now, in this the seventh year of the twentieth 
century of the Christian era, when the desultory and 
tumultuous babel of voices in the British Empire at 
home resolves into the cry ** who will shew us any 
good T" it befits to ask the people to pause and con- 
sider if thev are able to discern " any good *' that is 
shewn to them I Every one in this fortunate island 
thinks his opinion as good as any one's else, however 
different; and opinion has become a fossed intrench- 
ment wherein each burrows. They must be driven 
out into the light of the ascertained. Their ditch is 
unclean, unwholesome, insanitary; it has brought 
them into such a state of Genersl Debility as is here 
depicted beyond their ability to confute. 



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109 




The Late Rev. David Macrae. 

JCOTLAND was decidedly the poorer 
when, on the morning of the 16th 
May, 1907, the Rev. David Macrae 
passed to his rest. Although a High- 
lander, he belonged to the whole of Scotland, 
and therefore it is fitting that the passing of 
such a true Scotsman should be noted in the 
Border Magazine. To millions he was known 
by his brilliant pulpit and platform orations, 
or through his works and contributions to the 
public press, for he combined the eloquence of 
an orator with the pen of a ready writer. As 
a journalist, a preacher, a pioneer in theological 
advancement, a powerful Temperance ad- 
vocate, and a leader in the renaissance of 
Scottish nationalism, he stood in the front rank. 
Looked at from every side, he was a great man, 
and those of us who were privileged to know 
him personally and meet him in his own' home, 
were even more convinced of this fact than if 
we had known him from the outside only. On 
the evening of Mr Macrae's death, Mr James 
Walsh contributed to The Evening Times 
(Glasgow), the following fine tribute : — 

Farewell, farewell, thou valiant one, 

Aoro88 the sea where hangs the night 

Thick with Death's mystery — whose waves 

With hollow moan break on the shore 

Of human woe — thy bark has sped, 

WhOe winged with love through mists obscure 

Our thoughts go out in yearnings deep 

That thiwer fain would turn its prow. 

But bright to thee the heaving tide 

And sounds seraphic hushed its moan. 

For pilot sore was thine— the Christ 

Whom thou didst love and follow here. 

^e Isles of Best before thee lay 

A gleam beneath that Sun whose light 

The joy made perfect is of saints 

And guerdon pure of faithful life. 

Yet stand we sadly by the marge 

And mourn a friend revered and loved. 

Whom ne'er in flesh our eyes shall see 

Nor hand clasp hand in fnendly grip ; 

Whose voice no more our ears shall hear 

In temp'rate counsels sage and wise. 

Or fraught with tone that spake the heart 

Rich in the wealth that makes the man. 

Bmt to thy heart was Scotia's wea! ; 

T)ear were her bens avid rugged steeps, 1 

Her streams and straths and lone, still glens, 

Tet dearer made by deeds that glowed 

Bright with the valour of her sons. 

When claymores flashed and spears uprose 

And vengeance smote the alien hosts. 

Then Scotia freed, exultant stood 

And marked with pride her loyal brood. 

Who sware no fetter forged by foe 

Would stamp the craven on tikeir flesh, 

Vat witness to their manhood's death. 

H^ to their spirit and their fire, 

The patriot's seal and fervour thine. 



Than thou no braver fought of old. 

Though bloodless was the strife thou waged. 

Keen-eyed and eloquent and quick 

To guard her rights, her wrongs redress— 

The gibe and sneer — the swords of fools 

Thy scorn but met for Scotia's sake. 

Thine too, a higher duty still 

That claimed thy manhood's strength and prime 

To minister *in holy things. 

And in the van of heroes strive 

With pen and voice to quell the ills 

That rampant spoil the land thou lovedst 

And blighten with their breath its life, 

Fast breeding woes whose victims crowd 

The haunts impure and dark of vice: 

A seeker after Truth thou wert, 

Un&werving in the light that streamed 

From that clear height where God abides. 

Nor clamours rife nor rude assault 

Eer stayed thy cour?«*. but bold thou stocJ'st 

Paithful to that revealed to thee — 

No caitiff fear forbade the voice 

That with prophetic power outrang 

And spake of love encircling all — 

Of hope that clear through ancient mists 

Shone with the radiance of a star 

And lit the shores of nether worlds. 

Brave, thou did'^st meet the wrath of those 

Whose mood the lie gave to their creed 

And drave the Christ from out their deeds 

That shrivel in the light of love. 

The withered fruit of bigot growth. 

Now years of bitterness are past. 

The battling and the striving o'er. 

The sounds of strife for ever hushed. 

Peace, peace is thine and endless calm. 

Where loyal sprites and pure are met 

Crowned by the Christ they loved and served. 

Ballads of the Border Singrers. 

'Tis not the poet's passing word, 
Nor yet the wind-song in the trees. 

Nor rapture of the April bird, 
Nor stir and bustle of the bees 
That twines the tune our hearts to please. 

And strikes the note the lover learns — 
A melody more sweet than these 

Lies in our lilting Border burns. 

From out the woodlands sombre-firred, 

Across the gowan-broidered leas. 
Like Lochinvar our streams have spurred 

To river-loves and sought-for seas. 

Bearing soft Border melodies 
That echo from her bower returns; 

The promise of love's mysteries 
Lies in our lilting Border burns. 

In hidden glens these rills have heard 
Romance's whisper on Time's knees. 

Our Border hearts are stayed and stirred 
With fragments of forgotten glees. 
And mourning songs wailed on the breeze. 

And measures played at country kirns; 
The music of Life's changing keys 

Lies in our lilting Border burns. 

If any song can grief appease, 

If sorrow ever solace earns. 
Then music for the spirit's ease 

Lies in our lilting Border burns. 

Will H. Ooil 



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TO CORRBSPOITDBNTS. TO ADVERTISERS, 

AlleomtnuniecUionBf^laHng to LUerarjfmatUra should AU Bvsime$$ maltert^ AdverHHng Rata, ^c, tkimid 

he addressed to the Editor, Mr William 8akdbb905, he referred to the Puhlishors, A. Walksr k Sov, 

8t Ronamst Rntherfflen, near Olasgow. High Street, OaUuhiels 

' . ' ' ' V 

THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



JUNE, 1907. 



fc 



LIST OF CONTENTS. ,^,0. 

Captain Robert Davidson, Dalmuir, Clydbbank. Portrait Supplement. By. B.C. - - - . 101 
The Author of "Wavkrlky" on the South Side of the Border. Part I. Two Illustrations. 

By Walter Scx)tt, Gaisford. 10^ 

Border Notes and Queries. , 106 

BuRNS*s " Beauteous Rosebud. " By A. Graham. 107 

The Border Bookcase. 108 

The Late Rev. David Macrae. 10^ 

Ballads of Border Singers. By Will. "H. Ooilvik. 109 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson. 110 

Reminiscences of LiDDESDALE IN Pbe-Rail WAY Days. Parti. 112 

The Battle of Dryfr Sands. By G. M. R. 114 

The Late Mr John Cochrane. One Illustration. 116 

BiRKHiLL— AND Beyond. By J. R. Y. 116 

Sir Walter Scott : A Criticism. By Leslie Stephen. 119 

EDITORIAL NOTES, 

We have still plenty of matter on hand, but we have no desire to prevent our valued contributors from 
preparing articles for future use. To these frieuds we would once more recall the limited space we can afibrd 
or each article, and suggest the maximum of 2000 words. Contributors would save us some trouble if the 

approximate number of words were marked at the top of their manuscripts. We have abundant evidence that 

their contributions are highly appreciated, even in remote parts of the world. 

The Border Keep 

(In which are preserved paragraphs from various publications, to the authors and editors of which 

we express our indebtedness). 

Some curious customs still linger in the more out- the cost, which ia estimated at about £1700. Thft 

lying country districts. In a sequestered recess of ^e heritors, who have given their sanction to the schemer 

Lammermoors stands a cottage named Tollis Hill. contribute £200, in addition to the £1000 held by Bir 

Aooordinff to the terms of an agreement with the Mar- Burr, so that about £300 is still required before the 

quia of Tweeddale, the tenant of this lonely dwelling work is commenced. In the restoration the old buHding 

must keep a callon of whisky for the special use of in all its lines will be strictly preserved. In the bnildiiig 

travellers who have the misfortune to lose their way on are the burial vaults of the houses of Rozburghe, MintOy 

the wilds. This arrangement dates back to the remote and other old Border families, 

period when Tollis mil formed a half-way house for « « * « 
pedestrians journeying between Edinburgh and the 

Borders. Since the dawn of the railway era the de- The recent vacancy in the pastorate of Glencaini 

mands on the shepherd's hospitality have yearly become Parish Church, brought about by the translation of the 

less frequent. This is largely due to the fact that ToUis Rev. G. G. Duncan to Glenesk, recalls that many 

Hill is too far removed from any village to attract the eminent divines have occupied the Glencsjm pulpit, 

man with a perpetual thirst. Under other circum- Among the number are the Rev. Patrick Playfafr, now 

■tances, the obligation which exemplifies the kindly of St Andrews, and the Rev. Patrick Barxowman, who 

ways of the old-time Scot would probably have fallen was the incumbent at the time of the DisruptioiL > H« 

kito abeyance. was one of those who left church and manse '* for oon- 

^ ^ ^ ^ science* sake/' and thereafter he entertained the bitter- 
est contempt for those who remained " in." One of the 

The Rev. Mr Burr, Bowden, whose church is one of reasons for his unquenchable rancour was that immedi* 

of the oldest and most historic In Scotland, dating back ately before the memorable cleavage of *43, Mr Barrow- 

to the twelfth century, and continuously in use for man was instnimental in carrying out extensive im- 

public worship since then, has during the winter been provements on the church property, and his manse was 

mroseouting a scheme for the restoration of the building, one of the finest in Nithsdale. On a scroll over the 

The soheme was only mooted about November, but door leading to the gaiden, which was almost ideal in 

■inoe then Mr Burr has collected about £1000 towards its arrangement, were the words, *' One soweth and 



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another reapeth.*' Hardly had the improvements, 
which had cost him so muoh thought and effort, been 
completed, when Mr Barrowman turned his back upon 
them for ever, and so fulfilled the motto which he had 
himself selected to adorn the entrance to his garden. 



What is the origin of the prejudice against May 
marriages ? Sir Walter Scott, who hurried back from 
London that his daughter Sophia might be married to 
Loohart before April was out, confessed himself unable 
to explain why this "genial season of flowers and 
breeses," so apparently favourable for matrimony, 
should be banned by brides and bridegrooms. Some 
have traced the prejudice back to the marriage of Mary 
Stuart and Bothwell, which took place in May, 1667. 
But the Scottish people knew all about the superstition 
lozig before that. Indeed, it was one of their grounds of 
objection to Mary's marriage that the date was set down 
in the forbidden month. Somebody even fixed on the 
gates of Holyrood the warning line from Ovid (who, as 
a matter of fact, quoted it as an *' old saw "), *' 'Tis bad 
to marry in the month of May." The Latins had ft say- 
ing to the effect that " only bad women marry in May." 
In Scotland, judging by the marriage notices in May, 
the number of bad women is infinitesimaUy smalL The 
registrar of a parish with a population of a thousand 
told recently that only three May marriages had been 
recorded in his books during the last fifty years. 



On 1st May 1707, the Rev. Thomas Boston was trans- 
lated from Simprin to Ettriclc The induction did not 
attract much contemporary notice, but it has derived 
interest from the prominence which the learned minister 
afterwards attained. Comparison between the rural 
Scotland of two hundred years ago and that of to-day is 
suggested by the present condition of Simprin. The 
parish was the smallest in the Merse. When Boston 
became minister in 1699, it supported only eighty-eight 
examinable persons. Little more than fifty years later 
it was merged in the neighbouring parisl of Swinton. 
To-day. the old " kirk-town " is represented by only one 
one weather-worn cottage, and little remains of the 
sanctuary save the eastern gable. The number of 
labourers employed on the three farms that fall within 
the limits of the old-time parish has steadily diminished 
during the last twenty years. But sreat as the mere 
outward change has been, a perusal of Boston's " Mem- 
oirs *' suggests that the mental outlook of the com- 
munity has undergone a still greater transformation. 
An earnest performance of the duties of life should 
never fail to command respect, and never was pastor 
more devoted to his calling than Thomas Boston. 



r Of the joyousness of life Boston knew little. His 
religion was tinged with superstition, and physical 
blindness could not have rendered him less susceptible 
to the charms of Nature. His ministerial career was 
divided between two parishes that are both rich in 
historic and romantic associations, but there is nothing 
in his voluminous writings to indicate that these exertM 
any influence on the learned, yet lugubrious divine. To 
the proud position of a father of the Scottish Church later 
generations have raised him, and if earnestness of pur- 
pose constitute a claim to the distinction, it was not un- 
deserved. For the rest, it may be doubted if life has 



lost much by the passing of the religious school which 
regarded Thomas Boston as one of its leaders. 

* » * * 

In connection with the recent Royal vi^ to the 
West, one may be permitted to ask why Glasgow is so 
seldom associated with a romantic interest. For up- 
wards of two hundred years, kings and courtiers have 
rarely graced the city by their presence; but it was 
otherwise in the time of Queen Mary. As every school- 
boy knows, the family to which the unfortunate Damley 
belonged held extensive possessions in the West of 
Scotland. There is, therefore, good ground for be- 
lieving that the paliietic poem, "Waly, Waly !*' was 
founded on an incident associated with one of the 
Royal visits to the Western metropolis. Be this as it 
may, the ballad is the only effusion in Scott's ** Min- 
streUy of the Scottish Border " in which direct allusion 
is made to the Second City. 

* * « « 

February 5th was the twenty-sixth anniversary of 
the death of Thomas Carlyle, and it may be interesting 
to record that willing workers are still engaged en- 
deavouring to controvert the erroneous statements 
published by Mr SVoude in hie biography concerning the 
character of the Saffe. The first to attempt rebutting 
some of Mr Fronde's misstatements was Professor 
Charles Eliot Norton, Harvard University, who, in re- 
printing the famous ** Reminiscences," declared that in 
five pages Mr Froude had committed no fewer than 130 
errors. Sir James Crichton Browne has also done 
good service to the memory of Carlyle, and another 
Scotsman, Mr David Wilson, of the Indian Civil Service, 
has also devoted himself to the same laudable object. 
Mr Wilson some years ago published a work directly 
refuting many of Mr Froude's statements; and it is 
gratifying now to learn that Mr Wilson is at present in 
this country on leave of absence, and is busily engaged 
prosecuting inquiries into certain aspects of the Saffe's 
character, which he will embody in a biography Uiat 
he has been at work upon for some time. 



The old Scottish prejudice against the " wearin' o' 
the green " dies hard. Though generally supposed to 
be based on antipathy towards garish display, it seems 
to have its roots in superstition. The other day I over- 
heard an old native of Ayrshire quoting the following 
rhyme for the benefit of her grand-daughter : — 

'* Blue is beauty, red's a taiken. 
Green's a grief, and yellow's forsaken." 

To the Grahams the fatal colour seems to have been 
fraught with more than the average ill-luck. *' Green," 
writes Scott in one of his letters, " is a colour fatal to 
several families m Scotland, to the' whole race of 
Grahams in particular, insomuch that we have heard 
that in battle a Graham is generally shot through the 
green check of his plaid, moreover, that a veterc.^ 
sporUman of the name having come by a bad faU, he 
thought it sufficient to account for it» that he had a 
piece of green whipcord to complete the lash of his 
hunting-whip. I remember also my late amiable 
friehd, James Ghrame, author of * The Sabbath,' 
would not break through this prejudice of his clan, but 
had his library table covered with blue or black cloth, 
rather than use the fated colour commonly employed on 
such occi»sions." 

DOMINIE SAMPSON. 



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Reminiscences of Liddesdale in Pre- 
Railway Days. 

(Part L) 

There's no' a corrie, cleucli, or cairn 

I dinna ken richt weel; 
There's no' a linn aboot the place 

I hav'na tried to speel; 
There's no' a stream for miles aroon' 

That to the Solway strays 
But what I've guddl't baggies in 

In barefit laddie days. 

^HERE are few of our Border valleys 
richer in associations, or which have 
contributed more largely in song 
and story to our Border literature, 
than Liddesdale. Quiet and peaceful though 
it still remains, with scarce a sound to break the 
stillness save the bleating of sheep or the hill 
birds' cry, time was when it was even more 
of a solitude, when its glens were undisturbed 
by the locomotive's throb, and the steam 
whistle had not awakened the echoes of its hills. 
Though the unpretentious dalesfolk have not, 
like many of their contemporaries, gone in for 
advertising the attractions of the district, it is 
not altogether \mknown. The angler and the 
botanist have fo\md it a happy himting-ground, 
where, away from the bustle of business, they 
can, without let or hindrance, pursue the bent 
of their inclinations to their hearts' content. 
The archaeologist, too, has found in it a 
veritable store-house, possessing, as it does, so 
many land-marks of long ago, in the shape of 
Roman camp and Border peel, while that un- 
solved mystery the "Catrail" can be traced for 
miles along the hillsides in the upper reaches 
of the valley. 

Town dwellers are gradually finding out this 
quiet retreat, and each summer sees them in 
greater numbers seeking health and recreation 
among its green hills. As proof of the health- 
giving properties of the district, it is sufficient 
to mention the fact that it is seldom without a 
nonagenarian or two, while octogenarians are 
quite common. 

Having had occasion recently to visit these 
uplands, we found few topographical changes 
since the time we first knew tiiem. Patches of 
woodland had sprung up here and there, and the 
woods we used to explore did not seem at all 
so extensive as our memory had led us to be- 
lieve, while individual trees appeared barer and 
gaunter than we remembered them. We found, 
however, the same undulating hills and eye- 
soothing grassy slopes, with the commodious 
farm-houses still nestling cosily^among their firs 



at the foot of some glen or cleuch. Some of the 
older cottages have been completely swept away 
and their places taken by others of a more sub- 
stantial and modem kind. The most noticeable 
change was the absence of old friends, of the 
familiar faces and kindly greetings of bygone 
days, and it was with subdued feelings that we 
read many of their names on the tombstones in 
the auld kirkyard. Though it seems but a 
short while, it is considerably over half a century 
since we first knew Liddesdale, and in less than 
half that time there will be few living who knew 
it as it then was — Liddesdale without a rail- 
way. 

In pre-railway days Jamie Mabel and Wattie 
Loch, the Hawick and Jedburgh carriers, 
brought all the necessaries of life, except those 
that were home-produced, to Upper Liddesdale. 
People were not in such a hurry then as nowa- 
days, and in most cases when anything was 
wanted, be it a tin of treacle for the porridge, or 
a " McCulloch's Collection" for the bairns, they 
were content to wait the coming of the carrier. 

As an exception that proves the rule, however, 
we have known a herd callant sent across the 
hills to Hawick, entailing a journey of not less 
than thirty miles, to fetch a few pounds of beef 
for the chppers' dinner. 

The Hawick carrier was a man of large pro- 
portions and of austere countenance, invariably 
dressed in a square-crowned hat, corduroy 
trousers, and a huge double-breasted waistcoat 
with sleeves and flap pockets. His dog, the 
faithful guardian of his cart, bore a striking re- 
semblance to the redoubtable "Rab." 

Whether he was a man of morose temperament 
or merely assumed his austere looks, we never 
knew, but he was without doubt the terror of all 
the boys on his rounds. Youthful delinquents 
were threatened to be handed over to "Mabel" 
to be made a "creeshie" of — ^whatever that might 
mean no youngster ever stopped to enquire. 

On one occasion a boy of our acquaintance had 
been more troublesome than usual, and antici- 
pating '*MabelV' arrival hid himself in the byre 
amongst the hay. Unfortunately for him there 
was a calf in the byre which the carrier was 
brought to see with a view to purchase. His 
terror can be better imagined than described on 
being discovered and dragged from his hiding- 
place by his dreaded enemy. 

While the carriers named supplied the inner 
comforts, such of the outer garments required as 
were not home spun were brought across the 
Northumberland border by Fenwick Newton. 



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Fen wick, in company with his brother Robert, 
owned a drapery store at Falstone, and for 
many years perambulated the Border counties 
with his pack. He conveyed his goods on the 
back of a stout pony of the " Dumple " type, 
and was a general favourite, particularly with 
the gentler sex, to whom his visits were always 
welcome and who dearly loved to explore his 
miniature warehouse. Fenwick had a happy 
* knack of turning up on such occasions as clip- 
pings and hay leadings, when he was sure to 
find quite a number of young folks of both 
fiexes. Such an opportunity was not to be lost, 
and by a species of pawky humour and innocent 
banter he generally succeeded in inducing the 
young fellows to treat the lasses to some of his 
wares, much to the delight of the latter and to 
his own profit. 

Another travelling merchant of the period 
was Sandy Maxwell, a little old man somewhat 
resembling the pictures one sees of Father 
Ohriatmas. Sandy always wore a tall hat (and 
hats were tall in those days), from the crown of 
which, as occasion required, he could produce 
fiuch a miscellaneous assortment of articles as 
would have made a conjuror envious. He was 
in the hardware line and carried his goods in a 
neat brass-bound wooden box, such as is never 
now seen on the back of an itinerant trader. 

Though only a travelling pedlar, Sandy was a 
steady, respectable man, and his periodical 
visits were looked forward, to with interest, 
quite as much, probably owing to the budget of 
news he brought from over the fells, as on ac- 
coxmt of his varied wares. He traded in cheap 
jewellery — which was a much more substantial 
article than its namesake of to-day — shaving 
requisites, pocket knives, and the hundred and 
one V httle necessaries of a country housewife. 
The Ettrick Knife, made from a pattern sup- 
plied by James Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, 
was in great demand, and the numbers of this 
knife disposed of by Sandy were enormous. It 
was part of the outfit of every shepherd. 

Fifty years ago school boards had not been 
called into existence, and, as regards compul- 
sion, so far as Liddesdale was concerned, 
they were little needed. Children, when old 
enough to negotiate the roads, which in many 
cases were both long and ill kept, were sent to 
school. A common custom of the time was 
that boys, on reaching the age of ten or eleven, 
were put to work during the summer months, 
and sent to school during the winter. Hiis 
would continue for several seasons, and as the 
lads grew bigger they derived much benefit 



from the system. We have known youths at* 
tending school for a winter's session showing 
quite a promising braird of whiskers. If school 
boards were not needed to compel parents to 
educate their children, they have worked a 
wonderful reformation in school buildings. The 
school in our mind's eye was simply a but and 
a ben, and this is a fair description of a country 
school of the period. The "but" was the domi- 
cile of the schoolmaster and his family, and the 
"ben" was used as the class-room. Our teacher, 
who claimed to be a descendant of the goodman 
of "The Fair Dod-Head," though not bred to 
the profession, was a man of more than ordinary 
ability, and though the subjects taught were 
limited in number, he made sure that his pupils 
got a thorough grip of them. Not a few of those 
pupils have done more than hold their own in 
the battle of Ufe, and have elbowed their way 
into lucrative positions in London and else- 
where. Though often made to smart under 
both his tongue and his tawse, they have, like 
ourselves, no doubt lived to appreciate his 
worth. How we did enjoy a stormy day in 
winter when only some half-a-dozen of the 
bigger boys were able to put in an appearance 
There were no regular lessons on such a day 
but being a great reader, he would on occa* 
sions of the kind tell us in a quiet, conver- 
sational way, and in the pure Border doric, of 
what he had been reading. It might be of 
travels in foreign lands, some new discovery of 
science, or, better still, the battles of Wallace 
and Bruce ; or he might treat us to a captivating 
lecture on the tales and traditions of our Border- 
land. He would generally begin sitting at^his 
desk, but, warming to his work, would leave the 
desk and pace the floor with his hands behind 
his back and his spectacles pushed up over his 
forehead. His salary was a mere pittance, so 
miserable that Jeffrey in his history of Rox- 
burghshire felt ashamed to name it. Yet he 
lived comfortable and contented, another 
instance of the fact that a man's wealth con- 
sists not so much in the greatness of his posses- 
sions as in the fewness of his wants. A 
Borderer bom and bred, there were few 
better versed in Border lore, and being not 
altogether a stranger in the field of literature, he 
was in close touch with several of the literary 
men of his day. 

Churches as well as schools have increased 
since those days, but we question if the 
reverence for, and attention to, religious ordin* 
ances have increased in proportion. Castleton 
Kirk, situated at the junction of the Liddel and 



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Hennitage, was the nearest to the inhabitants 
of both valleys, and thou^ distant eight to ten 

miles from some of the outlying farms, the 
attendance at public worship was most regu- 
lar. Except in the lambing-time or maybe 
a Sunday or two just before the clippings, 
the shepherds were seldom absent. Sunday 
after Sunday the same groups foregathered on 

• the road, and were not above discussing the 
secular matters pertaining to their own little 
world on their way to and from church. Group 
joined group around the kirk door a good half 
hour before the ringing of the bell, when there 
was a general exchange of the news of the water- 
gates. For -a true word picture of such a 
gathering we know of nothing to equal Ian 
McLaren's "Days of Langsjoie." Services were 
held occasionally during summer in a bam-like 
structure near to Kielder Castle, and con- 
ducted by a minister from Falstone. These 
meetings, which were well attended by people 
from both sides of the Border, were known as 
the Tynehead Preaching. The meeting-house, 
a damp and dismal place with earthen floor, was 
situated in the centre of a field bdonging to 
John Dagg of Lightpipe. Owing tb the dis- 
agreeable smell arising from the damp, services 
had to be conducted with open doors. On one 
occasion one of John's calves grazing hard by, 
no doubt attracted by the singing and finding 
the door open, made its way into the building, 
much to the annoyance of the preacher and the 
amusement of the yoimger portion of his 
audience. This edifice has now been re- 
placed by a neat and comfortable little church 
close to Kielder Station. 




The Battle of Dryfe Sands. 

THE DEADLIEST OF SOUTHERN FAMILY 
FEUDS. 

OR generations a bitter feud existed 
between the Maxwells and John- 
stones, the two leading families in 
Dumfriesshire. The enmity seems 
to have had to do with one of the early Lord 
Maxwells. For long it looked as if the strife 
would end in the ruin of both houses, so re- 
lentlessly were they pitted against each other. 
Though nothing like equal with the Max- 
wells in wealth, numbers, or power, the John- 
stones, by daring and strategy, maintained 
their ground against the stronger. For a time 
the wardenship tossed between them like a 
tennis ball and proved no small bone of con- 
tention. 



Circumstances ultimately ensued which 
brought the rival chiefs together, and a sort 
of peace was patched up. Both clans came 
under a solemn promise to ''freely remit and 
forgive all rancours of mind, grudge, malice, 
and feuds that had passed or fallen between 
them in any time bygone.'* 

When Lord Maxwell became Warden of the 
Western Border the Johnstones apprehended • 
no danger from him, since they had agreed to 
"stand by each other against all the world." 
Continuing to sally forth from their fastnesses 
and rapaciously raid neighbouring clans, great 
indignation was aroused against them. Their 
descent into the valley of the NiUi resulted in 
the spoiling of the land of notable barons. 
These pursued the raiders, but were sorely 
defeated for their trwible. Plundered and 
defeated, they appealed to the Warden, who, 
in spite of the recent tieaty, entered into a 
secret compact to despoil and humiliate the 
Johnstones. 

The raiders got wind of the compact with 
the Nithsdale men, ani with characteristic 
swiftness and aidour maide needed prepara- 
tions. Believing that the ruin of himself and 
clan was being aimed at, JohTtstone sought the 
aid of several Border clans. TTiese included 
the Scotts, under the Laird of Elihar k ; El- 
liots of Liddesdale, Grahams of the Debatable 
Land, and some of the greatest lobbers and 
fieroe««t fighters of the Borderland. In hope 
of wiping out old scores ond gaining plunder 
these were ready for any onslaught. 

The Warden summoned Johnstone to sur- 
render in the King's naitie. The oit.^tion was 
treated with conten«pt. Thus fighting became 
necessary if the rebels were to be subdued, 
MaxAvell hurriedly got together an army of 
2000, including the leadiag chiefs of Kithsiiale, 
and invaded Annandale, displaying the Royal 
banner. Johnstone, knowing his inability to 
meet such a force, remained on the defensive, 
ready for any advantage. Maxwell sent out :\ 
reconnoitring party, who were met by the 
Johnstones under the shadow of Bruce's ancient 
castle and were put to the sword. Those who 
fled and took refuge in the Parish Church 
were burned out At this the Warden became 
desperate and hastened forward. 

Siege was laid to Lockerby Castle, the 
stronghold of a Johnstone who was then with 
his chief. His wife defended the fortress with 
great bravery. The Maxwells drew off from 
the siege, on it being reported that the Laird 
of Joljinstone was coming to the relief of the 
besieged. 



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On his way towards the feudal army Lord 
Maxwell made it known through his army that 
he would give a ''ten pound land" for the head 
or hand of the Laird of Johnstone. On the 
latter hearing of the offered reward ho said 
that he had no "ten pound lands" to bestow 
on any one, but he would give a "five-mark 
land" for the head or hand of Lord Harwell. 
The Kithsdale men, advancing, came over 
Lochmaben heights, and on December 6, 1593, 
camped near Skypmyre, below which flowed 
the Dryfe. Next mornmg they found the 
enemy on the defensive and strongly posted 
on elevated ground sloping gradually to Dryfe 
Sands. 

Johnstone, realising the inequality of the 
forces in point of numbers, handled his men 
with considerable military skill. He display- 
ed only a handful of horsemen, sent out 
"prickers" to provoke the Maxwells, and by 
adroit manoeuvring drew them into situations 
disadvantageous to themselves. The riders, 
or "prickers," flaunted their pennons and 
shouted their war cry, "Ready, aye ready,'* 
and rode back in a most provoking manner. 
A small band made a hasty attack on the 
Maxwells and then retired as if defeated or 
afraid to remain exposed any longer. The 
Warden, enraged by their tactics, lost his 
temper when coolness was most needed and 
sent forward a large detachment to punish the 
Johnstonee. These rushed impetuously for- 
ward, shouting the slogan of Nithsdale, "I 
bidel you bid! Wardlaw." This was the op- 
portunity for which the Annandale men were 
waiting. Never dreaminj^ of staying the on- 
coming torrent, they whirled quickly aside and 
thus exposed the Nithsdale men to a sudden 
and desperate charge froti the main body of 
the Johnstones, who stood ready for action. 
This was the crisis of the battle. The furi- 
ous and polid charges of the Annandaleites 
came like mighty avalanches upon the Max- 
wells. The onslaughts were terrific. The bat- 
talions of the latter were broken. The John- 
stones, going for all they were worth, turned 
the temporary confusion into a ruinous panic 
and rout. After a brief, but desperate, stand 
their enomy gave way on all sides. Lag, 
Closeburn, Drumlanrig, and other chiefs made 
good their escape by the fleetnees of their 
steeds. Hence we have in the old Scottish bal- 
lad— "Lord Maxwell's Good-night"— the 
lines: — 

"Adieu, Drumlanrig, false were aye, 
And Glosehnrn in a hand; 
The Laird of Lag, from my father that fled,. 
When the Johnstone struck off his hand. 



" They were three brethren in a band, 
Joy may they never see ! 
Their treacherous art, and cowardly heart, 
Hae twined my love and me.'* 

Lord Maxwell and the relics of his army 
went helter-skelter in the direction of Locker- 
by, and were terribly mangled in the effort. 
ITie victors were ever on their track and slay- 
ing mercilessly all who were overtaken. Many 
were cut down in the streets of Lockerby, or 
slashed in the face by a kind of blow which 
became and is known to this day as a "Locker- 
by lick." 

The Warden himself was overtaken by John- 
stone of Kirkdale and struck from his horse. 
As he offered to surrender and stretched out 
his hand for mercy it was slashed from his 
body and he was slain outright. Tradition, 
however, says that Willie o* Kirkdale rode off 
with the hand to claim the reward from his 
chief, and that the Lady of Lockerby, already 
mentioned, when searching for her husband, 
came on the wounded Maxwell lying beneath a 
thorn-tree. On discovering his identity, and 
inflamed by the deadly feud, she is said to 
have beaten him to death with the fortress 
keys. 

This story is discredited by historians, and 
it is thought that Willie, most likely acting on 
the Kirkpatrick motto, "Mak' siccar,'* took off 
the head as well as the hand of the enemy of 
his clan. Be that as it may, slain he was and 
left on the bank of the Dryfe, For many a 
day two thorn trees, known as ''Maxwell's 
thorns," marked the spot where this notable 
representative of royalty breathed his last. 

The followers of the noble house suffered to 
a fearful extent in their retreat. Never had 
the Johnstones obtained such an opportunity 
of chastising their hereditary foe. Fugitives 
were pursued to the Annan fords, in whidi 
many sank and swelled the roll of victims. 
No fewer tham 700 fell in the disastrous rout 
which closed the battle of Dryfe Sands, said 
to be the bloodiest of an internecine kind 
ever waged on the Border fells. 

The Johnstones were at once declared rebels, 
but were soon afterwards respite<l and Johnstone 
himself restored to the King's favour. The 
strife, however, between the two houses was 
renewed with all its ferocity. Though Dryfe 
Sands was the; deadliest family conflict ever 
waged in the county and the last to disturb 
its tranquility it was not the last of the 
terrible acts of revenge between those families. 
The son of the slain Maxwell, whose headless 
body was kept from burial in token of ven- 
gecmce to be wreaked on the Johnstones, in- 



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vited the chief of the opposing house to a 
friendly conference, in which each chieftain 
was to have a friend. They met in 1608 at 
Auchmanhill in August, when Sir James John- 
stone was treacherously shot through the back 
by Lord Maxwell, who, finding no refuge on 
the Border, fled to France. On returning to 
Scotland he was captured in the wilds of Caith- 
ness, tried, and publicly beheaded in Edin- 
burgh, 21st May, 1613. Thus ended the dead- 
ly debate between the notable Dumfriesian 
houses. G. M. R. 



The Late Mr John Cochrane, 
Galashiels. 



mM 



JNOTHER well-known Galashiels citi- 
zen has passed away in the person of 
Mr John Cochrane, who died on 
Wednesday, Ist May, at his resid- 
ence, Willowbush, Abbotsford Road. Mr 
Cochrane, who was seventy-nine years of age. 



/'' 





had been in failing health for some time. De- 
ceased was a member of a well-known Galashiels 
manufacturing family, being a son of the late 
Mr Walter Cochrane, and a brother of Mr 
Adam L. Cochrane, Kingsknowes, and Mr 
Archibald Cochrane, Abbotshill. For over fifty 



years he had carried on a large drapery business 
in premises at the foot of High Street, and was 
one of the oldest shopkeepers in the town. 
While taking little active part in the burgh's- 
affairs, Mr Cochrane was at all times deeply 
interested in all those matters which made for 
the town's improvement, social as well as 
malerial. He was a manager of the Trustee 
Savings Bank, and he was also a director of the 
Gas Light Company. In church matters Mr 
Cochrane took a deep interest, being an elder 
of the Parish Church, whose interests he waa 
always ready to serve. Deceased was un- 
married, and resided with his sisters at 
Willowbush. 




Birkhill— and Beyond. 

By J. R. Y. 

^NE day on the mountains in Aug' 
gust is an unforgettable pleasure to 
the lover of breezy uplands and 
large open spaces. The pleasure is- 
both physical and mental. And there are no 
mountains so enticing in this respect to the 
devotee of the Scottish Borders as the aggre- 
gate of ample peaks which surround tiie 
sources of the Moffat and the Little Yarrow, 

With the prospect of such a day in their 
thoughts, a small company of five amateur 
mountaineers slept brokenly through the in- 
tervening hours of August third until daylight. 

The morning dawned grey, but looked pro- 
mising. Our chauffeur wa« soon ready with 
the car we had chartered for the double jour- 
ney. Very soon Yarrow and St Mary's lay 
behind us; the Loch o' the Low€« scarcely- 
stirred a ripple; and the quietness of early 
morning still brooded over the '*hopes" of the^ 
upper valley. Birkhill was reached five min- 
utes before nine. The car dismissed, our sup- 
ply of boots and stockings for the return jour- 
ney to Selkirk were soon deposited in the^ 
famous cottage. 

From Birkhill the prospect is majestic. On 
our right lies, furrowed and folded in thick 
layers of peat, the Watch Hill. The name 
doubtless originated in the use which the Bor- 
der raiders and the Covenanters made of its^ 
slopes. Indeed, it is peculiarly fitted for pur- 
poses of observation, as it commands an ex- 
tensive look-out in all directions, but particu- 
larly down both valleys of the watershed. The 
defile of Dobbs Linn, a favourite hiding-place 
of the Covenanters in those tragic days of 
man-hunting, runs back from the road in awe- 



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inspiring, naked grandeur. The silence of the 
place is oppressive, and seems to cling to its 
rugged sides and gaunt gashes in native sad- 
ness. 

To the left, on the Ettrick side, stretch many 
mighty monarchs as far aa eye can reach. In 
the front row, Herman's Law ; Towgrain Mid- 
dle, with the Raking Gill, to^iay in full spate ; 
Bell Craig and Andro-Whinney vie with kingly 
heights on the Moffat side, and share the hon- 
ours of brealdng the rolling mist. To-day the 
cloudscape is rakish; the wind is detaching 
small craft in all directions. Bran Law has 
still on its misty table cloth ; Carrifran on the 
right, and on the left distant Bodesbeck, both 
have their night caps close on their ears ; the 
spirit of the wind may soon call them from the 
slumber of a late morning, if, indeed, he has 
not already peeped under their caps on the 
farther fold. Just over the misty shoulder of 
Carrifran can now faintly be seen the massive 
head of the White Coomb, which is our destin- 
ation to-day. 

But we have come to the famous waterfall 
known to all the world as "The Grey Mare's 
Tail," Its distant roar has already announc- 
ed proximity. We climb the path to the foot 
of the nearer fall, and then and there stand 
impressed with the sheer declivity of these 
mountains. The waters of the Tail Bum are 
hurled over a precipice two hundred and sev- 
enty feet high, and the spectacle is strangely 
moving. The first sensation of shock over, 
the grandeur of the torrent appeals irresistibly. 
To be over the inner barrier and round the pro- 
jecting cliff is a matter of minutes, and we are 
ushered into the auditorium to witness a sub- 
lime terpsichorean debacle with gravitation. 
Spray rises from the foaming dark brown pool 
in clouds, and exhausts itself on the precipitous 
sides of the theatre. Magnificent in volume 
to-day, it fascinates and bewilders ear and eye 
to frenay. And yet the effect is not all grim, 
for just now the sun shines forth in his autumn 
glory and sends a thousand shafts of light 
into the ravine, to be instantly refracted in 
their sevenfold beauty. Gentler features of 
the Seventh Muse now sport themselves in 
the living pool, and reflect their fantastic mo- 
tions on the spray-drenched rocks. It is the 
last touch, and it is exquisite. 

As we retrace our steps reluctantly to the 
road, the mound known as the "Giant's Grave," 
near by the old fort of the Strathclyde Britons, 
is passed, and the thought gains credence that 
there were giants in those days. 

Silence has fallen alike on their old story 
and on the valley. The present mood of soli- 



tude sits kindly on the hillsides. Above and 
all around are fleecy clouds drifting about in 
the blue void as white rigg^ yachts upon a 
sununer sea. Far up the mountain side the 
tiny sheep dot the expanse where the steep 
winding road leads over to Ettrick ; distantly 
heard is tlie musical murmur of the bums as 
they course down the gullies and thread their 
way to the main stream under ledges of moss 
and tall grass. The air is strangely silent; 
even the muiroock and the plover do not whis- 
tle for their mate. Over the waving cotton 
grass, fanned by the gentlest of breezes, no 
"late lark is singing." It is no stretch of fancy 
or a picture of make-believe^ but the saddest 
expression of Nature's quiescent realism. 

And so we saunter along in sympathetic 
mood, imtil from over a sudden rise in the 
road there bursts upon our view an automobile I 
Its occupants are two, and from the Emerald 
Isle. The gentleman, who is his own chaf- 
feur, is pouring water from a large tankard 
into the cooling chamber, and also, quite gal- 
lantly, after refilling from the burn, does the 
honours of the occasion by quenching his fair 
companion's thirst. This human interlude had 
its uses in bringing home the fact of our own 
physical necessities. Already the keen air 
has sharpened our appetitie, and soon we are 
seated on the heathery bank in "aJ-fresoo" dis- 
cussion of sandwiches and other like comest- 
ibles. Immediately to our right stands a com- 
fortably-built farm-house, and the suggestion 
to procure milk is quick as perception — one of 
our number essaying the task. He soon re- 
turns with a large can and five capacious cups. 
We had arranged for fivepence worth of milk 
— ^town measure — but here is a prodigious sup-^ 
ply it is quite impossible to e^diaust at a sit- 
ting. Many are the encomiums passed upon 
that milk. Being generous on impulse, we 
offer a draught to the drivers of the two ex- 
cursion coaches which now bowl along from 
Moffat, but, both having to keep their time- 
tables, have only time to acknowledge our 
generosity with a lusty "thank you" and a 
wave of the whip, while the tourists look on 
with a patronising air. We learn at least one 
interesting fact from the well-filled coaches, 
that the drive through Moffatdale is exceed- 
ingly popular. 

Lunch over, we return "en masse" to the 
farm — Polnaoody, by the way — ^to settle our 
little transaction. As we approach two beard- 
ed ooUiee bark a true Border welcome and set 
the hillsides a-ringing with the echoes of tkeir 
sincerity. In front of the whitewashed waJl 
stands a hay cart, in which a little boy of 



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scarce mx summers is playing in solitary pi 
ure. He creeps shyly to the door as we pay 
our debt — a ridiculous charge d twopence 
which the matron made^ after some strategy 
to get her to name a figure at all 1 Standing 
half hid in her ample apron, the boy as shyly 
accepts the extra coins we now place in his 
hand, and returns for thanks a confused blush. 
Here we see the young 'herd in embryo, a bud- 
ding member of that clean-limbed race of Bor- 
der shepherds of which we axe all proud. That 
is our parting thought as we turn to the hill, 
and afterwards wave a second good-bye from 
the 'herd's track far up the hillside. The dogs 
stand long and gaze as we climb the path they 
have doubtless been along that morning. 

The ascent is steep from the road, but when 
we reach the march dyke on the Black Goomb 
it is steeper still, and an hour haa gone. Slow- 
ly, but steadily, the vista to south and east 
is opening. The trailing mists obscure the 
view at irregular intervals, and finally shut us 
■out from viewing at all, and even from each 
other. Down in the valley of the Carrifran 
Bum, which rises in the caverns of the Ravens- 
craig, over against the high Saddle Yoke, a 
great cloud-dissolution is m progress. High 
above us, and rolling on the hillside, dense 
mist is settling. Blinding showers of rain de- 
scend and make our climb more dismal. Not- 
withstanding this sudden change of weather 
we can still appreciate vividly the marvellous 
mist-spectacle in the valley during the inter- 
vals of comparative clearness which ever and 
anon ensue. At one moment the summit of 
the Saddle Yoke, upon which a person can sit 
astride between the twin peaks, assumes the 
aspect of a giant anvil, xipon which is laid the 
heated iron after sudden cooling with water. 
Another moment, and the whole peak is lost to 
view, only to be cleared as soon — ^the vapor- 
ising process to be as suddenly resumed from 
the bottom of the valley. Overhead, at such 
moments, rifts break in the cloud-screen and 
discover patches of faintly blue sky. Another 
hour and the mists clear away, and we are on 
the summit of the White Coomb. Two thou- 
sand six hundred and ninety-five feet above 
sea-level should bring an extensive landscape 
within our ken. If only the mists would evap- 
orate then should we see the Solway. But we 
are to be drenched before realising the pros- 
pect. Creeping into the precarious shelter of 
the broken hill dyke, we escape in some faint 
degree the blinding rain which comes pitilessly 
down. Ten minutes more — ^and comparative 
calm. The hill is in captious mood to-day. 
But the prospect! The mountain tops in 



upper Ettrick reveal thw hekda in the streaks 
of vapour and now wan sunlight; Hartfell 
lies bare behind us, and far south, under a 
bluish haae, stretches the Stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright. We cannot distinguish the Sol- 
way, but aa a kind of compensation, down in 
the east, there stand out in miniature majesty 
"the Eildons three." Then all again is obscur- 
ed, and rain and wind, witii equal force, drive 
us down-hill to the valley of the Midlaw Bum. 
Over boggy ground for two miles we plunge; 
over innumerable watercourses, and round peat 
hags and treacherous pools of ominous black- 
ness, until we round the broad shoulder of the 
Mid Craig and see Loch Skene. It is pleasant, 
at least, to stand upon rock, if only to allow 
the rain to run oflf our dripping clothes. 

The rain has ceased, but the landscape is 
far from inviting. Two members of our party 
have lagged b^ind. They are anglers ; it is 
hardly necessary to say more. Have they 
tackle and bait? We have seen neither, unless 
that mysterious little bag in the corner of the 
sandwich tin contained worm I A spy is sent, 
and returns with the news that they are fish- 
ing with walking-sticks and worm, and as they 
come in sight he hears a great shout and sees 
a lusty trout dangling wildly in mid air ! At 
length they rejoin us at the upper end of the 
Lodi, well satisfied with their half-hour's pleaR- 
ure. But will they divulge the exact locus of 
their good luck? Never I 

No sheet of mountain water so dark and 
desolate as Loch Skene can surely be found 
in all broad Scotland. In its comparatively 
shallow waters are two islets, where desola- 
tion might well be said to have its home. For 
three parts round are the grim, gaunt moun- 
tains. No living thing is visible on its silent 
shores save the sheep, which nibble sparely 
on the lower altitudes of the Loch Craig. Oc- 
casionally the awful stillness of the heights 
is broken by the shrill cry of the whaup on 
the wing. Like distant Loch Spey, th^e is 
heard around its shores "the whispering of a 
hundred rills," but the likeness ends here. 
The moraine which dams its waters on the 
south-eastern end has, in the course of ages, 
been slowly worn away by the stealthy over- 
flow. Here the Tail Bum escapes from the 
parent source much as a petted child runs 
from his home to sound the deeps and shallows 
of the world. For a short distance it runs 
smoothly enough, but soon the undulations 
become sharper, and alter a series of declivi- 
ties the waters are hurled over a precipice 
nearly three hundred feet from the valley 
level, with what force we have already seen 



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119 



from below. Geologists aver that in prooess 
oC time Loch Skene will in this way be drained, 
OB was the loch whence the neighbouring tri- 
butary, Midlaw, flows. Be that as it may, the 
place would still be the home of solitude and 
the scene of even greater desolation. 

Consultation of time and & glance at the 
waste which lies between us and Birkhill de- 
termines us on an immediate forward move- 
ment. Over ground of a worse nature than we 
had experienced in Midlaw basin we plunge, 
until tile shoulder of the Watch Knowe is 
reached. Dobbs Linn lies far below us, and the 
well-known lines which ''J. R Selkirk'* has 
given us in one of his most memorable poetic 
flights rush irresistibly to mind. They were 
penned at Birkhill: — 

" In the green bosom of the ennny hills. 
Far from the sound of human ills. 

Where silence sleepeth ; 
Where nothing breaks the still and charmed 

hoars. 
Save whispering mountain stream that 'neath 
the flowers 

For ever creepeth. 

" The birth, the glory or the fall of nations 
Is naught to thee! delirious generations 

Ceasing never ! 
Bave onward, and thou heedest not the chase. 
But lookest up serenely in the face 

Of God for ever! 

Birkhill now lies before us ; and the welcome 
thought of creature comforts brings up our 
leaden feet in gayer steps as we descend the 
road by which the worthy shepherd brings his 
peats. Across the bum at the hill-foot and 
into the cottage is the work of a few moments. 
We are shown to the "ben-end," where many 
such ocMnpanies as ours have been entertained. 
A few minutes finds all hul one into dry 
clothes. He has been unfortunate at the last 
march in sinkine to the knees in a pent hole, 
but the "gude" nousewife is equal to such an 
emergenqy. A pair of the 'herd's kirk ga'in' 
"bre^s" are soon produced, to the great com- 
fort of the recipient and the no small amuse- 
ment of his friends. For ten minutes he is 
the butt of their wit as he stalks proudly across 
the floor in the good "tweed checks," which are 
nothing short of a perfect fit ! And the chil- 
dren look on in amazement as they see their 
"faither's breeks" on the limbs of a "foreign- 
er." Being assured that they will be duly 
returned one of the days the bi-weekly post- 
man comes to Birkhill, their laughter soon 
mingles with the mirth of the company. Af- 
ter a generous "tea," to which full justice is 
done, we purchase postcards of the cottage 



as souvenirs, but find that there is no visitort' 
book in which to record our thanks. 

Soon after tea we are invited "beo-the- 
hoose" to share the glow of the cheery peat 
fire. Talk at first flows sparingly — hill sh^ 
herds are men of action, not of words. Grad- 
ually it grows limpid when the subject of his 
daily toil is introduced. He tells us something 
of the hills and his difficulties in extricatine 
sheep from the bog-holes and beat-hags, and 
all in the manner of a man who thinks he has 
done nothing noteworthy. It is his duty. In 
this pleasant fashion two hours slip past. Our 
car is heard at the door ; good-byes are said, 
and the cordial welcome finds its warm coun- 
terpart in the "safe journey" which is waved 
by half-ardoeeo arms from the doorstep. As 
the car speeds down the darkening valley the 
thought of the day and its happy ending finds 
expression on every lip in sentiments which 
cluster round its events sa the full-blown roses 
round the doorway at Birkhill. 

And this day has its pleasant sequel. Two 
days after, a parcel found its way to the shep- 
herd. It was partly his and partly ours ; tor 
in the folds of his stout tweed trousers was 
packed a visitors' book with a suitable inscrip- 
tion, duly subscribed by the members of our 
party. It now lies on the table in the "ben- 
end* ' to receive the names of a new generation 
of visitors who may wish to hear the ''Walcome 
as ever, sir*' of old Ailie, in the spirit^ at leasts 
if not in the letter. 



Sir Walter Scott : A Critleism. 

[From "Hours in a Library/* by Lbslib 
Stephen.] 






perishable 
That is 
have to 



! HEN naturalists wish to preserve 
a skeleton they bury an animal 
in an ant-hill and dig him up 
after many days with all the 
matter fairly eaten away, 
the process which great men 
undergo. A vast multitude of 
insignificant, unknown, and unconscious critics 
destroy what has no genuine power of 
resistance, and leave the remainder for poster- 
ity. Much disappears in every case, and it is 
a question, perhaps, whether the firmer parts 
of Scott's reputation will be sufficiently coher- 
ent to resist after the removal of the rubbish. 
We must admit that even his best work is of 
more or less mixed value, and that the test 
will be a severe one. Yet we hope, not only 



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for retusons already suggested, but for one 
which remains to be expressed. The ultimate 
source *)f pleasure derivable from all art is 
that it brings you into communication with 
the artist. What you really love in the pic- 
ture or the poem is the painter or the poet 
whom it brings into sympathy with you across 
the gulf of time. He tells you what are the 
thoughts which some fragment of natural 
scenery, or some incident of human life, ex- 
cited in a mind greatly wiser and more per- 
ceptive than your own. A dramatist or a 
novelist professes to describe different actors 
on his little scene, but he is really setting forth 
the varying phases of his own mind. And so 
"Dandie Dinmont," or the "Antiquary," or 
"Balfour of Burley," is merely the conductor 
through which Scott's personal magnetism af- 
fects our own natures. And certainly, what- 
ever fault* a critic may discover in the work, 
it may be said that no work in our literature 
places us in communication with a manlier or 
more lovable natufe. Scott, indeed,' setting 
up as the landed proprietor at Abbotsford, and 
solacing himself with painter plaster of Paris 
instead of carved oak, does not strike us, any 
more than he does Carlvle, as a very noble 
phenomenon. But, luckily for us, we have 
also the Scott who must have been the most 
charming of all conceivable companions ; the 
Scott who was idolised even by a judicious 
pig; the Scott who, unlike the irritable race 
of literary magnates in general, never lost a 
friend, and whose presence diffused an equable 
glow of kindly feeling to the farthest limits of 
the social system which gravitated round him. 
He was not precisely brilliant ; nobody, so far 
as we know, who wrote so many sentences has 
left so few that have fixed themselves upon us 
as established commonplaces ; beyond that un- 
lucky phrase about "my name being 
MacGregor, and my foot being on my native 
heath V — ^which is not a very admirable sen- 
timent — I do not at present remember a single 
gem of this kind. Landor, I think, said that 
in the whole of Scott's poetry there was only 
one good line, that, namely, in the poem about 
Helvellyn referring to the dog of the lost 
man — 

When the wind waved his garmentB, how oft 
didst thon start! 

Scott is not one of the coruscating geniuses, 
throwing out epigrams at every turn, and 
sparkling with good things. But the poetry, 
which was first admired to success and then 
rejected with undue contempt, is now begin- 



ning to find its due level. It is not poetry of 
the first order. It is not the poetry of 
deep meditation or of rapt enthusiasm. 
Much that was once admired has now 
became rather offensive than otherwise. 
And yet it has a charm, which becomes 
more sensible the more familiar we grow 
with it, the , charm of unaffected and 
spontaneous love of nature ; and not only is it 
perfectly in harmony with the nature which 
Scott loved so well, but it is still the best in* 
terpreter of the sound healtiiy love of wild 
scenery. Wordsworth, no doubt, goes deeper ; 
and Byron is more vigorous ; and Shelley more 
ethereal. But it is, and will remain, a good 
thing to have a breath from the Cheviots 
brought straight into London streets, as Scott 
alone can do it. When Washington Irving 
visited Scott, they had an amicable dispute as 
to the scenery ; Irving, as became an Ameri- 
can, complaining of the absence of foreeta; 
Scott declaring his love for his " honest grey 
hills," and saying that if he did not see the 
heather once a year he thought he should die. 
Everybody who has refreshed himself with 
mountain and moor this summer should feel 
how much we owe, and how much more we are 
likely to owe in future, to the man who first 
inoculated us with his own enthusiasm, and 
who is still the best interpreter of the " honest 
grey hills." Scott's poetical faculty may, per- 
haps, be more felt in his prose than in his 
verse. The fact need not be decided ; but as 
we read the best of his novels we feel ourselves 
transported to the "distant Cheviot's blue;" 
mixing with the sturdy dalesman, and the 
tough, indomitable Puritans of his native 
land; for their sakes we can forgive the ex- 
ploded feudalism and the faded romance 
which he attempted with less success to gal- 
vanise into life. The pleasure of that healthy 
open-air life, with that manly companion, is 
not likely to diminish ; and Scott as its ex- 
ponent may still retain a hold upon our affec- 
tions which would have been long ago forfeited 
if he had depended entirely on his romantic 
nonsense. We are rather in the habit of talk- 
ing about a healthy animalism, and try most 
elaborately to be simple and manly. When 
we turn from our modern professors in that 
line, who affect a total absence of affectation, 
to Scott's Dandie Dinmonts and Edie Ochil- 
trees, we see the diffei^nce between the sham 
and the reality, and fancy that Scott may still 
have a lesson or two to preach to this genera- 
tion. Those to come must take care of them- 
selves. 



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SUPPLEMENT to the "BORDER MAGAZINE," Vol. XII.. No 139. 
















THE LATE MR FRANCIS LYNN, F.8 A., (SCOT) 



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THE LATE FRANCIS LYNN, F.S.A. (SCOT.). 




' T has been said that " character is the 
permanent element in human his- 
tory," and our belief in the truth of 
this statement makes us ever de- 
sirous to bring before our readers men of out- 
standing character who have influenced for 
good our beloved Borderland. In the front 
rank of this class of men stood the late Mr 
Francis Lynn, who passed away on the 23rd of 
April last. We had the privilege of knowing 
Mr Lynn personally, and we have very pleasant 
recollections of the profitable hours spent in 
the company of himself and his family. He 
was a man of many parts, but whatever he put;^ 
his hand to received an impress for good. A 
true gentleman in the best sense of the word, 
and a man of wide reading and broad sym- 
pathies, he ever remained a loyal son of the 
Borderland, in the history and lore of which 
he was deeply versed. Those who have had 
the pleasure of accompanying him in arch- 
aeological or botanical rambles will recall how 
unaffectedly he gave forth his rich stores of 
local lore, and how pleasantly he could use the 
" soft Lowland tongue o' the Border " to con- 
vey information. By the passing of Francis 
Lynn the Borderland is decidedly poorer to- 
day, but the lessons of his life are before us, 



and it behoves our young men especially to fol- 
low in his footsteps and labour unselfishly for 
the good of others, as he did. 

Many tributes to the worth of our departed 
friend have appeared in the oolunms of the 
varioys Border newspapers, but the limits of 
our space compel us to confine ourselves to 
quotations from the admirable sketch which 
appeared in the "Border Telegraph." The 
writer of that article says : — 

It is with deep reKret that we have to record 
the death of another of the most highly esteemed 
and respected citizens of Galashiels in the person 
of Mr Francis Lynn, F.S.A. Scot., which took 
place suddenly on Tuesday evening, 23rd April, 
1907, at his residence in Livingstone Terrace. Mr 
Lynn had been unwell for a few days, but no ser- 
ious results were anticipated. On Tuesday, in 
fact, he showed signs of improvement, and was 
chatting with some members of his family at five 
o'clock. About an hour later the end came quite 
unexpectedly, death being due to an affection of 
the heart. Mr Lynn was a native of Smailholm, 
and served his apprenticeship as a cabinetmaker 
at Jedburgh. He came to Oalaahiels forty-six 
years ago, when he started business on his own 
account in Huddersfield Street, near the old Gas 
Works, as a cabinetmaker and upholsterer. A 
skilful tradesman, Mr Lynn speedily built up a 
large and successful business, and the firm's es- 
tablishment in Galapark Road is one of the larg- 
est of its kind in the district. As a carver, Mr 



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Lynn hud consideration reputation, and among 
the work he did iu his day were the choir stalls in 
St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh, and those in St 
Paul's and St Peter's, Galashiels, while there 
is scarcely a mansion-house in the diHtrict which 
does not contain carved work executed by him. 
,In the public affairs of Galashiels Mr Lynn took 
an active part in his younger days, being re- 
turned about the early seventies to the Town 
Council as a supporter of the scheme for the in- 
troduction of water into the burgh. lie also ser- 
ved some time as a Magistrate, but his strong 
views on the temperance question, views he held 
all his life, roused the hostility of " the trade/' 
and as the result of their efforts he was unseated, 
the temperance party being unable to secure his 
re-election. All his life Mr Lynn took the great- 
est possible interest and was an active worker 
in the temperance movement; he was the first 
Chief Templar of the first Galashiels Lodge, and 
up to the last he retained his connection with the 
Order. In his earlier days, too, he was actively 
associated with politics. He acted as secretary 
for the Galashiels braiich of the Keform League, 
and later was secretary of the Liberal Association. 
' At the Home Rule split he cast in his lot with 
the Unionist party, and when Sir George Trevel- 
yan contested the Burghs as a Unionist, Mr Lynn 
acted as secretary to his committee. Latterly he 
did not take such an active interest in politics, 
but he showed his sui)port of the party by ap- 
pearing on platforms and occasionally speaking 
to resolutions. In all other public matters he took 
an active interest. At a great Fishery Reform 
meeting in Galashiels in 1873, for instance, he 
was one of the speakers, submitting a resolution 
proposing that the House of Commons be petition- 
ed to appoint a Commission to inquire in the 
district into the nature and operation of the . 
Tweed Acts. It is somewhat saddening to note 
that with the death of Mr Lynn only one of the 
speakers of that occasion, and there wore quite a 
number, now survives, viz., Mr James Anderson, 
Meigle Street. Mr Lynn was also a director of 
the Good Templar Hall Com])auy, and attended a 
meeting of the directors about a week before his 
death. This would be the last meeting at which 
he was i)resent. Mr Lynn was a member and of- 
fice-bearer of the Congregational Church, having 
officiated as a deacon for many years. There, as 
in other spheres of life, he will be greatly missed. 
While in all the departments of life mentioned 
Mr Lynn was well known in Galashiels, iu an- 
other "sphere he had attained a much more than 
local reputation, being generally, and rightly, re- 
garded as one of the foremost antiquarians and 
archaeologists of the day. The time which he de- 
voted to the pursuit of this subject occupied no 
small portion of his life. He displayed intense 
zeal and enthusiasm in what was to him a hobby 
which brought with it much interest and delight, 
and ho was never more in his element than when 
engaged in antiquarian research in the district. 
While a boy at Jedburgh he was thrown often into 
the company of an aged relative, whose memory 
was stored with all the historical and traditional 
tales of the surrounding district. He speedily be- 
came acquainted with every part of Border tra- 
dition, every holiday being taken advantage of 
to increase his knowledge of the historic country 
around him. On coming to Galashiels he adopted 



the same methods, until he became intimate with 
the whole of the country on both sides of the 
Border line. He had traced the Roman Road 
known as Watling Street, and he had also travel- 
led along Hadrian's Wall from Carlisle to New- 
castle. At intervals also he made extensive re- 
searches on the Northumberland side of the Bor- 
der in the Wooller district, where numerous early 
British forts and remains exist. Only a few 
months ago Mr Lynn issued a pamphlet contain- 
ing papers on Yeaverin« Bell, Harehope Fort, and 
Humbleton Hill, which he had contributed to the 
proceedings of the Berwick Naturalists' Club, of 
which he was a member. They were illustrated 
with sketches made by himself, and were good ex- 
amples of the excellent work he has done in his- 
torical and antiquarian research in the Border 
district. 1 he greatest . service which he rendered 
to Border antiquities was his survey of the my- 
sterious Cat rail, the results of his investigations 
thereon forming an elaborate and painstaking 
work, illustrated with more than half-a-dosen 
full-page and smaller sketch plans. Mr Lynn had 
the honour conferred upon him of being admit- 
ted a Fellow of the Scottish Society of Antiquar- 
ies, and contributed to that body a number of 
extremely interesting papers on such subjects as 
the Catrail, hill forts, and artificial caves on the 
Borderland. He was also a member of Jedburgh 
Ramblers' Club and Innerleithen Alpine Club, 
and often officiated as guide to them, and also to 
the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club on their ex- 
cursions in the Border district. These services 
were greatly appreciated by those who benefited 
from them. In the recently-discovered Roman 
camp at Newstead he was naturally keenly inter- 
ested, and he paid numerous visits thereto in or- 
der to study and interpret the great discoveries 
that have been made from time to time. Mr Lynn 
did not keep his knowledge to himself, but by 
lectures and papers from time to time gave others 
the benefit of his researches. 

Of a quiet, unassuming disposition, Mr Lynn 
was held in esteem by a wide circle of friends, 
and the town is poorer to-day by the loss of one 
who was a good and worthy citizen in every sense 
of the word. Tlie news of Mr Lynn's death came 
as a surprise to the community, and was received 
by all with genuine expressions of regret. Mr 
Lynn, who was sixty-eight years of age. leaves 
a widow and family of two sons and three daugh- 
ters, for whom the greatest sympathy is felt in 
their sad bereavement. 

* On the Sunday following Mr Lynn's death his 
minister, the Rev. W. F. Adamson, M.A., after 
referring to Mr Lynn's public services, his work 
in connection with the temperance movement, and 
his attainments in the fields of antiquarian and 
topographical study, said— Mr Lynn was one of 
the type of men who have done so much to make 
our country what it is. In addition to the talents 
God had given and the formative influences that 
study and the social movements going on around 
us exercised him, a large place must be allowed 
to the influences of his home life, which, being 
always Christian, kept about him the sweeten- 
ing atmosphere of strong faith in God, strong 
practical common-sense, and love of virtue, which 
strengthened and encouraged the good that was 
naturally in him. The home life of a good man 
is a sacred thing; we think of it; we thank God 



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for it» but we leare thoee who mourn by the fam- 
ily hearth to speak ooncerning it. We know what 
oar brother was as a Christian man, and as a 
member and office-bearers of t^is church. A few 
still remain among us who remember what he 
was in the early days about forty years ago, 
taking a deep interest in the church's affairs. To 
him, indeed, the church was always a sacred 
place. We well remember him as manager and 
deacon, careful, anxious, helpful, comforting, re- 
joicing in eyerything that seemed likely to pro- 
mote our prosperity and peace, broadening and 
maturing in his judgment of men as the years 
went on, and yet clinging with all the fervour of 
his youth to the everlasting verities of our re- 
ligion, holding fast to the doctrine once delivered 
unto the saints. He looked with a wise tolerance 
on advances in theological opinion that recognised 
the eternal Christ as a refuge and as the Saviour 
of sinful men. For theological opinion of another 
kind he had little sympathy. He had proved the 
worth of the Gospel by a personal experience 
of its healing and sustaining power. In this 
house of prayer, full of interest to him as a place 
he had planned and built, but fuller still of in- 
terest as a spot hallowed by the prayers and wor- 
ship of Christian brethren and friends, by his own 
prayers and worship, and by the prayers and 
worship of those who bore his name— in this 
house, I say, when sorrow came heavily upon him 
be had felt the consoling grace of Qod's own spirit, 
and hence it was peculiarly dear to him. Sad as 
it is to think that he will be with us in his ac- 
customed place within this sanctuary no more, 
we turn with gratitude to God for all those years 
of intercourse and friendship, and thank God for 
one who was a faithful fellow-worker with us, a 
loyal comrade, a wise counsellor, and a true man. 
At a meeting of Jedburgh Ramblers' Club Mr 
Lindsay Hilson, the secretary, after presenting his 
report, said he wonld like to add a word or two 
more, with reference to the death of Mr Frank 
Lynn, Galashiels, who was a member of their 
Club and of many kindred societies in the- Bor- 
ders. They all remembered how much the plea- 
sure of their visit to Newstead last year, and also 
to Flodden Field, was enhanced by Mr Lynn's 
presence, and by the notes he gave them upon 
points of interest in the surrounding districts. By 
his pleasant manner and his genial method of 
making himself at home among them, Mr Lynn 
added very much to the enjoyment of these two 
occasions. He might also refer to the fact that 
some years ago Mr Lynn gave them in the Nest 
Academy a most interesting lecture relating to 
the Roman i)eriod. On Saturday fortnight he (Mr 
Hilson) went over to Galashiels to see Mr Lynn, 
who was speaking then of his interest in the 
Jedburgh Ramblers' Club. When told of a pro- 
posed visit to the Glen, he looked forward with 
great pleasure to joining them on that occasion. 
Mr Lynn had mentioned to him that the mem- 
bers of Innerleithen Alpine Club were intending 
to visit Penielheugh on the first Saturday in June, 
and Mr Lynn was hoping to meet ^he members of 
the Ramblers' Club then. He (Mr Hilson) had 
sent Mr Lynn, along with a copy of their trans- 
actiops, a statement of what had been done in 
connection with the projected visit to Peniel- 
heugh. Ho thought they would agree that the 
Jedburgh Ramblers' Club should very sincerely 



oome to a resolution deploring the death of Mr 
Lynn, and that he (the secretary) should be in- 
structed to send a copy of the resolution to Mrs 
Lynn. 

Provost Hilson said he was sure they all cor- 
dially endorsed the sentiments that had been so 
well expressed by Mr Lindsay Hilson with re- 
ference to the lamented death of Mr Frank Lynn. 
In the sphere of local antiquarian research his 
death would be very widely and very sincerely re- 
gretted. He was a great enthusiast in all matters 
archttologioal and antiquarian, and he had ac- 
quired by life-long study a very extensive and 
minute knowledge of the ancient features of this 
Borderland of theirs, and indeed of many parts of 
Scotland. He was also at all times very willing 
to impart to others the fruits of his study and re- 
search. Their Club had lost a very good friend 
in Mr Lynn, one who was always ready to come 
forward and do anything in his power to add to 
the enjoyment and utility of their excursions. On 
several occasions he acted as guide to the Club, 
giving them the advantage of knowledge that 
could only have been acquired by long-oontinued 
study. They would all desire to exj^ress their sin- 
cere regret at Mr Lynn's death, and to tender re- 
spectfully their deep sympathy with the family 
circle that had been so greatly bereaved. 

Dr D. Christison, M.D., LL.D., a noted anti- 
quarian, writes:— "The late Mr Francis Lynn 
was distinguished as an antiquary by remarkable 
powers of observation, and by the truly scienti- 
fic methods of his work in the field. No depart- 
ment of archesology that came within his reach 
escaped his attention, but perhaps his favourite 
subjects were the pre-historio forts and Catrail. 
Several of the forts in his neighbourhood were 
planned for the first time by him, and testify to 
his skill and accuracy. It was his investigation 
of the Catrail, however, that crowned his labours. 
This mysterious work had been already noticed by 
many antiquarians, but all their accounts, found- 
ed on theory rather than on facts, are vague, un- 
satisfactory, and almost valueless. It was reserv- 
ed for Mr Lynn to lay a solid foundation for the 
study by patiently planning its whole length from 
north to south, and if the purpose of the Catrail 
is still a moot point, the conclusion that he came 
to of its being a primitive road seems to be the 
most likely to be the true one, and is confirmed 
by what he was the first to point out, that 
branches proceed from it to the neighbouring pre- 
historic forts. Mr Lynn was a delightful com- 
panion from his interest in all scientific inquiries, 
and from the singular kindliness of his disposi- 
tion, and his death will be lamented by many far 
and near." 

Of Mr Lynn, W. M. A. says :— To know him was 
to respect him in the highest sense of the word : 
the impression of his superiority was no ephe- 
meral one, but gained strength with closer ac- 
quaintance. One summer afternoon, many years 
ago, it was our privilege to enjoy a ramble in his 
company over a certain part of our beloved Bor- 
derland, and never shall we forget how deeply 
we were impressed with his vast knowledge of 
nature, animate and inanimate. The flowers of 
the fields he knew, their family history, and re- 
lation to each other ; the why and wherefore of the 
hills and dales, and water courses in their wild 
career; the Catrail, the caves, the British and 



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Eoman camps, he could again re-people, and give 
US a glimpse of these strange beings and their 
doings, from benighted barbarism to the dawn of 
civilisation. Much was of necessity conjecture on 
his part, but so clothed with interest that ' we 
marvelled at his knowledge, and felt how puny 
was ours compared with this giant intellect. It 
was no stereotyped sense of duty which impelled 
ns to follow all that was mortal of him to its 
last resting-place, but the pleasant memories of 
blissful associations long gone by; and when we 
heard God's servant talk of the dutiful husband, 
the kind father, and the sincere friend, we knew 
that it was truth, and inwardly responded 
"Amen.'' When the dull, cruel thud which be- 
tokens " earth to earth " fell on our ears we stole 
sadly away, our hearts filled with a great pity 
for her who still stands on the near shore of that 
mystic flood, gazing with strained and tearful vis- 
ion across the dark expanse whose further shore 
will some day witness a re-union which shall be 
for all eternity. 




The Late Mr George Croal, 
Edinburgh. 

A LINK WITH SIR WALTEE SCOTT. 

JHERE died at his residence, 17 London 
Street, yesterday, in his 97th year 
one of Edinburgh's oldest citizens- 
Mr GeoTge Croal. He had paid rates 
and taxes for 78 years, and in his 
long life had met ^ith many eminent and interest- 
ing people whose names are associated with the 
history of the city in wit and literature and 
music. The son of Mr David Croal, a sub-editor 
of the "Caledonian Mercury," Mr George Croal 
was born on the 28th February, 1811. His fi^rst 
schoolmaster was one "Daddy Main," who taught 
children in a house in High Street, not far from 
John Knox's house. In a little book which he 
published in 1894, called "Living Memories of an 
Octogenarian, 1816-1845," Mr Croal has many in- 
teresting reminiscences of the city and its in- 
habitants. One of his earliest recollections was 
seeing the remnants of the "Black Watch" regi- 
ment, on their return from Waterloo in 1816, 
march up the Canongate amid the cheers of the 
people. He recalls the introduction of gas into 
the city in 1817, when the small boys assembled 
nightly before a shop window in Hunter Square 
to see the new illuminant lit; and he saw, from 
the slopes of the Calton Hill, the entry of George 
IV. into Edinburgh in 1822. Mr Croal was ap- 
prenticed in 1823 to Alexander Robertson, then 
one of the principal music-sellers, and a very 
successful teacher of the pianoforte. With the 
musical profession in Edinburgh Mr Croal was 
connected all his life, and was well known in 
musical circles both as a composer and an able 
performer, especially of Scottish melodies. H© 
had many things to relate about music in Edin- 
burgh in these old days, and of the eminent sing- 
ers and pianists who visited the city — such as 
Madame Catalani, Kalkbrenner, J. B. Cramer, 
Moschelles. Paganini, John Braham. Adelaide 
Kemble, and many others. He had seen Charles 
Matthew? the elder and Edmund Kean acting in 



Edinburgh; Lord Jeffrey and Lord Cockburn in 
the Parliament House, before their elevation to 
the Bench; and he had conversed, in 1828, with 
Captain Maitland, of the battleship Bellerophon, 
to whom Napoleon surrendered and gave up his 
sword after Waterloo. Captain Maitland then 
resided at Lindores, in Fife. But Mr Croal's most 
cherished memories were those associated with 
Sir Walter Scott. He was privileged to be in 
the Assembly Rooms in the year 1827, when, on 
the occasion of the Theatrical Fund dinner. Sir 
Walter, in response to the toast of his health, 
declared himself, as Mr Croal says in his remin- 
iscences, "to be the sole and undivided author of 
'Waverley.'" "The enthusiasm evoked on the 
occasion," he says, "can be better imagined than 
described. After the lapse of more than sixty 
years the scene is still as vividly before me as on 
the evening of its occurrence." But even more 
interesting to him than that was an interview 
he had with Scott at Abbotsford. To quote again 
from his little book, "Two years after I had heard 
Sir Walter Scott's important avowal I had occas- 
ion to be at Abbotsford, and, on Sir Walter hear- 
ing me run over the keys of the piano, he request- 
ed that I would play some Scottish airs to him, 
which, I need scarcely say, I was proud to have 
the honour of doing.' He also had met James 
Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, in the year 1827 or 
1828 at his house at Mount Benger ; and it is in- 
teresting in this connection to mention that a few 
years afterwards he was the first to arrange for 
the pianoforte, and to publish Hogg's well-known 
song, 'When the Kye comes Hame.' Soon after- 
wards Mr Croal did the same for Burns' beautiful 
lyric, 'My Nannie's Awa'.' Mr Croal never saw 
Burns, but, while still a young man, he had the 
pleasure of meeting at supper one evening Mr 
George Thomson, the correspondent of the poet, 
for whom many of his songs were written. Thom- 
son was then an octogenarian, but sang with great 
spirit and humour the song of 'Muirland Willie.* 
So long ago as 1858 Mr Croal brought out a nar- 
rative poem entitled 'Eaglesward,' and, as has 
been said, he was the composer of many songs 
and of music for the pianoforte, consisting of 
arrangements and transcriptions and dances, pub- 
lished mostly under the name of Carlo Zotti. He 
tells an interesting story of one of his early com- 
positions of seventy years ago. It was on the oc- 
casion of the celebration in Edinburgh of the 
fourth centenary of the art of printing. The cele- 
bration took the form of a banquet in the Theatre 
Royal, at which the poet Thomas Campbell presid- 
ed. Some stirring verses were wanted appropriate 
to the occasion. These were supplied by Alex- 
ander Smart, one of the minor Scottish poets of 
the day. Mr Croal set them to music, and he also 
accompanied the singer of them on the pianoforte 
—this being, as he says, 'my first and only ap- 
pearance on that or any other stage.' He also set 
six songs of Sir Walter Scott^s to music for the 
centenary souvenir. Mr Croal was a member of 
the Edinburgh Society of Musicians and of the 
Pen and Pencil Club, and at one of the meetings 
of the latter, after he was ninety years of age, 
he was present, with his brother, who predecea^d 
him a month or two since, and favoured the com- 
pany with a pianoforte performance of Scottish 
songs."— From the "Scotsman," June 10. 1907. 

In connection with the foregoing we add, through 
the kindness of a contributor, the following par- 
ticulars regarding the 



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BiviLATiOH or TBI Gbiat Uhknown. 

remarking by the way that we had the pleasure 
of the personal friendship of a nephew of the 
actor Maokay, referred to later on, who told us of 
Sir Walter's deUght on seeing Mr Mackay's won- 
derful interpretation of Bailie Nicol Jarvie. 

The "dinner'' referred to in this extract is 
such an interesting* one in the history of Sir Wal- 
ter Scott that perhaps we may be excused for 
giying some particulars about it, taken from the 
pages of Lookhart. Lord Meadowbank proposed 
the toast of the Chairman. He knew that this 
was the first public dinner at which the object of 
this toast had appeared since his misfortunes, 
and, taking him aside in the ante-room, asked 
him whether he would consider it indelicate to 
hasard a distinct reference to the parentage of 
the Waverley Novels, as to which there had, in 
point of fact, ceased to be any obscurity from 
the hour of Constable's failure. Sir Walter smil- 
ed, and said — "Do just as you like — only don't 
say much about so old a story." In the course 
of the evening the Judge rose accordingly, and 
said — "I would beg leave to propose a toast^the 
health of one of the patrons— a great and distin- 
guished individual, whose name must always 
stand by itself, and which, in an assembly such 
as this, or in any other assembly of Scotsmen, 
must ever be received, I will not say with ordin- 
ary feelings of pleasure or of delight, but with 
those of rapture and enthusiasm. In doing this T 
feel that I stand in a somewhat new situation. 
Whoever had been called upon to propose the 
health of my hon. friend some time ago would 
have found himself enabled, from the mystery in 
which certain matters were involved, to gratify 
himself and his auditors by allusions sure to find 
a responsive chord in their own feelings, and to 
deal in the language, the sincere language, of 
panegyric, without intruding on the modesty of 
the great individual to whom I refer. But it is 
no longer possible, consistently with the respect 
due to my auditors, to use upon this subject 
terms either of mystification, or of obscure or in- 
direct allusion. The clouds have been dispelled— 
the darkness visible has been cleared away— and 
the Great Unknown— the minstrel of our native 
land — ^the mighty magician who has rolled back 
the current of time, and conjured up before our 
living senses the men and the manners of days 
which have long passed away, stands revealed to 
the eyes and the hearts of his affectionate and 
admiring countrymen. If I were capable of im- 
agining all that belongs to this mighty subject- 
were I able to give utterance to all that as a man, 
aa a Scotsman, and as a friend, I must feel re- 
garding it, yet knowing, as I well do, that this 
illustrious individual is not more distinguished 
for his towering talents, than for those feelings 
which render such allusions ungrateful to him- 
self, however sparingly introduced, I would on 
that account still refrain from doing what would 
otherwise be no less pleasing to myself than to 
those who hear me. But this I hope T may be al- 
lowed to say— (my auditors would not pardon me 
were I to say less)— we owe to him, as a people, 
a large and heavy debt of gratitude. He it is 
who has open€Ki to foreigners the grand and char- 
acteristic beauties of our country; it is to him 
that we owe that our gallant ancestors and illus- 
trious patriots— who fought and bled ifa order to 



obtain and secure that independence and that 
liberty we now enjoy— have obtained a fame no 
longer confined to the boundaries of a remote 
and comparatively obscure country — it is he who 
has call^ down upon their struggles for glory 
and freedom the admiration of foreign lands; — 
he it is who has conferred a new reputation on 
our national character, and bestowed on Scotland 
an imperishable name, were it only by her hav- 
ing given birth to himself. I propose the health 
of Sir Walter Scott." 

Long before Lord Meadowbank ceased speak- 
ing the company had got upon chairs and tables, 
and the storm of applause that ensued was deaf- 
ening. When they recovered from the first fever 
of their raptures. Sir Walter spoke as follows :— 
"I certainly did not think, in coming here to- 
day, that I should have the task of acknowledging 
before 300 gentlemen a secret which, considering 
that it was communicated to more than twenty 
people, has been remarkably well kept. I am 
now at the bar of my country, and may be under- 
stood to be on trial before Lord Meadowbank as 
an offender ; and so quietly did all who were ' airt 
and pairt' conduct themselves, that I am sure 
that, were the 'panel' now to stand on his de- 
fence, every impartial jury would bring in a 
verdict of * not proven.' I am willing, however, 
to plead ' guilty ' — nor shall I detain the Court 
by a long explanation why my confession has been 
80 long deferred. Perhaps caprice might have a 
considerable share in the matter. I have now to 
say, however, that the merits of these works, if 
they had any, and their faults, are all entirely 
imputable to myself. Like another Scottish crim- 
inal of more consequence, one Macbeth, 

'I am afraid to think what I have done; 
Look on't again I dare not.' ' 

I have thus far unbosomed myself, and I know 
that my confession will be reported to the public. 
I mean, then, seriously to state that when I say 
I am the author, I mean the total and undivided 
author. With the exception of quotations, there 
is not a single word that was not derived from 
myself, or suggested in the course of my read- 
ing. The wand is now broken, and the book 
buried. You will allow me further to say, with 
Prospero, it is your breath that has filled my 
sails, and to crave one single toast in the capac- 
ity of the author of these novels. I would fain 
dedicate a bumper to the health of one who has 
represented several of those characters, of which 
I had endeavoured to give the skeleton, with a 
truth and liveliness for which I may well be 
grateful. I beg leave to propose the health of my 
friend Bailie Nicol Jarvie — and I am sure, that 
when the author of 'Waver ley' and 'Rob Roy' 
drinks to Nicol Jarvie, it will be received with 
the just applause to which that gentleman has 
always been accustomed, — nay, that you will take 
care that on the present occasion it shall be Pro — 
di — gi — ous!" (Loud and vehement applause.) 

Mr Mackay— "My conscience! My worthy 
father the deacon could never have believed that 
his son would hae sic a compliment paid him 
by the Great Unknown !" 

Sir Walter Scott— "The Small Known now, Mr 
Bailie," Ac. Ac. 

The "sensation" produced by this scene was, 
in newspaper phrase, "unprecedented." Sir Wal- 



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ter'B Diary merely says— " February 84. I car- 
ried my own instructions into effect the best I 
could, and if our jests were not good, our laugh- 
ter was abundant. I think I will hardly take the 
chair again when the company is so miscellan- 
eous; though they all behaved perfectly well. 
Meadowbaok taxed me with the nom^, and to end 
the farce at once, I pleaded guilty; so that splore 
is ended. As to the collection— it has been much 
cry and little woo, as the deil said when he shore 
the sow. I got away at ten at night. The per- 
formers performed very like gentlemen, espec- 
ially Will Murray." "March 2.— Clerk walked 
home with me from the Court. I was scarce able 
to keep up with him; could once have done it 
well enough. Funny thing at the theatre last 
night. Among the discourse in " High Life below 
Stairs" one of the ladies' maids asks who wrote 
Shakespeare. One says 'Ben Jonson;' another 
'Finis.' 'No,' said Jones, 'it was Sir Walter 
Scott; he confessed it at a public meeting the 
other day.'" 



near to Houghton is a steep part of the road, 
at the top of which two roads cross. Its com- 
mon name is Legs Across Bank. Tradition 
gives two accounts of the origin of the name. 
One is that a small religious house or hut 
stood here, and that the hermit kept there a 
light burning night and day before the small 
aJtar, and he was in the habit of speaking to 
wayfarers of "La Lux de Croix." lie changes 
of Elizabeth's time came ; and the " Light of 
the Cross" was desecrated into its modern 
name. The other is that when in 1603 good 
King Jamie rode over Brusselton from Bishop 
Auckland and came to this place, the beauty of 
the valley of the Tees was before him, from 
Barnard Castle down by Wycliffe, Winston, 
Gainford, and on to Darlington. He rested 
on the lower of two standing stones, in a pas- 




STAINDROP CHURCH. 



The Author of ** Waverley " on the 
South Side of the Border. 

Bt Walter Soott, Gainford. 

Part IL 

IRUSSELTON and Houghton are two 
heights far away to the eastward 
from Barnard Castle, and dominate 
the valley of the Tees lying between. 
Between the two the old Roman Road, or Wat- 
ling Street, called by the natives "the Street," 
winds, or rather climbs, in a straight line from 
Catterick, in Yorkshire, over the Tees at 
Pierce Bridge, on its way to Vinovium, the 
Roman camp near Bishop Auckland. Quite 




ture field by the roadside, and exclaimed to 
his immediate attendant : "Man 1 what a grand 
country to come to be King ofl" And he 
crossed his legs and sat and admired. And 
well he might ; for, on a clear day, besides 
all the sylvan beauty of Tees' banks, the old 
churches nestling among the trees, and well- 
cultivated farms, you can see right away over 
past Barningham, the hejither hills overlook- 
ing Swaledale and Arkingarthdale, past the 
wooded height overlooking Richmond, found- 
ed by Fitzalan in the twelfth century, away 
eastwards, till" you get a glimpse of the distant 
Cleveland Hills, a view covering many square 
miles of smiling and fruitful country. 

Neither did the two glance westward to- 
wards 



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"Stanmore'e shapelees swell 
And Ltinedale wild and Eelton Fell, 
And Tock-becrirded Gilmanecar 
And Arkinggarth lay dark afar—" 
nor even 

"Prond Barnard's banner'd walls. 
High crowned he sits in dawning pale. 
The sovereign of the lovely vale." 

But the poet cannot let them start on their 
journey without a further reference to what 
the breaking dawn might have revealed: — 

"Staindrop, who from her sylvan bowers 
Salutes proud Baby's battled towers. 
The rural brook of Egliston, 
And Balder, named from Odin's son. 
And Greta, to whose banks ere long 
We lead the lovers of the song; 
And silver Lune from Stanmore wild 
And fairy Thorsgill's murmuring child." 



in the possession of two families, with a very 
short interval between the forfeiture of the 
Nevilles — 1597 to 1637 — and ownership of the 
Vanee. The church of Staindrop contains 
monuments of several very eminent members 
of the families, notably Neville, Earl of War- 
wick and Westmoreland, commonly called the 
King-Maker, and his consort, the mother of 
two kings, Edward IV. and Richard III, Eg- 
gleston, or Egliston, brook runs down from 
the green hills on the Durham side of the Tees 
opposite Romaldkirk, a very ancient place, 
whose fair was once as noted a gathering-place 
for the northern oounties as the slopes of Eil- 
don at Lammastide. Below and nearer to 
Barnard Castle the brawling peat-coloured 
Balder enters the Tees, carrying the mind to 




RABV CASTLE, 



and 



' Romantic Beepdale's slender rill.'^ 



Hie sight of such beauty sents the poet in 
imagination to ''Roslin's magic glade" and 
"Cartland's Crags, fantastic rent." How won- 
derful the memory that could give all these 
places their proper situation and appearance 
in the picture ! Any one who has seen Stain - 
drop, on the skirts of the huge park of Raby, 
the small "beck** dividing it from the great 
overhanging beech woo*! on the boundary of 
the park, will not wonder at, but admire, the 
expression, her "sylvan bowers." And the 
sight of "Raby's battled towers" is something 
wonderful. In 1318 royal permission was 
granted to crenelate its walls ; and from that 
date till to-day the castle and estate have been 



the times of Scandinavian settlers in that, 
even now, lonely valley. A common saying in 
the neighbourhood up to thirty years ago, or 
even later, was this: — " Baldersdale's lawless, 
thou knaws ; " its rough but hospitable dwell- 
ers being wont to be a law to themselves. The 
Lune is a brighter and clearer stream, flow- 
ing down from Stanmore past Wemmergill, 
Grains o' Beck, and Mickleton, to the Tees. 
The Greta rises on the other side — the York- 
shire side of Stanmore— flows down past 
Bowes, Gilmonby, and Rokeby, joining the 
Tees a mile below the mansion-house ; and 
the "meeting of the waters" there is a beauti- 
ful scene. Thorsgill is ft wooded and bosky 
dell, through which a beck or burn runs mur- 
muring down past Eggleston Abbey to join the 



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Tees. This is a beautiful ruin — a couple of 
miles down the Tees from Barnard Caatle, ro- 
mantically placed on the banks of that river 
a short distance from the Abbey Bridge, •ver- 
nacularly called "t'Abba Brig." Deepdale is 
a wooded valley, down which runs a mountain 
beck, rising in the heathery moors between 
Bowes and Cotherstone. Bowes is a pretty 
village, four miles west of Barnard Castle, 
just on the rise of the long sweep of Stanmore, 
once the boundary between the domains of 
Malcolm of Scotland and those of England's 
Ring, Rerecroes, on Stanmore, marking the 
division. In this village, it ib^ said, Dickens 
found the prototype of Whackford Squeers, 
Fanny his daugliter, and John Browdie. The 
original of Squeers kept a boarding school in 
it The house is now a comfortable villa, and 
can be seen with its cobble-paved yard and 
pump and trough, where Nicholas Niokleby, 
Smike, and the other pupils made their morn- 
ing ablutions. As for the honest Yorkshire 
farmer, John Browdie, many a sample of his 
kin can be seen at the "ordinaries" of the hos- 
tels in the town on market days. But, how- 
ever, Scott's genius did not lead him to any 
such investigations. 



Border Notes and Queries. 

JOCK O' HAZELDEAN. 

The following awoiint of the old ballad of 
"John of Ilazelgreen," which I came acroBS the 
other day in the late Mr Robert Ford's interesting 
little book. "Song Histories," may perhaps prove 
interesting' in connection with previous corres- 
pondence on this subject. He says that "Jock o' 
Hazeldean" — perhaps the most popular of all 
Scott's songs— was, like the "Macgregor's Gather- 
ing" and the "Pibroch of Donnil Dhu," originally 
written for "Albyn's Anthology," a collection of 
Highland airs e<lited by Alexander Campbell, and 
was suggested to Sir Walter by an old ballad bear- 
ing the title of "John of Hazelgreen." Except in 
the first verse, however, Scott is unindebted to 
the ballad, which, though inferior in smoothness 
and poetic grace, records a pleasanter incident 
than the song: — 

"As I went forth to take the air. 

In till an evening clear. 
If s there I spied, a lady fair, 

Making a heavy bier; 
Making a heavy bier, I wot, 

But and a piteous meen; 
And aye she sighed and said 'Alas ! 

For John o' Hazelgreen/" 

The elderly gentleman, who was thus taking his 
evening walk, accosted the fair maid, and asked 
her who had done her wrong, and who it was she 
called Hazelgreen. She replied that he need not 
add affliction to her woe; that no one had done 
her wrong, and least of all her young lover. He 



then offers, if she will forsake young Haselgreen 
and go along with him, that he will wed her to 
his eldest son and make her "a lady free." His 
offer she refuses by saying : — 

"It's for to wed your eldest son, 

I am a maid ower mean; 
I'd rather stay at home," she says, 
"And die for Haaelgreen." 

She is offered the second son, with her weight in 
gold as a dowry. Him she also refoseB: — 

"Then he's ta'en out a siller comb, 

Comb'd down her yellow hair. 
And looked in a diamond bright 
To see if she were fair." 

He tells her that she surpasses all the maids that 
ever he has seen. He lifts her before him on his 
horse, and rides straight to Edinburgh, telling 
her that he will do all in his power to bring her 
and her lover together: — 

"Then he has coft for that lady 

A fine silk riding gown; 
Likewise he coft for that lady 

A steed and set her on. 
**They nimbly rode along the way. 

And gently spurred their horse. 
Till they rode on to Hazelgreen, 

To Hazelgreen 's own close; 
There forth he came young Hazelgreen, 

To welcome his father free, 
'You're welcome here, my father dear. 

And a* your companie.'" 

This explains the interest that the hitherto anony- 
mous gentleman has taken in the young lady. It 
transpires also that young Hazelgreen had only 
seen the fair maid in a dream, and that the maid's 
knowledge of the young man had not been much 
more substantial. They had been fated "mar- 
rows," and a marriage that day makes the heroine 
joint possessor of "the rigs that lie on Hajcel- 
green." 

In Professor Child's "English and Scottish Bal- 
lads" there are no less than five different versions 
given of "John o' Hazelgreen." A friend has 
kindly sent me the following copy (together with 
the Professor's remarks) of the version, which 
suggested to Scott his famous song: — 

"Why weep ye by the tide, ladye? 

Why weep ye by the tideP 
I'll wed ye to my youngest son. 

And ye sail be his bride; 
And ye sail be his bride, ladye, 

Sae comely to be seen" — 
But aye she loot the tears doon fa' 

For Jock o' Hazelgreen. 

"O whatna man is Hazelgreen? 

I pray i^ee tell to me." 
"O there's not a handsomer gentleman 

In a* the South Countrie; 
His arms are long, his shoulders broad, 

Sae comely to be seen!" 
And aye she loot the tears down fa' 
For Jock o' Hazelgreen. 

"This version was given," says Professor Child, 
"on Kinloch's authority. Alexander Campbell, 
when on a tour on the Borders of Scotland to 
collect airs, is said to have received the first 
stanza from Mr Thomas Pringle, who derived it 
from his mother's singing. (Chappell: Topular 



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Music/ p. 575). Upon this traditional stanza was 
built Scott^s 'Jock o' Hasseldean/ first printed in 
Campbell's 'Albyn's Anthology/ 1816/' 

The Alexander Campbell (b. 1764— d. 1824) here 
referred to was a native of Perthshire, but re- 
sided the greater part of his life in Edinburgh, 
where he taught music, etc. He was employed 
as musical tutor to' young Walter Scott. Scott 
afterwards (1826) said of him that he was a "warm- 
hearted man and an enthusiast in Scottish music, 
which he sang most beautifully." He published 
several works and undertook three journeys to the 
Borders, the last in 1816. He published an ac- 
count of one of these journeys in two volumes in 
1802, and it would, in all probability, be from 
Campbell that Scott obtained the first stanza 
which he made use of in his song. 

Last month (May 29) there was offered for sale 
at Messrs Puttick & Simpson's Booms, Leicester 
Square, London, a manuscript copy, in Sir Walter 
Scott's handwriting, of "Jock o' Hazeldean." The 
MS. is said to differ considerably from the pub- 
lished song, and was formerly in the possession 
of Lady Shelley. It went to a Mr Pearson for 
JS32— not a bad ending for "an auld sang!" 

A. G. S. 
« « « « 

BORDER UNWALLED TOWNS. 

Mr G. Watson, in the admirable notes published 
in your June number, proves conclusively tnat 
Jedburgh was not a walled town. But when 
George Buchanan, in his history (1582), speaks of 
it as "a small town, unfortified, as is the custom 
of the country," his generalisation seems to be too 
sweeping. Selkirk, for example, though un- 
walled, was undoubtedly fortified. In the Coun- 
cil Records of 1538, still extant, mention is made 
of the "auld barros cast in time of war." In 1532 
each watch was ordained to mend their own bar- 
rows honestly until they come to the yetts hang- 
ing and then the yetts shall be hung at the com- 
mon expense. Earlier still, in 1509, the "'In- 
quest," as the Town Council was then called, "or- 
dains watches to be keepit by mens and not by 
laddies; and, as was ordanit befor, to walk on 
the back side within the boundis of their watchis 
. . . and to wak quhyll cokraw, and syne to 
warn Stewin of Lauder in the West Port, Thomas 
Johnson in the Under Port, and Wat Haw on 
the East Port." In a map of Haining estate, date 
1757, the town is clearly shown with the lines of 
its fortifications and the three Ports or Gates. 
These gates were hung from large oaken beams 
built into strong walls on either side. I have 
talked with a "Souter" who remembered hearing 
in his youth about the beam across the West Port 
of Selkirk. The gates were hung on huge iron 
hooks attached to the beam. 
"Unhook the West Port and let us gae free, 

For ifs up wi' the bonnets o' Bonnie Dundee." 
Each gate was flanked for several yards by strong 
mason work, from which the earthen rampart 
stretched to the next ports. 

T. Cbaio-Bbowk. 

Selkirk, 2nd June, 1907. 



"THREI DAYS WI' BLUID." 

A burn in the vicinity of Eyemouth is reputed 
to have run three days and nights with blood, 
after a skirmish in 1557 between the English and 



the Scots on a field to the north of the Fort and 
since called the "Barefits,'" because the Scots were 
so hurriedly engaged as not to have found time 
to put Iheir shoes on. The late IDr George Hen- 
derson of Chirnside, quoted the following rhyme 
—as a prophecy of Thomas the Rhymer— in con- 
nection with three burns on Coldingham Moor: — 

At Three-burn Grange at ane after day 
There sail be ane lang and ane bluidy fraye, 
A three-thumbit wight by the reins sail hauld 
Three kingis horsis baith stout and bauld. 
And thae three burns three dayis sail rin 
Wi* the bluid o' the slain that fa' therein. 

Dr Henderson added:— "By the way, we often hear 
of streams running three days with blcod. There 
IS a small stream in the parish of Chirnside, 
called Murderton Burn, which unites with the 
Whitadder at the Bluestone-ford. This is said 
to have been flooded with human gore for three 
days in consequence of a dreadful battle fought 
upon its banks in some nmote age of our history, 
and we have heard of other similarly polluted 
streams in other districrs of Scotland." — Popular 
Rhymes of Berwickshir*;. 

I instinctively thought of the above rhyme last 
^ear on noticing in the eastern part of Cuba a 
river equal in size to our Whitadder, tinged for 
almost three-quarters of a mile with the blood of — 
not human beings — one cow only. 

It is hardly necessary to point out that a small 
quantity of blood will discolour a large quantity 
of slowly running water. I think the Border 
traditions generally convey the impression of dis- 
colouration only, which I can readily understand. 
Material augmentation of the volume of even a 
small stream by inflow of blood is scarcely con- 
ceivable. W. M. S. 

• • « « 

STUART GENEALOGY WANTED. 

I am trying to trace a "William Briscoe St 
George Stuart," who was drowned at Chilhowie, 
in Tennessee, in 1859 or 1860, just before the birth 
of his daughter. Shortly afterwards his wife died, 
and the child was ultimately brought to England 
by her grandmother. As they were detained in 
the Conferedate lines before Richmond for two 
years, all papers were lost, and Miss Mary Stuart 
knows nothing about her father except that he 
said he was descended from the Royal Stuarts, 
and had always said that the child, if a girl, was 
to be named Mary, after his unfortunate ances- 
tress. Mr Stuart edited a paper (name unknown) 
in New York for some time, but no particulars 
can be given. 

Miss Stuart, who is now in Constantinople, ex- 
perienced great difficulty in securing a passport 
from Britain to Turkey, as she was born in Amer- 
ica, and cannot prove that her father or grand- 
father were British subjects. The enquiries after 
her father ought to have been made at once when 
the child was brought to England. 1 fear it is 
now too late, and yet it is just possible that some 
reader of the "B. M." may be able to supply the 
missing links. M. E. H. 

[We have submitted the foregoing interesting 
case to the Stewart Society, but the secretary of 
that influential association regrets that no light 
can be thrown on the subject.— Ed., "B. M."] 



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130 . THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 

TO CORRBSPONDENTS. TO ADVERTISERS. 

All etmimunicatumareUUing to Literary rnaUera 8?iauld All Bvsinesg nutUera, Advertising RaUs^ Ac^ sfunUd 

he addressed to the Editor, Mr William Sandebson, be referred to the Publishers, A. Walkkb & Son, 

St RsnanSj BtUherglen^ near Glasgow. " High Street, Qalashiels 

THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



JULY, 1907. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. p^ok 

The Late Fbancis Lynn, F.S. A., (Scot.). Portrait Supplement. - ^ 121 

The Latk Mr George Ckoal, Edinburoh. - - 124 

The AuthoVof "Wavbbley" on the South Side of the Border. Part II. Two Ilhiatrations. 

By Walter Scott, Gainford. 126 

Border Notes and Queries. 128 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson. 130 

REMiifiscENCES OF LiDDESDAi^B IN Pbb-Railway Days. Part II. 132 

The Border Bookcase. 134 

A Border Valley. One Illustration. By G. Dickson. 135 

The Literature of the Scottish Border. 138 

Brookib's Hole. By Richard Wauqh, Winnipeg. 140 

Poetry— By the Tweed. By Margaret Fletcher. 140 

EDITORIAL NOTES, 

We have time and again pointed out the great advantages to be gained to the heart and mind, and often 
the body as well, by keeping in close touch with the homeland. To city dwellers who are worried with the 
cares and anxieties of business, or the Borderers in far distant lands, what can be more refreshing than to hear 
or read something which reminds them of the scenes and faces of youth. Next to religion, the love of the home- 
land is the purest feeling w^hich can thrill the human heart, and to foster such feelings is the mission of the 
Border Magazine. We cannot carry out the work alone, however; we require the assistance of our readers. 
Say a good word for the B. M. whenever you can. 

The Border Keep 

(In which are preserved paragraphs from various publications, to the authors and editors of which 

we express our indebtedness). 

A short time ago there passed away at Schen- bonnet.'' As it^ turned out, the young hopeful 
ectady, New York, Mr John £/. Laing, a typical was masquerading in his grandfather's pirnie; 
Borderer, who was over 80 years of age. Mr Laing and, needless to say, when his attention was thus 
was born at Ettrick Schoolhouse, but, his mother drawn, the great man made amends to the little 
dying at the time of his birth, and his father fellow, and the friendship was restored. Mr 
shortly afterwards, he was brought tip • by his Laing learned the carpentry trade at Cloven- 
grandparents at Torwoodlee, about a mile from fords, and as a journeyman worked on the rail- 
Galashiels. Laing's grandmother, whose maiden way at Newtown. He emigrated to America 
name was Davidson, possessed a vast knowledge of about sixty years ago. 
old Border literature, and on this account was a « * * * 
great favourite with Sir Walter Scott, who was 

a frequent visitor to the house. Mr Laing used Though the modern youngster enjoys many 
to tell that often has he stood and heard his holidays that were denied to his predecessors, 
grandmother recite "Chevy Chase" and scraps of several old-time festivals have disappeared from 
other Border ballads to Sir Walter, who, it can the scholastic calendar. Among these are the 
well be imagined, proved a most appreciative lis- "Bent SUver Plays" that were long associated 
tener. Mr Laing, even in his old age, had a dis- with the first of June. On that morning it was 
tinct recollection of the " Wizard of the North," customary for every scholar to present the dem- 
and told that when a boy he used to consider it a inie with a penny, which was ostensibly devoted 
duty, as well as a pleasure, to run and open the to the purchase of the "bent" or rushes littered 
gate for him when he saw him come limping up over the schoolroom floor. During the early years 
the hill towards the cottage. On one of these oc- of the eighteenth century it was customary for 
casions Sir Walter was so p re-occupied that he school children to collect the bent. But as l^e 
passed on into the house without bestowing the youthful varlets often damaged trees and shrubs 
usual attention on the little gate-opener. The with their hooks, it ^as deemed advisable to 
boy, however, declined to be passed over in this transform the obligation into a monetary exac- 
manner. and following the great man into the tion. With the death of Lady John Scott, the 
house, planted himself squarely in front of him, gifted authoress of " Annie Laurie," in the spring 
and said : " Mr Sheriff, ye didna see my new of 1900, there passed away the last of the genera- 
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131 



tion that had participated in the "Bent Silver 
Plays." 

^ » » » » 

The stone out of which the statue of Hogg, the 
Ettrick Shepherd, was constructed, was got from 
Whita Hill Quarry, near Langholm. It^ mea- 
sured at the base i feet 10 inches, by 3 feet 8 
inches, tapered towards the top, and was more 
than 7 feet in height. Its weight was about six 
tons. Great difficulty was experienced in getting 
such a huge block down the hill from the quarry, 
but it was accomplished safely, and left Lang- 
holm for the studio of Mr Cux:rie, Darnick, drawn 
by six horses. 

• « « « 

It may not be very widely known that Sir 
Walter Scott made some progress with a Life of 
Shakespeare. He visited Stratford in 1821 and 
again in 1828, and shortly after the earlier visit 
Constable suggestively wrote to Scott, after al- 
luding to the various editions of Shakespeare, 
that a new edition "of the Immortal Bard in 
twelve or fourteen volumes might be brought 
out, with a set of readable and amusing notes." 
On February 25, 1822, Sir Walter wrote to his 
publisher that "a Shakespeare, to say truth, had 
been often a favourite scheme with me— a sen- 
sible Shakespeare, in which the useful and read- 
able notes should be condensed and separated 
from the trash." Constable approved of Scott 
asking Lockhart's assistance with the philology, 
and fixed the remuneration at JB2500. The win- 
ter of 1824-5 was decided upon ab a date of ap- 
pearance. Constable reported in 1825 that the 
work was proceeding. Next year three volumes 
were completed ; but all we know of these volumes, 
alas ! has been told by Constable : after the crisis 
in his fortune they were used as waste-paper I 

* « * * 

In the interesting autobiography of Dr Alex. 
Carlyle, of Inveresk, some excellent glimpses are 
to be had of the social habits of the Scottish 
people and the drinking customs of the clergy. 
Br Carlyle became minister of Inveresk about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, and after a 
pastorate of fifty-seven years, he died in the year 
1805, at the advanced age of 83.- He occupied a 
prominent position in the Church; was well ac- 
quainted with all the eminent men of his time, 
and has left on record some brief but racy ^ktt- 
ches of a number of them. When a young man, 
he states that he was taken by his father, in the 
year 1733, on a tour in Dumfriesshire, accom- 
panied by the Rev. Mr Jardine, of Lochmaben. 
"Among the places we visited," says he, "was 
Bridekirk, the seat of the eldest cadet of Lord 
Carlyle's family, of which my father was de- 
scended. We did not see the laird, who was 
from home; but we saw the lady, who was a 
much greater curiosity. She was a very large 
and powerful Virago, about forty years of age, 
and received us with kindness and hospitality; 
for the brandy bottle— a Scotch pint— made its 
appearance immediately, and we were obliged to 
take our morning, as they called it, which was, 
indeed, the universal fashion of the country at 
that time. The lady, who, I confess, had not 
many charms for me, was said to bo 'ibie to 
empty one of those large bottles of brandy— 
smuggled from the Isle of Man— at a sittin^^. 
They had no whisky at that time, there being no 



distilleries in the South of Scotland. I had never 
seen such a Virago as Lady Bridekirk, not even 
among the oyster-women of Prestonpans. She 
was like a sergeant of foot in women's cloth*^s. 
On our peremptory refusal to alight, she darted 
into the house like a hogshead down a slope, apd 
returned instantly with a bottle of brandy and 
a stray beer glass, into which she filled a bumper. 
After a long grace by Mr Jardine— for it was his 
turn now, being the third brandy bottle we had 
seen since we left Lochmaben — she emptied it to 
our healths, and made the gentlemen foUow rer 
example. She said she would spare me as I 
was so young, but ordered a maid to bring a gin- 
gerbread cake from the cupboard, a luncheon of 
which she put in my pocket. This lady was fam- 
ous, even in the Annandale border, both at the 
bowl and in battle. She could drink a Scots pint 
of brandy with ease; and when the men grew 
obstreperous in their cups, she could either put 
them out of doors or to bed, as she found most 
convenient." 



In an article in the "Book Monthly" on the 
favourite sort of reading with sailors as a class, 
the writer says the short story is very popular 
both among the officers and men of our mercan- 
tile marine. Sailors are not as partial as might 
have been expected to sea stories. When, how- 
ever, they find a man who can write in ship- 
shape and sailor fashion, they like him all right, 
and Clark Bussell's "Wreck of the Qrosvenor" 
is a favourite book. All Sir Walter Scott* s ro- 
mances are in demand, and, in fact, they repre- 
sent the kind of story which is sure to be appre- 
ciated at sea. Other books in demand include 
Milton's Poems, Jerome's "Three Men in a 
Boat," Clark Russell's "John Holdsworth, Chief 
Mate," Dickens's "David Copperfield," Rider Hag- 
gard's "Dawn," and that classic of the sea, 
"Tom Cringle's Log." 



Apropos the r'ecent death of Mr George Croal, 
the announcement that the veteran musician com- 
posed the air of the popular song, "When the 
Kye Comes Hame," has occasioned widespread 
surprise. Strange to say, another lyric that has 
long been regarded as a national heritage was 
the work of one, until recently, numbered among 
the living. Many years ago the late Lady John 
Scott of Spottiswoode favoured a friend with the 
following narrative regarding the composition of 
"Annie Laurie":— "I made the tune very long 
ago to an absurd ballad, originally Norwegian, I 
believe, called 'Kempie Kaye,' and once, before I 
was married, I was staying at Marchmont, and 
fell in with a connection of Allan Cunningham's 
poetry. I took a fancy to the words of 'Annie 
Laurie,' and thought 'they would go well to the 
tune I speak of. I didn't quite like the words, 
however, and I altered the verse, 'She's backit 
like a peacock,' to what it is now, and made the 
third verse ('Like dew on the gowan lying') my- 
self, only for my own amusement." Shortly be- 
fore her death in the spring of 1900, the venerable 
poetess expressed satisfaction at the appreciation 
displayed by Scots all the world over for the 
words that she had wedded to such an appropriate 
air. 

Domini Sampson. 



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Beminiseences of Liddesdale in Pre- 
Railway Days. 

(Part II.) 

jN outstanding event in the religious 
life of the district was the occasion 
of the "Blanket Preaching" at 
Saughtree. This was conducted 
annually, on a Sunday in July, by the Rev. 
John Black, of the Townfoot Meeting-house, 
Newcastleton, a worthy man in his day and 
generation. The place of meeting was on the 
Dawston Bum, about midway between the 
farmhouse of Saughtree and the present rail- 
way station of that name. The site was an 
admirable one, being a natural amphitheatre 
on the hillside, from which no human habita- 
tion could be seen, giving the gathering a 
flavour of Covenanting times. The congre- 
gation, irrespective of kirk or creed, was 
drawn from a wide radius, and with the excep- 
tion of one or two farmers everybody made 
their way to the rendezvous on foot. There 
were neither motor-cars nor. bicycles then, such 
as are now used to swell the crowd at the 
" Blanket Preachings " in Yarrow. Long be- 
before the hour of service men and maidens 
could be seen tripping over the hills from all 
directions. They generally walked bare- 
footed, carrying their shoes and stockings un- 
til they came near the place of meeting. In 
this quiet sanctuary of Nature's architecture, 
surrounded by the everlasting hills, and can- 
opied by the deep blue sky, these services had 
an impressiveness and solemnity seldom ex- 
perienced and never to be forgotten. 

As may well be imagined, the postal facili- 
ties of the time were of the most primitive 
order, and, in the present days of red tapeism, 
it would hardly be credited that Her Majesty's 
mails in Liddesdale were entrusted to Jean 
Elliot, better known as " Lucie Lass," a crazy 
female who could neither read nor write. The 
number of those who remember Jeanie as post- 
runner must now be small, but there are many 
still alive who recollect her in her later years. 
Imagine a face, weather-beaten to a degree, 
and covered with a network of wrinkles laid 
on at different angles, a pair of small piercing 
eyes, overhung by shaggy eyebrows, a closely- 
cropped head, white as snow and without cov- 
ering — a figure of medium height clad in a 
drugget petticoat reaching a little below the 
knee, a man's coat and shepherd's plaid, with 
her feet and legs encased in a pair of Welling- 
ton boots, and you have a life portrait of 
Jeanie " Luce/' the Liddesdale post. In call- 



ing at the farmhouses her favourite seat was 
a comer of the parlour hearth, the kitchen be- 
ing beneath her dignity, and, being related to 
some of the better families, she received much 
toleration from the farmers' wives. There 
was another reason, and a pretty strong one 
too, why Jeanie received more consideration 
than would have been meted out to most people 
in her circumstances. If there was a skeleton 
in the cupboard Jeanie was sure to get to 
know of it, and woe betide those who offended 
her. They had to run the gauntlet of her iU- 
scrapit tongue wherever she met them. 

On Jeanie's retiral she was succeeded by 
Jamie Nichol, a worthy man long since gather- 
ed to his fathers, who continued for many 
years to carry the letters and the local news 
up and down the two watergates, Liddel and 
Hermitage, on alternate days. Of course, his 
journey did not cover anything like the whole 
of the valleys, but the children attending the 
different side schools were utilised as auxiliary 
postmen, and conveyed the letters to, or at 
any rate a stage nearer, their destination. As 
an instance of the straits people were put to, 
and showing the primitive methods adopted 
of supplementing the postal service of the 
time, we knew of a shepherd who resided in a 
remote corner who had a sub-post office fitted 
up for his own use. It consisted of a water- 
proof tin box and a bunch of broom tied to the 
end of a pole. This box was sunk in the 
ground on the top of the hill, where his hirsel 
joined that of a neighbour herd, who lived on 
the more frequented side of the hill. When 
he had a letter to despatch he put it into the 
canister and stuck the pole in the ground, and 
his neighbour, making his rounds and seeing 
the signal, knew there was something in the 
"post office" for removal. Letters arriving 
were similarly treated. 

Except in farmhouses, coal was little used 
as fuel, though the distance to cart it was not 
prohibitive, there being pits at Lewsbum and 
Shilburnhaugh, just across the Northumber- 
land Border. Peat was the principal fuel, the 
casting and winning of which entailed a deal 
of labour, but it was heartsome work, bringing 
together as it did a number of young folks — 
which is just another way of saying that a 
good deal of harmless diversion was engaged 
in — ^a wondrous lightener of labour. First, 
the turf was cut into sections about four inches 
square and fifteen inches long by a spade shap- 
ed for the purpose. These were laid out side 
by side on the heather to dry, and, the weather 
being fine, in the course of ten or twelve days 



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J33 



they required to be turned. After a like per- 
iod they were " winrawed," that is, the peat 
was built loosely into rows so that they were 
exposed to the wind, hence the name " win- 
raw." When quite dry they were built into 
stacks, each containing about a cartload, in 
such a way that be the weather ever so foul 
only the outer ends got wet. As opportunity 
occurred during the summer, the peat was 
carted home and built into a large stack, which 
was thatched with rashes against the winter's 
storms. When well dried peat makes excel- 
lent fuel, and many of the country house- 
wives preferred it to coal. It is now hardly 
used at all — even by the shepherds — since the 
railway has brought coal within easy reach of 
everybody. 

There are many still living, no doubt, who 
remember the railway war which was waged 
during the early fifties. In the Bill before 
Parliament two routes were proposed between 
Hawick and Carlisle. One up Teviot by way 
of Mosspaul and Langholm, and the other 
along the vale of Slitrig, across the Nine- 
stanerigg, and down the Liddel. Feeling ran 
high amongst the promoters and supporters of 
the rival routes, often finding vent in news- 
paper correspondence and poetical squibs. Mr 
Jardine, of Arkleton, near Langholm, a noted 
stock-breeder and greyhound courser, much to 
the vexation of the Langholmites, was a 
staunch supporter of the Liddesdale route, and 
gave evidence in its favour before a Select 
Committee of the House of Commons. On his 
attention being called to a map of the district 
by the opposing counsel, he replied, " I need 
nae map. I ken every fit o' the country." 
A poetical squibist thus referred to the in- 
cident: — 

"Has Jardine gane to mind his dogs 
An' left the maps to minin' rognee; 
He may invest in tups an' hoggs. 

But mind I've said it. 
His cash will sink in Pla^ett'e bogs 

As fast's he's made it." 

On the other hand, a witness having asserted 
that a hundred horse and carts were required 
in the trade of the " Muckle Toon," a Liddes- 
dale rhymster, in referring to the statement 
and to Langholm's great festival — ^the Com- 
mon-Riding — ^promised that when the line had 
been made through Liddesdale — 

"We'll send yon herring frae Dunbar 

Tour standard to nail on. 
And Markie wi' his hunder horse 
Will drive your barley scone." 

When it became known that the present route 



had been fixed on, there were great rejoicings 
along the length and breadth of the valley. 
On 5ie news reaching Newcastleton, Dr Mur- 
ray, a native of the village and an enthusias- 
tic supporter of the Liddesdale route, had his 
gig yoked, and with flags flying carried the 
tidings to the head of Liddel water. •At this 
stage the words of J. B. Selkirk's "Appeal 
from Yarrow " might have been most appro- 
priately used — 

"O touch it not, but let it be 
As Nature has arrayed it, 
As softening time has sanctified 
And poet's fancy made it, 
A vale where world-weary feet 

May come to rest or roam in. 
Where pilgrim love has found so much 
And we have found a home in." 

Eire long the Hutchinsons, the Palmers, the 
Ritsons, and the Ridleys invaded the :iuiet 
valley, bringing with them an army of nav- 
vies, whose uncouth appearance and unfami- 
liar jargon was a wonder to the natives, and 
as one old man tersely put it, " eneuch to fricht 
the verra whaups frae their haunts." fhese 
men came from nobody knew where, and after 
a short sojourn disappeared as suddenly as 
they came. During the brief interval, how- 
ever, they bridged the glens and cut ways 
through the hills, bringing many advantages 
and facilities to the district, but they left be- 
hind them a spirit of unrest that had hitherto 
been unknown. 

The first locomotive, "Puffing Billy*' by 
name, was brought from Carlisle by road 
mounted on a great broad- wheeled timber 
waggon. " Billy " had a most eventful jour- 
ney. At intervals during several weeks news 
reached Upper Liddesdale of the approaching 
monster, and everybody was on the tip-toe of 
expectation. Progress would be reported 
good, and his arrival might be expected daily. 
Then came news of the waggon having sunk* 
to the axles, and it was doubtful if he could 
ever be brought. After a week or so he got again 
on the move, only to capsize a couple of miles 
below " The Holm." Unfortunately, poor Bill 
Smith, who was engaged in the removal, lost 
his life on this occasion, the engine falling on 
top of him. After a struggle with men and 
horses lasting close on a month, " Billy " was 
eventually brought to his destination near to 
Saughtree school, where for several months he 
was utilised in working a. sawmill. 

When his services in that capacity were no 
longer required, he was once more placed on 
the waggon and taken a few miles further up 
the valley. Just beside the remains of a 



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Roman camp, where the Caldron Burn joins 
the Liddel, a temporary railway was laid from 
the turnpike road along the hillside to the 
Border Counties Railway which was under con- 
struction. " Billy '* by some means was trans- 
ferred from the waggon to this temporary 
line, along which he was drawn to the per- 
manent way, where for a time he lent a hluid 
in removing mountains. It was said this was 
the only occasion he had been removed by 
road without loss of life. Though far short of 
our present-day locomotive in size and weight, 
" BiUy " was an uncouth customer to handle, 
being quite as big as a traction engine, and 
had a chimney quite six feet high. 

(To be continued.) 



The Border Bookcase. 

HAWICK ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
TRANSACTIONS. 

Those who are privileged to be members of 
the Hawick Archaeological Society look for- 
ward with pleasure to the annual issue of the 
Society's transactions, as the publication al- 
ways contains a large mass of interesting 
matter by writers who are specially qualified 
to deal with the various topics discussed. This 
year the issue is the fiftieth, and contains, in 
addition to a large number of valuable papers, 
an official account of the jubilee of the Society, 
held last autimin. The indefatigable secre- 
tary, Mr J. J. Vernon, in his Historical Sketch, 
and complete indexes of all the papers contri- 
buted since 1856, with the names of the writ- 
ers, arranged both chronologically and alpha- 
betically, has added very much to the Society's 
indebtedness to him for his painstaking lab- 
ours. A very fine portrait of Dr James A. H. 
Murray, by Mr J. M*Nairn, and other illustra- 
^tions add to the attractiveness of the book. 

« • • 

JEDBURGH RAMBLERS' CLUB ANNUAL 

REPORT. 

Though modestly styled "Reports of Meet- 
ings," this publication is fully entitled to the 
more expressive name ^' Transactions," as it 
contains many valuable additions to Border 
literature. The energetic secretary, Mr J. 
Lindsay Hilson, leaves no stone unturned to 
make the Jedburgh Ramblers a success, and 
the book now before us shows conclusively that 
his efforts are not in vain. The accounts of 
the various visits to historic spots in the Bor- 
derland are most interesting, and the local lore 



gathered together and thus preserved will be 
of much use to writers in the future. The 
numerous finely-printed illustrations are a fea- 
ture of the publication, and add very much to 
its value. With such a land 'as the Border- 
land wherein to ramble, such clubs should be 
multiplied an hundredfold, for the outings, in 
addition to strengthening the physical frames, 
improve the intellects of the members. 
« « « * 

THE WALLS OF BERWICK. 

Those who know the town of Berwick-on- 
Tweed must be aware of the number of por- 
tions of old fortifications which exist, but only 
those who have given any study to the subject 
are aware of the great historical value of these 
fragments of the mode of defence in former 
times. The Berwick Historic Monuments 
Committee have issued the " Official Guide to 
the Fortifications with Explanatory Dia- 
grams." The author is Francis Martin Nor- 
man, Commander R.N., J. P., and Hon. Free- 
man of Berwick. Those who know the deep 
interest Commander Norman takes in such 
subjects will understand that the information 
he has here brought together is of a most re- 
liable character. The booklet is published at 
sixpence by George C. Grieve; 5 Church Street, 
Berwick-on-Tweed, and we would advise those 
who intend to visit the famous Border town 
this season to send the necessary seven stamps 
for a copy, so that it can be studied previous 
to the closer inspection of the brave old ram- 
parts. 

* • « » 

"BETTY." 

The sub-title of this new Border publication 
is " A Journal of Systematic Nonsense," and 
while the author — ^that well-known humorist, 
Mr W. M. Adamson, Ettrickbridge — ^keeps 
faithfully to this special characteristic, he suc- 
ceeds in making " Betty Blether " speak some 
good common-sense. In these days of rush and 
unrestfulness, we are grateful for all the laugh- 
ter we can get, and so we trust that this new 
venture into the world of wit and humour will 
be very successful. The man who can cause a 
smile to pass over a sad face is a public bene- 
factor. The new monthly is issued at the 
price of one penny, and is printed and pub- 
lished by Messrs A. Walker & Son, Galashiels. 

♦ » ♦ # 

"SCOTIA." 
The second issue of this excellent Scottish 
quarterly is now before us, and we have much 



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pleasure in recommending the publication to 
all patriotic Scots. The magazine is the or- 
gan of the St Andrew Society, and is issued 
from the well-known press of R. & R. Clark, 
Limited. The first article in the present is- 
sue is a most important one, the subject be- 
ing "The Teaching of Scottish History — Its 
importance as a scientific study, and its place 
in the curriculum of Scottish schools." The 
author is Mr John S. Samuel, F.R.S.E., and 
is a powerful indictment of the present school 
histories. Those who have any doubts on this 
subject should read the article, and they will 
get their eyes opened very wide indeed. For- 
tunately the publishing firms are alarmed, 
and are preparing new and correct Scottish 
history books. The article in question is fol- 
lowed by a fine patriotic poem by Will H. 
Ogilvie, that exhilarating Border poet who 
has contributed so frequently to our columns. 
Some very important questions are opened up 
in the article, "Are England and Scotland 
Territorial or Racial Terms?" The author, 
Mr T. D. Wanless, Ballarat, Australia — a 
patriotic Scot of the first water — shakes up 
not a few preconceived notions, and should set 
the Anglicisers a-thinking as to the advisabil- 
ity of trying to obliterate such a virile race as 
the Scottish section of the great British Em- 
pire. " Scotia," which is well illustrated, 
should be welcomed by every lover of his 
country. 



A Border Valley* 




^UR beloved Borderland has many 
secluded pastoral valleys. Some of 
these are more accessible, soipe, like 
the Ettrick and Yarrow, have by 
reason of their associations become more wide- 
ly known, but there is not one more sweetly 
beautiful than the little valley of the Ewes, 
that stretches for twelve miles north-east from 
the town of Langholm in the highlands of 
Dumfriesshire. 

In the old coaching days — still within the 
compass of living memory — ^the Edinburgh to 
Carlisle road, that traverses the length of the 
valley, formed a section of one of the main 
arteries of traffic between Scotland and Eng- 
land. Those responsible for the formation of 
the railway, however, avoided this route by a 
long detour into Liddesdale, and the Ewes has 
now no visible association with the noise and 
bustle of the world. It would indeed be diffi- 
cult to imagine a cultivated region more peace- 



ful and secluded. On a fine summer's day one 
can feel and enjoy the silence — a silence only 
intensified by the sweet sounds of nature — 
the plash and ripple of the bums — ^the far- 
away bleating of the sheep on the upland pas- 
tures, and the weird cries of the whaups in the 
more distant solitudes of the hills. 

The river Ewes itself is a typical Border 
stream. Its waters, limpid and clear, un- 
frozen even in the hardest winter, ripple be- 
tween grassy willow-clad banks over a bed of 
the whitest and smoothest gravel. At inter- 
vals in its progress it is joined by little bums 
that come tumbling down picturesque glens, 
with numberless cascades and little rocky 
pools. On either side of the river a belt of 
rich arable land, never at any part very ex- 
tensive, leads up to the bases of the hills, and 
forms the floor of the valley. It is the hills 
that constitute the chief charm of the Ewes, 
and they are in every way characteristic of the 
Southern Highlands. Dotted with broom and 
bracken, and not destitute of heather, their 
general aspect is on the whole smooth and fresh 
and green. As they reach the sky-line they 
break into softly rounded outlines, most rest- 
ful to the eye, and one can trace on their sides 
and summits long reaches of dry-stone dyke 
marking the march lines between adjoining 
farms. 

The valley is nicely wooded along the road- 
way and river banks, chiefly with pine, whose 
dark clumps form a pleasing contrast to the 
softer green of the landscape. 

Proceeding up from Langholm, the traveller 
will first notice, almost at the boundary of the 
parish, a level plateau — ^Arkinholm — ^now 
somewhat appropriately used as a shooting 
range by the local Volunteers. Here in his- 
toric times a sanguineous encounter took place 
between two old Border clans — ^the Douglases 
and Maxwells. On the roadside a little above 
this is a place called Wrea, where in more re- 
cent times dwelt one who was in his day some- 
what of a celebrity — ^the poet Knox, author of 
"The Songs of Zion." On a hillside above 
Wrea a small dump of trees is visible, sur- 
rounded by the remains of a stone wall. They 
were planted, as tiny saplings, by one who ex- 
pressed the wish that he would live long enough 
for his coffin to be made from the wood. I do 
not know whether his wish was ever realised, 
but the special interest lies in the fact that 
that man was the father of Henry Scott Rid- 
dell. He was at that time shepherd at the 
farm of Sorbie, a little further up the val- 
ley, and it was at that place that bis famous 



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son was bom. The ''Mountain Clump of 
Trees " forms the subject of a long poem in 
the poet's published collection. 

At Sorbie a picturesque road — Sorbie Hass 
— Pleads over into Westerkirk, and at the angle 
formed by it and the Ewes road there grew 
till quite recently a fine old hawthorn tree. 
This tree, whose age must have nm into cen- 
turies formed of old the trysting spot at 
which the monks of Melrose in their pilgrim- 
ages were accustomed to meet their faithful 
local adherents. 

A little above Sorbie, by the roadside, is the 



tiying period. Both are forgotten, but they 
rest very peacefully side by side in this quiet 
little churchyard, and their dust has long 
since intermingled. There are no differences, 
ecclesiastical or political, in the grave. 

Opposite the church, and across the river, 
is Upper Glendevon, where once lived (Jeorge 
Easton. He was then working as a road- 
man, but he became eventually an agent in 
Edinburgh of the Scottish Temperance Lea- 
gue, and is well remembered by many all over 
Scotland as a most noteworthy pioneer in the 
great cause of temperance reform. 




THE EWES VALLEY FROM ABOVE SORBIE. 



Parish Church, a very pretty and somewhat 
modern edifice, surrounded by its little 
churchyard, and with an old tree as a belfry. 
There are some quaint inscriptions on some of 
the tombstones, to which space forbids allu- 
sion. There is one dated 1747 to the memory 
of the Rev. Robert Darling, locally known as 
"the malignant" — ^the hated incumbent 
doubtless in the days of the persecution. 
Quite close to it is another, equally old, to the 
memory of another local minister, but one 
who suffered for conscience sake at that same 



About a quarter of a mile above Glendevon, 
and about half a mile from the public road, 
is the mansion-house of Arkleton — ^the ances- 
tral home of the Scott-Elliots. The valley 
here is at its broadest and loveliest. The 
parish school stands by the roadside, on an 
eminence facing Arkleton. Away in the dis- 
tance behind the mansion-house towers Arkle- 
ton Crags, from whose lofty summit on a clear 
day one can look along the whole estuary of 
the Solway, and can trace on the horizon the 
hills of the Isle of Man, and even, it is said, 



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the distant shores of Ireland. Here, too, 
looking down the valley is Sandyhaugh, the 
home for seventy years of Matthew Welsh, 
the poet of the Ewes, whose sonnet adorns the 
end of this contribution, and whose poems 
were conmiended to the readers of the Bordbr 
Maqazinb in a recent issue. 

About two miles above Arkleton, at a little 
distance from the road, is Unthank Church- 
yard, seldom used now as a burying-ground, 
but marking what was at one time the site 
of a Roman Catholic Church. 

A mile or so above Unthank a road 
branches from the Ewes road, and leads, by 
Carwoodridge, through wild — almost alpine — 
scenery, past Hermitage Castle into Liddes- 
dale. Beyond this the valley narrows, and 
the hills come cloiter together, and become 
steeper, until, aa the waterhead is i-eached, 
there is only room for the river, now dwindled 
to a mere rivulet, and the public road. This 
part of the valley forms one of the finest hill 
passes in the south of Scotland, and extends 
for about two miles, until, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Mosspaul, the traveller becomefe 
conscious that he has crossed the watershed, 
and realises tliat the burn, now flowing in the 
opposite direction, must be the head waters 
of the Teviot. 

I can recollect nothing that left such a weird 
impression on my childish fancy, as my first 
sight, in this lonely spot, of the extensive and 
roofless ruins of the famous old hostelry of 
Mosspaul. It must have been a place of im- 
portance in its day, for even in its decay it 
was impressive on account of its size, but with 
the stage-coach its usefulness and glory de- 
parted for ever, and the ruins have now dis- 
appeared to make room for a much smaller 
and more modern edifice. There is still some- 
thing left, however, to remind the present 
generation of times gone by, for in this neigh- 
bourhood, where, for a considerable distance, 
the road is not bordered by hedges, there are 
still standing at intervals one or two of the 
stout wooden poles that served to guide the 
coach through the trackless snowdrift in the 
depths of winter. 

There is little of interest to the historian 
about the Ewes. No ruined castle exists to 
tell of times that were less peaceful, and there 
is little in history or tradition to indicate 
that life in the valley has not always been as 
uneventful as it is to-day. It is highly pro- 
bable, however, that if the hills could speak 
they could tell of some stirring episodes. Our 
freebooting forefathers doubtless knew weU 



the passes from the Ewes into Westerkirk and 
Liddesdale, and the rough path over the hills 
into the security of Tarras Moss. It must 
have been up the Ewes valley, too, that the 
greatest of them all — ^the notorious Johnnie 
Armstrong of Gilnockie — marched with his 
followers, on that historic journey, which 
proved to be his last, and which ended for 
all of them on the gallows at Carlawrigg. 

The successive generations of the historic 
period have not left in the Ewes any visible 
memorial of the times in which they lived and 
moved. 

It is curious, however, that the valley has, 
through all the centuries, preserved the foot- 
prints — fitill plainly distinguishable — of a 
people who flourishcii before the origin of his- 
tory, and before the dawn of civilsiation — 
the Picts or early Britons. 

Probably nowhere else are there so many of 
the well-known rounded camps of these hardy 
warriors within so small a radius. In a 
stretch of about seven miles there are at least 
fourteen of them, all within half a mile of 
the public road, and many in excellent pre- 
servation — truly a rich field for the archieo- ' 
logist. 

Such then is the Ewes. It is, of course, to 
natives like myself that it appeals the most, 
for to us it is filled with reminiscences of 
those youthful joys that never return, and for 
whose loss life perhaps never brings to any 
one sufficient compensation. Independent of 
all such associations, however, I believe that 
even the passing stranger could not fail to be 
struck with its beauty, which I have imper- 
fectly attempted to describe. 

" SequeHtered vale ! m.v loved, my native Ewes, 
Thy beauty's worthy of a nobler song; 
Nor can these broker notes exoress the strong 
Unuttered thoughts that thrill my rustic muse. 
Nor can she the congenial task refuse 
To sing thy limpid streams that wind among 
Thy stately hills, whose outlines sweep along 
The azure sky in peaceful lines profuse. 
And when the shady eve distils its dews. 
The swell and cadence of thy gushing rills. 
Murmuring soft music to the listening hills, 
Can o'er the soul a soothing bliss diffuse. 
Vale of the Ewes! no fairer gem, I trow, 

Is in the crown that circles Scotia's brow." 

G. Dickson. 



Nay, dally not with time, the wise man's treas- 
ure, 
Though fools are lavish on't — the fatal Fisher 
Hooks souls, while we waste moments. 

Motto ('Tlie Monastery.") 



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The Literature of the Scottish 
Border. 

HE limited space at our disposal pre- 
vents us from giving notes of the 
annual gatherings of the various 
Border Associations, except in so far 
as to quote any outstanding speech delivered 
thereat. The annual gathering of the Lon- 
don Border Scottish Counties Association was 
held on the 16th of May last, and as usual, 
thanks to the energy and tact of the hon. sec- 
retary, Mr W. B. Thomson, there was a splen- 
did assembly of prominent Borderers. Dr 
Robertson Nicoll, the editor of the "Britisli. 
Weekly," writing as " Claudius Clear " in that 
widely circulated journal, says : — 

I had the pleasure of attending the annual din- 
ner of the London Scottish Border Counties Asso- 
ciation. The gathering renewed many memories- 
pleasant and painful. There was about it the 
true spirit of the Border. The Lord Advocate, 
who was in the chair, could hardly claim to be n 
Borderer in the full sense any more than I could, 
but he had the qualification of a real knowledge 
and a real affection, and as every one is beginning 
to know, he has the gift of pawky and sometimes 
tender speech. There were many others, among 
them Sir Edward Tenuant, of whose position as a 
newspaper proprietor we have heard a great deal 
of late. Sir Edward is an unpretending and en- 
tertaining speaker. There was also Mark Napier, 
once well known as the Liberal Member for Rox- 
burghshire, a facetious speaker of the best type, 
and very much at home in proposing the toast of 
the ladies. But I cannot complete the list. It 
vas a good list, with sound Border names, like 
Haig and Douglas, in harmonious association with 
others. 

To me fell the honourable duty of proposing the 
Literature of the Scottish Borders. I have var- 
ious claims to be a Borderer, and in particular a 
true love for the Border streams. That, as 
Thomas Tod Stoddart used to say, is the final 
test. To a real Borderer the river must seem 
hallowed water. He must revere its banks and 
channels, its tributaries from this very source, 
and all belonging to it. When you think of it you 
perceive that this is the Border passion. No 
doubt it is greatly strengthened by love of angling, 
but it is independent of that. Scott styled himself 

No fisher. 

But a well-wisher 

To the gaine! 

It may be that the greatest days of fishing are 
over. Stoddart, who was my close neighbour dur- 
ing the last three years of his life, belonged to 
the generation of giants. He was the friend of 
Christopher North, of whom it is told that he 
once walked fourteen miles to the place where he 
meant to begin angling, discovered that he had 
left his book of flies at home, walked back, re- 
turned again to the loch side, and made his way 
home in the evening with two stone weight in the 
creel on his back. He tells us in one of his 
angling reminiscences about twilight fishing in 



the summer, and leads us to believe that night 
fishing, when it is so dark that you cannot see 
the flies or the line, is often very successful in the 
' Tweedy though the angler is gxuded only by the 
senses of touch and hearing. Four champions 
had a match on one occasion, and the two former 
captured sixty-eight pounds of trout, while the lat- 
ter scored flfty-one. But Thomas Davidson, the 
Scottish probationer, and many others did little 
or nothing at angling, and yet loved Tweed and 
Teviot as dearly as Stoddart loved them. 

Whenever you begin to think of the literature 
of the Border, it is the name of Scott that comes 
up. Dr Hake, in his reminiscences, tells of an 
old lady who suffered from the decay of memory. 
She could remember, however, the next word, and 
so when repeating Lord Lytton's earlier names. 
Sir Edward Lytton Bulwer Lytton, could never 
stop, because after Lytton she was forced to say 
Bulwer, after Bulwer, Lytton again, and so on for 
ever. In the same way one might go on saying 
Scott Border, Border Scott, without end. Not 
that Sir Walter Scott began the literature of the 
Border. As an eloquent critic tells us, the Bor- 
der rivers are the ancient homes of poetry, since 
True Thomas left Leader Water for the streams 
of fairyland, since the Bard of Bule was slain by 
a minstrel's sword, since the dying knight's blood 
reddened the Douglas Burn, and Cockburn's widow 
bewailed her outlawed lord, and a slain lover was 
sought by his lady in vain near the Dowie Dens of 
Yarrow. It was Scott who interpreted to the 
whole world and to all time the romance of the 
Border. It was fit that he should begin his 
career by collecting the Border Ballads. No one 
could have done that so well, even though he did 
not satisfy the old peasant mother of James Hc^g, 
the Ettrick Shepherd. It was from her he re- 
ceived many of his pieces, and she told him that 
there was never one of her songs printed until 
he had printed them, and that in so doing he had 
entirely spoiled them. "They were made for 
singing an' no for reading; but ye hae broken the 
charm now, an' they'll never be sung mair. An' 
the worst thing o' a'," she added, "they're nouther 
right spell'd nor right setten down." Who shall 
speak worthily of Scott? Mr Lang has spoken as 
well as any. " We scarcely need a word (it would 
be seldom in use) for a character so rare, or 
rather so lonely in its nobility and charm, as 
that of Walter Scott. Here in the heart of your 
own country, among your own grey, round- 
shouldered hills (each so like the other that the 
shadow of one falling on its neighbour exactly 
outlines that neighbour's shape), it is of you and 
of your works that a native of the forest is most 
frequently brought in mind. All the spirits of 
the river and the hill, all the dying refrains of 
ballad and the fading echoes of story, all the 
memory of the wild past, each legend of burn and 
loch seem to have combined to inform your spirit, 
and to secure themselves an immortal life in 
your song. It is through you that we remember 
them, and in recalling them as in treading each 
hillside in this land, we again remember yon and 
bless you." 

Sir Walter's life was at the end too sad, but 
it is good to think how much happiness he en- 
joyed. It is good to think of the way in which his 
least writings moved his contemporaries. It is 
told that when "Bokeby" (to be pronounced 



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"Kookby/' I believe) appeared only one copy 
reached Cambridge, and the happy student who 
secured that was followed by an eager crowd de- 
manding that the poem should be read aloud to 
them. Yet " Rokeby *' was by no means one of 
Scott's chief achievements. We read that when 
" Marmion " was sent out to the Peninsular, - 
parties of officers were made up nightly in the 
lines of Torres Vedras to hear and revel in the 
new wonder. Sir Adam Fergusson and his com- 
pany of men were sheltered in a hollow at the 
battle of Talavera. Sir Adam read the battle 
scenes from " Marmion " aloud to pass away the 
time, and the reclining men cheered lustily, 
though at intervals the screech of the French 
shells sounded overhead. Scott had perhaps as 
many acquaintances as any one, but he was not 
merely a man of acquaintanceships, and his true 
friends were of all classes, from Tom Purdie and 
Willie Laidlaw to the Duke of Buccleuch, Morit 
of Rokeby, Qeorge Ellis, Mr Skene, Joanna Bail- 
lie Erskine, the Ettrick Shepherd— the list might 
b?. indefinitely lengthened. True it is that the 
reverent memory of the Border is always inex- 
plicably blended with the memory and the love 
of Scott. 

Then there was James Hogg, the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, in his own way the possessor of a genius as 
marvellous and as lonely as that of Scott himself. 
Indeed, one is sometimes disposed to think that no 
achievements in literature are more inexplicable 
than those of James Hogg. He was comparatively 
advanced in life before he could read and write 
easily. He never sat down to commit a song to 
paper without first removing his coat and waist- 
coat, as if for some unusual exertion, while the 
rapid cramping of his wrist prevented his writ- 
ing more than some four to six lines at a time. 
Things went against him, but he said, " I was 
generally more cheerful when most unfortunate.'* 
He managed, with great labour, to become a far- 
mer, but he failed, and was sold up and cold- 
shouldered. He tells us himself that after he had 
appeared as a poet, and had broken down as a. 
farmer, he could find no one willing to engage 
him as a shepherd. Sir George Douglas, his bio- 
grapher, most happily recalls the parallel case of 
Gabriel Oak in Mr Hardy's story, who remains 
unhired in the market place of Casterbridge, when 
to the inquiries of successful farmers as to whose 
farm he had worked on last, he was compelled 
. to reply, " My own." Yet what a heart the Shep- 
herd kept ap ! He wrapped his plaid about him 
and set out for Edinburgh, determined to push 
his fortunes as a literary man. Four years after 
he wrote to a friend, "It pleased God to take 
away by death all my ewes and my lambs, and my 
long-horned cow, and my spotted bull, for if they 
had lived and I had kept the farm of Corfadin, 
I had been a lost man to the world and man- 
kind, and never have known the half that was 
in me." It was in 1815 that he wrote the incom- 
parable " Kilmeny." If one had to choose that in 
all Scottish literature which could least be spared, 
he might say that the rarest, if not the greatest, 
of all its jewels is this very poem : — 

" When many a lang day had come and fled.. 
When grief grew calm, and hope was dead. 
When mass for TCilmeny's soul had been sung, 
When the bedesman had pray'd, and the dead 
bell rung; 



Late, late in a gloamin' when all was still, 
When the fringe was red on the westlin hill. 
The wood was 'sere, the moon i' the wane, 
The reek o' the cot hung o'er the plain. 
Like a little wee cloud in the world its lane; 
When the ingle lowed wi' an eiry leme 
Late, late in the gloamin' Kilmeny came hame !" 

Few will ever know all there was in Hogg; few, 
indeed, will go through the many volumes of his 
stories, well worth reading as they are, and fewer 
still will search the periodicals where much of his 
writing is buried for ever. Thomas Tod Stod- 
dart was not on the same level as Scott and Hogg, 
but he had a touch of genius notwithstanding, 
and his love for the Tweed was as devout and 
faithful as that of Scott himself. Forty' years be- 
fore his death he wrote :— 

" And I, when to breathe is a burden, and joy 
Forgets me, and the life is no longer the boy. 
On the labouring staff and the tremulous knee. 

Will wander, bright river to thee! 
And the hymn of the furze, when the dew-pearls 

are shed. 
And the old sacred tones of thy musical bed, 
Will cicse, as the last mortal moments depart 
The golden gates of the heart!" 

This was a note which Stoddart prolonged to 
the last. 1 remember him writing almost every 
week verses in the "Kelso Mail" expressing his 
devotion to the Tweed, and his joy in the thought 
of being buried beside it. 

" My resting-place by thee would have. 
And thy song at the ear of my grave." 

But the most beautiful and finished form in which 
he rendered this aspiration is to be found in the 
memorable lines : — 

•* Sorrow, sorrow, speed away 

To our angler's quiet mound. 
With the old pilgrim, twilight grey. 

Enter thou the holy ground; 
There ne sleeps, whose heart was twined 

With wild stream and wandering burn. 
Wooer ot the western wind. 

Watcher of the April morn!" 

With these lines may go those of another be- 
loved Borderer, Thomas Davidson, the Scottish 
probationer : — 

•* I've been happy above ground, 
1 can ne'er be hi^ppy under; 
Out of Teviot's gentle sound. 
Part us then not far asunder." 

So dearly have the Borderers loved their rivers. 



The daisy's flower 
Again shall paint your Bummer bower 
Again the hawthorn shall supply 
The garlands you delight to tie ; 
.The lambs upon the lea shall bound, 
The wild birds carol to the round, 
And while you frolic light as they, 
Too short shall seem the summer day. 

**Marmion." 



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Brockie's Hole. 

{By EiCHABD WAuae, Winnipeg). 

I have read with special pleasure the paper by 
A. L. A. Sudden on "Dookin' in Tweed," which 
appeared in the February issue of the Boeder 
Magazine. He is a trifle short, however, in his 
information about Brockie's Hole. A century ago 
Willie Brockie was a farmer at Blackdykes, away 
behind Broiherstone Hill, and occasionally visited 
our vil'age to spend a few hours with old cronies. 
Leaderfoot Bridge was a long way round, and he 
usually forded the 1 iver at Will Gray's, the Earl's 
gardener, just a few yards above the Gullet. One 
day the risk of crossing at such a dangerous ford 
as that was, and is now, if the river is in heavy 
flood, was 80 obvious that his cronies very ear- 
nestly dissuaded him trom making the attempt. 
Even he would not venture it on horseback, but 
there was still another alternative. He led the 
horse up to the corner of the Sker and pushed it 
into the stream, catching on to the tail, and got 
safely across. "Brockie winna droon" was his 
triumphant vindication of the perilous venture, 
and the whisky inside kept the s<)aking from do- 
ing him any harm. ' 

I am pretty certain it was the same Willie 
Brockie who, as a retired farmer, lived 70 years 
ago in a cottage just east of John Hamilton's 
little thatched grocery and public-house at the 
west end of the village, Jcfhn Younger owning an- 
other thatched house east of him. Jenny the 
Laird and her husband, James Jeffreys, afterwards 
lived in the same house. It was built by Tam 
Faton. And down the close, behind Jenny tne 
Laird, also lived Jenny and Tam Lumsden during 
my boyish days. My mother in those days had al- 
ways two, and sometimes three, cows, and Willie— 
we called him Maister Brockie — came every night 
for a pennyworth of milk, of which his cats got 
nearly all". The cows dried up in winter, and my 
mother divided it as far as it would go among 
such customers as had small bairns, cutting down 
Willie's share to an odd bawbee's worth if there 
was any to spare. I can well recollect his earnest 
protestations against this unequitable division, 
but she was inexorable, though her own brood 
had to put up with a very scanty allowance so as 
to give him a small share. 

One of Brdbkie's half tipsy freaks was to take 
home a pound of tea, then six or %even shillings 
a pound, and, giving a brew of it to the brood 
sow, she did not relish it as he expected, and he 
declared "she was far ower nice to refuse what his 
mistress likit sae we^." 

I have, for the last few weeks, been making 
holiday at the west coast, and had friendly cracks 
with several Borderers there. Thomas A. Bry- 
don, a successful builder and fruit grower at Vic- 
toria, B C, is a son of Brydon of Kedfordgreen, 
end grandson of the Ramsaycleuch Brydon of a 
century ago. Wattie Scott, another resident of 
Victoria, is the last of a family that has farmed 
in Ashkirk parish for perhaps a century. A 
brother died at Ladhope there about two years 
ago. I might nr.m^ some others from the Border 
side, one the widow of one of the Woods of Bank 
head, St Boswells, where I built a he use for his 
father f fty years ago. She has two sons in Vic- 
toria. 

A fortnight ago I looked up the captain of 
H.M.S. "Egeria," then lying in port preparatory 



to another season's surveying along that wild and 
roclLy coast, and tound, as 1 expected, that he is 
n son of Col. Ijearmonth, who rented the Pavil- 
ion, near Melrose, tnirty years ago. We had a 
very iiearty 'i*weeaside talk together, going over 
all tne iiattonside worthies, 'i'bm Fox and otner 
ancients. 

some months ago I visited the eighty-tive year 
oia son of Uaptain tiibbald of Benrig, who was 
witti iNelson at Tratalgar and afterwards a haU- 
pay captain at lienrig J^irth and iikllnburgh. Sib- 
Daia, tne younger, nas been married titty-five 
years, and ne ana his Wife are still hale and 
hearty 150 miles west of Winnipeg. His sister 
over eignty, is an occasional correspondent of 
mine, bne also was at school with me seventy 
years ago, and twice my age then. She lives now 
in Alabama 



By the Tweed. 

There is a dell where the primrose blows 
With a grace no other primrose knows. 
Where the blackbird pours out a richer note 
Than falls from another blackbird's throat. 
Where the trees proudly seek to kiss the sky. 
And Tweed sweetly croons as he wanders by. 

There is a dell where the bluebell waves 
On a fair green bank which a brown burn laves. 
Where the brown rat bathes with a hurried plop. 
And the dry twigs rustle and softly drop. 
Where the rabbit and field mouse venture out. 
Like phantoms of dreamland to flit about. 

There is a dell .where the whispering breeze 
Speaks gently of peace to the listening trees. 
Where a tattered hedge skirts the mossy sward. 
And the close set graves of an old churchyard. 
Where a time-stained church from its lone retreat 
Keeps watch o'er the sleepers at its feet. 

There is a dell where the dew still wets 

At noonday the blue forget-me-nots. 

Where none but the truant sunbeams play 

On a path that follows Tweed's winding way, 

Where Nature showers with a loving hand 

The wealth that she yields not to man's demand. 

There is a dell where the wanderer turns 
In dreams, and his lonely heart still yearns 
Through the flight of years for the cool deep shade 
And the soothing silence of that green glade, 
Wheie in youth's spring the throb of his heart's 

unrest 
Found its tumult stilled— found one short hour 

blest. 

Maboabst Fltfchbb. 



W^e know not when we sleep nor when we wake, 
Visions distinct and perfect cross our eye, 
Which to the shimberer seem realities ; 
And while £hey waked, some men have seen 

such sights 
As set at nought the evidence of sense, 
And left them well persuaded they were dream* 

ing. 

Motto C'Anne of Geierstein.") 



Printed and Published by A. Walker k Son, Galashiels. 

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SUPPLEMENT TO THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 

VOL. XII.. NO. iAO, 




THE LATE MR JOHN McGALL OF HALLYDOWN, 

1826-1003. 



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^ 




HALLYOOWN FROM THC WC8T. 




COLOiNQHAM FROM THC CAST. 




S.-C. View COLOINGHAM PRIORY. A.O. 1789. 



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THE EAST PART OF BERWICKSHIRE IN THE YEAR 1771. 

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AM ILLUSfaATEa moHthlv 



DEVOTED TO 

Border Biography, History, Literature, and 
Folklore. 

Edited by William Sanderson. 



Vol. XIL, No. 140. AUGUST, 1907. [all rights reserved. 



THE LATE MR JOHN McQALL, OF HALLYDOWN. 

By W. M. S. 




NOTARIAL instrument, dated at 
Coldingham 6/2/1597, narrates that 
"John Hoppar, John Maling, John 

Cosar in Coldingham, Gavin Renton, 

Robert Maltman, Thomas Johnestone, Patrick 
Purvis, James King, John Arneil, Thomas 
Sandersone, John Macgall, John Blak, Mungo 
Hoppar, Mungo Vobstar, John Polwart, John 
Cosar younger in Rikilsyde and Thomas 
Lumsdeane in Boganegreen, obliged them- 
selves not to send any of their corn to any 
mills save those of Coldingham and Eyemouth, 
providing the millers there grind them within 
forty-eight hours of their going to the mill and 
conveying the corn to and from their houses, 
giving the neighbours no cause to complain of 
their service; or otherwise they protest that 
they will be free to go to whatsoever other mill 
they please until such fault is amended. If 
they do otherwise, they consent to pay a pen- 
alty of 20s for the first fault, 40s for the sec- 
ond and so on, doubling the penalty on every 
subsequent transgression thereof." 

Truly, "The way of the transgressor is hard." 

The great preponderance of the name of 

John amongst these old-time worthies is a 

curious circumstance ; more interesting still to 



find a resident in this neighbourhood three 
hundred years ago who probably was an ances- 
tor, but any way a farmer and a namesake of 
the late Mr John McGall, the subject of this 
sketch. No need to study theories about the 
derivation of Hallydown, his home for half a 
century and more, where boyish visitors to its 
ever-kindly resident received a never-failing 
welcome with many an hour's amusement and 
instruction in the folklore of the district, the 
episodes of farming life, the topics of pre- 
railway days. Old manuscripts and maps re- 
fer indifferently to Halydeane, Hallyden, and 
Halydoun, which, from an elevation of three 
hundred feet above sea-level, overlooks the 
vale of Coldingham, with Priory Church and 
antiquated village, St Andrew's Well and 
Scape Burn. 

Unlike its namesake (Halidon Hill, some 
seven miles neai-er Berwick), Hally- 
down is not associated with a sanguinary 
battle scene, though doubtless many a forayer 
has hurried o'er its crest, where Royalty in 
olden times has scanned "ye fay re ai^d plea- 
saunte prospecte o' riche land is and rolling 
waters" there revecded. 

Nor' westerly the Lammermoors tail 



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eastward to the eea, terniii)at^ingj two 
miles beyond our vision at Fast Castle 
or "Wolfs Crag." Our only loch of 
Coldingham lies hidden in that moorish ridge 
near Earnsheugh, said to be the highest cliff 
(five hundred feet) 'twixt Flamboro' Head and 
Aberdeen for Berwickshire to plmne itself 
upon. Alas, the Ernes no longer plume them- 
selves upon that mighty precipice ; the lurid 
language of the scarlet-coated golfer, the whizz 
of gutta-percha balls adown its dizzy face have 
driven the self-respecting falcons from their 
ancient solitudes. The rugged camps 
remain, however, and a waterfall by 
Westerside, dropping abruptly fifty feet 



bouring bay can show a small peninsula where- 
on stands what some wise folk say is a relic of 
kelp-burning days, others again a Druid's 
altar ; wiser folk are silent on that burning 
point. The North Sea billows break against 
the ruddy banks of Hallydown, and traces of 
a British fort are visible by Linkim shore. A 
so-called Snmggler's Cave lies further east be- 
tween the Crinnells and the Killiedraught* — 
far too conspicuous, too wet we think, for 
harbouring illicit goods which were invariably 
concealed in — Tuts ! tuts ! 'twould be unfair to 
tell tales of our kindly fisher folk, for in the 
east their deep-sea boats pursue a nobler in- 
dustrv^ 




VIEW FROM AVTOUN HILL, LOOKING NORTHWARD TO ST. ABBS. 



to the lonesome beach below. We may 
not plume ourselves too much upon our 
only cataract unless 'tis raining heavily md 
the mill sluice-gate wide open. 

LfOok northerly, St Ebba landed in 
that bay whose rugged headland reared 
its holy cell to seabirds' wondering 
scream, and orisons from nunnery walls 
arose in Saxon Coldinghame. Neai-er at 
hand, the village of St Abb's ; why did the 
residents discard its ancient designation of The 
Shore? Alas! so-called improveiiieiits have 
effaced the quaintness of the fishing hamlet of 
a generation back. The Sands are being simi- 
larly marred, but, by the way, their neigh- 



From Killielaw you look right down on the 
historic Fort and "Barefits" battleground; on 
Eyemouth also and, beyond its bay, on Guns- 
green where auld Tjogan o' Kestalrig was "airt 
and pairf' in the Gowrie Plot, you know. 

Inland, spanning the water Eye but out of 
sight, is the very first suspension bridge in- 
stalled in Scotland ; proud we are about it too, 
but pride in Berwickshire is quite excusable. 

Southerly, the trees aiul tower of Highlaws 
hide old Lintliill house, where Norman Ross 
stabbed Lady Home and fled for shelter by a 
rock which bears his name near Buckorlands 
by the Alemill road. He was the last — 
Feather in Berwickshire's cap? Ah, no — man 



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143 



pilloried in Scotland, hand lopped of!, then 
executed, tarred and hung in chainsi on the 
Figgate Whins at Leith. Look southerly 
upon that mighty tableland of Lamberton, 
where Hindohester and Habchester or "hie 
Drumau " are crowned with prehistoric forts 
and — See! ye catch a distant glimpse of 
"Cheviot mountains blue.** T^en in the west, 
from Ayton on to Earlston, erfends the match- 
less Merse through what undoubtedly — so 
every Merseman thinks, no matter what the«e 
jealous bodies *'wast o' Lauder'' say — is the 
"braidest, bonniest'* county in the Scottish , 
Borderland. 

Amid this pleasing blend of sea and land- 
.scape scenery, of peaceful industry and vestiges 
of ancient warfare, John McGall was bom in 
1826 at Coldingham and educated in the par- 
ish school presided over by John Gray; a stem 
upholder of the tawse for teaching purposes, a 
•dealer out of knowledge with a most imspar- 
ing hand. Leaving that place of learning at 
the age of fourteen years, the more congenial 
study of farming was commenced and followed 
out for five years at the Law, then tenanted by 
Mr Glen. Another year was spent sheep-farm- 
ing with a Mr Chimside at Hoprig, followed 
by a course of chemistry and veterinary sur- 
gery at the University of Edinburgh. 

Thus practically and scientifically trained in 
agriculture, Mr McGall betook himself to 
Huntingdonshire, travelling on the Great 
North Road by stage coach, startmg from the 
White Hart Hostel, Edinburgh, chang- 
ing horses at the Bell Inn, Haddington, George 
and St Andrew at Dunbar, Press Inn (at which 
our traveller would secure his seat), Red^Lion 
at Berwick, the Post House, Belford, Swan at 
Alnwick, Phoenix at Morpeth, finally arriving 
at the Black Bull Inn, Newcastle, whence an 
early type of "Puffing Billy'* locomotive 
gave the jaded passenger a reasonably 
rapid means of transit to his destination. A 
-sojourn in the south for seven years was not 
deroid of interest ; agrarian troubles of a ser- 
ious nature rose within the district where he 
acted as farm manager or bailiff in two sit- 
uations. He often told in after years about 
midnight alarms and scenes of actual violence, 
to which wo, of -4 later generation, list- 
ened with a kind of fearful glee. 

Returning north to Berwickshire in 1852, for 
fifty-one years subsequently the cares and 
burdens of the extensive Border farm of 
Hallydown devolved upon him. Married to 
Miss Jane Wilson Renton of Coldingham, 
Tie lost his only son in infancy, and 
then his wife a quarter of a century ago. His 



only daughter married Thomas Purves, Esq., 
Berwick, and when, through failing health, Mr 
McGall relinquished active outdoor work at 
Hallydown, his chief delight was having his 
grandchildren grouped around him. During 
all these long, long years in Berwickshire, a 
familiar figure at &e weekly Berwick market, 
he unweariedly, ungrudgingly devoted time 
and thought to everything connected with the 
public weal. Chairman for the first and second 
trienniitl periods of the Coldingham School 
Board, as well as of some other public insti- 
tutions, no better, more respected, nor more 
useful resident in the county could be named. 

His great ability as an authority in agri- 
culture was often utilised for valuations and 
arbitrations of a complex character. 

Being an original member of the 
East Coast Disaster Fund, he freely gave 
his services and sympathy to the widow 
and the fatherless, stricken by the 
dreadful storm which devastated our 
coast line and so frightfully depleted our sea- 
going population on the 14th of October, 
1881. Mr McGall was a witness of the vio- 
lence of that hurricane, fighting his way with 
difficulty to the verge of the sea-banks bor- 
dering his farm, where he, though strong and 
heavily built, was, to quote his own expres- 
sion, "blown about like a pair of mittens.'* 

Well versed in all the bygone features of 
our countryside, it is but fitting to record his 
interest by giving a reprint of an old map of 
the eastem section of our coimty, whereon is 
shown the former Great North Road, and 
mention made 01 many farms whose very sites 
are scarcely now discernible. Comparison may 
be instituted between this curious map of 1771 
and its predecessor of 1645, reproduced in the 
BoRDBB Magazdjh for January, 1901. 

Reluctantly compelled by the infirmities of 
age to finally retire from public life, this wor- 
thy gentleman was the guest at a dinner given 
in his honour in Coldingham, and presided 
over by another worthy Borderer — ^the late 
Col. Milne Home — ^at which he was the re- 
cipient of a handsome tea and coffee service, 
with a silver salver bearing this inscrip- 
tion : — 

"Presented, along with a solid silver 
tea and coffee service,- to John McGall, 
Esq., farmer, Hallydown, by the Heritors and 
Ratepayers of the Parish of Coldingham, and 
Other Friends, in recognition of his long and 
faithful services as a member and Chairman 
of the Heritors, Parochial Board, School Board, 
and Parish Council of Coldingham. 

18th March, 11597." 



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At the good old age of seven tynseven this 
useful and unselfish life of one esteemed by 
everybody came to a close on the 10th of 
August, 1903, and rest was found within the 
holy ground of the Priory Church of Colding- 
ham, leaving a blank not easily filled. 

His friends — and all who knew him were his 
friends — who pass along the now more solitary 
road on Killielaw, perchance at sunset when 
St Abb's Head Lighthouse sends 

"A ruddy gleam of changeful light. 
Bound on the dusky brow of night," 

across the "hollow sounding and mysterious 
main," aye miss the hearty handshake, kindly 
voice of John McGall of Halltdown. 

« « « 

Thfe portrait in the supplement is from a 
photograph by Mr W. Green, of Berwick, and 
the views of Hallydown and Coldingham were 
photographed by Mr Flett, of Eyemouth. 



The Border Bookcase. 

THE GREY-WALLED TOWN. 

So many Borderers visit Berwick-upon-Tweed 
during the summer and autumn months, that 
we feel we are doing them a service by drawing 
their attention to the excellent book " A Grey- 
Walled Town : Stray Notes on Berwick-upon- 
Tweed," pubUshed at One Shilling by the 
" Advertiser " Printing Works there. Intending 
visitors should procure the book and ** read up " 
the history, &c., of the famous town before they 
go there. The author is Mr John Jarvie, who 
has done his work well. In a short preface he 
says that his book is 

"An attempt— how far successful the reader must 
judge — to embody in a popular form something of 
the spirit which prompted Principal Cairne on 
one occasion to exclaim to an Audience he was 
addressing from the Town Hall steps* 'I love 
every stone of Berwick.' No one can remain long 
in or know much of the little Border town, whose 
every corner has some reminder of a glorious 
past, without feeling some stirrings of that emo- 
tion, and, therefore, I am not without hope that 
this' book may find at any rate a few appreciative 
readers." 

The author may be correct in saying that his 
book " does not covet the ambitious place of a 
history of Berwick," but the following opening 
paragraphs will show how qualified he is to 
make the past live again. 

"Many years ago the youthful Lavengro, on a 
glorious morning of spring, found himself looking 



down from the southern eminence which over- 
looks Berwick, this grey town of the past, and the 
goodly scene called from him a noble tribute, and 
*I had unconsciously laid myself down/ he de- 
clares, 'on haunted ground.' We take with him 
our stand on that Elvir Hill, and thus the sorcery 
of the place comes over us. 

"The mists of the age* roll back. Before our 
eyes for a moment flits a glimpse of the beginnings- 
of this old town. See from the northward those 
savage hordes of Picts and Scots, sweeping down, 
from their mountains and moorlands, hear their 
barbaric cries as success in their savage warfare 
opens up to them vistas of plunder. Jind across 
those white-crested waters of the restless North 
Sea mark the approach of the hardy Norsemen 
and Banes, their piratical craft urged on with 
sail and oar towards this devoted little group of 
primitive dwellings, where already are laid the 
foundations of future greatness, ihus in slaugh- 
ter and pillage, harryings and sudden descents by 
sea and land, begins the fateful history of that 
Berwick which shall in later years be Known to 
men as the most distressful city of three king' 
doms. 

"Again the mists divide, and once more the- 
elfic denisens of Elvir Hill unroll the panorama 
of the past before our eyes. Years have gone by, 
and the little hamlet has grown to a town whose 
interests are already widespread. To its harbour 
sail argosies from afar, bringing and taking ricii 
merchandise; to its gates ride couriers, and in 
the council room of its castle sit statesmen and 
courtiers. Under the shelter of that castle is the 
royal residence of David the First, 'ane sair sanct 
for the crown,' whose reign marks the end «f 
Celtic Scotland and the real beginning of its nat- 
ional life, and who raised Berwick to the dig- 
nity of chief of the four royal burghs, and first 
built its great stronghold. But again the storm- 
clouds gather over the" fair and prosperous scene. 
The armies of William the Lion march south- 
ward with all the pomp and circumstance of war, 
but the Conquerors who march back bear other 
banners, and Berwick for the first time becomes 
an English possession. A few years pass, and 
Richard of the Lion Heart takes his hansom while 
the King of Scots resumes his fortress. Then the- 
panorama moves on and scenes of ruthless war 
are again brought oefore our eyes. Tlie flames 
leap up to the crimson sky, and as the retreat- 
ing army of the merciless King John marches 
south, behind them thunders down the bridge 
which connects England and Scotland, and in 
smoke and fire the devoted city is once more swept 
from its proud pre-eminence. 

"Yet again the mist of ages rolls back. Again 
We see a fair and prosperous city which has risen 
phoBuiz-like from the ashes of that other. Only^ 
a year or two have flown in the interval, but in 
that short period Berwick has regained its former 
proud place among towns — nay, more, for favour- 
ed by a breathing space of peace it has grown 
in size, in appearance, and in importance, till 
now it can proudly write itself the commercial 
capital of Scotland, 'a city so populous and of such 
trade that it might justly bf called another Alex- 
andria, whose riches were the sea and the water 
its walls.' Its customs are a welcome contribu- 
tion to the exchequer of kings, excelling those of 
almost every other port, equalling indeed in one 
year one fourth of the total of all England. For 
over half a century its star is in the ascendantr 



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and in peace and prosperity its merchants ply 
their lucrative callings; the rich produce of the 
Tweed valley finds here its natural outlet, and its 
ships sail the northern sea laden with their mer- 
chandise. But again the clouds begin to lower 
over the fair scene. There in the great hall of 
Berwick Castle, on that fateful 17th of Novem- 
ber, 1292, Edward the First, 'the hammer of the 
Scots,' gives his momentous decision ' as to the 
destiny of the Scottish crown — a decision which 
ere long again results in the sounding of the war 
trumpet. Again before ns rises the scene of a 
hostile army moving on the unfortunate town. 
At its head rides the great Plantagenet on his 
huge charger Bayard, and he it is who is first to 
leap the earth work defences and enter the town. 
It is the same dread tale again. Hear the shock 
of arms, the cries of attacked and attackers; see 
the. streets running red with the life-blood of 
brave men slain in defence of home and kin; . 
mark once more how the mad flames leap and soar 
as the deadly firebrand completes the work of de- 
struction. Amid the lurid scene one act of heroic 
bravery stands out across the centuries. Tliere 
in the centre of the town is the famous Red Hall 
of Commerce, Eialto of those Flemish traders 
who have made its name known throughout bar- 
gaining Europe. Here have they done as they 
shall do this day of blood and slaughter. Men 
they are to whom a bargain is sacred, and their 
bargain is that 'at all times as a condition of their 
tenure of this Red Hall they shall defend it 
against the King of England. True to their bond, 
thirty of these brave men hold it till the even- 
ing, through all that fearful day, against an other- 
wise unchecked army, and as the darkness of 
night comes down, there, amid the flames and the 
falling rains, they perish, fighting to the last. 
And with them passes for all time Berwick's hope 
of commercial greatness." 



AN OLD-TIME FISfflNG VILLAGE— 
EYEMOUTH. . 

When speaking of the Borderland we are too 
apt to think only of the hills and valleys more 
particularly associated with the name of Sir 
Walter Scott, and to forget that we have a sea- 
board, and that not a few of the hardy sons of 
the Border " go down to the sea in ships " and 
dare the dangers of the North Sea. That these 
dangers are sometimes of a terrible character 
will be brought home to those who can recall the 
fearful storm which swept over Scotland on 
14th October, 1881, and brought such an appal- 
ling disaster to Eyemouth, Coldingham, &c. 
That sad event was fast becoming a memory 
only when the Rev. Duncan M'lver of Eye- 
mouth took the matter in hand and produced a 
handsome memorial volume on the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the day of " dule and sorrow." 
The desire of the author is that some permanent 
Memorial of the disaster should be got up, and 
as a means to this end, he intends to devote the 
profits derived from the sale of this " Special 



Memorial Edition" of his volume for that 
worthy object. The book which is sold at 5/ 
net is handsomely got up, and contains over 
twenty fine illustrations, one of which we re- 
produce at the head of this article. The 
volume, which is published by Messrs Jamea 
McKelvie & Sons, Limited, Greenock, has met 
witti a ready sale, at which we are not surprised, 
for the author has done his work exceedingly 
well, as the quotations we are privileged to 
make will show. Though the story of the 
Great Disaster is the prominent theme of the 
first portion of the volume, fully two-thirds of 
the letterpress is taken up with the history of 
Eyemouth, and graphic sketches of the life and 
character of the fisher-folk. We commend the 
book to all true Borderers, alike for the worthy 
object for which it has been issued and for the 
intrinsic merit of its pages. The introduction 
is from the pen of Annie S. Swan, who thus 
refers to Mr Mclver's labour of love : — 

"It is written by one who has had every oppor- 
tunity of judging how much there is to interest 
in such a community; he has come constantly 
into contact with the whole web of their lives, ho 
knows what faith and courage and endurance are 
hidden under quiet and sometimes gruff exteriors, 
he has been with them in their homes, and shared 
all their anxieties. 

"He has heard, too, the oft-repeated tale of the 
great storm, of that terrible day and night which 
swept that wind-bitten and desolate coast with 
devastating fury. Almost, it seemed, as if the 
mercy of God had failed." 

In his Foreword the author says : — 

"The story of Eyemouth, particularly in rela- 
tion to the Disaster, is worth being told, and the 
need for such a book is the only apology which 
the writer can put forward for its publication. • 
That the book has no claim to be acknowledged as 
literature, the writer is conscious; but he trusts 
that an unaffected descrij^tioo of the inner life 
of fisher-folk will, in some way, compensate for 
whatever weakness it may show in this respect." 

We feel sure that the readers will differ from 
the author in his opinion as to the literary value 
of his work, from which we make the following 
quotations : — 

"That ever-to-be-remembered Friday morning 
dawned with a glorious combination of sun and 
calm. Not a whisper of wind was heard, and the 
sky was one cloudless arch of blue. Overhead were 
seagulls flying through the ethereal purity, now 
rising with shriek of joy. and again falling with a 
swoop upon the glassy waters. The sea was a 
great expanse of almost restful water. But for 
the gentle roll, which is always to be seen even 
on a restless day, the bosom of the North Sea 
may be said to have lain calm and peaceful, thus 
assisting, to finish off, with its clear mirror-like 
surface. Nature's picture of sea-beauty. 



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"It was a morning for song. The mothers and 
wives and daughters of the fishermen were up at 
four of the clock, after resting for only four or 
five hours from their labours of the previous day, 
and, with music-filled souls and tune-filled lips, 
they set-to to the work of 'sheelin' th' mussels'— 
i.e., removing the body of the mussel— and bait- 
ing the hooks of the fishing line. It was an ard- 
uous and a tedious work, which, with the ordiu- 
ary household duties, kept the women-folk afoot 
for about eighteen hours a day. But it was a 
work of love, and the thousand hooks of every 
man's haddock-line were baited to the accompani- 
ment of psalm or hymn or Scottish song. All ne- 
cessary gear was ready for going on board the 
craft, which lay in the harbour with a gentle 
rolling suggestive of impatience. 'What a graun' 
day!' said the women-folk, to which the fisher- 



others must attempt to follow her. The lead hav- 
ing been taken, no man held back who was able 
to sail. Young and old, the fishermen proceeded 
aboard their several vessels, some with their bag 
of provisions and sea-boots slung over their shoul- 
ders; others with the latter drawn up over their 
thickly-stockinged legs, ready for the 'lee' water 
which might, possibly wash their limbs. 

"It was a hearty sight to see the boats set sail. 
As one by one they passed the pier-head, jokes 
were exchanged with the wives and lassies, who 
never failed to give the courageous fishermen a 
hearty send-off. The young wife and the aged 
mother, the betrothed maiden and the newly- 
wedded bride— they were all there; for had not 
each a life-interest in the men whose smiling 
faces were turned towards the pierhead? For 
lack of wind the brown sails hung loosely from 




Photo by 



EYEMOUTH IN A STORM. 



/?. A. Mclvor. 



lads invariably replied: 'Aye! but the gless never 
was sae low.' And so it was. Each fisher lad, 
before he put foot aboard his boat, had walked 
round by the public weather-glass, which was 
hung up near to the pier-end, for here was his 
guide regarding the weather for the coming hours. 
The needle had swung round to the extremest 
point, and the barometer read something ap- 
proaching to 28.451 inches, having dropped an 
inch during the night. On a morning of so ex- 
quisite beauty these circumstances boded ill for 
those who would venture out to sea. Many hesi- 
tated on this account; but, as the boats had been 
kept ashore for about a week previous to this, 
some of the younger men especially were eager 
to be off again. It is something approaching to 
a point of honour that if one boat should sail. 



the masts and yards of the fishing-boats, while the 
hands of each vessel steadily pulled their aixteen- 
feet bars. Slow but certain progress was made, 
some boats making for the ocean by the east road- 
stead, and others pulling their way through the 
west entrance; for at a distance of half-a-mile 
from the town there is a natural breakwater, 
known as the Hurcar Bocks. The position of 
these rocks, although a source of danger to sea- 
men unacquainted with the coast, is nevertheless 
a safe-guard to Eyemouth itself. Because of this 
natural breakwater the sea cannot claim so much 
of the land as it, no doubt, would do were there 
no check to the in-coming waves. When the boats 
were safely got beyond Hurcar, the fleet began 
gradually to spread out like an unfolding fan, 
the picture calling for expressions of admiration 



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from those on shore. 'How beautifully close to- 
gether!' said a landsman, but the reply of an 
old retired fisherman, in view of what afterwards 
happened, was significant: 'Aye! but they'll no be 
sae elose thegither whan they come hame/ 

"At eight a.m. the fishing-fleet had sailed from 
the harbour, and for three hours and a half, 
beneath a brilliant sun, and sailing over a still 
sea, the boats made their way to the fishing 
grounds* at a distance of about eight or nine 
miles from the land. The lines had just been 
shot by some, and were just being shot by others^ 
when, as a St Abb's lady wrote in a letter to 
a friend at the time, 'a horrible sort of stillness 
fell over everything.' What wind there was had 
passed away, and a dead calm succeeded it. But 
it was the calm before the storm ! Without any 
visible warning from outside conditions, the sky 
suddenly thickened with dark, heavy clouds; a 
fierce wind arose which was as wild in its fury as 
the calm was quiet; the sea began to heave its 
threatening bosom, like a man in whose heart 
passion was rising, and what between sudden 
darknessr-it was then between eleven and twelve 
of the day—the shrieking of the hurricane as it 
drove at the creaking masts and ripping sails, 
and the thunderous roar of a boiling ocean, the 
poor fishermen thought that the Judgment Day 
had come. So quickly did the elements change 
their aspect, and so violent was the change— from 
a bright peaceful day to a dismal night of hurri- 
cane—that almost all effort was paralysed, and 
many of the fishermen lost heart immediately. 
To fight against the storm was like trying to stay 
the progress of an express engine by the power of 
a man's hand. Boats were lifted clean out of the 
water; some had masts torn from their sockets; 
others had sails utterly blown away like pieces of 
stray paper; while all were helpless, so far as 
human assistance was concerned, in that dread- 
ful hour. One by one some vessels turned turtle; 
one by one others were broken up with the pres- 
sure of the raging waters.'* 

"Late in the day news was brought from Burn- 
mouth and Berwick to Eyemouth that lives and 
boats had been lost at these places also, and, with 
the worst fears confirmed in many hearts, 'the 
evening fell on a weeping town, from which hope 
had all but fled for those still at sea.' The sun and 
the moon and the stars had been blotted out of 
Eyemouth's sky by the thickening shadows of 
a great grief, the extent of which was not yet 
known. With Eyemouth it was night. And such 
a night! All the emotions of a lifetime were 
crowded into it, and, in not a few cases, working 
upon frail, very frail, humanity, wrought such 
havoc that joy never again entered their lives." 
"The sea had claimed its toll, and the dues 
were paid in the coin of human flesh and human 
blood — 189 fishermen being lost off the East coast, 
of whom 129 belonged to Eyemouth. That Fri- 
day morning which dawned with such brilliance 
and beauty became the morning of disaster; for, 
out of 45 fishing boats that sailed from Eyemouth 
harbour, only 26 lived through the storm. The 
morning song of praise was changed to weeping 
and mourning; for 78 women were made widows, 
and 263 children were left fatherless. 

'"There was weeping on every side, there was na 
a home unbereft; 
Fathers, and brothers, and lovers— there was 
hardly a man of them left!*" 



MORE SCOTT LETTERS. 

The letters in this case, with one exception, are 
not by Sir Walter himself, but by members of his 
family. The simple, direct style of the epistles, 
written to the old. family governess, throws a 
fresh light on the family life of which the "Wis- 
ard" was the centre. The letters have been 
brought together in a volume which bears the 
following title and description : —"Letters Hither- 
to Unpublished, Written by Members of Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's Family to their old Governess," Edit- 
ed with an Introduction and Notes by the Warden 
of Walha^ College, Oxford, and published by £. 
Grant Richards at 5s net. All lovers of Scott 
should possess this volume, which is a decided 
addition to what we might term the, "Waverley 
Library." In reviewing the volume the "West- 
minster Gaaette" says:— "The Warden of Wal- 
ham was well advised in giving to the world these 
letters, written, most of them, by the daughters 
of Sir Walter Scott to their governess. Miss Millar. 
It is true that the letters contain nothing very 
important, and yet, as a whole, they give a charm- 
ing picture of the family circle at Abbotsford. 
The letters number forty-seven, and extend from 
1814 to 1837. Twenty-eight of them were written 
by Scott's eldest daughter, Charlotte Sophia, who 
became the wife of Lockhart, and twelve by her 
sister, Anne Scott. The correspondence as pub- 
lished is broken by long intervals, many of the let- 
ters no doubt having been lost, but even so it will 
be found of considerable interest by all lovers of 
the great romancer. The letters refer mainly to 
incidents of the day in the life of the sisters. In 
one of th^m, written by Charlotte in 1817, we are 
told of the visit of Wilkie the painter to Abbots- 
ford, when he made 'a capital picture of the 
whole family': — 

"We are all drawn in character, Anne and I 
as two milkmaids with pails upon our heads, Papa 
sitting, and Captain Ferguson standing, looking 
for all the world like an old poacher who under- 
stands his trade. * 

"Lady Byron about the same time had been 
spending a day at Abbotsford, and Charlotte 
describes her as 'very pretty and very melan- 
choly.' In 1818 Miss Millar is invited to Abbots- 
ford to have 'the supreme felicity of t*eeing your 
elegant pupil Walter in his yeomanry dress, which 
I assure you he is not a little vain of.' Walter, 
Charlotte's brother, was at that time a boy of 
seventeen, and had even then 'declared that he 
would be nothing but a soldier; so a soldier he is 
to be.' Later it is stated that he is likely to ex- 
perience no inconvenience or delay in getting into 
the Army, as 'the Duke of York says that he will 
get over anything for Mr Scott.' So loved was 
Sir Walter even at that time of day. There are 
several references to the financial disaster which 
ruined Scott's life. Charlotte Scott, by this time 
Mrs Lockhart, in a letter written probably in 
February, 1826. tells of the failure, and is sure 
Miss Millar 'will grieve to hear that papa has 
lost the greater part of his hard-worked-for for- 
tune.' 
"And later in the same letter we are told: — 
"Papa, Mamma, and Anne are in the very beet 
possible spirits. Papa nothing can shake, and he 
looks forward with the greatest confidence to what 
must be a future life of study and labour to make 
up what is gone of his fortune, and he has the 
sympathy of the whole kingdom. 



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"In the closing letters there is much of sad- 
ness; the illness and death of both Lady and Sir 
Walter Scott are topics of several of them; then 
Charles Scott writes telling Miss Millar of Anne's 
death — she never recovered the shock of her fath- 
er's decease— and in 1837 the old governess is in- 
formed of the death of Mrs Lockhart." 
« » * * 

OLD, BUT EVER NEW. 

There have been few more fascinating life stor- 
ies than that of Mary Queen of Scots, and the 
volumes published about our ill-starred Queen bid 
fair to form a very large library. Much of the 
fascination lies in the complex character of the 
woman herself, combined with the unsettled con- 
dition of the country over which she reigned. The 
lack of positive information as to certain events 
in her career has provided subjects of strife for 
the historians during many generations, and, un- 
less our own Andrew Lang, or some other patient 
digger^ gets down to the bedrock of truth, the 
strife will go on for generations to come. Messrs 
Methuen, of London, have issued at 66 one of the 
best books on the subject we have seen. The style 
of the authoress is most pleasing, for she presents 
the facts of history with all the attractiveness of 
a novel. The illustrations are a prominent feat- 
ure of the work, and are beautifully reproduced. 
They number over forty, and include a very fine 
reproduction of Queen Mary's house at Jedburgh, 
deferring to the book, an evening paper says: — 

"Although an oft-told tale, that of Mary Queen 
of Scots never loses its interest and is never likely 
to. We seem to have epitomised there so much 
of that which is most pitiful and tragic in human 
Tiistory. This new edition in a cheaper form of 
Florence MacCunn's noteworthy book is therefore 
likely to have wide acceptance. The strange sad 
story of Queen Mary is told with a fullness, and 
at times with a dramatic intensity, that rivets 
the reader. The author succeeds to a remarkable 
degree not only in picturing to the life Mary 
herself, but in reproducing the atmosphere of her 
day. Whatever conclusion the reader may still re- 
tain as to the part Mary played in ihe circum- 
stances in which she was placed, whatever the his- 
torical judgment he may pass, he will assuredly 
be in a better position so to do after having read 
this well-contrived and well-written book. There 
are numerous illustrations— forty-four in all— and 
the book altogether is very well got up." 
* * * « 

THE SCOTTISH CHAUCER. 

There is a strong movement at preft»nt in the 
direction of seriously studying our beautiful Scot- 
tish language, which many ignorantly imagine to 
be a dialect of the English, and the day' has gone 
when it is looked upon as vulgar to speak the 
Doric. When we desire to add pithy expressions 
to the English language we draw upon the French 
or German vocabularies, while there is a mine 
of untranslateable words lying ready to our hand 
in the mither tongue of Scotland. Mcst people 
have heard of Burns as a master of Doric, but 
many are ignorant of even the name of William 
Dunbar, who ranks in many respects with the 
English Chaucer. Strange to say, the greatest 
authority on Dunbar's poems has hitherto been 
a German, Professor Schipper, whose "William 
Dunbar," sein "Leben und seine Gedichte (Ber- 
lin, Oppenheim, 1884), has been the standard work 



on the subject. Dr Mackay, one of the editors of 
the Scottish Text Society's edition of "Dunbar," 
says of Professor Schipper's work:— "This is the 
best book that has been written on Dunbar, and 
the German translations of his poems are exe- 
cuted with a skill and fidelity which Dunbar him- 
self would have admired." 

A new volume has just been issued, which we 
would commend to our readers. It is thus refer- 
red to by the "Bookseller," in the "Glasgow 
Evening News": — 

"Among the thousands of highly-excitable per- 
sons who in the early part of the year pay hom- 
age to the memory of Robert Burns, how few can 
read with intelligence the works of that poet in 
the doric? And the number is growing lees each 
year. Is it a sign that our mother-tongue is dis- 
placed by the encroachment of the English speech ? 
Arid if we are unable to read Burns, what are we 
to say regarding William Dunbar, who ranks with 
him head and shoulders above any other Scottish 
poet. We rarely hear Dunbar's works mention- 
ed, and more seldom do we see him quoted, save 
for a few stray pieces in our best anthologies. He 
forms the connecting link between Chaucer and 
Spenser, and was certainly the greatest poet in 
either Scotland or England during that period. 
These three great poets are relegated to the top 
shelves of our libraries, and are approached only 
by students. In the case of Dunbar there has 
been lacking until now an edition of his works 
which could be purchased at a moderate price, 
but this want has been supplied by the Cam- 
bridge Press in a handy volume at six shillings. 
It is well known that Scott seemed to class Dun- 
bar above Burns. His work is characterised by 
that spirit of independence and virile expression 
which constitute so much of the charm of Burns. 
Though the reader may experience some difficulty 
at first in grasping Dunbar's archaic "^language, 
he will find all he requires in Mr Bail don's ex- 
cellent glossary. This piiblication, which was so 
urgently needed, and which is so splendidly sup- 
plied by the Cambridge Press, Fetter Lane, Lon- 
don, will be welcomed by those who already know 
Dunbar, and should introduce him to many a 
household which has so far been in ignorance of 
his existence.'* 

* * « « 

THE UNION OF 1907. 
At the time of the bi-centenary of the great 
event which is supposed to have made two 
peoples one, though some "hae their doots," there 
appeared in the columns of the "Glasgew Herald" 
a valuable series of papers on the subject of the 
Union. These articles are by various writers of 
eminence, including two Borderers, Mr Andrew 
Lang and Mr Robert Renwick. The former con- 
tributed two articles on "A Romantic Plot against 
the Union" and one on "The End of an Auld 
Sang," while the latter, who is probably the best 
living authority on the history of our Western 
Metropolis, wrote a most interesting paper on 
"Glasgow and the Union." The articles have been 
brought together into a volume, and the varioiis 
chapters, with the able introduction by Mr P. 
Hume Brown, M.A., LL.D., combine to form a 
work of considerable historical value. The writ- 
ers have treated the subject from very divergent 
points of view, but they all agree that the Union 
was a good thing. Many will consider this the 
last word upon the subject, and the volume is 



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convincing, yet it might have been well to have 
added a chapter by one who believes that Scot- 
land would have developed as well as she has 
done without the Union of the Parliaments. Be 
that as it may, this book, "The Union of 1707— 
A Survey of Events/' issued from the "Glasgow 
Herald" office, is a most valuable addition to our 
historical books. 



HEB OF THE HOLLOWS 

as the title of a new story of Border life in the 
time of Queen Mary, which is now running in the 
"Glasgow Weekly Herald." The story is from 
the pen of Agnes March banks, a laay i^ho is the 
author of a well-known work on Border Scenes 
.and Legends, and who has frequently contributed 
±0 the "B. M." There is much stir and bustle 
in the scenes depicted in the almost lawless times, 
.and character sketches of the bearers of notable 
names in the history of the period are given. The 
story is of great interest to Scots in general, but 
will be specially so to those who jeuow and love the 
romantic Boraer Lana between the Soiway and 
the Tweed. 




The Battle of Biddings. 

(OW few travellers, when changing at 
Biddings Junction for the muckle 
toon, the merry city, or Satan's 
Seat, for that matter, ever reflect 
on the historical association of the place. 
Biddings, however, frequently comes to the 
Iroot, even in the earliest of histories. 

Agricola, after he had reduced the whole 
•of the North of England to submission, turned 
his attention, about 79, to the country this 
side the Border. He is supposed to have come 
by way of Biddings, camping near by. 

In the "Annals Cumbriae," and also in the 
^Four Ancient Books," Biddings is cited as 
the ground of a great and important battle. 
"The struggle is said to have changed the fate 
— ^the moral and social conditions — of both 
countries. 

The contest took place between the uphold- 
ers of advancing Christianity and departing 
Paganism. The old resisted stoutly the in- 
roads of the new. The triumph of the former 
marked a new era. Civilisation ut once took 

freat strides in the land. Merlin, one of 
^nnyson's romantic characters, named the 
locality Erydon, which is said to retain the 
name Biddings. 

In some old records the place is described as 
a camp between the Liddel and Carewhinelow 
bum. Here, again, the above battle comes 
into view. It is sometimes described as the 
Moat of Liddel, and in some quarters as the 
Boman Camp. 



It would appear as if the above-named bum, 
running into the Esk, got its name from one 
of the pagan leaders who fell in the battle. 
Caer means a city, and Gwenddolew, one of its 
citizens who was slain in the conflict. 

Some imagine that Arthuret, near Long- 
town, was the headquaiters of the opposing 
army and where Arthur held his council of 
war; that the level groi'nd from thence into 
Canonbie was the plain upon which the enemy 
manoeuvred in attacking the strong position 
on the eminence below Biddings Junction. 

Taking our stand, says a writer, on the 
eminence of that old earthen rampart, can you 
imagine that we gaze on an ancient battle 
plain, where the paganism of our ancestors 
was driven back a step, and where a victory 
was won for the first elements of civilisatioiv — 
the moral improvement, the uplifting of the 
people, and the purifying of their social life? 
To look from the eminence on a summer even- 
ing now, the aspect is one of weird and magio 
beauty ; but an imaginary transfer back 1 300 
years enables us to think, as we view the Eng- 
lish Skiddaw on the left, and Scottish CriffS 
in front, closing the horizon so near as to sug- 
gest that the silvery Soiway is land-locked, 
and may be the Western Lake or Sea into 
which the reluctant messenger cast Excaliber 
after the battle, and out of which the mythical 
hand rose, caught it, and held it aJoft as the 
svmbol of hope and ultimate triumph for the 
Celts, 

It was at Biddings, on the 9th of Novem- 
ber, '45, that Prince Charlie camped and pass- 
ed the night. TVhen the Highlanders set foot 
on English soil they drew their claymores, 
and, flourishing them in the air, set up a great 
shout. Their exultation, however, was sud- 
denly damped by a trifling incident. Lochiel, 
in drawing his sword, out his hand, which was 
looked upon by his superstitious followers as 
an omen of disaster. 

These are but a few of the many historical 
incidents which are associated with the Junc- 
tion. From the days of knight tournaments 
and chivalry to the union of the Kingdoms this 
part of the Border has been the theatre of 
many memorable exploits. Not a few of these 
adorn the lays of bards and, as indicated, 
stand on the pages of history. 

Biddings has other attractions. The ro- 
mantic scenery of the whole neighbourhood 
has often attracted the tourist and taxed the 
powers of poets and painters. 

G. M. B, 



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TO C0RRB8P0NDENTS, TO ADVERTJSSRS. 

AUc(mmuniea«4oTurelating to LiUraryjnatUrs should AU BumiMU maUers, Advertiaing Bates, dfo., shtmUt 

he addressed to the Editor, Mr William Sandkbson, he referred to the Publishers^ A. Walkib ft SoVr 

8t Bwans, Butherglen, near Glasgow. High Street, Galashiels 

THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



AUGUST, 1907. 
LIST OF CONTENTS. ^^a. 

The Late Mr John McGall, of Hallydown. Doable Supplement. One Illustration. - - - 141 

The Border Bookcase. One Illustration - - - - 144 

The Battle OF RiDDiKGS. By G.M.R. 149 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson. 150 

Reminiscences of Liddesdale in Pee-Railway Days. Part III. By Jock Elliot. - - - 15^ 

The Author op ** Waverlby" on the South Side of the Border. Part III. Two Illustrations. 

By Walter Soott, Gainford. 154 

Border Notes and Queries. 167 

A Walk from Moffat to Hawick. 16^ 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 

We have time and again pointed out the great advantages to be gained to the heart and mind, and often 
the body as well, by keeping in close touch with the homeland. To city dwellers who are worried with the 
oares and anxieties of business, or the Borderers io far distant lands, what can be more refreshing than to hear 
or read something which reminds them of the scenes and faces of youth. Next to religion, the love of the home- 
land is the purest feeling which can thrill the human heart, and to foster such feelings is the mission of the 
Border Magazine. We cannot carry out the work alone, however; we require the assistance of our readers. 
Say a good word for the B. M. whenever you can. 

The Border Keep 

(In which are preserved paragraphs from various publications, to the authors and editors of which 

we express our indebtedness). 

In connection with Mark Twain's recent visit Deans/' with Miss Eate Clinton and 
to England it might be noted that there is a cer- Mr Edward Tearle in the leading parts, 
tain parallel between Mark and our own Sir Wal- It is claimed in certain quarters Chat thi» 
ter. Everybody knows how Scott practically will be the first production in London of a drama- 
killed himself in order to pay the debts of the tised version of the "Heart of Midlothian" since 
unfortunate publishing house of Ballantyne, in the days of Sir Walter Scott, but the claim is 
which he was financially interested. Mark Twain incorrect, Mrs Boucicault having staged a play 
was a partner in the firm of Charles L. Webster with the same title as the novel in Scott* e time. 
& Co.» and when that firm went smash he volun- His novels were produced as plays within forty- 
tarily assumed the burden of paying its debts, eight hours of their appearance. Dibdin (the sea 
amounting to some JE40,000. He was sixty years song writer), Pocock, and Terry were among those 
old when he set out on this undertaking, but he who waited at the publisher's door and then got 
carried it through. "The law," he said, "recog- to work with the shears and the paste pot. The 
nises no mortgage on a man's brain, and a mer- present version of "Rob Roy" was a thing made in 
chant who has given up all he has may take ad- Fleet Street in this summary fashion. Scott saw 
vantage of the laws of insolvency, and start free the melange in Edinburgh, and it entertained him 
again for himself. But I am not a business man, Qoing behind the scenes, he was insistent on only 
and honour is a harder master than the law. It one thing — namely, that Mattie, when going to 
cannot compromise for less than 100 cents on the the Tolbooth with the Bailie, should carry a 
dollar, and its debts never outlaw." Mark Twain really old-fashioned lantern. Sir Walter's wishes^ 
paid every cent of his indebtedness. Yet the be it said to the credit of Edinburgh enterprise^ 
world insists on regarding him solely as a funny were carried out. 
man ! So the world regarded Qrimaldi, who (ac- ♦ ♦ ♦ 
cording to the anecdote) consulted a "specialist" it was said of Scott by a famous critic that, 
for hypochondria, and was advised to "Go and whereas most men were vainer of authorship than 
see Gnmaldi ' ' of any other distinction, to the author of ''Waver- 

ley" the position of a country gentleman was an 

There was recently produced at the object of keener ambition than literary fame. 

Marlborough Theatre, London, " Jeanie Few men have combined these two objects of am- 



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bitjon with greater sticcess than Mr Bider Hag- 
gard, and. if twenty years ago his name was on all 
tongues as an ingenious romancer to-day pro- 
bably he occupies the attention of tne thoughtful 
more as the country gentleman who has devoted 
much patient and disinterested inquiry into the 
present position of the agricultural problem. He 
is only fifty-one years of age» and the world ex- 
pects much good work from him yet in both direc- 
tions. 



During the recent Common Riding festivities at 
Hawick the famous local war-cry, "Teri Bus," 
had almost to take second place. Quite as fre- 
quently heard was the mysterious cry, "Keelah!" 
the origin and meaning of which not even those 
who used it could explain. Perhaps it will be 
better understood in Glasgow, since it was taken 
indirectly to the Borders by a Glasgow man. 
It appears that while a Scottish Bugby fifteen 
were on their way to Wales a few years ago a 
well-known Glasgow -internationalist repeated the 
mysterious word several times during the journey. 
One of the fifteen was W. E. Kyle, the well-known 
Hawick Rugby player, who subsequently became 
Cornet, the highest honour that can be conferred 
on a Teri. He introduced "Keelah" to Hawick, 
and ever since, whether on the football field 01 
carrying the flag at the Common Riding, his ears 
have been deafened by multitudes of young Ter- 
ies shouting "Keelah!" at the pitch of their voices. 
It may be added that the horse ridden by ex- 
Cornet Kyle at the last three Common Ridings 
was named Keelah. 



Besides the long list of imposing legal lumin- 
aries the late Lord Young was associated with 
during his long career on the Bench, his earlier 
history was identified with great personalities, the 
mention of whose names seem to suggest some 
far distant age. In his boyhood days his Lord- 
ship knew Jean Armour, the widow of Robert 
Burns. Often he had tea with the old lady in her 
«irT» hon«H- ^11 Dumfries, and he always 6t>oke witl- 
affection -of her extreme kindness to children. He 
knew all the Burns family, and remembered Rob- 
ert, junior, to have a peculiar habit of nervous- 
ly thrusting his hands into his pockets as he 
walked the streets of Dumfries. This the villag- 
ers accounted for on the ground that young Rob- 
ert had had his pocket picked when in London. 
Dr Maxwell, who attended the poet in his last 
illness, was also known to Lord Young. He also 
knew Channing, and one day in his father's house 
at Dumfries he wsm introduced to Thomas Car- 
lyle, then unknown to fame. Lord Young's father 
must have been a man of considerable foresight, 
for he remarked at the moment of introducing 
his son. "Take my word for it, this Mr Carlyle 
will be a great man in this country." 
♦ * • 

Reverence for the past may be, as Emerson re- 
marked, a treacherous sentiment, and if the plea 
made by the Rev. Walter Walsh, jn his fine speech 
at Bannockburn, for a return to the strenuous 
simple life of our forefathers were to be taken 
literally, it could hardly be endorsed by many who 
realise how much more of interest and possibility 
is offered bv modern life than there was in that 
of our "rude forefathers." Within common-sense 



limits, however, it is doubtless a good thing that 
we should cultivate the memory of those great 
historic deeds, such as Bannockburn and Both- 
well Brig, which established or vindicated our 
Scottish nationality. Even in this year, when the 
remembrance of our final union witii England is 
being celebrated, there is still room for the other 
recollection that what took place in 1707 was a 
union and not an absorption. That recollection^ 
indeed, is one of our great safeguards against an 
absorption which would be disastrous to our nat- 
ional life, not merely from a sentimental, but 
from a practical, point of view. 



Apropos the recent warrant granted by the 
Sheriff of Berwickshire for the registration of a 
Lamberton Toll marriage, it is interesting ^ to 
recall that about two years ago the historical 
dwelling was the scene of- the wedding of a run- 
away couple. In the good, old days the priest of 
Lamberton was Henry Collins. This worthy died 
in 1&19; but a book containing entries of the mar- 
riages at which he officiated is still in the posses- 
sion of his granddaughter. Miss Margaret Home 
Fair, who resides at Berwick. During the early 
years of last century Collins had a strong rival 
in trade in the person of the blacksmith of Cold- 
stream Bridge. Standing as it does on the Scot- 
tish side of the Tweed, but in immediate proxim- 
ity to England, the cottage tenanted by the smitn 
offered peculiar attractions to the votaries of Hy- 
men. Here Lord Brougham and other celebrities 
are said to have sworn their matrimonial vows. 
The humble dwelling, which with its quaint tiled 
roof and its romantic associations is an object 
of interest to numberless tourists, now forms one 
of the lodges of the noble mansion of Lennel. 



The mimic warfare which took place in June 
last in the peaceful vale of Yarrow and adjoining 
parts of the Borderland was a most interesting 
affair. The success which attended these realistic 
manoeuvres on the part %f the lads of Gala and 
other Volunteers will probably lead to a repetition 
on some future occasion. The Borderland is not- 
ed for its Volunteers, and such experiences as 
the above will help to make them even better 
soldiers than they are. The Rev. R. Borland 
preached to the Volunteers on the Sunday, and 
closed his powerful and eloquent discourse with 
these words: — Man cannot live by bread .alone. 
He was made in the image of God, made for God, 
and only God can satisfy the deep, abiding, eter- 
nal necessities of the soul. With Augustine we 
are all constrained sooner or later to realise that 
We can find rest only in God. There is an inci- 
dent related by Lockhart in his "Life of Sir Wal- 
ter Scott" that is as significant as it is. pathetic. 
He tells how, when the great man lay a-dying in 
his beloved Abbotsford by the banks of the sweet 
murmuring Tweed, he asked his son-in-law to read 
to him. When Lockhart said, "From what book?^' 
he replied, "Need you ask? There is but one.*' 
And shortly before he breathed his last he said 
to Lockhart, "I may have but a minute to speak 
to you. My dear, be a good man— be virtuous— 
be religious— be a good man. Nothing else will 
give you any comfort when you come to lie here." 

Dominie Sampson. 



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Ileminiscences of Liddesdale in Pre- 
Railw&y Days. 

(Part III.) 

N these days of rapid locomotion, 
when, if a railway be not available, 
traction engine or motor-lorry may 
be called into requisition, people 
cannot well realise what the removal of his 
yearly produce meant to the upland farmer 
fifty years ago. When we consider that the 
pastoral part of Liddesdale contains between 
thirty and forty farms, and that each farm 
would produce from eight to ten cartloads of 
wool, which had to be carted to Jedburgh or 
Hawick, a distance of from twenty to thirty 
miles, it will be seen that its removal waa 
quite an event in the farmer's calendar. On 
the morning of a given date all the available 
horses and carts from several farms would mus- 
ter at one and convey the wool, which was 
packed in large bales, to some place agreed 
upon at the time of purchase. A common 
method ^as for the seller's and buyer's carts 
to meet half-way and either exchange carts 
for the time being or tranship the bales. The 
Note-o'-the-Gate, an outlandish toll-bar on the 
ridge separating Liddesdale from Rulewater, 
was a favourite meeting-place. At most of the 
tolls liquor was sold in those days, legally or 
illegally, and the " Note," as it was called, was 
no exception to the rule. We have counted as 
many as a dozen carts together laden with 
w^ool going towards the rendezvous named. As 
may be guessed, there was a good deal of hil- 
arity at such gatherings, which led them to be 
looked forward to by those concerned as a 
pleasant break in the routine of their lives'. 
They brought much grist to the toll-keeper's 
mill, and the ongoings were sometimes such 
as to keep the gossips busy for the proverbial 
nine days. 

Then the farmers' surplus stock in the shape 
of lambs and draft ewes had to be moved long 
distances to fairs and markets, and the only 
course available was to drive them. This en- 
tailed their starting- in many cases fully a 
week before the date of the market, in order 
to walk them slowly and present them in as 
good condition as possible. A class of men 
called " jobbers," a name unheard of now, used 
to visit the farms about spaining time with a 
view to buying the lambs, and not unfre- 
quently succeeded in doing so. One man of 
this class we remember well, " Neddy Dixon," 
whose name for many years was a household 
word on the Borders. In the case of a bargain 



being struck, the " jobber " might provide his 
own drovers or he might arrange that the 
lambs be delivered to him on a certain fair 
ground on a given date. In the latter case 
the shepherds got a trip away into unknown 
country, which was much appreciated by the 
younger men, and the rehearsal of sights seen 
and experiences met with* on such a journey 
was much enjoyed by their less fortunate com- 
peers. These experiences were recounted 
again and again, and served to while away 
many an hour on some sunny braeside or 
around the cottage hearth on a winter's night. 

The subject of drovers reminds us of the 
large droves of Highland cattle and blackfaced 
sheep that were driven into England from the 
northern markets. A drove-road crossed the 
hills in Upper Liddesdale, and a certain num- 
ber of days after Muir of Ord Fair or Falkirk 
Tryst the shepherds, through whose lands the 
drove-road ran, were on the alert almost night 
and day until the droves had passed. Drove- 
roads, though not roads in the ordinary sense 
of the word, in many cases not even a track, 
were rights-of-way through the hills, with 
only imaginary boundaries, which often led to 
friction and even fisticuffs between the drovers 
and the shepherds. A drover was not con- 
sidered worth his salt who could not produce 
his charges in better condition at the end of a 
journey than at the start. This was accom- 
plished by driving slowly and allowing them 
to feed on forbidden ground beyond these im- 
aginary lines whenever opportunity occurred 
— ^hence the need of the shepherds' watchful- 
ness. Another and probably a stronger 
reason was the belief that should any of his 
sheep get mixed with the passing droves he 
had seen the last of them. 

Advertising was not much in fashion in 
those days, but the Liddesdale herds, in com- 
mon with those of other districts, we have no 
doubt, had a novel and effective way of recov- 
ering strayed sheep. Twice every year a shep- 
herds' gathering was held on the "Wheel Rig," 
near to the old chapel of that name, and just 
imder the shadow of Peel Fell. To these 
gatherings those having strayed sheep in their 
flocks repaired, taking the strays along with 
them, and those in search of missing she^ 
also made their way to the rendezvous, where, 
as a rule, the wanderers were returned to their 
owners. These meetings were attended from 
a wide radius, and never broke up without an 
hour or two of friendly intercourse. The 
younger men had generally a trial of skill at 
running, wrestling, and putting the stone, 



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"while their elders looked on, comparing the 
present feats with what they had seen per- 
formed at Pennymuir or some such gathering 
in their yomig days. 

In the good old days, to use a popular ex- 
pression, farms seldom changed hands, son suc- 
ceeding father unto the third and fourth gen- 
•eration, while the service of the shepherd 
was in many cases measured by his length of 
<days. Even now we know of shepherds hold- 
ing the same situations in which they suc- 
ceeded their fathers about the middle of last 
century. These are, however, exceptional 
cases, as neither farmer nor shepherd seems so 
wedded to the place as in former years. Of 
the thirty-odd farms in Liddesdale, only some 
half-a-dozen are now tenanted by descendants 
of the good old farming stock, while a mere 
fraction of the remainder are held by natives 
of the valley. 

Even the " gangrels " were a different class 
from the loafing roadster of to-day. Many of 
those wanderers were prime favourites, and 
there was no cottage from which they went 
^mpty away. The following incident will il- 
lustrate the good feeling existing between 
these wanderers and the hill folk, and shows 
the confidence and trust reposed in them. One 
•of these nomads had for years visited a shep- 
herd's house on the slopes of Carby Hill, where 
he invariably got a share of what food was 
^oing and a bed in the byre. So familiar did 
he become that on finding the house locked up 
— ^the inmates absent, probably at peat or 
hay-making — he would get the key from its 
hiding-place, enter the house, and have supper 
ready against the return of the family. On a 
member of the family once asking old John 
if he had washed his hands before making the 
porridge, he replied in the aflfirmative, but 
-added that it did not much matter, as he had 
not touched the meal, having " sliddered *' it 
into the pot from a plate. These gangrels 
turned up with wonderful regularity, and it 
was quite jolly when Beardy Jack came round 
singing " Nelly Bly " and " The Old Kentucky 
Home." Then there was Tammy Jenkins 
and "Jock an' the leather e'e," and old Jos- 
eph, so named from having his coat patched 
all over from coll ir to tail with scraps of cloth 
of every conceivable colour. Tammy was a 
dainty, cannie body, who always carried a cat 
in his bosom, while Jock was a stern old war- 
rior, who had lost his eye at some battle with 
an unpronounceable name. Another pair, 
Willie Duffy and his spouse, Jean McLusky, 
very old friends, were specially welcome. In 



addition to their stock of smallwares and 
penny chap books, they were never without a 
large supply of news ; in fact, they were little 
short of travelling Border Magazines. Prob- 
ably the most notorious of tlie fraternity was 
Brumingam Jack. He wandered about the 
country cleaning clocks, and would sometimes 
stay in a place for a week or two helping with 
the peats, hay, or potatoes. Jack was the 
best of company, very ready witted, and had 
a remarkable gift for story-telling, which cov- 
ered quite a multitude of his other reprehens- 
ible habits. One of Jack's stories which he could 
tell with inimitable pawkiness related to the 
time of the resurrectionists. Having got be- 
nighted and fearing neither ghost nor goblin, 
he crept underneath a " thruch-stane " in a 
kirkyard and went to sleep. Some time dur- 
ing the night he was aroused by the sound of 
wheels. The gig, as it proved to be, stopped 
at the gate, and by the light of a sickly moon 
Jack saw two men enter the burying-ground 
carrying spades. Approaching to within a 
short distance of where he lay concealed they 
commenced to dig up a newly made grave. 
His quick wit took in the situation at a glance, 
and resolving to give them a fright he quietly 
divested himself of his outer garments. By 
the time this was accomplished the horse, 
which had been tied to the gate, was getting 
restless, and one of the marauders with an oath 
wondered what was to be done with it. This 
was Jack's opportunity, and dragging himself 
from under the tombstone, he in a deep sepul- 
chral voice volunteered his services. With a 
shriek of terror they threw down their tools 
and bolted, followed by Jack's wailings as he 
stood on the " thruch-stane " clad only in his 
shirt. The miscreants were too glad to escape 
ever to think of horse or trap, which Jack ap- 
propriated and sold in the nearest town. On 
another occasion a horse having died on a farm 
where he was temporarily employed, Jack 
thought of turning the carcase to some ac- 
count. He accordingly started a sixpenny 
raffle, and after collecting a goodly sum the 
raffle was brought off in the village inn. On 
the lucky specidator accompanying Jack to the 
farm to receive his prize, he was so enraged 
that Jack only saved his skin by his fleetness 
of foot. In talking of the matter afterwards, 
Jack was wont to say, " Well ! wliat could he 
expect for sixpence?" Like many of his class. 
Jack was fond of a dram, and a common trick 
when suffering from "drouth" was to take a 
clock to pieces and then strike work until the 
goodwife produced the bottle. 



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The hiring fairs at C6peshawhohn in May 
and November were the two great outings of 
the year. With what eagerness they were 
hailed it is impossible for the Liddesdale 
youth of to-day to imagine. To him a circus, 
a menagerie, or even a theatre is no great 
rarity, so he cannot appreciate what a fair 
meant to his predecessors of fifty years ago. 
People flocked to them from near and far — 
elderly folks on business bent, and young men 
and maidens in search of situations and of 
pleasure. They were events to be looked for- 
ward to, and to be remembered, where old 
friendships were renewed and new friendships 
formed, where troths were plighted and love 
quarrels adjusted. Besides they were red- 
letter days in the lives of the boys and girls, 
who found in them the first indication that 
they must leave the paternal roofs and go out 
to service 'mang the farmers roun'. There 
was much to charm the eye, the ear, and the 
palate of the unsophisticated rustic. Rows of 
"krames" laden with toothsome dainties, 
around which were crowded youngsters ner- 
vously fingering their pennies, and who, like 
Tam o' Shanter, " thocht their verra een en- 
riched;'' ballad singers trolling out "The 
Bonnie Lass's Answer," and other popular dit- 
ties ; while fiddlers and dancers, got up in 
grotesque costumes, were demanding attention 
at every turn. Thimble-riggers and money- 
sellers were there, who had come long distances 
at great personal inconvenience, in order to 
give away bargains to the country folk. Then, 
to crown all, there were the shows — ^those my- 
sterious-looking booths with flaring frontis- 
pieces, where for the modest sum of a penny 
the most marvellous feats and the greatest 
wonders of the age could be witnessed. Every- 
body seemed happy — and, considering the 
monotony of the lives of these country folks, 
one could hardly blame them if on such an 
occasion their hilarity assumed at times a 
somewhat boisterous nature. 

There is something of a sad satisfaction in 
looking back to those distant days and in re- 
viewing the many changes brought about in a 
lifetime. Changes have come to Liddesdale. 
Her round green hills remain the same — her 
brackeny braes and hazel dells are unaltered, 
while the same clear streams find their way to 
the Solway by the same old channels. But 
changes have come to her sons and daughters. 
They have been touched by the restless spirit 
of the age, and dwell no longer in a little world 
of their own. Privileges and advantages have 
come to them undreamt of by their fathers, 



but these notwithstanding, we doubt if the 
Liddesdale of to-day is a happier Liddesdale 
than it was in its pre-railway days. 

Jock Elliot. 




The Author of •* Waverley " on the 
South Side of the Border. 

By Walter Scott, Gainfou). 

Pakt IIL 

let us get back to Rokeby, leaving 
which, on the left bank of the Greta, 
the two horsemen — Bertram and 
Wilfrid — made for Mortham Tower, 
a keep not very far from the southern bank. 
Before they get to the place a vision appears 
— 80 Bertram thinks — ^and he unwittingly ad- 
mits that he had slain the Lord of Mortham, 
whose ghost he saw. Young, soft, and weak- 
ling as he was, the spi)*it of Wilfrid rouses him 
to seize the huge warrior and call for help to 
secure him. Bertram, at first astounded, 
soon shakes him off, and then plungee his 
Bword into his breast. But the real Morthan^i 
appears and bids him begone. He fled and 
found refuge in a robber's cave in Brignal 
Woods. Here is another instance of Scott's 
observant eye and memory. "NAlitn his friend 
Morrit was showing him the place in Brignal 
Wood he "observed him noting the particular 
little wild flowers and herbs that accidentally 
grew around and on the side of a bold ora^ 
near his intended cave of Guy Denzil, ana 
oould not help saying that, as he was not on 
oath in his, work, daisies, violets, and prim- 
roses would be as poetical as any of the hum- 
ble herbs he was examining. He replied that 
in Nature herself no tvN'o scenes are exactly 
alike, and whoever copied truly what was 
t efore his eyes would possess the same var- 
iety in his description and pre«ent an imaginar 
tion as boundless as the range of nature with- 
in the scene he recorded." 

The description of the robbers' cave and its 
surroundings is wonderfully true to nature, 
and to-day a visitor to Brignal Woods would 
say: — 

"O Brig:nall banks are wild and fair 

And Greta woods are green, 
And you may gather garlands there 
Would grace a summer queen." 

That is the chorus of a song sung in the revels 
of those robbers in Brignal Cave, where Ber- 
tram took refuge, by a youth referred to as 

"Yon pale stripling, when a boy, 
A mother's pride, a father's joy! 



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Now 'gainst the vault's rude walls reclined. 

An early image Mis his mind; 

The cottage once his sire's he sees 

Embowered upon the banks of Tees; 

He views sweet Winston's woodlands scene 

And shares the dance on Oainford Green." 
Bowever, the sadness is momentary, and he 
joins the revelry and sings the song of Brig- 
nal Woods. But to-day Winston is the same 
quiet, tree-surrounded village, with its old 
church sending its spire high above the grand 
old trees, and its still and peaceful "Grod's 
Acre" surrounding it And even here an eye 
like Scott's, with imaginative genius; would 
find something to found romance upon. It 
would find a modest tombstone erected in 
xnemory of one whose Celtic name proclaims 
his northern birth ; one who had climbed the 



century. Hie present church, of Norman 
architecture, contains many stones built into 
ita porch evidently belonging to a 9|axon 
building which preceded it In front of Gain- 
ford BLall, which, however, dates only from 
1600, stands an old dovecote of much earlier 
date. It is similar to the one on the soutJi 
side of the Tees, near the ruins of the church 
dedicated to Saint Lawrence. These were 
common to the inhabitants of the villages. The 
hall is a fine specimen of the building of that 
date — I6OO1 — and has some beautiful carved 
wood panelling inside. It is at present the 
residence of Mr (reorge Harrison, tiie king of 
shorthorn breeders. To the west of the Hall 
is a paddock with many irregularities on its 
surface. Here, tradition says, stood the old 



V 

I.- 

k 




'^r::^^^?^^^'''^^ < 




^ J 

^^j^^ 












• 4.\ 








VicMngr, Gfttuforl 



GAINFORD, TWO MILES DOWN THE RIVER FROM WINSTON. 



fiteep road of University learning and obtain- 
ed a good degree; was tutor in an Academy 
in Gainford, and was ''taken" while quite 
young. And a very sweet old lady lives who 
has been true to his memory all these years 
and never forgets her engagement to that 
brilliant Scottish laddie. 

Gainford, two miles below Winston, on the 
banks of the Tees, with its wide expanse of 
^reen, its square-towered church embosomed 
amid trees and close to the river, well deserves 
its title of. "Queen of Teesside vill^es.*' It 
is a very ancient place. The church stands 
where a brotherhood raised it and dedicated it 
1» Our Lady, having received a grant of ita 
isiite and various clmrters from the Yarl of 
l^orthumbria some time in the eighth or ninth 



castle of the Lords of Gainford, who dwelt 
there up to the time when, as before -mention- 
ed, Barnard Baliol built Barnard Castle. Even 
now, in some legal documents, Barnard Castle 
is described aa "in the parish of Gainford." 

Another song the boy sings is that of AUan- 
a-dale : — 

''Allan-a-dale has no faggot for bnrning, 
Allan-a-dale has no farrow for tnrning," &c. 
"The Baron of Bavensworth prances in pride 
And he views his domains npon Arkinggarth side. 
The mere for his net and the land for his game. 
The chase for the wild and the park for the tame ; 
Tet the fish of the lake and the deer of the vale 
A^e less free to Lord Dacre than Allan-a-dale.'' 

Ravensworth is near to Richmond, in York- 
shire. It has a largfe church, whose square 
tower is visible for many miles around. Here 



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also is a fine old endowed Grammar School, so 
rich that recently a neighbouring Educational 
Authority attempted — thank goodness, unsuc- 
cessfully — to get hold of its money. 

And so the tale moves on; but we must 
leave the story and glance at the places de- 
scribed. 

The fourth canto begins with another refer- 
ence to the Norsemen's nomenclature found in 
the district. He tells how 

"Denmark's raven soared on high, 
Triumphant, through Northumbria's Sky, 
And the broad shadow of her wing 
Blackened eAch cataract and spring. 
Where Tees in tumult leaves her source, 
Thundering o'er Cauldron (Snout) and High 
Force." 



The beautiful Marwood Chase is now in 
cultivation as farms, and Toller Hill is still 
the same rising round, where splendid views 
of Barnard Castle and its surroundings may 
be had. 

These are many of the places, some in Dur- 
ham, some in Yorkshire, named in the poem. 
Readers of Scott know that the poem ends, 
like a good old-fashioned taJe, with peace, joy, 
and wedding rejoicings. Those who have not 
read Rokeby could not do better than employ 
the winter nights in its study, and, if they 
can, a part of next summer in viewing the 
lovely spots in Teesdale referred to in it. 

Darlington, the home of railway enterprise, 
on the North-Eastern main line, is easily 




WINSTON BRIDGE OVER TEES, FOUR MILES EAST OF ROKEBY. 



And enumerates the instances of Balder, Wod- 
en's Croft, Thorsgill, and other placd-names. 
The Tees rises in the skirts of Cross Fell, and, 
in its course between York and Durham coun- 
ties, falls over the two cataracts of Cauldron 
Snout and High Force. The former is a nar- 
row gorge with rough rocks in its declivity, 
and amongst which the Tees rushes with tu- 
multuous rapidity. The latter is nearer the 
town of Middleton-in-Teesdale. The precipice 
over which the Tees falls is eighty feet higu ; 
and in continued rainy weather the river 
sometimes con.es down in flood, so sudden that 
it appears like a wall of water three, four, and 
even five feet high. A little further on in the 
poem the author tells how 

"The summer flowers grow wild at will 
On Marwood Chase and Toller Hill." 



reached from anywhere. Eight miles west,, 
on the Barnard Castle and Tobay Branch, is 
Gainford, and between that and Barnard Cas- 
tle most of the action of the poem is laid — 
another eight miles. 

The illustrations are from views taken by 
the well-known photo artist, Mr Yeoman of 
Barnard Castle, by whose kind permission we 
are enabled to reproduce them. 

Simprin Church, the ruins of which only now exist in 
a very much dilapidated and neglected graveyard, is 
one of the most ancient in the Merse, dating back to the 
time of David I. and the Monks of Kelso. DoubtleM 
hundreds of your readers will recognise the place in 
Berwickshire that is meant, but there may be many 
others who would like to know the correct spelling of the 
name of the parish where the eminent divine lived and 
laboured from 1699 to 1707. Simprin is surrounded by 
the'parishes of Swinton, Ladykirk, and Coldstream. 



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157 



Border Notes and Queries. 

"THE HAWICK GILL." 
With his usual felicity in giving appropriate 
designationi^ to persons, places, and things, Sir 
Walter Scott, in his romance "Waverley" (chap- 
ter xxix.), applies the above term to a tavern. 
Waver ley and his companion are returning on the 
Sabbath day from the Highlands, and at a north- 
ern village they endeavour to get admittance into 
the "Seven-branched . Golden Candlestick," the 
keeper of which inn, taking into consideration 
that it is the Day of Rest, is reluctant to admit 
them. "Reflecting, however, in all probability, 
that he had the power of mulcting them fdr this 
irregularity, a penalty which they might escape 
by passing into Gr«gor Luncanson's at the Bign 
of the 'Highlander and the Hawick Gill,' Mr 
Ebenezer Cruickshanks condescended to admit 
them into his dwelling" (etc.). 

This event is dated 1745. but the name "Hawick 
Gill" does not appear in literature (so far as my 
knowledge goes) until fully twenty years after that 
date; nor does it seem to have travelled so far 
north as the scene of this incident. In vol. ii. 
p. 18) of Herd's "Collection of Songs" (1767) thefe 
occurs the verse: — 

"Byth. blyth. blyth was she, 
Blyth was she but an' ben ; 
And weel she lo'e^l a Hawick pill. 
And leugh to see a tappit hen." 

The glossary states that "a Hawick gill is a 
double gill, so named from the town of Hawick." 
Of the "tappit hen" Sir Walter Scott says:— "I 
h^ve seen oDe of these formidable measures at 
Provost Haswell's, at Jedburgh, in the days of 
yore. It was a pewter measure, the claret being 
in ancient days served from the tap, and had 
the figure of a hen upon the lid. In later times 
the name was given to a glass bottle of the same 
dimensions." 

In connection with the phrase the following 
quotations from Wright's "Dialect Dictionary" 
may prove interesting. In Bruce's "Poems," the 
date of which is 1813, it is seen that the term 
wag known in Leith at that date: — 

"Come, hostess, bring's a Hawick gill. 
An' to his health a glass I'll fill" 

(vol. ii., p. 183). That the phrase was known in 
Edinburgh about that time is evident from Lid- 
die's "Poems" (p. 29), in the quotation: — 

"If her ye'd gien a Hawick gill. 
She might been leal." 

It also occurs in Watson's "Bards" (1859), where 
is found (on p. 121) the following flattering coup- 
let:— 

"firing's a Hawick gill. 
An' here's to Hawick's bonnie lassies!" 

Another passage in Scott's works which the 
waders for Wright's "English Dialect Diction- 
ary" have not noticed is contained in Part II. of 
his "Carle, Now the King's Come"— written in 
1822: — 

"A Hawick gill of mountain dew, 

Heised up Auld Reikie's heart, I trow. 
It minded her of Waterloo- 
Carle, now the King's come." 



On making inquiry I discover that there is not 
a specimen of the Hawick gill preserved in Haw- 
ick ArcheeologicAl Society's Museum, nor do I 
learn that it is extant elsewhere. Perhaps it is 
a measure which has existence only in literature? * 
It would be gratifying to learn if any readers of 
the "Border Magazine" can throw any clearer 
light upon the subject. 

G. Watson. • 
♦ * ♦ ♦ 

JOCK O' HAZELDEAN. , 

Readers of the "Border Magazine" are under a 
debt to "A. G., S.," for the large amount of infor- 
mation he has brought to bear upon this subject 
in these columns. In that connection the follow- 
ing has some interest:— In Hawick Archeeological 
Society's transactions for 1904 there appeared a 
paper contributed by Mr James Sinton, Eastfield,. 
Joppa, and entitled "Campbell's Third Journey 
to the Borders" (in 1816). This contains Camp- 
bell's account of his tour, and shows that he was 
at Jedburgh in October of that year. "Here," 
he says, "I waited upon my ingenious and valued 
friends, Mr Thomas Pringle's sisters, who are in 
business as confectioners in Jedburgh, the eldest 
of whom communicated the admirable and now- 
popular air of 'Jock of Hazelgreen' of Hazeldean, 
for which Walter Scott has written words or ad- 
ditional stanzas" (transactions, p. 16). Reference 
seems to be made here to the music, not to the 
words, as is borne out by the additional state- 
ment that this lady gave Campbell "eight Border 

melodies taken down (as sung by Hunter, the 

resident fiddler or violer), a stocking-weaver in 
Jedburgh." 

It is the question whether or not "Jock o' Haz- 
eldean" belonged to Hassendean, in Roxburgh- 
shire, that has special interest to Borderers. A 
consideration of the histories of these names, and 
also that of Hazelgreen, seems to prove that he 
did not. In his "Scenes of Infancy" (written in 
1802), part ii., stanza 8, John Leyden refers to 
"the spires of Hazeldean," when treating of Has- 
sendean. Probably influenced by this line, Scott 
also, in his "Lay of the Last Minstrel" (1803-5), 
canto i., stanza 25, makes allusion to "the tower of 
Hazeldean," and explains the name in a note as 
"the estate of Hazeldean, corruptly Hassendean" 
(etc.). 

With reference to the name in the song: — In ' 
Professor Child's admirable work five different 
versions of the ballad are supplied, and of two 
of these there is a duplicate rendering given — 
showing that evidence had been obtained from 
seven different sources. In not one of these 
versions is the name given as "Hazeldean," or 
any other place-name ending with "dean." The 
variants of the name in these are "Hasilgreen," 
"Hasillgreen," "Haselgreen," and "Hazelgreen." 
In the version taken down from the recitation of 
Jenny Watson at Lanark in 1826, moreover, there 
is mention of "Hazelyetts," in the locality of the 
poem. When Scott reconstructed the ballad in 
1816 it would be a natural consequence for him 
to substitute fpr "Hazelgreen" the word "Hazel- 
dean" (which, many years before. Leyden and he 
had used by poetical licence instead of Hassen« 
dean), and thus gave the ballad or song "a local 
habitation and a name." In the quotation given 
above from his account of his Journey, Campbell 
himself gives preference to the old name of the 
ballad, and that given by Scott he inserts after it,. 



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probably in order that those who did not know 
of the existence of the older ballad might not be 
misled. 

It need scarcely be pointed out again that Scott 
was in error in stating tlint Hassendean is a cor- 
ruption of Haseldean. The reverse is undoubtedly 
the case, as can be showa beyond disputation by 
the history of the place-name. 

G. Watson. 
'♦ ♦ ♦ 

THE THISTLE EMBLEM. 
In Volume II. of the Bobdbb Magazinb I have 
been perusing with the greatest pleasure the 
absorbing articles on Selkirkshire buildings by 
Mr Wm. Anderson, and I hope you will forgive 
my troubling you with a query. 

One of the illustrations of Newark Castle sets 
iorth the Eoyal ^ield surmounted by the crown. 
Immediately above there is a symbol suggesting 
.a weather-worn sculptured thistle head with flank- 
ing leaves. 

In so far as I can ascertain, the first authenti- 
■cated appearance of the thistle in connection with 
Scotland or her kings lies in the inheritance of 
James IV. from his father (among a vast number 
of things) of a purple covering embroidered with 
"thistles and a unicorn," included in the invent- 
ory of 1488. 

The thistle, therefore, evidently existed as a 
Eoyal badge of more or less importance prior to 
that date. The succeeding link, Dunbar's epithal- 
amium, "The Thrissill and the Hois," on the oc- 
casion of James IV. and Margaret Tudor's mar- 
riage in 1503, seems to give it paramount place as 
an ensign of Scotland or the Stewarts. 

It occured to me on seeing the sketch that, 
were the Royal Arms on the west side contempor- 
ary with Newark Tower— built with the structure 
ln^l46e~-and presuming that the "symbol dear" is 
really represented, this would prove the earliest 
instance extant in knowledge of the adoption of 
the thistle as an emblem of the Stewart kings, 
antedating the inventory of 1488 (and, moreover, 
in titu). 

Might I venture to ask if my tentative conject- 
ure is correct, and that this is a representation 
of " the thrissill" ; also, in addition, whether the 
panel could be positively pronounced to form part of 
the original edifice of 1466, not a later insertion. 
y the date is uncertain, perhaps an authority 
might be commended. 

• Tlie first actual representation of the thistle 
hitherto unearthed is found on the coins of James 
V. Though this suppositive discovery at Newark 
pushes the earliest appearance of the emblem back 
only a score years, it places a remainin{f example 
more than half a century. 

This question of the thistle is interesting princi- 
pally to Stewarts, but historians and others have 
repeatedly endeavoured to discover the origin of 
its adoption as the symbol of Scotland. Pinker- 
ton even thought that Dunbar's marriage ode was 
the responsible factor. It is, of course, indubit- 
ably the badge of the Stewarts. Why, or when, 
they chose the prickly plant is unknown, a mys- 
terious circumstance extending to the Order of the 
Thistle. If the panel on Newark is contemporary, 
the thistle seems to occupy a position of unde- 
niable importance either in the estimation of the 
Stewart kings or of the rulers of Scotland. The 
legendary explanation is sometimes that a bare- 
footed Dane aroused the sleeping Scots by tread- 



ing inadvertently, doubtless, on a thistle, his stoic- 
ism proving unequal to the strain; or that a sim- 
ilar warning was vouchsafed Bruce by an equally 
negligent or obliging Southron. Legend, however, 
is tolerated only until disproved. A member of 
the Stewart Society, I am much interested. 
Gateehead-on-Tyne. Robebt Stewabt 

• « • 

THE MONKS OF MELROSE AND THE FRIARS 
OF FAIL. 
"At the time of the Reformation," says Scott 
in a note to the "Lay," "they (i.e., the monks) 
shared in the general reproach of sensuality and 
irregularity thrown upon the Roman churchmen. 
The old words of '(Galashiels,' a favourite Scottish 
air, ran thus: — 

'O the monks of Melrose made fat kail 

On Fridays when they fasted. 
Nor wanted they gude beef and ale 

So lang's their neighbours' lasted.'" 

Dr Robert Chambers, in his "Popular Rhymes 
of Scotland," p. 244, speaking of the monastery 
of Fail, says "it was a small establishment near 
Mauchline; hardly a fragment of its walls now 
remain. The following is a traditionary saying 
respecting the inmates, which used to be called 
up when a complaint of either hard eggs or thin 
broth was made: — 

'The Friars of Fail 

Gat never owre hard eggs or owre thin kail ; 

For they made their eggs thin wi' butter. 

And their kail thick wi' bread. 

And the Friars of Faill, they made guid kale 

On Fridays when they fasted; 
They never wanted gear eneuch 

As lang as their neighbours' lasted.'" 

The Fail and its neighbourhood— Coilsfield, the 
Castle of Montgomery, Mauchline, etc.— are inti- 
mately associated with the history of Burns. 
"On the Fail, too, is all that is left of the monas- 
tery (in which Thomas the Rhymer was once a 
guest), the home of the jovial monks, who will 
long be remembered by the rhyme in Ramsay's 
'Evergreen,' quoted by Scott in 'The Abbot': — 

'The Friars of Fail drank berry-brown ale. 

The best that e'er was tasted ; 
The monks of Melrose made gude kale 

On Fridays, when they fasted.'" 

Could any of the readers of the "B. M." throw 
some further light on these old rhymes F The two 
versions as given by Scott and Chambers seem to 
be virtually the same, but in the latter version 
some farm hand, probably dissatisfied with his 
"rations," seems to have inserted the first four 
lines by way of interpolation and as a specimen 
of rustic "wut." 

These old monks and friars, according to all 
accounts, had a good time of it. and seem to have 
been not altogether ignorant of the rules of good 
living and the principles of practical gastronomy. 
Chaucer, in his Prologue to the "Canterbury 
Tales," has sketched for us a specimen of each. 
The Reformation in Scotland must have brought 
with it a great revolution in manners. "The 
change," says Sir Walter Scott, "must indeed 
have been terrific; but it doee not seem to have 



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159 



been felt very severely by a certain Boniface of St 
Andrews, for when somebody asked him, on the 
snbsidence of the storm, what he thonght of all 
that had occurred, 'Why/ answered mine host, 
'it comes to this, that the Moderantor sits in my 
meikle chair, where the Dean sat before, and, in 
place of calling for the third stonp of Bordeaux, 
bids Jenny bring ben anither bowl of toddy.' " 

A. G. S. 
♦ * ♦ 

LESSXJDDEN NOTES. 

In the "B. M." I note a correspondence about 
. Lessndden, Willie Brockie, John Younger, Ac. 
Nearly sixty years ago— 1848, I think— I lived 
with my uncle, the late Mr Lamb, for a few weeks 
in the pleasant village referred to. Mr Lamb 
was the well-known musician and singing master 
whose pupils were to be found in the Border 
Counties, the Lothians, and the Kingdom of Fife. 
He was a subject of "the Kingdom," as he was 
born there when George III. had reigned half his 
time. 

In Lessudden we lodged with Mr and Mrs Ham- 
ilton, the parents of that Mr Hamilton who occu- 
pied the Abbey Hotel in Melrose for many years. 
The elder Mr Hamilton was a weaver, and I re- 
member his wife making mats, and very fine 
ones, of the thrums from the end of the web. 
He wove in the ben end of the house. 

One day we went to call on John Younger, the 
poet, philosopher, and shoemaker, whose work 
could be carried on to the accompaniment of a 
crack. 

"What d'ye think 0' this, Mr Lamb?" queried 
John. 

" 'The Lord works wonders noo an* than— 
Sometimes a gentleman's an honest man!'" 
John said the lines occurred to him that morn- 
ing before he left his bed. Of course, John's "gen- 
tleman" meant a man of the upper classes. 

Peace be with him, if that is not a sinful and 
ritualistic prayer for the dead. He was kind to 
the laddie who sat and listened to the wisdom 
of two kind-hearted and kindred spirits. 

Would the Willie Brockie referred to by your 
correspondents be any relation to that other 
Willie Brockie, the son of a Border farmer, who 
began life as a clerk in Haldane's Brewery, Gala- 
shiels, and ended a long literary career in Sun- 
derland, in which town and in South Shields he 
for many years edited papers. W. S. 



A Walk from Moffat to Hawick. 



!?'>S 



jBOUT seven o^clock in the morning of a 
Saturday in May some years ago, I left 
Aberdeen for Carlisle per Caledonian Rail- 
way, provided with an excursion return 
ticket costing the remarkably small sum of 
16/1, and which was available for return up to Monday 
night following. I was all alone, and at time of starting 
had not quite decided whether I should go right on to 
Carlisle, or stop at some plai>e en raute. As a provision 
for eventualities, however, 1 had before leaving home 
donned a good serviceable suit and a heavy pair of 
boots. It was a lovely spring morning, all nature 
seemed to be astir, and, grudging the time spent in the 
train, I ultimately made up my mind to stop at Beat- 
took, and go on from there to Moffat. To do this, I had 
to leave the express at Carstairs, get the slow train for 



Beattock, and there join the train for Moffat» and alter 
a short run of about five minutes' duration through 
some beautiful pastoral and woodland scenery, I arrived 
at the pretty little village of Moffat at noon. 

As I had breakfasted between five and six a.m., one 
can easily understand that my first enquiry was for a 
refreshment room. After having done justice to the 
claims of the inner man, I had a stroll around the village, 
and thereafter, having read and heard a good deal a^"* 
the Deirs Beef Tub, I determined to visit it. The 
distance was only about five miles, and my intention 
was, after seemg the Tub, to walk across the hills in a 
north-easterly direction, and get to Tibbie Shiels in the 
evening, and then tramp across to Hawick on the 
Sunday. But as proved to be the case " the best laid 
schemes o' mice and men gang aft agley." (^"^®^ 
with a compass and guide book, I thought that all 
would be plain saiUng, and that I should just have 
time to walk on with an occasional glance at either. 

About an hour and a quarter after I left Moffat, I 
arrived at the so-called Beef Tub. As those who have 
visited it know, it is an immense hollow formed within 
the hills at the head of the Annan, and is only open at 
a narrow gorge on the south side. The bottom is 
tolerably smooth and level, the sides are steep and high, 
and in some places bare and rocky and overlaid with 
shingle. It is here that the Annan takes its rise, and 
as a smaU rivulet winds its way through the gorge on the 
south side. As we all know, this Tub plays a promment 
part in Border story ; and according to tradition, it 
was in this capacious hollow that the cattle reivers con- 
cealed the animals carried off by them in their pre- 
datory excursions — hence the name of Beef luL- 
Why it should be called the Doil's Beef Tub I have 
never been able to ascertain. 

After examining this curiosity of nature, I restarted 
in an easterly direction, it being about three p.m. 

The road was now left behind, and I was fairly 

. amongst the heather,* and for a little all went well— but 

only for a little. /. j *u 

Previously I had followed a fairly well defined patn, 
but as it, to my idea, diverged in a northerly direction, 
r, much to my subsequent regret, left it and held more 
to the east. The ground soon got very marshy, render- 
ing walking a very tedious process : and to crown my 
misfortunes, my compass and I disagreed — what I 
thought to be north, it called south, and vice versa— 90 
giving up hape of getting my bearings by the aid of the 
needle, I plodded on in what I considered to be the 
right direction. Later on 1 ascertained that the soil 
on which I had been walking contained a goodly pro- 
portion of iron, thus accounting for the vagaries of my 
compass. By this time I had lost sight of any of the 
hills that I knew, and after tramping on for about a 
couple of hours in solitary silence, and seeing no sign of 
Hartfell, the highest hill in Dumfriesshire, I began to 
think that I was, to Tise a colonial phrase, " up a gum 
tree." Not a soul or habitation of any kind was to be 
seen, so I sat down to try and puzzle out my where- 
abouts with the aid of my Guide Book. Hardly, how- 
ever, had I seated myself, when a collie dog hove in 
sight driving .some sheep. I immediately got up and 
followed the collie, and after about fifteen minutes of 
stiff walking, came upon the shepherd. On getting 
into talk with him, he informed me that I was eleven 
miles north of Moffat and five miles from Elvanf oot, the 
nearest station. Instead of walking north-east, I had 
been going north-west. But as I had made up my 



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mind to see St Mary's Looh, I set out for Elvanfoot 
Station, passing on my way the source of the Clyde, 
and the Summit, i.e. the name given to the highest 
point on the Caledonian Railway. On arrival at the 
station I was lucky enough tp get a train in a few 
minutes, and about 7 p.m. again landed in MofFat, 
my previous 8t>arting-place. Having appeased the 
pangs of hunger, I started to walk to St Mary*s, making 
sure that I took the right road this time. The Lqch is 
about sixteen miles distant from Moffat, and I cal- 
culated on arriving at Tibbie Shiels about half past 
eleven, where I would get some supper and a bed. It 
was a beautiful evening, and although only the begin- 
ning of May, the air was quite mild and balmy, and the 
glorious view I had of the sun setting behind the hills 
amply repaid me for my enforced tramp. 

A few miles from Moffat I perceived the farm of 
Bodesbeck nestling at the foot of the grass-covered 
hills, and looking in the gloaming the very picture of 
peace and tranquility. About 8.30 p.m. I had nearly 
done six miles, and thinking I would have a few minutes 
rest, I sat down on the road-side, and promptly fell 
asleep. When I awoke, feeling as stiff as a poker, I 
was surprised to find it pitch dark, and on striking a 
match foimd it to be 11 p.m. The beauties of nature 
hardly appealed to me now, and I would have given 
something to have, been between the blai)[ketis in Tibbie 
Shiels* hostel. As I could not possibly reach the Inn 
before 2 a.m., I made up my mind to spen'S the rest of 
the night also in open, and accordingly restarted walk- 
ing, paying a good deal of attention to my feet, as, with 
the exceptionof a few stars, it was quite dark. 

About 2 a.m. I arrived at the Loch of the Lowes, 
and here I again laid myself down and made a futile 
attempt to get some more sleep ; but no, now that I 
really wanted to sleep, the goddess of slumber would 
not be wooed. 

Continuing my lonely way, I reached St Mary's Looh 
about half-an-hour later. 

The dawn was now beginning to break and I could 
perceive the statue of the Ettrick Shepherd looking 
erey and ghostly in the dim, cold light of the morning. 
Feeling slightly cold, I had a smart walk along the 
Loch, and then stripped and had a paddle in the water. 
I did not waste any time in the water, as one can easily 
guess — the water of St Mary's Loch at 3 a.m. on an 
early May morning is not particularly warm, and I 
was not very long in getting out and thinking about 
drying myself. Unfortunately the programme I had 
mapped out before leaving Aberdeen did not include a 
swim, and accordingly I found that I was minus the 
necessary towel wherewith to dry myself, and an 
ordinary handkerchief is not a satirfactory substitute. 
Luckily I had provided myself with some biscuits 
before leaving Moffat the previous evening, and after 
disposing of them, I felt in better trim for the rest of 
my journey. 

1 retraced my steps to the road between the two 
Lochs, and on the guide post there I could make out 
that Hawick was some twenty-two miles distant. It 
was now 4 a.m., and a lovely morning ; gradually the 
sun had lit up the hills in succession, and with a better 
view of my sjlorious surroundings I began to be recon- 
ciled to the loss of a night in bed. A few miles from 
Tibbie Shiels I passed Tushielaw Inn. Between these 
two Inns the road is not particularly level nor smooth, 
and I did not envy the lot of the drivers who have to 
guide the coaches from the Ettrick to St Mary's. 
JvL%t at Tushielaw the roid for Hawick crosses the 



Ettrick, and then shortly after another stiff climb I 
saw on my left hand Hellsmuir and Alesmuir Lochs. 
The high watershed between the Ettrick and Teviot 
valleys having now been surmounted, the road was 
considerably easier, and without further adventures I 
reached Hawick about eleven 11 on Sunday forenoon. 

Since the afternoon of the previous day I had walked 
over fifty-five miles, and had traversed part of three of 
the Border counties, viz., Dumfries, Selkirk and Rox- 
burgh, and had been favoured during the whole time 
with beautiful weather. 

As I had eaten nothing but a few biscuits since leav- 
ing Moffat, and not caring to ask anything at the 
passing farms on the Sunday morning, it can easily be 
understood that by the time I reached Ten Town I 
was troubled with an aching void. I entered the 
town by way of the Wilton Park, and in the little 
refreshment room there satisfied the cravings of the 
inner man, for the moment, with bread and milk. 
Shortly afterwards I visited some friends in Hawick, 
and spent the rest of Sunday and part of Monday there. 

There is no getting over the fart that I was very 
tired on reaching Hawick, but a bath and a good dinner 
worked wonders, and in the course of the afternoon 
I had a walk down by Appletree Ha'. 

On the Monday afternoon I left Hawick by the after- 
noon express, and reached Carlisle about 5 p.m. I 
spent about three hours in the Cathedral City, then 
caught the night train for the north, and early on 
Tuesday morning found myself once more in the 
Granite City. 

Although my week-end was not what the average 
person would probably call pleasure, yet I derived a 
considerable amount of enjoyment and benefit from 
the walk, and look forward to some future time when I 
may be able to repeat it, possibly with the sleeping-out 
part of the programme omitted. " ROVER." 

** I've seen the forest 
Adorned the foremost, 
Wi* the flowers o' the fairest 
Both pleasant and gay. 



But now they are withered 
And a' wede away." 



DEATH OF A NEWCASTLE JOURNALIST. 
The death took place last month of Mr Alex- 
ander Davidson Muiray, a well-known north- 
country journalist, and for thirty-seven years 
editor of the "Newcastle Daily Journal." Mr 
Murray had been in poor health for some time, 
but was at his post as recently as Thursday, 
18th July, and on the following day left for a 
summer vacation in Scotland. His death took 
place suddenly at St Fillans, Perthshire, at the 
residence of his brother-in-law. He w^as sixty- 
eight years of age, and was born at Hawick, 
where his journalistic career was begun. At 
the age of twenty-nine he e<lite<l the "Peeblee- 
sliire Advertiser," and took up the editorship of 
the "Newcastle Daily Journal" in 1870. Mr 
Murray was a brother of Dr Murray, of Oxford 
Dictionary fame, and of Mr C. 0. Marray, the 
etcher. 



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SUPPLEMENT to the "BORDER MAGAZINE/' Vol. XII., No 141. 




DAVID BROWN ANDERSON. 

ESSAYIST. 



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DEVOTED TO 

Border Biography, History, Literature, and 
Folklore. 

Edited by WNiiam Sancferson. 



Vol. XII. , No. 141. SEPTEMBER, 1907. [all rights reserved. 



DAVID BROWN ANDERSON, 

ESSAYIST. 




I HERE can be no doubt that David 
Brown Anderson was intended by 
Nature to be a Peeblesshire laird, 
and she fashioned him accordingly ; 
but by some curious freak of upbringing 
or of education he is entitled to call himself 
a Writer to the Signet I A writer he certainly 
is, but not of legal parchments. Four beauti- 
ful volumes stand at present (1907) to nis 
credit: — (1) "The Vale of Anwoth and other 
Essays;" (2) "Notes of a Rambler;" (3) 
"Essays;" (4) "Reminiscences, with occa- 
sional Essays ;" these are their names, and the 
series enshrines upon lustrous surface in lux- 
urious type reminiscences of his cultured lei- 
sure, anecdotes of his literary circle, and idylls 
of his beloved county of Peebles. And yet Mr 
Anderson is an exile. His body may be found 
for the greater part of the year at Caris- 
brooke in the Isle of Wight, but his spirit, 
that " alter ego " which ofttimes is the best 
part of a man, flies ever back to the haunted 
Hopes and mysterious mountains of his life- 
long love. 

To the listening shepherds of Manor Valley, 
the liquid call of the cuckoo is the first har- 



binger of summer. But more, it is a remin- 
der that David Brown Anderson is making for 
the north. Ere long he appears without fur- 
ther notice on the High Street of Peebles, or 
by the verdant haug^s of Manor Water. If 
on foot, then Tom Forrest or Walter Irvine are 
not far off. But if Mrs Anderson accompanies 
him, you can tell that it is he only by the 
sonorously hearty laugh and the smell of 
petrol as their motor dashes past. 

Hallyards Mansion-house, close to Manor 
Kirk, was his father's country-house ; Hender- 
land and Crosscleugh by lone St Mary's was 
the ancestral fatherland; but Mr Anderson 
himself is a citizen of no mean city, being a 
native of Edinburgh. His mother was a 
daughter of David Brown, of Greenknowe, 
Stirlingshire, hence the name Brown Ander- 
son. 

The House of Hallyards has considerable 
literary interest and great beauty of situation, 
with umbrageous lawns extending to Manor 
Water. Sir Walter Scott, Professor Fergus- 
son, Mungo Park, have all been associated with 
the place; and 'a weird statue of the Black 
Dwarf guards the avenue. There are many 



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interesting relics of Bowed Davie within the 
walls ; there may also be seen the bookboard 
of the family pew taken from old Manor Kirk, 
on which has been engraved with penknife 
the inscription, "W. S., 1799," which the 
members of the family attribute to Walter 
Scott, done, no doubt, to wile away the ted- 
i\un of some weary sermon two years after 
his visit to the cottage of the Dwarf. As 
King James VI. said that he had a natural 
and salmon-like affection for the place of his 
breeding, so is it with Mr Anderson ; hence 
his imperishable affinity for the Border coun- 
ties of Selkirk and Peebles, the cradle of his 
race. He has well proved himself to be a 
loyal son of the Borders, and he has utilised 
his great gifts of intellect, observation, and 
descriptive faculty in revealing to others the 
beauties, the associations and charms of the 
Scottish Lowlands. Always *i great reader, 
he early came under the spell of such men as 
Professors Aytoun, Masson, and Veitoh, all of 
whom stimulated his zeal for a further know- 
ledge of literature ; while the author of " A 
Summer in Skye," the late Alexander Smith, 
by his graphic literary power fostered in the 
growing youth the desire not only to read, but 
to become one of the band of literati also. To 
Mr Anderson has been furnished the full real- 
isation of this ambition, endued as he was 
with "the vision and the faculty divine," he 
has for many years occupied a learned leisure 
in the cultivation and development of his lit- 
erary tastes. In addition, he possesses the 
means to gratify them, and to have their re- 
sults brought to the notice of an ever-appre- 
ciative public. Hence Mr Anderson's vol- 
umes are sumptuous. They are alike the ad- 
miration and also the despair of his less for- 
tunate brethren of the pen. All that fine 
paper, beautiful type and elegant binding can 
do, is lavished upon the caskets that contain 
our author's materialised thoughts. Take, 
for instance, his latest work first. It consists 
largely of reminiscences of his early days at 
school in Edinburgh, where the future histor- 
ian found that the most severe of his school- 
masters were usually "the lame and the red- 
haired onesl" His Sabbaths were the days 
of three attendances at church, and the Shorter 
Catechism. Among the clergymen of his 
younger days whom he knew were the Rev. Dr 
Guthrie, who founded the Ragged School, the 
Rev. Dr Boyd, minister then of St Bernard's, 
of whom Mr Anderson has written some de- 
lightful essays, Dr Robert Lee, minister of 
Old Greyfriars, who re-introduced organs into 



the Church of Scotland, and the great and 
large-hearted Norman Macleod of the Barony. 

David Brown Anderson^was a lad of twelve 
when Christopher North died, then came Aytoun 
and Masson ; and among the Doctors, Simpson, 
Christison and Maclagan ; in fact, his youth was 
spent amid much of what was noblest and 
brightest in the Scottish Capital of the day.. 

William and Robert Chambers by their 
successful Uves stimulated the mental energies 
of the young student, partly also because they 
too came from the Borders, being Peebles lads. 
Of Bench and Bar ; of music and the drama, 
there are to be found among the reminiscences 
many amusing recollections and anecdotes of a 
race of professionals now passing, and of a 
condition of society now vanished. But it is 
perhaps not so much in his personal sketches 
so much as in his Essays that Mr Anderson 
reveals his originality. The range through 
which his fancy has roamed is very extensive. 
Traquair, Nithsdale, the Isle of Wight, Sussex, 
Peeblesshire, Dawyck, St Eilda, Chichester, 
Oxford, Broughton, are but a few of the places 
described in the latest volume. Among the 
men whom he has known in addition to those 
already named are — Dr Cameron Lees, Blackie, 
Lord Napier, Principal Caird, Sir Graham 
Montgomery, Sir William Fergusson and many 
others. One need not enumerate further ; the 
few items already given may suffice to incUcate 
the range of subject dealt with by Mr Anderson. 
In the four volumes there are two hundred and 
fifteen separate articles from his pen. Every one 
is interesting and readable, although of varying 
quality. 

In endeavouring to analyse the elements that 
have gone to create and foster Mr Anderson's 
literary genius, one would place first his unusual 
bodily and mental energy. This stiis within 
him the desire to see things and compels hini to 
go to the places where they are to be found. 
Having arrived at his goal, the faculty of obser- 
vation comes into play ; nothing escapes him, 
be it the early feathered songster, the rare 
botanical specimen, some feature in the land- 
scape, some effect of light and shade. ^ 
- Next comes memory ; apparently no notes are 
made ; all is silently and intuitively treasured up 
in the memory, a most retentive one, and as 
surely brought forth again in the silence and 
privacy of the study. Lastly, there are the 
many and diverse qualities of imagination, 
poetry, mental perception, due sense of pro- 
portion, with a properly balanced hero-worship^ 
all of which unite in forming that combination of 



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163 



gifts that constitate the true essayist and natural 
poet. Hr Anderson possesses all the foregoing 
in proper degree. And the result is those 
touching yet true word-pictures of men and 
places that present the subject real and living 
before the reader. When one lias visited any 
of the places described by Mr Anderson, one 
goes to his books with expected pleasure which 
is never disappointed, because he finds there 
^he materialisation and crystallising of those 
thoughts and ideas which one himseU may have 
experienced but been imable to find words for. 
There is a lightness of touch in the studies that 
render them always interesting and never prosy. 
There is much humour which even a Southron 
might imdeistand; and there is that pathos 
and that tragedy which are so seldom absent 
in real life, but are never overdone by our author. 
Bonhomie and benevolence are the two 
leading characteristics of Mr Anderson in private. 
His brain and his heart are aUke big. He cannot 
lielp reveahng himself in his books. As one 
reads them, one forgets for the moment, and 
imagines that their author is sitting at the head 
of his hospitable board, relating the anecdotes 
and jokes that make him such a jolly host. 
And thus the season^ come and go. Spring, 
summer and autumn reveal their treasures to 
this burly MAkAR. He is making himself all 
the time. He is imbibing all that is sweetest, all 
that is the truest poetry, all that is noblest in 
mankind, all that has gone to make the Kingdom 
of Scotland what it is. He does not confine his 
meditations to one class of literature as some 
writers do. AU that he comes across in his 
daily experiences is grist to his mill — some anec- 
dote he has heard, some landscape he has 
•descried, a summer sunset or a spring morning, 
an eloquent minister, a meditative shepherd. 
*^ A chiel's amang ye taldn' notes, and faith 
le'll prent them," is true of the company where 
David Brown Anderson is ; but he looks ilpon 
nature and human nature with a kindly eye. 
Only the best in man and in nature is described. 
Hence it is that after perusing any of Mr 
Anderson's writings, one rises refreshed and 
ready for more, gratified that one's lot has been 
pitched among the blessed valleys and beside 
the still waters, and nigh the mjnsterious hiUs, 
-of these essays ; and that one even yet may be 
in the way of meeting reincarnations of the noble 
"heart of Scott, of the giant intellect of Veitch, 
of the gentle but imdaunted courage of Park ; 
and living, as the Borderers do, amid such 
.splendid potentialities, they feel grateful to 
David Brown Anderson, whose loyal soul in 



exile yet feels delight in sojourning for a space 
amid the Highland of the south, whose graceful 
pen finds pleasure in perpetuating the scenes and 
thoughts of his inspired vision. 

C. B. G. 




The Author of " Waverley " on the • 
South Side of the Border. 

Bt Walthr Scott, Gainfobd. 

Pakt IV. 

•TWIXT WEAR AND TYNE. 

AROLD THE DAUNTLESS" is 
another poem having north of 
England scenes for its develop- 
ment. It is an eerie story of life 
in Weardale and the country between that 
and the valley of the Tyne in early Saxon 
times. Harold was the son of a Danish sea-, 
rover, who had won lands and possessions im- 
der the See of Durham. The father had ac- 
cepted Christianity and died a son of the 
Church, but Harold was as wild a heathen as 
any berserker from Scandinavia. He defied 
the Bishop and despised the priests, but was 
won over by the smiles of a beautiful maiden, 
Eivir, whose gentle tones and pure life were 
all-powerful to tame his wild spirit. There 
are witches, ghosts, incantations, and demons 
to strive against, but Harold, • having for 
Eivir's sake become penitent, defies them all, 
and to his love says — 

"Eivir, since thoti for many a day 
Hast followed Harold's wayward way. 
It is but meet that in the line 
Of after life I follow thine. 
To-morrow is Saint Cnthbert's tide, 
And we will grace his altar's side, 
A Christian knight and Christian bride; 
And of Witikin's son shall the marvel be said 
That on the same morn he was christen'^d and 
wed." 

The story roams over the country from 
Monkwearmouth to Tyneside. Several times 
the scene is laid in Durham Cathedral, and 
Harold's story was known 

"By merry Tyne, both on moor and lea, 
Throngh Weardale's wooded glens so free. 
Well beside Stanhope's wildwood tree. 
And well on Gannless river." 

Weardale's glens are known locally as 'liopes," 
the dales through which flow the tributaries 
of the Wear from north and south, " Ireshope, 
Bollihope, Kellhope, Wellhope, Rookhope, 
Eastenhope, Westenhope, and Stonehope i' 
Wardale " beipg a local enumeration of them. 



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The Bishops of Durham, being up to the first 
half of last century Princes Palantine of the 
county, had immense power and wealth, in 
ancient times, the right to coin money being 
one of their privileges. Many a hunting they 
had in their forest of Weardale. Stanhope is 
now a small town with many remnants of its 
'* wild woods *' around it still. The Gaunless 
is a tributary of the Wear rising in Langley- 
dale, in the south-west of the county, of which 
mention is made in the lines, as may be re- 
membered. 

"Young Frank is chief of Errington 
And lord of Langleydale." 



of chivalry, the scenes of which are in south- 
west Northumberland, Cumberland^ and Weat- 
moreland. It is 

"A tale of Britain's isle and Arthur's days» 
When midnight fairies danced the 



It opens with a splendid description of the 
qualities that should adorn the bride fit to be 
mated with Sir Roland de Vaux, lord of Trier- 
main/ She should, in fact, have nn angelic 
disposition and a form of perfect beauty. Sir 
Roland sees such a lady in a vision of the 
night and hears her sing. He makes enquiry 
of his entourage as to what they had seen and 











-^^^^^^B 

W^"^' 




•^ ^^^^HOfc 




* ""^^^Bir n[HP 


w^ ,... 


V 







GILSLAND. 



However, some say the Northumberland place 
is meant. In a book on angling, published 
early last century, occurs the sentence, " In the 
north of England are two of the best trout 
fishing streams in England, the Coquet in 
Northumberland and the Gaunless in Durham 
County." For the first half of the century it 
was true of both. It is now of the Coquet. 
But the adjacent coUeries and the villages 
around them have made the Gaunless a magni- 
fied sewer. Sad, isn't it? And tradition in 
the neighbourhood further torments folk by 
asserting that to Tennyson, who was on a visit 
to Auckland Castle, the Bishop's dwelling- 
place on its banks, it suggested "The Brook." 
The " Bridal of Triermain " is purely a tale 



heard. They had neither seen nor heard any- 
thing out of the common. He sends to Lord 
Lyulph, 

"That sage of power, sprnng from Drnid sires 
And British bards that tuned their lyres 
To Arthur and Pendragon's praise 
And his who sleeps at Dunmail raise.'* 

Triermain Castle, from which the messenger 
starts, is now a ruin, about two miles to the 
east of Gilsland, a fief of the barony of Gils- 
land. Dunmailraise is a pass between Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland where a king of the 
ancient Britons was buried. The page hastens 
with his lord's greeting and question to- 
Lyulph. 



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"And soon he crossed green Irthing's mead. 
Dashed o'er Kirkoswald's verdant plain. 
And Eden barr'd his conrse in vain. 
He passed red Penrith's Table Round, 
For feats of chivalry renowned; 
Left Maybnrgh's monnd and stones of power. 
By Drnids raised in magic honr; 
And traced the Eamont's winding way 
Till XJlpho's lake beneath him lay." 

The Irthing is a stream rising to the east 
of Triermain Castle, and flows westward past 
Gilsland and the Roman camp of Borcovicus, 
commonly called Birdoswald, through the mea- 
dows of Eirkoswald, and on to its junction 
with the Eden. The Eden, which enters the 



and Cumberland, is another mound, Mayburgh, 
which is somewhat like that of Penrith, oEiiy 
covered on the top by a collection of stones. 
In the plain near it stands a monolith, twelve 
feet high, evidently a survival of Druid times. 
Ulpho'^ Lake is the old and poetic name of 
Ullswater, near Penrith. 

The page meets the old sage, Lyulph, and 
gives him his master's message. To him the 
old seer tells a wondrous story. He relates the 
story of King Arthur, the chief of the Round 
Table, riding out of Merry Carlisle in search 
of adventure. To many Scots Carlisle was 
anything but merry, many being hung there. 




MUMPS ha'. 



sea by way of Silloth past Carlisle, takes its 
rise near Eirkby Stephen, close to the boun- 
dary between Westmoreland and Durham, and 
not very far from the small rivulet's rise, the 
Yore, ^ich flows through Yorkshire and joins 
the Ouse, which enters the sea by way of Hull, 
having in its course gathered the waters of 
many tributaries and become a mighty river. 
The Eden flows through much beautiful scen- 
ery. Penrith is described as red on account of 
the colour of the stone of which its houses are 
built. The Mound or Round Table is about 
half a mile from Penrith, and tradition says 
that it was the scene of much jousting at many 
tournaments in ancient days. Further up, the 
Eamont river, which s^arates Westmoreland 



from the first Border raids to the time of the 
failure of the 1745 Rebellion. There was one 
exception, however, when the laugh was on 
the side of the Scots. It was in 1596, at a 
time of truce the wardens met, one from each 
side of the Border, made their enquiries and 
settled all affairs, and were riding home when 
the Laird of Kinmont, " Kinmont Willie " of 
the ballad, was seen on the right bank of the 
Liddell by the English, who were on the left or 
English side. He was almost alone, and they 
crossed over, surrounded him, and took him a 
prisoner to Carlisle. Scott of Buccleuch hear- 
ing of the matter wrote to Lord Scrope, whose 
deputy had committed the breach of truce, de- 
manding the release of Willie. Getting no 



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satisfaction in a reasonable time, Buocleuch 
took the law into his own hand, entered Car- 
lisle Castle by scaling the walls one dark 
night in April, took Willie out, and marched 
safely back to Scotland. The affair incensed 
good Queen Bess mightily, and when, some 
time after, Buccleuch was presented to her, she 
roughly demanded, " How he dared to under- 
take an enterprise so desperate and presump- 
tuous!" Buccleuch boldly answered, "What 
is it t)iat a man dares not do?" So the Scots 
were merry at the expense of Carlisle. 

But King Arthur's ride was centuries before 
that. In the course of his ride he passed under 
Glaramara, or the mountain now called Saddle- 
back, and the description of the scenery around 
him is splendid and worthy of the poet's best 
efforts. At last he came to a castle all silent ; 
and seemingly "nor banner nor warder " was 
there. He rode round thrice, and then blew 
his horn, at which the gates flew open. Here 
he was received by a queenly dame, who cour- 
teously invited him to parta'Se of her hospital- 
ity. For weeks of gay dalliance he stayed 
under the spell of the siren. At last duty 
claimed his return, and he prepared to depart. 
At first she objected, but at last agreed to his 
going. She stood at the gate, and as he rode 
out drank to their friendly parting, and of- 
fered him the cup which he was about to quaff, 
when 

"A idrop escaped the goblet's brink. 
As he lifted the cup in act to drink." 

It fell on the charger's neck, and with agony 
and fright he bolted full twenty feet upright. 
However, the monarch kept his seat and got 
safely back to Carlisle. 

Fifteen years and more elapsed, and at Whit- 
suntide he held his court for redress of wrongs 
and such like. As usual a tournament was 
held, at which the flower of chivalry appeared. 
When all was joy and revelry, at trumpet sound 
a maiden on a white palfrey appeared, alighted 
and knelt before the king. He saw the linea- 
ments and beauty of the siren of the castle, 
and knew she was his daughter Gyneth. He 
then proclaimed a joust at arms, the prize to 
be the hand of Gyneth, and she to be judge of 
the fray. 

At first it was a tournament, but gradually 
the fiery blood of the knights warmed, and it 
became deadly earnest, and 

"The spears drew blood, the swords struck flame, 
And horse and man to ground then came. 
Knights who shall rise no moje." 



"Already gasping on the ground 
Lie twenty of the Table Hound, 
Of chivalry the prime." 

But heedless Gyneth looks on and gives no sign 
to forbear. But suddenly, midst noise of 
whirlwind and eathquake, the awful form of 
Merlin the Wizard appears. He condenms 
Gyneth to punishment for her heartlessness 
and contempt of life, but 

"Punishment is blent with grace. 
Thou shalt bea^ thy penance lone 
In the valley of St John. 
And this weird shall overtake thee — 
Sleep until a knight shall wake thee 
For feats of arms as far renown'd 
As warrior of the Table Eound." 

And so she sleeps in the enchanted castle 
whither the brave Sir Ralph de Vaux of Trier- 
main proceeds. After various experiences of 
misty clouds enveloping the mountains, anon 
swept off by breezes chill, he finds the castle, 
where centuries before Arthur had so nearly 
come to grief. And on the castle gate he finds 
a curious inscription — 

"Patience waits the destined day. 
Strength can clear the cumbered way. 
Warrior who hast waited long 
It is given to thee to gaze 
On the pile of ancient days. 
View it o'er and pace it round 
Rampart, turret, battled mound. 
Dare no more! To cross the gate 
Were to tamper with thy fate; 
Strength and fortitude were vain. 
View it o'er — and turn again." 

Sir Ralph would take no such advice. He 
shakes the wicket, it gives way, the rusty bolts 
withdraw, and he enters in. No sooner was he 
in than these bolts slid into their places, and 
he was a prisoner. Undismayed he goes for- 
ward in his search, muttering 

"Now closed is the gin and the prey within. 

By the Rood of Lanerkost ! 
But he that would win the war wolf's skin 
May rue him of his boast." 

Lancercost Priory is now a beautiful ruin, 
situated in a very attractive valley near 
Naworth Castle, the seat of the celebrated 
Belted Will Howard, of the old ballads, and 
now of his successor, the Earl of Carlisle. Sir 
Ralph goes bravely on till he is met by four 
maidens "whom Afric bore," whose stranjpe 
apparel, naked arms and knees were of jet, and 
threatening words still did not deter De Vaux 
from his search. Ultimately 
"Deep slumbering in the fated chair 
He saw King Arthur's child. 
And as her lips so sweetly smil'd 
It seemed that the repentant seer 
Her sleep of many a hundred year 
With gentle dreams beguiled." 



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Softly he touches her lovely hands, but he quite 
suddenly desista^ for 

"Lightning flashes, rolls the thunder, 
Qyneth startles from her sleep. 
Totter towers, and trembles Iceep, 
Burst the castle walls asunder." 

But out of it all De Vaux comes safely with 
the lovely Gyneth in his arms. Needless to 
add that she becomes "The Bride of Trier- 
main," and the mother of a warlike race, still 
noted in the fields of war and adventure. 



Border Notes and Queries. 

LESSUDDEN QUERIES. 

I want through the medium of the Bobbeb Maqa- 
siNB to convey luy thanks to Mr Richard Waugh 
for the very interesting letter which appeared in 
yeur last issue. 

Gratitude, they say, is a lively sense of favours to 
come, and my gratitude to Mr Waugh is to take 
the form of asking him to share a little more of 
his knowledge of the Borderland with us; 

First. — There is a very interesting old manuscript 
hook in the possession of the Inspector of Poor of 
St Boswells Parish which speaks of a flood which 
changed the course of the river Tweed. This took 
place 200 or 250 years ago. Formerly the river 
flowed nearer St Boswells than it does now. The 
pools in the Haugh— "The Puils"— are in the old 
hed of the river, and the old channel from 
"Brockie's Hole" downwards can still he traced. 
At that time the dwellers on the St Boswells side 
had the right to cut whins and brushwood on their 
side of the liver for firewood; an(^ the dwellers 
on the other side had the same right on their side. 
After the river changed its course there was a law- 
suit about the rights of the folks on either side. 
TOie Lessudden people claimed all the new space 
which w^as on their side, and the Dry burgh folks 
said that their rights still extended as far south 
as they had ever done, and that the river having 
changed its course was no reason why their fires 
should be smaller than before. I don't know how 
the case was settled, but I wonder if Mr Waugh 
in his boyhood days ever heard any rumour of 
this change of the river's course and of the dis- 
pute which arose in consequence? 

Second. — Some years ago when a man wanted to 
build he went to the Scaurs— "The Skers"— and 
quarried his material there. Earlier still, I sus- 
pect he went to Dryburgh Abbey, and perhaps Mr 
Waugh can tell us something about that too, for in 
one of the houses which he built there is a stone 
with a face carved on it. I remember quarrying 
operations being carried on a little below the 
"Burnfit.'' On the last occasion on which I xe- 
member this being done the stones were drawn 
up the "Sker face" by a wire rope, a traction 
engine being the motive power. This was a great 
attraction to us boys, and to a good many more 
who oould scarcely be called boys; and once when 
I was there the wire rope broke, and the stones, 
which were more than half-way tip, thundered 
down into the river again. The men at the foot 
ran for their lives, and fortunately no one was 
hurt. Now, can Mr Waugh tell us anjrthing about 



the old quarrying rights of the proprietors in. St 
Boswells Parish ? 

Third.—What is the history of the Undivided 
Qreen? 

Fourth.— The mention of the Qreen suggests an- 
other question. I believe it is a fact that the Fair 
used to be held on the Haugh near Maxton Cot- 
tage and Benrig. Why was the stance changed, 
and when? Tradition says that the old village of 
Alasudden used to stand somewhere near where 
the Parish Church is now. Is that the reason why 
the Fair was in that neighbourhood? Spe$iking of 
the old village reminds me that on one of my last 
visits I was informed that when the foundations of 
that great hulk of a house, which spoils one of the 
fairest views to the south from the Braeheads, 
were being dug, the foundations of a number of old 
houses were laid bare. Are these likely to be the 
remains of some of the castellated houses which 
Alasudden used^o possess, and which I suppose 
would be of a later date than the village houses 
near the Parish Church? 

Fifth. — I shall only ask one more question, Ur 
Editor, for I do not want to take up too much 
space, seeing that you have so many manuscripts 
in store waiting for publication. Everybody in 
Lessudden knows the *'Webri Well" — I spell its 
name phonetically— but everybody does not know 
that its waters used to be regarded as having heal- 
ing properties. I have heard an old residenter 
say that when he was a boy it was quite comm >n 
for people to go there with bottles in which to 
carry away the water so that they might have a 
remedy at hand for any ailments. My informant 
had done so many a time. But the Webri Well 
is now shut up and access to it denied to the gen- 
eral public. Can Mr Waugh tell us anything 
about the Well and its history, and the rights of 
public access to it? I am afraid I have given Mr 
Waugh material for a few letters, and I know he 
is a busy man, but perhaps his known love of his 
" calf grund " will induce him to tell us something^ 
about the questions I have asked. Thanking him 
in anticipation. 

^ A. L. A. Sudden. 



THE SCOTS THISTLE. 

I'm afraid your correspondent, Mr Robert Stew- 
art, has been misled as to the emblem surmount- 
ing the Royal Arms in Newark Tower. What 
have been taken as suggesting the flower and 
leaves of a thistle are really the head and wings 
of a cherub. Mr Stewart may satisfy himself as 
to this by looking at the drawing of this stone in 
"The Scotts of Buccleuch," by Sir Wm. Fraser.— 
I am Ac, T. Ceaig-Brqwn. 

Selkirk, 25th August, 1907. 

* « « 

THE HAWICK GILL AND THE TAPPIT HEN- 

"The Hawick gill" and '*the tappit hen" appear 
to have been much in evidence, at least as early 
as the beginning of the 18th century. The former, 
as Mr G. Watson points out in his interesting 
note, was a double gill, and reminds one of "Mof- 
fat measure— fu' and rinnin' owre," but how it 
came by the name I am unable to say. It natur- 
ally suggests that the good folks of Hawick may 
have been, in days gone by, somewhat liberal in 
their potations, and' the phrase may have locally 
arisen in connection with some "merrie meeting" 



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wlien they w«re "gettin' fon and unco happy." 
Doubtless there is some history or story to ac- 
coniit for tfie origin of the expression, if only it 
could be expiscated. 

The lines, howerer, which Mr Watson quotes 
from "Herd's Collection"— 

"Blythe, blythe, and merry was she, 

Blythe was she but and ben; 
Aud weel she lo'ed a Hawick gill. 
And leugh to see a tappit-hen"— 

are considerably older than he supposes, for they 
form the beginning of a song, "Andro wi' his 
Cutty Gun," given in Allan Ramsay's "Tea-Table 
Miscellany," which appeared as early aa 1724. 
Herd's "Collection" first appeared, I believe, in 1769, 
and the second edition in 2 vols, in 1776. It thus 
appears that the "Hawick gill" was known some 
fifty years before it appeared in "Herd's Collec- 
tion." The author's name of the^ song is not given 
by Ramsay,* but it was to the tune of this old song 
that Burns composed his lines, beginning, 

"Blithe, blithe, and merry was she. 
Blithe was she but and ben," 

in honour of Miss Euphemia Murray, "the Flower 
of Strathmore," niece of Sir William Murray of 
Ochtertyre. 

With regard to the "tappit-hen," which, liter- 
ally, means a hen with a tuft of feathers (a "tap- 
pin") on its head— rather a "wan-chancie" sort of 
fowl, I should think— the following stanza by 
"honest" Allan, to whom the "hen" seems to have 
been familiar, may be given by way of illustra- 
tion:— 

"Then fling on coals and ripe the ribs. 
And beek the house baith but and ben; 

That mutchkin stoup it hands but dribs. 
Then let's get in the tappit-hen." 

Lockhart, in his "Life of Burns," tells us that 
the poet, on one occasion, wrote some lines on a 
tumbler which was in possession of Sir Walter 
Scott. The tumbler is still to be seen in the Lib- 
rary at Abbotsford. The lines are as follow: — 

"Come, bumpers high, express your joy. 

The bowl we maun renew it. 
The tappit-hen gae bring her ben. 
To welcome Willie Stewart." 

Hore is another stanza by Charles Gray in "Whis- 
tle Binkie": — 

"Blithe, blithe, and merry are we. 

Pick and wale o' merry men. 
What care we though the cock may crow. 
We're masters o' the tappit-hen." 

Here we have reminiscences of our old friend, 
"Andro wi' his Cutty Gun," and a well-known 
convivial song of Burns. Opinions seem to differ 
as to the capacity of the "tappit-hen." Scott, in 
"Waverley." says:— "Their hostess appeared with 
a' huge pewter measuring-]x>t, containing at least 
three English quarts, familiarly termed a 'tap- 
pit-hen,'" while in "Guy Mannering" (chap. 39) 
we read:— "I had a fair 'tappit-hen' under my 
belt." Jamieson tells us that in Aberdeen the 
term denoted a large bottle of claret, holding 
three magnums, or Scots pints. Whatever its ca- 
pacity may have been, the "tappit-hen" evidently 
contained a considerable number of "Hawick 
grills." 



•Tappit-hens" have now beconve "fashionable," 
and are held in considerable esteem as curiosities. 

A. G., 8. 

• Mr T. F. Henderson, in his "Scottish Vernac- 
ular Literature," p. 8^, thinks that this sonj; and 
several others which appeared in "The Tea-Table 
Miscellany" were probably written long before 
the days of Ramsay, though it would be rash to 
hazard an opinion as to their date. 



A Border Maiden. 

The sunlight lay on flood and fell. 

On moorland and on meadow; 
The wild bee sought the foxglove's cell^ 

The kine the hUl's deep shadow; 
Across lone Bowerhope's grassy breast 

The whaup his flight was winging. 
And to the sedgy banks it kissed. 

The stream was softly singing. 

All Nature breathed a tender hymn. 

No cloud, no shadow, even. 
No single speck was there to dim 

The royal blue of heaven; 
With many a merry tale and jest, 

A merrv band together. 
We roved o'er fields in verdure dressed. 

And leagues of purpling heather. 

And when we through lone Yarrow's vale 

Our careless steps were bending. 
We found the maiden of my tale. 

Her father's flock attending. 
Her soft cheek blushing brightly fair 

Beneath the sun's caresses. 
She bloomed the loveliest flow' ret there 

In all those wildernesses. 

Her tones fell softly on the ear 

Like sun^mer night winds sighing. 
And in her eyes so darkly clear 

A world of truth was ]ying; 
A maid with Nature's charms replete. 

Without art or beguiling. 
Nor knew we which to deem more sweet. 

Her sighing or her smiling. 

She sang a song of long ago. 

Of battle and of foray. 
She told in accents sweet and low 

An old, old Border story; 
And long we lingered listening there 

As she the tale related. 
So much her quaint and old-world air 

Our fancy captivated. 

An old, old tale of passion deep, , 

Of hate and dool and sorrow. 
Of lovers twain who soundly sleep 

By sad, song-haunted Yarrow, 
Most brave of knights, most true of wives. 

By love and honour guided> 
And who were lovely in their lives, 

And in death not divided. 

Held by the glamour of the scene. 

The tale, the song, the singer. 
By Yarrow's banks so fair and green 

What could we do but linger; 
And when the sun sank o'er the hill. 

And the cool breeze, scent-laden. 
Sighed through the glen, against our will. 

We left the Border maiden. Rbx« 



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Death of Dr William Jacks. 

[AST month a very wide circle of Bor- 
derers received with sadness the in- 
telligence that Dr William Jacks 
had passed away at his residence, 
The Gart, Callander. As he was only ill for 
A short time, and few knew of it, the news 
"Was a sad surprise to all. Dr Jacks was one 
-of the most prominent Borderers in the West, 
And his influence was felt far and wide. In 
tl^e BoRDBB Magazine for March, 1898, we 
wrote a sketch of the departed gentleman, and 
it is not necessary to repeat what we then 
«aid. From being the son of a Tweedside 
shepherd, he rose by gradual steps to occupy a 
prominent position in the engineering and 
oommercial world. Although a most success- 
ful man, and occupying a prominent position 
in society, he never forgot that he was a Scots- 
man and a Borderer. In Parliament he was 
almost the only Scottish M.P. who objected to 
the glaring misuse of the national names in 
Parliamentary debates and speeches. 

In all the activities of his public career, Dr 
Jacks continued his literary studies. It has 
been told, and it was characteristic of the 
man, that during the intervals of dreary de- 
bate in the House of Commons he employed 
himself in translating Lessing's " Nathan the 
Wise,*' a work which was well received in 
critical circles. His remarkable linguistic 
faculty and his knowledge of foreign literature 
was shown in his " Robert Burns in other Ton- 
gues,'* a work published during the centenary 
celebrations of the death of the poet. It was 
s, review of translations of the poems into no 
fewer than sixteen languages, with discrim- 
inating literary criticisms. He furnished 
proof of his extensive and accurate acquaint- 
ance with the literature and history of Ger- 
many by his "Life of Prince Bismarck," 
w^hich brought him letters of warm apprecia- 
tion from both the son of the famous Chan- 
cellor and from the Emperor William. Con- 
tinuing his study of German history, Dr Jacks 
published in 1904 "The Life of His Majesty 
William II., German Emperor, with a Sketch 
of his HohenzoUem Ancestors." This work 
will remain probably the standard history in 
this country of the Imperial family. The 
Kaiser testified his sense of the value of the 
work by the gift to Dr Jacks of a signed por- 
trait, now at Gart House. Other works from 
the pen of Dr Jacks were " Singles from Life's 
Gatherings," a book for young men, for which 
hit f fiend Dr Farrar wrote a preface ; a " Life 



of James Watt," published on the occasioi) of 
the ninth jubilee of Glasgow University; and 
he made numerous contributions to scientific, 
technical, and other periodicals. In reoogni- 
tiffon of his " successful cultivation of litera- 
ture amidst the engrossing occupations of a 
busy conmiercial and public life," and the 
conspicuous evidence he had given "that he 
valued culture as highly as wealth," he was 
enrolled in April, 1899, as an honorary grad- 
uate of the University of Glasgow. Dr Jacks 
was widely known as a lecturer, particularly 
on patriotic subjects. 

Dr Jacks was a wealthy man, and the muni- 
ficence of his bequests for educational and 
philanthropic purposes shows that he under- 
stood the responsibilities as well as the privi- 
leges of riches. The Border Associations in 
Edinburgh and Glasgow by his will receive 
£1000 each for the purpose of establishing 
scholarships, while no less than £20,000 has 
been left to the University of Glasgow to found 
a Chair of Modern Languages. We have no' 
doubt the Borderers in the East and West will 
do their best to carry out the wishes of tlie 
generous giver. 



Lines to Ferniehirst. 

Among the woods at FemieMrst 

'Tie bonny i' the spring. 
When tha south wind's softly sighing 

And the wee birds sweetly sing. 
When Flora in her bonnty 

Bedecks each sylvan glade. 
And the cnshat, softly cooing. 

Nests 'midst the leafy shade. 

Oh, who wonld think these waving woods 

And that old castle grey 
Had been the scene of many a fight 

And many a Border fray; 
These woods, 'mong which the blackbird chants 

His dulcet roundelay. 
That men should there each other meet 

And could each other slay. 

And sweet it is by Jeddart 

When comes the leafy May, 
And sweet when comes the gloaming 

By murmuring Jed to stray. 
When Jeddart lads and lasses 

Do wander through the vale. 
And. meeting 'neath the capon tree, 

Kepeat the oft-told tale. 

Oh, fair it is, by thee, brown Jed, 

When Cynthia holds her sway, 
And when the fleeting shadows 

Fill all the valley grey; 
You'd almost think some warlock then 

Did hold you in his power. 
Oh, Queen Titania, cast a spell. 

And lead ye to her bower. 

John Scott. 



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TO C0RRB8P0NDSNTS. TO ADVSRTI8BRS. 

All communieatitmareloHng to IMeraryniaUera should AU Bunneu maUen, AdverUHng RaUs, Sc, ahcuUf 

be addressed to (he Editor, Mr William Sakdkbson, be re/erred to the Publishers, A. Walkxb A, SoUr 

tit B^nanSf HtUJiergUit, near Qlasgow, High Street, Galashiels 

THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 



SEPTEMBER, 1907. 
LIST OF CONTENTS. PAor 

David Brown Andeeson. Portrait Supplement, 16* 

The Author of " Waverley '' on the South Side of the Border. Part IV. Two Illustrations. 

By W.Scott, 16* 

Border Notes and Queries, 167 

Poetry— A Border Maiden. By Rex, 16S 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson. 170 

Scx)tt AND Leyden. 172 

The Border Bookcase. One Illustration, 174 

The Le<}End of a Haunted House, Dumfriesshire. By Jessie Hay Stephenson, - 17ft 

The Kames of Dooden Moss. By David Anderson, - - - 17lJ 

Poetry— To a Maid of the Marches, By Will. H. Ogilvie, ISO 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 

Now that the long nights are once more upon us, and the attractions of out-door life present themselves 
less fre<iuently, the general public turn attention to the pure delights of reading. This is the age of magazine 
literature, and it is the aim of the Border Magazine to secure one small comer in the bookshelf of current 
magazines. That portion of Scotland which has such a wealth of legendary, historical, and poetical lore should 
have at least one representative among the magazines of the country, and it is the duty of every Borderer who 
has the slightest desire to be " Leal to the Border" to be a subscriber to the Border Magazine, and extend its 
circulation by recommending it to others. During the coming winter, then, we hope our readers will assist us 
in extending the influence of their own particular magazine. 

The Border Keep 

(In which are preserved paragraphs from various publications, to the authors and editors of which 

we express our indebtedness). 

In the July iwue of "Blackwood's Magazine" a few weeks ago destroyed the historic nansion of 

Mr J. G. A. Baird, ex-M.P. for the Central Divis- Colstoun. 

ion of Glasgow, tells the story of the Colstoun ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Pear. This famous heirloom, which now presents HOGG 4lND THE NOCTES. 
a somewhat shrivelled appearance, is said to have 

been presented to a member of the Colstoun fam- J. H. Wells, writing from Bridge of Earn, in the 
ily by Hugo de Gifford of Yester, the warlock, " Scotsman " on the above subject, says :— Mr 
who figures in Scott's "Marmion." In a seven- Jamen Hogg, the poet's only son, with whom I had 
teenth century poem written by Robert, second much intercourse when for some years he lived 
son of Sir Patrick Broune of Colstoun, the relic here, told me that his father considered that Wil- 
is thus alluded to:— son in the Noctes had given a fair representation 

of his style of talking in his brighter moments. 

Come thither, my friends, and here you shall see He was too genial a man to be offended with any 

A relic rare of old antiquitie, apparent ridicule of himself, especially when that 

If fame be true I'll say no more, was balanced by the richness and splendour of 

It has endured these twelve years and more, language which was attributed to i him. Exag* 

This truth I write my friend to thee, geration was obvious, but the actual power and 

Being one of seven in seventy-three. manner of Hogg had been hit. The son was a 

great reader, especially of books of travel, havinip 
To this verse the following explanation is append- himself travelled in Australia and other parts of 
ed:— "These six lines were made by Bobert the world. Indeed, as a gold-digger, he met ¥rith 
Broune of Colstoun, when he first saw the famous adventures, but was not communicative about de- 
pear. In the year of God one thousand six hun- tails. He was tall and good-looking, and had in 
drod and seventy-three, being then about seven his features some resemblance of his father. He 
years of age, and then presented by him to his lived to the age of seventv. He told me that irhenh 
father." It may be recalled that, but for the he was a boy of ten. Sir Walter (then Mr) Scott 
presence of mind of Mrs J. G. A. Baird, who is visited his father and tried to make him speak. 
a daughter of the late Sir James Fergusson. the "You need not try," said his father. "I'll make 
pear would have been consumed by the fire that him speak," gaily said Sir Walter, and pnlliiqr 



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out a knife with several blades and wondrous 
little machinery for doing lots of things that 
boys like^ presented it to James. " Oh/' said he 
to me, "I did speak. I was co^ifounded and en- ' 
chanted with such a specimen of a knife. They 
could not stop me praising it !" He said his fath- 
er's mother believed in the actual existence of 
fairies, but not his father. His father, and Scott 
also, could spear a salmon by moonlight from a 
boat in the Tweed. This was beyond his own 
power, though he could do it by daylight. He 
lamented much that the letters to his father from 
Scott, which were in the possession of the family, 
and he had often seen, had been (in his opinion) 
stolen. He told me that beneath all his father's 
eccentricities there was a solid basis of good senser- 
and he remembered him as a usual practice con- 
ducting family worship and attending to the re- 
ligious education of his children. The son was a 
gentleman of vei^ fine feelings, high strung nerves, 
good judgment, out inveterate shyness and want 
of decision. He enjoyed the peaceful beauty of 
this pleasant district. 



"At Russell Hotel, Stow, on the 18th July, by 
the Bev. W. Workman, Robert M. B. Adamson, 
Symington (great-grandson of Wm. Symington, 
first inventor of the steam-boat), to Jane Thom- 
son, daughter of Wm. Thomson, Cathpair, Stow." 
In connection with this notice it may be remem- 
bered that Burns made a trip in Symington's 
steam-boat on Dalswinton Loch, along with Nay- 
smith the painter. Dr Smiles states this fact in 
hifl Life of Naysmith, the inventor of the steam- 
hammer. 



Recently Mr Robert Douglas Thomson, a hale 
and hearty old maU in his ninetieth year, was 
present at the annual dinner of the Edinburgh 
and Leith Licensed Qrocers' Association, and on 
the suggestion of one of the company gave a few 
reminiscences of his boyhood, and in particular 
told of an occasion, memorable to him, when he 
spoke with Sir Walter Scott. "I was," he said, 
"a boy at school at Selkirk. Of course, every- 
body knew the 'Shirra' in those days. We saw him 
frequently, and on one occasion, when setting out 
on a fishing expedition, I was running 'along the 
road when his carriage passed. He suddenly stop- 
ped where I was, and Mr Scott Raeburn, whom 
I knew very well, told Sir Walter who I was. Sir 
Walter spoke to me, and clapped me on the shoul- 
der, and said he hoped I would be a good boy and 
be a credit to my ancestors. My grandfather, Br 
Douglas, Mr Thomson explained, sold the first 
'bit' of Abbotsford to Sir Walter. I went home 
and told my old aunt, but I didn't think much 
of the incident, except that it wae a very grand 
carriage. My aunt, however, said— 'Aye remember 
that, laddie. It will be something to tell when 
ye're an auld man.* " The health of Mr Thomson 
was drunk with enthusiasm. 



"Borderer," writing in the "Scotsman" of 17th 
August, says:— Mr James Drnmmond, in a recent 
lettel* to the "Scotsman," is in error in supposing 
that -James Hogg identified himself with the Shep- 
herd of the "Noctes Ambrosianss," and in assum- 
ing that Wilson was their sole author. In "Re- 
mifiiscences of Some of His Contemporaries," 



Hogg, relating several pranks played on the read' 
ing public by Lockhart and the Blackwood coterie, 
complains of the treatment he experienced him- 
self. "I soon found - out," he writes, "that my 
literary associates had made it up to act on 
O'Dogherty's principle never to deny a thing they 
had not written, and never to acknowledge one 
that they had. On which I determined that, in 
future, I would sign my name and design&tion to 
everything I published, that I might be answer- 
able to the world only for my own offences. But 
as soon as the rascals perceived this, they signed 
my name as fast as I could. They then contrived the 
incomparable 'Noctes Ambrosianas' for the sole 
purpose of putting all the sentiments into the 
Shepherd's mouth which they durst not avowedly 
say themselves." 

♦ • , ♦ 

Behind this pleasantry, always good-natured, 
there evidently existed a very sincere regard for 
Hogg, and appreciation of his genius, especially 
on the part of Wilson, and although the Shepherd 
appears ridiculous in the "Noctes," there are pass- 
ages of descriptive Scots allotted him which are 
Wilson at his best, and gave Hogg no reason for 
complaint. 

* * « 

A few years since, over a discussion in the 
"Scotsman" on the authorship of the poem, "A 
CanadiajL Boat Song," which appeared in No. 46 
of the "Noctes," it transpired that the number 
in question had been written by Lockhart, and, 
even to an uncritical reader, there seems to be 
occasional evidence, notably in the political num- 
bers, of a more concise style than that of Wilson, 
who is usually diffuse and discursive. I do not 
wish to revive the question, but perhaps I may 
be permitted to point out that the article being 
undoubtedly. Lockhart's work, the presumption is 
strong that the poem is his. It is not an acci- 
dental accretion to the article, but a part of it, 
and reflects a splenetic tone, the result of the 
support of Peel on Catholic emancipation by Scot- 
tish peers and commoners. Lockhart was a writer 
of varied powers, and the poem is more in keep- 
ing with him— the cadence somewhat recalls "The 
Lament for Captain Paton"— than Wilson or oth.- 
ers of the Blackwood group, while the reference 
to the Canadian correspondent and translation 
from the Gaelic— the original unknown— in the 
article may be supposed, with traditional ascrip' 
tion to other authors, to be simply the quizzing 
indulged in, to which Hogg alludes. That Lock- 
hart did not retrieve the poem may be accounted, 
for by the prominent position he occupied as a 
political writer in defence of Conservatism. He 
may or even must have preferred to ignore it. In 
others of the "Noctes" Peel and his supporters are 
savagely attacked— in No. 45 a tranidation froin 
Beranger, "Monsieur Judas"— "Hush ! Iscariot's 
here," is used— but upon the entrance of a Whig 
Ministry and the Reform Bill on the scene. Cath- 
olic Emancipation is forgotten, and the quarrel 
with Peel made up. A careful, comparative ex* 
amination of Lockhart's poems would probably 
authenticate his authorship, but that must be left 
to the critics. The poems in the number— thi&re 
is another, a song for the Shepherd, jocular at his 
expense— are quite within Lockharfs capacity, and 
in his way, and may be ascribed to him as the 
author of the article. 

DOICINIB SA.]CPftOir. 



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Seott and 

BoRM August 15, 1771. 
Died September SI, 1832. 

"Love thou thy land," the poet says; 
Her pilgrim-shrines forget thou not. 
The Borderland to memory dear! 
The land of Leyden and of Scott! 

One sang of Flodden's fatal field, 
And Border lore and chivalry; 

And one of bonnie Teviotdale, 
And haunts and "Scenes of Infancy." 

The Eildon Hills and Rhymer's Glen 
Were dear unto the eyes of Scott; 

Bark Ruberslaw and Dena's vale 
By Leyden never were forgot. 

Both loved their own, their native land. 
Its hills and dales to them were dear ; 

And silver Tweed and Teviot's streams 
Made flowing music to their ear. 

Ah, Leyden! brief was thy career. 
The Minstrel with us tarried long; 

And both undying glory gained 
In ballad lore and Border song. 

And both now rest, life's warfare o'er. 
One by Tweed's gently-flowing wave; 

And one in a far-distant land. 
Alone in an untimely grave. 

The mighty Minstrel calmly sleeps 

In lone St Mary'g ruined pile; 
And Leyden, far from Teviot's streams, 

A grave hath found in Java's isle. 

And yet, though severed far apart, 
Their names for ever joined shall be, 

So long as Tweed and Teviot flow 
To sing their poets' elegy. 

By Abbotsford and Ashiestiel 
The pilgrim often yet shall stray; 

While Ruberslaw and Minto Hills 
Shall point and guide him on his way. 

EVENTY-FIVE years ago, ''about 
half -past one p.m., on the 2l8t of 
September, Sir Walter breathed his 
last, in the presence of all Lis 
children. It was a beautiful day — so warm, 
that every window was wide open — and so 
perfectly still that the sound of all others 
most delicious to his ear, the gentle ripple 
of the Tweed over its pebbles, was distinctly 
audible a« we knelt around the bed, and his 
eldest son kissed and closed his eyes." So 
the curtain fell, and the great minstrel passed 
to his rest. ** When he departed - says Car- 
lyle, " he took a man's life along with him 
No sounder piece of British manhood was put 
together in the eighteenth century o Time." 
But of Scott it is unnecessary to say 
anything to-day — '*' the glory dies not, and the 
grief is past;" a few words, however, about 




Leyden. 

Born dBPTEMBSR 8, 1776. 
Died August 28, 1811. 

"Thifl is my own, my natire Und." 

Ilia early friend, Dr John Leyden, whose name 
is not so widely known as it might be, may, 
perhaps, be not out of place. 

John Leyden was a native of Denholm, a 
pretty little village on the Teviot, about five 
miles from Hawick, where he was born in 
1775. At first he studied for the Church, 
and was duly licensed in 1798, but gave up the 
clerical profession and devoted himself .to lit- 
erature. He became a very intimate friend 
of Sir Walter Scott, whom he assisted in the 
compilation and arrangement of the " Border 
Ministrelsy" (1802-3), to which he contri- 
buted several original pieces of his own. In 
1802 he published his edition of " The Com- 
playnt of Scotland," with a preliminary dis- 
sertation and glossary — a work which, cur- 
iously enough, has also been edited by another 
distinguished native of Denholm, Dr J. A. H. 
Murray, the learned editor of the Oxford New 
English Dictionary. In 1803 Leyden went 
out to India, and rapidly rose to position 
and distinction under the friendship and pat- 
ronage of the Governor-General, the first Earl 
of Minto, whose great-grandson worthily holds 
the same post to-day. In a few years he ac- 
quired for himself, for he "toiled hugely," a 
high reputation for Oriental scholarship, his 
great ambition being to rival, or even to sur- 
pass. Sir William Jones in Eastern learn- 
ing (1), but died " in the midst of the proud- 
est hopes, at the same age with Bums and 
Byron, in 1811." In this year he accom- 
panied the Grovernor-General on his expedition 
against the island of Java, but unfortunately 
he caught fever near Batavia, which termin- 
ated his promising but brief career, at the 
early age of thirty-six. And so he sleeps, far 
from " Scenes of Infancy," and his " sacred 
natal clime, in an untimely grave " — a fate 
which he had himself more than once antici- 
pated (2). The following appreciation of Ley- 
den is from the pen of Professor Veitch : — 
"John Leyden," says the Professor, "was a 
typical Scotsman — we may say a typical Bor- 
derer. His career from his birth in 1775, in 
the lowly cottage at Denholm, under the slopes 
of the rugged Ruberslaw, then darkly clothed 
with heather, to his death, in 1811, in Java, 
at the early age of thirty-six, is one of the 
most self-dependent, manly, and energetic on 
record. His was one of those ' broken lives, ' 
with lofty promise and purpose unfulfilled. 



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which add to the mysteries and un vailing re- 
grets incidental to our present state. The 
muse of Scottish poetry and the muse of East- 
era learning might equally mourn his un- 
timely fate. 

"Scarba's isle, whose tortured shore 
Still ringa to Corrievreckan's roar. 

And lonely Colonsay— 
Scenes snng by him who sings no more; 
His bright and brief career is o'er. 

And mute his txinefnl strains; 
Quenched is his lamp of varied lore 
That loved the light of song to pour; 
A distant and a deadly shore 

Has Leyden's cold remains/' 

Or, as Hogg has finely, said of him : — 

"Sweet rung the harp to Logan's hand; 
Then Leyden came from Border land. 
With dauntless heart and ardour high. 
And wild impatience in his eye. 
Though false his tones at times might be, 
l*hongh wild notes marr'd the symphony 
Between, the flowing measure stole 
That spoke the Bard's inspired soul." 

" Leyden's chief poem is * The Scenes of In- 
fancy," laid mainly in Teviotdale, his native 
valley. Its references and descriptions are 
not, however, confined to the vale of the Tev- 
iot itself — some thirty miles of varied and pic- 
turesque country. . . . The poem was 
finally revised for publication on the eve of his 
departure for India. It is deficient in connec- 
tion and unity, but is, at the same time, of 
remarkable merit. The feelings and impres- 
sions of early boyhood, the story and tradi- 
tions he had learat in youth, are fused with 
passages of local description of great vivid- 
ness and power. He has an intensity of feel- 
ing which reminds one of Burns, and we see in 
him those influences of story and locality at 
^ work which subsequently nourished and devel- 
oped to greater perfection the genius of his 
more fortunate compeer and' friend, Walter 
Scott. 

" Of the three greatest names in modem 
Border poetry — Leyden, Hogg, and Scott — 
Ley den is the earliest of the three, and he has 
made to it an iipportant and characteristic 
contribution. He was the first fully to feel 
and to depict the power of the scenery of the 
Borders, whether the soft and tender, or the 
wild and grand, such as he found it in the 
haughs and hills, in the summer gleams and 
the winter storms of his native Teviotdale. 
He was faithful to what he saw around him ; 
he was bold enough to treat it as a self-suffi- 
cient object of poetic art. If the " Scenes of 
Infancy ** be not a very finished or consecutive 



poem — ^rather a series of pictures and allus- 
ions, art working, too, upon a certain tumul- 
tuous feeling, of which it did not quite obtain 
the mastery — the poem is at least the cour- 
ageous expression of a pure heart, a faithful 
observation, and a fine fancy revelling in a 
new and fresh field, which was rich in wealth 
and blessing for the future." ("History and 
Poetry of the Scottish Border.") 

(1)"I may die in the attempt," he wrote 
to a friend, " but if I die without surpassing 
Sir William Jones a hundredfold in Oriented 
learning, let never a tear for me profane the 
eye of a Borderer." 

(2) For example, in his " Ode to an Indian 
Gold Coin," he writes: — 

"Far from my sacred natal clime, 
I haste to an untimely grave; 
The daring thoughts that soared sublime 
Are sunk in ocean's southern wave." 

(3) The reference here is to a ballad by Ley- 
den entitled "The Mermaid," the scene of 
which is laid at Corrievreckan. It appeared 
in the "Border Minstrelsy." The opening 
lines are exquisitely musical and were much 
admired by Scott: — 

"On Jura's heath how sweetly swell 

The murmurs of the mountain bee! 
How softly mourns the writhed shell 
Of Jura's shore, its parent sea!" 

(4) From "The Lord of the Isles," c. iv. 11, 
written some three years (1814) after Ley- 
den's death, which deeply affected Scott. 
Scott's last letter to Leyden — a very interest- 
ing one — is to be found in Lockhart's " Life." 
It is dated " Ashestiel, 25th August, 1811," 
and on the 28th, just three days after. the 
letter was penned, John Leyden died in Java. 
The letter was returned to Scott unopened. 
Leyden himself had thus written of Scott: — 

"O Scott! with whom in youth's serenest prime 
I wove, with careless hand, the fairy rhyme. 
Bade chivalry's barbaric pomp return. 
And heroes wake from every mouldering urn! 



When, half-deceased, with half the world between. 
My name shall be unmentioned on the ^reen. 
When years combine with distance, let me be 
By all forgot, remembered yet by thee!" 

Truly, they were lovely and pleasant in their 
lives, though in their death, alas ! far divided. 
Leyden's name is not " unmentioned on the 
green," for on it stands a handsome monu- 
ment to his memory, erected in 1861, while the 
cottage where he first saw the light is still 
standing in the village of Denholni. 

A. G. S. 



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The Border Bookcase. 

The well-known saying, "Peebles for Pleasure," 
still holds good, but the two P's may now stand 
also for "Peebles for Progress/' The auld burgh 
toun whose stagnation gave rise to the other 
well-known phrase, ''Peebles and the grave," which 
has no point now, has long since wakened up, 
and it is now one of the most progressive of our 
Border towns. The enlightened policy of the Town 
Council, which has been long presided over by Sir 
Henry Ballantyne, is backed up by public opinion, 
and hence the great advancement which is a credit 
to all concerned and to the Borderland. 

Peebles, in addition to the great beauty of its 
surroundings, is full of historic interest, and its 
records are full of the stirring events of the past. 
Many guide books to the town and district have 
been published at various prices, but the latest, 
which costs only one penny, is a credit alike to the 



up the Itfanor Water. The road to the lef{ leads 
over th^ SVare to I^eebles. Proceeding, the Stand- 
ing Stone of Bellanridge is seen on the side of the^ 
highway, buUt into the wall. Further on, the 
entrance to Barns Tower is reached. Barns is the 
scene of John Buchan's novel, 'John Burnett of 
Barns." The estate belonged for centuries to the 
family of Burnett: — 

A long descended line. 
Forbears that stood with early Scottish Kings, 
That knew The Bruce and bled at Bannockbum, 
Saw Flodden, Pinkie, and the Douglas day. 
And eager eyed Tweed's beckoning cresset fires. 

The tower near the mansion-house was one of the 
principal beacon towers of the Border, and is one 
of the best preserved. The cresset, where the 
Bale-fire burned, is now to be seen in the Cham- 
bers Institution. Manor Church and Church- 
yard are on the left, after passing the entrance 



MKt^. 




PEEBLES FROM THE SOUTH. 



town and to the publisher, Mr John A. Anderson, 
65 High Street, Peebles. The book is neatly print- 
ed on good paper, and contains nine full page 
illustrations, one of which we reproduce. 

The letterpress is concise and yet full of inter- 
est, as the following specimen will show: — 



"This delightful vale lies to the south-west of 
Peebles, and can be reached by the route to Cade- 
muir (on page 2i6) or by the road to Neidpath 
Castle. Taking the latter, we leave the main 
road by diverging to the left at a fingerpost near- 
ly a mile beyond Neidpath. The bridge over the 
Tweed is crossed, and the road leads straight on 



to Barns avenue. The present Church (Rev, J. W. 
Murray, B.A., Oxon.), which was erected in 1874, 
occupies the site of a much older building. The 
bell is the most ancient in use in Scotland. Close 
to the gate is the grave of David Ritchie of Wood- 
house (the Black Dwarf). In the grounds of Hall- 
yards, in the immediate neighbourhood, a statue 
of this curious figure is erected. The cottage which 
he occupied is at Woodhonse, a little further on. 
For paiticulars of thie strange character the read- 
er is referred to Dr Robert Chambers's "Sketch of 
the Black Dwarf," and Dr Brown's "Horn Sub- 
sicevee." Glenternie mansion-house stands on the 
right, and at the top of the hill is Castlehill, an- 
ciently belonging to the family of Lewis, or Lowsi. 



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175 



The representatives of this family have long re- 
s»ided in Bussia, but though naturalised Bussians, 
they still retain the ancient territorial designa* 
xion of the family, Lewis of Mennar. Posso Craigs, 
famous for its hawks, and St Gordian's Cross, 
the site of an ancient church, are further up the 
jglen." 

* « * » 

THE BOOK OF STOBO CHUBCH. 

Time and again we have expressed in these col- 
umns our high appreciation of our patient anti- 
quarian and archaeological researchers, who bring 
to light the hidden things of the past and make 
the men of the olden time pass before us as if 
they were very flesh and blood. Prominent among 
these researches is Dr Clement Gunn, of Peebles, 
who, for twenty year*, has devoted much of his 
leisure time in the most disinterested manner to 
deciphering, translating, and compiling all that 
is worthy of preservation in the Church Becords 
of Peeblesshire. The work will extend to many 
volumes, and their issue will probably be spread 
over several years, but the first volume— that deal- 
ing with Stpbo Church, will be issued this month 
by Mr John A. Anderson, the printing being exe- 
-cuted by Mr James A. Kerr of the "Peebles Press." 
The book will contain 28 illustrations and will be 
«old at 10s 6d. I)r Gunn, in his preface, thus re- 
fers to the work: —"The Book of Stobo Church is 
the first volume of a series of similar 'Books of 
the Church,' dealing with all the churches and 
parishes within the bounds of the Presbytery of 
Peebles, each of which is finished and ready for 
the press. They comprise the f ollowing : — Drum- 
elaier. Manor. Eddlestone, West Linton, Lyne, 
Innerleithen, Traquair, Tweedsmuir, Newlands, 
Xirkurd, Walkerburn, Kailzie, Dawyck, Megget, 
and Peebles. There is also a volume of fragment- 
ary references to parishes no longer within the 
Presbytery of Peebles, such as— Broughton, Glen- 
holm, Kilbucho, Biggar, Skirling, Ac. Each vol- 
ume is original, containing all the information 
available,, and never before published, derived in 
the first place from the Records of the Presbytery 
of Peebles (1596), from the Kirk-session Becords 
of the various parishes, from monastic documents 
preserved among the Archives of Peebles, and 
from other sources. These histories are intended 
to serve as an index to the contents of the Presby- 
tery and Kirk-session Becords; also as a cata- 
logue of the posseesions of each benefice; they 
deecribe the creation and development of every 
church and parish ' both in its spirituality and 
temporality; the past, with its experience, mis- 
takes, and struggles, is recorded; and the present 
18 fully described for the information of the read- 
er of the future; finally, the great aim of the 
series has been, firstly: to inform every minister 
and parishioner how he came to have his parish 
church at all; and secondly, to assist with infor- 
mation all those who are working toward one 
United Church of Scotland.'" 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

ANGLING SONGS FBOM BOEDBB STREAMS. 
The very name of this book is attractive, but 
when we know that the author is Mr Duncan 
Praeer, author of "Riverside Rjtmbles," "The 
Passing of the Precentor," &c., we are at once as- 
sured that the contents will be delightful. The 
nea% got-ut> .volume comes from the well-known 
press of Mr James Lewis, Selkirk, and this in 



itself is a guarantee as to the style of production. 
The twelve illuatrations which embelish the vol- 
ume are beautiful reproductions, principally of 
scenes in the Yarrow and Meggat districts, where 
the author's name is a household word. In his 
songs Mr Eraser has caught the lilt of our up- 
land burns, and as we read his freely flowing 
verse we seem to be carried away to the familiar 
scenes of the Borderland. The author is a musi- 
cian as well as a poet, and the easy grace of his 
lines shows that he, like Burns, "had a tune in 
his head " when he wrote most of his pieces. Mr 
Eraser is so well known and so deservedly popu- 
lar that we feel sure his latest volume will be 
much in demand. It is "par excellence" an 
angler's book, and the swish of "the supple ash- 
wand" runs through it all, but even those who 
never tried angling will be refreshed and de- 
hghted by a perusal of its pages. Of Yarrow, Mr 
Eraser says:— "He is a poor angler who follows 
his pastime merely to catch fish. To him who 
yearns to know the secret of nature, Yarrow is 
ideal." 

Along the Bhine stand castles old. 
And towns renowned in art and song; 
While vines, now gleaming red or gold. 
The southland slopes and valleys throng. 
Yet these but bring to mind the vale 
Where gently glides the peaceful river; 
And where from hill and glen, the gale 
Blends thought with sounds that echo ever. 

And later on he thus refers to the same theme :— 

Like beacon lights across the hills of time. 
Gleam omens of faternal joy and rest; 
And rolling surges from heaven's peaceful clime, 
U er-flood the land with hope's rose-tinted crest- 
Broad charity, heart's ease, and faith's deep 
things *^ 

Are what the magic charm of lonely Yarrow 
brings. 

But the author is practical as well as poetical, 
and at the end of his volume he has a short chap- 
ter, m which he gives some valuable hints to 
young anglers, which will doubtless inspire not a 
few to seek the joys to be found by upland burns 
or in lonely vales of streams. Mr Eraser has no 
patience with the closing of the river banks, and 
says in his "Appeal from Meggat":— 

'^^v ^YV^ ^^^^ P*^^*^y sign-boards. 

Why defy a people's sense? 
Acts like these frae best o' landlords 
To leal sportsmen give offence. 
Class dissension's no' to covet. 
That we should oor brither thraw- 
Signs are rife that ilk ane's needed' 
To defend oor hames an' a'. 
The book is in several divisions, each of which 
la introduced by the author in ci;ar ter^ pro« 
We recommend the volume to all Borderers at 
hame and awa'. 



Of a ccMnely oountenajice and grace waa she. 
And by birth and parentage of high degree. 
—Count Robwi. 



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The Legend of a Haunted House, 
Dumfpiesshipe. 

" Th.e .silver moon's enamoured beam 
Steals softly through the night. 
To wanton with the winding stream. 
And kiss reflected light." 

HE sun set an hour ago in a splendour 
of purple and gold, which irradiated 
both earth and sky. The lovely 
hues have melted insensibly into 
the ether above, and nought breaJcs upon the 
tranquility of the sweet June evening save the 
soft swish, swish, a« the waters of the lake 
ripple gently amid the reeds and sedge grassee 
on its margin as the cool evening breeze comes 
stealing to the shore. 

Listen ! 'tis the breeze rustling amid the 
tender green leaves that deck the knarled 
boughs of the old elm-trees that overshadow 
the sodnewhat gloomy-looking manor house 
nigh unto the ruins of the old abbey. Harken 
to the plaintive sighing of the zephyrs through 
the broken archways and along the deserted 
corridors! What bodes the mournful cad- 
ence? - 

"Does it tell of coming sorrow? 
Would it warn them of the morrow?" 

Alag, who can say ? The future is hid from 
mortal view ! 

The ring-doves, which were cooing plaintive- 
ly to their feathered babies in the darkly green 
fir-wood, ere sunset are hushed to repose, and 
only the low, sweet lullaby of the brook is 
audible as it sings to the wild flowers and ferns 
that fringe its banks as it meanders onwards 
to the lake. See that grey haze, like unto a 
filmy veil, that gathers o'er the woods and the 
stream, and, silently, arises from out the dell 
and steals, phantom like, up the Diamond Hill, 
as if to ''keep tryst" with the pale moonbeams 
that kiss the mountain's brow with their cold, 
weird light. 

Concealed from view by the snowy boughs 
of a blossom-laden hawthorn tree, a pair of 
youthful lovers linger, loath to part, by the 
postern leading from the trimly-kept grounds 
of the manor house to the wilderness surround- 
ing the ivy-clad ruins of the old abbey. 

"I know not wherefore it is, Rodger, but my 
heart feels sorely oppressed this night," says 
the fair girl, as she gazes wistfully skywards 
to where the pale, crescent moon is emerging 
from behind the hill. "Dost thou believe in 
present iments, dear heart?" 

"Nay, Anna, darling! Neither in presenti- 
ments, dreams, ghosts, nor goblins I Come, 
cheer up, my pretty one ; thou must not allow 



silly *fad»' to find a footing within thy little 
head." At this moment aome one throws open 
the casement of a window overlooking the ter- 
race>walk and calls : — 
"Anna! Anna r 

"Coming! coming this moment, grand- 
father," responds Anna promptly. Some min- 
utes elapse, however, and the old gentleman 
murnaurs to himself: "I cannot understand 
why it is that these children always find so 
much to say at parting — I'm sure Rodger is 
here half the day, aad more, and 'tis quite time 
that he were set forth upon his homeward way, 
for 'tis a lonesome glen,, and these are un- 
settled times, ay, and, moreover, I cannot have 
my Anna catch her death through lingwing 
there in the night dew." Raising his voice, 
he calls once more: — 

"Anna! Anna! hasten thee hither, mv 
chiW!" 

"I am here, dear grandfather!" responds 
Anna, in sweet, musical tones, as she trips 
lightly o'er the dewy lawn. 

"Oh, gracious, come off the damp grass, 
child! You will most surely get your death 
from your heedless ways," cries he, quite irate. 
Anna, who is a slight and graceful girl of scarce 
seventeen, gathers up her dainty cambric skirts 
and springs nimbly over the rose-border which 
separated the lawn from the gravel walk ; 
then, raising her fresh, flower-like face, with 
its great, trustful, gazelle-like eyes, to the 
casement, she says sweetly : — 

"Forgive me, dear grandfather! I did not 
intend to tarry so long. Ah, no ; but 'twas sa 
cool and sweet — so refreshing after the heat 
of the day." 

"Ah, doubtless, pretty one!" says he, smil- 
ing down upon her, much mollified, "but 'twas 
more than time that young scamp, Rodger, 
were homeward bound, yes, and now hasten 
thee in, little one, out of the night dew.'^ 
Anna requires no second bidding this time, 
but flits swiftly along the terrace and enters 
the house Her grandfather pauses ere clos- 
ing the window and murmurs to himself : "Ah, 
mel how like her dear grandmother the child 
grows. Ay, and they love to linger in the 
gloaming just as we did full fifty years ago!*' 
Then he raises his handsome face to where "the 
silvery, leddy moon" is to be seen sailing 
serenely in the blue vault of heaven, and his 
eyefi gaze into vacancy as if he would fain 
pierce the veil — the veil beyond which our dear 
departed ones are awaiting us on the shores of 
Eternity. 

Meanwhile a great brown owl that has slum- 
bered amid the dense ivy-growth on the ruins 



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throughout the bright hours of day awakens, 
jawns, blinks his sleepy eyee once or twice, 
tihen siddles along the ivy spray on which he 
has been roosting, peers cautiously forth, and, 
finding that the shades of night have envelop- 
ed the ruins, he spreads his g^at, beautifully- 
marked wings and floats noiselessly forth into 
the gloom. As he emerges into the moon- 
light on the lawn he uplifts his solemn, round 
eyes to "the queen of night" and greets her 
with a dirge-like "tawit-ta-woo-oo-o" that 
awakens the echoes, which answer back 
in ghostly whispers, "woo-oo-ol" 

"Plague take that screeching devil !*' cries 
Sir Phillip Tressillian, thus rudely recalled 
from his reverie. Closing the casement, he 
crosses the room and seats himself in his great 
arm-chair, nigh unto the wood fire which 
smoulders on the wide stone heath. He makes 
a fine picture as he reclines there, his tall form 
enveloped in a rich, dark crimson robe, lined 
with costly fur, his silvery locks and flowing 
beard giving the finishing touch, so to say. 

"Shall I play on the harp, dear grandfath- 
er?" inquires Anna, as she enters. 

"Ay, presently, pretty one; but I would 
fain talk with thee, my child. Come, seat thy- 
self on this stool by my knee. Thou knowest, 
Anna, that we have a belief in our ^family that 
the last to cross the dark river of Death re- 
turns to warn the next ere his turn comes to 
toOowV 

'Tes, grandfather," responds Anna, becom- 
ing deadly pale, and fixing great, sorrowful 
eyes upon his face. 

"Well, dear heart, methought that my son, 
thy father, stood by my bed last 
night as the bell tolled midnight. Weep 
not, my child, 'twas a strangely pleasing vis- 
ion *, SLj, for thy father gazed upon me with 
a calm and saintly smile as he murmured the 
warning word "Prepare I" ay, and his voice was 
low and sweet — ^like the whisper of the wind 
sighing through the old trees before rain. 
Then thy grandmother stood beside thy father 
and gazed upon me with such wistful tender- 
ness that I held out my arms and cried "Leave 
me not, my beloved 1" as the vision faded from 
my view,- and I heard them singing 8(rftly, 
'God be with you until we meet again.' So I 
am well assured that I shall soon go hence. 
Ah, weep not so bitterly, my child ; remember, 
dear one, I am a frail and aged man who must 
needs soon rest. What I would say to thee is 
this, I would fain give thee into Rodger's safe 
keeping ere I am removed — ay, for he is a 
good man and true. Now, kiss me, Anna, and 
dry thy tears, for we will dwell no more on 



suoh matters as parting by death, but rather 
bethink us of a gay bridal ere the fall of the 
leaf in autumn. Bring hither thy harp now 
and sing to me the^ songs of David ?" 

The shadows • of the night fell darkly, and 
the pale "leddy moon" floated on, serenely 
calm and cold, until she could view her own 
fair image reflected in the waters of the lake. 
One by one the stars shone out overhead, ajad 
the glow-worms lit their tiny lanterns amid 
the grasses and March flowers in the meadow, 
whei^ the landrail chants his monotonous 
"crake I crake I crake 1" and, ever and anon^ 
the weird cry of the brown owl was heard a» 
he Dwooped down upon s<Hne luckless littlo 
field-mouse. Then would the mother-bird 
thrush start from her sleep and spread her 
gentle wings yet more tenderly o'er her caJlow 
brood in the cosie nest, hid away amid the 
blossom-laden boughs of the hawthorn tree, 
nigh to the postern leading to the ruins of the 
old abbey, where, in the pale moonlight, the 
night-bats were wheeling eerily in ghostly cir- 
cles — ^suggestive of being the spirits of defunct 
mice — (wicked ones !)— Escaped from Purga- 
tory for a brief space, to cool themselves in 
the upper air. 

Midnight had tolled from St Mary's steeple. 
The moon was about to be obscured by great 
masses of dark clouds which came slowly drift- 
ing athwart the sky. What caused Anna 
Tressillian to start from her slumber in pale 
af right? 

Ah, God! 'twas a bitter cry as of one in 
mortal agony. 

Hastily slipping on a loose white dressing- 
robe, the young girl hurried, in wild alarm, 
along the passage to her grandfather's room. 
The door stood op«Q, and, by the light fromi 
the shaded reading-lamp, she saw that he had 
not as yet retired to rest. Lifting the lamp, 
she hurried down the staircase. There — ^in the- 
hall — ^lies Hetor, the noble stag-hound, dead. 
For a moment the girl quails in terror, then 
she nerves herself and advances towards the 
open door of the room where she so recently 
left her beloved grandfather. She raises tho^ 
lamp so that its light falls within the room — 
ah, God in Heaven! what a sight meets her 
eye! The noble old man lies murdered on 
the floor in a pool of blood, which dyes his^ 
silvery locks! 

The tragic end of good Sir Phillip remained 
shrouded in mystery, and the shock his grand-^ 
daughter sustained on that awesome night nigh 
deprived her of her reason for a short time. 
After a time she and Rodger were wed, and 
they lived long in the Castle up the GleOr 



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which has now become an interesting ruin, 
mantled o'er with ivy. The children of their 
descendants come there in the blithe spring- 
time to gather the pink-tipped gowans ''that 
bloom so early and so fair" on the green 
plateau, while she and her ''guidman" slumber 
peacefully, side by side, nigh to good Sir 
Phillip in the kirkyard by the lake. 

" Oh what are the bugles of Dreamland calling, 
There where the dews of the gloaming are fall- 
ing? 
Come away from this weary old world of tears. 
Come away, come away to where one never 

hears. 
The slow, weary drip of the slow, weary years, 
But peace and deep rest till the white deWs 

are falling. 
And the blithe bugle-laughter through Dream- 
land are calling. 

F. M. 

'Tis said that the old manor house is haunt- 
ed, and eerie tales are told of ghostly lights 
seen, and blood-curdling cries heard, at mid- 
night. The owls and the bats, however, do 
not seem scared, and "the leddy moon" comes, 
aa of old, to admire her own fair image mir- 
rored in the waters of the lake, just as she did 
on the night of the murder long, long ago. 
Jbssib Hat Stefubnbon. 




The Karnes of Dogden Moss. 

^F the "breath and finer spirit" of thf> 
peculiar mass of thought, feeling, and 
emotion represented in the literature of 
the Border, Berwickshire has probably 
contributed lesa than have some of the 
neighbouring counties in that famous district. 
The Whitadder, the Blackadder, the Leader, and 
the Eye are no match in voicefulness for the Yar- 
row and the Ettrick. Still, the Lammermuirs 
have their "Bride," and of her tragic fame the 
county on the southern side of the watershSed may 
duly claim its share; the Leader, too, possesses 
her complement of ballads; and hasn't the Min- 
strelsy of the Merse had the distinction of being 
collected into a separate volume ? But there is 
one tale of diablerie belonging to Berwickshire, 
and that, too, very near the centre of the county, 
which, so far as I know, almost stands unique. 

Between Longformacus, the capital of the Lam- 
mermuirs, and what used to be the county town 
of Greenlaw, stretches an expanse of moorland 
traversed by a little-frequented road. About mid- 
way between these two places, and a little to the 
south of the Duns and Lauder road, the moor 
path crosses a small burn by a ford, and with 
this ford is associated the tragic story of the 
Neils of Longformacus. A little to the north of 
the burn stands a solitary stone, five or six feet 
in height, and this has the reputation of marking 
the spot at which took place the weird encoun- 
ter, lie story is well known in the district, and 
the following, I take it, conveys the main outlines 
of it:- 
The elder Neil was passing the ford early one 



morning— a Sunday morning, I think it was — 
when something ascended from the stream in hia 
direction. This turned out to be a hearse, the 
driver of which was no other than his satanical 
majesty himself. From this sombre apparition the 
demand was no less than that Neil shoujd become 
his possession. Neil, however, got off by promis- 
ing that the first of his family, or the first of his 
sons, who should cross the ford after sunset 
should be taken in his stead. Some time after- 
wards the younger Neil had been attending a fun- 
eral about Greenlaw, and on his way homeward 
. had expressed the fear lest the sun should have 
gone down before he had crossed the fatal ford. 
But this was just what did take, place, and the 
dead body of the hapless man was found later 
stretched upon the moor! 

Now the scene of this tale of dule and sorrow 
lies quite close to the strange natural feature 
which I have called above the Eames of Dogden 
Moss, otherwise also known as the Eames of Cat- 
tleshiel. The moor road from the ford to Green- 
law lies for part of its course along their south- 
east side, at no great distance from them. Away 
on the north-west, at a distance of three miles or 
so, rise the heights of Langton Edge. . To the 
north, or perhaps slightly to the west of north, 
project the two eminences known as the Dirring- 
ton Laws, the more northern and loftier of which 
reaches a height of 1309 feet. These prominences 
are due to the more resisting igneous recks which 
represent the funnels through which molten ma- 
terial ascended at a period as remote in the abys- 
mal past, it seems, as at least what is known 
geologically as the time of the Lower Old Red, 
Sandstone. Still further round to the west is the 
ridge on which stand two conical heaps of stones, 
and which is designated the hill of the Twinlaw 
Oairns. This is even higher than Dirrington 
Law, and is marked at an altitude of 1466 feet. 
These cairns, tradition has it, indicate the spot 
where two brothers named Edgar fell, the one 
fighting as the champion of Anglo-Saxon foes 
froxp the south, and the other as the repreHent- 
ative of the "Scottish Warriors." The pathos of 
the incident lies in the circumstance that the 
champions fought unconscious of their relation- 
ship, and it was only after one had been slain 
that the other become aware of who his opponent 
had been, tore the bandages from his wounds, and 
died also. The death of the brothers in this trag- 
ic manner involved also that of their aged father. 
The ballad which tells of this fight has been de- 
scribed as perhaps the worst that ever was writ- 
ten, but this, I should think, is to place the esti- 
mate too low. Then away to the south-west from 
the locality with which we are now dealing, though 
at a much greater distance than that of any of 
the heights we have just referred to, can be seen 
the triple cones of the Eildons. These, owing to 
the direction of the line of vision, appear not 
detached, but closely grouped together. The work 
of Michael Scott, when he uttered "the words that 
cleft Eildon Hills in three," would appear, from 
this point of view, to have been less than the 
actual situation of the hills would suggest! 

Now, what are these curious things to which 
people have given the names of "Kames?"— for 
curious they really are, though few of the pass- 
ers-by on theii way from Westruther to Duns, 
though their eyes may have fallen for a moment 
upon them, probably ever thought of asking or 
giving any account of them. Well, the Eames 



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179 



consist of a long mound» or heap, or rampart— in 
places somewhat resembling the embankment of 
a railway— made up of vast piles of sand and 
gravel, and extending in all to a distance across 
the country of probably not less than three miles. 
The general direction is from north-east to south- 
west, though the ridge is not unbroken, and in it 
there is one large, well-marked, angular turn. 
At the base this gravelly formation may easily, 
I should say, spread to a width of 180 feet, while 
the height of it may reach 40 feet or occasionally 
more. It narrows towards the summit, but not 
sharply, the contour being rather that of a curve. 
It is overgrown with grass, in some parts very 
green grass, except where here and there the rab- 
bits and the sheep have made an exposure, which 
enables one to see of what sort of material the 
hillock is composed. There are other mounds of 
a similar kind in the south of Scotland, but this 
one has the reputation of being peculiarly dis- 
tinct. They are also found in Ireland, where 
they bear the name of "eskars.'' Now, the Cattle- 
shiel Kames, and this, I understand, is charac- 
teristic, rise in sharp relief from the approxi- 
mately level moor over which they stretch, just 
as a railway embankment may be seen to rise 
abruptly out of the fields through which it has 
been artificially constructed. And here we have a 
clu« to the name. 

The word "Kame" (otherwise spelt Kaim) is 
just the Scotch dialectic form for the English 
word "comb." And this Scotch form has passed 
into the English of science. One can see how the 
appellation originated. In that huge 'repertoire 
of all kinds of information called the "Century 
Dictionary" one meaning of the word "comb" is 
given thus : —"The fleshy crest or caruncle grow- 
ing, in one of several forms, on the head of the 
domestic fowl, and particularly developed in the 
male bird: so called from the serrated indent- 
ures in the typical form, or single comb which 
resembles the teeth of a comb." 

Now, if we can imagine a projection or protub- * 
erance of this kind so enormously magnified as to 
stretch across a country in the manner I have 
tried to indicate, we shall have arrived at some 
such structure as a "Kame,^' the latter consist- 
ing, of course, not of flesh and blood, but of 
sand and gravel! On the other hand, the kame 
is not necessarily connected with any marked pro- 
jection in the configuration of a country, as is 
the comb of a fowl with the fowl's head. Still, 
the mental impression made by a comb, a car- 
uncle, and a kame, being similar, the same word 
has been thrown out at all three. 

But now arises the interesting, but difficult, 
question : —How and when did these kames come 
to be where they are? One cannot speak of any 
feature of the earth's surface at all as being per- 
manent, but the kames, though in one sense enor- 
mously old, are, relatively speaking, recent feat- 
ures in the landscape. They have been "dumped" 
upon a surface which already existed at the time 
of their own origin. And to tell, even approxi- 
mately, how this dumping took place, we must 
try to recede into a strange world in the "back- 
ward and abysm" of a remote past. 

But, in the first place, it will be interesting by 
way of comparison to recall an attempt which 
has already been made in this direction. I do 
not, of course, refer to that aspect of things re- 
presented in picturesque legends, in which such 
demands are made upon the wonder-working pow- 



ers of fairy and warlock, or even of the devil 
himself. My intelligence is taken from the "New 
Statistical Account," a store-house containing 
more interesting informatibn than many people 
are aware of, and the author of it was the Bev. 
Abraham Home, minister of Greenlaw, who wrote 
the article on the parish of the same name. It 
will be well to give the reverend author's view 
of things in this connection just in his own words. 
He has just described the kames very shortly, and 
he then goes on to assign a cause, thus:— "The 
ground on the north side is bo^gy, and on the 
south side is an extensive moss, called Dugden 
Moss. The kaimes are evidently a natural pro- 
duction, and in endeavouring to account for their 
formation it is to be observed that the stones 
scattered over the fields towards the Tweed con- 
sist principally of greywacke, which must have 
been detached and carried thither from the rocks 
of Lammermuir hills by the agency of a current 
of water setting in from the north towards the 
south; and as the kaimes are composed of similar 
materials, reduced to a very moderate size, its for- 
mation is to be ascribed to the same cause. It 
is generally allowed that mosses are produced 
from decayed vegetable matter, such as wood, 
furze, fern, etc. Now, if it be admitted that 
Dugden Moss was at one time an extensive wood, 
the waters subsiding at the universal deluge, or 
some more partial inundation, and rushing with 
great impetuosity from the Dirringtdn Laws, 
which are about two miles north-west from the 
kaimes, would carry with them all the wood and 
underwood to a considerable distance, till the col- 
lected materials would form a kind of dam or 
wier, through which the waters could not pene- 
trate, and would force up against this dam or wier 
the gravel and sand which form the ridge, in the 
same manner as is frequently done by rivers in 
certain parts of their courses during groat floods. 
The materials of which the ridge is composed, and 
its shape, which is somewhat like a horse-shoe 
with the hollow towards the hills, favour this ex- 
planation." 

Now, it is true, the Bev. Abraham Home does 
not tell us whence the waters of this flood, "uni- 
versal" or "more partial," came, nor yet whither 
they were going, and objection could also be taken 
to details of the scheme. Still, though the ex- 
planation fails, it is not to be laughed at. The 
author of it does, to some extent at least, cedl 
to his assistance what the scientist would regard 
as "verso caus»." Every one has seen sand and 
gravel held up and banked by an obstacle stand- 
ing in the way of a stream charged with such 
material. And, then, much interest and instruc- 
tion lies in noting the date at which this article 
on the Parish of Greenlaw in the "New Statisti- 
cal Account" was written. Although the volume 
in which it appears bears the date 1845, the ar- 
ticle itself was written as early as March, 1834. 
At that time, therefore, in this country^ the path- 
way had not been entered upon which was to 
lead to the establishment of a doctrine which 
has transformed men's views of the history of the 
earth. This is the doctrine of the Glacial Theory 
or of the Great Ice Age, and the#man who orient- 
ed British scientists for the investigation of this 
subject was the famous Swiss glacialist, Louis 
Agassiz, the father of the distinguished living 
American man of science, Alexander Agassiz. Af- 
ter having studied the glaciers of Switzerland, he 
came to this country in the year 1840 with the 



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conTiction that hero, too, he should flad pheno- 
mena indicative of a phase of earth history sim- 
ilar to that for which he believed he had found 
evidence among the Alps. But, like any other 
doctrine of far-reaching consequences, the doct- 
rine of a great extension of ice where none now 
existed did not find ready credence. Of this state 
of things we have an indication in what Agassiz, 
in speaking of this visit of 1840, wrote more than 
twenty years afterwards. 

"Inexperienced as I then was," he says, "and 
ignorant of the modes by which new views, if 
founded on truth, commend themselves gradually 
to general acceptance, I was often deeply depress- 
ed by the scepticism of men whose scientific posi- 
tion gave them, a right to condemn ihe views of 
younger students. I can now smile at the diffi- 
culties with which men beset my path, but at the 
time they seemed serious enough." 

Yes, the smile is now on the side of Agassis. 
For during the last seventy years the evidence 
has accumulated to such an extent that there can 
no longer be any reasonable doubt tnat at a per- 
iod, recent geologically, though very remote when 
measured by ordinary standards, the 'whole of 
our British Islands, as far south as about the 
estuaries of the Severn and the Thames, the whole 
of the north of Europe, and the northern part of 
North America, lay for an enormous period bur- 
ied unider a vast covering of ice. It is not ne- 
cessary here to say anything about re- 
cessions and extensions of the ice, other- 
wise spoken of as glacial and inter- 
gracial periods; but it is to this Greenland- 
like state of that part of the earth above indi- 
cated that the term Great Ice Age, or Glacial 
Period, has been applied. Just think of Scot- 
land, Ireland, and all except a small part of the 
south of England, lying for ages wrapt in a man- 
tle of snow and ice! It is hardly to be wondered 
that a doctrine like this should at first have met 
with an amount of determined scepticism even 
among scientific men. And the fact that it is now 
universally admitted shows how strong the evi- 
dence must be. And it is here, in connection with 
this great extension of snow and ice over our 
island, that we approach an answer to the ques- 
tion: How came into existence the Kames of Dog- 
den Moss? TTiere can be little doubt that they 
are of glacial origin, belonging, in all probabil- 
ity, to the dying phases of the Ice Age, and repre- 
sent a deposit or accumulation left behind by 
melting ice. The exact how of the process is not 
so easy of exact determination. But the gravel 
of which the Eames are composed was no doubt 
rolled by englacial, or perhaps subglacial, streams, 
and this material may then have been dumped 
over the edge of a wide street of ice — in the pre- 
sent case, a sheet as wide as the length of the 
Kamee in question. Such a sheet may easily 
have lingered in the last stages of the Glacial Per- 
iod in the neighbourhood of the high ground in- 
dicated by the hills which have already been 
mentioned. 

And if this explanation be true, what a world 
of suggestion it contains. We are thereby not 
only carried back an enormous distance into the 
past, but are led also to think of what may have 
taken place on the surface of the earth since the 
Kames themselves became a feature thereon. In 
dealing with time in the geological sense, only the 
roughest approximations can be arrived at in a 
case of this kind. But even if we push back the 



civilisation of Babylonia to "a period, now as re- 
mote as B.o. 8000," that civilisation is young com- 
pared with the Kames of Dogden Moss. What, 
then, shall we say of the civilisation of our own 
small island! To throw back the last phase of 
the Glacial Period to a time as remote as thirty 
or fifty thousand ye&Ts ago would probably in- 
volve no exaggeration; and it is held by some that 
man, in a phrase of his development, may have had 
an interglacial existence. If so, then these Kames 
may have existed throughout the whole, or nearly 
the whole, period during which man has been 
moving slowly towards his present political, soc- 
ial, and intellectual status. But vast as is the 
vista, both these Kames and man are young com- 
pared with the entire history of the earth. And 
the suggestivenees holds all through. In propor- 
tion as we become better and better acquainted 
with that stupendous history, the mpre interest- 
ing and instructive will the present configuration 
of the earth and that which lives upon it become. 
If we only sufficiently enlarge our vision, we shall 
find that the earth, instead of being the death- 
fully same thing that it is to most people, be- 
comes simply the embodiment of a gigantic ser- 
ies of change. And then, too, when we look upon 
a landscape from this stand-point, "the things 
that are seen" will become clothed upon with a 
meaning vivified, deepened, and intsnnfied by 
"the things that are unseen." 

David Andebaon. 



Tammy Wliite's Pool, Jedburgh. 

Reading out of the Magazine to a Border friend 
who spent part of his young days in Jedburgh, he 
suggests that it may not be Tammy White but 
Tanny White. I pass on the opinion to your 
readers, who may be able to say if a tanner had 
his work near. — Yours truly, 

DUNUN. 



To a Maid of the Marches. 

A-blush on the Border the heath-bells shine. 

But you are the fairest of all fair flowers I 
Is there ever a beauty to match with thine? 

Is there ever a love to be named with oursP 
Soft is your smile as the Cheviot mist, 

White are your arms as the Solway foam. 
And a memory clings to your lips unkissed 

Of the wild-rose buds by your Border home! 

Ah! For only one hour of the raiding days!— 

I would batter the door of your Border keep, 
I would leave your father's stacks ablaxe, 

I would waken you out of your beauty sleep, 
On the saddle before me your form I'd set. 

And ne'er should a bridle-rein be drawn 
Till the morning dew on our hoofs was wet 

And the crest of the Carter was red with dawn ! 

Will H. Goilvib. 



Now all ye ladiee of fair Scotland, 

And ladies of England that happy ^rould 
prove, 
Marry never for houses, nor marry for land, 
Nor marry for nothing hut only lova 

Motto (The Betrothed.) 



Printed and Published by A. Walker k Son, GaUahisU. 



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SUPPLEMENT to the "BORDER MAGAZINE," Vol. XII., No 143. 




A. T. HUTCHINSON. Esq. 



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A. T. HUTCHINSON, Esq. 




I KITING of a small town named 
Fresuaye, on the Swiss frontier, 
which is entirely peopled by 
worki:rs in wood, M. Andouin 
Dumazet, who in French literature holds a 
position similar to that occupied by Arthur 
Young in the literature of England, thus de- 
scribes the condition of the people : — 

" There is not one house in which wooden 
" goods are not fabricated. Some years ago 
" there was little variety in their produce ; 
** spoons, salt-boxes, shepherd's boxes, scales, 
"various wooden pieces for weavers, flutes 
" and hautboys, spindles, wooden measures, 
" funnels and wooden bowls were only made. 
" But Paris wanted to have a thousand 
*' things in which wood was combined with 
" iron ; mouse-traps, cloak-pegs, spoons for 
" jam, brooms. . . . And now every 
" house has a workshop containing either a 
" a turning-lathe, or some machine tools for 
" chopping wood, for making lattice-work 
"and so on. . . . Quite anew industry 
" was born, and the most coquettish things 
"are now fabricated. Owing to this Indus- 
"try the population is happy. The earn- 
" ings are not high, but each worker owns 



" his own house and garden, and occasiou- 
"ally a bit of field." 

Thus we see from small beginnings, from even- 
ings industriously spent in the homes ; a great 
industry in the making, and tlie whole popu- 
lation of a rural township rendered happy. 

To bring alx)ut in Scotland the felicitous 
conditions, so graphically described in the 
above ^piotation from M. Dumazet's book, no 
man has done so much nor w-orked so hard as 
the subject of the present sketch. Mr Hut- 
chinson has devoted his life to the encourage- 
ment of Home Industry, and with what success 
must be seen in the forthcoming exhibition, 
which is to be opened in the Waverley Mar- 
ket, Edinburgh, on 17th October by Mr An- 
drew Carnegie. It is peculiarly appropriate 
that Mr Carnegie should perform the ceremony 
on this occasion, as the exhibition, being the 
eleventh, constitutes the first of a new decade. 

Those who remember the first of 
these exhibitions winnot fail to be 
stnick by the enormous progress^ which 
has been made during the past 
ten years, not only as regards the number of 
exhibitors and exhibits, but also in respect to 
the vast improvement in organisation and faci- 



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lities which have been made for the public 
convenience. For these the credit is due to 
Mr Hutchinson alone. When the idea was 
first promulgated, and was likely to show a 
financial deficit, he was allowed to stand en- 
tirely alone ; now, when prosperity is shining 
upon him, there are many who, formerly sneer- 
ing at ilie project, would to-day gladly enter 
into a partnership with him, but he can now 
afford to make his own terms, and it is no 
discredit to a man who has risked so much as 
he has done to walk warily in his dealings with 
too "friendly'' oompany-promotors and schem- 
ers. 

Mr Hutchinson first saw the light on 17th 
July, 1867, within a stone's throw of the Tweed 
at Pinnacle Hill, Kelso, and he is a Borderer 
to the core ; he has all the Borderer's charac- 
teristic patriotism and esprit de cot^s, and 
believes there never could, and never can be 
such a town as Kelso, in Scotland or out of it. 
His father was the son of Thomas Hutchinson, 
farmer and innkeeper, Greenhead, Northum- 
berland, and at the time of the birth of our 
hero was a locomotive engine-driver in the ser- 
vice of the North British Railway Company. 
Through his mother, Mr Hutchinson claims re- 
lationship with James Oliver, of plough-mak- 
ing fame, who left Roxburghshire for America 
alwut the year 1832. Through the Olivers he 
is also connected with an American family of 
Hatelys, with whom, however, he has lost trace, 
and should the Border Magazine come into 
the hands of any of these, or of any one who 
should happen to know of their whereabouts, 
Mr Hutchinson would be glad to hear of them . 
In 1864y when the great railway strike oc- 
curred, Mr Hutchinson, senr., severed his con- 
nection with the North British Railway Co. 
and went over to the North-Eastern Railway. 
This necessitated the family's removal to 
Gateshead-on-Tyne, where young Hutchinson 
spent his early days. He had very little 
. schooling, and his father having, in 1869, 
been struck down by that dreadful scourge 
smallpox, he resolved to start work, and at the 
age of thirteen he commenced his career, like 
his father, in the locomotive department of 
the North-Eastern Railway Co. He was up- 
wards of thirteen years, five of 
which were passed on the footplate 
as a fireman, and part of the 
time in the oflfices of the Company, in their 
service. B\it the all-absorbing interests which 
at this time occupied his mind were the kin- 
dred subjects of farming, stock-raising, and 
poultry-keeping, and he became secretary of 



the Gateshoad and Tyneside Poultry Society. 
While acting in this capacity he resolved to 
leave the Railway Company and davote him- 
self to more congenial work. He had from his 
earliest days felt an attraction towards adver- 
tising and organising, and in 1884 an open- 
ing occurred which enabled him to Join the 
staff of the " Tyneside Echo," the property of 
Samuel Story, Esq., late M.P. for Sunderland. 
For three years he retained that position, and 
at the end of this period again made a 
change, this time to the Scottish capital, where 
he became chief outside representative for 
Messrs John Ritchie & Co., proprietors of the 
"Scotsman." In 1893 he entered into busi- 
ness on his own account as an advertising con- 
tractor, which business has since become one 
of the largest concerns of the kind in the city. 
In a speech which Mr Hutchinson recently 
delivered in Leeds, he has in the following 
terms admirably related how the thought of 
founding this great idea of an Industrial Ex- 
hibition first occurred to him: — "Some fif- 
teen years ago, while driving through tne 
towns and country villages of Scotland, I was 
struck by the large numbers of young men i-ud 
women frittering away in frivolity what might 
have been well-spent time, so I asked myself 
the question, * Can nothing be done to find 
an incentive for those young people to work?' 
With this desire in view, the idea of offering 
prizes occurred to me, and I founded the 
Home-workers' C(mipctitive Industrial Exhibi- 
tion." It is this venture which has brought 
Mr Hutchinson prominently before the public, 
and which is likely to keep him there. As 
already hinted, uix)n its inception, he received 
innumerable discouragements, not only 
from influential men and bodies, but even 
from the Press ; yet in spite of all he perse- 
vered with the business, and he is to-day reap- 
ing a golden harvest of praise and encourage- 
ment from every part of the British Empire. 
But what is most gratifying of all, he is 
now being followed by a yearly increasing 
immber of imitators ; there is scarcely a town 
ot village in the country which does not aspire 
to something of the kind, and the happiness 
and pleasure, which by suoh meaaaa are being 
introduced into hundreds of formerly rather 
joyleee homes, can never be even approximately 
estimated. But there is still a vast field upon 
which to operate, as any one passing through 
a Border town at the hour when day is just 
passing into night, may realise. Dozens of 
able-bodied lads and lusty young lasses wander 
or loiter about in an aimless and indifferent 



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183 



manner, and instead, as they might be, of do- 
ing something useful, either for themselves or 
for their friends, they, if they are not degen- 
erating into actual' fiooliganism, are at the 
best mere drones in the hive. The number of 
lives which are positively wasted in this way 
is absolutely appalling to contemplate, and if 
even a tithe are snatched from such decadency 
an enormous stride has been made towards 
bringing about that millenirtm of which Soc- 
ialists so glibly talk. It is undoubtedly in 
such a measure of self-help that true Social- 
ism lies, and all honour, I say, to the man who 
has been able so effectively to set the wheels 
agoing. The Borders have good reason for 
pride in having produced such a man, and it is 
only just and right that the Border Magazine 
should be amongst the first to make his work 
more widely known than it has ever been be- 
fore. 

Mr Hutchinson has, however, done other or- 
ganising work besides his great annual show, 
though none of his other ventures have rea- 
ched such dimensions as the exhi- 
bition has attained. Yet thev also, 
even when they had to be abandoned for 
want of financial support, have served no 
small purpose in the development and econ- 
omy of modern life. In 1894, for instance, he 
foimded that well-known English paper, the 
" British Fancier," but was unablp himself to 
carry it on for lack of funds. He also in 1899 
and 1904 organised two large poultry shows, 
on the working of which he lost over £600. 
His great cmip, however, was the Corona- 
tion Floral Fete and Gala of 1902, which he 
intended to make an annual event in Edin- 
burgh, but this also was abandoned, princi- 
pally as a result of the imexpected and imto- 
ward events which occurred at the time of the 
Coronation. AU this will show, however, that 
Mr Hutchinson is a thoroughly up-to-date man, 
and one who must be reckoned with in an es- 
timate of the development of the social con- 
ditions of our time. 

The photograph which accompanies this ar- 
ticle has been reproduced by the kind permis- 
sion of Messrs E. R. Yerbury & Son, photo- 
graphers, Hanover Street and Churchill, Edin- 
burgh, to whom I desire to express thanks. 

W. Saunders. 




Wo do that in our zeal, 
Our calmer moments are afraid to answer 
Motto ('Woodstock.'*) 



The Ba.* 

^HE 12th of March was — I do not know 
what it is now — one of the red 
figured days in the Lessudden school 
laddies' calendar, for that was " The 
Ba' Day " and therefore a holiday. 

" The Ba' " is a custom, hke " Barrin' oot," 
peculiar to the Borders, and as Easter, time 
approaches you see in the local papers that in 
this village or town, or in that " The Ba' " was 
played on " Fastern's e'en." 

We knew nothing about " Fastern's e'en " 
at Bosells. It was just the " Ba' Day." I 
suppose the " Ba' Day " is a survival from the 
time when the Roman Catholic Church was 
supreme m the land. According to Chamber's 
Dictionary the word Fastern's has some as- 
sociation with fasting, and " Fastern's e'en " 
falls about the beginning of Lent. " The Ba' " 
may have been a preliminary to a 40 days' 
fasting and quietness, a final fling before 
Lent. 

Be that as it may, Bosells has its " Ba' Day " 
— a day looked forward to with glee by the 
school laddies and young men — even by men who 
are no longer young — and dreaded by careful 
mothers, sisters and wives, for though an old 
suit of clothes may be sacrificed to the " Ba' " 
one has no old bones to put on or in for the 
occasion. Accidents have happened, and a 
broken bone, or a sprain, or even a heavy bruise 
means a weary, anxious time for the women of 
the house. 

"The Ba' "—or, to be accurate, "The Baas," 
for there are usually more than one, — are paid 
for by subscription, and tradition has it that it 
is the duty of the youngest apprentice in the 
village to gather in the money. 

The money is got or promised ; the " baas " 
are madeland paid for, or got on credit and 
"The laddies' ba * " is flung up first, early in the 
afternoon. 

^ It is called " The laddie's ba' '• by courtesy 
only, for as a rule, many, who by no stretch can 
be called " Jaddies " take a hand in that game. 
But the real interest of the day centres round 
the " Men's Ba' ". Steadily from noon on- 
wards the men from the surrounding neighbour- 
hood and villages — ^Ancrum, Mertoun, Maxton, 
Bowden, Newtown — troop in to the Green 
where the game is played. 

On " The Ba' Day '' " the green " is " com- 
mon " just as it is at " the Fair." ^ 

The weather may be all that is undesired ; 
the ground may be hard with frost, or the mud 



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may squelch up under foot, a stinging wind 
may blow, or a heavy rain fall, still the players 
come with all the countryman's calm disregard 
of such things as weather conditions, and in the 
same spirit they begin to play. Sides are 
traditional ; but it always seemed to me that it 
was Lessudden against all comers. The Ba,' 
decorated with streamers of ribbons, is flung up, 
and at once a furious struggle begins ; one side 
trying to hale " The ba' " at " Merwick gate," 
the other trying to carry it down to " Jenny 
Moor's road." 

The ribbon streamers are speedily torn off, 
and floating in the breeze are snatched at by 
those standing around. They are trophies of 
the day. 

It is " hand ba' " that is played, and you can 
fling it or run with it just as you choose, and as 
you are permitted by your opponents. First 
one and then another gets ** The Ba' " and 
makes a dash for the goal, the opposite side 
meanwhile, trying to catch the runner or trip 
him up. Or three or four or more of one side 
get into . something resembling " a maul " at 
Rugby football, and try to smuggle " The Ba' " 
away. The warning cry is raised "Aw yea side," 
and others of the opposite side rush in to spoil 
the conspiracy. 

To " smuggle " a ba' was reckoned as good 
as a hale, and stories of the specially clever 
ruses employed were told and retold. 

In one smuggle " The ba' " was by agreement 
slipped into one man's hand by a friend of his, 
knd he, having it hidden about him, backed out 
of the smuggle bending double and groaning;. 
He received much sympathy from those stand- 
ing around " Ay, it's sair. It was a twist aw got. 
Aw'U be better the now, juist watch " The ba'." 
Thae Ancrum yins hev't." 

His smuggle was successful. 

So far as I can remember, Bosells was always 
successful. She always had the greater number 
of hales and smuggled baas ; but I suppose that 
the players against Bosells would have another 
story to tell, Bosells men and laddies alike were 
so keen on ** The Ba' " and so patriotic that no 
other version of the day's proceedings would 
have been received. 

" The Ba " was usually played by young un- 
married men, though there were some enthusi- 
asts whose spirit years could not crush. 

Usually when a man married, one could pre- 
dict that he would soon pass from the struggling 
ranks of the players to the more sedate lines of 
the onlookers. »But he did not pass at once, nor 
all at once. The old playing instinct and the 



old desire for victory for his side' were too strong 
for that. 

" Na ! na ! " he would say, in answer to his- 
wife's reminder that he was a married man now, 
and therefore should not take needless risks, 
" Na ! na ! Aw'U no play, aum juist gaun up- 
tae se'd." 

Sometimes she would go with him, to see it 
too and to act as a sort of a restraint upon hinu 
Then when a wave' of the play surged near, she 
would retire hastily, and on gaining a place of 
safety and looking round for her husband, she 
would discover that the wave from which she 
had fled had carried hor charge away into the- 
thick of the storm. She would see him there 
tossed to and fro, and later on he would retun^ 
covered with apologies, explanations and mad. 
Even marriage cannot break the habits of a 
lifetime all at once. 

It was almost a recognised part of the day's- 
play that one of the final waves of the contest 
should nish through the village street, and when, 
the noise of its coming was heard from afar, 
shopkeepers rushed out, and put on the shutters- 
so that their windows might be safe : and even 
those who disapproved most of the game would 
rush to doors or windows to see. Thus they 
were able to get fresh matter for condemnatory^ 
judgments. 

There is much talk of the physical deteriora- 
tion of the race, and of. means to be taken to 
avert it ; but as yet there is sign neither of the 
decadence of " Bosell's Ba' " nor of the spirit 
of the players. 

On one of my last visits to the village I heard 
the incidents of the day's play described and 
discussed with all the ancient keenness and by 
those who had borne in their persons the maiks- 
of the frav. 

A. L. A. SUDDEN. 



Exiled. 

Tweed's silver stream, Tweed's silver streanir 
It gars me greet to see your gleam, 
As aft I do iu mony a dream 
In this far country sleeping. 

And whiles I sorrow when I think 
My bairnies winna get a blink 
O' silver Tweed. Sweet silver Tweed 
I mauna fa' to weeping. 

It's aft I dream o' my ain conn trie. 
And aft I sigh for hame; 
But I canna see how it's to be — 
Tweed kens nane o' my name. 



Gates head-on-Tyne. 



R. S, 



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The Sir Walter Scott of America. 

JAMES FENIMOBE COOPER. 

fHE Border Keep ha« gathered in a 
store of valued information relat- 
ing to Sir Walter Scott; its inci- 
dental references to Prof. Louns- 
bury and J. Fenimore Cooper, in February and 
May last year, recall to my memory the 
numerous but not always Mattering, allusioaos 
to Sir Walter which appear in Lounsbury's 
work on Cooper, published at Boston, Mass., 




to term him the American Scott. This fact waa 
triumphantly paraded at a later period by a 
writer in Blackwood, presamably Wilson, as one 
of the convincing proofs of the untruthfulness of 
the charge made by Barry Cornwall, that authors 
from this country were treated with systematic 
unfairness in English reviews. "Were we ever tin- 

i'ust to Cooper?" he asked. "Why, people call 
lim the American Scott." This sort of patting 
on the back was thought a proud illustration of 
the generosity of the British character and as 
putting the recipient of it under obligations of 
everlasting gratitude. Without mentioning num- 
erous other evidences, the conspicuous position he 
held is evident from the way Scott speaks of him 
in his diary. He mentions meeting him one even- 




J. FENIMORE COOPER. 



in 1883 (one of a series entitled ''American 
Men of Letters*'). This work is probably but 
little known in Scotland, and patriotic Bor- 
derers may possibly feel resentment with its 
author after a perusal of certain of the follow- 
ing extracts ; — 

Cooper, in a sense, belonged to the school of 
Scott ; and he was so far from denying it that in 
one place he speaks of himself as being nothing 
more than a chip from the former's block. The 
success which he (Cooper) won in Great Britain 
was not due in the slightest to the professional 
critics. These men fancied they had exhausted 
the power of panegyric when they went so far as 



ing at the Princess Qalitzin's in November, 1826. 
"Cooper was there," said he, "and so the Scotch 
and American lions took the field together. 

To call Cooper the American Scott in compliment 
in the days of his popularity, and in derision in 
the days of his unpopularity, was a method of 
criticism which enabled men to praise or under- 
value without taking the trotible to think. Stor- 
ies were invented and set in circulation of how he 
himself rejoiced in being so designated. Great, 
accordingly, was the indignation felt and express- 
ed by those gentry at the presumption of the 
American author, when, at a later period, he 
asserted that so far from taking any pride in 
the title, it merely gave him just as much grati- 
fication as any nickname could give a gentleman. 



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At a dinner party in New York in 1622, at which 
Cooper was present, the authorship of the VVaver- 
ley Novels, still a matter of some uncertainty, 
tame up for discussion. In December of the pre- 
vious year '*The Pirate" had been published. 
The incidents in this story were brought forward 
as a proof of the thorough familiarity with sea 
life of him, whoever he was, that had written it 
Such familiarity Scott had never had the oppor- 
tunity to gain in the only way it could be gained. 
It followed, therefore, that the tale was not of his 
composition. Cooper, who had never doubted the 
authorship of those novels, did not at all share in 
this view. The very reasons that made others 
feel uncertain led him to be confident. To one 



The pilot, though never named, we know to be 
the extraordinary and daring adventurer, John 
Paul Jones, and the period is, of course, the Amer- 
ican Revolution. The literature of the sea pre- 
sents no more thrilling chapter than that which, 
describing the passage of the great frigate through 
the narrow channel, gives every detail with such 
vividness and power that the most unimaginative 
cannot merely see ship shore, and foaming water, 
but almost hear the roaring of the wind, tue 
creaking of the cordage and the dashing of the 
waves against the breakers. 

In 1837 Lockharfs "Life of Sir Walter Scott" 
was appearing. In the diary of that novelist were 
some references to the American author, "'liug 




glen's falls — UNDER THE ARCH. 



like him, whose early life had been spent on top- 
gallant yards and in becketing royals, it was per- 
fectly clear that "The Pirate" was the work of a 
landsman and not of a sailor. Not that he denied 
the accuracy of the descriptions as far as they 
went. The point thjit he made was that with the 
same materials far greater effects could am 
would have been produced had the author possess- 
ed that intimate familiarity with ocean-life which 
can be his alone whose home for yciir^ has been 
upon the waves. He could not convince his op- 
ponents by argument. II« consequontly determin- 
©.1 to convince them by writing a sea-story. 

In this way originated ''The Pilot," a tale 
^»f the Northumbrian coast. 



man," he said, describing his first interview, "wno 
has shown so much genius, has a good deal of the 
manners, or want of manners, peculiar to His 
countrymen." Cooper's personal acquaintance 
with Scott had begun in 1826, just after the latter 
had set about his gigantic effort to pay off the 
load of debt in which he had involved himself. 
The American novelist had made then an attempt 
to secure for the man he regarded as his master 
some adequate return from the vast sale of ms 
works in the United States. In this he had been 
foiled. In the "Knickerbocker Magazine" for 
-April, 18 '8, he gave an account of these fruitlesB 
negotiations. In a later number of the same year 
he reviewed Lockharfs biography. This work is 
well known as one of the most entertaining in 



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187 



our literature. But on its appearance it gave a 
painful shock to the admirers of the great author 
by the revelations it made of practices which sav- 
oured more of the proverbial canniness of the 
Scotchman than of the lofty spirit of the man of 
honour. Equally surprising was the unconscious- 
ness of the biographer that there was anything 
discreditable in what he disclosed. Cooper criti- 
cised Scott's conduct in certain matters with a 
good deal of severity. In regard to eome points he 
took extreme and what might fairly be deemed 
quixotic, ground. Yet the general justice of his 
article will hardly be denied now by any one who 
is fxdly cognisant of the facts. Nor, indeed, was 
it then. "I have just read," wrote Charles Sum- 
ner from London to Hillard, in January, 1839, 
"an article on Lockh art's 'Scott,' written by Coop- 
er in the 'Knickerbocker,' which was lent me by 
^Barry Cornwall. I think it capital. I see none 
of Cooper's faults and I think a proper casii- 



of his relations to the British novelist he had 
given many times; and indirectly at that very 
time in his account in the first "Knickerbocker" 
article of his interview with Sir Walter Scott. 
The latter had been so obliging, he observed, as 
to mak^ him a number of flattering speeches, 
gratification or delight at being termed "tne 
American Scott." He had then been assured 
again and again that there was no danger of the 
title being applied to him in future; that in ten 
years their names would never be coupled togeth- 
er and that he himself would be totally forgotten. 
It could hardly have been deemed a compliment 
in a land where scarcely a petty district can exist 
peacefully and creditably, with a hill three thou- 
sand feet in height, which is not in time rendered 
disreputable by being saddled with the pretentious 
name of "The American Switsserland." Personal 
malice alone, however, could impute his disclaim- 
er either to malice or to envy. His own estimate 




cooper's cave, made famous by incidents in **L.\ST of the MOHICANS." 



gation is applied to the vulgar minds of Scott and 
Lockhart. Indeed, the nearer I approach the cir- 
cle of these men the less disposed do I find myself 
to like them." Sumner subsequently wrote that 
Proctor fully concurred in the conclusions au- 
yanced in the review. But these were not the 
prevalent opinions, in this country at least. Great 
was the outcry against Cooper for writing this 
article; great the outcry against the "Knicker- 
bocker" for printing it. The latter was severely 
censured for its willingness to prostitute its col- 
umns to the service of the former in his slander- 
ous "attempts to vilify the object of his impotent 
and contemptible hatred." Americans who were 
averse to Scott's being honestly paid proved par- 
ticularly solicitous that he should not be honestly 
criticised. They showed themselves as little 
scrupulous in defending him after he was dead as 
they had been in plundering him while he was 
living. Cooper had previously aroused the resent- 
ment of many because he had failed to express 



which he, however, did not repay in kina. £Ljt» 
reserve he thought Scott did not altogether like. 
In this he was probably mistaken, but the reason 
he gave of his own conduct savoured little of feel- 
ings of envy or rivalry. "As Johnson," he wrote, 
"said of his interview with Ckorge the Third, it 
was not for me to bandy compliments with my 
sovereign." 

From alUthe petty tricks to which literary van- 
ity resorts h-^ was absolutely free. He utterly 
disclaimed anjrthing that savoured of manoeuv- 
ring for reputation. ... It would not have 
been possible for him to offer to review his own 
works, as Scott both offered to do, and did, of the 
"Tales of My Landlord" in the "Quarterly." 

Cooper occasionally committed curious mis- 
takes in his writings ; Prof. Lounsbury enum- 
erates them, but, oddly enough, neither the 
novelist nor his biographer noticed two pal- 
pable errors in "The Last of the Mexicans." 



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This tale centres round the massacre of 
Fort William Henry in 1757, and one of the 
most thrilling incidents takes place at the 
npot where the Hudson River plunges head- 
long on either side of a caverned island ; in its 
recesses, the famous scout, Hawkeve, with his ^ 
Indian allies, Chingachgook and Uncas, shelter 
some travellers, who, through the treachery- of 




PHOTO OF STATUE ON THE SUMMIT OF THE COOPER* 
MONUMENT IN LAKEWOOD CEMETERY, NEAR COOPERS- 
TOWN, ON LAKE OTSEGO, N.V., SCENE OF 
"THE PIONEERS." 

an Indian guide from Fort Edward, are beset 
by the bloodthirsty Hurons. Hawkeve calls 
the cataract "Glenn's Falls," but Cooper clearly 
overlooks its not being thus designated until 
several years after the above massacre, when 
Col. Johannes Glenn purchased milling rights 
and settled in the locality. 

Still more surprising is his oversight when 
depicting the travellers, now captives in the 
hands of Magna, as being led from the south 
bank of the Hudson a weary journey to the 
vioinit[y of the celebrated mineral spring, 
known now as Ballston Spa and thereafter, 
under Hawkeye's guidance, re-traversing their 
way northward until F<Mt William Henry is 



reached at etirly dawn. The Hudson River 
lies right across the track so minutely de- 
scribed ; but Cooper makes not the slightest 
mention of any re-crossing of that most for- 
midable obstacle in the path indicated. 

Recently a chance visit to that neighbour- 
hood gave me an opportunity of smoking the 
pipe of peace in the cavern immortalised by 
Cooper ; the impressive falls are still thunder- 
ing as of yore, but the banks on either side ait? 
sadly defaced by unsightly paper and lumber 
mills. A massive steel bridge spans the cat- 
aract, its central pier resting on the island 
and electric cars add their rumble to the roar 
of the waters. From Ballston the ti*olley car 
now traverses Fort Edward, Glenn's Falls, 
French Mountain Pass and, skirting the his- 
toric "bloody pond,*' reaches the site of Fort 
William Henry at a speed that Uncas, *1e cerf 
agile,'* would have wondered at. Long may 
the hands of the spoiler (American or British) 
be withheld from the scenery of our own Bor- 
der novelist. 

Wm. M, Sandison. 



Border Notes and Queries. 

THE HAWICK GILL. 

It is g:ratifying to notice that the interest in 
the question of the " Hawick Gill " is ably main- 
tained by the contribution from the pen of 
"A. G. S." in the September number. His carry- 
ing back the date of ray first reference to tho 
measure is not only of interest, but also of prac- 
tical utility. When I was on holiday in Hawick 
recently, Adam Laing, Esq., Burgh Chamberlain, 
kindly showed me an entry in one of Hawick 
Treasurer's books, which bei rs that on 29th Oc-' 
tober, 1732, there was "Mor payed at traying ye 
wine— 2 double gilles, 128." (Spots, i.e., only One 
shilling in all). 

From this it will be seen that the double-gill 
measure was actually ip use in Hawick two cen- 
turies ago. Proof that this half-pint capacity 
was widely recognised by the name of the "Haw- 
ick Gill" is yet wanting, however, as the quota- 
tion from "Andro wi* his Cutty Gun" 
doubtless influenced later literature. That it was 
not 80 termed locally seems to be indicated by the 
absence of the name in the above extract, and by 
the dearth of reference to it in local literature. 
It would be interesting to learn if the name ever 
appeared in early local print. 

G. Watson. 
« « « * 

THB FRIARS OF FAIL. 
In your August number I notice under " Border 
Notes and Queries " an article by A. G. S. on " The 
Monks of Melrose and the Friars of Fail/' and 
the qu:e8tion is asked, "Could any of the readera 
of the BoBDiB Magaiiiii throw some further light 
on these old rhymes?" I venture to refer readers 
to Dr David Irving's " History of Scottish Poetry/' 
ehap. xvii. p. 862., et seq., for some more informa* 



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189 



tion on this matter. Br Irving, on page 384, re- 
fers to a singular collection of poems entitled 
""Ane Compendious Booke of Godly and Spiritual 
Songs'' (Edin., 1621). In this volume, a copy of 
which is in the Advocates' Library, there are 
metrical versions of various psalms, and a larger 
number of original compositions mainly consist- 
ing of ridiculous and obscene songs, which Bishop 
Percy refers to in his Beliques as having been 
"composed to be sung by the labble to the tnnee 
of the most favourite hymns in the Latin service." 
Dr Irving has many witty and pertinent remarks 
on the songs and ballads in this collection. He 
takes special note, however, of one which he char- 
Aoterises as a song against the Pope and his re- 
tainers. Notwithstanding what he calls "the ex- 
•cessive plainness of language," he quotes the poem, 
which consists of five stanzas. The last one con- 
tains a reference to the Friars as follows :— 
Of Scotland well the friers of Faill 

The limmery lang has lastit : 
The monks of Melros made gude kaill, 
On Fryday qnhen they fastit. 
In a note, Dr Irving says, "Faill, in the district 
of Kyle, was a priory dependent on the abbey of 
Paisley." Henry the Minstrel, perhaps better 
known by the familiar appelation of "Blind 
Harry," refers in his Wallace to Thomas of Ercil- 
<doune, whose proper name was Thomas Learmont. 
He also mentions The Faile as a favourite resort 
of Thomas of Ercildoune in the following lines :-— 
" Thomas Rimour in-to the Faile was than 
With the Mynystir, quhilk was a worthi man, 
He wsyt offt to that religiouss place," 

J. C. GOODFKLLOW. 

« « » 

-'SIR WALTER SCOTT AND HIS LITERARY 
FRIENDS AT ABBOTSFORD." 
I have a copy of this well-known engraving by 
Faed, and as one of the original subscribers to 
the BoBDiB Magazine I shall be much obliged if 
you will kindly give me the names of the distin- 
guished company. Scott, Hogg, Wilson, and Lock- 
hart are easily recognised, but who are the others? 
Are they heroes of the "NoctesP" (See vol. xii.. 
page 171.) 

BOBDBBBR No. 3. 

« « « 

SATCHELL'S TRUE HISTORY. 
Can any reader give me some particulars of a 
rhyming history of the prominent Border families 
of Bozbnrgh and Selkirk shires, which was pub- 
lished by Captain Scott of Satchell's in 1688. I 
helieve the book is very rare, and some account of 
it might be of general interest to the readers of 
the BoBDBB Maoazinb. In this connection I might 
here say that your " Notes and Queries " column 
miirht be made use of frequently by those who 
•deeire information about rare Border bboks. 

BooK-woaM. 
« « « « 

[This rare Border book, " exerted much influence 
over the juvenile mind of Sir Walter Scott, and its 
wild and uncouth doggerel was on his lips to ^hie 
latMt day," to quote Mr Winning, who wrote the 
preface afid edited the last reprint. On page 219 
of Tolvme vi. of the BoaDia Magazine we gave a 
^eeoription of the book, and on the following page 
reproduced the quaint title page of the original 
volume. The first edition is very rare, there be- 



ing no copy in the British Museum or the Advo- 
cates' Library, but there is a very fine copy in the 
possesstidn of the Duke of Buccleuch. This latter 
was used as the copy for the faithful transcript 
which was issued in the form of a handsome vol- 
ume, printed on hand-made paper, and contain- 
ing copiou.s notes of local and general interest. 
This edition was limited, like Captain Scott's 
original seventeenth century edition, to 240 copies, 
and even these are now very ^arce. The lowest 
price at which this valuable book can now be got 
is one guinea, but the Editor of the Border Maga- 
zine is in a position to send, carriage paid, at no 
profit to himself, a perfect copy at twelve shillings 
to anv reader who may desire to possess it. Ed. 
" B.M\"] 

[An esteemed correspondent, who is not unknown 
in the literary world, writes: — "I am greatly in- 
tereete<l in the growing value of your 'Notes' and 
other articles," and this kind reference to this 
part of our magazine gives us an opportunity of 
once more pointing out the excellent opportunities 
our "Notes and Queries" column presents for 
gaining information . on obscure topics. — Ed., 
"B. M."] 



By the Logan Burn, Glencorse, in 
the Pentlands. 

'T)o you know that the dearest burn to me in 
the world is that which drums and pours in cun- 
ning wimples in that glen of yours behind Old 
Glencorse Kirk."— R. L. Stevenson. 

Tlion brawling brooklet, o'er thy stony bed. 
Where, rushiug through the soft and sandy loam 

Which tints thy sullen bosom, dully red, 
You wander bounding to thy last, long home; 

In the sweet springtide of thy boasted might. 

Swollen by the melted snows from yonder height. 

Till summer comes, and with warm sunshine . 
quells 

Thy turbid floods, when, fed by gentler showers, ' 
Thy placid bosom now no longer swells. 

But, rippling, roams amid the buddiug flowers; 
Refreshing all the meadows in its way. 
Would that you thus could always sparkling play I 

But Autumn, with its seared and withered hand» 
Ushered in russet hues, with swelling rains. 

Swells up thy turbid tide across the land. 
Once more rolls deep thy torrent o'er the plains; 

And the full force of summer's treasured horde 

Across the smiling meads is freely poured. 

Then, in thy growing strength, when gaining 
force. 

The iron grasp of winter grips thee fast, 
And deep beneath your ice you rumble hoarse, 

The sound grows weaker and it dies at last. 
And in the time when ether nature dies 
The brawling brook in solemn stillness lies. 

And thus it is with mortals. In their youth 
They brawling boast, yet know not what they 
say* 
Till, more mature, they, silent,* hear the truth. 

And, ageing, blosom forth— bat to decay; 
For, while they learn, ebbs out life's lingering 

sand. 
And, when they know, they reach the Promised 
Land. 

A. 8. Robertson. 



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I90 THE BORDER MAGAZINE. 

t 

TO GORRESPONDENTS, TO ADVERTISERS. 

All communications reUUing to Literary rnatters should All Business matters^ Advertising RateSf dbe., should 

be addressed to the Editor, Mr William Sakdkbsok, be re/erred to the Publishers, A. Walkkb & Sov, 

St Rvna/ns, Rutherglen, near Glasgow, High Street, Galashiels 

THE B ORDER MA GAZINE. 

OCTOBER, 1907. 

LIST OF CONTENTS. paqb 

A . T. Hutchinson, Esq. Portrait Supplement. By W. Saunders, 181 

T HE Ba'. By A. L. A. Sudden, 183 

PoETBY— Exiled, ^- 184 

The Sir Walter Fcott of America : James Fenimore Cooper. Four Illustnitions. By Wm. M. 

Sandison, 185 

Border Notes and Queries, 188 

Poetry— By Logan Burn. By A. S. Robertson, 18^ 

The Border Keep. By Dominie Sampson, IW 

Provand's Lordship, - 1^ 

The Author of *' Waverley " on the South Side of the Border. Part V. Two Illustrations. 

By W. Scoirr, -. 193 

A Tramp Poet: A Romance of the Open Road, 1^ 

The Last of the Border Raids. By O. Watson, 187 

The Galashiels Centenarian, - 1^ 

Poetry— Queen Bess and the Border Chief. By Elizabeth M. Macinnes, IW 

The Late Mr Walter (jOuinlock, J. P., ^OO 

The Border Bookcase, 200 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 
An esteemed correspondent, who has an intimate connection with the Literary and 1 hilosophical Society 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, thus writes : — "It may prove some encouragement to learn that since the set of volume* 
(of B. M.) were added to our large library, the Bordeb Magazine is one of the most difficult books to obtain. 
(This institution is, I believe, almost the oldest in the oountrv ; considerably over a century.) If 
all libraries took the annual volume it would help a little. The B. M. possesaes distinct educational ^nilue, 
dealing with unquestionably the most interesting part of the British Isles. Perhaps our readers could assist in 
this important matter. 

The Border Keep 

(In which are preserved paragraphs from various publications, to the authors and editors of which 

we express our indebtedness). 

The "Peeblesshire Advertiser," in re-publishing a shilling per day, the appearance of this local 

some of its news items of sixty years ago, quotes militia does not impress the beholders with any- 

from its issue of 5th October, 1847. The reference thing of "the pomp and circumstance'' of arms, 

is to the trial of Mr Dickson of Peebles, who erect- The want of a uniform, and the garniture of dirty 

ed the hustings which, some of our older readers cross-belts, added to old muskets and rusty bayon- 

may remember, fell when occupied by the elect- ets, make tlje corps to savour of the burlesque 

ors. It was proved that Mr Dickson had taken rather than to appear as an aid to the dignity of 

all reasonable precautions, so he was acquitted of the judicial establishment. With the exceptioB 

the charge. The "Advertiser's" remarks about of the captain of the guard, the men seem to look 

certain Jethart matters are too good to be lost:— upon it as a good practical joke, which enables 

"Peeblesshire contributed its share this season to them to pocket a shilling or two without hard 

a very heavy calendar at Jedburgh circuit. One work. The tum-ont of the Crailing guard, so 

of the cases remitted from this quarter had, from called from a neighbouring village, usually affords 

the novelty of the charge, and the respectability also much amusement to the boys, who find a 

of the accused, excited considerable interest. We ready subject for ridicule in their inexpertness in 

allude to the charge against Mr Dickson arising presentimg arms." 
from the accident of the fall of the hustings. The ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Court met on Wednesday, 15th ult., and was open- 
ed with the usual formalities. Lord Moncrieff pre- The famous Kelso bell is to be a leading attrac- 

uding. The guard which turned out upon the tion at the Provand's Lordship Exhibition in the 

occasion is a remnant of an ancient service which. Trades' House this month, llie story that this 

we believe, dates back to the institution of the fine old Celtic bell may have been the veritable 

Justice Ayre itself. The most of the lands in the bell of St Kentigern frill be investigated. It was 

vicinity of Jedburgh are burdened with the duty examined by the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 

of furnishing their quota to the quasi-military in 1882. One thing self-evident about the bell is 

guard at the circuit, and as the proprietors usually that it has been a garret relic and has never at 

serve by substitute, who are paid at the rate of any time been buried underground. It has not 



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the BHiall tinkle tliat one would suppose it to hare 
— it gives forth a soft melodibus sound. Notwith- 
standing the fact that this Kelso relic is supposed 
to be the finest example of ancient Celtic bells, it 
will take the proverbial Philadelphia lawyer and 
New York detective to prove that it once belonged 
to Glasgow's patron saint. The lenders are the 
directors of Kelso Museum. 

• « « 

Sir Walter Scott, after the seiiure which was 
permanently to cripple him, was sent, in the cus- 
tody of a young girl, into the country. This girl 
had a sweetheart in Edinburgh, and hated the 
life in the country which kept her from him. 
More still, she hated the child who was the cause 
of her being so detained. The passion, of dislike 
for the child grew upon her, until one day she 
rushed away with him to the top of the craigs at 
Sandy-Knowe, fully intending to cut his throat 
with her scissors, and bury him in the moss. The 
life of the one whom thereafter millions were al- 
most to worship trembled that moment in the 
balance. Her project was at the last too awful 
for the girl, and she crept back to confess the fell 
purpose which she had cherished. 

• « • 

An interesting find was recently made on the 
Stewartry farm of Dunmuck, near Dalbeattie, the 
ploughman turning up a stone hammer weighing 
4 lbs. in a field at the foot of Bedbank Hill, on 
which hill there are the remains of several an- 
cient dwellings. The hole for the handle is about 
one inch in diameter, and, judging from the shape 
of the stone, one enjd may have been used as an 
axe, and the other as a hammer. 
« • » 

There has recently been discovered an unpub- 
lished letter of Sir Walter Scott's which contains 
an interesting reference to Traquair. It proves 
conclusively, I think, that Sir Walter was in Tra- 
quair House. The epistle was addressed to a for- 
mer Provost of Arbroath, Mr James Marnie of 
Deuchar. Mrs Thomson of Deuchar, a grand- 
daughter of Provost Marnie, found the letter while 
examining some old family papers, and it is not 
improbable that the interesting document will be 
presented to Arbroath Museum. The letter is as 
follows:— Sir,— I am much obliged to you for your 
legend respect the sword which I will probably 
avail myself of should be called on for another edi- 
tion of the work in question. I am glad to hear 
the sword is safe and in the hands of my acquaint- 
ance and brother antiquary, Mr Deuchar. My 
information was taken from Doctor Jamieson, who 
from his general habits, and having been a Forfar 
man, ought to have been more correct as to the 
county. I am sorry the rhyming couplet does not 
seem to be a correct date. I have seen another 
sword belonging to the Earl of Traquair having 
the date a.d. 1000, but I own I always thought it 
an addition put on the blade black especially as 
the Arabian numerals were used in expressing it. 
I will study when I am in Edinburgh again, which 
is no speedy prospect to obtain a sight of the 
weapon. We have a Deuchar in Selkirkshire on 
Yarrow and a family of some antiquity lairds de 
eodem. But I think their name latterly was Scott, 
which is the clan which prevails in the district. — 
I am, sir, your obliged humble servant, Walter 
SooTT. Abbotsford, 31st Deer., 1890. It is really 
astonishing how much new matter relating to Sir 



Walter is being found, and it j ust shows that all 
who haVe old papers and letters in their possess- 
ion should go over them very carefully before de- 
stroying them. 

« * » 

To have conversed with people who knew the 
Buchanites constitutes a distinction to which few 
now living can lay claim. The somewhat unique 
link with the past is, however, established in the 
person of Mrs Thomas Black, the Kilmarnock cen- 
tenarian. Mrs Black was born in the Dumfriee- 
shire parish of Closeburn, within a few miles of 
the building locally known as Buchan Ha'. The 
sect that made this edifice their headquarters was 
one of the most fanatical Scotland has ever known. 
Its distinctive tenets were derived from a Banff- 
shire ale-wife named Luckie Buchan. Expelled 
from the town of Irvine, Luckie and her devoted 
followers elected to settle in Dumfriesshire. In 
the course of the journey southwards, the little 
band was met by the poet Burns, who has record- 
ed his impressions of the body in several of his 
published letters. In this connection it may be 
recalled that Jean Gardner, who is supposed by 
many Burnsites to be "the "Darling Jean" of the 
poet's "epistle to Davie," was for many years an 
enthusiastic Buchanite. 

• » • 

A few lively reminiscences are recalled by the 
recent decision of Bridge Street TJ.F. congregation, 
Alexandria, to make an important addition to the 
ecclesiastical architecture of the Vale of Leven, 
and to their own history, by building a new 
church. Not the least interesting is the incident 
that used to be told with great glee by the late 
venerable Dr .Alexander Wallace, of East Camp- 
bell Street Church, Glasgow, who from 1846 to 
1849 was the minister of Bridge Street TJ.F. 
Churchi Alexandria. Dr Wallace, then a young 
man, was called to Alexandria and Langholm at 
the same time, and his reason for choosing the 
former charge was as follows: — The latf minister 
at Langholm had a dog, Juba, which had been in 
the habit of accompanying his late master to the 
pulpit and lying at his feet during the service. 
On the Sabbath Dr Wallace preached, he was sur- . 
prised to find that Juba had reached the pulpit be- 
fore him. As it was a warm summer day, the 
doors of the church were open, and during the 
service a terrier walked in and began to bark. 
Juba quickly descended the pulpit stair, and, seuE- 
ing the intruder by the back of the neck, he drag- 
ged him to the door and shook him over the kerb- 
stone. But Juba's crowning feat in the pulpit 
was on the last Sabbath Dr Wallace preached at 
Langholm. The congregation was largely compos- 
ed of shepherds, who brought their dogs with them 
to the church, the animals lying beneath the 
pews during the service. Near the close of the 
discourse the young preacher, growing warm over 
his theme, tramped on Juba's tail. The animal 
suddenly sprang up from the floor, and, placing 
his fore paws on the desk, barked with all his 
might at the congregation. This set all the other 
dogs in the church a-howling, and, though some 
degree of calm was at length restored, the affair 
was an unexpecte<l shock to the young minister, 
who could not brook the idea of becoming minis- 
ter of the Langholm congregation with such riiki 
to encounter. 

Dominie Sampson. 



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Provand's Lordship. 

AN APPEAL ON BEHALF OF AN INTER- 
ESTING GLASGOW SCHEME. 

' OME of our Glasgow Border friends 
are busy with a most commendable 
scheme which we should like to do 
our best to assist. There are many 
historical links to bind together the Border- 
land and Glasgow, and we have no doubt the 
leaders in this new movement will do much 
to preserve the story of these links. The 
''Jedburgh Gazette '' thus refers to the sub- 
ject : — 

The Borderer, wherever it may be his lot to do 
his work, is usually a student of the history and 
archaeology of the place. This direction of in- 
terest he gets, as a rule, in his native town or 
village. To be seen there, in all probability, is 
some edifice or spot that hgs a place of honour in 
the country's annals, and whose beauty or fame 
is enshrined in the poetry and romance of the 
countryside. When the Borderer leaves his native 
district he carries with him an interest in and 
veneration for the things of bygone times, and he 
is often to be found actively at work among those 
who are seeking to preserve ancient landmarks, 
memorials, and relics. An example of this is 
manifested in the help that Borderers are render- 
ing to the cause of preserving Provand's Lordship 
in Glasgow. The subject is dealt with in an ar- 
ticle in another column of this issue of the " Jed- 
burgh Gazette." The writer of the article ro- 
niarks on the growing evidence of the connection 
between Glasgow and the Borders in times past. 
Jedburgh affords some important illustrations of 
this. Jedburgh was within the See of Glasgow, 
and William Turnbull, Bishop of Glasgow— a 
native of this district and a member of the Bed- 
rule family— assisted in repairing Jedburgh Ab- 
bey. Mrs Gordon in her "Life of Sir David 
Brewster " says that Bishop Turnbull founded 
and endowed the Grammar School of Jedburgh, 
A bull's head, the crest of the Turnbulls, appears 
on a butti;e8s in the Abbey. Robert Blackader, 
Archbishop of Glasgow, was commendator of Jed- 
burgh Abbey in 1504. His arms have been traced 
on the north-west corner of the tower and also on 
a displaced stone which has been built into the 
wall inside the north transept. It is believed that 
Blackader, who built some portions of Glasgow 
Cathedral, contributed towards the rebuilding of 
the tower of Jedburgh Abbey about the year J 500. 
He was made Bishop of Glasgow in 1484. Other 
old relationships might be cited; and in the visit 
of Queen Mary to Glasgow and her stay in Pro- 
vand's Lordship in 1567, there is an incident that 
cannot but interest the people of a place that 
possesses a, ^ouse made famous by the ill-fat^d 
Queen's residence in it for some weeks, only a 
month or two before her journey to Glasgow and 
four months before the death of Darnley. 

The article above referred to gives some 
interesting notes on the old building, and we 
have much pleasure in now quoting it : — 



The present High Street and Castle Street of 
Glasgow, by way of which the visitor reaches 
Saint Mungo's venerable Cathedral, is a busy thor- 
oughfare lined with modern tenements and sur- 
rounded by extensive works, but long ago on the 
then pleasant braeside stood many of the town 
houses of notable Scottish families aud residences 
of the great ecclesiastics of the time. Alone to- 
day, bearing the numbers 3 to 7 Castle street, 
stands "Provand's Lordship," the last of these 
l)roud edifices, a silent witness of these stirring 
days when round about the ancient Cathedral was 
waged so much political and ecclesiastical -.trife. 
The history of the building is given in an e.\cel- 
lently written brochure published by the Pro- 
vand's Lordship Literary Club, an association 
that was formed for the purpose of saving the 
house from being swept away in a proposed build- 
ing reconstruction scheme. Built by Bishop Muir- 
head (1455-73), "Provand's Lordship" is thorough- 
ly typical of fifteenth century domestic architec- 
ture, large fireplaces, stone window seats, stair- 
case tower, and doorways with elaborate moulded 
jambs and lintels. Tradition well authenticated 
has it that Queen Mary's " ludgings " when visit- 
ing Glasgow in 1567 was none other than "Tro- 
vand's Lordship," then the town house of Wil- 
liam Baillie of Provand, a gentleman high in 
Court favour at that time, and within a stone's 
throw stood "The Place of Stable Green." Lord 
Lennox's house, where the Queen visited Lord 
Barnley. Another important historical associa- 
tion is the fact that Provand's Lordship was part 
of the property of James IV. when one of the 
secular Canpns of the Cathedral, and when officiat- 
ing as Prebendary of Provand there i^ little doubt 
that he would occupy the commodious quarters of 
his own house across the Square. The object of 
the club who now have possession of the building 
is to lay the house open to visitors in the same 
way as John Kr ox's House in Edinburgh, Much 
remains to be done in the way of clearing off the 
purchase debt and restoring the interior to the 
simple manner of these early days, and an in- 
teresting Exhibition on this behalf has been ar- 
ranged to take place in the Trades Hall from 
22nd to 26th October. This Exhibition should ap- 
peal to every lover of history, embracing as it will 
notable relics in connection with Old Glasgow and 
its Cathedral, and rare and beautiful examples 
of early Scottish art and manufactures. Lectures 
aud ballad concerts will also be given, and an 
Old Glasgow dinner and an eighteenth century 
assembly will be held on two separate evenings. 
The assistance of possessors of antique articles is 
.=»arne8tly solicited. It is felt that throughout 
the country must be many relics of rare worth 
that have never yet been exhibited in public, and 
which would be an invaluable help towards mak- 
ing the Exhibition the success it deserves. As re- 
search goes on the very close connection between 
Glasgow and the Borders in bygone days gets 
the more evident, and anything historically con- 
nected with Glasgow or with the times when 
" Provand's Lordship " was fit dwelling for the 
proudest of the land, will be welcomed by the 
club. A selection committee has been appointed, 
and articles accepted for exhibition will be care- 
fully looked after. Communications addressed to 
Kfr Jas. M'Dougall, Convener Exhibits, Provand's 
Lordship, Cathedral Square, Glasgow, will have 
every attention. 



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The Author of " Waverley " on the 
South Side of the Border. 

By Waltbb Scott, Gainpord. 
Part Y. 

MARMION.— YORKSHIRE, DURHAM, AND 
NORTHUMBERLAND. 

I HE story of "Marmion" is too well 
known to need repetition. It also 
c«.»iitains the most niinule and poetic 
description of tne scenery along the 
north-east coast of England, from Whitby to 
and past Northiunberland, showing the inti- 
mate knowledge Sir Walter had of these parts. 
Beginning with Whitby's cloistered pile, he 
brings the reader along that treacherous north- 
east coast, detailing in his stirring words the 
places of old renown. Whitby Abbey is one 
of the most striking objects on that romantic 
coast. Standing on a bleak cliff high above 
the German Ocean, it is a landmark at sea for 
many miles ; and it is unique in its situation, 
as most religious houses of ancient days were, 
in snug and sheltered valleys. Long before 
the Abbey was built another house, possibly 
of wood, stood there, named Streonshall. Here 
lived and sung the father of Elnglish poetry, 
the Cowman Caedmon, to whom a monument 
was erected only a year or two ago. Here, 
also, the celebrated Council took place under 
King Oswy to decide between the customs of 
the monks from lona and those from Rome. 
The result is well known. Being against the 
monks from lona, they, in the words of Monta- 
lambest in his " Monks of the West," retired 
to their "Northern Mist«," where they still 
carried on their work amongst the wild in- 
habitants of Albyn. 

Even at this day a curious relict of ancient 
times is observed. A thorn hedge is planted 
on Ascension Day in the sands at low- water by 
the ajgents of certain land-owners, whose pre- 
decessors were ordered to do this as penance or 
the I088 of their lands would follow for some 
sin against Holy Church many centuries ago. 

The poet takes the mother superior and some 
sisters, with a culprit lady, on a voyage to Lin- 
disfame, off the coast of Northumiierland. In 
their progress they pass the mouth of the 
Wear, and this is the occasion of the story be- 
ing told of the wanderings of the body of 
holy Saint Cuthbert, when his monks were ex- 
pelled from the Holy Isle by the wild Danes. 
How his body was taken to Chester-le-Street, 
Hexham, to Ripon, and how, lasrtly, a resting- 



place was found at Durham, where that stately 
pile, the Cathedral, was erected, in which his 
body is laid. So late as 1827 the grave was 
opened and the splendid vestments enwrapping 
the body were examined, and the fact ascer- 
tained that this was indeed the body of the 
Saint, whose early days are said to' have been 
spent in the neighbourhood of Melrose. They 
passed the birthplace of the venerable Bede, 
Monkwearmouth. In the old cliurch here the 
first glass used in England was placed. Next 
came Tynemouth Priory, a stately ruin now. 
Then the mouths of the Blyth Burn and Wans- 
beck were passed. The former is now an im- 
portant coal-shipping port, while the latter 
still glides down in rural peace, through Cress- 
well woods, to the sea. Then Widdrington, 
whose famous lord laid such doleful dumps at 
Chevy Chase and fought upon his stumps. 
They passed Coquet Isle, 'off the mouth of the 
river of the same name, and below Warkworth, 
famous for its hermitage and castle. In the 
near neighbourhood of this little town a native 
of Galashiels lived for some years attempting 
to introduce the weaving of woollen cloth. 
Apparently he did not succeed, for he came 
back to the banks of the Gala. Here he died, 
but before the end came, he desired to be car- 
ried to Warkworth for burial, as " It wad be 
graund to lie yonder an' hear the boom in' an' 
swishin' o* the sea oot by Coquet Isle." 

"Proud Bamburgh's Tower " was next pass- 
ed, the seat of the great Bishop, Lord Crewe, 
and for many years in the possession of the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, who lived in it 
in turns. It is now the property of Lord Arm- 
strong, having been purchased and wonderfully 
improved in antique taste by the great en- 
gineer and armour manufacturer. 

Then they came to Holy Isle, which is only 
an island twice in every twenty -four hours ac- 
cording to the flow of the tide. Volumes could 
be written about this lovely place, with its 
ancient castle and the ruins of its monastery. 
The abbey was built in Saxon times, and is of 
great strength ; and it was of necessity that it 
should, as it was in the fair way of the Scan- 
dinavian sea rovers. Several times the good 
monks were driven forth by these northerners, 
and on one occasion they took with them the 
vellum manuscript, known now as the Lindis- 
fame Gospels, a beautifully illuminated and 
bound book, showing the tender care and skill 
of these good fathers. In their hurry to dis- 
embark it was dropped overboard and appa)*- 
ently lost. Years after it was recovered, *'and 
not even the smell or colouring of sea-water 



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on it.'* It is now in one of the University 
Libraries, Oxford. 

What was done in the abbey by the abbess- 
and the hermit of Holy Isle is told in won- 
drous verse; how Marmion had proved 

"What a tangled web we weave 
When first we practice to deceive," 

and how his victim was here to suffer for his 
misdeeds. But his time was coming, and 
Flodden was the scene. 



celebrated in the ballad of Chevy Chase, was 
fought in 1388 on a rising spur of the Cheviots 
a little nearer the Scottish Border than tlie 
village of Otterburn. This is now a quiet, 
beautiful place thirty-two miles on the road 
from Newcastle to Jedburgh. Near it runs the 
Reid water, where another celebrated fight 
took place, at first going badly for the Scots, 
but ultimately a victory, won by the appear- 
ance of the "Jethart lads" shouting " Jeth- 



^<.yv . 




WHITBY ABBEY. 



The description of James' Court and the 
gathering of the Scottish forces on Burgh 
Muir, with the scenes in which Marmion, 
King James, Lady Heron, and Sir David Lind- 
say of the Mount appear, is superb, but we 
hasten to the Border, though it is hard to pass 
that magnificent passage between Marmion 
ai-J old *Bell-the-Cat at Tantallon Castle. 
Here is the passing reference to Otterburn, so 
glorious a victory to the dying Douglas of 
that day, rather more than a hundred years 
before Flodden. Tlie Battle of Otterburn, 



art's here." This fight is commonly known 
as, and is the subject of the ballad, the '' Raid 
of the Reid Swire." 

On the morning of the 9th day of Septem- 
ber, 1513, the English under Lord Surrey 
crossed the Till at Twizell Bridge, thus plac- 
ing themselves between King James and the 
Scottish forces and their own country. James 
held an impregnable position on the Ridge of 
Flodden, a low sloping spur on the southern 
side of the Cheviots. Not sloth nor indiffer^ 
ence, but a high and chivalcic sense of fair- 



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play caused the Scottish king to allow this pas- 
sage, so fatal to his army and himself. The 
poet's story of the battle is one of the finest 
pieces of such writing in any language by any 
author. One one stanza shall be quoted, but 
it cannot be kept out. 

"And why stands Scotland idly now. 
Dark Flodden, on thine airy browP 
Since England gains the pass the while 
And struggles through the deep defile? 
What clouds the fiery soul of James? 
"Why sits the champion of the dames 

Inactive on his steed? 
"What 'vaUs the vain k nigh t-er rant's brand? 
O, Douglas, for thy leading wand, 

Fierce Randolph, for thy speed! 



and Surrey withdraws his forces. And thus it 
can be claimed that, though 
"The Flo'ers o' the Forest were a' wede away/' 

and Scotland's best and bravest were gone, it 
was not such a cuuiplete victory for England 
as some have supposed. Next day the Scots 
who survived went, unmolested by the English, 
northwards 

"To tell red Flodden's dismal tale 
And raise the universal wail 
Of the stern strife and carnage drear 

Of Flodden's fatal field. 
Where shiver'd was fair Scotland's spear 

And broken was her shield/' 

'And so ended the battle of Flodden. 




LINDISFARNE PRIORY. 



O! for one hour of Wallace wight. 
Or well-skilled Bruce, to lead the fight. 
And pry "Saint Andrew and our right!" 
Another sight had seen that morn. 
And Flodden had been Bannockburn^ — 
The precious hour has pass'd in vain 
And England's host has gain'd the plain. 
Wheeling their march and circling still 
Around the base of Flodden Hill." 



From that, on through a dozen noble stanzas, 
unhalting and free-flowing, goes the tale, in 
words that must move the blood of the most 
lethargic, till, 

"Till utter darkness closed her wing 
O'er the slain host and wounded king," 



Twizell Bridge, named in the poem, is built 
over the slow-flowing and muddy Till in the 
extreme north of Northumberland, just under 
Twizell Castle, not far from the junction of the 
Till with the Tweed. The Castle was built in 
the early part of last century by Sir Wm. 
Blake on a most magnificent scale — " as-many- 
windows-as-day s-in-the-y ear" style — and after 
his death stood empty for many years. Flod- 
den is, as already stated, a ridge or rising 
ground on the southern slope of the Cheviot 
Hills, and not far from the village of Wooler, 
now accessible by the branch of the North- 
Eastem Railway that runs from Alnwicfc to 
the Kelso branch of the same railway. 



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A Tramp Poet. 

THE ROMANCE OF THE OPEN KOAD. 

nM that cleverly conducted journal, 
*'T. P.'s Weekly," we reproduce the fol- 
lowing, knowing that it will be much 
appreciated by all true Borderers: — 
_ "There is a merrj'-hearted tramp in 

Scotland who writes remarkably good verse. By 
name Roger Quin, he is a direct descendant of the 
Faas, the noted gipsy family whose headquarters 
are still at Yetholm, near Kelso. His grand- 
father, a travelling tinker and an Irishman mar- 
ried one of the Faa-Blyths, an aunt of Esther 
Faa-Blyth, Queen of the Gipsies, who was visited 
by Queen Victoria on one of her visits to the 
Border Country. Roger's father, also an itine- 
rant tinker, tiring of the nomadic gipsy life, 
settled in Dumfries in the early forties, and 
there our poet tramp was born. In May, 1857, on 
the interment of'Burns's eldest son in the Maus- 
oleum, young Roger was permitted to hold the 
poet's skull in his hand before its replacement 
in the grave. He says that the enclosing casket 
of lead was filled with pitch to secure the preser- 
vation of the relic. 

"He had an excellent education at Dumfries 
Academy and Glasgow University, and afterwards 
held several goo<l appointments; but he could 
never settle in any place longer than a f^w 
months. The Romany blood and the wandering 
instinct of his race being proof unequal against 
the environment of education and the surround- 
ings of hig youthful days. He has lived a roving 
life for many years, tramping the country. Sleep- 
ing in the open (under a haystack or anywhere 
else) he earns a few coppers by playing the flute, 
and he is not a teetotaller, though very temper- 
ate. His love for Nature is intense, and he has 
the poetic fancy in a marked degree. He is a 
beautiful penman, and a descriptive writer of no 
mean power. 

"On a recent Sunday Roger wrote from Gala a 
letter in which he stated, 'I did not Iciive Edin- 
burgh until nearly midnight, on Shanks's naigie, 
of course; and after clearing out from Penicuik 
early on Tuesday morning I encounter'»d a very 
respectable Scottish blizzard ere I reached Peeb- 
les. I left there on Friday morning daund'rin' 
along down the Tweed at my leisure, and feeling 
at every turn of the road how futile it is for 
the human pen or pencil to depict the beauty of 
the scenery. And here I am this afternoon lying 
at full length on the 'Spur of the Gala Hill,' un- 
der conditions which are atmospherically perfect, 
and trying hard to withdraw my eyes from the 
bewitching landscape sufficiently long to scribble 
you this. By heavens, it is lovely— it is glorious. 
I am simply revelling in it— the air is so pure — 
there is so much of that quality in the atmos^ 
phere which photographers call 'actinity' that 
I can almost imagine I see the grey dial of the 
old clock on the wall of Meliose Abbey. And the 
freshness, and the sunshine— oh, sir, it is 'a treat 
to be alive.' ... I think I shall pass the night 
in the wood here on Gala Hill, and slip away in 
the morning to Yarrow via Selkirk. The dreamy 
spell of that ballad-haunted valley may hold me 
there all next week— afterwards Moffat, and round 
by Dumfries to the Solway shore, where there is 
a tricky^ little cave I wot of.' And this is how 
Roger takes his eternal holiday, with seldom a 



house roof above hia head. 

"Here is one of the poetical results, verses 
which as yet have never been 'wedded to tjrpe.* 
Neither have they been 'edited.* but are given 
as they left his hand, written in pencil, as every- 
thing he* writes is written : — 

THE BORDERLAND. 

*^From the moorland and the meadows 
To this City of the Shadows, 
Where I wander old and lonely, comes the call I 
understand ; 
In clear, soft tones enthralling. 
It is calling, calling, calling — 
'Tis the Spirit of the Open from the dear old 
Borderland. 

"Ah! that call, who can gainsay itP 
To hear is to obey it; 
I must leave the bustling City to the busy City 
men; 
Leave behind its feverish madness, 
Its scenes of sordid sadness; 
And drink the unpolluted air of Yarrow once 
again ! 

"For the grim, huge City daunts me. 
Its wail of sorrow haunts me — 
A nameless Atom tossed amidst the human surf 
that beats! ^ 

For ever and for ever. 
In a frenzy of endeavour. 
Along the cruel barriers of its never-ending: 
streets ! 

"I shall quit them in the morning— 
Just slip out without a warning, 
Save a hand-clasp to the friend who knows the- 
call that lures me en; 
In the City's clang and clatter 
One old man the less won't matter; 
And no one here will sa/ me nay, or care that 
I am gone. 



"What tho* my wallet's meagre? 
That won't quell my spirit eager — 
Like careless-hearted Goldsmith as he wandered 
by the Po. 
Whichever way I turn me. 
My simple flute will earn me. 
In the kindly Border country, food and shelter' 
as I go. 

"I shall see old Neidpath hoary. 
Scene of dim, romantic story. 
And soon have glimpses through the trees of 
ghostly grey Traquair; 
And in my happy wand'ring 
Adown the Tweed's meand'ring 
Shall note the Peel, and Ashiestiel, and onward' 
to the Yair. 

"By Caddonfoot I'll linger— 
It has charms to stay the singer— 
And from the brIQge a painter's dream of beauty 
then I'll see; 
But I'll leave it there behind me. 
Ere the eveningf shadows find me 
Passing the vines at Clovenfords to ancient Tor- 
woodlee. 



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"Gala water shall not hold me— 
Tho' its mesn'ries fair enfold me— 
Nor many-gabled Abbot»ford, so stately and so 
still ; 
For I'd fain behold the vision 
Of a valley fair, Elysian, 
Ind gaze on Scotland's £den from the Spur of 
Qala Hill. 

''Ah' me ! shall I recapture 
The early joyous rapture 
Which shook my being's pulses when that scene 
first met my eye? 
Steeped in early Border story 
It stretched in radiant glory. 
To where the filmy Cheviots hung along the 
southern sky! 

"Fair Dryburgh and Melrose 
Touched by the Wizard's spell rose, 
^nd Bemersyde, and Leaderfoot, and Elwand's 
Fairy Dene: 
The Tweed serenely gliding, 
Now seeh— now coyly hiding. 
While Eildon raised his triple crest, and sentin- 
elled the scene! 

"The trance— th© dream is over— 
I awake but to discover 
The City's rush— the jostling crowds— the din on 
every hand; 
But, on my ear soft falling, 
I can hear the curlews calling. 
And I know that soon I'll see them in the dear 
old Borderland! 

"And these lines were written by happy Boger 
Quin, tramp, poet, and musician-^and the most 
modest and unassuming of men, to boot— in *a 
lodging for the night' in the vicinity of Glasgow. 
The *op^n-air treatment' bas certainly done Roger 
no harm— he thrives on it every day and every 
night of his life; and if he can discourse on his 
fitite and his concertina as effectively as he dis- 
courses with his pencil, the notes he' produces 
will be well worth hearing." 

The lea^ned and poetical tramp is known to 
not a few in the Borderland, who doubtless wish 
him well. 




The Last of the Border Raids. 

T is generally believed that the Bor- 
der raids terminated with the 
Union of the Crowns, when Scot- 
land and England, after a long end 
rough wooing, were united into one kingdom. 
But even the strenuous efforts of the first 
monarch of the united realms to extinguish the 
hereditary animosity of the two nations and to 
uproot the innate craving in the Borderer for 
thieving were not altogether successful, as 
these propensities were in evidence long after 
the Union of the Crowns and even after that 
of the Parliaments. " Long after the Union 
of the Crowns," says Sir Walter Scott (note to 
" Lay of the Last Minstrel," canto 1, st. 19), 
" the moss-troopers, although sunk in reputa- 
tion, and no longer enjoying the pretext of 



national hostility, continued to pursue their 
calling." 

The last of the Border raids transpired a 
century and a half after the time that it is 
popularly believed these forays ceased. It 
was made by Thomas Shortreed (the father of 
Robert Shortreed, the esteemed Sheriff-Substi- 
tute of Roxburghshire and friend of Sir Walter 
Scott), who, bom in the year 1733, died m 
1798. He was tenant of Lustruther, West- 
shiels, Hyndlees, and Jedheads, and was at 
one time the most extensive farmer in Jed- 
Forest. Like those of many others, however^ 
his affairs became seriously involved in con- 
sequence of the disastrdlis effects on British 
commerce caused by the American War vi 
Independence, and at its close he found hini- 
self upon the verge of ruin. This disaster 
seriously affected his health, and materially 
hastened his end. While he was still a pros- 
perous farmer on the northern slopes of the 
Carter, some English Borderers radde their 
last foray into Scotland and carried off a part 
of Shortreed's forest hirsel. Without troub- 
ling the courts of justice regarding the cir- 
cumstance — which is usually an expensive and 
troublesome procedure — Shortreed took the 
law into his own hands. He adopted the cus- 
toms of our ancestors, I am informed; lie 
crossed over the Border, secured his own, and 
returned triumphantly home with his recov- 
ered property. One might reasonably suspect 
that he would desire to be compensated for his 
trouble, and that like Jamie Telfer of the Fair 
Dodhead's cattle, Shortreed's stock also would 
return with augmented ranks : birt the source 
of our information does not state so, and upon 
that point I must therefore be content to pro- 
serve silence. G. Watson. 



Apropos the recent announcement that the Earl 
of Home has been appointed a Captain of the 
Royal Company of Archers in place of the late 
Sir James Fergusson, it may be recalled that this 
is the oldest society of the kind in the United 
Kingdom. The records of the brotherhood date 
back to 1676, and there is reason to believe that 
it is still more deeply rooted in the past. Dnr* 
ing the eighteenth o^ntnry the Royal Archers were 
not unjustly suspected of Jacobite sympathies. 
For this they won the admiration of Allan Ram- 
say, Dr Pitcairn, and other cavalier poets, who 
celebrated their achievements at the "butts" in 
more or less elegant verse. By the terms of a stat- 
ute granted in 1708, the Archers enjoy the privi- 
lege of presenting three barbed arrows to the Sov- 
ereign when Holyrood is the seat of Court Though 
now rejyarded as little more than a picturesque 
survival of medi»valism, the Royal Company 
claims importance from the fact that its mem- 
bers still constitute the King's Bodyguard for 
Scotland. 



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The Galashiels Centenarian. 

DEATH OF MR JAMES BELL. 

i)ROM time to time it falls to our lot to 
notice the death of aged residents of 
Galashiels, men and women who have 
readied considerably over che allotted 
span of threescore years and ten, and 
to-day we record the death of the most venerable 
of thoin all in tlie person of Mr James Bell, which 
occurred at his residence in Iligh Street on Wed- 
nesday, 4th September, 1907. The Gala centenar- 
ian, as he was popularly called, was in his 103rd 
year, his hundredth birthday having been cele- 
brated two and a half years ago. Up to about a 
year ago, when he met with an accident by falling 
down the stairs of his house, Mr Bell showed re- 
markable vitality, and^^as able to take his daily 
walk in the streets of the town, where his vener- 
flble figure was well known. Although he 




THE LATE MR JAMES BELL. 

made a marvellous recovery from the accident, he 
was never again the same. He was, however, able 
until a short time ago to be out in his garden on 
fine days, but latterly he had been confined to 
bed, and the end came as stated on Wednesday 
night. 

To Earlston belongs the honour of being Mr 
Bell's birthplace, he having been born in that 
little Berwickshire town on the 12th March, 1805. 
His forebears belonged to Earlston, his grand- 
father having died in the Thorn House there. 
Mr Bell's father was a millwright, and when the 
future centenarian was only a year old he re- 
moved to Galashiels. Three years later he re- 
moved to the vicinity of Selkiik, and it was in 
the beautiful and romantic Yarrow district that 
James Bell's boyhood was spent. He lived for 
some years at Broadmeadows, and all the school- 
ing he received was pot at the school on the Duke 
of Buccleuch's Bowhill estate. He appears to have 
been an exemplary pupil, as even after he haJ 



reached his hundredth year he was wont to speak 
with pride of a prize gifted by one of tlie Buc- 
olonch ladies and " awarded to James Bell for 
jfood conduct." At the age of fifteen he was, on 
the recommendation of an " auld Waterloo man," 
engaged to attend three horses at the farm of 
Tinnis, further up the Yarrow valley, and irt 
this situation he remained for a year and a half. 
In 1821 he came to Galashiels to learn the 
tailoring trade, and in Galashiels he passed the 
remainder of his long life. After working for a 
while. as a journeyman tailor he started business 
on his own account, and this he carried on for 
the long period of fifty-five years in one house — 
that in which he died. 

Mr Bell possessed a very retentive memory, and, 
like many aged people, he remembered best the 
things furthest back. A talk with him was at all 
times interesting. The Selkirk of his boyhood 
days he described as "the dullest, deidest place" 
that could be imagined. The fame of Yarrow had 
not at that time gone forth to all the earth, and 
visitors to the valley were few and far between. 
There was only one gig in the whole valley, and 
this belonged to Captain Ballantyne, Bell's master 
at Tinnis, who was an officer in the Yeomanry. 
Travelling in those days was accomplished mostly 
on horseback, and walking was an accomplish- 
ment which was indulged in to an extent un- 
dreamt of nowadays. When a boy he frequently 
walked from Selkirk to Edinburgh, and once when 
only thirteen years of age he was in the month of 
January dispatched to Edinburgh by his employer 
with a parcel which had missed the coach. The 
journey of thirty-five miles each way was thought 
little of in those days. He had also assist'ed to 
drive cattle to the capital. 

One of his most interesting recollections in re- 
gard to his early life was in connection with the 
great Carterhaugh handba' contest in 1815, in 
which James Hogg, the "Ettrick Shepherd," took 
part, and at which Sir Walter Scott, then Sheriff 
of Selkirkshire, was present. Young Bell, then 
but a boy, was along with the party who prepared 
the ground for the famous struggle. When speak- 
ing of the tournament Mr Bell was wont to say — 
"It was an awfu' gatherings-men o' the Merse, 
the Souters o' Selkirk, the Teries o' Hawick, the 
lads o' Gala, the Kelsonians and Eers, an' men 
frae a' pairts of the Borders were there." 

Mr Bell had also memories of having seen Sir 
Walter Soott at other times and at other func- 
tions, one of these being the layi&g of the founda- 
tion stone of the bridge over the Tweed midway 
between Galashieb and Selkirk in 1831. "Aw 
mind fine o' seeing Scott," he would say, "when 
aw was a boy aboot Selkirk," and then he ^ould 
add, with a quiet laugh, "he wasna thocht sae 
muckle o' at that time." Hogg he had also seen 
on several occasions, and had held his stirrups for 
him when he mounted his horse. 

When Mr Bell came to Galashiels eighty-six 
years ago it was little more than a village. A 
print of the time terms it "an industrious vil- 
lage." The population in 1825 was only 1600. The 
houses were all unpretentious-looking single storey 
structures, with thatched roofs. Now there is 
not a single thatched roof in the town. There 
were no carriages; there was neither jail nor 
policeman. There were "eight mills on the dam," 
but these were all small affairs and differed vastly 



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from the large concerns with which the town is 
now identified. Factory workers' wages were only 
about £2 a month. According to Mr Bell, one set of 
machines was allotted in weekly turns to four 
masters for the making of their "sowans." Even 
at that early stage of the town's development, 
however, the "Galashiels Grey" had attained a 
much more than loc§l name. Weaving was car- 
ried on to a considerable extent in the dwellings 
of the people, the looms usually being fitted up 
in one end of the house. There were only a few 
houses on the north side of the Gala, and the 
road to Melrose crossed the stream by a ford at 
Langhaugh. The post from Melrose was con- 
vened to Clovenfords to meet the mail coach 
there, the Galashiels letters being picked up en 
route. With the opening of the road between 
Galashiels and Selkirk, however, Galashiels was 
brought into more direct contact with the capital, 
and this enabled the mail-coach to travel by Gala- 
shiels from Selkirk instead of going by Cloven- 
fords. It passed through night and morning, 
carrying four inside passengers. A four-horse 
coach also ran between Newcastle and Edinburgh, 
and on this the journey to the capital could be 
made from Galashiels at the sum of six shillings. 
A letter to Edinburgh cost sevenpence. The first 
letter-carrier was appointed in 1833. Previous to 
this the addressees of letters which reached the 
town received their correspondence the first time 
they called at the grocer's shop which did duty as 
a post office, or if they happened to be intimately 
acquainted with the postmaster, that worthy might 
slip the letter into his pocket and take it to its 
owner in the evening or the next day. 

Mr Bell had also many interesting recollections 
of the social life of the town eighty years ago. As 
a journeyman tailor he was working in 1826 for 
one shilling a day with his meat and bed. White 
bread was seldom seen, and the living*was frugal 
compared with what it is nowadays in the poorest 
working-class house. During two years that he 
worked in one place where his meat and bed was 
supplied he never saw white bread. Until he 
had reached the age of twenty-two he had not 
tasted tea ; porridge and milk for breakfast, broth 
and beef for dinner, and potatoes for supper form- 
ed the staple diet of the working people. 

The deceased had many other interesting rem- 
iniscences of the rise and progress of the town 
and its industry, also the the introduction of rail- 
ways, and the local celebrations of British victor- 
ies on the field of battle, such as Waterloo, &c. 

Mr Bell, it need hardly be said, possessed a very 
strong constitution. Whether this was due to the 
simpleness of his diet in early life we do not 
aver, but the old man, drawing his own deduc- 
tions, was wont to say, "There were fewer doc- 
tor's bills to be met in ma young days." Even 
after he was ninety years of age he boasted that 
he could walk from Galashiels to Selkirk and 
back on one day — no mean feat for a man of his 
age. He carried his years well, oven after he had 
passed the three figures. In his latter years, how- 
ever, he felt "lonesome," as all his compeers 
had passed into the unseen, and there was some- 
thing pathetic about his oft-repeated expression, 
"I juist move aboot in a warld o' my ain." Mr 
Bell came of a long-lived family. His grandfather 
died at 85, his father at 81, one sister reached her 
88th year» and another sister and brother both 



lived ten years and more over the allotted span. 
His descendants numbered three sons, two daugh- 
ters, nineteen grandchildren, twenty-six great- 
grandchildren, and one great-great-grandchild. It 
will be remembered that a copy of a photo of 
Mr Bell with his great-great-grandchild on his 
knee, which was taken by Mr Clapperton, photo- 
grapher, Galashiels, about a year ago, was pre- 
sented to the King, and graciously accepted by 
His Majesty. A copy of it appeared in the 
" Telegraph " at the time. 

Mr Bell in early life was an active member of 
the Baptist body in Galashiels, but afterwards 
identified himself with the Christadelphian sect, 
in whose work he took a deep interest. — Bobdbb 
Tblbobaph. 



Queen Bess and the Border Chief. 

A BoBDEB Ballad. 

'Twas in the days of " good Queen Bess," 

Four hundred years ago. 
The Border chiefs were aye at war. 

Each with his mortal foe. 

The English they have ta'en a man. 

Who served the bold Buccleuoh, 
And in the Castle of Carlisle 

Kept him in prison, too. 

Buccleuch has pleaded all in vain 

With England's haughty Queen; 
And James of Scotland will not try 

The prisoner to redeem. 

So Walter Scott, laird of Buccleuch, 

Has had a midnight ride, 
And o'er the Border to Carlisle, 

Where his man still did bide. 

They stormed the Castle not in vain. 

The prisoner brought away; 
And happy men they have returned. 

Just at the break of day ! 

But James soon sent the Border chief 

To answer for his deed. 
And to be punished by Queen Bess, 

As English laws decreed. 

He stands before the English Queen, 

With anger on her brow; 
"You dared to storm my Castle, sir. 

What can you answer now?" 

The courtiers trembled, for they feared 

A prison was his lot, 
A dungeon — where he soon would die. 

His bravery forgot! 

Buccleuch, he showed no sign of fear 

Upon his manly face; 
"What is there that a man won't dare, 

Madam, that's no disgrace?" 

But strange, his answer 'seemed to please. 

And fall in with her view; 
The Queen of England looked on him 

With admiration, too! 

She frowned, she smiled, and then she laughed. 

And bade the chief " Go free," 
"For one who dares so much," she said, 

"Deserves his liberty." 

EusAHgn M. MacIhhib. 



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The Late Mr Walter Gbulnlock, J. P. 

lY the death of Mr Walter Grouinlock, 
J.P., Traquair Knowe, Innerleithen, 
which occurred on Sunday, 25th Au- 
gust, 1907, the valley of the Tweed 
has been deprived of a typical Border farmer 
who held a warm place in the hearts ol all 
who knew him. His circle of friends and ao- 
quaintances was large, as he was well known 
and much respected in the various markets he 
attended. Mr Gouinlock was born at Ashkirk, 
Boxburghshire, in 1865, and was educated at 
the Grammar School, Selkirk. His father, the 
late John Gouinlock, came to Traquair Knowe 
in 1869, and the farm has in a large measure 
been managed by Mr Walter during the paat 
twenty years. The fann is a dairy, arable, and 
stock one, and Mr Gouinlock was also a dealer 
in cattle. * Ti'aquair Knowe is celebrated in 




THE LATE MR WALTER GOUINLOCK. 

literature by the fact that one of Mr Gouin- 
lock's predecessors in the farm was the gentle 
Willie Laidlaw, the friend and amanuensis of 
Sir Walter Soott. Deceased took a great in- 
terest in Parish Council work, and was for a 
long time a member of the School Beard. He 
was a deacon of St John's U.F. Church, Inner- 
leithen, and took a ^reat interest in all the 
affairs of the church. He was known as a gen- 
erous friend, and his death will be felt by many 
who in tinies of stress and trouble always found 
a true friend in him. A gentleman in a letter 
to the bereaved family said of him: — 



" He was the poor man's friend. 
And the rich man's guide." 

Mr Gouinlock took a prominent part in poli- 
tics, and helped greatly at the elections in 
support of the Unionist cause. He leaves a 
widow and one daughter; an only son died a 
few years ago. Thus there is no representative 
of this old family in the male line to succeed 
him. Great sympathy is felt for the members 
of his family, one of the oldest and most high- 
ly respected in the locality. Deceased was 52 
years of age. 



The Border Bookcase. 

COLDINGHAM PARISH AND PRIORY. 

. Those who are aware of the historical and anti- 
quarian importance of Coldingham will be pleased 
to learn that there is in the press a most im- 
portant work on the subject. The author is Mr 
A. Thomson, F.S.A. (Scot.), whose "Lauder and 
Lauderdale" gave him a high place among our 
Border historians and archeeologists. The present 
work will consist of 450 quarto pages, and con- 
tain over 40 illustrations — maps, plans, &c. As 
we hope to refer to the volume more fully when 
it is issued from the press, we content ourselves 
at present by quoting the author's note : — 

**Thi§ work which, by express permission, is 
dedicated to the Right Hon. The Earl of Home, 
K.T., &c., &c., whose ancestors have held high 
place for centuries in the ancient and famous 
halidom of Coldingham, is the result of laborious 
investigation and study. It claims to be much 
more exhaustive than any previous history of the 
parish and priory — not excepting Carr's excellent 
book written in the beginning of last century. 
The 'Historical MSS. Commission Reports' have 
been carefully examined; the Parish 'Records' 
throw considerable light on the manners of the 
people, especially in the end of the seventeenth 
century; and valuable information as to writs, 
inventories, &c., from private sources appears for 
the first time. Several gentlemen have inter- 
ested themselves in the issue of this work, and 
the numerous not'is contributed by Mr C. S. 
Romanes, C.A., and others, are of much historic 
value. The information regarding ownership of 
lands has been compiled either from the titles or 
the 'Sasine Registers,* and references are noted. 
Coats-of-arms, genealogical trees, &c., have been 
prepared by means of careful research, and un- 
nece8.sary detail has been avoided. Chanter IX. 
contains a full account of the lives ancT labours 
of the Priors of Coldingham, so far as njay be 
obtained from Raine's Charters, ' Surtees Society 
Publications,' &c. No ■ such complete history of 
this * old roligious house ' has hitherto b^en pub- 
lished." 



When going to press we have received a finely- 
bound volume of poems by Mr John Inglis. Haw- 
ick, and the souvenir of the Ter-Jubilee celebra- 
tions of the Boston U.F. Church, Jedburgh, both 
of which publications we hope to refer to more 
fully in onr next issue. 



Printed and Pablished by A. Walker Jt Son, QaUshiels. 



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SUPPLEMENT to the "BORDER MAGAZINE," Vol. XII, No. 143. 




MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS. 



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QUEEN HARY'S HOUSE, JEDBURGH. 

PART I. 




COlliAND'S ilUtarred Queeen is reputed 
to have been in so many parts of the 
country and lodged in so many castles 
and mansions that it would seem as if 
she had kept up a continual itinerary 
throughout her rather unsettled domains. Some 
of the claims to her presence are rather doubtful, 
but her visits to Peebles, Traquair, and Jedburgh 
cannot come under that category, as there is 
abundant historical evidence on the subject. The 
well-known Queen Mary's House in Jedburgh is 
for sale at present, and offers are being invited 
for some valuable tapestry which has been re- 
moved from the house for the purpose of being 
sold. Offers are to be sent to Mr Charles S. 
Romanes, C.A., Edinburgh, trustee on the seques- 
trated estate of Mr Alexander Scott, ladies' tailor 
and habit-maker, Jedburgh and London. The tap- 
estry consists of an old panel of the fifteenth or 
sixteenth century, 15 feet by 6 feet, representing 
the meeting of Jacob and Esau, removed from the 
Jedburgh house, and believed to have been her 
property. There is also another old panel of the 
same period, 11 feet by 11 feet, representing Jacob 
being wakened by Laban, which is also in the 
market. Mr Romanes has prepared a historical 
statement on the house and tapestry, which 
contains so much matter of interest to feorderers 
that we quote it entire, having received his per- 
mission to do so. 

Mr Scott purchased Queen Mary's house and grounds, 
Jedburgh, from Colonel Armstrong, a Rujwian gentle- 
man, son of General Armstrong. Master of the Mint, 
St Petersburg, who had left Jedburgh more than 100 



years ago, and whose ancestors had been the owners of 
Queen Mary's house. The house had once been oc- 
cupied by Dr lindsay, father of Bums' '* Sweet Isa- 
bella Lindsay,'* mother of General Armstrong. 

In 1882 Mr T. S. Smail, of Jedburgh, wrote thus of the 
house : — 

" A kind of old Hobgoblin Hall, 
Now somewhat fallen to decay, ^ 

With weather-stains upon the wall. 
And stairways worn, and crazy doors, 
And creaking and uneven floors. 
And chimneys huge, and thatch'd and tall." 

" Next in importaiice to the Abbey, as regards hia 
torical interest, we must place the old and antique 
dwelling-house in which the ill-fated Queen Mary 
lodged for some time while holding courts of justice here 
in 1566. The house is situated in a back street, exactly 
opposite Smith's Wynd, and is at present occupied by 
Mr Mounsoy, rector of the Grammar School. The 
house is three storeys in height, and is roofed with 
thateh. The walls are very thick, and a spiral stone 
staircase leads to the different apartments. In front ia 
seen an arched doorway, now built up, surmounted by 
a cross and arms. On the dexter side are the combined 
arms of AVigmore of that Ilk, motto--" Avis la fin " ; 
and on the other are those of Scott of Thirlston, Buc- 
cleuch, or Hownaisly, not Harden, motto —" Solum deo 
confido." Attached to the house is a large and valuable 
orchard, in which are several very old fruit trees. 
•* With its screen of dull trees in front," says Dr R. 
Chambers, the author of the '* Picture of Scotland," 
the ** house has a somewhat lugubrious appearance, as 



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if conscious of connection with the most melancholy 
tale that ever occupied the pago of history." 

Besides this building and garden, Mr Scott acquired 
a miscellaneous lot of articles, including a piece of 
tapestry which seems to be of Flemish manufacture 
of the sixteenth century. 

After careful enquiry, the trustee is of opinion that 
the tapestry is genuine, and appears to have been 
Queen Mary's property when residing in the house. 
For very many years the tapestry has been exhibited to 
visitors. The lower edge has been injured by pieces 
being cut off as mementos of their visits, but this 
border can be easily repaired by a purchaser. 

That Queen Mary resided in this house in Jedburgh 
for several weeks during the year 1566 is unquestionable. 
• Miss Strickland in her Life of Queen Mary thus 
writes of the house and tapestry : — 

" Forty pounds were paid by Queen Mary to the Lady 
of Famyhurst for the use of the house she occupied 
during the thii-ty days she remained at Jedburgh. It 
isstill habitable, and is a square turreted house, strongly 
built, but roofed with thatch. It has a fine spiral 
stone staircase, which ascends to a small apartment in 
the turret, said to be that where she slept. The spacious 
suite of apartments on the opposite side of the stair- 
case, one of which still bears the name of the guard- 
room, is more likely to have been occupied by royalty 
as ante-room, privy chamber, and bedroom. The only 
relic of Mary's abode is a large piece of ancient tapestry 
hangings, representing the meeting between Jacob and 
Esau. It is soiled and faded, but the figures are well 
delineated, and the colours have been very fine, royal 
blue being the prevailing tint of the garments of the 
principal figures. Rachel holds her little son Joseph by 
the hand, while the brothers are embracing. The 
border which surrounds the tableau is very rich. The 
garden-ground behind the house extends to the banks 
of the river Jed, close to the old, picturesque bridge. 
The site of this ancient abode gained its present name 
of Queen Street in memory of Mary's temporary rasid- 
enco. That Her Majesty was occasionally soothed 
with music during her sickness appears from the re- 
ward of forty shillings being accorded to John Hume, 
player on the lute, and four pounds to John Heron, 
player on the pipe and quhissil. The sum of three 
pounds thirteen shillineis was disbursed by the keeper uf 
her priry piirse * for drugs, twenty apples and pome- 
granate?', and six citrons brought forth of Edinburgh to 
Jedburgh to the Quewn's Grace, Her Majesty being 
sick at the time.' " (1) 

In the address of John B. Boyd, Esq., of Cherry trees, 
to the members of the Berwickshire Naturalists* Club 
on 26th September, 1862 (2), is found the following 
statement :— -" The first field meeting of the year 1861 
was held at Jedburgh, on the 22nd day of May. This 
being the first visit of the Club to this old and interesting 
Border town, the meeting was well attended. An able 
paper on Jedburgh was read by Mr A. Jeffrey, F.S.A., 
author of the * History of Roxburghshire.' The party 
then proceeded to an old house in Backgate, which, 
through the courtesy of Mis.<» Armstrong, they were 
permitted to examine. It is a quaint relic of the 
fifteenth century, and is especially interesting as having 
afforded an hospital to the unfortunate Queen Mary 

(1) Strickland's Life of Queen Mary, Vol. L, p. 346. 

(2) Berwickshire Naturalists' Club Transact ionfs. 
Vol. IV., p. 3g7a 



after her visit to Hermitage Castle. The little bedroom 
occupied by her during an illness of six weeks was seen, 
but a well-worn piece of tapestry laid on the fioor is all 
that remains of the furniture which was in the room 
when she was there." 

The late Queen Victoria visited Jedburgh on 23rd 
Aljgust, 1867, and thus records her visit to Queen 
Mary's house in " More Leaves from the Journal of a 
Life in the Highlands " : — 

" The Duche«»s (of Roxburgh) pointed out to me a 
house up a side street in the town where Queen Mary 
had lived, and been ilTwith fever." 

I makf) the following quotation from a learned article 
by Mr Alexander JeSrej, the historian of Roxburgh- 
shire, written in 1862. (1) The authorities for his 
statement? are found in my o¥m Darrative. " The 
burgh was the residence of Que«i Mary in 1566, where 
she held a Justice Court and assembled a Parliament. 
While Mary resided here, she occupied a hoase in the 
Backgate. The room in which tradition .says she slept 
is on the third fioor of the back part of the house looking 
into a garden. Some old tapestry which, it is said, 
covered the walls of the room at the time, is still ex- 
hibited. While in this house, Damley visited her after 
she became convalescent, and remained one m'ght in 
the town. The Queen was attended by a number of 
the principal men of the kingdom and by Secretary 
Cecil of England. On leaving, she was escorted to 
Kelso (where she held a Court) by a thousand of the 
Border chivalry." 

Again Mr James Tate, writing on the famous Jed- 
burgh Pears, says (2) :— " The town itself has many 
features of curious interest. It has the ruins of an 
abbey, in which lived in other days a colony of monks, 
and some of the Jethart pear trees are heUeved to have 
stood from a period before the Reformation. It had 
a strong castle at the highest part of the town, and some 
of the old mansions were in the form of bastile houses, 
the defen-^ive character being requisite as a protection 
against the English invaders. The most interesting 
specimen of these houses'now remaining is one in which 
Queen Mary lay sick for some time after her ride of 
fifty mil&s over moor and moss to visit Bothwell at 
Hermitage Ca.«?tle when he had been wounded by the 
banditti of Liddosdale." 

The Rev. James Farquharson, M.A., Selkirk, address- 
ing the same Society on 11th October 1882 (3), said ; 
" Queen Mary's house, with its chambers so narrow 
and comfortless, and, to our modern eyes, so unworthy 
of royalty, and with its tapestry said to have been 
worked by her court ladies while they waited for the 
recovery of their Sovereign from the fever, brought 
on by her rapid ride to visit Bothwell %t|Hermitage 
Castle, received a brief visit." 

Mr Walter Laidlaw, F.S.A., Scot., writing upon the 
armorial bearings and inscriptions of the town of 
Jedburgh (4), says : " The armorial bearings of Qneen 
Mary's house are on the front, above an arched doorway 
now built up. The arms are those of ' Wigmore ' 
impaling * Scott ' as wife's arms. Mr Burnett (Lyon 
King at Arms) made investigation, and found that a 
considerable burgess family of that name flourished in 
Edinburgh in the fourteenth century." 

(1) Berwickshire Nat. Club Trans., Vol. IV., p. 344 

(2) Do, Do. Vol. VIL, p. 193* 

(3) Do. Do. Vol. X, p. 43< 

(4) i Do. Do. Vol. XI., p. 141 



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Again, in 1898 (1), Colonel Milne Home of Wedder- house where Sir David Brewster was bom and whe^e 
bum, the President of the Club for that year, reports Bums once lodged While he received the freedbm of 
that on 28th July the members, after visiting various the city, and another where Wordsworth and his sister 




QUEEN MARY S HOUSE, JEDBURGH. 

points of historical interest in Jedburgh, including the Dorothy lodged on their tour in 1803, and where Sir 

Walter Scott visited them and read to them a part of 

(1) Berwickshire Nat. Club Trans.. Vol. XVI., p. 257 the " Lay of the Last Minstrel," and, in particular, one 



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known as Queen Mary's House, where her Scottish 
Majesty had resided sixlor seven weeks, during which 
period she was ill of a fever contracted after a ride of 
sixty miles or more across the hills to and from Hermit- 
age Castle, where she visited Bothwell. 
" The bed which was occupied by Queen Mary when 
residing in the house was removed many years ago. and 
presented to Sir Walter Scott. li is now at Abbotsford. 

To he Continued, 



Border Notes and Queries. 

"SOUR PLUMS IN GALASHIELS." 
A feature of the proceedlTigs at the annual din- 
ner of the Galashiels Manufacturers' Corporation 
on 10th October was the playing of " Sour Plums in 
Galashiels" to the toast of "The Town Council." 
The original words were written about 1360, and 
have been lost; but the tune, composed about 1700 
by the Laird of Gala's piper, remains, and this 
was the first time it had been heard at the Cor- 
poration's dinner since the days of Sir Walter 
Scott. 

The journal kept by Alexander Campoell, the 
editor of " Albyu's Anthology," when on a Border 
tour in 1816 for the purpose of collecting local 
tunes, contains notes on the best Border pipers of 
the eighteenth century taken down from the con- 
versation of Mr Thomas Scott (the uncle of Sir 
Walter Scott), who was himself a skilful per- 
former on the Lowland or bellows pipe. One of 
those was Donald McLean, of Galashiels, " a, capi- 
tal piper, and the only one who could play on the 
pipe the old popular tune of 'Sour Plums in Gala- 
shiels,' it requiring a peculiar art of punching the 
backbone of the chanter with the thumb to pro- 
duce the higher notes of the melody." Lockhart 
states that Thomas Scott, when on his death-bed, 
had "a favourite tune played over to him by his 
son James, that he might be sure he left him in 
full possession of it. After hearing it, he hum- 
med it over himself and corrected it in several 
of the notes. The air was called ' Sour Plums in 
Galashiels.' " 

[The above, which is quoted from "Glasgow 
Herald," 11th October, 1907, raises several points 
which might well be dealt with in this column. 
The date of the original verses is disputed by 
some, and any evidence for or against will be 
welcomed in this column. Now that Galashiels is 
waking up in the matter of local patriotism and 
has established what, let us hope, will }>e an 
annual celebration of the incident which gave rise 
to the Burgh Arms, it is well that all the avail- 
able information should be gathered together. Al- 
though the original words of the ballad ^re said 
to be lost, it is not impossible that a few frag- 
mentary lines may be hidden somewhere. This is 
the day when the literary past is forced to give up 
its dead, and we are fast fiiding that no discovery 
is impossible. The subject of the Border pipers 
might also be dealt with here^ and much valuable 
information elicited. We invite our readers to 
send us short pointed not«s on these and other 
Border subjects.— Editor "B. M."] 



The Border Book Case. 

BORDERLAND AND OTHER POEMS. 

Bearing this attractive title a volume from the 
pen of Mr John Inglis, whose verses are well 
known to many of our readers, has been issued 
by the well-known Hawick firm, Messrs W. & J. 
Kennedy. The volume is beautifully printed and 
bound, and is a credit to the printers, Messrs 
Vair & M'Nairn, Hawick. The whole production 
is well w^orthy of the Borders, and we are not 
surprised to learn that the edition has been nearly 
bought up. Mr Inglis begins his volume with a 
poem entitled "Borderland," and all through the 
book we have Border touches, which prove that 
the author's heart is in the right place. In tht 
long poem entitled "A Border Raid" there xb 
much dramatic power, and the lines go with a 
swing which is admirably suited to the subject. 
Mr Inglis is a patriotic Scot, but Hawick, of 
course, draws forth his most enthusiastic strains. 
Who that has sung or heard sung his "Hawick 
among the hills" will not feel grateful for that 
stirring song. The admirable introduction 'is 
from the pen of Mr R. S. Craig, M.A., LL.B., and 
we have pleasure in quoting one or two para- 
graphs : — 

" In a quaint if not very skilful ode published in 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Rev. 
Mr Cunningham, then parish minister of Hawick, 
refers to Hawick as that 

* Which for famed poets subject matter yields.' 
We need not press too heavily on the rev. gentle- 
man for the adjective he has thought fit to attach 
to the ' poets,' since, good, bad, or indifferent, their 
works have vanished from our ken, and in all 
probability have perished. Apparently there ex- 
isted about 1710 a body of local verse which, if 
now extant, would have linked us on to the bal- 
lads and the era of pre-Reformation Scotland, 
from which ^e are now separated as by a gulf. 
From Mr Cunningham's own time onwards till 
now, there has been a steady and continuous, if 
now and then an attenuated, stream of verse with 
Hawick, Teviot, and Border modern life as its in- 
spiration. It is humble verse, and pretends to be no- 
thing else. It is not too highly polished ; indeed, could 
not be, to be the thing it is. The thoughts, emo- 
tions, and affections it seeks to express are those 
of the workers and toilers of the Border town, the 
shepherds and artisans engaged in daily toil there, 
and it reflects as in a mirror the minds of the 
more thoughtful and religious among these — ^the 
thoughts in them which fly to verse for expres- 
sion, their prejudices even, all that is character- 
istic of the Border mind." 



" Verse such as this of Mr Inglis is int«aded for 
the class to which the author himself belongs. 
Sometimes, as in the best effort to be found in the 
following pages— ' Hawick among the Hills' — he 
actually voices the local feeling in the widest 
sense : his townsmen's love of their town, their 
pride in and gratitude for its beautiful surround- 
ings, rising or falling perhaps now and then 
into the ' boastfulness ' discerned by its sister 
burghs. The author has been gratified by the 
general recognition of this fact, and the verses 
are among the most popular of the songs of the 
people." 



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SCOTLAND FOR THE BAIRNS. 

The training: and educating of the youth of our 
land along the lines of true patriotism has not 
received the attention which is warranted by the 
far-reaching importance of the subject. Evidences, 
however, are continually increasing that this re- 
grettable state of affairs is about to be put right. 
The false and misleading so-called histories of 
Scotland are being banished from the schools, and 
our children are now having a chance of learning 
the wonderful story of our native land, and dis- 
covering the- fact that Scotland is still a nation. 
Messrs A. & C. Black, the famous publishers, who 
were also the pioneers in the production of beau- 
tiful colour books, published at a price to suit 
ordinary purses, have done a great service to the 
young generation by the production of "Peeps at 
Many Lands" series. All their books of the ser- 
ies, so far as issued, are admirable, and we envy 
the young folks who will receive their information 
in such an attractive form. The volumes are 
neatly bound, and each contains twelve fine pic- 
tures in colours, while the type is clearly printed 
on strong paper. As the price of each book is only 
1/6, most adult readers will exclaim, "How can 
it be done at the money ?^' The volume dealing 
with Scotland is written by Miss Qrierson, who 
has the rare faculty of being able to write down to 
children without being childish. We should like 
to see this book in every Scottish home, and — to 
correct popular errors — ^in every English home 
also. A popular evening paper thus refers to the 
volume : — 

" In their ' Peeps at Many Lands ' series Messrs 
A. & C. Black are making the study of history 
and geography as interesting as a fairy tale. What 
boy could turn away from the Volume on Scot- 
land after catching sight of the gallant Scots Grey 
soldier.? Miss Elizabeth Grierson has written the 
volume on Scotland, and in the twenty chapters 
on different subjects she has woven in a great mass 
of information, only to be ordinarily garnered as 
the result of a long and extensive course of read- 
ing and observation. It is a book calculated to 
make the rising generation take a truly intelligent 
pride in their native land by filling in the numer- 
ous blanks due to the conciseness and general char- 
acter of the school history manual. Although 
primarily intended for children, to lure them into 
learning much about their own and other lands 
through sheer love of reading, older readers will 
also find great delight in them. The twelve full- 
page coloured illustrations, in each have been 
painted by well-known artists. Mr J. Young Hun- 
ter, son of the late Colin Hunter, is responsible 
for several of the pictures in the ' Scotland ' vol- 
ume." 

"SCOTIA." 

The Lammas issue of this admirable 1/ quar- 
terly is now before us, and we have pleasure in 
recommending it to our readers. The varied ar- 
ticles deal with subjects which are of great in- 
terest to every true Scot, while the illustrations 
are above the average, even in these days of fine 
reproductions. One of these is a speaking likeness 
of the late Rev. David Macrae, the accompanying 
article being from the pen of Mr David M'Ritchie, 
F.S.A. (Scot.), president of the St Andrew Society. 
"Sir Walter Scott as a Patriot" is an important 
contribution, and shows how strongly that li^reat 
Borderer felt on the violations of the Treaty of 



Union by our southern neighbours. The unfortun- 
ate thing is that they are still at it, but the 
country is even more alive to this matter than it 
was in Sir Walter's day. The Borders is one of 
the most patriotic portions of Scotland, and bei»ce 
we have no hesitation in recommending "Scotia" 
to our readers. 

MAPS OP THE BORDERLAND. 

There are some people in existence who cannot 
understand a map, but they are rapidly becoming 
few in ni|mber, and the desire for good reliable 
maps of the country is daily increasing. Time, 
was when we had to be satisfied with outline mapfi- 
which gave only the outstanding features and high- 
ways of the country, leaving all the byways -^nd 
small details unnoticed. Roads, when marked, 
were all represented as on a dead level, and there- 
fore measurement of distance was anything but a 
safe guide as to the time any projected journey 
would take. All this has been altered, however, 
and map-makers and publishers vie with ebvh 
other in supplying as many details as po8<iible. 
Foremost among map publishers is the famous 
Scottish house of W. & A. K. Johnston, Edin- 
burgh, whose maps, atlases, Ac, have a world- 
wide reputation. At present Messrs Johnston are 
issuing a very fine map of Scotland, of which the 
three sections dealing with the Borderland lie 
before us. The printing is beautifully executed, 
and the details are given with remarkable dis- 
tinctness. The map of Scotland comprises sixteen 
sheets, each measuring 18 by 23 inches, each sheet 
being sold separately at 1/ or mounted on cloth 
and in case 1/6, while the whole can be had as an 
atlas at various prices. 

The geographical features are shown in three 
different colours— the black shows all the names 
of places, estates, antiquities, and objects of in- 
terest to tourists, also outline of roads and rail- 
ways; the blue shows all the rivers and canals 
with their names, county boundaries, and steamer 
routes ; and the brown shows all the names of hills 
and glens, the contours for every 500 feet, and the 
heights above sea-level, the main roads are also 
filled in in this colour, making them prominent 
for cyclists. The counties are distinguished by 
different colours in the usual manner, and all 
water is coloured blue. 

TlvB same firm publish admirable Motoring and 
Cycling Maps under the name of the World-Wide 
series. The map embracing the Lothians and the 
Borderland can be had for 1/, and should be in 
the hands of every Borderer, even though he is 
not a motorist or cyclist— the minuteness of the 
details of every part of the country being in* 
tensely interesting. 



Bopdep Books— L SatchellS. 



£^ 



bEW books possess more interest, especially 
to those who are connected with the 
Borderland, than Captain Walter Scot of 
Satchell's "True History of* Several 
Honourable Families of the Right Hon- 
ourable Name of Scot." The first or original edi- 
tion was printed at Edinburgh in 1688. It con- 
sisted of 240 copies, small quarto. The second edi- 
tion was published by Balfour & Smellie, Edin- 



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burgh, in 1776. It was qnarto size. The third 
edition was printed by George Caw, at Hawick, 
in 1786. It was a small octavo, and is much scarcer 
than even the first edition. The fourth edition, 
which consisted of only fifty copies small quarto, 
was printed for private circulation by the Scot- 
tish Literary Club in 1892. The fifth edition was 
published by Messrs W. & J. Kennedy, Hawick, 
in 1894. It consisted of 240 copies only. There is 
prefixed to this edition fifteen pages of an explan- 
«itory introduction by J. Q. Winning, Esq., Branx- 
iiolme Knowe, Hawick, whose erudition, ability, 
:and learning enhance the interest which attaches 
^to the "True History." Captain Walter Scot, of 
-Satchells, wa^ born in the year 1613. Robert 
Scot, of Satchells, his father, though a gentleman 
by parentage and descent, was yet in such strait- 
ened circumstances as to be unable to pay for the 
education of his children. Walter Scot, the auth- 
or of the "True History," "never was an hour at 
school." Before he was fourteen year» of age he 
was put "to attend beasts in the field." When 
not sixteen years old, he left what doubtlessly 
seemed to him to be an ignoble occupation, name- 
ly, that of herding cattle, and, without telling his 
father or his friends, "joined the following of 
Walter, first Earl of Biiccleuch. Satchells, as 
Captain Scot is more often called, went with the 
Earl of Buccleuch's regiment to Holland in 1629. 
He must have borne himself well in many a fray, 
on which account it is probable he would, by suc- 
cessive steps, ultimately gain the rank of captaim. 
His retirement from active service took place in 
1686, and it was when living on his estate of Satch- 
ells, in the Barony of Lilliesleaf and shire of Rox- 
burgh, that he composed the "True History," 
which' he otherwise called "Wats Bellanden," and 
the other addition to it, to which he gave the title 
of "Satchels's Post'ral." According to his own 
account, he served as a soldier at home and 
abroad for fifty-seven years. The date -f his death 
is not known. It is hardly possible to describe 
properly the work of Captain Walter Scot of 
Satchells. John Gibson Lockhart refers in his 
'TLife of Sir Walter Scott" to the influence which 
"the rude but enthusiastic clan-po*try of old 
Satchells" had on the mind of Sir Walter Scott. 
"Clan-poetry" is a very kindly and graceful way 
of speaking of the "True History." Mr Winning, 
in his remarks on Satchells, seems to feel how 
difficult it is to accord to him the status of a poet ; 
'for, in truth, were any person to present us now 
wit