(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Boston Symphony Orchestra concert programs, Season 54,1934-1935, Trip"

■■.',, - 






•ww«#^ 



>* 



??■ 




w 



fcw 



•>* £ 5 



>«&< 






r« » *: 



iSK 






*»»• 









s^ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Symphony Orchestra, National Endowment for the Humanities 



http://archive.org/details/bostonsymphonyo193435bost 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H 


[. resnikoff, v. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


tapley, r. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEI RAN C, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


AVERNER, h. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




EEMAIRE, J. 


LUDWIG, O. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, r. 


AMERENA, P, 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. El? Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra -Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


piller, b. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


mager, g. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD 


, w. 


LANNOYE, m. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


w. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLIBACK, w. 


GEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANX, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, e. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



Carnegie Hall • Jleto gorfe 

Forty-ninth Season in New York 
FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INCORPORATED 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
RICHARD BURGIN, Assistant Conductor 

Concert Bulletins of the 
First Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, November 15, at 8:45 

AND THE 

First Matinee 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, November 17, at 2:30 

with historial and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1934, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, IilC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Edward A. Taft 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 



BraHlKa 




MOZAHT'S Overture to "The Marriage of Figaro" will 
be played as the first number on this programme. 



Carnegie J^all • Jleto Horfe 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIRST EVENING CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, November 15, at 8:40 o'clock 



Programme 

Beethoven ...... Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, 

Op. 55, " Eroica " 

I. ALLEGRO CON BRIO 
II. MARCIA FUNEBRE; ADAGIO ASS A I 

in. scherzo: allegro vivace; trio 
iv. finale: allegro molto 

INTERMISSION 

Moussorgskv " Pictures at an Exhibition," Piano- 
forte Pieces arranged for Orches- 
tra by Maurice Ravel 

Promenade — Gnomus — II Vecchio Castello — Bydlo — Ballet of 
Chicks in their Shells — Samuel Goldenburg and Schmuyle — Limoges: 
The Marketplace — Catacombs (Con mortuis in lingua mortua) — The 
Hut on Fowls' Legs — The Great Gate at Kiev 

The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

[3] 



# 



SYMPHONY NO. 3 IN E FLAT, " EROICA," Op. 55 
By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827 



I am not satisfied," said Beethoven to Krumpholz in 1802, " with my 
works up to the present time. From today I mean to take a new 
road." This was the critical year of the Heilingstadt Testament, the year 
also when the composer threw off the mood of tragic despair into which 
the full realization of his deafness had thrown him, and seized upon the 
mighty musical project of the " Eroica " Symphony .j- Contemplating the 
harmless docilities of the First and Second Symphonies, one looks in 
vain through all of music for a " new road," taken so readily, with so 
sure and great a stride. Wagner's " Ring," following " Lohengrin," 
Brahms' First Symphony — these triumphant assertions of will-power 
were achieved only after years of germination, of accumulated force. 
With Beethoven, spiritual transformations often came with inexplicable 
suddenness. Having completed his Second Symphony in the summer 
of 1802, at Heilingstadt, he simply turned his back upon the polite pat- 
terns of Haydn and Mozart. As his notebooks show, he forged his heroic 
score with a steady onslaught, expanding the inherited form almost be- 
yond recognition, yet preserving its balance and symmetry. 

Musicians have never ceased to wonder at the welded and significant 
organism of the exposition in the first movement, the outpouring in- 
vention and wealth of episodes in the working out, the magnificence and 
freshness of the coda. The unity of purpose, the clarity amid profusion, 
which the Symphony's early critics failed to perceive, extends no less 
to the Funeral march, the scherzo, the variation finale — forms then all 
quite apart from symphonic practice. One whose creative forces ran in 
this wise could well ignore precedent, and extend his score to the un- 
heard of length of three quarters of an hour. J 

Not fugitive legends, based on the too fertile memories of his friends, 
but certain definitely established facts surround Beethoven's pro- 



* Last performed at these concerts October 13, 1933. 

t There are indications that the Eroica was a veritable " rebound " from the Heilingstadt 
Will. This document is signed October 10. Nottebohm attributes the early sketches of the 
symphony to October. Ries says that Beethoven began the Eroica at Heilingstadt, and we 
know that he was back in Vienna in November. 

X Beethoven is said to have retorted to those who vigorously protested the length of the 
Eroica: " If I write a symphony an hour long, it will be found short enough! " And so he 
did, with his Ninth. He must have realized, however, the incapacity of contemporary audi- 
ences, when he affixed to the published parts (and later on the sicore) of the " Eroica "z 
" Since this symphony is longer than an ordinary symphony, it should be performed at the 
beginning rather than at the end of a concert, either after an overture or an aria, or after a 
concerto. If it be performed too late, there is the danger that it will not produce on the audi- 
ence, whose attention will be already wearied by preceding pieces, the effect which the com- 
poser purposed in his own mind to attain." 

[4] 



grammistic intentions regarding the Eroica Symphony. Ries told how 
in the early spring of 1804, he saw the fair copy upon Beethoven's work 
table with the word " Buonaparte " at the top, " Luigi van Beethoven " 
at the bottom, a blank space between; how when he told Beethoven a 
few weeks later that the " First Consul " had proclaimed himself Em- 
peror, the composer flew into a rage, and tore the title page in two. 
Schindler confirms this tale, having heard it from Count Moritz Lich- 
nowsky. The manuscript copy (not in Beethoven's script, but freely 
marked by him) which has come down to posterity and which is now at 
the Library of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna, has a dif- 
ferent title page. It reads: " Sinfonia Grande — Intitulata Bonaparte — 
1804 in August — del Sigr. Louis van Beethoven — Sinfonia 3, Op. 55." 
The words " Intitulata Bonaparte " have been blotted out, but can still 
be traced. Under his name in lead pencil, now barely discernible, 
Beethoven has written: " Geschrieben auf Bonaparte." Beethoven wrote 
to Breitkopf and Hartel, August 26, 1804, offering them " a new grand 
symphony, really entitled Bonaparte, and in addition to the usual in- 
struments there are specially three obbligato horns. I believe it will 
interest the musical public. I should like you instead of printing only 
parts, to publish it in score." * The symphony " written on Bonaparte " 

* Nevertheless the parts only were published in 1806. The printed score did not appear until 
1820. 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Dltson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty -four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

' [5] 



was finally published in 1806 as " Sinfonia Eroica, composed to cele- 
brate the memory of a great Man," and dedicated To His Serene High- 
ness, the Prince von Lobkowitz. 

The recorded opinions of early performances have been many times 
quoted for the delight of succeeding generations. Among several pri- 
vate or semi-private performances in Vienna in the year 1805 was one 
in January, at the house of the banker Herr von Wiirth. A reviewer 
was present and wrote of it in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung. 
Whereas he called the First Symphony " a glorious art-creation " with 
" an extraordinary wealth of lovely ideas treated in the most splen- 
did and graceful style, with coherence, order and clearness reigning 
throughout," the new symphony was " virtually a daring wild fantasia, 
of inordinate length and extreme difficulty of execution." The writer 
found passages of beauty and force, " but," he said, " the work seems 
often to lose itself in utter confusion." He finally condemned the score 
as " odd and harsh," and expressed his preference for a symphony by 
Eberl in the same key. It was at the first public performance, on 
April 7, that Beethoven, conducting, found himself at odds with the 
orchestra In the vigorous, syncopated chords of the first movement, and 
had to begin again. Ries tells how, at a first rehearsal, " which was hor- 
rible," he thought the horn had made a false entrance in the famous 
passage where the composer, indulging an " evil whim " (" hose 
laune ") introduces the principal theme in the original key against the 
dominant B flat — A flat of the strings. "I stood beside Beethoven, 
and thinking that a blunder had been made, I said: ' Can't the damned 
hornist count? — it sounds infamously false! ' I think I came pretty 
close to receiving a box on the ear. Beethoven did not forgive the slip 
for a long time." J. N. B. 



THE "EROICA," AND MODERN PSYCHOLOGY 



It is interesting to compare the re-consideration of the " Eroica " 
Symphony by two very eminent authorities in their most recent 
books on Beethoven: Romain Rolland (" Beethoven the Creator ") * 
and Ernest Newman (" The Unconscious Beethoven ") .f Generally 
speaking, one could hardly find two more entirely opposite ways of 
approach than that of the idealistic Frenchman who deliberately reads 
Beethoven's life and character in the noble terms of his music, and the 
inexorable, truth-tracking Englishman, the destroyer of romantic ped- 
estals, who divides the composer into two parts: " the man " and " the 

* Harper and Bros, 
t Alfred A. Knopf. 

[6] 



artist " — to the detriment of the former. But when confronted with 
the music itself, the two critics, drawn by their profound knowledge 
and common understanding, see curiously eye to eye. Newman trans- 
lated Rolland's book of 1928 in the following year. Newman's " Essay 
in Psychology," as he sub-titled it, was published in 1927, and reprinted 
in 1929. It is probably legitimate to regard their similar conclusions 
as arrived at independently by two clear-visioned and decidedly inde- 
pendent musicians. 

Armed with the psychological insight of their day, the two investi- 
gators have attempted to fix the " Eroica " as a creative act, boldly 
invading the sanctum where the miracle was wrought, and with score 
and sketches as their evidence, following the gradual or sudden defini- 
tion of the themes, the progress of the whole, step by step. In trying to 
read the impulses of Beethoven, they have been wise enough not to 
confuse themselves, as their forebears have done, with futile specula- 
tion as to what part Napoleon, Bernadotte, Plato, or Republicanism 
may have played in the process. Both perceive that part not to have 
been nearly so important as has always been supposed. 

" No one who understands Beethoven," says Newman, " can doubt 
that at the back of the notes is a train of thought that remotely corre- 
sponds to what we can call by the crude name of a ' poetic idea.' The 
work is ■ absolute ' music in that its logic is that of the musical faculty 
per se functioning at its finest; yet assuredly all these affirmations, and 
doubts and reservations, and bursts of temper and convulsive gestures, 
and sudden transitions to softer moods are the outcome of a train of 
thought that ran within the musical one, as a nerve runs in its sheath." 

Having thus thrown off the burden of explaining the " poetic idea," 
Newman is free to examine the functioning of the " musical faculty 
per se," which he does at length. Rolland feels equally free to rid him- 
self of the intervening shadow of Napoleon: 



These bars of music 
are taken from a well-known, 
composition by a great composer, 
Identify it . . . send the name, com- 
poser's name and movement 
number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Wofer St., N. Y. 
and receive a full half-pound of 

MARTINSON'S COFFEE 

Absolutely Free I 



Allegretto 





A great chef or a great musician 



each 





needs inspiration. Martinson's Coffee does 




for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 

:ij;':v. : :::::'; : ;;:::r;:' : ;: : : ; :;': ■.--:■■-"., ;; < ■ ■ "" ..'-'.J 

[7] 



" Let us brush from our path, first of all, the too simple anthropo- 
morphic explanation that builds on the title — ' Bonaparte ' — that 
Beethoven wrote first of all on the title page and then tore out. In a 
mind like that of Beethoven, wholly absorbed in itself, its passions, 
its combats, and its God, the external world counts merely as a re- 
flection, an echo, a symbol of the interior drama. Moreover, Beethoven 
is incapable of seeing the life of other beings as it is: his own is too 
vast; for him it is the measure of everything; he projects it into every- 
thing." ... If then Napoleon has come into Beethoven's mind it is 
after the act, when he searches, in the circle of the living men about 
him, as in a mirror, for a face that shall give back to his solitude the 
image of his own omnipresent self. But the first gesture of the supposed 
model suffices to destroy the illusion violently: and the outraged 
Beethoven tears out the name of Bonaparte." 

Rolland, by his very nature, is committed to an emotional interpre- 
tation of the " Eroica," but he differs here from Newman mainly in a 
greater freedom of imagery. To Rolland, the " Eroica " is the mani- 
festation of the " June prime " and plenitude of the growing Bee- 
thoven — that rare moment in the life of a great artist when " out of 
the furnace of Being is projected the flood of the God, the unknown 
Self." 

" In the earliest pages (of the Sketch-Book) appear tentative 
sketches for the first, second, and fourth movements of the Eroica; then 
come four long sketches, each of them with variants, for the first sec- 
tion of the first movement; then a number of short sketches — and all 
the rest follows. The brain is taken possession of by the interior vision; 
Beethoven never pauses now till the work is finished. But what ham- 
mering on the anvil, and what a shower of sparks! " The writer shows 
how in the first movement the general contours, the " melodic peaks, 
the succession of lights and shades, the sequence of the modula- 
tions " took form in the mind of the creator, and conditioned the shap- 
ing of his themes. Keeping the metaphor of the forger, Rolland traces 
the shaping of the symphony step by step. For example the rhythmic 
theme in sixteenth notes in the first movement which, " with a rhythm 
like a cavalcade, comes into full being from the first and remains fixed 
in all the sketches." 

Of the Funeral March, he says: 

" But let us return to the Sketch-Book, and be prepared for a sur- 
prise. If ever a melody has seemed inspired, if ever a phrase has seemed 
to find its appointed line at the first attempt, if any work of art conveys 
the impression that it could never have been written otherwise, that 
not a single one of its accents or inflections could be changed, for they 
are part of it from all eternity, it is the principal motive of this Funeral 
March. Yet the Sketch-Book shows that Beethoven reached it only by 
slow stages, painfully, sweating blood and tears. The first sketch for it 
is commonplace. Beethoven, as Nottebohm shows, has had to conquer 
the melody bar by bar, — nay, note by note, accent by accent." 

[8] 



Of the scherzo: 

" Sometimes, however, it happens that the right idea leaps up 
within him sooner than he had expected, and in a quite unanticipated 
shape. These irruptions are particularly frequent during this period 
1802-1803, when his being and his style are rapidly changing as the 
result of the inward shocks that are releasing the new man in him. We 
have an astounding example of this in the third movement of the 
Eroica, which he commences as a minuet (M. am Ende Coda fremde 
St. [Stretta?]) which he carries on in this way as far as the trio (a trio 
in the old style) , and beyond. Then, suddenly, his pen gives a leap. 
He writes Presto! . . . Overboard with the minuet and its formal 
graces! The inspired rush of the Scherzo has been found! " 

As for the Finale, Rolland speaks particularly of the bass theme of 
four notes upon which it is built: 

" This motive actually comes from three earlier works, in the course 
of which Beethoven had had time to discover its real character. And 
the very gradation of the three works shows us that at first this char- 
acter was not recognised by Beethoven. 

" Begun as a simple dance and brilliant contredanse in the ballet 
Prometheus (March 1801) , (99) — taken up again as a contredanse at 
the end of 1801 —then in the Variations, Op. 35 (spring of 1802) , it 
was still, at the time when the Eroica was being written, regarded by 
Beethoven as a motive for regular variations of the usual classical kind; 
no doubt when he began this salon work he had in view, as in Prome- 
theus, a sort of final gallop. But as he proceeds to manipulate his 
theme, throwing all sorts of lights and shadows on it, he comes upon 
several of its hidden souls, — the elegiac, the funereal, the heroic. When 
he comes to the largo of the 15th variation he sketches, without being 
aware of it, a big epic-dramatic scene. In the coda the death of the hero 
is already announced: an ending on the ordinary lines is impossible! 
The finale is a fugue with a suggestion of combat about it; the germ of 
the symphony is there. Having arrived at his goal, Beethoven returns 
on his steps; and now he recognises the true nature of the theme with 
which he had been playing, — those four mighty pillars! And the great 
builder sees the vast spaces he can cover with it. Then he takes it up 
again as the base for the last movement of the symphony, in which the 
variations expand to epic proportions; the contrapuntal treatment 
weaves it into a cluster of colossal ogival mouldings." . . . 

Mr. Newman progresses, in more cool and factual words, to a very 
similar result. Of the Eroica sketches, he says: 

" Here, more than anywhere else, do we get that curious feeling that 
in his greatest works Beethoven was ' possessed * — the mere human 
instrument through which a vast musical design realized itself in all its 
marvellous logic. As we study this Sketch Book we have the conviction 
that his mind did not proceed from the particular to the whole, but 
began, in some curious way, with the whole and then worked back to 
the particular. Apparently, here and elsewhere, he is anxiously seeking 

[9] 



for the themes upon which to begin to construct a movement; and 
every one has heard of the many changes through which a theme would 
go in the sketch books before Beethoven hit upon the final acceptable 
form of it. But to assume that it was out of the themes that the move- 
ment grew is probably to see the process from the wrong end. From the 
Sketch Books, we get the impression that in some queer subconscious 
way the movement possessed him as a whole before he began to think 
out the details; and the long and painful search for the themes was sim- 
ply an effort, not to find workable atoms out of which he could con- 
struct a musical edifice according to the conventions of symphonic 
form, but to reduce an already existing nebula, in which that edifice 
was implicit, to the atom, and then, by the orderly arrangement of 
these atoms, to make the implicit explicit. This was not Mozart's way. 
With Mozart the themes are the first things to be thought of: the 
composer invents these for their own sake, and then manipulates them 
according partly to his fancy, partly to rule. With Beethoven we feel 
that the music has gone through the reverse process, that the themes 
are not the generators of the mass of the music, but are themselves 
rather the condensation of this. One is reminded of Pascal's profound 
saying, ' You would not have sought me unless you had already found 
me.' 



" PICTURES AT AN EXHIBITION " 

(Pianoforte Pieces Arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel) 
By Modest Petrovitch Moussorgsky 

Moussorgsky, born at Karevo, district of Toropeta, in the government of Pskov, on 
March 28, 1835; died at St. Petersburg on March 28, 1881. Joseph Maurice Ravel, 
born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, on March 7, 1875; is now living at Montfort- 

l'Amaury and at Paris 



Moussorgsky composed his suite of piano pieces in June, 1874, on 
the impulse of his friendship for the architect Victor Hartmann, 
after a posthumous exhibit of the artist's work which immediately 
followed his death. " It almost asks for orchestration," wrote A. Eagle- 
field Hull of the music, some years ago, and indeed no less than four 
musicians have been tempted to try a hand at the task. Toushmalov (in 
St. Petersburg, 1891) set eight of the pieces, and in recent years Sir 
Henry Wood in London, Leondidas Leonardi in Paris, and Maurice 
Ravel in Paris, have arranged the whole suite. Ravel made his setting 
in 1923 for Dr. Koussevitzky, at the conductor's suggestion. 

Promenade. As preface to the first " picture," and repeated as a 
link in passing from each to the next, so far as the fifth, is a promenade. 
It is an admirable self-portrait of the composer, walking from picture 
to picture, pausing dreamily before one and another in fond memory of 
the artist. Moussorgsky said that his " own physiognomy peeps out 

[10] 



through all the intermezzos," an absorbed and receptive face " nel 
modo russico." The theme, in a characteristically Russian 11-4 rhythm 
suggests, it must be said, a rather heavy tread.* 

Gnomus. There seems reason to dispute Riesemann's description: 
" the drawing of a dwarf who waddles with awkward steps on his short, 
bandy legs; the grotesque jumps of the music, and the clumsy, crawling 
movements with which these are interspersed, are forcibly suggestive." 
Stassov, writing to Kerzinf in reply to the latter 's inquiry explained: 
" the gnome is a child's plaything, fashioned, after Hartmann's design 
in wood, for the Christmas tree at the Artist's Club (1869) . It is some- 
thing in the style of the fabled Nutcracker, the nuts being inserted in 
the gnome's mouth. The gnome accompanies his droll movements with 
savage shrieks." 

Il Vecchio Castello. A troubadour sings a melancholy song before 
an old tower of the middle ages. M oussorgsky seems to linger over this 
picture with a particular fascination. (Ravel utilizes the best coloristic 
possibilities of the saxophone) . 

Tuileries. Children disputing after their play. An alley in the 
Tuileries gardens with a swarm of nurses and children. The composer, 
as likewise in his children's songs, seems to have caught a plaintive 
intonation in the children's voices, which Ravel scores for the high 
wood-winds. 

Bydlo. " Bydlo " is the Polish word for " cattle." A Polish wagon 
with enormous wheels comes lumbering along, to the tune of a " folk- 
song in the Aeolian mode, evidently sung by the driver." There is a 
long crescendo as it approaches — a diminuendo as it disappears in the 
distance. Calvocoressi finds in the melody " une penetrante poesie." 
(Ravel, again departing from usual channels, uses a tuba solo for his 
purposes) . 

* One recalls the story of Bernard Shaw, reviewing an exhibition of Alpine landscapes in 
London, tramping through the galleries in hob-nailed boots. 

t Arkady Mikhailovitch Kerzin (1857-1914), as founder and director of the Moscow Circle of 
Lovers of Russian Music (1896-1912), who were principally concerned with the cause ot 
Moussorgsky's music, received from Stassov a long letter (on January 31, 1903) about the 
" Pictures at an Exhibition." Stassov told how he had taken advantage of a meeting with 



MENDELSSOHN 

"A Second Elija" 

By SCHIMA KAUFMAN of the Philadelphia Orchestra 

"At last, a good life of Felix Mendelssohn ! ... Mr. Kaufman's 
biography is a definite addition to the literature of music because 
of its musical sanity, the wide range of the author's knowledge and 
his very professional approach to the business of music making. 
Illustrated $3.50 Samuel Chotzinoff , Words and Music, New York Evening Post. 

THOMAS Y. CROWELL COMPANY 393 Fourth Avenue, New York 

[ii] 




Ballet of Chicks in Their Shells. " In 1870," says Stassov, " Hart- 
mann designed the costumes for the staging of the ballet ' Trilby ' at 
the Maryinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg. In the cast were a number of 
boy and girl pupils of the theatre school, arrayed as canaries.* Others 
were dressed up as eggs." 

Samuel Goldenburg and Schmuyle. Two Polish Jews, the one 
rich, the other poor. "The two Jews were drawn from life in 1868, 
and so delighted was Moussorgsky that Hartmann promptly presented 
him with the picture " (Stassov) . Riesemann calls this number " one 
of the most amusing caricatures in all music — the two Jews, one rich 
and comfortable and correspondingly close-fisted, laconic in talk, and 
slow in movement, the other poor and hungry, restlessly and fussily 
fidgeting and chatting, but without making the slightest impression 
on his partner, are musically depicted with a keen eye for characteristic 
and comic effect. These two types of the Warsaw Ghetto stand plainly 
before you — you seem to hear the caftan of one of them blown out 
by the wind, and the flap of the other's ragged fur coat. Moussorgsky 's 
musical power of observation scores a triumph with this unique musi- 
cal joke; he proves that he can reproduce the ' intonations of human 
speech ' not only for the voice, but also on the piano." (Ravel makes 
the prosperous Jew speak from the low voiced strings, in unison. His 
whining neighbor has the voice of a muted trumpet) . 

Limoges. The Market-place. Market women dispute furiously. 
" Hartmann spent a fairly long time in the French town in 1866, exe- 
cuting many architectural sketches and genre pictures " (Stassov) . 

Catacombs. In this drawing Hartmann portrayed himself, examin- 
ing the interior of the Catacombs in Paris by the light of a lantern. In 
the original manuscript, Moussorgsky had written above the Andante 
in B-minor: "The creative spirit of the dead Hartmann leads me 
towards skulls, apostrophizes them — the skulls are illuminated gently 
from within." 

(" ' The Catacombs,' with the subtitle ' Sepulchrum romanum/ are 
invoked by a series of sustained chords, now pp, now ff. Then comes 
under the title ' Con mortuis in lingua mortua * (sic) a de-rhythmed 
transformation of the ' Promenade ' theme." — Calvocoressi.) 

The Hut on Fowls' Legs. " The drawing showed a clock in the 
form of Baba-Yaga's, the fantastical witch's hut on the legs of fowls. 
Moussorgsky added the witch rushing on her way seated on her 
mortar." To every Russian this episode recalls the verses of Pushkin in 
his introduction to " Russian and Ludmilla." 



Rimsky-Korsakov at a supper arranged in honor of the Hamburg conductor, Fiedler (at 
Glazounov's house), to discuss the question of the tempi of the " Pictures." " We sat down 
at the piano, Rimsky-Korsakov played each number over a few times', and then we recalled 
how our Moussorgsky had played them — remembered, tried them, and finally fixed the right 
tempi with the aid of the metronome." Their findings were as follows (value of a crotchet): 
Promenade — 104; Gnomus — 120; 11 Vecchio Castello — 56 (dotted crotchet); Tuileries — 144; 
Bydlo — 88; Ballet — 88; The two Jews — 48; Limoges — 57; The Hut on Fowls' Legs — 120 
(allegro) and 72 (andante); The Gate at Kiev— 84. 
* Mixed ornithology in ballets and descriptive suites is apparently of no consequence. 

[12] 



The Gate of the Bogatirs at Kiev. " Hartmann's drawing repre- 
sented his plan for constructing a gate at Kiev, in the old Russian 
massive style, with a cupola shaped like a Slavonic helmet." This 
design was said to be a great favorite of Moussorgsky. Stassov calls his 
music " a majestic picture in the manner of the * Slavsya,' and in the 
style of Glinka's ' Russian ' music." 



" Hartmann is bubbling over, just as Boris did," wrote Moussorgsky 
to his friend Stassov, while at work upon his " Pictures at an Exhibi- 
tion." " Ideas, melodies, come to me of their own accord, like the roast 
pigeons in the story — I gorge and gorge and over-eat myself. I can 
hardly manage to put it down on paper fast enough." 

Moussorgsky, so his friends have said, was seldom moved to exuber- 
ance over his work — was more often inclined to anxious questionings 
in such confidences. As a matter of fact, both the subject and the 
moment were just right to draw forth the very best from Moussorgsky's 
genius. He was deeply moved by the death of his artist friend, and his 
muse was at its best when quick, graphic characterization was called 
for, liberated from such heavy responsibilities as development, ex- 
tended form, detail of instrumentation. 

Within the orbit of Balikirev's circle in the seventies there were, 
besides musicians, the painter Riepin (whose unflattering portrait of 
Moussorgsky is familiar) , the sculptor, Antolkovsky, and the architect 
and painter, Victor Hartmann. Hartmann, " to whom," so Riesemann 
tells us, " Petersburg owes some fine buildings," was a particular friend 
of Moussorgsky and of Stassov, who as writer endeavored to draw the 
various arts and artists together. Stassov was abroad at Wiesbaden, 
when Hartmann died at the age of thirty-nine, and Moussorgsky 
poured forth his feelings in a long letter. Stassov, returning, immedi- 
ately arranged an exhibition of Hartmann's watercolors and architec- 
tural sketches. Moussorgsky, somewhat after the scheme of Schumann's 
" Carnival," described the pictures that most appealed to him in a 
little suite of fragmentary piano pieces, as a sort of affectionate 
memorial. 

Moussorgsky's letter to Stassov is full of self-castigation, bitter 
rebellion against fate — a truly Russian document which might have 
been lifted, word for word, from " The Brothers Karamazov." 

" My very dear friend, what a terrible blow! " he begins. " Why 
should a dog, a horse, a rat live on — and creatures like Hartmann must 
die! " And later: " This is how the wise usually console us blockheads, 
in such cases: ' He is no more, but what he has done lives and will live.' 
True — but how many men have the luck to be remembered? That is 
just another way of serving up our self-complacency (with a dash of 
onion, to bring out the tears) . Away with such wisdom! When ' he ' has 
not lived in vain, but has created — one must be a rascal to revel in the 

[13] 



thought that ' he ' can create no more. No, one cannot and must not 
be comforted, there can be and must be no consolation — it is a rotten 
morality! If Nature is only coquetting with men, I shall have the hon- 
our of treating her like a coquette — that is, of trusting her as little as 
possible, keeping all my senses about me, when she tries to cheat me 
into taking the sky for a fiddlestick — or ought one rather, like a brave 
soldier, to charge into the thick of life, have one's fling, and go under? 
What does it all mean? In any case the dull old earth is no coquette, 
but takes every ' King of Nature ' straight into her loathsome embrace, 
whoever he is — like an old worn-out hag, for whom anyone is good 
enough, since she has no choice. 

" There again — what a fool I am! Why be angry when you cannot 
change anything? Enough, then — the rest is silence. . . ." 

There needs only to be added the ironic commentary that while 
Hartmann's actual work, barring perhaps a building or two in Lenin- 
grad, has long since passed into oblivion, his name and a mere musical 
reflection of perhaps his slightest sketches have been spread across the 
world a half century later, without the remotest idea of such a result 
on the part of the composer. And so far as Moussorgsky himself is con- 
cerned, it is the way of posterity that this little masterpiece should have 
lain unnoticed for twelve years, when, five years after his death it was 
published by Bessel (1886) . Even then, the suite was virtually never 
played, and it fell to the lot of four separate composers to orchestrate 
it, Ravel at last bringing the music to a general knowledge in this 
version of 1923. 

" Ravel," says Dr. Vladimir Zederbaum, " scoring the Suite by 
Moussorgsky did not wish to modernize it much, therefore he tried, 
as far as possible, to keep the size of the orchestra of Rimsky-Korsakov 
in • Boris Godunov,' and added some more instruments only in a few 
movements of the Suite. All instruments are employed in threes; there 
are some more percussion instruments than those used by Rimsky- 
Korsakov; he uses two harps, kettledrums, bass drum, snare drum, 
celesta, xylophone, glockenspiel, rattle, bells." 

The first performance of this orchestration was at a " Koussevitzky 
Concert " in Paris, May 3, 1923. Dr. Koussevitzky first played the suite 
at these concerts, November 7, 1924. The most recent performance was 
January 27, 1933. J. N. B. 



[Ml 



SYMPHONY IN G MINOR (K. 550) 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



Mozart wrote his three greatest symphonies in 1788. The one in 
E-flat is dated June 26, the one in G minor July 25, the one in C 
major with the fugue-finale August 10. 

His other works of that year are of little importance with the 
exception of a piano concerto in D major which he played at the coro- 
nation festivities of Leopold II at Frankfort in 1790. There are canons 
and piano pieces, there is the orchestration of Handel's " Acis and 
Galatea," and there are six German dances and twelve minuets for 
orchestra. Nor are the works composed in 1789 of interest, with the 
exception of the clarinet quintet and a string quartet dedicated to the 
King of Prussia. Again we find dances for orchestra, — twelve minuets 
and twelve German dances. 

Why is this? 1787 was the year of " Don Giovanni "; 1790, the year 
of " Cosi fan tutte." Was Mozart, as some say, exhausted by the feat of 
producing three symphonies in such a short time? Or was there some 
reason for discouragement and consequent idleness? 

The Ritter Gluck, composer to the Emperor Joseph II. , died No- 
vember 15, 1787, and thus resigned his position with salary of two 
thousand florins. Mozart was appointed his successor, but the thrifty 
Joseph cut down the salary to eight hundred florins. And Mozart at 
this time was sadly in need of money, as his letters show. In a letter 
of June, 1788, he tells of his new lodgings, where he could have better 
air, a garden, quiet. In another, dated June 27, he says: " I have done 
more work in the ten days that I have lived here than in two months 
in my other lodgings, and I should be much better here, were it not 
for dismal thoughts that often come to me. I must drive them resolutely 
away; for I am living comfortably, pleasantly, and cheaply." We know 
that he borrowed from Puchberg, a merchant with whom he became 
acquainted at a Masonic lodge, for the letter with Puchberg's memo- 
randum of the amount is in the collection edited by Nohl. 

Mozart could not reasonably expect help from the Emperor. The 
composer of " Don Giovanni " and the " Jupiter " symphony was un- 
fortunate in his Emperors. 

We know little or nothing concerning the first years of the three 
symphonies. Gerber's "Lexicon der Tonkunstler " (1790) speaks 
appreciatively of him: the erroneous statement is made that the Em- 
peror fixed his salary in 1788 at six thousand florins; the varied ariettas 

[15] 



for piano are praised especially; but there is no mention whatever of 
any symphony. 

The enlarged edition of Gerber's work (1813) contains an ex- 
tended notice of Mozart's last years, and we find in the summing up 
of his career: " If one knew only one of his noble symphonies, as the 
overpoweringly great, fiery, perfect, pathetic, sublime symphony in C." 
And this reference is undoubtedly to the " Jupiter," the one in C major. 

Mozart gave a concert at Leipzig in May, 1789. The programme 
was made up wholly of pieces by him, and among them were two 
symphonies in manuscript. A story that has come down might easily 
lead us to believe that one of them was the one in G minor. At a re- 
hearsal for this concert Mozart took the first allegro of a symphony at 
a very fast pace, so that the orchestra soon was unable to keep up with 
him. He stopped the players and began again at the same speed, and he 
stamped the time so furiously that his steel shoe buckle flew into pieces. 
He laughed, and, as the players still dragged, he began the allegro a 
third time. The musicians, by this time exasperated, played to suit him. 
Mozart afterwards said to some who wondered at his conduct, because 
he had on other occasions protested against undue speed: " It was not 
caprice on my part. I saw that the majority of the players were well 
along in years. They would have dragged everything beyond endurance 
if I had not set fire to them and made them angry, so that out of sheer 
spite they did their best." Later in the rehearsal he praised the orches- 
tra, and said that it was unnecessary for it to rehearse the accompani- 
ment to the pianoforte concerto: " The parts are correct, you play 
well, and so do I." This concert, by the way, was poorly attended, and 
half of those who were present had received free tickets from Mozart, 
who was generous in such matters. 

Mozart also gave a concert of his own works at Frankfort, October 
14, 1790. Symphonies were played in Vienna in 1788, but they were by 
Haydn; and one by Mozart was played in 1791. In 1792 a symphony 
by Mozart was played at Hamburg. 

The early programmes, even when they have been preserved, sel- 
dom determine the date of a first performance. It was the custom to 
print: " Symphonie von Wranitsky," " Sinfonie von Mozart," " Sin- 
fonia di Haydn," Furthermore, it should be remembered that " Sin- 
fonie " was then a term often applied to any work in three or more 
movements written for strings, or strings and wind instruments. 

The two symphonies played at Leipzig were not then published. 
The two that preceded the great three were composed in 1783 and 
1786. The latter of the two (in D major) was performed at Prague 
with extraordinary success. 

The symphony was scored originally for flute, two oboes, two bas- 
soons, two horns, and strings. Mozart added later two clarinet parts. 
[16] 



Carnegie ^all • Jleto gotk 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIRST AFTERNOON CONCERT 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, November 17, at 2:30 o'clock 



Programme 

Mozart Symphony in G minor (K. 550) 

I. ALLEGRO MOLTO 

II. ANDANTE 

III. MENUETTO (ALLEGRO) 

IV. FINALE (ALLEGRO ASSAl) 

Ravel Piano Concerto for Left Hand 

(In one movement) 
[First Performance in New York] 

INTERMISSION 

Franck Symphony in D minor 

1. lento; allegro non troppo 
ii. allegretto 
iii. allegro non troppo 

SOLOIST 

PAUL WITTGENSTEIN 

[Baldwin Piano] 
The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 



[17] 



Kochel says that Mozart wrote a score for the oboes and clarinets on 
special pages, as the original parts for the oboes were necessarily 
changed by the addition of the clarinets. P. H. 



PIANO CONCERTO for the left hand 
By Joseph Maurice Ravel 

Born at Ciboure, Basses Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; now living near Paris 



Ravel had worked a year on his Piano Concerto*," wrote Henry 
.. Prunieres in the " Revue Musicale," " when there came to him 
ideas for which he had no place. He then remembered the promise 
made to the great pianist Wittgenstein, without a right arm, to write 
for him, on occasion, a concerto for the left hand, and on a single 
impulse he composed the work. Of course it was not a matter for 
improvisation, and several months were necessary for the elaboration, 
but the work was continuous, sustained by an unfailing inspiration, 
unlike the other concerto, or the violin sonata, several times inter- 
rupted, set aside, resumed — In a word, one finds in the concerto for 
the left hand what Ravel excluded with impatience from his other 
concerto: sentiment. This time, it takes its revenge for its long banish- 
ment, it flowers finely, and at times almost romantically." 

The occasion of these remarks was the first Parisian performance 
of the Concerto for the Left Hand, on January 17, 1932, by the 
Orchestre Symphonique de Paris, the composer conducting. A " Ravel 
Festival " was arranged for the occasion, as had been done for the per- 
formance of the other piano concerto. " The music was looked forward 
to — so much looked forward to," wrote Roger Crosti in Le Menestrel, 
" that it was the object of general lobby discussion in the intermission 
at the Salle Pleyel, even before its performance." 

But Paris was not the first city to hear the Concerto for the Left 
Hand, which was performed on January 6 (?) , 1932, in Vienna, and 
on January 10 in Berlin, by the State Opera Orchestra under Kleiber. 
Wittgenstein also played it at a Promenade Concert in London on 
August 16 of that year. It was a feature of the Music Festival (I. S. 
C. M.) in Florence in the first week of April, 1934. 

The Concerto, which was published in 1931 as the " exclusive prop- 
erty " of Paul Wittgenstein, involved, so it has been said, a difference 
of opinion between composer and pianist, while it was being written. 
A writer in the London Musical Times, September 1, 1932, saw two 
sides to the controversy: " It is credibly reported that composer and 

* The Piano Concerto had its first performance in Paris, January 14, 1932. It was played at 
these concerts on April 22, of that year, with Jesus Maria Sanroma as soloist. 

[18] 



performer held long and anxious debate over the new work, Herr 
Wittgenstein suggesting that it was too difficult, and Ravel steadfastly 
refusing to alter a single note. If this actually happened, our sympa- 
thies, it must be confessed, are with Herr Wittgenstein, for the Con- 
certo sounded enormously difficult. On the other hand, the later Ravel 
is a mathematician of the first order, and one can easily understand his 
reluctance to upset results achieved by neat and nice labors." 

The concerto is very short; its parts are combined into one move- 
ment (Lento; andante; allegro; tempo primo) . 

Ravel, with his characteristic craft for effect, reveals bit by bit the 
circumscribed possibilities of his soloist, withholding for a consider- 
able time the blending of piano and orchestra. The orchestra alone 
(lento) first makes a complete exposition: the principal theme first 
stated by the contrabassoon is taken up by the other woodwinds, the 
brass, and finally the violins. There follows a cadenza in which the 
pianist gives out the theme to a setting of chord chains, arpeggios, 
pedal notes, and chromatic scales. The orchestra and the piano are 
heard alternately, but are not really joined until a short andante, 
when the piano supports the melody as sung by the English horn. An 
allegro in 6-8 rhythm follows in which the piano in turn takes up the 
theme (a sort of tarantelle) quasi " spiccato " against light and staccato 
chords in the orchestra. At last, soloist and orchestra are closely inter- 
mingled, with alternate emphasis. There is a return of the initial sub- 
ject and tempo, the orchestra now rising to its fullest power in a large 
climax. There immediately follows a final cadenza in which the utmost 
is exacted of five fingers. Over wide arpeggios is superimposed the prin- 
cipal theme which must be played, by necessity, with the thumb and 
second finger (Henry Prunieres, listening to the Parisian performance, 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[19] 



could hardly believe that two hands were not playing — at times he 
could imagine four) . There is a concerted conclusion. 

The orchestration is as follows: three flutes, piccolo, two oboes, 
English horn, two clarinets, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, two bassoons, 
contrabassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, tri- 
angle, tambourin, cymbals, large drum, wood block, tam-tam, timpani, 
harp, piano solo, and strings. J. N. B. 



PAUL WITTGENSTEIN 

Paul Wittgenstein comes from a titled Austrian family. His father's 
palace at Vienna was a gathering place for such musical notables 
as Hugo Wolf and — presumably on different evenings — Johannes 
Brahms, who on occasion would play the piano part in his chamber 
music in the Wittgenstein salon. Mr. Wittgenstein is now forty-five 
years of age. He studied with Leschetizky in Vienna, and had become 
a well known concert pianist when the great war broke out. Enlisting 
in the Austrian army, he was wounded and captured on the Russian 
front and was held for some time as a prisoner of war. It was then that 
his right arm had to be amputated as a result of his wound. Returning 
to Vienna after the war, Wittgenstein pursued his career — as a one- 
armed pianist. 

The following composers have written music for piano left hand 
and orchestra for the particular use of Wittgenstein: 

Richard Strauss " Parergon zur Sinfonia domestica " for 

piano and orchestra 
Richard Strauss " Panathenaenzug " for piano and orchestra 

Erich W. Korngold Piano Concerto in C sharp, Op. 17 
Franz Schmidt Variations on a theme of Beethoven 

Serge Bortkiewicz Concert Fantasy for piano and orchestra 
Maurice Ravel Piano Concerto for the left hand 

(Serge Prokofieff has also written a Concerto for Wittgenstein which 
is yet to be performed.) 

Chamber music for which Wittgenstein has also the sole right of 
performance follows: 

Korngold Piano Quartet 

Schmidt 2 Piano Quintets 

Hans Gal Piano Quartet 

His repertory for piano solo is likewise interesting: 

Bach-Brahms Chaconne 

Saint-Saens Bourree — Fugato 

Haydn Adagio 

Chopin-Godowski Etudes 

Godowski Wailing Winds 

[20] 



Godowski-Strauss Paraphrase on waltz from " Gipsy Baron " 

Bortkiewicz Nocturne 

Alexis Hollander Perpetuum mobile 

Moriz Rosenthal Two Waltz-paraphrases 

The pianist himself has arranged the following pieces for left hand: 

Mendelssohn Several Songs without words 

Mozart Adagio — Fantasy on " Nozze di Figaro " 

Liszt- Verdi " Rigoletto " — Paraphrase 



SYMPHONY IN D MINOR 

By Cesar Franck 
Born at Liege, Belgium, December 10, 1822; died at Paris, November 8, 1890 



One autumn evening in 1888," wrote Guy Ropartz, devout disciple 
of Franck, " I went to pay the master a visit at the beginning of 
vacation time. ' Have you been working? ' I inquired. ' Yes,' was 
Franck's reply, ' and I think that you will be pleased with the result/ 
He had just completed the Symphony in D, and he kindly played it 
through to me on the piano.* I shall never forget the impression made 
upon me by that first hearing." 

The first performance, at the Paris Conservatoire, February 17, 1889, 
when the members of the orchestra were opposed to it, the subscribers 
bewildered, and some of Franck's colleagues spitefully critical, has been 
described with gusto by d'Indy in his much quoted book, the bible of 
the Franck movement. The symphony reached Germany in 1894, when 
it was performed in Dresden; England in 1896 (a Lamoureux concert 
in Queen's Hall) . It was first played by the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra—April 15, 1899, Wilhelm Gericke, conductor. The last perform- 
ance by this orchestra was November 21, 1932. 

The symphony, dedicated to Henri Duparc, is scored for two flutes, 
two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, four 
horns, two trumpets, two cornets-a-piston, three trombones, bass tuba, 
a set of three kettledrums, harp, and strings. 

It is not hard to sympathize with the state of mind of Franck's de- 
voted circle, who beheld so clearly the flame of his genius, while the 
world ignored and passed it by. They were naturally incensed by the 
inexplicable hostility of some of Franck's fellow professors at the Con- 
servatoire, and moved to winged words in behalf of their lovable 
" maitre," who, wrapped and serene in his work, never looked for 
either performance or applause — was naively delighted when those 

* D'Indy lists the Symphony as having been begun in 1886. 

[21] 



blessings sparingly descended upon him. But the impatience of the 
Franck disciples extended, less reasonably, to the public which allowed 
him to die before awaking to the urgent beauty of his art. Ropartz, for 
instance, tried to console himself with the philosophical reflection: " All 
true creators must be in advance of their time and must of necessity be 
misunderstood by their contemporaries: Cesar Franck was no more of 
an exception to this rule than other great musicians have been; like 
them, he was misunderstood." A study of the dates and performances, 
which d'Indy himself has listed, tends to exonerate the much berated 
general public, which has been known to respond to new music with 
tolerable promptness, when they are permitted to hear it, even ade- 
quately presented. The performances of Franck's music while the com- 
poser lived were patchy and far between. 

For almost all of his life, Paris was not even aware of Franck. Those 
who knew him casually or by sight must have looked upon him simply 
as a mild little organist * and teacher at the Conservatoire, who wrote 
unperformed oratorios and operas in his spare time. And such indeed 
he was. It must be admitted that Franck gave the world little oppor- 
tunity for more than posthumous recognition — and not so much be- 
cause this most self-effacing of composers never pushed his cause, as 
because his genius ripened so late. When he had reachd fifty-seven 
there was nothing in his considerable output (with the possible excep- 
tion of "La Redemption " or " Les Eolides") which time has proved 
to be of any great importance. "Les Beatitudes" of that year (1879) 
had neither a full nor a clear performance until three years after his 
death, when, according to d'Indy, " the effect was overwhelming, and 
henceforth the name of Franck was surrounded by a halo of glory, des- 
tined to grow brighter as time went on." The masterpieces — " Psyche," 
the Symphony, the String Quartet, the Violin Sonata, the Three Organ 
Chorales, all came within the last four years of his life, and the Sym- 
phony — that most enduring monument of Franck's genius, was first 
performed some twenty months before his death. In the last year of his 
life, musicians rallied to the masterly new scores as soon as they ap- 
peared, and lost no time in spreading the gospel of Franck — a gospel 
which was readily apprehended. Ysaye played the Violin Sonata (dedi- 
cated to him) in town after town; the Quartet was performed at the 
Salle Pleyel by the Societe Nationale de Musique (April 19, 1890) , and 
the whole audience, so we are told, rose to applaud the composer. And 
after Franck's death, his music, aided (or hindered) by the zealous 
pronouncements of the militant school which had grown at his feet, 
made its way increasingly to popular favor. 

French musicians testify as to the rising vogue of Franck's music in 



* D'Indy pours just derision upon the ministry who, as late as August, 1885, awarded the 
ribbon of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor to " Franck (Cesar Auguste), professor of organ." 

[22] 



the early nineties. Leon Vallas in his life of Debussy laments that the 
Parisian public of that time, " still carried along on a flood of ro- 
manticism," could not be diverted to the self-contained elegance of the 
then new impressionist composer. " The select shrines were still con- 
secrated to the cult of a fierce, grandiloquent, philosophical art: Bee- 
thoven's last quartets, the new works of Cesar Franck — discovered very 
late in the day — and Richard Wagner's great operas — these complex, 
ambitious works, so full of noble beauty, were alone capable of arous- 
ing an enthusiasm that bordered on delirium." Paul Landormy, writ- 
ing for La Victoire, lists these same composers, and singles out Franck's 
Quintet and Quartet, as having been accorded at that time " an exces- 
sive admiration, romantic in its violence." Derepas, writing in 1897, 
told of a veritable Franck inundation, and the composer's son then 
wrote to him that he received every day quantities of letters and 
printed matter about his father. " What is strong," wrote Schumann, 
" will make its way." When once the special harmonic style of Franck, 
his absorption in the contemplative moods of early organ music had 
caught the general imagination, his musical faith needed no preaching. 



Of the notorious performance of Franck's Symphony at the Con- 
servatoire (February 17, 1889) , d'Indy writes: 

" The performance was quite against the wish of most members of 
the famous orchestra, and was only pushed through thanks to the 
benevolent obstinacy of the conductor, Jules Garcin. The subscribers 
could make neither head nor tail of it, and the musical authorities 
were much in the same position. I inquired of one of them — a profes- 
sor at the Conservatoire, and a kind of factotum on the committee — 
what he thought of the work. ' That a symphony? ' he replied in con- 
temptuous tones. ' But, my dear sir, who ever heard of writing for the 
English horn in a symphony? Just mention a single symphony by 
Haydn or Beethoven introducing the English horn. There, well, you 
see — your Franck's music may be whatever you please, but it will cer- 
tainly never be a symphony! ' This was the attitude of the Conserva- 
toire in the year of grace 1889." 



D'Indy, whom there is no reason to suppose anything but a truthful 
man, has this to say about Charles Gounod, who was present: 

" At another door of the concert hall, the composer of ' Faust,' es- 
corted by a train of adulators, male and female, fulminated a kind of 
papal decree to the effect that this symphony was the affirmation of 
incompetence pushed to dogmatic lengths. For sincerity and disinter- 

[23] 



To all — 
Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



On October i ith the Trustees of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra mailed a letter to its Boston 
subscribers and many others in the vicinity of 
Boston who take pride in the Orchestra and its achieve- 
ments. In that letter the Trustees set forth the main- 
tenance requirements of the Orchestra and suggested a 
businesslike method of meeting its budget at the very 
commencement of the Season. 

The plan outlined in that letter has been carried out 
and a Society has been organized known as the " Friends 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra," with one of the 
Trustees as Chairman. Those contributing in either large 
or small amounts to the maintenance of the Orchestra 
become members of this organization for this year and 
are enrolled as such. 

The Trustees' letter is now being mailed to subscribers 
to seats at the Concerts of the Orchestra in New York and 
elsewhere, who, we believe, will welcome the opportu- 
nity to join in providing for its requirements. 

The Trustees desire to express their very deep appre- 
ciation of the keen interest which these periodic visits of 
the Orchestra invariably inspire. Through the organiza- 
tion of the Society of " Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra " they hope that a still more intimate contact 
may be established with the friends and patrons of music 
in the various cities where the Orchestra gives its per- 
formances. 

Bentley W. Warren 

Fresident, Board of Trustees 
November 12, 1934 



[24] 



Carnegte ^all • j^cto gorfe 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Thursday Evening, January 3, 1935, at 8:45 

Saturday Afternoon, January 5, 1935, at 5:30 



[25] 



estedness we must turn to the composer himself, when, on his return 
from the concert, his whole family surrounded him, asking eagerly for 
news. ' Well, were you satisfied with the effect on the public? Was there 
plenty of applause? ' To which ' Father Franck,' thinking only of his 
work, replied with a beaming countenance: ' Oh, it sounded well; just 
as I thought it would! 



All who knew him describe Franck as sincerely touched when some 
grudging official recognition was bestowed upon him, or when his 
music was actually heard and applauded in public. " On the occasions 
— alas! too few — when Franck came in touch with the public," wrote 
Arthur Coquard, " he saw and heard nothing but the music, and if the 
execution struck him as adequate, he was the happiest of men. The 
master had formed an ideal atmosphere of his thoughts and affections, 
an atmosphere which his soul gladly inhaled, undisturbed by strange 
currents — his spirit delighted itself with its own ideal of art and 
philosophy. Wrapped in the contemplation of serene beauties such as 
these, his genius brought forth those great and sometimes sublime 
works. No wonder that his music, conceived in the calm joy of ecstasy, 
without thought of public opinion, the artist's dream, lasted over the 
day of its performance and, soaring high, lost sight of earth altogether." 
Another instance of Franck's placid content with miserable per- 
formances is described by d'Indy. After he was decorated by the French 
government as " professor of organ," his friends and pupils determined 
to show the world that he was something more than that, and raised 
funds for a " Franck Festival," a concert of his own music, at the Cirque 
d'Hiver, January 30, 1887. The first part, conducted by Pasdeloup, con- 
sisted of " Le Chasseur Maudit," the "Variations Symphoniques " 
(with M . Louis Diemer) , and the second part of " Ruth." Franck then 
conducted excerpts from his opera, " Hulda," and his Third and 
Eighth Beatitudes. " The performance by an orchestra lacking* in co- 
hesion and insufficiently rehearsed," says d'Indy, " was a deplorable af- 
fair. Pasdeloup, courageous innovator and first champion of symphonic 
music in France, was then growing old and losing authority as a con- 
ductor; he went entirely wrong in the tempo of the finale of the ' Varia- 
tions Symphoniques / which ended in a breakdown. As to Franck, he 
was listening too intently to the vibration of his own thoughts to pay 
any attention to the thousand details for which a conductor must al- 
ways be on the alert. The interpretation of the ' Beatitudes ' suffered 
in consequence, but such was his good-nature that he was the only 
person who did not regret the wretched performance, and when we 
poured out to him our bitter complaint that his works should have 
[26 1 



been so badly given, he answered, smiling and shaking back his thick 
mane of hair: ■ No, no, you are really too exacting, dear boys; for my 
own part, I was quite satisfied! ' " 

Franck was never heard to complain of the humble round of teach- 
ing, into which poverty had forced him, dissipating his genius in a con- 
stant grind of petty engagements, with only an hour or two in the day 
saved for his composition. " The first years of his marriage were 
'close,'" wrote the organist Tournemire, who knew him then. "One 
must live! From half past five in the morning until half past seven, 
Franck composed. At eight he left the house to ' comb ' Paris. He dis- 
pensed solfege and piano for the convenience of the pupils in the Jesuit 
school of Vaugirard (lessons 1 franc 80 centimes for a half hour, from 
eleven until two!) . He had only a bite of fruit or cheese to sustain him, 
as Franck himself once told me. He would also go to Anteuil, a fash- 
ionable institution for young ladies of society, who often constrained 
him to teach them impossible novelties of the hour." He was known to 
these uneager demoiselles, acquiring parlor graces, as " Monsieur 
Franck." Later, some of these ladies were astonished to find their erst- 
while insignificant and even rather ridiculous piano teacher become a 
world-enshrined memory. Whereupon they proudly proclaimed them- 
selves " Franck pupils." D'Indy disqualified these impostors by publish- 
ing the name of every pupil who at any time had been close to Franck 
in his work. 

The Quintet, the Quartet, the Violin Sonata, and the Symphony 
are named by d'Indy as " constructed upon a germinative idea which 
becomes the expressive basis of the entire musical cycle." He says else- 
where of the conception of the Violin Sonata — " From this moment 
the cyclical form, the basis of modern symphonic art, was created and 
consecrated." He adds: 

BOUND VOLUMES of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Concert Bulletins 

Containing 

analytical and descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, foremost critic, 

and Mr. John N. Burk, on all works performed during the season 

"A Musical Education in One Volume" 

"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowledge" 
Lawrence Gilman in the N. Y. Herald and Tribune 



Price $6.00 per volume 
Address, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 



[27] 



" The majestic, plastic, and perfectly beautiful symphony in D 
minor is constructed on the same method. I purposely use the word 
method for this reason: After having long described Franck as an 
empiricist and an improviser — which is radically wrong — his enemies 
(of whom, in spite of his incomparable goodness, he made many) and 
his ignorant detractors suddenly changed their views and called him a 
musical mathematician, who subordinated inspiration and impulse to 
a conscientious manipulation of form. This, we may observe in passing, 
is a common reproach brought by the ignorant Philistine against the 
dreamer and the genius. Yet where can we point to a composer in the 
second half of the nineteenth century who could — and did — think as 
loftily as Franck, or who could have found in his fervent and enthu- 
siastic heart such vast ideas as those which lie at the musical basis of the 
Symphony, the Quartet, and ' The Beatitudes ' ? . . . 

" Franck's Symphony is a continual ascent towards pure gladness 
and life-giving light because its workmanship is solid, and its themes are 
manifestations of ideal beauty. What is there more joyous, more sanely 
vital, than the principal subject of the Finale, around which all the 
other themes in the work cluster and crystallize? While in the higher 
registers all is dominated by that motive which M. Ropartz has justly 
called ' the theme of faith.' " J. N. B. ' 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Mrs. Charles Adams White 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

Stein way Bldg., New York 105 Revere St., Boston 

Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 Tel. Capitol 6745 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: University 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[28] 



An Audience 
worth cultivating 



Because it reaches an audience of unusual potenti- 
ality, The Boston Symphony Orchestra Bul- 
letin is a most effective medium — for a limited 
number of advertisers. 

This audience is composed of people of taste, cul- 
ture and means. They are interested, essentially, 
in the better things of life. They can, and do, pur- 
chase generously — but discriminately. 

The descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, 
foremost of critics, and Mr. John N. Burk, 
secure for the Bulletin a place among works 
of reference and gives to it an unusual per- 
manence. 

If your product — or service — -will appeal to this 
discriminating audience 

Write jor Rates 
Address 

GEORGE M. MASON 

130 West 42d Street 
New York City 



L. S. B. Jefferds, Adv. Mgr. 
Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 



Carnegie i>all • Heto gorfe 




Thursday Evening, January 3, at 8:45 
Saturday Afternoon, January 5, at 2:30 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H 


:. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, 


J- 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PIN FIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BE ALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


CROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 


AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 


GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwtg, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


frankel, 1. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


polatschek, v. 


la US, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, r. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. El? Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


battles, a. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


boettcher, g. 




VALKENIER, W 


mager, g. 


raiciiman, J. 


MACDONALD, W. 


LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, w. 




SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, t. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


gebhardt, w. 




LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 
MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, I.. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


snow, a. 




SAN ROM A, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



Carnegie ^all • i&eto gorfe 

Forty-ninth Season in New York 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 193 5 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INCORPORATED 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 

Concert Bulletin of the 
Second Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, January 3, at 8:45 

AND THE 

Second Matinee 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, January 5, at 2:30 

with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 



',./■» 



The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 






OMs&IA c^t-JLJi 



... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. , . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts. ... One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 

• JL COPLEY-PLAZA go*u* • 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



[2] 




SIBELIUS. . . Symphony No. 5 in E flat major, Op. 82 
will be played in place of Strauss' s Tone Poem, 
"Thus spake Zarathustra". 





Carnegie ©all • Jleto Horfe 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND EVENING CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, January 3, at 8:45 o'clock 



Programme 



Mendelssohn .... Symphony in A major, " Italian," 

Op. 90 

I . ALLEGRO VIVACE 

II. ANDANTE CON MOTO 

III. CON MOTO MODERATO 

IV. SALTARELLO: PRESTO 

Szymanowski .... Second Concerto for Violin and Or- 
chestra, Op. 61 

I. MODERATO MOLTO TRANQUIL I. O 
II. ANDANTE SOSTENUTO 
III. ALLEGRAMENTO; ANDANTINOJ TEMPO 1 

(Played without pause) 
[First performance in New York] 

IN TERMISSION 

Strauss .... Tone Poem, ' Thus spake Zara- 

thustra " (freely after Friedrich 
Nietzsche) Op. 30 

SOLOIST 

ALBERT SPALDING 

[Stf.inway Piano] 

The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

Reminder — the next concert of the Evening Series will be given on Friday, 

February 1, 1935, at 8:45. 

""" "~ ~ ~ [3] 



SYMPHONY in \ major, no. |, "ITALIAN/ 1 Op. go 

By Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 

Mom ,ii Hamburg, February ;. im»»<i; died ai Leipzig, Novembei |. 1 H,| 7 



1iin symphony was completed in Berlin. Mendelssohn wrote t<> 
Pasto] Bauer, " My work about which 1 recently had many misgiv- 
ings Is completed, and, looking h over, 1 now find that, contrary to 
my expectations, ii satisfies me. I believe ii has become .\ good piece. 
Be ii>. H as H may, 1 feel it shows progress, and thai is \\w main point." 
The score bears the date, Berlin, March 13, 1833. 

The first performance from manus< ript and under the direction of 
the compose] was at the sixth concert of the Philharmonii Society that 
season, May 13, 1833. "The concerts oi the Society were this year, and 
onward, given In the Hanovei Square Rooms, which had just been re 
modelled. The symphony made .1 great Impression, and Felix electri- 
fied the audience by his wonderful performance <»i Mozart's Concerto 
in i> minor, his cadenzas being marvels In design and execution. His 
new overture In (i was produced ;n the last concert of the season." 

Mendelssohn began to revise i lu* symphony in fune, 1834, On 
Februar) i<>. 1835, he wrote t<> Klingemann that lu- was biting his 
nails ovei the first movement, and could not yet master it. but that 
m an) event ii should be something different, — perhaps wholly new, 
and he had this doubt about every one of the movements. Towards 
the end of 1837 the revision was completed, Whether the symphony 
in its new lonn was played at .1 Philharmonic Society Concert In Lon 
don. fune 18, 1838, conducted by Moscheles, is doubtful, although 
Moscheles asked him foi it. 

The first performance of the revised version on the European con- 
tinent was .ii -i ( rewandhaus concert, l .eipzig, November 1 . 1849, when 
Julius Rieti conducted. The score and orchestra] parts were noj pub- 
lished until Man h, 1851 . 

The first performance In Boston was probably on November 15, 
1851, m rrcmont remple at .1 concert of the Musical Fund Society, 
Mi 1 1 |. Webb, 1 ondu< toi 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. 

Grove remarked oi this work "The music itself is better than any 
commentary 1 et that be marked, learned, and inwardly digested." 

Eteismann found the first movement, Allegro vivace, A major, 6-8, 
to be .1 paraphrase of the so 1 ailed Hunting Song in the* first group of 
Songs without Words, rhe tonal it) is the same, and this is often 
enough to fire the imagination oi .1 commentator, The chief subject 



begins with the violins in the second measure, and is developed at 
length, The second subject, E major, is for < Larinets. The development 
section begins with a new figure treated in imitation i>\ the strings. 
The chieJ theme is then used, with die second introduced contrapun- 
tally, in the recapitulation section the second theme is given to the 
strings, 

The second movement, Andante con moto, n minor, 4.4, sometimes 
c .died the Pilgrims' March, but without .m\ authority, is said " to have 
been .1 processional hymn, which probably gave the name of ' Italian 
Symphony ' to the whole " (!) . Lampadius remarks in cohne< tion with 
this: "l cannot discovei that the piece hears any mark oi a decided 
Catholic character, Tor, if I recollect rightly, 1 once- heard Moscheles 

say that Mendelssohn had in his mind as the somce of this second 

movement an old Bohemian folk-song." The two introductory meas 
ures suggested to (dove " the * ty of a muezzin from his minaret," i>m, 
pray, what has this to do with ttaly? The < hie! theme is given out by 
oboe, clarinet, and violas. The violins take it up with counterpoint for 
the flutes, There is a new music a 1 idea lor the clarinets. The first theme 
returns, The two Introductory measures are used with tins material in 
the remainder of the movement. 

The third movement is marked simply "Con moto moderate)" (A 
major, IJ |) . "There is a tradition (said to originate with Menclc K 
sohn's brother in law, llensel, but still of uncertain authority) that it 

The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated ly 

IT1UY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doe. 

Published by Oliver Diifon Company, ///<•. 

The Analytic Symphony Scries comprises thirty-four volumes covering 

the most important s\ mphonies of ( he world's pv.it est masters. Each 

volume is presented in playable two hand pi. mo score, ami contains 
complete analytical notes on (he structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance el* (he composition ami its 

salient points. 

Copies may be bad from your Music Dealer or the Publish* 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY. Inc. 

359 Boylston Start Boston, Mass. 

" |.r.| 



was transferred to its present place from some earlier composition. 
It is not, however, to be found in either of the twelve unpublished 
juvenile symphonies; and in the first rough draft of this symphony 
there is no sign of its having been interpolated. In style the movement 
is, no doubt, earlier than the rest of the work." The movement opens 
with a theme for first violins; the Trio with a passage for bassoons and 
horns. The third part is a repetition of the first. In the Coda there is at 
the end a suggestion of the Trio. 

The Finale is a Saltarello, Presto, 4-4. There are three themes. The 
flutes, after six introductory measures, play the first. In the second, 
somewhat similar in character, the first and second violins answer each 
other. The third is also given to the first and second violins alter- 
nately, but now in the form of a continuously moving, not a jumping 
figure. This Saltarello was undoubtedly inspired by the Carnival at 
Rome, of which Mendelssohn gave a description in his letter of Feb- 
ruary 8, 1831. " On Saturday all the world went to the Capitol, to wit- 
ness the form of the Jews' supplications to be suffered to remain in 
the Sacred City for another year, a request which is refused at the foot 
of the hill, but, after repeated entreaties, granted on the summit, and 
the Ghetto is assigned to them. It was a tiresome affair; we waited two v 
hours, and, after all, understood the oration of the Jews as little as the 
answer of the Christians. I came down again in very bad humor, and 
thought that the Carnival had begun rather unpropitiously. So I ar- 
rived in the Corso and was driving along, thinking no evil, when I 
was suddenly assailed by a shower of sugar comfits. I looked up; they 
had been flung by some young ladies whom I had seen occasionally at 
balls, but scarcely knew, and when in my embarrassment I took off my 
hat to bow to them, the pelting began in right earnest. Their carriage 
drove on, and in the next was Miss T , a delicate young English- 
woman. I tried to bow to her, but she pelted me, too; so I became quite 
desperate, and clutching the confetti, I flung them back bravely. There 
were swarms of my acquaintances and my blue coat was soon as white 

as that of a miller. The B 's were standing on a balcony, flinging 

confetti like hail at my head; and thus pelting and pelted, amid a 
thousand jests and jeers and the most extravagant masks, the day ended 
with races." 

It is a singular reflection on " local color " in music that Schumann 
mistook the " Scotch" symphony for the " Italian," and wrote of the 
former: " It can, like the Italian scenes in ' Titan,' cause you for a mo- 
ment to forget the sorrow of not having seen that heavenly country." 
The best explanation of this Symphony No. 4, if there be need of any 
explanation, is found in the letters of Mendelssohn from Italy. 

P. H. 

[6] 



SECOND CONCERTO FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA 

Op. 61 

By Karol Szymanowski 

Born at Timoschkova, Kiev in 1883; now living at Zakopane-Tatra, Poland 



Szymanowski has dedicated his Second Violin Concerto " a mon ami 
Paul Kochanski." The Polish violinist was engaged to perform this 
work with the Boston Symphony Orchestra last season, a prospect 
which was nullified by his untimely death on January 12 (in New 
York) . He had nevertheless given this score its first performance and 
the only one of which there is any record at hand in Warsaw, October 
6, 1933, with the Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Georg 
Fitelberg. At the end of the score is inscribed " Zakopane," indicating 
that it is the product of the Polish mountain country where the com- 
poser is said to dwell, deriving his inspiration from the natural beau- 
ties about him. 

It is interesting to note that the cadenza which occurs in the first 
movement was written by Paul Kochanski. The composer uses 2 flutes, 
2 oboes, 2 clarinets, bassoon and contra bassoon, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
trombone and tuba, cymbals, triangle, bass drum, small drum, piano, 
timpani and strings. 

We are indebted to Mr. Alfred H. Meyer for the following analysis: 

Karol Szymanowski's Second Violin Concerto proceeds uninter- 
ruptedly as a single movement. This movement, however, is divided 
into two distinct parts by an intervening cadenza (written by Paul 
Kochanski) . 

The first part begins Moderate) molto tranquillo, A minor, 2-4 
meter. After a few measures of prelude, the solo violin introduces the 
principal theme. This theme is based almost entirely on the ascending 
minor third, E-G, played against a background of an ornamented A 
minor chord. It is at once imitated variously, — by a muted horn, in 



These bars of music 
are taken from a well-known, 
composition by a great composer 
Identify it . . . send the name, com- 
poser's name and movement 
number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Water St., N. Y. 
and receive a full half-pound of 

rs 

Absolutely Free ! 

[This offer good for limited time only) 



Allegretto 
±2 



A great chef or a great musician — each 

te 



~(c 



-pMEgaS 



needs inspiration. Martinson's Coffee does 
± 



miiP 



for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 

1 

^" " " [71 



a higher register again by the solo violin, then by muted trumpet, 
by a bassoon, and again by the trumpet. 

Then the solo violin introduces the second theme, principally on 
the notes E-sharp, G-sharp, D-sharp, against a background of D minor, 
clearly a polytonal procedure. As with the first theme, there are nu- 
merous imitations. The two themes are then treated alternately. 

From this point the mood shifts as indicated by the tempo direc- 
tion, Tres rhythme, considerably later to Andante sostenuto, then 
more quickly to an Animato on the way to an Appassionato. When 
this subsides the music passes at once to the cadenza. Each of these 
passages has its own characteristic subsidiary theme, most of them in- 
troduced by solo violin. But through all of them the principal theme 
is heard in diverse variants and variations. The second theme is heard 
less often. At the height of the Appassionato the principal theme is 
heard in canonic form between low strings and horns as one voice, and 
first and second violins as the other voice. The harmonic course of this 
first part is from A minor to E minor. 

After the cadenza the tempo is Allegramente molto energico, the 
meter 2-4, the key C major. There is a middle section, Andantino 
molto tranquillo, 3-4, A minor. A single, well-rhythmed theme domi- 
nates the Allegramente. A broad second theme appears largely to be 
derived from it by the process of augmentation. No one specific theme 
emerges in the Andantino, which as a whole is lyrically expressive. 
When the final Allegramente returns, the principal themes of both the 
first and the second parts are developed. 

Szymanowski's Second Symphony (in B flat major, opus 19) was 
introduced to these concerts by Pierre Monteux, January 20, 1922, in 
what was the first American performance of the work. The composer 
was present. (The orchestra played the symphony in New York Febru- 
ary 2, 1922.) The Third Symphony, " The Song of the Night," was per- 
formed by the Philadelphia Orchestra in its own city, November 19, 
1926, and by the Chicago Orchestra, November 7, 1930. The First 
Violin Concerto was performed by the Cleveland Orchestra on No- 
vember 3, 1927, with Paul Kochanski as soloist, and in Chicago on 
February 10, 1928. The Symphonie Concertante No. 4 for Piano and 
Orchestra had its first American performance in Cleveland, November 
2, 1933, with Severin Eisenberger as soloist. 

Szymanowski is one of those composers of importance about whom 
there is surprisingly little information available to those not conversant 
with his own language. An article by his countryman, Zdzislaw Jachi- 
mecki, which appeared translated into English in the Musical Quarterly 
for January, 1922, is an informative but a curious mixture of ardent 
[8] 



good-will and open dismay at the composer's more recent independent 
paths. 

"Foremost among the musical compositions written in Poland 
within recent years are the works of Karol Szymanowski. He first ap- 
peared before the public as a composer in 1905, but at that time four- 
teen unpublished works had accumulated in his desk. ... In 1900, 
our composer began to write his first poems for the piano, without the 
guidance of a master and unprepared by serious schooling. The young 
man had grown up in a truly artistic atmosphere in the house of his 
father, a country gentleman, where none but the best classical and 
romantic composers were given a hearing. And there, removed from 
the narrowing influence of any particular school, and in close and 
continual contact with nature, his mind was formed, like that of 
Walther von Stoltzing, by the study of the works of the great com- 
posers of the past. The great beauties of nature, the broad landscape 
of his native country, were the inspiration and the background for his 
first lyric essays. These works were the musical expression of that land- 
scape. Left to himself, Szymanowski mastered, unaided, the technical 
means involved in the utterance of his subtle impressions. The first 
piano preludes portrayed with absolute faithfulness the spiritual pro- 
file of the youth of eighteen. The nine short pieces of this Opus 1 were 
written from 1900 to 1902. As we have remarked, the public of Poland 
first became acquainted with the new talent in 1905." Mr. Jachimecki 

THE SEASON'S ONLY OUTSTANDING 
SCREEN TRAVEL EVENT 

BURTON HOLMES 

AMERICA'S FOREMOST TRAVEL -RACONTEUR 

CARNEGIE HALL 

EI\/CSUNDAY MONDAY WILL IAKI ID«|^ 
ll V Cnights MATINEES BEGIN J/AIN. I 3 iT" 

TIMELY TRAVEL TOPICS 
WHAT I SAW IN SOVIET RUSSIA 
EXPLORING LONDON AND ENGLAND 
SOUTHERN EUROPE— YUGOSLAVIA TO SPAIN 
ALLURING ITALY FROM THE ALPS TO THE SEA 
WE LOOK AT VIENNA AND AUSTRIA 

PLAN NOW TO TAKE ALL OF THESE 
COLORFUL AND INFORMATIVE TOURS 

ROUND TRIP TICKETS ONLY $4Ao-$S.So INC. TAX 

SINGLE TOURS 50c-l.00-l.50 PLUS TAX 

ON SALE AT CARNEGIE HALL TICKET OFFICE 



reports that " the mood of these pieces is habitually sad and tender, but 
at times it bursts into full flame, and becomes dramatic. Their elegance, 
lyric sincerity, freedom from influences brought general admiration." 
The writer recalls no Polish music since Chopin that " reaches their 
level." 

Szymanowski next turned to songs — a form which he has pursued 
intermittently through his fruitful career. Mr. Jachimecki considers 
them first attempts, inferior in quality to the piano preludes — " he had 
not yet solved the mysteries of the vocal art." 

In 1903, the composer sought technical equipment for more ambi- 
tious writing, and went to Zygmunt Noskowski. The result seems to 
have been an intense absorption in counterpoint and an outbreak of 
piano music bristling with fugues and variations. 1905 brought the 
first piano sonata, a violin sonata, more songs, and the first orchestral 
attempt — a Symphonic Overture, Op. 12. Warsaw at that time was the 
abject and willing victim of the sorceries of Richard Strauss, and 
Szymanowski proved no exception. His first opera, " Hagith" written 
in 1912-1913, was redolent of " Salome " and " Electra." The first Sym- 
phony, of 1906, was a sort of declaration of war with technical tradi- 
tion. Mr. Jachimecki dismisses it as a complicated and over-elaborate 
work. The songs written at this time were even more dissonant, and the 
writer made no pretense of following him. " Personally, I believe that 
the principles of true art and the true conception of the song form are 
violated in this style of vocal writing, in which the voice must force its 
way through the thorny brush of dissonances, and instead of presenting 
a really beautiful and expressive melodic outline, gives us merely a 
painful contortion of melody. Perhaps future generations will not bear 
me out in this opinion, but at present there are few singers who mani- 
fest any inclination to sing Szymanowski's Op. 17." 

" Penthesilea," for voice and orchestra (1907-1910) was shortly fol- 
lowed by the Second Symphony, Op. 19. "Without exaggeration we 
may pronounce this magnificent work the finest flower in the field of 
symphonic music in its day. After the few years that have elapsed since 
then, this is very clearly to be seen. . . . The crowning glory of the 
work," Mr. Jachimecki considers, " is the theme with variations in the 
second movement, the creation of a marvelous sweep of inspiration." 

The Second Piano Sonata which came immediately after the Second 
Symphony, Mr. Jachimecki finds the work of " a modern Beethoven. 
There is in this work something of eternal beauty, and although it is 
intensely modern in spirit and in its material, it reflects none of the 
conventions in vogue in 1910. A great personality speaks in every meas- 
ure of the sonata." Then came several groups of songs of which set- 
tings of poems by the Persian Hafiz, are outstanding. In the Opera 
" Hagith," " Szymanowski confides the chief task to the orchestra. Its 
part is rich in texture, and the instruments are made to yield their 
[10] 



utmost in effect. Dissonance prevails almost without interruption 
throughout the work. The human voices move in the most difficult in- 
tervals, for the most part in glaring contrariety to the harmonies of the 
orchestra." 

" Hegith," however, " does not mark the last step in the evolution 
of Szymanowsky's musical style. The opera is merely a turning point in 
his art. He kept intensifying the means of emotional expression in his 
successive works and finally reached a stage of hypersensitiveness in 
which even the most subtle harmonies and chromatic progressions, 
founded on the aesthetic principles of consonance and dissonance, no 
longer sufficed him." One might become alarmed at the information 
that he has joined the ranks of " a new system which is at present a 
veritable chaos," until one reads further that these ranks of the fallen 
also include " Stravinsky, Busoni, Schonberg, Ravel, Malipiero, and the 
rest." Szymanowski is too much of a true musician, Mr. Jachimecki as- 
sures us, to fall into " the musical futurism of a Malipiero, or into the 
musical ' dadaism ' of some of the piano pieces of Schonberg and 
others." 

The writer counts seventeen works by Szymanowski during the war 
period, notably the Third Symphony with chorus and tenor solo, " The 
Song of the Night," Op. 27, the First Violin Concerto, Op. 35, and a 
second set of Hafiz Songs. After the war, the composer made a renewed 
study of the possibilities of the violin, and wrote a number of pieces for 
that instrument. Further vocal works, and the Third Piano Sonata, Mr. 
Jachimecki describes as " absolutely revolutionary " in character. 

" Among the virtuosos," he adds finally, who have done most to 
spread Szymanowski's fame are the singer Stanislawa Szymanowska- 
Bartoszewicz (the composer's sister) , the orchestra conductor Gregor 
Fitelberg, the pianists Arthur Rubinstein, Harry Neuhaus and Jascha 
Dubianski, and the violinist Paul Kochanski. 

Szymanowski's Opera " King Roger " was performed in Warsaw in 
1926. His ballet " Mandragora " was produced in Chicago by the Allied 
Arts, Inc., November 8, 1925. There is another Polish folk ballet 



MENDELSSOHN 

"A Second Elijah" 

By SCHIMA KAUFMAN of the Philadelphia Orchestra 

"At last, a good life of Felix Mendelssohn ! ... Mr. Kaufman's 
biography is a definite addition to the literature of music because 
of its musical sanity, the wide range of the author's knowledge and 
his very professional approach to the business of music making." 
Illustrated $3.50 Samuel Chotzinoff, Words and Music, New York Evening Post. 

THOMAS Y. CROWELL COMPANY 393 Fourth Avenue, New York 

[u] 




" Harna." Szymanowski composed his Symphonie Concertante in the 
latter part of 1932. It was first produced in May 1933, like most of his 
orchestral scores, by Georg Fitelberg in Warsaw, the composer playing 
the piano part. Herbert Elwell on the occasion of the performance of 
this work in Cleveland, November 2, 1933, wrote in the orchestra's pro- 
gramme notes that " this brilliant composition owes its inspiration pri- 
marily to the folk spirit of his native land, and it vibrates generously 
with the robust, vivacious temper of the Polish mountaineers. While 
none of the themes appear to be literal translations of Polish folk tunes, 
they have, nevertheless, a highly indigenous character and evoke a rural 
atmosphere from which the wit and sentiment of a simple, carefree peo- 
ple speak with single potency." The composer appeared in this score in 
Paris under Pierre Monteux in February 1934, when it was described 
" as based on the wild dances of the Carpathian mountain dwellers." 

J. N. B. 



ALBERT SPALDING 

Albert Spalding, born at Chicago, August 15, 1888, began when he 
*was seven years old the study of the violin with Chiti in Florence, 
Italy, and when he was living in New York, with Juan Buitrago. When 
Mr. Spalding was fourteen he passed with high honors the examina- 
tion for a " professorship " at the Bologna Conservatory. In Paris he 
studied for two years with Lefort. His first appearance in public as a 
professional violinist was at the Nouveau Theatre, Paris, June 6, 1905. 

His appearances in Boston with the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
at the regular concerts are as follows: 

1917. January 12. Beethoven's Concerto. 

1919. October 17. Dvorak's Concerto. 

1922. December 22. Dohnanyi's Concerto (First time in Boston) . 

1925. January 9. Respighi's Concerto Gregoriano (First time in 
Boston) . 

1927. December 2. Brahms' Concerto. 

1933. January 13. Mozart's Concerto in D major (K. 218), and 
Chausson's " Poeme," Op. 25. 

1934. December 28. Szymanowski's Second Concerto, Op. 61. 



[12] 



TONE POEM, " THUS SPAKE ZARATHUSTRA " (FREELY 
AFTER FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE) , Op. 30 

By Richard Strauss 
Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living at Vienna 



The full title of this composition is "Also sprach Zarathustra, Ton- 
dichtung (frei nach Friedrich Nietzsche) filr grosses Grchester." 
Composition was begun at Munich, February 4, 1896, and completed 
there August 24, 1896. The first performance was at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, November 27, of the same year. The composer conducted, and 
also at Cologne, December 1.* 

Friedrich Nietzsche conceived the plan to his " Thus spake Zara- 
thustra: A Book for All and None " in August, 1881, as he was walk- 
ing through the woods near the Silvaplana Lake in the Engadine, and 
saw a huge, tower-like crag. He completed the first part in February, 
1883, at Rapallo, near Genoa; he wrote the second part in Sils Maria 
in June and July, the third part in the following winter at Nice, and 
the fourth part, not then intended to be the last, but to serve as an 
interlude, from November, 1884, till February, 1885, at Men tone. Nie- 
tzsche never published this fourth part; it was printed for private cir- 
culation, and not publicly issued till after he became insane. The whole 
of "Zarathustra" was published in 1892. A translation into English 
by Alexander Tille, Ph.D., lecturer at the University of Glasgow, was 
published in 1896, and the quotations in this article are from Dr. Tille's 
translation. A revised translation by T. Common, with introduction 
and commentary by A. M. Ludovici, was published by T. N. Foulis 
(Edinburgh and London, 1909) . 

Nietzsche's Zarathustra is by no means the historical or legendary 
Zoroaster, mage, leader, warrior, king. The Zarathustra of Nietzsche 
is Nietzsche himself, with his views on life and death. Strauss's opera 
" Gun tram " (1894) showed the composer's interest in the book. Be- 
fore the tone-poem was performed, this programme was published: 
" First movement: Sunrise. Man feels the power of God. Andante 
religioso. But man still longs. He plunges into passion (second move- 
ment) and finds no peace. He turns towards science, and tries in vain 
to solve life's problem in a fugue (third movement) . Then agreeable 
dance tunes sound and he becomes an individual, and his soul soars 



* The Philharmonic Orchestra of Berlin, led by Arthur Nikisch, produced it in Berlin, No- 
vember 30. The first performance in England was at the Crystal Palace, March 6, 1897. Theo- 
dore Thomas's Orchestra gave two performances in Chicago early in 1897. The first performance 
in Boston was at a Boston Symphony Orchestra concert, led by Emil Paur, October 30, 1897. 
The most recent performance at these concerts was March 10, 1933. 

[13] 



upward while the world sinks far beneath him." But Strauss gave this 
explanation to Otto Florsheim: " I did not intend to write philosophi- 
cal music or to portray in music Nietzsche's great work. I meant to 
convey by means of music an idea of the development of the human 
race from its origin, through the various phases of its development, 
religious and scientific, up to Nietzsche's idea of the Superman. The 
whole symphonic poem is intended as my homage to Nietzsche's genius, 
which found its greatest exemplification in his book, ' Thus spake 
Zarathustra.' " 

" Thus spake Zarathustra " is scored for piccolo, three flutes (one 
interchangeable with a second piccolo) , three oboes, English horn, two 
clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-flat, bass clarinet, three bassoons, 
double-bassoon, six horns, four trumpets, three trombones, two bass 
tubas, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, Glockenspiel, a low 
bell in E, two harps, organ, sixteen first violins, sixteen second violins, 
twelve violas, twelve violoncellos, eight double-basses. 

On a fly-leaf of a score is printed the following excerpts from 
Nietzsche's book, the first section of " Zarathustra's Introductory 
Speech": — 

" Having attained the age of thirty, Zarathustra left his home and the lake 
of his home and went into the mountains. There he rejoiced in his spirit and his 
loneliness, and for ten years did not grow weary of it. But at last his heart turned — 
one morning he got up with the dawn, stepped into the presence of the Sun and 
thus spake unto him: ' Thou great star! What would be thy happiness, were it not 
for those whom thou shinest? For ten years thou hast come up here to my cave. Thou 
wouldst have got sick of thy light and thy journey but for me, mine eagle and my 
serpent. But we waited for thee every morning and receiving from thee thine 
abundance, blessed thee for it. Lo! I am weary of my wisdom, like the bee that 
hath collected too much honey; I need hands reaching out for it. I would fain grant 
and distribute until the wise among men could once more enjoy their folly, and the 
poor once more their riches. For that end I must descend to the depth; as thou dost 
at even, when sinking behind the sea, thou givest light to the lower regions, thou 
resplendent star! I must, like thee, go down,* as men say — men to whom I would 
descend. Then bless me, thou impassive eye, that canst look without envy even 
upon over-much happiness. Bless the cup which is about to overflow, so that the 
water golden-flowing out of it may carry everywhere the reflection of thy rapture. 
Lo! this cup is about to empty itself again, and Zarathustra will once more become 
a man.' — Thus Zarathustra's going down began." 

This prefatory note in Strauss's tone-poem is not a " programme " 
of the composition itself. It is merely an introduction. The sub-captions 
of the composer in the score indicate that the music after the short 
musical introduction begins where the quotation ends. 

Zarathustra stepped down from the mountains. After strange talk 
with an old hermit he arrived at a town where many were gathered in 
the market-place, for a rope dancer had promised a performance. 

* Mr. Apthorp to his translation, " Like thee I must ' go down,' as men call it," added a 
note: "The German word is ' untergehen '; literally to go below." It means both "to per- 
ish " and " to set " (as the sun sets). — P. H. 

[H] 



And Zarathustra thus spake unto " the folk: / teach you beyond man* Man is a 
something that shall be surpassed. 

. . . " ' What with man is the ape? A joke or a sore shame. Man shall be the 
same for beyond-man, a joke or a sore shame. Ye have made your way from worm 
to man and much within you is still worm. Once ye were apes, even now man is 
ape in a higher degree than any ape. He who is the wisest among you is but a discord 
and hybrid of plant and ghost. . . . Beyond-man is the significance of earth. . . . 
I conjure you, my brethren, remain faithful to earth and do not believe those who 
speak unto you of superterrestrial hopes! . . . Once soul looked contemptuously 
upon body; that contempt then being the highest ideal, soul wished the body meagre, 
hideous, starved. Thus soul thought it could escape body and earth. Oh! that soul was 
itself meagre, hideous, starved; cruelty was the lust of that soul! But ye also, my 
brethren, speak; what telleth your body of your soul? Is your soul not poverty and 
dirt and a miserable ease? Verily a muddy sea is man. One must be z. sea to be 
able to receive a muddy stream without becoming unclean. Behold I teach you 
beyond-man; he is that sea, in him your great contempt can sink. . . . Man is a 
rope connecting animal and beyond-man — a rope over a precipice. Dangerous over, 
dangerous on-the-way, dangerous looking backward, dangerous shivering and mak- 
ing a stand. What is great in man is that he is a bridge not a goal; what can be 
loved in man is that he is a transition and a downfall. ... It is time for man to 
mark out his goal. It is time for man to plant the germ of his highest hope. His soul 
is still rich enough for that purpose. But one day that soil will be impoverished and 
tame, no high tree being any longer able to grow from it.' " 

" The scene of ' Thus spake Zarathustra,' " says Dr. Tille, " is laid, 
as it were, outside of time and space, and certainly outside of countries 
and nations, outside of this age, and outside of the main condition of 
all that lives — the struggle for existence. . . . There appear cities and 
mobs, kings and scholars, poets and cripples, but outside of their realm 
there is a province which is Zarathustra's own, where he lives in his 
cave amid the rocks, and whence he thrice goes to men to teach them 
his wisdom. This Nowhere and Nowhen, over which Nietzsche's im- 
agination is supreme, is a province of boundless individualism, in 
which a man of mark has free play, unfettered by the tastes and in- 
clinations of the multitude. . . . ' Thus spake Zarathustra ' is a kind 
of summary of the intellectual life of the nineteenth century, and it is 
on this fact that its principal significance rests. It unites in itself a 
number of mental movements which, in literature as well as in various 
sciences, have made themselves felt separately during the last hundred 
years, without going far beyond them. By bringing them into contact, 
although not always into uncontradictory relation, Nietzsche transfers 
them from mere existence in philosophy, or scientific literature in gen- 
eral, into the sphere or the creed of Weltanschauung of the educated 
classes, and thus his book becomes capable of influencing the views and 
strivings of a whole age." 

Zarathustra teaches men the deification of Life. He offers not Joy 
of life, for to him there is no such thing, but fulness of life, in the joy 
of the senses, " in the triumphant exuberance of vitality, in the pure, 

* " Overman," or, as George Bernard Shaw prefers, " Superman." Muret and Sanders define 
the word " Uebermensch ": "Demigod, superhuman being, man without a model and with- 
out a shadow; godlike man." — P. H. 

[15] 



lofty naturalness of the antique, in short, in the fusion of God, world, 
and ego." 

There is a simple but impressive introduction, in which there is a 
solemn trumpet motive, which leads to a great climax for full orches- 
tra and organ on the chord of C major. There is this heading, " Von 
den Hinterweltlern " (Of the Dwellers in the Rear World) . These 
are they who sought the solution in religion. Zarathustra, too, had once 
dwelt in this rear-world. (Horns intone a solemn Gregorian " Credo.") 

" Then the world seemed to me the work of a suffering and tortured God. A 
dream then the world appeared to me, and a God's fiction; colored smoke before 
the eyes of a godlike discontented one. . . . Alas! brethren, that God whom I created 
was man's work and man's madness, like all Gods. Man he was, and but a poor 
piece of man and the I. From mine own ashes and flame it came unto me, that 
ghost, aye verily! It did not come unto me from beyond! What happened brethren? 
I overcame myself, the sufferer, and carrying mine own ashes unto the mountains 
invented for myself a brighter flame. And lo! the ghost departed from me." 

The next heading is " Von der grossen Sehnsucht " (Of the Great 
Yearning) . This stands over an ascending passage in B minor in violon- 
cellos and bassoons, answered by woodwind instruments in chromatic 
thirds. The reference is to the following passage: — 

. . . " O my soul, I understand the smile of thy melancholy. Thine over-great 
riches themselves now stretch out longing hands! . . . And, verily, O my soul! who 
could see thy smile and not melt into tears? Angels themselves melt into tears, be- 
cause of the over-kindness of thy smile. Thy kindness and over-kindness wanteth not 
to complain and cry! And yet, O my soul, thy smile longeth for tears, and thy 
trembling mouth longeth to sob. . . . Thou liketh better to smile than to pour out 
thy sorrow. . . . But if thou wilt not cry, nor give forth in tears thy purple melan- 
choly, thou wilt have to sing, O my soul! Behold, I myself smile who foretell such 
things unto thee. . . . O my soul, now 1 have given thee all, and even my last, and 
all my hands have been emptied by giving unto thee! My bidding thee sing, lo, 
that was the last thing I had! " 

The next section begins with a pathetic cantilena in C minor (sec- 
ond violins, oboes, horn) , and the heading is: " Von den Fretjden und 
Leidenschaften " (Of Joys and Passions) . 

" Once having passions thou calledst them evil. Now, however, thou hast nothing 
but thy virtues: they grew out of thv passions. Thou laidest tin highest goal upon 
these passions: then they became thv virtues and delights. . . . Mv brother, if thou 
hast good luck, thou hast one virtue and no more; thus thou walkest more easily 
ovei the bridge. It is a distinction to have manv virtues, but a hard lot; and many 
having gone to the desert killed themselves, because they were tired of being the 
battle and battlefields of virtues." 

11 Grablied " (Grave Song) . The oboe has a tender cantilena over 
the Yearning motive in violoncellos and bassoons. 

* Yonder is the island of graves, the silent. Yonder also are graves of my youth. 
Thither will 1 carry an evergreen wreath of life.' Resolving this in mv heart I went 
over the sea. Oh. ye, ye visions and apparitions of mv youthl Oh, all ye glances of 
love, ye divine moments! How could ye die so quickly for me! This day 1 think of 
von as my dead ones. From vour direction, my dearest dead ones, a sweet odour 
Cometh unto me, an odour setting free heart and tears. . . . Still I am the richest, 

[16] 



and he who is to be envied most — I, the loneliest! For I have had you, and ye have 
me still." . . . 

" Von der Wissenschaft " (Of Science) . The fugued passage be- 
gins with violoncellos and double-basses (divided) . The subject of this 
fugato contains all the diatonic and chromatic degrees of the scale, and 
the real responses to this subject come in successively a fifth higher. 

" Thus sang the wizard. And all who were there assembled, fell unawares like 
birds into the net of his cunning. . . . Only the conscientious one of the spirit had 
not been caught. He quickly took the harp from the wizard, crying: ' Airl Let good 
air come in! Let Zarathustra come in! Thou makest this cave sultry and poisonous, 
thou bad old wizard! Thou seducest, thou false one, thou refined one unto unknown 
desires and wilderness. . . . Alas, for all free spirits who are not on their guard 
against such wizards! Gone is their freedom. Thou teachest and thereby allurest back 
into prisons! We seem to be very different. And, verily, we spake and thought enough 
together ... to enable me to know we are different. We seek different things . . . 
ye and I. For I seek more security. . . . But, when I see the eyes ye make, methinketh 
almost ye seek more insecurity.' "... 

Much farther on a passage in the strings, beginning in the violon- 
cellos and violas, arises from B minor. " Der Genesende " (The 
Convalescent) : 

" Zarathustra jumped up from his couch like a madman. He cried with a terrible 
voice, and behaved as if some one else was lying on the couch and would not get up 
from it. And so sounded Zarathustra 's voice that his animals ran unto him in terror, 
and that from all caves and hiding places which were nigh unto Zarathustra's cave 
all animals hurried away ... he fell down like one dead, and remained like one 
dead. At last, after seven days, Zarathustra rose on his couch, took a rose apple in 
his hand, smelt it, and found its odour sweet. Then his animals thought the time 
had come for speaking unto him. . . . ' Speak not further, thou convalescent one! 
. . . but go out where the world waiteth for thee like a garden. Go out unto the 
roses and bees and flocks of doves! But especially unto the singing birds, that thou 
mayest learn singing from them. For singing is good for the convalescent; the healthy 
one may speak. And when the healthy one wanteth songs also, he wanteth other 
songs than the convalescent one. . . . For thy new songs, new lyres are requisite. 
Sing and foam over, O Zarathustra, heal thy soul with new songs, that thou mayest 
carry thy great fate that hath not yet been any man's fate! ' . . . Zarathustra . . . 
lay still with his eyes closed, like one asleep, although he did not sleep. For he was 
communing with his soul." 

Tanzlied. The dance song begins with laughter in the woodwind. 

" One night Zarathustra went through the forest with his disciples, and when 
seeking for a well, behold! he came unto a green meadow which was surrounded 
by trees and bushes. There girls danced together. As soon as the girls knew Zara- 
thustra, they ceased to dance; but Zarathustra approached them with a friendly 
gesture and spake these words: ' Cease not to dance, ye sweet girls! ... I am the 
advocate of God in the presence of the devil. But he is the spirit of gravity. How 
could I, ye light ones, be an enemy unto divine dances? or unto the feet of girls with 
beautiful ankles? ... He who is not afraid of my darkness findeth banks full of 
roses under my cypresses. . . . And I think he will also find the tiny God whom girls 
like the best. Beside the well he lieth, still with his eyes shut. Verily, in broad day- 
light he fell asleep, the sluggard! Did he perhaps try to catch too many butterflies? 
Be not angry with me, ye beautiful dancers, if I chastise a little the tiny God! True, 
he will probably cry and weep; but even when weeping he causcth laughter! And 
with tears in his eyes shall he ask you for a dance; and I myself shall sing a song 
unto his dance.' " 

[■7] 



" Nachtlied " (" Night Song ") . 

" Night it is: now talk louder all springing wells. 
And my soul also is a springing well. 

Night it is: now only awake all songs of the loving. 
And my soul also is a song of one loving. 

Something never stilled, never to be stilled, is within me 
Which longs to sing aloud; 

A longing for love is within me, 

Which itself speaks the language of love. 

Night it is." 

" Nachtwanderlied " (" The Song of the Night Wanderer," though 
Nietzsche in later editions changed the title to " The Drunken Song ") . 
The song comes after a fortissimo stroke of the bell, and the bell, sound- 
ing twelve times, dies away softly. 

" Sing now yourselves the song whose name is 
' Once more,' whose sense is ' For all Eternity! ' 
Sing, ye higher men, Zarathustra's roundelay! 

one! 

O man, take heed! 

two! 

What saith the deep midnight? 

three! 

' I have slept, I have slept! — 

four! 

From deep dream I woke to light. 

five! 

The world is deep. 

six! 

And deeper than the day thought for. 

seven! 

Deep is its woe, — 

eight! 

And deeper still than woe-delight.' 

nine! 

Saith woe: ' Vanish! ' 

ten! 

Yet all joy wants eternity. 

eleven ! 

Wants deep, deep eternity! " 

twelve! 

The mystical conclusion has excited much discussion. The ending 
is in two keys — in B major in the high woodwind and violins, in C 
major in the basses, pizzicati. " The theme of the Ideal sways aloft 
in the higher regions in B major; the trombones insist on the unre- 
solved chord of C, E, F-sharp; and in the double-basses is repeated, 
C, G, C, the World Riddle." This riddle is unsolved by Nietzsche, by 
Strauss, and even by Strauss's commentators. 

The reader who wishes a minute analysis of this work should 
consult "Also sprach Zarathustra," by Hans Merian, fifty-five pages 
(Leipsic, 1900) ; or the analyses by Arthur Kahn (No. 129 of "Der 
Musikfuhrer " series, Leipsic) ; or Dr. Reimann's analysis, published 
in Philharmonic Concert (Berlin) programme books. 
[18] 



A symphony in C major by Louis F. Delune, of Brussels, was pro- 
duced at one of Busoni's orchestral concerts in Berlin in January, 
1906. Each one of the four movements bore a motto from Nietzsche's 
" Thus spake Zarathustra." Oskar Fried's " Das trunkne Lied " (from 
Nietzsche's "Also sprach Zarathustra") for solo voices, chorus, and 
orchestra, was produced by the Wagner Society of Berlin, at its 
concert in Berlin, April 15, 1904. The text of the "Mass of Life" 
by Frederick Delius is taken from Nietzsche's " Thus spake Zara- 
thustra." A song by Arnold Mendelssohn, "Aus den Nachtliede 
Zarathustras," was sung in Boston by Dr. Ludwig Wuellner, Jan- 
uary 30, 1909. There are other compositions. 

Zoroaster has appeared as an operatic hero. Rameau's M Zo- 
roastre," a lyric tragedy in five acts and a prologue, libretto by Cahusac, 
was produced at the Opera, Paris, December 5, 1749. Zoroaster, a 
beneficent prince and a magician only for good, is opposed to Abra- 
mane, an evil ruler and worker in black magic. They are rivals in 
power, glory, and love. Rameau put into this opera much music that 
he had composed for Voltaire's " Samson," which the Opera had re- 
fused.* It is said that a prologue had been written, and that Rameau 
replaced it by the overture, which " serves as a prologue." The first 
part of this overture is " a strong and pathetic picture of the barbaric 
power of Abramane and of the groanings of the people whom he 
oppresses: a sweet calm follows; hope is born again. The second part 
is a lively and gay image of the beneficent power of Zoroastre and of 
the misfortune of the folks whom he has delivered from oppression." 
The libretto assures us that all these things are in the overture. The 
chief singers were Jelyotte. (Zoroastre) ,. de Chasse (Abramane) , Marie 
Fel (Amelite) . The famous Camargo danced in the ballet. 

Cahusac's text was translated into German by Jacques Casanova 
de Seingalt, and, with music by a Saxon chamber-musician, Johann 
August Adam, was produced at Dresden, February 7, 1752-! 

The Italian one-act comic opera " Le pazzie di Stallidaura e Zoro- 
astro," by Cimarosa, has nothing to do with the old philosopher and 
mage. 

" Le Mage," opera in five acts, libretto by Jean Richepin and music 
by Massenet, was produced at the Opera, Paris, March 16, 1891. 
Zarastra, the warrior, loves his captive, the Queen Anahita, and is 
beloved by Varehda, the daughter of the high priest. By the machi- 



* See Voltaire's amusing account (article " Samson ") in " Questions sur L'Encyclopedie "; 
also " Voltaire Musicien," by Edmond Vander Straeten, pp. 76-79 (Paris, 1878). 
t See " Memoires de Jacques Casanova " (Rozez ed.), vol. ii. p. 245; also "Jacques Casanova 
Venitien " by Charles Samaran (Paris, 1914), pp. 71-76. In the preface to the Italian libretto 
published in Dresden, Casanova excused himself from presenting to the public a tragedy 
contrary to all the dogmas of Christianity, saying that his chief aim was to produce a 
gorgeous spectacular ballet. See also " Zur Geschichte der Musik und des Theaters am Hofe 
der Kurfusten von Sachsen," by Moritz Fiirstenau, vol. ii. pp. 268-270 (Dresden, 1862). 

[19] 



nations of the priest, Zarastra is forced to marry Varehda; but he 
leaves the scene of his triumphs to devote himself to worship of the 
god Mazda, and he appears in one of the acts as a preacher on the 
holy mountain. True love triumphs at the end: he and Anahita are 
united. Vergnet was the Zarastra; Delmas, the High Priest; Mme. 
Fierens, Varehda; and Mme. Lureau-Escalai's, Anahita. 

One of the most entertaining articles on Zoroaster is " Zoroastre " 
in the Dictionary of Pierre Bayle. Here may be found many of the 
old legends: how Zoroaster laughed on the day he was born; how he 
passed twenty years in the deserts and ate only of a cheese that never 
grew old and never failed him; how love of wisdom and justice com- 
pelled him to choose a mountain for his dwelling-place; how he was 
Nimrod, Japhet, Ezekiel, Balaam, Moses, etc. P. H. 



SYMPHONY (in four tempi, as the four seasons) 
By G. Francesco Malipiero 

Born at Venice, March 18, 1882— 



Sinfonia," so runs the title, " (in quattro tempi, come le quattro sta- 
gioni) ," and at the end is inscribed " Asolo, November 29, 1933." 
The movements are brief (the third movement, lento, is only thirty- 
two bars long) . For the most part, the symphony is simply scored, the 
percussion and brass mostly reserved for the two allegro movements 
(the second and last) . Only the finale fully utilizes the prescribed or- 
chestra, with its varied percussion. The symphony abounds in simple 
lyric themes, close woven into a score of modern compactness. The par- 
enthetical title seems to implicate an idyllic spring and autumn, an 
intervening summer with a strong Italian sun, a winter not too rigor- 
ous. It had its first performance at the I. S. C. M. Festival in Florence, 
Italy, April 1934. Walter Legge, writing of the event in the London 
Musical Times referred to the " sinfonia " as a " sinfonietta," mis- 
led, probably, by his memory of the music, which he called " little 
more than a deftly made lyric suite; as such it is naively charming." 
The correspondent of the Milan Evening Courier found that the com- 
poser " substitutes for thematic development a ' musical discourse ' in 
which the succession of ideas affords contrast and color." There is also 
" none of the dramatic stress or caustic irony one expects to find in 
Malipiero, but a thoughtful, ordered serenity." 

The orchestration follows: 3 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clari- 
nets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, bass tuba, timpani, 
cymbals, bass drum, side drum, triangle, bells, celesta, xylophone, harp, 
and strings. 
[20] 



Carnegie Hall • J^eto gorfe 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND AFTERNOON CONCERT 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, January 5, at 2:30 o'clock 



Programme 

Malipiero . . . . Symphony (in four tempi, as the 

four seasons) 

I. QUASI ANDANTE SERENO 

II. ALLEGRO 

III. LENTO, MA NON TROPPO 

IV. ALLEGRO, QUASI ALLEGRETTO: LARGO 

[First performance in New York] 
Bach Concerto for Violin in E major 

I. ALLEGRO 
II. ADAGIO 
III. ALLEGRO 

INTERM ISSIO N 

Brahms Symphony in E-minor, No. 4, Op. 98 

I. ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

II. ANDANTE MODERATO 

III. ALLEGRO GIOCOSO 

IV. ALLEGRO ENERGICO E PASSIONATO 

SOLOIST 

VIOLA MITCHELL 

The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

[21] 



The following works of Malipiero have been performed at these 
concerts in Boston: 

" Le Pause del Silenzio " Seven Symphonic Expressions 

April 4, 1919 (Henri Rabaud, Conductor) 
March 5, 1920 (Pierre Monteux, Conductor) 

" Impressioni dal Vero " (Part I) 

December 23, 1920 (Pierre Monteux, Conductor) 

" La Cimarosiana," Five Orchestral Pieces by Cimarosa, re-orchestrated by Malipiero 

November 11, 1927 (Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor) 

Symphony (in four tempi, as the four seasons) 

October 19, 1934 (Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor) 

For want of a recent word portrait of Malipiero, the description 
given by Henry Prunieres (in the Musical Quarterly, July, 1920) is 
here given. 

" His face is emaciated and furrowed with premature lines " writes 
Prunieres of the composer at thirty-six. " His features are of an aston- 
ishing mobility; his abundant auburn hair is slightly silvered; his fore- 
head is straight, his eyes are very blue; -his nose is large, thin, and 
arched; his mouth shows great sensitiveness. In his general appearance, 
his physiognomy is full of goodness and intelligence, but it appears 
often contracted, thin, ravaged; under the sway of a moral or physical 
suffering. Despite the incessant pain caused by his delicate health and 
sensitive nature, Malipiero keeps joy in his heart. At the least ray of 
sunlight it bursts forth awaiting the storm, alas, never long in coming! 

" Incapable of imagining life under any other aspect than that of 
art, he often trips into the snares of Destiny. His friends reproach him 
for his lack of will. He shows a sort of speechless tenacity which permits 
him to attain his aim in the end without taking brusque resolutions. 
As a matter of fact, his life is totally dominated by his art. He lives for 
his music alone, and reserves for the battle of ideas, and for his un- 
ceasing creation, all his forces, all his energy." 

This description was written at the end of the war, when the sus- 
ceptible artist's imagination was oppressed by the clouds of tragic 
events. The Pause del Silenzio and the Ditirambo tragico are of the war 
period. He was alone with his music in Asolo, in 1917, when retreating 
soldiers, pursued by an invading army, filled the little town with the 
terrible realities of warfare. It was with this experience upon him that 
Malipiero composed his neurotic mimed drama " Pantea," depicting 
" the struggle of a soul hurling itself into the strife for liberty, only to 
find after a thousand sufferings — Death and Oblivion." 

Malipiero has long survived the domination of this morose tendency, 
as the character of his subsequent works attest. The life of the younger 
man, both in external events and in his development as an artist, must 
be described as troubled. There was a decided musical strain in the 
family: his grandfather was an operatic composer, his father a pianist, 
his two brothers — a violinist and a 'cellist. Francesco studied the vio- 
lin from the age of six, and was often forced to play with his father in 
small orchestras, when misfortunes beset the Malipieros. Forced into 
[22] 



a roving life from childhood, Malipiero nevertheless managed, with the 
help of an interested benefactor, to get a good education in Vienna, 
where he lived for several years. He returned to his native Venice in 
1899, and completed his musical training under Enrico Bossi. 

Malipiero in the early century was a profuse composer — a composer 
moreover in rebellion against the facile operatic practices of his day 
— the " insipid sentimentality and perfunctory psychology," as Guido 
Gatti called them with more truth than kindness — " of clever crafts- 
men who pander to the deteriorating taste of the multitude." Mali- 
piero, writing for the stage, avoided these pitfalls by such a very wide 
margin, that the fastidious artist found himself quite at odds with the 
public to whom Puccini or Mascagni were entirely acceptable. His 
operas were consistently booed in Rome, and the now forgotten epithet 
" futurist " was heard on all sides. Unfortunately, among the doubters 
was — Malipiero himself. As a stylist, he was ambulatory, inquisitive; as 
a listener to musical currents, too vividly impressionable for a saving 
stability. Each new work tended to cast a shadow of doubt upon his last, 
and a number of his early scores, wisely or unwisely, were destroyed by 
their maker. Notable survivals of the pre-war sacrifices are the two 
sets of nature pictures; " Impressioni dal Veto" and the "Pause del 
silenzio." 

Years before the general harking back to early models, Malipiero im- 
mersed himself in the Italian cantatas of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, editing and publishing works of Benedetto Marcello, Emilio 
del Cavaliere, Galuppi, Tartini, and Jomelli. He has re-studied the 
Orfeo of Luigi Rossi, all the dramatic works of Claudio Monteverde. 
The Sette Canzoni are settings in dramatic form of Italian poems of the 
14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. They are linked, under the title of 
" L'Orfeide" with two other dramas, "La morte delle maschere" and 
" Orfeo." A devoted exponent of the natural spoken inflection of his 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Projessor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[23] 



language, Malipiero endeavored to combine it with music without dis- 
tortion. Influenced, perhaps, by Debussy's " Pelleas," he wrote a musi- 
cal background for Goldoni's " Le Baruffe Chiozzotte/' to be played to 
the spoken text. In his drama " San Francesco d' Assist/' he has delved 
as far back as the mystery play, cultivating an exceeding simplicity. A 
String Quartet, " Rispetti e strambotti" won the Elizabeth Coolidge 
Prize of 1920. The opera, "La Favola del Figlio Cambriato" ("The 
Legend of the Substituted Son ") to the libretto of Luigi Pirandello, 
after being successfully produced in Brunswick, January 13, 1934, and 
repeated at Darmstadt, was mounted in Rome last March, only to be 
withdrawn after two performances. The withdrawal was by order of 
Premier Mussolini, who found in the extreme individualism of com- 
poser and poet, " moral incongruity." A motive not officially given, but 
divined by Raymond Hall, correspondent from Rome to the New York 
Times (May 13, 1934) , was "ridicule of royalty and state authority." 

" The evolution of Malipiero," wrote Jean-Aubry (in the London 
Musical Times, January, 1919) , " has revealed itself without eclat, logi- 
cally and profoundly. His nature has become more and more concen- 
trated. His tendencies direct him unceasingly towards an economy of 
means which leaves nothing to chance but which gives no impression 
of painful restraint. His personality is attractive in its combination of 
ardor and abandon, of austerity and grace, of feeling and reason. — 
Malipiero's music is in no sense systematic, being given neither to ex- 
asperating harmonics nor to repeated rhythmic singularities. It utilizes 
the newest or the oldest forms according to the necessities of feeling. 
Turn by turn, the melody is light, frail, or concentrated. . . . The 
Italian critic Guido M. Gatti clearly perceived this when he described 
Malipiero as ' the classic ideal of a restless, romantic spirit.' Indeed, he 
has a soul as ardent as that of Schuman or of Chopin, which however 
seeks to express itself by a means as concentrated and as terse as the 
music of Monteverde." 

Guido Gatti calls him " a proud, solitary personality, indifferent to 
immediate success and contemptuous of convention, content to wait 
for those who will strive to understand him." And Prunieres frees him 
from stylistic classification: " The harmonic style of Malipiero differs 
from that of Schonberg, or of Stravinsky, or Casella, in that he never 
gives the impression of deliberateness, or of adherence to a system. The 
dissonances are the result of a very free polyphony. Malipiero does not 
hesitate to have recourse to the most consonant chords when he con- 
siders it necessary. At the same time, he is the slave of no model system 
and never seeks, as does Schonberg, to keep himself aloof from all defi- 
nite tonality. He uses largely of the treasures of the ancient modes, 
exotic or modern, without any other preoccupation than that of ex- 
pressing his ideas in a form as concrete as possible." 

[24] 



The carefully chosen words of Malipiero's most eloquent spokesman 
do not reveal his point of view more clearly than the words he himself 
has written. Protesting (in Modern Music, January, 1929) the tre- 
mendous vogue of certain music hall songs, he says: " Music is a deli- 
cate art; demoralized by vulgarity it falls into the deepest pit of degra- 
dation. It is really time to end this confusion; let us stop calling certain 
productions of sound by the name of music." J. N. B. 



CONCERTO IN E MAJOR, FOR VIOLIN 
By Johann Sebastian Bach 

Born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died at Leipzig, July 28, 1750 



This Concerto in E major is for solo violin, two violins, viola, and 
continue The first movement is an Allegro, E major, 2-2 (or, as 
some editions have it, 4-4) . The second movement is an Adagio in 
C-sharp minor, 3-4, and the third is an Allegro assai in E major, 3-8. 
Manuscript copies of the parts made by Hering, a score manuscript, 
and a score made by Zelter are in the Royal Museum at Berlin. Until 
the fifties of the nineteenth century these manuscripts belonged to the 
Singakademie, Berlin, and this concerto was often played there. Zelter 
added the directions " solo," " tutti." One of the scores bears the title: 
" Violino concertato; violino primo, violino secondo, viola, basso e 
violoncello." 

The concerto was probably written during Bach's stay at Cothen 
(1717-23) , whither he was called from Weimar to be chapel-master 
to Prince Leopold, of Anhalt-Cothen. The prince was then nearly 
twenty-four years old, an amiable young man, who played the violin, 
the viol da gamba, and the harpsichord. He had an agreeable bass voice, 
and of him Bach said: " He loved music, he was well acquainted with 
it, he understood it." 

Bach was interested in the violin before he dwelt in Cothen. He 
began to study it with his father, Johann Ambrosius, who died in 1695; 
and in 1703, as court musician in the private orchestra of Prince Johann 
Ernst, brother of the reigning Duke of Weimar, he was for some months 
first violinist, until he went to Arnstadt, to be organist of the new 
church. During his stay at Weimar (1708-17) , if Forkel is to be be- 
lieved, Bach arranged for the harpsichord sixteen of Vivaldi's violin 
concertos, for the organ, four violin concertos of the same master; and 
Bach's concerto in A minor for four harpsichords is an arrangement of 
Vivaldi's concerto in B minor for four solo violins. About 1912 the au- 
thenticity of Bach's transcriptions of the concertos for the organ was 
strenuously denied. For the concertos of Italian composers were then 

[ 25 ] 



the best, and it was the fashion to transcribe them for keyed instru- 
ments. Walther transcribed concertos by Albinoni, Manzia, Gentili, 
Torelli, Taglietti, Gregori; and Bach took themes and sometimes bor- 
rowed more extensively from Legrenzi and Albinoni, as well as from 
Vivaldi. P. H. 



VIOLA MITCHELL 



Viola Mitchell was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., on July 11, 1911. She 
began to play in concerts at the age of six and appeared with sev- 
eral orchestras in this country, playing concertos of Mendelssohn, Bruch, 
Saint-Saens, and Bach. She also gave recitals as a child violinist. Miss 
Mitchell was trained in the tradition of Sevcik and Auer, for she studied 
with a pupil of these masters. She went to Europe at the age of 14, and 
stayed in Brussels for three years as the youngest pupil of Eugene Ysaye. 
She made her European debut with orchestra at the age of 16 in Brus- 
sels, playing concertos of Mozart, Brahms and Ysaye. 

For two seasons, 1932 to 1934, Miss Mitchell has toured Europe, ap- 
pearing with the Paris Symphony Orchestra, the Concertgebouw in 
Amsterdam, and other orchestras in Belgium, Germany, Italy and 
France. She played the Concerto of Malipiero in its first performance 
in Amsterdam, and likewise played it at the Augusteo in Rome, and in 
Venice. She is now beginning her first season in this country as an 
adult artist. 

Miss Mitchell performed Malipiero's Concerto for Violin for the 
first time in this country with the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Sym- 
phony Hall, Boston, December 7th. 



SYMPHONY IN E MINOR, NO. 4, Op. 98 

By Johannes Brahms 
Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897 



The Brahms of 1885, surrounded by admiring friends, revered every- 
where by virtue of his first three symphonies, had every reason to 
rest secure in a foregone acceptance of his Fourth, which he completed 
that summer. Yet there are signs that the composer who, after many 
a " Konzertwinter," knew a thing or two about his public as well as his 
music, was far from easy in his mind about the coming performance. 
He undoubtedly realized that most people, missing certain bright and 
immediately engaging qualities which had won them to the Second 

[26] 



and Third, would be disappointed at the rather sombre hues, the more 
massive and stately beauties this one contained. He must further have 
known that the bulk of its intricate workmanship was bound to be but 
dimly comprehended for a long time. 

Even the inner circle, skilled musicians as they were, shook their 
heads rather dubiously over the new score, and when Brahms, with 
Ignatz Brull played his usual two pianoforte version to some friends 
in Vienna before the public performance, Hanslick is said to have 
" sighed heavily " after the first movement, and remarked, with cheer- 
ful bluntness: " Really, you know, it sounds to me like two tremen- 
dously witty people quarrelling! " Brahms cautiously entrusted it to the 
friendly atmosphere of Meiningen and Billows' ducal orchestra for the 
first performance. He was glad to take advantage of Bulow's offer of 
his orchestra for trial rehearsal, and wrote to him: " I have often while 
composing (the symphony) , had a pleasing vision of rehearsing it in 
a nice leisurely way — a vision that I still have, although I wonder 
whether it will ever have any other audience! I rather fear it has been 
influenced by this climate, where the cherries never ripen. You would 
never touch them! " Brahms, as we shall see, was right in fearing that 
his symphony would scarcely take its first hearers by storm. 

In these weeks of doubt, Brahms must have been heartened by the 
knowledge that one of his friends at least divined the essential beauties 
of his Fourth Symphony. It was Elisabet von Herzogenberg, whom he 
had delighted in keeping in a state of mystified anticipation before each 
of his previous symphonies was performed. For once this adroit lady 
coaxed from him the fragmentary manuscript of a symphony still in 
the process of composition. Their correspondence on the subject is un- 
usually interesting, for never before had Brahms been led into a long 
interchange of letters on an uncompleted score. Her enthusiastic letters 
must have been heartening to the composer, for her quick, intuitive 
grasp of the inner qualities of the difficult manuscript was matched by 
her tact in admitting those points which perplexed her. When Frau 
Herzogenberg at last heard the symphony (by the Berlin Philharmonic 
under Joachim, January 1886) , she wrote of her final preference for the 
Andante. 

' ' It is one of the most affecting things I know, and, indeed, I should 
choose this movement for my companion through life and in death. It 
is all melody from first to last, increasing in beauty as one presses for- 
ward; it is a walk through exquisite scenery at sunset, when the colors 
deepen and the crimson glows to purple." 

Of the first performance, at Meiningen, Florence May has often been 
quoted to show that the work took at once with the public. She wrote 
that the " new symphony was enthusiastically received," that " unsuc- 

[27] 



To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



The plan of inviting enrollments to a society known as 
the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra has 
resulted in enrollments to date of over i ,000 with con- 
tributions totalling approximately $45,000, or one-half of the 
estimated requirements of the Orchestra for this year. New 
York and Brooklyn have been so loyal as to participate to the 
extent of 10% of the number enrolled and 3 l / 2 % of the amount 
contributed. 

For this mark of approval and friendly cooperation in pro- 
viding for the necessary financial requirements of the Orches- 
tra I desire to express sincere thanks. 

I confidently believe that there are many more who will care 
to accept the present opportunity through membership in the 
Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra to join those who 
have already responded so splendidly in making the future of 
the Orchestra secure. 

As one of our contributors so aptly writes, " To exist we 
need, may be, a New Deal or some kind of an ' ism,' but to live 
we need music and the fine things that are collected in Art 
Museums. These things tell us that life is worth while." 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 

For the convenience of those who may desire to enroll as Friends 
of the Orchestra a subscription blank has been inserted in this 
programme book. 



[28] 



Carnegie Hall • JSeto §orfe 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Friday Evening, February i, at 8:45 

Saturday Afternoon, February 2, a* 2:30 



[29 



cessful efforts were made by the audience to obtain a repetition of the 
third movement," and that the close " was followed by the emphatic 
demonstration incident to a great success." Against this is the evidence 
of Frederic Lamond, a living eye-witness, who wrote in the Berlin 
Vossiche Zeitung (October 5, 1933) that the symphony " brought little 
applause." There is every indication that the E minor symphony was 
not clearly understood for a long while. A new symphony by Brahms 
was at that time considered an event, the more so when the revered 
composer conducted it. The crusading Biilow improved the occasion by 
repeating it at Meiningen, by taking his orchestra and the composer 
himself up and down the Rhine with it, and into Holland. The first 
performance in Vienna (on January 17, under Richter) caused a stir, 
and Billroth gave a dinner to Brahms and his friends. But though the 
Viennese applauded and praised the eminent musician who had dwelt 
among them for thirty years past, the symphony, according to Miss May 
" did not reach the hearts of the Vienna audience in the same unmis- 
takable manner as its two immediate predecessors." The unfrivolous 
Leipzig, which had held off from the " two predecessors," took at once 
to the Fourth, and the critic Vogl smiled upon the finale for the " spirit 
of Bach " that was in it. Hamburg (where the symphony was heard on 
April 9) was of course proud of her native son, and the critic Josef 
Sittard of that city praised the symphony as "of monumental signifi- 
cance," basing his award on the doubtful virtue of its " rigorous and 
even grim earnestness." 

That orchestras found the E minor a formidable task is indicated 
by the fact that Wilhelm Gericke, who had secured the score for its first 
American performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on Novem- 
ber 29, 1886, was forced to postpone the event for further rehearsal, 
meanwhile yielding the honor to Dr. Leopold Damrosch, who played it 
in New York, December 11. Miss May, writing her book twenty years 
later, can only claim for Brahms' last symphony that it has the highest 
regard of musicians, that it has " been growing slowly into general 
knowledge and favor, and will, it may be safely predicted, become still 
more deeply rooted in its place amongst the composer's most widely 
valued works." 

Still more time has passed; the " remote " Brahms, the " unapproach- 
able " Brahms has somehow vanished into history or oblivion, and an 
audience, quite unconcerned with technical intricacies, sit before the 
once dread symphony in anticipation of the true grandeur, the direct 
poetry, the fine sobriety of mellowed coloring which are characteristic 
of the composer's riper years. 

The following analysis was made by Felix Borowski: 
[30] 



I. (Allegro non troppo, E minor, 2-2 time.) The principal subject is announced 
at once by the violins. After this theme has been presented, a sequence of scale-like 
passages is brought forward in the violas, and successively in the woodwind instru- 
ments, and portions of the principal subject are worked over in the strings. A 
marked, emphatic figure — the second theme — now makes its appearance in the 
woodwind and horns, and this is succeeded by a second section given to the violon- 
cellos and horns (pizzicato in the violins), the melody being taken up later by the 
first and second violins in octaves. The first section of the theme is given further 
hearing. There is no repetition of the first part of the movement, and the Develop- 
ment begins with a working out of the principal theme, eight measures of which 
are repeated exactly as they stood at the beginning of the work. Nearly all this 
section of the movement is concerned with the development of the principal theme 
and the first section of the second subject. The Recapitulation which follows is con- 
structed in the orthodox fashion. The principal theme does not begin exactly as 
before, the first four measures of it having been varied. The second subject, in two 
sections, as in the first part of the movement, now appears in E minor. The coda 
is constructed from the material of the principal theme. 

II. (Andante moderato, E major, 6-8 time.) Two horns announce the motive of 
the first subject of the movement, these being reinforced in the second and third 
measures by the flutes, oboes and clarinets. The subject begins in the fifth measure 
with the melody in the clarinet (pizzicato in the strings) . The second theme, in B 
major, presents itself in the violoncellos, thirty-seven measures after the first has 
been announced. This is developed at some length, and the first subject returns in 
the strings with a moving figure against it in the wind. Elaboration of this takes 
place, following which the second subject — now in E — is set forth by the first vio- 
lins. A short coda is founded on the opening theme. 

III. (Allegro giocoso, C major, 2-4 time.) This is, in reality, the scherzo of the 
symphony, although it is not so named on the score. The principal theme is an- 
nounced at once by the full orchestra. The second subject, in G major, is heard in 
the first violins, the rhythmical figure or its accompaniment suggesting the outline 
of the opening subject of the first movement. Development of the principal subject 
now takes place, and following it there sets in the Recapitulation. In this the princi- 
pal subject is modified at the beginning, the first ten bars having been changed. The 
second theme (first violins and oboe) appears in C major. A long and brilliant coda 
is built on the material of the principal theme. 

IV. (Allegro energico e passionato, E minor, 3-4 time.) The finale of the E minor 
symphony is not cast in the rondo or sonata form peculiar to the closing movements 
of other symphonies, but it is a passacaglia, in which a theme of eight bars is given 
thirty-two variations. 

The musical wisemen of the time were not unnaturally agog to find 
that Brahms had taken from Bach so rigid and constricted a form as the 
passacaglia, and had calmly broken all symphonic precedent by using 
it for a finale. Brahms accomplished the impossible by repeating his 
stately eight bar theme (first nobly intoned by the trombones) through 
many variations, with scarcely an extra transitional bar, and yet avoid- 
ing all sense of patchiness or tedious reiteration. That the movement 
shows never a "joint," but is broadly, majestically fluent, that it pro- 
gresses with the variety, the sweep of a symphonic form, is attributable 
to Brahms' particular craftiness in the manipulation of voices and har- 
monic color. Brahms' first apostles feared lest the details of this struc- 
tural marvel be lost upon the general public. Joachim, first introducing 
the symphony to Berlin (February 1, 1886) announced the last move- 
ment as " variations," and had the theme printed in the programme. 

[31] 



On early Boston Symphony Programmes the movement appears as 
Ciaconna* In assuming that the listener would find the movement as 
a whole too much for him, the scholars may have underrated both 
Brahms and his public. The composer, as the Leipzig critic Vogl astutely 
remarked after the first performance there, " kept its contrapuntal learn- 
ing subordinate to its poetic contents." If the Quintet from Die Meister- 
singer or the finale of the Jupiter Symphony were to the uninitiated 
nothing clearer than a tangle of counterpoint, then Wagner and Mozart 
would be far lesser composers than they are. Just so, the broad lines of 
the Cathedral at Milan are not obscured to the general vision by its 
profusion of detail. Nor does the layman miss the nobility and sweep 
of Brahms' tonal architecture. J. N. B. 



* The difference between a passacaglia and a chaconne is a rare subject for hair-splitting. 
No doubt a goodly array of weighty opinions could be assembled to establish, on the one 
hand, that Brahms' finale is indubitably a passacaglia, and a no less learned case could be 
made that it is beyond all dispute a chaconne. A plausible argument for the latter is made 
by Dr. Percy Goetschius, in his "Analytic Symphony Series ": "The Finale is a chaconne," 
Dr. Goetschius begins, confidently. " Brahms gave it no name, and it has been called by some 
writers a Passacaglia. This uncertainty is not strange, since those two old Dances were 
almost identical, and their titles are usually considered interchangeable. Still, there are 
several traits which assign this a place in the category of the chaconnes: (1) The fact that 
the theme is conceived, not as a bass (" ostinato "), but as a melody, and is placed often in 
the upper voice; (2) the exclusively homophonic texture of the variations; (3) the frequent, and 
not unimportant alteration of the endings of the theme. In a word, selecting Bach as arbiter, 
this set of variations is closer akin to Bach's Chaconne for Solo Violin, than to his great 
Passacaglia for the Organ." 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Mrs. Charles Adams White 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

Steinway Bldg., New York 105 Revere St., Boston 

Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 Tel. Capitol 6745 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: Trowbridge 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[3*1 



An Audience 
worth cultivating 



Because it reaches an audience of unusual potenti- 
ality, The Boston Symphony Orchestra Bul- 
letin is a most effective medium — for a limited 
number of advertisers. 

This audience is composed of people of taste, cul- 
ture and means. They are interested, essentially, 
in the better things of life. They can, and do, pur- 
chase generously — but discriminately. 

The descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, 
foremost of critics, and Mr. John N. Burk, 
secure for the Bulletin a place among works 
of reference and gives to it an unusual per- 
manence. 

If your product — or service — will appeal to this 
discriminating audience 

Write for Rates 
Address 

GEORGE M. MASON 

130 West 42d Street 
New York City 



L. S. B. Jefferds, Adv. Mgr. 
Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 



Carnegie ||aU • J^eto J9 rfe 




Friday Evening, February 1, at 8:45 
Saturday Afternoon, February 2, at 2:30 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




EEC US, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, II. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert --mas 


ter 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, 


J- 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PIN1TELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GOROD1.TZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, II. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUIIAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERCEN, C. 


WERNER, II. 


AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 


GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGIIERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


M ARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, II. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRAN KEF, 1. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


polatschek, v. 


LA US, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. E!> Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


battles, a. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, G. 




YALKENIER, W. 


mager, g. 


raichman, j. 


MACDONALD, w 




LAN NO YE, M. 


laeosse, m. 


hansotte, l. 


VAIKFNIER, W. 




SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLI BACK, W. 


GEBHARDT, W. 




LORBEER, h. 


VOISIN, R. 
MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGIIERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


sternburg, s. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


white, l. 
arcierf, f. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



Carnegie 3£all • J^eto gorfe 

Forty-ninth Season in New York 
FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INCORPORATED 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 

Concert Bulletin of the 
Third Concert 

FRIDAY EVENING, February 1, at 8:45 

AND THE 

Third Matinee 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, February 2, at 2:30 

with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

hi 








The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 

... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. . . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts. ...One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 

• J-L COPLEY-PLAZA &•***. • 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



[2] 



Carnegie ^all • Jleto gorfe 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD EVENING CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, February i, at 8:45 o'clock 



Programme 

Haydn Symphony in G Major, No. 88 (B. & 

H. No. 13) 
1. adagio; allegro 

II. LARGO 
III. MENUETTO; TRIO 

iv. finale: allegro con spirito 

Togh "Big Ben," Variation Fantasy on the 

Westminster Chimes 

(First performance in New York) 

INTERM ISSION 

Strauss Tone Poem, "Thus Spake Zarathustra" 

(freely after Friedrich Nietzsche), Op. 30 

The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

[3] 



SYMPHONY IN G MAJOR, NO. 88 (B. & H. NO. 13) 

By Joseph Haydn 
Born at Rohrau, Lower Austria, March 31, 1732; died at Vienna, May 31, 1809 



Haydn wrote a set of six symphonies for a society in Paris known as 
the " Concert de la Loge Olympique." They were ordered in 1784, 
when Haydn was living at Esterhaz. Composed in the course of the years 
1784-89, they are in C, G minor, E-flat, B-flat, D, A. No. 1, in C, has been 
entitled " The Bear "; No. 2, in G minor, has been entitled " The Hen "; 
and No. 4, in B-flat, is known as " The Queen of France." The symphony 
played at this concert is the first of a second set, of which five were com- 
posed in 1787, 1788, 1790. If the sixth was written, it cannot now be 
identified. This one in G major was written in 1787,* and is numbered 
88 in the full and chronological listing of Mandyczewski (given in 
Grove's Dictionary) . 

I. The first movement opens with a short, slow introduction, adagio, 
G major, 3-4 which consists for the most part of strong staccato chords 
which alternate with softer passages. The main body of the movement 
allegro, G major, begins with the first theme, a dainty one, announced 
piano by the strings without double-basses and repeated forte by the 
full orchestra with a new counter-figure in the bass. A subsidiary theme 
is but little more than a melodic variation of the first. So, too, the short 
conclusion — theme — in oboes and bassoon, then in the strings — is only 
a variation of the first. The free fantasia is long for the period, and is 
contrapuntally elaborate. There is a short coda on the first theme. 

II. Largo, D major, 3-4. A serious melody is sung by oboe and violon- 
cellos to an accompaniment of violas, double-basses, bassoon, and horn. 
The theme is repeated with a richer accompaniment; while the first 
violins have a counter-figure. After a transitional passage the theme is 
repeated by a fuller orchestra, with the melody in first violins and flute, 
then in the oboe and violoncello. The development is carried along on 
the same lines. There is a very short coda. 

III. The Menuetto, allegretto, G major, 3-4, with trio, is in the regu- 
lar minuet form in its simplest manner. 

IV. The Finale, allegro con spirito, G major, 2-4, is a rondo on the 
theme of a peasant country-dance, and it is fully developed. Haydn in 
his earlier symphonies adopted for the finale the form of his first move- 
ment. Later he preferred the rondo form, with its couplets and refrains, 
or repetitions of a short and frank chief theme. " In some finales of his 
last symphonies," says Brenet, " he gave freer reins to his fancy, and 
modified with greater independence the form of his first allegros; but 
his fancy, always prudent and moderate, is more like the clear, precise 

* It is " Letter V " in the catalogue of the London Philharmonic Society, No. 13 in the edition 
of Breitkopf & Hartel, No. 8 in that of Peters, No. 29 in that of Sieber, No. 58 in the list of 
copied scores of Haydn's symphonies in the library of the Paris Conservatory of Music. 

[4] 



arguments of a great orator than the headlong inspiration of a poet. 
Moderation is one of the characteristics of Haydn's genius; modera- 
tion in the dimensions, in the sonority, in the melodic shape; the liveli- 
ness of his melodic thought never seems extravagant, its melancholy 
never induces sadness." 

The symphony is scored for flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two 
horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. 

P. H. 



"BIG BEN," VARIATION FANTASY ON THE 
WESTMINSTER CHIMES 

By Ernst Toch 

Born at Vienna on December 7, 1887; now living in New York 



When Ernst Toch arrived in New York last September, he spoke 
to a writer for the New York Times of his " Westminster Fantasy " 
which " was conceived one shrouded cloudy midnight near the Parlia- 
ment Buildings in London." 

It now appears that Dr. Toch, after mentally shaping this score dur- 
ing his recent sojourn in London, did the actual writing of it in New 
York — a fact which is borne out by the same article in the New York 
Times: " Dr. Toch scores his works, whether for orchestra, quartet or 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Dltson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

[5] 



piano, in their final form without preliminary sketches; a method which 
implies an inner ear of remarkable exactness and an immense instru- 
mental knowledge." 

The composer has kindly provided the following paragraph about 
his Variation Fantasy: 

" The suggestion for ' Big Ben ' came to me during my stay in Lon- 
don in the winter of 1933-34. Once on a foggy night, while I was cross- 
ing Westminster Bridge, the familiar chimes struck the full hour. The 
theme lingered in my imagination for a long while, and evolved into 
other forms, somehow still connected with the original one, until fi- 
nally, like the chimes themselves, it seemed to disappear into the fog 
from which it had emerged. I have sought to fix this impression in my 
Variation Fantasy. The piece was actually written later in New York, in 
October and November, 1934." 

The composer uses a large variety of percussive instruments to gain 
his ends. The instrumentation includes: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 
English horn, 2 clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-flat, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
4 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 bass tuba, timpani, low chimes (E-D-C-G) , 
small chimes, large drum, side drum, cymbals, xylophone, triangle, cas- 
tanets, 2 different small Chinese wood drums, tarn tarn, celesta, harp 
and strings. 

The score opens and closes with the full Westminster chimes to a 
background of violin figures, and finally to a roll of the timpani and 
small drums. There are sections in contrasted tempi suggesting varia- 
tions, but after the theme is fully stated by the strings in the first 
(Vivace) it recurs only in fragmentary fashion. Different instruments 
give one of the " quarters," but with rhythmic or other embellish- 
ment of the essential notes. The listed tempi (andantino — scherzando 
leggiero — slower, free — molto tranquillo) suggest the course of the 
variation fantasia. 

Ernst Toch was born December 7, 1887, in Vienna of a mercantile 
family in which there seems to have been no musical strain whatsoever. 
The first signs of musical talent naturally passed unnoticed in the boy, 
who learned the notation of music by standing near the piano while 
his friends at school played. Ernst Toch made attempts at musical com- 
position despite the discouraging attitude of his parents, and was com- 
pelled to spend his pocket money secretly in buying classical scores in 
which Mozart's chamber music seems to have predominated. 

While still in High School at the age of sixteen, Toch contrived to 
study at the Vienna Conservatory, but he had already mastered the ele- 
ments of the art by his own efforts. One of his friends showed an early 
quartet in A minor to the Rose Quartette in Vienna, and the famous 
protagonists of Schoenberg's music played this and later others. Toch 
[6] 



was constrained on graduation from high school to study medicine for 
two years, but a Mozart scholarship which he received in 1909 enabled 
him to attend the Conservatory at Frankfort am Main where he studied 
piano with Professor Willy Rehberg. 

Toch became teacher at the Mannheim Hochschule fur Musik, and 
composed a number of works. When the war came he saw long and ac- 
tive service in the Austrian infantry on both the Italian and Russian 
fronts. He was married while on furlough in 1916. Returning after the 
war to his position at Mannheim, he soon attained a considerable repu- 
tation as a composer. His works include a large amount of chamber 
music, also orchestral music and concertos. He has written several 
operas and incidental stage music. He left Germany about a year ago, 
and made his residence in England. He is now teaching in the New 
School for Social Research, in New York. 

Dr. Toch's Piano Concerto Opus 38 was played at these concerts 

(Jesus Maria Sanroma, pianist) on December 28, 1928, and again on 

March 25, 1932, when the composer, then making his first visit to 

America, appeared as soloist. Toch's Bunte Suite Opus 28 had its first 

American performance on the latter programme. 

J. N. B. 



TONE POEM, "THUS SPAKE ZARATHUSTRA " (FREELY 
AFTER FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE) , Op. 30 

By Richard Strauss 
Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living at Vienna 



The full title of this composition is "Also sprach Zarathustra, Ton- 
dichtung (frei nach Friedrich Nietzsche) fiir grosses Orchester." 
Composition was begun at Munich, February 4, 1896, and completed 
there August 24, 1896. The first performance was at Frankfort-on-the- 

■ 



These bars of music 
are taken from a well-known, 
composition by a great composer. 
Identify it . . . send the name, com- 
poser's name and movement 
number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Water St., N. Y. 
and receive a full half-pound of 

MARTINSON'S COFFEE 

Absolutely Free 




A great chef or a great musician — each 





needs inspiration. Martinson's Coffee does 




for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 

[7] 



Main, November 27, of the same year. The composer conducted, and 
also at Cologne, December 1.* 

Friedrich Nietzsche conceived the plan to his " Thus spake Zara- 
thustra: A Book for All and None" in August, 1881, as he was walk- 
ing through the woods near the Silvaplana Lake in the Engadine, and 
saw a huge, tower-like crag. He completed the first part in February, 
1883, at Rapallo, near Genoa; he wrote the second part in Sils Maria 
in June and July, the third part in the following winter at Nice, and 
the fourth part, not then intended to be the last, but to serve as an 
interlude, from November, 1884, till February, 1885, at Men tone. Nie- 
tzsche never published this fourth part; it was printed for private cir- 
culation, and not publicly issued till after he became insane. The whole 
of " Zarathustra " was published in 1892. A translation into English 
by Alexander Tille, Ph.D., lecturer at the University of Glasgow, was 
published in 1896, and the quotations in this article are from Dr. Tille's 
translation. A revised translation by T. Common, with introduction 
and commentary by A. M. Ludovici, was published by T. N. Foulis 
(Edinburgh and London, 1909) . 

Nietzsche's Zarathustra is by no means the historical or legendary 
Zoroaster, mage, leader, warrior, king. The Zarathustra of Nietzsche 
is Nietzsche himself, with his views on life and death. Strauss's opera 
" Gun tram " (1894) showed the composer's interest in the book. Be- 
fore the tone-poem was performed, this programme was published: 
" First movement: Sunrise. Man feels the power of God. Andante 
religioso. But man still longs. He plunges into passion (second move- 
ment) and finds no peace. He turns towards science, and tries in vain 
to solve life's problem in a fugue (third movement) . Then agreeable 
dance tunes sound and he becomes an individual, and his soul soars 
upward while the world sinks far beneath him." But Strauss gave this 
explanation to Otto Florsheim: " I did not intend to write philosophi- 
cal music or to portray in music Nietzsche's great work. I meant to 
convey by means of music an idea of the development of the human 
race from its origin, through the various phases of its development, 
religious and scientific, up to Nietzsche's idea of the Superman. The 
whole symphonic poem is intended as my homage to Nietzsche's genius, 
which found its greatest exemplification in his book, ' Thus spake 
Zarathustra.' " 

" Thus spake Zarathustra " is scored for piccolo, three flutes (one 
interchangeable with a second piccolo) , three oboes, English horn, two 
clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-flat, bass clarinet, three bassoons, 
double-bassoon, six horns, four trumpets, three trombones, two bass 

* The Philharmonic Orchestra of Berlin, led by Arthur Nikisch, produced it in Berlin, No- 
vember 30. The first performance in England was at the Crystal Palace, March 6, 1897. Theo- 
dore Thomas's Orchestra gave two performances in Chicago early in 1897. The first performance 
in Boston was at a Boston Symphony Orchestra concert, led by Emil Paur, October 30, 1897. 
The most recent performance at these concerts was March 10, 1933. 

[8] 



tubas, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, Glockenspiel, a low 
bell in E, two harps, organ, sixteen first violins, sixteen second violins, 
twelve violas, twelve violoncellos, eight double-basses. 

On a fly-leaf of a score is printed the following excerpts from 
Nietzsche's book, the first section of " Zarathustra's Introductory 
Speech ": - 

" Having attained the age of thirty, Zarathustra left his home and the lake 
of his home and went into the mountains. There he rejoiced in his spirit and his 
loneliness, and for ten years did not grow weary of it. But at last his heart turned — 
one morning he got up with the dawn, stepped into the presence of the Sun and 
thus spake unto him: ' Thou great star! What would be thy happiness,, were it not 
for those whom thou shinest? For ten years thou hast come up here to rny cave. Thou 
wouldst have got sick of thy light and thy journey but for me, mine eagle and my 
serpent. But we waited for thee every morning and receiving from thee thine 
abundance, blessed thee for it. Lo! I am weary of my wisdom, like the bee that 
hath collected too much honey; I need hands reaching out for it. I would fain grant 
and distribute until the wise among men could once more enjoy their folly, and the 
poor once more their riches. For that end I must descend to the depth; as thou dost 
at even, when sinking behind the sea, thou givest light to the lower regions, thou 
resplendent star! I must, like thee, go down,* as men say — men to whom I would 
descend. Then bless me, thou impassive eye, that canst look without envy even 
upon over-much happiness. Bless the cup which is about to overflow, so that the 
water golden-flowing out of it may carry everywhere the reflection of thy rapture. 
Lo! this cup is about to empty itself again, and Zarathustra will once more become 
a man.' — Thus Zarathustra's going down began." 

This prefatory note in Strauss's tone-poem is not a " programme " 
of the composition itself. It is merely an introduction. The sub-captions 
of the composer in the score indicate that the music after the short 
musical introduction begins where the quotation ends. 

Zarathustra stepped down from the mountains. After strange talk 
with an old hermit he arrived at a town where many were gathered in 
the market-place, for a rope dancer had promised a performance. 

And Zarathustra thus spake unto " the folk: / teach you beyond man.-f Man is a 
something that shall be surpassed. 

. . . " ' What with man is the ape? A joke or a sore shame. Man shall be the 
same for beyond-man, a joke or a sore shame. Ye have made your way from worm 
to man and much within you is still worm. Once ye were apes, even now man is 
ape in a higher degree than any ape. He who is the wisest among you is but a discord 
and hybrid of plant and ghost. . . . Beyond-man is the significance of earth. . . . 
I conjure you, my brethren, remain faithful to earth and do not believe those who 
speak unto you of superterrestrial hopes! . . . Once soul looked contemptuously 
upon body; that contempt then being the highest ideal, soul wished the body meagre, 
hideous, starved. Thus soul thought it could escape body and earth. Oh! that soul was 
itself meagre, hideous, starved; cruelty was the lust of that soul! But ye also, my 
brethren, speak; what telleth your body of your soul? Is your soul not poverty and 
dirt and a miserable ease? Verily a muddy sea is man. One must be a sea to be 
able to receive a muddy stream without becoming unclean. Behold I teach you 
beyond-man; he is that sea, in him your great contempt can sink. . . . Man is a 

* Mr. Apthorp to his translation, " Like thee I must ' go down,' as men call it," added a 
note: "The German word is ' untergehen '; literally to go below." It means both "to per- 
ish " and " to set " (as the sun sets). — P. H. 

t " Overman," or, as George Bernard Shaw prefers, " Superman." Muret and Sanders define 
the word " Uebermensch ": "Demigod, superhuman being, man without a model and with- 
out a shadow; godlike man." — P. H. 

[9] 



tope connecting animal and beyond-mari — a rope over a precipice. Dangerous over, 
dangerous on-the-way, dangerous looking backward, dangerous shivering and mak- 
ing a stand. What is great in man is that he is a bridge not a goal; what can be 
loved in man is that he is a transition and a downfall. ... It is time for man to 
mark out his goal. It is time for man to plant the germ of his highest hope. His soul 
is still rich enough for that purpose. But one day that soil will be impoverished and 
tame, no high tree being any longer able to grow from it.' " 

" The scene of ' Thus spake Zarathustra,' " says Dr. Tille, " is laid, 
as it were, outside of time and space, and certainly outside of countries 
and nations, outside of this age, and outside of the main condition of 
all that lives — the struggle for existence. . . . There appear cities and 
mobs, kings and scholars, poets and cripples, but outside of their realm 
there is a province which is Zarathustra's own, where he lives in his 
cave amid the rocks, and whence he thrice goes to men to teach them 
his wisdom. This Nowhere and Nowhen, over which Nietzsche's im- 
agination is supreme, is a province of boundless individualism, in 
which a man of mark has free play, unfettered by the tastes and in- 
clinations of the multitude. . . . ' Thus spake Zarathustra ' is a kind 
of summary of the intellectual life of the nineteenth century, and it is 
on this fact that its principal significance rests. It unites in itself a 
number of mental movements which, in literature as well as in various 
sciences, have made themselves felt separately during the last hundred 
years, without going far beyond them. By bringing them into contact, 
although not always into uncontradictory relation, Nietzsche transfers 
them from mere existence in philosophy, or scientific literature in gen- 
eral, into the sphere or the creed of Weltanschauung of the educated 
classes, and thus his book becomes capable of influencing the views and 
strivings of a whole age." 

Zarathustra teaches men the deification of Life. He offers not Joy 
of life, for to him there is no such thing, but fulness of life, in the joy 
of the senses, " in the triumphant exuberance of vitality, in the pure, 
lofty naturalness of the antique, in short, in the fusion of God, world, 
and ego." ^^ 

There is a simple but impressive introduction, in which there is a 
solemn trumpet motive, which leads to a great climax for full orches- 
tra and organ on the chord of C major. There is this heading, " Von 
den Hinterweltlern " (Of the Dwellers in the Rear World) . These 
are they who sought the solution in religion. Zarathustra, too, had once 
dwelt in this rear-world. (Horns intone a solemn Gregorian " Credo.") 

" Then the world seemed to me the work of a suffering and tortured God. A 
dream then the world appeared to me, and a God's fiction; colored smoke before 
the eyes of a godlike discontented one. . . . Alas! brethren, that God whom I created 
was man's work and man's madness, like all Gods. Man he was, and but a poor 
piece of man and the I. From mine own ashes and flame it came unto me, that 
ghost, aye verily! It did not come unto me from beyond! What happened brethren? 
I overcame myself, the sufferer, and carrying mine own ashes unto the mountains 
invented for myself a brighter flame. And lo! the ghost departed from me." 

[10] 



The next heading is " Von der grossen Sehnsucht " (Of the Great 
Yearning) . This stands over an ascending passage in B minor in violon- 
cellos and bassoons, answered by woodwind instruments in chromatic 
thirds. 

..." O my soul, I understand the smile of thy melancholy. Thine over-great 
riches themselves now stretch out longing hands! . . . And, verily, O my soul! who 
could see thy smile and not melt into tears? Angels themselves melt into tears, be- 
cause of the over-kindness of thy smile. Thy kindness and over-kindness wanteth not 
to complain and cry! And yet, O my soul, thy smile longeth for tears, and thy 
trembling mouth longeth to sob. . . . Thou liketh better to smile than to pour out 
thy sorrow. . . . But if thou wilt not cry, nor give forth in tears thy purple melan- 
choly, thou wilt have to sing, O my soul! Behold, I myself smile who foretell such 
things unto thee. . . . O my soul, now I have given thee all, and even my last, and 
all my hands have been emptied by giving unto thee! My bidding thee sing, lo, 
that was the last thing I had! " 

The next section begins with a pathetic cantilena in C minor (sec- 
ond violins, oboes, horn) , and the heading is: " Von den Freuden und 
Leidenschaften " (Of Joys and Passions) . 

" Once having passions thou calledst them evil. Now, however, thou hast nothing 
but thy virtues: they grew out of thy passions. Thou laidest thy highest goal upon 
these passions: then they became thy virtues and delights. . . . My brother, if thou 
hast good luck, thou hast one virtue and no more; thus thou walkest more easily 
over the bridge. It is a distinction to have many virtues, but a hard lot; and many 
having gone to the desert killed themselves, because they were tired of being the 
battle and battlefields of virtues." 

" Grablied " (Grave Song) . The oboe has a tender cantilena over 
the Yearning motive in violoncellos and bassoons. 

" ' Yonder is the island of graves, the silent. Yonder also are graves of my youth. 
Thither will I carry an evergreen wreath of life.' Resolving this in my heart I went 
over the sea. Oh, ye, ye visions and apparitions of my youth! Oh, all ye glances of 
love, ye divine moments! How could ye die so quickly for me! This day I think of 
you as my dead ones. From your direction, my dearest dead ones, a sweet odour 
cometh unto me, an odour setting free heart and tears. . . . Still I am the richest, 
and he who is to be envied most — I, the loneliest! For I have had you, and ye have 
me still." . . . 

" Von der Wissenschaft " (Of Science) . The fugued passage be- 
gins with violoncellos and double-basses (divided) . The subject of this 
fugato contains all the diatonic and chromatic degrees of the scale, and 
the real responses to this subject come in successively a fifth higher. 

" Thus sang the wizard. And all who were there assembled, fell unawares like 
birds into the net of his cunning. . . . Only the conscientious one of the spirit had 
not been caught. He quickly took the harp from the wizard, crying: ' Air! Let good 
air come in! Let Zarathustra come in! Thou makest this cave sultry and poisonous, 
thou bad old wizard! Thou seducest, thou false one, thou refined one unto unknown 
desires and wilderness. . . . Alas, for all free spirits who are not on their guard 
against such wizards! Gone is their freedom. Thou teachest and thereby allurest back 
into prisons! We seem to be very different. And, verily, we spake and thought enough 
together ... to enable me to know we are different. We seek different things . . . 
ye and I. For I seek more security. . . . But, when I see the eyes ye make, methinketh 
almost ye seek more insecurity.' "... 

[»] 



Much farther on a passage in the strings, beginning in the violon- 
cellos and violas, arises from B minor. " Der Genesende " (The 
Convalescent) . 

" Zarathustra jumped up from his couch like a madman. He cried with a terrible 
voice, and behaved as if some one else was lying on the couch and would not get up 
from it. And so sounded Zarathustra's voice that his animals ran unto him in terror, 
and that from all caves and hiding places which were nigh unto Zarathustra's cave 
all animals hurried away ... he fell down like one dead, and remained like one 
dead. At last, after seven days, Zarathustra rose on his couch, took a rose apple in 
his hand, smelt it, and found its odour sweet. Then his animals thought the time 
had come for speaking unto him. . . . ' Speak not further, thou convalescent one! 
. . . but go out where the world waiteth for thee like a garden. Go out unto the 
roses and bees and flocks of doves! But especially unto the singing birds, that thou 
mayest learn singing from them. For singing is good for the convalescent; the healthy 
one may speak. And when the healthy one wanteth songs also, he wanteth other 
songs than the convalescent one. . . . For thy new songs, new lyres are requisite. 
Sing and foam over, O Zarathustra, heal thy soul with new songs, that thou mayest 
carry thy great fate that hath not yet been any man's fate! ' . . . Zarathustra . . . 
lay still with his eyes closed, like one asleep, although he did not sleep. For he was 
communing with his soul." 

" Tanzlied." The dance song begins with laughter in the woodwind. 

" One night Zarathustra went through the forest with his disciples, and when 
seeking for a well, behold! he came unto a green meadow which was surrounded 
by trees and bushes. There girls danced together. As soon as the girls knew Zara- 
thustra, they ceased to dance; but Zarathustra approached them with a friendly 
gesture and spake these words: ' Cease not to dance, ye sweet girls! ... I am the 
advocate of God in the presence of the devil. But he is the spirit of gravity. How 
could I, ye light ones, be an enemy unto divine dances? or unto the feet of girls with 
beautiful ankles? . . . He who is not afraid of my darkness findeth banks full of 
roses under my cypresses. . . . And I think he will also find the tiny God whom girls 
like the best. Beside the well he lieth, still with his eyes shut. Verily, in broad day- 
light he fell asleep, the sluggard! Did he perhaps try to catch too many butterflies? 
Be not angry with me, ye beautiful dancers, if I chastise a little the tiny God! True, 
he will probably cry and weep; but even when weeping he causeth laughter! And 
with tears in his eyes shall he ask you for a dance; and I myself shall sing a song 
unto his dance.' " 

" Nachtlied " (" Night Song ") . 

" Night it is: now talk louder all springing wells. 
And my soul also is a springing well. 

Night it is: now only awake all songs of the loving. 
And my soul also is a song of one loving. 

Something never stilled, never to be stilled, is within me 
Which longs to sing aloud; 

A longing for love is within me, 

Which itself speaks the language of love. 

Night it is." 

" Nachtwanderlied " (" The Song of the Night Wanderer," though 
Nietzsche in later editions changed the title to " The Drunken Song ") . 
The song comes after a fortissimo stroke of the bell, and the bell, sound- 
ing twelve times, dies away softly. 

[12] 



" Sing now yourselves the song whose name is 
' Once more,' whose sense is ' For all Eternity! ' 
Sing, ye higher men, Zarathustra's roundelay! 

one! 

O man, take heed! 

two! 

What saith the deep midnight? 

three! 

' 1 have slept, I have slept! — 

four! 

From deep dream I woke to light. 

five! 

The world is deep. 

six! 

And deeper than the day thought for. 

seven! 

Deep is its woe, — 

eight! 

And deeper still than woe-delight.' 

nine! 

Saith woe: ' Vanish! ' 

ten! 

Yet all joy wants eternity. 

eleven ! 

Wants deep, deep eternity! " 

twelve! 

The mystical conclusion has excited much discussion. The ending 
is in two keys — in B major in the high woodwind and violins, in C 
major in the basses, pizzicati. " The theme of the Ideal sways aloft 
in the higher regions in B major; the trombones insist on the unre- 
solved chord of C, E, F-sharp; and in the double-basses is repeated, 
C, G, C, the World Riddle." This riddle is unsolved by Nietzsche, by 
Strauss, and even by Strauss's commentators. 

The reader who wishes a minute analysis of this work should 
consult " Also sprach Zarathustra," by Hans Merian, fifty-five pages 
(Leipsic, 1900) ; or the analyses by Arthur Kahn (No. 129 of " Der 
Musikfiihrer " series, Leipsic) ; or Dr. Reimann's analysis, published 
in Philharmonic Concert (Berlin) programme books. 

A symphony in C major by Louis F. Delune, of Brussels, was pro- 
duced at one of Busoni's orchestral concerts in Berlin in January, 
1906. Each one of the four movements bore a motto from Nietzsche's 
" Thus spake Zarathustra." Oskar Fried's " Das trunkne Lied " (from 
Nietzsche's " Also sprach Zarathustra ") for solo voices, chorus, and 
orchestra, was produced by the Wagner Society of Berlin, at its 
concert in Berlin, April 15, 1904. The text of the "Mass of Life" 
by Frederick Delius is taken from Nietzsche's "Thus spake Zara- 
thustra." A song by Arnold Mendelssohn, "Aus dem Nachtliede 
Zarathustras," was sung in Boston by Dr. Ludwig Wuellner, Jan- 
uary 30, 1909. There are other compositions. 

Zoroaster has appeared as an operatic hero. Rameau's " Zo- 
roastre," a lyric tragedy in five acts and a prologue, libretto by Cahusac, 
was produced at the Opera, Paris, December 5, 1749. Zoroaster, a 

[13] 



beneficent prince and a magician only for good, is opposed to Abra- 
mane, an evil ruler and worker in black magic. They are rivals in 
power, glory, and love. Rameau put into this opera much music that 
he had composed for Voltaire's " Samson," which the Opera had re- 
fused.* It is said that a prologue had been written, and that Rameau 
replaced it by the overture, which " serves as a prologue." The first 
part of this overture is " a strong and pathetic picture of the barbaric 
power of Abramane and of the groanings of the people whom he 
oppresses: a sweet calm follows; hope is born again. The second part 
is a lively and gay image of the beneficent power of Zoroastre and of 
the misfortune of the folks whom he has delivered from oppression." 
The libretto assures us that all these things are in the overture. The 
chief singers were Jelyotte (Zoroastre) , de Chasse (Abramane) , Marie 
Fel (Amelite) . The famous Camargo danced in the ballet. 

Cahusac's text was translated into German by Jacques Casanova 
de Seingalt, and, with music by a Saxon chamber-musician, Johann 
August Adam, was produced at Dresden, February 7, 1752-! 

The Italian one-act comic opera " Le pazzie di Stallidaura e Zoro- 
astro," by Cimarosa, has nothing to do with the old philosopher and 
mage. 

" Le Mage," opera in five acts, libretto by Jean Richepin and music 
by Massenet, was produced at the Opera, Paris, March 16, 1891. 
Zarastra, the warrior, loves his captive, the Queen Anahita, and is 
beloved by Varehda, the daughter of the high priest. By the machi- 
nations of the priest, Zarastra is forced to marry Varehda; but he 
leaves the scene of his triumphs to devote himself to worship of the 
god Mazda, and he appears in one of the acts as a preacher on the 
holy mountain. True love triumphs at the end: he and Anahita are 
united. Vergnet was the Zarastra; Delmas, the High Priest; Mme. 
Fierens, Varehda; and Mme. Lureau-Escalai's, Anahita. 

One of the most entertaining articles on Zoroaster is " Zoroastre " 
in the Dictionary of Pierre Bayle. Here may be found many of the 
old legends: how Zoroaster laughed on the day he was born; how he 
passed twenty years in the deserts and ate only of a cheese that never 
grew old and never failed him; how love of wisdom and justice com- 
pelled him to choose a mountain for his dwelling-place; how he was 
Nimrod, Japhet, Ezekiel, Balaam, Moses, etc. 

P. H. 



* See Voltaire's amusing account (article " Samson ") in " Questions sur L'Encyclopedie "; 
also " Voltaire Musicien," by Edmond Vander Straeten, pp. 76-79 (Paris, 1878). 

t See " Memoires de Jacques Casanova " (Rozez ed.), vol. ii. p. 245; also "Jacques Casanova 
Venitien " by Charles Samaran (Paris, 1914), pp. 71-76. In the preface to the Italian libretto 
published in Dresden, Casanova excused himself from presenting to the public a tragedy 
contrary to all the dogmas of Christianity, saying that his chief aim was to produce a 
gorgeous spectacular ballet. See also " Zur Geschichte der Musik und des Theaters am Hofe 
der Kurfiisten von Sachsen," by Moritz Fiirstenau, vol. ii. pp. 268-270 (Dresden, 1862). 

[Hi 



Entr'Acte 
PROKOFIEFF SPEAKS 
By Olin Downes (in the New York Times February 2, 1930) 



IT will be seen that Mr. Prokofieff is not an idle man, or one content 
to rest upon accepted ideas. The whole impression of him, in fact — 
he was born in 1891 — is that of a very alive young man. He has a clear, 
frank eye, and a rather boyish face. He speaks quickly, clearly, viva- 
ciously about his own music and that of his contemporaries. He has, 
too, a sense of humor, and has taken critical attacks in a sporting spirit 
as the inevitable corollary of the career of a composer with progressive 
ideas and an experimental turn of mind. He did refer, reflectively, to 
an occasion when " the critics jumped on me like dogs who tore my 
pants. But," he asked, " why do they continue to speak of me only as a 
satirist or a sarcastic composer, or an ' enfant terrible ' of discord, &c? 
Perhaps this was true fifteen years ago, when that was my spirit, and 
somewhat my style. But I have left that period behind." 

" And what have you become? " 

" I hope simpler, and more melodic. Perhaps you smile. Of course, 
I have used dissonance in my time " — the composer of the " Scythian 
Suite " grinned as he thought of that — " but there has been too much 
dissonance. Bach used dissonance as good salt for his music. Others ap- 
plied pepper, seasoned the dishes more and more highly, till all healthy 
appetites were sick and until finally the music was nothing but pepper. 
Well, I think society has had enough of that. We want a simpler and 
more melodic style for music, a simpler, less complicated emotional 
state, and dissonance again relegated to its proper place as one element 
of music, contingent principally upon the meeting of melodic lines. 
Stravinsky told me last Summer in Paris that he dreamed of a style so 
simple and pure that it should consist only of two melodies. 

" As a matter of fact, counterpoint, no matter how melodic and clear 
it is, can go only a certain distance when it comes to tonal combina- 
tions. You may say as much as you like of the human ear's capacity for 
adapting itself to more and more complicated music. I don't discover 
that the ear's capacities increase so rapidly or enormously. Three melo- 
dies remain about the limit that the average ear can grasp and follow 
at one time. This can be done when the melodies are clearly sounded 
and contrasted in pitch and tone color. For a short time the ear may 
perceive and assimilate the effect of four different parts, but this will 
not be long continued, if the four parts, or melodies, are of equal im- 
portance. Listening to a four- or five- or even six-part fugue, the ear is 
conscious, possibly, of the presence of all the voices, but it only per- 

[15] 



ceives and follows precisely the most important of the melodies being 
sounded. The other parts fill in, enrich the musical background and 
harmony, but they become as blurred lines of the picture. They are not 
clearly recorded in the listener's consciousness as separate melodic 
strands in the tonal fabric. This being true, it behooves the composer to 
realize that in the polyphonic as well as in the structural sense he must 
keep within certain bounds. 

1 Who can go further in combining melodies in a wholly intelligible 
and sonorous manner than Wagner in the peroration of the ' Meister- 
singer ' Prelude? There we have two principal melodies, the one at the 
top, the other at the bottom of the orchestra, with a third motive, rather 
than melody, in the centre, and a running figure of less importance. 
The ear accommodates all of this, but it could hardly hold more. 

" Music, in other words, has definitely reached and passed the great- 
est degree of discord and of complexity that it is practicable for it to 
attain. I do not speak, of course, of using many instruments for the pur- 
pose of harmonic and instrumental color. That is another matter, al- 
though even in this field it is becoming apparent that sheer quantity of 
instruments does not necessarily make for sonority or increased variety 
of orchestral tone. I think we have gone as far as we are likely to go in 
the direction of size, or dissonance, or complexity in music. 

" Therefore, I think the desire which I and many of my fellow- 
composers feel, to attain a more simple and melodic expression, is the 
inevitable direction for the musical art of the future. The question en- 
ters, of course, what is melody? Twenty-five years ago Wagner's ' Gotter- 
dammerung ' was considered to be an opera without melody. Today 
very few people would deny that the score, whatever its shortcomings 
or disadvantages, is replete with melody. 

" What people usually accept as a melody is that musical phrase 
which, above all, is not new in intervals, rhythm or style. Thus Puccini 
is a composer considered especially melodic — i.e., his themes fall into 
the category of intervals and chords to which the human ear has been 
long accustomed, and which it is in the habit of accepting. But it is 
obvious that with the passage of years the recipe for melody changes. 
As an example, my own ' Divertimento,' in four short movements, for 
classic orchestra with trombones, was given its first performance last 
Dec. 22 in Paris. It was called ' a little abstract.' Why? I could not un- 
derstand. I would have said, by the same token, that my violin con- 
certo or the ' Scythian Suite ' was ' abstract.' But no! I think now that 
it was my new conception of ' melody ' which caused the impression of 
' abstraction.' How will this appear later? One doesn't know. One can 
only be honest with one's self. Certain sounds and combinations of 
sound are rejected by one generation and accepted by the next as 
' melody '! " 

[16] 



Carnegie 3£aU • Jleto H orfe 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD AFTERNOON CONCERT 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, February 2, at 2:30 o'clock 



Programme 

Miaskovsky . . . . . Sinfonietta for String Orchestra, 

Op. 32, No. 2 

1. ALLEGRO PESANTE E SERIOSO 
II. ANDANTE (THEME WITH VARIATIONS) 
III. PRESTO 

Prokofieff .... Suite from the Ballet "Chout," Op. 21 

a. DANSE DES FILLES DES BOUFFONS 

b . DANS LA CHAMBRE A COUCHER DU MARC HAND 

C. LA JEUNE FEMME EST DEVENUE CHEVRE 

d . CINQ.UIEME ENTR'ACTE ET L ' E N T E R R E M E N T 

DE LA CHEVRE 
e . DANSE FINALE 

INTERMISSION 

Tchaikovsky ..... Symphony No. 6 in B minor, 

"Pathetique," Op. 74 

I. ADAGIO — ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

II. ALLEGRO CON GRAZIO 

III. ALLEGRO MOLTO VIVACE 

IV. FINALE: ADAGIO LAMENTOSO 

[Steinway Piano] 
The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 



['7 



Are these remarks of Mr. Prokofieff to be taken as the expression of 
an individual composer's point of view or as being indicative generally 
of certain modern tendencies in music? Or do they indicate the more 
durable qualities of instrumental as opposed to operatic forms? Much 
learned cogitation could be flung on paper concerning these and allied 
topics. But it is more fitting that a composer express his personal con- 
victions in such matters than that a commentator undertake to read 
into his words portents of the musical future. This writer does not be- 
lieve that the present urge to an extreme and self-conscious simplicity 
in art is going to be of much longer duration than the cultivation of 
impressionism which marked the opening of the nineteenth century in 
music. Composers will write at greater or less length as the spirit moves. 
Every composer's style will be his own. The period in which we are liv- 
ing is putting additional technical resources into the composer's hands 
while it is producing few figures who are of importance as composers. 
When composers appear with things to say they will adjust forms to 
ideas. 



SINFONIETTA FOR STRING ORCHESTRA, Op. 32, No. 2 
By Nicolas Jacovievitch Miaskovsky 

Born at the fortress Novogeorgievsk — now in Poland — on April 20, 1881; 

now living at Moscow 



Miaskovsky wrote a Sinfonietta in 1911 which was performed at 
Pavlosk near Petrograd in 1917. This, his second Sinfonietta, is 
dated 1933 in the printed score which is dedicated to Alexandre 
Goedicke. 

The scoring is in the usual five parts (first and second violins, 
violas, celli and basses) , these sometimes divided. The first movement 

(Allegro pesante e serioso, 3-4) opens with a subject in B minor an- 
nounced by the orchestra in unison. The violin solo gives out the sec- 
ond theme, dolce ed espressivo in D major, which is to be the prevailing 
key. The second movement (Andante, 4-4) consists of a theme with 
four variations. In the first, allegro e leggiero, the violin solo weaves a 
figuration of sixteen notes about the melody. The second is poco meno 
allegro, energico with ornamentation of triplets by violin and cello soli. 
The third, quasi adagio (ma non troppo) in D flat, gives the melody to 
the viola and cello soli against a background of muted strings tremolo. 
A cadenza by the violin solo leads to the last variation (andante) for 
cello solo, with an accompaniment of arpeggios by the violins and 
violas and leading to an expressive coda. The third movement is Presto 

(in 4-4 = 12-8 time) . It is given to the orchestra with parts subdivided 
and without solo passages, and leads to a rhythmic and brilliant close. 
[18] 



It has been rumored that Miaskovsky's fellow countryman, Glazou- 
nov, dares not tempt the destiny which cut off Beethoven, Bruckner, 
Mahler before they could compose a tenth symphony. Miaskovsky, hav- 
ing written a " Dies Irae " into his Sixth Symphony without fatal conse- 
quence to himself, crossed the dread line of a Tenth with no qualms 
that have been reported, and has so far published his Twelfth with 
impunity. His plans extend even further, according to the writer of an 
unsigned biographical paragraph in the score * of the composer's 
"Fragment Lyrique " (1934) who makes the casual and astonishing 
observation that Miaskovsky " is now finishing his 13th, 14th, and 15th 
symphonies." f 

Even more impressive than the number of his symphonies is the dis- 
tance and varied ground over which they have carried him. The first 
two (written in 1908 and 1911) have been put down as early works, 
having been written in those years when he was following in the steps 
of his father, as engineer in the Russian Army. We are not told with 
what zest, if any, he followed the calling of a sapper, but it is a safe 
guess that he found the construction of a military entrenchment less 
engrossing than that of a symphony. He had pursued music steadily 
through the period of his vocational training. Studying as a child with 
his aunt and virtual foster mother, Elikonida Miaskovsky, he continued 
his music at the military college, and while stationed at Moscow took 
up composition and counterpoint with Ivan Krijanovsky. When op- 
portunity offered, he entered the Conservatory at St. Petersburg, study- 
ing with Rimsky-Korsakov and Liadov, as a fellow pupil of Prokofieff, 
whose senior he is by ten years. His decision to abandon the army for 
music was defeated by the outbreak of the world war, when he was 
called immediately to the Austrian front, and retained in service, by vir- 
ture of his expert knowledge, until 1921. 

Meanwhile he had reached his Fifth Symphony. The hitherto ob- 
scure musician came into general prominence in the early era of the 
revolution, was looked upon as a composer of great promise, an artistic 
descendant of Tchaikovsky, with an unmistakable individuality of his 
own. Finding no novel or striking features in his music, no great color- 
istic or technical mastery, Leonid Sabaneiev yet remarked about this 
time: " Music is a mysterious art. Occasionally by some transcendental 
means, it proves capable of telling the contents of its creator's soul, in 
spite of the exterior faltering form of the telling. At all events, Miaskov- 
sky can engender veneration, awe and respect. He can create around 
himself an atmosphere of genuine and profound friendship and musi- 
cal devotion, of which no ordinary musician can boast. He is sur- 

* New Music Edition, Henry Cowell, Editor. 

t If we were to believe that Miaskovsky is writing three symphonies simultaneously, as an 
expert plays chess, we should be forced to accept the tag which Leonid Sabaneiev fixes upon 
the composer — " symphonic graphomania." 

[>9] 



rounded by an authoritative clique of friends who make propaganda 
for him sincerely and not out of fear, and who are genuinely and dis- 
interestedly devoted to him. These musicians consider him the rising 
star, they deem Miaskovsky the legitimate, natural and only successor 
of the two greatest Russian musicians, Moussorgsky and Tchaikovsky." 

Sabaneiev wrote his chapter on Miaskovsky in his book, " Modern 
Russian Composers " in 1927, when this particular composer had 
written eight symphonies (the last then lay in his portfolio, unseen by 
the writer) . He had the example of the morbid Sixth Symphony before 
him, in which a " chorale of death " borrowed from the " old be- 
lievers " of Russia's most fanatical past, brings a " constant return to 
the symbolism of death," with " annoying persistence and conviction." 
The " Dies Irae " had appeared, not only in this work, but in the Sec- 
ond Piano Sonata, and there was the " symphonic poem on the theme 
of the terrible and incomprehensible ' Silence ' of the morbid Poe." 
Very naturally, Sabaneiev decided that Miaskovsky had points in com- 
mon with Tchaikovsky, being indeed a more thorough-going pessimist, 
a " pessimist raised to the cube degree," lacking the older composer's 
" enthusiasm of lyric sentiment and oblivion in beauty." The writer 
called him a sort of modern musical Dostoievsky, " that complex, 
broken, sickly spirit in which neurasthenia passes into psychopathy, and 
the realm of mental darkness." 

The characterization was drawn at length, the composer neatly 
docketed — when he forthwith stepped out from the shroud of " mental 
darkness " in which he had wrapped himself. The Eighth Symphony 
(of 1924-1925) was based upon " national tunes," colorfully treated, 
with increased " classicism of form, and objectivity of style." * The 
Ninth Symphony (which, with the Tenth, was written in the years 
1926-1927) was described by Victor Belaiev as " generally unaffected 
and easy in character," with a sort of cradle song for a slow movement, 
and a " finale, lightly written, very much in the style of a French over- 
ture." The composer in whom certain crudities of workmanship had 
been complained of, Belaiev now found to have produced " an example 
of technical perfection in every respect." 

When the Twelfth Symphony appeared in 1932, it was apparent 
that Miaskovsky, the formalist and finished workman, was not the last 
Miaskovsky the world was to know. The symphony was published by 
the press of the U.S.S.R., and the erstwhile morbid recluse and arch 
individualist was suddenly found to be celebrating with a dedication 
" The Fifteenth Anniversary of the October Revolution." The sym- 

* The Eighth Symphony is the only one so far heard at the regular concerts (Boston, Novem- 
ber 30, 1928, Richard Burgin conducting). Other of our orchestras have done considerably 
better by Miaskovsky. The Philadelphia Orchestra performed the Sixth Symphony January 2, 
1926, and the Sixth in November of the same year, and the Tenth in 1930. The New York 
Philharmonic Orchestra has played the Sixth and Seventh symphonies; the Chicago Orchestra 
the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Tenth, and Twelfth. 

[20] 



phony was announced as " the musical interpretation of the Soviet 
Village," and the writer added — " still more is to be expected from his 
forthcoming symphonies." The Miaskovsky whose Sixth and Seventh 
symphonies were the very philosophy of Despair, is now found to be 
writing " Red Marches for brass band, and songs for mass performance." 
Nicolas Slonimsky, than whom there is no closer follower of con- 
temporary musical paths, gives the newest alignment of music in Mos- 
cow: " Soviet music may be divided into two schools, the elder in 
Moscow, traditionally connected with the romantic school of Russian 
music; the younger, in Leningrad, infused with modern dynamism, 
leaning towards the heroic school of the Mighty Five. Miaskovsky is the 
main figure in Moscow (others of the older generation who live and 
work there are Ippolitov-Ivanov, Gliere, Vasilenko, and Gnessin) ; he 
has long abandoned his inherent romanticism (a cross between Mahler 
and Scriabin) , and with his Collective Farm Symphony (the Twelfth) 
1 switched over to Soviet thematics,' as the catchword has it. Miaskovsky 
is the most fruitful of Russian symphonists — he has now completed his 
Fourteenth Symphony." 

J. N. B. 



BALLET SUITE, " CHOUT " ("THE BUFFOON"), Op. 21 
By Serge Sergievich Prokofieff 

Born at Sontsovka, in the Ekaterinoslav government, Russia, April 24, 1891 



In 1915, Prokofieff wrote a ballet, " The Harlequin's Story," and the 
ballet " Chout." The former is in manuscript. The latter, a ballet 
in six scenes, was produced at the Theatre de la Gaite Lyrique, Paris, 
on May 17, 1921: The young Buffoon, M. Slavinsky; the Buffoon's Wife, 
Mme. Sokolova; the Merchant, M. Jazvinsky; the Bridesmaids, Mmes. 
Nemchinova and Zirmundska. A performance of Stravinsky's " The 
Fire-Bird " preceded. This opened a short season of Serge de Diaghilev's 
Russian Ballet. 

The Ballet Suite was performed for the first time at Brussels in 1924. 

When " Chout " was performed for the first time in London at the 
Princes Theatre in June, 1921, Prokofieff conducted. The Suite was 
performed at these concerts October 8, 1926. 

The following sketch of the Ballet was published in the Daily Tele- 
graph, London, June 15, 1921: 

Here, surely, was a triumph of bizarrerie. In want of a better word, 
let us call the mise-en-scene futurist. Chout is a Buffoon whose wife 
also is a Buffoon. When the curtain rises, he is sitting on the stove 
contemplating a trick to play on some other buffoons. The Buffoon 
Wife is washing the wooden floor. At last he gets an idea, jumps down 

[21] 



from the stove, and says to the Buffoon Wife: " There are seven buf- 
foons coming to our house almost immediately. I shall order you to get 
a meal ready. You will refuse, and I shall pretend to kill you; after 
that I shall slash you with my whip, and you will come to life again; 
and so we shall be able to sell our whip for a very large sum." And so 
it happens. The seven buffoons come, and after witnessing this miracle 
buy the whip. End of Scene One. In Scene Two the seven buffoons 
go back to their buffoon spouses resolved — buffoon-like — to try the 
effect of the whip on them; kill their wives, and then beat them; but no 
beating will bring the wives to life again. End of Scene Two. Scene 
Three shows us the seven buffoons in a great rage at having such a 
trick played on them. They decide to make an end of the Buffoon. 
He, being frightened, disguises himself as a woman cook, and hides his 
buffoon wife. Of course they can't find the Buffoon, but the " cook " 
has pleased them so much that they take " her " away to keep in their 
service until they can discover the whereabouts of the hero. In Scene 
Four we discover that the seven buffoons have seven daughters, all of 
marriageable age. A rich merchant, bringing his own bridesmaids, 
comes to choose a wife from amongst them. The buffoon fathers are 
delighted. But the merchant selects the " cook." Complications here. 
Things come to a natural climax in Scene Five. The merchant brings 
his young wife home. The Buffoon, disguised as the cook, is in an 
awkward fix. He feigns sickness. " Let me get out of the window for 
a minute," says he to the merchant; the merchant consents, and by 
the help of a sheet lets him down. When he pulls it up again, he finds 
a large white goat hung on the end. He is terrified, and everybody 
rushes in, shouting, " The merchant's wife has been turned into a goat." 
Suddenly the Buffoon re-enters as himself. He has seven soldiers with 
him, and cries, " Give me back my cook. How could you dare take 
her away from my house? " The merchant, trembling, suggests that 
he might take the goat instead, but the soldiers are ordered by the 
Buffoon to arrest him, and he is forced into giving him one hundred 
roubles " on condition of not prosecuting him." And so all merry 
again, and the Buffoon and the Buffoon's wife have a glorious time with 
the merchant's money, and everybody makes love to everybody else 
in an ecstasy of dancing. 

The crazy, fantastic humor of the whole thing is sometimes deli- 
cious, sometimes banal. The concatenation of sound and color beggars 
description. We are quite prepared to believe that Serge Prokofieff's 
music — closely knit as it is to the action of the piece — would sound 
quite well apart from the ballet. A little of it is quite definitely beau- 
tiful, in accordance with the old nineteenth-century standards of 
beauty; much of it is harsh, raucous, bitter. But it is all so completely 
in grotesque mood and yet so economical that one may find real recrea- 
tion in listening to it for a time. The composer is a master of climax, 

[22] 



which is another way of saying that he is a master of dynamics. The 
final dance is a whirlwind of cacophony, and when the curtain fell the 
outburst of cheering was spontaneous — mingled, it should be noted, 
with some hissing. Somehow, when the orgy of sound and color was all 
over, it was soothing to remember the beautiful performance of " Le 
Carnaval " under Mr. Ansermet which went before. 

P. H. 



SYMPHONY NO. 6, IN B MINOR, " PATHETIC," Op. 74 
By Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky 

Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; died at 
St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893 



When Tchaikovsky conducted the first performance of his newly 
completed Sixth Symphony (it was in St. Petersburg, October 28, 
1893,* an d nine days before his death) , one might reasonably have ex- 
pected a great success for the work. The composer then commanded 
favorable attention, haying attained eminence and popularity — though 
nothing remotely approaching the immense vogue this very symphony 
was destined to make for him immediately after his death. The com- 
poser believed in his symphony with a conviction which he by no means 
always felt for his newest scores as he presented them to the world 
(only about the melancholy finale, the adagio lamentoso, did he have 
doubts) . He had good reason to believe that the broad and affecting 
flood of outpouring emotion would sweep the audience in its current. 

* Following the composer's death Napravnik conducted the symphony with great success at 
a concert of Tchaikovsky's music, November 18, 1893. The piece attained a quick popularity, 
and reached America the following spring, when it was produced by the New York Symphony 
Society, March 16, 1894. It was performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 28 
following, Emil Pauer conducting. 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Projessor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[23 



But such was not the case. The performance, according to Tchaikov- 
sky's scrupulous brother Modeste, " fell rather flat. The symphony was 
applauded, and the composer recalled; but the enthusiasm did not sur- 
pass what was usually shown for one of Tchaikovsky's new composi- 
tions. The symphony produced nothing approaching that powerful and 
thrilling impression made by the work when it was conducted by 
Napravnik, November 18, and later, wherever it was played." The crit- 
ics, too, were cool. The Viedemosti found " the thematic material not 
very original, the leading subjects neither new nor significant." The 
Syn Otechestva discovered Gounod in the first movement and Grieg in 
the last, and the Novoe Vremja drew this astonishing conclusion: " As 
far as inspiration is concerned it stands far below Tchaikovsky's other 
symphonies." 

Cases such as this, and there are plenty of them, where a subse- 
quently acknowledged masterpiece first meets an indifferent reception, 
invites speculation. Was the tardy general acceptance of new ideas 
mostly to blame, or was the first audience perhaps beclouded by a grop- 
ing and mediocre performance, intransigeance on the part of the play- 
ers? It would seem that even a reasonably straightforward performance 
of anything quite so obvious as the " Pathetic " Symphony should have 
awakened a fair degree of emotional response. 

Two dependable witnesses of this particular occasion have diag- 
nosed the partial failure of the Sixth Symphony to reach its first audi- 
ence — Modeste Tchaikovsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. Unfortunately, 
their conclusions do not agree. 

Modeste Tchaikovsky, who closely understood his brother's sensi- 
tive subjection to circumstances, finds that the performance fell short 
of what it might have been, and attributes this to a lack of rapport be- 
tween the composer and the players at rehearsal: " One thing oppressed 
him. At the rehearsals the Sixth Symphony made no impression upon 
the orchestra. He always set store by the opinion of the musicians. 
Moreover, he feared lest the interpretation of the Symphony might suf- 
fer from their coldness. Tchaikovsky only conducted his works well 
when he knew they appealed to the players. To obtain delicate nuances 
and a good balance of tone he needed his surroundings to be sympa- 
thetic and appreciative. A look of indifference, a coolness on the part of 
any of the band, seemed to paralyze him; he lost his head, went through 
the work perfunctorily, and cut the rehearsal as short as possible, so as 
to release the musicians from a wearisome task. Whenever he con- 
ducted a work of his own for the first time, a kind of uncertainty — al- 
most carelessness — in the execution of details was apparent, and the 
whole interpretation lacked force and definite expression. The Fifth 
Symphony and ' Hamlet ' were so long making their way merely be- 
cause the composer had failed to make them effective." 

[24] 



Rimsky-Korsakov, on the contrary, found the performance entirely 
adequate. He refuses to attribute the later success under Napravnik 
entirely to superior abilities. " The Symphony was played finely by Na- 
pravnik, but it had gone very well at the author's hands, too. The public 
had simply not fathomed it the first time, and had not paid enough at- 
tention to it; precisely as several years earlier it had failed to give due 
attention to Tchaikovsky's Fifth Symphony. I imagine that the com- 
poser's sudden death (which had given rise to all sorts of rumours) as 
well as stories of his presentiment of approaching death (to which man- 
kind is so prone) and, further, the propensity toward discovering a con- 
nection between the gloomy mood of the Symphony's last movement 
and such a presentiment, — all these now focussed the public's atten- 
tion and sympathies on this work, and the splendid composition soon 
became famed and even modish." 

Mankind's propensity to find presentiments of death in the sym- 
phony, which Rimsky-Korsakov had plentiful opportunity to observe, 
was circumstantially combated by Modeste and by Kashkin, who were 
careful to account for each of Tchaikovsky's actions in the year 1893. 
There are quoted a number of letters written while he was at work 
upon the symphony; he speaks about the progress of his score, always 
in a tone of buoyant confidence in his music. Kashkin last saw him 
shortly before the performance of his symphony; Modeste was with 
him until the end. Both say that he was in unfailing good spirits. Death 
was mentioned in the natural course of conversation at the funeral of 
his friend Zvierev in October. Zvierev, as it happened, was one of sev- 
eral friends who had died in close succession. Tchaikovsky talked freely 
with Kashkin at this time. Friends had died; who would be the next to 
go? " I told Peter," wrote Kashkin, " that he would outlive us all. He 
disputed the likelihood, yet added that he had never felt so well and 
happy." And from Modeste: " A few years ago one such grief would 
have affected Tchaikovsky more keenly than all of them taken together 
seemed to do at this juncture." And elsewhere: " From the time of his 
return from England (in June) until the end of his life, Tchaikovsky 
was as serene and cheerful as at any period in his existence." 

Modeste follows the last days of his life, day by day. On November 
1st, he went to the theatre with friends, was " in perfect health." 
Tchaikovsky laughed at Warlamov's distaste for spiritualism and pre- 
occupation with death, and said: " ' There is still time enough to be- 
come acquainted with this detestable snub-nosed one. At any rate, he 
will not have us soon. I know that I shall live for a long time.' — When 
we walked home about 2 a.m., Peter was well in body and mind." It was 
at luncheon that day (November 3) that Tchaikovsky drank a glass of 
water that had not been boiled, and laughed at his friend's fear of 
cholera. But the disease had seized him that night, and Peter said to 

[25] 



his brother: " I think this is death. Good-by, Modi." Shortly before his 
death, which occurred at three o'clock on the morning of November 6, 
Tchaikovsky, delirious, talked reproachfully of Mme. von Meek, whose 
friendship with him had ended in a break, hurt feelings and cruel mis- 
understanding. Modeste will admit no deliberate intent in his death, 
but there are those who believe that he drank the glass of germ-infested 
water because life had become intolerable to him; who claim that his 
cheerfulness was assumed to conceal his darker feelings from those 
about him. Still, the testimony of Modeste must be given great weight. 
No one was so close to Peter at this time. Peter, as open-natured as a 
child, never in his letters withheld from his intimate friends, least of all 
from his cherished " Modi," his spells of woeful depression, and the 
faithfulness with which Modeste records his brother's weaknesses in- 
spires confidence.* 

Whatever conclusion may be reached about Tchaikovsky's death, to 
attempt to connect the Sixth Symphony with any brooding intentions 
of death is to go against the abundant evidence of Modeste. " The year 
of 1893 opened with a period of serene content, for which the creation of 
his Sixth, or so-called ' Pathetic ' Symphony is mainly accountable. 
The composition of this work seems to have been an act of exorcism, 
whereby he cast out all the dark spirits which had possessed him in the 
preceding years." And Modeste goes on to describe a year peaceful in 
creation, of which there are cheerful bulletins of progress to his nephew 
Davidov, to Kashkin, to his publisher Jurgenson, or to his brother. The 
only cloud in his content was the temporary homesickness of his jour- 
ney to England — a mood which usually descended on him when he was 
away from home and among strangers. 

Modeste Tchaikovsky may have been a more acute psychologist 
than some of our moderns when he spoke of the Sixth Symphony as a 
" casting out of the dark spirits that had possessed him." There are 
those who protest that Tchaikovsky fills his music with his personal 
troubles. But rasped nerves, blank, deadening depression, neurotic fears 
— these painful feelings are not in the province of music, nor are they 
found there. They probably in some indirect way colored his inclina- 
tions towards a Byronic melancholy, highly fashionable at the time. 
One calls to mind the affecting pathos of the love songs, the wistful 
sentiment of Pushkin's Tatiana, whom Tchaikovsky put into music 
with such fond care, even while he was at work upon the Fourth Sym- 
phony. The pathological and the musical Tchaikovsky were two dif- 
ferent people. The first was mentally sick, pitiably feeble. The second 
was bold, sure-handed, thoroughgoing, increasingly masterful, emi- 

* What inner agonies of spirit preceded, and, it is said, resulted in his unhappy marriage, 
Modeste has not glossed over or tried to hide. If his passing allusion to them was slight 
and unparticularized, the decencies of the period and the near memory of his brother more 
than exonerated him. 

[26] 



nentiy sane. Tchaikovsky's musical melancholy is not painful to the 
ear, but luscious — even exuberant. He simply revels in the mood which 
somehow peculiarly belongs to him. It is worth noting that during the 
nervous collapse of 1877, in the midst of his disastrous marriage of a 
few weeks, he was busily at work upon his Fourth Symphony — music 
far surpassing anything he had done in brilliance and exultant strength. 
One is almost forced to the conclusion that the symphony was his ref- 
uge, his healing resource when life had become unbearable. The tragic 
Sixth Symphony, on the other hand, he must have written in the com- 
forting sense of having attained his fullest creative powers. If the strain 
of melancholy which runs through most of Tchaikovsky's music and 
finds its most luxuriant expression in his last symphony are nothing 
more than the querulous complaints of a pessimist, as some have 
averred, it would be hard to reconcile such a belief with a remarkable 
passage in his letter to Mme. von Meek (March 1, 1878) where he tries 
to put in words the state of mind to which the act of composition lifts 
him. He calls it: " a kind of musical shriving of the soul, in which there 
is an encrustation of material which flows forth again in notes just as 
the lyrical poet pours himself out in verse. ... It would be vain to try 
to put into words that immeasurable sense of bliss which comes over 
me directly a new idea awakens in me and begins to assume a definite 
form. I forget everything and behave like one possessed. Everything 
within me starts pulsing and quivering; hardly have I begun the sketch 
ere one thought follows another." 

Tchaikovsky, always reticent about a programme for his sym- 
phonies * was deliberately non-communicative about this one. In one 
of his first letters divulging the news of the new work (he had written 
to his brother Anatol about it the day before) he wrote from Klinf to 

* The programme for his Fourth Symphony, coaxed from him by Mme. von Meek, was waved 
aside in the same letter as a personal fantasy of the moment. For the Fifth Symphony he 
gave no programme. 

t It was at his country house at Frolovskoe, between Klin and Moscow (since turned into 
a Tchaikovsky museum) that he composed his Sixth Symphony, as he had composed the Fifth 
when he first occupied the place in 1888. It offered him the combination of proximity to his 
friends in town, and an idyllic seclusion for his creative work. " Here he could be alone " 
(quoting Modeste), " free from summer excursionists, to enjoy the little garden (with its 
charming pool and tiny islet) fringed by forest, behind which the view opened out upon a 
distant stretch of country — upon that homely, unassuming landscape of Central Russia 
which Tchaikovsky preferred to all the sublimities of Switzerland, the Caucasus, and Italy. 
Had not the forest been gradually exterminated, he would never have quitted Frolovskoe, for 
although he only lived there three years he became greatly attached to the place. A month 
before his death, traveling from Klin to Moscow, he said, looking out at the churchyard of 
Frolovskoe: ' I should like to be buried there.' " 

Tchaikovsky had sketched out a plan for a Sixth Symphony on his return voyage from 
America, in 1891, but he was dissatisfied with the music, and much discouraged — wondered, 
as he had before, whether the sands of his genius had run out. The subject matter of the 
projected symphony he worked into a third piano concerto (posthumously performed). 

It was from Klin that he wrote to Anatol Tchaikovsky and to Davidov in February, 
1893, telling that he was " fully occupied " with the new symphony, which " I certainly 
shall not tear up! " He went to London in May, and became bored and depressed, in spite 
of a courteous reception there, very likely because his work upon the symphony was inter- 
rupted. Back at Klin in August, he wrote blissfully to Modeste that he was " up to his 
neck " in the symphony once more. When he left Klin for Moscow on October 19, having 
completed the score, he was destined never to see his favorite retreat again. 

[27] 



To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



The society of the Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra now has an enrolled membership of 1200. 
The contributions of those who have enrolled, to- 
gether with the contributions of all who may enroll hereafter, 
will be added to operating income to provide in part the 
amount required for salaries and other operating expenses, 
including traveling expenses and the rentals of the halls on 
these periodic trips of the Orchestra away from home. 

Participation by patrons and friends outside of Boston 
already amounts to 10% of the number enrolled and 4% of 
the total amount contributed. To those of you who have 
enrolled I desire to express sincere thanks for your friendly 
and gracious cooperation. 

About $40,000 more is needed to meet the estimated re- 
quirements for the year. This sum will be supplied, I confi- 
dently hope, by the contributions of those here and at home 
who will care to join those who have already responded so 

splendidly. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc., and mail it to E. B. Dane, 
Treasurer, 6 Beacon Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 



[28] 



Carnegie £all • Jleto gorfe 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHES TRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Thursday Evening, February 28, at 8:45 

Saturday Afternoon, March 2, at 2:30 



(Gregor Piatigorsky, 'cellist, will appear as soloist at the 

Saturday concert) 



[29] 



Davidov, February 23, 1893: " Just as I was starting on my journey (the 
visit to Paris, in December, 1892) the idea came to me for a new sym- 
phony. This time with a programme of a kind which remains an enigma 
to all — let them guess it who can. The work will be entitled ' A Pro- 
gramme Symphony ' (No. 6) . This programme is penetrated by the 
subjective sentiment. During my journey, while composing it in my 
mind, I frequently shed tears." 

The Symphony was announced in the programme of the first per- 
formance simply by its number. But the next day, Modeste found his 
brother at the tea table holding the score and pondering a title, for he 
was to send it to his publisher that day. He wished something more 
than " No. 6," and did not like " Programme Symphony." " What does 
Programme Symphony mean when I will give it no programme? " 
Modeste suggested " Tragic," but Peter said that would not do. " I 
left the room before he had come to a decision. Suddenly I thought — 
' Pathetic' I went back to the room, I remember it as though it were 
yesterday, and I said the word to Peter. ' Splendid, Modi, bravo, " Pa- 
thetic " ! ' and he wrote in my presence the title that will forever 
remain." Still, Tchaikovsky could not have been thoroughly satisfied 
with the name " Pathetique" for the next day he wrote to Jurgenson 
with directions about the dedication to his nephew, Vladimir Davidov, 
and gave the symphony no other identification than " No. 6." He 
added: " I hope it is not too late." 

Wherefore the symphony remains what its maker intended it to be, 
so far as posterity was concerned — an " enigma." From various inter- 
pretations, each of which must remain nothing more than a single 
personal guess, let us quote that of Kashkin, who found in it something 
far more than a presentiment of his own approaching end. " It seems 
more reasonable," he wrote, " to interpret the overwhelming energy of 
the third movement and the abysmal sorrow of the finale in the broader 
light of a national or historical significance rather than to narrow them 
to the expression of an individual experience. If the last movement is 
intended to be predictive, it is surely of things vaster and issues more 
fatal than are contained in a mere personal apprehension of death. 
It speaks rather of a ' lamentation large et souff ranee inconnue/ and 
seems to set the seal of finality on all human hopes. Even if we elimi- 
nate the purely subjective interest, this autumnal inspiration of 
Tchaikovsky, in which we hear ' the ground whirl of the perished leaves 
of hope ' still remains the most profoundly stirring of his works." 

The music as self-sufficient, and without biographical implications, 
is interestingly described by Donald Francis Tovey: " It is not for 
merely sentimental or biographical reasons that Tchaikovsky's sixth 
and last Symphony has become the most famous of all his works. No- 

[30] 



where else has he concentrated so great a variety of music within so 
effective a scheme: and the slow finale, with its complete simplicity of 
despair, is a stroke of genius which solves all the artistic problems that 
have proved most baffling to symphonic writers since Beethoven. The 
whole work carries conviction without the slightest sense of effort; and 
its most celebrated features, such as the second subject of the first move- 
ment, are thrown into their right relief by developments far more 
powerful, terse, and highly organized than Tchaikovsky has achieved 
in any other work. The extreme squareness and simplicity of the phras- 
ing throughout the whole symphony is almost a source of power in it- 
self. All Tchaikovsky's music is dramatic; and the Pathetic Symphony 
is the most dramatic of all his works. Little or nothing is to be gained 
by investigating it from a biographical point of view: there are no ob- 
scurities in the music either as musical forms or as emotional contrasts: 
and there is not the slightest difficulty in understanding why Tchaikov- 
sky attached special importance to the work. 

" One of the most original features is the opening in a key which 
turns out not to be that of the piece, but a dark outlying region (the 
sub-dominant) . Through ghost-like chords on double-basses a bassoon 
foreshadows the main theme. The key shifts from E minor to the real 
key of the Symphony, B minor; and the allegro begins with the first 
subject. 

" The development opens with a crash, and works up the first theme 
in a stormy fugato. The course of the music is easy to follow; and its 
finest feature, perhaps the finest passage Tchaikovsky ever wrote, is 
the return of the first subject, worked up in a slow crescendo starting 
in the extremely remote key of B flat minor, and rising step by step 
until, in the tonic (B minor) , the whole theme is given fortissimo in 
dialogue between strings and wind. The tragic passage which then fol- 
lows is undoubtedly the climax of Tchaikovsky's artistic career, as well 
as of this work: and its natural reaction, the return (in the tonic major) 
of the second subject, is (perhaps even more than the despairing finale 
of the whole symphony) the feature that fully reveals the pathetic char- 
acter of the music. 

" The second movement, an extremely simple kind of scherzo and 
trio, has this peculiar effect, that while it is in 5-4 time, which is an un- 
symmetrical rhythm, the bars themselves are grouped in the stiffest 
series of multiples of eight that have ever found room in a symphony. 
It is a delightful and childlike reaction from the drama of the first 
movement, and, except for a certain wistfulness in the tone of the trio 
with its obstinate pedal-point in the drums, it successfully hides what- 
ever cares it may have. 

" The gigantic march which constitutes the third movement begins 
with a quiet but busy theme, the triplet motion of which lasts almost 

[31] 



incessantly until the final stage, where the second subject stiffens the 
whole orchestra into march-rhythm. There is no development: the first 
subject returns without any elaborate process; but its continuation be- 
comes highly dramatic and is worked up to a tremendous climax. The 
triumph is brilliant, but, perhaps in consequence of the way in which 
it was approached, not without a certain fierceness in its tone. At all 
events, it would, if translated into literature, not be the triumph of the 
real hero of the story. He might share in it at the time, but his heart 
will be in the mood of Tchaikovsky's finale. 

" This experiment, unique in form and unique in success, is carried 
through on two themes: the desperate first subject, with its curious ar- 
rangement of crossing parts in the first four bars, and a consolatory sec- 
ond subject. 

" There is no development, but the second subject is worked up to a 
great climax, which leads, after some dramatic pauses, to the recapit- 
ulation. In this the first subject reaches a still greater climax, which 
lies down until a distant stroke of a gong (the most ominous sound in 
the orchestra, if discreetly used) brings back the second subject, now 
in B minor and in a mood of utter despair. And so the music of the 
whole symphony dies away in the darkness with which it began." 

J. N. B. 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Mrs. Charles Adams White 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

Steinway Bldg., New York 105 Revere St., Boston 

Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 Tel. Capitol 6745 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: Trowbridge 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[32] 



An Audience 
worth cultivating 



Because it reaches an audience of unusual potenti- 
ality, The Boston Symphony Orchestra Bul- 
letin is a most effective medium — for a limited 
number of advertisers. 

This audience is composed of people of taste, cul- 
ture and means. They are interested, essentially, 
in the better things of life. They can, and do, pur- 
chase generously — but discriminately. 

The descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, 
foremost of critics, and Mr. John N. Burk, 
secure for the Bulletin a place among works 
of reference and gives to it an unusual per- 
manence. 

If your product — or service — will appeal to this 
discriminating audience 

Write for Rates 
Address 

GEORGE M. MASON 

130 West 42d Street 
New York City 



L. S. B. Jefferds, AS. Mgr. 
Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 



Carnegie Hall • Jleto gorfe 




Thursday Evening, February 28, at 8:45 
Saturday Afternoon, March 2, at 2:30 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, 


J- 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


CROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 


AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 


GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L, 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


CIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


battles, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, G. 




VALKENIER, W, 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD, W 




LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, w. 




SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, t. 


LILLEBACK, w. 


cebhardt, w. 




LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 
MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


LIBRARIAN 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



Carnegie 3£all • Jleto gotfe 

Forty-ninth Season in New York 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INCORPORATED 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletins of the 
Fourth Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, February 28, at 8:45 

AND THE 

Fourth Matinee 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, March 2, at 2:30 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

—-—■————-————— {i] 










The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 






tan c^n-JLJL 



ant u^ya^ian <^h&&tete 

... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. . . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts.... One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 

• 7^ COPLEY-PLAZA go**** • 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



[*] 



Carnegie Hall • J?eto gorfe 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH EVENING CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, February 28, at 8:45 o'clock 



Programme 

Holst Fugal Concerto, for Flute and 

Oboe, Op. 40, No. 2 
Flute: Georges Laurent 
Oboe: Fernand Gillet 



I . MODERATO 




11. ADAGIO 




III. ALLEGRO 




Copland .... 


First Symphon 


PRELUDE 




SCHERZO 




FINALE 






INTERMISSION 


Tchaikovsky . 


Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetique, 




Op- 74 



I. ADAGIO — ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

II. ALLEGRO CON GRAZIO 

III. ALLEGRO MOLTO VIVACE 

iv. finale: adagio lamentoso 



[Steinway Piano] 
The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 



[31 



[The programme was changed too late to permit a corresponding change in the notes] 

CONCERTO, D MAJOR, FOR ORCHESTRA: ARRANGED BY 
MAXIMILIAN OSEEVITSCH STEINBERG 

By Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach 

Bach, born at Weimar, March 18, 1714; died at Hamburg, December 14, 1788 
Steinberg, born at Vilna, June 22, 1888; now living 



Dr. Koussevitzky heard this concerto played by violon, quinton, 
viol d'amour, viola da gamba, and bass viol at a concert of the 
Society of Ancient Instruments in Paris. He was so pleased that he took 
the music and purposed to make an orchestral arrangement; but he 
finally entrusted the task to Steinberg, who arranged the concerto for 
flute, two oboes, bassoon, horn, and strings. The concerto was probably 
composed by Bach at Hamburg. It was performed at concerts of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston, Dr. Koussevitzky conductor, 
on October 24, 1924; December 10, 1926. 

Steinberg, after graduation from the Gymnasium in 1901, attended 
the University at St. Petersburg until 1906, and the Conservatory until 
1908. His teachers at the Conservatory were Rimsky-Korsakov and 
Glazunov. He became a teacher of composition and orchestration at 
this Conservatory. Glazunov brought out fragments of Steinberg's bal- 
let in 1907 at a concert of the Royal Music Society. The list of Stein- 
berg's works comprises two symphonies: No. 1 in D, Op. 3; No. 2, B-flat 
minor, Op. 8; Dramatic Fantasie, Op. 9; Prelude for orchestra, Op. 7; 
Variations for orchestra, Op. 2 and Op. 10; String Quartet in A, Op. 5; 
Four melodies for soprano or tenor, Op. 1 ; Four melodies for soprano 
or tenor (text by K. D. Balmont) , Op. 6; " The Watersprite " (poem 
by Lermontov) , for solo soprano, female chorus, and orchestra, Op. 4. 
His ballet " Midas," second of three episodes from Ovid's " Metamor- 
phoses," picturing the contest of Apollo and Pan, was performed at 
Paris on June 2, 1914; at London on June 18, 1914. In both cities, 
Mme. Karsavina danced as an Oread; Adolf Bolm as Midas. The stage 
setting was by Bakst; the choreography by Fokine. Stravinsky composed 
in 1908 at Oustilong his "Fireworks" * for the wedding of Steinberg 
and a daughter of Rimsky-Korsakov. After the latter's death, Steinberg 
edited his unpublished works, including his treatise on orchestration. 

The remarks of Sir Hubert Parry concerning Emanuel Bach's sym- 
phonies may be applied to his other instrumental works: " In style 
Emanuel Bach stands singularly alone, at least in his finest examples. 

* " Fireworks " was performed in the United States for the first time by the Russian 
Symphony Orchestra in New York on December 1, 1910. The first performance in Boston was 
by the Philharmonic Society of New York on October 30, 1914. The piece was played in 
Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 12, 1914. 

[4] 



It looks almost as if he purposely avoided the form which by 1776 must 
have been familiar to the musical world. It has been shown that the 
binary form was employed by some of his contemporaries in their 
orchestral works, but he seems determinedly to avoid it in the first 
movements of the works of that year. His object seems to have been to 
produce striking and clearly outlined passages, and to balance and con- 
trast them one with another according to his fancy, and with little 
regard to any systematic distribution of the succession of key. . . . The 
opening passages of that in E-flat are hardly less emphatic. They have 
little connection with the tendencies of his contemporaries, but seem in 
every respect an experiment on independent lines, in which the interest 
depends upon the vigor of the thoughts and the unexpected turns of 
the modulations; and the result is certainly rather fragmentary and 
disconnected. The slow movement is commonly connected with the 
first and last either by a special transitional passage or by a turn of 
modulation and a half-close. It is short and dependent in its character, 
but graceful and melodious. The last is much more systematic in struc- 
ture than the first; sometimes in definite binary form, as was the case 
with the early violin sonatas. It has sometimes been said that Haydn 
was chiefly influenced by Emanuel Bach, and Mozart by John Christian 
Bach. At the present time, and in relation to symphonies, it is easier to 
understand the latter case than the former. In both cases the influence 
is more likely to be traced in clavier works than in those for orchestra. 
For Haydn's style and treatment of form bear far more resemblance 

The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 

Published by Oliver Dltson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

— - 



to most of the other composers whose works have been referred to than 
to Emanuel Bach. There are certain kinds of forcible expression and 
ingenious turns of modulation which Haydn may have learnt from 
him; but their best orchestral works seem to belong to quite distinct 
families." 

Compare with this description the remarks by C. F. Pohl in the 
seventh chapter of his life of Haydn. Nor should it be forgotten that 
Emanuel Bach's genius found expression in a manner different from 
that of any preceding master of the German school; it was freer from 
formulas, and it has been characterized by Michel Brenet as " the dawn 
of the modern musical style." 

The third son of Johann Sebastian Bach was Philipp Emanuel 
Bach, known as the " Berlin Bach " or " Hamburg Bach." He was des- 
tined for the law. His father sent him to the Thomas Schule in Leipzig 
to study philosophy. The young man afterwards studied law at the Uni- 
versities of Leipzig and Frankfort-on-the-Oder. His father, Sebastian 
did not give him a rigorous musical training, and the son's early inclina- 
tions led him to the " galant " school of French clavecin music; but 
when he went to Frankfort he was a cultivated musician and a bril- 
liant performer on the clavecin. At Frankfort he established and con- 
ducted a singing society. In 1738 he moved to Berlin and was appointed 
chamber clavecinist to Frederick the Great. It was his painful duty to 
accompany that monarch when he indulged himself in flute diversions. 
Frederick's musical ardor was cooled somewhat by the Seven Years' 
War, and Bach left Berlin in 1767 to take G. F. Telemann's place at 
Hamburg as music director in a church. He held this position to his 
death, which resulted from pulmonary consumption. Highly respected 
in life, his death was mourned as a public calamity. He was a fertile 
composer. Gerber gives this list of works composed by him between 
1731 and 1787: two hundred and ten solo pieces for clavecin, fifty-two 
concertos with orchestra, forty-seven trios for various instruments, 
eighteen symphonies, twelve sonatas for clavecin with accompaniment, 
nineteen solo pieces for other instruments than the clavecin, three 
clavecin quartets, one " Magnificat," twenty-two settings of music to 
the " Passion " text, four works for Easter, three for Michaelmas and 
one for Christmas, nine sacred choruses with instrumental accompani- 
ment, five motets, three oratorios, ninety-five songs and choruses. Yet 
perhaps his greatest work was a literary and pedagogic one: " Versuch 
uber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen " (1753-62) , the first method- 
ical treatise on clavier playing, valuable today for the suggestions 
concerning taste in performance and for the careful explanation of the 
manner of performing the ornaments, or Manieren, with which clave- 
cin compositions of the last half of the eighteenth century were loaded. 

P. H. 

[6] 



SYMPHONY NO. i 

By Aaron Copland 

Born in Brooklyn, N. Y., November 14, 1900 



It was on February 20, 1925 that the music of Aaron Copland was first 
played at the Boston Symphony concerts. On that date, his " Sym- 
phony for Organ and Orchestra " was performed, Nadia Boulanger play- 
ing the organ part.* He had written the symphony in Paris, in 1924, and 
dedicated it to Mile. Boulanger. Having long since left Paris, and the 
direct inspiration of this illustrious preceptor of the more " independ- 
ent " American composers, Mr. Copland has reconsidered his early work. 
He re-scored the scherzo, omitting the organ part, and the movement 
in this form was played by Fritz Reiner and the Philadelphia Orchestra 
in Philadelphia and New York, in the spring of 1928. The composer 
thereupon revised the entire symphony without organ (there are no 
changes other than in the instrumentation) . The second version was 
published in 1931, and first performed in December of that year in a 
programme of contemporary American composers in Berlin, conducted 
by Ernest Ansermet.-f- The first American performance of what Copland 
now calls his " First Symphony " was by the Orchestra in Chicago, Fred- 
erick Stock, conductor, January 18, 1934. 

The orchestration as it now stands is as follows: Two flutes (the sec- 
ond flute interchangeable with a piccolo) , two oboes, English horn, two 
clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, double bassoon, alto saxophone 
(ad libitum) , eight horns, five trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 

* The Symphony for Organ and Orchestra had had its first performance on January 11, 1925 
at a concert of the Symphony Society of New York, Walter Damrosch, conductor, and Mile. 
Boulanger, soloist. 

t M. Ansermet also presented Sessions' Symphony, Gruenberg's " Jazz Suite," and Ruggles' 
" Portals." 







kettledrums, side drum, tambourine, wood block, cymbals, bass drum, 
gong, xylophone, glockenspiel, celesta, piano, two harps, and strings. 

The following description of the Symphony, now slightly modified 
to suit the omission of the organ part, was furnished by the composer 
when his " Symphony for Organ " was first played: 

" The three movements of the symphony are loosely connected by 
a recurrent motto based on the tones of the minor triad. Unlike most 
musical mottoes, however, it is not immediately recognizable as such. 
At first, it plays a seemingly inconsequential part as mere accompani- 
ment, but as the work progresses its real significance is made clear. 

' The first movement (Andante, 6-8) is quite short and bears no 
relation to the traditional first movement of a symphony. It is rather 
an introductory reverie with some incidental material for solo instru- 
ments of the orchestra. Its formal structure is very simple; there is but 
one theme (solo flute with lower strings accompanying and with clarinet 
entering at the ninth measure) . 

II. Scherzo, (Molto Allegro, 3-4 time) . " In the first section of the 
Scherzo two themes are exposed, the first by the oboe, the second — of 
a more sustained character — by the woodwind, with imitations by the 
strings. A climax for the full orchestra is gradually effected, giving free 
play to what was originally the oboe theme. This is suddenly inter- 
rupted by the motto announced by a solo horn and imitated by a 
trumpet. A repetition by a bassoon and flute leads to the middle sec- 
tion, Moderate* 4-4. This is set forth by the strings and saxophone, with 
occasional references by the clarinet to the first theme of the movement. 
Suddenly, without warning, the brass bursts in, and the repetition of 
the first section is engendered in slightly modified form. A short coda 
brings the movement to a close, fortissimo. 

III. " The Finale (Lento, Allegro Moderato, 4-4) corresponds to 
the usual first movement of a symphony, being cast approximately in 
sonata form. Without any introduction, the first theme is given out in 
unison by the violas. The first three notes of this theme are the first 
three notes of the motto. This motive is immediately worked up into 
a stretto by all the strings, then by trumpets and trombones, and finally 
by all the brass, tutti forza. The entrance of the kettledrum brings with 
it the second, more vigorous theme, played by violins and violas on the 
G string over a double-bass pizzicato accompaniment, which is nothing 
more than the motto used as basso ostinato. There follows an episode, 
fortissimo, for the full orchestra, based on a fragment of the second 
theme. This brings a sudden quieting down, when, over the same re- 
lentless basso ostinato, there is a contrapuntal interweaving of themes 
by oboe, English horn and violas. A gradual crescendo brings to a 
climax the exposition section, the second theme being chanted fortis- 
simo, against the motto in augmentation in trumpets and trombones. 

[8] 






" What might be termed the development section begins in the full 
orchestra. As counterpoint the solo violin evolves from the motto a new, 
vivacious theme which later plays an important part. The development 
is not very long. It merges imperceptibly into the recapitulation, which 
in this case is merely a final simultaneous announcement of the four 
main elements of the Finale. The symphony ends with a brief coda." 

Aaron Copland has studied music since his thirteenth year. His first 
teachers were Victor Wittgenstein and Clarence Adler in pianoforte, 
and Karl Goldmark in harmony and composition. He went to Paris in 

1924, studying composition and pianoforte with Nadia Boulanger there 
until the summer of 1924, when he returned to New York. He was 
awarded a Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship for two 
years, October, 1925 — October, 1927. Mr. Copland is a member of the 
Executive Board of the League of Composers, and has acted as chairman 
of the music committee of the Yaddo Festival for Contemporary 
American Music. 

The following works of Aaron Copland have been played at these 
concerts: 

1925. February 20, Symphony for Organ (Nadia Boulanger, organist) and orchestra. 
1925. November 20, Music for the Theatre. (First performances) 

1927. January 28, Concerto in one movement, for piano (Mr. Copland, pianist) and 

orchestra. (First performances) 

1928. December 14, Two Pieces for string orchestra. 
1932. February 19, Symphonic Ode (First performances) . 

Mr. Copland has also written a Ballet, " Grohg " (1925 — revised 
1932). "Cortege Macabre" and "A Dance Symphony," although 
played as separate compositions, are part of this Ballet. He has also 
written four motets for mixed chorus, a cappella (1921) ; "As it fell 
upon a day," song for voice, flute, and clarinet (1923) , performed at a 
concert of the S. M. I., Paris, February 6, 1924: " Vitebsk," study on a 
Jewish melody, for violin, 'cello and piano; and two pianoforte pieces, 
" The Cat and the Mouse " (1919) , and Passacaglia (1922) . His " Short 
Symphony," composed 1931-1933, was performed by the Mexican Sym- 
phony Orchestra in Mexico City, Carlos Chavez, conductor. His " Ele- 
gies " for violin and viola was performed at a League of Composers' 
concert in New York, April, 1933. 

His Ballet, " Hear Ye! Hear Ye! " had its first performance by the 
Chicago Grand Opera Company, November 30, 1934. Ruth Page and 
her company were the dancers. It is a satirical treatment of a court of 
justice attempting to find the murderer of a night club dancer, with 
" tabloid scareheads," serried spectators, discreditable witnesses, alter- 
cating attorneys, and other attendant circumstances. Running through 
the score is a current of jazz, with " delightfully bromidic night club 
music," and a parody of the " Star Spangled Banner," " representing a 
distortion of American justice." J. N. B. 

[9] 



SYMPHONY NO. 6, IN B MINOR, "PATHETIC," Op. 74 
By Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky 

Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; died at 
St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893 



When Tchaikovsky conducted the first performance of his newly 
completed Sixth Symphony (it was in St. Petersburg, October 28, 
1893,* an d nine days before his death) , one might reasonably have ex- 
pected a great success for the work. The composer then commanded 
favorable attention, haying attained eminence and popularity — though 
nothing remotely approaching the immense vogue this very symphony 
was destined to make for him immediately after his death. The com- 
poser believed in his symphony with a conviction which he by no means 
always felt for his newest scores as he presented them to the world 
(only about the melancholy finale, the adagio lamentoso, did he have 
doubts) . He had good reason to believe that the broad and affecting 
flood of outpouring emotion would sweep the audience in its current. 
But such was not the case. The performance, according to Tchaikov- 
sky's scrupulous brother Modeste, " fell rather flat. The symphony was 
applauded, and the composer recalled; but the enthusiasm did not sur- 
pass what was usually shown for one of Tchaikovsky's new composi- 
tions. The symphony produced nothing approaching that powerful and 
thrilling impression made by the work when it was conducted by 
Napravnik, November 18, and later, wherever it was played." The crit- 
ics, too, were cool. The Viedemosti found " the thematic material not 
very original, the leading subjects neither new nor significant." The 
Syn Otechestva discovered Gounod in the first movement and Grieg in 
the last, and the Novoe Vremja drew this astonishing conclusion: " As 
far as inspiration is concerned it stands far below Tchaikovsky's other 
symphonies." 

Cases such as this, and there are plenty of them, where a subse- 
quently acknowledged masterpiece first meets an indifferent reception, 
invite speculation. Was the tardy general acceptance of new ideas 
mostly to blame, or was the first audience perhaps beclouded by a grop- 
ing and mediocre performance, intransigeance on the part of the play- 
ers? It would seem that even a reasonably straightforward performance 
of anything quite so obvious as the " Pathetic " Symphony should have 
awakened a fair degree of emotional response. 

Two dependable witnesses of this particular occasion have diag- 

* Following the composer's death Napravnik conducted the symphony with great success at 
a concert of Tchaikovsky's music, November 18, 1893. The piece attained a quick popularity, 
and reached America the following spring, when it was produced by the New York Symphony 
Society, March 16, 1894. It was performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 28 
following, Emil Pauer conducting. The most recent performance, at the regular concerts, was 
January 25 last. 

[lb] 



nosed the partial failure of the Sixth Symphony to reach its first audi- 
ence — Modeste Tchaikovsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. Unfortunately, 
their conclusions do not agree. 

Modeste Tchaikovsky, who closely understood his brother's sensi- 
tive subjection to circumstances, finds that the performance fell short 
of what it might have been, and attributes this to a lack of rapport be- 
tween the composer and the players at rehearsal: " One thing oppressed 
him. At the rehearsals the Sixth Symphony made no impression upon 
the orchestra. He always set store by the opinion of the musicians. 
Moreover, he feared lest the interpretation of the Symphony might suf- 
fer from their coldness. Tchaikovsky only conducted his works well 
when he knew they appealed to the players. To obtain delicate nuances 
and a good balance of tone he needed his surroundings to be sympa- 
thetic and appreciative. A look of indifference, a coolness on the part of 
any of the band, seemed to paralyze him; he lost his head, went through 
the work perfunctorily, and cut the rehearsal as short as possible, so as 
to release the musicians from a wearisome task. Whenever he con- 
ducted a work of his own for the first time, a kind of uncertainty — al- 
most carelessness — in the execution of details was apparent, and the 
whole interpretation lacked force and definite expression. The Fifth 
Symphony and ' Hamlet ' were so long making their way merely be- 
cause the composer had failed to make them effective." 

Rimsky-Korsakov, on the contrary, found the performance entirely 
adequate. He refuses to attribute the later success under Napravnik 
entirely to superior abilities. " The Symphony was played finely by Na- 
pravnik, but it had gone very well at the author's hands, too. The public 
had simply not fathomed it the first time, and had not paid enough at- 
tention to it; precisely as several years earlier it had failed to give due 
attention to Tchaikovsky's Fifth Symphony. I imagine that the com- 
poser's sudden death (which had given rise to all sorts of rumours) as 
well as stories of his presentiment of approaching death (to which man- 
kind is so prone) and, further, the propensity toward discovering a con- 
nection between the gloomy mood of the Symphony's last movement 
and such a presentiment, — all these now focussed the public's atten- 
tion and sympathies on this work, and the splendid composition soon 
became famed and even modish." 

Mankind's propensity to find presentiments of death in the sym- 
phony, which Rimsky-Korsakov had plentiful opportunity to observe, 
was circumstantially combated by Modeste and by Kashkin, who were 
careful to account for each of Tchaikovsky's actions in the year 1893. 
There are quoted a number of letters written while he was at work 
upon the symphony; he speaks about the progress of his score, always 
in a tone of buoyant confidence in his music. Kashkin last saw him 
shortly before the performance of his symphony; Modeste was with 

[" I 



him until the end. Both say that he was in unfailing good spirits. Death 
was mentioned in the natural course of conversation at the funeral of 
his friend Zvierev in October. Zvierev, as it happened, was one of sev- 
eral friends who had died in close succession. Tchaikovsky talked freely 
with Kashkin at this time. Friends had died; who would be the next to 
go? " I told Peter," wrote Kashkin, " that he would outlive us all. He 
disputed the likelihood, yet added that he had never felt so well and 
happy." And from Modeste: " A few years ago one such grief would 
have affected Tchaikovsky more keenly than all of them taken together 
seemed to do at this juncture." And elsewhere: " From the time of his 
return from England (in June) until the end of his life, Tchaikovsky 
was as serene and cheerful as at any period in his existence." 

Modeste follows the last days of his life, day by day. On November 
ist, he went to the theatre with friends, was " in perfect health." 
Tchaikovsky laughed at Warlamov's distaste for spiritualism and pre- 
occupation with death, and said: " ' There is still time enough to be- 
come acquainted with this detestable snub-nosed one. At any rate, he 
will not have us soon. I know that I shall live for a long time.' — When 
we walked home about 2 a.m., Peter was well in body and mind." It was 
at luncheon that day (November 3) that Tchaikovsky drank a glass of 
water that had not been boiled, and laughed at his friend's fear of 
cholera. But the disease had seized him that night, and Peter said to 
his brother: " I think this is death. Good-by, Modi." Shortly before his 
death, which occurred at three o'clock on the morning of November 6, 
Tchaikovsky, delirious, talked reproachfully of Mme, von Meek, whose 
friendship with him had ended in a break, hurt feelings and cruel mis- 
understanding. Modeste will admit no deliberate intent in his death, 
but there are those who believe that he drank the glass of germ-infested 
water because life had become intolerable to him; who claim that his 
cheerfulness was assumed to conceal his darker feelings from those 
about him. Still, the testimony of Modeste must be given great weight. 
No one was so close to Peter at this time. Peter, as open-natured as a 
child, never in his letters withheld from his intimate friends, least of all 
from his cherished " Modi," his spells of woeful depression, and the 
faithfulness with which Modeste records his brother's weaknesses in- 
spires confidence.* 

Whatever conclusion may be reached about Tchaikovsky's death, to 
attempt to connect the Sixth Symphony with any brooding intentions 
of death is to go against the abundant evidence of Modeste. " The year 
of 1893 opened with a period of serene content, for which the creation of 
his Sixth, or so-called ' Pathetic ' Symphony is mainly accountable. 



* What inner agonies of spirit preceded, and, it is said, resulted in his unhappy marriage, 
Modeste has not glossed over or tried to hide. If his passing allusion to them was slight 
and unparticularized, the decencies of the period and the near memory of his brother more 
than exonerated him. 

[12] 



The composition of this work seems to have been an act of exorcism, 
whereby he cast out all the dark spirits which had possessed him in the 
preceding years." And Modeste goes on to describe a year peaceful in 
creation, of which there are cheerful bulletins of progress to his nephew 
Davidov, to Kashkin, to his publisher Jurgenson, or to his brother. The 
only cloud in his content was the temporary homesickness of his jour- 
ney to England — a mood which usually descended on him when he was 
away from home and among strangers. 

Modeste Tchaikovsky may have been a more acute psychologist 
than some of our moderns when he spoke of the Sixth Symphony as a 
" casting out of the dark spirits that had possessed him." There are 
those who protest that Tchaikovsky fills his music with his personal 
troubles. But rasped nerves, blank, deadening depression, neurotic fears 
— these painful feelings are not in the province of music, nor are they 
found there. They probably in some indirect way colored his inclina- 
tions towards a Byronic melancholy, highly fashionable at the time. 
One calls to mind the affecting pathos of the love songs, the wistful 
sentiment of Pushkin's Tatiana, whom Tchaikovsky put into music 
with such fond care, even while he was at work upon the Fourth Sym- 
phony. The pathological and the musical Tchaikovsky were two dif- 
ferent people. The first was mentally sick, pitiably feeble. The second 
was bold, sure-handed, thoroughgoing, increasingly masterful, emi- 
nently sane. Tchaikovsky's musical melancholy is not painful to the 
ear, but luscious — even exuberant. He simply revels in the mood which 
somehow peculiarly belongs to him. It is worth noting that during the 
nervous collapse of 1877, in the midst of his disastrous marriage of a 
few weeks, he was busily at work upon his Fourth Symphony — music 
far surpassing anything he had done in brilliance and exultant strength. 
One is almost forced to the conclusion that the symphony was his ref- 
uge, his healing resource when life had become unbearable. The tragic 
Sixth Symphony, on the other hand, he must have written in the com- 
forting sense of having attained his fullest creative powers. If the strain 
of melancholy which runs through most of Tchaikovsky's music and 
finds its most luxuriant expression in his last symphony is nothing 
more than the querulous complaints of a pessimist, as some have 
averred, it would be hard to reconcile such a belief with a remarkable 
passage in his letter to Mme. von Meek (March 1, 1878) where he tries 
to put in words the state of mind to which the act of composition lifts 
him. He calls it: " a kind of musical shriving of the soul, in which there 
is an encrustation of material which flows forth again in notes just as 
the lyrical poet pours himself out in verse. ... It would be vain to try 
to put into words that immeasurable sense of bliss which comes over 
me directly a new idea awakens in me and begins to assume a definite 
form. I forget everything and behave like one possessed. Everything 

[13] 



within me starts pulsing and quivering; hardly have I begun the sketch 
ere one thought follows another." 

Tchaikovsky, always reticent about a programme for his sym- 
phonies,* was deliberately non-communicative about this one. In one 
of his first letters divulging the news of the new work (he had written 
to his brother Anatol about it the day before) he wrote from Klin to 
Davidov, February 23, 1893: " Just as I was starting on my journey (the 
visit to Paris, in December, 1892) the idea came to me for a new sym- 
phony. This time with a programme of a kind which remains an enigma 
to all — let them guess it who can. The work will be entitled ' A Pro- 
gramme Symphony ' (No. 6) . This programme is penetrated by the 
subjective sentiment. During my journey, while composing it in my 
mind, I frequently shed tears." 

The Symphony was announced in the programme of the first per- 
formance simply by its number. But the next day, Modeste found his 
brother at the tea table holding the score and pondering a title, for he 
was to send it to his publisher that day. He wished something more 
than " No. 6," and did not like " Programme Symphony." " What does 
Programme Symphony mean when I will give it no programme? " 
Modeste suggested " Tragic," but Peter said that would not do. " I 
left the room before he had come to a decision. Suddenly I thought — 
' Pathetic.' I went back to the room, I remember it as though it were 
yesterday, and I said the word to Peter. ' Splendid, Modi, bravo, " Pa- 
thetic " ! ' and he wrote in my presence the title that will forever 
remain." Still, Tchaikovsky could not have been thoroughly satisfied 
with the name " Pathetique" for the next day he wrote to Jurgenson 
with directions about the dedication to his nephew, Vladimir Davidov, 
and gave the symphony no other identification than " No. 6." He 
added: " I hope it is not too late." 

Wherefore the symphony remains what its maker intended it to be, 
so far as posterity was concerned — an " enigma." From various inter- 
pretations, each of which must remain nothing more than a single 
personal guess, let us quote that of Kashkin, who found in it something 
far more than a presentiment of his own approaching end. " It seems 
more reasonable," he wrote, " to interpret the overwhelming energy of 
the third movement and the abysmal sorrow of the finale in the broader 
light of a national or historical significance rather than to narrow them 
to the expression of an individual experience. If the last movement is 
intended to be predictive, it is surely of things vaster and issues more 
fatal than are contained in a mere personal apprehension of death. 
It speaks rather of a ' lamentation large et souffrance inconnue/ and 
seems to set the seal of finality on all human hopes. Even if we elimi- 

* The programme for his Fourth Symphony, coaxed from him by Mme. von Meek, was waved 
aside in the same letter as a personal fantasy of the moment. For the Fifth Symphony he 
gave no programme. 

[14] 



nate the purely subjective interest, this autumnal inspiration of 
Tchaikovsky, in which we hear ' the ground whirl of the perished leaves 
of hope ' still remains the most profoundly stirring of his works." 

The music as self-sufficient, and without biographical implications, 
is interestingly described by Donald Francis Tovey: " It is not for 
merely sentimental or biographical reasons that Tchaikovsky's sixth 
and last Symphony has become the most famous of all his works. No- 
where else has he concentrated so great a variety of music within so 
effective a scheme: and the slow finale, with its complete simplicity of 
despair, is a stroke of genius which solves all the artistic problems that 
have proved most baffling to symphonic writers since Beethoven. The 
whole work carries conviction without the slightest sense of effort; and 
its most celebrated features, such as the second subject of the first move- 
ment, are thrown into their right relief by developments far more 
powerful, terse, and highly organized than Tchaikovsky has achieved 
in any other work. The extreme squareness and simplicity of the phras- 
ing throughout the whole symphony is almost a source of power in it- 
self. All Tchaikovsky's music is dramatic; and the Pathetic Symphony 
is the most dramatic of all his works. Little or nothing is to be gained 
by investigating it from a biographical point of view: there are no ob- 
scurities in the music either as musical forms or as emotional contrasts: 
and there is not the slightest difficulty in understanding why Tchaikov- 
sky attached special importance to the work. 

" One of the most original features is the opening in a key which 
turns out not to be that of the piece, but a dark outlying region (the 
sub-dominant) . Through ghost-like chords on double-basses a bassoon 
foreshadows the main theme. The key shifts from E minor to the real 
key of the Symphony, B minor; and the allegro begins with the first 
subject. 

" The development opens with a crash, and works up the first theme 
in a stormy fugato. The course of the music is easy to follow; and its 
finest feature, perhaps the finest passage Tchaikovsky ever wrote, is 
the return of the first subject, worked up in a slow crescendo starting 
in the extremely remote key of B flat minor, and rising step by step 
until, in the tonic (B minor) , the whole theme is given fortissimo in 
dialogue between strings and wind. The tragic passage which then fol- 
lows is undoubtedly the climax of Tchaikovsky's artistic career, as well 
as of this work: and its natural reaction, the return (in the tonic major) 
of the second subject, is (perhaps even more than the despairing finale 
of the whole symphony) the feature that fully reveals the pathetic char- 
acter of the music. 

" The second movement, an extremely simple kind of scherzo and 
trio, has this peculiar effect, that while it is in 5-4 time, which is an un- 

[15] 



symmetrical rhythm, the bars themselves are grouped in the stiffest 
series of multiples of eight that have ever found room in a symphony. 
It is a delightful and childlike reaction from the drama of the first 
movement, and, except for a certain wistfulness in the tone of the trio 
with its obstinate pedal-point in the drums, it successfully hides what- 
ever cares it may have. 

" The gigantic march which constitutes the third movement begins 
with a quiet but busy theme, the triplet motion of which lasts almost 
incessantly until the final stage, where the second subject stiffens the 
whole orchestra into march-rhythm. There is no development: the first 
subject returns without any elaborate process; but its continuation be- 
comes highly dramatic and is worked up to a tremendous climax. The 
triumph is brilliant, but, perhaps in consequence of the way in which 
it was approached, not without a certain fierceness in its tone. At all 
events, it would, if translated into literature, not be the triumph of the 
real hero of the story. He might share in it at the time, but his heart 
will be in the mood of Tchaikovsky's finale. 

" This experiment, unique in form and unique in success, is carried 
through on two themes: the desperate first subject, with its curious ar- 
rangement of crossing parts in the first four bars, and a consolatory sec- 
ond subject. 

" There is no development, but the second subject is worked up to a 
great climax, which leads, after some dramatic pauses, to the recapit- 
ulation. In this the first subject reaches a still greater climax, which 
dies down until a distant stroke of a gong (the most ominous sound in 
the orchestra, if discreetly used) brings back the second subject, now 
in B minor and in a mood of utter despair. And so the music of the 
whole symphony dies away in the darkness with which it began." 

J. N. B. 

[For analytical note on the C. P. E. Bach Concerto, see page 4] 

CONCERTO IN D MINOR FOR ORCHESTRA WITH ORGAN 

(Edited by Alexander Siloti) 

By Antonio Vivaldi 

Born about 1680 at Venice, died there in 1743 



Alexander Siloti's arrangement of the concerto now to be played calls 
. for these instruments: two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bas- 
soons, double-bassoon, organ, and strings. It was performed for the first 
time in this country at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 
Boston on October 10, 1924; the first performance in New York was on 
November 27, 1924. 
[16] 



Carnegie ^all • Jleto gorfe 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH AFTERNOON CONCERT 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, March 2, at 2:30 o'clock 



Programme 

Bach, G. P. E Concerto in D major for Orchestra 

(Arranged by Maximilian Steinberg) 

I. ALLEGRO MODERATO 
II. ANDANTE LENTO MOLTO 
III. ALLEGRO 

Berezowsky .... Concerto Lirico for Violoncello and 

Orchestra 

{First Performances in New York) 

INTERMISSION 

Strauss .... "Don Quixote," Fantastic Variations on 

a Theme of Knightly Character, Op. 35 

(Introduction, Theme with Variations, and Finale) 

Violoncello solo: gregor piatigorsky 
Viola solo: jean lefrang 

SOLOIST 

GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 

The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

[^71 



Vivaldi was born some time during the latter half of the seventeenth 
century at Venice, where his father was violinist at St. Mark's Church. 
Little is known about Antonio's early history. It is supposed that he spent 
several years in Germany. We know that he was director of music to Duke 
Philip of Hesse — some say Duke Philip of Hesse-Philippsthal, Ernest 
Ludwig — at Mantua, where the Duke had a residence from 1 707 to 1713, 
when he returned to Venice. He was appointed maestro de concerti at the 
Ospedale della Pieta, a foundling hospital for girls, with a choir and an 
orchestra, all women. In 1714 he was appointed violinist at St. Mark's 
Church. He was red-headed and a priest, so he was known as " il prete 
rosso." According to the St. Louis Orchestra's Programme Book of Janu- 
ary 6, 1928, Mr. Bernadino Molinari, who was then conducting, as guest, 
Vivaldi's " Four Seasons " for the first time in this country, is inclined to 
believe that " Vivaldi won his nickname of il prete rosso from his custom 
of wearing a semi-clerical habit of red." Now Goldoni, in his entertaining 
Memoirs, writes of his promise early in 1735 to assist Grimani, the pro- 
prietor of the Theatre of Saint Samuel in Venice, in the production of an 
opera. " La Griselda," an opera of Aspostolo Zeno and Pariata, had been 
chosen, " and the composer," writes Goldoni, " who was to set it to music 
was the Abbe Vivaldi, called il prete rosso (' the red priest ') on account 
of his hair. He was much better known by this sobriquet than by his real 
name." (Vivaldi wrote the music, and the opera was produced; but the 
names of the librettists are not given in the published libretto. " La Gri- 
selda " was Vivaldi's twenty-first opera.) Vivaldi did not die until 1743. 
Here is contemporaneous evidence by an Italian. 

Ernst Ludwig Gerber, in his " Lexicon der Tonkiinstler " (Leipzig, 
1790) , says that Vivaldi in his old age, " about 1730, was extraordinarily 
pious, so that he would not put his rosary aside until he took up the pen 
to write an opera, which happened frequently." It is also said of him that 
once, celebrating his daily Mass, a musical idea came into his head that 
delighted him. He left the altar and went into the sacristy to write it 
down, and then returned to go on with the Mass. Taken before officers 
of the Inquisition, he was declared not wholly sane. The only punish- 
ment meted out to him was that he should not be allowed to celebrate 
the Mass. Is this fact or legend? 



Vivaldi composed a great quantity of music for the violin (according 
to Riemann, there are in Dresden alone eighty concertos in manuscript) , 
and he wrote operas from 1713 to 1739 — thirty-eight, it is said — twenty- 
two of them for Venice. Few of his works have been printed. His pub- 
lished compositions include twelve trios for two violins and violoncello 
(Op. 1) ; eighteen violin sonatas with bass (Op. 2 and 5) ; " Estro Po- 
etico" twelve concertos for four violins, two violas, violoncello, and 
[18] 



organ bass (Op. 3) ; twenty-four concertos for solo violin, two violins 
ripieni, viola, and organ bass (Op. 4, 6, and 7) ; " Le Quattro Stagioni/' 
twelve concertos for four and five voices (Op. 8) ; "La Cetera/' six con- 
certos for five voices (Op. 9) ; six concertos for flute, violin, viola, violon- 
cello, and organ bass (Op. 10) ; twelve concertos for solo violin, two 
violins, viola, violoncello, and organ bass (Op. 1 1 and 12) . 

It has long been said that Bach transcribed eleven of Vivaldi's violin 
concertos, six for clavier, four for organ, and Bach's concerto in A minor 
for four claviers (Vivaldi's concerto in B minor for four solo violins) ; 
but about 1912 the authenticity of Bach's transcriptions of the concertos 
for the organ was strenuously denied. Other transcriptions for the 
clavier were made by Duke Ernest of Saxony. Benedetto Marcello, and 
Telemann. 

Vivaldi was a virtuoso, and as a composer he has been accused of 
writing for mere display and inventing novel effects to win applause. 

Dr. Burney pooh-poohed his " Stravaganze " for solo violin. Sir John 
Hawkins found the attempt of Vivaldi to " illustrate " by music the four 
sonnets about the seasons absurd. But the Germans, Bach, Benda, and 
Quanz among them, thought highly of the Venetian. 

Vivaldi developed the concerto form invented by Giuseppe Torelli. 
Sir Hubert Parry said of Vivaldi: " He represented the tendency of 
Italian art towards harmonic forms, such as were met with in Italian 
opera, in which, so far, simple clearness of design and superficial effec- 
tiveness were the principal virtues. He was essentially a violinist, and, 
at times, especially in slow movements, when the aptness of the violin 
for expressive melody invited him, he showed facility, glibness, and a 
certain mastery of technic, but his ideas in such movements were little 
more than poses. But he had a great reputation as a representative of 
Italian instrumental art, and it was possibly on that ground that Bach 
subjected his works to the close study which arranging them for the 
clavier implied." Sir Hubert admitted later, in his life of Bach, that 
Bach's violin concertos written in the Cothen period are akin to the 
Vivaldi type. 

Alexander Siloti, pianist, conductor, editor, born on the estate of his 
father, near Charkov in South Russia, on October 10, 1863, studied at 
the Moscow Conservatory (Sverev, N. Rubinstein, Tchaikovsky, and 
Hubert) , and from 1883-86 he was a pupil of Liszt. He played in public 
as early as 1880. From 1886 to 1890 he taught at the Moscow Conserva- 
tory. Living at Frankfort, Antwerp, Leipzig, he later conducted the 
Moscow Philharmonic Symphony concerts in 1901, 1902; and in 1903-04 
he conducted at St. Petersburg, where as late as May, 1918, he gave con- 
certs. In 1920 he was reported dead, but he reappeared in London as a 

[«9] 



pianist on October 9 of that year. He came to the United States in the 
season of 1897-98 and played in Boston with the Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra on February 5, 1898 (Tchaikovsky's piano Concerto, No. 2; first 
time at these concerts) . He gave recitals there in February, and on 
March 1 2, assisted by Messrs. Kneisel and Schroeder, gave his last con- 
cert of that season. He came again to Boston in 1922 and played, at a con- 
cert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Liszt's " Dance of Death," and 
with Messrs. Burgin and Laurent took part in a performance of Bach's 
Brandenburg Concerto, No. 5. On May 1, 1929, his arrangement of the 
Adagio from Bach's Toccata in C major was played at a conceit of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. On October 15, 1929, Mr. Siloti played 
with an orchestra (60 members of the Philharmonic) at New York: 
Tchaikovsky's B-flat minor concerto, Beethoven's concerto No. 5, Liszt's 
" Danse Macabre." He is a member of the faculty of the Juillard Gradu- 
ate School of Music. P. H. 



CONCERTO LIRICO FOR VIOLONCELLO AND ORCHESTRA 

By Nicolai T. Berezowsky 
Born at Leningrad on May 17, 1900; living in New York City 



Berezowsky, familiar at these concerts by his two symphonies and his 
Violin Concerto, devoted himself last summer, at Yaddo, Saratoga 
Springs, New York, to a string quartet (commissioned by the League of 
Composers) , and to this " Concerto Lirico." He wrote the piece for 
Piatigorsky, and dedicated it to the 'cellist whom he has known inti- 
mately from the days they began their musical careers together in pre- 
revolutionary Russia, and faced together the turmoil of political and 
social changes. 

Arthur Wallace Hepner kindly submits the following description of 
the " Concerto Lirico ": 

" This concerto was originally conceived as a passacaglia or free va- 
riations for violoncello and orchestra. The realization that the limited 
scope of the passacaglia granted no possibilities for more comprehensive 
development, induced Mr. Berezowsky to expand the form into a con- 
certo. The concerto, as it stands, is in a single movement preceded by a 
short introduction which intimates the pervading lyric mood of the 
work. 

" The orchestral accompaniment is scored for: flute, oboe, clarinet, 
bass clarinet, bassoon, two horns in F, two trumpets, trombone, tuba, 
triangle, side drum, bass drum, timpani, harp, piano, and usual strings, 
less the violoncellos. 

" The independent introduction lento 6/8, in a mellifluous charac- 
ter, leads to the concerto proper at the 24th bar. The tempo becomes 
[20] 




^Announcement 



book containing the collected musical 
writings of Philip Hale is announced for 
Ipublication by Doubleday, Doran & Com- 
pany. Mr. Hale's programme notes and his reviews 
of the Boston Symphony concerts through many 
seasons will be drawn upon in such a way as to 
combine his characteristic reflections upon the vari- 
ous composers with annotations on their principal 
orchestral works. 

^ As critic, annotator, prefacer, columnist, and edi- 
torial writer, Philip Hale was an extremely active 
man who never found time to act upon the sug- 
gestions of publishers wishing to bring out an 
edition of his writings. They are thus to 
appear in book form for the first time 



[21] 



andante sostenuto 6/8; the principal theme announced in the solo vio- 
loncello at the second bar. Five interesting variations, each unrelated 
in style, are developed on the theme and terminate at the commence- 
ment of the contrasting section, allegro 2/4. A subsidiary theme in the 
flute (the basis of this section) is backgrounded by an exuberant rhyth- 
mic figure in the violoncello, the whole effect being something in the 
nature of a tarantella. In the violas recurs the lyric theme of the passa- 
caglia. It is taken up in the clarinet. There transpires an unanticipated 
climax, and the violoncello declaims the lyric theme in quarter notes 
above the orchestra, which simultaneously continues the tarantella. 

" This leads to the only big orchestral tutti which emerges from the 
quiet but martial figure heard in the oboe, bassoon, and piano, by 
gradual stages, encircling the entire sweep of the full orchestra, to a 
tremendous accelerando and a ferocious climax, ///. There is an abrupt 
break. The cadenza, based on the principal theme, is played by the 
violoncello over an organ point in the basses, which slowly disappears 
leaving the declaiming instrument alone. The coda comprises an echo- 
ing of the early variations." 

Nicolai Berezowsky, showing striking musical talent as a child, en- 
tered the imperial Chapel at Leningrad when he was eight years old. 
There he studied with Klimov.* Resisting his father's choice of a mili- 
tary career for him, the young man pursued his study of the violin, 
notably under Robert Pollak in Vienna, in whose string quartet he 
played. In 1918 he was appointed professor at the conservatory of 
Saratoff, in eastern Russia, on the Volga. He joined the Moscow Opera 
Orchestra (1920-1921). 

In 1922, he came to this country, studying in the Juillard Graduate 
School — violin with Paul Kochanski, and composition with Rubin 
Goldmark. In 1923 he joined the New York Philharmonic Orchestra as 
leader of the second violins. He has since become first violinist of the 
League of Composers String Quartet, and is assistant conductor in the 
Columbia Broadcasting System. Although creative activity now prin- 
cipally occupies him, he has appeared as soloist or guest conductor of 
orchestras in several cities. 

The composer appeared as soloist with this orchestra in his Violin 
Concerto, December 4, 1931. He had conducted his First Symphony at a 
Monday Evening Concert (March 16, 1931) . His Second Symphony had 
its initial performance here, February 16, 1934. 

A list of Berezowsky's works follows; their performances are 
also noted: 



* Michael Georgievitch Klimov, a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov and Tcherepnin at the Lenin- 
grad Conservatory, became principal conductor of the Imperial Chapel in 1913, and was ap- 
pointed its director in 1919, on the eve of the monarchical debacle. Later, when conductor of 
the Leningrad State Orchestra, he also reassembled his old choir for a European tour in 1928. 

[22] 



Symphonic Works — 

Symphony No. 1 (1925) 

(Performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1931) 
Hebrew Suite (1928) 

(New York Philharmonic Orchestra, Willem Mengelberg, Conductor) 
Violin Concerto (1930) 

(Tonkiinstlerfest, Bremen, Carl Flesch, soloist; Dresden Philharmonic, Carl 

Flesch, soloist; Boston Symphony Orchestra, Nicolai Berezowsky, soloist) 
Fantaisie (with two pianos) (1931) 

(National Orchestral Association and New York Philharmonic (Stadium) , 

Leon Barzin, Conductor, 1933) 
Sinfonietta (1931) 

(A prize piece of the National Broadcasting Company contest. Performed 

last season by the orchestras of Cincinnati and Chicago) 
Symphony No, 2 . . ' (1933) 

(Performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1934) 
Concerto Lirico (1934) 

Chamber Music — 

Sextet for strings, clarinet and piano (1926) 

(Performed by the Pro Arte Quartet in European cities) 

Piano Sonata (1926) 

Poeme (for eleven instruments) (1927) 

String Sextet No. 1 (1928) 

(Elizabeth Coolidge Festival in Washington, D. C, and other cities) 

String Sextet No. 2 (1928) 

Wood-wind Quintet (1928) 

(League of Composers, New York; Barrere Ensemble, radio concert, Library 

of Congress, Washington, D. C.) 
Fantasia for Two Pianos (1930) 

(League of Composers, New York) 
Duo for Viola and Clarinet (1931) 

(League of Composers, New York) 
String Quartet, Op. 16 (1932) 

(Yaddo Festival) 
String Quartet No. 2 (1934) 

Choral — 

Cantata on Dryden's Hymn to St. Cecilia (1927) 

J. N. B. 



GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 



Gregor Piatigorsky was born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia, in 1903. As 
a child he studied the violin with his father, but soon showed a 
mastery of the instrument by which he is now known. Migrating to 
Berlin after the war, he became first violoncellist of the Berlin Philhar- 
monic Orchestra under Wilhelm Furtwangler. Soon he found his field 
as a virtuoso. Besides appearing with the leading orchestras of Berlin, 
Leipzig, Hamburg, Frankfort, Cologne, Dresden, Amsterdam, etc., he 
has appeared with orchestras in the United States from New York to 
Los Angeles. 

He sojourned in the United States for a short time in the season of 
1929-30. On December 29, 1929, he played with the Philharmonic- 
Symphony Society of New York, Dvorak's concerto in B minor, under 
Willem Mengelberg. 

[23] 



On April 17, 1931, he played with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
in Boston, Schumann's Violoncello Concerto in A minor. On April 1, 
1932, he played at the Haydn Memorial Concert, in Boston, that com- 
poser's Violoncello Concerto in D major, with the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. 

The violoncello solo in Don Quixote (and likewise a transcription 
by Gaspar Cassado of Mozart's Horn Concerto) was played by him 
March 24, 1933. Mr. Bedetti, who, as first violoncellist of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, would usually play this part, has courteously 
yielded his prerogative on these occasions to his famous colleague, whom 
Richard Strauss himself acclaimed as the model interpreter of his " Don 
Quixote." 

When, in 1931, Mr. Piatigorsky was soloist at the Museum concerts 
in Frankfurt under the baton of Richard Strauss, the great composer, 
whose words of praise are known to be rare, wrote him the following 
letter: 

" I thank you once more from the bottom of my heart for your won- 
derful Don Quixote: technically, musically, and interpretatively a 
model. I wish for the sake of all of us that you could play it every place 
where the work is performed under a good conductor." 



DON QUIXOTE " (INTRODUCTION, THEME WITH VA- 
RIATIONS AND FINALE) : FANTASTICAL VARIA- 
TIONS ON A THEME OF A KNIGHTLY 
CHARACTER, Op. 35 

By Richard Strauss 

Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living at Vienna 



Don Quixote (Introduzione, Tenia con Variazioni, e Finale) : Fan- 
tastische Variationen iiber ein Thema ritterlichen Charakters," 
was composed at Munich in 1897. (The score was completed on De- 
cember 29th of that year.) It was played for the first time at a Giirzenich 
Concert, Cologne, from manuscript, Franz Wullner conductor, March 
8, 1898. Friedrich Griitzmacher was the solo violoncellist. Strauss con- 
ducted his composition on March 18, 1898, at a concert of the Frankfort 
Museumgesellschaft, when Hugo Becker was the violoncellist. It is said 
that Becker composed an exceedingly piquant cadenza for violoncello 
on the Quixote motive for his own enjoyment at home. The first per- 
formance in the United States was by the Chicago Orchestra, Chicago, 
Theodore Thomas conductor, January 7, 1899, Bruno Steindel violon- 
cellist. The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, Wilhelm Gericke conductor, February 13, 1904. 

[24] 



Mr. Krasselt then played the violoncello solo and Mr, Zach was the solo 
viola player.* 

The work is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, English horn, 
two clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, double-bassoon, six horns, 
three trumpets, three trombones, tenor tuba, bass tuba, kettledrums, 
snare-drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, wind-machine, 
glockenspiel, harp, sixteen first violins, sixteen second violins, twelve 
violas, ten violoncellos, eight double-basses. It is dedicated to Joseph 
Dupont. 

Much has been written in explanation of this work, which followed 
" Also sprach Zarathustra," Op. 30 (1896) , and preceded " Ein Helden- 
leben," Op. 40 (1898) . As the story goes, at a music festival in Dussel- 
dorf in 1899 an acquaintance of Strauss complained bitterly before the 
rehearsal that he had no printed " guide " to " Don Quixote," with 
which he was unfamiliar. Strauss laughed, and said for his consolation, 
"Get out! you do not need any."j~ Arthur Hahn wrote a pamphlet of 
twenty-seven pages in elucidation. In this pamphlet are many wondrous 
things. We are told that certain queer harmonies introduced in an other- 
wise simple passage of the Introduction " characterize admirably the 
well-known tendency of Don Quixote toward false conclusions." 

There is no programme attached to the score of this work. The ar- 
rangement for pianoforte gives certain information concerning the 
composer's purposes. 



* The Boston Symphony Orchestra performed the work at its Pension Fund Concert, April 19, 
1904, when Dr. Strauss conducted. It was played again at regular concerts on April 23, 1910, 
when Mr. Warnke was the solo violoncellist and Mr. Ferir played the solo viola; February 
18, 1911 (Mr. Warnke, violoncello; Mr. Ferir, viola); February 11, 1916 (Mr. Warnke, violon- 
cello; Mr. Ferir, viola); April 14, 1922 (Mr. Bedetti, violoncello; Mr. Fourel, viola); December 
11, 1932 (Mr. Bedetti, violoncello; Mr. Lefranc, viola); March 24, 1933 (Mr. Piatigorsky, violon- 
cello, Mr. Lefranc, viola). 

t A writer who enjoys the personal friendship of the composer has told the world that Don 
Quixote was written at a time when Strauss was himself inclined to " be conscious of and 
ironical at the expense of the tragi-comedy of his own over-zealous hyper-idealism." 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[*! 



Max Steinitzer declares in his " Richard Strauss " (Berlin and Leip- 
sic, 1911) that with the exception of some details, as the Windmill epi- 
sode, the music is intelligible and effective as absolute music; that the 
title is sufficiently explanatory. " The introduction begins immediately 
with the hero's motive and pictures with constantly increasing liveliness 
by other themes of knightly and gallant character life as it is mirrored 
in writings from the beginning of the 17th century. 'Don Quixote, 
busied in reading romances of chivalry, loses his reason — and deter- 
mines to go through the world as a wandering knight.' " It is easy to 
recognize the hero's theme in its variations, because the knight is always 
represented by the solo violoncello. The character of Sancho Panza is 
expressed by a theme first given to bass clarinet and tenor tuba; but 
afterward and to the end by a solo viola. " Don Quixote " is divided into 
an Introduction, a Theme with Variations, and a Finale. The sections 
are connected without a break. Each variation portrays an incident in 
the novel. 

Introduction 

Mdssiges Zeitmass (moderato) , D major, 4-4. Don Quixote plunged 
himself deeply in his reading of books of knighthood, " and in the end, 
through his little sleep and much reading, he dried up his brains in 
such sort, as he lost wholly his judgment. His fantasy was filled with 
those things that he read, of enchantments, quarrels, battles, challenges, 
wounds, wooings, loves, tempests, and other impossible follies." * The 
first theme (wind instruments) foreshadows the typical Don Quixote 
motive, and is here typical of knight-errantry in general. The next sec- 
tion (strings) represents the idea of knightly gallantry, and the whole 
theme ends with the passages that include the strange harmonies and 
portray his madness. These strange progressions recur frequently 
throughout the work. " He does not dream," says H. W. Harris, " that 
his reasoning is at fault or that he is the victim of self-delusion; on the 
contrary, he ascribes all such discrepancies to magic, by which he be- 
lieves himself to be persecuted, which is clearly being employed to make 
things appear otherwise than his judgment assures him they really 
should be." 

The first section of the first theme is ornamented (violas) . Don 
Quixote grows more and more romantic and chivalric. He sees the Ideal 
Woman, his lady-love (oboe) . The trumpets tell of a giant attacking 
her and her rescue by a knight. " In this part of the Introduction, the 
use of mutes on all the instruments — including the tuba, here so treated 
for the first time — creates an indescribable effect of vagueness and con- 
fusion, indicating that they are mere phantasms with which the Knight 



* Quotations from the novel itself are here taken from the translation into English by Thomas 
Shelton (1612, 1620). — P. H. 

[26] 



is concerned, which cloud his brain." A Penitent enters (muted vio- 
las ff) . Don Quixote's brain grows more and more confused. The or- 
chestral themes grow wilder. An augmented version of the first section 
of the theme (brass) , followed by a harp glissando, leads to shrill dis- 
cord—the Knight is mad. " The repeated use of the various sections of 
the first theme shows that his madness has something to do with chiv- 
alry." Don Quixote has decided to be a Knight-errant. 

Theme 

"Don Quixote, the knight of the sorrowful countenance; Sancho 

Panza." Moderato, D minor, 4-4. The Don Quixote theme is announced 

by solo violoncello. It is of close kin to the theme of the introduction. 

Sancho Panza is typified by a theme given first to bass clarinet and tenor 

tuba; but afterward the solo viola is the characteristic instrument of 

Sancho. 

Variation I 

The Knight and the Squire set out on their journey. " In a leisurely 
manner," D minor, 12-8. The beautiful Dulcinea of Toboso inspires the 
Knight (a version of the Ideal Woman theme) , who soon sees some 
windmills (brass) and prepares to attack. A breeze arises (wood-wind 
and strings) , and the Knight, angry at the challenge, attacks, and is 
knocked down by the sails (run in wood-wind, harp glissando, heavy 
drum-beats) . 

Variation II 

The victorious Battle against the Host of the Great Emperor Alifon- 
faron. " Warlike," D major, 4-4. There is a cloud of dust; surely a great 
army approaches; the Knight rushes to fight, in spite of the warnings of 
Sancho, who sees the sheep. There is a pastoral figure (wood-wind) , 
and out of the dust-cloud (strings) comes a chorus of " Ba-a-a-a " (muted 
brass) . Don Quixote charges, and puts the foe to confusion. 

Variation III 

The Dialogues of the Knight and the Squire. Moderato, 4-4. Sancho 
questions the worth of such a life. Don Quixote speaks of honor and 
glory (first theme) , but Sancho sees nothing in them. The dispute 
waxes hot. Don Quixote speaks nobly of the ideal. Sancho prefers the 
easy, comfortable realities of life. At last his master is angry and bids 
him hold his tongue. 

Variation IV 

The Adventure with the Penitents. " Somewhat broader," D minor, 
4-4. A church theme (wind instruments) announces the approach of a 
band of pilgrims. Don Quixote sees in them shameless robbers, desper- 
ate villains. He attacks them. They knock him senseless and go on their 
prayerful way. Sancho, sorely disturbed, rejoices when his master shows 
signs of life, and after he has helped him, lies down by his side and goes 
to sleep (bass tuba, double bassoon) . 

[27] 



To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



W" hen I was asked to serve as Chairman of the Society 
and to assume the responsibility of getting together 
$90,000 for the maintenance requirements of the 
Orchestra, I made out a little schedule classifying the gifts I 
thought we must expect. Here is that schedule and opposite 
each class of gift I have now added the amount received to 
date: 



In gifts of $1,000 and over 
In gifts of $101 to $1,000 
In gifts of $100 
In gifts of $50 to $100 
In gifts of $25 and under 


Needed 
$20,000 
25,000 
25,000 
10,000 
10,000 


Already 
received 

$10,000 

15>95° 
10,600 

10,146 

6,809 



$90,000 



$53>5°5 



In other words what we still need to fulfill expectations is 
10 gifts of $1,000; 40 gifts of $250; 144 gifts of $100; and 250 
gifts of under $25. 

I trust this may be stimulating and helpful to those who 
have not yet enrolled or contributed. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. for whatever amount you care 
to contribute and mail it to E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon 
Street, Boston. Contributions to the Orchestra may be deducted 
from net income in computing Federal Income Taxes. 



[28 



Carnegte i>all • J^eto §orfe 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Closing concerts for the season 

Thursday Evening, April 4, 1935, at 8:45 

Saturday Afternoon, April 6, 1 935, a£ 2:30 



[29] 



Variation V 

The Knight's Vigil, " Very slow," 4-4. Don Quixote, ashamed to sleep, 
holds watch by his armor. Dulcinea, answering his prayers, appears in 
a vision (the Ideal Woman theme, horn) . A cadenza for harp and vio- 
lins leads to a passage portraying his rapture. 

Variation VI 
The meeting with Dulcinea. G major, 2-4, 3-4. A common country 
wench comes along (wood-wind, tambourine) , and Sancho by way of 
jest points her out to his master as Dulcinea. The Knight cannot be- 
lieve it. Sancho swears it is so. The Knight suddenly knows that some 
magic has worked this transformation, and he vows vengeance. 

Variation VII 
The Ride through the Air. D minor 8-4. Knight and Squire sit, 
blindfolded, on a wooden horse, which, as they have been made to be- 
lieve, will bear them through the air. Their respective themes soar sky- 
ward. The wind whistles about them (chromatic flute passages, harp, 
drum-roll, wind-machine) . They stop suddenly (long-held bassoon 
note) , and, looking about them, they think themselves still on the 
ground. " The persistent tremolo of the double-basses on one note may 
be taken to mean that the two did not really leave the solid earth." 

Variation VIII 

The Journey in the Enchanted Bark. Don Quixote sees an empty 
boat, and he is sure it is sent by some mysterious power, that he may 
do a glorious deed. He and Sancho embark. His typical theme is 
changed into a barcarolle. The boat upsets, but they succeed in gaining 
the shore; and they give thanks for their safety (wind instruments 
religioso) . 

Variation IX 

The Combat with two Magicians. " Quickly and stormily," D minor, 
4-4. Don Quixote is again on his famous horse, eager for adventure. 
Two peaceable monks are jogging along on their mules, and the Knight 
sees in them the base magicians who have worked him harm. He charges 
them and puts them to flight. The two themes are a version of the Don 
Quixote motive and an ecclesiastical phrase for the bassoons. 

Variation X 
Don Quixote, defeated by the Knight of the White Moon, returns 
home, and resolves to be a shepherd. " Know, sir," said the Knight of 
the White Moon, " that I am styled the Bachelor Samson Carrasco, and 
am one of Don Quixote's town; whose wild madness hath moved as 
many of us as know him to compassion, and me amongst the rest most; 
and believing that the best means to procure his health is to keep him 
quiet, and so to have him in his own house, I thought upon this device." 
So said this knight after the furious battle which is thus described: 
[30] 



" They both of them set spurs to their horses, and the Knight of the 
White Moon's being the swifter, met Don Quixote ere he had run a 
quarter of his career so forcibly (without touching him with his lance, 
for it seemed he carried it aloft on purpose) that he tumbled horse and 
man both to the ground, and Don Quixote had a terrible fall; so he 
got straight on the top of him; and, clapping his lance's point upon his 
visor, said, ' You are vanquished, Knight, and a dead man, if you con- 
fess not, according to the conditions of our combat.' Don Quixote, all 
bruised and amazed, without heaving up his visor, as if he had spoken 
out of a tomb, with a faint and weak voice, said, " Dulcinea del Toboso 
is the fairest woman in the world, and I the unfortunatest Knight on 
earth; and it is not fit that my weakness defraud this truth; thrust your 
lance into me, Knight, and kill me, since you have bereaved me of my 
honor.' ' Not so truly,' quoth he of the White Moon, ' let the fame of my 
Lady Dulcinea's beauty live in her entireness; I am only contented that 
the grand Don Quixote retire home for a year, or till such time as I 
please, as we agreed, before we began the battle.' And Don Quixote an- 
swered that, so nothing were required of him in prejudice of his lady 
Dulcinea, he would accomplish all the rest, like a true and punctual 
knight." The variation portrays the fight. The pastoral theme heard in 
the second variation — the battle with the sheep — reappears. Don Quix- 
ote loses one by one his illusions. 

Finale 

The death of Don Quixote. "Very peacefully," D major, 4-4. The 
typical theme of the Knight takes a new form. The queer harmonies in 
a section of this theme are now conventional, commonplace. " They 
stood all gazing one upon another, wondering at Don Quixote's sound 
reasons, although they made some doubt to believe them. One of the 
signs which induced them to conjecture that he was near unto death's 
door was that with such facility he was from a stark fool become a wise 
man. For, to the words already alleged, he added many more so signifi- 
cant, so Christian-like, and so well couched, that without doubt they 
confidently believed that Don Quixote was become a right wise man. 
. . . These heavy news opened the sluices of the tears-ful and swollen- 
blubbering eyes of the maid, of the niece, and of his good Squire Sancho 
Panza; so that they showered forth whole fountains of tears and fetched 
from the very bottom of their aggrieved hearts a thousand groaning 
sighs. For in effect (as we have already declared elsewhere) whilst Don 
Quixote was simply the good Alonso Quixano, and likewise when he 
was Don Quixote de la Mancha, he was ever of a mild and affable dis- 
position and of a kind and pleasing conversation: and therefore was he 
not only beloved of all his household, but also of all those that knew 
him. . . . He had no sooner ended his discourse and signed and sealed 

[31] 



his will and testament, but a swooning and faintness surprising him, he 
stretched himself the full length of his bed. All the company were much 
distracted and moved thereat, and ran presently to help him; and dur- 
ing the space of three days, that he lived after he had made his will, he 
did swoon and fall into trances almost every hour. All the house was in 
a confusion and uproar; all which notwithstanding the niece ceased not 
to feed very devoutly: the maid servant to drink profoundly, and Sancho 
to live merrily. For, when a man is in hope to inherit anything, that 
hope doth deface or at least moderate in the mind of the inheritor the 
remembrance or feeling of the sorrow and grief which of reason he 
should have a feeling of the testator's death. To conclude, the last day 
of Don Quixote came, after he had received all the sacraments; and 
had by many and godly reasons made demonstration to abhor all the 
books of errant chivalry. The notary was present at his death and re- 
porteth how he had never read or found in any book of chivalry that 
any errant knight died in his bed so mildly, so quietly, and so Chris- 
tianly as did Don Quixote. Amidst the wailful plaints and blubbering 
tears of the by-standers, he yielded up the ghost, that is to say, he died." 
" Tremolos in the strings indicate the first shiver of a deadly fever." 
The Knight feels his end is near. Through the violoncello he speaks his 
last words. He remembers his fancies; he recalls the dreams and the am- 
bitions; he realizes that they were all as smoke and vanity; he is, indeed, 

ready to die. 

P. H. 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

Mrs. Charles Adams White 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

Steinway Bldg., New York 105 Revere St., Boston 

Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 Tel. Capitol 6745 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

ALL BRANCHES OF MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

44 CHURCH STREET, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Telephone: TROwbridge 0956 



[32] 



An Audience 
worth cultivating 



Because it reaches an audience of unusual potenti- 
ality, The Boston Symphony Orchestra Bul- 
letin is a most effective medium — for a limited 
number of advertisers. 

This audience is composed of people of taste, cul- 
ture and means. They are interested, essentially, 
in the better things of life. They can, and do, pur- 
chase generously — but discriminately. 

The descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, 
foremost of critics, and Mr. John N. Burk, 
secure for the Bulletin a place among works 
of reference and gives to it an unusual per- 
manence. 

If your product — or service — will appeal to this 
discriminating audience 

Write Jo r Rates 
Address 

GEORGE M. MASON 

130 West 42d Street 
New York City 



L. S. B. Jefferds. Adv. Mgr. 
Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 








l¥ tHC 






Live, Youthful Styles 

In Dresses for Women 

Mr. Jay has adapted to this new collection TO 
WEAR NOW only those artful designs that are hrisk 
in cut, firm in color, spirited in fabric combination, 
and provide unusual appeal when visualized in sizes 
36 and above. They are the perfect expression of the 
alert woman of today. 



FOR INSTANCE 



A Springish navy crepe tai- 
lored frock with spirited 
print linen in red and white 
forming removable collar 
and cuffs is 35.00. 



A dressy crepe dress in 
Winter pastels has a swing- 
ing "shoestring" cape that 
draws interest to the back. 
It is priced 39.00. 

Second Floor 



Carnegie Hall • Jleto iorfe 




Thursday Evening, April 4, at 8:45 
Saturday Afternoon, April 6, at 2:30 



■> » ■) » »> >» » > > » » > ■> » » > » > ■> » • >» ■> » ( « ■ < « • (« ■ C< ( « c « < <« ■ <« • < « • ^- «c - <« • <« • 

SYMPHONY HALL . BOSTON 

BACH-HANDEL 

FESTIVAL 

TO COMMEMORATE THE 2$Oth ANNIVERSARY OF THE 
BIRTH OF THE TWO GREAT COMPOSERS 

BY THE 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Assisted by the Harvard Glee Club, the Radcliffe Choral Society 

and the Bach Cantata Club 

Friday Afternoon and Saturday Evening, April 19-20 

BACH'S PASSION according to St. John 

Friday Afternoon and Saturday Evening, April 26-27 
ORCHESTRAL PROGRAMME 

Tuesday Evening, April 30 

HANDEL'S " SOLOMON" (Oratorio) 

Wednesday Evening, May 1 

MISCELLANEOUS PROGRAMME 

Sunday Afternoon and Evening, May 5 

BACH'S MASS IN B MINOR 

VVVVVx" 
THE SOLOISTS WILL INCLUDE 

Olga Averino, Soprano Ralph Kirkpatrick, Harpsichord 

Royal Dadmun, Baritone Marie Murray, Contralto 

Keith Falkner, Baritone Margaret Matzenauer, Soprano 

Dan Gridley, Tenor Carl Weinrich, Organ 

Charles Hackett, Tenor Richard Burgin, Violin 

Julius Huehn, Baritone Jesus Maria Sanroma, Piano 

For ticket information, apply toW. H. Brennan, Manager, Symphony Hall, Boston 



Carnegie Hall • Jfreto gorfe 

Forty-ninth Season in New York 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Fifth Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, April 4, at 8:45 

AND THE 

Fifth Matinee 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, April 6, at 2:30 

with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 






«m 



■".Vr ' - ' ■ V 

n-V-; ■■' i|:"?"::,' - !%,.. , - ■ . •■ ii 

The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 

... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. , . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts. ... One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 

• JL COPLEY-PLAZA g»do*. • 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



[2] 










■ 



i*JH 



Couperin" 
will "be played on this programme instead of 
EANDEL. . . Concerto Grosso No. 5 in D major for 

String Orchestra 



Carnegie ©all • Jleto f?orfe 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIFTH EVENING CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, April 4, a* 8:40 o'clock 



Programme 

Handel .... Concerto GrossoNo.5 in D major for String 

Orchestra (Edited by G. F. Kogel) 
Solo Violins: R. Burgin, J. Theodorowicz 
Solo Violoncello: J. Bedetti 
1. introduction; allegro 
ii. presto 
iii . largo 
v . allegro 

Berg Symphonic Pieces from "Lulu," Opera in 

Three Acts (after Frank Wedekind) 

I. RONDO (ANDANTE AND HYMN) 

II. OSTINATO (ALLEGRO) 

III. SONG OF LULU (COMMODO) 
IV. VARIATIONS (MODERATO) 

V. FINALE (ADAGIO SOSTENUTO; LENTO; GRAVE) 

Soprano Solo: Olga Averino 
{First performance in New York) 

INTERMISSION 

Beethoven .... Symphony No. 5, in G minor, Op. 67 

I. ALLEGRO CON BRIO 
II. ANDANTE CON MOTO 

in. allegro; trio- 

IV. ALLEGRO 

(Steinway Piano) 
The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

[3] 



CONCERTO GROSSO, NO. 5, IN D MAJOR 

By George Frideric Handel 

Edited by Gustav Friedrich Kogel * 

Born at Halle on February 23, 1685; died at London, April 14, 1759 



Handel's twelve grand concertos for strings were composed between 
September 29 and October 30, 1739. The London Daily Post 
of October 29, 1739, said: " This day are published proposals for print- 
ing by subscription, with His Majesty's royal license and protection, 
Twelve Grand Concertos, in Seven Parts, for four violins, a tenor, a 
violoncello, with a thorough-bass for the harpsichord. Composed by 
Mr. Handel. Price to subscribers, two guineas. Ready to be delivered 
by April next. Subscriptions are taken by the author, at his house in 
Brook Street, Hanover Square, and by Walsh." In an advertisement on 
November 22 the publisher added: " Two of the above concertos will 



* Kogel was born at Leipzig on January 16, 1849. He died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in Novem- 
ber, 1921. Having studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1863-67), he taught music in Alsace, 
until the Franco-German War, when he began to work for the Peters Publishing House. From 
1874 he conducted opera at Nuremberg, Dortmund, Ghent, Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Leipzig 
(1883-86). In 1887 he conducted the Philharmonic Orchestra in Berlin and from 1891 till 1903 the 
Museum concerts at Frankfort. He also traveled widely as guest conductor, directing certain 
concerts of the Philharmonic Society, New York, in 1903^1 and 1904-5. From 1908 he was con- 
ductor of the Cecilia Society at Wiesbaden. He composed some pianoforte pieces, edited operas, 
and arranged four of Handel's Concertos for concert use. 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 

Published by Oliver Dltson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

[41 



be performed this evening at the Theatre Royal, Lincoln's Inn." The 
concertos were published on April 21, 1740. In an advertisement a few 
days afterwards Walsh said, " These concertos were performed at the 
Theatre Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and now are played in most 
public places with the greatest applause." Victor Schoelcher made this 
comment in his Life of Handel: " This was the case with all the works 
of Handel. They were so frequently performed at contemporaneous 
concerts and benefits that they seem, during his lifetime, to have quite 
become public property. Moreover, he did nothing which the other 
theatres did not attempt to imitate. In the little theatre of the Hay- 
market, evening entertainments were given in exact imitation of his 
' several concertos for different instruments, with a variety of chosen 
airs of the best masters, and the famous Salve Regina of Hasse.' The 
handbills issued by the nobles at the King's Theatre make mention also 
of ' several concertos for different instruments.' " 



SYMPHONIC PIECES FROM THE OPERA " LULU " 

(After the tragedies " Erdgeist " and " Bilchse der Pandora " of 

Frank Wedekind) 

By Alban Berg 

Born at Vienna, February 9, 1885 



The composer of " Wozzeck," who gave six years (1914-1920) to the 
composition of his first opera, has, apparently with at least equal 
care and deliberation, brought his second to completion (or virtual 
completion) .* 

"Lulu," an opera in three acts, is based on Wedekind's tragedies 
"Erdgeist" and "Bilchse der Pandora" Berg dedicates the score to his 
master, Arnold Schonberg, on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. The 
composer has drawn his suite of " Symphonische StiXcke" from the 
opera (the rondo is not a direct excerpt, but is based upon the material 
of a scene) . The suite had its first performance at the Staatsoper in Ber- 
lin, November 30 last, under the intrepid leadership of Erich Kleiber, 
the conductor who had likewise made " Wozzeck " known to the world. 
The "Lulu" performance was not without its incidents. The name of 
Berg had been mentioned in certain quarters in connection with 
" Kunst Bolshevismus." There was a police guard present, but no out- 
ward protest other than a single " Heil, Mozart " from the gallery, be- 
fore the applause broke at the end. 

" For nearly fifteen minutes," according to the New York Times 
correspondent, " a huge audience, numbering many members of the 

* Berg told Herbert L. Peyser, in the last days of November " that he had still at least two 
months of work to do on the instrumentation." 

[5] 



diplomatic corps, which listened with straining intensity, cheered, 
stamped, and applauded." The writer is compelled to add that the 
applause may have been prompted by something else than " mere en- 
joyment of the music. Demonstrations of the sort have an edge of hyste- 
ria and recall the times when Italians shouted ' Viva Verdi ' and meant 
something else." The difficult song of Lulu was prepared by Maria 
Cebotari, but she was prevented from appearing " in the hope of 
sabotaging the performance," and a young singer from Vienna, Lillie 
Claus, ably took her place on short notice. The composer was not 
present. 

Speaking with Berg at his home in Vienna, a few days before the 
performance, Herbert Peyser was assured that " his technical methods 
— including his use of certain learned forms of classicism — were not 
conspicuously different from what they had been in ' Wozzeck.' But 
whereas what had principally fascinated him in ' Wozzeck ' had been the 
characteristic hue and atmosphere of the numerous short scenes, the 
thing that engrossed him in ' Lulu ' was less the scenes than the multi- 
plicity and the delineation of Wedekind's individual characters." 

" It is music different from ' Wozzeck/ " wrote Mr. Peyser after the 
performance — " a music of another profile, of bigger scale and longer 
line, a music which despite transient resemblances is one of different 
premises, different moods, different affinities. It probably lacks some- 
thing of ' Wozzeck *s ' sharp concentration and expressionistic quality — 
a fact doubtless postulated by the nature of its dramatic problem. In 
place of the spasmodic thrusts and the jagged outlines of Berg's previous 
opera, there are in such pages as the rondo and the adagio extended 
melodic spans, unforced continuity, suave contacts." The critics of 
Berlin found Mahler in the music. 

The characters which Frank Wedekind furnished him in " Erdgeist " 
(1893), and whose misfortunes were continued in the " Buchse der 
Pandora " (1901) , are certainly not lacking color, albeit of a lurid sort. 
In the nineties and the pre-war years of the present century, this artist 
in revolt was far ahead of his age, which was in process of digesting 
" the time-serving of Sudermann, the dreamy complaining of Haupt- 
mann," the moral symbolisms of Ibsen. Wedekind was in open antago- 
nism to these oblique or allusive styles. In calling a spade a spade, he 
chose the blackest, and called it by its name with almost hysterical in- 
sistence. He was looked at askance, even by liberal critics. " Life as seen 
through the medium of his plays," wrote Horace B. Samuels (in " Mo- 
dernities," 1913) "is but a torrent of sex foaming over the jagged rocks 
of crime and insanity." He was too much for the delicacy of James 
Huneker, who wrote (in " Ivory, Apes and Peacocks ") that he " emp- 
tied upon the boards from his Pandora-box imagination the greatest 
gang of scoundrels, shady ladies, master-swindlers, social degenerates, 

[6] 



circus people, servants, convicts, professional strong men, half crazy 
idealists, irritable rainbow-eaters — the demi monde of a subterranean 
world — that ever an astonished world saw perform their antics in front 
of the footlights." Percival Pollard (" Masks and Minstrels of New Ger- 
many," 1911) found in the closing scene of " Pandora's Box," " a bru- 
tality which would sicken a police reporter," but at least admitted that 
he had broken down certain artificial barriers and mannerisms of the 
theatre for once and all. " He at least has no cowardices of texts and 
teachings, no hymns to sing for humanity. — Whether the barriers of 
nicety and decency — to use words intelligible to the polite! — which 
Wedekind has kicked down can ever again be put up as permanently 
as before in art, is a fine question." 

But Wedekind's day came, and with a vengeance, after his death, 
which occurred in 1918. Samuel A. Eliot, Jr., translator of Wedekind's 
plays into English, describes in an illuminating essay (the introduction 
to four plays entitled " Tragedies of Sex," 1923) , how an embittered and 
disillusioned central Europe, seeking the fundamental realities, em- 
braced Wedekind — called him the V expressionist " of the hour.* Mr. 
Eliot, who traces our Eugene O'Neill back to beginnings in Wede- 
kind, thus concludes his introduction: 

" Always he dealt in will, in inner urges, often specifically in ' the 
hellish drive out of which no joy remains alive.' His characters, no mat- 
ter how often balked, derided, or wounded, return to the attack until 
they are killed. Emotion is an inexhaustible force. The drama of op- 
posed views, of contrasted attitudes on points of conduct or belief, can 
offer nothing so enthralling as this insatiable struggle for the most fun- 
damental pleasures humanity knows — which never ultimately or for 
long are pleasures! And the same Satanic return to the attack, repeated 
efforts at destruction, are seen in Wedekind's own life, hurling play 
after play against conventional society. At last, after his death, conven- 
tional society broke down, and the forces of disruption honored him, 
and the confused masses sought in his other, Utopian, constructive work 
for light upon the society that is to come. To few writers is such posthu- 
mous homage given; by few can such a reversal of judgment be ex- 
pected. Wedekind remained ever true to himself, his deeply divided, 
contrary self, now appearing through his plays, now vanishing again 
behind his characters, but always vividly alive; one could feel him, one 
had the sense of human passion and struggle, of something personally 
experienced and sweated out, in almost all his work. Hence, in the last 
analysis, his hold upon our later generation: we too want life, not litera- 
ture — personality, not limpid art — original thought, even destructive 
and extravagant, not old truths, even the deepest, newly dressed. Wede- 
kind, like Strindberg, like Andreiev, and like Shaw, meets these de- 
mands. If America should ever have reason to turn pessimistic, Wede- 
kind will be waiting; and even as America is, in Wedekind she can find 
much that is vital, life-promoting, of immediate power and worth." 

Frank Wedekind seems to have inherited more than a little of his 



*At the moment, however, his plays are said to be under a ban. 

[7] 



vagabondage, his instinct for the stage, his intractability, his abnormal 
tendencies. For years he lived the life of a wanderer, a music-hall enter- 
tainer; he even served a jail sentence. He must have known at first hand 
many of the unsavory types he puts into his plays. He also composed 
popular songs, and it is one of them which Berg has used as a theme for 
his variations in " Lulu." Wedekind first attracted attention with 
" Frilhlings Erwachen" a play of adolescence, which Max Reinhardt 
successfully produced. " Erdgeist " followed. " Die Bilchse der Pan- 
dora/' written years later, and not for the stage, brought upon him a suit 
for obscenity, but he was exonerated, and an actable version prepared 
and presented. Wedekind acted Schon in " Erdgeist," and in " Pan- 
dora " he took with striking effect the brief but grim role of the mur- 
derous Jack. The playwright, so Mr. Eliot informs us, later published 
the two plays combined into one under the title of " Lulu." Since he 
omitted Act III of " Erdgeist" and Act I of " Pandora," making a five 
act play, his version must be radically different from that of Berg, who 
uses condensations of each act. 

"EARTH SPIRIT" 

Both plays revolve upon the misfortunes of Lulu, who in turn 
brings death or disaster to all who come near her. Her career is not 
unlike that of Lilly in Sudermann's " Das Hohe Lied," with the differ- 
ence that the appeal to our sympathies is far less bald — and far more 
powerful. Lulu, taken from the streets as a child by Schon, a newspaper 
publisher, far from young, is reared and used by him, and then married 
off, for convenience, to the doddering sensualist Dr. Goll. The husband 
has engaged the painter Schwartz to perpetuate her charms upon can- 
vas. Walking in suddenly upon an amorous scene between Lulu and 
Schwartz, he is seized with an apoplectic stroke. 

In the second act, we find her married, though not happily, to the 
artist, who can neither understand nor satisfy her. Lulu, although 
promiscuous, is not inconstant, her attachment and devotion to her 
first benefactor is undying — it also underlies each step of her tragic 
debacle. Her husband, Schwartz, learns of her real character and affec- 
tion for another and commits suicide. Schon, trying to escape her, has 
become conventionally engaged to a charming, " innocent child," but 
Lulu, finding this unbearable, exerts her power over him, which she can 
do because his mind is giving way to a " persecution mania." She com- 
pels him to write a letter, to her dictation, breaking the engagement. 

In Act IV we find her married at last to Schon, but their union is 
miserable, for he is now aged and feeble, mentally unstable. Lulu, 
whose nature requires more than he can give her, surrenders herself 
almost mechanically to the advances of his son, whom nevertheless she 
does not really love. The elder Schon, discovering the degraded and 
humiliating situation into which he has fallen, presses a pistol upon 
her, saying that she must make an end of herself. But Lulu cannot do it. 
She is a creature of strong instincts, and among them is the instinct for 
life. She defends herself in a passionate speech (" Lulu's song " in Berg's 
suite) . At this distraught moment, Schon discovers another suitor in 
hiding, and rushes toward him. The pistol is in Lulu's hand, and before 

[8] 



she realizes what she is doing, she has pressed the trigger, and her hus- 
band lies dead before her. As the play " Erdgeist " ends, Lulu has caused 
the death of three men. The last she really loved, and the last she mur- 
dered, despite a possible plea of " self defense." She faces execution. 

"PANDORA'S BOX" 

In the second play, Lulu's associates (and Pandora's mythological 
box could not have held a more motley and unprepossessing lot of ma- 
lignant insects) conspire to rescue her from prison — each to gratify a 
particular kind of greed. The escape is contrived in this way. The 
Countess Geschwitz, a pervert whose devotion to Lulu is abject and 
pitiable, takes a nurse's training, purposely exposes herself to the 
cholera, transmits the disease to Lulu in prison, and when the prisoner 
is removed to a hospital, nurses her and changes clothes with her that 
she may run out to freedom. Lulu lives incognito with Alva Schon, 
whose father she has killed. But the leeches who would hesitate not a 
moment to hand her over to the police or to sell her to any terrible fate, 
strip the couple, by threats of exposure, of all the money they possess. 
The last scene discovers a miserable attic room where Lulu is living 
with Alva, and Schigolch (presumably her father— a vivid pauper-type 
who might have stepped out from Gorki's " Lower Depths ") . They are 
reduced to want, and Lulu must walk the streets. Her last lover turns 
out to be a " Jack the Ripper." He makes of Lulu a summary and bloody 
end. 

Alban Berg, planning his opera, has used in part all of the seven acts 
which comprise the two dramas of Wedekind. The first three acts of 
" Erdgeist " are compressed to three scenes, and become the first act of 
"Lulu." The last act of "Erdgeist" (the murder of Schon) opens the 
second act of "Lulu," and the first act of the " Buchse der Pandora" 
(Lulu's escape) completes Berg's second act. The hiatus between these 
two scenes is filled by Berg with the introduction of a cinema with music 
(the ostinato of the suite) , showing Lulu's imprisonment. The last act 
of " Lulu " consequently comprises the last two of " Pandora's Box," 
condensed into two scenes. Each act of " Lulu " lasts an hour. 

The score has an atonal, Schonbergian resemblance in the lack of 
key signatures, and the mark before every note of a sharp, flat, or natu- 
ral; also in the indications, by signs, of the principal and subsidiary sub- 
jects. The Rondo, written for the orchestral suite from material in the 
operatic score, consists of an Andante and Hymn. The Ostinato (al- 
legro) was written to accompany the film in Act II. The variations 
which follow the Song of Lulu * are used as an interlude. They are 
four in number: Grandioso, Grazioso, Funebre, and Affettuoso. The 
theme, as in d'Indy's Istar Variations, is exposed only at the end. It is a 
simple street ballad (borrowed from Wedekind, who wrote this sort of 
thing) , finally stated by the wood-winds to give the effect of a hand- 
organ. The Finale is by turn adagio sostenuto, lento and grave. At the 
moment when Lulu meets her violent death, there are horrendous 

* The " Song of Lulu " is inscribed " to Anton von Webern on his Fiftieth Birthday." 

[9] 



shrieks in the brass. The instrumentation is as follows: Two flutes and 
piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, alto saxophone, 3 clarinets, 2 bas- 
soons and double-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, bass trom- 
bone and tuba, 4 kettledrums, bass drum, small drum, cymbals, tarn 
tarn, small gong, triangle, piano, vibraphone, harp and strings. 

David Josef Bach, to whom Berg showed his music and described 
his purposes, writes of the score (in Modern Music, January, 1935) : 

" The orchestral investiture consists of triple wood and brass, and 
strings, harp, percussion, piano and vibraphone. If in " Wozzeck/ (which 
in no sense may be ascribed to the twelve-tone system) * the character 
of individual scenes may be said to have created the form, in ' Lulu ' 
this form-building function belongs to the character of each of the much 
more developed stage figures. We are indebted to the composer himself 
for an explanation of the idea of the opera and the way it has been car- 
ried out. In ' Wozzeck ' unity was given to many small scenes by the 
unity between character pieces and many musical forms, including 
those of absolute music. In 'Lulu' the song forms are given preference 
(arias, recitatives, duets, trios, ensembles up to twelve voices) . The 
orientation of the music rests on the human characters. For example, for 
the appearance of Dr. Schon the sonata form prevails; for Alva the 
rondo-form; for the tragic figure of the Princess Geschwitz the Greek 
Pentatonic. Nevertheless, unity of individual scenes, even of the indi- 
vidual acts is not sacrificed. This is especially marked in the meeting 
scene in the third act, and in the two scenes of the second, played in the 
same setting, Dr. Schon's residence. They are almost symmetrically con- 
structed. The same characters are concerned in the dramatic events be- 
fore the peripeteia as after. In the middle, after Dr. Schon's murder by 
Lulu, and before she is freed from prison, comes her capture and im- 
prisonment, portrayed by a silent film with music. The music here is 
constructed in crab-fashion. This music of the entr'acte is at once the 
dividing and the unifying center of the whole work. It divides the fate 
of Lulu into a rising and descending line, and binds both together, 
where Wedekind separates them into two distinct parts. The twelve- 
tone scale lying at the foundation of the opera makes the unity of the 
music perceptible. Through division, changes of direction and trans- 
formations of this scale, variety is achieved; often the treatment prac- 
tically involves leit-motives and leit-harmonies." 

The " Song of Lulu " comes at the end of " Erdgeist " (consequently 
in the second act of " Lulu ") . It is the frantic defense of a woman fac- 



* Bach further explains this distinction in an article contributed to the Boston Transcript: 
" Berg made two settings of a poem by Theodor Storm, ' Schliesse mir die Augen beide,' one 
in 1900, the other in 1925; in between lies the whole development from tonal music to the 
twelve-tone system. In between, therefore, is the so-called ' atonal ' music as a part of the 
development. Berg's opera, * Wozzeck,' which is seventeen years older, is atonal, without yet 
being ordained according to the twelve-tone system. But it will not be long before we shall 
be able to see in ' Wozzeck ' the ' Lulu ' to come, and vice versa." 

[10] 



ing death. Her husband (Schon) , at the end of his endurance, threatens 
to kill her, but she clutches the pistol: 

" Wenn sich die Menschen lira meinetwillen umgebracht haben, so setzt das 
meinen Wert nicht herab. Du hast so wie ich gewusst habe, weswegen ich Dich zum 
Mann nahm. Du hattest deine besten Freunde mit mir betrogen, Du konntest nicht 
gut auch noch Dich selber mit mir betriigen. Wenn Du mir Deinen Lebensabend 
zum Opfer bringst, so hast du meine ganze Jugend dafiir gehabt. Ich habe nie in der 
Welt etwas anderes scheinen wollen, als woftir man mich genommen hat, und man 
hat mich nie in der Welt fur etwas anderes genommen, als was ich bin." * 

It is a true picture of Lulu, whose principal failing was that she was 
avid for life, and ruthless in its pursuit. If her instincts were baleful, as 
the venom in the serpent, she but fulfilled the properties of her nature. 
There was no fundamental deceit in her, no pretence, no vengeful 
meanness. When her gaiety broke down under the pressure of villainous 
blackmail, there was no bitter recoil — only childlike terror. There is 
pathos in Lulu, but it is implied in her circumstances and actions — not 
sued for in the resounding, stagey speeches of a Camille. 

After the shuddering chord of Lulu's ghastly disembowelment, the 
orchestra subsides into sombre concluding measures, while the singing 
voice is heard of the Countess Geschwitz, who is with Lulu at the end. 
She is dying, for the fiend has stabbed her in making his escape: 

"Lulu! 
Mein Engel — 
Lass dich einmal seh'n 
Ich bin Dir nah! 
Bleibe Dir nah! 
In Ewigkeit — " f 



No great number of works have been written by Alban Berg, for, as 
Dr. Reich points out, " he is an extremely thorough artist, creating 
slowly." A piano sonata (1908) , and four songs (to texts by Mombert 
and Hebbel) " are based on a Tristanesque chromaticism and on 
whole-tone successions." He crossed the inevitable Rubicon of tonal 
emancipation in his Three Orchestral Pieces (1914) , after a tentative 
approach in his String Quartet. The Three Orchestral Pieces were his 
first work in the larger forms, for his other works of the time were Five 
Songs with Orchestra, and Four Pieces for Clarinet and Piano (these 
two works, according to Bach, lean toward impressionism) . 

These works might be considered by way of preparation for " Woz- 
zcck " — the first full-length atonal opera. " Wozzeck " presented a 
problem in unification of style, for Berg applied what had been used 



" Don't call me worthless because men have killed themselves for me. You knew as well 
why you made me your wife as I knew why I took you for a husband. You had deceived 
your best friends to me, you could not well go on deceiving yourself with me. If you bring me 
as an offering the evening of your life, you have had in return the whole of my youth. I have 
always been what I have been taken for, and never tried to be anything else, and no one has 
mistaken me for anything but what I am." 

+ Wedekind does not quite end his play with this sentimental expression. The Countess, with 
her last expiring breath ejaculates a curse: " Verflucht! " 

[»] 



LIST OF WORKS 

Played at the Evening Concerts 

DURING THE SEASON 1 934-1 935 



Beethoven .... Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55, 

"Eroica" I • November 15 

Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 

V • April 4 

Berg * Symphonic Pieces from "Lulu," Opera 

in Three Acts (after Frank Wede- 
kind) V • April 4 

Copland First Symphony IV • February 28 

Handel Concerto Grosso No. 5 in D major for 

String Orchestra (Edited by G. F. 
Kogel) V • April 4 

Haydn Symphony in G major, No. 88 (B. & H. 

No. 13) III • February 1 

Holst Fugal Concerto, for Flute and Oboe, 

Op. 40, No. 2 (Soloists: Georges Lau- 
rent, Fernand Gillet) 

IV • February 28 

Mendelssohn .... Symphony in A major, "Italian," Op. 

90 II • January 3 

Moussorgsky .... "Pictures at an Exhibition," Pianoforte 

Pieces arranged for Orchestra by 
Maurice Ravel I • November 15 

Mozart Overture, "Marriage of Figaro" 

I • November 15 

Sibelius Symphony No. 5 II • January 3 

Strauss Tone Poem, "Thus Spake Zarathustra" 

(freely after Friedrich Nietzsche), Op. 
30 III • February 1 

Szymanowski .... * Second Concerto for Violin and Or- 
chestra, Op. 61 (Soloist: Albert 
Spalding) II • January 3 

Tchaikovsky .... Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathe- 

tique," Op. 74 IV • February 28 

Toch *"Big Ben," Variation Fantasy on the 

Westminster Chimes 

III • February 1 

* First performance in New York 



[12] 



only in the small forms of chamber music to an opera on a large scale, 
with fifteen scenes. His point of departure was a fragmentary drama by 
the German poet, Georg Buchner (1813-1837) . Its reconstruction into 
an opera meant not only the musical problem, but a considerable the- 
atrical and textual scheme. The task occupied Berg (with an interrup- 
tion on account of the war) from 1914 to 1920. 

When Berg, the most quiet and unobtrusive of the Schonberg 
pupils, showed his friends a bulky finished manuscript of the greatest 
complexity, they were astonished and incredulous. This was pushing 
the Schonbergian dogma to ridiculous lengths of the unperformable 
and unobtainable. There was general surprise when a performance of 
orchestral excerpts was announced in Frankfort in 1923. The perform- 
ance was an immediate success, to which was added the even greater 
theatrical success of the opera as conducted in Berlin, and many times 
repeated, by Kleiber. " Wozzeck " spread to twenty-five stages in Ger- 
many, and reached Vienna, Prague, Leningrad, Liege. New York first 
heard the Orchestral Fragments from " Wozzeck " under Kleiber and 
the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in October, 1930. Leopold 
Stokowski conducted a full stage performance in Philadelphia, March 
19, 1931, and repeated his venture in New York. 

After " Wozzeck/' the composer returned to the chamber forms, and 
wrote a Chamber Concerto for Violin, Piano, and Thirteen Wind In- 
struments, and a Lyrical Suite for String Quartet (1926) , in which Bach 
finds an almost strict adherence to the twelve tone system. There is also 
an aria for soprano and orchestra, " The Wine," to a text of Baudelaire 

(1929)- 

The life of Berg offers no other matter for comment than the char- 
acter and succession of his works. " Neither high honors, nor world-wide 
success," Dr. Reich has written, " distract this noble and modest artist 
from the conviction of his mission, or hinder his steady progress." 

J. N. B. 



These bars of music 
are taken from a well-known, 
composition by a great composer 
Identify it . . . send the name, com- 
poser's name and movement 
number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Water St., N. Y. 
and receive a full half-pound of 

MARTINSON'S COFFEE 

Absolutely F 



Allegretto 




3 



A great chef or a great musician — each 





needs inspiration 
± 




Martinson's Coffee does 




for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 



[i3] 



The following dedicatory page, addressed by Alban Berg to Arnold 
Schonberg, appeared in a booklet written by the older composer's 
pupils and admirers on his sixtieth birthday. This page is headed: 

ARNOLD SCHONBERG 

Zum 60. Geburtstag 
(September 13, 1934) 

G lauben und Hoffen — und Liebe zu der von Dir — wie kaum je — ge — 

L ehrten deutschen Musik hast Du in mir einst erweckt. 

A ber damit wuchs in mir audi zu — gleich der Glaube, die Hoffnung — 

U nd die Liebe zu Dir, der Du als Meister und Freund 

B eides mir : Freundschaf t und Lehre geschenkt in drei der Dezennien 

E iner Zeit, die durch Dich ewige Werte erhielt. 

H eut, wo man fern Deiner Heimat und fern der Stadt auch, die — ach! wie 

ft und oft schon — verkannt den, der dann spater ihr Stolz, 

F ern der Nation sogar, deren Musik und Sprache Du Sprichst, . . . 

F reudigst f eiert Dein Fest, ist sich des ewigen Werts 

N och kaum bewusst diese deutsche und osterreichische Heimat. 

U mso stolzer jedoch wird diese Heimat ein Jahr, 

N amlich: eintausendneunhundertundvierundsiebenzig feiern, 

G laubig hoffend und das liebend, was heut* sie verkennt. 

U ND so eriibrigt sich mir, nur mehr auszusprechen die Bitte, 
L iebster, teuerster Freund : Gab es Dezennien vorher 

1 mmerschon — gait's Deine Feste zu feiern — eins meiner Werke : 
E ine Widmung vor zehn Jahren des " Kammerkonzerts," 

B otschaf t des Schiilers, wie die der " Orchesterstiicke " vor zwanzig, 
E ben so sei Dir heut' " Lulu," die Oper, geweiht! 



Faith and Hope — and Love for German music, with your inimitable teaching, you once 
awakened in me. But with it there grew in me also Faith, Hope and Love for you — who as 
master and friend gave me both friendship and instruction through three decades, in which you 
upheld enduring values. 

Today, far from your home and from the city which — ah, how often ! — failed to appreciate 
one who later became its rride, far from the very country whose music and language you 
speak, today when your anniversary is being celebrated joyously, this German and Austrian 
home is scarcely aware of enduring values. All the more proudly will this home celebrate 
you in some future year — 1974 — confidently accepting and cherishing that which today it 
underestimates. 

And so there but remains for me to make this request, most loved and dearest friend: 
just as at previous decennials there was one of my works to celebrate your anniversary, ten 
years ago with the dedication of the Chamber Concerto, twenty years ago with the Orchestral 
Pieces, as a message from a pupil — so today let " Lulu," the opera, be dedicated to you. 

[14] 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, IN C MINOR, Op. 67 
By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born at Bonn, December 16 (?) , 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827 



There is no date on the manuscript of Beethoven's C minor Sym- 
phony, but the first performance is on record as having taken place 
December 22, 1808, when the Pastoral symphony was also heard for the 
first time. The sketchbooks indicate that he worked long and intermit- 
tently over this symphony. The Fifth and Sixth must have been finished 
about the same time. It is certain that Beethoven laid his C minor aside 
to compose the idyllic Fourth, in 1806, the year of his engagement to 
Theresa von Brunswick. Thayer attributes the earliest sketches for the 
Fifth Symphony to 1800 and 1801, which would put its inception even 
before the " Eroica," of 1802. But the first sketches show no inkling of 
the significant matter to come. He apparently took it up occasionally 
while at work upon " Fidelio " and the Fourth Piano Concerto 
(1804-6) . But the Fifth Symphony may be said to have made its real 
progress from 1805 until the end of 1807, when it was finished near 
Heiligenstadt. It was dedicated to Prince von Lobkowitz and the Count 
Rasumovsky. It was published in April, 1809. 

Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, like other scores once considered sub- 
versive but long since sanctified by custom, both bewildered and 
amused its first audiences, not to speak of the orchestras and leaders who 
were destined to be the first purveyors of its ringing message. It is also 
to be recorded about the Fifth Symphony, however, that its forceful 
challenge almost immediately dispelled the first befuddled impressions. 

When the Philharmonic Society of London first tried over the C 
minor Symphony, the players laughed openly, and the " conductor," 
in reality the concert master, laid it aside as " rubbish." This leader, 
who was none other than J. P. Salomon, lived to make a brave retrac- 
tion. Two or three years later, after another trial of the first movement, 
so relates Thayer, " Salomon laid his violin upon the pianoforte, walked 
to the front and, turning to the orchestra said (through his nose) : ' Gen- 
tlemen, some years ago I called this symphony rubbish; I wish to retract 
every word I then said, as I now consider it one of the greatest composi- 
tions I have ever heard! 

The very first performance, which Beethoven conducted at the 
" Theater an der Wien " on December 22, 1808, seems to have made no 
recorded impression. The Leipzig which had received the " Eroica " 
with much understanding in 1809, did at least as much for the Fifth. 
A careful and appreciative analysis appeared in the Allgemeine musi- 
kalische Zeitung (July 11, 1810) . M. Habeneck, who had successfully 

[15] 



The Society of Friends of the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra is constituted of patrons and admirers in Boston and 
elsewhere who by their contributions during the current 
year, supplementing the revenues of the Orchestra derived from 
concerts, have given practical expression to their desire to share in 
the fortunes of the Orchestra and assure the continuance of its 
preeminence of performance. Membership in the Society now 
totals 1390. 

A list of New York and Brooklyn members follows: 



Mrs. William Ackerman (T owners) 

Mr. Morton L. Adler 

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred L. Aiken 

Miss Julia B. Anthony 

Mr. and Mrs. George C. Arvedson 

Miss Helen Marion Baker 

Miss Lydia M. Barwood 

Mr. Emil J. Baumann (Hartsdale) 

Miss Alice M. Bedell 

Miss Frieda Behr 

Miss Dorothy L. Betts 

Mrs. A. W. Bingham, Jr. 

Major Theodore Bitterman (Mount 

Vernon) 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward C. Blum 
Miss Felice M. Bowns 
Mr. Herbert S. Brussel 
Mrs. Cecilia Buek 
Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Cabot 
Miss Florance Carr 
Miss Lois Pinney Clark 
Mrs. Henry E. Cobb (Bronxville) 
Miss H. A. Colton 
Mrs. R. G. Conried 
Mr. Ambrose Cort (Woodmere) 
Mrs. F. S. Crafts 

Miss Lena Lawrence Day (East 

Orange) 
Mrs. William S. Dennett 
Miss Margaret de Schweinitz 

(Poughkeepsie) 
Mrs. William C. Dickerman 
Charles Dreifus, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Dutch (Glen 

Ridge ) 
Miss Helen S. Eaton 
Mrs. Walter H. Eddy 



Mrs. Albert Eiseman 
Mrs. Cornelius Eldert 

Miss H. WlLHELMINA ERICSSON 

Mr. Howard M. Ernst 

Mrs. Henry Evans 

Mr. J. R. Fast 

Mrs. Morris Fatman 

Mrs. W. Rodman Fay 

Mr. W. R. Ferguson (New Rochelle) 

Mrs. Dana H. Ferrin (Scarsdale) 

Miss E. W. Frothingham (Tarry- 
town) 

Mrs. Otto Goepel 

Mrs. Henry Goldman 

Mr. I. Edwin Goldwasser 

Mr. William B. Goodwin 

Mrs. P. L. Guiterman 
(New Rochelle) 

Mr. and Mrs. N. Penrose Hallowell 

Mrs. David S. Hays 

Mr. Irving Heidell 

Mrs. Ernest S. Heller 

Mr. George C. Hen nigs (Long 
Island) 

Mr. Clarence H. Hill 

Mrs. Olga Hill 

Miss Katherine I. Hodgdon 

Mrs. H. Hoermann (Montclair) 

Mr. Henry Homes 

Mr. Charles B. Hoyt 

Miss Frances A. Hunt 
(S. Norwalk, Ct.) 

Mr. H. L. Ives 

Mr. Halsted James 

Mrs. Robert I. Jenks 

Mrs. Edward Jonas 

Mrs. E. W. Kingsbury 



[16] 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (Continued) 


Mr. Elmo H. Klasky 


Mr. Charles E. Sampson 


Mr. Charles Klingenstein 


Mrs. Herbert L. Satterlee 


Miss Edith Kneeland 


Mrs. E. A. Saunders 


Miss Anita E. Knight 


Mrs. F. R. Schepmoes 


Mrs. J. E. Leech 


Miss Eleonore M. Schnepf 


Mr. Robert LeRoy 


Mrs. Gustave Schirmer 


Mr. Richard Lewinsohn 


Miss Edith Scoville 


Miss Aline Liebenthal 


Mrs. George S. Searing 


Dr. and Mrs. Wm. H. Lohman 


Mr. Clifford Seasongood 


Mrs. Edward Loom is 


Mr. Arthur Seligman 


Mr. Victor K. McElheny 


Mrs. Rudolph Seldner 


Mr. Harry Mack 


Miss Florence Sherman 


Miss Margaret E. Maltby 


Dr. Olga Sitchevska 


Dr. D. E. Martell 


Miss Louise Smith 


Mr. Everett Martine (Nyack) 


Mr. William Sidney Smith 


Mr. and Mrs. Newell O. Mason 


Mr. Joseph H. Spafford 


(Hoboken ) 


Mrs. Frederick T. Steinway 


Mr. and Mrs. Otto Meyer (Scars- 


Mrs. Pauline O. Stern (Scarsdale) 


dale) 


Mrs. Samuel Stiefel 


Miss Ida A. Mollenhauer 


Mrs. Sol M. Stroock 


Mr. E. Montchyk 


Mrs. Cyrus L. Sulzberger 


Mrs. C. H. Mosher (Port Washing- 


Miss Mabel Thuillard (Jamaica) 


ton) 


Mr. Stirling Tomkins 


Mr. Walter W. Naumburg 


Mrs. Bernard P. Traitel (New 


Mrs. Charles Neave 


Rochelle) 


Miss Francis I. Neill 


Mr. John C. Traphagen 


Acosta Nichols, Jr. (Oyster Bay) 


Mr. Howard M. Trueblood 


Miss Bertha Obermeyer 


Mrs. E. C. Vogel 


Mrs. E. A. Olds (Englewood) 


Mr. Albert W. von Lilienthal 


Mrs. Joseph Parsons (Lakeville, Ct.) 

Miss Eliza H. Pigot 

Miss Eloise Pounding (Staten 
Island) 


(Yonkers) 
Mr. Allen Wardwell 
Miss Cora A. Week 
Miss Ruth Evelyn Weill (Jackson 


Mr. Joseph M. Price 


Heights) 


Mrs. William Procter 


Mr. Robert C. Weinberg 


Mr. Robert I. Raiman (Hollis) 


Miss Frances E. White 


Miss Helen Ray 


Miss H. H. White 


Miss Mabel Ray 


Mrs. H. Van Wyck Wickes (Rye) 


Miss Edith Rice 


Miss Ellen A. Wolff 


Miss Louise Rickard 


Mr. Wilfred J. Worcester 


Mrs. J. West Roosevelt 


Miss Myra E. Wormell (Staten 


Mr. Warren L. Russell 


Island) 


(Queens Village) 


Mrs. Milton Wyle 


To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 


to Boston Symphony Orchestra, 


Inc. for whatever amount you care 


to contribute and mail it to E. B 


Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon Street, 


Boston. 





[17] 



labored for the cause of Beethoven in Paris from the beginning of the 
century, brought out the Fifth Symphony at a Conservatoire concert on 
April 13, 1828, a year after the composer's death. It is eloquent of 
Habeneck's field work in the Beethoven cause that the symphony was 
played at each of the four remaining concerts of the season. 

Let us turn back from the Habeneck performances, which such en- 
lightened musicians as Wagner considered without equal in Europe, to 
the curious " Akademie " in Vienna, twenty years earlier (December 22, 
1808) , when Beethoven labored, with rather pitiable results, to present 
his C minor symphony to the world. The programme, according to mod- 
ern custom, was in itself rather forbidding in bulk. Consisting entirely 
of " new and unheard " music of Beethoven, it began with the Pastoral 
Symphony (there numbered " 5 ") , the Aria, " Ah, perfido " (Jose- 
phine Kilitzky) , a Latin hymn for chorus, the Fourth Piano Concerto 
(played by the composer) , the C minor (there numbered " 6 ") , the 
sanctus from the Mass in C major, Fantasia for piano solo, and the 
Fantasia for Pianoforte, with orchestra and choral finale. Misfortunes 
beset Beethoven. There was high feeling between him and the orchestra, 
on account of an outbreak of temper at a concert in November. He quar- 
relled with the soloist, and the young and inexperienced singer who 
took her place grew terrified and gave a miserable exhibition at the con- 
cert. Beethoven had thought of putting his C minor Symphony at the 
end, on account of its effective close, but decided that it would have 
better attention earlier in the evening. He hurriedly completed his 
choral fantasia for a concluding number. There was no time for proper 
rehearsal; some of the parts were still wet at the performance. The con- 
sequence: a catastrophe. There was a misunderstanding about a repeat, 
resulting in a confusion which forced Beethoven to stop the orchestra 
and begin again, this time without calamity. 

Among the several not too contradictory reports of the concert, the 
following letter of Reichardt is particularly interesting: " I accepted 
with hearty thanks the kind offer of Prince Lobkowitz to let me sit in his 
box. There we endured the bitterest cold from half past six to half past 
ten, and had the experience that it is easy to get too much of a good 
thing and still more of a loud. Nevertheless, I could no more leave the 
box before the end than could the exceedingly good-natured and deli- 
cate Prince, for the box was in the first balcony near the stage, so that 
the orchestra and Beethoven conducting it in the middle below us, were 
near at hand; thus many a failure in the performance vexed our pa- 
tience in the highest degree. . . . Singers and orchestra were composed 
of heterogeneous elements, and it had been found impossible to get a 
single full rehearsal for all the pieces to be performed, all being filled 
with the greatest difficulties." 

Something in the direct, impelling drive of the motto-like theme 

[18] 



which opens the C minor Symphony has both placed it uppermost in 
popular approval, and challenged the curiosity of the literal-minded for 
a century past. Many are the readings which various musicians have 
found. The fertile Berlioz finds in the first movement Beethoven's 
" most private griefs, his fiercest wrath, his most lonely and desolate 
meditations, his midnight visions, his bursts of enthusiasm." This move- 
ment reminds him of the " terrible rage of Othello." 

Sir George Grove, visioning the Countess Theresa von Brunswick 
as the " immortal beloved," and the inspiration of this, as well as the 
Fourth Symphony, finds a description of a stormy scene between the ex- 
citable master and his child pupil and fiancee of fifteen, as the very pic- 
ture of the opening movement. The composer had stamped out of the 
house hatless, into a blizzard, while the alarmed Theresa hurried out 
after him with his hat and cloak. Sir George found the first and second 
theme to express " the two characters exactly — the fierce imperious 
composer, who knew how to ' put his foot down,' if the phrase may be 
allowed, and the womanly, yielding, devoted girl." Against this set the 
equally assured dictum of d'Indy, who had no doubt in the world that 
Giulietta Guicardi was the immortal beloved, on the grounds that one 
to whom Beethoven could find it in his heart to dedicate so " insipid " a 
piece as the F sharp minor sonata (namely, Theresa) , could not have 
been the object of any deep passion. 

In other words, a programme for the Fifth Symphony is anybody's 
privilege. Much stock has been placed in the stories that Beethoven once 
remarked of his first theme: " Thus fate knocks at the door " (Schind- 
ler) , and that the notes were suggested to him by the call of the yellow- 
hammer (Ries) . Even though these two men may for once have remem- 
bered accurately and spoken truly (which in itself is assuming a good 
deal) , the two incidents prove no more than that, in the first case, the 
completed symphony possibly suggested to its maker, in a passing con- 
versational fancy, the idea of Fate knocking at the door; in the second 
case, his musical thought may have seized upon a chance interval and, 
according to a way he had, developed it into something entirely differ- 
ent. An accidental phrase or rhythm was constantly taking musical 
shape in his imagination — a domain where all things became pure 
music, where visual images somehow did not belong. 

The sketchbooks tell a more explicit story of the creating brain. 
The earliest sketches for the opening theme are as vapid and feeble as 
the final conception is bold and striking. The early sketches for the slow 
movement, in the first drafts an entirely insignificant minuet, are as far 
removed from the tender and flowing melody which finally emerged. 
Perhaps nowhere is the evolution of the conceptual Beethoven more 
astonishing. From mild and pointless beginnings, there develops 
through years and concurrently with sketches for other works, a music 
impetuous, pregnant, and with every aspect of spontaneity. J. N. B. 

[19] 



SUITE FOR ORCHESTRA, " LE TOMBEAU DE COUPERIN " 

(" COUPERIN'S TOMB ") 

By Joseph Maurice Ravel 

Born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, on March 7, 1875; at home near Paris 



Rwel, according to Mr. Edwin Evans, " is fond of looking at a 
. style or a period, as it were, with his head on one side, and specu- 
lating what is to be done with it." More than once, and notably in 
" Le Tombeau de Couperin" speculation bore fortunate consequences. 
The composer was engaged on this particular project, first conceived as 
a piano suite, in the summer of 1914. The exigencies of war interrupted 
his thoughts of a fragile musical past, and it was not until 1917, that 
Ravel resumed and completed his piano pieces. There were six move- 
ments — Prelude, Fugue, Forlane, Rigaudon, Minuet, and Toccata. He 
published the suite in 1918, in memory of his friends killed in the war. 
Later, he scored four movements (omitting the fugue and the toccata) 
for a small orchestra — two flutes, two oboes (one interchangeable with 
English horn) , two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, one trumpet, 
harp, and strings. The orchestral score bears no dedication other than 
that implied in the title. First performed at a Pasdeloup concert in 
Paris under Rhene-Baton, February 28, 1920, it was introduced in 
this country by Pierre Monteux and the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
on November 19 of that year. 

The "Prelude" is in E minor, Vif, 12-16; the "Forlane" (an old 
dance said to derive from the gondoliers of Venice as the " Forlana ") 
is an allegretto, 6-8; the " Menuet " is an allegro moderato, and the 
final " Rigaudon/' * assez vif, 2-4. 

SYMPHONY IN D MINOR, NO. 4. Op. 120 

By Robert Schumann 
Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, July 29, 1856 



This symphony was composed in 1841, immediately after the Sym- 
phony in B-flat major, No. 1, According to the composer's notes it 
was "sketched at Leipzig in June, 1841, newly orchestrated at Diis- 
seldorf in 1851. The first performance of the original version at 

* " Rigadon (rigaudon, rigodon, rigodoun, rigaud, and in English rigadoon) is a word of doubt- 
ful origin. Rousseau says in his Dictionary of Music: ' I have heard a dancing master say that 
the name of this dance came from that of its inventor, who was called " Rigaud." ' Mistral 
states that this Rigaud was a dancing-master at Marseilles. The word ' rigadoon ' came 
into English literature as early as 1691. There is a verb ' rigadoon.' Dr. Oliver Wendell 
Holmes in 'Elsie Venner ' uses it: 'The Doctor looked as if he should like to rigadoon 
and sashy across as well as the young one.' " P. H. 

[20] 



Carnegie Hall • J^eto Pork 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIFTH AFTERNOON CONCERT 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, April 6, at 2:30 o'clock 



Programme 

Ravel .... Suite for Orchestra, " Le Tombeau de Couperin 

I . PRELUDE 

II. FORLANE 

III . MENUET 

IV. RIGAUDON 

Schumann Symphony in D minor, No. 4, Op. 120 

1. andante; allegro 

ii. romanza 

iii. scherzo 

iv. largo; finale 

(Played without pause) 



INTERM ISSION 

Sibelius .... Symphony No. 7 (in one movement) Op. 105 

Ravel . . . . . Orchestral Fragments from "Daphnis et Chloe : 

(Second Suite) 

Lever du Jour — Pantomime — D arise Generate 

[21] 



Gewandhaus, Leipzig, under David's direction. December 6, 1841." 
Clara Schumann wrote in her diary on May 31 of that year: " Robert 
began yesterday another symphony, which will be in one movement, 
and yet contain an adagio and a finale. I have heard nothing about 
it, yet I see Robert's bustle, and I hear the D minor sounding wildly 
from a distance, so that I know in advance that another work will 
be fashioned in the depths of his soul. Heaven is kindly disposed 
toward us: Robert cannot be happier in the composition than I am 
when he shows me such a work." A few days later she wrote: " Robert 
composes steadily; he has already completed three movements, and I 
hope the symphony will be ready by his birthday." 

Their first child, Marie, was born on September 1, 1841. On the 
thirteenth of the month, his wife's birthday, Marie was baptized and 
the mother received from her husband the D minor symphony; " which 

1 have quietly finished," he said. 

The symphony was performed for the first time at a concert given 
by Clara Schumann in the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, December 6, 1841. 
Ferdinand David conducted. The Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung 
found that in the orchestral works there was no calmness, no clearness 
in the elaboration of the musical thoughts; and it reproached Schu- 
mann for his " carelessness." 

Schumann was not satisfied with the symphony, and he did not 
publish it. In December, 1851, he revised the manuscript. During the 
years between 1841 and 1853 Schumann had composed and published 
the Symphony in C (No. 2) and the Symphony in E-flat (No. 3) ; the 
one in D minor was published therefore as No. 4. In its first form, the 
one in D minor was entitled " Symphonistische Phantasie." 

The symphony in the revised and present form was played for the 
first time at the seventh concert of the Allgemeine Musikverein at Diis- 
seldorf on March 3, 1853, m Geisler Hall. Schumann conducted from 
manuscript. At this concert selections from the Mass were performed 
for the first time. 

The concert-master, Ruppert Becker, made these entries in his diary 
concerning the rehearsals and the first performance of this symphony 
in Diisseldorf : — 

"Tuesday, evening of March 1. Rehearsal for 7th Concert. Sym- 
phony by Schumann for the first time; a somewhat short but thor- 
oughly fresh and vital piece of music. Wednesday, 2. 9 o'clock in the 
morning, 2 rehearsal for concert. Thursday, 3. 7th concert: Program. 

" Of Schumann compositions these were new: symphony D minor, 
which he had already composed 12 years ago, but had left lying till now. 

2 excerpts from a Mass: both full of the most wonderful harmonies, 
only possible with Schumann. I liked the symphony especially on ac- 
count of its swing." 

1 22] 



The symphony was dedicated to Joseph Joachim. On the title-page 
of the manuscript was this inscription: " When the first tones of this 
symphony were awakened, Joseph Joachim was still a little fellow; since 
then the symphony and still more the boy have grown bigger, wherefore 
I dedicate it to him, although only in private. Dusseldorf, December 
23, 1853. Robert Schumann." 

The parts were published in November, 1853. The score was pub- 
lished the next month. 

The symphony was performed in Boston for the first time at a 
Philharmonic concert, led by Carl Zerrahn February 7, 1857. John S. 
Dwight found many beauties in the new symphony; but he also said — 
and the year was 1857 — tnat tne orchestration of Wagner's " Faust " 
overture was " masterly "; " clearer and more euphonious, it seemed to 
us, than much of Schumann's." 

It was stated for many years that the only changes made by Schu- 
mann in this symphony were in the matter of instrumentation, espe- 
cially in the wood-wind. Some time after the death of Schumann the 
first manuscript passed into the possession of Johannes Brahms, who 
finally allowed the score to be published, edited by Franz Wiillner. 
It was then found that the composer had made important alterations 
in thematic development. He had cut out elaborate contrapuntal 
work to gain a broader, simpler, more rhythmically effective treat- 
ment, especially in the last movement. He had introduced the open- 
ing theme of the first movement " as a completion of the melody 
begun by the three exclamatory chords which make the fundamental 
rhythm at the beginning of the last movement." And, on the other 
hand, some thought the instrumentation of the first version occasion- 
ally preferable on account of clearness to that of the second. 



It was Schumann's wish that the symphony should be played with- 
out pauses between the movements. Mendelssohn expressed the same 
wish for the performance of his " Scotch " symphony, which was pro- 
duced nearly four months after the first performance of this Symphony 
in D minor. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and strings. 

The first movement begins with an introduction, Ziemlich langsam 
(Un poco lento) , D minor, 3-4. The first motive is used later in the 
" Romanze." The orchestra gives out an A which serves as back- 
ground for this motive in sixths in the second violins, violas, and 
bassoons. This figure is worked up contrapuntally. A dominant organ- 
point appears in the basses, over which the first violins play an ascend- 
ing figure; the time changes from 3-4 to 2-4. 

[*3] 



The main body of this movement, Lebhaft (Vivace) , in D minor, 
2-4, begins forte with the development of the violin figure just men- 
tioned. This theme prevails, so that in the first section there is no 
true second theme. The characteristic trombone figure reminds one 
of a passage in Schumann's Piano Quartet in E-flat, Op. 47. There 
is a heroic figure in the wood-wind instruments. After the repetition 
comes a long free fantasia. The true second theme, sung in F major 
by first violins, appears. The development is now perfectly free. 
There is no third part. 

The Romanze, Ziemlich langsam (Un poco lento) , in D minor — 
or, rather, A minor plagal — opens with a mournful melody said to be 
familiar in Provence. Schumann intended originally to accompany 
the song of oboe and first violoncellos with a guitar. This theme is 
followed by the dreamy motive of the Introduction. Then the first 
phrases of the Romanze are sung again by oboe and violoncellos, and 
there is a second return of the contrapuntal work — now in D major 
— with embroidery by a solo violin. The chief theme brings the move- 
ment to a close on the chord of A major. 

The Scherzo, Lebhaft (Vivace) , in D minor, 3-4, presents the de- 
velopment of a rising and falling scale-passage of a few notes. The 
trio, in B-flat major, is of a peculiar and beautiful rhythmic char- 
acter. The first beat of the phrase falls constantly on a rest in all the 
parts. The melody is almost always in the wood-wind, and the first 
violins are used in embroidery. The Scherzo is repeated after the trio, 
which returns once more as a sort of coda. 

The Finale begins with a short introduction, Langsam (Lento) , in 
B-flat major, and it modulates to D minor, 4-4. The chief theme of 
the first movement is worked up against a counter-figure in the trom- 
bones to a climax. The main body of the movement, Lebhaft (Vivace) , 
in D major, 4-4, begins with the brilliant first theme, which has the 
character of a march, and it is not unlike the theme of the first move- 
ment with its two members transposed. The figure of the trombones 
in the introduction enters. The cantabile second theme begins in B 
minor, but it constantly modulates in the development. The free fan- 
tasia begins in B minor, with a G (strings, bassoons, trombones) , 
which is answered by a curious ejaculation by the whole orchestra. 
There is an elaborate contrapuntal working-out of one of the figures 
in the first theme. The third part of the movement begins irregularly 
with the return of the second theme in F-sharp minor. The second 
theme enters in the tonic. The coda begins in the manner of the free 
fantasia, but in E minor; but the ejaculations are now followed by the 
exposition and development of a passionate fourth theme. There is a 
free closing passage. Schneller (Piu moto) , in D major, 2-2. 

P. H. 

[24] 



SYMPHONY NO. 7 (In One Movement) , Op. 105 
By Jan Sibelius 

Born at Hameenlinna (Swedish) Tavastehus, Finland, December 8, 1S65; now living 

at Jarvenpaa, Finland 



Completed in 1925, Sibelius' Seventh Symphony was performed in 
Helsingfors in that year, the composer conducting, and was first 
played in this country by the Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Sto- 
kowski, conductor, on April 3, 1926. Dr. Koussevitzky introduced the 
symphony to Boston on December 13 of the same year, and repeated 
it January 30, 1931, and April 21, 1933. 

Musical commentators in England (where there exists an especial 
fondness for Sibelius) have written interestingly of this symphony. 
Prof. D. F. Tovey has confessed to finding a singular appropriateness 
in the use of the Seventh Symphony (by means of gramophone records) 
as " ' slow music ' during the recital of the flight over Mount Everest." 
He found no words more adequate to convey " the austere beauty and 
rare atmosphere of Sibelius' mature style " — with the difference that 
" Sibelius is by no means lacking in oxygen." 

" That versatile if conservative critic, Mr. Punch, has already 
remarked that the word ' bleak ' has been overworked by the exponents 
of Sibelius. That word might easily be overworked by admirers of 
Mount Everest or of the moon. For such things it is a jejune epithet, 
but we need not trouble to find a better. Only a real poet can afford 
to tell us that the sky is blue, and he probably will not need to call it 
azure. If the listener can put up with a good description of the flight 
over Mount Everest he need not be afraid of the bleakness of Sibelius. 

" The listener may rest assured that if he finds that an important 
melodic note has been in existence some time before he was aware of it, 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[25] 



Sibelius has taken special trouble to conceal the beginning of that note. 
If the listener feels that unformed fragments of melody loom out of a 
severely discordant fog of sound, that is what he is meant to feel. If he 
cannot tell when or where the tempo changes, that is because Sibelius 
has achieved the power of moving like aircraft, with the wind or against 
it. Sibelius has not only mastered but made a system of that kind of 
movement which Wagner established for music-drama, and which the 
composers of symphonic poems before Strauss have often failed to 
achieve and have not always realised as essential to their problem. 
Moreover he achieves it in absolute music without appealing to any 
external programme. He moves in the air and can change his pace 
without breaking his movement. The tempi of this Seventh Symphony 
range from a genuine adagio to a genuine prestissimo. Time really 
moves slowly in the adagio, and the prestissimo arouses the listener's 
feeling of muscular movement instead of remaining a slow affair written 
in the notation of a quick one. But nobody can tell how or when the 
pace, whether muscular or vehicular, has changed. 

" The beginning is in darkness, with adumbrations of more than 
one future theme. Dawn grows into daylight with a long-drawn passage 
beginning with violas and 'cellos and pervading the whole string-band 
in a kind of Mixolydian harmony, differing, like all Sibelius's modal 
harmony, from Palestrina's only in the boldness of its dissonances. The 
winds join towards the climax; and then the main theme is given out 
by the first trombone. Fragments of other themes, including figures 
of the introduction, follow; and the time quickens gradually, while 
one of the new figures gains ascendancy and eventually takes shape as 
a dance. The pace becomes wild and the modulations far-flung with 
a new sequential figure. Yet this muscular energy becomes absorbed 
quite imperceptibly into the vast cloud-laden air-currents through and 
over which the first theme returns in solemn adagio with C minor har- 
mony. Again the pace increases and leads to new figures, scudding 
through the air. Sunshine emerges upon a song that would add naivete 
to the most innocent shanties of the human sailors in Wagner's Flying 
Dutchman. This develops, like the earlier themes, with increasing 
energy and with several accessories. The last phase of the symphony 
begins with an accumulation of sequences leading to a presto on the 
home dominant which proves to be the accompaniment of the final 
return of the initial theme in its proper solemn adagio. With this, and 
with some of the introductory figures, the symphony ends in tones of 
noble pathos." 

Another Englishman, Cecil Gray, considers the Seventh Symphony 
" one of the highest summits to which music has yet attained," in 
" sheer constructive mastery and intellectual power," and he dares lay 
it proudly beside the opening movements of Beethoven's " Eroica " and 
Ninth symphonies. 

[26] 



" Sibelius's Seventh Symphony is in one gigantic movement, based 
in the main upon the same structural principles as the first movement 
of the Sixth. That is to say, it has one chief dominating subject — a 
fanfare-like theme which first appears in a solo trombone near the 
outset and recurs twice, more or less integrally, and in addition a host 
of small, pregnant, fragmentary motives, of which at least a dozen play 
a prominent part in the unfolding of the action. The resourceful way 
in which these are varied, developed, juxtaposed, permuted, and com- 
bined into a continuous and homogeneous texture is one of the miracles 
of modern music; Sibelius himself has never done anything to equal it 
in this respect. If the Fourth represents the highest point to which he 
attains in the direction of economy of material and concision of form, 
the Seventh shows him at the summit of his powers in respect of 
fecundity of invention and subtlety and intricacy of design. It is not 
merely a consummate masterpiece of formal construction, however, 
but also a work of great expressive beauty, of a lofty grandeur and 
dignity, a truly Olympian serenity and repose which are unique in 
modern music, and, for that matter, in modern art of any kind. It 
seems, indeed, to belong to a different age altogether, a different order 
of civilization, a different world almost — the world of classical 
antiquity." J. N. B. 



" DAPHNIS ET CHLOE " - Ballet in One Act - Orchestral 

Fragments * 
Second Series: " Daybreak," " Pantomime," " General Dance " 

By Joseph Maurice Ravel 

Born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; now living at 
Montfort-l'Amaury and Paris 



From the time when it was first composed, Ravel's " Daphnis et 
Chloe " music has had a flourishing life apart from DiaghilefFs 
Ballet Russe, for which it was officially intended. Diaghileff, deflecting 
the principal creative musicians of the day (Stravinsky, Strauss, De- 
bussy) to his purposes, could not quite make ballet composers out of 
them. He did not reach the point of producing " Daphnis and Chloe " 
until the season of 1912, when it was mounted in June at the Chatelet 
in Paris, Pierre Monteux conducting, Nijinsky and Karsavina dancing 
the title parts. An indifferent success was reported. Meanwhile, the 
score had been published by Durand in the previous year, and the 
music, at least that part of it which is contained in the First Suite, was 
performed at a Chatelet concert, Gabriel Pierne conductor, on April 2, 
1911. 

Whatever its intrinsic qualities, the success of " Daphnis and 

* The Second Suite was performed in Boston for the first time by this orchestra, December 14, 
1917 (Dr. Karl Muck, conductor). 

[27] 



Chloe " as a ballet was impaired by a gathering storm within the com- 
pany, a strain of cross purposes in which it was directly involved. 
Mme. Romola Nijinsky, in her fascinating life of her husband * relates 
circumstances of this dissension (and others) with every appearance 
of honest detachment. Michel Fokine's conception of " Daphnis and 
Chloe " came to be matched directly against Nijinsky's revolutionary 
experiments in Greek classicism as essayed by the young dancer in 
visualizing Debussy's " L'Apres midi d'un Faune" The result was 
Fokine's resignation as the illus.trious choreographer of the company. 
The subtle and conniving hand of the jealous Diaghileff is discerned in 
this event by Mme. Nijinsky. So far as he was concerned, she writes, 
" Fokine had become too dominant. Diaghileff never liked this, and, 
in all his artistic career, as soon as an artist attained a supreme position, 
he tried to pull him down. Because there must be only one reigning 
power, and that should be Sergei Pavlovitch Diaghileff. Yes, certainly 
he was interested in bringing forward a new maitre de ballet to further 
a new school of choreography, but the other motive was always there 
behind. He made Bakst, and dropped Roerich and Benois for him. He 
raised Stravinsky and played him off against Prokoviev. He launched 
Massine and changed him for Dolin, Lifar, and others. And thus Bakst 
was cast away for Larionov." 

Diaghileff was only too ready to listen to the youthful, but eager 
and challenging ideas of Nijinsky on Greek stylization and posture. 
There had been Fokine's " Narcisse" based upon Imperial Ballet tra- 
ditions of classical art, and with " Daphnis and Chloe " Fokine was 
now working on similar " decadent " lines. To Nijinsky, hitherto 
nothing more than a brilliant executant, he gave Debussy's " Faun " to 
design, and Nijinsky worked upon his bold schemes with characteristic 
pains and intensity, teaching entirely unprecedented steps and ges- 
tures, based upon ancient bas-reliefs, calling constant and cruelly 
exacting rehearsals. Fokine, who had not even been told of these en- 
croaching activities until they were but too evident, was at work upon 
three new productions for the pending season in Paris: " Tamara," 
" Dieu Bleu," and " Daphnis et Chloe." The reception of the first two, 
at the season's opening in the middle of May, was lukewarm, and as the 
date for "Daphnis et Chloe" drew nearer, he found that he was not 
allowed a sufficient number of rehearsals. " He asked Diaghileff for 
more rehearsals, but Diaghileff refused, saying that the troupe was 
already so much overstrained that they could not stand any more re- 
hearsing. Three days before the premiere Sergei Pavlovitch (Diaghi- 
leff) suggested that they abandon ' Daphnis ' entirely. Fokine begged 
for the three days, although he knew six or eight rehearsals were 
imperative. The choreography was extremely complex, particularly in 



" Nijinsky," by his wife, Romola Nijinsky (Simon and Schuster, 1934). 
[28] 



CARNEGIE HALL 

FIFTY-FIFTH SEASON— I 9 3 5 - I 93 6 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

FIFTIETH SEASON IN NEW YORK 

* 

Two Series 

OF FIVE CONCERTS EACH 
EVENING CONCERTS AT 8:45 

NOVEMBER 21 JANUARY 9 FEBRUARY 1 4 

MARCH 12 APRIL 2 

{These concerts on Thursday Evenings, except Friday, February 14) 

SATURDAY AFTERNOONS AT 2:30 

NOVEMBER 23 JANUARY II FEBRUARY 1 5 

MARCH 14 APRIL 4 

Season Tickets 

FIVE CONCERTS, $17.50, $15, $12.50, $10, $7, $5 
BOXES (8 SEATS) $140, $120, AND $100 (NO TAX) 



IMPORTANT NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS 

The option to renew the subscription for your present 
seats expires May i 

All applications or communications should be addressed to 
W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 

SYMPHONY HALL • BOSTON • MASS. 



[29] 



the last scene, where groups of dancers rush in and out, and finally 
move to a reassembled climax. ' Daphnis ' had to be rehearsed even on 
the day of its first performance. Fokine was irritated and nervous. He 
had the feeling that his position as a maitre de ballet was being under- 
mined. He heard more news about ' Faune.' Rumors were on foot 
that something utterly new was in formation. Nijinsky, as always, com- 
plied to all that Fokine requested of him, and gave an exquisite per- 
formance of a Greek youth in ' Daphnis.' But, in spite of this, the 
ballet itself failed to obtain a permanent success in the repertoire. Not 
one of the three novelties choreographically attained the standard of 
' Carnaval ' or ' Spectre/ " 

The relations between Nijinsky and Fokine became strained to the 
breaking point, and instead of relieving the tension, Diaghileff aggra- 
vated it. Fokine left the company before the end of the season. 

The ballet was produced in London, June 9, 1914 by the Russian 
Ballet at the Drury Lane Theatre. Fokine (then reinstated in the 
company) mimed Daphnis, and Mme. Karsavina, Chloe. Pierre Mon- 
teux conducted. ; 

The Second Suite is thus identified with the ballet itself: 

" No sound but the murmur of rivulets fed by the dew that trickles 
from the rocks. Daphnis lies stretched before the grotto of the nymphs. 
Little by little the day dawns. The songs of birds are heard. Afar off a 
shepherd leads his flock. Another shepherd crosses the back of the stage. 
Herdsmen enter, seeking Daphnis and Chloe. They find Daphnis and 
awaken him. In anguish he looks about for Chloe. She at last appears 
encircled by shepherdesses. The two rush into each other's arms. 
Daphnis observes Chloe's crown. His dream was a prophetic vision: 
the intervention of Pan is manifest. The old shepherd Lammon ex- 
plains that Pan saved Chloe, in remembrance of the nymph Syrinx, 
whom the god loved. 

" Daphnis and Chloe mime the story of Pan and Syrinx. Chloe im- 
personates the young nymph wandering over the meadow. Daphnis as 
Pan appears and declares his love for her. The nymph repulses him; 
the god becomes more insistent. She disappears among the reeds. In 
desperation he plucks some stalks, fashions a flute, and on it plays a 
melancholy tune. Chloe comes out and imitates by her dance the 
accents of the flute. 

" The dance grows more and more animated. In mad whirlings, 
Chloe falls into the arms of Daphnis. Before the altar of the nymphs 
he swears on two sheep his fidelity. Young girls enter; they are dressed 
as Bacchantes and shake their tambourines. Daphnis and Chloe embrace 
tenderly. A group of young men come on the stage. 

" Joyous tumult. A general dance. Daphnis and Chloe." 

J. N. B. 
[So] 



■JIHTMIBII ■ 



LIST OF WORKS 

Played at the Afternoon Concerts 
DURING THE SEASON 1 934-1 935 






Bach, C. P. E. 

Bach, J. S. 
Berezowsky 

Brahms 
Franck 
Malipiero 
Mozart . 

MlASKOVSKY 

Prokofieff 
Ravel 



Schumann 

Sibelius 

Strauss 



Tchaikovsky . 



! First performance in New York 



Concerto in D major for Orchestra 
(Arranged by Maximilian Steinberg) 

IV • March 2 

Concerto for Violin in E major (Soloist: 
Viola Mitchell) II • January 5 

* Concerto Lirico for Violoncello and 

Orchestra (Soloist: Gregor Piati- 
gorsky) IV • March 2 

Symphony in E-minor, No. 4, Op. 98 

II • January 5 

Symphony in D minor 

I • November 17 

* Symphony (in four tempi, as the four 

seasons) II • January 5 

Symphony in G minor (K. 550) 

I • November 17 

Sinfonietta for String Orchestra, Op. 32, 
No. 2 III • February 2 

Suite from the Ballet "Chout," Op. 21 

III • February 2 

* Piano Concerto for Left Hand (Solo- 

ist: Paul Wittgenstein) 

I • November 17 
Orchestral Fragments from "Daphnis et 

Chloe" (Second Suite) V • April 6 
Suite for Orchestra, "Le Tombeau de 

Couperin" V • April 6 

Symphony in D minor, No. 4. Op. 120 

V • April 6 

Symphony No. 7 (in one movement) 
Op. 105 V • April 6 

"Don Quixote," Fantastic Variations on 
a Theme of Knightly Character, Op. 
35 (Soloists: Gregor Piatigorsky, 
Jean Lefranc) IV • March 2 

Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathe- 
tique," Op. 74 III ■ February 2 



[3i] 



SYMPHONY HALL • BO 


S T O N 


Opening WEDNESDAY, MAY 8 
(And Continuing Nightly Through May and 


June) 


GOLD 


EN JUBILE 
SEASON OF THE 


E 


r 

Orchestra 


U r 

of 85 Symphony Players 


Arthur Fiedler, Conductor 




Q pecial events are in store for the 50th anniversary season 
O Plan a visit to these gay and unique summer concerts 


REFRESHMENTS 


• POPULAR MUSIC • SMOKING 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Mrs. Charles Adams White 

TEACHER of singing 

Steinway Bldg., New York 105 Revere St., Boston 

Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 Tel. Capitol 6745 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

ALL BRANCHES OF MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

44 CHURCH STREET. CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Telephone: TROwbridge 0956 



[32] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H 


RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BE ALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L, 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYN BERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


LUDWIG, O. 


GIRARD, II. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, e. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, C. 


raichman, j. 


MACDONALD, 


, W. 


LANNOYE, m. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


W. 


singer, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


CEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, h. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERNBURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 

arcieri, e. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SAN ROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



An Audience 
worth cultivating 



Because it reaches an audience of unusual potenti- 
ality, The Boston Symphony Orchestra Bul- 
letin is a most effective medium — for a limited 
number of advertisers. 

This audience is composed of people of taste, cul- 
ture and means. They are interested, essentially, 
in the better things of life. They can, and do, pur- 
chase generously — but discriminately. 

The descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, 
foremost of critics, and Mr. John N. Burk, 
secure for the Bulletin a place among works 
of reference and gives to it an unusual per- 
manence. 

If your product — or service — will appeal to this 
discriminating audience 

Write for Rates 
Address 

GEORGE M. MASON 

130 West 42d Street 
New York City 



L. S. B. Jefferds. Adv. Mgr. 
Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 



gcabemp of jfHugtc, proofeljm 




Friday Evening, November 16 
at 8:15 o'clock 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
and the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 






ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, 


J- 








HANSEN, E. 






MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 






PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 






ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 






DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 






STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 






ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 






FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 






CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 












Violoncellos 




BEDF.TTI, J. 




LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


!, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZTGHERA, A. 




BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L, 












ZIMBLER, J. 










Basses 




KUNZE, M. 






LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 






MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 






Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 






GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 






DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 






STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Ei> Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 






English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 






SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 






Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 




VALKENIER, W. 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONAI.D, 


\V 




LAN NO YE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, l. 


VALKENIER, 


W. 




SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLTBACK, W. 


CEBHARDT, W. 




LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 












MANN, .]. 




Tuba 






Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 






ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERNBURG, S. 








CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERF, E. 


Organ 






Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 






SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS. L. J. 



gcabemp of 0Lu&it • JBrooblpn 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
RICHARD BURGIN, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
First Concert 

FRIDAY EVENING, November 16 
with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, I934, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

♦ 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Edward A. Taft 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 




[2] 



Scabemp of Jfflu£tc • JSroofelpn 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, November 16, at 8:15 o'clock 



Programme 



Schubert . 



Ballet Music from " Rosamunde " 
(Ballet No. 1) 



Schumann 



Symphony in D-minor, No. 4, Op. 120 



Introduction; Allegro; Romanza; Scherzo and Finale 

(Played without pause) 



INTERMISSION 



Brahms Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 73 

I. ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

II. ADAGIO NON TROPPO 

III. ADAGIETTO GRA7. IOSO, QUASI ANDANTINO 

IV. ALLEGRO CON SPIRITO 



[3] 



FIRST BALLET FROM THE INCIDENTAL MUSIC TO THE 
DRAMA "ROSAMUNDE," Op. 26 

By Franz Schubert 

Born at Lichtenthal, near Vienna, on January 31, 1797; died at Vienna on 

November 19, 1828 



Rosamunde, Furs tin von Cypern," a romantic drama in four acts, 
. by Wilhelmine von Chezy (1783-1856) , music by Schubert, was 
performed for the first time at the Theater an der Wien, in Vienna, 
on December 20, 1823. The wretched text was designed originally for 
an opera. The play was withdrawn from the stage after two perform- 
ances. The plot is as follows: 

" Rosamunde, Princess of Cyprus," after being brought up by a 
shepherdess, is told her real rank on coming of age. Fulgentius, who 
has been reigning over Cyprus meanwhile, offers her his hand; but 
she disdains his advances, refuses to marry him, and his love turns 
to bitter hatred. He throws her into prison, and sends her a poisoned 
letter through the Prince of Candia, who, really in love with her, has 
entered Fulgentius's service in disguise, so as to be near her. He hands 
her another letter, tells her of the plot against her. She feigns sick- 
ness. Then, the right moment presenting itself, the Prince hands back 

The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Dltson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

[4] 



the poisoned letter to Fulgentius, who dies. This leaves Rosamunde 
free to be married to her lover. 

Ballet No. 1. Allegro moderato, Andante un poco assai, B minor. 
The score calls for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
two horns, and the usual strings. 



SYMPHONY IN D MINOR, NO. 4. Op. 120 

By Robert Schumann 
Born at Zwickau, June 8, 18 10; died at Endenich, July 29, 1856 



This symphony was composed in 1841, immediately after the Sym- 
phony in B-flat major, No. 1. According to the composer's notes it 
was "sketched at Leipzig in June, 1841, newly orchestrated at Diis- 
seldorf in 1851. The first performance of the original version at 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig, under David's direction. December 6, 1841." 
Clara Schumann wrote in her diary on May 31 of that year: " Robert 
began yesterday another symphony, which will be in one movement, 
and yet contain an adagio and a finale. I have heard nothing about 
it, yet I see Robert's bustle, and I hear the D minor sounding wildly 
from a distance, so that I know in advance that another work will 



LOESER'S 



Our Lowest Previous Price on any 
Kranich 8c Bach Grand Was $795 

NOW A NEW KRANICH & 
BACH BABY GRAND AT 

•As fine in workmanship as any Kranich & Bach 

ever built $rQ[" 

•Genuine mahogany veneered case "j ^7 "j 

• A new model, only 4 feet 6 inches long 

•Fine ivory keys PIANOS — 

• Kranich & Bach Grands have been sold by Loeser's 
for many years. 

CONVENIENT PAYMENTS MAY BE ARRANGED 

[5] 



be fashioned in the depths of his soul. Heaven is kindly disposed 
toward us: Robert cannot be happier in the composition than I am 
when he shows me such a work." A few days later she wrote: " Robert 
composes steadily; he has already completed three movements, and I 
hope the symphony will be ready by his birthday." 

Their first child, Marie, was born on September 1, 1841. On the 
thirteenth of the month, his wife's birthday, Marie was baptized and 
the mother received from her husband the D minor symphony; " which 
I have quietly finished," he said. 

The symphony was performed for the first time at a concert given 
by Clara Schumann in the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, December 6, 1841. 
Ferdinand David conducted. The Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung 
found that in the orchestral works there was no calmness, no clearness 
in the elaboration of the musical thoughts; and it reproached Schu- 
mann for his " carelessness." 

It was stated for many years that the only changes made by Schu- 
mann in this symphony were in the matter of instrumentation, espe- 
cially in the wood-wind. Some time after the death of Schumann the 
first manuscript passed into the possession of Johannes Brahms, who 
finally allowed the score to be published, edited by Franz Wullner. 
It was then found that the composer had made important alterations 
in thematic development. He had cut out elaborate contrapuntal 



MORE PROTECTION 

PER DOLLAR THAN ANY 
OTHER FORM OF INVESTMENT 



AN ACCOUNT WITH 

THE 

Dime Savings Bank 
of brooklyn 

DEKALB AVENUE and FULTON STREET 

T. . ( 86th St. and 19th Ave., Bensonhurst 

Branches: < . T . ^ t 1 1 a 

[ Avenue J and L-oney Island Avenue 



Established 1859 
Surplus $28,200,000 Over 200,000 Depositors 



[6] 



work to gain a broader, simpler, more rhythmically effective treat- 
ment, especially in the last movement. He had introduced the open- 
ing theme of the first movement "as a completion of the melody 
begun by the three exclamatory chords which make the fundamental 
rhythm at the beginning of the last movement." And, on the other 
hand, some thought the instrumentation of the first version occasion- 
ally preferable on account of clearness to that of the second. 

It was Schumann's wish that the symphony should be played with- 
out pauses between the movements. Mendelssohn expressed the same 
wish for the performance of his " Scotch " symphony, which was pro- 
duced nearly four months after the first performance of this Symphony 
in D minor. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and strings. 

The first movement begins with an introduction, Ziemlich langsam 
(Un poco lento) , D minor, 3-4. The first motive is used later in the 
" Romanze." The orchestra gives out an A which serves as back- 
ground for this motive in sixths in the second violins, violas, and 
bassoons. This figure is worked up contrapuntally. A dominant organ- 
point appears in the basses, over which the first violins play an ascend- 
ing figure; the time changes from 3-4 to 2-4. 



WHAT DOES A LABEL MEAN? 

If it's ours, it means a reputation 
of over a century for selling 
honest furs at honest prices. 

tBaldi^riceCrQo. 

FULTON & SMITH STREETS 
BROOKLYN 



[7 



The main body of this movement, Lebhaft (Vivace) , in D minor, 
2-4, begins forte with the development of the violin figure just men- 
tioned. This theme prevails, so that in the first section there is no 
true second theme. The characteristic trombone figure reminds one 
of a passage in Schumann's Piano Quartet in E-flat, Op. 47. There 
is a heroic figure in the wood-wind instruments. After the repetition 
comes a long free fantasia. The true second theme, sung in F major 
by first violins, appears. The development is now perfectly free. 
There is no third part. 

The Romanze, Ziemlich langsam (Un poco lento) , in D minor — 
or, rather, A minor plagal — opens with a mournful melody said to be 
familiar in Provence. Schumann intended originally to accompany 
the song of oboe and first violoncellos with a guitar. This theme is 
followed by the dreamy motive of the Introduction. Then the first 
phrases of the Romanze are sung again by oboe and violoncellos, and 
there is a second return of the contrapuntal work — now in D major 
— with embroidery by a solo violin. The chief theme brings the move- 
ment to a close on the chord of A major. 

The Scherzo, Lebhaft (Vivace) , in D minor, 3-4, presents the de- 
velopment of a rising and falling scale-passage of a few notes. The 
trio, in B-flat major, is of a peculiar and beautiful rhythmic char- 
acter. The first beat of the phrase falls constantly on a rest in all the 
parts. The melody is almost always in the wood-wind, and the first 
violins are used in embroidery. The Scherzo is repeated after the trio, 
which returns once more as a sort of coda. 

The Finale begins with a short introduction, Langsam (Lento) , in 
B-flat major, and it modulates to D minor, 4-4. The chief theme of 
the first movement is worked up against a counter-figure in the trom- 
bones to a climax. The main body of the movement, Lebhaft (Vivace) , 
in D major, 4-4, begins with the brilliant first theme, which has the 
character of a march, and it is not unlike the theme of the first move- 
ment with its two members transposed. The figure of the trombones 
in the introduction enters. The cantabile second theme begins in B 
minor, l>ut it constantly modulates in the development. The free fan- 




The Oldest 

Trust 

Company 

in Brooklyn 



We bring to your banking and trust problems 
sixty-eight years of continuous experience. 

Nothing To Sell But Service 

BROOKLYN TRUST 

COMPANY 

MAIN OFFICE- 177 MONTAGUE STREET 
NEW YORK OFFICE-26 BROAD STREET 



[8] 



tasia begins in B minor, with a G (strings, bassoons, trombones) , 
which is answered by a curious ejaculation by the whole orchestra. 
There is an elaborate contrapuntal working-out of one of the figures 
in the first theme. The third part of the movement begins irregularly 
with the return of the second theme in F-sharp minor. The second 
theme enters in the tonic. The coda begins in the manner of the free 
fantasia, but in E minor; but the ejaculations are now followed by the 
exposition and development of a passionate fourth theme. There is a 
free closing passage, Schneller (Piu moto) , in D major, 2-2. 



SYMPHONY NO. 2, IN D MAJOR, Op. 73 

By Johannes Brahms 
Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897 



After withholding the uncompleted manuscript of his First Sym- 
phony for fourteen years, Brahms followed this one with another 
in short order. The First he gave to Carlsruhe for performance Novem- 
ber 4, 1876. Almost exactly a year later Brahms entrusted his Second 
to the more important Vienna Philharmonic, through which, on 
December 30, 1877, Hans Richter first disclosed it to the world.* 

Brahms, who in his obscure twenties had been proclaimed by 
Schumann as the destined custodian of the symphonic tradition, bore 
his responsibility with unease. Knowing full well that the Weimarites 
were awaiting his first attempt at a symphony with poised and sharp- 
ened pens, he approached the form with laborious care, revising and 
reconsidering, doubly testing the orchestral medium. But when that 
assertion of sheer mastery, the First Symphony had come to pass, the 
composer, despite acrid remarks in some quarters, had every reason 
for self-confidence. The Second came forth with apparent effortlessness 
and dispatch. Brahms sought no advice this time, but surprised his 
friends with a full-rounded manuscript. 

Since Brahms did most of his composing in the summer season, 
when he was free from the distraction of concerts, we may assume that 
the summer of 1877, which he spent at Portschach, gave birth to his 
most sunny, open, and mellifluous score. When he discovered this 
lovely spot on the Worther See in Carinthia, he wrote: " Portschach 
is most exquisitely situated, and I have found a lovely, and apparently, 

* A performance followed at Leipzig on January 10, 1878, Brahms conducting. Joachim con- 
ducted it at the Rhine Festival in Dusseldorf, and the composer led the symphony in his 
native Hamburg, in the same year. France first heard it at a popular concert in Paris, No- 
vember 21, 1880. The first American performance was given by Theodore Thomas in New 
York, October 3, 1878. The Harvard Musical Association introduced it to Boston on January 
9, 1879. It was then that John S. Dwight committed himself to the much quoted opinion that 
" Sterndale Bennett could have written a better symphony." Sir George Henschel included 
this symphony in this orchestra's first season (February 24, 1882). 

[9] 



pleasant abode in the Schloss! You may tell everybody just simply this; 
it will impress them. But I may add in parenthesis that I have just 
two little rooms in the housekeeper's quarters; my piano could not be 
got up the stairs, it would have burst the walls." When visitors be- 
came so frequent as to impede his work, he was forced to retire to a 
more secluded dwelling on the lake shore. He spent two more sum- 
mers at Portschach, and there poured forth, besides the symphony, the 
Violin Concerto, the first Violin Sonata, and the two Rhapsodies for 
piano, Op. 79. Returning here from his Italian journey of 1878, he 
made his first sketches for the Pianoforte Concerto in B flat. It was 
with reason that he wrote to Hanslick from this spot: " So many 
melodies fly about, one must be careful not to tread on them." 

The uneffusive Brahms, who neither spoke nor tolerated high and 
solemn words on subjects near his heart, had a way of alluding to a 
new score in a joking and misleading way, or producing the manu- 
script unexpectedly at a friend's house, and with an assumed casual 
air. In September of 1877, as tne Second Symphony progressed, he 
wrote to Dr. Billroth: " I do not know whether I have a pretty sym- 
phony; I must inquire of skilled persons." 

When his devoted friend and admirer, Elisabeth von Herzogenberg 
was consumed with impatience to see the new work, Brahms took de- 
light in playfully misrepresenting its character. He wrote (November 
22, 1877) : "It is really no symphony, but merely a Sinfonie* and I 
shall have no need to play it to you before hand. You merely sit down 
at the piano, put your little feet on the two pedals in turn, and strike 
the chord of F minor several times in succession, then in the bass ff 
and pp and you will gradually gain a vivid impression of my latest." 
And on the day before the first performance he wrote: " The orchestra 
here play my new symphony with crepe bands on their sleeves, because 
of its dirge-like effect. It is to be printed with a black edge, too." 

On the 19th of September he had informed Mme. Clara Schumann, 
always his nearest musical confidante, that the first movement was 
completed; in early October he played it to her, together with part 
of the finale. In December, in advance of the first performance, Brahms 
and Ignatz Briill played a piano duet arrangement (by the composer) 
at the house of Ehrbar in Vienna, to a group of friends (a custom 
which they had started when the First Symphony was about to be 
played, and which they were to repeat before the Third and Fourth) . 
Following the premiere, which took place late in December (probably 
the 30th) , Hans Richter conducting the Vienna Philharmonic, Brahms 
himself led the second performance which was given at the Leipzig 
Gewandhaus, on January 10. 

It may be taken as evidence of the quick progress of the new sym- 

* She had teasingly upbraided him for spelling " symphony " with an ' f.' 
[lO] 



phony towards popularity that when Joachim conducted it at the 
Rhine Festival at Diisseldorff in 1878, it was called " the most brilliant 
event of the festival," and when the composer conducted it at his 
native Hamburg in the same year, " the ladies of the chorus and in the 
first rows of the audience threw their flowers to Brahms, who stood 
there, in the words of his own cradle-song, ' covered with roses.' " At 
each of these performances, in pursuance of an old custom, the third 
movement was " encored." 

It remains to be recorded that at the first two performances, in 
Vienna and in Leipzig, opinion was divided. One might suppose that 
the critics, who have so often missed the point when a masterpiece is 
first heard, might for once have risen as one to this relatively simple 
and straight-forward score, with its long sustained flood of instrumen- 
tal song. Vienna, it is true, which had been decidedly reserved about 
the First Symphony, took the new one to its heart. It was of a " more 
attractive character," " more understandable," and its composer was 
commended for refraining this time from " entering the lists with 
Beethoven." A true " Vienna Symphony," wrote one ecstatic critic. 
Leipzig, on the other hand, was no more than stiffly courteous in its 
applause, and not one critic had much to say for it. " The Viennese," 
wrote Dorffel, " are much more easily satisfied than we. We make quite 
different demands on Brahms, and require from him music which is 
more than ' pretty,' and ' very pretty ' when he comes before us as a 
symphonist." 

Eduard Hanslick, pontifical spokesman of Brahms in Vienna, 
wrote a review which showed a very considerable penetration of the 
new score. Any helpful effect upon the general understanding of his 
readers, however, must have been almost completely discounted by 
the following prefatory paragraph, a prime example of jaundiced 
Beckmesserism: — 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



["] 



To all — 
Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



On October i ith the Trustees of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra mailed a letter to its Boston 
subscribers and many others in the vicinity of 
Boston who take pride in the Orchestra and its achieve- 
ments. In that letter the Trustees set forth the main- 
tenance requirements of the Orchestra and suggested a 
businesslike method of meeting its budget at the very 
commencement of the Season. 

The plan outlined in that letter has been carried out 
and a Society has been organized known as the " Friends 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra," with one of the 
Trustees as Chairman. Those contributing in either large 
or small amounts to the maintenance of the Orchestra 
become members of this organization for this year and 
are enrolled as such. 

The Trustees' letter is now being mailed to subscribers 
to seats at the Concerts of the Orchestra in Brooklyn and 
elsewhere, who, we believe, will welcome the opportu- 
nity to join in providing for its requirements. 

The Trustees desire to express their very deep appre- 
ciation of the keen interest which these periodic visits of 
the Orchestra invariably inspire. Through the organiza- 
tion of the Society of " Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra " they hope that a still more intimate contact 
may be established with the friends and patrons of music 
in the various cities where the Orchestra gives its per- 
formances. 

Bentley W. Warren 

President, Board of Trustees 
November 12, 1934 



[12] 



gkabemp of jWugic • proofeljm 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 

Friday Evening, January 4 
at 8:15 o'clock 



[13] 



" It is well known that Wagner and his followers go so far as not 
only to deny the possibility of anything new in the symphonic form 
— i.e., new after Beethoven — but they reject the very right of absolute 
instrumental music to exist. The symphony, they say, is now superflu- 
ous since Wagner has transplanted it into the opera: only Liszt's sym- 
phonic poems in one movement and with a determined practical 
programme have, in the contemplation of the modern musical world, 
any vitality. Now if such absurd theories, which are framed solely for 
Wagner-Liszt household use, again need refutation, there can be no 
more complete and brilliant refutation than the long row of Brahms' 
instrumental works, and especially this Second Symphony." 

In this way did the critics industriously increase the obscuring 
smoke of partisan controversy. Any readers who may have been able 
to continue with equanimity after this introduction, would have found 
the following description of the work, an estimate which (excepting the 
slight upon the slow movement) time seems essentially to corroborate: 

" The character of this symphony may be described concisely as 
peaceful, tender, but not effeminate; serenity, which on the one side 
is quickened to joyous humor and on the other is deepened to medi- 
tative seriousness. The first movement begins immediately with a mel- 
low and dusky horn theme. It has something of the character of the 
serenade, and this impression is strengthened still further in the 
scherzo and the finale. The first movement, an Allegro moderato, in 
3-4, immerses us in a clear wave of melody, upon which we rest, swayed, 
refreshed, undisturbed by two slight Mendelssohnian reminiscences 
which emerge before us. The last fifty measures of this movement ex- 
pire in flashes of new melodic beauty. A broad singing Adagio in B 
major follows, which, as it appears to me, is more conspicuous for the 
skilful development of the themes than for the worth of the themes 
themselves. For this reason, undoubtedly, it makes a less profound im- 
pression upon the public than do the other movements. The scherzo 
is thoroughly delightful in its graceful movement in minuet tempo. 
It is twice interrupted by a Presto in 2-4, which flashes, spark-like, for 
a moment. The finale in D, 4-4, more vivacious, but always agreeable 
in its golden sincerity, is widely removed from the stormy finales of 
the modern school. Mozartian blood flows in its veins. 

" Brahms has this time fortunately repressed his noble but danger- 
ous inclination to conceal his ideas under a web of polyphony or to 
cover them with lines of contrapuntal intersection; and if the thematic 
development in the second symphony appears less remarkable than 
that in the first, the themes themselves seem more flowing, more spon- 
taneous, and their development seems more natural, more pellucid, 



and therefore more effective. We cannot, therefore, proclaim too loudly 
our joy that Brahms, after he had given intense expression in his first 
symphony to Faust-like conflicts of the soul, has now in his second 
returned to the earth — the earth that laughs and blossoms in the 
vernal months." 

The original Leipzig attitude toward the symphony as deplorably 
lacking in a due Brahmsian content of meaty counterpoint survived 
in the treatise of Weingartner (1897) , who called the scherzo " a grace- 
ful trifle almost too insignificant for the other three movements." And 
so recently as 1928, Richard Specht writes in his Life of Brahms: " If 
one excepts the somewhat morose (!) finale, it is a serenade rather than 
a symphony, and reminds us that not only Beethoven, but Haydn and 
Mozart too, wrote symphonic works which would be better called sin- 
foniettas today." It may be safely hazarded that there could be found 
plentiful dissenters from this point of view. The acquaintance of fifty 
years seems to have put a levelling perspective on the first two sympho- 
nies, which their first hearers compared with such a confident sense of 
antithesis. It is possible today to find an abundant portion of sheer 
musical poetry in each of the four symphonies — they may vary w T ithin 
the legitimate bounds of the emotional nature of their creator, but 
those bounds are not excessively wide. 

The C minor symphony has long ceased to be "complex," "ob- 
scure," " forbidding," even to the most faint-hearted of present day 
listeners, and the deliberately intellectual Brahms, laboring a hard 
musical logic, is becoming the figure of a quaint old fable. The 
grandeur of the First symphony has quite lost its " sternness " with 
the years, and taken on much of the romance, the engaging color, the 
direct musical poesy, once attributed exclusively to the Second. 
The Second Symphony, on the other hand, is hard to connect with the 
slight texture, the inconsequential " prettiness," with which Brahms' 
earnest friends once reproached him. J. N. B. 



These bars of music 

are taken from a well-known. 

composition by a great composer, 

Identify it . . . send the name, com 

poser's name and movement 

number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Water St., N. Y. 
and receive a full half-pound of 

MARTINSON'S COFFEE 

Absolutely Free J 



Allegretto 

rft-fr 




&$m 




A great chef or a great musician — each 





for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 

[15.] 



MENDELSSOHN 

"A Second Elija" 

"At last, a good life of Felix Mendelssohn ! . . . Mr. Kaufman's 
biography is a definite addition to the literature of music because 
of its musical sanity, the wide range of the author's knowledge and 
his very professional approach to the business of music making." 

Samuel Chotzinoff , Words and Music, New York Evening Post. 

Illustrated $1. co 

By SCHIMA KAUFMAN of the Philadelphia Orchestra 

THOMAS Y. CROWELL COMPANY 393 Fourth Avenue, New York 




BOUND VOLUMES of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Concert Bulletins 



Containing 
Mr. Philip Hale's analytical and descriptive notes on all works performed 

during the season 

"A Musical Education in One Volume' 

"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowledge" 
Lawrence Gilman in the N. Y. Herald and Tribune 

Price $6.00 per volume 
Address, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Mrs. Charles Adams White 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

Steinway Bldg., New York 105 Revere St., Boston 

Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 Tel. Capitol 6745 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: University 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON* 

Kenmore 6520 

fie] 



An Audience 
worth cultivating 



Because it reaches an audience of unusual potenti- 
ality, The Boston Symphony Orchestra Pro- 
gramme is a most effective medium — for a limited 
number of advertisers. 

This audience is composed of people of taste, cul- 
ture and means. They are interested, essentially, 
in the better things of life. They can, and do, pur- 
chase generously — but discriminately. 

The descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, 
foremost of critics, secures for the pro- 
gramme a place among works of reference 
and gives to it an unusual permanence. 

If your product — or service — will appeal to this 
discriminating audience 

Write for Rates 
Address 

GEORGE M. MASON 

130 West 42d Street 
New York City 

L. S. B. Jefferds, Adv. Mgr. 
Symphony Hall, Boston, iMass. 



^^Sf^^Nr^^^vr^S^^^^SfN^SfSfSfS^S^^SfVfSr^N^V^^SfSr^NrvfVf^^v^NfV^V**^ 



BROOKLYN COMMITTEE 

Organized to Promote Interest in the Series of Concerts in Brooklyn by 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor 



ADRIAN VAN SINDEREN, Chairman 

Mrs. HENRY J. DAVENPORT, Executive Chairman 

Mrs. EDWARD C. BLUM, Vice-Chairman Mrs. WILLIAM H. GOOD, Vice-Chairman 



Dr. Joseph Dana Allen 
Mr. Juan A. Almirall 
Mr. Lloyd V. Almirall 
Mrs. John Anderson 
Mr. Charles D. Atkins 
Dr. Frank L. Babbott, Jr. 
Hon. William R. Bayes 
Mr. Edward C. Blum 
Mr. Robert E. Blum 
Mrs. Bruce D. Bromley 
Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler 
Rev. S. Parkes Cadman 
Mrs. Otis Swan Carroll 
Mrs. Thomas F. Casey 
Mrs. I. Sherwood Coffin 
Miss Frances H. Coutts 
Hon. Frederick E. Crane 
Mrs. Frederick L. Cranford 
Mr. Walter H. Crittenden 
Mrs. Harris M. Crist 
Dr. John H. Denbigh 
Hon. Norman S. Dike 
Rev. Samuel M. Dorrance 
Mrs. Mary Childs Draper 
Mrs. H. Edward Dreier 
Mrs. Guy Du Val 
Mrs. William P. Earle, Jr. 
Mrs. William F. Eastman 
Mr. S. Raymond Estey 
Mr. Sumner Ford 
Mrs. Merrill N. Foote 
Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 
Mrs. Charles Franklin 
Mr. Theodore L. Frothingham 
Mrs. George H. Gartlan 
Mrs. Edwin L. Garvin 
Mrs. Emil Goetsch 
Miss Theodora Goldsmith 
Mrs. M. Preston Goodfellow 
Mrs. William Peter Hamilton 
Mr. Walter Hammitt 
Mrs. J. Morton Halstead 



Mrs. James M. Hills 
Mrs. Earle P. Huff 
Mrs. Russell S. Hume 
Mrs. 0. Paul Humpstone 
Mr. William T. Hunter 
Mr. Henry A. Ingraham 
Dr. William A. Jewett 
Mrs. Frederick L. Johanns 
Mr. Ralph Jonas 
Mr. James H. Jourdan 
Mrs. William Kennedy, Jr. 
Mr. Jacob C. Klinck 
Mr. David H. Lanman 
Mr. Charles D. Lay 
Mrs. Robert B. Lea 
Mrs. John Eadie Leech 
Mrs. Maxwell Lester 
Mrs. W. H. Lohman 
Miss Hilda Loines 
Mrs. Frederick D. MacKay 
Mrs. Charles J. McDermott 
Mrs. William W. Marshall 
Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard. Jr. 
Mrs. Frank Melville, Jr. 
Miss Irene Miles 
Dr. Raymond B. Miles 
Miss Ida A. Mollenhauer 
Mrs. Alfred E. Mudge 
Mrs. Charles F. Murphy 
Mrs. Caroll Leja Nichols 
Mr. Neilson Olcott 
Mrs. Dean C. Osborne 
Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 
Mrs. Charles Elwell Perkins 
Mr. James H. Post 
Mrs. Charles E. Potts 
Mrs. Frederic B. Pratt 
Mrs. Richardson Pratt 
Mrs. Benjamin Prince 
Mr. G. William Rasch 
Mrs. Frank Reynolds 
Mrs. Donald Ross 



Mrs. John D. H. Schulz 
Mrs. Helen Warren Seelev 
Mr. Robert Alfred Shaw 
Mrs. Frank E. Simmons 
Mrs. Harold Irving Small 
Mrs. B. Herbert Smith 
Mrs. W. C. Spelman 
Mr. Porter Steele 
Mrs. Herman Stutzer 
Mrs. John F. Talmage 
Mrs. Franklin Taylor 
Miss Marion J. Terry 
Mr. Thornton C. Thayer 
Mrs. David Thornton 
Mr. Carl H. Tollefsen 
Mrs. Walter Truslow 
Mr. John T. Underwood 
Dr. Joshua M. Van Cott 
Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. James P. Warbasse 
Mrs. Edwin Carrington Ward 
Mrs. Clarence Waterman 
Mrs. Walter F. Wells 
Mrs. J. B. Whitney 
Mrs. George Whittlesev 
Mrs. William H. Whitton 
Miss Josephine D. Wilkin 
Hon. George Albert Wingate 
Mrs. Harry M. Wingle 
Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 
Mr. R. Huntington Woodman 
Mrs. W. H. Ziegler 

Junior League Committee 

Miss Elizabeth Lathrop 

Chairman 
Miss Dorothy Remsen John- 
son 
Miss Cyrene Duncan 
Miss Elizabeth Paffard 
Mrs. Theodore Fitz Randolph 
Mrs. Florence E. Read 



gcabemp of fflu&it • proofelpn 




Friday Evening, January 4 
at 8:15 o'clock 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
and the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert -master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, 


J- 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BE ALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


SEINIGER, S. 
VIOLAS 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 


AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 


CERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, II. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra -Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, G. 




VALKENIER, W, 


MAGER, G. 


raichman, J. 


MACDONALD, W 




LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VAI.KENIER, W. 




SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLKBACK, w. 


GEBHARDT, W. 




LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 
MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, l. 
ARCIERI, V. 


Organ 




Piano 


Cf.lfsta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANUOMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



gcabemp of jWu£tc • Proofelpn 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Second Concert 

FRIDAY EVENING, January 4 
with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren . . . . . . . President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 













, .;> > tr- 



ibe Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 

... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. . . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts.... One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 

• J-L COP LEY- PLAZA god** • 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



[2] 



gcabemp of JWusic • Jgroofeljm 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, January 4, at 8:15 o'clock 



Programme 

Mozart . . . . : " Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Serenade for 

String Orchestra (K. 525) 

i. allegro 
11. romanza: andante 
iii. menuetto: allegretto 
iv. rondo! allegro 

Szymanowski . . . Second Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, 

Op. 61 

I. MODERATO MOLTO TRANQUILLO 
II. ANDANTE SOSTENUTO 
III. ALLEGRAMENTO; ANDANTINO; TEMPO 1 

INTERMISSION 

Franck Symphony in D minor 

I. LENTO. ALLEGRONON TROPPO 
II. ALLEGRETTO 
III. ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

SOLOIST 

ALBERT SPALDING 
[Steinway Piano] 

[3] 



"EINE KLEINE NACHTMUSIK": SERENADE FOR 
STRING ORCHESTRA (K. 525) 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 
Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This music was composed at Vienna, August 10, 1787. There are four 
movements: — 

I. Allegro, G major, 4-4. The energetic chief theme is exposed at 
once. It is followed by an episode of a gentler character. Two motives of 
importance are introduced later. The developments and coda are short. 

II. The Romanze, Andante, C major, 2-2, is in rondo form with 
four themes. 

III. Minuet, Allegretto, G major, 3-4. Trio, D major, " sotto voce." 

IV. Rondo, Allegro, 2-2. In spite of the title " Rondo," this Finale 
is not so strictly in rondo form as the foregoing Romanze. 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver DlUon Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 



[4] 



SECOND CONCERTO FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA 

Op. 61 

By Karol Szymanowski 
Born at Timoschkova, Kiev in 1883; now living at Zakopane-Tatra, Poland 



Szymanowski, most prominent of living Polish composers, has dedi- 
cated his Second Violin Concerto " a mon ami Paul Kochanski." 
The Polish violinist was engaged to perform this work with the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra last season, a prospect which was nullified by his 
untimely death on January 1 2 (in New York) . He had nevertheless given 
this score its first performance and the only one of which there is any 
record at hand in Warsaw, October 6, 1933, with the Philharmonic 
Orchestra under the direction of Georg Fitelberg. At the end of the 
score is inscribed " Zakopane," indicating that it is the product of the 
Polish mountain country where the composer is said to dwell, deriving 
his inspiration from the natural beauties about him. 

It is interesting to note that the cadenza which occurs in the first 
movement was written by Paul Kochanski. The composer uses 2 flutes, 
2 oboes, 2 clarinets, bassoon and contra bassoon, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
trombone and tuba, cymbals, triangle, bass drum, small drum, piano, 



The KRANICH & BACH 
GRAND PIANO you 

buy today will delight your children's 
children 

The acquisition of a Kranich & Bach is an event that will 
influence many generations and enrich many lives. It is the 
supreme, most treasured gift that you can give to anyone. 
Loeser's can show you a complete line of Kranich & Bach 
grand pianos from $595 and up. 

LOESER'S 

MUSIC SALON — FOURTH FLOOR 



[5] 



timpani and strings. The first movement is marked moderato molto 
tranquillo; the second, andante sostenuto, followed by an animato 
which introduces the cadenza. The Finale follows without a break; an 
allegramente (molto energico) ; allegretto tranquillo; andantino molto 
tranquillo. The movement ends with the initial tempo — allegramente, 
animato. 

Szymanowski's Second Symphony (in B flat major, opus 19) was 
introduced to these concerts by Pierre Monteux, January 20, 1922, in 
what was the first American performance of the work. The composer 
was present. (The orchestra played the symphony in New York Febru- 
ary 2, 1922.) The Third Symphony, " The Song of the Night," was per- 
formed by the Philadelphia Orchestra in its own city, November 19, 

1926, and by the Chicago Orchestra, November 7, 1930. The First Violin 
Concerto was performed by the Cleveland Orchestra on November 3, 

1927, with Paul Kochanski as soloist, and in Chicago on February 10, 

1928, The Symphonie Concertante No. 4 for Piano and Orchestra had 
its first American performance in Cleveland, November 2, 1933, with 
Severin Eisenberger as soloist. 

Szymanowski is one of those composers of importance about whom 
there is surprisingly little information available to those not conversant 
with his own language. An article by his countryman, Zdzislaw Jachi- 



DO YOU KNOW 

that the trustees of a Savings Bank give their services gratui- 
tously, and are not permitted to borrow, directly or indirectly, 
any of the money deposited, nor can they share in any of the 
earnings of the institution? 

THE 

Dime Savings Bank 
of brooklyn 

Incorporated 1859 
DEKALB AVENUE and FULTON STREET 

Bensonhurst Branch Flatbush Branch 

86th Street and Avenue j and 

19th Avenue coney island avenue 

RESOURCES OVER $200,000,000 
Depositors over 200,000 



[6] 



mecki, which appeared translated into English in the Musical Quarterly 
^or January, 1922, is an informative but a curious mixture of ardent 
good-will and open dismay at the composer's more recent independent 
paths. 

" Foremost among the musical compositions written in Poland 
within recent years are the works of Karol Szymanowski. He first ap- 
peared before the public as a composer in 1905, but at that time four- 
teen unpublished works had accumulated in his desk. ... In 1900, 
our composer began to write his first poems for the piano, without the 
guidance of a master and unprepared by serious schooling. The young 
man had grown up in a truly artistic atmosphere in the house of his 
father, a country gentleman, where none but the best classical and 
romantic composers were given a hearing. And there, removed from 
the narrowing influence of any particular school, and in close and 
continual contact with nature, his mind was formed, like that of 
Walther von Stoltzing, by the study of the works of the great com- 
posers of the past. The great beauties of nature, the broad landscape 
of his native country, were the inspiration and the background for his 
first lyric essays. These works were the musical expression of that land- 
scape. Left to himself, Szymanowski mastered, unaided, the technical 
means involved in the utterance of his subtle impressions. The first 
piano preludes portrayed with absolute faithfulness the spiritual pro- 



WHAT DOES A LABEL MEAN? 

If it's ours, it means a reputation 
of over a century for selling 
honest furs at honest prices. 

^alch, "Trice CT Qo. 

FULTON & SMITH STREETS 
BROOKLYN 



[7] 



file of the youth of eighteen. The nine short pieces of this Opus 1 were 
written from 1900 to 1902. As we have remarked, the public of Poland 
first became acquainted with the new talent in 1905." Mr. Jachimecki 
reports that " the mood of these pieces is habitually sad and tender, but 
at times it bursts into full flame, and becomes dramatic. Their elegance, 
lyric sincerity, freedom from influences brought general admiration." 
The writer recalls no Polish music since Chopin that " reaches their 
level." 

Szymanowski next turned to songs — a form which he has pursued 
intermittently through his fruitful career. Mr. Jachimecki considers 
them first attempts, inferior in quality to the piano preludes — " he had 
not yet solved the mysteries of the vocal art." 

In 1903, the composer sought technical equipment for more ambi- 
tious writing, and went to Zygmunt Noskowski. The result seems to 
have been an intense absorption in counterpoint and an outbreak of 
piano music bristling with fugues and variations. 1905 brought the 
first piano sonata, a violin sonata, more songs, and the first orchestral 
attempt — a Symphonic Overture, Op. 12. Warsaw at that time was the 
abject and willing victim of the sorceries of Richard Strauss, and 
Szymanowski proved no exception. His first opera, " Hagith," written 
in 1912-1913, was redolent of " Salome " and " Electra." The First Sym- 
phony, of 1906, was a sort of declaration of war with technical tradi- 
tion. Mr. Jachimecki dismisses it as a complicated and over-elaborate 
work. The songs written at this time were even more dissonant, and the 
writer made no pretense of following him. " Personally, I believe that 
the principles of true art and the true conception of the song form are 
violated in this style of vocal writing, in which the voice must force its 
way through the thorny brush of dissonances, and instead of presenting 
a really beautiful and expressive melodic outline, gives us merely a 




The Oldest 

Trust 

Company 

in Brooklyn 



We bring to your bankingand trust problems 
sixty-eight years of continuous experience. 

Nothing To Sell But Service 

BROOKLYN TRUST 

COMPANY 

MAIN OFFICE- 177 MONTAGUE STREET 
NEW YORK OFFICE-26 BROAD STREET 



[81 



painful contortion of melody. Perhaps future generations will not bear 
me out in this opinion, but at present there are few singers who mani- 
fest any inclination to sing Szymanowski's Op. 17." 

" Penthesilea," for voice and orchestra (1907-1910) was shortly fol- 
lowed by the Second Symphony, Op. 19. "Without exaggeration we 
may pronounce this magnificent work the finest flower in the field of 
symphonic music in its day. After the few years that have elapsed since 
then, this is very clearly to be seen. . . . The crowning glory of the 
work," Mr. Jachimecki considers, " is the theme with variations in the 
second movement, the creation of a marvelous sweep of inspiration." 

The Second Piano Sonata which came immediately after the Second 
Symphony, Mr. Jachimecki finds the work of " a modern Beethoven. 
There is in this work something of eternal beauty, and although it is 
intensely modern in spirit and in its material, it reflects none of the 
conventions in vogue in 1910. A great personality speaks in every meas- 
ure of the sonata." Then came several groups of songs of which set- 
tings of poems by the Persian Hafiz are outstanding. In the Opera 
" Hagith," " Szymanowski confides the chief task to the orchestra. Its 
part is rich in texture, and the instruments are made to yield their 
utmost in effect. Dissonance prevails almost without interruption 
throughout the work. The human voices move in the most difficult in- 
tervals, for the most part in glaring contrariety to the harmonies of the 
orchestra." 

" Hegith," however, " does not mark the last step in the evolution 
of Szymanowski's musical style. The opera is merely a turning point in 
his art. He kept intensifying the means of emotional expression in his 
successive works and finally reached a stage of hypersensitiveness in 
which even the most subtle harmonies and chromatic progressions, 
founded on the aesthetic principles of consonance and dissonance, no 
longer sufficed him." One might become alarmed at the information 
that he has joined the ranks of " a new system which is at present a 
veritable chaos," until one reads further that these ranks of the fallen 
also include " Stravinsky, Busoni, Schonberg, Ravel, Malipiero, and the 
rest." Szymanowski is too much of a true musician, Mr. Jachimecki as- 
sures us, to fall into " the musical futurism of a Malipiero, or into the 
musical ' dadaism ' of some of the piano pieces of Schonberg and 
others." 

The writer counts seventeen works by Szymanowski during the war 
period, notably the Third Symphony with chorus and tenor solo, " The 
Song of the Night," Op. 27, the First Violin Concerto, Op. 35, and a 
second set of Hafiz Songs. After the war, the composer made a renewed 
study of the possibilities of the violin, and wrote a number of pieces for 
that instrument. Further vocal works, and the Third Piano Sonata, Mr. 
Jachimecki describes as " absolutely revolutionary " in character. 

[91 



"Among the virtuosos," he adds finally, "who have done most to 
spread Szymanowski's fame are the singer Stanislawa Szymanowska- 
Bartoszewicz (the composer's sister) , the orchestra conductor Gregor 
Fitelberg, the pianists Arthur Rubinstein, Harry Neuhaus and Jascha 
Dubianski, and the violinist Paul Kochanski." 

Szymanowski's Opera " King Roger " was performed in Warsaw in 
1926. His ballet " Mandragora " was produced in Chicago by the Allied 
Arts, Inc., November 8, 1925. There is another Polish folk ballet 
" Harna." Szymanowski composed his Symphonie Conccrtante in the 
latter part of 1932. It was first produced in May 1933, like most of his 
orchestral scores, by Georg Fitelberg in Warsaw, the composer playing 
the piano part. Herbert Elwell on the occasion of the performance of 
this work in Cleveland, November 2, 1933, wrote in the orchestra's pro- 
gramme notes that " this brilliant composition owes its inspiration pri- 
marily to the folk spirit of his native land, and it vibrates generously 
with the robust, vivacious temper of the Polish mountaineers. While 
none of the themes appear to be literal translations of Polish folk tunes, 
they have, nevertheless, a highly indigenous character and evoke a rural 
atmosphere from which the wit and sentiment of a simple, carefree peo- 
ple speak with signal potency." The composer appeared in this score in 
Paris under Pierre Monteux in February 1934, when it was described 
" as based on the wild dances of the Carpathian mountain dwellers." 

J. N. B. 



ALBERT SPALDING 

Albert Spalding, born at Chicago, August 15, 1888, began when he 
>was seven years old the study of the violin with Chiti in Florence, 
Italy, and when he was living in New York, with Juan Buitrago. When 
Mr. Spalding was fourteen he passed with high honors the examina- 
tion for a " professorship " at the Bologna Conservatory. In Paris he 
studied for two years with Lefort. His first appearance in public as a 
professional violinist was at the Nouveau Theatre, Paris, June 6, 1905. 

His appearances in Boston with the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
at the regular concerts are as follows: 

1917. January 12. Beethoven's Concerto. 

1919. October 17. Dvorak's Concerto. 

1922. December 22. Dohnanyi's Concerto (First time in Boston) . 

1925. January 9. Respighi's Concerto Gregoriano (First time in 
Boston) . 

1927. December 2. Brahms' Concerto. 

1933. January 13. Mozart's Concerto in D major (K. 218), and 
Chausson's " Poeme," Op. 25. 

1934. December 28. Szymanowski's Second Concerto, Op. 61. 
[10] 



SYMPHONY IN D MINOR 
By Cesar Franck 

Born at Liege, Belgium, December 10, 1822; died at Paris, November 8, 1890 



One autumn evening in 1888," wrote Guy Ropartz, devout disciple 
of Franck, " I went to pay the master a visit at the beginning of 
vacation time. * Have you been working? ' I inquired. ' Yes/ was 
Franck 's reply, ' and I think that you will be pleased with the result.' 
He had just completed the Symphony in D, and he kindly played it 
through to me on the piano.* I shall never forget the impression made 
upon me by that first hearing." 

The first performance, at the Paris Conservatoire, February 17, 1889, 
when the members of the orchestra were opposed to it, the subscribers 
bewildered, and some of Franck's colleagues spitefully critical, has been 
described with gusto by d'Indy in his much quoted book, the bible of 
the Franck movement. The symphony reached Germany in 1894, when 
it was performed in Dresden; England in 1896 (a Lamoureux concert 
in Queen's Hall) . It was first played by the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra—April 15, 1899, Wilhelm Gericke, conductor. The last perform- 
ance by this orchestra was November 21, 1932. 

The symphony, dedicated to Henri Duparc, is scored for two flutes, 
two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, four 
horns, two trumpets, two cornets-a-piston, three trombones, bass tuba, 
a set of three kettledrums, harp, and strings. 

Of the notorious performance of Franck's Symphony at the Con- 
servatoire (February 17, 1889) , d'Indy writes: 

* D'Indy lists the Symphony as having been begun in 1886. 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[»] 



To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



The plan of inviting enrollments to a society known as 
the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra has 
resulted in enrollments to date of over i ,000 with con- 
tributions totalling approximately $45,000, or one-half of the 
estimated requirements of the Orchestra for this year. New 
York and Brooklyn have been so loyal as to participate to the 
extent of 10% of the number enrolled and 3 x /i % of the amount 
contributed. 

For this mark of approval and friendly cooperation in pro- 
viding for the necessary financial requirements of the Orches- 
tra I desire to express sincere thanks. 

I confidently believe that there are many more who will care 
to accept the present opportunity through membership in the 
Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra to join those who 
have already responded so splendidly in making the future of 
the Orchestra secure. 

As one of our contributors so aptly writes, " To exist we 
need, may be, a New Deal or some kind of an ' ism,' but to live 
we need music and the fine things that are collected in Art 
Museums. These things tell us that life is worth while." 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 

For the convenience of those who may desire to enroll as Friends 
of the Orchestra a subscription blank has been inserted in this 
programme book. 



[12] 



Ucabemp of jftltigtc ■ proofelpn 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Br. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 

Thursday Evening, January 31 
at 8:15 o'clock 



[13] 



" The performance was quite against the wish of most members of 
the famous orchestra, and was only pushed through thanks to the 
benevolent obstinacy of the conductor, Jules Garcin. The subscribers 
could make neither head nor tail of it, and the musical authorities 
were much in the same position. I inquired of one of them — a profes- 
sor at the Conservatoire, and a kind of factotum on the committee — 
what he thought of the work. ' That a symphony? ' he replied in con- 
temptuous tones. ' But, my dear sir, who ever heard of writing for the 
English horn in a symphony? Just mention a single symphony by 
Haydn or Beethoven introducing the English horn. There, well, you 
see — your Franck's music may be whatever you please, but it will cer- 
tainly never be a symphony! ' This was the attitude of the Conserva- 
toire in the year of grace 1889." 

D'Indy, whom there is no reason to suppose anything but a truthful 
man, has this to say about Charles Gounod, who was present: 

" At another door of the concert hall, the composer of ' Faust,' es- 
corted by a train of adulators, male and female, fulminated a kind of 
papal decree to the effect that this symphony was the affirmation of 
incompetence pushed to dogmatic lengths. For sincerity and disinter- 
estedness we must turn to the composer himself, when, on his return 
from the concert, his whole family surrounded him, asking eagerly for 
news. ' Well, were you satisfied with the effect on the public? Was there 
plenty of applause? ' To which ' Father Franck,' thinking only of his 
work, replied with a beaming countenance: ' Oh, it sounded well; just 
as I thought it would! ' " 

All who knew him describe Franck as sincerely touched when some 
grudging official recognition was bestowed upon him, or when his 
music was actually heard and applauded in public. " On the occasions 
— alas! too few — when Franck came in touch with the public," wrote 
Arthur Coquard, " he saw and heard nothing but the music, and if the 
execution struck him as adequate, he was the happiest of men. The 
master had formed an ideal atmosphere of his thoughts and affections, 
an atmosphere which his soul gladly inhaled, undisturbed by strange 
currents — his spirit delighted itself with its own ideal of art and 
philosophy. Wrapped in the contemplation of serene beauties such as 
these, his genius brought forth those great and sometimes sublime 
works. No wonder that his music, conceived in the calm joy of ecstasy, 
without thought of public opinion, the artist's dream, lasted over the 
day of its performance and, soaring high, lost sight of earth altogether." 

Franck was never heard to complain of the humble round of teach- 
ing, into which poverty had forced him, dissipating his genius in a con- 
stant grind of petty engagements, with only an hour or two in the day 
saved for his composition. " The first years of his marriage were 
1 close,' " wrote the organist Tournemire, who knew him then. " One 
must live! From half past five in the morning until half past seven, 
Franck composed. At eight he left the house to ' comb ' Paris. He dis- 
pensed solfege and piano for the convenience of the pupils in the Jesuit 
school of Vaugirard (lessons 1 franc 80 centimes for a half hour, from 

[Hi 



eleven until two!) . He had only a bite of fruit or cheese to sustain him, 
as Franck himself once told me. He would also go to Anteuil, a fash- 
ionable institution for young ladies of society, who often constrained 
him to teach them impossible novelties of the hour." He was known to 
these uneager demoiselles, acquiring parlor graces, as " Monsieur 
Franck." Later, some of these ladies were astonished to find their erst- 
while insignificant and even rather ridiculous piano teacher become a 
world-enshrined memory. Whereupon they proudly proclaimed them- 
selves " Franck pupils." D'Indy disqualified these impostors by publish- 
ing the name of every pupil who at any time had been close to Franck 
in his work. 

The Quintet, the Quartet, the Violin Sonata, and the Symphony 
are named by d'Indy as " constructed upon a germinative idea which 
becomes the expressive basis of the entire musical cycle." He says else- 
where of the conception of the Violin Sonata — " From this moment 
the cyclical form, the basis of modern symphonic art, was created and 
consecrated." He adds: 

" The majestic, plastic, and perfectly beautiful symphony in D 
minor is constructed on the same method. I purposely use the word 
method for this reason: After having long described Franck as an 
empiricist and an improviser — which is radically wrong — his enemies 
(of whom, in spite of his incomparable goodness, he made many) and 
his ignorant detractors suddenly changed their views and called him a 
musical mathematician, who subordinated inspiration and impulse to 
a conscientious manipulation of form. This, we may observe in passing, 
is a common reproach brought by the ignorant Philistine against the 
dreamer and the genius. Yet where can we point to a composer in the 
second half of the nineteenth century who could — and did — think as 
loftily as Franck, or who could have found in his fervent and enthu- 
siastic heart such vast ideas as those which lie at the musical basis of the 
Symphony, the Quartet, and ' The Beatitudes ' ? . . . 

" Franck 's Symphony is a continual ascent towards pure gladness 
and life-giving light because its workmanship is solid, and its themes are 
manifestations of ideal beauty. What is there more joyous, more sanely 
vital, than the principal subject of the Finale, around which all the 
other themes in the work cluster and crystallize? While in the higher 
registers all is dominated by that motive which M. Ropartz has justly 
called ' the theme of faith.' " J. N. B. ' 



These bars of music 
are taken from a well-known, 
composition by a great composer. 
Identify it . . . send the name, com- 
poser's name and movement 
number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Wafer St., N. Y. 
and receive a full half-pound of 



MARTINSON'S COFFEE 



Allegretto 





m 



i 



A great chef or a great musician — each 




needs inspiration. Martinson's Coffee does 





for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 



[15] 



THE SEASON'S OUTSTANDING SCREEN TRAVEL EVENT 

BURTON HOLMES 

AMERICA'S FOREMOST TRAVELER-RACONTEUR 

• ACADEMY OF MUSIC • 

rlVb EVENINGS BEGIN JAN. IO 

TIMELY TRAVEL TOPICS 
WHAT I SAW IN SOVIET RUSSIA 
EXPLORING LONDON AND ENGLAND 
SOUTHERN EUROPE -YUGOSLAVIA TO SPAIN 
ALLURING ITALY FROM THE ALPS TO THE SEA 
WE LOOK AT VIENNA AND AUSTRIA 



Plan now to take all of these 
colorful and informative tours 

ROUND TRIP TICKETS ONLY 2.2o, 3.3o, 4.4o INC. TAX 

ON SALE AT ACADEMY TICKET OFFICE 



MENDELSSOHN 

" A Second Elijah" 

By SCHIMA KAUFMAN of the Philadelphia Orchestra 

"At last, a good life of Felix Mendelssohn ! . . . Mr. Kaufman's 
biography is a definite addition to the literature of music because 
of its musical sanity, the wide range of the author's knowledge and 
his very professional approach to the business of music making." 

Illustrated $3.50 Samuel Chotzinoff , Words and Music, New York Evening Post. 
THOMAS Y. CROWELL COMPANY 393 Fourth Avenue, New York 




BOUND VOLUMES of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Concert Bulletins 



Containing 

analytical and descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, foremost critic, 

and Mr. John N. Burk, on all works performed during the season 

"A Musical Education in One Volume" 

"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowledge" 
Lawrence Gilman in the N. Y. Herald and Tribune 

Price $6.00 per volume 
Address, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 



[16] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Mrs. Charles Adams White 



Stehiway Bldg., New York 
Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 



TEACHER OF SINGING 



105 Revere St., Boston 
Tel. Capitol 6745 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 

THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: University 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



Let us help you 








build 


up 








your 


name! 

advertise! 










representation in this book will assist 


you! at a 


nominal cost! 


L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 


George M. 

130 West 42d 
New York 


Mason 

Street 
City 



BROOKLYN COMMITTEE 

Organized to Promote Interest in the Series of Concerts in Brooklyn by 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor 



ADRIAN VAN SINDEREN, Chairman 

Mrs. HENRY J. DAVENPORT, Executive Chairman 

Mrs. EDWARD C. BLUM, Vice-Chairman Mrs. WILLIAM H. GOOD, Vice-Chairman 



Dr. Joseph Dana Allen 
Mr. Juan A. Almirall 
Mr. Lloyd V. Almirall 
Mrs. John Anderson 
Mr. Charles D. Atkins 
Dr. Frank L. Babbott, Jr. 
Hon. William R. Bayes 
Mr. Edward C. Blum 
Mr. Robert E. Blum 
Mrs. Bruce D. Bromley 
Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler 
Rev. S. Parkes Cadman 
Mrs. Otis Swan Carroll 
Mrs. Thomas F. Casey 
Mrs. I. Sherwood Coffin 
Miss Frances H. Coutts 
Hon. Frederick E. Crane 
Mrs. Frederick L. Cranford 
Mr. Walter H. Crittenden 
Mrs. Harris M. Crist 
Dr. John H. Denbigh 
Hon. Norman S. Dike 
Rev. Samuel M. Dorrance 
Mrs. Mary Childs Draper 
Mrs. H. Edward Dreier 
Mrs. Guy Du Val 
Mrs. William P. Earle, Jr. 
Mrs. William F. Eastman 
Mr. S. Raymond Estey 
Mr. Sumner Ford 
Mrs. Merrill N. Foote 
Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 
Mrs. Charles Franklin 
Mr. Theodore L. Frothingham 
Mrs. George H. Gartlan 
Mrs. Edwin L. Garvin 
Mrs. Emil Goetsch 
Miss Theodora Goldsmith 
Mrs. M. Preston Goodfellow 
Mrs. William Peter Hamilton 
Mr. Walter Hammitt 
Mrs. J. Morton Halstead 



Mrs. James M. Hills 
Mrs. Earle P. Huff 
Mrs. Russell S. Hume 
Mrs. 0. Paul Humpstone 
Mr. William T. Hunter 
Mr. Henry A. Ingraham 
Dr. William A. Jewett 
Mrs. Frederick L. Johanns 
Mr. Ralph Jonas 
Mr. James H. Jourdan 
Mrs. William Kennedy, Jr. 
Mr. Jacob C. Klinck 
Mr. David H. Lanman 
Mr. Charles D. Lay 
Mrs. Robert B. Lea 
Mrs. John Eadie Leech 
Mrs. Maxwell Lester 
Mrs. W. H. Lohman 
Miss Hilda Loines 
Mrs. Frederick D. MacKay 
Mrs. Charles J. McDermott 
Mrs. William W. Marshall 
Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard, Jr. 
Mrs. Frank Melville, Jr. 
Miss Irene Miles 
Dr. Raymond B. Miles 
Miss Ida A. Mollenhauer 
Mrs. Alfred E. Mudge 
Mrs. Charles F. Murphy 
Mrs. Caroll Leja Nichols 
Mr. Neilson Olcott 
Mrs. Dean C. Osborne 
Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 
Mrs. Charles Elwell Perkins 
Mr. James H. Post 
Mrs. Charles E. Potts 
Mrs. Frederic B. Pratt 
Mrs. Richardson Pratt 
Mrs. Benjamin Prince 
Mr. G. William Rasch 
Mrs. Frank Reynolds 
Mrs. Donald Ross 



Mrs. John D. H. Schulz 
Mrs. Helen Warren Seeley 
Mr. Robert Alfred Shaw 
Mrs. Frank E. Simmons 
Mrs. Harold Irving Small 
Mrs. B. Herbert Smith 
Mrs. W. C. Spelman 
Mr. Porter Steele 
Mrs. Herman Stutzer 
Mrs. John F. Talmage 
Mrs. Franklin Taylor 
Miss Marion J. Terry 
Mr. Thornton C. Thayer 
Mrs. David Thornton 
Mr. Carl H. Tollefsen 
Mrs. Walter Truslow 
Mr. John T. Underwood 
Dr. Joshua M. Van Cott 
Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. James P. Warbasse 
Mrs. Edwin Carrington Ward 
Mrs. Clarence Waterman 
Mrs. Walter F. Wells 
Mrs. J. B. Whitney 
Mrs. George Whittlesey 
Mrs. William H. Whitton 
Miss Josephine D. Wilkin 
Hon. George Albert Wingate 
Mrs. Harry M. Wingle 
Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 
Mr. R. Huntington Woodman 
Mrs. W. H. Ziegler 

Junior League Committee 

Miss Elizabeth Lathrop 
Chairman 

Miss Dorothy Remsen John- 
son 
Miss Cyrene Duncan 
Miss Elizabeth Paffard 
Mrs. Theodore Fitz Randolph 
Mrs. Florence E. Read 



gcabemp of jWustc • proofeljm 




Thursday Evening, January 3 1 
at 8:15 o'clock 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
and the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, 


J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BE ALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 


AVIERINO, n. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 


GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


;, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


LUDWIG, O. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, g. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, r. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. El? Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, G. 




VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD, \V 




LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, m. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, W. 




SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLF.BACK, W. 


CEBHARDT, W. 




LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 
MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERNBURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTFR, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, F. 


Orcan 




PlANO 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SAN ROM A, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



Scabemp of i#lu£tc • Proofelpu 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Third Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, January 31 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, IflC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 





The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 






astern c^hJLJi 



... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. . . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts. ...One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 

• % COPLEY-PLAZA g*d>« . 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



[2] 



iacabemp of jWugtc • Proofeljw 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, January 31, at 8:15 o'clock 



Programme 

Beethoven .... Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 

Sibelius Symphony No. 5 in E flat major, Op. 82 

I. TEMPO MOLTO MODERATOJ ALLEGRO MODERATO 
II. ANDANTE MOSSO, Q.UASI ALLEGRETTO 
III. ALLEGRO MOLTO: UN POGHETTINO LARGAMENTE 

INTERMISSION 

Moussorgsky .... "Pictures at an Exhibition," Piano- 

forte Pieces arranged for Orchestra 
by Maurice Ravel 

Promenade — Gnomus — II Vecchio Castello — Tuileries — Bydlo — 
Ballet of Chicks in their Shells — Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle — 
Limoges: The Marketplace — Catacombs (Con mortuis in lingua mortua) 
— The Hut on Fowls' Legs — The Great Gate at Kiev 



[3] 



OVERTURE TO " LEONORE " NO. 3, Op. 72 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 
Born at Bonn, December 16 (?) , 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827 



Beethoven's opera, " Fidelio, oder die eheliche Liebe," with text 
adapted freely by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Bouilly 
(" Leonore; ou L' Amour Conjugal/') was first performed at the Theater 
an der Wien, Vienna, November 20, 1805, with Anna Pauline Milder, 
afterwards Mme. Hauptmann, as the heroine. " The opera was hastily 
put upon the stage, and the inadequacy of the singers thus increased 
by the lack of sufficient rehearsals." Beethoven had received the text in 
1804. He worked on the music the following summer at Hetzendorf. 
On his return to Vienna, rehearsals were begun. In later years Fidelio 
was one of Anna Milder's great parts: " Judging from the contempo- 
rary criticism, it was now (1805) , somewhat defective, simply from 
lack of stage experience." 

In the year that saw the production of " Fidelio," Napoleon's army 
was hastening toward Vienna. There was an exodus from the town 
of the nobility, merchants, and other residents. The vanguard of the 
French army entered on November 13. Those of the Viennese who 
would have appreciated the opera had fled the town. The theatre was 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, INC. 
Retail Music Store 

359 BOYLSTON STREET BOSTON, MASS. 

t<^J «^5 t^J 

For All Published 

MUSIC 

Largest stock of sheet music and music 
books in New England. Every outstanding 
American and Foreign publisher represented. 

«^J t^i «^5 

D I T S O N ' S 

359 BOYLSTON STREET TEL. COMMONWEALTH 1350 

[4] 



not well filled. Many in the audience were or had been officers in 
Napoleon's army. The success of the opera was small. Only two per- 
formances followed the first. At the first and at the second the overture, 
" Leonore " No. 2, was performed. 

" Leonore " No. 2 was the overture played at the first performance 
in Vienna. The opera was withdrawn, revised, and produced again 
on March 29, 1806, when " Leonore " No. 3, a remodelled form of No. 
2, was the overture. There was talk of a performance at Prague in 
1807. Beethoven wrote for it a new overture, retaining the theme 
derived from Florestan's air, " In des Lebens Friihlingstagen." The 
other material in Nos. 2 and 3 was not used. The opera was not per- 
formed; the autograph of the overture disappeared. " Fidelio " was 
revived at Vienna in 1814. For this performance Beethoven wrote the 
" Fidelio " overture. We know from his diary that he " rewrote and 
bettered " the opera by working on it from March to May 15 of that 
year. 

The dress rehearsal was on May 22, but the promised overture was 
not ready. On the 20th or 21st, Beethoven was dining at a tavern 
with his friend Bartolini. After the meal was over, Beethoven took 
a bill-of-fare, drew lines on the back of it, and began to write. " Come 
let us go," said Bartolini. " No, wait a while: I have the scheme of my 
overture," answered Beethoven, and he sat until he had finished his 
sketches. Nor was he at the dress rehearsal. They waited for him a long 



The KRANICH & BACH 
GRAND PIANO you 

buy today will delight your children's 
children 

The acquisition of a Kranich & Bach is an event that will 
influence many generations and enrich many lives. It is the 
supreme, most treasured gift that you can give to anyone. 
Loeser's can show you a complete line of Kranich & Bach 
grand pianos from $595 and up. 

LOESER'S 



MUSIC SALON — FOURTH FLOOR 



time, then went to his lodgings. He was fast asleep in bed. A cup of 
wine and biscuits were near him, and sheets of the overture were on 
the bed and the floor. The candle was burnt out. It was impossible to 
use the new overture, which was not even finished. Schindler said a 
Leonore overture was played. According to Seyfried, the overture used 
was that to " The Ruins of Athens," and his view is now accepted, 
although Treitsche asserted that the " Prometheus " overture was the 
one chosen. After Beethoven's death, a score of an overture in C was 
found among his manuscripts. It was not an autograph score, as I have 
said, but it was bought by Tobias Haslinger at the sale of Beethoven's 
effects in November, 1827. This score was not dated, but a first violin 
part bore the words in the composer's handwriting: " Overtura in C, 
charakteristische Ouverture. Violino I mo ." This work was played at 
Vienna at a concert given by Bernhard Romberg, February 7, 1828, 
and it was then described as a " grand characteristic overture " by 
Beethoven. It was identified later, and circumstances point to 1807 as 
the date of composition. The overture was published in 1832 or 1833. 
The order, then, of these overtures, according to the time of com- 
position, is now supposed to be " Leonore " No. 2, " Leonore " No. 3, 
" Leonore " No. 1, " Fidelio." It was said that " Leonore " No. 2 was 
rewritten because certain passages given to the wood-wind troubled 
the players. Others say it was too difficult for the strings and too long. 
In No. 2, as well as in No. 3, the chief dramatic stroke is the trumpet 



SAVE WITH US 
GROW WITH US 



RESOURCES 1924 . . $100,000,000 
RESOURCES 1934 OYER 200,000,000 



THE 

Dime Savings Bank 

OF BROOKLYN 

INCORPORATED 1859 
DeKalb Avenue and Fulton Street 

Bensonhurst Branch Flatbush Branch 

86th STREET AND AVENUE J AND 

19th AVENUE CONEY ISLAND AVENUE 

"[6] 



signal, which announces the arrival of the Minister of Justice, con- 
founds Pizarro, and saves Florestan and Leonore. 

The key of the " Leonore " Overture No. 3 is C Major. A short 
fortissimo is struck. It is diminished by wood-wind and horns, then 
taken up, piano, by the strings. From this G there is a descent down 
the scale of C major to a mysterious F-sharp. The key of B minor is 
reached, finally A- flat major, when the opening measures of Florestan's 
air, " In des Lebens Fruhlingstagen " (act ii, of the opera) , is played. 
The theme of the Allegro, C major, begins pianissimo, first violins and 
violoncellos, and waxes impetuously. The second theme has been de- 
scribed as " woven out of sobs and pitying sighs." The working-out 
consists in alternating a pathetic figure, taken from the second theme 
and played by the wood-wind over a nervous string accompaniment, 
with furious outbursts from the whole orchestra. Then comes the 
trumpet-call off stage. The twice-repeated call is answered in each 
instance by the short song of thanksgiving from the same scene. Leo- 
nore's words are: " Ach! du bist gerettet! Grosser Gott! " A gradual 
transition leads from this to the return of the first theme at the be- 
ginning of the third part (flute solo) . The third part is developed in 
general as the first part and leads to a wildly jubilant coda. 

The score calls for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and 
the usual strings. P. H. 



OUR JANUARY 
FUR SALE 

(CONTINUING TO FEBRUARY 9) 

brings finer -grade furs 
within reach of all! 

L"iow»'H5 Choice *98- *I98 

<£alch, Trice €T Qo. 

FULTON & SMITH STREETS 
BROOKLYN 

"777 



SYMPHONY, E-FLAT MAJOR, NO. 5, Op. 82 
By Jan Julius Christian Sibelius 

Born at Travastehus, Finland, December 8, 1865; living at Jarvenpaa 



w 



hen Sibelius was a new and unaccustomed voice in music, his 
early symphonies were each found to be weighted with a drab 
coloring and an unrelieved melancholy. The sobriety which is still 
generally admitted in the Fourth Symphony was equally attributed to 
the First and the Second when these works were first heard.* Now, 
much of what was once taken by the non-Scandinavian hearer as the 
utterance of dark despair, is transformed with familiarity into some- 
thing actually sensuous and not far from amiable. 

Lawrence Gilman noted this Anglo-Saxon fallacy in 1921, when the 
Fifth Symphony,f since described by the enlightened Cecil Gray as " a 
sunny, genial work throughout," was first performed in London. Mr. 
Gilman amused himself collecting the adjectives then liberally bestowed 
in the press: "dour," "bleak," "harsh," "rugged," "angular," "reti- 
cent," " cold," " gray," " austere," " sad," " drastic," " severe," " bare," 
" lonely," " trenchant." 

" Yet there are pages in this Fifth Symphony of his that exhibit an 
unaccustomed spontaneity and expansiveness, a large simplicity and 
directness. Some liberating and clarifying influence seems at times to 

* After the first performance of the Second Symphony in Boston, a newspaper carried the 
headline — "Cheer Up, Sibelius! " 

t This symphony was written just before the war, played in Helsingfors in the spring of 
1914. The composer later withdrew his score for long and careful revision, and it was per- 
formed in its new form in Scandinavian cities in 1915 or 1916. The first English performance 
was on February 12, 1921, the composer conducting. The first American performance was by the 
Philadelphia Orchestra, October 21, 1921. The first Boston performance was by this Orchestra 
on April 7, 1922, and subsequent performances December 15, 1922, November 11, 1927, January 
27, 1933, and January 26, 1934. 




The Oldest 

Trust 

Company 

in Brooklyn 



We bring to your banking and/trustproblems 
sixty-eight years of continuous experience. 

Nothing To Sell But Service 

BROOKLYN TRUST 

COMPANY 

MAIN OFFICE- 177 MONTAGUE STREET 
NEW YORK OFFICE-26 BROAD STREET 



[8] 



have touched it — the northwest blowing off the sea, or the memory of 
a horn-call among the hills. This quality was not unnoticed in London 
when the symphony was first played there. Amid the accustomed stereo- 
types that insisted upon its ' bleakness,' ' dryness,' ' gauntness,' ' reti- 
cence,' ' harshness,' there were some who recognized in this music a 
more generous spread of line, a greater frankness, a less hampered 
melodic speech." 

The Fifth Symphony, Cecil Gray finds in complete contrast to " the 
brooding gloom and sombre melancholy which is the spiritual key-note 
of the Fourth." " The terseness, economy, and extreme concentration of 
thought," which characterizes the Fourth are not to be found in its suc- 
cessor. " If the Fourth is a White Dwarf, in fact, the Fifth is its opposite, 
a Red Giant, a Betelgeuse of music, a huge work in which the substance 
is highly attenuated and rarefied. The four movements of the former 
amount to a bare 68 pages of full score, the three of the latter to 136 — 
exactly double. Not that it lasts twice as long in performance; two of 
the movements of the Fourth are in slow tempo, whereas none of those 
in the Fifth are, but that in itself only serves to emphasize more strongly 
the profound difference in character between the two works. 

" The Fifth Symphony constitutes a relaxation from the tension and 
severe discipline of the Fourth as regards mood, form, and style, but 
apart from the reinstatement of the third trumpet, which had been 
dropped in the Fourth, the instrumental forces remain the same." The 
orchestration includes two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and strings. 

" The first two movements," writes Mr. Gilman, in a characteristically 
illuminating analysis, " though they are distinct in mood and character, 
are integrated by community of theme, after the fashion instituted by 
Schumann and popularized by Cesar Franck. 

" The subject which binds them together is a motto-theme of concise 
and simple outline: the bucolic phrase proclaimed by the horn in the 
opening measures over a roll of the timpani (molto moderato, E-flat, 
12-8) . Its first four notes (B-flat, E-flat, F, B-flat, ascending) constitute 
the thematic seed from which is developed a good part of the substance 
of the two connected movements. The motto-theme, four times repeated 
by the three trumpets in unison, introduces the scherzo section of the 
first part (Allegro moderato, ma poco a poco stretto, B major, 3-4) , 
with a curiously Beethovenish theme in a dance rhythm for the wood- 
wind in thirds, and sixth and seventh measures of which outline the 
motto-theme of the opening. At the end, there is a return to the key of 
E-flat. 

" In the slow movement (Andante mosso, quasi allegretto, G major, 
3-2) the somewhat unpromising theme is developed with much resource- 

[9] 



fulness of variation. From a simple and rather naive subject, fore- 
shadowed by the violas and 'cellos pizzicato against sustained harmonies 
in the clarinets, bassoons, and horns, and afterward more clearly defined 
by a pair of flutes playing in thirds and sixths, the composer evolves a 
movement of singularly rich expressiveness (an odd detail is the elabo- 
rate use of an appogiatura effect in the flutes and bassoons, as a back- 
ground against which the strings develop the theme) . 

" The Finale is the crown of the work, and is in many ways the most 
nobly imagined and nobly eloquent page that Sibelius has given us. 
The violas announce the first subject (Allegro molto, E-flat, 2-4) under 
an agitated figure for the second violins divisi, and the first violins con- 
tinue it. Woodwind and 'cellos sing a more impassioned theme against 
chords of the other strings and horns. A passage in G-flat major, mis- 
terioso, for the muted and divided strings alone (violins in eight parts) , 
leads to the superb coda — un pochettino largamente — in which the 
music achieves a gradual amplification and heroic emphasis, with the 
brass chanting a strangely intervalled figure against a syncopated ac- 
companiment figure of the strings. The end is triumphant." 

J. N. B. 



" PICTURES AT AN EXHIBITION " 

(Pianoforte Pieces Arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel) 

By Modest Petrovitch Moussorgsky 

Moussorgsky, born at Karevo, district of Toropeta, in the government of Pskov, on 
March 28, 1835; died at St. Petersburg on March 28, 1881. Joseph Maurice Ravel, 
born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, on March 7, 1875; is now living at Montfort- 

l'Amaury and at Paris 



Moussorgsky composed his suite of piano pieces in June, 1874, on 
the impulse of his friendship for the architect Victor Hartmann, 
after a posthumous exhibit of the artist's work which immediately 
followed his death. " It almost asks for orchestration," wrote A. Eagle- 
field Hull of the music, some years ago, and indeed no less than four 
musicians have been tempted to try a hand at the task. Toushmalov (in 
St. Petersburg, 1891) set eight of the pieces, and in recent years Sir 
Henry Wood in London, Leondidas Leonardi in Paris, and Maurice 
Ravel in Paris, have arranged the whole suite. Ravel made his setting 
in 1923 for Dr. Koussevitzky, at the conductor's suggestion. 

Promenade. As preface to the first " picture," and repeated as a 
link in passing from each to the next, so far as the fifth, is a promenade. 
It is an admirable self-portrait of the composer, walking from picture 
to picture, pausing dreamily before one and another in fond memory of 
the artist. Moussorgsky said that his " own physiognomy peeps out 
through all the intermezzos," an absorbed and receptive face " nel 

[10] 



modo russico" The theme, in a characteristically Russian 11-4 rhythm 
suggests, it must be said, a rather heavy tread.* 

Gnomus. There seems reason to dispute Riesemann's description: 
" the drawing of a dwarf who waddles with awkward steps on his short, 
bandy legs; the grotesque jumps of the music, and the clumsy, crawling 
movements with which these are interspersed, are forcibly suggestive." 
Stassov, writing to Kerzin j~ in reply to the latter's inquiry explained: 
" the gnome is a child's plaything, fashioned, after Hartmann's design 
in wood, for the Christmas tree at the Artist's Club (1869) . It is some- 
thing in the style of the fabled Nutcracker, the nuts being inserted in 
the gnome's mouth. The gnome accompanies his droll movements with 
savage shrieks." 

Il Vecchio Castello. A troubadour sings a melancholy song before 
an old tower of the middle ages. Moussorgsky seems to linger over this 
picture with a particular fascination. (Ravel utilizes the best coloristic 
possibilities of the saxophone) . 

Tuileries. Children disputing after their play. An alley in the 
Tuileries gardens with a swarm of nurses and children. The composer, 
as likewise in his children's songs, seems to have caught a plaintive 
intonation in the children's voices, which Ravel scores for the high 
wood-winds. 

Bydlo. "Bydlo" is the Polish word for "cattle." A Polish wagon 
with enormous wheels comes lumbering along, to the tune of a " folk- 

* One recalls the story of Bernard Shaw, reviewing an exhibition of Alpine landscapes in 
London, tramping through the galleries in hob-nailed boots. 

t Arkady Mikhailovitch Kerzin (1857-1914), as founder and director of the Moscow Circle of 
Lovers of Russian Music (1896-1912), who were principally concerned with the cause of 
Moussorgsky's music, received from Stassov a long letter (on January 31, 1903) about the 
" Pictures at an Exhibition." Stassov told how he had taken advantage of a meeting with 
Rimsky-Korsakov at a supper arranged in honor of the Hamburg conductor, Fiedler (at 
Glazounov's house), to discuss the question of the tempi of the " Pictures." " We sat down 
at the piano, Rimsky-Korsakov played each number over a few times', and then we recalled 
how our Moussorgsky had played them — remembered, tried them, and finally fixed the right 
tempi with the aid of the metronome." Their findings were as follows (value of a crotchet): 
Promenade — 104; Gnomus — 120; II Vecchio Castello — 56 (dotted crotchet); Tuileries — 144; 
Bydlo — 88; Ballet — 88; The two Jews — 48; Limoges — 57; The Hut on Fowls' Legs — 120 
(allegro) and 72 (andante); The Gate at Kiev — 84. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate, and diploma courses. 
Private and class instruction in all 
branches of music. 

Voice Department — Instructors : 
Mr. James R. Houghton 
Mr. David Blair McClosky 
Miss Marie Oliver 
Mr. Stephen S. Townsend 



Registration Day for the 
second semester, January 30, 1935 



BOUND COPIES of the 

Boston Symphony 
Orchestra 

CONCERT BULLETINS 

Containing analytical and descriptive 
notes on all works performed during 
the season (" musically speaking, the 
greatest art annual of today." — 
W. J. Henderson, New York Sun) may 
be obtained by addressing 



Price $6.oo 



SYMPHONY HALL 



["] 



To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



The society of the Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra now has an enrolled membership of 1200. 
The contributions of those who have enrolled, to- 
gether with the contributions of all who may enroll hereafter, 
will be added to operating income to provide in part the 
amount required for salaries and other operating expenses, 
including traveling expenses and the rentals of the halls on 
these periodic trips of the Orchestra away from home. 

Participation by patrons and friends outside of Boston 
already amounts to 10% of the number enrolled and 4% of 
the total amount contributed. To those of you who have 
enrolled I desire to express sincere thanks for your friendly 
and gracious cooperation. 

About $40,000 more is needed to meet the estimated re- 
quirements for the year. This sum will be supplied, I confi- 
dently hope, by the contributions of those here and at home 
who will care to join those who have already responded so 

splendidly. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc., and mail it to E. B. Dane, 
Treasurer, 6 Beacon Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 



[12] 



Hcabemp of Jltigtc • prookljm 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 

Friday Evening, March i 
at 8:15 o'clock 



[13] 



song in the Aeolian mode, evidently sung by the driver." There is a 
long crescendo as it approaches — a diminuendo as it disappears in the 
distance. Calvocoressi finds in the melody " une penetrante poesie." 
(Ravel, again departing from usual channels, uses a tuba solo for his 
purposes) . 

Ballet of Chicks in Their Shells. " In 1870," says Stassov, " Hart- 
mann designed the costumes for the staging of the ballet ' Trilby ' at 
the Maryinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg. In the cast were a number of 
boy and girl pupils of the theatre school, arrayed as canaries.* Others 
were dressed up as eggs." 

Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle. Two Polish Jews, the one 
rich, the other poor. "The two Jews were drawn from life in 1868, 
and so delighted was Moussorgsky that Hartmann promptly presented 
him with the picture " (Stassov) . Riesemann calls this number " one 
of the most amusing caricatures in all music — the two Jews, one rich 
and comfortable and correspondingly close-fisted, laconic in talk, and 
slow in movement, the other poor and hungry, restlessly and fussily 
fidgeting and chatting, but without making the slightest impression 
on his partner, are musically depicted with a keen eye for characteristic 
and comic effect. These two types of the Warsaw Ghetto stand plainly 
before you — you seem to hear the caftan of one of them blown out 
by the wind, and the flap of the other's ragged fur coat. Moussorgsky's 
musical power of observation scores a triumph with this unique musi- 
cal joke; he proves that he can reproduce the ' intonations of human 
speech ' not only for the voice, but also on the piano." (Ravel makes 
the prosperous Jew speak from the low voiced strings, in unison. His 
whining neighbor has the voice of a muted trumpet) . 

Limoges. The Market-place. Market women dispute furiously. 
" Hartmann spent a fairly long time in the French town in 1866, exe- 
cuting many architectural sketches and genre pictures " (Stassov) . 

Catacombs. In this drawing Hartmann portrayed himself, examin- 
ing the interior of the Catacombs in Paris by the light of a lantern. In 
the original manuscript, Moussorgsky had written above the Andante 
in B-minor: " The creative spirit of the dead Hartmann leads me 
towards skulls, apostrophizes them — the skulls are illuminated gently 
from within." 

(" ' The Catacombs,' with the subtitle ' Sepulchrum romanum/ are 
invoked by a series of sustained chords, now pp, now ff. Then comes 
under the title ' Con mortuis in lingua mortua ' (sic) a de-rhythmed 
transformation of the ' Promenade ' theme." — Calvocoressi.) 

The Hut on Fowls' Legs. " The drawing showed a clock in the 
form of Baba-Yaga's, the fantastical witch's hut on the legs of fowls. 
Moussorgsky added the witch rushing on her way seated on her 
mortar." To every Russian this episode recalls the verses of Pushkin in 
his introduction to " Russian and Ludmilla." 

The Gate of the Bogatirs at Kiev. " Hartmann's drawing repre- 
sented his plan for constructing a gate at Kiev, in the old Russian 

* Mixed ornithology in ballets and descriptive suites is apparently of no consequence. 

[Ml 



massive style, with a cupola shaped like a Slavonic helmet." This 
design was said to be a great favorite of M oussorgsky. Stassov calls his 
music " a majestic picture in the manner of the ' Slavsya,' and in the 
style of Glinka's ' Russian ' music." 

" Hartmann is bubbling over, just as Boris did," wrote Moussorgsky 
to his friend Stassov, while at work upon his " Pictures at an Exhibi- 
tion." " Ideas, melodies, come to me of their own accord, like the roast 
pigeons in the story — I gorge and gorge and over-eat myself. I can 
hardly manage to put it down on paper fast enough." 

Moussorgsky, so his friends have said, was seldom moved to exuber- 
ance over his work — was more often inclined to anxious questionings 
in such confidences. As a matter of fact, both the subject and the 
moment were just right to draw forth the very best from Moussorgsky's 
genius. He was deeply moved by the death of his artist friend, and his 
muse was at its best when quick, graphic characterization was called 
for, liberated from such heavy responsibilities as development, ex- 
tended form, detail of instrumentation. 

Within the orbit of Balikirev's circle in the seventies there were, 
besides musicians, the painter Riepin (whose unflattering portrait of 
Moussorgsky is familiar) , the sculptor, Antolkovsky, and the architect 
and painter, Victor Hartmann. Hartmann, " to whom," so Riesemann 
tells us, " Petersburg owes some fine buildings," was a particular friend 
of Moussorgsky and of Stassov, who as writer endeavored to draw the 
various arts and artists together. Stassov was abroad at Wiesbaden, 
when Hartmann died at the age of thirty-nine, and Moussorgsky 
poured forth his feelings in a long letter. Stassov, returning, immedi- 
ately arranged an exhibition of Hartmann's watercolors and architec- 
tural sketches. Moussorgsky, somewhat after the scheme of Schumann's 
" Carnival," described the pictures that most appealed to him in a 
little suite of fragmentary piano pieces, as a sort of affectionate 
memorial. 

Moussorgsky's letter to Stassov is full of self-castigation, bitter 



These bars of music 
are taken from a well-known, 
composition by a great composer 
Identify it . . . send the name, com- 
poser's name and movement 
number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Water St., N. Y. 
and receive a full half-pound of 

MARTINSON'S COFFEE 

Absolutely Free ! 





£ 



A great chef or a great musician — each. 




needs inspiration. 



Martinson's Coffee does 





for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 



[15] 



rebellion against fate — a truly Russian document which might have 
been lifted, word for word, from " The Brothers Karamazov." 

" My very dear friend, what a terrible blow! " he begins. " Why 
should a dog, a horse, a rat live on — and creatures like Hartmann must 
die! " And later: " This is how the wise usually console us blockheads, 
in such cases: ' He is no more, but what he has done lives and will live.' 
True — but how many men have the luck to be remembered? That is 
just another way of serving up our self-complacency (with a dash of 
onion, to bring out the tears) . Away with such wisdom! When ' he ' has 
not lived in vain, but has created — one must be a rascal to revel in the 
thought that ' he ' can create no more. No, one cannot and must not 
be comforted, there can be and must be no consolation — it is a rotten 
morality! If Nature is only coquetting with men, I shall have the hon- 
our of treating her like a coquette — that is, of trusting her as little as 
possible, keeping all my senses about me, when she tries to cheat me 
into taking the sky for a fiddlestick — or ought one rather, like a brave 
soldier, to charge into the thick of life, have one's fling, and go under? 
What does it all mean? In any case the dull old earth is no coquette, 
but takes every ' King of Nature ' straight into her loathsome embrace, 
whoever he is — like an old worn-out hag, for whom anyone is good 
enough, since she has no choice. 

" There again — what a fool I am! Why be angry when you cannot 
change anything? Enough, then — the rest is silence. . . ." 

There needs only to be added the ironic commentary that while 
Hartmann's actual work, barring perhaps a building or two in Lenin- 
grad, has long since passed into oblivion, his name and a mere musical 
reflection of perhaps his slightest sketches have been spread across the 
world a half century later, without the remotest idea of such a result 
on the part of the composer. And so far as Moussorgsky himself is con- 
cerned, it is the way of posterity that this little masterpiece should have 
lain unnoticed for twelve years, when, five years after his death it was 
published by Bessel (1886) . Even then, the suite was virtually never 
played, and it fell to the lot of four separate composers to orchestrate 
it, Ravel at last bringing the music to a general knowledge in this 
version of 1923. 

" Ravel," says Dr. Vladimir Zederbaum, " scoring the Suite by 
Moussorgsky did not wish to modernize it much, therefore he tried, 
as far as possible, to keep the size of the orchestra of Rimsky-Korsakov 
in ' Boris Godunov,' and added some more instruments only in a few 
movements of the Suite. All instruments are employed in threes; there 
are some more percussion instruments than those used by Rimsky- 
Korsakov; he uses two harps, kettledrums, bass drum, snare drum, 
celesta, xylophone, glockenspiel, rattle, bells." 

The first performance of this orchestration was at a " Koussevitzky 
Concert " in Paris, May 3, 1923. Dr. Koussevitzky first played the suite 
at these concerts, November 7, 1924. The most recent performance was 
January 27, 1933. J. N. B. 

[16] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Mrs. Charles Adams White 



Stein way Bldg., New York 
Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 



TEACHER OF SINGING 



105 Revere St., Boston 
Tel. Capitol 6745 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 

THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: Trowbridge 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



Let us help you 








build 


up 








your 


name! 

advertise! 










representation in this book will assist 


you! at a 


nominal cost! 


L. S. B. 


Jefferds, adv. mgr. 


George 


M. 


Mason 


symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 


130 West 42d 


Street 






New 


Vork City 



BROOKLYN COMMITTEE 

Organized to Promote Interest in the Series of Concerts in Brooklyn by 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor 



ADRIAN VAN SINDEREN, Chairman 

Mrs. HENRY J. DAVENPORT, Executive Chairman 

Mrs. EDWARD C. BLUM, Vice-Chairman Mrs. WILLIAM H. GOOD, Vice-Chairman 



Dr. Joseph Dana Allen 
Mr. Juan A. Almirall 
Mr. Lloyd V. Almirall 
Mrs. John Anderson 
Mr. Charles D. Atkins 
Dr. Frank L. Babbott, Jr. 
Hon. William R. Bayes 
Mr. Edward C. Blum 
Mr. Robert E. Blum 
Mrs. Bruce D. Bromley 
Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler 
Rev. S. Parkes Cadman 
Mrs. Otis Swan Carroll 
Mrs. Thomas F. Casey 
Mrs. I. Sherwood Coffin 
Miss Frances H. Coutts 
Hon. Frederick E. Crane 
Mrs. Frederick L. Cranford 
Mr. Walter H. Crittenden 
Mrs. Harris M. Crist 
Dr. John H. Denbigh 
Hon. Norman S. Dike 
Rev. Samuel M. Dorrance 
Mrs. Mary Childs Draper 
Mrs. H. Edward Dreier 
Mrs. Guy Du Val 
Mrs. William P. Earle, Jr. 
Mrs. William F. Eastman 
Mr. S. Raymond Estey 
Mr. Sumner Ford 
Mrs. Merrill N. Foote 
Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 
Mrs. Charles Franklin 
Mr. Theodore L. Frothingham 
Mrs. George H. Gartlan 
Mrs. Edwin L. Garvin 
Mrs. Emil Goetsch 
Miss Theodora Goldsmith 
Mrs. M. Preston Goodfellow 
Mrs. William Peter Hamilton 
Mr. Walter Hammitt 
Mrs. J. Morton Halstead 



Mrs. James M. Hills 
Mrs. Earle P. Huff 
Mrs. Russell S. Hume 
Mrs. 0. Paul Humpstone 
Mr. William T. Hunter 
Mr. Henry A. Ingraham 
Dr. William A. Jewett 
Mrs. Frederick L. Johanns 
Mr. Ralph Jonas 
Mr. James H. Jourdan 
Mrs. William Kennedy, Jr. 
Mr. Jacob C. Klinck 
Mr. David H. Lanman 
Mr. Charles D. Lay 
Mrs. Robert B. Lea 
Mrs. John Eadie Leech 
Mrs. Maxwell Lester 
Mrs. W. H. Lohman 
Miss Hilda Loines 
Mrs. Frederick D. MacKay 
Mrs. Charles J. McDermott 
Mrs. William W. Marshall 
Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard, Jr. 
Mrs. Frank Melville, Jr. 
Miss Irene Miles 
Dr. Raymond B. Miles 
Miss Ida A. Mollenhauer 
Mrs. Alfred E. Mudge 
Mrs. Charles F. Murphy 
Mrs. Caroll Leja Nichols 
Mr. Neilson Olcott 
Mrs. Dean C. Osborne 
Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 
Mrs. Charles Elwell Perkins 
Mr. James H. Post 
Mrs. Charles E. Potts 
Mrs. Frederic B. Pratt 
Mrs. Richardson Pratt 
Mrs. Benjamin Prince 
Mr. G. William Rasch 
Mrs. Frank Reynolds 
Mrs. Donald Ross 



Mrs. John D. H. Schulz 
Mrs. Helen Warren Seeley 
Mr. Robert Alfred Shaw 
Mrs. Frank E. Simmons 
Mrs. Harold Irving Small 
Mrs. B. Herbert Smith 
Mrs. W. C. Spelman 
Mr. Porter Steele 
Mrs. Herman Stutzer 
Mrs. John F. Talmage 
Mrs. Franklin Taylor 
Miss Marion J. Terry 
Mr. Thornton C. Thayer 
Mrs. David Thornton 
Mr. Carl H. Tollefsen 
Mrs. Walter Truslow 
Mr. John T. Underwood 
Dr. Joshua M. Van Cott 
Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. James P. Warbasse 
Mrs. Edwin Carrington Ward 
Mrs. Clarence Waterman 
Mrs. Walter F. Wells 
Mrs. J. B. Whitney 
Mrs. George Whittlesey 
Mrs. William H. Whitton 
Miss Josephine D. Wilkin 
Hon. George Albert Wingate 
Mrs. Harry M. Wingle 
Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 
Mr. R. Huntington Woodman 
Mrs. W. H. Ziegler 

Junior League Committee 

Miss Elizabeth Lathrop 
Chairman 

Miss Dorothy Remsen John- 
son 
Miss Cyrene Duncan 
Miss Elizabeth Paffard 
Mrs. Theodore Fitz Randolph 
Mrs. Florence E. Read 



gcabemp of Jttustc • Proofelpn 



^\\WiliU/i///to, 



^ 



%; 



% 



2T 



BOSTON 



'«>* 



SYAPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



INC. 



FIFTY-FOURTH 

SEASON 

1934r-1935 



[4] 



Eft 



Friday Evening, March i 
at 8:15 o'clock 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
and the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


CORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. El? Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra -Bassoon 


battles, a. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD, 


, w. 


LAN NO YE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, l. 


VALKENIER, 


w, 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


CEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, h. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERNBURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, F. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SAN ROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



0cabemp of iUlusrtc • Proofelpu 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Fourth Concert 

FRIDAY EVENING, March 1 

with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallo well Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 




The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 






tau cz^t-JiJi 



(Hit u^o^l&u <^hck><x>ze&A- 

... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being— a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. . . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts.... One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 

• J-L COPLEY-PLAZA $»d*n » 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



[2] 



gcabemp of ifWuartc • JBroofeljm 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, March i, at 8:15 o'clock 



Programme 



Bach, C. P. E. . . . . Concerto in D major for Orchestra 

(Arranged by Maximilian Steinberg) 



I. ALLEGRO MODERATO 
II. ANDANTE LENTO MOLTO 
III. ALLEGRO 



Brahms Variations on a Theme by Joseph 

Haydn, Op. 560 



INTERMISSION 



Strauss . . . . Tone Poem, "Thus Spake Zarathustra " 

(freely after Friedrich Nietzsche) , Op. 30 

[3] 



CONCERTO, D MAJOR, FOR ORCHESTRA: ARRANGED BY 
MAXIMILIAN OSEEVITSCH STEINBERG 

By Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach 

Bach, born at Weimar, March 18, 1714; died at Hamburg, December 14, 1788 
Steinberg, born at Vilna, June 22, 1888; now living 



Dr. Koussevitzky heard this concerto played by violon, quinton, 
viol d'amour, viola da gamba, and bass viol at a concert of the 
Society of Ancient Instruments in Paris. He was so pleased that he took 
the music and purposed to make an orchestral arrangement; but he 
finally entrusted the task to Steinberg, who arranged the concerto for 
flute, two oboes, bassoon, horn, and strings. The concerto was probably 
composed by Bach at Hamburg. It was performed at concerts of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston, Dr. Koussevitzky conductor, 
on October 24, 1924; December 10, 1926. 

Steinberg, after graduation from the Gymnasium in 1901, attended 
the University at St. Petersburg until 1906, and the Conservatory until 
1908. His teachers at the Conservatory were Rimsky-Korsakov and 
Glazunov. He became a teacher of composition and orchestration at 
this Conservatory. Glazunov brought out fragments of Steinberg's bal- 

The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Ditson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

[4] 



let in 1907 at a concert of the Royal Music Society. The list of Stein- 
berg's works comprises two symphonies: No. 1 in D, Op. 3; No. 2, B-flat 
minor, Op. 8; Dramatic Fantasie, Op. 9; Prelude for orchestra, Op. 7; 
Variations for orchestra, Op. 2 and Op. 10; String Quartet in A, Op. 5; 
Four melodies for soprano or tenor, Op. 1 ; Four melodies for soprano 
or tenor (text by K. D. Balmont) , Op. 6; " The Watersprite " (poem 
by Lermontov) , for solo soprano, female chorus, and orchestra, Op. 4. 
His ballet " Midas," second of three episodes from Ovid's " Metamor- 
phoses," picturing the contest of Apollo and Pan, was performed at 
Paris on June 2, 1914; at London on June 18, 1914. In both cities, 
Mme. Karsavina danced as an Oread; Adolf Bolm as Midas. The stage 
setting was by Bakst; the choreography by Fokine. Stravinsky composed 
in 1908 at Oustilong his "Fireworks" for the wedding of Steinberg 
and a daughter of Rimsky-Korsakov. After the latter's death, Steinberg 
edited his unpublished works, including his treatise on orchestration. 

The remarks of Sir Hubert Parry concerning Emanuel Bach's sym- 
phonies may be applied to his other instrumental works: " In style 
Emanuel Bach stands singularly alone, at least in his finest examples. 
It looks almost as if he purposely avoided the form which by 1776 must 
have been familiar to the musical world. It has been shown that the 
binary form was employed by some of his contemporaries in their 



ONE OF AMERICA'S 
TWO GREAT PIANOS 

KRANICH & BACH 

Exclusively 

Represented 

in the Metropolitan Area by 



3 GRANDS $595 AND UPfc 

LOESER'S 

FULTON AT BOND • BROOKLYN • TRIANGLE 5 8 1 00 

[5] 



orchestral works, but he seems determinedly to avoid it in the first 
movements of the works of that year. His object seems to have been to 
produce striking and clearly outlined passages, and to balance and con- 
trast them one with another according to his fancy, and with little 
regard to any systematic distribution of the succession of key. . . . The 
opening passages of that in E-flat are hardly less emphatic. They have 
little connection with the tendencies of his contemporaries, but seem in 
every respect an experiment on independent lines, in which the interest 
depends upon the vigor of the thoughts and the unexpected turns of 
the modulations; and the result is certainly rather fragmentary and 
disconnected. The slow movement is commonly connected with the 
first and last either by a special transitional passage or by a turn of 
modulation and a half-close. It is short and dependent in its character, 
but graceful and melodious. The last is much more systematic in struc- 
ture than the first; sometimes in definite binary form, as was the case 
with the early violin sonatas. It has sometimes been said that Haydn 
was chiefly influenced by Emanuel Bach, and Mozart by John Christian 
Bach. At the present time, and in relation to symphonies, it is easier to 
understand the latter case than the former. In both cases the influence 
is more likely to be traced in clavier works than in those for orchestra. 
For Haydn's style and treatment of form bear far more resemblance 
to most of the other composers whose works have been referred to than 
to Emanuel Bach. There are certain kinds of forcible expression and 



SAVE WITH US 
GROW WITH US 



RESOURCES 1924 . . $100,000,000 
RESOURCES 1934 OVER 200,000,000 



THE 

Dime Savings Bank 

OF BROOKLYN 

INCORPORATED 1859 
DeKalb Avenue and Fulton Street 

Bensonhurst Branch Flatbush Branch 

86th STREET AND AVENUE J AND 

19th AVENUE CONEY ISLAND AVENUE 



[6] 



ingenious turns of modulation which Haydn may have learnt from 
him; but their best orchestral works seem to belong to quite distinct 
families." 

Compare with this description the remarks by C. F. Pohl in the 
seventh chapter of his life of Haydn. Nor should it be forgotten that 
Emanuel Bach's genius found expression in a manner different from 
that of any preceding master of the German school; it was freer from 
formulas, and it has been characterized by Michel Brenet as " the dawn 
of the modern musical style." P. H. 



VARIATIONS ON A THEME BY HAYDN, Op. 56a 
By Johannes Brahms 

Born at Hamburg on May 7, 1833; died at Vienna on April 3, 1897 



From the time that Schumann proclaimed Johannes Brahms in his 
twenties as a new force in music, a torch-bearer of the symphonic 
tradition, friends and foes waited to see what sort of a symphony this 
" musical Messiah " would dare to submit as a successor to Beethoven's 
mighty Ninth. The Hamburg John the Baptist realized what was ex- 
pected of him, and after his early piano concerto, which no audience 
accepted, and his two unassuming serenades, he coolly took his time 
and let his forces gather and mature for some twenty years before yield- 
ing to the supreme test by submitting his First Symphony. This hap- 
pened in 1877. Three years earlier, he tried out his powers of orchestra- 
tion on a form less formidable and exacting than the symphony — a 
form which he had finely mastered in his extreme youth as composer 
for the piano — the theme with variations. In this, the first purely 
orchestral attempt of his maturity, Brahms, as usual when put on his 
mettle, took great pains perfectly to realize his aim. His abilities as 
orchestral colorist, so finely differentiated in each of the successive 
' Variations on a Theme by Haydn," could not but be apparent even 
to its first audiences. 

The first performance took place at Vienna on November 2, 1873,* 
when Dessoff conducted the Philharmonic. The reception was en- 
thusiastic, and the critics only expressed their impatience that a 
symphony was not yet forthcoming from the vaunted " Beethovener" 
The variations were again played on December 10 in Munich, under 
Hermann Levi. They became inevitably useful in Brahms' round of 
concerts, and added appreciably to the reputation of the still hesitant 
symphonist. 



* The first performance in Boston is on record as having been given by Theodore Thomas's 
Orchestra, January 31, 1874. The first performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra took 
place Dec. 5, 1884. They were last performed by this orchestra at a Brahms Festival Concert 
(Wednesday, April 26, 1933). The last performance in the regular series was November 11, 1927. 

[7] 



His theme, Brahms took from a collection of divertimenti by Haydn, 
written for wind instruments. The manuscript of this one, which is in 
the State Library at Berlin, is inscribed "Divertimento mit dem 
Chorale St. Antoni." No chorale of that name and nature having been 
found in existing collections, the tune is supposed to be Haydn's own. 
Karl Ferdinand Pohl, the biographer of Haydn, showed the diverti- 
mento to Brahms in the autumn of 1870 — a seed well chosen, and 
fortunately planted. 

Brahms takes over Haydn's key of B-flat, and leads off in the spirit 
of the original by announcing his theme from the oboes, bassoons, and 
horns.* For Haydn's serpent, he substitutes the more modern double 
bassoon, and strengthens this bass part by the deep strings, pizzicati. 

Variation I. Poco piu andante. The violins enter, and their figure is 
accompanied by one in triplets in the violas and violoncellos. These 
figures alternately change places. Wind instruments are added. 

II. B-flat minor, piu vivace. Clarinets and bassoons have a variation 
of the theme, and violins enter with an arpeggio figure. 

III. There is a return to the major, con moto, 2-4. The theme is 
given to the oboes, doubled by the bassoons an octave below. There is 
an independent accompaniment for the lower strings. In the repetition 
the violins and violas take the part which the wind instruments had, 
and the flutes, doubled by the bassoons, have arpeggio figures. 

IV. In minor, 3-8. The melody is sung by oboe with horn; then it is 
strengthened by the flute with the bassoon. The violas and shortly 
after the violoncellos accompany in scale passage. The parts change 
place in the repetition. 

V. This variation is a vivace in major, 6-8. The upper melody is 
given to flutes, oboes, and bassoons, doubled through two octaves. In 
the repetition the moving parts are taken by the strings. 

VI. Vivace, major, 2-4. A new figure is introduced. During the first 
four measures the strings accompany with the original theme in har- 
mony, afterwards in arpeggio and scale passages. 

VII. Grazioso, major, 6-8. The violins an octave above the clarinets 
descend through the scale, while the piccolo doubled by violas has a 
fresh melody. 

VIII. B-flat minor, presto non troppo, 3-4. The strings are muted. 
The mood is pianissimo throughout. The piccolo enters with an in- 
version of the phrase. 

The Finale is in the major, 4-4. It is based throughout on a phrase, 
an obvious modification of the original theme, which is used at first 
as a ground bass, — " a bass passage constantly repeated and accom- 
panied each successive time with a varied melody and harmony." This 
obstinate phrase is afterwards used in combination with other figures in 
other passages of the Finale. The original theme returns in the strings 
at the climax; the wood-wind instruments accompany in scale passages, 
and the brass fills up the harmony. The triangle is now used to the end. 
Later the melody is played by wood and brass instruments, and the 
strings have a running accompaniment. 



* Haydn scored his divertimento for 2 oboes, 2 horns, 3 bassoons, and serpent. 
[8] 



The work is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, double bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, 
triangle, and strings. 

Brahms had a way of making four hand piano arrangements of his 
orchestral works, in this wise imparting their contents to his chosen 
friends in advance. The four symphonies were each thus disclosed to an 
invited circle in Vienna before their orchestral performance, Brahms 
and Ignatz Briill playing them as piano duets. The early Piano con- 
certo in D minor once existed and was privately played in a two piano- 
forte version, and the Haydn variations, by exception, actually found 
publication as a piece for two pianofortes (op. 56-B) . If, as is probable, 
the orchestral form was written first, the piano form may have been a 
" reduction " originally intended by Brahms for his perpetual musical 
evenings. 

Max Kalbeck, who could have saved some unavailing space in his 
eight volume Life of Brahms by refraining from far-fetched interpreta- 
tions, has afforded exceeding delight to later writers by reading the 
temptations of St. Anthony into particular variations. " He thought," 
says Lawrence Gilman, " that the charming Seventh Variation, the 
Grazioso episode in B-flat major in Siciliano rhythm, for flute and 
violas in octaves, pictures in tone the most atrocious of St. Anthony's 
ordeals, ' the most atrocious because the sweetest.' He found here ' the 
quintessence of human voluptuousness.' 



WHAT DOES A LABEL MEAN? 

If it's ours, it means a reputation 
of over a century for selling 
honest furs at honest prices. 

©alert, "Trice £T Qo. 

FULTON & SMITH STREETS 
BROOKLYN 



[9 



" One cannot help wondering what the sarcastic Brahms would have 
said if he had read this amazing tosh. If the music of that gracious 
Seventh Variation is ' voluptuous,' (to say nothing of ' the quintessence 
of voluptuousness ') , then we have all been entertaining lyric wantons 
unawares for many a year. Possibly Mr. Fuller-Maitland was thinking 
of Kalbeck's deplorable suggestions when, in analyzing these Varia- 
tions, he spoke of the melody of this passage as ' a delicious falling 
theme.' " 

Philip Hale is here reminded by Kalbeck of the man " of meagre 
aspect with sooty hands and face seen by Capt. Lemuel Gulliver at the 
Academy of Lagado engaged for eight years upon a project for extract- 
ing sunbeams from cucumbers." 

J. N. B. 



TONE POEM, "THUS SPAKE ZARATHUSTRA " (FREELY 
AFTER FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE) , Op. 30 

By Richard Strauss 

Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living at Vienna 



The full title of this composition is "Also sprach Zarathustra, Ton- 
dichtung (frei nach Friedrich Nietzsche) filr grosses Or Chester** 
Composition was begun at Munich, February 4, 1896, and completed 
there August 24, 1896. The first performance was at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, November 27, of the same year. The composer conducted, and 
also at Cologne, December 1.* 

Friedrich Nietzsche conceived the plan to his " Thus spake Zara- 
thustra: A Book for All and None " in August, 1881, as he was walk- 
ing through the woods near the Silvaplana Lake in the Engadine, and 
saw a huge, tower-like crag. He completed the first part in February, 
1883, at Rapallo, near Genoa; he wrote the second part in Sils Maria 
in June and July, the third part in the following winter at Nice, and 
the fourth part, not then intended to be the last, but to serve as an 
interlude, from November, 1884, till February, 1885, at Mentone. Nie- 
tzsche never published this fourth part; it was printed for private cir- 
culation, and not publicly issued till after he became insane. The whole 
of "Zarathustra" was published in 1892. A translation into English 
by Alexander Tille, Ph.D., lecturer at the University of Glasgow, was 
published in 1896, and the quotations in this article are from Dr. Tille's 
translation. A revised translation by T. Common, with introduction 

* The Philharmonic Orchestra of Berlin, led by Arthur Nikisch, produced it in Berlin, No- 
vember 30. The first performance in England was at the Crystal Palace, March 6, 1897. Theo- 
dore Thomas's Orchestra gave two performances in Chicago early in 1897. The first performance 
in Boston was at a Boston Symphony Orchestra concert, led by Emil Paur, October 30, 1897. 
The most recent performance at these concerts was March 10, 1933. 

[10] 



and commentary by A. M. Ludovici, was published by T. N. Foulis 
(Edinburgh and London, 1909) . 

Nietzsche's Zarathustra is by no means the historical or legendary 
Zoroaster, mage, leader, warrior, king. The Zarathustra of Nietzsche 
is Nietzsche himself, with his views on life and death. Strauss's opera 
" Gun tram " (1894) showed the composer's interest in the book. Be- 
fore the tone-poem was performed, this programme was published: 
" First movement: Sunrise. Man feels the power of God. Andante 
religioso. But man still longs. He plunges into passion (second move- 
ment) and finds no peace. He turns towards science, and tries in vain 
to solve life's problem in a fugue (third movement) . Then agreeable 
dance tunes sound and he becomes an individual, and his soul soars 
upward while the world sinks far beneath him." But Strauss gave this 
explanation to Otto Florsheim: " I did not intend to write philosophi- 
cal music or to portray in music Nietzsche's great work. I meant to 
convey by means of music an idea of the development of the human 
race from its origin, through the various phases of its development, 
religious and scientific, up to Nietzsche's idea of the Superman. The 
whole symphonic poem is intended as my homage to Nietzsche's genius, 
which found its greatest exemplification in his book, ' Thus spake 
Zarathustra.' " 

" Thus spake Zarathustra " is scored for piccolo, three flutes (one 
interchangeable with a second piccolo) , three oboes, English horn, two 
clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-flat, bass clarinet, three bassoons, 
double-bassoon, six horns, four trumpets, three trombones, two bass 
tubas, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, Glockenspiel, a low 
bell in E, two harps, organ, sixteen first violins, sixteen second violins, 
twelve violas, twelve violoncellos, eight double-basses. 

Zarathustra stepped down from the mountains. After strange talk 




The Oldest 

Trust 

Company 

in Brooklyn 



We bring to your banking and trust problems 
sixty-eight years of continuous experience. 

Nothing To Sell But Service 

BROOKLYN TRUST 

COMPANY 

MAIN OFFICE- 177 MONTAGUE STREET 
NEW YORK OFFICE-26 BROAD STREET 



[»J 



To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



"^C "\7" T HEN I was as ^ed to serve as Chairman of the Society 
\ ji I and to assume the responsibility of getting together 
YY $90,000 for the maintenance requirements of the 
Orchestra, I made out a little schedule classifying the gifts I 
thought we must expect. Here is that schedule and opposite 
each class of gift I have now added the amount received to 
date: 







received 


In gifts of $1,000 and over 


$20,000 


$10,000 


In gifts of $101 to $1,000 


25,000 


15>95° 


In gifts of $100 


25,000 


10,600 


In gifts of $50 to $100 


10,000 


10,146 


In gifts of $25 and under 


10,000 


6,809 



,000 $53>5°5 

In other words what we still need to fulfill expectations is 
10 gifts of $1,000; 40 gifts of $250; 144 gifts of $100; and 250 
gifts of under $25. 

I trust this may be stimulating and helpful to those who 
have not yet enrolled or contributed. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. for whatever amount you care 
to contribute and mail it to E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon 
Street, Boston. Contributions to the Orchestra may be deducted 
from net income in computing Federal Income Taxes. 



[12] 



gcabemp of JfflttSte • proofelpn 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Br. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 

(AND LAST OF THE season) 

Friday Evening, April 5 
at 8:15 o'clock 



[13] 



with an old hermit he arrived at a town where many were gathered in 
the market-place, for a rope dancer had promised a performance. 

And Zarathustra thus spake unto " the folk: / teach you beyond man* Man is a 
something that shall be surpassed. 

. . . " ' What with man is the ape? A joke or a sore shame. Man shall be the 
same for beyond-man, a joke or a sore shame. Ye have made your way from worm 
to man and much within you is still worm. Once ye were apes, even now man is 
ape in a higher degree than any ape. He who is the wisest among you is but a discord 
and hybrid of plant and ghost. . . . Beyond-man is the significance of earth. . . . 
I conjure you, my brethren, remain faithful to earth and do not believe those who 
speak unto you of superterrestrial hopes! . . . Once soul looked contemptuously 
upon body; that contempt then being the highest ideal, soul wished the body meagre, 
hideous, starved. Thus soul thought it could escape body and earth. Oh! that soul was 
itself meagre, hideous, starved; cruelty was the lust of that soul! But ye also, my 
brethren, speak; what telleth your body of your soul? Is your soul not poverty and 
dirt and a miserable ease? Verily a muddy sea is man. One must be a sea to be 
able to receive a muddy stream without becoming unclean. Behold I teach you 
beyond-man; he is that sea, in him your great contempt can sink. . . . Man is a 
rope connecting animal and beyond-man — a rope over a precipice. Dangerous over, 
dangerous on-the-way, dangerous looking backward, dangerous shivering and mak- 
ing a stand. What is great in man is that he is a bridge not a goal; what can be 
loved in man is that he is a transition and a downfall. ... It is time for man to 
mark out his goal. It is time for man to plant the germ of his highest hope. His soul 
is still rich enough for that purpose. But one day that soil will be impoverished and 
tame, no high tree being any longer able to grow from it.' " 

" The scene of ' Thus spake Zarathustra,' " says Dr. Tille, " is laid, 
as it were, outside of time and space, and certainly outside of countries 
and nations, outside of this age, and outside of the main condition of 
all that lives — the struggle for existence. . . . There appear cities and 
mobs, kings and scholars, poets and cripples, but outside of their realm 
there is a province which is Zarathustra's own, where he lives in his 
cave amid the rocks, and whence he thrice goes to men to teach them 

* " Overman," or, as George Bernard Shaw prefers, " Superman." Muret and Sanders define 
the word " Uebermensch ": "Demigod, superhuman being, man without a model and with- 
out a shadow; godlike man." — P. H. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



BOUND COPIES of the 

Boston Symphony 
Orchestra 

CONCERT BULLETINS 

Containing analytical and descriptive 
notes on all works performed during 
the season (" musically speaking, the 
greatest art annual of today." — 
W. J. Henderson, New York Sun) may 
be obtained by addressing 



SYMPHONY HALL 



Price 



.00 



[Hi 



his wisdom. This Nowhere and Nowhen, over which Nietzsche's im- 
agination is supreme, is a province of boundless individualism, in 
which a man of mark has free play, unfettered by the tastes and in- 
clinations of the multitude. . . . ' Thus spake Zarathustra ' is a kind 
of summary of the intellectual life of the nineteenth century, and it is 
on this fact that its principal significance rests. It unites in itself a 
number of mental movements which, in literature as well as in various 
sciences, have made themselves felt separately during the last hundred 
years, without going far beyond them. By bringing them into contact, 
although not always into uncontradictory relation, Nietzsche transfers 
them from mere existence in philosophy, or scientific literature in gen- 
eral, into the sphere or the creed of Weltanschauung of the educated 
classes, and thus his book becomes capable of influencing the views and 
strivings of a whole age." 

Zarathustra teaches men the deification of Life. He offers not Joy 
of life, for to him there is no such thing, but fulness of life, in the joy 
of the senses, " in the triumphant exuberance of vitality, in the pure, 
lofty naturalness of the antique, in short, in the fusion of God, world, 
and ego." 

There is a simple but impressive introduction, in which there is a 
solemn trumpet motive, which leads to a great climax for full orches- 
tra and organ on the chord of C major. There is this heading, " Von 
den Hinterweltlern " (Of the Dwellers in the Rear World) . These 
are they who sought the solution in religion. Zarathustra, too, had once 
dwelt in this rear-world. (Horns intone a solemn Gregorian " Credo.") 

The next heading is " Von der grossen Sehnsucht " (Of the Great 
Yearning) . This stands over an ascending passage in B minor in violon- 
cellos and bassoons, answered by woodwind instruments in chromatic 
thirds. 

The next section begins with a pathetic cantilena in C minor (sec- 
ond violins, oboes, horn) , and the heading is: " Von den Freuden und 
Leidenschaften " (Of Joys and Passions) . 



These bars of music 
are taken from a well-known, 
composition by a great composer. 
Identify it . . . send the name, com- 
poser's name and movement 
number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Water St., N. Y. 

and receive a full half-pound of 

MARTINSON'S COFFEE 

Absolutely Free ! 

(This offer good for limited time only) 



Allegretto 




W 



£ 



A great chef or a great musician — each. 




needs inspiration. Martinson's Coffee does 





for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 



[15] 



" Grablied " (Grave Song) . The oboe has a tender cantilena over 
the Yearning motive in violoncellos and bassoons. 

" Von der Wissenschaft " (Of Science) . The fugued passage be- 
gins with violoncellos and double-basses (divided) . The subject of this 
fugato contains all the diatonic and chromatic degrees of the scale, and 
the real responses to this subject come in successively a fifth higher. 

Much farther on a passage in the strings, beginning in the violon- 
cellos and violas, arises from B minor. " Der Genesende " (The 
Convalescent) . 

" Tanzlied." The dance song begins with laughter in the woodwind. 

" Nachtlied " (" Night Song ") . 

" Nachtwanderlied " (" The Song of the Night Wanderer," though 
Nietzsche in later editions changed the title to " The Drunken Song ") . 
The song comes after a fortissimo stroke of the bell, and the bell, sound- 
ing twelve times, dies away softly. 

The mystical conclusion has excited much discussion. The ending 
is in two keys — in B major in the high woodwind and violins, in C 
major in the basses, pizzicati. " The theme of the Ideal sways aloft 
in the higher regions in B major; the trombones insist on the unre- 
solved chord of C, E, F-sharp; and in the double-basses is repeated, 
C, G, C, the World Riddle." This riddle is unsolved by Nietzsche, by 
Strauss, and even by Strauss's commentators. 

P. H. 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

Mrs. Charles Adams White 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

Steinway Bldg., New York 105 Revere St., Boston 

Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 Tel. Capitol 6745 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: Trowbridge 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . . BOSTON 

Kentnore 6520 



[16] 




Live, Youthful Styles 

In Dresses for Women 

Mr. Jay has adapted to this new collection TO 
WEAR NOW only those artful designs that are brisk 
in cut, firm in color, spirited in fabric combination, 
and provide unusual appeal when visualized in sizes 
36 and above. They are the perfect expression of the 
alert woman of today. 



FOR INSTANCE 



A Springish navy crepe tai- 
lored frock with spirited 
print linen in red and white 
forming removable collar 
and cuffs is 35.00. 



A dressy crepe dress in 
Winter pastels has a swing- 
ing "shoestring" cape that 
draws interest to the back. 
It is priced 39.00. 



Second Floor 



BROOKLYN COMMITTEE 

Organized to Promote Interest in the Series of Concerts in Brooklyn by 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor 



ADRIAN VAN SINDEREN, Chairman 

Mrs. HENRY J. DAVENPORT, Executive Chairman 

Mrs. EDWARD C. BLUM, Vice-Chairman Mrs. WILLIAM H. GOOD, Vice-Chairman 



Dr. Joseph Dana Allen 
Mr. Juan A. Almirall 
Mr. Lloyd V. Almirall 
Mrs. John Anderson 
Mr. Charles D. Atkins 
Dr. Frank L. Babbott, Jr. 
Hon. William R. Bayes 
Mr. Edward C. Blum 
Mr. Robert E. Blum 
Mrs. Bruce D. Bromley 
Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler 
Rev. S. Parkes Cadman 
Mrs. Otis Swan Carroll 
Mrs. Thomas F. Casey 
Mrs. I. Sherwood Coffin 
Miss Frances H. Coutts 
Hon. Frederick E. Crane 
Mrs. Frederick L. Cranford 
Mr. Walter H. Crittenden 
Mrs. Harris M. Crist 
Dr. John H. Denbigh 
Hon. Norman S. Dike 
Rev. Samuel M. Dorrance 
Mrs. Mary Childs Draper 
Mrs. H. Edward Dreier 
Mrs. Guy Du Val 
Mrs. William P. Earle, Jr. 
Mrs. William F. Eastman 
Mr. S. Raymond Estey 
Mr. Sumner Ford 
Mrs. Merrill N. Foote 
Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 
Mrs. Charles Franklin 
Mr. Theodore L. Frothingham 
Mrs. George H. Gartlan 
Mrs. Edwin L. Garvin 
Mrs. Emil Goetsch 
Miss Theodora Goldsmith 
Mrs. M. Preston Goodfellow 
Mrs. William Peter Hamilton 
Mr. Walter Hammitt 
Mrs. J. Morton Halstead 



Mrs. James M. Hills 
Mrs. Earle P. Huff 
Mrs. Russell S. Hume 
Mrs. 0. Paul Humpstone 
Mr. William T. Hunter 
Mr. Henry A. Ingraham 
Dr. William A. Jewett 
Mrs. Frederick L. Johanns 
Mr. Ralph Jonas 
Mr. James H. Jourdan 
Mrs. William Kennedy, Jr. 
Mr. Jacob C. Klinck 
Mr. David H. Lanman 
Mr. Charles D. Lay 
Mrs. Robert B. Lea 
Mrs. John Eadie Leech 
Mrs. Maxwell Lester 
Mrs. W. H. Lohman 
Miss Hilda Loines 
Mrs. Frederick D. MacKay 
Mrs. Charles J. McDermott 
Mrs. William W. Marshall 
Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard, Jr. 
Mrs. Frank Melville, Jr. 
Miss Irene Miles 
Dr. Raymond B. Miles 
Miss Ida A. Mollenhauer 
Mrs. Alfred E. Mudge 
Mrs. Charles F. Murphy 
Mrs. Caroll Leja Nichols 
Mr. Neilson Olcott 
Mrs. Dean C. Osborne 
Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 
Mrs. Charles El well Perkins 
Mr. James H. Post 
Mrs. Charles E. Potts 
Mrs. Frederic B. Pratt 
Mrs. Richardson Pratt 
Mrs. Benjamin Prince 
Mr. G. William Rasch 



Mrs. Frank Reynolds 
Mrs. Donald Ross 
Mrs. John D. H. Schulz 
Mrs. Helen Warren Seeley 
Mr. Robert Alfred Shaw 
Mrs. Frank E. Simmons 
Mrs. Harold Irving Small 
Mrs. B. Herbert Smith 
Mrs. W. C. Spelman 
Mr. Porter Steele 
Mrs. Herman Stutzer 
Mrs. John F. Talmage 
Mrs. Franklin Taylor 
Miss Marion J. Terry 
Mr. Thornton C. Thayer 
Mr. Carl H. Tollefsen 
Mrs. Walter Truslow 
Mr. John T. Underwood 
Dr. Joshua M. Van Cott 
Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. James P. Warbasse 
Mrs. Edwin Carrington Ward 
Mrs. Clarence Waterman 
Mrs. Walter F. Wells 
Mrs. J. B. Whitney 
Mrs. George Whittlesey 
Mrs. William H. Whitton 
Miss Josephine D. Wilkin 
Hon. George Albert Wingate 
Mrs. Harry M. Wingle 
Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 
Mr. R.Huntington Woodman 

Junior League Committee 

Miss Elizabeth Lathrop 
Chairman 

Miss Dorothy Remsen John- 
son 
Miss Cyrene Duncan 
Miss Elizabeth Paffard 
Mrs. Theodore Fitz Randolph 
Mrs. Florence E. Read 



gcabemp of JltiStc ■ Proofeljm 




Friday Evening, April 5 
at 8:15 o'clock 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
and the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn 



SYMPHONY HALL • BOSTON 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor 
April 19 - May 5 

BACH-HANDEL 

FESTIVAL 

In celebration of the 250th anniversary of the birth 
of the two great composers 

To any one applying, full particulars with dates and pro- 
grammes will be sent when the detailed 
announcement is made 

Address W. H. BRENNAN, Symphony Hall, Boston 



SYMPHONY HALL • BOSTON 


Opening WEDNESDAY, MAY 8 
(And Continuing Nightly Through May and June) 


GOLD 


EN JUBILEE 


n 


SEASON OF THE 


r 

Orchestra 


U r 

of 85 Symphony Players 


Arthur Fiedler, Conductor 


Q pecial events are in store for the 50th anniversary season 
O Plan a visit to these gay and unique summer concerts 


REFRESHMENTS 


• POPULAR MUSIC SMOKING 



gcabemp of 4$lu£tc • JSroofelpn 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Fifth Concert 

FRIDAY EVENING, April 5 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, I935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 





The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Bo?ton, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 



UjoiAX 
... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 





JLJL 



te££ 



When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. . . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts. ...One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 

• JL COPLEY-PLAZA god 



o-Alo-n, 



ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



[2] 



gcabemp of fflu&it • Prooklpn 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, April 5, at 8:15 o'clock 






Programme 

Mozart .... Symphony in G major, No. 4, "Jupiter" 

(K. 551) 

I. ALLEGRO VIVACE 

II. ANDANTE CANTABILE 

III. MENUETTO: ALLEGRETTO; TRIO 

iv. finale; allegro molto 

INTERMISSION 

Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 6 in B minor, 

"Pathetique," Op. 74 

I. ADAGIO ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

II. ALLEGRO CON GRAZIA 

III. ALLEGRO MOLTO VIVACE 

iv. finale: adagio lamentoso 



[3] 



SYMPHONY IN C MAJOR, WITH FUGUE FINALE, 
"JUPITER" (K. 551) 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 
Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



Mozart wrote his three greatest symphonies in 1788. The one in 
E-flat major is dated June 26; the one in G minor, July 25; the 
one in C major, with the fugue finale, August 10. 

His other works of that year are of little importance, with the ex- 
ception of a pianoforte concerto in D major, which he played at the 
coronation festivities of Leopold II at Frankfort in 1790. There are 
canons and pianoforte pieces, there is the orchestration of Handel's 
" Acis and Galatea," and there are six German dances and twelve 
minuets for orchestra. Nor are the works composed in 1789 of interest, 
with the exception of the clarinet quintet and a string quintet dedicated 
to the King of Prussia. Again, one finds dances for orchestra — twelve 
minuets and twelve German dances. 

Why is this? Seventeen eighty-seven was the year of " Don Gio- 
vanni "; 1790, the year of " Cosi fan tutte." Was Mozart, as some say, 
exhausted by the feat of producing three symphonies in so short a 



BALCH- 
PRIGE 



FUR 

STORAGE 



Care For Your Furs? 

YES-WE DO 

Our Fur Storage 
covers all risks 

At the most reasonable 
of current rates 



SUITS • DRESSES • SPRING COATS 

Fulton at Smith Streets, Brooklyn . . . Tel. Triangle 5-5900 

[4] 



time? Or was there some reason for discouragement and consequent 
idleness? 

The Ritter Gluck, composer to the Emperor Joseph II, died on 
November 15, 1787, and thus resigned his position with a salary of 
two thousand florins. Mozart was appointed his successor, but the 
thrifty Joseph cut down the salary to eight hundred florins. And Mozart 
at this time was sadly in need of money, as his letters show. In a letter 
of June, 1788, he tells of his new lodgings, where he could have better 
air, a garden, quiet. In another dated June 27, he says: " I have done 
more work in the ten days that I have lived here than in two months 
in my other lodgings, and I should be much better here, were it not for 
dismal thoughts that often come to me. I must drive them resolutely 
away; for I am living comfortably, pleasantly, and cheaply." We know 
that he borrowed from Puchberg, a merchant, with whom he became 
acquainted at a Masonic lodge, for the letter with Puchberg's memo- 
randum of the amount is in the collection of Mozart's letters, edited by 
Nohl, and later by Hans Mersmann. 

Mozart could not reasonably expect help from the Emperor. The 
composer of " Don Giovanni " and the three famous symphonies was 
unfortunate in his Emperors. 

The Emperor Joseph was in the habit of getting up at five o'clock; 
he dined on boiled bacon at 3.15 p.m.; he preferred water as a beverage, 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Ditson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 



[5] 



but he would drink a glass of Tokay; he was continually putting choco- 
late drops from his waistcoat pocket into his mouth; he gave gold coins 
to the poor; he was unwilling to sit for his portrait; he had remarkably 
fine teeth; he disliked sycophantic fuss; he patronized the English who 
introduced horse-racing; and Michael Kelly, who tells us many things, 
says he was " passionately fond of music and a most excellent and 
accurate judge of it." But we know that he did not like the music of 
Mozart. 

Nor do we know who gave the title " Jupiter " to this symphony. 
Some say it was applied by J. B. Cramer, to express his admiration 
to the loftiness of ideas and nobility of treatment. Some maintain that 
the triplets in the first measure suggest the thunder-bolts of Jove. Some 
think that the " calm, godlike beauty " of the music compelled the title. 
Others are satisfied with the belief that the title was given to the sym- 
phony as it might be to any masterpiece or any impressively beautiful 
or strong or big thing. To them " Jupiter " expresses the power and 
brilliance of the work. 

The " Jupiter " Symphony is scored for flute, two oboes, two bas- 
soons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. 

I. Allegro vivace, C major, 4-4. The movement opens immediately 
with the announcement of the first theme. The theme is in two sections: 
imposing triplets (full orchestra) , alternating with gentle, melodious 
passages for strings; the section of a martial nature, with strongly 



SAVE WITH US 
GROW WITH US 



RESOURCES 1924 . . $100,000,000 
RESOURCES 1934 OVER 200,000,000 



THE 

Dime Savings Bank 

OF BROOKLYN 

INCORPORATED 1859 

DeKalb Avenue and Fulton Street 

Bensonhurst Branch Flatbush Branch 

86th STREET AND AVENUE J AND 

19th AVENUE CONEY ISLAND AVENUE 



marked rhythm for trumpets and drums. There is extensive develop- 
ment of the figures, with some new counter ones. The strings have the 
second theme, of which William Foster Apthorp wrote: " A yearning 
phrase, ascending by two successive semitones, followed by a brighter, 
almost a rollicking one — is it Jove laughing at lovers' perjuries? — the 
bassoon and flute soon adding richness to the coloring by doubling the 
melody of the first violins in the lower and upper octaves." This theme 
is in G major. There is a cheerful conclusion theme. The first part of 
the movement ends with a return of the martial rhythm of the second 
section of the first theme. The free fantasia is long and elaborate. The 
third part is almost like the first, but with changes of key. 

II. Andante cantabile, F major, 3-4. The first part presents the 
development in turn of three themes so joined that there is apparent 
melodic continuity. The second part consists of some more elaborate 
development of the same material. 

III. Menuetto: Allegro, E major, 3-4. The movement is in the tra- 
ditional minuet form. The chief theme begins with the inversion of the 
first figure, the " chromatic sigh " of the second theme in the first move- 
ment. This " sigh " is hinted at in the Trio, which is in C major. 

IV. Finale: Allegro motto, C major, 4-4. It is often described as a 

fugue on four subjects. 

P. H. 



ONE OF AMERICA'S 
TWO GREAT PIANOS 

KRANICH & BACH 

Exclusively 

Represented 

in the Metropolitan Area by 



3 GRANDS $595 AND UPfc 

OESER'S 

FULTON AT BOND • BROOKLYN • TRIANGLE S 8 1 00 

[7 




The Society of Friends of the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra is constituted of patrons and admirers in Boston and 
elsewhere who by their contributions during the current 
year, supplementing the revenues of the Orchestra derived from 
concerts, have given practical expression to their desire to share in 
the fortunes of the Orchestra and assure the continuance of its 
preeminence of performance. Membership in the Society now 
totals 1390. 

A list of New York and Brooklyn members follows: 



Mrs. William Ackerman (Toiuners) 

Mr. Morton L. Adler 

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred L. Aiken 

Miss Julia B. Anthony 

Mr. and Mrs. George C. Arvedson 

Miss Helen Marion Baker 

Miss Lydia M. Barwood 

Mr. Emil J. Baumann (Hartsdale) 

Miss Alice M. Bedell 

Miss Frieda Behr 

Miss Dorothy L. Betts 

Mrs. A. W. Bingham, Jr. 

Major Theodore Bitterman {Mount 

Vernon) 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward C. Blum 
Miss Felice M. Bowns 
Mr. Herbert S. Brussel 
Mrs. Cecilia Buek 
Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Cabot 
Miss Florence Carr 
Miss Lois Pinney Clark 
Mrs. Henry E. Cobb (Bronxville) 
Miss H. A. Colton 
Mrs. R. G. Conried 
Mr. Ambrose Cort (Woodmere) 
Mrs. F. S. Crafts 
Miss Lena Lawrence Day (East 

Orange, N. J.) 
Mrs. William S. Dennett 
Miss Margaret de Schweinitz 

(Poughkeepsie) 
Mrs. William C. Dickerman 
Charles Dreifus, Junior 
Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Dutch (Glen 

Ridge, N. J.) 
Miss Helen S. Eaton 
Mrs. Walter H. Eddy 



Mrs. Albert Eiseman 

Mrs. Cornelius Eldert 

Miss H. Wilhelmina Ericsson 

Mr. Howard M. Ernst 

Mrs. Henry Evans 

Mr. J. R. Fast 

Mrs. Morris Fatman 

Mrs. W. Rodman Fay 

Mr. W. R. Ferguson (New Rochelle) 

Mrs. Dana H. Ferrin (Scarsdale) 

Miss E. W. Frothingham (Tarry- 
town) 

Mrs. Otto Goepel 

Mrs. Henry Goldman 

Mr. I. Edwin Goldwasser 

Mr. William B. Goodwin 

Mrs. P. L. Guiterman 
(New Rochelle) 

Mrs. David S. Hays 

Mr. Irving Heidell 

Mrs. Ernest S. Heller 

Mr. George C. Hennigs (Long 
Island) 

Mr. Clarence H. Hill 

Mrs. Olga Hill 

Miss Katherine I. Hodgdon 

Mrs. H. Hoermann (Montclair, N. J.) 

Mr. Henry Homes 

Mr. Charles B. Hoyt 

Miss Frances A. Hunt 
(S. Norwalk, Ct.) 

Mr. H. L. Ives 

Mr. Halsted James 

Mrs. Robert I. Jenks 

Mrs. Edward Jonas 

Mrs. E. W. Kingsbury 

Mr. Elmo H. Klasky 



[8 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA {Continued) 



Mr. Charles Klingenstein 

Miss Edith Kneel and 

Miss Anita E. Knight 

Mrs. J. E. Leech 

Mr. Robert LeRoy 

Mr. Richard Lewinsohn 

Miss Aline Liebenthal 

Dr. and Mrs. Wm. H. Lohman 

Mrs. Edward Loomis 

Victor K. McElheny 

Mr. Harry Mack 

Miss Margaret E. Maltby 

Dr. D. E. Martell 

Mr. Everett Martin e (Nyack) 

Mr. and Mrs. Newell O. Mason 
(Hoboken, N. J.) 

Mr. and Mrs. Otto Meyer (Scars- 
dale, N. J.) 

Miss Ida A. Mollenhauer 

Mr. E. Montchyk 

Mrs. C. H. Mosher (Port Washing- 
ton) 

Mr. Walter W. Naumburg 

Mrs. Charles Neave 

Miss Frances I. Neill 

Acosta Nichols, Junior (Oyster Bay) 

Miss Bertha Obermeyer 

Mrs. E. A. Olds (Englewood, N. J.) 

Mrs. Joseph Parsons (Lakeville, Ct.) 

Miss Eliza H. Pigot 

Miss Eloise Pounding (Staten 
Island) 

Mr. Joseph M. Price 

Mrs. William Procter 

Mr. Robert I. Raiman (Hollis) 

Miss Helen Ray 

Miss Mabel Ray 

Miss Edith Rice 

Miss Louise Rickard 

Mrs. J. West Roosevelt 

Mr. Warren L. Russell 
(Queens Village) 



Mr. Charles E. Sampson 
Mrs. Herbert L. Satterlee 
Mrs. E. A. Saunders 
Mrs. F. R. Schepmoes 
Miss Eleonore M. Schnepf 

Mrs. GUSTAVE SCHIRMER 

Miss Edith Scoville 

Mrs. George S. Searing 

Mr. Clifford Seasongood 

Mr. Arthur Seligman 

Mrs. Rudolph Seldner 

Miss Florence Sherman 

Dr. Olga Sitchevska 

Miss Louise Smith 

Mr. William Sidney Smith 

Mr. Joseph H. Spafford 

Mrs. Frederick T. Steinway 

Mrs. Pauline O. Stern (Scarsdale) 

Mrs. Samuel Stiefel 

Mrs. Sol M. Stroock 

Mrs. Cyrus L. Sulzberger 

Miss Mabel Thuillard (Jamaica, 

L.I.) 
Mr. Stirling Tomkins 
Mrs. Bernard P. Traitel (New 

Rochelle) 
Mr. John C. Traphagen 
Mr. Howard M. Trueblood 
Mrs. E. C. Vogel 
Mr. Albert W. von Lilienthal 
(Yonkers) 

Mr. Allen Ward well 
Miss Cora A. Week 
Miss Ruth Evelyn Weill (Jackson 
Heights) 

Miss Frances E. White 

Miss H. H. White 

Mrs. H. Van Wyck Wickes (Rye) 

Miss Ellen A. Wolff 

Mr. Wilfred J. Worcester 

Miss Myra E. Wormell (Staten 

Island) 
Mrs. Milton Wyle 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. for whatever amount you care 
to contribute and mail it to E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon Street, 
Boston. 



[9 



SYMPHONY NO. 6, IN B MINOR, " PATHETIC," Op. 74 
By Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky 

Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; died at 
St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893 



When Tchaikovsky conducted the first performance of his newly 
completed Sixth Symphony (it was in St. Petersburg, October 28, 
1893, and nine days before his death) , one might reasonably have ex- 
pected a great success for the work. The composer then commanded 
favorable attention, having attained eminence and popularity — though 
nothing remotely approaching the immense vogue this very symphony 
was destined to make for him immediately after his death. The com- 
poser believed in his symphony with a conviction which he by no means 
always felt for his newest scores as he presented them to the world 
(only about the melancholy finale, the adagio lamentoso , did he have 
doubts) . He had good reason to believe that the broad and affecting 
flood of outpouring emotion would sweep the audience in its current. 
But such was not the case. The performance, according to Tchaikov- 
sky's scrupulous brother Modeste, " fell rather flat. The symphony was 
applauded, and the composer recalled; but the enthusiasm did not sur- 
pass what was usually shown for one of Tchaikovsky's new composi- 
tions. The symphony produced nothing approaching that powerful and 
thrilling impression made by the work when it was conducted by 
Napravnik, November 18, and later, wherever it was played." The crit- 
ics, too, were cool. The Viedemosti found " the thematic material not 
very original, the leading subjects neither new nor significant." The 
Syn Otechestva discovered Gounod in the first movement and Grieg in 
the last, and the Novoe Vremja drew this astonishing conclusion: " As 
far as inspiration is concerned it stands far below Tchaikovsky's other 
symphonies." 

Cases such as this, and there are plenty of them, where a subse- 
quently acknowledged masterpiece first meets an indifferent reception, 
invite speculation. Was the tardy general acceptance of new ideas 
mostly to blame, or was the first audience perhaps beclouded by a grop- 
ing and mediocre performance, intransigeance on the part of the play- 
ers? It would seem that even a reasonably straightforward performance 
of anything quite so obvious as the " Pathetic " Symphony should have 
awakened a fair degree of emotional response. 

Modeste Tchaikovsky, who closely understood his brother's sensi- 
tive subjection to circumstances, finds that the performance fell short 
of what it might have been, and attributes this to a lack of rapport be- 
tween the composer and the players at rehearsal: " One thing oppressed 
him. At the rehearsals the Sixth Symphony made no impression upon 
[10] 



the orchestra. He always set store by the opinion of the musicians. 
Moreover, he feared lest the interpretation of the Symphony might suf- 
fer from their coldness. Tchaikovsky only conducted his works well 
when he knew they appealed to the players. To obtain delicate nuances 
and a good balance of tone he needed his surroundings to be sympa- 
thetic and appreciative. A look of indifference, a coolness on the part of 
any of the band, seemed to paralyze him; he lost his head, went through 
the work perfunctorily, and cut the rehearsal as short as possible, so as 
to release the musicians from a wearisome task. Whenever he con- 
ducted a work of his own for the first time, a kind of uncertainty — al- 
most carelessness — in the execution of details was apparent, and the 
whole interpretation lacked force and definite expression. The Fifth 
Symphony and ' Hamlet ' were so long making their way merely be- 
cause the composer had failed to make them effective." 

Mankind's propensity to find presentiments of death in the sym- 
phony, which Rimsky-Korsakov had plentiful opportunity to observe, 
was circumstantially combated by Modeste and by Kashkin, who were 
careful to account for each of Tchaikovsky's actions in the year 1893. 
There are quoted a number of letters written while he was at work 
upon the symphony; he speaks about the progress of his score, always 
in a tone of buoyant confidence in his music. Kashkin last saw him 
shortly before the performance of his symphony; Modeste was with 
him until the end. Both say that he was in unfailing good spirits. Death 
was mentioned in the natural course of conversation at the funeral of 
his friend Zvierev in October. Zvierev, as it happened, was one of sev- 
eral friends who had died in close succession. Tchaikovsky talked freely 
with Kashkin at this time. Friends had died; who would be the next to 
go? " I told Peter," wrote Kashkin, " that he would outlive us all. He 
disputed the likelihood, yet added that he had never felt so well and 
happy." And from Modeste: " A few years ago one such grief would 
have affected Tchaikovsky more keenly than all of them taken together 




The Oldest 

Trust 

Company 

in Brooklyn 



We bring to your banking and trust problems 
sixty- eight years of continuous experience. 

Nothing To Sell But Service 

BROOKLYN TRUST 

COMPANY 

MAIN OFFICE- 177 MONTAGUE STREET 
NEW YORK OFFICE-26 BROAD STREET 



[»"] 



seemed to do at this juncture." And elsewhere: " From the time of his 
return from England (in June) until the end of his life, Tchaikovsky 
was as serene and cheerful as at any period in his existence." 

Modeste follows the last days of his life, day by day. On November 
ist, he went to the theatre with friends, was " in perfect health." 
Tchaikovsky laughed at Warlamov's distaste for spiritualism and pre- 
occupation with death, and said: " • There is still time enough to be- 
come acquainted with this detestable snub-nosed one. At any rate, he 
will not have us soon. I know that I shall live for a long time.' — When 
we walked home about 2 a.m., Peter was well in body and mind." It was 
at luncheon that day (November 3) that Tchaikovsky drank a glass of 
water that had not been boiled, and laughed at his friend's fear of 
cholera. But the disease had seized him that night, and Peter said to 
his brother: " I think this is death. Good-by, Modi." Shortly before his 
death, which occurred at three o'clock on the morning of November 6, 
Tchaikovsky, delirious, talked reproachfully of Mme. von Meek, whose 
friendship with him had ended in a break, hurt feelings and cruel mis- 
understanding. Modeste will admit no deliberate intent in his death, 
but there are those who believe that he drank the glass of germ-infested 
water because life had become intolerable to him; who claim that his 
cheerfulness was assumed to conceal his darker feelings from those 
about him. Still, the testimony of Modeste must be given great weight. 
No one was so close to Peter at this time. Peter, as open-natured as a 
child, never in his letters withheld from his intimate friends, least of all 
from his cherished " Modi," his spells of woeful depression, and the 
faithfulness with which Modeste records his brother's weaknesses in- 
spires confidence. 

Whatever conclusion may be reached about Tchaikovsky's death, to 
attempt to connect the Sixth Symphony with any brooding intentions 
of death is to go against the abundant evidence of Modeste. " The year 
of 1893 opened with a period of serene content, for which the creation of 
his Sixth, or so-called ' Pathetic ' Symphony is mainly accountable. 




These bars of music 

are taken from a well-known, 

composition by a great composer 

Identify it . . . send the name, com 

• poser's name and movement 

number, with this advertisement to 

Jos. Martinson Inc., 85 Water St., N. Y. 
and receive a full half-pound of 

MARTINSON'S COFFEE 

Absolutely Free I 

(This offer good for limited time only) 



A great chef or a great musician — each. 



[12] 





needs inspiration. Martinson's Coffee does 




for one what a Beethoven does for the other. 



LIST OF WORKS 

Performed at These Concerts 
DURING THE SEASON 1 934-1 935 



Bach, C. P. E. . . . Concerto in D major for Orchestra (ar- 
ranged by Maximilian Steinberg) 

IV March i 

Beethoven , Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 

III January 31 

Brahms ..... Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 73 

I November 16 

Variations on a Theme by Joseph 
Haydn, Op. 56a IV March 1 

Franck Symphony in D minor II January 4 

Moussorgsky .... "Pictures at an Exhibition," Pianoforte 

Pieces arranged for Orchestra by 
Maurice Ravel III January 31 

Mozart . . . , "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Serenade 

for String Orchestra (K. 525) 

II January 4 

Symphony in C major, "Jupiter" 

(Koechel No. 551) V April 5 

Schubert .... Ballet Music from "Rosamunde" 

(Ballet No. 1) I November 16 

Schumann Symphony in D-minor, No. 4, Op. 120 

I November 16 

Sibelius Symphony No. 5 in E flat major, Op. 82 

III January 31 

Strauss Tone Poem, "Thus Spake Zarathustra" 

(freely after Friedrich Nietzsche), Op. 
30 IV March 1 

Szymanowski .... Second Concerto for Violin and Orches- 
tra, Op. 61 (Soloist: Albert Spalding) 

II January 4 

Tchaikovsky .... Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pa- 
thetic," Op. 74 V April 5 



[13] 



The composition of this work seems to have been an act of exorcism, 
whereby he cast out all the dark spirits which had possessed him in the 
preceding years." And Modeste goes on to describe a year peaceful in 
creation, of which there are cheerful bulletins of progress to his nephew 
Davidov, to Kashkin, to his publisher Jurgenson, or to his brother. The 
only cloud in his content was the temporary homesickness of his jour- 
ney to England — a mood which usually descended on him when he was 
away from home and among strangers. 

Tchaikovsky, always reticent about a programme for his sym- 
phonies,* was deliberately non-communicative about this one. In one 
of his first letters divulging the news of the new work (he had written 
to his brother Anatol about it the day before) he wrote from Klin to 
Davidov, February 23, 1893: "Just as I was starting on my journey (the 
visit to Paris, in December, 1892) the idea came to me for a new sym- 
phony. This time with a programme of a kind which remains an enigma 
to all — let them guess it who can. The work will be entitled ' A Pro- 
gramme Symphony ' (No. 6) . This programme is penetrated by the 
subjective sentiment. During my journey, while composing it in my 
mind, I frequently shed tears." 

The Symphony was announced in the programme of the first per- 
formance simply by its number. But the next day, Modeste found his 
brother at the tea table holding the score and pondering a title, for he 
was to send it to his publisher that day. He wished something more 
than " No. 6," and did not like " Programme Symphony." " What does 
Programme Symphony mean when I will give it no programme? " 
Modeste suggested " Tragic," but Peter said that would not do. " I 

* The programme for his Fourth Symphony, coaxed from him by Mme. von Meek, was waved 
aside in the same letter as a personal fantasy of the moment. For the Fifth Symphony he 
gave no programme. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



BOUND COPIES of the 

Boston Symphony 
Orchestra 

CONCERT BULLETINS 

Containing analytical and descriptive 
notes on all works performed during 
the season (" musically speaking, the 
greatest art annual of today." — 
W. J. Henderson, New Tork Sun) may 
be obtained by addressing 

SYMPHONY HALL 
Price $6.00 



[14] 



0ptva ©ou£e gcabemp of Jfflugtc 

FIFTY-FIFTH SEASON • 1935-1936 

I FIVE CONCERTS BY THE 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

IT 

On the evenings of 

\ FRIDAY • NOVEMBER 22 

I FRIDAY • JANUARY 10 

[ THURSDAY . FEBRUARY 13 

I FRIDAY • MARCH 13 

| FRIDAY • APRIL 3 

MYRA HESS 

the great pianist 

WILL APPEAR AS SOLOIST 



Address all communications regarding season tickets for these concerts 
to C. D. Atkins, Institute of Arts and Sciences, Academy of Music, Brooklyn, 
Mew York. 

[15] 



left the room before he had come to a decision. Suddenly I thought — 
' Pathetic' I went back to the room, I remember it as though it were 
yesterday, and I said the word to Peter. ' Splendid, Modi, bravo, " Pa- 
thetic " 1 ' and he wrote in my presence the title that will forever 
remain." Still, Tchaikovsky could not have been thoroughly satisfied 
with the name " Pathetique/' for the next day he wrote to Jurgenson 
with directions about the dedication to his nephew, Vladimir Davidov, 
and gave the symphony no other identification than " No. 6." He 
added: " I hope it is not too late." 

Wherefore the symphony remains what its maker intended it to be, 
so far as posterity was concerned — an " enigma." From various inter- 
pretations, each of which must remain nothing more than a single 
personal guess, let us quote that of Kashkin, who found in it something 
far more than a presentiment of his own approaching end. " It seems 
more reasonable," he wrote, " to interpret the overwhelming energy of 
the third movement and the abysmal sorrow of the finale in the broader 
light of a national or historical significance rather than to narrow them 
to the expression of an individual experience. If the last movement is 
intended to be predictive, it is surely of things vaster and issues more 
fatal than are contained in a mere personal apprehension of death. 
It speaks rather of a ' lamentation large et sou ff ranee inconnue/ and 
seems to set the seal of finality on all human hopes. Even if we elimi- 
nate the purely subjective interest, this autumnal inspiration of 
Tchaikovsky, in which we hear ' the ground whirl of the perished leaves 
of hope ' still remains the most profoundly stirring of his works." 

J. N. B. 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

Mrs. Charles Adams White 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

Steinway Bldg., New York 105 Revere St., Boston 

Mondays— Tel. Circle 7-0187 Tel. Capitol 6745 

HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

ALL BRANCHES OF MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

44 CHURCH STREET, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Telephone: TROwbridge 0956 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYN BERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


frankel, i. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H, 


mazzeo, R. E\> Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


battles, a. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


boettcher, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


macdonald, 


W. 


LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


valkenier, 


w. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


cebhardt, w. 


LORBEER, h. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGIIEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARGIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



BROOKLYN COMMITTEE 



Organized to Promote Interest in the Series of Concerts in Brooklyn by 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, Conductor 



ADRIAN VAN SINDEREN, Chairman 

Mrs. HENRY J. DAVENPORT, Executive Chairman 

Mrs. EDWARD C. BLUM, Vice-Chairman Mrs. WILLIAM H. GOOD, Vice-Chairman 



Dr. Joseph Dana Allen 
Mr. Juan A. Almirall 
Mr. Lloyd V. Almirall 
Mrs. John Anderson 
Mr. Charles D. Atkins 
Dr. Frank L. Babbott, Jr. 
Hon. William R. Bayes 
Mr. Edward C. Blum 
Mr. Robert E. Blum 
Mrs. Bruce D. Bromley 
Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler 
Rev. S. Parkes Cadman 
Mrs. Otis Swan Carroll 
Mrs. Thomas F. Casey 
Mrs. I. Sherwood Coffin 
Miss Frances H. Coutts 
Hon. Frederick E. Crane 
Mrs. Frederick L. Cranford 
Mr. Walter H. Crittenden 
Mrs. Harris M. Crist 
Dr. John H. Denbigh 
Hon. Norman S. Dike 
Rev. Samuel M. Dorrance 
Mrs. Mary Childs Draper 
Mrs. H. Edward Dreier 
Mrs. Guy Du Val 
Mrs. William P. Earle, Jr. 
Mrs. William F. Eastman 
Mr. S. Raymond Estey 
Mr. Sumner Ford 
Mrs. Merrill N. Foote 
Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 
Mrs. Charles Franklin 
Mr. Theodore L. Frothingham 
Mrs. George H. Gartlan 
Mrs. Edwin L. Garvin 
Mrs. Emil Goetsch 
Miss Theodora Goldsmith 
Mrs. M. Preston Goodfellow 
Mrs. William Peter Hamilton 
Mr. Walter Hammitt 
Mrs. J. Morton Halstead 



Mrs. James M. Hills 
Mrs. Earle P. Huff 
Mrs. Russell S. Hume 
Mrs. 0. Paul Humpstone 
Mr. William T. Hunter 
Mr. Henry A. Ingraham 
Dr. William A. Jewett 
Mrs. Frederick L. Johanns 
Mr. Ralph Jonas 
Mr. James H. Jourdan 
Mrs. William Kennedy, Jr. 
Mr. Jacob C. Klinck 
Mr. David H. Lanman 
Mr. Charles D. Lay 
Mrs. Robert B. Lea 
Mrs. John Eadie Leech 
Mrs. Maxwell Lester 
Mrs. W. H. Lohman 
Miss Hilda Loines 
Mrs. Frederick D. MacKay 
Mrs. Charles J. McDermott 
Mrs. William W. Marshall 
Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard, Jr. 
Mrs. Frank Melville, Jr. 
Miss Irene Miles 
Dr. Raymond B. Miles 
Miss Ida A. Mollenhauer 
Mrs. Alfred E. Mudge 
Mrs. Charles F. Murphy 
Mrs. Caroll Leja Nichols 
Mr. Neilson Olcott 
Mrs. Dean C. Osborne 
Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 
Mrs. Charles El well Perkins 
Mr. James H. Post 
Mrs. Charles E. Potts 
Mrs. Frederic B. Pratt 
Mrs. Richardson Pratt 
Mrs. Benjamin Prince 
Mr. G. William Rasch 



Mrs. Frank Reynolds 
Mrs. Donald Ross 
Mrs. John D. H. Schulz 
Mrs. Helen Warren Seeley 
Mr. Robert Alfred Shaw 
Mrs. Frank E. Simmons 
Mrs. Harold Irving Small 
Mrs. B. Herbert Smith 
Mrs. W. C. Spelman 
Mr. Porter Steele 
Mrs. Herman Stutzer 
Mrs. John F. Talmage 
Mrs. Franklin Taylor , 
Miss Marion J. Terry 
Mr. Thornton C. Thayer 
Mr. Carl H. Tollefeen 
Mrs. Walter Truslow 
Mr. John T. Underwood 
Dr. Joshua M. Van Cott 
Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. James P. Warbasse 
Mrs. Edwin Carrington Ward 
Mrs. Clarence Waterman 
Mrs. Walter F. Wells 
Mrs. J. B. Whitney 
Mrs. George Whittlesey 
Mrs. William H. Whitton 
Miss Josephine D. Wilkin 
Hon. George Albert Wingate 
Mrs. Harry M. Wingle 
Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 
Mr. R. Huntington Woodman 

Junior League Committee 
Miss Elizabeth Lathrop 
Chairman 

Miss Dorothy Remsen John- 
son 
Miss Cyrene Duncan 
Miss Elizabeth Paffard 
Mrs. Theodore Fitz Randolph 
Mrs. Florence E. Read 



anber* Gtfjeatre, Cambrtbge 

[Harvard University] 



'%. 



BOSTON 



% 



^mfi 



SYAPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



INC. 

FIFTY-FOURTH 

SEASON 

1934^1935 

[1] 



Thursday Evening, October 18 
at 8 o'clock 




STEARNS' NEW 



& 



vening 



oJho 



/> 



anticipates your successful social season with 
formal fashions of quiet elegance 

Paris predicts an extreme style winter and Stearns has 

all the evening fashions that will add to your own 

glamour. Assembled in one shop you'll find gowns 

that are dramatic in fabric as well as in line. Wraps 

that add luxury to their gowns. Dainty bags, 

dancing slippers and accessories that will 

make any ensemble exhilarating. 

Come and see the shop on 

the fourth floor. 



R. H- STEARNS CO. 



i§>antier£ ©fjeatre • Harvard University • Cambridge 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
RICHARD BURGIN, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
First Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, October 18 
with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, I934, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, IflC. 



The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 

Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Edward A. Taft 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager 



G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 



Chantiler & Co: 



Famous for Quality and Style for over a Century 



Come to 
Chandler's! 



Thousands of smart misses and women 
come first to Chandler's for their clothes 
. . the socially prominent . . the knowl- 
edgable business women . . the college 
girls . . the sub deb and the clubwoman 
. . all come to Chandler's for clothes of 
true individuality where quality is never 
sacrificed to price . . where they find the 
clothes they want at the price they wish 
to pay! 

They find some of the greatest collections 
of finest quality Dresses, Furs, Coats, 
Hats, Accessories in Boston. Floor after 
floor is devoted exclusively to showing 
thousands of newest fashions, replicas of 
latest Paris styles, originals by famous 
American designers, many imports! 

For over 124 years, Chandler & Company 
has been building Fashion and quality 
Prestige until today it has an enviable 
position as a leading style institution in 
Boston. 



[*] 



>anbet£ WbtatVt • Harvard University • Camfcribge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, October 18 



Programme 

Weber Overture to " Oberon " 

Borodin Symphony in B minor No. 2, Op. 5 



I. ALLEGRO MODERATO 

II. MOLTO VIVO 

III. ANDANTE 

IV. ALLEGRO 



INTERMISSION 



Franck Symphony in D minor 

I. LENTO. ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 
II. ALLEGRETTO 
III. ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 



[3] 



OVERTURE TO THE OPERA " OBERON " 

By Carl Maria von Weber 
Born at Eutin, Oldenburg, December 18, 1786; died at London, June 5, 1826 



Oberon; or, the Elf-King's Oath," a romantic opera in three acts, 
book by James Robinson Planche, who founded it on Villeneuve's 
story " Huon de Bordeaux " and Sotheby's English translation of Wie- 
land's German poem, " Oberon," music by Carl Maria von Weber, 
was first performed at Covent Garden, London, on April 12, 1826. 
Weber conducted. The first performance in New York was at the Park 
Theatre on October 9, 1828: There were performances in New York 
at the Academy of Music, March 29, 18*76 (in English) ; Niblo's Gar- 
den, November 2, 1870 (in English) ; Metropolitan Opera House, De- 
cember 28, 1918 (in English; the music arranged (!) by Artur 
Bodansky) . 

The first performance in Boston was in Music Hall by the Parepa- 
Rosa Company, May 23, 1870. 



The story of the opera was founded by Planche on Wieland's " Obe- 
ron," which in turn was derived from an old French romance, " Huon 
of Bordeaux." Oberon and Titania have vowed never to be reconciled 
until they find lovers faithful in adversity. Puck resolves to serve 
Oberon, his master, by bringing together Huon and Rezia. Huon has 
been ordered by Charlemagne to kill the favorite at Baghdad and to 
wed the Caliph's daughter, Rezia. The lovers, having met, in a vision, 
are in love. At Baghdad, Huon being sent there because he had slain 
a son of Charlemagne, kills Babekan, betrothed to Rezia, and escapes 
with her, by the aid of a magic horn given to him and blown by Scheras- 
min, Huon's shield-bearer. The horn compels the Caliph's court to 
dance. Oberon appears and makes the lovers swear to be faithful in 
spite of all temptation. They are shipwrecked. Rezia is captured by 
pirates; Huon is wounded. The Emir Tunis has Rezia in his harem; his 
wife Roschana is enamored of Huon. The Emir orders the wife and 
Huon to be burned; but again the magic horn is blown. Oberon, recon- 
ciled to Titania, brings the lovers to Charlemagne's court, where they 
are welcomed with pomp and ceremony. 

There is another pair of lovers in the opera: Scherasmin and Rezia's 
Arabian maid, Fatima. 

The overture, scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
strings, begins with an introduction (Adagio sostenuto ed il tutto 
pianissimo possibile, D major, 4-4) . The horn of Oberon is answered 
by muted strings. The figure for flutes and clarinets is taken from the 
first scene of the opera (Oberon's palace; introduction and chorus of 

[4] 



elfs) . After a pianissimo little march, there is a short dreamy passage 
for strings, which ends in the violas. There is a full orchestral crashing 
chord, and the main body of the overture begins (Allegro con fuoco 
in D major, 4-4) . The brilliant opening measures are taken from the 
accompaniment figure of the quartet, " Over the Dark Blue Waters," 
sung by Rezia, Fatima, Huon, Scherasmin (act ii., scene x.) . The horn 
of Oberon is heard again; it is answered by the skipping fairy figure. 
The second theme (A major, sung first by the clarinet, then by the 
first violins) is taken from the first measures of the second part of 
Huon's air (act i., No. 5) . And then a theme taken from the perora- 
tion, presto con fuoco, of Rezia's air " Ocean! Thou mighty monster " 
(act ii., No. 13) , is given as a conclusion to the violins. This theme ends 
the first part of the overture. The free fantasia begins with soft re- 
peated chords in bassoons, horns, drums, basses. The first theme is 
worked out in short periods; a new theme is introduced and treated in 
fugato against a running contrapuntal counter-theme in the strings. 
The second theme is treated, but not elaborately; and then the Rezia 
motive brings the spirited end. 

At the first performance of the opera the overture was repeated. 

Weber was asked by Charles Kemble in 1824 to write an opera for 
the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden. Weber chose " Oberon " for the 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Ditson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty -four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

[5] 



subject. Planche was selected to furnish the libretto. In a letter to him, 
Weber wrote that the fashion of it was foreign to his ideas: " The 
intermixing of so many principal actors who do not sing — the omis- 
sion of the music in the most important moments — all these things 
deprive our ' Oberon ' of the title of an opera, and will make him (sic) 
unfit for all other theatres in Europe, which is a very bad thing for 
me, but — passons la-dessous." 

Weber, a sick and discouraged man, buckled himself to the task of 
learning English, that he might know the exact meaning of the text. 
He therefore took one hundred and fifty-three lessons of an English- 
man named Carey and studied diligently, anxiously. Planche sent the 
libretto to Dresden an act at a time. Weber made his first sketch on 
January 23, 1825. The autograph score contains this note at the end 
of the overture: " Finished April 9, 1826, in the morning, at a quarter 
of twelve, and with it the whole opera. Soli Deo Gloria! ! ! C. M. V. 
Weber." This entry was made at London. Weber received for the opera 
£500. He was so feeble that he could scarcely stand without support, 
but he rehearsed and directed the performance seated at the piano. He 
died of consumption about two months after the production. 

Planche gives a lively account of the genesis and production of 
" Oberon." * He describes the London public as unmusical. " A dra- 
matic situation in music was * caviare to the general,' and inevitably 
received with cries of ' Cut it short! ' from the gallery, and obstinate 
coughing or other significant signs of impatience from the pit. Nothing 
but the Huntsmen's Chorus and the diablerie in/ Der Freischiitz ' saved 
that fine work from immediate condemnation in England; and I re- 
member perfectly well the exquisite melodies in it being compared by 
English Musical critics to ' wind through a keyhole! ' . . . None of our 
actors could sing, and but one singer could act, Madame Vestris, who 
made a charming Fatima. . . . My great object was to land Weber 
safe amidst an unmusical public, and I therefore wrote a melodrama 
with songs, instead of an opera such as would be required at the 
present day." 

The first performance in Germany of " Oberon " in " its original 
shape " was at Leipsic, December 23, 1826. 

* "• Recollections and Reflections," by J. R. Planche Vol. I, pp. 74-86 (London, 1872). 

SYMPHONY HALL 
Sunday Afternoon, OCTOBER 28, at 3.30 

RACHMANINOFF 

Tickets on sale at the Box Office 

[6] 



SYMPHONY IN B MINOR, NO. 2, Op. 5 
By Alexander Porphirievitch Borodin 

Born at Leningrad, November 12, 1833 (?) *; died there February 28, 1887 



as a product of the year 1877, Borodin's Second Symphony was re- 
< /\ garded in its time as the work of an " original," a daring pioneer 
of the Slavic spirit. It should be remembered that in February, 1877, 
when the symphony was first performed, in Leningrad, Tchaikovsky's 
Fourth Symphony and Brahms' Second, works destined for that year, 
were yet unwritten; " Gdtterddmmerung " had been first heard in 
the August previous. Rubinstein's quasi-Russian music was familiar 
to western Europe, and the name Tchaikovsky was increasingly spoken, 
but the Russian nationalists, the " Five," were as good as unknown. 
They had not evolved a presentable symphony between them (other 
than Borodin's First) ; Rimsky-Korsakov had written nothing more im- 
portant than " Sadko," and "Antar"; Moussorgsky's "Boris Godu- 
nov " had been produced at the Marijinsky Theatre in Leningrad three 
years before, but had as yet hardly impressed itself, even upon the Rus- 
sian consciousness. 

The alert searcher of new paths, Franz Liszt, was one of the first 
westerners to ferret out the nationalist group, and to follow their early 
gropings. When Borodin brought him his new score in 1877, Liszt was 



* Borodin believed, on offhand evidence as it now appears, that he was born in 1834, 
and this year has until recently been universally accepted. But M. D. Calvocoressi, having 
scrutinized recent Russian publications on the subject, in connection with the Borodin 
centenary planned in Russia for this year, reports the following disturbing correction 
(London Musical Times, June, 1934): 

" Mr. Serge Dianin having carefully examined the registers of the Church of St. Pan- 
teleimon, Petersburg, and other documents, came to the conclusion that Borodin was born 
on October 31 (November 12), 1833, not 1834. Borodin himself knew this quite well until 
October 31, 1873, when he wrote to his wife: "Today is my fortieth birthday." But on that 
very day an old servant of his mother, Catherine Beltzman by name, assured him that he 
was thirty-nine years old, not forty. Borodin was delighted, and never troubled to verify 
the information." 



THE FAELTEN PIANOFORTE SCHOOL 



W, 



ITH its progressive method of musical instruction has been a pathfinder 
among schools of music the country over. Results achieved by its students 
convince intelligent observers that the Faelten System makes for fluency, cor- 
rectness, confidence and taste in playing. The power to read, analyze, trans- 
pose, and improvise, which it inculcates, attracts and interests the student from 
the beginning to the end of his course and adds distinction to the public recitals 
given by the school. 

The School accepts children and adults. It provides instruction for those 
students who intend to follow music as their profession as well as for those who 
believe that music is an essential element in general culture. 

30 Huntington Avenue BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 

m 



delighted — advised him to alter nothing, to pay no attention to the 
suggestions of those who found it " strange." Borodin describes in a 
letter how Liszt lay before him a new oratorio by Nicolai, saying: " Is 
it not the most trivial Mendelssohn? That is the sort of music manu- 
factured for us in Germany! But you will hear today, and judge for 
yourself. No! You Russians are indispensable to us. Without you I am 
powerless," said Liszt, smiling. " You have a quick and vital spring 
within you; the future belongs to you, whereas here it is usually the 
lifeless corpse." 

The symphony made its way readily into general favor. It was much 
liked when performed in the early eighties, in Germany and Belgium. 
Yet it took more than twenty years to reach America. A performance 
is on record in Cincinnati, in the season 1898-1899. Arthur Nikisch in- 
troduced it to Boston at a concert by the orchestra, January 4, 1890. 
Further performances are listed December 14, 1912 and March 27, 1915 
(Dr. Karl Muck) ; November 29, 1918 (Henri Rabaud) , and April 23, 
1926 (Dr. Serge Koussevitzky) . 

The symphony is scored for piccolo, three flutes, two oboes, English 
horn, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trom- 
bones, bass tuba, three kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tam- 
bourine, harp, and the usual strings. 

Borodin lingered over his second symphony for six years (1871- 
1876) .* He had put aside his opera, "Prince Igor" (which he never 
finished) to compose the symphony. After completing the first move- 
ment, in 1871, he paused to plunge into the project of the operatic 
ballet " Mlada," which Gedeunov, director of the Russian opera, 
wished to mount. The four acts were distributed between Borodin, Cui, 
Rimsky-Korsakov, and Moussorgsky. Borodin was assigned the final 
act; he studied the sources of the feudal, pre-Christian subject, worked 
in a fever of enthusiasm on his music — and actually brought it to com- 
pletion, a rare feat for this composer — only to find that the venture 
fell through, owing to the expense involved. 

He busied himself with his symphony again, also " Prince Igor.'* 
I have collected a quantity of materials, and completed several num- 
bers," he wrote to his friend Mme. Ludmilla Ivanovna Karmalina, on 
April 15, 1875, " But when shall I have finished? I know not. My only 
hope is in the summer; but in summer I ought to complete the orches- 
tration of my second symphony, promised long ago, and to my shame, 
never finished. I ought to finish the piano arrangement for which 
Bessel has long been waiting. To the great displeasure of Stasov and 
Modeste Moussorgsky, I have sketched out a quartet for strings which 
I have not found time to finish either. It is shameful, piteous, ridicu- 

* Rimsky-Korsakov gives evidence of sketches at a still earlier date. Speaking in " My 
Musical Life," of the season 1868-69, he writes: " Borodin brought new fragments of Prince 
Igor, the beginning of his Second Symphony in B minor, and the song, ' The Sea Princess.' " 

[8] 



lous, but what can be done? ... I resemble that character in one of 
Shakespeare's historical plays who replies to every question: ' Anon, 
anon sir! ' " 

What indeed could be done? Rimsky-Korsakov in his autobiog- 
raphy reproaches his colleague with congenital indolence. He had rea- 
son, for together with Glazounov he had to labor hugely over " Prince 
Igor " after its composer's death, filling gaps, and supplying the orches- 
tration from pencil sketches. Yet Borodin gives the very plausible case 
of a by no means indolent man in the same letter to Madame Karma- 
lina. He was a man of two vocations, each of which laid importunate 
claim to his time and energy. His medical career absorbed him, and it 
must be noted brought him a bare living which in Russia at that time 
he could never have had from his music alone. " I love my profession 
and my science," he wrote. " I love the Academy and my pupils. My 
teaching is of a practical character, and for this reason takes up very 
much of my time. I have to be constantly in touch with my pupils, male 
and female, because to direct the work of young people one must always 
be close to them. I have the interests of the Academy at heart." Lectures, 
examinations, meetings, laboratory work did not prevent Dr. Borodin 
from agitating for a then bold innovation, a School of Medicine for 
Women, in which he was actively interested through his life. He also 
lectured on chemistry at the Academy of Forestry, and his chemical re- 
searches resulted in eight treatises which have been called of ines- 
timable value to science. 

These duties, of course, kept Borodin from his music. " Days, weeks, 
months, whole winters pass," he wrote, " without my being able to set 
to work seriously. It is not that I could not find a couple of hours a 
day; it is that I have not leisure of mind to withdraw myself from oc- 
cupations and preoccupations which have nothing in common with 



"ANNUITIES 
DESCRIBED" 

Technicalities and details are 
omitted. — A leaflet in simple 
words by R. O. Walter of Boston. 

Write for it today to the 

Equitable Life Assurance Society 

393 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Please send me without charge the Annuity 
leaflet by R. O. WALTER. 
Mr. 

Mrs 

Miss 

Address 

Age 



[9l 



music. One needs time to concentrate oneself, to get into the right key, 
otherwise the creation of a sustained work is impossible. For this I have 
only a part of my summer at my disposal. In the winter, I can only 
compose when I am ill, and have to give up my lectures and my labora- 
tory. In fact, when I am tied to the house with some indisposition— 
when my head is splitting, my eyes running and I have to blow my nose 
every minute, then I give myself up to composing. So, my friends, re- 
versing the usual custom, never say to me ' I hope you are well,' but ' I 
hope you are ill! ' " 

Soon after the completion of the Second Symphony, it was per- 
formed under Edouard Napravnik's direction in the Rittersaal at 
Leningrad, February 14, 1877. An earlier performance had been 
planned, but the casual Borodin had mislaid parts of the score. He 
wrote to Mme. Karmalina (January 31, 1877) : "The Musical Society 
had determined to perform my second symphony at one of its con- 
certs. I was in the country and did not know this fact. When I came 
back to St. Petersburg, I could not find the first movement and the 
finale. The score of these movements was lost; I had without doubt 
mislaid it. I hunted everywhere, but could not find it; yet the Society 
insisted, and there was hardly time to have the parts copied. What 
should I do? To crown all, I fell sick. I could not shuffle the thing off, 
and I was obliged to reorchestrate my symphony. Nailed to my bed by 
fever, I wrote the score in pencil. My copy was not read in time, and my 
symphony will not be performed till the next concert. My two sym- 
phonies then will be performed in the same week. Never has a profes- 
sor of the Academy of Medicine and Surgery been found in such a 
position! " J. N. B. 

SYMPHONY IN D MINOR 

By Cesar Franck 
Born at Liege, Belgium, December 10, 1822; died at Paris, November 8, 1890 



One autumn evening in 1888," wrote Guy Ropartz, devout disciple 
of Franck, " I went to pay the master a visit at the beginning of 
vacation time. ' Have you been working? ' I inquired. ' Yes,' was 
Franck's reply, ' and I think that you will be pleased with the result.' 
He had just completed the Symphony in D, and he kindly played it 
through to me on the piano.* I shall never forget the impression made 
upon me by that first hearing." 

The first performance, at the Paris Conservatoire, February 17, 1889, 

* D'Indy lists the Symphony as having been begun in 1886. 

[10] 



when the members of the orchestra were opposed to it, the subscribers 
bewildered, and some of Franck's colleagues spitefully critical, has been 
described with gusto by d'Indy in his much quoted book, the bible of 
the Franck movement. The symphony reached Germany in 1894, when 
it was performed in Dresden; England in 1896 (a Lamoureux concert 
in Queen's Hall) . It was first played by the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra—April 15, 1899, Wilhelm Gericke, conductor. The last perform- 
ance by this orchestra was November 21, 1932. 

The symphony, dedicated to Henri Duparc, is scored for two flutes, 
two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, four 
horns, two trumpets, two cornets-a-piston, three trombones, bass tuba, 
a set of three kettledrums, harp, and strings. 

It is not hard to sympathize with the state of mind of Franck's de- 
voted circle, who beheld so clearly the flame of his genius, while the 
world ignored and passed it by. They were naturally incensed by the 
inexplicable hostility of some of Franck's fellow professors at the Con- 
servatoire, and moved to winged words in behalf of their lovable 
" maitre" who, wrapped and serene in his work, never looked for 
either performance or applause — was naively delighted when those 
blessings sparingly descended upon him. But the impatience of the 
Franck disciples extended, less reasonably, to the public which allowed 
him to die before awaking to the urgent beauty of his art. Ropartz, for 
instance, tried to console himself with the philosophical reflection: " All 
true creators must be in advance of their time and must of necessity be 
misunderstood by their contemporaries: Cesar Franck was no more of 
an exception to this rule than other great musicians have been; like 
them, he was misunderstood." A study of the dates and performances, 
which d'Indy himself has listed, tends to exonerate the much berated 
general public, which has been known to respond to new music with 
tolerable promptness, when they are permitted to hear it, even ade- 
quately presented. The performances of Franck's music in his lifetime 
were patchy and far between. 

For almost all of his life, Paris was not even aware of Franck. Those 
who knew him casually or by sight must have looked upon him simply 
as a mild little organist * and teacher at the Conservatoire, who wrote 
unperformed oratorios and operas in his spare time. And such indeed 
he was. It must be admitted that Franck gave the world little oppor- 
tunity for more than posthumous recognition — and not so much be- 
cause this most self-effacing of composers never pushed his cause, as 
because his genius ripened so late. When he had reached fifty-seven 
there was nothing in his considerable output (with the possible excep- 

* D'Indy pours just derision upon the ministry who, as late as August, 1885, awarded the 
ribbon of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor to " Franck (Cesar Auguste), professor of organ." 



tion of " La Redemption " or " Les Eolides ") which time has proved 
to be of any great importance. "Les Beatitudes" of that year (1879) 
had neither a full nor a clear performance until three years after his 
death, when according to d'Indy, " the effect was overwhelming, and 
henceforth the name of Franck was surrounded by a halo of glory, des- 
tined to grow brighter as time went on." The masterpieces — " Psyche," 
the Symphony, the String Quartet, the Violin Sonata, the Three Organ 
Chorales, all came within the last four years of his life, and the Sym- 
phony—that most enduring monument of Franck's genius, was first 
performed some twenty months before his death. In the last year of his 
life, musicians rallied to the masterly new scores as soon as they ap- 
peared, and lost no time in spreading the gospel of Franck — a gospel 
which was readily apprehended. Ysaye played the Violin Sonata (dedi- 
cated to him) in town after town; the Quartet was performed at the 
Salle Pleyel by the Societe Nationale de Musique (April 19, 1890) , and 
the whole audience, so we are told, rose to applaud the composer. And 
after Franck's death, his music, aided (or hindered) by the zealous 
pronouncements of the militant school which had grown at his feet, 
made its way increasingly to popular favor. 

Of the notorious performance of Franck's Symphony at the Con- 
servatoire (February 17, 1889), d'Indy writes: 

' ■ The performance was quite against the wish of most members of 
the famous orchestra, and was only pushed through thanks to the 
benevolent obstinacy of the conductor, Jules Garcin. The subscribers 
could make neither head nor tail of it, and the musical authorities 
were much in the same position. I inquired of one of them — a profes- 
sor at the Conservatoire, and a kind of factotum on the committee — 
what he thought of the work. ' That a symphony? ' he replied in con- 
temptuous tones. ' But, my dear sir, who ever heard of writing for the 
English horn in a symphony? Just mention a single symphony by 
Haydn or Beethoven introducing the English horn. There, well, you 
see — your Franck's music may be whatever you please, but it will cer- 
tainly never be a symphony! ' This was the attitude of the Conserva- 
toire in the year of grace 1889." 

D'Indy, whom there is no reason to suppose anything but a truthful 
man, has this to say about Charles Gounod, who was present: 

" At another door of the concert hall, the composer of ' Faust,' es- 
corted by a train of adulators, male and female, fulminated a kind of 
papal decree to the effect that this symphony was the affirmation of 
incompetence pushed to dogmatic lengths. For sincerity and disinter- 
estedness we must turn to the composer himself, when, on his return 
from the concert, his whole family surrounded him, asking eagerly for 
news. ' Well, were you satisfied with the effect on the public? Was there 
plenty of applause? ' To which ' Father Franck,' thinking only of his 
work, replied with a beaming countenance: ' Oh, it sounded well; just 
as I thought it would! ' " 

[12] 



^anberg Gtfjeatre • Cambrtbge 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 

Thursday Evening, November 22 
at 8 o'clock 



[13] 



All who knew him describe Franck as sincerely touched when some 
grudging official recognition was bestowed upon him, or when his 
music was actually heard and applauded in public. " On the occasions 
— alas! too few — when Franck came in touch with the public," wrote 
Arthur Coquard, " he saw and heard nothing but the music, and if the 
execution struck him as adequate, he was the happiest of men. The 
master had formed an ideal atmosphere of his thoughts and affections, 
an atmosphere which his soul gladly inhaled, undisturbed by strange 
currents — his spirit delighted itself with its own ideal of art and 
philosophy. Wrapped in the contemplation of serene beauties such as 
these, his genius brought forth those great and sometimes sublime 
works. No wonder that his music, conceived in the calm joy of ecstasy, 
without thought of public opinion, the artist's dream, lasted over the 
day of its performance and, soaring high, lost sight of earth altogether." 

Franck was never heard to complain of the humble round of teach- 
ing, into which poverty had forced him, dissipating his genius in a con- 
stant grind of petty engagements, with only an hour or two in the day 
saved for his composition. " The first years of his marriage were 
' close,' " wrote the organist Tournemire, who knew him then. " One 
must live! From half past five in the morning until half past seven, 
Franck composed. At eight he left the house to • comb ' Paris. He dis- 
pensed solfege and piano for the convenience of the pupils in the Jesuit 
school of Vaugirard (lessons 1 franc 80 centimes for a half hour, from 
eleven until two!) . He had only a bite of fruit or cheese to sustain him, 
as Franck himself once told me. He would also go to Anteuil, a fash- 
ionable institution for young ladies of society, who often constrained 
him to teach them impossible novelties of the hour." He was known to 
these uneager demoiselles, acquiring parlor graces, as " Monsieur 
Franck." Later, some of these ladies were astonished to find their erst- 
while insignificant and even rather ridiculous piano teacher become a 

Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 

advertise! 

representation in this programme will assist you! at a nominal cost! 

L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 



world-enshrined memory. Whereupon they proudly proclaimed them- 
selves " Franck pupils." D'Indy disqualified these imposters by publish- 
ing the name of every pupil who at any time had been close to Franck 
in his work. 



The Quintet, the Quartet, the Violin Sonata, and the Symphony 
are named by d'Indy as " constructed upon a germinative idea which 
becomes the expressive basis of the entire musical cycle." He says else- 
where of the conception of the Violin Sonata — " From this moment 
the cyclical form, the basis of modern symphonic art, was created and 
consecrated." He adds: 

1 The majestic, plastic, and perfectly beautiful symphony in D 
minor is constructed on the same method. I purposely use the word 
method for this reason: After having long described Franck as an 
empiricist and an improviser — which is radically wrong — his enemies 
(of whom, in spite of his incomparable goodness, he made many) and 
his ignorant detractors suddenly changed their views and called him a 
musical mathematician, who subordinated inspiration and impulse to 
a conscientious manipulation of form. This, we may observe in passing, 
is a common reproach brought by the ignorant Philistine against the 
dreamer and the genius. Yet where can we point to a composer in the 
second half of the nineteenth century who could — and did — think as 
loftily as Franck, or who could have found in his fervent and enthu- 
siastic heart such vast ideas as those which lie at the musical basis of the 
Symphony, the Quartet, and ' The Beatitudes ' ? . . . 

" Franck's Symphony is a continual ascent towards pure gladness 
and life-giving light because its workmanship is solid, and its themes are 
manifestations of ideal beauty. What is there more joyous, more sanely 
vital, than the principal subject of the Finale, around which all the 
other themes in the work cluster and crystallize? While in the higher 
registers all is dominated by that motive which M. Ropartz has justly 
called ' the theme of faith.' " J. N. B. 



BOUND COPIES of the 

Boston Symphony 
Orchestra 

CONCERT BULLETINS 

Containing analytical and descriptive 
notes on all works performed during 
the season (" musically speaking, the 
greatest art annual of today." — 
W. J. Henderson, New York Sun) may 
be obtained by addressing 

SYMPHONY HALL 
Price $6.00 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 

For further imformation, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 

[15] 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone : University 0956 



LAMBERT MURPHY 

TENOR TEACHER OF SINGING 

In Boston on Mondays 

STUDIO, 725 BOYLSTON STREET 

For appointments write to above address or phone Kenmore 3122 on Mondays 



DO YOU WISH TO SING? 

MARY TRACY 

VOICE SPECIALIST, says: — "Anyone possessing a normal speaking voice should 
be able to sing." Lessons before the microphone included in regular vocal instruction. 

™- { SS 2041 30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON ^ITr^"' ° harge 



BRENDAN KEENAN 

The Cultural, Spiritual and Physical Problems of Piano Mastery 

" — rarely profound understanding of music — broad culture — rare intuition and psychological under- 
standing — inspiring teacher — " Mme. Elly Net 

" — I have only the best wishes for this genius, hoping he has the opportunities to reach the great 
heights of which he is surely capable — " Mme. Sigrid Onegin 

" — I am sure, serious minded as you are, you will be a great success as a teacher — " 

WlLLEM VAN HOOGSTRATEN 

Baldwin Piano Reception by mail appointment only 384 The Riverway, Boston 



DOROTHY ZIOLKOWSKA 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER 

Member of Music Faculty Address: 78 Lake View Avenue, 

The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Telephone University 4230 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[ i* 1 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert -master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, r. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE,-M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


frankel, 1. 


DUFRESNE, g. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W, 


MAGER, G. 


raichman, j. 


MACDONALD, 


W. 


LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


W. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


ADAM, E. 


GEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 










MAHN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


snow, a. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 



The 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(no Musicians) 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Six Tuesday Concerts 

at 3 o'clock 

October 30 November 20 December 18 

February 5 March 5 April 16 

The programmes of this series will be devoted to the music of Schubert, 
Schumann, and Brahms, including concertos of Schumann and Brahms, 
with distinguished soloists. 

Six Monday Concerts 

at 8:15 o'clock 

November 5 December 3 January 21 

February 1 1 March 25 April 22 



At one of the concerts, Berlioz's "Damnation of Faust," with Chorus 
and Soloists will be performed. At another, Adrian Boult will appear as 
guest conductor. Notable soloists to be heard in this series will include 
Jan Smeterlin, Pianist, Ruth Posselt, Violinist, and Pauline Danforth, 
Pianist. 

Season Tickets for Each Series, $9, Si 2, $15 (no 
tax) are Now on Sale at the Subscription Office 



ibanberg Qtfjeatre, Cambrtbge 

[Harvard University] 



^WWUIllI/W^ 



//////, 



iiiM^ i 



%> 






BOSTON 



SYAPMONY 
ORCHESTRA 



INC. 

FIFTY-FOURTH 

SEASON 
1934-1935 

[2] 



Thursday Evening, November 22 
at 8 o'clock 



SYMPHONY HALL . BOSTON 




MORNING VARIETIES 

i£>econb Reason, 1934-1935 

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 1, 11a.m. to 12:15 noon 

TOTO 

The World's Most 
Famous Clown 

With Eighteen of his Fun Makers! A complete show of laughs and 
thrills — Comedy in Pantomime, Impersonations, sundry 
Novelties, Black Art, Acrobatics — in fact, everything clowns 
do. (And clowns do a lot!) 

POP Prices — 25c, 55c, 80c, $1.10 (Tax included) 

Tickets NOW — Symphony Hall Box Office (Com. 1492) 

SECOND, THIRD, FOURTH PROGRAMMES 

Though mere words hardly picture the fun-riot of a morning with Toto, 
the paragraph at the top describes Programme One, December 1. The 
Remaining Three Programmes — January 5, February 23, March 30 — 
will assemble such extraordinary attractions (and some of them more 
than once) as — Arthur Fiedler and his Orchestra of Symphony Players; 
Hans Wiener and his Ballet; Bradford Washburn with his famous mo- 
tion pictures of mountain-climbing and skiing; our tried and true 
friends, the Silly Symphonies; Mr. Pillsbury's pictures, "Flowers of 
the Yosemite"; an exhibition of Indian Dances; and a production of 
"A Midsummer Night's Dream." 

FAIR WEATHER FRIENDS! 

Last year, the Morning Varieties had many Fair Weather Friends. 
When it was fine, many were disappointed at not being able to get tickets 
at the last moment. We do like our Fair Weather Friends; but we also 
feel that those who come through sleet and snow should be rewarded. 
Therefore, if you attend the First Three Morning Varieties — saving 
your ticket coupons as proof — you may present them in exchange for a 
free ticket to the Fourth programme. (Remember, though, that Uncle 
Sam collects his ticket-tax, so-o-o, there'll still be that — but not more 
than 10c. — in proportion to the price of your first three seats.) 

These Four Saturday Mornings bring you Music, Dancing, Pictures, 
Personalities, Operetta, Ballet, Indians, Clowns — and more — all of 
the very first order. Save These Dates and Don't Forget to Save Your 
Coupons for Each Show in Order to Attend the Fourth One Free! 



>anber£ TOjeatre • Harvard University • Cambridge 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INCORPORATED 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Second Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, November 22 
with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1934, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Edward A. Taft 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 



CfwnUler & Co— 

Tremont Street at West 

Metallic 

Lace 




combined with 
a Sheer 

An elegant touch 
for dinner or 
afternoon 
occasions! 



35 



This dress harmonizes many smart 
features of the best modes . . The 
slashed skirt after Chanel . . the 
twin clips all Paris adores . . the use 
of expensive, metal embroidered 
ace! The fact that the long, dolman 
lace sleeves are lined with a flesh 
chiffon makes the gown appropriate 
for afternoon bridge, teas and 
luncheons. 



Women's Gowns — Second Floor 



[2] 



>anbersi QWjeatre • Harvard University • Cambridge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 



THURSDAY EVENING, November 22, at 8 o'clock 



Mozart 



Symphony in G minor (Koechel No. 550) 



I. ALLEGRO MOLTO 

II. ANDANTE 

III. MENUETTO (ALLEGRO) 

IV. FINALE (ALLEGRO ASSAl) 



Brahms 



Variations on a Theme by Haydn, Op. 56a 



INTERMISSION 



MOUSSORGSKY 



Pictures at an Exhibition," Pianoforte 
Pieces arranged for Orchestra by Maurice 
Ravel 



Promenade — Gnomus — II Vecchio Castello — Tuileries — Bydlo — Bal- 
let of Chicks in their Shells — Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle — 
Limoges: The Marketplace — Catacombs (Con mortuis in lingua 
mortua) — The Hut on Fowls' Legs — The Great Gate at Kiev 



[3] 



SYMPHONY IN G MINOR (K. 550) 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



Mozart wrote his three greatest symphonies in 1788. The one in 
E-fiat is dated June 26, the one in G minor July 25, the one in C 
major with the fugue-finale August 10. 

His other works of that year are of little importance with the 
exception of a piano concerto in D major which he played at the coro- 
nation festivities of Leopold II at Frankfort in 1790. There are canons 
and piano pieces, there is the orchestration of Handel's " Acis and 
Galatea," and there are six German dances and twelve minuets for 
orchestra. Nor are the works composed in 1789 of interest, with the 
exception of the clarinet quintet and a string quartet dedicated to the 
King of Prussia. Again we find dances for orchestra, — twelve minuets 
and twelve German dances. 

Why is this? 1787 was the year of " Don Giovanni "; 1790, the year 
of " Cosi fan tutte." Was Mozart, as some say, exhausted by the feat of 
producing three symphonies in such a short time? Or was there some 
reason for discouragement and consequent idleness? 

The Ritter Gluck, composer to the Emperor Joseph II., died No- 
vember 15, 1787, and thus resigned his position with salary of two 
thousand florins. Mozart was appointed his successor, but the thrifty 
Joseph cut down the salary to eight hundred florins. And Mozart at 
this time was sadly in need of money, as his letters show. In a letter 
of June, 1788, he tells of his new lodgings, where he could have better 
air, a garden, quiet. In another, dated June 27, he says: " I have done 
more work in the ten days that I have lived here than in two months 
in my other lodgings, and I should be much better here, were it not 
for dismal thoughts that often come to me. I must drive them resolutely 
away; for I am living comfortably, pleasantly, and cheaply." We know 
that he borrowed from Puchberg, a merchant with whom he became 
acquainted at a Masonic lodge, for the letter with Puchberg's memo- 
randum of the amount is in the collection edited by Nohl. 

Mozart could not reasonably expect help from the Emperor. The 
composer of " Don Giovanni " and the " Jupiter " symphony was un- 
fortunate in his Emperors. 

We know little or nothing concerning the first years of the three 
symphonies. Gerber's "Lexicon der Tonkiinstler " (1790) speaks 
appreciatively of him: the erroneous statement is made that the Em- 
peror fixed his salary in 1788 at six thousand florins; the varied ariettas 
for piano are praised especially; but there is no mention whatever of 
any symphony. 

The enlarged edition of Gerber's work (1813) contains an ex- 
[4] 



tended notice of Mozart's last years, and we find in the summing up 
of his career: " If one knew only one of his noble symphonies, as the 
overpoweringly great, fiery, perfect, pathetic, sublime symphony in C." 
And this reference is undoubtedly to the " Jupiter," the one in C major. 

Mozart also gave a concert of his own works at Frankfort, October 
14, 1790. Symphonies were played in Vienna in 1788, but they were by 
Haydn; and one by Mozart was played in 1791. In 1792 a symphony 
by Mozart was played at Hamburg. 

The early programmes, even when they have been preserved, sel- 
dom determine the date of a first performance. It was the custom to 
print: " Symphonie von Wranitsky," " Sinfonie von Mozart," " Sin- 
fonia di Haydn." Furthermore, it should be remembered that " Sin- 
fonie " was then a term often applied to any work in three or more 
movements written for strings, or strings and wind instruments. 

The two symphonies played at Leipzig were not then published. 
The two that preceded the great three were composed in 1783 and 
1786. The latter of the two (in D major) was performed at Prague 
with extraordinary success. 

The symphony was scored originally for flute, two oboes, two bas- 
soons, two horns, and strings. Mozart added later two clarinet parts. 
Kochel says that Mozart wrote a score for the oboes and clarinets on 
special pages, as the original parts for the oboes were necessarily 
changed by the addition of the clarinets. P. H. 

The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Ditson Company, Inc. 

n he Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

15J 



VARIATIONS ON A THEME BY HAYDN, Op. 56a 
By Johannes Brahms 

Born at Hamburg on May 7, 1833; died at Vienna on April 3, 1897 



From the time that Schumann proclaimed Johannes Brahms in his 
twenties as a new force in music, a torch-bearer of the symphonic 
tradition, friends and foes waited to see what sort Of a symphony this 
" musical Messiah " would dare to submit as a successor to Beethoven's 
mighty Ninth. The Hamburg John the Baptist realized what was ex- 
pected of him, and after his early piano concerto, which no audience 
accepted, and his two unassuming serenades, he coolly took his time 
and let his forces gather and mature for some twenty years before yield- 
ing to the supreme test by submitting his First Symphony. This hap- 
pened in 1877. Three years earlier, he tried out his powers of orchestra- 
tion on a form less formidable and exacting than the symphony — a 
form which he had finely mastered in his extreme youth as composer 
for the piano — the theme with variations. In this, the first purely 
orchestral attempt of his maturity, Brahms, as usual when put on his 
mettle, took great pains perfectly to realize his aim. His abilities as 
orchestral colorist, so finely differentiated in each of the successive 
' Variations on a Theme by Haydn," could not but be apparent even 
to its first audiences. 

The first performance took place at Vienna on November 2, 1873,* 
when Dessoff conducted the Philharmonic. The reception was en- 
thusiastic, and the critics only expressed their impatience that a 
symphony was not yet forthcoming from the vaunted " Beethovener." 
The variations were again played on December 10 in Munich, under 
Hermann Levi. They became inevitably useful in Brahms' round of 
concerts, and added appreciably to the reputation of the still hesitant 
symphonist. 

His theme, Brahms took from a collection of divertimenti by Haydn, 
written for wind instruments. The manuscript of this one, which is in 
the State Library at Berlin, is inscribed "Divertimento mit dem 
Chorale St. Antoni." No chorale of that name and nature having been 
found in existing collections, the tune is supposed to be Haydn's own. 
Karl Ferdinand Pohl, the biographer of Haydn, showed the diverti- 
mento to Brahms in the autumn of 1870 — a seed well chosen, and 
fortunately planted. 



* The first performance in Boston is on record as having been given by Theodore Thomas's 
Orchestra, January 31, 1874. The first performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra took 
place Dec. 5, 1884. They were last performed by this orchestra at a Brahms Festival Concert 
(Wednesday, April 26, 1933). The last performance in the regular series was November 11, 1927. 

[6] 



Brahms takes over Haydn's key of B flat, and leads off in the spirit 
of the original by announcing his theme from the oboes, bassoons, and 
horns.* For Haydn's serpent, he substitutes the more modern double 
bassoon, and strengthens this bass part by the deep strings, pizzicati. 

Variation I. Poco piu andante. The violins enter, and their figure is 
accompanied by one in triplets in the violas and violoncellos. These 
figures alternately change places. Wind instruments are added. 

II. B-flat minor, piu vivace. Clarinets and bassoons have a variation 
of the theme, and violins enter with an arpeggio figure. 

III. There is a return to the major, con moto, 2-4. The theme is 
given to the oboes, doubled by the bassoons an octave below. There is 
an independent accompaniment for the lower strings. In the repetition 
the violins and violas take the part which the wind instruments had, 
and the flutes, doubled by the bassoons, have arpeggio figures. 

IV. In minor, 3-8. The melody is sung by oboe with horn; then it is 
strengthened by the flute with the bassoon. The violas and shortly 
after the violoncellos accompany in scale passage. The parts change 
place in the repetition. 

V. This variation is a vivace in major, 6-8. The upper melody is 
given to flutes, oboes, and bassoons, doubled through two octaves. In 
the repetition the moving parts are taken by the strings. 

VI. Vivace, major, 2-4. A new figure is introduced. During the first 
four measures the strings accompany with the original theme in har- 
mony, afterwards in arpeggio and scale passages. 

VII. Grazioso, major, 6-8. The violins an octave above the clarinets 
descend through the scale, while the piccolo doubled by violas has a 
fresh melody. 

VIII. B-flat minor, presto non troppo, 3-4. The strings are muted. 
The mood is pianissimo throughout. The piccolo enters with an in- 
version of the phrase. 

The Finale is in the major, 4-4. It is based throughout on a phrase, 
an obvious modification of the original theme, which is used at first 
as a ground bass, — " a bass passage constantly repeated and accom- 
panied each successive time with a varied melody and harmony." This 
obstinate phrase is afterwards used in combination with other figures in 
other passages of the Finale. The original theme returns in the strings 
at the climax; the wood-wind instruments accompany in scale passages, 
and the brass fills up the harmony. The triangle is now used to the end. 
Later the melody is played by wood and brass instruments, and the 
strings have a running accompaniment. 

The work is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, double bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, 
triangle, and strings. 

Brahms had a way of making four hand piano arrangements of his 
orchestral works, in this wise imparting their contents to his chosen 
friends in advance. The four symphonies were each thus disclosed to an 
invited circle in Vienna before their orchestral performance, Brahms 

* Haydn scored his divertimento for 2 oboes, 2 horns, 3 bassoons, and serpent. 

[7] 



and lgnatz Brull playing them as piano duets. The early Piano con- 
certo in D minor once existed and was privately played in a two piano- 
forte version, and the Haydn variations, by exception, actually found 
publication as a piece for two pianofortes (op. 56-B) . If, as is probable, 
the orchestral form was written first, the piano form may have been a 
" reduction " originally intended by Brahms for his perpetual musical 
evenings. 



Max Kalbeck, who could have saved some unavailing space in his 
eight volume Life of Brahms by refraining from far-fetched interpreta- 
tions, has afforded exceeding delight to later writers by reading the 
temptations of St. Anthony into particular variations. " He thought," 
says Lawrence Gilman, " that the charming Seventh Variation, the 
Grazioso episode in B flat major in Siciliano rhythm, for flute and 
violas in octaves, pictures in tone the most atrocious of St. Anthony's 
ordeals, ' the most atrocious because the sweetest.' He found here ' the 
quintessence of human voluptuousness.' 

" One cannot help wondering what the sarcastic Brahms would have 
said if he had read this amazing tosh. If the music of that gracious 
Seventh Variation is ' voluptuous,' (to say nothing of ' the quintessence 
of voluptuousness ') , then we have all been entertaining lyric wantons 
unawares for many a year. Possibly Mr. Fuller-Maitland was thinking 
of Kalbeck's deplorable suggestions when, in analyzing these Varia- 
tions, he spoke of the melody of this passage as ' a delicious falling 
theme.' " 

Philip Hale is here reminded by Kalbeck of the man " of meagre 
aspect with sooty hands and face seen by Capt. Lemuel Gulliver at the 
Academy of Lagado engaged for eight years upon a project for extract- 
ing sunbeams from cucumbers." J. N. B. 



"ANNUITIES 
DESCRIBED" 

Technicalities and details are 
omitted. — A leaflet in simple 
words by R. O. Walter of Boston. 

Write for it today to the 

Equitable Life Assurance Society 

393 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Please send me without charge the Annuity 
leaflet by R. O. WALTER. 
Mr. 

Mrs 

Miss 

Address 

Age 



[8] 



" PICTURES AT AN EXHIBITION " 

(Pianoforte Pieces Arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel) 

By Modest Petrovitch Moussorgsky 

Moussorgsky, born at Karevo, district of Toropeta, in the government of Pskov, on 
March 28, 1835; died at St. Petersburg on March 28, 1881. Joseph Maurice Ravel, 
born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, on March 7, 1875; is now living at Montfort- 

l'Amaury and at Paris 



Moussorgsky composed his suite of piano pieces in June, 1874, on 
the impulse of his friendship for the architect Victor Hartmann, 
after a posthumous exhibit of the artist's work which immediately 
followed his death. " It almost asks for orchestration," wrote A. Eagle- 
field Hull of the music, some years ago, and indeed no less than four 
musicians have been tempted to try a hand at the task. Toushmalov (in 
St. Petersburg, 1891) set eight of the pieces, and in recent years Sir 
Henry Wood in London, Leondidas Leonardi in Paris, and Maurice 
Ravel in Paris, have arranged the whole suite. Ravel made his setting 
in 1923 for Dr. Koussevitzky, at the conductor's suggestion. 



Promenade. As preface to the first " picture," and repeated as a 
link in passing from each to the next, so far as the fifth, is a promenade. 
It is an admirable self-portrait of the composer, walking from picture 
to picture, pausing dreamily before one and another in fond memory of 
the artist. Moussorgsky said that his " own physiognomy peeps out 
through all the intermezzos," an absorbed and receptive face " nel 
modo russico." The theme, in a characteristically Russian 11-4 rhythm 
suggests, it must be said, a rather heavy tread.* 

Gnomus. There seems reason to dispute Riesemann's description: 
" the drawing of a dwarf who waddles with awkward steps on his short, 
bandy legs; the grotesque jumps of the music, and the clumsy, crawling 
movements with which these are interspersed, are forcibly suggestive." 
Stassov, writing to Kerzin -f in reply to the latter's inquiry explained: 
" the gnome is a child's plaything, fashioned, after Hartmann's design 
in wood, for the Christmas tree at the Artist's Club (1869) . It is some- 
thing in the style of the fabled Nutcracker, the nuts being inserted in 

* One recalls the story of Bernard Shaw, reviewing an exhibition of Alpine landscapes in 
London, tramping through the galleries in hob-nailed boots. 

t Arkady Mikhailovitch Kerzin (1857-1914), as founder and director of the Moscow Circle of 
Lovers of Russian Music (1896-1912), who were principally concerned with the cause of 
Moussorgsky's music, received from Stassov a long letter (on January 31, 1903) about the 
" Pictures at an Exhibition." Stassov told how he had taken advantage of a meeting with 
Rimsky-Korsakov at a supper arranged in honor of the Hamburg conductor, Fiedler (at 
Glazounov's house), to discuss the question of the tempi of the " Pictures." " We sat down 
at the piano, Rimsky-Korsakov played each number over a few times, and then we recalled 
how our Moussorgsky had played them — remembered, tried them, and finally fixed the right 
tempi with the aid of the metronome." Their findings were as follows (value of a crotchet): 
Promenade — 104; Gnomus — 120; II Vecchio Castello — 56 (dotted crotchet); Tuileries — 144; 
Bydlo — 88; Ballet — 88; The two Jews — 48; Limoges — 57; The Hut on Fowls' Legs — 120 
(allegro) and 72 (andante) ; The Gate at Kiev — 84. 

[9] 



the gnome's mouth. The gnome accompanies his droll movements with 
savage shrieks." 

Il Vecchio Castello. A troubadour sings a melancholy song before 
an old tower of the middle ages. Moussorgsky seems to linger over this 
picture with a particular fascination. (Ravel utilizes the best coloristic 
possibilities of the saxophone) . 

Tuileries. Children disputing after their play. An alley in the 
Tuileries gardens with a swarm of nurses and children. The composer, 
as likewise in his children's songs, seems to have caught a plaintive 
intonation in the children's voices, which Ravel scores for the high 
wood-winds. 

Bydlo. " Bydlo " is the Polish word for " cattle." A Polish wagon 
with enormous wheels comes lumbering along, to the tune of a " folk- 
song in the Aeolian mode, evidently sung by the driver." There is a 
long crescendo as it approaches — a diminuendo as it disappears in the 
distance. Calvocoressi finds in the melody " une penetrante poesie" 
(Ravel, again departing from usual channels, uses a tuba solo for his 
purposes) . 

Ballet of Chicks in Their Shells. " In 1870," says Stassov, " Hart- 
mann designed the costumes for the staging of the ballet ' Trilby ' at 
the Maryinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg. In the cast were a number of 
boy and girl pupils of the theatre school, arrayed as canaries.* Others 
were dressed up as eggs." 

Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle. Two Polish Jews, the one 
rich, the other poor. "The two Jews were drawn from life in 1868, 
and so delighted was Moussorgsky that Hartmann promptly presented 
him with the picture " (Stassov) . Riesemann calls this number " one 
of the most amusing caricatures in all music — the two Jews, one rich 
and comfortable and correspondingly close-fisted, laconic in talk, and 
slow in movement, the other poor and hungry, restlessly and fussily 
fidgeting and chatting, but without making the slightest impression 
on his partner, are musically depicted with a keen eye for characteristic 
and comic effect. These two types of the Warsaw Ghetto stand plainly 
before you — you seem to hear the caftan of one of them blown out 
by the wind, and the flap of the other's ragged fur coat. Moussorgsky's 
musical power of observation scores a triumph with this unique musi- 
cal joke; he proves that he can reproduce the ' intonations of human 
speech ' not only for the voice, but also on the piano." (Ravel makes 
the prosperous Jew speak from the low voiced strings, in unison. His 
whining neighbor has the voice of a muted trumpet) . 

Limoges. The Market-place. Market women dispute furiously. 
" Hartmann spent a fairly long time in the French town in 1866, exe- 
cuting many architectural sketches and genre pictures " (Stassov) . 

Catacombs. In this drawing Hartmann portrayed himself, examin- 
ing the interior of the Catacombs in Paris by the light of a lantern. In 
the original manuscript, Moussorgsky had written above the Andante 
in B-minor: " The creative spirit of the dead Hartmann leads me 

* Mixed ornithology in ballets and descriptive suites is apparently of no consequence. 
[10] 



towards skulls, apostrophizes them — the skulls are illuminated gently 
from within." 

(" ' The Catacombs,' with the subtitle ' Sepulchrum romanum/ are 
invoked by a series of sustained chords, now pp, now ff. Then comes 
under the title ' Con mortuis in lingua mortua ' (sic) a de-rhythmed 
transformation of the ' Promenade ' theme." — Calvocoressi.) 

The Hut on Fowls' Legs. " The drawing showed a clock in the 
form of Baba-Yaga's, the fantastical witch's hut on the legs of fowls. 
Moussorgsky added the witch rushing on her way seated on her 
mortar." To every Russian this episode recalls the verses of Pushkin in 
his introduction to " Russian and Ludmilla." 

The Gate of the Bogatirs at Kiev. " Hartmann's drawing repre- 
sented his plan for constructing a gate at Kiev, in the old Russian 
massive style, with a cupola shaped like a Slavonic helmet." This 
design was said to be a great favorite of Moussorgsky. Stassov calls his 
music " a majestic picture in the manner of the ' Slavsya,' and in the 
style of Glinka's ' Russian ' music." 

" Hartmann is bubbling over, just as Boris did," wrote Moussorgsky 
to his friend Stassov, while at work upon his " Pictures at an Exhibi- 
tion." " Ideas, melodies, come to me of their own accord, like the roast 
pigeons in the story — I gorge and gorge and over-eat myself. I can 
hardly manage to put it down on paper fast enough." 

Moussorgsky, so his friends have said, was seldom moved to exuber- 
ance over his work — was more often inclined to anxious questionings 
in such confidences. As a matter of fact, both the subject and the 
moment were just right to draw forth the very best from Moussorgsky's 
genius. He was deeply moved by the death of his artist friend, and his 
muse was at its best when quick, graphic characterization was called 
for, liberated from such heavy responsibilities as development, ex- 
tended form, detail of instrumentation. 

Within the orbit of Balikirev's circle in the seventies there were, 
besides musicians, the painter Riepin (whose unflattering portrait of 
Moussorgsky is familiar) , the sculptor, Antolkovsky, and the architect 



BOUND VOLUMES of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Concert Bulletins 



Containing 
Mr. Philip Hale's analytical and descriptive notes on all works performed 

during the season 

"A Musical Education in One Volume" 

"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowledge" 
Lawrence Gilman in the N. Y. Herald and Tribune 

Price S6.00 per volume 
Address, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 



In I 



and painter, Victor Hartmann. Hartmann, " to whom," so Riesemann 
tells us, " Petersburg owes some fine buildings," was a particular friend 
of Moussorgsky and of Stassov, who as writer endeavored to draw the 
various arts and artists together. Stassov was abroad at Wiesbaden, 
when Hartmann died at the age of thirty-nine, and Moussorgsky 
poured forth his feelings in a long letter. Stassov, returning, immedi- 
ately arranged an exhibition of Hartmann's watercolors and architec- 
tural sketches. Moussorgsky, somewhat after the scheme of Schumann's 
" Carnival," described the pictures that most appealed to him in a 
little suite of fragmentary piano pieces, as a sort of affectionate 
memorial. 

Moussorgsky 's letter to Stassov is full of self-castigation, bitter 
rebellion against fate — a truly Russian document which might have 
been lifted, word for word, from " The Brothers Karamazov." 

" My very dear friend, what a terrible blow! " he begins. " Why 
should a dog, a horse, a rat live on — and creatures like Hartmann must 
die! " And later: " This is how the wise usually console us blockheads, 
in such cases: ' He is no more, but what he has done lives and will live.' 
True — but how many men have the luck to be remembered? That is 
just another way of serving up our self-complacency (with a dash of 
onion, to bring out the tears) . Away with such wisdom! When ' he ' has 
not lived in vain, but has created — one must be a rascal to revel in the 
thought that ' he ' can create no more. No, one cannot and must not 
be comforted, there can be and must be no consolation — it is a rotten 
morality! If Nature is only coquetting with men, I shall have the hon- 
our of treating her like a coquette — that is, of trusting her as little as 
possible, keeping all my senses about me, when she tries to cheat me 
into taking the sky for a fiddlestick — or ought one rather, like a brave 
soldier, to charge into the thick of life, have one's fling, and go under? 
What does it all mean? In any case the dull old earth is no coquette, 
but takes every ' King of Nature ' straight into her loathsome embrace, 
whoever he is — like an old worn-out hag, for whom anyone is good 
enough, since she has no choice. 

" There again — what a fool I am! Why be angry when you cannot 
change anything? Enough, then — the rest is silence. . . ." 

Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 

advertise! 

representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal cost! 

L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 



anbers HTfjeatre • Cambribge 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 

Thursday Evening, December 20 
at 8 o'clock 



[13] 



To the — 
Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



Copies of the Trustees' letter of October 1 1 have 
recently been mailed to all subscribers to seats at 
the concerts of our Orchestra in New York. En- 
closed therewith was a sponsoring letter signed by a few 
important friends of music in New York including Mrs. 
J. West Roosevelt, Alfred L. Aiken, Mrs. Francis H. 
Cabot, Mrs. W. Rodman Fay and Richard Aldrich, in 
which they unqualifiedly endorse " this businesslike plan 
of the Trustees " and express their confidence " that the 
many admirers of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 
New York will welcome the opportunity to join in pro- 
viding at the beginning of the season for its financial re- 
quirements." 

Similar procedure is being followed in Brooklyn, and 
the sponsoring letter carries the endorsement of leading 
members of a Committee for the Brooklyn series. 
The record to November 15 stands as follows: 
Enrollments: 623 
Contributions: $34,584.37 

Edward A. Taft, Chairman 

To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra, simply make out 
a check to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. or sign a 
pledge card for whatever amount you care to contribute 
and mail it to E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon Street, 
Boston. Pledge cards may be obtained at the box office. 



[14] 



There needs only to be added the ironic commentary that while 
Hartmann's actual work, barring perhaps a building or two in Lenin- 
grad, has long since passed into oblivion, his name and a mere musical 
reflection of perhaps his slightest sketches have been spread across the 
world a half century later, without the remotest idea of such a result 
on the part of the composer. And so far as Moussorgsky himself is con- 
cerned, it is the way of posterity that this little masterpiece should have 
lain unnoticed for twelve years, when, five years after his death it was 
published by Bessel (1886) . Even then, the suite was virtually never 
played, and it fell to the lot of four separate composers to orchestrate 
it, Ravel at last bringing the music to a general knowledge in this 
version of 1923. 

" Ravel," says Dr. Vladimir Zederbaum, " scoring the Suite by 
Moussorgsky did not wish to modernize it much, therefore he tried, 
as far as possible, to keep the size of the orchestra of Rimsky-Korsakov 
in ' Boris Godunov,' and added some more instruments only in a few 
movements of the Suite. All instruments are employed in threes; there 
are some more percussion instruments than those used by Rimsky- 
Korsakov; he uses two harps, kettledrums, bass drum, snare drum, 
celesta, xylophone, glockenspiel, rattle, bells." 

The first performance of this orchestration was at a " Koussevitzky 
Concert" in Paris, May 3, 1923. Dr. Koussevitzky first played the suite 
at these concerts, November 7, 1924. The most recent performance was 
January 27, 1933. J. N. B. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[15] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: University 0956 



LAMBERT MURPHY 

TENOR TEACHER OF SINGING 

In Boston on Mondays 

STUDIO, 725 BOYLSTON STREET 

For appointments write to above address or phone Kenmore 3122 on Mondays 



DO YOU WISH TO SING? 

MARY TRACY 

VOICE SPECIALIST, says: — "Anyone possessing a normal speaking voice should 
be able to sing." Lessons before the microphone included in regular vocal instruction. 

™- { SS 2041 30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON &££Sl££. 0f ° harge 



BRENDAN KEENAN 

The Cultural, Spiritual and Physical Problems of Piano Mastery 

" — rarely profound understanding of music — broad culture — rare intuition and psychological under- 
standing — inspiring teacher — " Mme. Elly Net 

" — I have only the best wishes for this genius, hoping he has the opportunities to reach the great 
heights of which he is surely capable — " Mme. Sigbid Onegin 

" — I am sure, serious minded as you are, you will be a great success as a teacher — " 

WlLLEM VAN HOOGSTRATEN 

Baldwin Piano Reception by mail appointment only 384 The Riverway, Boston 






DOROTHY ZIOLKOWSKA 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER 

Member of Music Faculty Address: 78 Lake View Avenue, 

The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Telephone University 4230 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . - BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 

THEODOROWI^ T 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


HANSEN, E. 


. wu , j. 


MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERCEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




CERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, C. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


C. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD. 


, W. 


LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


w. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, t. 


LILLEBACK, w. 


CEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUCHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIF.RI, F. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SAN ROM A, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 



The 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(no Musicians) 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 23, at 2:30 

SATURDAY EVENING, November 24, at 8:15 

Programme 

EIGHHEIM .... "Bali" 

{Conducted by the composer) 

SIBELIUS .... Violin Concerto 

STRAUSS .... "Thus Spake Zarathustra," Tone Poem 

Soloist 
JASCHA HEIFETZ 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 30, at 2:30 

SATURDAY EVENING, December i, at 8:15 

MONDAY EVENING, December 3, at 8:15 

"The Damnation of Faust" 
Dramatic Legend 

BY 

HECTOR BERLIOZ 

WITH 

CHORUS AND SOLOISTS 

Tickets for the above concerts at the box-office, Symphony Hall 



i£>anber£ Wfytatvt, Cambribge 

[Harvard University] 



t 



.^wwuiiiiiy/^ 



S* 



*j» 



?'/, 



% 



;« 



BOSTON 
SYAPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 

INC. 

FIFTY-FOURTH 
9d> SEASON 
1934-1935 

[3] 



Thursday Evening, December 20 
at 8 o'clock 



JANUARY5atll.OO 



$m< 



Other 

Morning Varieties 

February 23 • March 30 

And BOY We Mean VARIETY/ 

BRADFORD WASHBURN, with his breath-taking 
movies of mountaineering and skiing 

NEWSBOYS' HARMONICA BAND — little wizards 
of the mouth-organ 

INDIAN DANCES — danced by real, live Indians! 

A STAR TALK in which Everett Grant shows you a 
brief glimpse of the heavens 

The marvellous PILLSBURY PIC- 
TURES of FLOWERS — see a movie of flow- 
ers bursting into bloom 

SILLY SYMPHONIES — everybody ^ 
loves 'em! j) 

Not to mention an interesting demonstration of 

the use of PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS 

drums, and all that 

And if this isn't VARIETY, we don't know what is ! 




* 



YBODYo* 




TICKETS 25c, 55c, 80c, $1.10 
NOW on sale at BOX OFFICE 



(Com. 1492) 




>aufcer£ QWjeatre • Harvard University • Camfcrfoge 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Third Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, December 20 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1934, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, IflC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 




Cfjanti ler & €o,=m 



Tremont Street at West 







1*& 



Elaborate with Fine Laces 
or Exquisitely Tailored 



$■ 



Feel the Fabrics — lovely satins 
and fine crepes! Look at the 
laces — expensive Alencon types ! 
You'd hardly expect to find such 
workmanship at this 2.00 price. 
You will want them for your- 
self — as well as for gifts. 

Street and Sixth Floors 



m 




[*] 



>anber£ ®f)eatre • Harvard University • Cambridge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, December 20, at 8 o'clock 



The Programme has been changed, as follows — 



Hill Symphony No. 1 in B-flat major, Op. 34 

I. ALLEGRO MODERATO, MA RISOLUTO 
II. MODERATO MAESTOSO 
III. ALLEGRO BRIOSO 



Toch " Big Ben," Variation Fantasy on the 

Westminster Chimes 

(First performance) 

INTERMISSION 

Brahms Symphony in E minor, No. 4, Op. 98 

i. allegro non troppo 

ii. andante moderato 

iii. allegro giocoso 

iv. allegro energico e passionato 

[Steinway Piano] 



>auber£ theatre • Harvard University • Cambrtbge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, December 20, at 8 o'clock 



Programme 

Gluck .... Sinfonia in G major (Edited by Hans Gal) 



I. ALLEGRO 

II. ANDANTE 

III. ALLEGRO 



Toch " Big Ben," Variation Fantasy on the 

Westminster Chimes 

(First performance) 

Hill . . . . . Symphony No. 1 in B-flat major, Op. 34 

I. ALLEGRO MODERATO, MA RISOLUTO 
II. MODERATO MAESTOSO 
III. ALLEGRO BRIOSO 



IN TERM ISSION 

Brahms Symphony in E minor, No. 4, Op. 98 

I. ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

II. ANDANTE MODERATO 

III. ALLEGRO GIOCOSO 

IV. ALLEGRO ENERGICO E PASSIONATO 



[Steinway Piano] 

[3] 



SINFONIA IN G MAJOR 

By Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck 

Born at Weidenwang, near Berching, in upper Palatinate, July 2, 1714; 
died at Vienna, November 15, 1787 



Edited by Hans Gal * 
Born in Vienna, 1890- 

This Sinfonia in three movements is written for two horns in G and 
string orchestra, in four parts. The second movement (andante) is 
for strings alone and is in the relative E minor. Hans Gal, as editor of 
the edition which was printed in 1934, makes these prefatory remarks: 
' The present first edition is based on a manuscript score owned by 
the Vienna National Library, which is headed ' Sinfonia a 6 del Sig. 
Gluk. Venezia 1746.' Its authenticity is beyond doubt, as the Sinfonia 
is identical with Gluck's Overture to the Opera ' Ipermestra ' (see the 
thematic catalogue of Gluck's works published by A. Wotquenne) writ- 

* Hans Gal, the Austrian theorist and composer, has long been connected with the Musical 
Department of the University of Vienna. His compositions include the comic operas " Der 
Facher " and " Der Arzt der Sobeide," 1919, music for Lewetzow's " Ruth " (1920), a sym- 
phony, the overture " Weh dem der lugt," an orchestral " Phantasie " and " Serenade," va- 
rious chamber-pieces, the choral works " Von ewiger Freude," " Phantasien " on poems by 
Tagore, " Abendgesang," etc., songs and piano-pieces. 




# 



Gifts 



Here you will find the answer to whatever your gift problem 
may be in fine silverware, diamonds, jewelry, watches, clocks, 
china, glassware, lamps and shades, leather goods or stationery. 

BIGELOW, KENNARD & COMPANY 

WviZSf since 1830 West Street at Washington • Boston 



[4] 



ten in the year 1744 for Venice and apparently used by the composer 
two years later for a special purpose. The Sinfonia is not only of his- 
torical interest as predecessor of the Viennese classical style and early 
specimen of a clearly outlined Sonata form; it is also a remarkable piece 
of expressive music showing, especially in the beautiful Andante, the 
characteristic features of its creator in spite of its early origin. 

" The manuscript is almost free of errors. The expression — and exe- 
cution marks placed in brackets have been added by the editor. The 
question of the continuo remains open. It is certain that at the time 
when the work was created all orchestral music was accompanied on 
the cembalo; nevertheless the editor thinks in this special case a Con- 
tinuo perfectly dispensable.* The conductor, who may have historical 
scruples, is free of course to have the work discreetly accompanied by 
a cembalo." 

When the young Gluck wrote his " Ipermestra " (for Venice, where 
it was produced at the Teatro di San Giovanni Crisostomo, October, 
1744) , he was only three years launched on his career as operatic com- 
poser. Favorably advanced by his teacher, Sammartini, and other influ- 
ential folk in Vienna, fortunately matched with Metastasio, who wrote 
his first libretti, including this one, Gluck had won an immediate vogue 
in Milan with " Artaserse/' " Demofoonte," " Artamene." The instru- 
mental introduction to these operas, sometimes labelled " overture," or 

* A Continuo will be dispensed with in this performance. 

The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 

Published by Oliver Ditson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

[5] 



" sinfonia," had no thematic bearing upon the opera itself, and, as in 
this case, was sometimes found useful for concert performance. This 
" sinfonia " seems to be the first by Gluck specifically so-named that has 
come down to posterity. The score of " Ipermestra," unlike other operas 
of this period of which only fragments, or nothing at all survive, is 
preserved intact. The " sinfonia " of the score is in three movements, 
like the concert piece. 

As operatic introductions, these pieces — according to contemporary 
writers — had scant attention from the audience, who did not come to 
the front of their boxes until their favorite prima donna or castrato was 
upon the stage. Used as a concert piece, the "sinfonia avanti V opera" 
became the natural precursor of the symphony as Haydn developed it. 
In the year 1744 Emmanuel Bach, who was just Gluck's age, had been 
composing symphonies for three years. Christian Bach, another delight- 
ful symphonist, was then a boy of nine, and Haydn was only twelve. 
Mozart was born twelve years later. J. N. B. 



"BIG BEN," VARIATION FANTASY ON THE 
WESTMINSTER CHIMES 

By Ernst Toch 
Born at Vienna on December 7, 1887; now living in New York 



When Ernst Toch arrived in New York last September, he spoke 
to a writer for the New York Times of his " Westminster Fantasy " 
which " was conceived one shrouded cloudy midnight near the Parlia- 
ment Buildings in London." 

It now appears that Dr. Toch, after mentally shaping this score dur- 
ing his recent sojourn in London, did the actual writing of it in New 
York — a fact which is borne out by the same article in the New York 
Times: " Dr. Toch scores his works, whether for orchestra, quartet or 
piano, in their final form without preliminary sketches; a method which 
implies an inner ear of remarkable exactness and an immense instru- 
mental knowledge." 

The composer has kindly provided the following paragraph about 
his Variation Fantasy: 

* The suggestion for ' Big Ben ' came to me during my stay in Lon- 
don in the winter of 1933-34. Once on a foggy night, while I was cross- 
ing Westminster Bridge, the familiar chimes struck the full hour. The 
theme lingered in my imagination for a long while, and evolved into 
other forms, somehow still connected with the original one, until fi- 
nally, like the chimes themselves, it seemed to disappear into the fog 
from which it had emerged. I have sought to fix this impression in my 
[6] 



Variation Fantasy. The piece was actually written later in New York, in 
October and November, 1934." 

The composer uses a large variety of percussive instruments to gain 
his ends. The instrumentation includes: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 
English horn, 2 clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-flat, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
4 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 bass tuba, timpani, low chimes (E-D-C-G) , 
small chimes, large drum, side drum, cymbals, xylophone, triangle, cas- 
tanets, 2 different small Chinese wood drums, tam tarn, celesta, harp 
and strings. 

The score opens and closes with the full Westminster chimes to a 
background of violin figures, and finally to a roll of the timpani and 
small drums. There are sections in contrasted tempi suggesting varia- 
tions, but after the theme is fully stated by the strings in the first 
(Vivace) it recurs only in fragmentary fashion. Different instruments 
give one of the "quarters," but with rhythmic attention or embellish- 
ment of the essential notes. The listed tempi (andantino — scherzando 
leggiero — slower, free — molto tranquillo) suggest the course of the 
variation fantasia. 

Ernst Toch was born December 7, 1887, in Vienna of a mercantile 
family in which there seems to have been no musical strain whatsoever. 
The first signs of musical talent naturally passed unnoticed in the boy, 
who learned the notation of music by standing near the piano while 
his friends at school played. Ernst Toch made attempts at musical com- 
position despite the discouraging attitude of his parents, and was com- 
pelled to spend his pocket money secretly in buying classical scores in 
which Mozart's chamber music seems to have predominated. 

While still in High School at the age of sixteen, Toch contrived to 
study at the Vienna Conservatory, but he had already mastered the ele- 
ments of the art by his own efforts. One of his friends showed an early 
quartet in A minor to the Rose Quartette in Vienna, and the famous 
protagonists of Schoenberg's music played this and later others. Toch 
was constrained on graduation from high school to study medicine for 
two years, but a Mozart scholarship which he received in 1909 enabled 
him to attend the Conservatory at Frankfort am Main where he studied 
piano with Professor Willy Rehberg. 

Toch became teacher at the Mannheim Hochschule fur Musik, and 
composed a number of works. When the war came he saw long and ac- 
tive service in the Austrian infantry on both the Italian and Russian 
fronts. He was married while on furlough in 1916. Returning after the 
war to his position at Mannheim, he soon attained a considerable repu- 
tation as a composer. His works include a large amount of chamber 
music, also orchestral music and concertos. He has written several 
operas and incidental stage music. He left Germany about a year ago, 

[7] 



and made his residence in England. He is now teaching in the New 
School for Social Research, in New York. 

Dr. Toch's Piano Concerto Opus 38 was played at these concerts 

(Jesus Maria Sanroma, pianist) on December 28, 1928, and again on 

March 25, 1932 when the composer, then making his first visit to 

America, appeared as soloist. Toch's Bunte Suite Opus 28 had its first 

American performance on the latter programme. J. N. B. 



SYMPHONY IN B-FLAT MAJOR, Op. 34 

By Edward Burlingame Hill 
Born at Boston, Mass., on September 9, 1872; now living in Cambridge, Mass. 



This symphony was performed for the first time by the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra in Boston on March 30, 1928. The orchestra 
played it in New York later in that season, and again in Boston, March 
22, 1929. 

We are indebted to Mr. Hill for the following account of his sym- 
phony: 

"This symphony was composed from June to November, 1927. It 
has no descriptive basis, hints at no dramatic conflict or spiritual crisis. 
It attempts merely to develop musical ideas. 

" After three measures of introduction, the principal theme is an- 
nounced by the horns. After the usual transition, the second theme, 
given mainly to strings, appears in the mediant major. The conclusion 
theme emphasizes the same tonality. The development is based upon 
the principal subject, and the conclusion theme up to the passage which 



"ANNUITIES 
DESCRIBED" 

Technicalities and details are 
omitted. — A leaflet in simple 
words by R. O. Walter of Boston. 

Write for it today to the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society 

393 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Please send me without charge the Annuity 
leaflet by R. O. WALTER. 
Mr. 

Mrs 

Miss 

Address 

Age 



[8] 



leads to the restatement. The second theme is then given more or- 
chestral emphasis. The coda is brief, and the end quiet. 

" In the slow movement, a section in E-flat minor gives way to an 
episode in the relative major. After some development, the first section 
returns somewhat varied, and closes with an allusion to the central 
episode. 

" The finale is virtually in rondo form. The first theme is rhyth- 
mical; the second lyrical. Towards the close of the movement, the 
second theme is given to the brass, leading to a brief coda. 

" The following instruments are used: four flutes (the third and 
fourth interchangeable with piccolos) , two oboes, English horn, three 
clarinets in B-flat, bass clarinet in B-flat, two bassoons, double-bassoon, 
six horns in F, four trumpets in B-flat, three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, bass drum, snare drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, 
Glockenspiel, piano, and the usual strings. 

" The score is dedicated to Sergei Koussevitzky." P. H. 



SYMPHONY IN E MINOR, NO. 4, Op. 98 

By Johannes Brahms 

Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897 



The Brahms of 1885, surrounded by admiring friends, revered every- 
where by virtue of his first three symphonies, had every reason to 
rest secure in a foregone acceptance of his Fourth, which he completed 
that summer. Yet there are signs that the composer who, after many 
a " Konzertwinter" knew a thing or two about his public as well as his 
music, was far from easy in his mind about the coming performance. 
He undoubtedly realized that most people, missing certain bright and 
immediately engaging qualities which had won them to the Second 
and Third, would be disappointed at the rather sombre hues, the more 
massive and stately beauties this one contained. He must further have 
known that the bulk of its intricate workmanship was bound to be but 
dimly comprehended for a long time. 

Even the inner circle, skilled musicians as they were, shook their 
heads rather dubiously over the new score, and when Brahms, with 
Ignatz Brull played his usual two pianoforte version to some friends 
in Vienna before the public performance, Hanslick is said to have 
" sighed heavily " after the first movement, and remarked, with cheer- 
ful bluntness: " Really, you know, it sounds to me like two tremen- 
dously witty people quarrelling! " Brahms cautiously entrusted it to the 
friendly atmosphere of Meiningen and Billows' ducal orchestra for the 
first performance. He was glad to take advantage of Bulow's offer of 

[9] 



his orchestra for trial rehearsal, and wrote to him: " I have often while 
composing (the symphony) , had a pleasing vision of rehearsing it in 
a nice leisurely way — a vision that I still have, although I wonder 
whether it will ever have any other audience! I rather fear it has been 
influenced by this climate, where the cherries never ripen. You would 
never touch them! " Brahms, as we shall see, was right in fearing that 
his symphony would scarcely take its first hearers by storm. 

In these weeks of doubt, Brahms must have been heartened by the 
knowledge that one of his friends at least divined the essential beauties 
of his Fourth Symphony. It was Elisabet von Herzogenberg, whom he 
had delighted in keeping in a state of mystified anticipation before each 
of his previous symphonies was performed. For once this adroit lady 
coaxed from him the fragmentary manuscript of a symphony still in 
the process of composition. Their correspondence on the subject is un- 
usually interesting, for never before had Brahms been led into a long 
interchange of letters on an uncompleted score. Her enthusiastic letters 
must have been heartening to the composer, for her quick, intuitive 
grasp of the inner qualities of the difficult manuscript was matched by 
her tact in admitting those points which perplexed her. When Frau 
Herzogenberg at last heard the symphony (by the Berlin Philharmonic 
under Joachim, January 1886) , she wrote of her final preference for the 
Andante. 

" It is one of the most affecting things I know, and, indeed, I should 
choose this movement for my companion through life and in death. It 
is all melody from first to last, increasing in beauty as one presses for- 
ward; it is a walk through exquisite scenery at sunset, when the colors 
deepen and the crimson glows to purple." 

Of the first performance, at Meiningen, Florence May has often been 
quoted to show that the work took at once with the public. She wrote 
that the " new symphony was enthusiastically received," that " unsuc- 
cessful efforts were made by the audience to obtain a repetition of the 
third movement," and that the close " was followed by the emphatic 
demonstration incident to a great success." Against this is the evidence 
of Frederic Lamond, a living eye-witness, who wrote in the Berlin 
Vossiche Zeitung (October 5, 1933) that the symphony " brought little 
applause." There is every indication that the E minor symphony was 
not clearly understood for a long while. A new symphony by Brahms 
was at that time considered an event, the more so when the revered 
composer conducted it. The crusading Biilow improved the occasion by 
repeating it at Meiningen, by taking his orchestra and the composer 
himself up and down the Rhine with it, and into Holland. The first 
performance in Vienna (on January 17, under Richter) caused a stir, 
and Billroth gave a dinner to Brahms and his friends. But though the 
[10] 



Viennese applauded and praised the eminent musician who had dwelt 
among them for thirty years past, the symphony, according to Miss May 
" did not reach the hearts of the Vienna audience in the same unmis- 
takable manner as its two immediate predecessors." The unfrivolous 
Leipzig, which had held off from the " two predecessors," took at once 
to the Fourth, and the critic Vogl smiled upon the finale for the " spirit 
of Bach " that was in it. Hamburg (where the symphony was heard on 
April 9) was of course proud of her native son, and the critic Josef 
Sittard of that city praised the symphony as "of monumental signifi- 
cance," basing his award on the doubtful virtue of its " rigorous and 
even grim earnestness." 

That orchestras found the E minor a formidable task is indicated 
by the fact that Wilhelm Gericke, who had secured the score for its first 
American performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on Novem- 
ber 29, 1886, was forced to postpone the event for further rehearsal, 
meanwhile yielding the honor to Dr. Leopold Damrosch, who played it 
in New York, December 11. Miss May, writing her book twenty years 
later, can only claim for Brahms' last symphony that it has the highest 
regard of musicians, that it has " been growing slowly into general 
knowledge and favor, and will, it may be safely predicted, become still 
more deeply rooted in its place amongst the composer's most widely 
valued works." 

Still more time has passed; the " remote " Brahms, the " unapproach- 
able " Brahms has somehow vanished into history or oblivion, and an 
audience, quite unconcerned with technical intricacies, sit before the 
once dread symphony in anticipation of the true grandeur, the direct 
poetry, the fine sobriety of mellowed coloring which are characteristic 
of the composer's riper years. 

The following analysis was made by Felix Borowski: 

I. (Allegro non troppo, E minor, 2-2 time.) The principal subject is announced 
at once by the violins. After this theme has been presented, a sequence of scale-like 
passages is brought forward in the violas, and successively in the woodwind instru- 

BOUND VOLUMES of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Concert Bulletins 

Containing 

analytical and descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, foremost critic, 

and Mr. John N. Burk, on all works performed during the season 

"A Musical Education in One Volume" 

"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowledge" 
Lawrence Gilman in the N. Y. Herald and Tribune 

Price $6.00 per volume 

Address, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 

[»] 



ments, and portions of the principal subject are worked over in the strings. A 
marked, emphatic figure — the second theme — now makes its appearance in the 
woodwind and horns, and this is succeeded by a second section given to the violon- 
cellos and horns (pizzicato in the violins), the melody being taken up later by the 
first and second violins in octaves. The first section of the theme is given further 
hearing. There is no repetition of the first part of the movement, and the Develop- 
ment begins with a working out of the principal theme, eight measures of which 
are repeated exactly as they stood at the beginning of the work. Nearly all this 
section of the movement is concerned with the development of the principal theme 
and the first section of the second subject. The Recapitulation which follows is con- 
structed in the orthodox fashion. The principal theme does not begin exactly as 
before, the first four measures of it having been varied. The second subject, in two 
sections, as in the first part of the movement, now appears in E minor. The coda 
is constructed from the material of the principal theme. 

II. (Andante moderato, E major, 6-8 time.) Two horns announce the motive of 
the first subject of the movement, these being reinforced in the second and third 
measures by the flutes, oboes and clarinets. The subject begins in the fifth measure 
with the melody in the clarinet (pizzicato in the strings) . The second theme, in B 
major, presents itself in the violoncellos, thirty-seven measures after the first has 
been announced. This is developed at some length, and the first subject returns in 
the strings with a moving figure against it in the wind. Elaboration of this takes 
place, following which the second subject — now in E — is set forth by the first vio- 
lins. A short coda is founded on the opening theme. 

III. (Allegro giocoso, C major, 2-4 time.) This is, in reality, the scherzo of the 
symphony, although it is not so named on the score. The principal theme is an- 
nounced at once by the full orchestra. The second subject, in G major, is heard in 
the first violins, the rhythmical figure of its accompaniment suggesting the outline 
of the opening subject of the first movement. Development of the principal subject 
now takes place, and following it there sets in the Recapitulation. In this the princi- 
pal subject is modified at the beginning, the first ten bars having been changed. The 
second theme (first violins and oboe) appears in C major. A long and brilliant coda 
is built on the material of the principal theme. 

IV. (Allegro energico e passionato, E minor, 3-4 time.) The finale of the E minor 
symphony is not cast in the rondo or sonata form peculiar to the closing movements 
of other symphonies, but it is a passacaglia, in which a theme of eight bars is given 
thirty-two variations. 

The musical wisemen of the time were not unnaturally agog to find 
that Brahms had taken from Bach so rigid and constricted a form as the 
passacaglia, and had calmly broken all symphonic precedent by using 
it for a finale. Brahms accomplished the impossible by repeating his 
stately eight bar theme (first nobly intoned by the trombones) through 
many variations, with scarcely an extra transitional bar, and yet avoid- 
ing all sense of patchiness or tedious reiteration. That the movement 

Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 

advertise! 

representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal cost 

L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 



^anbers GWjeatre • Cambrtbge 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



ADRIAN BOULT, Guest Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 

Thursday Evening, January 10, 
at 8 o'clock 



[13] 



To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



T 



he following detail shows the total number of en- 
rollments to date with contributions classified as to 



amounts: 






Number of 




Total 


Enrollments 


Classification 


Contributions 


I 


$2,000 


$2,000 


6 


1,000 


6,000 


IO 


500-1,000 


5^5° 


13 


250-500 


3,75° 


r 9 


150-250 


3,400 


74 


100 


7,400 


81 


50-100 


W55 


127 


25-50 


3,306 


470 


Under 25 


4,926 



801 



,187 



This represents approximately 45% in amount of the 

estimated requirements. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 

To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra, simply make out a 
check to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. or sign a pledge 
card for whatever amount you care to contribute and mail it 
to E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon Street, Boston. Pledge 
cards may be obtained at the Box Office. 



[14] 



shows never a "joint," but is broadly, majestically fluent, that it pro- 
gresses with the variety, the sweep of a symphonic form, is attributable 
to Brahms' particular craftiness in the manipulation of voices and har- 
monic color. Brahms' first apostles feared lest the details of this struc- 
tural marvel be lost upon the general public. Joachim, first introducing 
the symphony to Berlin (February 1, 1886) announced the last move- 
ment as " variations," and had the theme printed in the programme. 
On early Boston Symphony Programmes the movement appears as 
Ciaconna* In assuming that the listener would find the movement as 
a whole too much for him, the scholars may have underrated both 
Brahms and his public. The composer, as the Leipzig critic Vogl astutely 
remarked after the first performance there, " kept its contrapuntal learn- 
ing subordinate to its poetic contents." If the Quintet from Die Meister- 
singer or the finale of the Jupiter Symphony were to the uninitiated 
nothing clearer than a tangle of counterpoint, then Wagner and Mozart 
would be far lesser composers than they are. Just so, the broad lines of 
the Cathedral at Milan are not obscured to the general vision by its 
profusion of detail. Nor does the layman miss the nobility and sweep 
of Brahms' tonal architecture. J. N. B. 

* The difference between a passacaglia and a chaconne is a rare subject for hair-splitting. 
No doubt a goodly array of weighty opinions could be assembled to establish, on the one 
hand, that Brahms' finale is indubitably a passacaglia, and a no less learned case could be 
made that it is beyond all dispute a chaconne. A plausible argument for the latter is made 
by Dr. Percy Goetschius, in his " Analytic Symphony Series ": " The Finale is a chaconne," 
Dr. Goetschius begins, confidently. " Brahms gave it no name, and it has been called by some 
writers a Passacaglia. This uncertainty is not strange, since those two old Dances were 
almost identical, and their titles are usually considered interchangeable. Still, there are 
several traits which assign this a place in the category of the chaconnes: (1) The fact that 
the theme is conceived, not as a bass (" ostinato "), but as a melody, and is placed often in 
the upper voice; (2) the exclusively homophonic texture of the variations; (3) the frequent, and 
not unimportant alteration of the endings of the theme. In a word, selecting Bach as arbiter, 
this set of variations is closer akin to Bach's Chaconne for Solo Violin, than to his great 
Passacaglia for the Organ." 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



0. yadtyn 
the o^fCagician 

3 Arranges and presents private En- 
tertainments of a character the 
most unusual and Extraordinary. 

^ Charming divertissement for chil- 
dren's parties. 

^ Distinguished references here and 
abroad. 

i 8 Beacon Street 

Capitol 4967 Boston 



[15] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



CHARDON STRING QUARTETTE 

FOURTH CONCERT OF THE SERIES 
BRAHMS EVENING 

Brattle Hall, Cambridge Thursday, January 17th at 8.30 P.M. 

Tickets on sale at THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC Telephone: Trowbridge 0956 



LAMBERT MURPHY 

TENOR TEACHER OF SINGING 

In Boston on Mondays 

STUDIO, 725 BOYLSTON STREET 

For appointments write to above address or phone Kenmore 3122 on Mondays 



DO YOU WISH TO SING? 

MARY TRACY 

VOICE SPECIALIST, says: — "Anyone possessing a normal speaking voice should 
be able to sing." Lessons before the microphone included in regular vocal instruction. 

™- { oSSL 2041 30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON ^S fe"' ° l ""'° 



BRENDAN KEENAN 

The Cultural, Spiritual and Physical Problems of Piano Mastery 

" — rarely profound understanding of music — broad culture — rare intuition and psychological under- 
standing — inspiring teacher — " Mmb. Ellt Net 

" — I have only the best wishes for this genius, hoping he has the opportunities to reach the great 
heights of which he is surely capable — " Mmb. Sisrid Onegin 

" — I am sure, serious minded as you are, you will be a great success as a teacher — " 

WlLLEM VAN HOOGSTRATEN 

Baldwin Piano Reception by mail appointment only 384 The Riverway, Boston 



DOROTHY ZIOLKOWSKA 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER 

Member of Music Faculty Address: 78 Lake View Avenue, 

The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Telephone University 4230 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUCA, N. SAUVLET, H 


[. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, p. eisler, d. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PIN FIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BE ALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, r. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYN BERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




CERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEM AIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD, 


W. 


LAN NO YE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


W. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


GEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, h. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




zighera, b. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




sanroma, j. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



Symphony Hall 

Sunday Afternoon, December 30, at 3:30 



PENSION FUND 

CONCERT 

by the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Act III of Wagner's 

"SIEGFRIED" 

Soloists 

ELSA ALSEN FREDERICK JAGEL 

MARIE MURRAY FRED PATTON 



" No more transporting moments can be remembered than the playing yesterday 
of the apocalyptic pages that form the orchestral interlude in which Siegfried, having 
broken Wotan's spear, ascends the rock to where sleeping Bruennhilde lies. The 
mingling of motives, recalled from ' Rhinegold ' and ' The Valkyrs ' produces music 
no less lofty for its sheer gorgeousness of sound than for the cosmic ideas it represents. 

" One thing is certain, that in no opera house of the world, regularly operated as 
such, can one hear Wagner's magnificent music as well performed as it was yesterday." 

C. W. Durgin, Boston Globe, November 3, 1934 



ALBERT SPALDING will appear as soloist at the symphony concerts 
of Friday Afternoon, December 28, and Saturday Evening, December 29. 



anberg GTfjeatre, Camfcrtbge 

[Harvard University] 




Thursday Evening, January 10 
at 8 o'clock 



SYMPHONY HALL 



YEHUDI 

MENUHIN 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 27, at 3.30 



SYMPHONY HALL 

Tuesday JANUARY 15 at 8:30 

ONLY BOSTON APPEARANCE OF 

Dr. William 

B E E B E 

Noted Lecturer, Author, Scientist 

< ? 50© FATHOMS DOWN" 

• Dr. Beebe's thrilling word-of-mouth 
Odyssey of his epoch-making descent to 
a depth of over 3000 feet below sea sur- 
face in his famous "Bathysphere." • 

Illustrated by MOTION PICTURES and SLIDES 

TicketS 55« 85« #1.10 Inched 



>anber£ Cfjeatre • Harvard University • Camfiribge 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Fourth Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, January 10 
with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 



CJjantiler & €o. 

Tremont Street at West 



Fine Quality 

Hudson Seal 

(Seal dyed Muskrat) 

Coats 




$ 



159 



Every coat made from solid 
Hudson Seal (seal dyed musk- 
rat) skins! When you try on one 
of these coats with a luxurious 
roll collar or the more youthful, 
softly rippled type, you marvel 
at the softness and the feeling 
of luxury. The price is particu- 
larly low for this type of fur coat. 

You may purchase your coat on 

our 10-payment budget plan. 

Second Floor. 



[2] 



>auber£ tKfjeatre • Harvard University • Cambridge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, January 10, a* 8 o'clock 
ADRIAN BOULT Conducting 



Programme 



Giovanni Gabrieli . . . Sonata Plan e Forte (edited by Fritz 

Stein) 

{First performance at these concerts) 

Mendelssohn .... Scherzo in E Minor from the Octet, 

Op. 20 (arranged for orchestra by 
the composer) 

(First performance at these concerts) 

Haydn Symphony in G Major, No. 88 (B. & 

H. No. 13) 

1. adagio; allegro 

II. LARGO 
III. MENUETTO; TRIO 
IV. FINALE: ALLEGRO CON SPIRITO 

interm ission 
Elgar Symphony No. 2 in E flat, Op. 63 

I. ALLEGRO VIVACE E NOBILMENTE 
II. LARGHETTO 
III. rondo: PRESTO 
iv. finale: moderato e maestoso 



[3] 



ADRIAN BOULT 

The career of a conductor is read on the one hand in the channels of 
his acquisitive and his expansive years as developing musician, on 
the other in his programmes, his insistences, his audiences. These mat- 
ters would all be eloquent of Adrian Boult's character as a musician, if 
they could be included within the space of a few pages. Even the outline 
of his development and the posts he has held is not without revelation 
of his particular qualities. 

According to the evidence of his mother, herself a musician,* 
Adrian Boult showed an extraordinary aptitude for music, even in his 
pre-coherent years. He would pick out notes accurately on the piano 
even before his eyes had reached the level of the keys. His talents were 
in no way pushed, however, and at the age of twelve (Adrian Boult 
was born in Chester, England, 1889) he was sent to the Westminster 
School, where apparently music was considered an entirely unessential 
part in the development of the average small boy. Young Boult found 
opportunities, nevertheless. The science master (H. E. Piggott) was in- 
terested in music, and the two were often closeted in the pursuit of 
harmony, counterpoint, or fugue. The boy further found his way to 
London each Sunday to attend the Queen's Hall concerts of Henry J. 
Wood, score in hand and ears alert. In this way the young musician 
learned much from the older one whose associate and successor he was 
destined to become. 

Eva Mary Grew, from whose articles in the " British Musician " -f 
this material is derived, remarks discerningly that this quiet self-training 
may have been more valuable than the conventional academic and pro- 
fessional ordeal. " Some natures want to be active participants in the 
struggle from the start. Others want to be observers. In his youth, 
Adrian Boult's nature was, to my understanding, of the second of these 
two orders." The writer further considers that the developing musician 
was fortunate in turning from " the exercise of simple observation to 
what may be called the practical amateurism " of Oxford, where Adrian 
Boult entered Christ Church at the age of nineteen. Dr. Hugh Percy 
Allen was an active and beneficent force in Oxford at that time, con- 
ducting a choral society in the town, another in the University, and 
combining the two for his more ambitious projects, of which there were 
many. Adrian Boult apparently missed no chances. He sang in choirs 
and choruses, took bass solo parts in Bach, coached and rehearsed oper- 
atic performances, and even appeared upon the stage as Zamiel in 
" Der Freischiitz" In 1917, he was given the degree of "Doctor of 
Music " by his university, a title, however, which he has avoided as 
unduly academic. 

On leaving Oxford, the young man went to Leipzig to study at the 
Conservatorium, but perhaps with the even stronger intent of becom- 
ing " observer " once more at the Gewandhaus concerts, where Artur 
Nikisch was presiding. He observed the conductor from at least two 
angles — from behind as member of the audience and from the front as 
member of the Gewandhaus choir. 



* Katherine F. Boult was a writer on musical subjects, having translated and edited the 
writings of Berlioz for the " Everyman " Edition. 

f Adrian Boult, "The Story of his Life and Work," appeared serially in "The British Mu- 
sician " from August, 1933, through June, 1934. 

[4] 



Returning to England and his home at Liverpool, Adrian Boult or- 
ganized and conducted an orchestra in the Sun Hall, Kensington, " in 
the slums of Liverpool," where the attendance was uneven, and depleted 
by the preoccupations of the world war, which had just begun. After 
various engagements at festivals and other occasional concerts, and a 
brief service in the War Office department, where his knowledge of Ger- 
man proved valuable, he made his London debut with four concerts in 
the Queen's Hall, in 1918, including a "revival" of the then scarcely 
noticed " London Symphony " of Vaughan Williams — under difficul- 
ties, for an air raid was in progress. 

The conductor, who was now attracting increased attention, was 
engaged to lead concerts by the London Philharmonic Society, and as 
a conductor of Diaghileff's Ballet Russe for its London seasons of 1918 
and 1919. He assisted the aging Charles Villiers Standard as conductor 
of the Orchestra of the Royal College of Music, and on his retirement 
took charge of the " Patron's Fund " concerts, wherein the music of 
young composers is given rehearsal, and public performance. His two 
seasons as leader of the sporadic and short-lived British Symphony 
Orchestra might be looked upon as the " finale " of his formative years. 

In 1923, he became conductor of the Birmingham Festival Choral 
Society, on the retirement of Sir Henry W T ood, a position which he held 
for seven years. 

When the British Broadcasting Company concerts were organized 
in 1930, Dr. Boult was appointed to the important post of director. 
The " B.B.C." orchestra, as it is known, is of the first importance in 
musical England, both by its public concerts, and by its broadcasts as 
the official orchestra of the Government's radio (" wireless ") monopoly. 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Ditson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 



[51 



" SONATA PIAN E FORTE " 

Arranged for brass instruments 
By Giovanni Gabrieli 

Born in Venice, 1557; died there August 12, 1612 



About two hundred years before Mozart wrote serenades for or- 
chestras divided into two or four sections with echo effects, Giovanni 
Gabrieli and his uncle Andrea before him were giving this long- 
enduring musical trick its first vogue. As a matter of fact, the Cathedral 
of St. Mark in Venice, where each held the post of first organist in his 
time, boasted two organs and two choirs, and both composers wrote 
antiphonal music in which, in different parts of the great edifice, the 
phrase and its answer would be heard, softly intoned, or strongly af- 
firmed, or both choirs would combine, with sonorous effect. Such is 
the significance of the words " Pian e Forte." The sonata was one of 
the pieces in a collection of music by Giovanni Gabrieli, both vocal and 
instrumental, which was published in 1597 under the title "Sacrae 
Sy?nphoniae." The word " sonata " is naturally to be applied broadly 
in this age of elaborate vocal counterpoint, when concerted instru- 
mental music was still at its very beginnings. " Sonata," we are told, 
signified nothing more than a piece of music to be " sounded " by in- 
struments, while the word " cantata " sufficed for almost anything that 
was sung. 

The " Sacrae Symphoniae " consisted principally of vocal music, and 
contained motets with voice parts up to nineteen. There were also many 
instrumental numbers. The Sonata Pian e Forte was scored for two 
trombone choirs, the one consisting of two high and one tenor trom- 
bone, with a cornetto * for the soprano voice, the other, two tenors and 
a bass trombone, with a violin for the upper voice. 

The first choir, Dr. Stein has scored for two trumpets and two horns, 
thus giving the original cornetto part to the first trumpet. " The tone 
quality of the horns will be found to be the nearest approach to that of 
the old trombones." 

The second choir, he has given to a quartet of trombones, the bass 
doubled by a tuba. He points out that the string instrument f for which 
the upper part of the original was scored withstood its heavy comple- 
ment of brass only because the trombone of that time had a far smaller 
tone than ours. 

Theodore Thomas arranged Gabrieli's Sonata "Pian e Forte" for 
string and brass instruments when, in 1901, he conducted a series of con- 
certs illustrating the development of orchestral music. Following 
Gabrieli's plan, Mr. Thomas placed a group of violas and violoncellos 

* The cornetto (" Zinke," or " Cornet a Bouquin ") was a slightly conical wooden tube with 
seven holes for stops, and a cup mouthpiece similar to that of a trumpet. It was very popular 
in the 14th and 15th centuries, often used with trombones, and was highly regarded in church 
music. Artusi wrote: "As to its tone, it resembles the brightness of a sunbeam piercing the 
darkness, when one hears it among the voices in cathedrals, churches, or chapels." 
t The " violin " then used corresponded, in range at least, to our modern viola, being written 
as low as D below middle C. 

[6] 



upon the stage, while two trumpets, three trombones, and four horns 
were heard in the distance. 

Giovanni Gabrieli was one of an illustrious Venetian family of 
musicians. His uncle, Andrea, born about 1510, was a pupil of Adrian 
Willaert. He held the post of maestro di cappella at St. Mark's from 
1527 to 1562, and four years later succeeded Claudio Merulo as organist 
of the cathedral. His most famous pupils were Leo Hassler, Peter 
Sweelinck, and his nephew Giovanni, who, on his uncle's death, took 
his place as first organist of St. Mark's. 

Giovanni Gabrieli greatly developed orchestral usage, and showed 
boldness in the handling of voices, particularly in modulation. Of the 
Sacrae Symphoniae L. Finzenhagen says: " One recognizes in this work 
the richest, the fullest development of the Venetian School. This music 
possesses a plenitude of harmonic coloring, and also has the soft but 
lively play of nuance which is the characteristic sign of Venetian paint- 
ing. His counterpoint does not follow expected courses, but is used as 
means to express life." 

To probe back into Gabrieli's own time is to find that he had an 
exceeding fame both as organist and as composer, although he probably 
never left Venice. Of his foremost pupils, Michael Praetorius called him 
" the most eminent, the most famous of all," and another, Heinrich 
Schutz, was moved to a classical conceit: 

" What a man was Gabrieli, O immortal gods! If antiquity had 
known him she would have preferred him to Amphion; if the muses 
had wished to marry, Melpomene would have had no other spouse than 
he, so great was his mastery of song! All this is confirmed by his high 
reputation. I can be the first witness of it, for I enjoyed his teaching 
four years, to my great profit." J. N. B. 



(The Programme was changed too late to make a corresponding change in the Notes.) 

DIVERTIMENTO IN B FLAT (KOECHEL NO. 287) 

For string orchestra and two horns 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



Mozart's contemporaries expected from him, as from any musician 
of high standing, an inexhaustible fertility in deft music, which 
could be ordered at will by the prosperous citizens, for their entertain- 
ments. The " Unterhaltungsmusik" would grace the good wine and 
conversation at table, help celebrate the " name day " of some promi- 
nent personage, with perhaps a serenade in a garden where a small 
group of wind players, with " Nachtmusik " composed for the occasion, 
would make an evening party quite charming. Divertimenti, serenades, 
cassations, Mozart provided on the shortest notice (Koechel's catalogue 
lists thirty-three of them as surviving) . A standing wonder of Mozart's 
genius was that he often gave something infinitely better than was asked 
of him — that he now and then squandered on these frequent and pass- 
ing gaieties some of his truly precious and undying musical thoughts. 

[7] 



This divertimento of Mozart's twenty-first year has been singled out 
by de Wyzewa and de Saint-Foix in their minutely considered study of 
the younger Mozart: " the work throughout seems to us one of the most 
exquisite masterpieces of Mozart, an incomparable intermingling of 
the life and young passion of the Mozart of 1776, already showing a 
vastly superior command in the musical handling." 

Mozart wrote this and another divertimento for the Countess An- 
tonie Lodron, a high born Salzburger, whose two daughters came under 
his eye for musical instruction.* Both works were scored for string 
quartet with two horns. The first (K. 247) was written for the Count- 
ess's birthday, June, 1776. The one in B flat is attributed by Jahn to 
June, 1777, but Koechel's catalogue explains that the date having been 
cut from the manuscript score, the editor Andre remembered having 
read the inscription "February, 1777." The two divertimenti are re- 
ferred to by Mozart and his father in their letters as " cassationi." 
Mozart relates that he played the first violin part in a performance of 
the B flat Divertimento in Munich in 1777, and it may be conjectured 
that he wrote this unusually elaborate part with such a performance in 
mind. He writes that he played it " as if he were the first violinist in 
Europe," and in such a way that " everyone stared." 

It was apparently customary to combine strings and horns in such 
a piece, and Mozart's ingenuity was called upon to draw variety in color 
from his horns, while not hampering the freer and nimbler progression 
of the string parts. Both pieces are commended by Otto Jahn as " fin- 
ished works of the genuine Mozart type." 

" Both have six elaborately worked-out movements, and abound in 
grace and fertility of invention, and in skilful harmonic treatment. The 
style is that of a true quartet, that is, the instruments have each their 
independent part, but the first violin, as a solo part, is markedly pre- 
dominant. In the second divertimento, in B-flat major, which is grand 
in design and composition, the first violin is treated as a solo instrument 
throughout, with a strong tendency to bravura, the remaining instru- 
ments co-operating in such a way as to display the creative spirit of an 
artist in every detail, however delicate or subordinate. In the very first 
thematically elaborated passage the solo passages for the violin occur, 

* The concerto for three pianofortes (K. Z42) was written for the three Countesses Lodron. 



"ANNUITIES 
DESCRIBED" 

Technicalities and details are 
omitted. — A leaflet in simple 
words by R. O. Walter of Boston. 

Write for it today to the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society 

393 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Please send me without charge the Annuity 
leaflet by R. O. WALTER. 
Mr. 

Mrs 

Miss 

Address 

Age 

[8] 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate, and diploma courses. 
Private and class instruction in all 
branches of music. 

Voice Department — Instructors: 
Mr. James R. Houghton 
Mr. David Blair McClosky 

Miss Marie Oliver 

Mr. Stephen S. Townsend 



Registration Day for the 
second semester, January 30, 1935 



which it is the chief concern of the second part to elaborate. The second 
movement is an air with variations, in which all the instruments take 
part, but the violin more prominently, and with more of executive 
bravura than any of the others. This is most apparent in the two minu- 
ets, but it is very decided also in the broadly conceived adagio, where 
the second violin and tenor are muted, the violoncello plays pizzicato, 
while the first violin leads a melody richly adorned with figures and pas- 
sages, and requiring the execution of a finished performer. The use of 
muted strings, especially in slow movements, was very frequent at that 
time in accompaniments, as well as in symphonies and quartets, and 
was intended to produce variety of tone-colouring; the violoncello not 
being muted, but pizzicato, afforded a contrast of tone. The concluding 
movement is introduced by an andante with a recitative for the first 
violin, not too long, and so worked out that the whole compass of the 
instrument is characteristically displayed. A long molto allegro follows 
this introduction, in 3-8 time, which keeps the violinist in constant 
movement, and gives him an opportunity of displaying the variety of 
his technical skill; but the movement is carefully planned and com- 
posed, due consideration being given to each part in its place. The reci- 
tative recurs at the end, followed by a short and brilliant conclusion. 
The tone of this movement is not as cheerful as usual; it is full of im- 
pulsive haste and changeful humour, and its stronger accent betrays a 
certain intensity, even in the introductory recitative." 

The divertimento in B flat is compared by the probing de Wyzewa 
and de Saint-Foix at great length and with triumphant results to a 
divertimento in the same key for string quintet by none other than 
Michael Haydn. Michael, younger brother of Joseph Haydn, but never- 
theless twice Mozart's age at this time, was long a resident of Salzburg, 
and was konzertmeister to the Bishop Sigismund. The string quintet, 
"certainly composed about 1776" apparently matches Mozart's di- 
vertimento in the sequence and character of each movement, in the ab- 
sence of the usual minor variation, in the recitative for violin in the 
finale. The older man actually leads his pupil in the freedom of the 
viola part, and it may be assumed, falls far behind the younger in musi- 
cal elevation and sheer esprit. Michael Haydn is to be thanked, con- 
clude the writers, for giving Mozart the impulse to supercede the easy 
" Galanterie " of the divertimento, and " unconsciously to approach the 
noble and rich field of classic chamber music." J. N. B. 



SYMPHONY NO. 2 IN E FLAT, Op. 63 * 

By Sir Edward Elgar 

Born at Broadheath, near Worcester, England, June 2, 1857; died at Worcester, 

February 23, 1934 



Elgar's ripest symphonic years coincided with, indeed intimately be- 
longed to what Englishmen now like to look back upon as the " Ed- 
wardian Age." He wrote his First Symphony in 1908 (having passed 

* This symphony was first performed at a " London Musical Festival " by the Queen's Hall 
Orchestra, May 24, 1911. The first performance in this country was by the Cincinnati Sym- 
phony Orchestra in its own city, when Leopold Stokowski was conductor, November 24, 1911. 
It was heard at these concerts December 1, 1911, Max Fiedler, Conductor. 

[9] 



fifty, and after long inward preparation) . The Violin Concerto came in 
1910, the Second Symphony in 1911, and the Tone Poem " Falstaff " in 
1913. The Violoncello Concerto of 1919 was his last work of importance. 
The composer, always reticent as to literal meanings in his absolute 
music, gave definite clues on the score of his Second Symphony, clues 
which have been seized upon, since the work shows an enigma of con- 
flicting moods. The date and locale — " Venice — Tintagel (1910- 
1911) " is of no help, for it is obviously not music of landscape. The 
dedication reads " To the memory of His late Majesty King Edward 
VII," and the composer has added, after the King's death which was on 
May 6, 1910: "This Symphony, designed early in 1910 to be a loyal 
tribute, bears its present dedication with the gracious approval of His 
Majesty the King. March 16, 1911." There is also a motto, quoted from 
Shelley: 

" Rarely, rarely comest thou, 
Spirit of Delight! " 

There was at once much probing and conjecture, much psychologi- 
cal questioning, and it can hardly be said at this time that either dedi- 
cation or motto has led to any clear and general understanding of the 
composer's intentions. As for the royal commitment, it induced Dr. 
F. H. Shera, in a careful analysis published in 1931, to call the Larghetto 
a " Funeral March," although no second authoritative writer has gone 
so far as this. 

The symphony, as each commentator has pointed out, is far indeed 
from the mouthpiece of a period which its dedication might imply. Save 
for a touch of " pageantry " in the Larghetto, it is an inward and per- 
sonal document, and at an opposite pole from the numerous marches, 
patriotic hymn tunes, and cantatas baldly celebrating " King and Coun- 
try " which he wrote in the same years. Even the lines of poetry have 
only baffled the analysts, for the " spirit of delight " whose absence 
Shelley bewails in his " Invocation " is the dominant note of the 
symphony. The joyousness of the first movement is only temporarily 
clouded in the Larghetto and Rondo, and the end is quietly serene. 
Ernest Newman, puzzled, takes refuge in the last lines of the poem: 

". . . Above other things, 
Spirit, I love thee — 
Thou art love and life! O come! 
Make once more my heart thy own." 

Similarly, each critic, including those who were perhaps as close to 
the composer and his intentions as any man: Ernest Newman and Basil 
Maine, faced the Edwardian enigma, and took refuge in the safe gen- 
eralization that the music is an implied expression of those confident 
days of Empire, of which Sir Edward Elgar was an integral part. Maine, 
in his two-volume " Elgar, his Life and Works " (1933) calls the Second 
Symphony " an epitome, of the era which was quietly and gradually 
fading away while it was being written." And elsewhere he says: " Elgar 
was essentially a man of his time. The background of life was an impor- 
tant factor in determining the ideas and emotions which his music ex- 
presses. So much can be admitted of any great composer without 
thereby accusing him of writing merely topical music. . . . The na- 
tional ideals of the early years of this century could not but inform the 

[10] 



music of a man of Elgar's cast of mind. They are implicit in many a 
phrase and episode. Implicit, but not blatant, self-conscious, or obvi- 
ous. For they are here transfigured by the nature of symphonic music, 
by the necessity of becoming true musical expression, by the exigencies 
of logical development. So much so that any attempt to identify an epi- 
sode or a motive with a specific idea were an impertinence. It is this 
kind of speculation which is responsible for much of the adverse criti- 
cism and misunderstanding which still persist in discussions of these 
works. To say that an Imperialist age was the background of Elgar's 
chief orchestral works is not to say that his sole object is to wave the 
Union Jack. 

" For all that, in a broad sense, the First Symphony can be regarded 
as a salute to national heritage and attainment, the Second Symphony 
as a last exulting in the glories of an epoch which has already closed, 
and the Violoncello Concerto as a lament for the irrevocable years. 
They are respectively a paean, an epic, and an elegy." 

The first effect of the two symphonies upon the British public is in 
itself a commentary upon the changing psychological point of view of 
their composer. The First was somewhat on the tradition set by Bee- 
thoven's Fifth * — a slow movement with a deep current, a finale which 
is a " peroration," " a passionate asseveration of faith." It was greatly 
applauded and admired, and the Second was eagerly anticipated. But 
meanwhile the composer's spirit had undergone a modification. It did 
not rise to a final, resounding triumph, but gradually subsided into a 
peaceful close, a close which has reminded some of the Third Symphony 
of Brahms. The first hearers of Elgar's Second Symphony, expecting to 
be overwhelmed, were only bewildered. And when " Falstaff " followed 
upon this, " some were inclined to think, — and they did not hesitate to 
speak out — that the Elgar of the ' Variations ' and the oratorios, the 
Elgar of the golden promise, had joined the ranks of the perverse." 

Quite otherwise than the vision of " Life and Death " which Shera 
sees in the symphony, is Newman's brighter summary: " The Symphony 
will be found to offer a complete psychological contrast to its predeces- 
sor. It is untroubled by any of the darker problems of the soul. For the 
most part it sings and dances in sheer delight with life. . . . The work 
will, I think, be found particularly enjoyable just by reason of this 
prevalent spirit of gladsomeness. Our greater music has worn the tragic 
mask long enough; it is good to have it break into a smile occasionally." 

The symphony is scored for these instruments: three flutes (one in- 
terchangeable with piccolo) , two oboes, English horn, three clarinets, 
bass clarinet, two bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, 
three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, side-drum, tam- 
bourine, bass drum, cymbals, two harps, and the usual strings. 

Of the various excellent analyses we choose that of Ernest Newman, 
for what it closely conveys of the sense of the score: — 

" In the point of form, the first movement (Allegro vivace e nobilmente, E flat 
12-8) proceeds much on the lines of Elgar's other first movements; there are two well- 
defined chief subject-groups, the first main idea especially being built up of a number 
of motives that can be used collectively or individually; while further varieties of 
mood are obtained by means of striking episodes." 

The composer would countenance no such overweening comparison. He once said of the Fifth 
Symphony of Beethoven: "When I look at it I feel like a travelling tinker looking at the 
Forth Bridge." 

[»] 



The Allegro introduces at once the first principal theme, an energetic subject in 
E-flat major. 

There is no " motto theme," as in the A-flat symphony; " but particular note 
should be taken of the descending phrase in the third bar, which is put to some ex- 
pressive uses, both in this and the latter movements. The theme is really the expres- 
sion of a continuous idea extending until the entrance of the second subject, but 
three subsidiary themes may be disengaged from it. This opening is succeeded by the 
second of the subject groups, which opens with a melody given first of all mainly to 
the strings and harps. The instrumentation becomes fuller, and later a counter-subject 
is heard with the theme. Then comes what the composer wishes to be regarded as the 
principal second subject, dolce e delicato ('cellos) , though its characteristic droop 
plainly makes it a variant of the figure to which attention has already been called. 
Further developments lead to a resumption of the earlier and more vigorous matter, 
which is worked up impetuously to a climax in which a modification of the second 
subject figures largely. This ends the first section of the movement. The second — 
what would be called, in the orthodox form, the working-out section — is wholly 
concerned with modifications of the first-subject matter and with some highly inter- 
esting episodes. A new and less sunny cast, however, has come over the old themes. 
All this section, in fact, is like a darker inset in the center of an otherwise bright pic- 
ture. The harmonies have grown more mysterious; the scoring is more veiled; the 
dynamics are all on a lower scale (the range of tone never rises above piano, while 
pp and ppp are the general markings) . The whole effect is most striking on the or- 
chestra. . . . [There is] an enigmatic phrase in the muted strings that runs through 
virtually the whole of this section. It is impossible, as it would be useless, to analyze 
the scene in detail on paper. Its ghostly color, the throbbing drum-notes, and the 
strange, faint clashing of tonalities in it (a pedal E, for example, supporting E flat 
and D harmonies), make it as subtly imaginative a piece of work as Elgar has ever 
written. 

" Towards the end of this section the material of the commencement reappears in 
expressive forms, though in much subdued colors. In this way a transition is made to 
the final section, in which the first-subject matter is again heard in all its former exu- 
berance. The prevailing mood now is healthy and animated. Just before the close we 
get a suggestion of the quieter atmosphere of the middle section, but gradually the 
old spirit reasserts itself, and the movement ends in an exhilarating burst of energy." 

The slow movement (Larghetto, C minor, 4-4) commences with a series of pianis- 
simo chords in the strings. At the eighth measure, we hear the main theme — " a 
grave, deliberate melody in flutes, clarinets, horns, trumpet and trombones (ppp) , 
over an accompaniment of chords on the second and fourth beat of each bar. There 
is a broadly and richly harmonized central section, after which the main theme is 
resumed. The English horn and the oboe give, out a melody in thirds. This is re- 
peated by the clarinets. This goes into a meditative theme for strings alone (wind 
instruments added later) .... Another motive, nobilmente e semplice, constitutes 
virtually the whole of the thematic material of the Larghetto. All of it is now re- 

Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 

advertise! 

representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal! cost 

L S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 



g>anbens Qtfjeatre • Cambrtbge 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 

Thursday Evening, February 14, 
at 8 o'clock 



[133 



To the ~ 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



The plan of inviting enrollments to a society known as 
the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra has re- 
sulted in enrollments to date of over 1,000 with con- 
tributions totalling approximately $45,000, or one-half of the 
estimated requirements of the Orchestra for this year. Par- 
ticipation by patrons and friends outside of Boston amounts 
to 10% of the number enrolled and 4% of the amount con- 
tributed. 

For this mark of approval and friendly cooperation in pro- 
viding for the necessary financial requirements of the Or- 
chestra I desire to express sincere thanks. 

I confidently believe that there are many more who will 
care to accept the present opportunity through membership 
in the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra to join 
those who have already responded so splendidly in making the 
future of the Orchestra secure. 

As one of our contributors so aptly writes, " To exist we 
need, may be, a New Deal or some kind of an ' ism,' but to 
live we need music and the fine things that are collected in 
Art Museums. These things tell us that life is worth while." 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



For the convenience of those who may desire to enroll as Friends 
of the Orchestra a subscription blank has been inserted in this 
programme book. 



[14] 



peated in other forms and colors. " Near the end the vital phrase of the whole sym- 
phony steals in quietly in two solo violas, and then in the violins, but only for three 
or four bars. The last word is given to the grave chief theme of the Larghetto, and 
the softly breathed chords of the strings. 



" What most people would call the Scherzo," continues Mr. Newman, " is here 
styled a Rondo {Presto, C major, 3-8) . Its main theme is full of quips and surprises. 
(One feature of the Symphony, by the way, is the number of themes that run in 
thirds.) After this theme has run its nimble course, another comes bounding out in 
the strings and English horn in unison (accompanied in horns, bassoons, trombones 
and double-basses) . On its repetition later it is combined with a counter-melody. 
After this come some lively metamorphoses of the sprightly first theme, combined 
with other matter. With a change of the key of D major we enter upon a long, 
smoothly-flowing passage mostly for the strings alone. The passage commences pianis- 
simo, but soon works up to a tremendous torrent of sound in the full orchestra. Alto- 
gether this strange and powerful episode, occurring as it does in the middle of a 
Rondo seemingly given up to the pure joy of motion, will give us something to think 
about when we hear it. The remainder of the brilliant Rondo, with its repetitions, is 
quite plain sailing." 



The main theme of the Finale (Moderate e maestoso, E-flat major, 3-4) " tells its 
own story at once. It is given out in strong lines by bass clarinet, bassoons, horns, and 
'cellos, with broken harmonies supplied by clarinets, harps, and second violins. A few 
repetitions of it in various forms serve to imprint it firmly on our memories before a 
second theme comes — mainly in the strings. Large use is made of the second part of 
it. A third theme is of a similarly broad and dignified character. Then, in quickened 
tempo, the second theme is worked out quasi-fugally, along with some other figures, 
in a bold and effective style; after which we make our way back to the captivating 
first theme again, which is treated in a variety of ways. The climax comes with a 
sonorous reiteration of the third theme, the sequences mounting one on the other 
like great waves. Then a piu tranquillo passage leads to a quiet and expressive remi- 
niscence of the first theme of the first movement in extended notes. It is made the text 
of a masterly peroration, not so overpowering in its wealth of tone as the ending of 
the First Symphony, but equally effective in its much quieter way, and exhibiting the 
same consummate knowledge of the art of getting off the stage.. The phrase is re- 
peated several times in one instrument after another, then breaks off into a reminis- 
cence of a fine phrase that has been heard in some of the later developments of the 
third theme, and finally we hear an echo of the first. All this time the motion has been 
growing more tranquil and the tone more subdued. Up to almost the last movement 
we are in a pianissimo, and apart from one short crescendo, in a couple of discords 
that are quickly resolved, it is pianissimo that we end, in a mood of calm but pro- 
found content." 



SYMPHONY HALL 

Sunday Afternoon, Feb. 3, at 3.30 

ST. OLAF LUTHERAN CHOIR 

F. MELIUS CHRISTIANSEN, Conductor 

CC A Capella choir singing to perfection " 

TICKETS $i, $1.50, $2 (Tax exempt) 



[>5] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



CHARDON STRING QUARTETTE 

FOURTH CONCERT OF THE SERIES 
BRAHMS EVENING 

Brattle Hall, Cambridge Thursday, January 17th at 8.30 P.M. 

Tickets on sale at THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC Telephone: Trowbridge 0956 



LAMBERT MURPHY 

TENOR TEACHER OF SINGING 

In Boston on Mondays 

STUDIO, 725 BOYLSTON STREET 

For appointments write to above address or phone Kenmore 3122 on Mondays 



DO YOU WISH TO SING? 

MARY TRACY 

VOICE SPECIALIST, says: — "Anyone possessing a normal speaking voice should 
be able to sing/' Lessons before the microphone included in regular vocal instruction. 

™- { cSS. 2041 30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON &£d rIS,"' ^"^ 



BRENDAN KEENAN 

The Cultural, Spiritual and Physical Problems of Piano Mastery 

' ' — rarely profound understanding of music — broad culture — rare intuition and psychological under- 
standing — inspiring teacher — " Mme. Ellt Net 

" — I have only the best wishes for this genius, hoping he has the opportunities to reach the great 
heights of which he is surely capable — " Mme. Siqrid Onegin 

" — I am sure, serious minded as you are, you will be a great success as a toacher — " 

WlLLEM VAN HOOGSTRATEN 

Baldwin Piano Reception by mail appointment only 384 The Riverway, Boston 



DOROTHY ZIOLKOWSKA 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER 

Member of Music Faculty Address: 78 Lake View Avenue, 

The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Telephone University 4230 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 






BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, B 


[. RESNIKOFF, V, 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYN BERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


LUDWIG, O. 


. GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, g. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, r. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra -Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD, 


, w. 


LAN NO YE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


w. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, w. 


cebhardt, w. 


LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



Symphony Hall • Boston 



Monday, January 21, at 8:15 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 

OF THE 

MONDAY EVENING SERIES 



ADRIAN BOULT, Guest Conductor 



g>anber£ Wfytatvt, Cambrtbge 

[Harvard University] 



.^wuilili/i/^ 



% 



im. 



*VV^ 



BOSTON 
SYAPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



INC. 

FIFTY-FOURTH 

SEASON 

1934^1935 

[5] 



Thursday Evening, February 14 
at 8 o'clock 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, r. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BE ALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYN BERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, n. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


LUDWIG, O. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, m. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


raichman, j. 


MACDONALD, 


, w. 


LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


w. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


GEBHARDT, w. 


LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


ORGAN 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SAN ROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



ibanbertf tMjeatre • Harvard University • Cambrtbge 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Fifth Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, February 14 
with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, InC, 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallo well Pierpont L. Stagkpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 



Cljantiler & Co. 

TREMONT STREET AT WEST 




STREET 
FLOOR 



NEW VERSIONS OF OUR FAMOUS 

IVestree Hats 



These classic, simply tailored Felt hats are 
exclusive with Chandler's! The lines are new 
and smart, crowns are deftly tucked and 
stitched, brims drooped to shade the eyes, 
grosgrain bands or clever buckles add just 
the right trimming touches! Black, brown, 
navy. Other colors by special order. Sizes 
2\\ to 23. 




[2] 



>anber£ tCfjeatre • Harvard University • Cambribge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, February 14, at 8 o'clock 



Programme 



Mozart . . . Symphony in G major, "Jupiter" (K. No. 551) 

I. ALLEGRO VIVACE 
II. ANDANTE CANTABILE 
III. MENUETTO: ALLEGRETTO; TRIO 

iv. finale: allegro molto 
George Foote Variations on a Pious Theme 



INTERMISSION 

Sibelius Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 82 

1. tempo molto moderato; allegro moderato 
ii. andante mosso, quasi allegretto 
iii. allegro molto: un pochettino largamente 



[3] 



SYMPHONY IN C MAJOR, WITH FUGUE FINALE, 
"JUPITER" (K. 551) 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 
Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



Mozart wrote his three greatest symphonies in 1788. The one in 
E-flat major is dated June 26; the one in G minor, July 25; the 
one in C major, with the fugue finale, August 10. 

His other works of that year are of little importance, with the ex- 
ception of a pianoforte concerto in D major, which he played at the 
coronation festivities of Leopold II at Frankfort in 1790. There are 
canons and pianoforte pieces, there is the orchestration of Handel's 
" Acis and Galatea," and there are six German dances and twelve 
minuets for orchestra. Nor are the works composed in 1789 of interest, 
with the exception of the clarinet quintet and a string quintet dedicated 
to the King of Prussia. Again, one finds dances for orchestra — twelve 
minuets and twelve German dances. 

Why is this? Seventeen eighty-seven was the year of " Don Gio- 
vanni "; 1790, the year of " Cosi fan tutte." Was Mozart, as some say, 
exhausted by the feat of producing three symphonies in so short a 
time? Or was there some reason for discouragement and consequent 
idleness? 

The Ritter Gluck, composer to the Emperor Joseph II, died on 
November 15, 1787, and thus resigned his position with a salary of 
two thousand florins. Mozart was appointed his successor, but the 
thrifty Joseph cut down the salary to eight hundred florins. And Mozart 
at this time was sadly in need of money, as his letters show. In a letter 
of June, 1788, he tells of his new lodgings, where he could have better 
air, a garden, quiet. In another dated June 27, he says: " I have done 
more work in the ten days that I have lived here than in two months 
in my other lodgings, and I should be much better here, were it not for 
dismal thoughts that often come to me. I must drive them resolutely 
away; for I am living comfortably, pleasantly, and cheaply." We know 
that he borrowed from Puchberg, a merchant, with whom he became 
acquainted at a Masonic lodge, for the letter with Puchberg's memo- 
randum of the amount is in the collection of Mozart's letters, edited by 
Nohl, and later by Hans Mersmann. 

Mozart could not reasonably expect help from the Emperor. The 
composer of " Don Giovanni " and the three famous symphonies was 
unfortunate in his Emperors. 

The Emperor Joseph was in the habit of getting up at five o'clock; 
he dined on boiled bacon at 3.15 p.m.; he preferred water as a beverage, 
[4] 



but he would drink a glass of Tokay; he was continually putting choco- 
late drops from his waistcoat pocket into his mouth; he gave gold coins 
to the poor; he was unwilling to sit for his portrait; he had remarkably 
fine teeth; he disliked sycophantic fuss; he patronized the English who 
introduced horse-racing; and Michael Kelly, who tells us many things, 
says he was " passionately fond of music and a most excellent and 
accurate judge of it." But we know that he did not like the music of 
Mozart.* 

Joseph commanded from his composer Mozart no opera, cantata, 
symphony, or piece of chamber music, although he was paying him 
eight hundred florins a year. He did order dances, the dances named 
above. For the dwellers in Vienna were dancing mad. Let us listen to 
Kelly, who knew Mozart and sang in the first performance of " Le 
Nozze di Figaro " in 1786: " The ridotto rooms where the masquerades 
took place were in the palace; and, spacious and commodious as they 
were, they were actually crammed with masqueraders. I never saw or 
indeed heard of any suite of rooms where elegance and convenience 
were more considered, for the propensity of the Vienna ladies for 
dancing and going to carnival masquerades was so determined that 

* For a description of Joseph going to Versailles, sleeping there on a straw mattress and 
covered with a wolfskin, in order to give his sister Marie Antoinette lessons in the simple 
life " and of philosophical detachment," leaving with her on his departure a long homily to 
serve her as a moral guide, see " Marie Antoinette," by the Marquis de Segur (Chapter IV, 
"The Era of Folly "). 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, INC. 

Retail Music Store 

359 BOYLSTON STREET BOSTON, MASS. 

^5^ ^o^ *&*> 

For AIL Published 

MUSIC 

Largest stock of sheet music and music 
books in New England. Every outstanding 
American and Foreign publisher represented. 

«^5 «^i C<^5 

D I T S O N ' S 

359 BOYLSTON STREET TEL. COMMONWEALTH 1350 



[5] 



nothing was permitted to interfere with their enjoyment of their favor- 
ite amusement. . . . The ladies of Vienna are particularly celebrated 
for their grace and movements in waltzing, of which they never tire. 
For my own part, I thought waltzing from ten at night until seven in 
the morning a continual whirligig, most tiresome to the eye and ear, to 
say nothing of any worse consequences." Mozart wrote for these dances, 
as did Haydn, Hummel, Beethoven. 

Thus was Mozart without true royal protection. He wrote Puchberg 
that he hoped to find more patrons abroad than in Vienna. In the 
spring of 1789 he left his beloved Constance, and made a concert tour 
in hope of bettering his fortunes. 

Mozart was never fully appreciated in Vienna during his last 
wretched yet glorious years. It is not necessary to repeat the story of 
the loneliness of his last days, the indifference of court and city, the 
insignificant burial. This lack of appreciation was wondered at in 
other towns. See, for instance, Studien fiir Tonkiinstler und Musik- 
freunde, a musical journal published at Berlin in 1792. The Prague 
correspondent wrote on December 12, 1791: "Because his (Mozart's) 
body swelled after death, the story arose that he had been poisoned. 
. . . Now that he is dead the Viennese will indeed find out what they 
have lost. While he was alive he always had much to do with the cabal, 
which he occasionally irritated through his sans souci ways. Neither has 
' Figaro ' nor his ' Don Giovanni ' met with any luck at Vienna, yet 
the more in Prague. Peace to his ashes! " 

As John F. Runciman wrote: * " It may well be doubted whether 
Vienna thought even so much of Capellmeister Mozart as Leipzig 
thought of Capellmeister Bach. Bach, it is true, was merely Capell- 
meister — he hardly dared to claim social equality with the citizens who 
tanned hides or slaughtered pigs; and probably the high personages 
who trimmed the local Serene Highness's toe-nails scarcely knew of his 
existence. Still, he was a burgher, even to the killers of pigs and the 
tanners of hides; he was thoroughly respectable, and probably paid his 
taxes as they came due; if only by necessity of his office, he went to 
church with regularity; and on the whole we may suppose that he got 
enough of respect to make life tolerable. But Mozart was only one of 

* "Old Scores and New Readings: Discussions on Musical Subjects" (London, 1899). 

LANGUAGES 

FRENCH —GERMAN — ITALIAN —SPANISH — RUSSIAN 

A Fuller Appreciation of Music — A Practical Travel Vocabulary 

Private or Small Group Instruction FREE TRIAL LESSON 

An International School — ■, » A 

Tel. COM. 1814 



Berlitz 



140 NEWBURY ST. 

[6] 



a crowd who provided amusement for a gay population; and a gay 
population, always a heartless master, holds none in such contempt as 
the servants who provide it with amusement. So Mozart got no respect 
from those he served, and his Bohemianism lost him the respect of the 
eminently respectable. He lived in the eighteenth-century equivalent 
of a ' loose set '; he was miserably poor and presumably never paid his 
taxes; we may doubt whether he often went to church; * he composed 
for the theatre; and he lacked the self-assertion which enabled Handel, 
Beethoven, and Wagner to hold their own. Treated as of no account, 
cheated by those he worked for, hardly permitted to earn his bread, 
he found life wholly intolerable, and, as he grew older, he lived more 
and more within himself and gave his thoughts only to the composition 
of masterpieces. The crowd of mediocrities dimly felt him to be their 
master, and the greater the masterpieces he achieved the more vehe- 
mently did Salieri and his attendants protest that he was not a composer 
to compare with Salieri. . . . Mozart lived in the last days of the old 
world, and the old world and the thoughts and sentiments of the old 
world, are certainly a little passes now. But if you examine ' Don Gio- 
vanni ' you must admit that the Fifth and Ninth Symphonies, ' Fidelio,' 

* Lohengrin,' the ' Ring,' ' Tristan,' and ' Parsifal ' have done nothing 
to eclipse its glories; that while fresh masterpieces have come forth, 
' Don Giovanni ' remains a masterpiece amongst masterpieces, that it is 
a masterpiece towards which all other masterpieces stand in the relation 
of commentaries to text." 

As Runciman says, Mozart in 1788 was unappreciated save by a few, 
among whom were Frederick William II, King of Prussia; he was 
wretchedly poor; he was snubbed by his own Emperor, whom he would 
not leave to go into foreign, honorable, lucrative service. This was the 
Mozart of 1788 and 1789. 

It is possible that the " Jupiter " Symphony was performed at the 
concert given by Mozart in Leipzig. The two that preceded the great 
three were composed in 1783 and 1786. The latter of the two, D major, 
was performed at Prague with extraordinary success. Publishers were 
not slow in publishing Mozart's compositions, even if they were as 
conspicuous niggards as Joseph II himself. The two symphonies played 
at Leipzig were probably of the three composed in 1788, but this is 
only a conjecture. 

Nor do we know who gave the title " Jupiter " to this symphony. 
Some say it was applied by J. B. Cramer, to express his admiration 
to the loftiness of ideas and nobility of treatment. Some maintain that 
the triplets in the first measure suggest the thunder-bolts of Jove. Some 

* Mozart was of a deeply religious nature, as is shown by many of his letters to his father. 
In one letter he spoke of not liking when journeying to attend the Mass, for the churches 
were cold. — P. H. 

[7] 



think that the " calm, godlike beauty " of the music compelled the title. 
Others are satisfied with the belief that the title was given to the sym- 
phony as it might be to any masterpiece or any impressively beautiful 
or strong or big thing. To them " Jupiter " expresses the power and 
brilliance of the work. 

The " Jupiter " Symphony is scored for flute, two oboes, two bas- 
soons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. 

I. Allegro vivace, C major, 4-4. The movement opens immediately 
with the announcement of the first theme. The theme is in two sections: 
imposing triplets (full orchestra) , alternating with gentle, melodious 
passages for strings; the section of a martial nature, with strongly 
marked rhythm for trumpets and drums. There is extensive develop- 
ment of the figures, with some new counter ones. The strings have the 
second theme, of which William Foster Apthorp wrote: " A yearning 
phrase, ascending by two successive semitones, followed by a brighter, 
almost a rollicking one — is it Jove laughing at lovers' perjuries? — the 
bassoon and flute soon adding richness to the coloring by doubling the 
melody of the first violins in the lower and upper octaves." This theme 
is in G major. There is a cheerful conclusion theme. The first part of 
the movement ends with a return of the martial rhythm of the second 
section of the first theme. The free fantasia is long and elaborate. The 
third part is almost like the first, but with changes of key. 

II. Andante cantabile, F major, 3-4. The first part presents the 
development in turn of three themes so joined that there is apparent 
melodic continuity. The second part consists of some more elaborate 
development of the same material. 

III. Menuetto: Allegro, E major, 3-4. The movement is in the tra- 
ditional minuet form. The chief theme begins with the inversion of the 
first figure, the " chromatic sigh " of the second theme in the first move- 
ment. This " sigh " is hinted at in the Trio, which is in C major. 



"ANNUITIES 
DESCRIBED" 

Technicalities and details are 
omitted. — A leaflet in simple 
words by R. O. Walter of Boston. 

Write for It today to the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society 

393 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Please send me without charge tho Annuity 
leaflet by R. O. WALTER. 
Mr. 
Mrs 

MiM 

Address 



Age. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boslor 



[8] 



IV. Finale: Allegro motto, C major, 4-4. It is often described as a 

fugue on four subjects. 

Mr. Apthorp wrote: " Like the first movement, it is really in 2-2 

(alia breve) time; but Mozart, as was not unusual with him, has 

omitted the hair stroke through the C of common time — a detail in 

the use of which he was extremely lax. As far as the fugue on four 

subjects goes, the movement can hardly be called a fugue; it is a brilliant 

rondo on four themes, and the treatment of this thematic material is 

for the most part of a fugal character — the responses are generally 

' real ' instead of ' tonal.' Ever and anon come brilliant passages for 

the full orchestra which savor more of the characteristically Mozartish 

tutti cadences to the separate divisions of a rondo, or other symphonic 

movement, than they do of the ordinary ' diversions ' in a fugue. Still, 

fugal writing of a sufficiently strict character certainly predominates in 

the movement. For eviscerating elaborateness of working-out — all the 

devices of motus rectus and motus contrarius being resorted to, at one 

time even the old canon cancrizans — this movement may be said almost 

to seek its fellow. It is at once one of the most learned and one of the 

most spontaneously brilliant things Mo/art ever wrote." 

P. H. 



VARIATIONS ON A PIOUS THEME 

By George Foote 

Born at Cannes, France, February 19, 1886; living in Boston 



A hymn tune which he had often heard in childhood moved George 
Foote to compose these variations in 1927-1928. The Episcopal 
Hymnal gives this hymn as based on a Spanish chant, but the composer is 
skeptical of this statement, finding that " the contour of the melody 
seems to suggest a Germanic origin. The theme itself never appears in 
its exact original form. It is, however, announced with considerable 
clearness after the introduction, which is itself based on the theme." 

The " Variations " were performed at Rochester, New York, by Dr. 
Howard Hanson and the Rochester Symphony Orchestra and at Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, April 2, 1934. They are scored for " a more or less 
conventional orchestra," and are dedicated to the memory of Renouf 
Russell. 

George Foote's parents were both of New England. He attended 
school at Cambridge, Massachusetts and at Paris, France, graduating 
from Harvard College in 1908 with distinction in music. He studied 
piano with Prof. Walter R. Spalding in Cambridge, with Ricardo 
Vines in Paris, and later with Mme Hopckirk in Boston. He studied 
counterpoint and composition in Berlin from 1908 to 1912 with various 

[9] 



teachers, and worked at the Cologne Opera House in 1910. He was as- 
sistant in the Music Department of Harvard University 1921-1923. 

Mr. Foote's Trio for Harp, Flute, and Violin was performed by the 
Flute Players' Club in their concert of January, 1934. His Trio for Vio- 
lin, 'Cello and Piano was played by the same organization, in May, 1923. 



SYMPHONY, E-FLAT MAJOR, NO. 5, Op. 82 

By Jan Julius Christian Sibelius 
Born at Travastehus, Finland, December 8, 1865; living at Jarvenpaa 



When Sibelius was a new and unaccustomed voice in music, his 
early symphonies were each found to be weighted with a drab 
coloring and an unrelieved melancholy. The sobriety which is still 
generally admitted in the Fourth Symphony was equally attributed to 
the First and the Second when these works were first heard.* Now, 
much of what was once taken by the non-Scandinavian hearer as the 
utterance of dark despair, is transformed with familiarity into some- 
thing actually sensuous and not far from amiable. 

Lawrence Gilman noted this Anglo-Saxon fallacy in 1921, when the 
Fifth Symphony ,f since described by the enlightened Cecil Gray as " a 



* After the first performance of the Second Symphony in Boston, a newspaper carried the 
headline — "Cheer Up, Sibelius! " 

f This symphony was written just before the war, played in Helsingfors in the spring of 
1914. The composer later withdrew his score for long and careful revision, and it was per- 
formed in its new form in Scandinavian cities in 1915 or 1916. The first English performance 
was on February 12, 1921, the composer conducting. The first American performance was by the 
Philadelphia Orchestra, October 21, 1921. The first Boston performance was by this Orchestra 
on April 7, 1922, and subsequent performances December 15, 1922, November 11, 1927, January 
27, 1933, and January 26, 1934. 




Make-up with a French Accent! 

Helena Rubinstein brings you new make-up inspi- 
ration from Paris! Come to her Salon! See what 
smart Continental faces are wearing this season! 
Powders — misty-fine, clinging. Textures for 
normal and oily skin, for dry skin, i.oo, 1.50 
to 5.50. 

Rouges — gay, young, smart. Stay on 
hours! 1.00, 2.00, 5.00. 
Lipsticks — idealize the lips, and actu- 
ally nourish. Indelible. 1.00103.50. 
never runs, smudges or smarts. 1.00, 1.50. 
Eyelash Grower and Darkener — grooms lashes and brows. 1.00. 
A Beauty Lesson Treatment at the Salon will be a revelation in scientific 
skin care and make-up. The Salon offers beauty counsel without obligation. 

Helena rubinstein salon 

London 77 Newbury Street, Boston (Ken. 5270) Paris 



Persian Mascara 



[10] 



sunny, genial work throughout," was first performed in London. Mr. 
Gilman amused himself collecting the adjectives then liberally bestowed 
in the press: " dour," " bleak," " harsh," " rugged," " angular," " reti- 
cent," " cold," " gray," " austere," " sad," " drastic," " severe," " bare," 
" lonely," " trenchant." 

" Yet there are pages in this Fifth Symphony of his that exhibit an 
unaccustomed spontaneity and expansiveness, a large simplicity and 
directness. Some liberating and clarifying influence seems at times to 
have touched it — the northwest blowing off the sea, or the memory of 
a horn-call among the hills. This quality was not unnoticed in London 
when the symphony was first played there. Amid the accustomed stereo- 
types that insisted upon its ' bleakness,' ' dryness,' ' gauntness,' ' reti- 
cence,' ' harshness,' there were some who recognized in this music a 
more generous spread of line, a greater frankness, a less hampered 
melodic speech." 

The Fifth Symphony, Cecil Gray finds in complete contrast to " the 
brooding gloom and sombre melancholy which is the spiritual key-note 
of the Fourth." " The terseness, economy, and extreme concentration of 
thought," which characterizes the Fourth are not to be found in its suc- 
cessor. " If the Fourth is a White Dwarf, in fact, the Fifth is its opposite, 
a Red Giant, a Betelgeuse of music, a huge work in which the substance 
is highly attenuated and rarefied. The four movements of the former 
amount to a bare 68 pages of full score, the three of the latter to 136 — 
exactly double. Not that it lasts twice as long in performance; two of 
the movements of the Fourth are in slow tempo, whereas none of those 
in the Fifth are, but that in itself only serves to emphasize more strongly 
the profound difference in character between the two works. 

" The form, too, of all movements of the Fifth is comparatively 
straightforward, the style broad, simple, and easily understood, the 
thematic material more definitely melodic, the harmony diatonic and 
consonant, the rhythms simple and clear-cut, the orchestration rich and 
sonorous. In the Fourth there is not a bar that could possibly have been 
written by any other composer, dead or alive — it is a profoundly per- 
sonal and subjective utterance, from first note to last. In the Fifth, on 
the contrary, there is not a bar, considered in isolation from its context, 
that could not have been written by any one else, yet curiously enough 

TOIVO LAMINAN 

1 Chauncy Street • Cambridge 

DISTRIBUTOR OF QUALITY RADIOS and PHONOGRAPH RECORDS 

For moderate daily or weekly charges on 
Victor and Columbia Masterwork Recordings — Phone Kirkland 0630 



the effect of the whole is just as completely and absolutely individual, 
as utterly unlike anything else in music as the Fourth itself. For this 
reason it is perhaps an even more remarkable achievement than its 
predecessor, for it is less difficult — though assuredly difficult enough — 
to do something which no one else has ever previously done, than to 
reveal a fresh and unsuspected beauty in the familiar, the obvious, the 
commonplace, the hackneyed even, which is what Sibelius does in this 
work. 

" The very opening is a case in point. The horn theme announced 
in the first bars, which is the chief theme of the initial movement, might 
have been written by almost any one — by Brahms, for example, to 
whose horn theme in the first movement of the D major Symphony it 
bears a distinct family resemblance. Yet nothing could be more unlike 
Brahms or, for that matter, any other composer than the treatment it 
subsequently receives, or the developments to which it gives rise. Again, 
the second movement consists of a series of variations on a theme which 
might have occurred to any tenth-rate composer, and would in all 
probability have been dismissed by him without a second thought as 
altogether too banal and commonplace to be made use of; yet this 
movement is one of quite astonishing beauty and originality. Similarly 
the broad, swinging theme in the last movement, confided on its first 
appearance to horns and strings, and later to the trumpets, is almost 
note for note identical with a popular music-hall song of some ten years 
or so ago, but in Sibelius's hands it is endowed with a grandeur and a 
dignity that banish entirely from our minds its dubious associations. 
These are only three examples chosen more or less at random; the score 
is full of such things. This uncanny power of transforming the most 
ordinary and even commonplace material into something rich and 
strange by means of some unexplainable gift of musical alchemy had 
already been adumbrated in some earlier works, notably the String 
Quartet and the Serenades for violin and orchestra; it henceforth be- 
comes the dominant characteristic of all Sibelius's music. 



Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 

advertise! 

representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal cost 

L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tei. commonwealth 1492 



[12] 



g>anber$ ©fjeatre ■ Cambrtbge 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SIXTH CONCERT 

Thursday Evening, March 14. 
at 8 o'clock 



IGOR STRAVINSKY 

Guest Conductor 



h3] 



To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



W" hen I was asked to serve as Chairman of the Society 
and to assume the responsibility of getting together 
$90,000 for the maintenance requirements of the 
Orchestra, I made out a little schedule classifying the gifts I 
thought we must expect. Here is that schedule and opposite 
each class of gift I have now added the amount received to 
date: 







Already 
received 


In gifts of $1,000 and over 


$20,000 


$ 1 0,000 


In gills of $101 to $1,000 


25,000 


15>95° 


In gilts of $100 


25,000 


10,600 


In gifts of $50 to $100 


10,000 


10,146 


In gifts of $25 and under 


1 0,000 


6,809 



$90,000 $53>5°5 

In other words what we still need to fulfill expectations is 
10 gifts of $1,000; 40 gifts of $250; 144 gifts of $100; and 250 
gifts of under $25. 

I trust this may be stimulating and helpful to those who 
have not yet enrolled or contributed. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. for whatever amount you care 
10 contribute and mail it to E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon 
Street, Boston. Contributions to the Orchestra may be deducted 
from net income in computing Federal Income Taxes. 



[M] 



" The Fifth Symphony constitutes a relaxation from the tension and 
severe discipline of the Fourth as regards mood, form, and style, but 
apart from the reinstatement of the third trumpet, which had been 
dropped in the Fourth, the instrumental forces remain the same." The 
orchestration includes two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and strings. 

" The first two movements," writes Mr. Gilman, in a characteristically 
illuminating analysis, " though they are distinct in mood and character, 
are integrated by community of theme, after the fashion instituted by 
Schumann and popularized by Cesar Franck. 

" The subject which binds them together is a motto-theme of concise 
and simple outline: the bucolic phrase proclaimed by the horn in the 
opening measures over a roll of the timpani (molto moderato, E-flat, 
12-8) . Its first four notes (B-flat, E-flat, F, B-flat, ascending) constitute 
the thematic seed from which is developed a good part of the substance 
of the two connected movements. The motto-theme, four times repeated 
by the three trumpets in unison, introduces the scherzo section of the 
first part (Allegro moderato, ma poco a poco stretto, B major, 3-4) , 
with a curiously Beethovenish theme in a dance rhythm for the wood- 
wind in thirds, and sixth and seventh measures of which outline the 
motto-theme of the opening. At the end, there is a return to the key of 
E-flat. 

" In the slow movement (Andante mosso, quasi allegretto, G major, 
3-2) the somewhat unpromising theme is developed with much resource- 
fulness of variation. From a simple and rather naive subject, fore- 
shadowed by the violas and 'cellos pizzicato against sustained harmonies 
in the clarinets, bassoons, and horns, and afterward more clearly defined 
by a pair of flutes playing in thirds and sixths, the composer evolves a 
movement of singularly rich expressiveness (an odd detail is the elabo- 
rate use of an appogialura effect in the flutes and bassoons, as a back- 
ground against which the strings develop the theme) . 

' The Finale is the crown of the work, and is in many ways the most 
nobly imagined and nobly eloquent page that Sibelius has given us. 
The violas announce the first subject (Allegro molto, E-flat, 2-4) under 
an agitated figure for the second violins divisi, and the first violins con- 
tinue it. Woodwind and 'cellos sing a more impassioned theme against 
chords of the other strings and horns. A passage in G-flat major, mis- 
terioso, for the muted and divided strings alone (violins in eight parts) , 
leads to the superb coda — un pocheltino largamente — in which the 
music achieves a gradual amplification and heroic emphasis, with the 
brass chanting a strangely intervalled figure against a syncopated ac- 
companiment figure of the strings. The end is triumphant." 

J. N. B. 

[15] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Fifth concert of the Chamber Music Series 

CHARDON STRING QUARTETTE 

Thursday, Feb. 21, at 8:30 p.m. Brattle Hall, Cambridge 

Programme: BAX, DU GAURROY, HAYDN, ROUSSEL, and COPLAND 

Tiokets on sale at the LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC, 44 Church St., Cambridge. 
Telephone TROwbridge 0956 



LAMBERT MURPHY 

TENOR TEACHER OF SINGING 

In Boston on Mondays 

STUDIO, 725 BOYLSTON STREET 

For appointments write to above address or phone Kenmore 3122 on Mondays 



DO YOU WISH TO SING? 

MARY TRACY 

VOICE SPECIALIST, says: — "Anyone possessing a normal speaking voice should 
be able to sing." Lessons before the microphone included in regular vocal instruction. 

Tel - { C*S 2M1 30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON ^S Ka?«' 0h8r " e 



BRENDAN KEENAN 

The Cultural, Spiritual and Physical Problems of Piano Mastery 

" — rarely profound understanding of music — broad culture — rare intuition and psychological under- 
standing — inspiring teacher — " Mmb. Elly Net 

" — I have only the best wishes for this genius, hoping he has the opportunities to reach the great 
heights of which he is surely capable — " Mme, Si grid Onegin 

" — I am sure, serious minded as you are, you will be a great success as a teacher — " 

WlLLBM VAN HOOGSTBATBN 

Baldwin Piano Reception by mail appointment only 384 The Riverway, Boston 



DOROTHY ZIOLKOWSKA 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER 

Member of Music Faculty Address: 78 Lake View Avenue, 

The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Telephone University 4230 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[16] 






Live, Youthful Styles 

In Dresses for Women 

Mr. Jay has adapted to this new collection TO 
WEAR NOW only those artful designs that are brisk 
in cut, firm in color, spirited in fabric affinity, and 
provide unusual appeal when visualized in sizes 36 
and above. They are the perfect expression of the 
alert woman of today. 



FOR INSTANCE 



A Springish navy crepe tai- 
lored frock with spirited 
print linen in red and white 
forming removable collar 
and cuffs is 35.00. 



A dressy crepe dress in 
Winter pastels has a swing- 
ing "shoestring" cape that 
draws interest to the back. 
It is priced 39.00. 



Second Floor 



FOR THE THIRD PROGRAMME OF THE 

Morning Varieties 

SATURDAY FEBRUARY 23 at n a.m. in SYMPHONY HALL 

ARTHUR FIEDLER 

AND HIS ORCHESTRA WILL BE FEATURED 

A Delightful Musical Programme will include: 

Cheyenne Indian War Dance (Skilton) 
William Tell Overture (Rossini) 

Three Insect Pieces (Schubert's The Bee, White's 
Mosquito Dance, and Rimsky-Korsakov's 
Flight of the Bumble Bee) 

The Toy Symphony (Haydn) 

Pizzicato Polka (Johann Strauss) 

and 

GERSHWIN'S 

"Rhapsody in Blue" 

with 

JESUS MARIA SANROMA 

as soloist 



EXTRA! 

The Great George 

MASTER MAGICIAN 

Tickets 25c, 55c, 80c, $1.10— Now on Sale at the Box Office 



g>anber£ Wfytatvt, Cambrtbge 

[Harvard University] 



w. 



^\\\miJiiW 



'**. 



BOSTON 
SYAPttONY 

ORCHESTRA 



INC. 

FIFTY-FOURTH 
SEASON 
1934-1935 ^JHP* 

[6] 



Thursday Evening, March 14 
at 8 o'clock 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGLM, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H 


RI SNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


G ROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERCEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. 


CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE : 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. 


DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


LUDVVIG, O. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, g. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, m. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


FILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHKR, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W. MAGER, G. 


raichman, j. 


MACDONALD 


, W. 


LANNOYE, m. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


w. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


GEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, h. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERN BURG, S. 






CAUGIIEY, E. 


POLSTF.R, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, F. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SAN ROM A, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



>anber£ TOjeatre • Harvard University • Cam&ribge 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Sixth Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, March 14 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 



-Cljantiler & Co,- 

TREMONT STREET AT WEST 

A Derby Brim 



on a new m 

straw with flowers 



It's marvelous to find a section that is planned for 
Blithe Young Things . . has not only New Hats but 
New Fashions every few days . . and where the price 
is never over $5.00! We've an idea this will prove a 
popular "Suit Hat!" 




SECOND 
FLOOR 




Folded crown and 
rolled brim . . . 
a bit of grosgrain 
a knot of white 
buds! $5. 



[2] 



ibanber* theatre • Harvard University • Cambridge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SIXTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, March 14, at 8 o'clock 
IGOR STRAVINSKY Conducting 



Programme 

Stravinsky ........ "Fireworks," Op. 4 

Stravinsky .... Fragments from "Le Baiser de la Fee," 

Allegorical Ballet 

1. sinfonia: andante; allegro sostenuto 

ii. danses suisses: valse 

iii. scherzo: allegretto 

i v . p as de deux 

a. Adagio 

b. Variation: Allegretto grazioso 

c. Coda: Presto 

INTERMISSION 

Stravinsky Suite from the Ballet, " Petrouchka " 

The Juggler — Russian Dance — Petrouchka — Grand Carnival — JVurses' Dance — The 
Bear and the Peasant playing a Hand Organ — The Merchant and the Gypsies — The 
Dance of the Coachmen and Grooms — The Masqueraders 

Stravinsky . . Suite derived from the Danced Story, "L'Oiseau 

de Feu" (Revised version) 

a. Introduction: The Fire-Bird and her Dance 

b. Dance of the Princesses 

c. Infernal Dance of Kastchei 

d. Berceuse — 

e. Finale 

[Steinway Piano] 



[31 



" FEUERWERK," Op. 4 

By Igor Fedorovitch Stravinsky 

Born at Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, on June 5, 1882 



Fireworks" was composed at Oustilong in 1908 for the marriage 
of Rimsky-Korsakoff's daughter to Maximilian Steinberg. 

The first performance in this country was by the Russian Symphony 
Orchestra in New York on December 1, 1910. There was a performance 
by the Philharmonic Society of New York in New York on October 30, 
1914. The first performance in Boston was a concert of the Phil- 
harmonic Society of New York, in Symphony Hall, November 1, 1914. 

" Fireworks," dedicated to N. and M. Steinberg, is scored for piccolo, 
two flutes, two oboes (one interchangeable with English horn) , three 
clarinets (one interchangeable with bass clarinet) , two bassoons, six 
horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, bass 
drum, cymbals, triangle, campanelli celesta, two harps, and strings. 

Mr. Edward B. Hill, in an interesting article, " A Note on Stra- 
vinsky," (Harvard Musical Review for April, 1914) , says of this work 
(E major, 3-4, con fuoco) : " In ' Fireworks ' can be discerned that bud- 
ding instinct for realism that was destined to expand into ' futuristic ' 
directions. There are wood-wind figures which revolve like pinwheels, 
only continued through technical ingenuity in giving the players time 
to breathe. There are others that ascend in long curves, like rockets, 
and explode in pizzicato chords with muted horns or trumpets. In the 
last pages the scintillant activity gathers force and explodes in one 
triumphant bomb. Here again the musical thought is slight, but in 
descriptive illusion and in tonal cunning the piece is inspiriting. But 
these pieces " — the other one being the " Scherzo Fantastique " (1908) 
— " are mere preliminaries, for Stravinsky is essentially dramatic, and it 
was not until he wrote for the stage that the scope of his imagination 
was revealed." 

" Fireworks " was played for the first time in London in February, 
1914. There was a special performance of the work at a Symphony con- 
cert in London on February 28, 1914, when Mr. Arthur Brock, the 
head of a firm of pyrotechnists, was invited, as an expert on fireworks, 
to attend and give his impressions. This invitation was in all serious- 
ness. We quote from the Observer, London, of March 1: — 

" At the conclusion of the performance Mr. Brock was asked, as an 
expert on fireworks, for his impressions. ' It is a wonderful attempt,' 
said Mr. Brock, ' and quite unlike anything else I have heard in music. 
It appealed to me immensely. The piece is not quite what I thought it 
was going to be. There is very much less of the drum and trombone 
[4] 



than I expected, the effect being obtained by the violins and the whole 
of the orchestra. I should describe it as a wonderful impressionist ren- 
dering of pyrotechnic effects, beautiful colors, sparkling scintillations 
and graceful forms and movements, with the successive crescendoes 
which we always strive to obtain through our firework displays, leading 
up to the grand melee and impressive " Final Bouquet." 

" Mr. Brock referred to the fire music in Wagner's ' Valkyrie,' with 
which, however, he did not wish in any way to compare the Stravinsky 
work. In Wagner's opera there were the scenic effects and the stage ac- 
cessories to help the illusion, whereas to create the impression by music 
alone was a greater achievement. 

" ' As a pyrotechnist,' added Mr. Brock, ' I am grateful to Stravinsky 
for being the first musical composer to recognize the absorbing beauties 
of the pyrotechnic art as a theme for his compositions.' " 

P. H. 



FRAGMENTS FROM " LE BAISER DE LA FEE " (" THE 

FAIRY'S KISS ") , ALLEGORICAL BALLET IN 

FOUR SCENES 

By Igor Fedorovitch Stravinsky 
Born at Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, on June 5, 1882 



In 1928, Stravinsky composed for Ida Rubinstein " Le Baiser de la 
Fee, Ballet-allegorie en 4 Tableaux." It was produced under his 
direction at the Opera in Paris, on November 27. As a suite, the music 
was performed by the Orchestra in Chicago, January 17, 1935, the com- 
poser conducting as guest. 

Stravinsky dedicates the piece " To the muse of Tchaikovsky," and 
further explains on his score: " I dedicate this ballet to the memory of 
Peter (Pierre) Tchaikovsky, identifying his muse with the Fairy, and 
it is from this fact that the ballet becomes an allegory. His genius has 
in like degree marked the score with a destined kiss — a mystic influence 
which bespeaks the whole work of the great artist." Herbert Fleischer 
further particularized this curious alliance (" Russischer Musik Ver- 
lag," Berlin, 1931) : " Stravinsky takes as the basis of the composition 
the melodies and characteristic turns of expression of Tchaikovsky. 
He removes the often too sweet and rather feminine meltingness of 
Tchaikovsky's melos. He recasts the tones of the master, so reverenced 
by him, in his own rigid tonal language. Yet the lyrical tenderness of 
Tchaikovsky's melos is not lost." 

' Tchaikovsky's ' Wiegenlied im Sturm ' constitutes the funda- 
mental motive of the ballet. With it, it begins, and with it, it ends. 

[5] 



From the succession of Tchaikovskyan melodies that have been drawn 
upon, of most importance are the Humoresque for piano — used in 
the splendidly colored material of the second tableau; in the same 
scene, the melody of the waltz ' Natha/ and the piano piece ' The 
Peasant Plays the Harmonica ' from the ' Children's Album.' ' 

Stravinsky, on an introductory page of his score, finds four lines 
sufficient to give the plot of his ballet: " A Fairy has marked with her 
mysterious kiss a young man in his childhood. She withdraws him from 
life on the day of his greatest happiness to possess him and thus preserve 
this happiness forever. Again she gives him the kiss." 

The indications in the score will give a more detailed idea of the 
action: 

I Prologue (Storm Lullaby) 

(Andante) — A woman carrying her child proceeds through the storm — The 

fairy spirits appear. 
(Allegro) — The spirits pursue the woman — They separate her from her child, 

and carry him off — Appearance of the Fairy — She approaches the child — 

She surrounds him with tenderness — She kisses his forehead and vanishes, 

leaving him alone on the stage. 
(Vivace) — Passing peasants find the child abandoned, seek vainly for his 

mother, and anxiously take him off. 
II A Village Fair 

(Tempo giusto) — Peasants dance, musicians play; the young man and his 

betrothed dance with the rest (Valse, poco piu lento) — The musicians and 

the crowd go off; the betrothed leaves the young man all alone — 
(Tempo primo) — The Fairy, disguised as a gypsy, approaches him; she takes 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, INC. 
Retail Music Store 

359 BOYLSTON STREET {at Arlington) BOSTON, MASS. 

«^> c^i e^i 

For ALL Published 

MUSIC 

Largest stock of sheet music and music 

books in New England. Every outstanding 

American and Foreign publisher represented. 

«^» «^» «^» 

D I T S O N ' S 

359 BOYLSTON STREET TEL. COMMONWEALTH 1350 

[6] 



his hand, and tells his fortune — She dances (tempo agitato) , increasing her 
spell over the young man — She speaks to him of his love and promises him 
great happiness — Moved by her words, he begs her to lead him to his 
betrothed — She does so. 

III At the Mill 

(Moderato) — The young man, led by the Fairy, reaches the mill, where he finds 
his betrothed surrounded by her companions, playing round games; the 
Fairy immediately disappears (Allegretto grazioso) . 

IV Pas de deux 

(Moderato) — Entrance of the young man (Omitted from the suite) . 

(Adagio) — The young man and his betrothed. 

(Variation: Allegretto grazioso) — The betrothed. 

(Coda: Presto) — The young man, his betrothed, and her companions — The 
betrothed goes to put on her wedding veil — The companions follow her, 
leaving the young man alone. 

(The remainder is omitted from the suite.) 

(Andante non tanto) — The Fairy appears, concealed by a wedding veil; the 
young man takes her for his betrothed, and approaches her with rapture; 
the Fairy throws back her veil. The young man, astonished, perceives his 
mistake; he tries to escape, but in vain; his will yields to the supernatural 
charm of the Fairy, who will carry him to an eternal existence where, to the 
strains of her lullaby, she will again give him the kiss — The fairy spirits 
slowly group themselves across the stage in ranks representing the infinite 
immensity of azure space. The Fairy and the young man are seen on an 
elevation — She kisses him. 

J. N. B. 



ORCHESTRAL SUITE FROM " PETROUCHKA " 

By Igor Fedorovitch Stravinsky 
Born at Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, on June 5, 1882 



The ballet "Petrouchka: Scenes burlesques en 4 Tableaux,'' sce- 
nario by Alexandre Benois, was completed by Stravinsky at Rome 
in May (13-26) , 1911. It was produced at the Chatelet, Paris, on June 
13, 1911. The chief dancers were Mme. Tamar Karsavina, La Ballerine; 
Nijinsky, Petrouchka; Orloff, Le Maure; Cecchetto, the old Charlatan; 
Mme. Baranowitch, First Nurse. Mr. Monteux conducted; Mr. Fokine 
was the ballet-master. The scenery and costumes were designed by 
Benois; the scenery was painted by Anisfeld; the costumes were made 
by Caffi and Worobieff. The management was G. Astruc and Company, 
organized by Serge de Diaghilev. 

LANGUAGES 

FRENCH— GERMAN — ITALIAN— SPANISH — RUSSIAN 

A Fuller Appreciation of Music — A Practical Travel Vocabulary 

Private or Small Group Instruction FREE TRIAL LESSON 

.aU An International School M m ma m — 

Wtt^mmMw+fT Tel. COM. 1814 
MWW5M. MMMjMa 140 NEWBURY ST. 

[7] 



" This ballet depicts the life of the lower classes in Russia, with all 
its dissoluteness, barbarity, tragedy, and misery. Petrouchka is a sort 
of Polichinello, a poor hero always suffering from the cruelty of the 
police and every kind of wrong and unjust persecution. This represents 
symbolically the whole tragedy in the existence of the Russian people, 
suffering from despotism and injustice. The scene is laid in the midst 
of the Russian carnival, and the streets are lined with booths in one of 
which Petrouchka plays a kind of humorous role. He is killed, but he 
appears again and again as a ghost on the roof of the booth to frighten 
his enemy, his old employer, an allusion to the despotic rules in 
Russia." 

The following description of the ballet is taken from " Contempo- 
rary Russian Composers " by M. Montagu-Nathan *: — 

" The ' plot ' of ' Petrouchka ' owes nothing to folk-lore, but retains the quality 
of the fantastic. Its chief protagonist is a lovelorn doll; but we have still a villain in 
the person of the focusnik, a showman who for his own ends prefers to consider that 
a puppet has no soul. The scene is the Admiralty Square, St. Petersburg; the time 
' Butter-Week,' somewhere about the eighteen-thirties. . . . Prior to the raising of 
the first [curtain] f the music has an expectant character, and the varied rhythmic 
treatment of a melodic figure which has a distinct folk-tune flavor has all the air of 
inviting conjecture as to what is about to happen. Once the curtain goes up we are 
immediately aware that we are in the midst of a carnival, and are prepared for some 
strange sights. The music describes the nature of the crowd magnificently, and in his 
orchestral reproduction of a hurdy-gurdy, whose player mingles with the throng, 
Stravinsky has taken pains that his orchestral medium shall not lend any undue 
dignity to the instrument. . . . Presently the showman begins to attract his audience, 
and, preparatory to opening his curtain, plays a few mildly florid passages on his 
flute. With his final flourish he animates his puppets. They have been endowed by 
the showman with human feelings and passions. Petrouchka is ugly and consequently 
the most sensitive. He endeavors to console himself for his master's cruelty by ex- 
citing the sympathy and winning the love of his fellow-doll, the Ballerina, but in 
this he is less successful than the callous and brutal Moor, the remaining unit in the 
trio of puppets. Jealousy between Petrouchka and the Moor is the cause of the 
tragedy which ends in the pursuit and slaughter of the former. The Russian Dance 
which the three puppets perform at the bidding of their taskmaster recalls vividly the 
passage of a crowd in Rimsky-Korsakov's ' Kitezh.' X 

" When at the end of the Dance the light fails and the inner curtain falls, we 

* Published by Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York, 1917. 

t There are two curtains; one between the audience and the dancers; the other divides the 

showman's Douma from the stage crowd and the people in the outer theatre. 

t " The Battle of Kerjenetz " from " The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the 

Virgin Fevronia," was played in Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 30, 

1925. The Prelude: Hymn to Nature; Bridal Procession, and the invasion of the Tartars, on 

March 4, 1927. 



R. O. WALTER 

?6e (UEAKV) of> 
an Jfnntti^u is /certainty 

100 MILK ST., BOSTON • • HANcock 6200 



[8] 



are reminded by the roll the side drum which does duty as entr'acte music that we 
have to do with a realist, with a composer who is no more inclined than was his 
precursor Dargomijsky to make concessions; he prefers to preserve illusions, and 
so long as the drum continues its slow fusillade the audience's mind is kept fixed 
upon the doll it has been contemplating. The unsuccessful courtship is now enacted 
and then the scene is again changed to the Moor's apartment, where, after a monoto- 
nous droning dance, the captivation of the Ballerina takes place. There are from 
time to time musical figures recalling the showman's flute flourishes, apparently 
referring to his dominion over the doll. . . . The scene ends with the summary 
ejection of that unfortunate [Petrouchka], and the drum once more bridges the 
change of scene. 

" In the last tableau the Carnival, with its consecutive common chords, is resumed. 
The nurses' dance, which is of folk origin, is one of several items of decorative music, 
some of them, like the episode of the man with the bear, and the merchant's accordion, 
being fragmentary. With the combined dance of the nurses, coachmen, and grooms, 
we have again a wonderful counterpoint of the melodic elements. 

" When the fun is at its height, it is suddenly interrupted by Petrouchka 's frenzied 
flight from the little theatre. He is pursued by the Moor, whom the cause of their 
jealousy tries vainly to hold in check. To the consternation of the spectators, 
Petrouchka is slain by a stroke of the cruel Moor's sword, and a tap on the tambour 
de Basque. 

" The showman, having demonstrated to the satisfaction of the gay crowd that 
Petrouchka is only a doll, is left alone with the corpse, but is not allowed to depart in 
absolute peace of mind. To the accompaniment of a ghastly distortion of the show- 
man's flute music the wraith of Petrouchka appears above the little booth. There is 
a brief reference to the carnival figure, then four concluding pizzicato notes and the 
drama is finished. From his part in outlining it we conclude that Stravinsky is an 
artist whose lightness of touch equals that of Ravel, whose humanity is as deep as 
Moussorgsky's." 

The ballet calls for these instruments: four flutes (two interchange- 
able with piccolo) , four oboes (one interchangeable with English 
horn) , four clarinets (one interchangeable with bass clarinet) , four 
bassoons (one interchangeable with double bassoon) , four horns, two 
trumpets (one interchangeable with little trumpet, in D) , two cornets- 
a-pistons, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, snare drum, tam- 
bour de Provence, bass drum, tambourine, cymbals, triangle, Glocken- 
spiel, xylophones, tam-tam, celesta (two and four hands) , pianoforte, 
two harps, strings. The score, dedicated to Alexandre Benois, was pub- 
lished in 1912. 

When " Petrouchka " was revived by Bronislava Najinska at the 
Theatre des Champs-Elysees, Paris, on November 30, 1930, Andre Levin- 
son, reviewing the performance, regretted the departure from Fokine's 
choreography. Benois, the author of the scenario was responsible for 

TOIVO LAMINAN 

1 Chauncy Street • Cambridge 

DISTRIBUTOR OF QUALITY RADIOS and PHONOGRAPH RECORDS 

For moderate dally or weekly charges on 
Victor and Columbia Masterwork Recordings — Phone Kirkland 0630 

[9] 



the changes and for some of the new settings. The three chief puppets 
no longer were in agitation on their iron feet. The old steps, the old 
gestures and grimaces regulated by Fokine, were no more seen. The 
ballet mistress danced well enough, but with too many entrechats and 
figures which were out of keeping with the stiff and barren movements 
of a puppet. Hardly anything remained of Petrouchka's mute mono- 
logue and the Moor no longer flat on his belly adored a coconut. The 
famous entrance of the ballerina, the solo with trumpet, had became a 
pas de deux. P. H. 



SUITE DERIVED FROM THE DANCED STORY, 
" THE FIRE-BIRD " 

By Igor Fedorovitch Stravinsky 

Born at Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, on June 5, 1882 



In the summer of 1909 Diaghilev asked Stravinsky to write a ballet 
founded on the old Russian legend of the Fire-Bird. The score was 
ready in May, 1910. The scenario was the work of Fokine. 

The first performance of the " Oiseau de Feu " a " Conte danse " in 
two scenes, was at the Paris Opera on June 25, 1910. The Fire-Bird, 
Tamara Karsavina; The Beautiful Tsarevna, Mme. Fokina; Ivan 
Tsarevitch, Fokine; Kastchei, Boulgakov. Gabriel Pierne conducted. 
The stage settings were by Golovine and Bakst. 
Fokine's scenario may thus be described: 

After a short prelude, the curtain rises and the grounds of an old 
castle are seen. Ivan Tsarevitch, the hero of many tales, in the course of 
hunting at night, comes to the enchanted garden and sees a beautiful 
bird with flaming golden plumage. She attempts to pluck fruit of gold 
from a silver tree. He captures her, but, heeding her entreaties, frees 
her. In gratitude, she gives him one of her feathers which has magic 
properties. The dawn breaks. Thirteen enchanted princesses appear, 
coming from the castle. Ivan, hidden, watches them playing with golden 
apples, and dancing. Fascinated by them, he finally discloses himself. 
They tell him that the castle belongs to the terrible Kastchei, who turns 
decoyed travellers into stone. The princesses warn Ivan of his fate, but 
he resolves to enter the castle. Opening the gate, he sees Kastchei with 
his train of grotesque and deformed subjects marching towards him in 
pompous procession. Kastchei attempts to work his spell on Ivan, who 
is protected by the feather. Ivan summons the Fire-Bird, who causes 
Kastchei and his retinue to dance until they drop exhausted. The secret 
of Kastchei's immortality is disclosed to Ivan: the sorcerer keeps an egg 
in a casket; if this egg should be broken or even injured, he would die. 
Ivan swings the egg backwards and forwards. Kastchei and his crew 
sway with it. At last the egg is dashed to the ground; Kastchei dies; his 
palace vanishes; the petrified knights come to life; and Ivan receives, 
amid great rejoicing, the hand of the beautiful princess. 
[10] 



Stravinsky in 1919 rescored this Suite, and the revised form * will 
be played at this concert. The orchestration is more modest: two flutes, 
two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two 
trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, 
triangle, xylophone, harp, piano, and strings. 



DIAGHILEV, STRAVINSKY, AND " L'OISEAU DE FEU" 



How two Russian geniuses met and collaborated to their mutual 
glory in the " Fire Bird " is interestingly told by Romola Nijinsky, 
in her life of her husband,f a book which is much concerned, naturally, 
with the amazing career of Diaghilev, and the Ballet Russe. 

Diaghilev and Nijinsky, in the days of their early fame, before 
breaking with the Imperial Ballet School, had the habit of wandering 
about St. Petersburg on free evenings, in search of ballet material. 

" One evening they went to a concert given by members of the com- 
position class at the Conservatory of Music. On the programme was the 
first hearing of a short symphonic poem called Feu d' Artifice. Its author 
was a young man of twenty-six, the son of a celebrated singer at the 
imperial Theatre — Feodor Stravinsky. After the performance Diaghilev 
called on the young Igor, whose father he had known and admired, and, 
to Stravinsky's utter amazement, commissioned him to write a ballet 
expressly for his company. 

* He also rearranged and added from material in the original ballet. He retained from the 
first suite the Introduction, the " Dance of the Fire-Bird," the " Dance of the Princesses," 
and " Kastche'i's Infernal Dance," but omitted " The Enchanted Garden," " The Supplica- 
tions of the Fire-Bird," and The Princesses Playing with the Golden Apples." He added 
two numbers from the ballet: the Berceuse and the Finale. The revised suite, published in 
1920, was played in Philadelphia by the Philadelphia Orchestra on October 17, 1924. 
t " Nijinsky," Romola Nijinsky (Simon and Schuster, 1934). 



BOUND COPIES of the 

Boston Symphony 
Orchestra 

CONCERT BULLETINS 

Containing analytical and descriptive 
notes on all works performed during 
the season (" musically speaking, the 
greatest art annual of today." — 
W. J. Henderson, New York Sun) may 
be obtained by addressing 



SYMPHONY HALL 



Price 



.oo 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[»] 



" For a long time Fokine had had the idea of a distinctly Russian 
story for dancing, founded on native legends. Fokine told the story of 
the Fire Bird to Benois, over innumerable glasses of tea, and with every 
glass he added another embellishment, and every time he repeated the 
tale he put in another incident. Benois was enthusiastic, and they went 
so far as to tell Diaghilev and asked who would be a good one to compose 
the music. Liadov's name was mentioned. ' What,' cried Fokine, ' and 
wait ten years! ' Nevertheless, the commission was awarded to Liadov 
and three months passed. Then Benois met him on the street and asked 
him how the ballet was progressing. ' Marvellously,' said Liadov. ' I've 
already bought my ruled paper.' Benois' face fell, and the musician, 
like a character out of Dostoievsky, added, ' You know I want to do it. 
But I'm so lazy, I can't promise.' 

" Diaghilev thought at once of Igor Stravinsky, and the conferences 
between him, Benois, and Fokine commenced. 

" Fokine heard Stravinsky's Feu d' Artifice and saw flames in the 
music. The musicians made all manner of fun of what they considered 
his ' unnecessary ' orchestration, and he was touched by, and grateful 
for, Fokine's congratulations. They worked very closely together, phrase 
by phrase. Stravinsky brought him a beautiful cantilena on the entrance 
of the Tsarevitch into the garden of the girls with the golden apples. 
But Fokine disapproved. ' No, no,' he said. ' You bring him in like a 
tenor. Break the phrase where he merely shows his head on his first 
intrusion. Then make the curious swish of the garden's magic noises 
return. And then, when he shows his head again, bring in the full 
swing of the melody.' 

" Fokine made the choreography extremely fantastic. The steps are 
as rich in variation, as light and weird, as the story itself, especially in 
the solo dances of the Fire Bird, which constantly imitate the move- 
ments of a feathered creature. 

" Golovin's scenery of a garden, with the castle of Kotschei in the 
background, surrounded by trees, is wonderful as in a dream, stylised, 

Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 

advertise! 

representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal cost 

L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tei. commonwealth 1492 



[12] 



g>anbers( {Efjeatre • Cambrtbse 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEVENTH CONCERT 

Thursday Evening, March 28 
at 8 o'clock 



SOLOIST 

GLADYS GLEASON 

Piano 



h3] 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

To the — 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



A list of members of the Society of Friends of the 
Orchestra will be published in the Boston concert 
bulletin of April 12-13, and I suggest that those who 
intend to enroll this year should do so before April 1st. 

I am authorized by the Trustees to say that free admission 
in reserved sections of Symphony Hall will be provided to 
members of our Society at the special Festival Concerts on 
April 30 and May 1. Remaining tickets will be put on public 
sale. 

The first annual meeting of the Society will be held toward 
the end of March, and notice of this meeting will be mailed 
to members in the near future. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. for whatever amount you 
care to contribute and mail it to E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon 
Street, Boston. Contributions to the Orchestra may be deducted 
from net income in computing Federal Income Taxes. 



[H] 



but so convincingly unearthly, so sensuous, that one is in another world. 
The costumes were based on native Russian dress: fur-edged coats, stiff 
with gold and jewels, and high, embroidered leather boots. 

" Stravinsky was wild with enthusiasm to compose the music. By 
commissioning him Diaghilev proved his uncanny gift of the divining- 
rod again, which sensed talent wherever it lay latent. Just as with Vaslav 
(Nijinsky) he gave Stravinsky an immediate opportunity to unfold his 
art. He knew at once that he had disclosed perhaps the foremost genius 
of contemporary music, and for this service alone Diaghilev deserves 
our lasting gratitude. 

" Stravinsky threw himself whole-heartedly into the composition, 
and he had little enough time in which to complete it. He was extremely 
eager, but, in spite of the awe he had for Diaghilev and the respect held 
for his elders like Benois and Bakst, he treated them all as his equals. 
He was already very decided and wilful in his opinions, and in many 
ways a difficult character. He not only wished his authority acknowl- 
edged in his own field of music, but he wanted similar prestige in all 
the domains of art. Stravinsky had an extremely strong personality, self- 
conscious and sure of his own worth. But Diaghilev was a wizard, and 
knew how to subdue this young man without his ever noticing it, and 
Stravinsky became one of his most ardent followers and defenders. He 
was extremely ambitious, and naturally understood the tremendous aid 
it would mean to him to be associated with Sergei Pavlovitch's artistic 
group. 

" Vaslav and Igor soon became friends. He had a limitless admira- 
tion for Stravinsky's gifts, and his boldness, his direct innovation of new 
harmonies, his courageous use of dissonance, found an echo in Vaslav's 
mind." • 



BOUND VOLUMES of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Concert Bulletins 

Containing 

analytical and descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, foremost critic, 

and Mr. John N. Burk, on all works performed during the season 

"A Musical Education In One Volume" 

"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowledge" 
Lawrence Gilman in the N. Y. Herald and Tribune 

Price $6.00 per volume 

Address, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 



[15] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



LAMBERT MURPHY 

TENOR "■ TEACHER OF SINGING 

In Boston on Mondavs 

STUDIO, 725 BOYLSTON~ STREET 

For appointments write to above address or phone Kenmore 3122 on Mondays 



DO YOU WISH TO SING? 

MARY TRACY 

VOICE SPECIALIST, says: — "Anyone possessing a normal speaking voice should 
be able to sing/' Lessons before the microphone included in regular vocal instruction. 

™- { cSSSL 2041 30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON &S^£, ' ° harg ' 



BRENDAN KEENAN 

The Cultural, Spiritual and Physical Problems of Piano Mastery 

' 4 — rarely profound understanding of music — broad culture — rare intuition and psychological under- 
standing — inspiring teacher — " Mmb. Ellt Net 

" — I have only the best wishes for this genius, hoping he has the opportunities to reach the great 
heights of which he is surely capable — " Mme. Siqrid Onegin 

" — I am sure, serious minded as you are, you will be a great success as a teacher — " 

WlLLEM VAN HOOGSTBATBN 

Baldwin Piano Reception by mail appointment only 384 The Riverway, Boston 



DOROTHY ZIOLKOWSKA 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER 

Member of Music Faculty Address: 78 Lake View Avenue, 

The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Telephone University 4230 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

ALL BRANCHES OF MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

44 CHURCH STREET, CAMBRIDGE. MASS. Telephone: TROwbridge 0956 



[16] 



SYMPHONY HALL 

FINAL PROGRAMME 

MORNING VARIETIES 

But in the Afternoon! — 

SATURDAY . MARCH 30 - at 2:30 p.m. 

<^> 

Fairyland Scenes from Shakespeare's 
"A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM" 

with MENDELSSOHN'S incidental music 

played by an ORCHESTRA led by 

ARTHUR FIEDLER 

Colette Humphrey as Puck 
Milton Parsons as Oberon 
Miriam Catheron as Titania 
Ernest Deacon as Bottom 

Dances designed and produced by Miss Catheron 
Costumes by Sally White Settings by Vernon Smith 

TICKETS NOW AT THE BOX OFFICE — 25c, 55c, 80c, $1.10 



SYMPHONY HALL • BOSTON 

Sunday Afternoon, March iy, at 3:40 o'clock 



A REMARKABLE 

Pension Fund 

CONCERT 



CHALIAPIN 

WILL APPEAR FOR THE FIRST TIME WITH THE 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



RUSSIAN - WAGNER PROGRAMME 



Ghaliapin (appearing for the only time in 
Boston this season) will sing with the orchestra 
airs from "Boris Godounov" and " Prince Igor." 
He will also give a group of songs. The orchestra 
will play Wagnerian excerpts 

TICKETS ARE NOW ON SALE — $i to $3 (no tax) 



anbers Cfjeatre, Cambrtbge 

[Harvard XJniversity\ 




Thursday Evening, March 28 
at 8 o'clock 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H 


RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seintger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 1 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE, 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BEADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BO EH CHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD, 


, w. 


LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKI N1ER, 


w. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


GEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERNBURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



g>anber£ ®fteatre • Harvard University • Camfcribge 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Seventh Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, March 28 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 



Cijantiler & Co.- 

TREMONT STREET AT WEST 

Man -Tailored 

SUITS 

of Mannish Fabrics for 
Smart Women and Misses ! 



2Q 75 

"Hyde Park" 

The skilful tailoring 
and the famous 
men's wear tweed 
together contrive a 
flawless suit for 
\/\f Spring days in town. 
L iN Women's 29.75 




" Buckingham'' 

A spirited tailleur in 
woven stripe men's 
wear. Tan or brown. 



Women's 



2975 



7/ 

' Suit Shop — Fourth Floor 



[2] 



>anber£ tKfjeatre • Harvard University • Cambrtbge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEVENTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, March 28, at 8 o'clock 






Programme 

Brahms .... Overture, "Academic Festival," Op. 80 



Schumann . . . Concerto for Pianoforte in A minor, Op. 54 

i. allegro affettuoso 
11. intermezzo: andantino grazioso 
III. ALLEGRO vivace 

INTERMISSION 

Sibelius . . . Symphony No. 7 (in one movement) Op. 105 

Ravel . . . Orchestral Fragments from " Daphnis et Chloe " 

(Second Suite) 

Lever du Jour — Pantomime — Danse Generale 

SOLOIST 

GLADYS GLEASON 

[Mason and Hamlin Pianoforte) 



[3] 



ACADEMIC FESTIVAL OVERTURE, Op. 80 
By Johannes Brahms 

Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897 



Brahms' two overtures, the " Akademische Fest-Ouvertiire" and the 
" Tragische Ouverture " * were composed in one summer — in 1880 
at Bad Ischl. It was his first summer in this particular resort, and al- 
though he was somewhat discouraged by an abundance of rainy 
weather, its charms drew him again in later years (1889-1896). "I 
must give high praise to Ischl," he wrote to Billroth in June, 1880, 
" and although I am threatened only with one thing — the fact that 
half Vienna is here — I can be quiet here — and on the whole I do not 
dislike it." Which is to say that Ischl had already become the gathering 
point of a constant round of cronies from Vienna. Brahms' friends of 
course would scrupulously respect the solitudes of the master's morn- 
ings — the creative hours spent, partly in country walks, partly in his 
study. Later in the day he would welcome the relaxation of companion- 
ship — of conversation to an accompaniment of black cigars and coffee, 
of mountaineering (Brahms was a sturdy walker) , or of music-making 
together. 

When the University at Breslau conferred upon Brahms, in the 
spring of 1879, the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, the composer re- 
sponded in kind, and made the institution the handsome present of 
an overture on student airs. Presents of this sort are not to be unduly 
hastened when artistic good faith and the heritage of the musical world 
are considered. Brahms composed the overture in the summer of 1880, 
even composed and destroyed another " Academic " overture, if Heu- 
berger is not mistaken. The performance came the following January 
4th, when Brahms conducted it at Breslau, while the Herr Rektor 
and members of the philosophical faculty sat in serried ranks, pre- 
sumably gowned, in the front rows. 

It goes without saying that both Brahms and his overture were 
quite innocent of such " academic " formality. It is about a tavern 
table, the faculty forgotten, that music enters spontaneously into 
German college life. Although Brahms never attended a university he 
had tasted something of this life at Gottingen when, as a younger man, 
he visited with Joachim who was studying at the University. Brahms 

The classifiers have always made much of Brahms' tendency to produce his works in pairs. 
The B flat Piano Concerto and the Violin Concerto as well as the two overtures are held 
up as sets of twins, separating by a span of years two more couples — the first two and 
the last two symphonies. Each of the four pairs is used to prove a tendency in Brahms 
to match a " serious " work with an engagingly melodious one. Such analytical exercises may 
be put down as richer in diversion than in any fruitful conclusion. 

[4] 



did not forget the melody that filled the Kneipe, inspired by good 
company and good beer. Student songs, with their Volkslied flavor, 
inevitably interested him. He found use for four of them. " Wir hatten 
gebauet ein Stattliches Haus" is first given out by the trumpets. " Der 
Landesvater " (" Hort, ich sing das Lied der Lieder ") is used rhyth- 
mically, delightfully developed. The " Fuchslied " or Freshman's Song 
(" Was kommt dort von der Hoh) is the choice of the unbuttoned 
Brahms, and leaves all educational solemnities behind. The air is in- 
troduced by two bassoons. When Brahms wrote Kalbeck that he had 
composed " a very jolly potpourri on students' songs a la Suppe," Kal- 
beck inquired jokingly whether he had used the " Fox song." " Oh, 
yes," said Brahms complacently. Kalbeck, taken aback, protested that 
he could not imagine any such tune used in homage to the " leathery 
Herr Rektor," and Brahms answered: " That is wholly unnecessary." 
Brahmsian horseplay does not get quite out of hand, and the dignities 
are saved beyond doubt when the full orchestra finally intones the 
hearty college hymn, " Gaudeamus Igitur." 



According to John Fuller-Maitland, the overture is proof of Brahms' 
" sense of humor." The phrase might be amended to " good-humored." 
The laughter of Brahms was the overflow of high spirits in the warmth 
of a friendly group gathered in a biirgerlich beer garden, and quite in 
accord with the festive mood of German student jollification — a mood 
which at forty-seven he had by no means lost. The Brahms of simple 
north German origin, who, loving his kind, could turn their Volksweise 
into poetry delicate and personal without loss of native simplicity, 
could have handled this particular subject in only one way. What 
another would have turned into a claptrap potpourri, Brahms welded 
into a fine-grained score, free of bald or sudden allusion, unified by 
his personal approach into enduring beauty. Walter Niemann finds 
the overture a music with the wistfulness of reflective middle-age. He 
calls it " the half-sad, half-solemn retrospect of a mature man looking 
back over his own vanished youth and the fun of his glorious student 
days, rather than an exuberant, boisterous piece of student life in the 
present. This is at once evident from the significant stress laid upon 
its meditative parts, which, in the whole of the first third of it, seem, 
as it were, to force themselves to take a humorous turn -by an effort. 
It is in this blend of past and present, of seriousness and jollity, sadness 
and exuberance, that the peculiar beauty of this overture consists. 
The overture begins pianissimo , in a mysteriously subdued fashion, 
in C minor, in the lower register of the strings and bassoons, and ends, 
like Weber's " Jubel-Ouverture," with the brilliance and fire of rushing 
scale-passages in demi-semiquavers on the strings, and with the mighty 

[5] 



sonority of the full orchestra on a scale rare with Brahms, including 
double bassoon, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, three kettle- 
drums, bass drum, cymbals, and triangle." J. N. B. 



CONCERTO IN A MINOR FOR PIANOFORTE WITH 
ORCHESTRAL ACCOMPANIMENT, Op. 54 

By Robert Alexander Schumann 

Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, July 29, 1856 



After Schumann heard for the first time Mendelssohn play his own 
. Concerto in G minor, he wrote that he would never dream of com- 
posing a concerto in three movements, each one complete in itself. 
It is said that he began to write a pianoforte concerto when he was 
only seventeen and ignorant of musical form; that in 1836 he sketched 
a concerto in F major when he was living at Heidelberg. In January, 
1839, he wrote from Vienna to Clara Wieck, his betrothed: " My con- 
certo is a compromise between a symphony, a concerto, and a huge 
sonata. I see I cannot write a concerto for the virtuosos: I must plan 
something else." The key was not mentioned.* 

* In a letter dated Leipzig, February 8, 1838, to Simonin de Sire (1800-1872), a landowner 
of Dinant, Belgium, one of Schumann's earliest admirers outside of Germany, he drew the 
attention of his friend to the " Concert sans orchestre." 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, INC. 
Retail Music Store 

359 BOYLSTON STREET {at Arlington) BOSTON, MASS. 

t^> 6^-» t^» 

For ALL Published 

MUSIC 

Largest stock of sheet music and music 

books in New England. Every outstanding 

American and Foreign publisher represented. 

«^> «^» t^» 

D I T S O N ' S 

359 BOYLSTON STREET TEL. COMMONWEALTH 1350 

[6 J 



The first movement of the Concerto in A minor was written at 
Leipzig in the summer of 1841— it was begun in May. It was then 
called " Fantasie in A minor," and was not intended for the move- 
ment of a concerto. It was played for the first time by Clara Schumann, 
on August 13, 1841, at a private rehearsal in the Gewandhaus, Leipzig. 
This rehearsal was for the changes made in Schumann's first sym- 
phony. Schumann wished in 1843 or 1844 to publish the work as an 
*' Allegro affettuoso," also as " Concert Allegro," for pianoforte with 
orchestral accompaniment, " Op. 48," but he could not find a pub- 
lisher. The Intermezzo and Finale were composed at Dresden, May- 
July, 1845. Clara wrote in her diary on July 31, 1845: "Robert has 
finished his concerto and given it to the copyists." 

The whole concerto was played for the first time by Clara Schumann 
at her concert, December 4, 1845, m tne Hall of the Hotel de Saxe, 
Dresden, from manuscript. Ferdinand Hiller conducted, and Schu- 
mann was present. At this concert the second version of Schumann's 
" Overture, Scherzo, and Finale " was played for the first time. The 
movements of the concerto were thus indicated: " Allegro affettuoso, 
Andantino, and Rondo." 

The second performance was at Leipzig, January 1, 1846, when 
Clara Schumann was the pianist and Mendelssohn conducted. Ver- 
hulst attended a rehearsal, and said that the performance was rather 
poor; the passage in the Finale with the puzzling rhythms " did not 
go at all." 

The indications of the movements, " Allegro affettuoso, Inter- 
mezzo; and Rondo vivace," were printed on the programme of the 
third performance, — Vienna, January 1, 1847, — When Clara Schu- 
mann was the pianist and her husband conducted. 

The orchestral parts were published in July, 1846; the score, in 
September, 1862. 

The orchestral part is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clari- 
nets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums and strings. 
The score is dedicated to Ferdinand Hiller. 

Otto Dresel played the concerto in Boston at one of his chamber 
concerts, December 10, 1864, when a second pianoforte was substituted 
for the orchestra. S. B. Mills played the first movement with orchestra 
at a Parepa concert, September 25, 1866, and the two remaining move- 
ments at a concert a night or two later. The first performance in Boston 
of the whole concerto with orchestral accompaniment was by Otto 
Dresel at a concert of the Harvard Musical Association, November 23, 
1866. 

Mr. Mills played the concerto at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society of New York as early as March 26, 1859. 

M 



The concerto has been played in Boston at Friday and Saturday 
concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra by Carl Baermann (Octo- 
ber 6, 1882; November 25, 1887), Anna Steiniger-Clark (January 10, 
1890) , Raphael Joseffy (April 16, 1897) , Adele aus der Ohe (February 
15, 1901) , Fanny Bloomfield-Zeisler (February 13, 1903) , Ernest Schel- 
ling (February 24, 1905) , Harold Bauer (February 2, 1906, and Novem- 
ber 24, 1911), Norman Wilks (March 28, 1913), Josef Hofmann 
(December 12, 1914), Ignace J. Paderewski (December 22, 1916), 
Benno Moiseiwitsch (February 25, 1921), Olga Samaroff (December 
8, 1922) , Alfred Cortot (April 3, 1925) , Myra Hess (December 16, 

1927) • 

It was played by Mr. Paderewski at a concert for the benefit of 

members of the Symphony Orchestra, March 2, 1892. 

P. H. 



GLADYS GLEASON 



Gladys Gleason, born in Jerome, Idaho, is twenty-four years old. 
She studied at the University of Idaho, and at the New England 
Conservatory of Music with Howard Goding. She graduated with 
honors from the Conservatory in 1934, and was then awarded the Mason 
and Hamlin Prize. Miss Gleason has given concerts in connection with 
the Conservatory and with the University of her native state. She is a 
member of the faculty at Colby Junior College. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



«1 



SYMPHONY NO. 7 (In One Movement) , Op. 105 
By Jan Sibelius 

Born at Hameenlinna (Swedish) Tavastehus, Finland, December 8, 1865; now living 

at Jarvenpaa, Finland 



Completed in 1925, Sibelius' Seventh Symphony was performed in 
Helsingfors in that year, the composer conducting, and was first 
played in this country by the Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Sto- 
kowski, conductor, on April 3, 1926. Dr. Koussevitzky introduced the 
symphony to Boston on December 13 of the same year, and repeated 
it January 30, 1931, and April 21, 1933. 

Musical commentators in England (where there exists an especial 
fondness for Sibelius) have written interestingly of this symphony. 
Prof. D. F. Tovey has confessed to finding a singular appropriateness 
in the use of the Seventh Symphony (by means of gramophone records) 
as '" ' slow music ' during the recital of the flight over Mount Everest." 
He found no words more adequate to convey " the austere beauty and 
rare atmosphere of Sibelius' mature style " — with the difference that 
" Sibelius is by no means lacking in oxygen." 

" That versatile if conservative critic, Mr. Punch, has already 
remarked that the word ' bleak ' has been overworked by the exponents 
of Sibelius. That word might easily be overworked by admirers of 
Mount Everest or of the moon. For such things it is a jejune epithet, 
but we need not trouble to find a better. Only a real poet can afford 
to tell us that the sky is blue, and he probably will not need to call it 
azure. If the listener can put up with a good description of the flight 
over Mount Everest he need not be afraid of the bleakness of Sibelius. 

' The listener may rest assured that if he finds that an important 
melodic note has been in existence some time before he was aware of it, 
Sibelius has taken special trouble to conceal the beginning of that note. 
If the listener feels that unformed fragments of melody loom out of a 
severely discordant fog of sound, that is what he is meant to feel. If he 
cannot tell when or where the tempo changes, that is because Sibelius 
has achieved the power of moving like aircraft, with the wind or against 
it. Sibelius has not only mastered but made a system of that kind of 
movement which Wagner established for music-drama, and which the 
composers of symphonic poems before Strauss have often failed to 
achieve and have not always realised as essential to their problem. 
Moreover he achieves it in absolute music without appealing to any 
external programme. He moves in the air and can change his pace 
without breaking his movement. The tempi of this Seventh Symphony 
range from a genuine adagio to a genuine prestissimo. Time really 
moves slowly in the adagio, and the prestissimo arouses the listener's 

[9] 



feeling of muscular movement instead of remaining a slow affair written 
in the notation of a quick one. But nobody can tell how or when the 
pace, whether muscular or vehicular, has changed. 

" The beginning is in darkness, with adumbrations of more than 
one future theme. Dawn grows into daylight with a long-drawn passage 
beginning with violas and 'cellos and pervading the whole string-band 
in a kind of Mixolydian harmony, differing, like all Sibelius's modal 
harmony, from Palestrina's only in the boldness of its dissonances. The 
winds join towards the climax; and then the main theme is given out 
by the first trombone. Fragments of other themes, including figures 
of the introduction, follow; and the time quickens gradually, while 
one of the new figures gains ascendancy and eventually takes shape as 
a dance. The pace becomes wild and the modulations far-flung with 
a new sequential figure. Yet this muscular energy becomes absorbed 
quite imperceptibly into the vast cloud-laden air-currents through and 
over which the first theme returns in solemn adagio with C minor har- 
mony. Again the pace increases and leads to new figures, scudding 
through the air. Sunshine emerges upon a song that would add naivete 
to the most innocent shanties of the human sailors in Wagner's Flying 
Dutchman. This develops, like the earlier themes, with increasing 
energy and with several accessories. The last phase of the symphony 
begins with an accumulation of sequences leading to a presto on the 
home dominant which proves to be the accompaniment of the final 
return of the initial theme in its proper solemn adagio. With this, and 
with some of the introductory figures, the symphony ends in tones of 
noble pathos." 

Another Englishman, Cecil Gray, considers the Seventh Symphony 
" one of the highest summits to which music has yet attained," in 
" sheer constructive mastery and intellectual power," and he dares lay 
it proudly beside the opening movements of Beethoven's " Eroica " and 
Ninth symphonies. 

" Sibelius's Seventh Symphony is in one gigantic movement, based 
in the main upon the same structural principles as the first movement 
of the Sixth. That is to say, it has one chief dominating subject — a 
fanfare-like theme which first appears in a solo trombone near the 
outset and recurs twice, more or less integrally, and in addition a host 



R. O. WALTER 

?Ae (HEART) of 
an y/nntH^u is /certainty 

100 MILK ST., BOSTON • • HANcock 6200 



[lO] 



of small, pregnant, fragmentary motives, of which at least a dozen play 
a prominent part in the unfolding of the action. The resourceful way 
in which these are varied, developed, juxtaposed, permuted, and com- 
bined into a continuous and homogeneous texture is one of the miracles 
of modern music; Sibelius himself has never done anything to equal it 
in this respect. If the Fourth represents the highest point to which he 
attains in the direction of economy of material and concision of form, 
the Seventh shows him at the summit of his powers in respect of 
fecundity of invention and subtlety and intricacy of design. It is not 
merely a consummate masterpiece of formal construction, however, 
but also a work of great expressive beauty, of a lofty grandeur and 
dignity, a truly Olympian serenity and repose which are unique in 
modern music, and, for that matter, in modern art of any kind. It 
seems, indeed, to belong to a different age altogether, a different order 
of civilization, a different world almost — the world of classical 
antiquity." 

J. N. B. 



" DAPHNIS ET CHLOE " - Ballet in One Act - Orchestral 

Fragments * 

Second Series: " Daybreak," " Pantomime," " General Dance " 

By Joseph Maurice Ravel 

Born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; now living at 
Montfort-l'Amaury and Paris 



From the time when it was first composed, Ravel's " Daphnis et 
Chloe " music has had a flourishing life apart from Diaghileff's 
Ballet Russe, for which it was officially intended. Diaghileff, deflecting 
the principal creative musicians of the day (Stravinsky, Strauss, De- 
bussy) to his purposes, could not quite make ballet composers out of 
them. He did not reach the point of producing " Daphnis and Chloe " 
until the season of 1912, when it was mounted in June at the Chatelet 
in Paris, Pierre Monteux conducting, Nijinsky and Karsavina dancing 

* The Second Suite was performed in Boston for the first time by this orchestra, December 14, 
1917 (Dr. Karl Muck, conductor). The First Suite was originally heard here November 1, 1918 
(Henri Rabaud, conductor). 

TOIVO LAMINAN 
1 Chauncy Street • Cambridge 

DISTRIBUTOR OF QUALITY RADIOS and PHONOGRAPH RECORDS 

For moderate dally or weekly charges on 
Victor and Columbia Masterwork Recordings — Phone Kirkland 0630 

[«] 



the title parts. An indifferent success was reported. Meanwhile, the 

score had been published by Durand in the previous year, and the 

music, at least that part of it which is contained in the First Suite, was 

performed at a Chatelet concert, Gabriel Pierne conductor, on April 2, 

191 1. 

Whatever its intrinsic qualities, the success of " Daphnis and 

Chloe "asa ballet was impaired by a gathering storm within the com- 
pany, a strain of cross purposes in which it was directly involved. 
Mme. Romola Nijinsky, in her fascinating life of her husband * relates 
circumstances of this dissension (and others) with every appearance 
of honest detachment. Michel Fokine's conception of " Daphnis and 
Chloe " came to be matched directly against Nijinsky's revolutionary 
experiments in Greek classicism as essayed by the young dancer in 
visualizing Debussy's " L'Apres midi d'un Faune." The result was 
Fokine's resignation as the illustrious choreographer of the company. 
The subtle and conniving hand of the jealous Diaghileff is discerned in 
this event by Mme. Nijinsky. So far as he was concerned, she writes, 
" Fokine had become too dominant. Diaghileff never liked this, and, 
in all his artistic career, as soon as an artist attained a supreme position, 
he tried to pull him down. Because there must be only one reigning 
power, and that should be Sergei Pavlovitch Diaghileff. Yes, certainly 
he was interested in bringing forward a new maitre de ballet to further 
a new school of choreography, but the other motive was always there 
behind. He made Bakst, and dropped Roerich and Benois for him. He 
raised Stravinsky and played him off against Prokoviev. He launched 
Massine and changed him for Dolin, Lifar, and others. And thus Bakst 
was cast away for Larionov." 

Diaghileff was only too ready to listen to the youthful, but eager 
and challenging ideas of Nijinsky on Greek stylization and posture. 
There had been Fokine's " Narcisse," based upon Imperial Ballet tra- 
ditions of classical art, and with " Daphnis and Chloe " Fokine was 

* "Nijinsky," by his wife, Romola Nijinsky (Simon and Schuster, 1934). 



Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 

advertise! 

representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal cost 

L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tei. commonwealth 1492 



[12] 



Cambers theatre ■ Cambribge 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



EIGHTH CONCERT 

(AND LAST OF THE season) 

Thursday Evening, April 25 
at 8 o'clock 



[13] 



To the — 
Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



I think our members may be interested in the following 
facts about the Orchestra and our Society of Friends. 
The Orchestra schedule for the year calls for no con- 
certs, which are given in series or separate concerts in 18 
different cities. The subscribers to seats at the various series 
number more than 25,000, of whom nearly 10,000 are sub- 
scribers for seats at the Boston concerts. 

Those now enrolled as Friends of the Orchestra number 
1375, of whom 1179, attending the Boston and Cambridge 
concerts, are classified as Boston members, 146 are classified 
as New York and Brooklyn members, 37 as Providence 
members, and 1 3 as members from the other cities in which 
the Orchestra gives concerts. A complete list will be pub- 
lished in the Boston programme book of April 12-13. 

Contributions from members to date amount to $55,000 
toward the estimated requirement of $90,000. 

In order to dispel some misapprehension subscribers to 
the regular concerts are reminded that only those who make 
contributions toward the current requirements of the Or- 
chestra are enrolled as members of the Society. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 

To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. for whatever amount you 
care to contribute and mail it to E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 6 Beacon 
Street, Boston. 



[M] 



now working on similar " decadent " lines. To Nijinsky, hitherto 
nothing more than a brilliant executant, he gave Debussy's " Faun " to 
design, and Nijinsky worked upon his bold schemes with characteristic 
pains and intensity, teaching entirely unprecedented steps and ges- 
tures, based upon ancient bas reliefs, calling constant and cruelly 
exacting rehearsals. Fokine, who had not even been told of these en- 
croaching activities until they were but too evident, was at work upon 
three new productions for the pending season in Paris: " Tamara" 
" Dieu Bleu," and " Daphnis et Chloe" The reception of the first two, 
at the season's opening in the middle of May, was lukewarm, and as the 
date for " Daphnis et Chloe " drew nearer, he found that he was not 
allowed a sufficient number of rehearsals. " He asked Diaghileff for 
more rehearsals, but Diaghileff refused, saying that the troupe was 
already so much overstrained that they could not stand any more re- 
hearsing. Three days before the premiere Sergei Pavlovitch (Diaghi- 
leff) suggested that they abandon ' Daphnis ' entirely. Fokine begged 
for the three days, although he knew six or eight rehearsals were 
imperative. The choreography was extremely complex, particularly in 
the last scene, where groups of dancers rush in and out, and finally 
move to a reassembled climax. ' Daphnis ' had to be rehearsed even on 
the day of its first performance. Fokine was irritated and nervous. He 
had the feeling that his position as a maitre de ballet was being under- 
mined. He heard more news about ' Faune.' Rumors were on foot 
that something utterly new was in formation. Nijinsky, as always, com- 
plied to all that Fokine requested of him, and gave an exquisite per- 
formance of a Greek youth in ' Daphnis.' But, in spite of this, the 
ballet itself failed to obtain a permanent success in the repertoire. Not 
one of the three novelties choreographically attained the standard of 
' Carnaval ' or ' Spectre.' " 

The relations between Nijinsky and Fokine became strained to the 
breaking point, and instead of relieving the tension, Diaghileff aggra- 
vated it. Fokine left the company before the end of the season. 

J. N. B. 

BOUND VOLUMES of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Concert Bulletins 

Containing 

analytical and descriptive notes by Mr. Philip Hale, foremost critic, 

and Mr. John N. Burk, on all works performed during the season 

"A Musical Education in One Volume" 

"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowledge" 
La whence Gilman in the N. Y. Herald and Tribune 

Price $6.00 per volume 
__^ Address, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



LAMBERT MURPHY 

TENOR TEACHER OF SINGING 

In Boston on Mondays 

STUDIO, 725 BOYLSTON STREET 

For appointments write to above address or phone Kenmore 3122 on Mondays 



DO YOU WISH TO SING? 

MARY TRACY 

VOICE SPECIALIST, says: — "Anyone possessing a normal speaking voice should 
be able to sing." Lessons before the microphone included in regular vocal instruction. 

™- { c32%* 2041 30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON &S Ra&°' ° hare " 



BRENDAN KEENAN 

The Cultural, Spiritual and Physical Problems of Piano Mastery 

'• — rarely profound understanding of music — broad culture — rare intuition and psychological under- 
standing — inspiring teacher — " Mme. Ellt Net 

** — I have only the best wishes for this genius, hoping he has the opportunities to reach the great 
heights of which he is surely capable — " Mme. Sigrid Onegin 

" — I am sure, serious minded as you are, you will be a great success as a teacher — " 

WlLLEM VAN HOOGSTRATEN 

Baldwin Piano Reception by mail appointment only 384 The Riverway, Boston 



DOROTHY ZIOLKOWSKA 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER 

Member of Music Faculty Address: 78 Lake View Avenue, 

The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Telephone University 4230 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

ALL BRANCHES OF MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

44 CHURCH STREET, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Telephone: TROwbridge 0956 



[16] 



SYMPHONY HALL 

FINAL PROGRAMME 

MORNING VARIETIES 

But in the Afternoon! — 

SATURDAY - MARCH 30 • at 2:30 p.m. 

«^> 

Fairyland Scenes from Shakespeare 3 s 
"A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM" 

with MENDELSSOHN'S incidental music 

played by an ORCHESTRA led by 

ARTHUR FIEDLER 

Colette Humphrey as Puck 
Milton Parsons as Oberon 
Miriam Catheron as Titania 
Ernest Deacon as Bottom 

Production staged by Milton Parsons 

Dances designed and directed by Miss Catheron 

Costumes by Sally White Settings by Vernon Smith 

TICKETS NOW AT THE BOX OFFICE — 25c, 55c, 8oc, $1.10 



anberg theatre, Camfcrtbge 

[Harvard University] 




Thursday Evening, April 25 
at 8 o'clock 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H 


RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, F. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTf, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. El? Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


raichman, j. 


M VCDONALD, 


W. 


LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


hansotte, l. 


VALKENIER, 


w. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


lilleback, w. 


( TBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


stern burg, s. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, m. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



ibanbertf theatre • Harvard University • Cambribge 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Eighth Concert 

THURSDAY EVENING, April 25 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, IflC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 



— Cfjanti Icr & Co.- 

TREMONT STREET AT WEST 

cAn Exceptional 'Ualue^ 

A New RINGLESS 

Chiffon Stocking 



BY 



IJanity tyair 




Spring Colors . . . 
MACAROON 
SUNBRIGHT 
SUNDARK 
SUNDIAL 
THRUSH 
TOWNWEAR 
SMOKE 



They have everything you 
need for smart, fashionable 
appearance. Perfectly knit- 
ted of the finest quality 
silk, and cleverly reinforced 
for serviceability beyond 
your fondest expectations. 



We predict that when you see them and feel them 
you can y t resist laying in a season's supply at this 
price. All silk heel, plaited sole and toe. Street floor. 



[2] 



NOTICE 

of A Change of Plan Affecting the Harvard and Radcliffe 

Students for General Admission to Concerts 

in Sanders Theatre by the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Beginning with the Season 1935- 1936 



T 



he small gallery over the stage will not be available following this 
evening's concert. 



The Orchestra wishes to maintain the practice inaugurated by 
Major Higginson to make approximately one hundred seats available, 
at a nominal cost, for Harvard and Radcliffe students. 

Two sections in the balconies will be kept open for this purpose; 

and since they are much more desirable than the gallery, the admission 

price will be fifty cents, which is the same as the amount charged for 

admission to the second balcony in Symphony Hall on Friday 

afternoons. 

W. C. Saeger Bursar 



>anber£ theatre • Harvard University • Cambridge 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



EIGHTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, April 25, at 8 o'clock 



Programme 

Ravel .... Suite for Orchestra, "Le Tombeau de 

Couperin" 

I. PRELUDE 

II. FORLANE 

III . MENUE T 

IV. RIGAUDON 

Schumann .... Symphony in D minor, No. 4, Op. 120 

1. introduction; allegro 

ii. romanza 

iii. scherzo 

iv. largo; finale 

{Played without pause) 

INTERM ISSION 



Beethoven .... Symphony No. 5, in G minor, Op. 67 

I. ALLEGRO CON BRIO 

II. ANDANTE CON MOTO 

III. ALLEGRO; TRIO- 

IV. ALLEGRO 



[3] 



SUITE FOR ORCHESTRA, " LE TOMBEAU DE COUPERIN " 

(" COUPERIN'S TOMB "j 

By Joseph Maurice Ravel 

Born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, on March 7, 1875; at home near Paris 



Ravel, according to Mr. Edwin Evans, " is fond of looking at a 
* style or a period, as it were, with his head on one side, and specu- 
lating what is to be done with it." More than once, and notably in 
" Le Tombeau de Couperin," speculation bore fortunate consequences. 
The composer was engaged on this particular project, first conceived as 
a piano suite, in the summer of 1914. The exigencies of war interrupted 
his thoughts of a fragile musical past, and it was not until 1917, that 
Ravel resumed and completed his piano pieces. There were six move- 
ments — Prelude, Fugue, Forlane, Rigaudon, Minuet, and Toccata. He 
published the suite in 1918, in memory of his friends killed in the war. 
Later, he scored four movements (omitting the fugue and the toccata) 
for a small orchestra — two flutes, two oboes (one interchangeable with 
English horn) , two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, one trumpet, 
harp, and strings. The orchestral score bears no dedication other than 
that implied in the title. First performed at a Pasdeloup concert in 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, INC. 
Retail Music Store 

359 BOYLSTON STREET {at Arlington) BOSTON, MASS. 

t^» t^a <^» 

For All Published 

MUSIC 

Largest stock of sheet music and music- 
books in New England. Every outstanding 
American and Foreign publisher represented. 
t^» «^» «^» 

D I T S O N ' S 

359 BOYLSTON STREET TEL. COMMONWEALTH 1350 

[4] 



Paris under Rhene-Baton, February 28, 1920, it was introduced in 
this country by Pierre Monteux and the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
on November 19 of that year. 

The "Prelude" is in E minor, Vif, 12-16; the " Forlane" (an old 
dance said to derive from the gondoliers of Venice as the " Forlana ") 
is an allegretto, 6-8; the " Menuel" is an allegro moderato, and the 
final " Rigaudon/' * assez vif, 2-4. 



SYMPHONY IN D MINOR, NO. 4. Op. 120 

By Robert Schumann 
Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, July 29, 1856 



This symphony was composed in 1841, immediately after the Sym- 
phony in B-flat major, No. 1. According to the composer's notes it 
was "sketched at Leipzig in June, 1841, newly orchestrated at Dus- 
seldorf in 1851. The first performance of the original version at 
Gewandhaus, Leipzig, under David's direction. December 6, 1841." 
Clara Schumann wrote in her diary on May 31 of that year: " Robert 
began yesterday another symphony, which will be in one movement, 
and yet contain an adagio and a finale. I have heard nothing about 
it, yet I see Robert's bustle, and I hear the D minor sounding wildly 
from a distance, so that I know in advance that another work will 
be fashioned in the depths of his soul. Heaven is kindly disposed 
toward us: Robert cannot be happier in the composition than I am 
when he shows me such a work." A few days later she wrote: " Robert 
composes steadily; he has already completed three movements, and I 
hope the symphony will be ready by his birthday." 

Their first child, Marie, was born on September 1, 1841. On the 
thirteenth of the month, his wife's birthday, Marie was baptized and 
the mother received from her husband the D minor symphony; " which 
I have quietly finished," he said. 

The symphony was performed for the first time at a concert given 
by Clara Schumann in the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, December 6, 1841. 
Ferdinand David conducted. The Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung 
found that in the orchestral works there was no calmness, no clearness 
in the elaboration of the musical thoughts; and it reproached Schu- 
mann for his " carelessness." 

Schumann was not satisfied with the symphony, and he did not 

* " Rigadon (rigaudon, rigodon, rigodoun, rigaud, and in English rigadoon) is a word of doubt- 
ful origin. Rousseau says in his Dictionary of Music: ' I have heard a dancing master say that 
the name of this dance came from that of its inventor, who was called " Rigaud." ' Mistral 
states that this Rigaud was a dancing-master at Marseilles. The word ' rigadoon ' came 
into English literature as early as 1691. There is a verb ' rigadoon.' Dr. Oliver Wendell 
Holmes in 'Elsie Venner ' uses it: 'The Doctor' looked as if he should like to rigadoon 
and sashy across as well as the young one.' " P. H. 

[5] 



publish it. In December, 1851, he revised the manuscript. During the 
years between 1841 and 1853 Schumann had composed and published 
the Symphony in C (No. 2) and the Symphony in E-flat (No. 3) ; the 
one in D minor was published therefore as No. 4. In its first form, the 
one in D minor was entitled " Symphonistische Phantasie." 

The symphony in the revised and present form was played for the 
first time at the seventh concert of the Allgemeine Musikverein at Diis- 
seldorf on March 3, 1853, in Geisler Hall. Schumann conducted from 
manuscript. At this concert selections from the Mass were performed 
for the first time. 

The concert-master, Ruppert Becker, made these entries in his diary 
concerning the rehearsals and the first performance of this symphony 
in Diisseldorf: — 

"Tuesday, evening of March 1. Rehearsal for 7th Concert. Sym- 
phony by Schumann for the first time; a somewhat short but thor- 
oughly fresh and vital piece of music. Wednesday, 2. 9 o'clock in the 
morning, 2 rehearsal for concert. Thursday, 3. 7th concert: Program. 

" Of Schumann compositions these were new: symphony D minor, 
which he had already composed 12 years ago, but had left lying till now. 
2 excerpts from a Mass: both full of the most wonderful harmonies, 
only possible with Schumann. I liked the symphony especially on ac- 
count of its swing." 

The symphony was dedicated to Joseph Joachim. On the title-page 
of the manuscript was this inscription: " When the first tones of this 
symphony were awakened, Joseph Joachim was still a little fellow; since 
then the symphony and still more the boy have grown bigger, wherefore 
I dedicate it to him, although only in private. Diisseldorf, December 
2 3> J 853. Robert Schumann." 

The parts were published in November, 1853. The score was pub- 
lished the next month. 

The symphony was performed in Boston for the first time at a 
Philharmonic concert, led by Carl Zerrahn February 7, 1857. John S. 
Dwight found many beauties in the new symphony; but he also said — 
and the year was 1857 — that the orchestration of Wagner's " Faust " 
overture was " masterly "; " clearer and more euphonious, it seemed to 
us, than much of Schumann's." 

It was stated for many years that the only changes made by Schu- 
mann in this symphony were in the matter of instrumentation, espe- 
cially in the wood-wind. Some time after the death of Schumann the 
first manuscript passed into the possession of Johannes Brahms, who 
finally allowed the score to be published, edited by Franz Wullner. 
It was then found that the composer had made important alterations 
in thematic development. He had cut out elaborate contrapuntal 
work to gain a broader, simpler, more rhythmically effective treat- 

[6] 



ment, especially in the last movement. He had introduced the open- 
ing theme of the first movement " as a completion of the melody 
begun by the three exclamatory chords which make the fundamental 
rhythm at the beginning of the last movement." And, on the other 
hand, some thought the instrumentation of the first version occasion- 
ally preferable on account of clearness to that of the second. 

It was Schumann's wish that the symphony should be played with- 
out pauses between the movements. Mendelssohn expressed the same 
wish for the performance of his " Scotch " symphony, which was pro- 
duced nearly four months after the first performance of this Symphony 
in D minor. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and strings. 

The first movement begins with an introduction, Ziemlich langsam 
(Un poco lento) , D minor, 3-4. The first motive is used later in the 
" Romanze." The orchestra gives out an A which serves as back- 
ground for this motive in sixths in the second violins, violas, and 
bassoons. This figure is worked up contrapuntally. A dominant organ- 
point appears in the basses, over which the first violins play an ascend- 
ing figure; the time changes from 3-4 to 2-4. 

The main body of this movement, Lebhaft (Vivace) , in D minor, 
2-4, begins forte with the development of the violin figure just men- 
tioned. This theme prevails, so that in the first section there is no 
true second theme. The characteristic trombone figure reminds one 
of a passage in Schumann's Piano Quartet in E-flat, Op. 47. There 
is a heroic figure in the wood-wind instruments. After the repetition 
comes a long free fantasia. The true second theme, sung in F major 
by first violins, appears. The development is now perfectly free. 
There is no third part. 

The Romanze, Ziemlich langsam (Un poco lento) , in D minor — 
or, rather, A minor plagal — opens with a mournful melody said to be 
familiar in Provence. Schumann intended originally to accompany 
the song of oboe and first violoncellos with a guitar. This theme is 
followed by the dreamy motive of the Introduction. Then the first 
phrases of the Romanze are sung again by oboe and violoncellos, and 
there is a second return of the contrapuntal work — now in D major 
— with embroidery by a solo violin. The chief theme brings the move- 
ment to a close on the chord of A major. 

The Scherzo, Lebhaft (Vivace) , in D minor, 3-4, presents the de- 
velopment of a rising and falling scale-passage of a few notes. The 
trio, in B -flat major, is of a peculiar and beautiful rhythmic char- 
acter. The first beat of the phrase falls constantly on a rest in all the 
parts. The melody is almost always in the wood-wind, and the first 

[7] 



violins are used in embroidery. The Scherzo is repeated after the trio, 
which returns once more as a sort of coda. 

The Finale begins with a short introduction, Langsam (Lento) , in 
B-flat major, and it modulates to D minor, 4-4. The chief theme of 
the first movement is worked up against a counter-figure in the trom- 
bones to a climax. The main body of the movement, Lebhaft (Vivace) , 
in D major, 4-4, begins with the brilliant first theme, which has the 
character of a march, and it is not unlike the theme of the first move- 
ment with its two members transposed. The figure of the trombones 
in the introduction enters. The cantabile second theme begins in B 
minor, but it constantly modulates in the development. The free fan- 
tasia begins in B minor, with a G (strings, bassoons, trombones) , 
which is answered by a curious ejaculation by the whole orchestra. 
There is an elaborate contrapuntal working-out of one of the figures 
in the first theme. The third part of the movement begins irregularly 
with the return of the second theme in F-sharp minor. The second 
theme enters in the tonic. The coda begins in the manner of the free 
fantasia, but in E minor; but the ejaculations are now followed by the 
exposition and development of a passionate fourth theme. There is a 
free closing passage, Schneller (Piu moto) , in D major, 2-2. 

P. H. 

TOIVO LAMINAN 

1 Chauncy Street • Cambridge 

DISTRIBUTOR OF QUALITY RADIOS and PHONOGRAPH RECORDS 

For moderate dally or weekly charges on 
Victor and Columbia Masterwork Recordings — Phone Kirkland 0630 



R. O.WALTER 



LIFE INSURANCE 
All Its Forms 



IOO MILK STREET ■ BOSTON 

HANCOCK 6lOO 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[8] 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Boston Members 



Mr. Gordon Abbott 

Mr. and Mrs. A. A. Adams, 

Miss Clara A. Adams 

Miss Dora L. Adler 

Mrs. George R. Agassiz 

Mrs. William T. Aldrich 

Miss Martha A. Alford 

Miss Annie E. Allen 

Miss Margaret E. Allen 

Miss Nancy Allen 

Mr. Philip K. Allen 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip R. Allen 

Mrs. Thomas Allen 

Mr. Rudolf Amann 

General Butler Ames 

Mrs. Hobart Ames 

Dr. and Mrs. John L. Ames 

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Ames 

Mrs. William H. Ames 

Mrs. Charles B. Amory 

Mrs. C. S. Anderson 

Miss Katherine H. Andrews 

Miss Margaret Anthony 

Mrs. H. K. Appleton 

Mr. Randolph Ashton 

Mrs. Edwin F. Atkins 

Miss Mary Atkins 

Mr. Edward W. Atkinson 

Mrs. J. H. Atkinson 

Mr. William G. Aurelio 

Mr. Elisha T. Avery 

Mrs. Charles F. Ayer 

Mrs. James B. Ayer 

Mr. Nathaniel F. Ayer 

Mr. and Mrs. 

C. W. Babcock 
Mrs. R. W. Babson 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. 

Bacon 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul V. Bacon 
Mrs. George ,8. C. Badger 
Miss Alice H. Bailey 
Mrs. James A. Bailey 
Miss Frances M. Baker 
Dr. Franklin G. Balch 
Prof. Edward Ballantine 
Mrs. Hugh Bancroft 
Miss Edith Bangs 
Mr. John Barker, Jr. 
Miss Phyllis F. Barker 
Mr. and Mrs. William L. 

Barnard 



Mrs. J. M. Barnes 

Mr. John S. Barnet 

In Memory of Sara H. Barnet 

Mrs. J. Dellinger Barney 

Miss Katharine E. Barr 

Miss Laura M. Barr 

Miss Betsy A. Bartlett 

Miss Ellen H. Bartlett 

Miss Grace E. Bartlett 

Mrs. Matthew Bartlett 

Mrs. Nelson S. Bartlett 

Miss Dorothy Bartol 

Mrs. John W. Bartol 

Mr. John L. Batchelder, Jr. 

Miss Louise Batchelder 

Mrs. Henry B. Batchelor 

Mr. Freeman Field Bates 

Mrs. Oric Bates 

Miss Eva M. Bath 

Mr. Paul F. Bauder 

Mr. and Mrs. Jesse B. Baxter 

Miss Katharine F. Baxter 

Mrs. E. B. Bayley 

Miss Ida G. Beal 

Mrs. Ruth D. Beals 

Mrs. Horace L. Bearse 

Mrs. G. W. Becker 

Mrs. Harry H. Beckwith 

Miss Sylenda Beebe 

Mrs. Charles Belknap 

Mrs. Jaffray de 

Hauteville-Bell 
Mr. Frank B. Bemis 
Miss Frances Z. T. Benner 
Mrs. Arthur Gardner Bennett 
Prof, and Mrs. C. Harold 

Berry 
Mrs. Jacob Berwin 
Miss Elizabeth Biddlecome 
Miss Gladys M. Bigelow 
Mrs. Henry B. Bigelow 
Miss Mary C. Bigelow 
Mrs. Charles S. Bird 
Mr. Charles S. Bird, Jr. 
Mrs. Frances A. M. Bird 
Miss Amy F. Bishop 
Mrs. Benjamin S. Blake 
Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Lowell 

Blake 
Miss Marian L. Blake 
Mr. H. Lawton Blanchard 
Mr. Henry W. Bliss 
Mr. S. A. Block 
Mrs. Herrman L. Blumgart 



Mrs. Stanley M. Bolster 
Mr. Richard P. Borden 
Mrs. C. Christian Born 
Mrs. John T. Bottomley 
Mrs. Herbert L. Bowden 
Mrs. George H. Bowen 
Mrs. John Bowler 
Mr. Charles Boyden 
Miss Elizabeth Bradford 
Mrs. Gamaliel Bradford 
Mrs. Frederick J. Bradlee 
Miss S. C. Bradlee 
Mrs. J. D. Cameron Bradley 
Mrs. J. Gardner Bradley 
Mrs. Ralph Bradley 
Mrs. E. D. Brandegee 
Mrs. Mabel D. Brandegee 
Mr. Robert C. Bray 
Mrs. W. C. Bray 
Mrs. J. L. Bremer 
Miss Sarah F. Bremer 
Miss F. R. Brewer 
Mr. Robert D. Brewer 
Miss Rhoda C. Brickett 
Miss Helen S. Briggs 
Mrs. Clifford Brigham 
Mr. Robert O. Brigham 
Mrs. Gorham Brooks 
Mr. John G. Brooks, 2nd 
Miss Phyllis Brooks 
Miss Edith B. Brown 
Mrs. Edwin P. Brown 
Miss Ethel F. Brown 
Mrs. G. Winthrop Brown 
Mrs. Theodore E. Brown 
Mrs. Walter S. Bucklin 
Miss A. E. E. Buff 
Miss Ellen T. Bullard 
Mr. and Mrs. William B. 

Burbank 
Mrs. George Sargent Burgess 
Mrs. Archie C. Burnett 
Miss Helen C. Burnham 
Miss M. C. Burnham 
Miss Nina H. Burnham 
Mr. and Mrs. Allston Burr 
Mrs. Heman M. Burr 
Mr. I. Tucker Burr 
Miss Elsie A. Burrage 
Mr. George D. Burrage 
Miss Margaret S. Bush 
Miss Isabel Butler 



Miss Amy W. Cabot 
Mrs. Arthur T. Cabot 



[9] 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (continued) 



Mrs. Henry B. Cabot 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Cabot 
Mr. Stephen P. Cabot 
Mr. Walter M. Cabot 
Mrs. Walter E. Campbell 
Mrs. Albert P. Carter 
Mrs. Hubert L. Carter 
Mr. and Mrs. Morris Carter 
Mr. Richard B. Carter 
Miss Louisa W. Case 
Miss Dorothy Castle 
Mrs. Charles Caverly 
Miss Mary Chamberlain 
Mrs. George P. Champlin 
Mrs. Henry M. Channing 
Miss Annie B. Chapman 
Miss E. D. Chapman 
Mr. George A. Chapman 
Mrs. Walter G. Chard 
Miss Dorothy Charlton 
Mrs. Earle P. Charlton 
Mrs. Arthur I. Charron 
Miss Helen B. Chase 
Mrs. Henry M. Chase 
Mrs. Philip P. Chase 
Miss Alice Cheever 
Mrs. David Cheever 
Miss Helen Cheever 
Miss Alice M. Cheney 
Miss Ada E. Chevalier 
Mrs. Katharine S. Choate 
Dr. Anna Q. Churchill 
Dr. and Mrs. Edward D. 

Churchill 
Miss Helen Clapp 
Mrs. B. Preston Clark 
Mrs. Henry Cannon Clark 
Mr. and Mrs. Myron H. 

Clark 
Mr. and Mrs. Philip M. Clark 
Miss M. Emma Clarke 
Mr. Marshall G. Clarke 
Miss Mary E. Clarke 
Miss Elizabeth T. Cleaveland 
Mrs. Edwin Paul Cochran 
Mr. Russell Codman, Jr. 
Mrs. Haskell Cohn 
Miss Ruby H. Cole 
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Colt 
Dr. James B. Conant 
Mrs. William C. Conant 
Miss Kate E. Coney 
Mrs. Costello C. Converse 
Mr. F. S. Converse 
Mrs. Howard P. Converse 
Miss Luna B. Converse 
Mrs. John S. Cooke 
Mrs. Algernon Coolidge 
[10] 



Mrs. Elizabeth S. Coolidge 
Miss Elsie W. Coolidge 
Mrs. J. T. Coolidge, Jr. 
Prof. Julian L. Coolidge 
Miss Margaret W. Cooper 
Mrs. Harold D. Corey 
Miss Linda E. Corey 
Mr. Charles E. Cotting 
Miss Rachel E. Cotton 
Dr. and Mrs. 

John A. Cousens 
Mr. Guy W. Cox 
Mrs. Ralph Adams Cram 
Miss Marjorie L. Crandall 
Mrs. Charles Cranford 
Miss Lucy C. Crehore 
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon K. 

Creighton 
Mr. Alvah Crocker 
Mr. Bartow Crocker 
Mr. Douglas Crocker 
Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby 
Mrs. F. B. Crowinshield 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles K. 

Cummings 
Mr. Francis H. Cummings 
Miss Margaret Cummings 
Miss Mary Cunningham 
Mrs. Florence G. Curtis 
Miss Frances G. Curtis 
Miss Harriot S. Curtis 
Mrs. G. S. Curtis 
Mrs. Louis Curtis 
Miss Mary Curtis 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederic H. 

Curtiss 
Mrs. H. W. Cushing 
Miss Susan T. Cushing 
Mrs. W. E. Cushing 
Miss Anna W. Cutler 
Mrs. C. H. Cutler 
Miss Elisabeth A. Cutler 
Mr. and Mrs. G. Ripley 

Cutler 
Mrs. H. G. Cutler 
Mr. Robert Cutler 
Mrs. John Cutter 

Mr. and Mrs. George B. 

Dabney 
Mr. and Mrs. Reginald A. 

Daly 
Miss Kate N. Dana 
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest B. Dane 
Mrs. Edward Dane 
Dr. and Mrs. John Dane 
Miss Mabel Daniels 
Mrs. George H. Davenport 



Mrs. Clara S. Davis 
Mr. George Bancroft Davis 
Mrs. Livingston Davis 
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen B. 

Davol 
Miss Mary B. Davoll 
Mrs. Frank A. Day 
Mrs. Frank A. Day, Jr. 
Mrs. Henry B. Day 
Mr. F. W. Dean 
Mr. and Mrs. James Dean 
Mrs. John Dearborn 
Mr. Benjamin A. Delano 
Miss E. G. Denny 
Miss Rose L. Dexter 
Mrs. Albert C. Dieffenbach 
Miss Ethel Dodd 
Mr. and Mrs. R. G. Dodge 
Miss Sally Dodge 
Mrs. Malcolm Donald 
Mrs. Elena H. Donaldson 
Miss Elizabeth P. Douglass 
Mrs. Cutler B. Downer 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerome I. H. 

Downes 
Mrs. W. B. H. Dowse 
Mrs. B. H. Bristow Draper 
Miss Louisa L. Dresel 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Dreyfus 
Miss Geraldine F. Droppers 
Mrs. Duncan 
F. L. Dunne Company 
Mr. Cyrus W. Durgin 
Miss Catharine H. Dwight 
Mr. Richard W. Dwight 
In Memoriam C. S.'D. 

Miss Helen T. Eager 
Miss Mabel T. Eager 
The Misses L. S. and M. L. 

Earle 
Mrs. Melville Eastham 
Miss Blanche E. Eaton 
Miss Grace M. Edwards 
Mr. Louis Ehrlich 
Mr. Julius Eisemann 
Mrs. Ludwig Eisemann 
Mr. and Mrs. William Ellery 
Miss Florence G. Elms 
Miss Helen T. Elms 
Miss Augusta C. Ely 
Miss Elizabeth B. Ely 
Miss Mabel E. Emerson 
Mrs. Woodward Emery 
Mr. and Mrs. 

H. Wendell Endicott 
Mr. S. C. Endicott 
Mrs. L. Joseph Eno 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (continued) 



Mrs. Harold C. Ernst 
Miss Edith M. Esterbrook 
Mrs. David J. Evans 

Mr. Harold Farber 

Dr. and Mrs. John W. Farlow 

Mr. A. D. Fay 

Mrs. D. B. Fay 

Mrs. Richard D. Fay 

Mr. Thomas Fenno 

Mrs. A. Lincoln Filene 

Miss Margaret A. Fish 

Miss Edith S. Fisher 

Miss Frances B. Fisher 

The Rev. George Stanley 

Fiske 
Miss Carrie T. Fitch 
The Hon. John F. Fitzgerald 
Miss Elizabeth Flanders 
Mrs. Charles H. Flood 
A Friend 
Mr. Arthur Foote 
Mr. George L. Foote 
Mr. Allyn B. Forbes 
Mr. Edward W. Forbes 
Miss Jessie W. Ford 
Mrs. Arthur A. Forness 
Mrs. Leonard Fowle 
Miss Edith M. Fox 
Mr. Felix Fox 
Mr. Isadore Fox 
Miss Katharine French 
Mr. and Mrs. N. H. Friedman 
A Friend 

Miss Louisa H. Fries 
Mr. Horace W. Frost 
Mr. and Mrs. 

Donald McKay Frost 
Dr. and Mrs. 

Langdon Frothingham 
Mrs. Louis A. Frothingham 
Mr. William C. Fry 
The Hon. and Mrs. 

Alvan T. Fuller 
Miss Elizabeth Fyffe 

Mrs. Homer Gage 
Mr. and Mrs. W. W. 

Gallagher 
Mrs. William Albert Gallup 
Mr. Seth T. Gano 
Mrs. Harry Ganz 
Mrs. Edgar Garceau 
Miss Edith F. Gardner 
Mr. Roy R. Gardner 
Mr. David A. Garrison 
Mrs. W. A. Gaston 
Mr. E. Howard Gay 
Mr. Heinrich Gebhard 



Mrs. K. H. Gibson 
Mrs. Carleton S. Gifford 
Miss Rosamond Gifford 
Miss Helen C. Gilbert 
Miss Louise Giles 
Miss Margaret E. Gilman 
Mrs. G. L. Gilmore 
Mrs. M. Francesca G. Ginn 
Miss Margaret W. Golding 
Mrs. W. N. Goodnow 
Mrs. Aaron Goodrich 
Miss Constance Goodrich 
Mr. and Mrs. Wallace 

Goodrich 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederic S. 

Goodwin 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry M. 

Goodwin 
Mrs. E. S. Goulston, Jr. 
Mr. Martin Grabau 
Dr. and Mrs. G. Philip 

Grabfield 
Miss Isabella Grandin 
Mrs. Edward C. Graves 
Miss Elizabeth F. Gray 
Mrs. Gerald Gray 
Mr. Reginald Gray 
Mrs. Russell Gray 
Mrs. William C. Gray 
Miss Emma Grebe 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis M. 

Greeley 
Dr. and Mrs. 

Robert M. Green 
Mr. David H. Greenberg 
Miss Alma L. Greene 
Mr. Henry Copley Greene 
Prof, and Mrs. Chester N. 

Greenough 
Mrs. H. V. Greenough 
Mrs. Robert B. Greenough 
Mrs. Allen Greenwood 
Mr. Henry S. Grew 
Miss Josephine Griffith 
Miss Kate D. Griswold 
Miss Eleanor F. Grose 
Mrs. Frances L. Grover 
Mrs. E. A. Grozier 

Mrs. Philip Hale 
Mrs. Richard W. Hale 
Mrs. George A. Hall 
Mrs. H. S. Hall 
Mrs. Harry Warren Hall 
Miss Margaret W. Hall 
Miss Emily Hallowell 
Miss Elizabeth M. 
Hammond 



Mr. Franklin T. Hammond 
Mr. Emor H. Harding 
Mrs. W. E. Harding 
Miss Lilian Harmon 
Mrs. William Harrington 
Mrs. Alice F. Harris 
Mrs. Henry W. Harris 
Mr. William E. Harris 
Mrs. Edward T. Hartman 
Mr. Alfred S. Hartwell 
Miss Mary A. Hartwell 
Mrs. Sydney Harwood 
Mrs. Charles H. Haskins 
Miss Mary Elizabeth 

Hastings 
Mrs. Marion J. Hatch 
Mrs. Ralph E. Hatch 
Mrs. Charles E. Hatfield 
Dr. and Mrs. Hugh K. 

Hatfield 
Miss Alison Haughton 
Mrs. M. G. Haughton 
Mrs. George Hawley 
Mrs. Harold B. Hayden 
Miss Christine Hayes 
Miss Emily H. Hayward 
Mrs. Harry T. Hayward 
Miss Olivia Bowditch 

Hazelton 
Mr. William C. Heilman 
Mrs. Joseph M. Herman 
Miss Margaret F. Herrick 
Mr. Robert F. Herrick 
Mrs. A. H. Hersey 
Miss Bessie C. Hewes 
Mrs. Joseph Hewett 
Mrs. John W. Higgins 
Mr. Charles Higginson 
Mrs. Henry L. Higginson 
Miss Grace G. Hiler 
Mr. Arthur D. Hill 
Miss Carrie F. Hill 
Prof, and Mrs. Edward B. 

Hill 
Mrs. John F. Hill 
Mr. Richard B. Hobart 
Mrs. Franklin Warren 

Hobbs 
Miss Dorothy M. Hobson 
Miss Edith C. Holbrook 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. 

Holmes 
Miss Holmes 
Mrs. Hector M. Holmes 
Miss Katharine A. Homans 
Miss Marian J. Homans 
Mrs. W. P. Homans 
Miss Mary F. Hooper 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (continued) 



Mrs. Roland G. Hopkins 
Miss Leslie W. Hopkinson 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry 

Hornblower 
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph 

Hornblower 
Miss Phoebe Lee Hosmer 
Mrs. Clement S. Houghton 
Mrs. H. M. Houser 
Mr. James C. Howe 
Mrs. J. Murray Howe 
Mr. M. A. DeWolfe Howe 
Dr. and Mrs. William W. 

Howell 
Mr. John N. M. Howells 
Mr. Alexander E. Hoyle 
Mrs. Eliot Hubbard 
Miss Amy M. Hughes 
Miss Elinor L. Hughes 
Mr. and Mrs. Chester B. 

Humphrey 
Miss Ida Hunneman 
Mrs. Henry S. Hunnewell 
Miss Emily J. Hurd 
Mr. Frank 6. Hurter 
Mrs. Charles P. Hutchins 
Mrs. Edward W. Hutchins 
Mrs. Maynard Hutchinson 

Dr. Edwin E. Jack 
Dr. Frederick L. Jack 
Contribution 
Dr. Henry Jackson 
Mrs. James Jackson 
Miss Marian C. Jackson 
Mr. Robert A. Jackson 
Mrs. Edward F. Jacobs 
Miss Helen M. Jameson 
Mrs. A. S. Jenney 
Mr. Charles S. Jenney 
Mr. and Mrs. T. E. Jewell 
In Memory of Howard 

Clifton Jewett, M.D. 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur S. 

Johnson 
Prof. Edith C. Johnson 
Miss Edith Morse Johnson 
Mrs. Franklin R. Johnson 
Miss Harriet E. Johnson 
Miss Margaret F. Johnson 
Miss Margaret H. Jones 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald 

Kaffenburgh 
Mr. William H. Kain 
Mrs. Benjamin A. Kaiser 
Miss Bessie Kaufman 
In Memory of Mitchell B. 

Kaufman 

[12] 



Mrs. and Mrs. Carl F. 

Kaufmann 
Mr. and Mrs. L. M. Keeler 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Tilden 

Keller 
Miss Marion F. Keller 
Mrs. Fitzroy Kelly 
Mrs. Shaun Kelly 
Mrs. Edward L. Kent 
Mrs. Everett E. Kent 
Mr. E. S. Wells Kerr 
Mrs. F. S. Kershaw 
Mr. Phillips Ketchum 
Mr. I. S. Kibrick 
Miss Barbara Kidder 
Mrs. C. W. Kidder 
Dr. Eleanor Kilham 
Miss Ruth Kimball 
Mr. Charles A. King 
Mr. Franklin King 
The Misses King 
Mrs. James D. Kinsley 
Mr. and Mrs. 

Louis E. Kirstein 
Miss Jessie E. Kloseman 
Mr. George Knight 
Mrs. Henry F. Knight 
Dr. and Madame Serge 

Koussevitzky 
Dr. and Mrs. G. Douglas 

Krumbhaar 

Mrs. Edward W. LaCroix 
Mrs. H. A. Lamb 
Miss Alice Lamprey 
Miss Winnetta Lamson 
Mr. Arthur Landers 
Miss Margaret Ruthven 

Lang 
Mrs. Henry G. Lapham 
Mrs. Chester W. Lasell 
Miss Elizabeth Lasell 
Mrs. George D. Latimer 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. 

Laughlin 
Mrs. John Lawrence 
The Rt. Rev. William 

Lawrence 
Mrs. Halfdan Lee 
Miss Helene G. Lee 
Mrs. James S. Lee 
Mrs. John C. Lee 
Mr. Joseph Lee 
Mrs. Nelson B. Lee 
Dr. and Mrs. Roger I. Lee 
Miss Sylvia Lee 
Dr. Henry Lefavour 
Mr. William A. Lefavour 



Mrs. H. Frederick Lesh 

Mrs. George Lewis 

Mr. and Mrs. George Lewis, 

Jr. 

Mr. Lyman B. Lewis 
Mrs. E. P. Lindsay 
Miss Esther Lissner 
Miss Lucy Littell 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur D. 

Little 
Mrs. David M. Little 
Mrs. Henry C. Little 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Lovell Little 
Mrs. C. M. Loeffler 
Mrs. Percival H. Lombard 
Mrs. Alfred L. Loomis 
Miss Lois Lord 
Mrs. W. H. Lord 
Miss Marjorie C. Loring 
Miss Mary B. Lothrop 
Mrs. W. S. H. Lothrop 
Mr. Winslow H. Loveland 
Mrs. F. E. Lowell 
Miss Lucy Lowell 
Miss Mariana Lowell 
Mr. Stephen B. Luce 
Mrs. Arthur Lyman 
Mr. Herbert Lyman 
Mrs. George Armstrong 

Lyon 

Mrs. Eldon Macleod 

Mr. Edward F. MacNichol 

Mrs. H. S. Maffitt 

Mrs. W. N. Magoun 

Dr. George Burgess Magrath 

Mrs. Emily M. Maguire 

Mrs. D. E. Manson 

Miss Helen C. Marble 

Mr. Philip S. Marden 

Prof. E. L. Mark 

Mrs. Mary P. Marsh 

Miss Fannie P. Mason 

Mrs. Maude A. May 

Mrs. Frederick S. Mead 

Mrs. George Melcher 

Mr. and Mrs. C. H. S. 

Merrill 
Mr. Nestor Merritt 
Mr. Albert J. Meserve 
Miss A. Louise Messer 
Mrs. George Putnam Metcalf 
Mrs. Thomas N. Metcalf 
Mr. G. W. Metcalfe 
Mr. A. H. Meyer 
Mrs. Fay Miller 
Miss Mildred A. Miller 
Mr. Arthur N. Milliken 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (continued) 



Mrs. Charles F. Mills 
Mrs. Herman A. Mintz 
Mr. Stewart Mitchell 
Mr. Arthur E. Monroe 
Miss Nancy E. Mooney 
Mrs. Edward C. Moore 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. 

Moors 
Mrs. Edwin Morey 
Prof, and Mrs. Samuel 

Eliot Morison 
Miss J. G. Morse 
Mrs. James F. Morse 
Jeska Swartz Morse 
Mi. John T. Morse, Jr. 
Miss Leonice S. Morse 
Dr. and Mrs. W. I. Morse 
Mrs. Henry A. Morss 
Mrs. F. S. Moseley 
Mrs. M. I. Motte 
Mrs. E. Preble Motley, Sr. 
Mr. Penfield Mower 
Mrs. George S. Mumford 
Mrs. George S. Mumford, Jr. 
Mrs. S. C. Murfitt 
Mrs. Charles W. McConnel 
Mrs. Stanley McCormick 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Franklin 

McElwain 
Mrs. Allyn B. Mclntire 
Miss Emily W. McKibbin 
Mrs. Norman McLeod 
Miss Barbara McQuesten 

Mr. F. H. Nash 

Mrs. J. A. Neal 

Miss K. B. Neilson 

Mrs. W. LaCoste Neilson 

Mrs. James M. Newell 

Mrs. W. H. Newey 

Miss Gertrude E. Newhall 

Mrs. Samuel J. Newman 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin M. 

Newton 
Mrs. Henry G. Nichols 
Mrs. Roland Nickerson 
Mrs. W. G. Nickerson 
Mrs. John T. Nightingale 
Mrs. F. O. North 
Miss E. G. Norton 
Miss Annie Endicott Nourse 
Miss Annie Anthony Noyes 
Mrs. James B. Noyes 
A Friend 
Mr. George R. Nutter 

Mrs. Francis J. Oakes, Jr. 
Miss Mary E. O'Brion 
Mr. Otto Oldenberg* 



Mrs. Leonard Opdycke 
Miss Magdalene L. Orvis 
Mrs. George Owen 

Miss Louise Packard 
The Rev. George L. Paine 
Mr. John B. Paine, Jr. 
The Misses J. G. and E. M. 

Paine 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard C. 

Paine 
Mr. and Mrs. R. T. Paine, 

2nd 
Mrs. Stephen Paine 
Miss Maidie Palmer 
Miss E. M. Parker 
Mr. and Mrs. Haven Parker 
Mr. and Mrs. Philip S. Parker 
Mrs. Lewis Parkhurst 
Mr. Robert Parkinson 
Mrs. Henry Parkman 
Mrs. Alice M. Parnell 
Miss Alice R. Pattee 
Mr. James E. Patton 
Miss Anne P. Peabody 
Mrs. Endicott Peabody 
Mrs. W, Rodman Peabody 
Miss Annie J. Pecker 
Mr. and Mrs. Gino L. 

Perera 
Mrs. E. G. Perry 
Mrs. Franklin T. Pfaelzer 
Mrs. John C. Phillips 
The Hon. and Mrs. William 

Phillips 
Mr. Dudley L. Pickman 
Mr. Dudley L. Pickman, Jr. 
Mr. Edward M. Pickman 
Mrs. Alvah H. Pierce 
Mrs. Edgar Pierce 
Mrs. George W. Pierce 
Miss Rosamond Pierce 
Mrs. Charles G. Pike 
Mrs. Harold A. Pitman 
Mr. Frederick Plummer 
Mrs. John Briggs Potter 
Mrs. Murray A. Potter 
Miss L. D. Powers 
Miss Betty Prather 
Mrs. Frederick S. Pratt 
Miss Julia C. Prendergast 
Mr. A. E. Prescott 
Mrs. Elwyn G. Preston 
Mrs. Lucinda W. Prince 
Mrs. Charles A. Proctor 
Mrs. F. Delano Putnam 
Mrs. George Putnam 
Miss Louisa H. Putnam 



Mrs. Tracey J. Putnam 
Mrs. William Lowell Putnam 

Prof. E. K. Rand 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry Seaton 
Rand 

Miss Helen M. Ranney 

Mrs. Neal Rantoul 

The Misses Rantoul 

Mr. and Mrs. Franklin F. 
Raymond 

Mrs. Frank W. Remick 

Mrs. Edward Reynolds 

Mrs. Albert W. Rice 

Mrs. John C. Rice 

Mrs. William Rice 

Mrs. William E. Rice 

Mrs. C. F. Rich 

Mrs. J. L. Richards 

Mrs. Theodore W. Richards 

Mrs. Charles F. Richardson 

Mrs. John Richardson 

Dr. and Mrs. Mark W. 

Richardson 
Mr. W. K. Richardson 
Mrs. C. F. Richmond 
Mr. W. D. Richmond 
Miss Mabel Louise Riley 
Mrs. Philip F. Ripley 
Miss Alice Marie Ritz 
Mrs. Russell Robb 
Mrs. Royal E. Robbins 
Mrs. Odin Roberts 
Mr. Dwight P. Robinson, Jr. 
Miss Gertrude Robinson 
A Friend 

Miss Katherine Robinson 
Miss Bertha F. Rogers 
Mrs. Francis C. Rogerson 
Mrs. Kate C. Ropkins 
Dr. M. J. Rosenau 
Mrs. Eugene Rosenthal 
Mrs. Louis Rosenthal 
Mrs. Morris Rosenthal 
Mr. Bernard J. Rothwell 
Miss Mary S. Rousmaniere 
Mrs. Charles F. Rowley 
Mr. and Mrs. C. Adrian 

Rubel 
Mr. Philip Rubenstein 
Miss Mathilde Ruediger 
Mrs. C. T. Russell 
Mr. Harry B. Russell 

Miss Mary L. Sabine 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard 

Saltonstall 
Mrs. Robert Saltonstall 

[13] 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (continued) 



Mrs. Robert deW Sampson 
Mr. and Mrs. Ashton Sanborn 
Miss Ruth D. Sanderson 
Mrs. Charles R. Sanger 
Mrs. George P. Sanger 
Mr. Jesus M. Sanroma 
Mr. Porter Sargent 
Mrs. Robert E. Sargent 
Mrs. Florence W. Saunders 
Mrs. William Saville 
Mr. and Mrs, Henry B. 

Sawyer 
Miss Mary Thompson 

Sawyer 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. 

Sayles 
Miss Elizabeth Schneider 
Miss Alice A. Schultz 
Miss Laura Scott 
Mrs. Wallace M. Scudder 
Mr. Wallace M. Scudder, Jr. 
Mrs. Francis B. Sears 
Mrs. Francis P. Sears 
Miss Jean S. Sears 
Mrs. Montgomery Sears 
Mr. Richard D. Sears 
Mrs. Samuel P. Sears 
Mrs. Ellery Sedgwick 
Mrs. George S. Selfridge 
Mrs. A. B. Sewall 
Mrs. Benjamin Sharp 
Miss Alice Shattuck 
Dr. and Mrs. George C. 

Shattuck 
Mr. Henry L. Shattuck 
Mr. Louis Agassiz Shaw, 2nd 
Miss Miriam Shaw 
Mrs. Sohier Shaw 
Mrs. T. Mott Shaw 
Dr. Thomas B. Shaw 
Miss K. H. Shute 
Mrs. Henry B. Shepard 
Mrs. Willis S. Shepard 
A Music Lover 
Miss K. F. Sherwood 
Miss Lizzie C. Shirley 
Miss Kathleen Sibley 
Mrs. Eli Siegel 
Mr. Samuel Sigilman 
Miss Edith Sigourney 
Miss Olive Simes 
Mr. Robert Sinnott 
Mrs. Clarence R. Skinner 
Mr. John C. Slater 
Mrs. Charles Lewis Slattery 
Mr. William H. Slocum 
Mr. L. A. Sloper 
Mrs. Charles Gaston Smith 

[14] 



Mr. Charles Lyman Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. 

Frank C. Smith, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Morton 

Smith 
Mr. George H. L. Smith 
Mrs. Henry A. Smith 
Mrs. Henry F. Smith 
Miss Mary Evelyn Smith 
Mrs. M. N. Smith-Petersen 
Mr. Moses Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Abraham M. 

Sonnabend 
Mr. and Mrs. P. A. Sorokin 
Mrs. Alvin F. Sortwell 
Miss Clara G. Soule 
Mrs. Philip L. Spalding 
Professor Walter R. Spalding 
Mrs. William A. Spalding 
Mrs. Huntley Norwell 

Spaulding 
Mrs. Henry M. Spelman 
Mrs. Charles W. Spencer 
Mrs. Guilford L. Spencer 
Mrs. Charles Sprague 
Miss Alice Stackpole 
Mr. and Mrs. Pierpont L. 

Stackpole 
Mrs. Daniel Staniford 
Mrs. Francis M. Stanwood 
Miss Elsie R. Stearns 
Mrs. Alexander Steinert 
Mr. Moses T. Stevens 
Mrs. S. W. Stevens 
Mrs. Robert H. Stevenson 
Mrs. Frank H. Stewart 
Mrs. Philip Stockton 
Mrs. Frederic M. Stone 
Mrs. Galen L. Stone 
Miss Katharine H. Stone 
Mr. Warren Storey-Smith 
Mrs. James J. Storrow 
Mr. J. H. Strauss 
Mrs. Leon Strauss 
Mrs. Louis Strauss 
Miss Mary Strickland 
Dr. Richard P. Strong 
Miss Evelyn R. Sturgis 
Dr. and Mrs. Somers H. 

Sturgis 
Mrs. Charles P. Sumner 
Miss Lucy W. Swift 
Mrs. Philip H. Sylvester 

The Rev. Grieg Taber 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward A. Taft 
Miss Alice P. Tapley 
Prof. F. W. Taussig 



Mrs. James Wilson Taylor 
Miss Elisabeth B. Thacher 
Mr. Thomas C. Thacher 
Mrs. Edward Thaw 
Mrs. W. H. Thayer 
Mr. Albert Thorndike 
Dr. and Mrs. Augustus 

Thorndike 
Mrs. Ward Thoron 
Miss Alice E. Thorp 
Miss Ruth F. Tinkham 
Mrs. Charles F. Toppan 
Mrs. Abner J. Tower 
Miss Florence E. Tower 
Miss Annie R. Townsend 
Mrs. Alfred M. Tozzer 
Mrs. Bernard W. Trafford 
Mrs. G. W. Treat 
Mrs. J. Alfred Tucker 
Mrs. Philip M. Tucker 
Mrs. L. S. Tuckerman 
Mrs. George T. Tuttle 
Mrs. Griswold Tyng 

Miss Mabel W. Underwood 
Miss Sophia A. Underwood 

Mrs. George W. Vaillant 
Miss Grace S. Varney 
Miss Bertha H. Vaughan 
Mrs. R. G. Vickery 
Mr. Alan W. Vint 

Mrs. Winthrop H. Wade 
Mrs. Alexander F. 

Wadsworth 
Mrs. Philip Wadsworth 
Mrs. William Wadsworth 
Miss A. S. Wales 
Mrs. Nathaniel Wales 
Mrs. George R. Wallace 
Miss Anne Walmsley 
Miss Sarah Walmsley 
Mrs. W. A. Walter 
Miss Harriet E. Walworth 
Miss Anita S. Ward 
Mrs. Sheldon E. Wardwell 
Mrs. Guy Waring 
Mrs. W. Seaver Warland 
Mrs. Roger S. Warner 
Mrs. George E. Warren 
Mr. and Mrs. Bentley W. 

Warren 
" M. L. W." 

Mrs. Richard P. Waters 
Mrs. George H. Watson 
Mrs. Lester Watson 
Miss Sylvia H. Watson 
Mrs. Xhomas R. Watson 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (continued) 



Miss Jenny C. Watts 
Mr. C. A. Weatherby 
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin S. 

Webster 
Mrs. Albert H. Wechsler 
Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Weed 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. 

Weeks 
Mr. Leo Weidhorn 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Sohier 

Welch 
Mrs. Bernard C. Weld 
Mrs. Charles G. Weld 
Mrs. C. Minot Weld 
Mr. Raynor G. Wellington 
Miss Louisa A. Wells 
Mr. J. Cheney Wells 
Mrs. Barrett Wendell 
Mrs. Alonzo A. West 
Mrs. Frederic A. Wetherbee 
Miss Martha Wetherbee 
Mr. Edward C. Wheeler, Jr. 

In addition to the above 



Miss Eunice Wheeler 
Miss Mary Wheeler 
Mrs. G. W. Wheelright 
Mrs. Bradlee Whidden 
Mr. Frank W. Whitcher 
Miss Gertrude F. Whitcomb 
Mrs. Franklin K. White 
Mr. Huntington White 
Miss Gertrude R. White 
Mrs. G. Marston Whitin 
Mrs. Edmund A. Whitman 
Miss Helen S. Whittemore 
Miss Louise Adams 

Whittemore 
Miss Mary Emerson 

Whittemore 
Mrs. Wyman Whittemore 
Mr. Arthur M. Wiggin 
Mrs. Edward F. Wilder 
Mr. Alexander W. Williams 
Mrs. Arthur Williams 
Mr. Moses Williams 

names there are 36 members who 
published 



Mrs. Ralph B. Williams 
Miss Clara R. Williamson 
Miss Margaret Williamson 
Miss Alice B. Willson 
Mr. Donald B. Willson 
Miss Florence B. Windom 
Mrs. Sidney W. Winslow, Jr. 
Mr. Arthur D. Wise 
Mr. and Mrs. Roger Wolcott 
Miss Charlotte Wood 
Dr. Nathaniel K. Wood 
Mrs. Edith Christiana 

Woolley 
Mr. Philip W. Wrenn 
A Friend 

Mr. C. Conrad Wright 
Mrs. Walter P. Wright 
Miss Helen Wyeth 
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffries 

Wyman, Jr. 

Mr. S. Zemurray 
do not wish their names 



New York and Brooklyn Members 



Mrs. William Ackerman 

(Towners) 
Mr. Morton L. Adler 
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred L. Aiken 
Miss Julia B. Anthony 
Mr. and Mrs. George C. 

Arvedson 
Miss Helen Marion Baker 
Miss Lydia M. Barwood 
Mr. Emil J. Baumann 

(Hartsdale) 
Miss Alice M. Bedell 
Miss Frieda Behr 
Miss Dorothy L. Betts 
Mrs. A. W. Bingham, Jr. 
Major Theodore Bitterman 

(Mount Vernon) 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward C. 

Blum 
Miss Felice M. Bowns 
Mr. Herbert S. Brussel 
Mrs. Cecilia Buek 
Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Cabot 
Miss Florance Carr 
Miss Lois Pinney Clark 
Mrs. Henry E. Cobb 

(Bronxville) 
Miss H. A. Colton 
Mrs. R. G. Conried 
Mr. Ambrose Cort 

(Woodmere) 



Mrs. F. S. Crafts 

Miss Lena Lawrence Day 

(East Orange) 
Mrs. William S. Dennett 
Miss Margaret de Schweinitz 

(Poughkeepsie) 
Mrs. William C. Dickerman 
Charles Dreifus, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Dutch 

(Glen Ridge) 
Miss Helen S. Eaton 
Mrs. Walter H. Eddy 
Mrs. Albert Eiseman 
Mrs. Cornelius Eldert 
Miss H. Wilhelmina 

Ericsson 
Mr. Howard M. Ernst 
Mrs. Henry Evans 
Mr. J. R. Fast 
Mrs. Morris Fatman 
Mrs. W. Rodman Fay 
Mr. W. R. Ferguson (New 

Rochelle) 
Mrs. Dana H. Ferrin 

(Scarsdale) 
Miss E. W. Frothingham 

(Tarrytown) 
Mrs. Otto Goepel 
Mrs. Henry Goldman 
Mr. I. Edwin Goldwasser 
Mr. William B. Goodwin 



Mrs. P. L. Guiterman (New 

Rochelle) 
Mr. and Mrs. N. Penrose 

Hallowell 
Mrs. David S. Hays 
Mr. Irving Heidell 
Mrs. Ernest S. Heller 
Mr. George C. Hennigs 

(Long Island) 
Mr. Clarence H. Hill 
Mrs. Olga Hill 
Miss Katherine I. Hodgdon 
Mrs. H. Hoermann 

(Montclair) 
Mr. Henry Homes 
Mr. Charles B. Hoyt 
Mrs. Jessie C. Humpstone 
Miss Frances A. Hunt 

(S. Norwalk, Ct.) 
Mr. H. L. Ives 
Mr. Halsted James 
Mrs. Robert I. Jenks 
Mrs. Edward Jonas 
Mrs. E. W. Kingsbury 
Mr. Elmo H. Klasky 
Mr. Charles Klingenstein 
Miss Edith Kneeland 
Miss Anita E. Knight 
Mrs. J. E. Leech 
Mr. Robert LeRoy 
Mr. Richard Lewinsohn 

[15] 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (concluded) 



Miss Aline Liebenthal 
Dr. and Mrs. Wm. H. 

Lohman 
Mrs. Edward Loomis 
Mr. Victor K. McElheny 
Mr. Harry Mack 
Miss Margaret E. Maltby 
Dr. D. E. Martell 
Mr. Everett Martine (Nyack) 
Mr. and Mrs. Newell O. 

Mason (Hoboken) 
Mr. and Mrs. Otto Meyer 

(Scarsdale) 
Miss Ida A. Mollenhauer 
Mr. E. Montchyk 
Mrs. C. H. Mosher (Port 

Washington) 
Mr. Walter W. Naumburg 
Mrs. Charles Neave 
Miss Francis I. Neill 
Mr. Acosta Nichols, Jr. 

(Oyster Bay) 
Mrs. Theodore Obermeyer 
Mrs. E. A. Olds (Englewood) 
Mrs. Joseph Parsons 

(Lakeville, Ct.) 
Miss Eliza H. Pigot 
Miss Eloise Pounding 

(Staten Island) 



Mrs. Howard L. Anthony 
Mr. Everard Appleton 
Mrs. Harvey A. Baker 
Mrs. Daniel Beckwith 
Misses Ada and Janet 

Blinkhorn 
Dr. and Mrs. E. S. Brackett 
Mr. Charles Brier 
Mrs. Prescott O. Clarke 
Mrs. Gammell Cross 
Mr. and Mrs. William H. 

Edwards 
Miss C. Emily Fairbanks 
Mrs. John R. Freeman 



Mr. Joseph M. Price 
Mrs. William Procter 
Mr. Robert I. Raiman 

(Hollis) 
Miss Helen Ray 
Miss Mabel Ray 
Miss Edith Rice 
Miss Louise Rickard 
Mrs. J. West Roosevelt 
Mr. Warren L. Russell 

(Queens Village) 
Mr. Charles E. Sampson 
Mrs. Herbert L. Satterlee 
Mrs. E. A. Saunders 
Mrs. F. R. Schepmoes 
Mrs. Gustave Schirmer 
Miss Eleonore M. Schnepf 
Miss Edith Scoville 
Mrs. George S. Searing 
Mr. Clifford Seasongood 
Mr. Arthur Segilman 
Mrs. Rudolph Seldner 
Miss Florence Sherman 
Dr. Olga Sitchevska 
Miss Louise Smith 
Mr. William Sidney Smith 
Mr. Joseph H. Spafford 
Mrs. Frederick T. 

Steinway 

Rhode Island Members 

Mrs. Robert Ives Gammell 
Mrs. Peter G. Gerry 
Miss Louise Harris 
Mr. William S. Innis 
Mrs. Edward L. Johnson 
Miss Loraine Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. J. D. E. Jones 
Mr. Maxim Karolik 

(Newport) 
Mrs. Henry S. Lanpher 
Mrs. Austin T. Levy 

(Harrisville) 
Mr. Hugh F. MacColl 
Dr. Charles A. McDonald 

Members in Other Cities 



Mrs. Pauline O. Stern 

(Scarsdale) 
Mrs. Samuel Stiefel 
Mrs. Sol. M. Stroock 
Mrs. Cyrus L. Sulzberger 
Miss Mabel Thuillard 

(Jamaica) 
Mr. Stirling Tomkins 
Mrs. Bernard P. Traitel 

(New Rochelle) 
Mr. John C. Traphagen 
Mr. Howard M. Trueblood 
Mrs. E. C. Vogel 
Mr. Albert W. von Lilienthal 

(Yonkers) 
Mr. Allen Wardwell 
Miss Cora A. Week 
Miss Ruth Evelyn Weill 

(Jackson Heights) 
Mr. Robert C. Weinberg 
Miss Frances E. White 
Miss H. H. White 
Mrs. H. Van Wyck Wickes 

(Rye) 
Miss Ellen A. Wolff 
Mr. Wilfred J. Worcester 
Miss Myra E. Wormell 

(Staten Island) 
Mrs. Milton Wyle 



Mrs. Houghton P. Metcalf 
Mrs. I. Harris Metcalf 
Mrs. David P. Moulton 
Mrs. Frank A. Sayles 
Miss Ellen D. Sharpe 
Mrs. Henry D. Sharpe 
Mrs. George St. J. Sheffield 
Miss Agnes C. Storer 

(Newport) 
Mrs. M. B. Stower 
Mrs. John O. Waterman 
Mrs. George H. Webb 
Mrs. Kenneth F. Wood 



Mrs. Randolph Barton, Jr. — Pikesville, Md. 

Mr. George G. Buck — Baltimore 

Mr. Basil Cameron — Seattle, Washington 

Mr. Raymond W. Campbell — Urbana, 111. 

Mrs. B. D. Chambers — Roxbury, Virginia 

Mrs. William Ellis Coale — Baltimore 

Miss Dorothea Cross — Baltimore 

Miss Louisa Finney — Baltimore 

Miss Ida Himes — Baltimore 

Mrs. F. N. Iglehart — Stevenson, Maryland 

[16] 



Mrs. Francis M. Jencks — Baltimore 
Mrs. J. Hemsley Johnson — Baltimore 
Mrs. Louis B. Kohn — Baltimore 
Dr. and Mrs. W. T. Longcope — Baltimore 
Mr. John D. McCaskey — St. Joseph, Mo. 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry C. Miller — Baltimore 
Mrs. R. Manson Smith — Baltimore 
Miss A. Marguerite Zouck — Reisterstown, 
Maryland 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, IN C MINOR, Op. 67 
By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born at Bonn, December 16 (?) , 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827 



There is no date on the manuscript of Beethoven's C minor Sym- 
phony, but the first performance is on record as having taken place 
December 22, 1808, when the Pastoral symphony was also heard for the 
first time. The sketchbooks indicate that he worked long and intermit- 
tently over this symphony. The Fifth and Sixth must have been finished 
about the same time. It is certain that Beethoven laid his C minor aside 
to compose the idyllic Fourth, in 1806, the year of his engagement to 
Theresa von Brunswick. Thayer attributes the earliest sketches for the 
Fifth Symphony to 1800 and 1801, which would put its inception even 
before the " Eroica," of 1802. But the first sketches show no inkling of 
the significant matter to come. He apparently took it up occasionally 
while at work upon " Fidelio " and the Fourth Piano Concerto 
(1804-6) . But the Fifth Symphony may be said to have made its real 
progress from 1805 until the end of 1807, when it was finished near 
Heiligenstadt. It was dedicated to Prince von Lobkowitz and the Count 
Rasumovsky. It was published in April, 1809. 

Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, like other scores once considered sub- 
versive but long since sanctified by custom, both bewildered and 
amused its first audiences, not to speak of the orchestras and leaders who 
were destined to be the first purveyors of its ringing message. It is also 
to be recorded about the Fifth Symphony, however, that its forceful 
challenge almost immediately dispelled the first befuddled impressions. 

When the Philharmonic Society of London first tried over the C 
minor Symphony, the players laughed openly, and the " conductor," 
in reality the concert master, laid it aside as " rubbish." This leader, 
who was none other than J. P. Salomon, lived to make a brave retrac- 
tion. Two or three years later, after another trial of the first movement, 
so relates Thayer, " Salomon laid his violin upon the pianoforte, walked 
to the front and, turning to the orchestra said (through his nose) : ' Gen- 
tlemen, some years ago I called this symphony rubbish; I wish to retract 
every word I then said, as I now consider it one of the greatest composi- 
tions I have ever heard! ' " 

The very first performance, which Beethoven conducted at the 

' Theater an der Wien " on December 22, 1808, seems to have made no 

recorded impression. The Leipzig which had received the " Eroica " 

with much understanding in 1809, did at least as much for the Fifth. 

[17] 



- >» - ») ») ») ) » »> »> ■ »> • »? • >» ■ ?» >» - »x« - (« • (« ■ «< • <« • «< (« ■ {« «( ■ <« ■ «(■«< ■ (« ■ 
SYMPHONY HALL • BOSTON 



BACH-HANDEL 

FESTIVAL 



BY THE 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Assisted by the Harvard Glee Club, the Radgliffe Choral Society 

and the Bach Cantata Club 



Friday Aft. and Saturday Eve., April 26-27 

ORCHESTRAL PROGRAMME 

Handel Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra, 

Op. 6, No. 6, in G minor 

Handel . . . . . . Concerto for Two Wind Choirs and 

String Orchestra 

Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 for Or- 
chestra with Harpsichord, Violin 
and Flute 

Harpsichord, Putnam Aldrich Violin, Richard Burgin 

Flute, Georges Laurent 

B ag h Passacaglia and Fugue for Organ in 

C minor (transcribed for orchestra 
by Ottorino Respighi) 

^^&>^» • ») > » ») )» ») >» ■») ■ » ) . )» («• <«. «<■ « <■ «( «€■ «( «( «(• («• («• c« - ^» 

[18] 



_ \VV AV\ AV\ .VV V -X VX ,\ V\ J VVX -\ \\ - >V\ - Vft AVS ■ W> A \\ (?{ . f' f, {£{ , fff , fff , (? f m fff . f'f . {Sf . fS f- fS{. fS ( m f/? m 

w 7w3 */// m 773> V/7 JSs V/V "}/i VrV V>> V/V *7w3 W V// Vx\ Vxx v*V \\\ VSVT v*x V» V* Vxx" v\^ v*VT Vvx v*V* Vxx 

SYMPHONY HALL • BOSTON 

CHORUS AND ORCHESTRA 

Tuesday Evening, April 30 

HANDEL'S "SOLOMON" (Oratorio) 

HARVARD AND RADCLIFFE 
CHORUSES 

soloists 

Margaret Matzenauer Charles Hagkett 

Olga Averino Keith Falkner 

Julius Huehn 

Wednesday Evening, May 1 

MISCELLANEOUS PROGRAMME 

Bach . . . . . . . Prelude and Fugue in G major for 

Organ 
Carl Weinrich 

Handel Concerto for Oboe with String Or- 
chestra 
Fernand Gillet 

Bach Italian Concerto, for Harpsichord 

Ralph Kirkpatrigk 

Handel Sonata for Violoncello (with Harpsi- 
chord) 
Jean Bedetti 

Bach Toccata, Adagio, and Fugue in C 

major for Organ 
Carl Weinrich 

CHORUS AND ORCHESTRA 

Sunday Afternoon and Evening, May 5 

BACH'S MASS IN B MINOR 

(PENSION FUND CONCERT) 

HARVARD AND RADCLIFFE CHORUSES 

soloists 
Margaret Matzenauer Charles Hackett 

Olga Averino Keith Falkner 

tickets for all performances now on sale at the box office 

[.19] 



A careful and appreciative analysis appeared in the Allgemeine musi- 
kalische Zeitung (July 11, 1810) . M. Habeneck, who had successfully 
labored for the cause of Beethoven in Paris from the beginning of the 
century, brought out the Fifth Symphony at a Conservatoire concert on 
April 13, 1828, a year after the composer's death. It is eloquent of 
Habeneck's field work in the Beethoven cause that the symphony was 
played at each of the four remaining concerts of the season. 

Let us turn back from the Habeneck performances, which such en- 
lightened musicians as Wagner considered without equal in Europe, to 
the curious " Akademie " in Vienna, twenty years earlier (December 22, 
1808) , when Beethoven labored, with rather pitiable results, to present 
his C minor symphony to the world. The programme, according to mod- 
ern custom, was in itself rather forbidding in bulk. Consisting entirely 
of " new and unheard " music of Beethoven, it began with the Pastoral 
Symphony (there numbered " 5 ".) , the Aria, " Ah, perfido " (Jose- 
phine Kilitzky) , a Latin hymn for chorus, the Fourth Piano Concerto 
(played by the composer) , the C minor (there numbered " 6 "■) , the 
sanctus from the Mass in C major, Fantasia for piano solo, and the 
Fantasia for Pianoforte, with orchestra and choral finale. Misfortunes 
beset Beethoven. There was high feeling between him and the orchestra, 
on account of an outbreak of temper at a concert in November. He quar- 
relled with the soloist, and the young and inexperienced singer who 
took her place grew terrified and gave a miserable exhibition at the con- 
cert. Beethoven had thought of putting his C minor Symphony at the 



Let us help you 
build up 



your name! 



advertise! 



representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal cost* 

L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 



[so] 



i£>anberg ®l)eatrej|arbarb Umbergttp 

FIFTY-FIFTH SEASON I 9 3 5 ~ ! 9 3 ^ 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Y 

A Series of Eight 
THURSDAY EVENING CONCERTS 

OCTOBER 17 NOVEMBER 1 4 DECEMBER 5 

JANUARY l6 FEBRUARY 6 MARCH 5 

APRIL 9 APRIL 23 

Y 

Members of the University who secured season tickets for the 
present season through the Bursar's Office will have an op- 
portunity to re-subscribe in the same way as in the past. 

Subscribers in Non-University sections will receive an invi- 
tation in the autumn to renew their subscriptions for the 
coming season. 

Applications for seats in Non-University sections should be 
addressed to 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 

SYMPHONY HALL -BOSTON -MASS. 
ALL SEASON TICKETS ARE $12 EACH 



[21] 



end, on account of its effective close, but decided that it would have 
better attention earlier in the evening. He hurriedly completed his 
choral fantasia for a concluding number. There was no time for proper 
rehearsal; some of the parts were still wet at the performance. The con- 
sequence: a catastrophe. There was a misunderstanding about a repeat, 
resulting in a confusion which forced Beethoven to stop the orchestra 
and begin again, this time without calamity. 

Among the several not too contradictory reports of the concert, the 
following letter of Reichardt is particularly interesting: " I accepted 
with hearty thanks the kind offer of Prince Lobkowitz to let me sit in his 
box. There we endured the bitterest cold from half past six to half past 
ten, and had the experience that it is easy to get too much of a good 
thing and still more of a loud. Nevertheless, I could no more leave the 
box before the end than could the exceedingly good-natured and deli- 
cate Prince, for the box was in the first balcony near the stage, so that 
the orchestra and Beethoven conducting it in the middle below us, were 
near at hand; thus many a failure in the performance vexed our pa- 
tience in the highest degree. . . . Singers and orchestra were composed 
of heterogeneous elements, and it had been found impossible to get a 
single full rehearsal for all the pieces to be performed, all being filled 
with the greatest difficulties." 

Schindler, who did not have first hand information of this concert, 
flatly refused to believe Ries's report of it; he simply could not credit the 
species of orchestra he knew to exist in Vienna at that time as even at- 
tempting several new pieces at once. " It may be rationally assumed, 
a priori, that to bring out for the first time, and close on the heels of each 
other, three works of such extent, — M. Ries even adds to them the 
'Fantasia for the Pianoforte,' with orchestra and vocal music, —at a 
period when the orchestra had not attained that degree of perfection 
which it has in our days, borders on the impossible. In this, as in the 
former period, Beethoven conducted almost all his greater works him- 
self on their first performance. As director of the orchestra, he was 
neither good nor bad. His impetuosity did not permit him to arrive at 
the tranquillity and self-command requisite. Feeling himself what each 
individual instrument had to do, he strove to make each of the perform- 
ers equally sensible of it, and lost himself in gesticulations, which caused 
a wavering in the orchestra. His hardness of hearing, whence his listen- 
ing for the prescribed falling-in of particular instruments, moreover oc- 
casioned frequent delays in passages where the director ought to have 
urged the whole onward." 



Something in the direct, impelling drive of the motto-like theme 
which opens the C minor Symphony has both placed it uppermost in 
popular approval, and challenged the curiosity of the literal-minded for 

[22] 



a century past. Many are the readings which various musicians have 
found. The fertile Berlioz finds in the first movement Beethoven's 
" most private griefs, his fiercest wrath, his most lonely and desolate 
meditations, his midnight visions, his bursts of enthusiasm." This move- 
ment reminds him of the " terrible rage of Othello." 

Sir George Grove, visioning the Countess Theresa von Brunswick 
as the " immortal beloved," and the inspiration of this, as well as the 
Fourth Symphony, finds a description of a stormy scene between the ex- 
citable master and his child pupil and fiancee of fifteen, as the very pic- 
ture of the opening movement. The composer had stamped out of the 
house hatless, into a blizzard, while the alarmed Theresa hurried out 
after him with his hat and cloak. Sir George found the first and second 
theme to express " the two characters exactly — the fierce imperious 
composer, who knew how to ' put his foot down,' if the phrase may be 
allowed, and the womanly, yielding, devoted girl." Against this set the 
equally assured dictum of d'Indy, who had no doubt in the world that 
Giulietta Guicardi was the immortal beloved, on the grounds that one 
to whom Beethoven could find it in his heart to dedicate so " insipid " a 
piece as the F sharp minor sonata (namely, Theresa) , could not have 
been the object of any deep passion. 

In other words, a programme for the Fifth Symphony is anybody's 
privilege. Much stock has been placed in the stories that Beethoven once 
remarked of his first theme: " Thus fate knocks at the door " (Schind- 
ler) , and that the notes were suggested to him by the call of the yellow- 
hammer (Ries) . Even though these two men may for once have remem- 
bered accurately and spoken truly (which in itself is assuming a good 
deal) , the two incidents prove no more than that, in the first case, the 
completed symphony possibly suggested to its maker, in a passing con- 
versational fancy, the idea of Fate knocking at the door; in the second 
case, his musical thought may have seized upon a chance interval and, 
according to a way he had, developed it into something entirely differ- 
ent. An accidental phrase or rhythm was constantly taking musical 
shape in his imagination — a domain where all things became pure 
music, where visual images somehow did not belong. 

The sketchbooks tell a more explicit story of the creating brain. 
The earliest sketches for the opening theme are as vapid and feeble as 
the final conception is bold and striking. The early sketches for the slow 
movement, in the first drafts an entirely insignificant minuet, are as far 
removed from the tender and flowing melody which finally emerged. 
Perhaps nowhere is the evolution of the conceptual Beethoven more 
astonishing. From mild and pointless beginnings, there develops 
through years and concurrently with sketches for other works, a music 
impetuous, pregnant, and with every aspect of spontaneity. 

J. N. B. 

[23] 



LIST OF WORKS 

Performed at These Concerts 

DURING THE SEASON 1 934-1 935 



Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in G minor, Op. 67 

VIII . April 26 

Borodin Symphony in B minor No. 2, Op. 5 

I • October 18 
Brahms Overture, "Academic Festival," Op. 80 

VII • March 28 
Symphony in E minor, No. 4, Op. 98 

III • December 20 
Variations on a Theme by Haydn, Op. 56a 

II • November 22 

Elgar * Symphony No. 2 in E flat, Op. 63 

IV • January 10 

George Foote Variations on a Pious Theme V • February 14 

Franck Symphony in D minor I • October 18 

Giovanni Gabrieli .... * Sonata Pian e Forte (edited by Fritz Stein) 

IV • January 10 

Haydn *SymphonyinGMajor,No. 88 (B. & H. No. 13) 

IV • January 10 

Hill Symphony No. 1 in B-flat major, Op. 34 

III • December 20 

Mendelssohn * Scherzo in E minor from the Octet, Op. 20 

(arranged for orchestra by the composer) 

IV • January 10 
Moussorgsky "Pictures at an Exhibition," Pianoforte Pieces 

(arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel) 

II • November 22 

Mozart Symphony in G minor (Koechel No. 550) 

II • November 22 
Symphony in G major, "Jupiter" (K. No. 551) 

V • February 14 
Ravel Orchestral Fragments from "Daphnis et Chloe" 

(Second Suite) VII ■ March 28 

Suite for Orchestra, "Le Tombeau de Couperin" 

VIII • April 26 
Schumann Concerto for Pianoforte in A minor, Op. 54 

(Gladys Gleason, soloist) VII • March 28 
Symphony in D minor, No. 4, Op. 120 

VIII • April 26 

Sibelius Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 82 

V • February 14 
Symphony No. 7 (in one movement) Op. 1 05 

VII • March 28 

Stravinsky "Fireworks," Op. 4 VI • March 14 

Fragments from "Le Baiser de la Fee," Alle- 
gorical Ballet . VI • March 14 
Suite derived from the Danced Story, "L'Oiseau 
de Feu" (Revised version) VI • March 14 
Suite from the Ballet, "Petrouchka" 

VI • March 14 
Toc h "Big Ben," Variation Fantasy on the West- 
minster Chimes (First performance) 

III • December 20 

Weber Overture to "Oberon" I • October 18 

* Adrian Boult was guest conductor at the fourth concert, January 10 

[24] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



LAMBERT MURPHY 

TENOR TEACHER OF SINGING 

In Boston on Mondays 

STUDIO, 725 BOYLSTON STREET 

For appointments write to above address or phone Kenmore 3122 on Mondays 



DO YOU WISH TO SING? 

MARY TRACY 

VOICE SPECIALIST, says: — "Anyone possessing a normal speaking voice should 
be able to sing." Lessons before the microphone included in regular vocal instruction. 
™- { cZSL 20« 3 ° HUNTINGTON AVENUE. BOSTON Audition sfreeof charge 



BRENDAN KEENAN 

The Cultural, Spiritual and Physical Problems of Piano Mastery 

1 — rarely profound understanding of music — broad culture — rare intuition and psychological under- 
standing — inspiring teacher — " Mme, Elly Net 

" — I have only the best wishes for this genius, hoping he has the opportunities to reach the great 
heights of which he is surely capable — " Mme. Sigrid Onegin 

" — I am sure, serious minded as you are, you will be a great success as a teacher — " 

WlLLEM VAN HOOGSTRATEN 

Baldwin Piano Reception by mail appointment only 384 The Riverway, Boston 



DOROTHY ZIOLKOWSKA 

VIOLINIST AND TEACHER 

Member of Music Faculty Address: 78 Lake View Avenue 

The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Telephone University 4230 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

ALL BRANCHES OF MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

44 CHURCH STREET, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Telephone: TROwbridge 0956 




Golden Jubilee Season 
SYMPHONY HALL 







OPENING 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 8 

Continuing nightly through May and June 

ORCHESTRA OF 85 SYMPHONY MUSICIANS 

ARTHUR 
FIEDLER 

Conductor 




REFRESHMENTS... 
SMOKING 




POPULAR MUSIC 

HAL ENTS for the 50th ANNIVERSARY 






illetropolttan GTfjeatre ♦ $h:obtbence 




Tuesday Evening, November 27 
at 8:15 o'clock 



Madame et La J eune Fille 

INCORPORATED 

130 Newbury Street, Boston 
Mrs. John A. Tuckerman Kenmore 9412 

Unusual Sport Costumes and Hats 
Day and Evening Dresses for all ages 

New Children's Department 

from 1 to 14 Years 
Also Representing NATALIE, Inc. 

Our Cash Policy Permits Moderate Prices 

New York Shop, 553 Madison Avenue 



ifWetropolitan Qtfjeatre • $rotofoence 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
First Concert 

TUESDAY EVENING, November 27 
with historical and descriptive notes 

By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1934, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Edward A. Taft 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. 


RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY 


, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, J. 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYN BERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 




AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. HUMPHREY, G. 




GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. . 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE, 


C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, L 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, m. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H. 


MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, 


G. 


VALKENIER, W. 


MAGER, G. 


RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD, 


, w. 


LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, 


W. 


SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


CEBHARDT, W. 


LORBEER, H. 


VOISIN, R. 










MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


STERNBURG, S. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, m. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



[2] 



To all — 
Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



On October i ith the Trustees of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra mailed a letter to its Boston 
subscribers and many others in the vicinity of 
Boston who take pride in the Orchestra and its achieve- 
ments. In that letter the Trustees set forth the main- 
tenance requirements of the Orchestra and suggested a 
businesslike method of meeting its budget at the very 
commencement of the Season. 

The plan outlined in that letter has been carried out 
and a Society has been organized known as the " Friends 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra," with one of the 
Trustees as Chairman. Those contributing in either large 
or small amounts to the maintenance of the Orchestra 
become members of this organization for this year and 
are enrolled as such. 

The Trustees' letter is now being mailed to subscribers 
to seats at the Concerts of the Orchestra in Providence 
and elsewhere, who, we believe, will welcome the oppor- 
tunity to join in providing for its requirements. 

The Trustees desire to express their very deep appre- 
ciation of the keen interest which these periodic visits of 
the Orchestra invariably inspire. Through the organiza- 
tion of the Society of " Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra " they hope that a still more intimate contact 
may be established with the friends and patrons of music 
in the various cities where the Orchestra gives its per- 
formances. 

Bentley W. Warren 

President, Board of Trustees 
November 24, 1934 



[3] 



"The Choice of Discriminating Musicians" 



Mason 





The supreme qualities that distin- 
guish every Mason & HamJin are not 
alone due to scientific development 
— beyond that lies the art and skill 
of the individual craftsmen who cre- 
ate it. Each artisan is a specialist — 
contributing his knowledge of the 
infinite detail and special processes 
necessary to produce the particular 
Mason & Hamlin tone. 



The character and idealism that must prevail in the Mason & Hamlin 
organization is shown by the following employees service record: 



10 percent over 35 years 
25 percent over 30 years 
30 percent over 25 years 
45 percent over 20 years 
85 percent over 15 years 



These are the men who 
make your Mason & 
Hamlin TODAY — fash- 
ioning it with the same 
meticulous care that has 
earned for the Mason & 
Hamlin piano its enviable 
record. 



Won't you call and see ... or, better still, play upon . . . 
the Mason & Hamlin? Prices begin at $995. Easy gradual 
payments. Any make of piano taken in exchange. 




Distributors of high-grade pianos. 
Piano salons Fourth floor 



[4] 



Metropolitan Qtfjeatre • $rotoibence 

[Two hundred and Twenty-eighth Concert in Providence] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 

TUESDAY EVENING, November 27 
a£ 8:15 o'clock 



Programme 

Weber Overture to " Oberon " 

Franck Symphony in D minor 

I. LENTO. ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 
II. ALLEGRETTO 
III. ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

INTERMISSION 

Moussorgsky ..." Pictures at an Exhibition," Piano- 
forte Pieces arranged for Orchestra 
by Maurice Ravel 

Promenade — Gnomus — II Vecchio Castello — Tuileries — Bydlo — Bal- 
let of Chicks in their Shells — Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle — 
Limoges: The Marketplace — Catacombs (Con mortuis in lingua 
mortua) — The Hut on Fowls' Legs — The Great Gate at Kiev 

For the music in these programmes, visit the Music Department of the 
Providence Public Library 



[5] 



OVERTURE TO THE OPERA " OBERON " 

By Carl Maria von Weber 
Born at Eutin, Oldenburg, December 18, 1786; died at London, June 5, 1826 



Oberon ; or, the Elf-King's Oath," a romantic opera in three acts, 
book by James Robinson Planche, who founded it on Villeneuve's 
story " Huon de Bordeaux " and Sotheby's English translation of Wie- 
land's German poem, " Oberon," music by Carl Maria von Weber, 
was first performed at Covent Garden, London, on April 12, 1826. 
Weber conducted. The first performance in New York was at the Park 
Theatre on October 9, 1828: There were performances in New York 
at the Academy of Music, March 29, 1870 (in English) ; Niblo's Gar- 
den, November 2, 1870 (in English) ; Metropolitan Opera House, De- 
cember 28, 1918 (in English; the music arranged (!) by Artur 
Bodansky) . 

The first performance in Boston was in Music Hall by the Parepa- 
Rosa Company, May 23, 1870. 

The story of the opera was founded by Planche on Wieland's " Obe- 
ron," which in turn was derived from an old French romance, " Huon 
of Bordeaux." Oberon and Titania have vowed never to be reconciled 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Dltron Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty -four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

[6] 



until they find lovers faithful in adversity. Puck resolves to serve 
Oberon, his master, by bringing together Huon and Rezia. Huon has 
been ordered by Charlemagne to kill the favorite at Baghdad and to 
wed the Caliph's daughter, Rezia. The lovers, having met, in a vision, 
are in love. At Baghdad, Huon being sent there because he had slain 
a son of Charlemagne, kills Babekan, betrothed to Rezia, and escapes 
with her, by the aid of a magic horn given to him and blown by Scheras- 
min, Huon's shield-bearer. The horn compels the Caliph's court to 
dance. Oberon appears and makes the lovers swear to be faithful in 
spite of all temptation. They are shipwrecked. Rezia is captured by 
pirates; Huon is wounded. The Emir Tunis has Rezia in his harem; his 
wife Roschana is enamored of Huon. The Emir orders the wife and 
Huon to be burned; but again the magic horn is blown. Oberon, recon- 
ciled to Titania, brings the lovers to Charlemagne's court, where they 
are welcomed with pomp and ceremony. 

There is another pair of lovers in the opera: Scherasmin and Rezia's 
Arabian maid, Fatima. 

The overture, scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
strings, begins with an introduction (Adagio sostenuto ed il tutto 
pianissimo possibile, D major, 4-4) . The horn of Oberon is answered 
by muted strings. The figure for flutes and clarinets is taken from the 
first scene of the opera (Oberon's palace; introduction and chorus of 
elfs) . After a pianissimo little march, there is a short dreamy passage 
for strings, which ends in the violas. There is a full orchestral crashing 
chord, and the main body of the overture begins (Allegro con fuoco 
in D major, 4-4) . The brilliant opening measures are taken from the 
accompaniment figure of the quartet, " Over the Dark Blue Waters," 
sung by Rezia, Fatima, Huon, Scherasmin (act ii., scene x.) . The horn 
of Oberon is heard again; it is answered by the skipping fairy figure. 
The second theme (A major, sung first by the clarinet, then by the 
first violins) is taken from the first measures of the second part of 
Huon's air (act i., No. 5) . And then a theme taken from the perora- 
tion, presto con fuoco, of Rezia's air " Ocean! Thou mighty monster " 
(act ii., No. 13) , is given as a conclusion to the violins. This theme ends 
the first part of the overture. The free fantasia begins with soft re- 
peated chords in bassoons, horns, drums, basses. The first theme is 
worked out in short periods; a new theme is introduced and treated in 
fugato against a running contrapuntal counter-theme in the strings. 
The second theme is treated, but not elaborately; and then the Rezia 
motive brings the spirited end. 

At the first performance of the opera the overture was repeated. 



Weber was asked by Charles Kemble in 1824 to write an opera for 
the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden. Weber chose " Oberon " for the 

[7] 



subject. Planche was selected to furnish the libretto. In a letter to him, 
Weber wrote that the fashion of it was foreign to his ideas: "The 
intermixing of so many principal actors who do not sing — the omis- 
sion of the music in the most important moments — all these things 
deprive our ' Oberon ' of the title of an opera, and will make him (sic) 
unfit for all other theatres in Europe, which is a very bad thing for 
me, but — passons la-dessous." 

Weber, a sick and discouraged man, buckled himself to the task of 
learning English, that he might know the exact meaning of the text. 
He therefore took one hundred and fifty-three lessons of an English- 
man named Carey and studied diligently, anxiously. Planche sent the 
libretto to Dresden an act at a time. Weber made his first sketch on 
January 23, 1825. The autograph score contains this note at the end 
of the overture: " Finished April 9, 1826, in the morning, at a quarter 
of twelve, and with it the whole opera. Soli Deo Gloria! ! ! C. M. V. 
Weber." This entry was made at London. Weber received for the opera 
£500. He was so feeble that he could scarcely stand without support, 
but he rehearsed and directed the performance seated at the piano. He 
died of consumption about two months after the production. 

Planche gives a lively account of the genesis and production of 



CH U KCH 



TRAVEL 
AGENCY 




This agency provides accurate information 
regarding every form of travel 



Travel requirements will be arranged with a 
POSITIVE GUARANTEE OF SATISFACTION. 

• All Travel Lines are Directly Represented • 

"There s a well worn path to our door." 



CHU'KC+H TKAVEL AGENCY 

54 EXCHANGE ST., ALONGSIDE GROSVENOR, BLDG. 



[8] 




/incficm) 



A PIANO SO 
WONDERFUL AS 




Ernest Hutcheson calls it "the greatest improvement in the piano 
in the last 30 years/' Keys almost leap back into position! Far 
less effort required in playing . . . whether you're a beginner or a 
finished pianist. The tone is more beautiful than ever, the cost 
to us is greater, but you pay not a cent extra for Accelerated Ac- 
tion! Come in today, if you possibly can! And play ... or hear 
. . . this almost unbelievably sensitive piano! 

Avery Piano Store 



THE STEINWAY HOUSE 

256-258 WEYBOSSET STREET 



TEL. Gaspee 1434 



Sole Steinway Representatives in Rhode Island and 
Adjacent Territory in Massachusetts and Connecticut 



[91 



" Oberon." * He describes the London public as unmusical. " A dra- 
matic situation in music was ' caviare to the general,' and inevitably 
received with cries of ' Cut it short! ' from the gallery, and obstinate 
coughing or other significant signs of impatience from the pit. Nothing 
but the Huntsmen's Chorus and the diablerie in ' Per Freischutz ' saved 
that fine work from immediate condemnation in England; and I re- 
member perfectly well the exquisite melodies in it being compared by 
English Musical critics to ' wind through a keyhole! . . . None of our 
actors could sing, and but one singer could act, Madame Vestris, who 
made a charming Fatima. . . . My great object was to land Weber 
safe amidst an unmusical public, and I therefore wrote a melodrama 
with songs, instead of an opera such as would be required at the 
present day." 

The first performance in Germany of " Oberon " in " its original 
shape" was at Leipsic, December 23, 1826. P. H. 



SYMPHONY IN D MINOR 
By Cesar Franck 

Born at Liege, Belgium, December 10, 1822; died at Paris, November 8, 1890 



One autumn evening in 1888," wrote Guy Ropartz, devout disciple 
of Franck, " I went to pay the master a visit at the beginning of 
vacation time. ' Have you been working? ' I inquired. ' Yes,' was 
Franck's reply, ' and I think that you will be pleased with the result.' 
He had just completed the Symphony in D, and he kindly played it 
through to me on the piano.-)- I shall never forget the impression made 
upon me by that first hearing." 

* " Recollections and Reflections," by J. R. Planche, Vol. I, pp. 74-86 (London, 1872). 
t D'Indy lists the Symphony as having been begun in 1886. 



INSTITUTE OF MUSIC 

357 Westminster Street 

PIANO VOICE THEORY 

Avis Charbonnel Roy R. Gardner Paul Vellucci 

Lydia Bell Beatrice Ward 

Marjorie Morgan violin Marjorie Morgan 

Beatrice Ward Jan Stocklinski 

Paul Vellucci 

ORCHESTRATION HISTORY OF MUSIC 

SCORE READING PIANOFORTE ENSEMBLE 

CONDUCTING NORMAL COURSE 

Paul Vellucci Avis Charbonnel 

Telephone, Manning 6659 

[JO] 



1 The first performance, at the Paris Conservatoire, February 17, 1889, 
when the members of the orchestra were opposed to it, the subscribers 
bewildered, and some of Franck's colleagues spitefully critical, has been 
described with gusto by d'Indy in his much quoted book, the bible of 
the Franck movement. The symphony reached Germany in 1894, when 
it was performed in Dresden; England in 1896 (a Lamoureux concert 
in Queen's Hall) . It was first played by the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra—April 15, 1899, Wilhelm Gericke, conductor. The last perform- 
ance by this orchestra was November 21, 1932. 

The symphony, dedicated to Henri Duparc, is scored for two flutes, 
two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, four 
horns, two trumpets, two cornets-a-piston, three trombones, bass tuba, 
a set of three kettledrums, harp, and strings. 
I Y i 

It is not hard to sympathize with the state of mind of Franck's de- 
voted circle, who beheld so clearly the flame of his genius, while the 
world ignored and passed it by. They were naturally incensed by the 
inexplicable hostility of some of Franck's fellow professors at the Con- 
servatoire, and moved to winged words in behalf of their lovable 
" maitre/' who, wrapped and serene in his work, never looked for 
either performance or applause — was naively delighted when those 
blessings sparingly descended upon him. But the impatience of the 
Franck disciples extended, less reasonably, to the public which allowed 
him to die before awaking to the urgent beauty of his art. Ropartz, for 




Agnes Studio ^^ 9 Wayland Square 



©vx name tja£ altoap* been a birecting £ign to bte= 
criminating flotoer buper* in JJrobibence anb bicinitp. 
gfob prestige to pour next floral offering bp placing 

pour orber toitf) u£ 

W$t SUrcabe Jflotoer ^>f)op 

jfbtoer MvliXt* 
85 Mepbo*set £>L, $robibence, & J. 



["I 



instance, tried to console himself with the philosophical reflection: " All 
true creators must be in advance of their time and must of necessity be 
misunderstood by their contemporaries: Cesar Franck was no more of 
an exception to this rule than other great musicians have been; like 
them, he was misunderstood." A study of the dates and performances, 
which d'Indy himself has listed, tends to exonerate the much berated 
general public, which has been known to respond to new music with 
tolerable promptness, when they are permitted to hear it, even ade- 
quately presented. The performances of Franck's music while the com- 
poser lived were patchy and far between. 

For almost all of his life, Paris was not even aware of Franck. Those 
who knew him casually or by sight must have looked upon him simply 
as a mild little organist * and teacher at the Conservatoire, who wrote 
unperformed oratorios and operas in his spare time. And such indeed 
he was. It must be admitted that Franck gave the world little oppor- 
tunity for more than posthumous recognition — and not so much be- 
cause this most self-effacing of composers never pushed his cause, as 
because his genius ripened so late. When he had reached fifty-seven 
there was nothing in his considerable output (with the possible excep- 
tion of "La Redemption" or " Les Eolides") which time has proved 
to be of any great importance. "Les Beatitudes," of that year (1879) 
had neither a full nor a clear performance until three years after his 
death, when, according to d'Indy, " the effect was overwhelming, and 
henceforth the name of Franck was surrounded by a halo of glory, des- 
tined to grow brighter as time went on." The masterpieces — " Psyche," 
the Symphony, the String Quartet, the Violin Sonata, the Three Organ 



* D'Indy pours just derision upon the ministry who, as late as August, 1885, awarded the 
ribbon of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor to " Franck (Cesar Auguste), professor of organ." 




SERVICE 



Established for over a half century, 
the Cady organization points back 
to years of distinctive service 
to the people of Rhode Island. 

FIREPROOF WAREHOUSE 



Long Distance Moving 
AGENT ALLIED VAN LINES, 

INC 
A National Company for a 

National Service 
80-90 Dudley St., Tel. DE 7860 




[12] 



SYMPHONY HALL • BOSTON 




MORNING VARIETIES 

i§>econb H>ea3cm, 1934-1935 

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 1, 11a.m. to 12:15 noon 

TOTO 

The World's Most 
Famous Clown 

With Eighteen of his Fun Makers! A complete show of laughs and 
thrills — Comedy in Pantomime, Impersonations, sundry 
Novelties, Black Art, Acrobatics — in fact, everything clowns 
do. (And clowns do a lot!) 

POP Prices — 25c, 55c, 80c, $1.10 (Tax included) 

Tickets NOW — Symphony Hall Box Office (Com. 1492) 

SECOND, THIRD, FOURTH PROGRAMMES 

Though mere words hardly picture the fun-riot of a morning with Toto, 
the paragraph at the top describes Programme One, December 1. The 
Remaining Three Programmes — January 5, February 23, March 30 — 
will assemble such extraordinary attractions (and some of them more 
than once) as — Arthur Fiedler and his Orchestra of Symphony Players; 
Hans Wiener and his Ballet; Bradford Washburn with his famous mo- 
tion pictures of mountain-climbing and skiing; our tried and true 
friends, the Silly Symphonies; Mr. Pillsbury's pictures, "Flowers of 
the Yosemite"; an exhibition of Indian Dances; and a production of 
"A Midsummer Night's Dream." 

FAIR WEATHER FRIENDS! 

Last year, the Morning Varieties had many Fair Weather Friends. 
When it was fine, many were disappointed at not being able to get tickets 
at the last moment. We do like our Fair Weather Friends ; but we also 
feel that those who come through sleet and snow should be rewarded. 
Therefore, if you attend the First Three Morning Varieties — saving 
your ticket coupons as proof — you may present them in exchange for a 
free ticket to the Fourth programme. (Remember, though, that Uncle 
Sam collects his ticket-tax, so-o-o, there'll still be that — but not more 
than 10c. — in proportion to the price of your first three seats.) 



These Four Saturday Mornings bring you Music, Dancing, Pictures, 
Personalities, Operetta, Ballet, Indians, Clowns — and more — all of 
the very first order. Save These Dates and Don't Forget to Save Your 
Coupons for Each Show in Order to Attend the Fourth One Free ! 

[13] 



Chorales, all came within the last four years of his life, and the Sym- 
phony — that most enduring monument of Franck's genius, was first 
performed some twenty months before his death. In the last year of his 
life, musicians rallied to the masterly new scores as soon as they ap- 
peared, and lost no time in spreading the gospel of Franck — a gospel 
which was readily apprehended. Ysaye played the Violin Sonata (dedi- 
cated to him) in town after town; the Quartet was performed at the 
Salle Pleyel by the Societe Nationale de Musique (April ig, 1890) , and 
the whole audience, so we are told, rose to applaud the composer. And 
after Franck's death, his music, aided (or hindered) by the zealous 
pronouncements of the militant school which had grown at his feet, 
made its way increasingly to popular favor. 

French musicians testify as to the rising vogue of Franck's music in 
the early nineties. Leon Vallas in his life of Debussy laments that the 
Parisian public of that time, " still carried along on a flood of ro- 
manticism," could not be diverted to the self-contained elegance of the 
then new impressionist composer. " The select shrines were still con- 
secrated to the cult of a fierce, grandiloquent, philosophical art: Bee- 
thoven's last quartets, the new works of Cesar Franck — discovered very 
late in the day — and Richard Wagner's great operas — these complex, 
ambitious works, so full of noble beauty, were alone capable of arous- 
ing an enthusiasm that bordered on delirium." Paul Landormy, writ- 
ing for La Victoire, lists these same composers, and singles out Franck's 
Quintet and Quartet, as having been accorded at that time " an exces- 
sive admiration, romantic in its violence." Derepas, writing in 1897, 
told of a veritable Franck inundation, and the composer's son then 
wrote to him that he received every day quantities of letters and 
printed matter about his father. " What is strong," wrote Schumann, 
" will make its way." When once the special harmonic style of Franck, 
his absorption in the contemplative moods of early organ music had 
caught the general imagination, his musical faith needed no preaching. 

Of the notorious performance of Franck's Symphony at the Con- 
servatoire (February 17, 1889) , d'Indy writes: 




Diamond Rings 

that inspire pride of possession 
Solitaires — circlets — dinner rings 

in delightful variety . . . designed and made by the finest 

jewelers in America. It costs no more to have quality backed 

by intelligent service. 

Tilden-Thurber 

Jewelers Since 1856 



[H] 



" The performance was quite against the wish o£ most members of 
the famous orchestra, and was only pushed through thanks to the 
benevolent obstinacy of the conductor, Jules Garcin. The subscribers 
could make neither head nor tail of it, and the musical authorities 
were much in the same position. I inquired of one of them — a profes- 
sor at the Conservatoire, and a kind of factotum on the committee — 
what he thought of the work. ' That a symphony? ' he replied in con- 
temptuous tones. ' But, my dear sir, who ever heard of writing for the 
English horn in a symphony? Just mention a single symphony by 
Haydn or Beethoven introducing the English horn. There, well, you 
see — your Franck's music may be whatever you please, but it will cer- 
tainly never be a symphony! ' This was the attitude of the Conserva- 
toire in the year of grace 1889." 

D'Indy, whom there is no reason to suppose anything but a truthful 
man, has this to say about Charles Gounod, who was present: 

" At another door of the concert hall, the composer of ' Faust,' es- 
corted by a train of adulators, male and female, fulminated a kind of 
papal decree to the effect that this symphony was the affirmation of 
incompetence pushed to dogmatic lengths. For sincerity and disinter- 
estedness we must turn to the composer himself, when, on his return 
from the concert, his whole family surrounded him, asking eagerly for 
news. ' Well, were you satisfied with the effect on the public? Was there 
plenty of applause? ' To which ' Father Franck,' thinking only of his 
work, replied with a beaming countenance: ' Oh, it sounded well; just 
as I thought it would! ' " 

All who knew him describe Franck as sincerely touched when some 
grudging official recognition was bestowed upon him, or when his 
music was actually heard and applauded in public. " On the occasions 
— alas! too few — when Franck came in touch with the public," wrote 
Arthur Coquard, " he saw and heard nothing but the music, and if the 
execution struck him as adequate, he was the happiest of men. The 
master had formed an ideal atmosphere of his thoughts and affections, 
an atmosphere which his soul gladly inhaled, undisturbed by strange 



The Enduring Significance of a U^(ame~ 

JL/IKE the names of great composers, each easily identified by his own 
particular type of music, the name GLADDING'S has a definite signifi- 
cance. Synonymous with quality, today as in Colonial times — and always 
in step with changing trends of fashion and economy. 

Gtadchngi 



The Oldest Department Store in America 

[»5] 



currents — his spirit delighted itself with its own ideal of art and 
philosophy. Wrapped in the contemplation of serene beauties such as 
these, his genius brought forth those great and sometimes sublime 
works. No wonder that his music, conceived in the calm joy of ecstasy, 
without thought of public opinion, the artist's dream, lasted over the 
day of its performance and, soaring high, lost sight of earth altogether." 
Franck was never heard to complain of the humble round of teach- 
ing, into which poverty had forced him, dissipating his genius in a con- 
stant grind of petty engagements, with only an hour or two in the day 
saved for his composition. " The first years of his marriage were 
' close,' " wrote the organist Tournemire, who knew him then. " One 
must live! From half past five in the morning until half past seven, 
Franck composed. At eight he left the house to ' comb ' Paris. He dis- 
pensed solfege and piano for the convenience of the pupils in the Jesuit 
school of Vaugirard (lessons 1 franc 80 centimes for a half hour, from 
eleven until two!) . He had only a bite of fruit or cheese to sustain him, 
as Franck himself once told me. He would also go to Anteuil, a fash- 
ionable institution for young ladies of society, who often constrained 
him to teach them impossible novelties of the hour." He was known to 
these uneager demoiselles, acquiring parlor graces, as " Monsieur 
Franck." Later, some of these ladies were astonished to find their erst- 
while insignificant and even rather ridiculous piano teacher become a 
world-enshrined memory. Whereupon they proudly proclaimed them- 
selves " Franck pupils." D'Indy disqualified these impostors by publish- 
ing the name of every pupil who at any time had been close to Franck 
in his work. 

The Quintet, the Quartet, the Violin Sonata, and the Symphony 
are named by d'Indy as " constructed upon a germinative idea which 
becomes the expressive basis of the entire musical cycle." He says else- 
where of the conception of the Violin Sonata — " From this moment 
the cyclical form, the basis of modern symphonic art, was created and 
consecrated." He adds: 



FOR A DINNER OF DISTINCTION 

Visit GIBSONS GRANADA where you will find 
excellent food, the finest liquors and wines, enchanting 
music — Truly an evening of perfect enjoyment. 

GIBSONS GRANADA 

162 Westminster Street 

[16] 



" The majestic, plastic, and perfectly beautiful symphony in D 
minor is constructed on the same method. I purposely use the word 
method for this reason: After having long described Franck as an 
empiricist and an improviser — which is radically wrong — his enemies 
(of whom, in spite of his incomparable goodness, he made many) and 
his ignorant detractors suddenly changed their views and called him a 
musical mathematician, who subordinated inspiration and impulse to 
a conscientious manipulation of form. This, we may observe in passing, 
is a common reproach brought by the ignorant Philistine against the 
dreamer and the genius. Yet where can we point to a composer in the 
second half of the nineteenth century who could — and did — think as 
loftily as Franck, or who could have found in his fervent and enthu- 
siastic heart such vast ideas as those which lie at the musical basis of the 
Symphony, the Quartet, and ' The Beatitudes ' ? . . . 

" Franck's Symphony is a continual ascent towards pure gladness 
and life-giving light because its workmanship is solid, and its themes are 
manifestations of ideal beauty. What is there more joyous, more sanely 
vital, than the principal subject of the Finale, around which all the 
other themes in the work cluster and crystallize? While in the higher 
registers all is dominated by that motive which M. Ropartz has justly 
called ' the theme of faith.' " J. N. B. 



" PICTURES AT AN EXHIBITION " 
(Pianoforte Pieces Arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel) 

By Modest Petrovitch Moussorgsky 

Moussorgsky, born at Karevo, district of Toropeta, in the government of Pskov, on 
March 28, 1835; died at St. Petersburg on March 28, 1881. Joseph Maurice Ravel, 
born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, on March 7, 1875; is now living at Montfort- 

l'Amaury and at Paris 



Moussorgsky composed his suite of piano pieces in June, 1874, on 
the impulse of his friendship for the architect Victor Hartmann, 
after a posthumous exhibit of the artist's work which immediately 




THE TRUTH ABOUT FROCKS 

Wear Subtle Colors, Rich Dark Greens, 
Winey Browns and Black for Daytime Wear 



See our smart collection reasonably priced 



326 Westminster St. 



[17] 



followed his death. " It almost asks for orchestration," wrote A. Eagle- 
field Hull of the music, some years ago, and indeed no less than four 
musicians have been tempted to try a hand at the task. Toushmalov (in 
St. Petersburg, 1891) set eight of the pieces, and in recent years Sir 
Henry Wood in London, Leondidas Leonardi in Paris, and Maurice 
Ravel in Paris, have arranged the whole suite. Ravel made his setting 
in 1923 for Dr. Koussevitzky, at the conductor's suggestion. 

Promenade. As preface to the first " picture," and repeated as a 
link in passing from each to the next, so far as the fifth, is a promenade. 
It is an admirable self-portrait of the composer, walking from picture 
to picture, pausing dreamily before one and another in fond memory of 
the artist. Moussorgsky said that his " own physiognomy peeps out 
through all the intermezzos," an absorbed and receptive face " nel 
modo russico." The theme, in a characteristically Russian 11-4 rhythm 
suggests, it must be said, a rather heavy tread.* 

Gnomus. There seems reason to dispute Riesemann's description: 
" the drawing of a dwarf who waddles with awkward steps on his short, 
bandy legs; the grotesque jumps of the music, and the clumsy, crawling 
movements with which these are interspersed, are forcibly suggestive." 
Stassov, writing to Kerzin f in reply to the latter's inquiry explained: 
" the gnome is a child's plaything, fashioned, after Hartmann's design 

* One recalls the story of Bernard Shaw, reviewing an exhibition of Alpine landscapes in 
London, tramping through the galleries in hob-nailed boots. 

t Arkady Mikhailovitch Kerzin (1857-1914), as founder and director of the Moscow Circle of 
Lovers of Russian Music (1896-1912), who were principally concerned with the cause of 
Moussorgsky's music, received from Stassov a long letter (on January 31, 1903) about the 
" Pictures at an Exhibition." Stassov told how he had taken advantage of a meeting with 
Rimsky-Korsakov at a supper arranged in honor of the Hamburg conductor, Fiedler (at 
Glazounov's house), to discuss the question of the tempi of the " Pictures." " We sat down 
at the piano, Rimsky-Korsakov played each number over a few times, and then we recalled 
how our Moussorgsky had played them — remembered, tried them, and finally fixed the right 
tempi with the aid of the metronome." Their findings were as follows (value of a crotchet): 
Promenade — 104; Gnomus — 120; II Vecchio Castello — 56 (dotted crotchet); Tuileries — 144; 
Bydlo— 88; Ballet — 88; The two Jews — 48; Limoges — 57; The Hut on Fowls' Legs — 120 
(allegro) and 72 (andante); The Gate at Kiev — 84. 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[18] 



^Metropolitan tKfjeatre • ^rotribence 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



ADRIAN BOULT, Guest Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 

Tuesday Evening, January 15, 1935 
at 8:15 o'clock 



Tickets for this Concert on sale at Steinert's 
beginning Saturday, January 1 2 



[19] 



in wood, for the Christmas tree at the Artist's Club (1869) . It is some- 
thing in the style of the fabled Nutcracker, the nuts being inserted in 
the gnome's mouth. The gnome accompanies his droll movements with 
savage shrieks." 

This piece of realism, Riesemann reports, " struck his contemporaries 
as an incredible piece of audacity." 

Il Vecchio Castello. A troubadour sings a melancholy song before 
an old tower of the middle ages. M oussorgsky seems to linger over this 
picture with a particular fascination. (Ravel utilizes the best coloristic 
possibilities of the saxophone) . 

Tuileries. Children disputing after their play. An alley in the 
Tuileries gardens with a swarm of nurses and children. The composer, 
as likewise in his children's songs, seems to have caught a plaintive 
intonation in the children's voices, which Ravel scores for the high 
wood-winds. 

Bydlo. " Bydlo " is the Polish word for " cattle." A Polish wagon 
with enormous wheels comes lumbering along, to the tune of a " folk- 
song in the Aeolian mode, evidently sung by the driver." There is a 
long crescendo as it approaches — a diminuendo as it disappears in the 
distance. Calvocoressi finds in the melody " une penetrante poesie." 
(Ravel, again departing from usual channels, uses a tuba solo for his 
purposes) . 

Ballet of Chicks in Their Shells. " In 1870," says Stassov, " Hart- 
mann designed the costumes for the staging of the ballet ' Trilby ' at 
the Maryinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg. In the cast were a number of 
boy and girl pupils of the theatre school, arrayed as canaries.* Others 
were dressed up as eggs." 

Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle. Two Polish Jews, the one 
rich, the other poor. "The two Jews were drawn from life in 1868, 
and so delighted was Moussorgsky that Hartmann promptly presented 
him with the picture " (Stassov) . Riesemann calls this number " one 
of the most amusing caricatures in all music — the two Jews, one rich 
and comfortable and correspondingly close-fisted, laconic in talk, and 
slow in movement, the other poor and hungry, restlessly and fussily 
fidgeting and chatting, but without making the slightest impression 
on his partner, are musically depicted with a keen eye for characteristic 

Mixed ornithology in ballets and descriptive suites is apparently of no consequence. 



PHILHARMONIC TRIO 

Beatrice Ball Battey, violin 
Alice Totten, violoncello 

Bertha Woodward, piano 
309 Lauderdale Building Williams 4791 



[20] 



and comic effect. These two types of the Warsaw Ghetto stand plainly 
before you — you seem to hear the caftan of one of them blown out 
by the wind, and the flap of the other's ragged fur coat. Moussorgsky's 
musical power of observation scores a triumph with this unique musi- 
cal joke; he proves that he can reproduce the ' intonations of human 
speech ' not only for the voice, but also on the piano." (Ravel makes 
the prosperous Jew speak from the low voiced strings, in unison. His 
whining neighbor as the voice of a muted trumpet) . 

Limoges. The Market-place. Market women dispute furiously. 
" Hartmann spent a fairly long time in the French town in 1866, exe- 
cuting many architectural sketches and genre pictures " (Stassov) . 

Catacombs. In this drawing Hartmann portrayed himself, examin- 
ing the interior of the Catacombs in Paris by the light of a lantern. In 
the original manuscript, Moussorgsky had written above the Andante 
in B-minor: " The creative spirit of the dead Hartmann leads me 
towards skulls, apostrophizes them — the skulls are illuminated gently 
from within." 

(" ' The Catacombs,' with the subtitle ' Sepulchrum romanum/ are 
invoked by a series of sustained chords, now pp, now ff. Then comes 
under the title ' Con mortuis in lingua mortua ' (sic) a de-rhythmed 
transformation of the ' Promenade ' theme." — Calvocoressi.) 

The Hut on Fowls' Legs. " The drawing showed a clock in the 
form of Baba-Yaga's, the fantastical witch's hut on the legs of fowls. 
Moussorgsky added the witch rushing on her way seated on her 
mortar." To every Russian this episode recalls the verses of Pushkin in 
his introduction to " Russian and Ludmilla." 

The Gate of the Bogatirs at Kiev. " Hartmann's drawing repre- 
sented his plan for constructing a gate at Kiev, in the old Russian 
massive style, with a cupola shaped like a Slavonic helmet." This 
design was said to be a great favorite of Moussorgsky. Stassov calls his 
music " a majestic picture in the manner of the ' Slavsya,' and in the 
style of Glinka's ' Russian ' music." 

Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 

advertise! 

representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal cost! 

L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 



" Hartmann is bubbling over, just as Boris did," wrote Moussorgsky 
to his friend Stassov, while at work upon his " Pictures at an Exhibi- 
tion." " Ideas, melodies, come to me of their own accord, like the roast 
pigeons in the story — I gorge and gorge and over-eat myself. I can 
hardly manage to put it down on paper fast enough." 

Moussorgsky, so his friends have said, was seldom moved to exuber- 
ance over his work — was more often inclined to anxious questionings 
in such confidences. As a matter of fact, both the subject and the 
moment were just right to draw forth the very best from Moussorgsky's 
genius. He was deeply moved by the death of his artist friend, and his 
muse was at its best when quick, graphic characterization was called 
for, liberated from such heavy responsibilities as development, ex- 
tended form, detail of instrumentation. 

" Ravel," says Dr. Vladimir Zederbaum, " scoring the Suite by 
Moussorgsky did not wish to modernize it much, therefore he tried, 
as far as possible, to keep the size of the orchestra of Rimsky-Korsakov 
in ' Boris Godunov,' and added some more instruments only in a few 
movements of the Suite. All instruments are employed in threes; there 
are some more percussion instruments than those used by Rimsky- 
Korsakov; he uses two harps, kettledrums, bass drum, snare drum, 
celesta, xylophone, glockenspiel, rattle, bells." 

The first performance of this orchestration was at a " Koussevitzky 
Concert " in Paris, May 3, 1923. Dr. Koussevitzky first played the suite 
at these concerts, November 7, 1924. The most recent performance was 
January 27, 1933. J. N. B. 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 




VOICE £/ PIANO 

Studio: 43 STEINERT BUILDING 



GERTRUDE JOSEFFY CHASE 

PIANISTE 

211 ROCHAMBEAU AVENUE Plantations 6514 



[22] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 

HELEN SCHANCK APPLEBY 

PIANIST 

Monday Morning Musical Club 
102 Congress Avenue 63 Washington Street 



EDITH GYLLENBERG - WAXBERG 

PIANIST 

33 NOTTINGHAM WAY, PAWTUCKET Telephone Perry 9268 



PIANO and HARMONY . 

Room 15, Conrad Building 

CARRIE SCHMITT gggog, 

Teacher of Harmony at the Felix Fox School 
of Pianoforte Playing, Boston. Mondays. 

KAY MERWIN DANCE STUDIO 

Class and Private Instruction in 
TOE — BALLET — ACROBATIC — GERMAN — CHARACTER DANCING 

385 Westminster St. Room 31 Tel. Gaspee 0767 



CHARLES p KELLEY Organist and Choir Master, Church of the 

Blessed Sacrament 



VOICE and PIANO 

dst and Choir Master, Church c 
Blessed Sacrament 

55 Steinert Building Phone Gaspee 1910 



MEDORA LADEVEZE 

PIANO ORGAN THEORY 

Organist of Elm wood Church and the Oratorio Society 
43 CARTER STREET, PROVIDENCE Telephone, Williams 1580 

The Monday Morning Musical Club Studio 

and Music Bureau 

63 WASHINGTON STREET 

Mason &. Hamlin and Steinway Grand Pianos 
For information call Gaspee 5016 

FREE LECTURES 

on the Boston Symphony Orchestra Concert Programmes, by 

DR. W. LOUIS CHAPMAN 

Providence Public Library, Sundays preceding each concert, 4 P.M. 

Auspices of The Monday Morning Musical Club 

[23] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 

LOUISE HARRIS 

Pupil of Frank E. Streeter 

TEACHER of PIANO and ORGANIST 

1 Bay Avenue, Edgewood Station, Pawtuxet, R. I. Telephone Hopkins 8782 

ELIZABETH CONGDON 

PUPIL OF FELIX FOX 
SOLOIST PIANO TEACHER 

Residence Studio: 60 INTERVALE ROAD Tel. Dexter 3605 

ROY R. GARDNER 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

108 CHARLES STREET CapUoisisi 

In Providence Tuesdays, Institute of Music, Hoppin Homestead Bldg., 35 7 Westminster Street 

MARIANNE CHANNON 

HARPIST 
Res. 282 Olney Street, Providence, R.I. Tel. Gaspee 3842 

ELSIE LOVELL HANKINS 
CONTRALTO 

CONCERT ORATORIO RECITAL 

Third engagement with Handel & Haydn Society Personal Management 

Limited Number of Pupils Accepted 170 Brown St., Gaspee 4523 

RUTH MOULTON 

VIOLIN 

SOLOIST INSTRUCTOR 

308 JASTRAM STREET Telephone West 0599-W 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: University 0956 

HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 

[24] 



SYMPHONY HALL 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 30, at 2:30 

SATURDAY EVENING, December i, at 8:15 

(Eighth pair of concerts) 

MONDAY EVENING, December 3, at 8:15 

(Second concert Monday Evening Series) 



"The Damnation of Faust" 
Dramatic Legend 

BY 

HECTOR BERLIOZ 

WITH 
CHORUS AND SOLOISTS 



Tickets at the box-office, Symphony Hall, Boston 
(Mail Orders invited) 



CHOOSE YOUR PIANO AS THE ARTISTS DO 



FAMOUS SINGERS endorse the 

BALDWIN PIANO 



The tonal quality of the new Baldwin 
makes it a great pleasure and genuine 
satisfaction to sing with this noble 
instrument. 









The Baldwin has that rare quality of 
tone which blends so successfully with 
the voice of the singer. 



^*-% 



For the singer, the tone of the Baldwin 
represents a sure source of inspiration, 
and never fails to blend harmoniously 
with the voice. 








297 Weybosset St., Providence 



jWetropolttan theatre $robibence 



"<§• 



:# 



I, 



% 



% 



»' 



BOSTON 



'^™ 



SYAPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



k, 



INC. 

FIFTY-FOURTH 

SEASON 

1934-1935 

[2] 



Tuesday Evening, January 15 
at 8:15 o'clock 



Madame et La J eune Fille 

INCORPORATED 

130 Newbury Street, Boston 



Mrs. John A. Tuckerman Kenmore 9412 



<A> 



Unusual Sport Costumes and Hats 
Day and Evening Dresses for all ages 



Children's Department 

from 1 to 14 Years 



Our Cash Policy Permits Moderate Prices 



New York Shop, 553 Madison Avenue 



Jffletropolttau TOjeatre • Probfoence 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1 934-1 935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Second Concert 

TUESDAY EVENING, January 15 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallo well Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 

[1] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 

Concert-master 

THEODOROWICZ, J. 


ELCUS, G. 
GUNDERSEN, R. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, V. 
KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


HANSEN, E. 
LEIBOVICI, J. 




MARIOTTI, V. 
PINFIELD, C. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 
LEVEEN, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 
KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 
MAYER, P. 




ZUNG, M. 
DIAMOND, S. 


BEALE, M. 
DEL SORDO, R. 


GORODETZKY, L. 
FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 
MURRAY, J. 




STONESTREET, 
ERKELENS, H. 


l. messina, s. 
seiniger, s. 

Violas 


ZIDE, L. 


LEFRANC, T. 
ARTIERES, L. 


FOUREL, G. 

CAUHAPE, J. 
AVIERINO, N. 
GERHARDT, S. 


BERNARD, A. 

VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 
DEANE, C. 
JACOB, R. 


GROVER, H. 
WERNER, H. 
HUMPHREY, G. 








Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 
ZIGHERA, A. 


langendoen, j. chardon, y. stockbridge 
barth, c. droeghmans, h. warnke, j. 

Basses 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 

MARJOLLET, L. 
ZIMBLER, J. 


KUNZE, M. 
VONDRAK, A. 




LEMAIRE, J. 
MOLEUX, G. 


ludwig, 0. 
frankel, i. 


GIRARD, H. 
DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 
BLADET, g. 
AMERENA, P. 




GILLET, F. 
DEVERGIE, J. 
STANISLAUS, H. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 
VALERIO, M. 
MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


LAUS, A. 
ALLARD, R. 
PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


BATTLES, A. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, G. 
MACDONALD, W. 
VALKENIER, W. 
GEBHARDT, W. 


VALKENIER, W 
LANNOYE, M. 
SINGER, J. 
LORBEER, H. 


MAGER, G. 
LAFOSSE, M. 
GRUNDEY, T. 
VOISIN, R. 

MANN, J. 


RAICHMAN, J. 
HANSOTTE, L. 
LILLEBACK, w. 


Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 
CAUGHEY, E. 


RITTER, A. 
POLSTER, M. 


sternburg, s. 

WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 

[2] 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 



To the ~ 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



The plan of inviting enrollments to a society known as 
the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra has re- 
sulted in enrollments to date of over 1,000 with con- 
tributions totalling approximately $45,000, or one-half of the 
estimated requirements of the Orchestra for this year. Par- 
ticipation by patrons and friends outside of Boston amounts 
to 10% of the number enrolled and 4% of the amount con- 
tributed. 

For this mark of approval and friendly cooperation in pro- 
viding for the necessary financial requirements of the Or- 
chestra I desire to express sincere thanks. At a later date a 
detailed report will be submitted as to the Providence sub- 
scribers who have been so loyal in their support. 

I confidently believe that there are many more who will 
care to accept the present opportunity through membership 
in the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra to join 
those who have already responded so splendidly in making the 
future of the Orchestra secure. 

As one of our contributors so aptly writes, " To exist we 
need, may be, a New Deal or some kind of an ' ism,' but to 
live we need music and the fine things that are collected in 
Art Museums. These things tell us that life is worth while." 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



For the convenience of those who may desire to enroll as Friends 
of the Orchestra a subscription blank has been inserted in this 
programme book. 



[3] 



The Choice of Discriminating Musicians' 



iHlason $c % nmlin 




The supreme qualities that distin- 
guish every Mason & Hamlin are not 
alone due to scientific development 
— beyond that lies the art and skill 
of the individual craftsmen who cre- 
ate it. Each artisan is a specialist — 
contributing his knowledge of the 
infinite detail and special processes 
necessary to produce the particular 
Mason & Hamlin tone. 



The character and idealism that must prevail in the Mason & Hamlin 
organization is shown by the following 
employees service record: 



10 percent over 35 years 
25 percent over 30 years 
30 percent over 25 years 
45 percent over 20 years 
85 percent over 15 years 



These are the men who 
make your Mason & 
Hamlin TODAY — fash- 
ioning it with the same 
meticulous care that has 
earned for the Mason & 
Hamlin piano its enviable 
record. 



Won't you call and see ... or, better still, play upon . . . 
the Mason & Hamlin? Prices begin at $995. Easy gradual 
payments. Any make of piano taken in exchange. 




Distributors of high-grade pianos. 
Piano salons Fourth floor 



[4] 



^Metropolitan TOjeatre • $robtfcience 

[Two hundred and Twenty-ninth Concert in Providence] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 

TUESDAY EVENING, January 15, at 8:15 o'clock 
ADRIAN BOULT, Conducting 



Programme 



Giovanni Gabrieli 



Mendelssohn 



Haydn 



Sonata Plan e Forte (edited by Fritz 
Stein) 

Scherzo in G minor from the Octet, 
Op. 20 (arranged for orchestra by 
the composer) 

Symphony in G Major, No. 88 (B. & 
H. No. 13) 



1. adagio; allegro 

II. LARGO 
III. MENUETTO; TRIO 

iv. finale: allegro con spirito 



Elgar 



INTERMISSION 

Symphony No. 2 in E flat, Op. 63 



i. allegro vivace e nobilmente 
ii. larghetto 
111. rondo: presto 
iv. finale: moderato e maestoso 

For the music in these programmes, visit the Music Department of the 
Providence Public Library 



[5] 



ADRIAN BOULT 

The career of a conductor is read on the one hand in the channels of 
his acquisitive and his expansive years as developing musician, on 
the other in his programmes, his insistences, his audiences. These mat- 
ters would all be eloquent of Adrian Boult's character as a musician, if 
they could be included within the space of a few pages. Even the outline 
of his development and the posts he has held is not without revelation 
of his particular qualities. 

According to the evidence of his mother, herself a musician,* 
Adrian Boult showed an extraordinary aptitude for music, even in his 
pre-coherent years. He would pick out notes accurately on the piano 
even before his eyes had reached the level of the keys. His talents were 
in no way pushed, however, and at the age of twelve (Adrian Boult 
was born in Chester, England, 1889) he was sent to the Westminster 
School, where apparently music was considered an entirely unessential 
part in the development of the average small boy. Young Boult found 
opportunities, nevertheless. The science master (H. E. Piggott) was in- 
terested in music, and the two were often closeted in the pursuit of 
harmony, counterpoint, or fugue. The boy further found his way to 

* Katherine F. Boult was a writer on musical subjects, having translated and edited the 
writings of Berlioz for the " Everyman " Edition. 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Dltson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 

[6] 








!!• 



""*& 






J 



The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 






dUL\ 



cut u^oaZ&vl <=^&&>cete 

... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. . . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts. ...One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 



JL COPLEY-PLAZA _ 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



U 



oM&n, 



[7] 



London each Sunday to attend the Queen's Hall concerts of Henry J. 
Wood, score in hand and ears alert. In this way the young musician 
learned much from the older one whose associate and successor he was 
destined to become. 

Eva Mary Grew, from whose articles in the " British Musician " * 
this material is derived, remarks discerningly that this quiet self-training 
may have been more valuable than the conventional academic and pro- 
fessional ordeal. " Some natures want to be active participants in the 
struggle from the start. Others want to be observers. In his youth, 
Adrian Boult's nature was, to my understanding, of the second of these 
two orders." The writer further considers that the developing musician 
was fortunate in turning from " the exercise of simple observation to 
what may be called the practical amateurism " of Oxford, where Adrian 
Boult entered Christ Church at the age of nineteen. Dr. Hugh Percy 
Allen was an active and beneficent force in Oxford at that time, con- 
ducting a choral society in the town, another in the University, and 
combining the two for his more ambitious projects, of which there were 
many. Adrian Boult apparently missed no chances. He sang in choirs 



* Adrian Boult, " The Story of his Life and Work," appeared serially in " The British Mu- 
sician " from August, 1933, through June, 1934. 



CH U KCH 



TRAVEL 
AGENCY 




MAY WE REMIND YOU— 

{ • 

THE CHURCH AGENCY HAS PRO- 
VIDED A TRAVEL SERVICE-RELIABLE 
AND AUTHENTIC-FOR MANY YEARS. 
BETTER NOW THAN EVER TO SERVE 
YOU. 



ABSOLUTELY NO CHARGE FOR SERVICE 



C ' H U K C H T IV A V EL A G EN C Y 

54- EXCHANGE ST., ALONGSIDE GR.OSVENOR. DLDG,. 



[8] 




/maum) 



A PIANO SO 
WONDERFUL AS 




Ernest Hutcheson calls it "the greatest improvement in the piano 
in the last 30 years/' Keys almost leap back into position! Far 
less effort required in playing . . . whether you're a beginner or a 
finished pianist. The tone is more beautiful than ever, the cost 
to us is greater, but you pay not a cent extra for Accelerated Ac- 
tion! Come in today, if you possibly can! And play ... or hear 
. . . this almost unbelievably sensitive piano! 

Avery Piano Store 



THE STEINWAY HOUSE 

256-258 WEYBOSSET STREET 



TEL. Gaspee 1434 



Sole Stclnway Representatives In Rhode Island and 
Adjacent Territory In Massachusetts and Connecticut 



[9] 



and choruses, took bass solo parts in Bach, coached and rehearsed oper- 
atic performances, and even appeared upon the stage as Zamiel in 
" Der FreischiXtz" In 1917, he was given the degree of "Doctor of 
Music" by his university, a title, however, which he has avoided as 
unduly academic. 

On leaving Oxford, the young man went to Leipzig to study at the 
Conservatorium, but perhaps with the even stronger intent of becom- 
ing " observer " once more at the Gewandhaus concerts, where Artur 
Nikisch was presiding. He observed the conductor from at least two 
angles — from behind as member of the audience and from the front as 
member of the Gewandhaus choir. 

Returning to England and his home at Liverpool, Adrian Boult or- 
ganized and conducted an orchestra in the Sun Hall, Kensington, " in 
the slums of Liverpool," where the attendance was uneven, and depleted 
by the preoccupations of the world war, which had just begun. After 
various engagements at festivals and other occasional concerts, and a 
brief service in the War Office department, where his knowledge of Ger- 
man proved valuable, he made his London debut with four concerts in 
the Queen's Hall, in 1918, including a "revival" of the then scarcely 
noticed " London Symphony " of Vaughan Williams — under difficul- 
ties, for an air raid was in progress. 

The conductor, who was now attracting increased attention, was 
engaged to lead concerts by the London Philharmonic Society, and as 
a conductor of DiaghilefFs Ballet Russe for its London seasons of 1918 
and 1919. He assisted the aging Charles Villiers Standard as conductor 
of the Orchestra of the Royal College of Music, and on his retirement 
took charge of the " Patron's Fund " concerts, wherein the music of 
young composers is given rehearsal, and public performance. His two 
seasons as leader of the sporadic and short-lived British Symphony 
Orchestra might be looked upon as the " finale " of his formative years. 

In 1923, he became conductor of the Birmingham Festival Choral 



INSTITUTE OF MUSIC 

357 Westminster Street 

PIANO VOICE THEORY 

Avis Charbonnel Roy R. Gardner Paul Vellucci 

Lydia Bell Beatrice Ward 

Marjorie Morgan violin Marjorie Morgan 

Beatrice Ward Jan Stocklinski 

Paul Vellucci 

ORCHESTRATION HISTORY OF MUSIC 

SCORE READING PIANOFORTE ENSEMBLE 

CONDUCTING NORMAL COURSE 

Paul Vellucci Avis Charbonnel 

Telephone, Manning 6659 

[10] 



Society, on the retirement of Sir Henry Wood, a position which he held 
for seven years, likewise conducting the Birmingham City Orchestra. 

When the British Broadcasting Company concerts were organized 
in 1930, Dr. Boult was appointed to the important post of director. 
The " B.B.C." orchestra, as it is known, is Of the first importance in 
musical England, both by its public concerts, and by its broadcasts as 
the official orchestra of the Government's radio (" wireless ") monopoly. 



"SONATA PIAN E FORTE" 

Arranged for brass instruments by Fritz Stein 
By Giovanni Gabrieli 

Born in Venice, 1557; died there August 12, 1612 



About two hundred years before Haydn and Mozart wrote serenades 
l for orchestras divided into sections with echo effects, Giovanni 
Gabrieli and his uncle Andrea before him were giving this long- 
enduring musical trick its first vogue. As a matter of fact, the Cathedral 
of St. Mark in Venice, where each held the post of first organist in his 
time, boasted two organs and two choirs, and both composers wrote 




Agnes Studio ~— 9 Wayland Square 



<©ur name ijas altoaps bttn a directing sign to bte= 
criminating flotoer bupers in $robibence anb biciuitp. 
®tib prestige to pour next floral offering bp placing 

pour orber toitfj us 

Gtfje SJrcabe Jflotoer £M)op 

jflotoer g>tpli*te 
85 Mepbosset At, Probibence, ft 3. 



[»] 



antiphonal music in which, in different parts of the great edifice, the 
phrase and its answer would be heard, softly intoned, or strongly af- 
firmed, or both choirs would combine, with sonorous effect. Such is 
the significance of the words " Pian e Forte." The sonata was one of 
the pieces in a collection of music by Giovanni Gabrieli, both vocal and 
instrumental, which was published in 1597 under the title " Sacrae 
Symphoniae." The word " sonata " is naturally to be applied broadly 
in this age of elaborate vocal counterpoint, when concerted instru- 
mental music was still at its very beginnings. " Sonata," we are told, 
signified nothing more than a piece of music to be " sounded " by in- 
struments, while the word " cantata " sufficed for almost anything that 
was sung. 

The " Sacrae Symphoniae " consisted principally of vocal music, and 
contained motets with voice parts up to nineteen. There were also many 
instrumental numbers. The Sonata Pian e Forte was scored for two 
trombone choirs, the one consisting of two high and one tenor trom- 
bone, with a cornetto * for the soprano voice, the other, two tenors and 
a bass trombone, with a violin for the upper voice. 

Dr. Stein, in a preface to his arrangement, which is dated " Kiel, Oc- 
tober, 1931," explains that he has not attempted to " emulate the sound- 
effects of the original score. It should be fairly obvious that it is hardly 
possible nowadays to realize such historical color-effects or to reproduce 
their style, as the old-fashioned Zink cornet is now extinct, and the mod- 
ern trombone in no way reproduces the sound of its predecessor." 

* The cornetto (" Zinke," or " Cornet a Bouquin ") was a slightly conical wooden tube with 
seven holes for stops, and a cup mouthpiece similar to that of a trumpet. It was very popular 
in the 14th and 15th centuries, often used with trombones, and was highly regarded in church 
music. Artusi wrote: "As to its tone, it resembles the brightness of a sunbeam piercing the 
darkness, when one hears it among the voices in cathedrals, churches, or chapels." 




Long Distance Moving 
AGENT ALLIED VAN LINES, 

INC. 
A National Company for a 

National Service 
80-90 Dudley St., Tel. DE 7860 



SERVICE 



Established for over a half century , 
the Cady organization points back 
to years of distinctive service 
to the people of Rhode Island. 

FIREPROOF WAREHOUSE 




[12] 



The first choir, Dr. Stein has scored for two trumpets and two horns, 
thus giving the original cornetto part to the first trumpet. " The tone 
quality of the horns will be found to be the nearest approach to that of 
the old trombones." 

The second choir he has given to a quartet of trombones, the bass 
doubled by a tuba. He points out that the string instrument * for 
which the upper part of the original was scored withstood its heavy 
complement of brass only because the trombones of that time had a far 
smaller tone than ours. 

The first choir once and again is answered by the second (both 
piano) ; the two combine (forte) , after which the choirs are more 
closely alternated, the responses being canonical or in imitation. The 
editor has carefully regarded the dynamic indications of the original 
score. 

The editor suggests alternative uses. For the conscientious purists, 
the cornetto part might be given to two English horns, the upper part 
in the second choir to a group of violas. In a very large hall, or at an 
open air performance " the massed effect of 10 trumpets, 16 horns, 12 
trombones and 2 tubas can have a stupendously impressive effect." 

Dr. Stein concludes with the hope that " this adaptation may enrich 
our musical experience and pleasure, and that it may help to bring to 
light the inexhaustible treasures of the great Venetian master (the so- 
called ' father of the orchestra ') which have lain closed to the world for 
so long a period." 

Theodore Thomas arranged Gabrieli's Sonata " Plan e Forte " for 
string and brass instruments when, in 1901, he conducted a series of con- 
certs illustrating the development of orchestral music. Following 
Gabrieli's plan, Mr. Thomas placed a group of violas and violoncellos 
upon the stage, while two trumpets, three trombones, and four horns 
were heard in the distance (Dr. Stein stipulates that the two choirs be 
placed upon the stage, to the right and left of the Conductor) . 

Giovanni Gabrieli was one of an illustrious Venetian family of 
musicians. His uncle, Andrea, born about 1510, was a pupil of Adrian 
Willaert. He held the post of maestro di cappella at St. Mark's from 
1527 to 1562, and four years later succeeded Claudio Merulo as organist 
of the cathedral. His most famous pupils were Leo Hassler, Peter 
Sweelinck, and his nephew Giovanni, who, on his uncle's death, took 
his place as first organist of St. Mark's. 

Giovanni Gabrieli greatly developed orchestral usage, and showed 
boldness in the handling of voices, particularly in modulation. Of the 
Sacrae Symphoniae L. Finzenhagen says: " One recognizes in this work 

* The " violino " then used corresponded, in range at least, to our modern viola, being written 
as low as D below middle C. 

[^31 



the richest, the fullest development of the Venetian School. This music 
possesses a plenitude of harmonic coloring, and also has the soft but 
lively play of nuance which is the characteristic sign of Venetian paint- 
ing. His counterpoint does not follow expected courses, but is used as 
means to express life." 

To probe back into Gabrieli's own time is to find that he had an 
exceeding fame both as organist and as composer, although he probably 
never left Venice. Of his foremost pupils, Michael Praetorius called him 
" the most eminent, the most famous of all," and another, Heinrich 
Schutz, was moved to a classical conceit: 

" What a man was Gabrieli, O immortal gods! If antiquity had 
known him she would have preferred him to Amphion; if the muses 
had wished to marry, Melpomene would have had no other spouse than 
he, so great was his mastery of song! All this is confirmed by his high 
reputation. I can be the first witness of it, for I enjoyed his teaching 
four years, to my great profit." J. N. B. 



SCHERZO IN G MINOR, FROM THE OCTET, Op. 20 

(Arranged for Orchestra by the composer) 

By Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 
Born at Hamburg, February 3, 1809; died at Leipzig, November 4, 1847 



In April 1829, the youthful Mendelssohn bade a tender goodbye to 
his father and Rebecka at Hamburg, and sailed for England. It was 
the first stretch of a period of extended travelling, in which he was not 
only to give concerts, but to see the world, and " form his character and 
manners." The twenty-year old Berliner, after recovering from an ex- 
hausting voyage and seeing the sights of London under the tutelage of 
Moscheles, made his! first public appearance before the London Phil- 




Diamond Rings 

that inspire pride of possession 
Solitaires — circlets — dinner rings 

in delightful variety . . . designed and made by the finest 

jewelers in America. It costs no more to have quality backed 

by intelligent service. 



T i 1 d 



e n - T h 

Jewelers Since 1856 



u 



r b e r 



[Hi 



harmonic Society at the Argyll rooms on May 25. Old John Cramer " led 
him to the piano as if he were a young lady " reports Moscheles. He also 
conducted his " First " Symphony in C minor (which he had composed 
in 1824) , substituting however the Scherzo from his string Octet for the 
minuet and trio. He had made an orchestral score of the Scherzo for the 
occasion. He was received with great enthusiasm (much to the gratifica- 
tion of the aspiring musician, who had had a mixed reception recently 
in Berlin) and the Scherzo " was obstinately encored against his wish " 
(again according to Moscheles) . Mendelssohn afterwards presented the 
score of the Symphony to the Society. The orchestrated Scherzo was ac- 
quired by Novello and Co., and first published by them in 1911. 

The Scherzo, " sempre pianissimo e leggiero " is a score of character- 
istically delicate point and grace. It is arranged for two flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, in B flat, two bassoons, horns, trombones, timpani and 
strings. 

The Octet itself was written by the 16-year old Mendelssohn in 1825, 
whereby the Scherzo antedates that in the Midsummer Night's Dream 
music by a year. In her life of her brother, Fanny gives her impressions 
of the Scherzo from the Octet: 

" Only to me did he tell what he had in mind. The whole piece 
should be played staccato and pianissimo: The peculiar tremulous 
shuddering, the light flashing mordents, all is new, strange, and yet so 
interesting, so intimate, that one feels near the world of ghosts, lightly 
borne aloft; yes, one might take in hand a broomstick, to follow better 
the aerial crowd. At the end, the first violin flutters upward, light as a 
feather — and all vanishes away." 

The Octet was performed by the string sections of the Orchestra 
November 7, 1885, and again on November 26, 1920. 

J. N. B. 



The Enduring Significance of a V^(ame — 

L/iKE the names of great composers, each easily identified by his own 
particular type of music, the name GLADDING'S has a definite signifi- 
cance. Synonymous with quality, today as in Colonial times — and always 
in step with changing trends of fashion and economy. 

Gladding 



The Oldest Department Store in America 

[15] 



SYMPHONY IN G MAJOR, NO. 88 (B. & H. NO. 13) * 

By Joseph Haydn 

Born at Rohrau, Lower Austria, March 31, 1732; died at Vienna, May 31, 1809 



Haydn wrote a set of six symphonies for a society in Paris known as 
the " Concert de la Loge Olympique." They were ordered in 1784, 
when Haydn was living at Esterhaz. Composed in the course of the years 
1784-89, they are in C, G minor, E-flat, B-flat, D, A. No. 1, in C, has been 
entitled " The Bear "; No. 2, in G minor, has been entitled " The Hen "; 
and No. 4, in B-flat, is known as " The Queen of France." The symphony 
played at this concert is the first of a second set, of which five were com- 
posed in 1787, 1788, 1790. If the sixth was written, it cannot now be 
identified. This one in G major was written in 1787,-f" and is numbered 
88 in the full and chronological listing of Mandyczewski (given in 
Grove's Dictionary) . 

I. The first movement opens with a short, slow introduction, adagio, 
G major, 3-4 which consists for the most part of strong staccato chords 
which alternate with softer passages. The main body of the movement 
allegro, G major, begins with the first theme, a dainty one, announced 
piano by the strings without double-basses and repeated forte by the 
full orchestra with a new counter-figure in the bass. A subsidiary theme 
is but little more than a melodic variation of the first. So, too, the short 
conclusion — theme — in oboes and bassoon, then in the strings — is only 
a variation of the first. The free fantasia is long for the period, and is 
contrapuntally elaborate. There is a short coda on the first theme. 

II. Largo, D major, 3-4. A serious melody is sung by oboe and violon- 
cellos to an accompaniment of violas, double-basses, bassoon, and horn. 
The theme is repeated with a richer accompaniment; while the first 
violins have a counter-figure. After a transitional passage the theme is 

* Last performed at the Symphony concerts in Boston, October 21, 1927. 

t It is " Letter V " in the catalogue of the London Philharmonic Society, No. 13 in the edition 
of Breitkopf & Hartel, No. 8 in that of Peters, No. 29 in that of Sieber, No. 58 in the list of 
copied scores of Haydn's symphonies in the library of the Paris Conservatory of Music. 



FOR A DINNER OF DISTINCTION 

Visit GIBSONS GRANADA where you will find 
excellent food, the finest liquors and wines, enchanting 
music — Truly an evening of perfect enjoyment. 

GIBSONS GRANADA 

162 Westminster Street 

[16] 



repeated by a fuller orchestra, with the melody in first violins and flute, 
then in the oboe and violoncello. The development is carried along on 
the same lines. There is a very short coda. 

III. The Menuetto, allegretto, G major, 3-4, with trio, is in the regu- 
lar minuet form in its simplest manner. 

IV. The Finale, allegro con spirito, G major, 2-4, is a rondo on the 
theme of a peasant country-dance, and it is fully developed. Haydn in 
his earlier symphonies adopted for the finale the form of his first move- 
ment. Later he preferred the rondo form, with its couplets and refrains, 
or repetitions of a short and frank chief theme. " In some finales of his 
last symphonies," says Brenet, " he gave freer reins to his- fancy, and 
modified with greater independence the form of his first allegros; but 
his fancy, always prudent and moderate, is more like the clear, precise 
arguments of a great orator than the headlong inspiration of a poet. 
Moderation is one of the characteristics of Haydn's genius; modera- 
tion in the dimensions, in the sonority, in the melodic shape; the liveli- 
ness of his melodic thought never seems extravagant, its melancholy 
never induces sadness." 

The symphony is scored for flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two 
horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. P. H. 



SYMPHONY NO. 2 IN E FLAT, Op. 63 * 

By Sir Edward Elgar 

Born at Broadheath, near Worcester, England, June 2, 1857; died at Worcester, 

February 23, 1934 



Elgar's ripest symphonic years coincided with, indeed intimately be- 
longed to what Englishmen now like to look back upon as the " Ed- 
wardian Age." He wrote his First Symphony in 1908 (having passed 
fifty, and after long inward preparation) . The Violin Concerto came in 
1910, the Second Symphony in 1911, and the Tone Poem " Falstaff " in 
1913. The Violoncello Concerto of 1919 was his last work of importance. 

* This symphony was first performed at a " London Musical Festival " by the Queen's Hall 
Orchestra, May 24, 1911. The first performance in this country was by the Cincinnati Sym- 
phony Orchestra in its own city, when Leopold Stokowski was conductor, November 24, 1911. 
It was heard at these concerts December 1, 1911 (Boston), Max Fiedler, Conductor. 



THE TRUTH ABOUT FROCKS 

Wear Subtle Colors, Rich Dark Greens, 
Winey Browns and Black for Daytime Wear 




See our smart collection reasonably priced 



326 Westminster St. 



[»7] 



The composer, always reticent as to literal meanings in his absolute 
music, gave certain clues on the score of his Second Symphony, clues 
which have been seized upon, since the work shows an enigma of con- 
flicting moods. The date and locale — " Venice — Tintagel (1910- 
1911) " is of no help, for it is obviously not music of landscape. The 
dedication reads: " To the memory of His late Majesty King Edward 
VII," and the composer has added, after the King's death which was on 
May 6, 1910: "This Symphony, designed early in 1910 to be a loyal 
tribute, bears its present dedication with the gracious approval of His 
Majesty the King. March 16, 1911." There is also a motto, quoted from 
Shelley: 

" Rarely, rarely comest thou, 
Spirit of Delight! " 

Maine, in his two-volume " Elgar, his Life and Works " (1933) calls 
the Second Symphony " an epitome of the era which was quietly and 
gradually fading away while it was being written." And elsewhere he 
says: " Elgar was essentially a man of his time. The background of life 
was an important factor in determining the ideas and emotions which 
his music expresses. So much can be admitted of any great composer 
without thereby accusing him of writing merely topical music. To say 
that an Imperialist age was the background of Elgar's chief orchestral 
works is not to say that his sole object is to wave the Union Jack. 

" For all that, in a broad sense, the First Symphony can be regarded 
as a salute to national heritage and attainment, the Second Symphony 
as a last exulting in the glories of an epoch which has already closed, 
and the Violoncello Concerto as a lament for the irrevocable years. 
They are respectively a paean, an epic, and an elegy." 

The first effect of the two symphonies upon the British public is in 
itself a commentary upon the changing psychological point of view of 
their composer. The First was somewhat on the tradition set by Bee- 
thoven's Fifth * — a slow movement with a deep current, a finale which 
is a " peroration," " a passionate asseveration of faith." It was greatly 
applauded and admired, and the Second was eagerly anticipated. But 
meanwhile the composer's spirit had undergone a modification. It did 
not rise to a final, resounding triumph, but gradually subsided into a 
peaceful close, a close which has reminded some of the Third Symphony 
of Brahms. The first hearers of Elgar's Second Symphony, expecting to 
be overwhelmed, were only bewildered. And when " Falstaff " followed 
upon this, " some were inclined to think, — and they did not hesitate to 
speak out — that the Elgar of the ' Variations ' and the oratorios, the 
Elgar of the golden promise, had joined the ranks of the perverse." 

Quite otherwise than the vision of " Life and Death " which Shera 

* The composer would countenance no such overweening comparison. He once said of the Fifth 
Symphony of Beethoven: "When I look at it I feel like a travelling tinker looking at the 
Forth Bridge." 

[18] 



Jletropolttan GWjeatre • $kotnbence 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 






THIRD CONCERT 

Tuesday Evening, February 19, 1935 
at 8:15 o'clock 



Beethoven . 
Beethoven . 


Programme 

Overture to " Egmont " 

Piano Concerto No. 3, in C minor 


Tchaikovsky 


Symphony No. 6 in B minor, 


" Pathetic " 




Soloist 
MYRA HESS 






Tickets for this Concert on sale at Steinert's 
beginning Saturday, February 16 





[19] 



sees in the symphony, is Newman's brighter summary: " The Symphony 
will be found to offer a complete psychological contrast to its predeces- 
sor. It is untroubled by any of the darker problems of the soul. For the 
most part it sings and dances in sheer delight with life. . . . The work 
will, I think, be found particularly enjoyable just by reason of this 
prevalent spirit of gladsomeness. Our greater music has worn the tragic 
mask long enough; it is good to have it break into a smile occasionally." 

The symphony is scored for these instruments: three flutes (one in- 
terchangeable with piccolo) , two oboes, English horn, three clarinets, 
bass clarinet, two bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, 
three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, side-drum, tam- 
bourine, bass drum, cymbals, two harps, and the usual strings. 

Of the various excellent analyses we choose that of Ernest Newman, 
for what it closely conveys of the sense of the score: — 

" In the point of form, the first movement (Allegro vivace e nobilmente, E flat 
12-8) proceeds much on the lines of Elgar's other first movements; there are two well- 
defined chief subject-groups, the first main idea especially being built up of a number 
of motives that can be used collectively or individually; while further varieties of 
mood are obtained by means of striking episodes." 

The Allegro introduces at once the first principal theme, an energetic subject in 
E-flat major. 

There is no "motto theme," as in the A-flat symphony; "but particular note 
should be taken of the descending phrase in the third bar, which is put to some ex- 
pressive uses, both in this and the latter movements. The theme is really the expres- 
sion of a continuous idea extending until the entrance of the second subject, but 
three subsidiary themes may be disengaged from it. This opening is succeeded by the 
second of the subject groups, which opens with a melody given first of all mainly to 
the strings and harps. The instrumentation becomes fuller, and later a counter-subject 
is heard with the theme. Then comes what the composer wishes to be regarded as the 
principal second subject, dolce e delicato ('cellos) , though its characteristic droop 
plainly makes it a variant of the figure to which attention has already been called. 
Further developments lead to a resumption of the earlier and more vigorous matter, 
which is worked up impetuously to a climax in which a modification of the second 
subject figures largely. This ends the first section of the movement. The second — 
what would be called, in the orthodox form, the working-out section — is wholly 
concerned with modifications of the first-subject matter and with some highly inter- 
esting episodes. A new and less sunny cast, however, has come over the old themes. 
All this section, in fact, is like a darker inset in the center of an otherwise bright pic- 
ture. The harmonies have grown more mysterious; the scoring is more veiled; the 
dynamics are all on a lower scale (the range of tone never rises above piano, while 
pp and ppp are the general markings) . The whole effect is most striking on the or- 
chestra. . . . [There is] an enigmatic phrase in the muted strings that runs through 
virtually the whole of this section. It is impossible, as it would be useless, to analyze 
the scene in detail on paper. Its ghostly color, the throbbing drum-notes, and the 
strange, faint clashing of tonalities in it (a pedal E, for example, supporting E flat 
and D harmonies), make it as subtly imaginative a piece of work as Elgar has ever 
written. 



PHILHARMONIC TRIO 

Beatrice Ball Battey, violin 
Alice Totten, violoncello 

Bertha Woodward, piano 
309 Lauderdale Building Williams 4791 



[20] 



" Towards the end of this section the material of the commencement reappears in 
expressive forms, though in much subdued colors. In this way a transition is made to 
the final section, in which the first-subject matter is again heard in all its former exu- 
berance. The prevailing mood now is healthy and animated. Just before the close we 
get a suggestion of the quieter atmosphere of the middle section, but gradually the 
old spirit reasserts itself, and the movement ends in an exhilarating burst of energy." 

The slow movement (Larghetto, C minor, 4-4) commences with a series of pianis- 
simo chords in the strings. At the eighth measure, we hear the main theme — " a 
grave, deliberate melody in flutes, clarinets, horns, trumpet and trombones (ppp) , 
over an accompaniment of chords on the second and fourth beat of each bar. There 
is a broadly and richly harmonized central section, after which the main theme is 
resumed. The English horn and the oboe give out a melody in thirds. This is re- 
peated by the clarinets. This goes into a meditative theme for strings alone (wind 
instruments added later) .... Another motive, nobilmente e semplice, constitutes 
virtually the whole of the thematic material of the Larghetto. All of it is now re- 
peated in other forms and colors. Near the end the vital phrase of the whole sym- 
phony steals in quietly in two solo violas, and then in the violins, but only for three 
or four bars. The last word is given to the grave chief theme of the Larghetto, and 
the softly breathed chords of the strings. 

" What most people would call the Scherzo," continues Mr. Newman, " is here 
styled a Rondo (Presto, C major, 3-8) . Its main theme is full of quips and surprises. 
(One feature of the Symphony, by the way, is the number of themes that run in 
thirds.) After this theme has run its nimble course, another comes bounding out in 
the strings and English horn in unison (accompanied in horns, bassoons, trombones 
and double-basses) . On its repetition later it is combined with a counter-melody. 
After this come some lively metamorphoses of the sprightly first theme, combined 
with other matter. With a change of the key of D major we enter upon a long, 
smoothly-flowing passage mostly for the strings alone. The passage commences pianis- 
simo, but soon works up to a tremendous torrent of sound in the full orchestra. Alto- 
gether this strange and powerful episode, occurring as it does in the middle of a 
Rondo seemingly given up to the pure joy of motion, will give us something to think 
about when we hear it. The remainder of the brilliant Rondo, with its repetitions, is 
quite plain sailing." 

The main theme of the Finale (Moderato e maestoso, E-flat major, 3-4) " tells its 
own story at once. It is given out in strong lines by bass clarinet, bassoons, horns, and 
'cellos, with broken harmonies supplied by clarinets, harps, and second violins. A few 
repetitions of it in various forms serve to imprint it firmly on our memories before a 
second theme comes — mainly in the strings. Large use is made of the second part of 
it. A third theme is of a similarly broad and dignified character. Then, in quickened 
tempo, the second theme is worked out quasi-fugally, along with some other figures, 
in a bold and effective style; after which we make our way back to the captivating 
first theme again, which is treated in a variety of ways. The climax comes with a 
sonorous reiteration of the third theme, the sequences mounting one on the other 
like great waves. Then a piii tranquillo passage leads to a quiet and expressive remi- 
niscence of the first theme of the first movement in extended notes. It is made the text 
of a masterly peroration, not so overpowering in its wealth of tone as the ending of 
the First Symphony, but equally effective in its much quieter way, and exhibiting the 
same consummate knowledge of the art of getting off the stage. The phrase is re- 
peated several times in one instrument after another, then breaks off into a reminis- 
cence of a fine phrase that has been heard in some of the later developments of the 
third theme, and finally we hear an echo of the first. All this time the motion has been 
growing more tranquil and the tone more subdued. Up to almost the last movement 
we are in a pianissimo, and apart from one short crescendo, in a couple of discords 
that are quickly resolved, it is pianissimo that we end, in a mood of calm but pro- 
found content." T. N B 




IVIAN PLACE 

HARP MUSIC FOR EVERY OCCASION 
Instruction Children's Classes 

!3So NARRAGANSETT BLVD. [Telephone] EDGEWOOD R.I . 

[21] 



Symphony Hall • Boston 

Monday, January 21, fitf 8:15 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

THIRD CONCERT 

OF THE 

MONDAY EVENING SERIES 



ADRIAN BOULT, Guest Conductor 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 




VOICE £/ PIANO 

Studio: 43 STEINERT BUILDING 

GERTRUDE JOSEFFY CHASE 

PIANISTE 

211 ROCHAMBEAU AVENUE Plantations 6514 



^rLDadmun JESS 

<S?n JBoston £very Thursday and cfridai/^ 

Studio 89 Charles Street • Telephone Capitol OggS 



[22] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 

HELEN SCHANCK APPLEBY 

PIANIST 

Monday Morning Musical Club 
102 Congress Avenue 63 Washington Street 

EDITH GYLLENBERG - WAXBERG 

PIANIST 

33 NOTTINGHAM WAY, PAWTUCKET Telephone Perry 9268 



PIANO and HARMONY 

Room 15, Conrad Building 

CARRIE SCHMITT gag"* 

Teacher of Harmony at the Felix Fox School 
of Pianoforte Playing, Boston. Mondays. 

KAY MERWIN DANCE STUDIO 

Class and Private Instruction in 
TOE — BALLET — ACROBATIC — GERMAN — CHARACTER DANCING 

385 Westminster St. Room 31 Tel. Gaspee 0767 



CHARLFS "F KETTEY Organist and Choir Master, Church of the 

Blessed Sacrament 






VOICE and PIANO 

list and Choir Master, Church c 
Blessed Sacrament 

55 Steinert Building Phone Gaspee 1910 



MEDORA LADEVEZE 

PIANO ORGAN THEORY 

Organist of Elmwood Church and the Oratorio Society 
43 CARTER STREET, PROVIDENCE Telephone, Williams 1580 

The Monday Morning Musical Club Studio 

and Music Bureau 

63 WASHINGTON STREET 

Mason &. Hamlin and Steinway Grand Pianos 
For information call Gaspee 5016 

FREE LECTURES 

on the Boston Symphony Orchestra Concert Programmes, by 

DR. W. LOUIS CHAPMAN 

Providence Public Library, Sundays preceding each concert, 4 P.M. 

Auspices of The Monday Morning Musical Club 

[23] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 

LOUISE HARRIS 

Pupil of Frank E. Streeter 

TEACHER of PIANO and ORGANIST 

1 Bay Avenue, Edgewood Station, Pawtuxet, R. I. Telephone Hopkins 8782 

ELIZABETH CONGDON 

PUPIL OF FELIX FOX 
SOLOIST PIANO TEACHER 

Residence Studio: 60 INTERVALE ROAD Tel. Dexter 3605 

ROY R. GARDNER 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

108 CHARLES STREET Capitoisisi 

In Providence Tuesdays, Institute of Music, Hoppin Homestead Bldg., 357 Westminster Street 

MARIANNE CHANNON 

HARPIST 
Res. 282 Olney Street, Providence, R.I. Tel. Gaspee 3842 

ELSIE LOVELL HANKINS 

CONTRALTO 

CONCERT ORATORIO RECITAL 

Third engagement with Handel & Haydn Society Personal Management 

Limited Number of Pupils Accepted 170 Brown St., Gaspee 4523 

RUTH MOULTON 

VIOLIN 

SOLOIST INSTRUCTOR 

308 JASTRAM STREET Telephone West 0599-W 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: University 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . , BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



[24] 



SYMPHONY HALL • BOSTON 



YEHUDI 

MENUHIN 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 27, at 3.30 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate, and diploma courses. 

Private and class instruction in all 
branches of music. 

Voice Department — Instructors : 
Mr. James R. Houghton 
Mr. David Blair McClosky 
Miss Marie Oliver 
Mr. Stephen S. Townsend 



Registration Day for the 
second semester, January 30, 1935 



Let us help you 
build up 
your name! 



advertise! 



representation in this book will assist you! at a nominal cost 



L. S. B. Jefferds, adv. mgr. 

symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 



CHOOSE YOUR PIANO AS THE ARTISTS DO 



FAMOUS SINGERS endorse the 

BALDWIN PIANO 



The tonal quality of the new Baldwin 
makes it a great pleasure and genuine 
satisfaction to sing with this noble 
instrument. 





The Baldwin has that rare quality of 
tone which blends so successfully with 
the voice of the singer. 



-x/V^ 



For the singer, the tone of the Baldwin 
represents a sure source of inspiration, 
and never fails to blend harmoniously 
with the voice. 





Im ' — >*w^ 7 




297 Weybosset St., Providence 



jHetropolttan Gtfjeatre • $rotoibence 




Tuesday Evening, February 19 
at 8:15 o'clock 



Madame et La J eune Fille 

INCORPORATED 

130 Newbury Street, Boston 



Mrs. John A. Tuckerman Kenmore 9412 



Unusual Sport Costumes and Hats 
Day and Evening Dresses for all ages 

Children's Department 

from 1 to 14 Years 



Also Representing 




Our Cash Policy Permits Moderate Prices 



New York Shop, 553 Madison Avenue 



^Metropolitan Qtfjeatre • JJrotoibeme 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934-1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Third Concert 

TUESDAY EVENING, February 19 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 




ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. SAUVLET, H 


RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master 


GUNDERSEN, R. 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


THEODOROWICZ, 


J- 








HANSEN, E. 




MARIOTTI, V. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 


TAPLEY, R. 


LEIBOVICI, J. 




PINFIELD, C. 


LEVEEN, P. 


KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 




ZUNG, M. 


BEALE, M. 


GORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 




DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 


FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 




STONESTREET, 


L. MESSINA, S. 


ZIDE, L. 


MURRAY, J. 




ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




LEFRANC, J. 




FOUREL, G. 


BERNARD, A. 


GROVER, H. 


ARTIERES, L. 




CAUHAPE, J. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 


WERNER, H. 


AVIERINO, N. 


DEANE, C. 


HUMPHREY, G. 


GERHARDT, S. 


JACOB, R. 










Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. CHARDON, Y. STOCKBRIDGE 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


BARTH, C. DROEGHMANS, H. WARNKE, J. 


MARJOLLET, L. 










ZIMBLER, J. 








Basses 




KUNZE, M. 




LEMAIRE, J. 


ludwig, 0. 


GIRARD, H. 


VONDRAK, A. 




MOLEUX, G. 


FRANKEL, I. 


DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 




GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 


LAUS, A. 


BLADET, G. 




DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 


ALLARD, R. 


AMERENA, P. 




STANISLAUS, H 


MAZZEO, R. Et> Clarinet 


PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


battles, a. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCHER, G. 




VALKENIER, W 


MAGER, G. 


raichman, j. 


MACDONALD, W 




LANNOYE, M. 


LAFOSSE, M. 


HANSOTTE, L. 


VALKENIER, W. 




SINGER, J. 


GRUNDEY, T. 


LILLEBACK, W. 


GEBHARDT, W. 




LORBEER, h. 


VOISIN, R. 

MANN, J. 




Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 


RITTER, A. 


sternburg, s. 






CAUGHEY, E. 


POLSTER, M. 


WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J. 


[2] 











To the — 
Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 



Membership in the Society of Friends of the Or- 
chestra now exceeds 1,300 or substantially dou- 
ble the number of those who have contributed 
to the Orchestra's requirements in any past year. As may 
be expected the list of members includes many from 
Providence. 

As I look over the long list of those who I am sure 
must intend to enroll and subscribe but have not yet 
done so (and there are many from Providence on that 
list) , I am confident that with their cooperation the 
Friends of the Orchestra will succeed in providing the 
balance of $38,000 still needed to cover estimated re- 
quirements for the current year. 

Edward A. Taft 

Chairman 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a 
check to the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. for whatever 
amount you care to contribute and mail it to E. B. Dane, 
Treasurer, 6 Beacon Street, Boston. Contributions to the 
Orchestra may be deducted from net income in computing 
Federal Income Taxes. 



[3] 



(( 



The Choice of Discriminating Musicians" 



iffilas on $c % amlitt 



The supreme qualities that distin- 
guish every Mason & Hamlin are not 
alone due to scientific development 
— beyond that lies the art and skill 
of the individual craftsmen who cre- 
ate it. Each artisan is a specialist — 
contributing his knowledge of the 
infinite detail and special processes 
necessary to produce the particular 
Mason & Hamlin tone. 



The character and idealism that must prevail in the Mason & Hamlin 
organization is shown by the following 
employees service record: 




10 percent over 35 years 
25 percent over 30 years 
30 percent over 25 years 
45 percent over 20 years 
85 percent over 15 years 



These are the men who 
make your Mason & 
Hamlin TODAY — fash- 
ioning it with the same 
meticulous care that has 
earned for the Mason & 
Hamlin piano its enviable 
record. 



Won't you call and see ... or, better still, play upon . . . 
the Mason & Hamlin? Prices begin at $995. Easy gradual 
payments. Any make of piano taken in exchange. 




Distributors of high-grade pianos. 
Piano salons Fourth floor 



[4] 



metropolitan Cfteatre • Protribence 

[Two hundred and Thirtieth Concert in Providence] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 

TUESDAY EVENING, February 19, at 8:15 o'clock 



Programme 

Mozart Overture to "The Marriage of Figaro" 

Beethoven .... Concerto for Piano, No. 4, in G major, 

Op. 58 



I. ALLEGRO MODERATO 
II. ANDANTE CON MOTO 

in. rondo; vivace 



intermission 



Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 6 in B minor, 

"Pathetique," Op. 74 



I. ADAGIO — ALLEGRO NON TROPPO 

II. ALLEGRO CON GRAZIA 

III. ALLEGRO MOLTO VIVACE 

IV. FINALE: ADAGIO LAMENTOSO 



SOLOIST 

MYRA HESS 

[Steinway Piano] 



For the music in these programmes, visit the Music Department of the 
Providence Public Library 

[5] 



OVERTURE TO THE OPERA, " THE MARRIAGE OF FIGARO " 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



Le Nozze di Figaro: dramma giocoso in quadro atti; poesia di 
Lorenzo Da Ponte, aggiustata dalla commedia del Beaumarchais, 
' Le Mariage de Figaro '; musica di W. A. Mozart," was composed at 
Vienna in 1786 and produced there on May 1 of the same year. 

The overture is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings. It opens 
(Presto, D major, 4-4) immediately with the first theme; the first part 
of it is a running passage of seven measures in eighth notes (strings and 
bassoons in octaves) , and the second part is given for four measures to 
wind instruments, with a joyous response of seven measures by full 
orchestra. This theme is repeated. A subsidiary theme follows, and the 
second theme appears in A major, a gay figure in the violins, with bas- 
soon, afterward flute. There is no free fantasia. There is a long coda. 

Mozart saw in the play of Beaumarchais an excellent libretto for an 
opera. Da Ponte tells the story in his amusing Memoirs: " Talking one 



The Analytic Symphony Series 

Edited and annotated by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 
Published by Oliver Dltson Company, Inc. 

The Analytic Symphony Series comprises thirty-four volumes covering 
the most important symphonies of the world's greatest masters. Each 
volume is presented in playable two-hand piano score, and contains 
complete analytical notes on the structure and orchestration in addition 
to critical notes appraising the significance of the composition and its 
salient points. 

Copies may be had from your Music Dealer or the Publishers 

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY, Inc. 

359 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 



[6] 



: 

■■^ ■-■■-■. ■'"■ 

"ill 







™ 5 - , 



The Copley-Plaza in Copley Square, Boston, as seen from the cloister of the new 
Old South Church. The imposing towers of Trinity Church are visible on the left 






JLJL\ 



... AS FAMOUS AS ANY IN THE WORLD 

When business or friendship calls you to Boston, make the 
COPLEY-PLAZA your address. . . . Situated in historic Copley 
Square, facing its lovely gardens, and flanked by the world- 
renowned Trinity Church and the equally famous Boston 
Public Library, the COPLEY-PLAZA provides a hotel setting 
as distinguished as any in the world. . . . There is quiet and 
beauty here, a sense of security and well-being — a certain 
indescribable linking with New England's rarest traditions. . . . 
The yammer and confusion so often associated with the 
average commercial hotel is thankfully missing, yet you are 
but a few steps from the business and theatre districts.... One 
doesn't"stop"at the COPLEY-PLAZA in Boston — one lives there. 



~JL COPLEY-PLAZA _ 

ARTHUR L. RACE, Managing Director 



d 



oALon, 



[7] 



day with him [Mozart], he asked me if I could turn Beaumarchais's 
' Noces de Figaro ' into an opera. The proposition was to my taste, and 
the success was immediate and universal. A little before, this piece had 
been forbidden by the Emperor's command, on account of its immor- 
ality. How then to propose it anew? Baron Vetzlar * offered me with his 
customary generosity a reasonable price for my libretto, and assured me 
that he would see to its production at London or in France, if it were 
refused in Vienna. I did not accept the offer, and I secretly began work. 
I waited the opportune moment to propose the poem either to the 
Intendant or, if I had the courage, to the Emperor himself. Martin alone 
was in my confidence, and he was so generous, out of deference to 
Mozart, to give me time to finish my piece before I began work on one 
for him. As fast as I wrote the words, Mozart wrote the music, and it was 
all finished in six weeks. The lucky star of Mozart willed an opportune 
moment, and permitted me to carry my manuscript directly to the 
Emperor. 

" ' How's this? ' said Joseph to me. ' You know that Mozart, remark- 
able for his instrumental music, has with one exception never written 
for song, and the exception is not good for much.' 

* Da Ponte here refers to Baron Wezlar. 



CH U R£H 



TRAVEL 
AGENCY 




MAY WE REMIND YOU— 

• 

THE CHURCH AGENCY HAS PRO- 
VIDED A TRAVEL SERVICE-RELIABLE 
AND AUTHENTIC-FOR MANY YEARS. 
BETTER NOW THAN EVER TO SERVE 
YOU. 



ABSOLUTELY NO CHARGE FOR SERVICE 



C+HUKCfl TRAVEL AGENCY 

54 EXCHANGE ST./ ALONGSIDE GIUDSVENOK BLDG. 



[8] 




/Vrioicm) 



A PIANO SO 
WONDERFUL AS 




Ernest Hutcheson calls it "the greatest improvement in the piano 
in the last 30 years." Keys almost leap back into position! Far 
less effort required in playing . . . whether you're a beginner or a 
finished pianist. The tone is more beautiful than ever, the cost 
to us is greater, but you pay not a cent extra for Accelerated Ac- 
tion] Come in today, if you possibly can! And play ... or hear 
, . . this almost unbelievably sensitive piano! 

Avery Piano Store 



THE STEINWAY HOUSE 

256-258 WEYBOSSET STREET 



TEL. Gaspee 1434 



Sole Stein way Representatives in Rhode Island and 
Adjacent Territory in Massachusetts and Connecticut 



[9] 



" I answered timidly, ' Without the kindness of the Emperor, I 
should have written only one drama in Vienna.' 

" ' True: but I have already forbidden the German company to play 
this piece " Figaro." ' 

" ' I know it; but, in turning it into an opera, I have cut out whole 
scenes, shortened others, and been careful everywhere to omit anything 
that might shock the conventionalities and good taste; in a word, I have 
made a work worthy of the theatre honored by his Majesty's protection. 
As for the music, as far as I can judge, it seems to me a masterpiece.' 

" ' All right; I trust to your taste and prudence. Send the score to the 
copyists/ 

" A moment afterward I was at Mozart's. I had not yet told him the 
good news, when he was ordered to go to the palace with his score. He 
obeyed, and the Emperor thus heard several morceaux which delighted 
him. Joseph II. had a very correct taste in music, and in general for 
everything that is included in the fine arts. The prodigious success of 
this work throughout the whole world is a proof of it. The music, in- 
credible to relate, did not obtain a unanimous vote of praise. The 
Viennese composers crushed by it, Rosenberg and Casti especially, never 
failed to run it down." 

Did Da Ponte show himself the courtier when he spoke of the Em- 
peror's " very correct taste in music "? 

There was a cabal from the start against the production of Mozart's 
opera. Kelly says in his Reminiscences: " Every one of the opera com- 
pany took part in the contest. I alone was a stickler for Mozart, and 
naturally enough, for he had a claim on my warmest wishes. ... Of all 
the performers in this opera at that time, but one survives — myself . 
[This was written in 1826.] It was allowed that never was opera stronger 
cast. I have seen it performed at different periods in other countries, and 
well too, but no more to compare with its original performance than 
light is to darkness. All the original performers had the advantage of the 



INSTITUTE OF MUSIC 

357 Westminster Street 

PIANO VOICE THEORY 

Avis Charbonnel Roy R. Gardner Paul Vellucci 

Lydia Bell Beatrice Ward 

Marjorie Morgan violin Marjorie Morgan 

Beatrice Ward Jan Stocklinski 

Paul Vellucci 

orchestration history of music 

score reading pianoforte ensemble 

conducting normal course 
Paul Vellucci Avis Charbonnel 

Telephone, Manning 6659 






[10] 



instruction of the composer, who transfused into their minds his in- 
spired meaning. I never shall forget his little animated countenance, 
when lighted up with the glowing rays of genius; it is as impossible to 

describe it as it would be to paint sunbeams." 

P. H. 



CONCERTO IN G MAJOR, FOR PIANOFORTE, NO. 4, Op. 58 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born at Bonn, December 16, 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827 



This concerto was probably composed for the most part, and it was 
surely completed, in 1806, although Schindler, on advice from Ries, 
named 1804 as the year, and an edition of the concerto published by 
Breitkopf Sc Hartel states that the year 1805 saw the completion. 

The concerto was performed by Beethoven in one of two private 
subscription concerts of his works given in the dwelling-house of Prince 
Lobkowitz, Vienna, in March 1807. The first public performance was 
in the Theatre an der Wien, Vienna, December 22, 1808. All the pieces 
were by Beethoven: the symphony described on the programme as " A 
symphony entitled ' Recollections of Life in the Country,' in F major, 
No. 5 " (sic) ; an Aria, " Ah, perfido," sung by Josephine Kilitzky; * 



* Josephine Kilitzky, born in 1790, was persuaded to sing after Anna Pauline Milder refused, 
in obedience to her betrothed, one Hauptmann, a jeweller, who grew angry when Beethoven 
called him " a stupid ass." Antonia Campi's husband was vexed because she had not been 
asked first, and he would not allow her to sing, though she had a beautiful voice in spite of 
the fact that she had seventeen children, among them four pairs of twins and a set of triplets. 
Josephine was badly frightened when Beethoven led her out, and could not sing a note. Rockel 
says a cordial was given to her behind the scenes; it was too strong, and the aria suffered in 
consequence. Reichardt describes her as a beautiful Bohemian with a beautiful voice. " That 
the beautiful child trembled more than sang was to be laid to the terrible cold; for we shivered 
in the boxes, although wrapped in furs and cloaks." She was later celebrated for her " dra- 
matic colorature." Her voice was at first of only two octaves, said Ledebur, but all her tones 
were pure and beautiful, and later she gained upper tones. She sang from 1813 to 1831 at 
Berlin, and pleased in many parts, from Fidelio to Arsaces, from Donna Elvira to Fatime in 
" Abu Hassan." She died, very old, in Berlin. 

<©ur name fta£ altoapg heeu a Erecting £igu to bfe= 
criminating flotoer taper* in $rotoibeuce anb biciuitp. 
8fob prestige to pour next floral offering bp placing 

pour orber toitf) us 

Qtfje &rcabe Jflotoer g>fjop 

jHotoer *tpltet* 
85 Wepbosteet At, $robibence, ft J. 



Hymn with Latin text written in church style, with chorus and solos; 
Pianoforte Concerto in G major, played by Beethoven; Grand Sym- 
phony in C minor, No. 6 (sic) ; Sanctus, with Latin text written in 
church style (from the Mass in C major) , with chorus and solos; Fan- 
tasia for pianoforte solo; Fantasia for pianoforte " into which the full 
orchestra enters little by little, and at the end the chorus joins in the 
Finale." Beethoven played the pianoforte part. The concert began at 
half-past six. We know nothing about the pecuniary result. 

When A. W. Thayer published his catalogue on Beethoven's com- 
positions (1865) , Carl Haslinger, music publisher and composer, was 
in possession of autograph cadenzas written by Beethoven for this con- 
certo. Two were for the first movement. Over one of them, which had 
very difficult double trills towards the end, Beethoven had written " Ca- 
denza (ma senza cadere) ." There was a cadenza for the Rondo. Has- 
linger died late in 1868; his publishing business passed through pur- 
chase into the house of Schlesinger (Rob. Lienau) , of Berlin. Franz 
Kullak, the editor of the five concertos in the Steingraber edition, pub- 
lished the three cadenzas in an appendix to the Fourth Concerto, and 
said in a footnote that these cadenzas, which are undoubtedly Beetho- 
ven's, were not published during the life of the composer, and that the 
autograph manuscripts were in possession of the firm of Breitkopf Sc' 
Hartel, who were the first to publish them. 

The score was dedicated " humbly " by Beethoven to " His Imperial 
Highness, the Archduke Rudolph of Austria." 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for flute, two oboes, 
two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and 
strings. 

I. Allegro moderato, G major, 4-4. The first movement, contrary to 




-^ SERVICE ► 

Established for over a half century, 
the Cady organization points back 
to years of distinctive service 
to the people of Rhode Island. 

FIREPROOF WAREHOUSE 



Long Distance Moving 
AGENT ALLIED VAN LINES, 

INC 
A National Company for a 

National Service 
80-90 Dudley St., Tel. DE 7860 




[12] 



the tradition that prevailed at the time, begins with the pianoforte 
alone. The pianoforte announces the first four measures of the first 
theme, five measures if an introductory chord be counted. (These meas- 
ures are to be found in a sketch-book of Beethoven which is dated 1803, 
but in this book they end in the tonic, and not in the dominant.) The 
orchestra then enters in B major, but soon returns to G major, and 
develops the theme, until after a short climax with a modulation a sec- 
ond theme appears, which is given to the first violins. There is a third 
theme fortissimo in G major, with a supplement for the wood-wind in- 
struments, and still another new theme, an expressive melody in B-flat 
major. 

II. Andante con moto, E minor, 2-4. This movement is free in form. 
Beethoven put a footnote in the full score to this effect: " During the 
whole Andante, the pianist must use the soft pedal (una corda) uninter- 
mittently; the sign ' Ped ' refers to the occasional use of the ordinary 
pedal." This footnote is contradicted at one point in the score by the 
marking " tre corde " for five measures near the end of the movement. 
A stern and powerful recitative for strings alternates with gentle and 
melodic passages for the pianoforte. " The strings of the orchestra keep 




Agnes Studio ^^ 9 Wayland Square 




Make-up with a French Accent! 

Helena Rubinstein brings you new make-up inspi- 
ration from Paris! Come to her Salon! See what 
smart Continental faces are wearing this season! 
Powders — misty-fine, clinging. Textures for 
normal and oily skin, for dry skin. 1.00, 1.50 
to 5.50. 

Rouges — gay, young, smart. Stay on 
hours! 1. 00, 2..00, 5.00. 
Lipsticks — idealize the lips, and actu- 
ally nourish. Indelible. 1.00103.50. 
never runs, smudges or smarts. 1.00, 1.50. 
Eyelash Grower and Darkener — grooms lashes and brows. 1.00. 
A Beauty Lesson Treatment at the Salon will be a revelation in scientific 
skin care and make-up. The Salon offers beauty counsel without obligation. 

helena rubinstein salon 

London 77 Newbury Street, Boston (Ken. 5270) Paris 



Persian Mascara 



[13] 



repeating a forbidding figure of strongly marked rhythm in staccato 
octaves; this figure continues at intervals in stern, unchanging forte 
through about half the movement and then gradually dies away. In 
the intervals of this harsh theme the pianoforte as it were improvises 
little scraps of the tenderest, sweetest harmony and melody, rising for 
a moment into the wildest frenzied exultation after its enemy, the 
orchestra, has been silenced by its soft pleading, then falling back into 
hushed sadness as the orchestra comes in once more with a whispered 
recollection of its once so cruel phrase; saying as plainly as an orchestra 
can say it, ' The rest is silence! ' " (William Foster Apthorp) . 

III. Rondo: Vivace. The first theme, of a sunny and gay character, 
is announced immediately by the strings. The pianoforte follows with 
a variation. A short but more melodic phrase for the strings is also taken 
up by the pianoforte. A third theme, of a bolder character, is announced 
by the orchestra. The fourth theme is given to the pianoforte. The 
Rondo, " of a reckless, devil-may-care spirit in its jollity," is based on 
this thematic material. At the end the tempo becomes presto. 

The first performance of the Fourth Concerto in Boston was proba- 
bly by Robert Heller * at a Germania concert, February 4, 1854. He 
played Beethoven's Fifth Concerto at a Germania concert, March 4 of 
that year. 

The Fourth Concerto has been played in Boston at concerts of the 



* Robert Palmer, known as Robert Heller, was born at Canterbury, England, in 1833. He 
studied music, and at the age of fourteen won a scholarship in the Royal Academy of Music, 
London. Fascinated by the performances of Robert Houdin, he dropped music to become a 
magician, and he came to the United States in September, 1852. Some say that he made his 
first appearance in New York at the Chinese Gardens as a Frenchman; others, that his first 
appearance was at the Museum, Albany, N. Y. He met with no success, and he then went to 
Washington, D. C, where he taught the piano and served as a church organist. He married 
one of his pupils, Miss Kieckhoffer, the daughter of a rich banker, and at once went back to 
magic. In New York he opened Heller's Hall, and was eminently successful. He then went to 
London, opened Poole's Theatre; but came back to New York in 1875. He had given exhibi- 
tions of his skill in Australia and India. He died at Philadelphia, November 28, 1878. His 
name stands very high in the list of magicians. His tricks of " second sight " for a long time 
perplexed the most skilful of his colleagues. And he was one of the first to use electricity as 
a confederate. In his will he instructed his executors to destroy all his apparatus. For a long 
and interesting explanation of his " second sight " tricks, see " Magic," by A. A. Hopkins 
(Minn. & Co., New York, 1897). 




Diamond Rings 

that inspire pride of possession 
Solitaires — circlets — dinner rings 

in delightful variety . . . designed and made by the finest 

jewelers in America. It costs no more to have quality backed 

by intelligent service. 

Tilden-Thurber 

Jewelers Since 1856 



[H] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra by George W. Sumner (December 17, 
1881) , Carl Baermann (January 27, 1883, December 23 1893) > Mary E. 
Garlichs (November 29, 1884) , Anna Clark-Steiniger (November 14, 
1885) , Rafael Joseffy (December 18, 1886) , Ferruccio B. Busoni (No- 
vember 14, 1891) , Ernst von Dohnanyi (March 17, 1900) , Otto Neitzel 
(December 22, 1906) , Leopold Godowsky (December 14, 1912) , Harold 
Bauer (November 28, 1914), Winifred Christie (April 27, 1917), 
Arthur Rubinstein (April 1, 1921) ; Artur Schnabel, March 30, 1923; 
Edouard Risler (February 22, 1924) ; Myra Hess (March 30, 1925 — 
Monday Series) ; Artur Schnabel, April 4, 1930; Myra Hess (February 
10, 1931 — Tuesday Series) . P. H. 



MYRA HESS 



Miss Hess was born at Hampstead, London, the youngest of four 
children. Her parents gave her the advantage of a thorough train- 
ing from the time that they observed marked musical tendencies in the 
child of five. At the age of seven, she was able to pass the test in piano, 
theory, and sight-reading at Trinity College. For five years following 
she studied at the Guildhall School of Music. At thirteen, she began her 
lessons with Tobias Matthay at the Royal Academy of Music. In her 
own words, " He taught me the habit of enjoying my music as music, 
and that was the chief factor in finally molding me into a pianist." Miss 
Hess was awarded the Gold Medal for pianoforte playing, and was sub- 
sequently made successively Associate and Fellow. 

She gave her first public pianoforte recital in London, January 25, 
1908. She did not make her American debut until 1922 when she played 
in New York, January 17. On February 9 of that year, she appeared 
with this orchestra in Sanders Theatre, Cambridge, playing the Con- 
certo of Mozart in D minor, K. 466. At the Friday and Saturday series, 
she appeared in Schumann's Concerto on December 16, 1927, and in 



The Enduring Significance of a V^arne— 

JL/IKE the names of great composers, each easily identified by his own 
particular type of music, the name GLADDING'S has a definite signifi- 
cance. Synonymous with quality, today as in Colonial times — and always 
in step with changing trends of fashion and economy. 

Gladding 



The Oldest Department Store in America 

[15] 



Brahms' Concerto No. 1 in D minor, April 15, 1932. Miss Hess has per- 
formed Beethoven's Fourth Concerto with this orchestra on previous 
occasions, although not at the Friday and Saturday series. She played 
it at a Monday evening concert, March 30, 1925, and at a Tuesday after- 
noon concert, February 10, 1931. She played the same work with the 
orchestra at the Beethoven Festival in Washington, D. C, December 2, 
1930, and in Carnegie Hall, New York, January 10, 1931. She was soloist 
at a Pension Fund concert, February 26, 1933, playing Schumann's 
Concerto. 



SYMPHONY NO. 6, IN B MINOR, " PATHETIC," Op. 74 
By Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky 

Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; died at 
St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893 



When Tchaikovsky conducted the first performance of his newly 
completed Sixth Symphony (it was in St. Petersburg, October 28, 
1893,* and nine days before his death) , one might reasonably have ex- 
pected a great success for the work. The composer then commanded 
favorable attention, haying attained eminence and popularity— though 
nothing remotely approaching the immense vogue this very symphony 
was destined to make for him immediately after his death. The com- 
poser believed in his symphony with a conviction which he by no means 
always felt for his newest scores as he presented them to the world 
(only about the melancholy finale, the adagio lamentoso, did he have 
doubts) . He had good reason to believe that the broad and affecting 
flood of outpouring emotion would sweep the audience in its current. 

* Following the composer's death Napravnik conducted the symphony with great success at 
a concert of Tchaikovsky's music, November 18, 1893. The piece attained a quick popularity, 
and reached America the following spring, when it was produced by the New York Symphony 
Society, March 16, 1894. It was performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 28 
following, Emil Pauer conducting. The most recent performance, at the regular concerts, was 
January 25 last. 



FOR A DINNER OF DISTINCTION 



V, 



isit GIBSONS GRANADA where you will find 
excellent food, the finest liquors and wines, enchanting 
music — Truly an evening of perfect enjoyment. 

GIBSONS GRANADA 

162 Westminster Street 

[16] 



But such was not the case. The performance, according to Tchaikov- 
sky's scrupulous brother Modeste, " fell rather flat. The symphony was 
applauded, and the composer recalled; but the enthusiasm did not sur- 
pass what was usually shown for one of Tchaikovsky's new composi- 
tions. The symphony produced nothing approaching that powerful and 
thrilling impression made by the work when it was conducted by 
Napravnik, November 18, and later, wherever it was played." The crit- 
ics, too, were cool. The Viedemosti found " the thematic material not 
very original, the leading subjects neither new nor significant." The 
Syn Otechestva discovered Gounod in the first movement and Grieg in 
the last, and the Novoe Vremja drew this astonishing conclusion: " As 
far as inspiration is concerned it stands far below Tchaikovsky's other 
symphonies." 

Modeste Tchaikovsky may have been a more acute psychologist 
than some of our moderns when he spoke of the Sixth Symphony as a 
" casting out of the dark spirits that had possessed him." There are 
those who protest that Tchaikovsky fills his music with his personal 
troubles. But rasped nerves, blank, deadening depression, neurotic fears 
— these painful feelings are not in the province of music, nor are they 
found there. They probably in some indirect way colored his inclina- 
tions towards a Byronic melancholy, highly fashionable at the time. 
One calls to mind the affecting pathos of the love songs, the wistful 
sentiment of Pushkin's Tatiana, whom Tchaikovsky put into music 
with such fond care, even while he was at work upon the Fourth Sym- 
phony. The pathological and the musical Tchaikovsky were two dif- 
ferent people. The first was mentally sick, pitiably feeble. The second 
was bold, sure-handed, thoroughgoing, increasingly masterful, emi- 
nently sane. Tchaikovsky's musical melancholy is not painful to the 
ear, but luscious — even exuberant. He simply revels in the mood which 
somehow peculiarly belongs to him. It is worth noting that during the 
nervous collapse of 1877, in the midst of his disastrous marriage of a 
few weeks, he was busily at work upon his Fourth Symphony — music 
far surpassing anything he had done in brilliance and exultant strength. 



Smart Ensembles, Sport Coats, and 
Prints for the cruise and travel wear. 




Balance of our entire stock of coats 
beautifully furred at \ regular prices. 



326 Westminster St. 



[17 



One is almost forced to the conclusion that the symphony was his ref- 
uge, his healing resource when life had become unbearable. The tragic 
Sixth Symphony, on the other hand, he must have written in the com- 
forting sense of having attained his fullest creative powers. If the strain 
of melancholy which runs through most of Tchaikovsky's music and 
finds its most luxuriant expression in his last symphony are nothing 
more than the querulous complaints of a pessimist, as some have 
averred, it would be hard to reconcile such a belief with a remarkable 
passage in his letter to Mme. von Meek (March 1, 1878) where he tries 
to put in words the state of mind to which the act of composition lifts 
him. He calls it: " a kind of musical shriving of the soul, in which there 
is an encrustation of material which flows forth again in notes just as 
the lyrical poet pours himself out in verse. ... It would be vain to try 
to put into words that immeasurable sense of bliss which comes over 
me directly a new idea awakens in me and begins to assume a definite 
form. I forget everything and behave like one possessed. Everything 
within me starts pulsing and quivering; hardly have I begun the sketch 
ere one thought follows another." 

Tchaikovsky, always reticent about a programme for his sym- 
phonies, was deliberately non-communicative about this one. In one 
of his first letters divulging the news of the new work (he had written 
to his brother Anatol about it the day before) he wrote from Klin to 
Davidov, February 23, 1893: " Just as I was starting on my journey (the 
visit to Paris, in December, 1892) the idea came to me for a new sym- 
phony. This time with a programme of a kind which remains an enigma 
to all — let them guess it who can. The work will be entitled ' A Pro- 
gramme Symphony ' (No. 6) . This programme is penetrated by the 
subjective sentiment. During my journey, while composing it in my 
mind, I frequently shed tears." 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY 
COLLEGE OF MUSIC 



Degree, certificate and diploma courses. 

New Department of church and com- 
munity music, Professor H. Augustine 
Smith, Director. 

Recent additions to the faculty: Mr. 
Roger H. Sessions, composition, and 
Mr. James R. Houghton, voice. 



For further information, address the 
Registrar, 178 Newbury Street, Boston 



[18 



Jffletropolttan GEtyeatre • $robtbence 



BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 

(AND LAST OF THE SEASON) 

Tuesday Evening, March ig, 1935 
at 8:15 o'clock 



Tickets for this Concert on sale at Steinert's 
beginning Saturday, March 16 



[19 



The Symphony was announced in the programme of the first per- 
formance simply by its number. But the next day, Modeste found his 
brother at the tea table holding the score and pondering a title, for he 
was to send it to his publisher that day. He wished something more 
than " No. 6," and did not like " Programme Symphony." " What does 
Programme Symphony mean when I will give it no programme? " 
Modeste suggested " Tragic," but Peter said that would not do. " I 
left the room before he had come to a decision. Suddenly I thought — 
' Pathetic' I went back to the room, I remember it as though it were 
yesterday, and I said the word to Peter. ' Splendid, Modi, bravo, " Pa- 
thetic " ! ' and he wrote in my presence the title that will forever 
remain." Still, Tchaikovsky could not have been thoroughly satisfied 
with the name " Pathetique," for the next day he wrote to Jurgenson 
with directions about the dedication to his nephew, Vladimir Davidov, 
and gave the symphony no other identification than " No. 6." He 
added: " I hope it is not too late." 

Wherefore the symphony remains what its maker intended it to be, 
so far as posterity was concerned — an " enigma." From various inter- 
pretations, each of which must remain nothing more than a single 
personal guess, let us quote that of Kashkin, who found in it something 
far more than a presentiment of his own approaching end. " It seems 
more reasonable," he wrote, " to interpret the overwhelming energy of 
the third movement and the abysmal sorrow of the finale in the broader 
light of a national or historical significance rather than to narrow them 
to the expression of an individual experience. If the last movement is 
intended to be predictive, it is surely of things vaster and issues more 
fatal than are contained in a mere personal apprehension of death. 
It speaks rather of a ' lamentation large et souffrance inconnue/ and 
seems to set the seal of finality on all human hopes. Even if we elimi- 
nate the purely subjective interest, this autumnal inspiration of 
Tchaikovsky, in which we hear ' the ground whirl of the perished leaves 
of hope ' still remains the most profoundly stirring of his works." 

The music as self-sufficient, and without biographical implications, 
is interestingly described by Donald Francis Tovey: " It is not for 
merely sentimental or biographical reasons that Tchaikovsky's sixth 
and last Symphony has become the most famous of all his works. No- 
where else has he concentrated so great a variety of music within so 

PHILHARMONIC TRIO 

Beatrice Ball Battey, violin 
Alice Totten, violoncello 

Bertha Woodward, piano 

309 Lauderdale Building Williams 4791 

[20] 



effective a scheme: and the slow finale, with its complete simplicity of 
despair, is a stroke of genius which solves all the artistic problems that 
have proved most baffling to symphonic writers since Beethoven. The 
whole work carries conviction without the slightest sense of effort; and 
its most celebrated features, such as the second subject of the first move- 
ment, are thrown into their right relief by developments far more 
powerful, terse, and highly organized than Tchaikovsky has achieved 
in any other work. The extreme squareness and simplicity of the phras- 
ing throughout the whole symphony is almost a source of power in it- 
self. All Tchaikovsky's music is dramatic; and the Pathetic Symphony 
is the most dramatic of all his works. Little or nothing is to be gained 
by investigating it from a biographical point of view: there are no ob- 
scurities in the music either as musical forms or as emotional contrasts: 
and there is not the slightest difficulty in understanding why Tchaikov- 
sky attached special importance to the work. 

" One of the most original features is the opening in a key which 
turns out not to be that of the piece, but a dark outlying region (the 
sub-dominant) . Through ghost-like chords on double-basses a bassoon 
foreshadows the main theme. The key shifts from E minor to the real 
key of the Symphony, B minor; and the allegro begins with the first 
subject. 

" The development opens with a crash, and works up the first theme 
in a stormy fugato. The course of the music is easy to follow; and its 
finest feature, perhaps the finest passage Tchaikovsky ever wrote, is 
the return of the first subject, worked up in a slow crescendo starting 
in the extremely remote key of B flat minor, and rising step by step 
until, in the tonic (B minor) , the whole theme is given fortissimo in 
dialogue between strings and wind. The tragic passage which then fol- 
lows is undoubtedly the climax of Tchaikovsky's artistic career, as well 
as of this work: and its natural reaction, the return (in the tonic major) 
of the second subject, is (perhaps even more than the despairing finale 
of the whole symphony) the feature that fully reveals the pathetic char- 
acter of the music. 

" The second movement, an extremely simple kind of scherzo and 
trio, has this peculiar effect, that while it is in 5-4 time, which is an un- 
symmetrical rhythm, the bars themselves are grouped in the stiffest 
series of multiples of eight that have ever found room in a symphony. 
It is a delightful and childlike reaction from the drama of the first 
movement, and, except for a certain wistfulness in the tone of the trio 

VIVIAN PLACE 

HARP MUSIC FOR EVERY OCCASION 
Instruction Children's Classes 

!35o NARRAGANSETT BLVD. [Telephone] EDGEWOOD R.I. 

[21] 



ARP 



with its obstinate pedal-point in the drums, it successfully hides what- 
ever cares it may have. 

" The gigantic march which constitutes the third movement begins 
with a quiet but busy theme, the triplet motion of which lasts almost 
incessantly until the final stage, where the second subject stiffens the 
whole orchestra into march-rhythm. There is no development: the first 
subject returns without any elaborate process; but its continuation be- 
comes highly dramatic and is worked up to a tremendous climax. The 
triumph is brilliant, but, perhaps in consequence of the way in which 
it was approached, not without a certain fierceness in its tone. At all 
events, it would, if translated into literature, not be the triumph of the 
real hero of the story. He might share in it at the time, but his heart 
will be in the mood of Tchaikovsky's finale. 

" This experiment, unique in form and unique in success, is carried 
through on two themes: the desperate first subject, with its curious ar- 
rangement of crossing parts in the first four bars, and a consolatory sec- 
ond subject. 

" There is no development, but the second subject is worked up to a 
great climax, which leads, after some dramatic pauses, to the recapit- 
ulation. In this the first subject reaches a still greater climax, which 
dies down until a distant stroke of a gong (the most ominous sound in 
the orchestra, if discreetly used) brings back the second subject, now 
in B minor and in a mood of utter despair. And so the music of the 
whole symphony dies away in the darkness with which it began." 

J. N. B. 



Symphony Hall • Boston 

FRIDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 22, at 2:30 
SATURDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 23, at 8:15 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Soloist 
GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 

Violoncello 



[22] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 




VOICE £/ PIANO 

Studio: 43 STEINERT BUILDING 

GERTRUDE JOSEFFY CHASE 

PIANISTE 

211 ROCHAMBEAU AVENUE Plantations 6514 



The Monday Morning Musical Club Studio 

and Music Bureau 

63 WASHINGTON STREET 

Mason & Hamlin and Stein way Grand Pianos 
For information call Gaspee 5016 

FREE LECTURES 

on the Boston Symphony Orchestra Concert Programmes, by 

DR. W. LOUIS CHAPMAN 

Providence Public Library, Sundays preceding each concert, 4 P.M. 

Auspices of The Monday Morning Musical Club 



HELEN SCHANCK APPLEBY 

PIANIST 

Monday Morning Musical Club 
102 Congress Avenue - 63 Washington Street 



EDITH GYLLENBERG - WAXBERG 

PIANIST 

33 NOTTINGHAM WAY, PAWTUCKET Telephone Perry 9268 



PIANO and HARMONY 

Room 15, Conrad Building 

CARRIE SCHMITT %£«& 

Teacher of Harmony at the Felix Fox School 
of Pianoforte Playing, Boston. Mondays. 

[23] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 

KAY MERWIN DANCE STUDIO 

Class and Private Instruction in 

TOE — BALLET — ACROBATIC — GERMAN — CHARACTER DANCING 

385 Westminster St. Room 31 Tel. Gaspee 0767 



CHARLES F. KELLEY ° rganist an * ? h ™ Q Master - c t hurch of the 

.Blessed feacrament 



VOICE and PIANO 

list and Choir Master, Church c 
Blessed Sacrament 

55 Steinert Building Phone Gaspee 1910 



MEDORA LADEVEZE 

PIANO ORGAN THEORY 

Organist of Elm wood Church and the Oratorio Society 
43 CARTER STREET, PROVIDENCE Telephone, Williams 1580 

LOUISE HARRIS 

Pupil of Frank E. Streeter 

TEACHER of PIANO and ORGANIST . 

1 Bay Avenue, Edgewood Station, Pawtuxet, R. I. Telephone Hopkins 8782 

ELIZABETH CONGDON 

PUPIL OF FELIX FOX 
SOLOIST PIANO TEACHER 

Residence Studio : 60 INTERVALE ROAD Tel. Dexter 3605 

ROY R. GARDNER 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

108 CHARLES STREET Capitol 5157 

In Providence Tuesdays, Institute of Music, Hoppin Homestead Bldg., 357 Westminster Street 

MARIANNE CHANNON 

HARPIST 
Res. 282 Olney Street, Providence, R.I. Tel. Gaspee 3842 

ELSIE LOVELL HANKINS 

CONTRALTO 

CONCERT ORATORIO RECITAL 

Third engagement with Handel & Haydn Society Personal Management 

Limited Number of Pupils Accepted * 170 Brown St., Gaspee 4523 

RUTH MOULTON 

VIOLIN 

SOLOIST INSTRUCTOR 

308 JASTRAM STREET Telephone West 0599-W 

[24] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



THE LONGY SCHOOL OF MUSIC 

44 CHURCH STREET CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 

NEEDS NO OTHER RECOMMENDATION 
THAN ITS ACKNOWLEDGED HIGH STANDARDS 

Catalogue upon request Telephone: Trowbridge 0956 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, MUSICIANSHIP 

Mr. Shaw will form classes in Ear Training, 
Harmony and Improvisation. The plan of Study 

is along lines as given at Paris Conservatory 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . . . BOSTON 

Kenmore 6520 



^IDadmun JfS 

i&n JBoston &eri/ Thursdaii andtjFndaii^ 

Studio 89 Charles Street • Telephone Capitol Ogg5 



Let us help you 




build 


up 




your 


name! 

advertise! 


• 




representation in this book will assist 


you! at a nominal cost! 


L. S. B. 


Jefferds, adv. mgr. 




symphony hall. tel. commonwealth 1492 




■■HHMHBHHHHHi 



CHOOSE YOUR PIANO AS THE ARTISTS DO 



FAMOUS SINGERS endorse the 

BALDWIN PIANO 



The tonal quality of the new Baldwin 
makes it a great pleasure and genuine 
satisfaction to sing with this noble 
instrument. 





The Baldwin has that rare quality of 
tone which blends so successfully with 
the voice of the singer. 




*** 



For the singer, the tone of the Baldwin 
represents a sure source of inspiration, 
and never fails to blend harmoniously 
with the voice. 








297 Weybosset St., Providence 



Jffletropolitan GDfjeatre • $robtbence 




Tuesday Evening, March 19 
at 8:15 o'clock 



Madame et La J eune Fille 

INCORPORATED 

130 Newbury Street, Boston 



Mrs. John A. Tuckerman Kenmore 9412 



Unusual Sport Costumes and Hats 
Day and Evening Dresses for all ages 

Children's Department 

from 1 to 14 Years 



Also Representing 




Our Cash Policy Permits Moderate Prices 



New York Shop, 553 Madison Avenue 



^Metropolitan Gtfjeatre • $robibence 



FIFTY-FOURTH SEASON, 1934- 1935 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INCORPORATED 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Assistant Conductor 



Concert Bulletin of the 
Fourth Concert 

TUESDAY EVENING, March 19 

with historical and descriptive notes 
By Philip Hale and John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1935, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

The OFFICERS and TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Bentley W. Warren President 

Henry B. Sawyer Vice-President 

Ernest B. Dane Treasurer 



Allston Burr Roger I. Lee 

Henry B. Cabot William Phillips 

Ernest B. Dane Henry B. Sawyer 

N. Penrose Hallowell Pierpont L. Stackpole 

M. A. de Wolfe Howe Edward A. Taft 

Bentley W. Warren 



W. H. Brennan, Manager G. E. Judd, Assistant Manager 



[1] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Fifty-fourth Season, 1934-1935] 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 

Concert-master 

THEODOROWICZ, J. 


ELCUS, G. 
GUNDERSEN, R. 


LAUGA, n. SAUVLET, H. RESNIKOFF, v. 
KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P. EISLER, D. 


HANSEN, E. 
LEIBOVICI, J. 




MARIOTTI, V. 
PINFIELD, C. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 
LEVEEN, P. 


TAPLEY, r. 
KRIPS, A. 


KNUDSON, C. 
MAYER, P. 




ZUNG, M. 
DIAMOND, S. 


BE ALE, M. • 
DEL SORDO, R. 


GORODETZKY, L. 
FIEDLER, B. 


BRYANT, M. 
MURRAY, J. 




STONESTREET, 
ERKELENS, H. 


l. messina, s. 
seiniger, s. 

Violas 


ZIDE, L. 


LEFRANC, T. 
ARTIERES, L. 


FOUREL, G. 

CAUHAPE, J. 
AVIERINO, N. 
CERHARDT, S. 


BERNARD, A. 

VAN WYNBERGEN, C. 
DEANE, C. 
JACOB, R. 


GROVER, H. 
WERNER, H. 
HUMPHREY, G. 








Violoncellos 




BEDETTI, J. 
ZIGHERA, A. 


langendoen, j. chardon, y. stockbridge 
barth, c. droeghmans, h. warnke, j. 

Basses 


, C. FABRIZIO, E. 

MARJOLLET, L. 
ZIMBLER, J. 


KUNZE, M. 
VONDRAK, A. 




LEMAIRE, J. 
MOLEUX, G. 


LUDWIG, O. 
FRANKEL, I. 


GIRARD, H. 
DUFRESNE, G. 
JUHT, L. 


Flutes 




Oboes 


Clarinets 


BASSOONS 


LAURENT, G. 
BLADET, G. 
AMERENA, P. 




GILLET, F. 
DEVERGIE, J. 
STANISLAUS, H. 


POLATSCIIEK, V. 
VALERIO, M. 
MAZZEO, R. Eb Clarinet 


LAUS, A. 
ALLARD, R. 
PANENKA, E. 


Piccolo 




English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 


Contra-Bassoon 


battles, a. 




SPEYER, L. 


MIMART, P. 


PILLER, B. 


Horns 




Horns 


Trumpets 


Trombones 


BOETTCIIER, G. 
MACDONAI.D, w. 
VALKENIER, W. 
CEBMARDT, W. 


VALKENIER, W, 
LANNOYE, m. 
SINGER, J. 
LORBEER, H. 


MAGER, G. 
LAFOSSE, M. 
GRUNDEY, T. 
VOISIN, R. 

MANN, J. 


raichman, j. 
hansotte, l. 
lilleback, w. 


Tuba 




Harps 


Timpani 


Percussion 


ADAM, E. 




ZIGHERA, B. 
CAUGHEY, E. 


RITTER, A. 
POLSTER, M. 


STERN BURG, S. 
WHITE, L. 
ARCIERI, E. 


Organ 




Piano 


Celesta 


Librarian 


SNOW, A. 




SANROMA, J. 


FIEDLER, A. 


ROGERS, L. J, 



"Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra" 

Providence, Rhode Island 



The Society of Friends of the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra is constituted of patrons and admirers who have con- 
tributed during the year in large amounts or small to the 
maintenance requirements of the Orchestra and have thus given 
practical expression to their desire to share in its fortunes and 
make possible the continuance of its preeminence in performance. 
The membership to date totals 1369, including not only those re- 
siding in Boston and vicinity but those residing in New York, 
Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut and other states in which 
the Orchestra gives concerts. 

The following is a list of Rhode Island members: 



Mrs. Howard L. Anthony 

Mr. Everard Appleton 

Mrs. Harvey A. Baker 

Mrs. Daniel Beckwith 

Misses Ada and Janet Blinkhorn 

Dr. and Mrs. E. S. Brackett 

Mr. Charles Brier 

Mrs. Prescott O. Clarke 

Mrs. Gammell Cross 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. Edwards 

Miss C. Emily Fairbanks 

Mrs. John R. Freeman 

Mrs. Robert Ives Gammell 

Mrs. Peter G. Gerry 

Miss Louise Harris 

Mr. Wtlliam S. Innis 

Mrs. Edward L. Johnson 

Miss Loraine Johnson 



Mr. and Mrs. J. D. E. Jones 

Mr. Maxim Karolik (Neivporl) 

Mrs. Henry S. Lanpher 

Mrs. Austin T. Levy (Harrisville) 

Mr. Hugh F. MacColl. 

Dr. Charles A. McDonald 

Mrs. Houghton P. Metcalf 

Mrs. I. Harris Metcalf 

Mrs. David G. Moulton 

Mrs. Frank A. Sayles 

Miss Ellen D. Sharpe 

Mrs. Henry D. Sharpe 

Mrs. George St. J. Sheffield 

Miss Agnes C. Storer (Newport) 

Mrs. M. B. Stower 

Mrs. John O. Waterman 

Mrs. George H. Webb 

Mrs. Kenneth F. Wood 



To enroll as a Friend of the Orchestra simply make out a check 
to Boston Symphony O