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Full text of "Boston Symphony Orchestra concert programs, Season 42,1922-1923, Trip"



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Symphony Orchestra, National Endowment for the Humanities 



http://archive.org/details/bostonsymphonyor2223bost 



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NEW YORK PROGRAMMES 



CARNEGIE HALL ... NEW YORK 

Thursday Evening, November 30, at 8.15 
Saturday Afternoon, December 2, at 2.30 



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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



INC. 



FORTY-SECOND 
SEASON 

J922-J923 



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CARNEGIE HALL 



NEW YORK 



Thirty-seventh Season in New York 



FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 39, at 8.15 

AND THE 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON, DECEMBER 2, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
GALEN L. STONE 
ERNEST B. DANE 



ALFRED L. AIKEN 
FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



ARTHUR LYMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
GALEN L. STONE 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
E. SOHIER WELCH 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 




VHE INSTRUMENT OF THE IMMORTALS 




Franz Liszt 
at his Steinway 



QOMETIMES people who want 
a Steinway think it economic 
cal to buy a cheaper piano in 
the beginning and wait for a 
Steinway. Usually this is because 
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and convenience a Steinway can 
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You may purchase a new Steinway piano 
with a cash deposit of 10%, and the bal- 
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'Prices: $875 and up. 
Convenient terms. Used pianos taken in exchange. 



STEI] 

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Subway Express Stations at the Door 

REPRESENTED BY THE FOREMOST DEALERS EVERYWHERE 



B©si©B . 




Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 
PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master. 
Theodorowicz, J. 
Gundersen, R. 

Kassman, N. 

Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 



Fourel, G. 
Artieres, L. 



Hoffmann, T- 
Mahn, F. 

Pinfield, C. 
Barozzi, S. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Goldstein, S. 

Riedlinger, H. 
Tapley, R. 



Violins. 

Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 

Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 

Kurth, R. 
Bryant, M. 

Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violas. 
Werner, H. Grover, H. 

Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 

Gerhardt, S. Kluge, M. 

Deane, C. Zahn, F. 



Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 

Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 

Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C. 

Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 



Fiedler, A. 
Mullaly, J. 







Violoncellos. 




Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller. J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Basses. 


Langendcen, J 
Marjollet, L. 


Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Ludwig, 0. Kelley, A. 
Frankel, I. Demetrides, 


Girard, H. 
L. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Laurent, G. 
Brooke, A. 
Amerena, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Stanislaus, 


Sand, A. 
Arcieri, E. 
H. Vannini, A. 


Laus, A. 
AUard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horns. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoom. 


Battles, A. 


Mueller, F 
Speyer, L. 


Mimart, P. 


Piller, B. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


Wendler, G. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Hess, M. Mager, G. 
Van Den Berg, C. Mann, J. 

Perret, G. 

Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C 
Adam, E. 
Mausebach, A 
Kenfield, L. 


Tuba? 


Harps. 


Timpani. 


Percussion. 


Adam, E. 


Holy, A. 
Delcourt, L. 


Ritter, A. Ludwig, C. Zahn, F. 
Kandler, F. Sternburg, S. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


Librarian. 


Snow, A. 




Fiedler, A. 
3 


Rogers, L. J. 



- noston 
Symphony Orchestra 

VICTOR 

RECORDS 



There are dealers in Victor 
products everywhere and any 
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Orchestra records for you* 

Victrolas $25 to $1500 



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Camden N.I 



X 



HIS MASTERS VOICE' 



S}\ 



CARNEGIE HALL 



NEW YORK 



Thirty-seventh Season in New York 



•©stosa S jimphofiy 

Forty -second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 30 

AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Berlioz . . Fantastic Symphony, No. i in C. major, Op. 16 A 

I. Dreams, Passions. 

Largo; Allegro agitato e appassionato assai. 
II. A Ball. 

Waltz: Allegro non troppo. 

III. Scene in the Meadows. 

Adagio. 

IV. March to the Scaffold. 

Allegretto non troppo. 
V. A Witches' Sabbath. 

Larghetto; Allegro. 



G rifles 



Vaughan Williams 



Glazounov 



"Clouds" 

"The White Peacock," Op. 7, No. 1 



Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis 
for Double Stringed Orchestra 

'Stenka Razin," Symphonic Poem, Op. 13 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 



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Fantastic Symphony, No. 1 in C major, Op. 16a, Hector Berlioz 

(Born at la Cote Saint-Andr6 (Isere), December 11, 1803; died in Paris, 

March 9, 1869.) 

This symphony forms the first part of a work entitled "Episode de 
la vie d'un artiste" (Episode in the Life of an Artist), the second part 
of which is the lyric monodrama, "Lelio, ou le re tour a la vie" (Lelio; 
or, The Return to Life). Berlioz published the following preface* to 
the full score of the symphony: — 

PROGRAMME 

OP THE SYMPHONY. 

A young musician of morbid sensibility and ardent imagination poisons himself 
with opium in a fit of amorous despair. The narcotic dose, too weak to result in 
death, plunges him into a heavy sleep accompanied by the strangest visions, during 
which his sensations, sentiments, and recollections are translated in his sick brain 
into musical thoughts and images. The beloved woman herself has become for him 
a melody, like a fixed idea which he finds and hears everywhere. 

PART I. 

DREAMS, PASSIONS. 

He first recalls that uneasiness of soul, that vague des passions, those moments of 
causeless melancholy and joy, which he experienced before seeing her whom he loves; 
then the volcanic love with which she suddenly inspired him, his moments of delirious 
anguish, of jealous fury, his returns to loving tenderness, and his religious consolations. 

PART II. 

A BALL. 

He sees his beloved at a ball, in the midst of the tumult of a brilliant fete. 

PART III. 

SCENE IN THE FIELDS. 

One summer evening in the country he hears two shepherds playing a Ranz-des- 
vaches in alternate dialogue; this pastoral duet, the scene around him, the light rust- 
ling of the trees gently swayed by the breeze, some hopes he has recently conceived, 
all combine to restore an unwonted calm to his heart and to impart a more cheerful 
coloring to his thoughts; but she appears once more, his heart stops beating, he is 
agitated with painful presentiments ; if she were to betray him ! . . . One of the shep- 
herds resumes his artless melody, the other no longer answers him. The sun sets . . . 
the sound of distant thunder . . . solitude . . . silence. . . . 

PART IV. 

MARCH TO THE SCAFFOLD. 

He dreams that he has killed his beloved, that he is condemned to death, and led 
to execution. The procession advances to the tones of a march which is now sombre 
and wild, now brilliant and solemn, in which the dull sound of the tread of heavy feet 
follows without transition upon the most resounding outbursts. At the end, the 
fixed idea reappears for an instant, like a last love-thought interrupted by the fatal 
stroke. 

PART V. 
walpurgisntght's dream. 

He sees himself at the witches' Sabbath, in the midst of a frightful group of ghosts, 
magicians, and monsters of all sorts, who have come together for his obsequies. He 
hears strange noises, groans, ringing laughter, shrieks to which other shrieks seem to 
reply. The beloved melody again reappears; but it has lost its noble and timid char- 
acter; it has become an ignoble, trivial, and grotesque dance-tune; it is she who comes 
to the witches' Sabbath. . . . Howlings of joy at her arrival. . . . she takes part in the 
diabolic orgy. . . . Funeral knells, burlesque parody on the Dies irae. Witches' 
dance. The witches' dance and the Dies irae together. 

In a preamble to this programme, relating mostly to some details 
of stage-setting when the "Episode de la vie d'un artiste" is given entire, 
Berlioz also writes: "If the symphony is played separately at a concert. 

*The translation into English of this preface is by William Foster Apthorp. 

7 



. . . the programme does not absolutely need to be distributed among 
the audience, and only the titles of the five movements need be printed, 
as the symphony can offer by itself (the composer hopes) a musical 
interest independent of all dramatic intention." 

This programme differs from the one originally conceived by Berlioz. 
In a letter written to Humbert Ferrand, April 16, 1830, Berlioz sketched 
the argument of the symphony "as it will be published in the programme 
and distributed in the hall on the day of the concert." According to 
this argument the "Scene in the Fields" preceded the "Ball Scene." 

There is an introductory note: "Each part of this orchestral drama 
being only the musical development of given situations, the composer 
thinks it indispensable to explain the subject in advance. The follow- 
ing programme, then, should be regarded as the spoken text of an opera, 
which serves to introduce the pieces of music, to describe the character, 
to determine the expression." 

There are minor differences in the detail of the programmes of the 
first two concerts and of the preserved sketch, which are summed up by 
M. Tiersot in the Menestrel of July 10, 1904 (p. 219). 






The woman that inspired the music and was bitterly assailed in 
the letter of 1830 sent to Humbert Ferrand with the proposed pro- 
gramme was Harriet Constance Smithson, known in Paris as Henri- 
etta Smithson, born at Ennis, Ireland, March 18, 1800.* She was seen 
as Ophelia by Berlioz at the Odeon, Paris, September 11, 1827, after 
engagements in Ireland and England. She appeared there first 
September 6 with Kemble, Powers, and Liston. Her success was 
immediate and overwhelming. She appeared as Juliet, September 
15 of the same year. Berlioz saw these first performances. He did not 
then know a word of English: Shakespeare was revealed to him only 
through the mist of Letourneur's translation. After the third act of 
"Romeo and Juliet" he could scarcely breathe: he suffered as though 
"an iron hand was clutching" his heart, and he exclaimed, "I am lost." 
And the story still survives, in spite of Berlioz's denial, that he then 
exclaimed: "That woman shall be my wife! And on that drama I shall 
write my greatest symphony." He married her, and was thereafter 
miserable. He wrote the "Romeo and Juliet" symphony, and to the 
end he preferred the "Love Scene" to all his other music. His rhapsodic 
letters to Ferrand show his flaming passion. When scandalous stories 
about her reached him he vowed vengeance. She would be the woman 
at the witches' Sabbath in his Symphony. 

Berlioz has told in his Memoirs the story of his wooing. He was 
madly in love. After a tour in Holland, Miss Smithson went back 
to London, but Berlioz saw her always by his side; she was his obsessing 
idea, the inspiring Muse. When he learned through the journals of 
her triumphs in London in June, 1829, he dreamed of composing a great 
work, the "Episode in the Life of an Artist," to triumph by her side and 
through her. He wrote Ferrand, February 6, 1830 : "I am again plunged 
in the anguish of an interminable and inextinguishable passion, with- 
out motive, without cause. She is always at London, and yet I think 
I feel her near me : all my remembrances awake and unite to wound me ; 

♦Boschot describes her as she looked in 1827: "Tall, lithe, with shoulders rather fat and with full 
bust, a supple figure, a face of an astonishing whiteness, with bulging eyes like those of the glowing 
Mme. die BtaSl, but eyes gentle, dreamy, and sometimes sparkling with passion. And this Harriet 
Smithson had the most beautiful arms. — bulbous flesh, sinuous line. They had the effect on a man 
of a caress of a flower. And the voice of Harriet Smithson was music." 

8 



I hear my heart beating, and its pulsations shake me as the piston strokes 
of a steam engine. Each muscle of my body shudders with pain. In 
vain! 'Tis terrible! unhappy one! if she could for one moment con- 
ceive all the poetry, all the infinity of a like love, she would fly to my 
arms, were she to die through my embrace. I was on the point of 
beginning my great symphony ('Episode in the Life of an Artist'), in 
which the development of my infernal passion is to be portrayed; I 
have it all in my head, but I cannot write anything. Let us wait." 

Scandal had not spared Miss Smithson, but the "f rightful truths" 
about her were sheer calumnies. Berlioz made her tardy reparation 
in the extraordinary letter written to Ferrand, October 11, 1833, shortly 
after his marriage. He too had been slandered: her friends had told 
her that he was an epileptic, that he was mad. As soon as he heard 
the slanders, he raged, he disappeared for two days, wandered over 
lonely plains outside Paris, and at last slept, worn out with hunger 
and fatigue, in a field near Sceaux. His friends had searched Paris for 
him, even the morgue. After his return he was obstinately silent for 
several days. 

Hence his longing for public vengeance on the play-actress. After 
a poorly attended rehearsal the managers abandoned the project, and 
Berlioz was left with his 2,300 pages of copied music. 

At last Berlioz, determined to give a grand concert at which his 
cantata "Sardanapale," which took the prix de Rome, and the "Fan- 
tastic Symphony" would be performed. Furthermore; Miss Smith- 
son was then in Paris. The concert was announced for November 
14, 1830, but it was postponed till December 5 of that year. 

After Berlioz returned from Italy, he purposed to give a concert. 
He learned accidentally that Miss Smithson was still in Paris; but 
she had no thought of her old adorer; after professional disappoint- 
ments in London, due perhaps to her Irish accent, she returned to 
Paris in the hope of establishing an English theatre. The public 
in Paris knew her no more; she was poor and at her wit's ends. In- 
vited to go to a concert, she took a carriage, and then, looking over 
the programme, she read the argument of the "Fantastic Symphony," 
which with "Lelio," its supplement, was performed on December 9, 
1832. Fortunately, Berlioz had revised the programme and omitted 
the coarse insult in the programme of the "Sabbat"; but, as soon as 
she was seen in the hall of the Conservatory, some who knew Berlioz's 
original purpose chuckled, and spread malicious information. Miss 
Smithson, moved by the thought that her adorer, as the hero of the 
symphony, tried to poison himself for her, accepted the symphony as 
a flattering tribute. 

Musician and play-actress met, and after mutual distrust and re- 
crimination there was mutual love. She was poor and in debt; on 



¥C? €? 



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TELEPHONE PLAZA 621 



luncheon 
Dinner 
Afternoon Tea 



March 16, 1833, she broke her leg, and her stage career was over. 
Berlioz pressed her to marry him; both families objected; there were 
violent scenes; Berlioz tried to poison himself before her eyes; Miss 
Smithson at last gave way, and the marriage was celebrated on October 
3, 1833. It was an unhappy one. 

After some years of acute physical as well mental suffering, the once 
famous play-actress died, March 3, 1854. Berlioz put two wreaths on 
her grave, one for him and one for their absent son, the sailor. And 
Jules Janin sang their requiem in a memorable feuilleton. 

Berlioz married Marie Recio early in October, 1854. He told his 
son Louis and wrote to his friends that he owed this to her. 






The ' 'Fantastic Symphony," then, was first performed on December 
5, 1830. Berlioz was almost twenty-seven years old. Beethoven had 
not been dead four years; Schubert had been buried a little over two 
years; Schumann had just obtained his mother's permission to study 
music; Verdi was a poor, unknown student at Busseto; Cesar Franck 
was eight years old; Wagner was studying at Leipsic with the cantor 
of the Thomasschule; Brahms and Tchaikovsky were unborn. 

The first performance of the work in America was at a concert of 
the Philharmonic Society of New York, Carl Bergmann conductor, 
January 27, 1866. 



Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis for Double-Stringed 
Orchestra Ralph Vaughan Williams 

(Williams: Born at Down Amprey, on the borders of Gloucestershire and Wilt- 
shire, England, on October 12, 1872; living in London. Tallis: Supposed to have 
been born in the second decade of the sixteenth century in London; died on November 

23, 1585.) 

This Fantasia was written for the Gloucester (Eng.) Festival of 1910 
and first performed in the Gloucester Cathedral. The first performance 
in the United States was at a concert of the Symphony Society of 
New York, Walter Damrosch conductor, on March 9, 1922. The 
Fantasia was published in 1921. 

The score contains this note: 

"The second orchestra: two first violin players, two second violin 
players, two viola players, two violoncello players and one contrabass 
player — these should be taken from the third, deck of each group (or 
in the case of the contrabass by the first player of the second deck) 
and should if possible be placed apart from the first orchestra. If this 
is not practicable, they should play sitting in their normal places. The 
solo parts are to be played by the leader in each group." 

Thomas Tallis, called "The father of English cathedral music, " 
organist, retained his position in the Chapel Royal uninterruptedly 
from his appointment in the reign of Henry VIII. until his death in the 
reign of Elizabeth. The long list of his printed compositions and man- 
uscripts not printed Is to be found in Grove's Dictionary (revised 
edition) . 

For the following information we are indebted in great part to the 
Programme Notes of the New York Symphony Society's concert already 
named. 

10 



In 1567 Tallis wrote eight tunes, each in a different mode, for Arch- 
bishop Parker's Metrical Psalter. (The famous tune of Tallis for 
"Veni Creator" is of this period.) The Cantus Firrnus is in the tenor 
part. The explanatory note in the vocal score is worth quoting: 

"The tenor of these partes (sic) be for the people when they will syng 
alone, the other parts (sic) put for greater queers, or to such as will 
syng or play them privately." 

The nature of the eight tunes was thus described: 

The first is meeke; deuout to see. 
The second sad in majesty. 
The third doth rage : and roughly bray th. 
The fourth doth fawne; and flattery playth. 
The fyfth delight : and laugheth the more. 
The sixth bewaileth: it weepeth full sore. 
The seventh tredeth stoute: in froward race. 
The eyghth goeth milde : in modest pace. 

Vaughan Williams chose the third tune for his Fantasia. Modern 
ears will fail to hear the raging and braying; but Tallis thought this 
tune appropriate for the second Psalm: 

Why f umeth in sight : the Gentile spite 
In fury raging stout? 

The ecclesiastical character is preserved in this Fantasia by Williams, 
who retained the old harmonies, in spite of his modern instrumentation. 



"Clouds" and "The White Peacock" . Charles Tomlinson Griffes 
(Born at Elmira, N.Y., on September 17, 1884; died at New York on April 8, 1920.) 

"Clouds," written in 1916, was performed for the first time by the 
Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra, at Philadelphia, on December 19, 
1919. "Bacchanale" (1912) and "Notturno" (1918) by Griffes were 
also then performed for the first time. 

"The White Peacock" (1915) was also played at this concert in 
Philadelphia, but it had been performed in June, 1919, at the Rivoli 
Theatre in New York, with stage setting and action. "The White 
Peacock" was performed in Boston on March 27, 1922, at an entertain- 
ment by the Adolph Bolm Ballet In time at the Shubert Theatre for the 
rebuilding of the Municipal School of Music in Rheims. Enid Brunova 
mimed the Peacock. The orchestra was led by Carlos Salzedo. 







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11 



"Clouds" 

This little piece is scored for piccolo, three flutes, three oboes (one 
interchangeable with English horn), two clarinets, bass clarinet, three 
bassoons, four horns, celesta, tam-tam, two harps, and the usual strings. 

The piece was inspired by the poem "Clouds (Agro Romano)" in 
William Sharp's "Sospiri di Roma" (1891). The poet speaks of the 
clouds suggesting a city "with spires of amber and golden domes, wide 
streets of topaz and amethyst ways: Far o'er the pale blue waste, oft 
purple shadowed, of the Agro Romano." There the winds are soft, 
there rainbows trail up through the sunlight. The mountainous 
glories move superbly and crumble slowly. 

Beautiful, beautiful, 
The City of Cloud, 
In splendor ruinous, 
With golden domes. 
And spires of amber, 
Builded superbly 
In the heights of heaven. 

"The White Peacock" 

This piece has the opus number 7, No. 1. It is scored for two flutes 
(one interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bas- 
soons, two horns, three trumpets, two trombones, kettledrums, tam- 
tam, celesta, two harps, and the usual strings. 

"The White Peacock" was suggested by Sharp's poem of the same 
name in "Sospiri di Roma." A garden is pictured, flooded with sunlight, 
rich in pomegranates, oleanders, magnolia, honey-flowers, cream-white 
poppies, white violets. Here 

Cream-white and soft as the breasts of a girl, 

Moves the White Peacock, as though through the noontide 

A dream of the moonlight were real for a moment. 

Dim on the beautiful fan that he spreadeth, 

Foldeth and spreadeth abroad in the sunlight, 

Dim on the cream-white are blue adumbrations, 

Shadows so pale in their delicate blueness 

That visions they seem as of vanishing violets, 

The fragrant white violets veined with azure, 

Pale, pale as the breath of blue smoke in far woodlands. 

Here, as the breath, as the soul of this beauty, 

White as a cloud through the heats of the noontide 

Moves the White Peacock. 

These pieces were originally for the pianoforte: "Roman Sketches," 
Op. 7. 



"Stenka Razin," Symphonic Poem for Full Orchestra, Op. 13 

Alexander Gxazounov 

(Born at Petrograd, July 29, 1865; now living at Petrograd.) 

"Stenka Razin" was composed at Petrograd in 1885. Dedicated 
"to the memory of Alexander Borodin," it is scored for three flutes (one 
interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, four kettledrums, 
bass drum, cymbals, tam-tam, harp, and strings. The composer con- 
ducted the symphonic poem at a concert of Russian music at the 
Trocadero, Paris, on June 22, 1889, — the year of a World's Exposition 
there. 

12 



"Stenka Razin" is built on three themes: the first is the melan- 
choly song of the barge-men of the Volga; the second theme, short, 
savage, bizarre, typifies the hero who gives his name to the piece; and 
the third, a seductive melody, pictures in tones the captive Persian 
princess. The chant of the barge-men is that which vitalizes the or- 
chestral piece. It is forever appearing, transformed in a thousand ways. 
The river is personified. 

This Razin was a Cossack, who long ago ruled the Volga, led an in- 
surrection, took Astrakan, devastated provinces; at last, a prisoner, he 
was broken on the wheel in the reign of the Tsar Alexis, 1672. 

"The Volga immense and placid! For many years those along its 
banks had dwelt in peace when suddenly appeared the terrible hetman 
Stenka, who at the head of his savage band ran up and down the Volga 
devastating and pillaging the villages and towns along its shores. As 
the folk-song has it : — 

"Forth swiftly swam the light canoe, 
The light canoe of the Ataman, 
Of the Ataman, Stenka Razin. 
The craft was everywhere adorned; 
Seats it had for the Kazaki; 
The sails were wove of silken cloth; 
The sweeps were tipt with solid gold. 
Amid the boat was a brocaded tent, 
And in that brocaded tent there lay 
Great barrels stuft with golden hoards. 
On the treasure sat a beauteous maiden, 
The mistress of the Ataman. . . . 
A Persian princess, taken captive by Stenka Razin. 

"One day she grew pensive, and addressing herself to the comrades 
of her master, she told them of a dream she had once dreamt : — 

" 'Listen to me, ye gallant braves; 

When I was young, my sleep was light; 

My sleep was light, but much I dreamed. 

To me my dream seemed far from good: 
• I dreamed our chief was shot to death; 

The Kdzak oarsmen sat chained in prison; 

And I— 

I was drowned in Mother Volga.' 

"The dream of the Princess came true. Stenka was surrounded by 
the soldiers of the Tsar. Seeing his ruin at hand, Stenka cried out: — 

" ' Never, during all the thirty years of my going up and down Mother 
Volga, have I made her a gift. To-day I shall give her what is in my 
eyes the most precious of earthly treasures.' Saying this, he threw the 
Princess into the Volga. The savage band began to sing the praise of 
their leader, and they all rushed upon the soldiers of the Tsar." 



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FIRST MATINEE 
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, DECEMBER 2 

AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 



Brahms . . . Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 

I. Allegro non troppo. 

II. Andante moderate 

III. Allegro giocoso. 

IV. Allegro energico e passionato. ' 



Honegger .... Horace Victorieux, Symphonie Mim£e 



Strauss ..... Tone Poem, "Thus Spake Zarathustra" 

(freely after Friedrich Nietzsche), Op. 30 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 



15 



Symphony in E minor, Op. 98 Johannes Brahms 

(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.) 

This symphony was first performed at Meiningen, October 25, 
1885, under the direction of the composer. 

Simrock, the publisher, is said to have paid Brahms forty thousand 
marks for the work. It was played at a public rehearsal of the Sym- 
phony Orchestra in Boston, November 26, 1886. Although Mr. 
Gericke "did not stop the orchestra," — to quote from a review of the 
concert the next day, — he was not satisfied with the performance. 
Schumann's Symphony in B-flat was substituted for the concert of 
November 27; there were further rehearsals. The work was played 
for the first time at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on 
December 23, 1886. 

The first performance in the United States was by the Symphony 
Society, New York, December 11, 1886. 

This symphony was composed in the summers of 1884 and 1885 at 
Miirzzuschlag in Styria. The Allegro and Andante were composed 
during the first summer, the Scherzo and Finale during the last. Miss 
Florence May, in her Life of Brahms, tells us that the manuscript 
was nearly destroyed in 1885: "Returning one afternoon from a walk, 
he [Brahms] found that the house in which he lodged had caught fire, 
and that his friends were busily engaged in bringing his papers, and 
amongst them the nearly finished manuscript of the new symphony, 
into the garden. He immediately set to work to help in getting the 
fire under, whilst Frau Fellinger sat out of doors with either arm out- 
spread on the precious papers piled on each side of her." A scene 
for the "historical painter"! We quote the report of this incident, 
not on account of its intrinsic value, but to show in what manner Miss 
May was able to write two volumes, containing six hundred and twenty- 
five octavo pages, about the quiet life of the composer. But what is 
Miss May in comparison with Max Kalbeck, whose Life of Brahms 
contains 2,138 pages? . 

In a letter, Brahms described this symphony as "a couple of 
entr'actes," also as "a choral work without text." Franz Wullner, then 
conductor of the Giirzenich concerts at Cologne, asked that he might 



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produce this new symphony. Brahms answered that first performances 
and the wholly modern chase after novelties did not interest him. He 
was vexed because Wiillner had performed a symphony by Bruckner; 
he acted in a childish manner. Wiillner answered that he thought it 
his duty to produce new works; that a symphony by Bruckner was 
certainly more interesting than one by Gernsheim, Cowen, or 
Scharwenka. 

Brahms was doubtful about the value of his fourth symphony. He 
wished to know the opinion of Elisabet von Herzogenberg and Clara 
Schumann. He and Ignaz Brull played a pianoforte arrangement in 
the presence of Hanslick, Dr. Billroth, Hans Bichter, C. F. Pohl, Gustav 
Dompke, and Max Kalbeck. He judged from their attitude that they 
did not like it, and he was much depressed. "If persons like Billroth, 
Hanslick, and you do not like my music, whom will it please?" he said 
to Kalbeck. 

There was a preliminary rehearsal at Meiningen in October, 1885, 
for correction of the parts.* Billow conducted it. There were pres- 
ent the Landgraf of Hesse, Richard Strauss, then second conductor 
of the Meiningen orchestra, and Frederick Lamond, the .pianist. 
Brahms arrived in time for the first performance. The symphony 
was most warmly applauded, and the audience endeavored, but in 
vain, to obtain a repetition of the third movement. The work was 
repeated November 1 under Billow's direction, and was conducted 
by the composer in the course of a three weeks' tour with the orchestra 

*Brahms wished that Elisabet could be present at this rehearsal: "You would be able to listen to 
the first movement with the utmost serenity, I am sure. But I hate to think of doing it, anywhere else, 
where I could not have these informal, special rehearsals, but hurried ones instead, with the performance 
forced on me before the orchestra had a notion of the piece." 



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and Billow in Germany and in Netherlands. The first performance 
in Vienna was at a Philharmonic concert, led by Bichter, January 17, 
1886. "Though the symphony was applauded by, the public and 
praised by all but the inveterately hostile section of the press, it did 
not reach the hearts of the Vienna audience in the same unmistakable 
manner as its two immediate predecessors, both of which had made a 
more striking impression on a first hearing in Austria than the first 
symphony in C minor. Strangely enough, the fourth symphony at 
once obtained some measure of real appreciation in Leipsic, where the 
first had been far more successful than the second and third." This 
statement is too friendly towards Brahms. As a matter of fact, the 
symphony disappointed Brahms's friends. Hugo Wolf wrote a bitter 
review in which he made all manner of fun at the fact, trumpeted by 
Brahms's admirers, that at last there was a symphony in E minor. 
(See "Hugo Wolf's Musikalische Kritiken," Leipsic, 1911, pp. 241-244.) 
It was performed under the composer's direction at the Gewandhaus 
concert in Leipsic of February 18, 1886. 

This symphony was performed at a Philharmonic concert in Vienna 
on March 7, 1897, the last Philharmonic concert heard by Brahms. 
We quote from Miss May's biography: "The fourth symphony had 
never become a favorite work in Vienna. Received with reserve 
on its first performance, it had not since gained much more from the 
general public of the city than the respect sure to be accorded there 
to an important work by Brahms. To-day [sic], however, a storm of 
applause broke out at the end of the first movement, not to be quieted 
until the composer, coming to the front of the artist's box in which he 
was seated, snowed himself to the audience. The demonstration was 
renewed after the second and the third movements, and an extraordinary 
scene followed the conclusion of the work. The applauding, shouting 
house, its gaze riveted on the figure standing in the balcony, so familiar 
and yet in present aspect so strange, seemed unable to let him go. Tears 
ran down his cheeks as he stood there, shrunken in form, with lined 
countenance, strained expression, white hair hanging lank; and through 
the audience there was a feeling as of a stifled sob, for each knew that 
they were saying farewell. Another outburst of applause and yet an_ 



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other; one more acknowledgment from the master; and Brahms and 
his Vienna had parted forever."* 

In the summers of 1884 and 1885 the tragedies of Sophocles, trans- 
lated into German by Gustav Wendt, were read diligently by Brahms. 
It is thought that they influenced him in the composition of this sym- 
phony. Mr. Kalbeck thinks that the whole symphony pictures the 
traged^y of human life. He sees in the Andante a waste and ruined 
field, as the Campagna near Rome; he notes the appearance of a passage 
from Brahms's song "Auf dem Kirchhofe" with the words "Ich war an 
manch vergess'nem Grab gewesen"; to him the Scherzo is the Carnival 
at Milan. While Speidel saw in the Finale the burial of a soldier, Kal- 
beck is reminded by the music of the passage in Sophocles's "(Edipus 
Coloneus": "Not to have been born at all is superior to every view of 
the question; and this when one may have seen the light, to return 
thence whence he came as quickly as possible, is far the next best." 

The symphony was published in 1886. It is scored for two flutes 
(one interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, one double-bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, three trom- 
bones, a set of three kettledrums, triangle, and strings. 



* 



Brahms warned Bulow against the acerbity of this symphony. "I 
have often, while writing, had a pleasing vision of rehearsing it with 
you in a nice leisurely way — a vision that I still have, although I wonder 
if it will ever have any other audience ! I rather fear it has been in- 
fluenced by this climate, where the cherries never ripen. You would 
never touch them." 

The tonality of this symphony has occasioned remark. Dr. Hugo 
Biemann suggests that Brahms chose the key of E minor, on account 
of its pale, wan character, to express the deepest melancholy. "E 
minor is the tonality of the fall of the year : it reminds one of the perish- 
ableness of all green and blooming things, which the two sister tonali- 
ties, G major and E major, are capable of expressing so truthfully to 
life." Composers of symphonies have, as a rule, avoided E minor as 

*Brahms attended the production of Johann Strauss's operetta, "Die Gottin der Vernunft," March 
13, but was obliged to leave after the second act, and he attended a rehearsal of the Raeger-Soldat 
Quartet less than a fortnight before his death. — Ed. 





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19 



the chief tonality. There is a symphony by Haydn, the "Trauer- 
symphonie" (composed in 1772), and, in marked contrast with Rie- 
mann's view, Raff's ninth symphony, "In Summer" (composed in 1878), 
is in E minor. One of Bach's greatest organ preludes and fugues, Beet- 
hoven's Sonata, Op. 90, and one of the quartets of his p. 59 are in this 
tonality, which has been described as dull in color, shadowy, suggestive 
of solitude and desolation. Huber's "Bocklin" symphony is in E minor; 
so is Rachmaninoff's Second Symphony. Chopin's Concerto in E 
minor for piano is surely not a long, desolate waste. Riemann reminds 
us that there are hints in this symphony of music by Handel — "Brahms's 
favorite composer" — not only in the tonality, but in moments of detail, 
as in the aria, "Behold and see," from "The Messiah," the structure 
of which contains as in a nutshell the substance of the first movement ; 
also the dotted rhythm of the violoncellos in the aria, "I know that 
my Redeemer liveth," which, as will be remembered, is in E major. 
Heinrich Reimann does not discuss this question of tonality in 
his short description of the symphony. "It begins as in ballad fashion. 
Blaring fanfares of horns and cries of pain interrupt the narration, 
which passes into an earnest and ardent melody (B major, violon- 
cellos). The themes, especially those in fanfare fashion, change form 
and color. 'The formal appearance, now powerful, prayerful, now 
caressing, tender, mocking, homely, now far away, now near, now hur- 
ried, now quietly expanding, ever surprises us, is ever welcome: it 
brings joy and gives dramatic impetus to the movement.'* A theme 
of the second movement constantly returns in varied form, from which 
the chief theme, the staccato figure given to the wind, and the melodious 
song of the violoncellos are derived. The third movement, Allegro 
giocoso, sports with old-fashioned harmonies, which should not be taken 
too seriously. This is not the case with Finale, an artfully contrived 
Ciacona of antique form, but of modern contents. The first eight 
measures give the 'title-page' of the Ciacona. The measures that fol- 
low are variations of the leading theme; wind instruments prevail in the 
first three, then the strings enter; the movement grows livelier, clari- 
nets and oboes lead to E major; and now comes the solemn climax of 
this movement, the trombone passage. The old theme enters again 
after the fermata, and rises to full force, which finds expression in a 
Piu allegro for the close." 



"Horace Victorieux," Mimed Symphony . . Arthur Honegger 
(Born at Havre, France, on March 10, 1892; living at Paris.)' 

"Horatius, Victor" was composed at Paris, December, 1920-February, 
1921. It was performed for the first time at Geneva, Switzerland, on 
November 2, 1921, by the Orchestre Romand, conducted by Ernest 
Ansermet. After a performance at Lausanne, the piece was played 
at Koussevitsky's concert at the Paris Opera House on November 14, 
1921; in London at Ursula Greville's concert on December 16, 1921, 
when the orchestra was led by Mr. Ansermet. 

The score calls for three flutes (one interchangeable with piccolo), 
two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, 
double-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 

♦Dr. Reimann here quotes from Hermann Kretzschmar's "Fiihrer durch den Concertsaal." — Ed. 

20 





PIERRE MONTEUX 



WILHELM GERICKE 



The Boston Symphony 
Orchestra 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 

WILL GIVE A CONCERT 
IN SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

TUESDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 5 

FOR THE BENEFIT OF ITS 
FORMER CONDUCTOR 

WILHELM GERICKE 



^Uhe trustees of the Boston Symphony Orchestra will be pleased 
to receive contributions from Boston Symphony subscribers, these gifts 
to be added to the receipts from this concert for Mr. Qericke's benefit. 

Please make cheques payable to Wilhelm Gericke Concert and mail to 
Symphony Hall, Boston. 



21 



kettledrums, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, tam-tam, rattle, harp, 
and strings. 

The piece was written as a ballet for the stage, with scenery and cos- 
tumes designed by the late G. P. Fauconnet. The story is the old legend 
of the three Horatii and the three Curiatii, who were chosen to decide 
the strife between the Romans and the Albans. We quote from an 
anonymous and curious translation of Livy published at London in 
1686:— 

"The Signal was given, and the three youns; men on each side fell fiercely to it, 
with a courage and fury of two great Armies nor were they concerned, either one or 
t'other for their own particular danger, but publick Empire and slavery possessed 
their minds. . . . Soon after when they came to grappling, and shewed not only 
agility of body and their dexterity in handling; their Arms, but bloud and wounds, 
two of the Romans fell down dead one over the other, having wounded the three 
Albans, at whose fall, the Alban Army gave a great shout for joy; which made the 
Roman legions despair, and yet they were extremely concerned for that one single 
Person, who was encompassed by the three Curiatii. ... To divide the Combat 
he pretended to fly. . . . Looking back, he saw them pursue him a good way 
behind, but one of them not far from him - and therefore he returned and set upon 
him very severely." Horatius disposed in like manner of the second. "The double 
victory which he had gained made him fit and eager to engage in a third encounter. 
While the Alban who was tired with his wounds had run so far, that he could hardly 
crawl, and was in a manner conquered by seeing his Brethren slain before him was ex- 
posed to a victorious Enemy; nor was that Duel any difficulty at all to him. Wherefore 
the Roman exulting cryed out, 'I have sent two of these Brethren to Hell, already ; and 
will now send the third who is the cause of this war, that the Romans may bear 
Rule over the Albans.' With that the Alban being scarce able to support his arms, 
he ran him into the Throat, and rifled him when he was down." 

Horatius in triumph was met near the gate called Porta Capena by a Virgin his 
sister who was betrothed to one of the Curiatii; she throwing her Lovers robe upon 
her Brothers shoulders, when she herself had wrought, she let loose her hair, and in a 
mournful tone, called out upon the name of her dead Sweet-Heart. The moan which 
his Sister made much moved the generous Youth, even amidst his Victories, and all 
that publick joy. He therefore drew his Sword, and chiding her, ran the Maid 
through: "Get you gone (said he) with your untimely amour to your Lover; you, 
that have forgot your Brothers that are dead, nor care for him that is alive, but with 
him and them neglect your Country too; and so may every Maid be served that is 
a Roman, and weeps for the death of an Enemy." That seemed a cruel act, both to 
the Senate and the People, but his fresh desert did somewhat lessen the fact. 

Horatius was condemned to death, but his father declared that she 
was justly slain; he showed the spoils of the Curiatii and appealed to 
the people. So Horatius was spared, after there were propitiatory 
sacrifices, and he had passed under a gallows, "as Soldiers do when they 
are sold for Slaves." 

Honegger's composition is divided into these connected episodes 
corresponding to the action: — 

(1) Camilla and Curiatius. (2) Entrance of the Horatii. (3) En- 
trance of the crowd preceding the heralds. (4) Announcement and 
preparations for the combat. (5) The combat. (6) Triumph of 
Horatius. (7) The lamentation and imprecations of Camilla. (8) The 

murder of Camilla. * 

* * 

Honegger, born of Swiss parents, first studied music at Zurich. Going 

to Paris, he studied the violin with Capet. At the Paris Conservatory 

be studied composition with Gedalge and Widor; orchestration with 

d'Indy. He became one of "the Six," having for co-mates, Georges 

Auric, Louis Durey (who is now an outsider), Darius Milhaud, Francis 

Poulenc and Germaine Tailleferre. It has been said of the Six: "They 

have no set principles to which all of them subscribe save that which 

22 



CARNEGIE HALL 



SEASON 1922-1923 



Thursday Evening, January 4, 1923, at 8.15 

Saturday Afternoon, January 6, 1923, at 2.30 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



NOTE: The Programmes of the Evening and the Afternoon Concerts 

are entirely different. 



23 



permits each of them to seek salvation in his or her own way. One 
might say that they have accepted the constitution of a certain kingdom 
invented by Pierre Louys, whose code of laws contained only two 
statutes: (1) Do your neighbor no injury; (2) that being thoroughly 
understood, do whatever you please. . . . They do not undertake to 
disregard all the established rules and conventions of musical composi- 
tion, but each of them follows his own inclination in accepting or reject- 
ing them." Milhaud says that Honegger is the offspring of German 
romanticism. While others in Gedalge's class were interested in "Pelleas 
and Melisande" and "Boris Godunov," Honegger studied the works of 
Strauss, Reger, Schonberg, while among the French composers he was 
drawn towards Florent Schmitt. " Honegger is perhaps one of the last 
musicians to have felt the spell of Wagner and to have profitably 
assimilated it." „* 

Among Honegger' s works are these : — 

"Le dit des jeux du monde," masque; music for double string quartet, double- 
bass, flute, trumpet, percussion (Theatre du Vieux Colombier, Paris, December, 
1918). First performance of five numbers in concert on January 6, 1921, Golschmann 
concert. 

Music for Max Jacob's "La Mort de St. Almeine," two acts (1919). 

Reported in April, 1922, at work on incidental music for Andre Gide's "Saul," 
by Rene Morax. Incidental music. 

"Le Roi David," Theatre du Jorat at Mezieres, Switzerland, 1921 (wood-wind, 
brass, pianoforte, harmonium, and double-bass). Fragments sung by Mme. Scheri- 
dan at an S. M. I. concert, Paris, June 2, 1921. 

Prelude to "Aglavaine et Selysette," 1917 (Golschmann concert, Paris, June, 1920). 

Chant de Nigamon, 1917 (Pasdeloup concert, Paris, January 3, 1920). 

Pastorale d'ete. It won the Verley prize of 1,500 francs, by a vote over three 
competitors, at Paris, on February 17, 1921. 

Sonata, violin and pianoforte, No. 1, 1916 ( Honegger- Ygouw concert in Paris, 
April 26, 1922). 

Sonata, violin and pianoforte, No. 2, 1919 (concert of the National Society, Paris, 
February 28, 1920). 

Sonata for viola and pianoforte, 1920 (S. M. I. concert, Paris, December 2, 1920). 

Sonata for violoncello and pianoforte (National Society concert, Paris, April 23, 
1921). 

Sonata for two violins. 

String quartet (1917). 

Rhapsody for two flutes, clarinet, pianoforte. 

Pianoforte pieces: Hommage a Ravel (Paris, May 10, 1921), at Leo-Pol Morin's 
concert; Seven Short Pieces. 

Songs: Four Poems; Six Songs from Guillaume Apollinaire's "Alcools"; Three 
Poems by Jean Cocteau; Souvenirs d'enfance; melodies (text by Laforgue, Dammes, 
Paul Fort), sung at Paris on April 26, 1922). 

Songs with text by Candrars and Everiste. 

On April 2, 1921, Honegger conducted at a concert of L'GEuvre Inedite, 
Paris. 

Eva Gauthier sang Honegger's "Cloches" in Boston on January 6, 
1922. 



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24 



Tone Poem, "Thus spake Zarathustra" (freely after Friedr. 

Nietzsche), Op. 30 Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living.) 

The full title of this composition is "Also sprach Zarathustra, Ton- 
dichtung (frei nach Friedr. Nietzsche) fur grosses Orchester." Com- 
position was begun at Munich, February 4, 1896, and completed there 
August 24, 1896. The first performance was at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, November 27 of the same year. The composer conducted, and 
also at Cologne, December 1. 

Nietzsche's Zarathustra is by no means the historical or legendary 
Zoroaster, mage, leader, warrior, king. The Zarathustra of Nietzsche 
is Nietzsche himself, with his views on life and death. Strauss's opera 
"Guntram" (1894) showed the composer's interest in the book. Before 
the tone-poem was performed, this programme was published: "First 
movement: Sunrise. Man feels the power of God. Andante religioso. 
But man still longs. He plunges into passion (second movement) and 
finds no peace. He turns towards science, and tries in vain to" solve 
life's problem in a fugue (third movement). Then agreeable dance tunes 
sound and he becomes an individual, and his soul soars upward while 
the world sinks far beneath him." But Strauss gave this explanation 
to Otto Florsheim: "I did not intend to write philosophical music 
or to portray in music Nietzsche's great work. I meant to convey by 
means of music an idea of the development of the human race from its 
origin, through the various phases of its development, religious and 
scientific, up to Nietzsche's idea of the Superman. The whole sym- 
phonic poem is intended as my homage to Nietzsche's genius, which 
found its greatest exemplification in his book, 'Thus spake Zarathustra.' " 

* * 

"Thus spake Zarathustra" is scored for piccolo, three flutes (one 
interchangeable with a second piccolo), three oboes, English horn, two 
clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-nat, bass clarinet, three bassoons, double- 
bassoon, six horns, four trumpets, three trombones, two bass tubas, 
kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, Glockenspiel, a low bell in 
E, two harps, organ, sixteen first violins, sixteen second violins, twelve 
violas, twelve violoncellos, eight double-basses. 

Zarathustra stepped down from the mountains. After strange talk 
with an old hermit he arrived at a town where many were gathered 
in the market-place, for a rope dancer had promised a performance. 

And Zarathustra thus spake unto "the folk: l I teach you beyond man* Man is 
a something that shall be surpassed. 

. . . " 'What with man is the ape? A joke or a sore shame. Man shall be the 
same for beyond-man, a joke or a sore shame. Ye have made your way from worm 
to man and much within you is still worm. Once ye were apes, even now man is ape 
in a higher degree than any ape. He who is the wisest among you is but a discord 
and hybrid of plant and ghost. . . . Beyond-man is the significance of earth. ... I 
conjure you, my brethren, remain faithful to earth and do not believe those who speak 
unto you of superterrestrial hopes! . . . Once soul looked contemptuously upon 
body; that contempt then being the highest ideal, soul wished the body meagre, 
hideous, starved. Thus soul thought it could escape body and earth. Oh! that 
soul was itself meagre, hideous, starved; cruelty was the lust of that soul! But ye 
also, my brethren, speak; what telleth your body of your soul? Is your soul not 
poverty and dirt and a miserable ease? Verily a muddy sea is man. One must be 

♦"Overman," or, as George Bernard Shaw prefers, "Superman." Muret and Sanders define the 
word "Uebermensch": "Demigod, superhuman being, man without a model and without a shadow; 
godlike man." — P. H. 

25 



a sea to be able to receive a muddy stream without becoming unclean. Behold I 
teach you beyond-man; he is that sea, in him your great contempt can sink. . . . 
Man is a rope connecting animal and beyond-man — a rope over a 'precipice. Dan- 
gerous over, dangerous on-the-way, dangerous looking backward, dangerous shiver- 
ing and making a stand. What is great in man is that he is a bridge and not a goal; 
what can be loved in man is that he is a transition and a downfall. ... It is time 
for man to mark out his goal. It is time for man to plant the germ of his highest 
hope. His soul is still rich enough for that purpose. But one day that soil will 
be impoverished and tame, no high tree being any longer able to grow from it.' " 






There is a simple but impressive introduction, in which there is a 
solemn trumpet motive, which leads to a great climax for full orchestra 
and organ on the chord of C major. There is this heading, "Von den 
Hinterweltlern" (Of the Dwellers in the Rear World). These are 
they who sought the solution in religion. Zarathustra, too, had once 
dwelt in this rear-world. (Horns intone a solemn Gregorian "Credo.") 

"Then the world seemed to me the work of a suffering and tortured God. A 
dream then the world appeared to me, and a God's fiction; colored smoke before 
the eyes of a godlike discontented one. . . . Alas! brethren, that God whom I created 
was man's work and man's madness, like all Gods. Man he was, and but a poor 
piece of man and the I. From mine own ashes and flame it came unto me, that 
ghost, aye verily! It did not come unto me from beyond! What happened, breth- 
ren? I overcame myself, the sufferer, and carrying mine own ashes unto the moun- 
tains invented for myself a brighter flame. And lo! the ghost departed from me." 

The next heading is "Von der grossen Sehnsucht" (Of the Great 
Yearning) . This stands over an ascending passage in B minor in violon- 
cellos and bassoons, answered by wood- wind instruments in chromatic 
thirds. The reference is to the following passage: — 

. . . "O my soul, I understand the smile of thy melancholy. Thine over-great 
riches themselves now stretch out longing hands! . . . And, verily, O my soul! who 
could see thy smile and not melt into tears? Angels themselves melt into tears, 
because of the over-kindness of thy smile. Thy kindness and over-kindness wanteth 
not to complain and cry! And yet, O my soul, thy smile longeth for tears, and thy 
trembling mouth longeth to sob. . . . Thou liketh better to smile than to pour out 
thy sorrow. . . . But if thou wilt not cry, nor give forth in tears thy purple melan- 
choly, thou wilt have to sing, O my soul! Behold, I myself smile who foretell such 
things unto thee. . . . O my soul, now I have given thee all, and even my last, and 
all my hands have been emptied by giving unto thee ! My bidding thee sing, lo, that 
was the last thing I had!" 

The next section begins with a pathetic cantilena in C minor (second 
violins, oboes, horn), and the heading is: "Von den Freud en tjnd 
Leidenschaften" (Of Joys and Passions). 

"Once having passions thou calledst them evil. Now, however, thou hast nothing 
but thy virtues : they grew out of thy passions. Thou laidest thy highest goal upon 
these passions : then they became thy virtues and delights. . . . My brother, if thou 
hast good luck, thou hast one virtue and no more; thus thou walkest more easily 
over the bridge. It is a distinction to have many virtues, but a hard lot;, and many 
having gone to the desert killed themselves, because they were tired of being the 
battle and battlefield of virtues." 

"Grablied" (Grave Song). The oboe has a tender cantilena over 
the Yearning motive in violoncellos and bassoons. 

" 'Yonder is the island of graves, the silent. Yonder also are the graves of my 
youth. Thither will I carry an evergreen wreath of life.' Resolving this in my heart 
I went over the sea. Oh, ye, ye visions and apparitions of my youth! Oh, all ye 
glances of love, ye divine moments! How could ye die so quickly for me! This 
day I think of you as my dead ones. From your direction, my dearest dead ones, 
a sweet odour cometh unto me, an odour setting free heart and tears. . . . Still I 
am the richest, and he who is to be envied most — I, the loneliest! For I have had 
you, and ye have me still." . . . 

26 



"Von der Wissenschaft" (Of Science). The fugued passage begins 
with violoncellos and double-basses (divided). The subject of this fugato 
contains all the diatonic and chromatic degrees of the scale, and the 
real responses to this subject come in successively a fifth higher. 

"Thus sang the wizard. And all who were there assembled, fell unawares like 
birds into the net of his cunning. . . . Only the conscientious one of the spirit had 
not been caught. He quickly took the harp from the wizard, crying: 'Air! Let 
good air come in! Let Zarathustra come in! Thou makest this cave sultry and 
poisonous, thou bad old wizard! Thou seducest, thou false one, thou refined one, 
unto unknown desires and wilderness. . . . Alas, for all free spirits who are not on 
their guard against such wizards ! Gone is their freedom. Thou teachest and thereby 
allurest back into prisons! We seem to be very different. And, verily, we spake 
and thought enough together ... to enable me to know we are different. We seek 
different things ... ye and I. For I seek more security. . . . But, when I see the 
eyes ye make, methinketh almost ye seek more insecurity.' "... 

Much farther on a passage in the strings, beginning in the violoncellos 
and violas, arises from B minor. "Der Genesende" (The Convalescent) : 

"Zarathustra jumped up from his couch like a madman. He cried with a terrible 
voice, and behaved as if some one else was lying on the couch and would not get up 
from it. And so sounded Zarathustra's voice that his animals ran unto him in terror, 
and that from all caves and hiding places which were nigh unto Zarathustra's cave 
all animals hurried away ... he fell down like one dead, and remained long like 
one dead. At last, after seven days, Zarathustra rose on his couch, took a rose apple 
in his hand, smelt it, and found its odour sweet. Then his animals thought the time 
had come for speaking unto him. . . . 'Speak not further, thou convalescent one! 
. . . but go out where the world waiteth for thee like a garden. Go out unto the 
roses and bees and flocks of doves ! But especially unto the singing birds, that thou 
mayest learn singing from them. For singing is good for the convalescent; the 
healthy one may speak. And when the healthy one wanteth songs also, he wanteth 
other songs than the convalescent one. . . . For thy new songs, new lyres are req- 
uisite. Sing and foam over, O Zarathustra, heal thy soul with new songs, that thou 
mayest carry thy great fate that hath not yet been any man's fate !' . . . Zarathustra 
. . . lay still with his eyes closed, like one asleep, although he did not sleep. For he 
was communing with his soul." 

Tanzlied. The dance song begins with laughter in the wood-wind. 

"One night Zarathustra went through the forest with his disciples, and when 
seeking for a well, behold! he came unto a green meadow which was surrounded by 
trees and bushes. There girls danced together. As soon as the girls knew Zarathus- 
tra, they ceased to dance; but Zarathustra approached them with a friendly gesture 
and spake these words: 'Cease not to dance, ye sweet girls! ... I am the advocate 
of God in the presence of the devil. But he is the spirit of gravity. How could I, 



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27 



ye light ones, be an enemy unto divine dances? or unto the feet of girls with beautiful 
ankles? . . . He who is not afraid of my darkness findeth banks full of roses under 
my cypresses. . . . And I think he will also find the tiny God whom girls like best. 
Beside the well he lieth, still with his eyes shut. Verily, in broad daylight he fell 
asleep, the sluggard! Did he perhaps try to catch too many butterflies? Be not 
angry with me, ye beautiful dancers, if I chastise a little the tiny God! True, he will 
probably cry and weep; but even when weeping he causeth laughter! And with 
tears in his eyes shall he ask you for a dance; and I myself shall sing a song unto his 
dance.' " 

"Nachtlied" ("Night Song"). 

"Night it is: now talk louder all springing wells. 
And my soul also is a springing well. 

Night it is : now only awake all songs of the loving. 
And my soul also is a song of one loving. 

Something never stilled, never to be stilled, is within me 

Which longs to sing aloud; 

A longing for love is within me, 

Which itself speaks the language of love. 

Night it is." 

"Nachtwanderlied" ("The Song of the Night Wanderer," though 
Nietzsche in later editions changed the title to "The Drunken Song"). 
The song comes after a fortissimo stroke of the bell, and the bell, sound- 
ing twelve times, dies away softly. 

"Sing now yourselves the song whose name is 
'Once more,' whose sense is Tor all Eternity!' 
Sing, ye higher men, Zarathustra's roundelay! 
ONE! 

O man, take heed! 
TWO! 

What saith the deep midnight? 
THREE! 

'I have slept, I have slept! — 
FOUR! 

From deep dream I woke to light. 
FIVE! 

The world is deep. 
SIX! 

And deeper than the day thought for. 

SEVEN! 

Deep is its woe, — 
EIGHT! 

And deeper still than woe — delight.' 

NINE! 

Saith woe: 'Vanish!' 
TEN! 

Yet all joy wants eternity. 
ELEVEN! 

Wants deep, deep eternity!" 
TWELVE! 

The mystical conclusion has excited much discussion. The ending is 
in two keys, — in B major in the high wood-wind and violins, in C major 
in the basses, pizzicati. "The theme of the Ideal sways aloft in the 
higher regions in B major; the trombones insist on the unresolved 
chord of C, E, F-sharp; and in the double-basses is repeated, C, G, C, 
the World Riddle." This riddle is unsolved by Nietzsche, by Strauss, 
and even by Strauss's commentators. 

28 



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PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 4, at 8.15 

AND THE 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 6, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 
PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



1 



SECOND CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 4 



AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Mozart . . . Symphony in E-flat major (Koechel No. 543) 

I. Adagio; Allegro. 

II. Andante. 

III. Minuetto; Trio. 

IV. Finale: Allegro. 



Bax 



"November Woods" for Orchestra 



Strauss . . "Don Quixote" (Introduction, Theme with Variations 

and Finale) : Fantastic Variations on a Theme of 
Knightly Character, Op. 35 

(Violoncello solo, Jean Bedetti, Viola solo, Georges Fourel) 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Bax's "November Woods" 

5 



A~^, ii A~is. 






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Symphony in E-flat major (K. 543). 

Wolfgang Amadous Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.) 

Mozart wrote his three greatest symphonies in 1788. The one in 
E-flat is dated June 2G, the one in G minor July 25, the one in C major 
with the fugue-finale August 10. 

We know little or nothing concerning the first years of the three 
symphonies. Gerber's "Lexicon der Tonkiinstler" (1790) speaks 
appreciatively of him : the erroneous statement is made that the 
Emperor fixed his salary in 1788 at six thousand florins ; the varied 
ariettas for piano are praised especially; but there is no mention 
whatever of any symphony. 

The enlarged edition of Gerber's work (1813) contains an extended 
notice of Mozart's last years. It is stated in the summing up of his 
career : "If one knew only one of his noble symphonies, as the over- 
poweringly great, fiery, perfect, pathetic, sublime symphony in C." 
This reference is undoubtedly to the "Jupiter," the one in C major. 

Mozart gave a concert at Leipsic in May, 1789. The programme 
was made up wholly of pieces by him. Among them were two 
symphonies in manuscript. A story that has come down might 
easily lead us to believe that one of them was the one in G minor. 
At a rehearsal for this concert Mozart took the first allegro of a 
symphony at a very fast pace, so that the orchestra soon was unable 
to keep up with him. He stopped the players, began again at the 
same speed, stamped the time so furiously that his steel shoe-buckle 
flew into pieces. He laughed, and, as the players still dragged, he 
began the allegro a third time. The musicians, by this time exas- 
perated, played to suit him. Mozart afterwards said to some who 
wondered at his conduct, because he had on other occasions pro- 
tested against undue speed: "It was not caprice on my part. I 
saw that the majority of the players were well along in years. 
They would have dragged everything beyond endurance if I had 
not set fire to them and made them angry, so that out of sheer spite 
they did their best." Later in the rehearsal he praised the orches- 
tra, and said that it was unnecessary for it to rehearse the accom- 
paniment to the pianoforte concerto: "The parts are correct, you 
play well, and so do I." This concert, by the way, was poorly 
attended, and half of those who were present had received free 
tickets from Mozart, who was generous in such matters. He also 
gave a concert of his own words at Frankfort, October 14, 1790. 
Symphonies were played in Vienna in 1788, but they were by Haydn ; 
and one by Mozart was played in 1791. In 1792 a symphony by 
Mozart was played at Hamburg. 

The early programmes, even when they have been preserved, sel- 
dom determine the date of a first performance. It was the custom 
to print : "Symphonie von Wranitsky," "Sinfonie von Mozart," "Sin- 
fonia di Haydn." Furthermore, it must be remembered that "Sin- 
fonie" was then a term often applied to any work in three or more 
movements written for strings, or strings and wind instruments. 

The two symphonies played at Leipsic were not then published. 
The two that preceded the great three were composed in 1783 and 



1786. The latter of the two (in D major) was performed at Prague 
with extraordinary success. 

The symphony in E-flat induced A. Apel to attempt a translation 
of the music into poetry that should express the character of each 
movement. It excited the fantastical E. T. A. Hoffmann to an 
extraordinary rhapsody: "Love and melancholy are breathed forth 
in purest spirit tones; we feel ourselves drawn with inexpressible 
longing toward the forms which beckon us to join them in their 
flight through the clouds to another sphere. The night blots out the 
last purple rays of day, and we extend our arms to the beings who 
summon us as they move with the spheres in the eternal circles of 
the solemn dance." So exclaimed Johannes Kreisler in the "Phan- 
tasiestiicke in Callots Manier." 

The symphony is scored for flute, two clarinets, two bassoons, two 
horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings. The autograph score is 
in the Royal Library in Berlin. 

The Minuetto appears in the ballet music introduced in perform- 
ances of "Le Nozze di Figaro" at Paris. 



* 'November Woods": Symphonic Poem Arnold Bax 

(Born at London, November 8, 1883; now living in London.) 

"November Woods," composed in 1917, was performed for the first 
time at a concert of the Halle Orchestra, Manchester, England, No- 
vember 18, 1920. 

The first performance in the United States was at Chicago by trie 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra on November 3, 1922. 

No "programme" is given to the work other than the title. The 
score calls for piccolo, three flutes, two oboes, English horn, three clari- 
nets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, three 
trumpets, three trombones and tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, 
Glockenspiel, celesta, two harps, and the usual strings. 

A reviewer of the performance at Manchester, writing to the Musical 
Times, said: "It is all to the good when a composer tells you that his 
work is not to be regarded as objective programme music, but as an 
impression 'of the dank and stormy ruin of nature in late autumn/ 
and with these externals there would appear to be linked personal feelings 
— some affinity with the mood of the Buckinghamshire wood where he 
conceived the idea of this tone-poem." In an article on Bax, published 
in 1919, before the first performance, Mr. Edwin Evans wrote in the 
Musical Times: " 'November Woods' is a picture of storms and driv- 
ing leaves and the sere and dank atmosphere of autumn. Mingled 
with this is the mood of human loneliness and regret, which is finally 
absorbed in the restlessness and turmoil of nature. The composer 
himself regards it as his best orchestral work, and the one by which 
he would elect to be represented if asked to make a choice." 

When "November Woods" was first performed in London at a 
Philharmonic concert, December 16, 1920, the Daily Telegraph said: — 
"The title obviously suggests programme-music, and although the com- 
poser, according to the brief analytical notes, would seem to have 
aimed rather at a reflection of his own mood, as inspired by 'the dank 



and stormy ruin of nature in the autumn,' he yet gives us, undeniably, 
some passages thai are sufficiently pictorial to conjure up thoughts of 
screaming winds and swaying branches; indeed, at one moment, we 
seemed almost to detect the screech of an owl. If occasionally, in 
his very rich and closely-woven scoring, the composer does not let us 
see his autumn woods for the trees — at least without an effort — he 
never allows his imagination to run riot in an abuse of modern orchestral 
color or of harmonic freedom, and his work, accordingly, is not of those 
that proclaim an apparent defiance of form. But it would bear a 
little compression towards the end." 



* * 



Arnold E. Trevor Bax was educated musically at the Royal Academy 
of Music, London, which he entered in 1900. He studied the piano- 
forte with Tobias Matthay; composition with Frederick Corder. His 
first compositions are dated 1903. Leaving the Royal Academy in 
1905, he went to Ireland, where he lived in the western region of that 
country. Later he went to Dublin, and was associated with the writers 
and the artists of the "Irish Renaissance." In 1910 Bax visited Russia 
for a short time, and the pianoforte pieces "May Night in the Ukraine," 
"Gopak," and the remarkable "In a Vodka Shop" were the result. 
Very few of his larger works have been published, but the undertaking 
is now at hand. 

Orchestral Works: "Into the Twilight" (1908), "In the Faery 
Hills" (1909); Festival Overture (1909); "Christmas Eve on the Moun- 
tains" (1912); Four pieces: "Pensive Twilight," "Dance in the Sun," 
"From the Mountains of Home," "Dances of Wild Irravel" (1912-13); 
"Nympholept" (1912); "Spring Fire" (1913); Scherzo (1913); "The 
Garden of Fand" (1913) ; Variations for pianoforte and orchestra (1916) ; 
In Memoriam (1917), "Tintagel" (1917), "November Woods" (1917). 
A new symphony is announced for performance in London this season. 

Choir and Orchestra: "Fatherland" (1917); "Enchanted Sum- 
mer" (Shelley's text, 1909). 

Stage Music: Ballets, "Between Dusk and Dawn" (1917. Per- 
formed at the Palace Theatre, London); "The Frog Skin" (1918); 
music for Sir James Barrie's "The Truth about the Russian Dancers" 
(London Coliseum, March 15, 1920, Tamar Karsavina, dancer, the 
chief character); "Children's Tales" ("Contes Russes"), Russian Ballet, 
Covent Garden, June 10, 1920, — music by Liadoff, Dance Prelude 
and "Lament of the Swan Princess" orchestrated by Bax. The ballet 
was given before on December 23, 1918 — was Bax's orchestration then 
used? Interlude, "The Slave Girl," for Mme. Karsavina (London 
Coliseum, November 29, 1920), who describes it as "one of the most 
brutal and savage pieces of music I have ever heard." The Interlude 
is for a pianoforte. 



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Chamber Music: Fantasy for viola and pianoforte (1904); Trio 
for violin, viola, and pianoforte (1906); String quartet, G major (1907- 
08); Sonata No. 1, for violin and pianoforte, E major, (1910-15)*; 
Pianoforte quintet, G minor (1914-15); Legend for violin and piano- 
forte (1915); Sonata No. 2, for violin and pianoforte, D major (1915); 
Four pieces for violin and pianoforte (1915) ; Trio for flute, violin, and 
pianoforte, Elegy (1916); Ballade for violin and pianoforte (1917), 
"An Irish Elegy," for English horn, harp, and strings (1917); String 
quartet in G (1918); Folk-tale for violoncello and pianoforte (1918); 
Quintet for harp and strings (1919). 

Voice and Orchestra: Six poems from "The Bard of the Dim- 
bovitza" (1914-15). 

Bax has written a pianoforte concerto; a concerto for the viola, 
produced at the Philharmonic concert in London, November 17, 1921 
(Mr. Tertis, viola), a pianoforte sonata, and many smaller pieces for 
the pianoforte; also "Moy-Mill, or Happy Plain," for two pianofortes. 
He has composed over fifty songs, of which "Nereid" and "Whirligig" 
are dated 1920. 

A concert devoted exclusively to Bax's compositions was given No- 
vember 13, 1922, in Queen's Hall, London, in which John Coates, tenor, 
Harriet Cohen, pianist, Lionel Tertis, viola, the Oriana Madrigal So- 
ciety, and an orchestra led by Eugene Goossens, took part. 

The programme included "The Garden of Fand" and "Mediterranean" 
(orchestral arrangement), the concerto for viola and orchestra, the 
pianoforte sonata No. 2, G major, and smaller pianoforte pieces, carols 
for chorus, and seven songs. 



"Don Quixote" (Introduction, Theme with Variations, and 
Finale) : Fantastical Variations on a Theme of a Knightly 
Character, Op. 35 Kichard Strauss 

(Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living at Vienna.) 

"Don Quixote (Introduzione, Tema con Variazioni, e Finale) : 
Fantastische Variationen liber ein Thema ritterlichen Charakters," 
was composed at Munich in 1897. (The score was completed on 
December 29th of that year.) It was played for the first time at 
a Giirzenich Concert, Cologne, from manuscript, Franz Wiillner 
conductor, March 8, 1898. Friedrich Griitzmacher was the solo 
violoncellist. Strauss conducted his composition on March 18, 
1898, at a concert of the Frankfort Museumgesellchaft, when Hugo 
Becker was the violoncellist. It is said that Becker composed an 
exceedingly piquant cadenza for violoncello on the Quixote motive 
for his own enjoyment at home. The first performance in the 
United States was by the Chicago orchestra, Chicago, Theodore 
Thomas conductor, January 7, 1899, Bruno Steindel violoncellist. 

The work is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, English 
horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, double-bassoon, 

*A revised edition, with practically new second and third movements, was performed for the first 
time in London, on November 22, 1920. The second movement, "The Grey Dancer in the Twilight, 
a Dance of Death," is said to have been largely influenced by the events of 1915 in the World War. 
The sonata is in four movements to be played without a break. A sort of an idee fixe permeating the 
work lias been utilized in "November Woods." The sonata was performed by Paul Kochanski, violinist, 
and the composer. 

10 



six horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tenor tuba, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, 
wind-machine, harp, sixteen iirst violins, sixteen second violins, 
twelve violas, ten violoncellos, eight double-basses. It is dedicated 
to Joseph Dupont. 

Much has been written in explanation of this work, which fol- 
lowed "Also sprach Zarathustra," Op. 30 (1896), and preceded "Ein 
Heldenleben," Op. 40 (1S9S). As the story goes, at a music festival 
in Diisseldorf in 1899 an acquaintance of Strauss complained bit- 
terly before the rehearsal that he had no printed "guide" to "Don 
Quixote," with which he was unfamiliar. Strauss laughed, and 
said for his consolation, "Get out! you do not need any." Arthur 
Halm wrote a pamphlet of twenty-seven pages in elucidation, and 
in this pamphlet are many wondrous things. We are told that cer- 
tain queer harmonies introduced in an otherwise simple passage 
of the Introduction "characterize admirably the well-known tend- 
ency of Don Quixote toward false conclusions." 

It is said that "Don Quixote" was written at a time when the 
composer himself was inclined "to be conscious of the tragi-comedy 
of his own over-zealous hyper-idealism and ironical at its expense." 

There is no programme attached to the score of this work. The 
arrangement for pianoforte gives certain information concerning 
the composer's purposes. 

Mr. Max Steinitzer declares. in his "Richard Strauss" (Berlin and 
Leipsic, 1911) that with the exception of some details, as the Wind- 
mill episode, the music is intelligible and effective as absolute music ; 
that the title is sufficiently explanatory. "The introduction begins 
immediately with the hero's motive and pictures with constantly 
increasing liveliness by other themes of knightly and gallant char- 
acter life as it is mirrored in writings from the beginning of the 
17th century. 'Don Quixote, busied in reading romances of chivalry, 
loses his reason — and determines to go through the w r orld as a 
wandering knight.' " It is easy to recognize the hero's theme in its 
variations, because the knight is always represented by the solo 
violoncello. The character of Sancho Panza is expressed by a theme 
first given to bass clarinet and tenor tuba, but afterward and to 
the end by a solo viola. 

Introduction. 
Massiges Zeitmass (moderato), D major. 4-4. Don Quixote plunged him- 
self deeply in his reading of books of knighthood, "and in the end, through 
his little sleep and much reading, he dried up his brains in such sort, as he 
lost wholly his judgment. His fantasy was filled with those things that he 













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read, of enchantments, quarrels, battles, challenges, wounds, wooings, loves, 
tempests, and other impossible follies."* The first theme (wind instruments) 
foreshadows the typical Don Quixote motive, and is here typical of knight- 
errantry in general. The next section (strings) represents the idea of 
knightly gallantry, and the whole theme ends with the passages that include 
the strange harmonies and portray his madness. These strange progressions 
recur frequently throughout the work. 

The first section of the first theme is ornamented (violas). Don Quixote 
grows more and more romantic and chivalric. He sees the Ideal Woman, 
his lady-love (oboe). The trumpets tell of a giant attacking her and her 
rescue by a knight. "In this part of the Introduction, the use of mutes 
on all the instruments — including the tuba, here so treated for the first time — 
creates an indescribable effect of vagueness and confusion, indicating that 
they are mere phantasms with which the knight is concerned, which cloud 
his brain." A Penitent enters (muted violas ff). Don Quixote's brain 
grows more and more confused. The orchestral themes grow wilder. An 
augmented version of the first section of the theme (brass), followed by a 
harp glissando, leads to shrill discord — the Knight is mad. "The repeated 
use of the various sections of the first theme shows that his madness has 
something to do with chivalry." Don Quixote has decided to be a Knight- 
errant. 

Theme. 

"Don Quixote, the knight of the sorrowful countenance ; Sancho Panza." 
Moderate, D minor, 4-4. The Don Quixote theme is announced by solo 
violoncello. It is of close kin to the theme of the introduction. Sancho 
Panza is typified by a theme given first to bass clarinet and tenor tuba ; 
but afterwards the solo viola is the characteristic instrument of Sancho. 

Variation I. 
The Knight and the Squire set out on* their journey. "In a leisurely 
manner," D minor, 12-8. The beautiful Dulcinea of Toboso inspires the Knight 
(a version of the Ideal Woman theme), who soon sees some windmills 
(brass) and prepares to attack. A breeze arises (wood-wind and strings), and 
the Knight, angry at the challenge, attacks, and is knocked down by the 
sails (run in wood-wind, harp glissando, heavy drum-beats). 

Variation II. 
The victorious Battle against the Host of the Great Emperor Alifonfaron. 
"Warlike," D major, 4-4. There is a cloud of dust; surely a great army 
approaches; the Knight rushes to fight, in spite of the warnings of Sancho. 
who sees the sheep. There is a pastoral figure (wood-wind), and out of 
the dust-cloud (strings) comes a chorus of "Ba-a-a-a" (muted brass). Don 
Quixote charges, and puts the foe to confusion. 

Variation III. 
The Dialogues of the Knight and the Squire. Moderate 4-4. Sancho 
questions the worth of such a life. Don Quixote speaks of honor and glory 
(first theme), but Sancho sees nothing in them. The dispute waxes hot. 
Don Quixote speaks nobly of the ideal. Sancho prefers the easy and com- 
fortable realities of life. At last his master is angry and bids him hold his 

tongue. 

Variation IV. 

The Adventure with the Penitents. "Somewhat broader," D minor, 4-4. 
A church theme (wind instruments) announces the approach of a band of 
pilgrims. Don Quixote sees in them shameless robbers and desperate villains, 
and he attacks them. They knock him senseless and go on their prayerful 
way. Sancho, sorely disturbed, rejoices when his master shows signs of 
life, and, after he has helped him, lies down by his side and goes to sleep 
(bass tuba, double-bassoon). 

Variation V. 
The Knight's Vigil. "Very slow," 4-4. Don Quixote is ashamed to sleep. 
He follows the knightly custom and holds watch by his armor. Dulcinea 

•Quotations from the novel itself are here taken from the translation into English 
by Thomas Shelton (1612, 1020).— P. II. 

12 



answers his prayers and appears to his vision (the Ideal Woman theme, 
horn). A cadenza for harp and violins leads to a passage indicative of his 
rapture. 

Variation VI. 
The Meeting with Dnlcinea. G major, 2-4, 3-4. A common country wench 
comes along (wood-wind, tambourine), and Sancho by way of jest points 
her out to his master as Dulcinea. The Knight cannot believe it. Sancho 
swears it is so. The Knight suddenly knows that some magic has worked 
this transformation, and he vows vengeance. 

Variation VII. 

The Ride through the Air. D minor, 8-4. Knight and Squire sit, blind- 
folded, on a wooden horse, w T hich, as they have been made to believe, will 
bear them through the air. Their respective themes soar skyward. The 
wind whistles about them (chromatic flute passages, harp, drum-roll, wind- 
machine). They stop suddenly (long-held bassoon note), and looking about 
them, they think themselves still on the ground. "The persistent tremolo 
of the double-basses on one note may be taken to mean that the two did 
not really leave the solid earth." 

Variation VIII. 

The Journey in the Enchanted Bark. Don Quixote sees an empty boat, and 
he is sure it is sent by some mysterious power, that he may do a glorious 
deed. He and Sancho embark. His typical theme is changed into a barcarolle. 
The boat upsets, but they succeed in gaining the shore ; and they give 
thanks for their safety (wind instruments religioso). 

Variation IX. 
The Combat with two Magicians. "Quickly and stormily," D minor, 4-4. 
Don Quixote is again on his famous horse, eager for adventure. Two 
peaceable monks are jogging along on their mules, and the Knight sees in 
them the base magicians who have worked him harm. He charges them 
and puts them to flight. The two themes are a version of the Don Quixote 
motive and an ecclesiastical phrase for the bassoons. 

Variation X. 

Don Quixote, defeated by the Knight of the White Moon, returns home, 
and resolves to be a shepherd. "Know, sir," said the Knight of the White 
Moon, "that I am styled the Bachelor Samson Carrasco, and am one of Don 
Quixote's town ; whose wild madness hath moved as many of us as know him 
to compassion, and me amongst the rest most ; and believing that the best 
means to procure his health is to keep him quiet, and so to have him in 
his own house, I thought upon this device." So said this knight after the 
furious battle. 

The variation portrays the fight. The pastoral theme heard in the second 
variation — the battle with the sheep — reappears. Don Quixote loses one by 
one his illusions. 

Finale. 

The death of Don Quixote. "Very peacefully," D major, 4-4. The typical 
theme of the Knight takes a new form. The queer harmonies in a section 
of this theme are now conventional, commonplace. 

"Tremolos in the strings indicate the first shiver of a deadly fever." The 
Knight feels his end is near. Through the violoncello he speaks his last 
words. He remembers his fancies ; he recalls the dreams and the ambitions ; 
he realizes that they were all as smoke and vanity ; he is, indeed, ready 
to die. 

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14 



SECOND MATINEE 
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 6 

AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 

d'Indy . . "Wallenstein," Trilogy (after the Dramatic Poem of 

Schiller), Op. 12 

I. Wallenstein's Camp. 
II. Max and Thekla (The Piccolomini). 
III. The Death of Wallenstein. 



Stravinsky . . . Suite No 1, from the Ballet, "Pulcinella" 

for Small Orchestra (after Pergolesi) 

I. Sinfonia (Ouverture) : Allegro moderato. 
II. Serenata: Larghetto. 

III. a. Scherzino. 

b. Allegro. 

c. Andantino. 

d. Allegro. 

IV. Finale (Vivo). 

Franck . . Symphonic Poem: "Les Eolides" ("The Aeolidae") 

Liszt "Les Preludes," Symphonic Poem, No. 3 

(after Lamartine) 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after d'Indy's "Wallenstein' 



15 



"Wallenstein" Trilogy (after the Dramatic Poem of Schiller) 

Vincent d'Indy 

(Born at Paris, March 27, 1852*; now living in Paris.) 

The first work of Vincent d'Indy performed in Paris was his 
"Ouverture des Piccolomini," produced at a Pasdeloup concert, 
January 25, 1874. This overture, the second part of the "Wallen- 
stein" trilogy, showed, it is said, the marked influence of Schumann. 
It was afterwards changed materially, thoroughly rewritten. 

The "Wallenstein" trilogy was begun in 1873-74. It was com- 
pleted about 1881. The third movement, "La Mort de Wallenstein," 
was first performed at a Pasdeloup concert ("Concert Populaire") 
in Paris, March 14, 1880. The first movement, "Le Camp de Wallen- 
stein," was first performed at a concert of the National Society, 

Paris, April 12, 1880. It was performed March 30, 1884, at a Con- 
cert Populaire, Pasdeloup conductor, in Paris. There were per- 
formances of this or that movement at the concerts of the National 
Society in Paris, at Angers, and at Antwerp, but the first perform- 
ance of the trilogy, complete, was at a Lamoureux concert in Paris, 
March 4, 1888. 

The first performance of the trilogy in the United States was at 
one of Anton Seidl's concerts in Steinway Hall, New York, Decem- 
ber 1, 1888. 

The first performance of the trilogy in Boston was on October 19, 
1907, at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. There was 
a second performance on December 20, 1918. 

When "The Death of Wallenstein" was first performed in Paris, 
there was an argument, an explanatory programme, for a contem- 
porary reviewer then discussed the possibility of translating into 
music "Reves heroiques de gloire et de liberte," "Trahison," "Mort," 

*This year is given by the composer. The catalogue of the Paris Conservatory 
gives 1851, and 1851 is given by Adolphe Jullien, who says he verified the date by the 
register of d'Indy's birth. 



Coaching, Repertoire, Programme building 
Piano (Leschetizky) and Accompanying 
Voice Culture-ARTHUR KRAFT 

4 W. 68th Street, New York Gity Phone, Columbus 8993 

16 



while he admitted d'Indy's success in the sections, "Souvenir de 
Thecla" and ''Trioinphe." The score of the trilogy is. without a 
programme of any sort. 

Hugues Imbert's sketch of the trilogy was Englished by Stanley 
V. Makower as follows : — 

4l The distinguishing feature of the symphonic music of Vincent 
d'lnd}' is that it paints with forcible truth, marvellous vividness, 
and astonishing vigor the various episodes in the drama of Schiller. 
For instance, in the first part, 'Le Camp/* after the slow valse, comes 
the savage dance with its determined rhythm, the sermon of the 
Capuchin father given to the bassoon, the theme of Wallenstein 
energetically illustrated by the trombones, and then the final tumult, 
in which we hear a few notes of Wallenstein's theme thrown out by 

♦James Churchill's translation into English of "Wallenstein's Camp" is thus pref- 
aced : — 

'•The Camp of Wallenstein is an introduction to the celebrated tragedy of that 
name, and, by its vivid portraiture of the state of the General's army, gives the best 
clue to the spell of his gigantic power. The blind belief entertained in the unfailing 
success of his arms, and in the supernatural agencies by which that success is secured 
to him ; the unrestrained indulgence of every passion, and utter disregard of all law, 
save that of the camp ; a hard oppression of the peasantry, and plunder of the country ; 
have all swollen the soldiery with an idea of interminable sway. 

"Of Schiller's opinion concerning the Camp, as a necessary introduction to the 
tragedy, the following passage, taken from the Prologue to the first representation, will 
give a just idea and may also serve as a motto to the work : — 

" 'Not He it is, who on the tragic scene 

Will now appear — but in the fearless bands 
W T hom his command alone could sway, and whom 
His spirit fired, you may his shadow see, 
Until the bashful Muse shall dare to bring 
Himself before you in a living form ; 
For power it was that bore his heart astray — 
His Camp, alone, elucidates his crime.' " 



Issued for the centenary of Cesar Franck's birth 
A NEW VOLUME OF THE MUSICIANS LIBRARY 




PIANO COMPOSITIONS 

Edited and with Preface by VINCENT D'INDY 

C6sar Franck, the great genius who gave to absolute music in France its most 
enduring impetus, did not neglect the piano. Franck's piano compositions are not 
only of the highest beauty, but are permanent contributions to the history of the art, 
in that he invented new forms, or adapted old ones to modern uses. His pupil and 
devoted disciple, Vincent d'Indy, contributes a biography which has abiding critical 
value. This preface of Mr. d'Indy is in French and English. 

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the trumpets amid the fortissimi of the orchestra. In all this you 
will recognize the mastery of the musician who has approached very 
nearly to a musical translation of a scene crowded with movement. 
You will find not only the painting of events and acts, but the paint- 
ing of the moral sentiments which animate the persons in the drama. 
Is there anything more exquisitely tender than the love episode be- 
tween Max and Thekla (second part) ? With what felicity do the 
two themes of the lovers unite and embrace each other; yet with 
what inevitability are the ideal transports of the happy pair stifled 
by the intervention of Fate, whose fell design has been suggested in 
the brief introduction by the horns ! The third and last episode is 
the death of Wallenstein. Very dramatic is the opening, in which 
strange chords, that recall the splendid sonority of the organ, char- 
acterize the influence of the stars on human destiny. These chords 
are the poetical rendering of this beautiful saying of Wallenstein in 
the 'Piccolomini' (act ii., scene 6). Yet the mysterious force which 
labors in the bowels of nature — the ladder of spirits that stretches 
from this world of dust up to the world of stars with a thousand 
ramifications, this ladder on which the heavenly powers mount and 
dismount ever restless — the circles within circles that grow narrower 
and narrower as they approach the sun their centre, — all this can be 
beheld alone by the eyes of the heaven-born joyous descendants of 
Zeus — those eyes from which the veil of blindness has fallen. After 
several episodes, an ascending progression of the basses brings back 
the complete statement of Wallenstein's theme in B major, which 
ends in a very widely constructed movement, in which the starry 
chords of the opening are reproduced, covered over with the wind 
instruments, while the quatuor winds its way rapidly in and out of 
them, and the trombones thunder out the fate-fraught song. Soon 
calm is restored, and the sound dies away gradually in a long pianis- 
simo of the stringed instruments." 






The first movement, "Wallenstein's Camp," Allegro giusto, 3-4, 



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is dedicated to Henri Duparc* It is in the general nature of a 
scherzo which portrays the camp life and the rude jesting of the 
soldiery. The chief theme is given immediately to full orchestra. It 
is constantly changed, and it passes through' many keys, until the 
original tonality is restored. There is a lull in the tumult. The 
strings play a sort of slow waltz, which soon becomes boisterous, 
allegro moderato, 3-8. After development of these three motives the 
Capuchin monk appears. He is typified by the bassoons, which take 
up one after the other a theme, B minor, Allegro moderato e giocoso, 
24, in a fugal passage. f This section describes the Capuchin's ser- 
mon. The monk is mocked and derided by wood-wind instruments; 
the trumpet parodies the fugue theme, and clarinets join in the 
caricature. The soldiers howl the monk down and drag him into the 
rough waltz. The uproar is not quelled until horns, trumpets, and 
trombones announce by a phrase, Largo e maestoso, 4-4, the presence 
of Wallenstein. The monk is at last free, and the scherzo trio, which 
began with the bassoon theme, is at an end. The Camp motive and 
the waltz themes are worked out with changes in the instrumenta- 
tion, and the Wallenstein motive reappears (brass instruments) at 
the close in the midst of the orchestral storm. 

II. "Max and Thekla" ("The Piccolomini"), Andante, Allegro, 
Adagio, E-flat major, B major, Gr majorj E-flat minor,' 4-4, is decli- 

*Marie Eugene Henri Fonque Duparc was born at Paris, January 21, 1848. He 
studied at a Jesuit college and was admitted to the bar, but piano lessons from Cesar 
Franck promoted bim to be a musician, and he also took lessons in composition. His 
early friends were Saint-Saens, Faure, de Castillon, and the painter Regnault. In 1870 
he journeyed to Munich to hear operas by Wagner. He served as a soldier in the siege 
of Paris. About 1880 his health became such that he was obliged to give up work, and 
he made his home at Monein, in the Lower Pyrenees. He is now living in Switzerland. 
His chief works are a symphonic poem, "Lenore" (composed in 1874—75, performed at 
Paris, October 28, 1877, since revised, first performed in Boston at a Symphony concert, 
December 5, 1896), an orchestral suite, a violoncello sonata (destroyed), a set of 
waltzes for orchestra (1874) "Aux Btoilers," nocturne for orchestra (1910, performed at 
a Lamoureux concert, February 26, 1911), a suite for pianoforte, and some remarkable 
songs, the most important of which were composed during the years 1874-78. Franck 
repeatedly said that Duparc, of all his pupils, was the one best organized to create 
musical ideas, the one whose vigorous temperament and dramatic sentiment should have 
brought success in the opera-house. Duparc worked on a lyric drama, "Roussalka," 
but was unable to complete it before his enforced retirement. 

f Hermann Kretzschmar, in his analysis of this movement, is reminded of the days 
of Reinhard Keiser (1674—1739), who wrote quartets, quintets, and sextets for bassoons. 



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19 



cated to Jules Pasdeloup.* There is a short introduction full of 
bodement, with a rhythmic figure for kettledrums, plaintive wail of 
violins, and lamentation of the horns. This horn motive is identical 
with the second section of the Wallenstein motive, which was heard 
in the first movement. 

Max Piccolomini is then characterized by an expressive theme, 
Andante, E-fiat major, 4-4, which is given first to the clarinets and 
horns, afterwards to the full orchestra. This theme is developed at 
length. The kettledrums interrupt, but the motive is repeated, and, 
varied, gains in emotional intensity. Brass and drums hint at the 
tragic ending, but the tempo changes to Allegro risoluto, and a 
motive built on the first measure of the Max theme is associated 
with a dialogued motive for violin and violoncello. The Fate motive 
of the introduction enters. There is an energetic development of 
this theme and of that of the Allegro risoluto. This leads to a sec- 
tion in B major, Andante tranquillo. The clarinet, accompanied by 
tremulous strings, sings a theme that may be named the Thekla or 
Love motive. This theme is repeated by violas and violoncellos, and 
it is combined with the theme of Max. The love scene is interrupted 
by the entrance of Wallenstein's typical motive (brass, maestoso), 
which is now passionate and disquieted. The Allegro risoluto theme 
returns, and there is a conflict between it and the Fate motive, in 
which the tragic end of Max is determined. The oboe sighs out 
Thekla's lament : her theme now appears in E-flat minor. There is a 
final recollection of Max (theme for first horn) ; the end is mourning 
and desolation. 

III. Wallenstein's Death, Tres large, Allegro maestoso, B minor, 
2-2, is dedicated to Camille Benoit.f "One will listen in vain," says 
Mr. H. W. Harris, "f or any musical description of the great warrior's 
tragic end. The composer adheres to the programme of Schiller's 
drama, in which, it will be remembered, the audience is not per- 
mitted to witness the. assassination of the hero." 

There is a slow and ominous introduction, with the appearance 
of the theme of Wallenstein. The opening measures of the move- 

*Jules Etienne Pasdeloup was born at Paris, September 15, 1819. He died at Fon- 
tainebleau, August 13, 1S87. At the Paris Conservatory he gained the first prize for 
solfege in 1832 and the first prize for pianoforte playing in 1834. He afterwards took 
lessons of Dourlen and Carafa in composition. As Governor of the Chateau of St. 
Cloud he made influential friends, and, discontented with the orchestral leaders who 
would not produce his works or those of young France, he founded in 1851 the "Society 
of Young Artists of the Conservatory," of which he was conductor. He produced sym- 
phonies by Gounod, Saint-Saens, Gouvy, and other French composers, also music hitherto 
unheard in Paris by Mozart, Sclmmann, and Meyerbeer. In 1861 he moved to the 
Cirque Napoleon, and on October 27 began his Concerts Populaires. A flaming admirer 
of Wagner, he produced "Rienzi" at the Theatre Lyrique (April 6, 1869), and lost 
much money. After the Franco-Prussian War ho resumed his concerts. — he was man- 
ager of the Theatre Lyrique 1868—70, — and the French government gave him a subsidy 
of twenty-five thousand francs. He closed these concerts in 1884 and in that year 
a sum of nearly ono hundred thousand francs was raised for him at a concert in his 
honor. But he could not be idle. In 1885 he organized concerts at Monte Carlo, and 
afterwards established pianoforte classes in Taris. In 1886 he began a new series of 
orchestral concerts with the old title, but the revival was not successful. A conductor 
of most catholic taste, he was ever a firm friend of young composers, and, though a 
patriotic Frenchman, he knew not chauvinism in art. 

t Camille Benott, appointed in 1895 conservateur at the Louvre, was a pupil of 
Cf'sar Franck. His chief compositions are an overture (about 1880) ; symphonic poem, 
"Merlin, l'Enchanteur" ; lyric scene, "La Mort do Cl€opatre" (sung by Mine. Mauvernay 
at a Concert Populaire, Paris, March 30, 1SK41 ; music to Anatole France's "Noces 
Corinthiennes." He is the author of "Souvenirs" (1884) and "Musiciens, Pontes, et 
Philosophies" (1877). He translated into French extracts from Wagner's prose works; 
into Latin the text of Beethoven's "Ele<;ische Gesang," and he arranged Berlioz's "Romeo 
and Juliet" for the pianoforte (four hands). 

20 



ment proper, Allegro, portray to some the conspiracy and the over- 
throw of the general, whose theme appears now in a distorted shape. 
Again is there the tnmnltnons confusion of the camp. A maestoso 
passage follows. This is succeeded by a repetition of the Allegro, 
which, however, is changed. The Thekla motive comes again, and 
another maestoso passage follows. The trilogy ends sonorously 
with the introduction used as a foundation. 

The trilogy is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clari- 
nets, bass clarinet, four bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two 
cornets-a-pistons, three trombones, tuba, a set of three kettledrums, 
bass drum, cymbals, eight harps, strings. 



Suite No. 1, for a Small Orchestra, from "Pulcinella," a Ballet 
with Song (after Pergolesi) Ivor Stravinsky 

(Stravinsky, born at Oranienbaum, near Petrograd; living in Paris. Giovanni 
Battista Pergolesi, born at Jesi, Italy, January 1, 1710; died at Pazzuoli, near Naples, 

March 16, 1736.) 

"Pulcinella," ballet with song in one act, music by Stravinsky (after 
Pergolesi) ; was performed for the first time at the Opera, Paris, on May 
15, 1920, under the direction of Serge de Diaghileff. The choreography 
was arranged by Leonide Massine ; the scenery and costume designed by 
Pablo Picasso were put in effect by Wladimir and Violette Polunine. 

Pulcinella, Massine; Pimpinella, Thamar Karsavina; Prudenza, 
Lubov Tchernicheva; Rosetta, Vera Nemtchinova; Fourbo, Sigmund 



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21 



Novak; Caviello, Stanislaw Idzikovsky; Florindo, Nikolas Zverev; 
II Dottore, Enrico Cechetti; Tartageia, Stanislaw Kostetsky; Quatre 
petits pulcinellas, MM. Bourman, Okimovsky, Micholaitchik, Loukine. 

Singers: Mme. Zoia Roskovska, Aurelio Anglada (tenor), Gino de 
Vecchi (bass). 

Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

The score contains this argument: 

The subject of "Pulcinella" is taken from a manuscript found at 
Naples in 1700, containing a great number of comedies which put on 
the stage the traditional personage of the Neapolitan folk-theatre. The 
episode chosen for the libretto of this ballet is entitled: 'Tour Similar 
Pulchinellas." 

All the young girls of the country are in love with Pulcinella; the 
young fellows, pricked with jealousy, try to kill him. At the moment 
when they think they have accomplished their purpose, they borrow 
Pulcinella's costume to present themselves to their sweethearts. But 
the malicious Pulcinella has had his intimate friend take his place, 
and this substitute pretends to die from the hands of the assassins. 
Pulcinella himself takes the dress of a sorcerer and brings his double 
to life. At the moment when the young swains think they are relieved 
of him and go to visit their loved ones, the true Pulcinella appears 
and arranges all the marriages. He weds Pimpinella, blessed by his 
double, Fourbo, who in his turn appears as the mage. 



* 



When this ballet was performed at Covent Garden, June 10, 1920, 
the Times published this review: "We are not very sure as to what 
the story actually is, and do feel pretty sure that it does not much 
matter. 'Pulcinella' does with a number of movements from Pergolesi's 
operas very much what 'The Good-Humored Ladies' does with 
Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas. The ballet, in fact, is primarily a means 
of showing us what vitality and charm there is in music which most 
of us had forgotten. But Stravinsky puts on the magician's cloak to 
resuscitate Pergolesi, just as Pulcinella on the stage puts on the magi- 
cian's cloak (we did not quite make out why) to resuscitate other Pul- 
cinellas. Stravinsky's work on the music is very cleverly carried out. 
A good deal of it is simply re-scoring, and in this single instruments, 
from the trumpet to the double-bass, are used to get the utmost effect 
from the simplest means, which is the very essence of good technique. 
But sometimes Stravinsky cannot hold himself in any longer, and, 
kicking Pergolesi out of his light, defeats the primary purpose by inter- 
polating a moment or two of sheer Stravinsky. The result then be- 
comes a little confusing, like the story. Being left in some doubt both 
about the story and the music, we have to look for complete satisfaction 



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CARNEGIE HALL 



SEASON 1922-1923 



Thursday Evening, February 1, 1923, at 8. 15 

Saturday Afternoon, February 3, 1923, at 2.30 




PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



NOTE: The Programmes of the Evening and the Afternoon Concerts 

are entirely different. 



23 



to the dancing. With M. Massine as the Pulcinella and Mme. Karsavina 
as the Pimpinella, whom he ultimately decides to love, with Mme. 
Tchernicheva and Mme. Vera Nemtchinova as the ladies whose affec- 
tions he steals, and MM. Woizikovsky and Idzikovsky as the two 
gallants, who try to kill him for the theft, we are given so brilliant a 
display that one almost forgets about the three singers who join with 
the orchestra in Pergolesi songs and trios, and justify the title of ballet- 
opera." Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

When the ballet was revived at London in July, 1921, with Woizikov- 
sky as Pulcinella, and with Mmes. Lopokova, Tchernicheva, 
Nemtchinova, and MM. Novak, Idzikovsky, dancers, and the singers 
Zoia Roskovska and MM. Bitch and Keedanov, the Daily Telegraph 
said (July 6) : — 

"Until it is about half-way through 'Pulcinella/ the old Italian story 
to which Stravinsky has fitted an arrangement of Pergolesi music, is 
as delightful a ballet-opera as one could wish to see. It has in their 
quintessence those happy qualities which have put the Russian Ballet 
in a place by itself — invention, imagination, grace, and humor. The 
dances are of the daintiest; the comically serious imitation of the old- 
fashioned conventions is as entertaining as can be; the music is a particu- 
larly clever experiment in the difficult art of bringing an old composer 
up to date without overdoing it. So far as the rest of the ballet is con- 
cerned, one has no quarrel with the music, but dramatically it falls 
to pieces. It infringes two of the chief dramatic canons, for in the first 
place it becomes confusing, and it is extremely difficult to know which 
of the gentlemen in the large black noses is which and why he is doing 
what he does. In the second place, it loses its grip upon the audience, 
and may have been compared to a farce with two very good acts and 
one greatly inferior one to end up with. It is one of the very fine ballets 
in the Russians' repertory which really need cutting and revising. 
That it was enthusiastically received on its revival was due to the 
brilliant dancing . . . and to the fine singing." 

The score calls for these instruments: two flutes (second flute inter- 
changeable with piccolo), two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, trumpet, 
trombone, and solo quintet of strings, and the usual strings. 



* 
* * 



There is a dispute over the origin of the Neapolitan Pulcinella: 
whether he is descended from Maccus, the grotesque fool of Atellan 
farce, or from Pulcinella dalle Carceri, a queer patriot of the thirteenth 
century. This is certain, that in more modern times he made his appear- 
ance in the sixteenth century, "in the white shirt and breeches of a 
countryman of Acerra, his black mask, long nose, hump, dagger, and 
truncheon being later additions. Time, alas! has given him a foolish 



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24 



wife and made him a mere puppet, though little more than a century 
ago, in CVrlone's clever hand he mirrored a people and an age." He 
has also been described as a tall fellow, obstreperous, alert, sensual, 
with a long hooked nose, a black half-mask, a gray and pyramidal cap, 
white shirt without ruffles, white trousers creased and girdled with a 
cord from which a little bell was sometimes suspended. He with Scara- 
muccia was Neapolitan as Cassandrino was Roman, Girolamo of 
Naples, Gianduja of Turin. For a description of these popular heroes 
in Italian "Improvised Comedy" and marionette shows, see Magnin's 
"Histoire des Marionettes en Europe" (Paris, 1852); the article 'Tul- 
cinella" in Pougin's" Dictionnaire du Theatre" (Paris, 1885); Celler's 
"Les Types populaires an Theatre" (Paris, 1870), and Chapter III in 
Chatfield-Taylor's "Goldoni" (New York, 1913). 



* 



Pergolesi is now best known by his beautiful "Stabat Mater"; his 
opera "La Serva Padrona" (1733) which is still performed, and a few 
songs still sung in concert-halls ("Nina" is falsely attributed to him); 
but he wrote nearly a dozen operas, several cantatas, and much music 
for the church. 

"La Serva Padrona" was performed as "The Mistress and Maid," 
by "the celebrated Italian Pere Golaise" (sic) at Baltimore, Md., by a 
French company of comedians, on June 14, 1790. It was performed in 
Italian at the Academy of Music, New York, on November 13, 1858, 
with Marie Piccolomini as the housemaid. It was in the repertoire of the 
Society of American Singers, New York, in 1917-18. 



"Les Bolides" ("The Aeolidae"), Symphonic Poem. Cesar France: 
( Born at Liege, December 10, 1822 ; died at Paris, November 8, 1890. ) 

This symphonic poem, composed in 1876, was performed for the 
first time at a concert of the Societe, Nationale, Paris, May 13, 1877. 
Lamoureux brought it out at one of his concerts, February 26, 1882, 
but it was not favorably received ; some in the audience hissed. This 
embittered Lamoureux against "Pere" Franck, as he was nicknamed 
affectionately by his pupils, and he neglected the composer until 
Franck was dead and his worth recognized. "Les bolides" was again 
played at a Lamoureux concert, February 18, 1894. The first per- 
formance in the United States was at Chicago at a concert of the 
Chicago Orchestra, Theodore Thomas conductor, in 1895. The first 
performance in Boston was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
February 17, 1900, Mr. Gericke conductor. Later performances by 
the same orchestra, December 20, 1902, October 18, 1913, November 1, 
1918. 

"Les fiolides" is in one movement, Allegretto vivo, A major, 3-8. 
The pace slackens for a while towards the end. The piece is free 
in form. The chief theme is a short chromatic phrase, from which 
other melodic phrases of a similar character are derived.* The de- 

*The theme appears in Franck's "Psyche Borne Away bv the Zephyrs" in his 
''Psyche" (1887-88). 



velopment suggests the constant variation of the chief thought, 
which is itself as a mere breath; and this development is rich in 
harmonic nuances. The piece is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two 
clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, 
cymbal (struck with a kettledrum stick), harp, and strings. 

Georges Servieres says in his sketch of Cesar Franck: "Desirous 
of trying himself in all kinds of music, the artist, who up to that 
time had not written orchestral compositions, allowed himself to 
be tempted by the seductive but dangerous form of the symphonic 
poem. He therefore wrote a descriptive piece entitled 'Les bolides,' 
to wliich he gave as a programme the exquisite lines of Leconte de 
Lisle." There is no allusion in Franck's score to this inspiration. 

THE ^OLIDJE 

(translation by w. f. apthoep) 

O floating breezes of the skies, sweet breaths of the fair spring, that caress 
the hills and plains with freakish kisses ; 

Virgins, daughters of iEolus, lovers of peace, eternal nature awakens to 
your songs ; and the Dryad seated amid the thick foliage sheds the tears of 
the scarlet dawn upon the mosses. 

Skimming over the crystal of the waters like a quick flock of swallows, do 
ye return from the green-reeded Eurotas, ye faithful Virgins? 

When the sacred swans swam white and beauteous therein, and a God 
throbbed on the flowers of the bank, ye swelled with love the snow of his 
sides beneath the enchanted gaze of the pensive Spouse. 

The air where your flight murmurs is filled with perfume and with harmony ; 
do ye return from Ionia, or from green, golden-honeyed Hymettus? 

iEolidse, hail ! O cool messengers, 'tis truly ye who sang o'er the cradle of 
the Gods ; and the clear Ilyssos bathed the down of your light wings in a 
melodious wave. 

When milky-necked Theugenis danced in the evening by the wave, ye 
strewed the roses of Miletus upon her fairy head. 

Nymphs of the winged feet, far from Homer's river, later, taking the path 
where blue-waved Alpheus follows Arethusa through the bosom of the bitter 
plain to the nursing Isle of waving ears of corn ; 

Under the plane-tree where there is shelter from the scarlet darts of day, 
ye sighed of love upon the lips of Theocritus. 

Zephryos, Iapyx, cool-flighted Euros, smiles Of the Immortals with which 
the earth beautifies herself, 'tis ye who bestowed the gifts of craved leisure in 
the shade of forests upon the lonely shepherd. 

At the time when the bee murmurs and flies to the lilies' cup, the Mantuan, 
beneath the branches, spoke to you of Amaryllis. 

Ye listened, hidden amid the leaves, to the fair youths crowned with myrtle, 
linking together with art the soft rejoinders, entering blushing into the alter- 
nate combats ; 

While, draped in the toga, standing erect in the shade of the thicket, the 
old men awarded their praise, the adorned cup or the ram. 

Ye shook the willow where Galatea smiles ; and, kissing the tear-laden eyes 
of the Nymphs, ye rocked Daphnis's cradle in their sequestered grotto, on the 
rustic threshold, sparkling with flowers. 

When the virgins of the alabaster body, beloved by Gods and mortals, 
brought doves in their hands, and felt their hearts beat with love; 

Ye sang in an undertone in an enchanting dream the hymns of Venus, divine 
joy of the senses, and lent your ear to the plaint of the lover who weeps on 
the threshold of night, and is divined by the heart. 

Oh ! how many arms and beloved shoulders ye have kissed, by the sacred 
springs on the hill with wooded sides ! 

In the vales of Hellas, in the Italic fields, in the Isles of azure bathed by a 
scarlet wave, do ye still spread your wing, antique iEolidaj? Do ye still smile 
in the land of the Sun? 

26 



O ye who have been perfumed with thyme and goat'seye,* sacred bonds of 
Virgil's sweet flutes and the Sicilian reeds ; 

Ye who once floated to the lips of genius, breezes of the divine months, 
come, visit us again ; from your golden urns pour out to us, as ye pass by, 
repose and love, grace and harmony ! 

# 
* * 

Jeremy Collier in his biographical sketch of iEolus makes no men- 
tion of sons or daughters : "iEolus, a king of the seven islands be- 
twixt Italy and Sicily called iEoliae, very Hospitable, he taught his 
People to use Sails, and by observing the Fire or Smoak of Strongyle 
(Stromboli) could predict how the Winds would blow, whence the 
Poets call'd him the God of the Winds. He was also a skilful 
Astrologer, w'hich contributed to this Fiction. There were Three of 
this Name." 



Symphonic Poem No. 3, "The Preludes" (after Lamartine) 

Franz Liszt 

(Born at Raiding, near Oedenburg, Hungary, October 22, 1811; died at 

Bayreuth, July 31, 1886.) 

According to statements of Kichard Pohl, this symphonic poem 
was begun at Marseilles in 1834, and completed at Weimar in 1850. 
According to L. Ramann's chronological catalogue of Liszt's works, 
"The Preludes" was composed in 1854 and published in 1856. 

Theodor Muller-Reuter says that the poem was composed at 

* I make a desperate guess at this translation. I can find the word egile in no 
French dictionary : neither can I find any Greek or Latin word from which it could 
be derived. I conclude from the context that it may be a poetic form coined by 
Leconte de Lisle for acgilops. The aegilops, or goat's-eye, is a large grass which grows 
in Sicily, the grain of which is edible. The peasants burn the sheaves, after the har- 
vest, so as partially to roast the grain. The smoke from this burning may well per- 
fume the breeze. — W. F. A. 

But the word aigilos is in the Greek dictionary of Liddell and Scott, as Mr. 
Nathan Haskell Dole pointed out to Mr. Apthorp at the time his translation was 
first published in a programme-book. Aigilos is defined as "an herb of which goats are 
fond." The word occurs in the fift Idyll of Theocritus, line 128. The goat-herd 
Comatas, singing in alternate strains with Lacon, the shepherd, says : "My goats indeed 
eat hadder and aegilus, and tread on mastich-twigs, and lie among arbute trees." The 
Rev. J. Banks, the translator, risked no other word for aigilos. J. M. Chapman trans- 
lates the passage i — 

On goat's rue feed, my goats, and cytisus ; 
On lentisk tread, and lie on arbutus. 
Compare this with the more poetic version of C. S. Calverley : — 

My goats are fed on clover and goat's-delight : they tread 

On lentisk leaves ; or lie them down, ripe strawberries o'er their head. — P. H. 



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Weimar in 1849-50 from sketches made in earlier years, and this 
statement seems to be the correct one. 

Ramann tells the following story about the origin of "The Pre- 
ludes." Liszt, it seems, began to compose at Paris, about 1844, 
choral music for a poem by Aubray, and the work was entitled "Les 
4 Elements (la Terre, les Aquilons, les Flots, les Astres)."* The 
cold stupidity of the poem discouraged him, and he did not com- 
plete the cantata. He told his troubles to Victor Hugo, in the hope 
that the poet would take the hint and write for him ; but Hugo did 
not or would not understand his meaning, so Liszt put the music 
aside. Early in 1854 he thought of using the abandoned work for 
a Pension Fund concert of the Court Orchestra at Weimar, and it 
then occurred to him to make the music, changed and enlarged, 
illustrative of a passage in Lamartine's "Nouvelles Meditations 
poetiques," XV me Meditation: "Les Preludes," dedicated to Victor 
Hugo. 

The symphonic poem "Les Preludes" was performed for the first 
time in the Grand Ducal Court Theatre, Weimar, at a concert for 
the Pension Fund of the widows and orphans of deceased members 
of the Court Orchestra on February 23, 1854. Liszt conducted from 
manuscript. At this concert Liszt introduced for the first time 
"Gesang an die Kunstler" in its revised edition and also led Schu- 
mann's Symphony No. 4 and the concerto for four horns. 

Liszt revised "Les Preludes'' in 1853 or 1854. The score was pub- 
lished in May, 1856 ; the orchestral parts, in January, 1865. 

The alleged passage from Lamartine that serves as a motto has 
thus been Englished : — 

"What is our life but a series of preludes to that unknown song, 
the first solemn note of which is sounded by death ? Love forms the 
enchanted daybreak of every life; but what is the destiny where 
the first delights of happiness are not interrupted by some storm, 
whose fatal breath dissipates its fair illusions, whose fell lightning 
consumes its altar? and what wounded spirit, when one of its 
tempests is over, does not seek to rest its memories in the sweet 
calm of country life? Yet man does not resign himself long to enjoy 
the beneficent tepidity which first charmed him on Nature's bosom ; 
and when 'the trumpet's loud clangor has called him to arms,' he 
rushes to the post of danger, whatever may be the war that calls 
him to the ranks to find in battle the full consciousness of himself 
and the complete possession of his strength." There is little in 
Lamartine's poem that suggests this preface. The quoted passage 
beginning "The trumpet's loud clangor" is Lamartine's "La trom- 
pette a jete le signal des alarmes." 

"The Preludes" is scored for three flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass 
tuba, a set of three kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, cymbals, 
harp, and strings. 

*"Les 4 filaments" were designed for a male chorus. "La Terre" was composed 
at Lisbon and Malaga, April, 1845 ; "Les Flots," at Valence, Easter Sunday, 1845 ; 
"Les Astres," on April 14, 1848. The manuscript of "Les Aquilons" in the Liszt 
Museum at Weimar is not dated. Raff wrote to Mme. Heinrich in January, 1850, 
of his share in the Instrumentation and making a clean score of an overture "Die 4 
Elemente" for Liszt. Liszt in June, 1851, wrote to Raff over the question whether this 
work should be entitled "Meditation" Symphony, and this title stands on a hand- 
written score. « 

28 



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PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 1, at 8.15 

AND THE 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 3, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

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PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



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CARNEGIE HALL NEW YORK 

Thirty-seventh Season in New York 



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Forty-second Season. 1922-1923 
PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Berlioz 
Brahms 



THIRD CONCERT 



THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 1 
AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



. Overture, "Benvenuto Cellini," Op. 23 

. Concerto in D major for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 77 

I. Allegro non troppo. 
II. Adagio. 
III. Allegro giocoso, ma non troppo vivace. 



Franck 



Ravel 



Symphonic Poem: "Le Chasseur Maudit" 
("The Wild Huntsman") 

Rapsodie Espagnole 



I. Prelude a la Nuit. 

II. Malaguena. 

III. Habanera. 

IV. Feria (The Fair). 



Smetana 



Symphonic Poem, "Vltava" ("The Moldau") 
from "Ma Vlast" ("My Country"), No. 2 



SOLOIST 
GEORGES ENESCO 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the concerto 

5 



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Overture to the Opkka "Benvenuto Cellini" Op. 23 

Hector Berlioz 

(Born at La CCte-Saint-Andre, December 11, 1S03 ; died at Paris, March 9, 1869.) 

This overture was composed at Paris early in 1838; probably in 
January of that year. The first performance was at the first per- 
formance of the opera at the Opera, Paris, September 10, 1838. 

The opera was originally in two acts; the libretto was by 
L6on de Wailly and Auguste Barbier. The cast of the first per- 
formance was as follows: Benvenuto Cellini, Duprez; Giacomo 
Balducci,* Derivis ; Fieramosca, Massol ; le Cardinal Salviati, 
Serda; Francesco, Wartel; Bernardino, Ferdinand Prevost; Pom- 
peo, Molinier; un Cabaretier, Trevaux; Teresa, Mme. Dorus-Gras; 
Ascanio, Mme. Stoltz. 

The story has been condemned as weak and foolish. It is also 
wholly fictitious. It is enough to say that in 1532 Cellini is in 
Rome, called thither by the Pope. He falls in love with Teresa, 
the daughter of Balducci, an old man, who favors another suitor, 
Fieramosca, the Pope's sculptor. Cellini attempts to elope with 
her, and neglects work on his Perseus, which he at last finishes in 
an hour's time, fired by the promise of Cardinal Salviati to reward 
him with the hand of Teresa. It should also be said that Cellini 
and his pupils and friends are disgusted early in the opera at a 
paltry sum of money given to Cellini by the Pope through Ascanio, 
but only after he had promised solemnly to complete the statue 
of Perseus. They decided to revenge themselves on the stingy and 
avaricious treasurer, Balducci, by impersonating him in the theatre. 
Fieramosca, who has overheard the plot, calls in the help of Pompeo, 
a bravo, and they plan to outwit Cellini by adopting the same 
costumes that he and his pupil Ascaniot will wear. The pantomime 
of "King Midas" is acted, and Balducci, among the spectators, rec- 
ognizes the king in a caricature of himself. He advances to lay 
hands on the actor; Cellini profits by the confusion to go towards 
Teresa, but Fieramosca also comes up, and Teresa cannot dis- 
tinguish her lover on account of the similarity of the masks. Cellini 
stabs Pompeo. He is arrested, and the people are about to kill 

*lt is true that there was a Giacopo Balducci at Rome, the Master of the Mint. 
Cellini describes him "that traitor of a master, being in fact my enemy" ; but he had 
no daughter loved by Cellini. The statue of Perseus was modelled and cast at Florence 
in 1545, after this visit to Rome, for the Duke Cosimo de' Medici. Nor does Ascanio, 
the apprentice, figure in the scenes at Florence. 

fThe librettists originally introduced Pope Clement VII. The censor obliged them 
to substitute a Cardinal. Berlioz wrote to his sister Ade4e on July 12, 1838, "It would, 
however, have been curious to see Clement VII. at loggerheads with Clement VII." For 
Clement's quarrel with Benvenuto and scenes with Salviati, "that beast of a Cardinal," 
see J. A. Symonds's translation of "The Life of Benvenuto Cellini" New York, 1890, 
pages 124—139. His Holiness took Benvenuto into favor again, and when he died soon 
afterwards, Benvenuto, putting on his arms and girding his sword, went to San 
Piero and kissed the feet of the dead Pope, "not without shedding tears." 



him, when the cannon-shots announce that it is Ash Wednesday. 
The lights are turned out, and Cellini escapes. 

The thematic material of the overture, as that of "Le Carnaval 
Rc-main," originally intended by Berlioz to be played as an intro- 
duction to the second act of "Benvenuto Cellini/' but first performed 
at a concert in Paris, February 3, 1884, is taken chiefly from the 
opera. 

The overture opens, Allegro deciso con impeto, G major, 2-2, with 
the joyful chief theme. This theme is hardly stated in full when 
there is a moment of dead silence. 

The Larghetto, G major, 3-4, that follows, begins with music of 
the Cardinal's address in the last act: "A tous peches pleine in- 
dulgence." (The original tonality is D-flat major.) This is followed 
by a melody from the "Ariette d'Arlequin"* (wood- wind and also 
violins ) ., 

The main body of the overture begins with the return of the first 
and joyous theme, Allegro deciso con impeto, G major, 2-2, which 
is somewhat modified. The second motive is a cantabile melody in 
D major, 2-2, sung by wood-wind instruments. This cantilena has 
reference to Cellini's love for Teresa. 

The fourth performance of the opera was in January, 1839. 
Alexander Dupont had succeeded Duprez; Josephina Nau, Mme. 
Dorus-Gras. The opera did not draw. Not until 1913 (March 31) 
was there a revival in Paris (Theatre des Champs-Ely sees) ; Teresa, 
Mile. Vorska; Benvenuto, Lapelleterie ; Ascanio, Judith Lassalle. 
Felix Weingartner conducted. But in Germany the opera was pro- 
duced at Weimar in 1856 ; by Btilow at Hanover in 1879 ; and it has 
been performed in many German cities. 

The overture is scored for two flutes (the second is inter- 
changeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets (the second is 
interchangeable with bass clarinet), four bassoons, four horns, two 
trumpets, two cornets-a-pistons, three trombones, ophicleide, a set 
of three kettledrums (played by three players), bass drum, cymbals, 
triangle and strings. 

*The little air of Harlequin in the Carnival scene, the finale of the second act 
(later edition), is played by the orchestra, while the people watching the pantomime 
sing : — , 

Regardons bien Maitre Arlequin, 

C'est un fameux t6nor romain. 
The original tonality is D major. 



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Concerto in D Major, for Violin, Op. 77 . . . Johannes Brahms 
(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.) 

This concerto was written during- the summer and fall of 1878, 
at Portschach on Lake Worther in Carinthia, for Joseph Joachim, 
dedicated to him, and first played by him under the direction of the 
composer at a Gewandhaus concert, Leipsic, on January 1, 1879. 

Brahms, not confident of his ability to write with full intelligence 
for the solo violin, was aided greatly by Joachim, who, it appears 
from the correspondence between him and Brahms, gave advice 
inspired by his own opinions concerning the violinist's art. 

The concerto was originally in four movements. It contained a 
Scherzo which was thrown overboard. Max Kalbeck, the biographer 
of Brahms, thinks it highly probable that it found its way into the 
second pianoforte concerto. The Adagio was so thoroughly revised 
that it was practically new. 

Joachim complained of the "unaccustomed difficulties." As late 
as April 1879, when he had played the concerto at Leipsic, Vienna, 
Budapest, Cologne, and London he suggested changes which Brahms 
accepted. Kalbeck says of the first performance: "The work was 
heard respectfully, but it did not awaken a bit of enthusiasm. It 
seemed that Joachim had not sufficiently studied the concerto or he 
was severely indisposed." Brahms conducted in a state of evident 
excitement. A comic incident came near being disastrous. The 
composer stepped on the stage in gray street trousers, for on account 
of a visit he had been hindered in making a complete change of 
dress. Furthermore he forgot to fasten again the unbuttoned sus- 
penders, so that in consequence of his lively directing his shirt 
showed between his trousers and waistcoat. "These laughter-pro- 
voking trifles were not calculated for elevation of mood." 

"The Wild Huntsman," Symphonic Poem. 

Cesar Auguste Franck 
(Born at Liege, December 10, 1822; died at Paris, November 8, 1890.) 

"Le Chasseur Maudit," composed in 1883, was played for the first 
time at a concert of the Societe Nationale, Paris, March 31, 1883. 



IONE PLAZA 6258 AFTERNOON TEA 



It was performed at a Pasdeloup concert in Paris, January 13, 1884. 
The first performance in the United States was at Cincinnati, Jan- 
uary 29, 1898. 

The composition is based on Burger's ballad, "Der wilde Jager." 
The argument in prose is printed on the fly-leaf of the score. This 
argument may be Englished as follows: — 

'"Twas a Sunday morning; far away resounded the joyous sound of bells 
and the joyous chants of the crowd. . . . Sacrilege ! The savage Count of the 
Rhine has winded his horn. 

"Hallo ! Hallo ! The chase rushes over cornfields, moors and meadows. — 
'Stop, Count, I entreat you; hear the pious chants.' — No! Hallo! Hallo! — 
'Stop, Count, I implore you ; take care.' — No ! and the riders rush on like a 
whirlwind. 

"Suddenly the Count is alone ; his horse refuses to go on ; the Count would 
wind his horn, but the horn no longer sounds. ... A dismal, implacable voice 
curses him : 'Sacrilegious man,' it cries, 'be forever hunted by Hell !' 

"Then flames flash all around him. . . . The Count, terror-stricken, flees 
faster and ever faster, pursued by a pack of demons ... by day across 
abysses, by night through the air." 

This symphonic poem is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, four bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two cornets- 
a-pistons, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, 
two bells, cymbals, triangle, bass drum, and strings. 

It is divided into four sections : the portrayal of the peaceful 
landscape, the religious chorus, the Sunday scene; the hunt; the 
curse; the infernal chase. 

The symphonic poem begins Andantino quasi allegretto, G major, 
3-4, with a horn theme, which in various forms is heard throughout 
the composition. Violoncellos intone a religious melody over an 
organ-point. The horns are heard again. Bells peal. The sacred 
song grows in strength until it is proclaimed by the full orchestra. 

G minor, 9-8. Enter the Count and his crew. The horns sound 
in unison the chief theme, which is repeated in harmony and softly 
by the wood-wind instruments. There is a musical description of 
the chase, and fresh thematic material is introduced. There are 
the voices of complaining peasants. 

The Count is alone. In vain he tries to wind his horn. An un- 
earthly voice is heard (bass tuba), then the curse is thundered 
out. The pace grows faster and faster till the end. The Infernal 
Hunt : new motives are added to the chief theme, and much use is 
made of the Count's wild horn call. 



The legend of the Wild Hunter and the Wild Chase is old, wide- 
spread, and there are many versions. The one most familiar to 
English readers is that on which Burger founded (1785?) his 
ballad, "Der wilde Jager," imitated by Sir Walter Scott in "The 

10 



Wild Huntsman" (1796). One Hackenberg, or llncklenberg, a lord 
in the Dromling, was passionately fond of hunting, even on the 
Lord's Day ; and he forced the peasants to turn out with him. On 
a Sunday he was a-hunting with his pack and retainers, when two 
strange horsemen joined him. 

Who was each Stranger, left and right, 

Well may I guess, but dare not tell ; 
The right-hand steed was silver white, 

The left, the swarthy hue of hell. 

The right-hand Horseman, young and fair , 

His smile was like the morn of May. 
The left, from eye of tawny glare, ; 

Shot midnight lightning's lurid ray. 

Hackenberg scouted the idea of worship, and bunted with his 
new and swarthy acquaintance across the field of husbandman, 
o'er moss and moor; he heeded not the cries of the widow and the 
orphan ; he chased the stag into the holy chapel of a hermit. Sud- 
denly, after he had blasphemed against God, there was an awful 
silence. In vain he tried to wind his horn; there was no baying 
of his hounds; and a voice thundered from a cloud: "The measure 
of thy cup is full; be chased forever through the wood.'- Misbe- 
gotten hounds of hell uprose from the bowels of the earth. 

What ghastly Huntsman next arose, 

Well may I guess, but dare not tell ; 
His eye like midnight lightning glows, 

His steed the swarthy hue of hell. 

The Wildgrave flies o'er bush and thorn, 

With many a shriek of helpless wo ; 
Behind him hound, and horse, and horn, 

And "Hark away, and holla, ho !" 



Kapsodie Espagnole Joseph Maurice Ravel 

(Born at Ciboure, Basses Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; now living in France.) 

The "Rapsodie Espagnole," dedicated to "Mon cher Maitre, 
Charles de Beriot," was completed in 1907 and published in the fol- 
lowing year. It was performed for the first time at a Colonne con- 







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cert in Paris, March 15, 1908. The Rhapsody was enthusiastically 
received, and the second movement was repeated. The enthusiasm 
was manifested chiefly in the gallery, where some perfervid student 
shouted to the conductor after the Malaguena had been repeated, 
"Play it once more for those downstairs who have not understood 
it." And at the end of the Rhapsody the same person shouted to the 
occupants of subscribers' seats, "If it had been something by Wagner 
you would have found it very beautiful." 

The Rhapsody was performed by the Theodore Thomas Orchestra 
in Chicago on November 12, 13, 1909. 

The Rhapsody is scored for two piccolos, two flutes, two oboes, 
English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, sarruso- 
phone, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set 
of four kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, side drum, triangle, tam- 
bourine, gong, xylophone, celesta, two harps, and the usual strings. 

It is really a suite in four movements : Prelude a la Nuit, Mala- 
guena, Habanera, Feria. 

I. Prelude a la Nuit. Tres modere, A minor, 3-4. The movement 
as a whole is based on a figure given at the beginning to muted vio- 
lins and violas. The second movement follows immediately. 

II. Malaguena. Assez vif, A minor, 3-4. The Malaguena, with 
the Rodeila, is classed with the Fandango : "A Spanish dance in 
3-8 time, of moderate movement (allegretto), with accompaniment 
of guitar and castanets. It is performed between rhymed verses, 
during the singing of which the dance stops.' 7 The castanet rhythm 
may be described as on a scheme of two measures, 3-8 time; the 
first of each couple of measures consisting of an eighth, four thirty- 
seconds, and an eighth; and the second, of four thirty-seconds and 
two eighths. The word itself is applied to a popular air charac- 
teristic of Malaga, but Richard Ford described the women of Malaga, 
"las Malagueiias," as "very bewitching." Mrs. Grove says the dance 
shares with the Fandango the rank of the principal dance of An- 
dalusia. "It is sometimes called the Flamenco,* a term which in 
Spain signifies gay and lively when applied to song or dance. It is 
said to have originated with the Spanish occupation of Flanders. 
Spanish soldiers who had been quartered in the Netherlands were 

•"Flamenco" in Spanish means flamingo. Mrs. Grove here speaks of the tropical 
use of the word. A lyric drama, "La Flamenca," libretto by Cain and Adenis, music 
by Lucien Lambert, was produced at the Gaite\ Paris, October 30, 1903. ' The heroine 
is a concert-hall singer. The scene is Havana in 1807. The plot is based on the revo- 
lutionary history of the time. Mr. Jackson, an American who is helping the insurgents, 
is one of the chief characters in the tragedy. The composer told a Parisian reporter 
before the performance that no place was more picturesque than Havana during the 
struggle between "the ancient Spanish race, the young Cubans, and the rude Yankees 
so unlike the two other nations" ; that the opera would contain "Spanish songs of a 
proud and lively nature, Creole airs languorous with love, and rude and frank Yankee 
Bongs." The Last-named were to be sung by an insurgent or "rough rider." The singer 
at t lie Caf6 Flamenco was impersonated by Mme. Marie Thi6ry. The opera was per- 
formed eight times. 

12 



styled Flamencos. When they returned to their native land, it was 
usually with a full purse; generous entertainment and jollity fol- 
lowed as a matter of course." In 1882 Chabrier visited Spain with 
his wife.* Travelling there, he wrote amusing letters to the pub- 
lisher Costallat. These letters were published in S. I. M., a musical 
magazine (Paris: Nos. January 15 and February 15, 1909). Wish- 
ing to know the true Spanish dances, Chabrier with his wife went 
at night to ball-rooms where the company was mixed. As he wrote in 
a letter from Seville: "The gypsies sing their malaguenas or dance 
the tango, and the manzanilla is passed from band to hand and every 
one is forced to drink it. These eyes, these flowers in the admirable 
heads of hair, these shawls knotted about the body, these feet that 
strike an infinitely varied rhythm, these arms that run shivering 
the length of a body always in motion, these undulations of the 
hands, these brilliant smiles . . . and all this to the cry of 'Olle, Olle, 
an da la Maria! Anda la Chiquita! Eso es! Baile la Carmen! 
Anda! Anda!' shouted by the other women and the spectators! 
However, the two guitarists, grave persons, cigarette in mouth, keep 
on scratching something or other in three time. (The tango alone 
is in two time.) The cries of the women excite the dancer, who 

becomes literally mad of her body. It's unheard of ! Last evening, 
two painters went with us and made sketches, and I had some music 
paper in my hand. We had all the dancers around us; the singers 
sang their songs to me, squeezed my hand and Alice's and went 
away, and then we were obliged to drink out of the same glass. 
Ah,, it was a fine thing indeed! He has really seen nothing who 
has not seen two or three Andalusians twisting their hips eternally 
to the beat and to the measure of Anda! Anda! Anda! and the 
eternal clapping of hands. They beat with a marvellous instinct 
3-4 in contra-rhythm while the guitar peacefully follows its own 
rhythm. As the others beat the strong beat of each measure, each 
beating somewhat according to caprice, there is a most curious blend 
of rhythms, I have noted it all — but what a trade, my children." 
In another letter Chabrier wrote: "I have not seen a really ugly 
woman since I have been in Andalusia. I do not speak of their 
feet; they are so little that I have never seen them. Their hands 
are small and the arm exquisitely moulded. Then add the ara- 
besques, the beaux-catchers and other ingenious arrangements of the 
hair, the inevitable fan, the flowers on the hair with the comb on 
one side !" 

In Ravel's Malagueiia there is at the beginning a figure for the 
double-basses repeated as though it were a ground bass. The key 
changes to D major, and there is a new musical thought expressed 
by muted trumpet accompanied by the tambourine and pizzicato 
chords. After a climax there is a pause. The English horn has a 
solo in recitative. The rhythmic figure of the opening movement 

*His wife was Alice Dejean, daughter of a theatre manager. The wedding was In 
1873. 

13 



is suggested by the celesta and solo strings. The figure in the basses 
returns with chromatic figures for flutes and clarinets. 

III. Habanera. Assez lent et d'un rythme las, 2-4. Ravel wrote 
in 1895 a Habanera for two pianofortes, four hands. This was 
utilized in the composition of the Habanera in the Rhapsody. The 
chief subject enters in the wood-wind after a short introduction in 
which the clarinet has an important syncopated figure. The solo 
viola continues the theme; the strings repeat the opening section. 
To wood-wind instruments and the first harp is given a new idea 
rhythmed by the tambourine, while the strings are busied with the 
syncopated figure. This theme is worked out till nearly the end, 
which is brought by harmonics for the harp, with the syncopated 
rhythm in the first violins and at last for the celesta. 

Few histories or encyclopaedias of the dance mention the Haba- 
nera. Mr. H. V. Hamilton contributed the article about this dance to 
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Revised Edition). He 
says that it is a Spanish song and dance of an older origin than 
its name implies ; that it was introduced into Cuba by negroes from 
Africa, and from Cuba went to Spain. 

Neither the academic Desrat in his "Dictionnaire de la Danse" 
nor the eloquent Vuillier in his history of dancing mentions the 
Habanera. Richard Ford, who knew Spain perhaps better than 
the Spaniards, had much to say about the Jota of Aragon, the 
Bolero, the Galician and Asturian dances, "the Comparsas," or 
national quadrilles, but he did not name the Habanera. Did he 
have it in mind when he described a gypsy dance, the "dance which 
is closely analogous to the Ghowasee of the Egyptians and the 
Nautch of the Hindous"? It is the Ole of the Spaniards, the Ro- 
malis of the gypsies. "The ladies, who seem to have no bones, re- 
solve the problem of perpetual motion, their feet having compara- 
tively a sinecure, as the whole person performs a pantomime, and 
trembles like an aspen leaf ; the flexible form and Terpsichore figure 
of a young Andalusian girl — be she gypsy or not — is said by the 
learned to have been designed by nature as the fit frame for her 
voluptuous imagination."* 

Nor did the Spanish dancers who, visiting Paris in the late thirties 
of the nineteenth century, inspired Theophile Gautier to write dithy- 
rambs in prose, dance the Habanera ; neither Mesdames Fabiani nor 
Dolores Tesrai ; nor did Mile. Noblet, who followed Fanny Elssler in 
imitating Dolores, dance the Habanera. The two Spanish dances 
that were then the rage were the Bolero and the Cachucha. 

Perhaps the Habanera came from Africa. Perhaps after a sea 
voyage it went from Cuba into Spain. f The word is generally 
known chiefly by reason of Chabrier's pianoforte piece and the 
entrance song of Carmen. 

IV. Feria (The Fair). Assez anime, C major, 6-8. The move- 
ment is in three parts. The first section is based on two musical 
ideas: the first, two measures long, is announced by the flute; 

*For other entertaining matter about Spanish dances see Richard Ford's "Gather- 
ings from Spain," pp. 349—356 (Everyman's Library). 

fSee "Afro-American Folk-Songs," by II. E. Krehbiel (New York, 1914), pp. 59, 
OH, 93, 114, 3 15. 

14 



the second by three muted trumpets Hivt limed by a tambourine. 
oboes and English horn repeat the figure, and the xylophone gives 
rhythm. Finally the full orchestra fortissimo takes up the thematic 
idea. The second section opens with a solo for the English horn. 
The solo is continued by the clarinet. The material of the third 
section is that of the opening part of the movement. 



Symphonic Poem "Vltava'' ("The Moldau"), from "Ma Vlast" 
("My Country") No. 2 Friedrich Smetana 

(Born at Leitomischl, Bohemia, March 2, 1824; died in the mad-house at 

Prague, May 12, 1884. ) 

Smetana, a Czech of the Czechs, purposed to make his country 
familiar and illustrious in the eyes of strangers by his cycle of sym- 
phonic poems, "M& Vlast" ("My Country"). The cycle was dedi- 
cated to the town of Prague. "The Moldau," composed in 1874 
and performed for the first time at Zofin on April 4, 1875, is the 
second of the six symphonic poems. 

The first performance of the cycle as a whole was at a concert for 
Smetana's benefit at Prague, November 5, 1882. 

The following Preface*"" is printed on a page of the score of "The 
Moldau" :— 

Two springs gush forth in the shade of the Bohemian Forest, the one warm 
and spouting, the other cold and tranquil. Their waves, gayly rushing 
onward over their rocky beds, unite and glisten in the rays of the morning 
sun. The forest brook, fast hurrying on, becomes the river Vltava (Moldau), 
which, flowing ever on through Bohemia's valleys, grows to be a mighty 
stream : it flows through thick woods in which the joyous noise of the hunt 
and the notes of the hunter's horn are heard ever nearer and nearer ; it flows 
through grass-grown pastures and lowlands where a wedding feast is cele- 
brated with song and dancing. At night the wood and water nymphs revel 
in its shining waves, in which many fortresses and castles are reflected as 
witnesses of the past glory of knighthood, and the vanished warlike fame of 
bygone ages. At the St. John Rapids the stream rushes on, winding in and 
out through the cataracts, and hews out a path for itself with its foaming 
waves through the rocky chasm into the broad river bed in which it flows on 
in majestic repose toward Prague, welcomed by time-honored Vysehrad, where- 
upon it vanishes in the far distance from the poet's gaze. 

♦The translation into English is by W. F. Apthorp. 






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THIRD MATINEE 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 3 

AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 

Overture to "The Flying Dutchman" 
Prelude to "Lohengrin" 

Prelude to "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg" 
Prelude and Love-Death, "Tristan and Isolde" 



WAGNER 



Wotan's Farewell and Magic Fire Music (Close of "The 
Valkyrie") 

Wotan — CLARENCE WHITEHILL 

Siegfried's Ascent to Bruennhilde's Rock (Siegfried); 
Morning Dawn, Siegfried's Rhine Journey and Close of 
"Dusk of the Gods'' 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the "Prelude and Love-Death" 



17 



Overture to "The Flying Dutchman" ("Der fliegende Hol- 
laender") Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The overture is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, English 
horn, two clarinets, four horns, two bassoons, two trumpets, three 
trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, harp, strings. 

It was sketched at Meudon near Paris in September, 1841, and 
completed and scored at Paris in November of that year. In 1852 
Wagner changed the ending. In 1860 he wrote another ending for 
the Paris concerts. 

It opens Allegro con brio in D minqr, 6-4, with an empty fifth, 
against which horns and bassoons give out the Flying Dutchman 
motive. There is a stormy development, through which this motive 
is kept sounding in the brass. There is a hint at the first theme of 
the main body of the overture, an arpeggio figure in the strings, 
taken from the accompaniment of one of the movements in the 
Dutchman's first air in act i. This storm section over, there is an 
episodic Andante in F major in which wind instruments give out 
phrases from Senta's ballad of the Flying Dutchman (act iii). The 
episode leads directly to the main body of the overture, Allegro 
con brio in D minor, 6-4, which begins with the first theme. This 
theme is developed at great length with chromatic passages taken 
from Senta's ballad. The Flying Dutchman theme comes in epi- 
sodically in the brass from time to time. The subsidiary theme 
in F major is taken from the sailors' chorus, "Steuercnann, lass' 
die Wacht!" (act iii.). The second theme, the phrase from Senta's 
ballad already heard in the Andante episode, enters ff in the full 
orchestra, F major, and is worked up brilliantly with fragments of 



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the first theme. The Plying Dutchman motive reappears IJ in the 
trombones. The coda begins in 1) major, 2-2. A few rising .arpeggio 
measures in the violins load to the second theme, proclaimed with 
the full force of the orchestra. The theme is now in the shape found 
in the Allegro peroration of Senta's ballad, and is worked up with 
great energy. 

Wagner revised the score in 1852. "Only where it was purely 
superfluous have 1 struck out some of the brass, here and there 
given a somewhat more human tone, and only thoroughly over- 
hauled the coda of the overture. I remember that it was just this 
coda which always annoyed me at the performances; now I think it 
will answer to my original intention." In another letter he says 
that he " considerably remodelled the overture (especially the con- 
cluding section)." 

The opera — in three acts — was produced at the Court Opera House, Dres- 
den, January 2, 1843. Senta, Mme. Schroeder-Devrient ; The Dutchman, 
Michael Wiichter ; Daland, Karl Risse ; Erik, Reinhold ; Mary, Mme. Wachter ; 
the steersman, Bielezizky. Wagner conducted. 

The first performance in America was in Italian, "II Vascello Fantasma," 
at Philadelphia, November 8, 1876, by Mme. Pappenheim's Company. 



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Prelude to "Lohengrin" Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

Wagner began to sketch his opera "Lohengrin" in the summer 
of 1845 at Marienbad. The whole work was completed in 1847; 
it was produced on August 28, 1850,* by Liszt at the Court theatre 
at Weimar. 

The prelude to the first act was composed August 28, 1847, 
at Dresden. The first concert interpretation took place at Leipsic, 
January 17, 1853, at a performance given for the benefit of the 
Gewandhaus orchestra (Leipsic) pension fund. Julius Rietz was 
the conductor. Wagner directed the prelude at a concert given by 
him in the Zurich theatre May 18, 1853. Stating his reasons for 
giving this concert, Wagner wrote thus to Liszt, May 30, 1853 : "My 
chief object was to hear something from ' Lohengrin,' and especially 
the orchestral prelude, which interested me uncommonly. The 
impression was most powerful, and I had to make every effort 
not to break down. So much is certain : I fully share your pre- 
dilection for 'Lohengrin.' It is the best thing I have done so far." 

Wagner and Liszt wrote programme analyses of the prelude. 
The following is a transcription — compressed by Ernest Newman — 
of Wagner's version. 

"Out of the clear blue ether of the sky there seems to condense a won- 
derful, yet at first hardly perceptible vision ; and out of this there gradually 
emerges, ever more and more clearly, an angel host bearing in its midst the 
sacred Grail. As it approaches earth it pours out exquisite odors, like streams 
of gold, ravishing the senses of the beholder. The glory of the vision grows 
and grows until it seems as if the rapture must be shattered and dispersed by 
the very vehemence of its own expansion. The vision draws nearer, and the 

*The cast was as follows : Lohengrin, Beck ; Telramund, Milde ; King Henry, Hofer ; 
the Herald, Patsch ; Ortrud, Miss Fastlinger ; Elsa, Miss Agthe. 



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climax is reached when at last the Grail is revealed in all its glorious reality, 
radiating fiery beams and shaking the soul with emotion. The beholder 
sinks on his knees in adoring self-annihilation. The Grail pours out its light 
on him like a benedietion, and consecrates him to its service; then the flames 
gradually die away, and the angel host soars up again to the ethereal heights 
in tender joy, having made pure once more the hearts of men by the sacred 
blessings of the Grail." 

The first performance of "Lohengrin" in German in the United 
States was at the Stadt Theatre, New York, April 3, 1871. Adolf 
Neuendorff conducted. The cast was as follows : Lohengrin, Habel- 
mann; Telramund, Vierling; King Henry, Franosch ; the Herald, 
W. Formes; Ortrud, Mme. Frederici; Elsa, Mme. Lichtmay. The 
first performance in Italian was at the Academy of Music, March 
23, 1874; Lohengrin, Campanini; Telramund, del Puente; King 
Henry, Nannetti ; the Herald, Blum ; Ortrud, Miss Cary ; Elsa, Miss 
Mlsson. 



Prelude to "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg" 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The Prelude to "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg" was performed 
for the first time at Leipsic, November 1, 1862. At a concert orga- 
nized by Wendlin Weissheimer, opera conductor at Wiirzburg and 
Mayence, and composer, for the production of certain works, Wagner 
conducted this Prelude and the overture to "Tannhauser." The hall 
was nearly empty, but the Prelude w r as received with so much favor 



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21 



that it was immediately played a second time. The opera was first 
performed at Munich, June 21, 1868.* 

This Prelude is in reality a broadly developed overture in the 
classic form. It may be divided into four distinct parts, which are 
closely knit together. 

1. An initial period, moderato, in the form of a march built on 
four chief themes, combined in various ways. The tonality of C 
major is well maintained. 

2. A second period, in E major, of lyrical character, fully de- 
veloped, and in a way the centre of the composition. 

3. An intermediate episode after the fashion of a scherzo, devel- 
oped from the initial theme, treated in diminution and in fugued 
style. 

4. A revival of the lyric theme, combined this time simultane- 
ously with the two chief themes of the first period, which leads to a 
coda wherein the initial phrase is introduced in the manner of a 
stretto. 

The idea of the opera occurred to Wagner at Marienbad in 1845, 
but the scenario then sketched differed widely from the one adopted. 
Wagner worked on the music at Biebrich in 1862. 

The Prelude is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clari- 
nets, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba, kettledrums, triangle, cymbals, harp, and the usual 
strings. 



Prelude and " Love-Death" from " Tristan and Isolde" 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The subject of " Tristan und Isolde" was first mentioned by Wagner 
in a letter to Liszt in the latter part of 1854; the poem was written at 
Zurich in the summer of 1857, and finished in September of that year. 
The composition of the first act was completed at Zurich, December 31, 
1857 (some say, but only in the sketch) ; the second act was completed 
at Venice in March, 1859; the third act at Lucerne in August, 1859. 

This "action" in three parts was performed for the first time at the 

♦The chief singers at this first performance at the Royal Court Theatre, Munich, 
were Betz, Hans Sachs ; Bausewein, Pogner ; Holzel, Beckmesser ; Schlosser, David ; 
Nachbaur, Walther von Stolzing ; Miss Mallinger, Eva ; Mme. Diez, Magdalene. The 
first performance in the United States was at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, 
January 4, 1886 ; Emil Fischer, Sachs ; Joseph Staudigl, Pogner ; Otto Kemlitz, Beck- 
messer ; Kramer, David; Albert Stritt, Walther von Stolzing; Auguste Krauss (Mrs. 
Anton Seidl), Eva; Marianne Brandt, Magdalene. 

22 



CARNEGIE HALL 



SEASON 1922-1923 



Thursday Evening, March 15, 1923, at 8. 1 5 

Saturday Afternoon, March 17, 1923, at 2.30 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



NOTE: The Programmes of the Evening and the Afternoon Concerts 

are entirely different. 



23 



Royal Court Theatre, Munich, June 10, 1865.* The first performance 
in America was at the Metropolitan, New York, December 1, 1886. f 

The Prelude and the Love-Death were performed in concerts before 
the production of the opera at Munich. The Prelude was played for 
the first time at Prague, March 12, 1859, and Biilow, who conducted, 
composed a close for concert purposes. It was stated on the programme 
that the Prelude was performed " through the favor of the composer." 
The Prelude was also played at Leipsic, June 1, 1859. Yet, when 
Johann Herbeck asked later in the year permission to perform it in 
Vienna, Wagner wrote him from Paris that the performance at Leipsic 
was against his wish, and that, as soon as Herbeck knew the piece, he 
would understand why Wagner considered it unsuitable for concert 
purposes. And then Wagner put the Prelude on the programme of his 
concert given in Paris, January 25, 1860, and arranged the ending. 

Wagner himself frequently conducted the Prelude and Love-Death, 
arranged by him for orchestra alone, in the concerts given by him in 
1863. At those given in Carlsruhe and Lowenberg the programme 
characterized the Prelude as "Liebestod" and the latter section, now 
known as "Liebestod," as "Verklarung" (" Transfiguration"). 

The Prelude, Langsam und schmachtend (slow and languishingly), 
in A minor, 6-8, is a gradual and long-continued crescendo to a most 
sonorous fortissimo; a shorter decrescendo leads back to pianissimo. 
It is free in form and of continuous development. There are two chief 
themes: the first phrase, sung by violoncellos, is combined in the third 
measure with a phrase ascending chromatically and given to the oboes. 

These phrases form a theme known as the Love Potion motive, or the 
motive of Longing; for passionate commentators are not yet agreed 
about the terminology. The second theme again sung by the violon- 
cellos, a voluptuous theme, is entitled Tristan's Love Glance. 

The Prelude is scored for three flutes (one interchangeable with 
piccolo), two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, three 
bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, and the usual strings. 

This Prelude was performed here at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society on March 10, 1866. 



ENTR'ACTE 

SCRIABIN AND STRAVINSKY 

(London Times) 

Two musicians coming away from M. Kussevitsky's concert a week 
ago were discussing Scriabin and Stravinsky. One explained why the 
Poem of Ecstasy is music and the fragments from Petrushka, heard 
just before it, are not music. His companion did not seem wholly con- 
vinced, but the conversation gave an instance of a contrast in attitude 
towards these two composers, which is fairly general. Scriabin makes 

♦Tristan, Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld; Kurvenal, Mitterwurzer; Melot, Heinrich; Marke, 
Zuttmayer; Isolde, Mme. Schnorr von Carolsfeld; Brangane, Miss Deinet. Hans von Billow 
conducted. 

fTristan, Albert Niemann; Kurvenal, Adolf Robinson; Melot, Rudolph von Milder; Marke, 
Emil Fischer; Isolde, Lilli Lehrnann; Brangane, Marianne Brandt; Ein Hirt, Otto Kemlitz; Stsuer- 
inami, Emil Sanger; Socman, Max Alvary. Anton Seidl conducted. 

24 



assionate converts; to the true believers he is "the master*." Others 
who speak a different language, or who use the musical language for 
different ends, pale before him. They are not, where he is. Such an 
one necessarily produces antagonisms, aimed less at himself than at 
the white-hot propaganda of the disciples. There is already a fairly 
vigorous reaction from Scriabin, led not by such old-fashioned folk as 
ourselves, who still sometimes wonder whether it is not rather a pity 
that Monteverde (or whoever it was) ever struck a chord of the dominant 
seventh at all, but by leaders of the new movement, who regard him as 
a particularly unhealthy mixture of pedantry and hysteria. For them 
Stravinsky is the man, but he is not "the master." They do not set 
him up as a rival to the other; they could not, since their opposition 
is directed not only against the cult of Scriabin, but against all cults, 
and, most of all, against the dogma that one S wrote music and another 
S does not. Music, they would say, if they could concede so much as 
to formulate a syllogism, is the art of saying things in sounds; Stravinsky 
says things with every thud on the drum and every scrape on the strings, 
never mind whether they are pleasant or ennobling, or ugly, or even 
horrible things. Therefore keep your ears open for him. 

There is nothing to be said against this standpoint, except that 
eventually each one will have to decide for himself whether Stravinsky 
says the things that he wants to live with. That is the ultimate test 
which goes behind the arguments of the advocates and the passionate 
pleas of the apologists. The effort which is being made to claim that 
"Le Sacre du Printemps" is "absolute" music at least recognizes this 
fact. For a century or more the world has been filling with composers 
bringing messages and meanings into their music from the romanticism 
of Berlioz to the transcendentalism of Scriabin. Each message and 
meaning stimulates the intelligence or adds to the emotional excitement 
of contemporary audiences while it is new. Each drops into the back- 
ground as the next arrives, and the only thing which remains is the 
absolute quality of sound relationships which until lately we were all 
content to call musical beauty. So the message of romanticism being 
outgrown, the "Symphonie Fantastique" becomes a toy for orchestral 
conductors or a curiosity for experts, but we still slip into a quiet concert 
hall, as we had the delight of doing this week, to enjoy Schubert's 
Trio in B-flat. The things which live may contain the most glaring 
faults — Schubert's loose handling of sonata form, for example — but 
they all maintain life by right of something independent of associations 
of ideas, of the conditions which produced them, and of the technical 
style on which their form depends. As it cannot be described but is 
always felt, we must call it sentiment, not about, but in the relationships 
of, sound, and that sentiment, which may be anything from the most 



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profound to the most trivial, turns them from a mere collection of 
sounds into music. 

Stravinsky is at present acclaimed as the foe to sentiment, and if 
he is really that it requires no prophetic vision to foretell what will hap- 
pen to his works. In that case, he would be a temporary corrective 
and reaction, but not the absolute musician at all. If, however, 
he is a foe to sentiment about music, not to sentiment in it, we must 
imagine that on some far future day people will use him as we now use 
Schubert, and turn away gladly from the fashionable "isms" of the 
moment in order to be cleansed and refreshed by contact with "Le 
Sacre du Printemps. " 



Wotan's Farewell and Magic Fire Scene from "The Valkyrie" 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The last act of "Die Walkiire" was completed in April, 1856. The 
first performance — it was against Wagner's wish — was at the 
Royal Court Theatre, Munich, August 26, 1870 : Siegmund, Heinrich 
Vogl ; Hunding, Bausewein ; Wo tan, August Kindermann ; Sieglinde, 
Teresa Vogl; Brtinnhilde, Miss Stehele; Fricka, Miss Kaufmann. 
Franz Wullner conducted. The performance was a poor one. 

The first authorized performance of "Die Walkiire" was at the Festival 
Theatre at Bayreuth, August 14, 1876 : Siegmund, Albert Niemann ; Hunding. 
Joseph Niering ; Wotan, Franz Betz ; Sieglinde, Josephine Scheffsky ; Fricka, 
Friedericke Gruen ; Briinhilde, Amelia Friedrich-Materna. 

The first performance in America was at the Academy of Music, New York, 
April 2, 1877 : Siegmund, Bischoff ; Hunding, Blum ; Wotan, Preusser ; Sieg- 
linde, Pauline Canissa ; Fricka, Mme . Listner ; Briinhilde, Mme. Pappenheim. 
Adolf Neuendorff conducted. 

Wotan's farewell to Brtinnhilde and the Magic Fire Scene end 
this music drama. For her disobedience, Wotan condemns Brtinn- 
hilde, the Valkyrie, his daughter, to lie asleep on a rock to become 
the booty of the first man who finds and awakes her. Brtinnhilde 
begs that her punishment may be remitted, or that she may lie sur- 
rounded by a circle of ever burning flames, so that only the bravest 
hero can penetrate it and arouse her. 

William Foster Apthorp translated the text as follows : — 

Wotan. 

Farewell, thou brave, splendid child ! Thou sacred pride of my heart, fare- 
well ! farewell ! farewell ! Must I avoid thee, and must my greeting never 
more lovingly greet thee ; shalt thou no more ride by my side, nor hand me 
mead at tbe banquet; must I lose thee, thee whom I loved, thou laughing 
delight of my eyes: — then shall a bridal fire burn for thee, as never one 
burned for a bride! Let a flaming glow glow round the rock: let it scare 
the coward with devouring terrors ; may the dastard flee Briinnhilde's rock : — 
for let only one woo the bride, who is freer than I, the god ! 

The shining pair of eyes that I oft have smilingly fondled, when a kiss was 
the reward of thy joy in fight, when the praise of heroes flowed in childish 
prattle from thy sweet lips: — this beaming pair of eyes, that so often have 
gleamed upon me in the storm, when the yearning of hope singed my heart, 
and my wish longed after world-ecstasies from out of wildly weaving terror : — 

26 



for the last time let it rejoice 4 me to-day with the last farewell kiss! Let thy 
star shine for the happier man; it must he quenched in parting for. the hapless 
eternal one! For thus does the god turn from thee: thus does he kiss the 
divinity from thee. 

Loge, hear ! listen hitherward ! As first I found thee as fiery glow, as then 
once thou vanishedest from me as swishing flame : as then I hound thee, 
I loose thee to-day ! Up, flickering flame, flame around the rock all ahlaze I 
Loge ! Loge ! Hither to me ! 

Let him who fears the point of my spear never walk through the fire ! 



Siegfried's Passing Through the Fire to Brunnhilde's Rock 
(" Siegfried," Act III., Scene 2) ; Morning Dawn and Siegfried's 
Journey up the Rhine ; Close ("Dusk of the Gods"* — Prologue) 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

These selections were made for concert use by Hans Richter. His 
score is a reproduction of the respective passages in the music- 
dramas. 

Wotan had condemned the Valkyrie, Brunnhilde, for disobedience, 
to sleep within a circle of lire, through which only a hero that does 
not know fear can pass to awaken her. Siegfried after he has 
shattered Wotan's spear, guided by the the song of the forest bird 
rushes "'with all the tumult of Spring in his veins" to the sleeping 
maiden. The Volsung motive is followed by the first phase of the 
Siegfried motive. Then use is made of the Fire motive and Sieg- 
fried's Horn Call, which typifies the hero's passage through the 
flames. The Fire music dies away; the Slumber motive is intro- 
duced, and, after the solemn harmonies of the Fate motive are heard, 
the first violins, unaccompanied, sing a long strain based on the 
motive of Freia, goddess of youth and love. 

Morning Dawn. This is the scene just before Siegfried and 
Brunnhilde come out of the cave after hours of happiness. Brtinn- 

*George Bernard Shaw prefers "Night Falls on the Gods," although he gives 
"God's-gloaming" as a literal translation. 



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27 



hilde has taught him the wisdom of the gods. Siegfried swears 
eternal fidelity, and as a pledge gives her the ring which he had worn. 
She gives him her horse Grane and her shield. The sun rises as 
Siegfried sets out on his journey to the Khine and the home of the 
Gibichungs. Brunnhilde watches him making his way down the 
valley. The sound of his horn comes to her from afar. The motives 
are those of Fate, Siegfried the Hero, Brunnhilde the Wife, the Kide 
of the Valkyries. There is then a skip to the last and rapturous 
measures of the parting scene, with a climax worked out of Sieg- 
fried's Wander Song and Brunnhilde's Love. The height of the 
climax includes parts of the motives of Siegfried the Hero and the 
Ride of the Valkyries. 

Siegfried's Journey up the Rhine, called by Wagner an orchestral 
scherzo, is the interlude between the Prologue and the first act of 
"Dusk of the Gods." The Scherzo is in three parts. The first is a 
working up of Siegfried's Horn Call and part of the Fire motive 
with use afterwards of the Wander Song. The second part begins 
with a full orchestral outburst. The Rhine motive is sounded bv 
brass and wood-wind. Another motive is Renunciation of Love, 
which frightens away the Rhine motive. The third part is based 
on music of the Rhine Daughters, the Horn Call, Ring motive, Rhine- 
gold motive, and at last the Mbelungs' Power-for-Evil music; but 
Mr. Monteux has substituted final pages of "Dusk of the Gods" in 
place of Richter's addition of a few measures of the Walhalla 
motive ( "Rhinegold," Scene II.). 

Wagner conceived "Gotterdammerung" as early as 1848 and wrote the poem 
before those of the other music dramas in "Der Ring," entitling it at first 
"Siegfried's Death." He began to compose the music in 1869. The scoring 
was completed in 1874. 

"Gotterdammerung" was performed for the first time at the Festival Theatre 
in Bayreuth, August 17, 1876. The cast was as follows : Siegfried, Georg 
Unger ; Gunther, Eugen Gura ; Hagen, Gustav Siehr ; Alberich, Carl Hill ; 
Brunnhilde, Amalia Friedrich-Materna ; Waltraute, Luise Jaide ; The Three 
Norns. Johanna Jachmann-Wagner, Josephine Scheffsky, Friedricke Griin ; 
The Rhine Daughters, Lilli Lehmann, Marie Lehmann, Minna Lammert. Hans 
Richter conducted. 

The first performance in America was at the Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York, January 25, 1888. Siegfried, Alfred Niemann ; Gunther, Adolf 
Robinson ; Hagen, Emil Fischer ; Alberich, Rudolph von Milde ; Brunnhilde, 
Lilli Lehmann ; Gutrune, Auguste Seidl-Kraus ; Woglinde, Sophie Traubmann ; 
Wellgunde, Marianne Brandt; Flosshilde, Louise Meisslinger. Anton Seidl 
conducted. "The Waltraute and Norn scenes were omitted. They were 
first given at the Metropolitan on January 24, 1899, when Mme. Schumann- 
Heink was the Waltraute and also one of the Norns. The others were Olga 
Pevny and Louise Meisslinger. 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' was first performed 
without cuts at the Metropolitan on January 12, 17, 19, and 24, 1899." 



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CARNEGIE HALL - - - NEW YORK 

Thirty-seventh Season in New York 
FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



INC. 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 15, at 8.15 

AND THE 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MARCH 17, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES. BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

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ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



rchestra 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. Hoffmann, 

Concert-master. Mann, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 


Gundersen, R. 
Kassnian, N. 


Pinfield, C 
Barozzi, S. 


Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 


Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 


Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 


Gorodetzky, L. Kurth, R. 
Goldstein, S. Bryant, M. 


Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C. 


Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 


Riedlinger, 
Tapley, R. 


H. Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 

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Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 


Fourel, G. 
Arti&res, L. 


Werner, H. Grover, H. 
Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 


Fiedler, A. 
Mullaly, J. 




« Gerhardt, ! 
Deane, C. 


3. Kluge, M. 
Zahn, F. 

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Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller, J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

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Langendcen, J 
Marjollet, L. 


Kunze, M. 
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Laus, A. 
AUard, R. 
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NEW YORK 



Thirty-seventh Season in New York 



•ostoim Syi 

Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 



THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 15 



AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Chausson 



Symphony in B-flat major, Op. 20 



I. Lent; Allegro vivo. 
II. Tres lent. 
III. Anime. 



Strauss 



Loeffler . 



Wagner 



"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the 
Old-fashioned, Roguish Manner, in Rondo 
Form," for Full Orchestra, Op. 28 

"La Mort de Tintagiles," Dramatic Poem 
after the Drama of Maurice Maeterlinck, 
for Orchestra and Viole d' Amour, Op. 6 
{Viole d' Amour — Richard Burgin) 



Overture to "Tannhauser' 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 




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Symphony in B-flat, Op. 20 Ernest Ciiausson 

(Born at Paris on January 21, 1855; killed at Limay by a bicycle accident, 

June 10, 1899.) 

This symphony, completed, if not wholly written, in 1890, was 
performed for the first time at a concert of the Societe Rationale, 
Paris, April 18, 1891, and again at its concert on April 30, 1892; 
but it was first "revealed to the Parisian public" — to quote the 
phrase of M. Pierre de Breville — at a concert of the Berlin Philhar- 
monic Orchestra, led by Arthur Mkisch, at the Cirque d'Hiver, 
Paris, on May 13, 1897. In 1897 it was performed at an Ysaye con- 
cert in Brussels (January 10). 

The first performance of the symphony in this country was by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Vincent d'Indy conductor by invi- 
tation, at Philadelphia, December 4, 1905. 

The symphony, dedicated to Henry Lerolle, is scored for three 
flutes (one interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, English horn, 
two clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, four horns, four trum- 
pets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, two 
harps, and strings. It is in three movements. 

The following sketch is, in large measure, a paraphrase of an 
article written by Stephane Kisvaeg. 

I. Lent, B-flat, 4-4. An introduction in a broad and severe style 
begins with a clearly defined figure in unison (violas, violoncellos, 
double-basses, clarinet, horn). The composer establishes at once 
the mood and announces the leading motives of the symphony, in 
their subtle essence at least, if not in their plastic reality. Strings 
and woodwind instruments are used delicately in counterpoint. 
After short episodes (horns and violas) the orchestra little by little 
becomes quiet, and, while the background is almost effaced, a little 
run of violins and wood-wind instruments introduces the Allegro 
vivo (3-4). 

The chief theme, one of healthy but restrained joy, exposed in a 
simple manner (mf) by horn and bassoon, passes then from horn 
and bassoon to oboe and violoncello and in fragments to other in- 
struments. The ornamentation, though habitually sombre, under- 
goes modifications. There is a fortissimo tutti, allegro molto, which 
is followed immediately by a second theme, more exuberant in its 
joy, more pronounced than the first. It is sung at first by flutes, 
English horn, and horns, with violins and violas, and with a harp 
enlacement. A short phrase of a tender melancholy is given to 
viola, violoncello, and clarinet. The Allegro is based on these 
themes, which are developed and combined with artistic mastery 
and with unusual harmonization. "It is an unknown landscape, but 

7 



it is seen in a clear light, and it awakens in the hearer impression 
of an inexpressible freshness." In the final measures of this move- 
ment the initial theme becomes binary (Presto) ; the basses repeat 
the elements of the Allegro, and the hearer at the end is conscious 
of human, active joy. 

II. Tres lent (with a great intensity of expression). The title 
should be "Grief." At first a deep and smothered lamentation, 
which begins and ends in D minor without far-straying modulations. 
"The sadness of a forest on a winter's day ; the desolation of a heart 
which has been forbidden to hope, from which every illusion has 
been swept away." The English horn, to the accompaniment of 
pianissimo triplets in the strings, gives out with greater distinct- 
ness the phrase of affliction, now and then interrupted fruitlessly 
by consolatory words of flutes and violins. The bitter lament is 
heard again, persistent and sombre; and then the English horn 
sings again, but more definitely, its song of woe. The violins no 
longer make any attempt at consolation : they repeat, on the con- 
trary, doubled by violoncellos, the lament of the English horn, 
which, though it is now embellished with delicate figuration, remains 
sad and inconsolable. After an excited dialogue between different 
groups of instruments, where a very short melodic phrase, thrown 

from the strings to the brass, is taken up with intensity by the whole 
orchestra, there is a return to the hopeless sorrow of the beginning, 
which is now "crystallized and made perpetual, if the phrase be 
allowed," in D major. 

III. Anime, B-flat, 4-4 (to be beaten 2-2). A crisp and loud tutti 
marks the beginning of the last movement. It is followed at once 
by a rapid figure for the violoncellos and double-basses, above which 
a summons is sounded by trumpets, then violins, violas, and the 
whole orchestra. The pace quickens, and the underlying theme of 
the finale is heard (violoncellos and bass clarinet). This clear and 
concise theme has a curiously colored background by reason of 
sustained horn chords. The phrase, taken up sonorously by the 
strings, is enlarged, enriched with ingenious episodes, and by an 
interesting contrapuntal device it leads to a thunderous chromatic 
scale in unison, which in turn introduces a serene choral (D major). 
Sung by all the voices, it is heard again in A major. A gentle phrase 
(for oboe, sung again and continued by the clarinet) brings again 
the choral (wind instruments). There is a return to B-flat major. 



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A theme recalls one of those in the first movement, which goes 
through a maze of development, to end in a continued and gentle 
murmur of horns in thirds. The clarinet traces above them the 
choral melody. The chief theme is heard again, as is the choral, 
now sung by violins. The oboe interjects a dash of melancholy, but 
the trombones proclaim the chief theme of the first movement. A 
crescendo suddenly dies away at the height of its force, and the 
brass utter a sort of prayer into which enter both resignation and 
faith. The master rhythm of this finale reappears (basses), while 
the sublime religious song still dominates. A tutti bursts forth, 
which is followed by a definite calm. There are sustained chords, 
and the basses repeat, purely and majestically, the first measures of 
the introduction. 



"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the Old-fashioned, 
Roguish Manner, — in Rondo Form/' for Full Orchestra, 
Op. 28 Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living.) 

"Till Eulenspiegel's lustige Streiche, nach alter Schelmenweise — 
in Rondoform — fur grosses Orchester gesetzt, von Richard Strauss," 
was produced at a Gurzenich concert at Cologne, November 5, 1895. 
It was composed in 1894-95 at Munich, and the score was completed 
there, May 6, 1895. The score and parts were published in Sep- 
tember, 1895. 

Certain German critics were not satisfied with Strauss's meagre 
clew, and they at once began to evolve labored analyses. One of 
these programmes, the one prepared by Mr. Wilhelm Klatte, was 
published in the Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung of November 8, 1895, 
and frequently in programme books in Germany and England, in 
some cases with Strauss's sanction.* The translation is, for the 
most part, by Mr. C. A. Barry : — 

A strong sense of German folk-feeling (des Volksthumlichen) 
pervades the whole work ; the source from which the tone-poet drew 
his inspiration is clearly indicated in the introductory bars: 
Gemachlich (Andante commodo), F major, 4-8. To some extent this 
stands for the "once upon a time" of the story-books. That what 
follows is not to be treated in the pleasant and agreeable manner 

* It has been stated that Strauss gave Wilhelm Mauke a programme of this rondo 
to assist Mauke in writing his "Fiihrer" or elaborate explanation of the composition. 



Dimmer 



of narrative poetry, but in a more sturdy fashion, is at once made 
apparent by a characteristic bassoon figure which breaks in sforzato 
upon the piano of the strings. Of equal importance for the develop- 
ment of the piece is the immediately following humorous horn theme 
(F major, 6-8). Beginning quietly and gradually becoming more 
lively, it is at first heard against a tremolo of the "divided" violins 
and then again in the tempo primo, Sehr lebhaft (Vivace). This 
theme, or at least the kernel of it, is taken up in turn by oboes, 
clarinets, violas, violoncellos, and bassoons, and is finally brought 
by the full orchestra, except trumpets and trombones, after a few 
bars, crescendo, to a dominant half-close fortissimo in C. The 
thematic material, according to the main point, has now been fixed 
upon; the milieu is given by which we are enabled to recognize 
the pranks and droll tricks which the crafty schemer is about to 
bring before our eyes, or, far rather, before our ears. 

Here he is (clarinet phrase followed by chord for wind instru- 
ments). He wanders through the land as a thoroughgoing adven- 
turer. His clothes are tattered and torn: a queer, fragmentary 
version of the Eulenspiegel motive resounds from the horns. Fol- 
lowing a merry play with this important leading motive, which 
directly leads to a short but brilliant tutti, in which it again asserts 
itself, first in the flutes, and then finally merges into a softly 
murmuring and extended tremolo for the violas, this same motive, 
gracefully phrased, reappears in succession in the basses, flute, first 
violins, and again in the basses. The rogue, putting on his best 
manners, slyly passes through the gate, and enters a certain city. 
Tt is market-day; the women sit at their stalls and prattle (flutes, 
oboes, and clarinets). Hop! Eulenspiegel springs on his horse 
(indicated by rapid triplets extending through three measures, 
from the low D of the bass clarinet to the highest A of the D 
clarinet), gives a smack of his whip, and rides into the midst of 
the crowd. Clink, clash, clatter ! A confused sound of broken pots 
and pans, and the market-women are put to flight! In haste the 
rascal rides away (as is admirably illustrated by a fortissimo pas- 
sage for the trombones) and secures a safe retreat. 

Again the Eulenspiegel theme is brought forward in the previous 
lively tempo, 6-8, but is now subtly metamorphosed and chival- 
rously colored. Eulenspiegel has become a Don Juan, and he way- 
lays pretty women. And one has bewitched him: Eulenspiegel 
is in love ! Hear how now, glowing with love, the violins, clarinets, 
and flutes sing. But in vain. His advances are received with 
derision, and he goes away in a rage. How can one treat him so 
slightingly? Is he not a splendid fellow? Vengeance on the whole 
human race! He gives vent to his rage (in a fortissimo of horns 
in unison, followed by a pause), and strange personages suddenly 
draw near (violoncellos). A troop of honest, worthy Philistines! 
In an instant all his anger is forgotten. But it is still his chief 
joy to make fun of these lords and protectors of blameless decorum, 
to mock them, as is apparent from the lively and accentuated frag- 
ments of the theme, sounded at the beginning by the horn, which 
are now heard first from horns, violins, violoncellos, and then 
from trumpets, oboes, and flutes. Now that Eulenspiegel has had 
his joke, he goes away and leaves the professors and doctors behind 

10 



ill thoughtful meditation. Fragments of the typical theme of the 
Philistines are here treated canonically. The wood-wind, violins, 
and trumpets suddenly project the Eulenspiegel theme into their 
profound philosophy. It is as though the transcendent rogue were 
making faces at the bigwigs from a distance — again and again — 
and then waggishly running away. This is aptly characterized by 
a short episode (A-flat) in a hopping, 2-4 rhythm, which, similarly 
with the first entrance of the Hypocrisy theme previously used, is 
followed by phantom-like tones from the wood-wind and strings 
and then from trombones and horns. Has our rogue still no fore- 
boding? 

Interwoven with the very first theme, indicated lightly by trum- 
pets and English horn, a figure is developed from the second intro- 
ductory and fundamental theme. It is first taken up by the clari- 
nets ; it seems to express the fact that the arch-villain has again got 
the upper hand of Eulenspiegel, who has fallen into his old manner 
of life. If we take a formal view, we have now reached the repe- 
tition of the chief theme. A merry jester, a born liar, Eulenspiegel 
goes wherever he can succeed with a hoax. His insolence knows 
no bounds. Alas ! there is a sudden jolt to his wanton humor. The 
drum rolls a hollow roll ; the jailer drags the rascally prisoner into 
the criminal court. The verdict "guilty" is thundered against the 
brazen-faced knave. The Eulenspiegel theme replies calmly to the 
threatening chords of wind and lower strings. Eulenspiegel lies. 
Again the threatening tones resound; but Eulenspiegel does not 
confess his guilt. On the contrary, he lies for the third time. His 
jig is up. Fear seizes him. The Hypocrisy motive is sounded 
piteously ; the fatal moment draws near ; his hour has struck ! The 
descending leap of a minor seventh in bassoons, horns, trombones, 
tuba, betokens his death. He has danced in air. A last struggle 
(flutes), and his soul takes flight. 

After sad, tremulous pizzicati of the strings the epilogue begins. 
At first it is almost identical with the introductory, measures, which 
are repeated in full; then the most essential parts of the second 
and third chief-theme passages appear, and finally merge into the 
soft chord of the sixth on A-flat, while wood-wind and violins sus- 
tain. Eulenspiegel has become a legendary character. The people 
tell their tales about him : "Once upon a time . . ." But that he 
was a merry rogue and a real devil of a fellow seems to be ex- 
pressed by the final eight measures, full orchestra, fortissimo. 













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11 



"La Mort de Tintagiles," Dramatic Poem after the Drama of 
M. Maeterlinck, for Full Orchestra and Viole d'Amour, 
Op. 6 Charles Martin Loeffler 

(Born at Muhlhausen-i-R (Alsace), January 30, 1861; now living at Medfield, Mass.) 

Three plays by Maurice Maeterlinck were published in one volume 
by Edmond Deman at Brussels in 1894. They were entitled: "Alla- 
dine et Palomides, Interieur, et la Mort de Tintagiles: Trois petits 
drames pour Marionnettes." 

Mr. Loeffler 's symphonic poem was composed in the summer of 1897. 
It was composed originally for orchestra and two violes d'amour obbli- 
gate. It was performed for the first time at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra in Music Hall, Boston, January 8, 1898, when the 
two violes d'amour were played by Messrs. Kneisel and Loeffler. 

Mr. Loeffler afterwards remodelled the score. He took out the second 
viole d'amour part, and lessened the importance of the part taken by 
the other, so that the poem may now be considered a purely orchestral 
work. He changed materially the whole instrumentation. The score 
as it now stands is dated September, 1900. "The Death of Tintagiles" 
in its present form was played in public for the first time at a concert 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Symphony Hall, February 16, 
1901. 

The poem is scored for three flutes (one interchangeable with piccolo) , 
oboe, English horn, two clarinets, small E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, 
two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two cornets-a-pistons, three 
trombones, bass tuba, two pairs of kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, 
cymbals, gong, harp, viole d'amour, strings. The score, dedicated to 
Eugene Ysaye, was published by G. Schirmer in 1905. 

"La Mort de Tintagiles," a little drama for marionettes, is in five short 
acts. The characters are: the tender boy Tintagiles; his older sisters, 
Ygraine and Bellangere; Agio vale, the warrior retainer, now old and 
weary; and the three handmaidens of the Queen. 

Tintagiles is the future monarch of the nameless land in the strange 
years of legends. He and his sisters are living in a gloomy and airless 
castle far down in a valley. In a tower that shows at night red-litten 
windows lurks the enthroned Queen. The serene ancients portrayed 
Death as beautiful of face, but this Queen in the nameless land is not 
beautiful in any way; she is as fat as a sated spider. She squats alone 
in the tower. They that serve her do not go out by day. The Queen 
is very old; she is jealous, and cannot brook the thought of another on 
the throne. They that by chance have seen her will not speak of her; 
and it is whispered that they who are thus silent did not dare to look 
upon her. 'Tis she who commanded that Tintagiles, her orphaned 
grandson, should be brought over the sea to the sombre castle where 
Ygraine and Bellangere have passed years as blind fish in the dull pool 
of a cavern. 

12 



The sea howls, the trees groan, but Tintagiles sleeps after his fear 
and tears. The sisters bar the chamber door, for Bellangere has heard 
sinister muttering in rambling, obscure, corridors, chuckling over the 
child whom the Queen would see. Ygraine is all of a tremble; never- 
theless, she believes half-heartedly and for the nonce that he may yet 
be spared; then she remembers how the Horror in the tower has been 
as a tombstone pressing down her soul. Aglovale cannot be of aid, 
he is so old, so weary of it all. Her bare and slender arms are all that 
is between the boy and the hideous Queen of Darkness and Terror. 

Tintagiles awakes. He suffers and knows not why. He hears a 
vague something at the door. Others hear it. A key grinds in the 
lock outside. The door opens slowly. Of what avail is Aglovale's 
sword used as a bar? It breaks. The door is opened wider, but there 
is neither sight nor sound of an intruder. The boy has swooned; the 
chamber suddenly is cold and quiet. Tintagiles is again conscious, and 
he shrieks. The door closes mysteriously. 

Watchers and boy are at last asleep. The veiled handmaidens 
whisper in the corridor. They enter stealthily, and snatch Tintagiles 
from the warm and sheltering arms of life. A cry comes from him: 
"Sister Ygraine!" — a cry as from some one afar off. 

The sister, haggard, with lamp in hand, agonizes in a dismal vault, — 
a vault that is black and cold, — agonizes before a huge iron door in 
the tower-tomb. The keyless door is a forbidding thing sealed in the 
wall. She has tracked Tintagiles by his golden curls, found on the 
steps along the walls. A little hand knocks feebly on the other side 
of the door; a weak voice cries to her. He will die if she does not come 
to him, and quickly; for he has struck the Queen, who was hurrying 
toward him. Even now he hears her panting in pursuit; even now 
she is about to clutch him. He can see a glimmer of the lamp through 
a crevice,which is so small that a needle could hardly make its way. 
The hands of Ygraine are bruised, her nails are torn; she dashes the 
lamp against the door in her wild endeavor; and she, too, is in the black- 
ness of darkness. Death has Tintagiles by the throat. "Defend your- 
self," screams the sister; don't be afraid of her. I'll be with you in 
a moment. Tintagiles? Tintagiles? Answer me! Help! Where are 
you? I'll aid you — kiss me — through the door — here's the place — 
here." The voice of Tintagiles — how faint it is! — is heard for the last 
time: "I lass you, too — here — Sister Ygraine! Sister Ygraine! Oh!" 
The little body falls. 

Ygraine bursts into wailing and impotent raging. She beseeches 
in vain the hidden, noiseless monster. . . . 

Long and inexorable silence. Ygram£ would spit on the Destroyer, 
but she sinks down and sobs gently in the darkness, with her arms on 
the keyless door of iron. 






It has been said that, "from a poetico-dramatic point of view, the 
music may be taken as depicting a struggle between two opposing 
forces, — say, the Queen and her Handmaids, on the one hand, and 
Tintagiles and Ygraine, on the other; but it does not seek to follow 
out the drama scene by scene." 

There is also the reminder of the storm and the wild night; there is 
the suggestion of Aglovale, old and scarred, wise and weary, with- 
out confidence in his sword; there is the plaintive voice of the timorous 

13 



child; there are the terrifying steps in the corridor, the steps as of many, 
who do not walk as other beings, yet draw near and whisper without 



the guarded door, 



Stage music for "La Mort de Tintagiles" has been written by Leon 
Dubois of Brussels; by A. von Ahn Carse of London; and by Jean 
Nougues. The music by Nougues was written for a performance at 
the Theatres des Mathurins, Paris, December 21, 1905: Ygraine, Mme. 
Georgette Leblanc; Bellangere, Nina Russell (Mrs. Henry Russell); 
First Servant of the Queen, Ines Devries; Second Servant of the Queen, 
Nathalie Varesa (Mrs. Henry Russell's sister); Third Servant of the 
Queen, Marie Deslandres; Aglovale, Steph. Austin; Tintagiles, The 
Little Russell. 



Overture to "Tannhauser" .... Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

"Tannhauser und der Sangerkrieg auf Wartburg," romantic opera 
in three acts, book and music by Richard Wagner, was first performed 
at the Royal Opera House in Dresden, under the direction of the com- 
poser, on October 19, 1845. The cast was as follows: Hermann, 
Dettmer; Tannhauser, Tichatschek; Wolfram, Mitterwurzer; Walther, 
Schloss; Biterolf, Wachter; Heinrich, Gurth; Reinmar, Risse; Elizabeth, 
Johanna Wagner; Venus, Schroeder-Devrient; a young shepherd, Miss 
Thiele. 

The first performance in the United States was at the Stadt Theatre, 
New York, April 4, 1859, and the cast was as follows: Hermann, Graff; 
Tannhauser, Pickaneser; Wolfram, Lehmann; Walther, Lotti; Biterlof, 
Urchs; Heinrich, Bolten; Reinmar, Brandt; Elizabeth, Mrs. Siedenburg; 
Venus, Mrs. Pickaneser. Carl Bergmann conducted. The New York 
Evening Post said that part of Tannhauser was beyond the abilities 
of Mr. Pickaneser: "The lady singers have but little to do in the opera, 
and did that little respectably." 

The first performance of the overture in Boston was October 22, 1853, 
at a concert of the Germania Musical Society, Carl Bergmann conductor. 
The programme stated that the orchestra was composed of "fifty 
thorough musicians." A "Finale" from the opera was performed at a 
concert of the Orchestral Union, December 27, 1854. The first per- 
formance of the pilgrims' chorus was at a Philharmonic concert, January 
3, 1857, a concert given by the society "with the highly valuable assis- 
tance of Herr Louis Schreiber, solo trumpet-player to the King of 
Hanover." 

The overture, scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 

14 



kettledrums, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, strings, begins wi.th a slow 
introduction, Andante maestoso, E major, 3-4, in which the pilgrims' 
chorus, "Begltickt darf nun dich, o Hcimath, ich schauen," from the 
third act, is heard, at first played piano by lower wood-wind instruments 
and horns with the melody in the trombones against a persistent figure 
in the violins, then sinking to a pianissimo (clarinets and bassoons). 
They that delight in tagging motives so that there may be no mistake 
in recognition call the first melody the "Religious Motive" or "The 
Motive of Faith." The ascending phrase given to the violoncellos is 
named the "Motive of Contrition," and the persistent violin figure the 
"Motive of Rejoicing." 

The main body of the overture, Allegro, E major, 4-4, begins even 
before the completion of the pilgrims' song with an ascending first 
theme (violas), "the typical motive of the Venus Mountain." 

Inside the Horsel here the air is hot; 
Right little peace one hath for it, God wot; 
The scented dusty daylight burns the air 
And my heart chokes me till I hear it not. 

The first period of the movement is taken up wholly with baccha- 
nalian music from the opening scene in the Venus Mountain; and the 
motive that answers the ascending typical figure, the motive for vio- 
lins, flutes, oboes, then oboes and clarinets, is known as the theme 
of the bacchanal, "the drunkenness of the Venus Mountain." This 
period is followed by a subsidiary theme in the same key, a passionate 
figure in the violins against ascending chromatic passages in the violon- 
cellos. The second theme, B major, is Tannhauser's song to Venus, 
"Dir tone Lob!" The bacchanal music returns, wilder than before. 
A pianissimo episode follows, in which the clarinet sings the appeal of 
Venus to Tannhauser, "Geliebter, komm, sieh' dort die Grotte." the 
typical phrase of the goddess. This episode takes the place of the free 
fantasia. The third part begins with the passionate subsidiary theme 
which leads as before to the second theme, Tannhauser's song, which is 
now in E major. Again the bacchanalian music, still more frenetic. 
There is stormy development; the violin figure which accompanied the 
pilgrims' chant returns, and the coda begins, in which this chant is 
repeated. The violin figure grows swifter and swifter as the fortissimo 
chant is thundered out by trombones and trumpets to full harmony 
in the rest of the orchestra. 



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FOURTH MATINEE 
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MARCH 17 
AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 



Handel . . . Concerto Grosso No. 5 in D major for String 

Orchestra (Edited by G. F. Kogel) 
Solo Violins: R. Burgin, J. Teeodorowicz 
Solo Viola: G. Fourel, Solo Violoncello: J. Bedetti 
I. Introduction; Allegro 
II. Presto. 

III. Largo. 

IV. Minuet. 
V. Allegro. 



Liszt ..... A Faust Symphony in Three Character 

Pictures (after Goethe) 
I. FAUST: 

Lento assai. Allegro impetuoso. 
Allegro agitato ed appassionato assai. 
II. GRETCHEN: 

Andante soave. 

III. MEPfflSTOPHELES: 

Allegro vivace ironico. 

Andante mistico. (With Male Chorus) 

HARVARD GLEE CLUB (Dr. Archibald T. Davison, Conductor) 
Arthur Hackett, Tenor 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Handel's concerto 



17 



Concerto Grosso, No. 5, in D major . . George Frideric Handel 

(Edited by Gustav Friedrich Kogcl) 
(Born at Halle on February 23, 1685; died at London, April 14, 1759.) 

Handel's twelve grand concertos for strings were composed between 
September 29 and October 30, 1739. The London Daily Post of October 
29, 1739, said: "This day are published proposals for printing by 
subscription, with His Majesty's royal license and protection, Twelve 
Grand Concertos, in Seven Parts, for four violins, a tenor, a violoncello, 
with a thorough-bass for the harpsichord. Composed by Mr. Handel. 
Price to subscribers, two guineas. Ready to be delivered by April next. 
Subscriptions are taken by the author, at his house* in Brook Street, 
Hanover Square, and by Walsh." In an advertisement on November 
22 the publisher added: "Two of the above concertos will be performed 
this evening at the Theatre Royal, Lincoln's Inn." The concertos 
were published on April 21, 1740. In an advertisement a few days 
afterwards Walsh said, "These concertos were performed at the Theatre 
Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and now are played in most public places 
with the greatest applause." Victor Schoelcher made this comment 
in his Life of Handel: "This was the case with all the works of Handel. 
They were so frequently performed at contemporaneous concerts and 
benefits that they seem, during his lifetime, to have quite become public 
property. Moreover, he did nothing which the other theatres did not 
attempt to imitate. In the little theatre of the Haymarket, evening 
entertainments were given in exact imitation of his 'several concertos 
for different instruments, with a variety of chosen airs of the best 

*This was the little house, No. 25, in which Handel lived for many years, and in which he died. In 
the rate-book of 1725 Handel was named owner, and the house rated at £35 a year. W. H. Cummins 
about 1903, visiting this house, found a cast-lead cistern, on the front of which in bold relief was " 1721. 
G.F.H." The house had then been in the possession of a family about seventy years, and various 
structural alterations had been made. A back room on the first floor was said to have been Handel's 
composition room. 



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masters, and the famous Salve Regina of Hasse.' The handbills issued 
by the nobles at the King's Theatre make mention also of 'several 
concertos for differenl instruments.' " 

The year L739 3 in which these concertos were composed, was the year 
of the first performance of Handel's "Saul" (January 1G) and "Israel in 
Egypt" (April 4), — both oratorios were composed in 1738, — also of the 
music to Dryden's "Ode on St. Cecilia's Day" (November 22). 

M. Homain Holland, discussing the form Concerto Grosso, which 
consists essentially of a dialogue between a group of soloists, the con- 
certino (trio of two solo violins and solo bass with cembalo* and the 
chorus of instruments, concerto grosso, believes that Handel at Rome 
in 1708 was struck by Corelli's works in this field, for several of his 
concertos of Opus 3 are dated 1710, 1716, 1722. Geminiani introduced 
the concerto into England, — three volumes appeared in 1732, 1735, 
1748, — and he was a friend of Handel. 

Handel's concertos of this set that have five movements are either 
in the form of a sonata with an introduction and a postlude (as Nos. 1 
and 6) ; or in the form of the symphonic overture with the slow move- 
ments in the middle, and a dance movement, or an allegro closely 
resembling a dance, for a finale (as Nos. 7, 11, and 12); or a series of 
three movements from larghetto to allegro, which is followed by two 
dance movements (as No. 3). 



*The Germans in the concertino sometimes coupled an oboe or a bassoon with a violin. 
Italians were faithful, as a rule, to the strings. 



The 



A New Volume of The Music Students Library 




For Ear, Eye and Keyboard 

BY 
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Oberlin Conservatory of Music 

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The seven parts are thus indicated by Handel in the book of parts: 
Violino primo concertino, Violino secondo concertino, Violino primo 
ripieno, Violino secondo ripieno, viola, violoncello, bass continuo. 

* * 

Handel in his day and generation was an experimenter in the art of 
instrumentation, and certain of his innovations in the combinations of 
instruments are of much interest. He had at his disposal the violins, 
first, second, and sometimes third; violas, the violetta marina,* the 
viola da gamba, the violoncello, the double-bass; the lute, the theorbo, f 
and the harp; trumpets, horns, trombones, the old cornet or zink; three 
varieties of the flute, oboes, bassoons, double-bassoons, and the drum 
family; clavecin and organ. He did not disdain the carillon, and it is 
recorded that he sighed for a cannon. 

*There is still some doubt as to the precise character of this instrument. It is supposed by some 
that the name was applied to the viola d'amore. Others say it was a stringed instrument similar in 
tone to the viola d'amore and also called "violetta piccola"; but there are again some who insist that 
the violetta piccola was the soprano or dessus of the viola da gamba family with a compass from A on 
the first space of the bass staff to the A on the second space of the treble. (See Mahillon's ' ' Catalogue 
descriptif et analytique du Musee Instrumental du Conservatoire Royal de Musique de Bruxelles," 
second edition, vol. i. p. 317; Ghent, 1893.) The air given to the violetta marina by Handel in "Or- 
lando" (composed in 1732) is for an instrument of four strings, and it is sustained only by "violoncelli 
pizzicati." Schoelcher gives a rambling disquisition of the instrument, — what it might have been and 
what it probably was not, — and quotes an advertisement of a concert in the Daily Journal of London, 
1732: "Signor Castrucci will play a concerto of his own, on a beautiful new instrument called the 
viola marina." This Pietro Castrucci, a pupil of Corelli, was born at Rome in 1689 ; he died at London 
in 1769. In 1715 he went to London to be concert-.master of Handel's opera orchestra. Riemann says 
that Castrucci not only introduced but invented the instrument. Castrucci was the original, they say, 
of Hogarth's "The Enraged Musician." Sala says in his "William Hogarth": "The 'Enraged 
Musician' is stated to be a portrait of Handel. There is nothing to prove the assertion. His counte- 
nance does not at all resemble that of the immortal composer of the 'Messiah.' " Castrucci gave a 
concert in 1732, and he announced "particularly a solo, in which he engages himself to execute 
twenty-four notes with one bow." He died poor and forgotten. 

fThe theorbo was introduced at the beginning of the seventeenth century to complete the family 
of lutes. It was invented at Rome by Bardella, and for some years it was not known outside of Italy. It 
finally passed into Germany, then into France. Praetorius described it as called by the Romans a 
chittarone, a bass lute with twelve or sixteen strings. "The Romans at first put six pairs of strings to 
it, then the Paduans added two pairs, and there were still further additions. Padua, however, has the 
reputation for making the theorbos." The instrument has been described as having two necks, to the 
longest of which the bass strings were attached. "The strings were usually single in the theorbo, and, 
when double or tuned in octaves or unison with the bass or treble notes, the instrument was called the 
archlute, or chittarone." Sir John Hawkins says ingeniously that a Neapolitan invented the theorbo 
and called it "tiorba," from its resemblance to an instrument used for pounding perfumes. There is 
another story that the inventor, Tiorba, an Italian, gave the instrument its name. Johannes Kaps- 
berger, who died about 1630, was a skilled player of the theorbo, and he wrote much music in tablature 
for it. There is a part for the instrument in a set of Corelli's sonatas. Henri Grenerin wrote a " Livre 
de Th6orbe," a theorbo school, and dedicated it to Lully. 



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A Faust Symphony i\ Three Character Pictures (after Goethe) : 
I. Faust, II. Gretchen, III. Mephistophblbs . . Franz Liszt 

(Born at Raiding, near Oedenburg, Hungary, October 22, 1811; died at 

Bayreuth, July 31, 1886.) 

Liszt told his biographer, Lina Ramann, that the idea of this 
symphony came to him in Paris in the forties, and was suggested by 
Berlioz's "Damnation of Faust." (Berlioz's work was produced at 
the Opera-Comique, December 6, 1846.) Lina Ramann's biography 
is eminently unsatisfactory, and in some respects untrustworthy, 
but there is no reason to doubt her word in this instance. Some have 
said that Liszt was inspired by Ary Scheffer's pictures to illustrate 
Goethe's "Fanst." Peter Cornelius stated that Liszt was incited to 
his work by seeing the pictures "in which Scheffer had succeeded in 
giving a bodily form to the three leading characters in Goethe's 
poem." As a matter of fact, we believe, Scheffer did not portray 
Mephistopheles. Scheffer (1795-1858) was a warm friend of Liszt, 
and made a portrait of him in 1837, which is in the Liszt Museum 
at Weimar. 

But Liszt made in the forties no sketches of his symphony. The 
music was composed in 1853-54; it was revised in 1857, when the 
final chorus was added. The score was published in August, 1861 
(the second edition in September, 1866) ; the orchestral parts in 
October, 1874. Liszt's arrangement of the symphony for two piano- 
fortes, four hands, was published in 1859. In 1874 he arranged the 
Gretchen picture for pianoforte, two hands, and this arrangement 
was published in 1875. 

The "Faust" Symphony is scored for three flutes (one interchange- 
able with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four 



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horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, two pairs of 
kettledrums, cymbals, triangle, harp, strings, and for the closing 
chorus an organ or harmonium. In the revised and unpublished 
version now played the bass clarinet is used, but only for a few 
measures. 



* 

* * 



Much has been written about the "Faust" Symphony in "psycho- 
logical explanation," as a voluminous commentary, , and in close 
analysis. There are articles that may well be characterized as excel- 
lent specimens of hifalutin, as when a writer pointing out the dis- 
sonances at the beginning of the first movement alludes to the dis- 
sonance as "the mother of tragedy." Richard Pohl's elaborate essay, 
written in 1862 and published later in a volume of his collected 
essays and sketches, "Franz Liszt, Studien und Erinnerungen" 
(Leipsic, 1883), may be recommended to those who wish to make a 
minute study of the symphony. Theodore Thomas owned an exhaus- 
tive analysis, which was used in part by Hubbard William Harris, 
when he edited the programme books of the Chicago Symphony Or- 
chestra. Mr. Harris was unable to acknowledge any indebtedness. 
The author was unknown to him, and the analysis bore neither sig- 
nature nor date. "However," says Mr. Harris, "in view of its 
authoritative tone and the utter dependence of a reliable analysis of 
such a work upon the composer's elucidation,, it is surmised that 
this explanation must have emanated, in some degree at least, from 
Liszt himself." William Foster Apthorp, in his programme books of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, analyzed only the "Faust" move- 
ment, and said by way of preface : "This composition, which is really 
a concatenation of three symphonic poems rather than a symphony, 
properly so called, is somewhat recalcitrant to technical analysis. 
It hardly comes within the domain of programme-music proper, for 
the composer has published no explanatory programme nor preface 
with it, content to let the mere titles of the several movements help 
the music to tell what story it may have to tell ; but it has in it so 
little that suggests the traditional symphonic form that it can prop- 
erly be called a symphony only by a certain stretching of terms. It 
is, for the most part, a piece of perfectly free composition. Yet there 
arc nevertheless some symphonic characteristics discoverable in the 
first movement." Mr. Apthorp, therefore, did not attempt any tech- 
nical analysis of "Gretchen" and "Mephistopheles." He said of 
"Gretchen": "As for- its poetic character and suggestiveness, little 
need be said, or could be said will) profit; the composer has plainly 
left this for each listener to make out and interpret for himself, for 
the bare title of the movemenl is t lie only hint he has given." 



22 



CARNEGIE HALL 



1:1,0 ma pack. 01' 



• fr :ERT 



SEASON 1922-1923 



Thursday Evening, April 5, 1923, at 8.1 5 



Soloist, PABLO CASELLS, Violoncello 



Saturday Afternoon, April 7, 1923, at 2.30 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



NOTE: The Programmes of the Evening and the Afternoon Concerts 

are entirely different. 



23 



Miss Kamann admits frankly that the symphony is, without the 
final chorus, merely a series of musical "Faust pictures," as the pic- 
tures by Kaulbach, Kreling, and others, are in art; but without the 
chorus it does not reproduce the lyrical contents of the main idea of 
the poem itself. 



* 

* * 



I. "Faust" 

Some find in this movement five leading motives, each one of 
which portrays a characteristic of Faust or one of his fixed moods. 
The more conservative speak of first and second themes, subsidiary 
themes, and conclusion themes. However the motives are ticketed 
or numbered, they appear later in various metamorphoses. 

The movement begins with a long introduction, Lento assai, 4-4. 
"A chain of dissonances," with free use of augmented fifths (muted 
violas and violoncellos), has been described as the "Inquiry" theme, 
and the bold greater seventh (oboe) is also supposed to portray 
Faust, the disappointed philosopher. "These motives have here the 
expression of perplexed musing and painful regret at the vanity of 
the efforts made for the realization of cherished aspirations!" 

An Allegro impetuoso, 4-4. Violins attack, and, after the inter- 
ruption of reeds and horns, rush along and are joined by wind in- 
struments. The "Inquiry" motive is sounded. The music grows 
more and more intense. A bassoon, Lento assai, gives out the 
Faust motive and introduces the main body of the movement. 

Allegro agitato ed appassionato assai, C minor, 4-4. The first 
theme L , a violently agitated motive, is of kin in character to a lead- 
ing theme of the composer's symphonic poem, "Prometheus," which 
was composed in 1850 and revised in 1855. This theme comes here 
for the first time,, except for one figure, a rising inflection at the 
end of the first phrase, which has been heard in the introduction. 
It is developed at length, and is repeated in a changed form by the 
whole orchestra. A new theme enters in passionate appeal (oboes 
and clarinets in dialogue with bassoons, violoncellos, and double- 
basses), while the first violins bring back the sixteenth-note figure 
of the first theme of the main section. This second theme with sub- 
sidiary passage-work leads to an episode, Meno mosso, misterioso e 
molto tranquil lo, 6-4. The "Inquiry" theme in the introduction is 
developed in modulating sequence by clarinet and some of the 
strings, while there are sustained harmonies in wind instruments 
and ascending passages in muted violins and violas. But the "In- 
quiry" theme has not its original and gnarled form: it is calmer 
in line and it is more remote. Another theme comes in, Affettuoso 
poco andante, E major, 7-4 (3-4, 4-4), which has been called the 

24 



Love theme, as typical of Faust with Gretchen. This theme is based 
on the Faust motive heard near the beginning of the introduction 
from wind instruments. In this movement it is said to portray 
Gretchen, while in the "Gretchen" movement it portrays Faust; and 
this theme is burlesqued continually in the third movement, 
"Mephistopheles." The short theme given to wind instruments is 
interrupted by a figure for solo viola, which later in the symphony 
becomes a part of the theme itself. The Faust-Gretchen motive is 
developed in wood-wind and horns, with figures for violins and 
violas. Passage- work follows, and parts of the first theme appear, 
allegro con fuoco, 4-4. The music grows more and more passionate 
and the rhythm of the wind instruments more pronounced. There 
is a transition section, and the basses allude to the last of the 
themes, — the fifth according to some, the conclusion theme as others 
prefer, — Grandioso, poco meno mosso, which is given out fortissimo 
by the full orchestra. It is based on the initial figure of the violas 
and violoncellos in the introduction. The exposition section of the 
movement is now complete. The free fantasia, if the following sec- 
tion may be so called, begins with the return of "tempo primo. 
Allegro agitato assai," and the working-out of thematic material is 
elaborate. There is a repetition section, or rather a recapitulation 
of the first, third, and fourth themes. The coda ends sadly with the 
Faust motive in augmentation. 

II. "Gretchen" 

Andante soave, A-flat major, 3-4. The movement has an intro- 
duction (flutes and clarinets), which establishes a mood. The chief 
theme, "characteristic of the innocence, simplicity, and contented 
happiness of Gretchen," may be called the Gretchen theme. It is 
sung (dolce semplice) by oboe with only a solo viola accompaniment. 
The theme is then given to other instruments and with another ac- 
companiment. The repeated phrase of flutes and clarinet, answered 
by violins, is supposed by some commentators to have reference to 
Gretchen's plucking the flower, with the words, "He loves me — loves 
me not," and at last, "He loves me !" The chief theme enters after 
this passage, and it now has a fuller expression and deeper signifi- 



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cance. A second theme, typical of Gretchen is sung by first violins, 
dolce amoroso ; it is more emotional, more sensuous. Here there is 
a suggestion of a figure in the introduction. This theme brings the 
end to the first section, which is devoted exclusively to Gretchen. 

Faust now enters, and his t} T pical motive is heard (horn with agi- 
tated viola and violoncello accompaniment). The Faust-Gretchen 
motive of the first movement is used, but in a very different form. 
The restless theme of the opening movement is now one of enthusi- 
astic love. The striking modulations that followed the first Gretchen 
theme occur again, but in different keys, and Faust soon leaves the 
scene. The third section of the movement is a much modified repeti- 
tion of the first section. Gretchen now has memories of her love. 
A tender violin figure now winds about her theme. Naturally, the 
"He loves me — loves me not" music is omitted, but there is a remi- 
niscence of the Faust motive. 

III. "Mephistopheles" 

Mephistopheles is here the spirit of demoniacal irony. Mr. Ap- 
thorp. after saying that the prevalence of triple rhythms in the move- 
ment might lead one, but in vain, to look for something of the scherzo 
form in it, adds: "One may suspect the composer of taking Me- 
phisto's 'Ich bin der Geist der stets verneint' (I am the spirit that 
denies) for the motto of this movement; somewhat in the sense of 
A. W. Ambrose when he said of Jacques Offenbach in speaking of 
his opera-bouffes : 'All the subjects which artists have hitherto turned 
to account, and in which they have sought their ideals, must here 
be pushed ad absurdum; we feel as if Mephisto were ironically smil- 
ing at us in the elegant mask of "a man of the times," and asking us 
whether the whole baggage of the Antique and the Romantic were 
worth a rap V " 

It is not at all improbable that Liszt took the idea of Mephis- 
topheles parodying the themes of Faust and Gretchen from the cari- 
cature of the motive of the fixed idea and from the mockery of the 
once loved one in the finale of Berlioz's "Episode in the Life of an 
Artist," or Fantastic Symphony. 

There are no new themes introduced in the Mephistopheles move- 
ment. 

As Miss Ramann says, Mephistopheles' character in this music is 
to be without character. His sport is to mock Faust as typified by 
liis themes; but he has no power over the Gretchen themes, and they 
are left undisturbed. 

Allegro vivace Lronico, C major, 2-4. There is a short pictorial 
introduction, an ascending chromatic run (violoncellos and double- 

26 



basses, chords for woodwind, strings, with cymbals and triangle). 
There arc ironical forms of the Faust and "Inquiry" motives, and 
the sempre allegro in which these themes appear leads to the main 
body of the movement. Allegro vivace, 6-8, 2-4. The theme is the 
first of the first movement, and it now appears in a wildly excited 
form. Interrupted by the Faust motive, it goes on with still greater 
stress and fury. Transitional passages in the movement return in 
strange disguise. An episode un poco animato follows, with an 
abrupt use of the Faust motive, and the "Inquiry" motive, reappear- 
ing, is greeted with jeers and fiendish laughter. The violas have a 
theme evolved from the Faust motive, which is then given to the 
violins and becomes the subject of fugal treatment. Allegro ani- 
mato; the grandiose fifth, or conclusion, theme of the first movement 
is now handled most flippantly. There is a tempestuous crescendo, 
and then silence; muted horns sustain the chord of C minor, while 
strings pizzicati give out the "Inquiry" motive. "The passage is 
as a warning apparition." The hellish mockery breaks out again. 
Some find the music now inspired by an episode in Goethe's Wal- 
purgis scene. In the midst of the din, woodwind instruments utter 
a cry, as when Faust exclaimed, "Mephistopheles, do you see yonder 
a pale, beautiful child, standing alone? ... I must confess it seems 
to me that she looks like the good Gretchen." The music ascends in 
the violins, grows softer and softer. Andante; the oboe sings the 
Gretchen theme. The vision quickly fades. Again an outbreak of 
despair, and there is a recapitulation of preceding musical matter. 
In the Allegro non troppo the Faust theme is chiefly used. "And 
then things grow more and more desperate, till we come to what we 
may call the transformation scene. It is like the rolling and shift- 
ing of clouds, and, indeed, transports us from the abode of mortal 
man to more ethereal spheres." The wild dissonances disappear; 
there is a wonderful succession of sustained chords. Poco andante, 



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ma sempre alia breve: the Gretchen theme is colored mysteriously; 
trombones make solemn declaration. Gretchen is now Faust's re- 
deemer. The male chorus, "Chorus mysticus," accompanied by organ 
and strings, sings to the strain announced by the trombones, "an- 
dante mistico," the lines of Goethe : — 

Alles Vergangliche 
1st nur ein Gleichniss ; 
Das Unzulangliche, 
Hier wird's Erreigniss ; 
Das Unbeschreibliclie, 
Hier ist's gethan ; 
Das Ewig-Weibliche 
Zieht nns hinan. 

The solo tenor and chorus sing: "Das Ewig-Weibliche zieht uns 
hinan" (with the Gretchen motive rhythmically altered and with 
harp added to the accompaniment), and the work ends radiantly 
calm. 

These lines have been Englished in prose : "All that is transitory 
is only a simile ; the insufficient here becomes event ; the indescribable 
is here done ; the Ever-feminine draws us onward." It was Liszt's 
intention, Brendel tells us, to have this chorus invisible at the first 
performance, but, inasmuch as it would have been necessary at 
Weimar to have it sung behind the lowered curtain, he feared the 
volume would be too weak. 

* * 

This symphony, dedicated to Hector Berlioz, was first performed 
from manuscript at a festival concert in the Grand Ducal Theatre 
at Weimar on September 5, 1857. 

The symphony was produced, without chorus, in New York on 
May 23, 1863, under Carl Bergmann. The whole symphony was 
performed by the Philharmonic Society of New York, Carl Berg- 
mann conductor, January 30, 1864. The Arion Chorus assisted, 
and Louis Quint was the solo tenor. 



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Boston Symplnoey Orchestra 



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PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



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AND THE 



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WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
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PIERRE MONTEUX. Conductor 



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Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. Ludwig, 0. KeUey, A. 
Gerhardt, G. Frankel, I. Demetr'des, 


Girard, H. 
L. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Laurent, G. 
Brooke, A. 
Amerena, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Stanislaus, H. 


Sand, A. 
Arcieri, E. 
Vanntni, A. 


Laus, A. 
AUard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horns 


Bass Clarinet. 


CONTRA-B ASSOON . 


Battles, A. 


Mueller, F. 
Speyer, L. 


Mimart, P. 


Piller, B. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


Wendler, G. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Hess, M. 
Van Den Berg 


Mager, G. 
, C. Mann, J. 
Perret, G. 
Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C. 
Adam, E. 
Mausebach, A. 
Kenfield, L. 


Tuba. 


Harps. 


Timpani. 


Percussion. 


Adam, E. 


Holy, A. 
Delcourt, L. 


Ritter, A. Ludwig, C. Zahn, F. 
Kandler, F. Sternburg, S. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


Librarian. 


Snow, A. 




Fiedler, A. 
3 


Rogers, L. J. 



c noston 
oymphony Orchestra 

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HIS MASTER'S VOICE' 



CARNEGIE HALL NEW YORK 

Thirty-seventh Season in New York 



Boste Symplvo ay O'lrclnes 

Forty-second Season. 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX. Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 5 
AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 

Schubert . . Symphony in B minor ("Unfinished") 

I. Allegro moderate 
II. Andante con mo to. 

Schumann .... Concerto for Violoncello with Orchestral 

Accompaniment, in A minor, Op. 129 
Allegro non troppo — Andante — Molto vivace 



Debussy "Printemps," Orchestral Suite 

I. Tres modere. 
II. Modere. 

Wagner Overture to "Rienzi" 



SOLOIST 
PABLO CASALS 

MASON & HAMLIN PIANO USED 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Schumann's concerto 

5 



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Unfinished Symphony in B minor Franz Schubert 

(Born at Lichtenthal, near Vienna, January 31, 1797; died at Vienna, 

November 19, 1828.) 

Two brothers, Anselm and Joseph Huttenbrenner, were fond of 
Schubert. Their home was in Graz, Styria, but they were living at 
Vienna. Anselm was a musician; Joseph was in a government office. 
Anselm took Schubert to call on Beethoven, and there is a story that 
the sick man said, "You, Anselm, have my mind; but Franz has my 
soul." Anselm closed the eyes of Beethoven in death. These brothers 
were constant in endeavor to make Schubert known. Anselm went 
so far as to publish a set of "Erlking Waltzes," and assisted in putting 
Schubert's opera, "Alfonso and Estrella" (1822), in rehearsal at Graz, 
where it would have been performed if the score had not been too dif- 
ficult for the orchestra. In 1822 Schubert was elected an honorary 
member of musical societies of Linz and Graz. In return for the com- 
pliment from Graz, he began the Symphony in B minor, No. 8 (October 
30, 1822). He finished the Allegro and the Andante, and he wrote 
nine measures of the Scherzo. Schubert visited Graz in 1827, but neither 
there nor elsewhere did he ever hear his unfinished work. 

In 1865 Herbeck was obliged to journey with his sister-in-law, who 
sought health. They stopped in Graz, and on May 1 he went to Over- 
Andritz, where the old and tired Anselm, in a hidden, little one-story 
cottage, was awaiting death. Herbeck sat down in a humble inn. He 
talked with the landlord, who told him that Anselm was in the habit 
of breakfasting there. While they were talking, Anselm appeared. 
After a few words Herbeck said, "I am here to ask permission to pro- 
duce one of your works at Vienna." The old man brightened, he shed 
his indifference, and after breakfast took him to his home. The work- 
room was stuffed with yellow and dusty papers, all in confusion. Anselm 
showed his own manuscripts, and finally Herbeck chose one of the ten 
overtures for performance. "It is my purpose," he said, "to bring 
forward three contemporaries, Schubert, Huttenbrenner, and Lachner, 
in one concert before the Viennese public. It would naturally be very 
appropriate to represent Schubert by a new work." "Oh, I have still 
a lot of things by Schubert," answered the old man; and he pulled a 
mass of papers out of an old-fashioned chest. Herbeck immediately 
saw on the cover of a manuscript "Symphonie in H moll," in Schubert's 
handwriting. Herbeck looked the symphony over. "This would do. 
Will you let me have it copied immediately at my cost?" "There is 
no hurry," answered Anselm, "take it with you." 

Huttenbrenner 's overture was described as "respectable Kapell- 
meistermusik; no one can deny its smoothness of style and a certain 
skill in the workmanship." The composer died in 1868. 

The Unfinished Symphony was played at the Crystal Palace, Syden- 
ham, in 1867. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
strings. 



Concerto for Violoncello, with Orchestral Accompaniment, 
A minor, Op. 129 Robert Schumann 

(Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, July 29, 1856.) 

Clara Schumann wrote in her diary, November 16, 1850 : "Robert 
is now at work on something, I do not know what, for he has said 
nothing to me about it. The month before he composed a concerto 
for violoncello that pleased me very much. It appears to me to be 
written in true violoncello style." 

The unknown work was the Symphony in E-flat major. 

Mme. Schumann wrote again about the concerto, October 11, 1851 : 
"I have played Robert's violoncello concerto again and thus pro- 
cured for myself a truly musical and happy hour. The romantic 
quality, the flight, the freshness and the humor, and also the highly 
interesting interweaving of violoncello and orchestra are, indeed, 
wholly ravishing, and what euphony and deep sentiment are in 
all the melodic passages !" 

The concerto was sketched at Diisseldorf between the 10th and 
16th of October, 1850 ; the instrumentation was completed October 
24 of the same year; the concerto was published at Leipsic in 
August, 1854. 

The first performance was probably the one in the hall of the 
Royal Conservatory, Leipsic, June 9, 1860, at an evening concert 
in commemoration of the fiftieth birthday of the composer. The 
solo violoncellist was Ludwig Ebert,* ducal chamber virtuoso at 
Oldenburg. 

Schumann wrote Dr. Hartel on November 1, 1852, that the con- 
certo was ready for publication. He had introduced the work in 
the sketch of a programme for the tenth subscription concert to 
be given at Diisseldorf, May 20, 1852. He was busied in correcting 
proofs of the concerto in February, 1854. 

The concerto was announced for a Gewandhaus subscription con- 
cert at Leipsic, December 18, 1862, and it excited doubt at the 
rehearsal. It was not performed, and Franz Neruda, the violon- 
cellist, substituted a concertino by Servais. David Popper and 
Bernhard Cossmann were among the first to make Schumann's con- 
certo familiar: the former at Breslau, December 10, 1867, and 
Lowenberg, December 15, 1867; the latter at Moscow, December 

14, 1867. 

* 
** 

The first movement, Mcht zu schnell (not too fast), A minor, 4-4, 
opens with four measures of sustained harmony in the wood-wind 
instruments with chords, pizzicato for the strings. The first theme 
is then given to the solo violoncello with accompaniment of strings, 
and it is developed. The full orchestra plays the first subsidiary 

*Ebert was born April 13, 1834, at Kladrau, Bohemia, and he studied at the 
Conservatory in Prague. I f e was first violoncellist at Oldenburg from 1854 to 1874, 
and afterwards teacher at the Cologne Conservatory until isss. With Heubner he 
founded the Coblenz Conservatory of Music. He was a member of the Heckmann 
Quartet, 1875-78. He composed pieces Cor his instrument. 

8 



theme forte. The violoncello has the second theme, C major, and 
then has brilliant passage-work which leads into the free fantasia. 
The third part of the movement begins in an orthodox manner 
with the return of the tirst theme. The second theme returns in A 
major. A short orchestral coda leads to a recitative for the solo 
violoncello, and the second movement is thus connected. 

The second movement, Langsam (slow), F major, 4-4, is a romanza 
for the solo instrument. There is one song theme, accompanied by 
the strings, with here and there a note for wood-wind instruments. 
Phrases of recitative lead to the next movement. 

The third movement, Sehr lebhaft (very lively), A minor, 2-4, 
opens with passages between the solo violoncello and the orchestra. 
After a tutti, the first theme, which begins in C major and then 
goes into A minor, is given to the solo instrument. Passage- work 
leads to the appearance of the second theme (solo violoncello), and 
figures from the first theme are introduced in the accompaniment. 
There is more passage- work, and the first theme returns as an 
orchestral tutti. There is a short free fantasia which leads to 
the return of the first theme at the beginning of the third part of 
the movement. There is a coda with passage-work for the solo 
violoncello. 

The concerto is scored for tw T o flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings, and solo 
violoncello. 



"Printemps," Suite Symphonique 



Claude Debussy* 



(Born at St. Germain (Seine-et-Oise), France, August 22, 1862; died 

at Paris. March 26, 191S.) 

"Printemps" must not be confounded with Debussy's "Rondes de 
Printemps," the third of his "Images," composed in 1909 and played 
for the first time in Boston at a Symphony concert, Mr. Fiedler con- 
ductor, November 26, 1910. 

"Printemps" was composed at Rome in February, 1887. It was 
originally written for orchestra, pianoforte, and chorus (without 
words). 

Debussy took the prix de Rome in 1884 with his cantata "L'Enfant 
Prodigue." At Rome the director of the Villa Medicis was the 
painter Hebert, who played the violin after the manner of his 

*He entered the Paris Conservatory as Achille Claude Debussy, and the title-page 
of the first edition of "Ariettes," composed in 1888, reads thus : "Ariettes : Paroles de 
I'. Verlaine, Musique de Ach. Debussy." 




teacher Ingres. Hebert took a fancy to Debussy, and the two played 
Mozart's violin sonatas with exceeding joy, except that the pianist, 
in order to follow his uncertain colleague, was sometimes forced to 
transpose the music to wholly unforeseen keys. 

Debussy wished to put music to Heine's drama, "Almanzor." He 
could not find a satisfactory translation, and so he abandoned the 
work after writing the first part, which went to Paris as his first 
envoi. The score was lost or mislaid. The second envoi was 
a Printemps." 

"La Demoiselle elue" was next in order. Rossetti's "Blessed 
Damozel" was translated into French by Gabriel Sarrazin. Debussy 
was enthusiastic over the poem. He began composition at Rome; 
the work was completed in Paris in 1887. This was the third envoi. 
The Academy gave approval with a slight reserve, and a performance 
was proposed, but the conservatives would not allow a performance 
also of the condemned "Printexnps." The composer would not 
submit to the exclusion. "La Demoiselle elue" was not performed in 
Paris until April 8, 1893, and then at a concert of the Societe 
Rationale. A "Fantaisie" for pianoforte and orchestra, which 
should have been the fourth envoi, was not sent in by Debussy. 
Later this "Fantaisie" was put on a programme of the Societe 
Rationale de Musique. At the final rehearsal the composer, not 
satisfied with the second part, withdrew the work.* 

Louis Laloy says in his study "Claude Debussy" (Paris, 1909) : 
"Painters, architects, and sculptors go to Rome to take lessons 
from masterpieces; musicians find silence there;, far from classes 
and concerts they can at last hear their own thoughts. And among 
these students, those who are not only authors, but men, take 
counsel of a nature richer and more serious than ours, of a people 
that know better than we how to put a good face on life. They 
are rare, no doubt. Berlioz was one in his own way, which un- 
fortunately was not sufficiently that of a musician. For the others, 
Italy is only the land of suburban wine-taverns and romances. 
Italy accepts this manner of being seen and heard; she is at the 
disposal of all; indifferent, she offers to each one of us what it 
pleases this one and that one to take among the divers beauties 
with which the centuries have overloaded her. For Claude Debussy 
she reserves the disclosure of 'Spring,' which is the poem of foliage 
kissed by the sun; of fresh springs in the shadow of hills; of 
floating light. This Symphonic Suite in two parts for orchestra 
and chorus already evokes, with its clear melodies and its chromatic 
languors, the site where later at the instigation of Mallarme, the 
Faun will show himself, desirous of the fleeting Nymphs. Two 
innovations displeased the musicians of the Institute : the assigning 
of an instrumental part to the voice, without words, and the tonality 
of F-sharp major. The most celebrated of them said: 'No one 
writes in F-sharp major for the orchestra,' and did not know that 
he had picked up for his own use a line of the good Lecerf de 

*I( was performed for the first, time at a concert of the Royal Philharmonic 
Society, London, Alfred Cortot, pianist, November 20, 1910. The first performance in 
the United States was at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston, April 
16, 1020, Mr. Cortot pianist. 

10 



Vi6ville, who was frightened in 1705 by hearing a clavecinist playing 
in 'fa nt fa diesis tierce majenr.' "* 

This envoi "Printemps" was examined and judged for the Institut 
in Paris by Anibroise Thomas, Gounod, Delibes, Reyer, Massenet, 
and Saint-Saens. They judged it unduly modern, insufficiently 
precise in form and design. 

Debussy transcribed this Suite for two pianofortes and a chorus 
of first and second sopranos, first and second contraltos, first and 
second tenors. The transcription was first published in the Revue 
Mumcale, Paris, of February 15, 1904. 

A transcription for pianoforte (four hands) and chorus was pub- 
lished by A. Durand et Fils, Paris, in 1904. A note on the title-page 
says that the Suite can be played by four hands without a chorus. 

Debussy then prepared an orchestral score, which was published 
by Durand et Fils in 1913. 

The first performance of this Suite was at a concert of the Society 
National de Musique, Paris, on April 18, 1913. Roger-Ducasse's "Au 
jardin de Marguerite" and Samazeuilh's "Somnieil de Canope" were 
also performed. M. Rhene-Baton conducted. 

The first performance in the United States was at New York by 
the New York Symphony Society, Walter Damrosch conductor,. 
December 5, 1913. Many of the critics spoke of it as Debussy's 
latest work, and were pleased to find a simpler and more melodious 
style. 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, January 23, 1913. There was a later per- 
formance on October 26, 1917. 

The Suite is scored for two flutes (one interchangeable with pic- 
colo), oboe, English horn, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, 
two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, side drum, cymbals, 
triangle, harp, pianoforte (four hands), and the usual strings. 



Overture to the Opera "Rienzi, the Last of the Tribunes" 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

Wagner left Konigsberg in the early summer of 1837 to visit Dresden, 
and there he read Barmann's translation into German of Bulwer's 



L. L. 



♦"Comparison de la musique italienne et de la musique franchise," t. iii. p. 190. 













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11 



"Rienzi."* And thus was revived his long-cherished idea of making 
the last of the Tribunes the hero of a grand opera. "My impatience 
of a degrading plight now amounted to a passionate craving to begin 
something grand and elevating, no matter if it involved the temporary- 
abandonment of any practical goal. This mood was fed and strength- 
ened by a reading of Bulwer's 'Rienzi.' From the misery of modern 
private life, whence I could nohow glean the scantiest material for 
artistic treatment, I was wafted by the image of a great historico- 
political event, in the enjoyment whereof I needs must find a distrac- 
tion lifting me above cares and conditions that to me appeared noth- 
ing less than absolutely fatal to art." During this visit he was much 
impressed by a performance of Halevy's " Jewess" at the Court The- 
atre, and a warrior's dance in Spohr's "Jessonda" was cited by him 
afterward as a model for the military dances in "Rienzi." 

Wagner wrote the text of "Rienzi" at Riga in July, 1838. He began 
to compose the music late in July of the same year. He looked toward 
Paris as the city for the production. "Perhaps it may please Scribe," 
he wrote to Lewald, "and Rienzi could sing French in a jiffy; or it 
might be a means of prodding up the Berliners, if one told them that 
the Paris stage was ready to accept it, but they were welcome to pre- 
cedence." He himself worked on a translation into French. In May, 
1839, he completed the music of the second act, but the rest of the music 
was written in Paris. The third act was completed August 11, 1840; 
the orchestration of the fourth was begun August 14, 1840; the score 
of the opera was completed November 19, 1840. 

The overture to "Rienzi" was completed October 23, 1840. 

The opera was produced at the Royal Saxon Court Theatre, Dresden, 
October 20, 1842. 

The first performance of the opera in America was at the Academy 
of Music, New York, March 4, 1878. 

The overture is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two valve horns, two plain horns, serpent, two valve 
trumpets, two plain trumpets, three trombones, ophicleide, kettle- 
drums, two snare drums, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, and strings. 
The serpent mentioned in the score is replaced by the double-bassoon, 
and the ophicleide by the bass tuba. 

* Bulwer's novel was published at London in three volumes in 1835. 



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12 



List of Works performed at the Evening Concerts during 

the Seasoe of 1922-19% ; > 



Bax 



"November Woods" for Orchestra 



Berlioz 

Fantastic Symphony, No. 1 in C major, Op. 16 a 
Overture, "Benvenuto Cellini" Op. 23 

Brahms 

Concerto in D major for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 77 
Soloist, Georges Enesco 

Chausson 

Symphony in B-flat major, Op. 20 

Debussy 

"Printemps," Orchestral Suite 

Franck 

Symphonic Poem: "Le Chasseur Maudit" ("The Wild 
Huntsman") 

Glazotjnov 

"Stenka Razin," Symphonic Poem, Op. 13 

Griffes 

"Clouds" 

"The White Peacock," Op. 7, No. 1 

LOEFFLER 

"La Mort de Tintagiles," Dramatic Poem after the 

Drama of Maurice Maeterlinck, for Orchestra and 
Viole d' Amour, Op. 6 

(Viole d'Amour — Richard Burgin) 

Mozart 

Symphony in E-flat major (Koechel No. 543) 

Ravel 

Rapsodie Espagnole 

Schubert 

Symphony in B minor ("Unfinished") 

Schumann 

Concerto for Violoncello with Orchestral Accompaniment, 
in A minor, Op. 129 

Soloist, Pablo Casals 

Smetana 

Symphonic Poem, "Vltava" ("The Moldau") from "Ma 
Vlast" ("My Country"), No. 2 



II. January 4 

I. November 30 
III. February 1 

III. February 1 

IV. March 15 
V. April 5 

III. February 1 
I. November 30 

I. November 30 

IV. March 15 

II. January 4 

III. February 1 

V. April 5 

V. April 5 
III. February 1 



II. January 4 



Strauss 

"Don Quixote" (Introduction, Theme with Variations and 
Finale) : Fantastic Variations on a Theme of 
Knightly Character, Op. 35 
(Violoncello solo, Jean Bedetti, Viola solo, Georges Fourel) 
"Till EulenspiegeFs Merry Pranks, after the Old-fashioned, 
Roguish Manner, in Rondo Form," for Full Orches- 
tra, Op. 28 IV. March 15 

Vaughan Williams 

Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis for Double 

Stringed Orchestra I. November 30 



Wagner 

Overture to "Tannhauser" 
Overture to "Rienzi" 



IV. March 15 
V. April 5 



13 



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FIFTH MATINEE 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, APRIL 7 
AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 



Gre try-Mo ttl . . Three Dance Numbers from "Cephale et Procris" 

I. Tambourin. 
II. Menuet ("The Nymphs of Diana") 
III. Gigue. 

Debussy . "Prelude a l'Apres-Midi d'un Faune" (Prelude to "The 

Afternoon of a Faun"), Eclogue by S. Mallarme 

Respighi ....... Ballad of the Gnomides 



Beethoven . . . Symphony No. 3, in E-flat major, "Eroica" 

I. Allegro con brio. 

II. Marcia funebre: Adagio assai. 

III. Scherzo: Allegro vivace; Trio. 

IV. Finale: Allegro molto. 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Respighi's "Ballad of the Gnomides" 



15 



Three Dance Pieces from "Cephalus and Procris," Heroic 
Ballet: Tambourin; Menuet ("The Nymphs of Diana") ; Gigue; 
Freely Arranged for Concert Performance by Felix Mottl. 

Andre Erneste Modeste Gretry 

(Gretry, born at Liege, February S. 1741; died at Montmorency, near Paris, 

September 24, 1813.) 
(Mottl, born at Unter St. Veit, near Vienna, August 29, 1856; died at 

Munich on July 2, 1911.) 

Gretry's "Cephale et Procris," heroic ballet in three acts, words by 
Jean Francois Marinontel (1723-99), was performed for the first 
time at Versailles before Louis XV., December 30, 1773, at the 
wedding festivities of Charles Philippe of France, Count of Artois, 
who married the Princess Marie Theresa of Savoy, November 16 of 
that year.* At Versailles there was only this one performance. 
The singers were: Larrivee, Cephale; Sophie Arnould, Procris; 
Mme. Larrivee, TAurore; Mile. Kosalie (afterwards Levasseur), 
Flore and TAmour; Mile. Beaumenil, Pales; Mile. Duplant, la 
Jalousie; Mile. La Suze, la Soupgon; Mile. Dubois, Une Nymphe. 
The ballets were arranged by Vestris and Gar del. 

"Cephale et Procris" was produced at the Academie Royale de 
Musique, Paris, May 2, 1775, and was performed a dozen times. 
Larrivee, Cephale; Mile. Levasseur, Procris; Mile. Mallet, Flore et 
l'Amour; Mile. Beaumenil, Pales; Mile. Duplante, la Jalousie; 

*Gustave Chouquet, in his "Histoire de la Musique Drarnatique en France" (p. 357), 
says that "Cephale et Procris" was performed at Versailles at the end of the series 
of entertainments in honor of the marriage of the Dauphin and Marie Antoinette. 
The late conservator of the collection of musical instruments belonging to the Paris 
Conservatory was an unusually accurate and sound writer, but the marriage of the 
Dauphin and Marie Antoinette took place on May 16, 1770, over three years before 
the performance of "Cephale et Procris" at Versailles. The marriage of the Comte 
d'Artois and Marie Theresa was first by procuration at Turin in the palace of the 
King of Sardinia and Savoy, Marie's father, October 24, 1773. On November 14 of 
that year she arrived, in the environs of Fontainebleau, and was there met by the 
King of France. Castil-Blaze, in his "L' Academie Impgriale de Musique" (Paris, 1855), 
makes the mistake of Chouquet. No doubt Chouquet followed Castil-Blaze blindly in 
the matter. 



Coaching, Repertoire, Programme building 
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in 



Mile. Chateauneuf, la Soupgon; Mile. Dubois, CJne Nymphe. The 

chief dancers were .Mines. (Juiniard, Paeslin, Dorival ;• Messrs. 
Vestris, d'Auberval, Gardel. 

There was a revival on May 23, 1777, with twenty-six perform- 
ances that year. 

Marmontel based his libretto on the story as told by Ovid in the 
seventh book of the "Metamorphoses." In Marmontel's version, 
Aurora, in love with Cephalus, disguises herself as a nymph, and 
comes down from her celestial home to see him; but her brilliance 
betrays her. Learning from him that he loves Procris, she informs 
him that Diana has condemned Procris to die by the hand of her 
lover, but Cephalus runs to his fate. Jealousy and her followers 
prepare to take vengeance on Aurora, who appears as one of Diana's 
nymphs. Procris calls Cephalus. Jealousy advances, and tells her 
that her lover has abandoned her for Aurora. Cephalus, wearied 
by the chase, falls on the ground. Faint and wishing a refreshing 
breeze, he calls on Aura.* There is a stir in the foliage, and he 
hurls a dart. Procris comes forward with the dart that she has 

*Aura, a light wind. There were two statues called "Aurse" at Rome in the time 
of Pliny the Elder. The Aurae were represented by the ancients as clothed in long 
and floating veils of a light texture. 



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drawn from her breast. Jealousy rejoices, but Love brings Procris 
back to life, and the lovers are joined. 

Mottl took three of the dance numbers and arranged them for 
concert use. The fifth scene of the first act is entitled "Les Nymphes 
de Diane." There is a chorus, which is followed by a ballet of 
Diana's nymphs: Minuet, Contredanse, Pantomime (followed by a 
repetition for chorus of the Minuet), Tambourin. The Gigue of 
Mottl's suite is from the fifth scene of the second act; chorus, 
u Mouvement de Loure," Gigue. 

I. Tambourin, Presto, ma non troppo (Gretry: presto), D major 
(original key, C major), 2-2. Mottl scored the music for two flutes 
(interchangeable with two piccolos), two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, triangle, tam- 
bourine, strings. The chief motive is given to piccolos and oboes, 
while violas, violoncellos, horns, and tambourine play rhythmically 
a pedal with violins pizzicati, and the triangle on the weaker beat. 
The middle section is in D minor (C minor in the original) with 
melody for violins, while the horns sustain a pedal. After the 
repetition in major there is a coda. The tambourin is an old dance 
popular on the French stage of the eighteenth century. The melody 
was gay and lively. At the moment the flutes imitated the "fluitet," 
or "flaiutet" or "galoubet" of Provence, the bass marked strongly 
the note of the tambourin, or "tamboron." This tambourin of 
Provence should not be confounded with the familiar tambourine. 
The former is a long drum of small diameter, beaten with a stick 
in one hand, while the other plays the galoubet, a pipe with 
three holes, which are covered by the thumb, index finger, and the 
middle one. Prsetorius attributes an English origin to the galoubet. 
The music for this instrument is written two octaves lower than 
the real sound, and the instrument has a chromatic scale of at least 
an octave and four notes. The tambourin, as a rule, has no snare. 
Where there is one, it is a single cord stretched across the upper 
end of the drum. The player (le tambour inaire) bears the drum 



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suspended from his left forearm; lie boats with his right, and holds 
the galoubet in his left. If he plays the galoubet, he is called an 
"Escoular." To play the two instruments together is called "tutu- 
pomponeyer," and Daudet in "Port Tarascon" gives the transport 
ship the name "Tutupanpan," a name expressive of the sound of the 
two installments. Bizet in "L'Arlesienne" gives an imitation of 
galoubet and tambourin, substituting the piccolo in the place of the 
former. For a further description of the instruments, their history, 
literature, and the manner of playing them, see "Lou Tambourin," 
by F. Vidal (Avignon, s. d.), "Notice sur le Tambourin," by "Un 
Tambourinaire," — de Lombardon-Montezan (Marseilles, 1883), and 
Alphonse Daudet's romance "Numa Roumestan." 

The Tambourin, the dance, was a stage dance. Folk-dances of 
Provence were the Olivettes, Lacets, Quenouilles, Soufflets, Joute, 
Cocos, Cerceaux, Folies Espagnoles, Farandole, and all Branles for 
which the tambourin, the instrument, was used. As a stage dance, 
the tambourin was most popular, so that, according to rule, every 
opera at the Academie Koyale de Musique had passepieds in the 
prologue, musettes in the first act, tambourins in the second, and 
chaconnes and passepieds in those remaining. Marie Anne Camargo 
was famous for dancing the tambourin. There is a celebrated tam- 
bourin in Rameau's "Pieces for Clavecin" ; he introduced it after- 
wards in his opera-ballet, "Les Fetes d'Hebe" (Paris, 1739). There 
is another in Berton's "Aline, Reine de Golconde" (Paris, 1803). 
A still more celebrated one is in Adam's "Le Sourd" (Paris, 1853) 
with the couplets beginning: — 



Sur le pont 
d'Avignon, 
En cadence 
L'on y danse ; 
Sur le pont 
d'Avignon 
L'on y danse 
Tons en rond. 



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A tambourin from Gluck's "Iphigenie en Aulide" in a suite ar- 
ranged by Gevaert lias been performed here at concerts of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. 

II. Menuetto: Moderato, B-fiat major, 3-4 (Gretry: Menuet, 
C major, 3-4, without indication of pace). Mottl scored it for two 
flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trum- 
pets, kettledrums, and strings. 

III. Gigue: Allegro non troppo, D major, 6-8 (Gretry: Gigue, 
tres legere, A major, 6-8). Mottl changed the melodic contour of 
this simple little dance, elaborated the music, and scored it for 
piccolo, flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, 
two trumpets, a set of three kettledrums, triangle, and strings. 

Gretry says of "Cephale et Procris" in his "Memoirs ou Essais sur 
la Musique" (Paris, Pluviose, An V., 3 vols.) : "This opera was per- 
formed the year of the marriage of the Comte d'Artois; its success 
was only mediocre both at Versailles and at Paris. At the time it 
was received at the Opera, there was no such thing as strict time 
except for choruses and dances. If certain verses of recitative were 
expressive, the actor would give it the importance to which a pa- 
thetic air is susceptible. If the accompaniments forced him to fol- 
low an indicated movement, he attained it only by running after 
the orchestra ; and the result of this was a shock, a counterpoint, a 
perpetual syncope. The effect of this I leave to your imagination. 

"One of the rehearsals was interrupted by the following dialogue, 
from which the state of affairs can be judged : — 

"The Actress on the stage: 'What is the meaning of this, sir? I think there 
is a rebellion in your orchestra.' 

"The Conductor at his post: 'A rebellion? We are all here in the service 
of the King and we serve him zealously.' 

"The Actress : 'I too should like to serve him, but your orchestra puts me 
out. and prevents me from singing.' 

"The Conductor : 'But we were keeping the time.' 

"The Actress: 'In time? What sort of a beast is that? Follow me, sir, and 
know that your accompaniment is the most humble servant of the actress 
who recites.' 

"The Conductor : 'When you recite, I follow you ; but you are singing an 
air with a decidedly marked time.' 

"The Actress : 'Well, leave all these follies, and follow me.' " 

(The actress, others tell us, was Sophie Arnould ; the conductor 
was Francceur. ) 

"The dance tunes were esteemed by the dancers." 
"Cephale et Procris" at Versailles ended a long row — several 
weeks — of festivities arranged by Papillon de la Ferte. After the 
operatic performance which provoked yawns, the Dauphin was 
reported as saying to the Duke de Kichelieu : "At last our divertisse- 
ments are at an end! Now we can begin to amuse ourselves." 
Baron Grimm wrote in January, 1744: "Of all the operas per- 
formed for the court festivities Cephale' gave the most pleasure, 
and tli is is not a high eulogy. The success of the work seems at 
present below the reputation of the two authors. But it is only at 
Paris that these important cases are judged in a court of last 
resort, and we await the supreme judgment. . . . The poem, which, 
according to custom, lias been printed for Versailles, has found 

20 



very severe judges, The amiability of M. Marmoutel in cutting and 
hacking his verses to make them more suitable to musical expression 
has not been sufficiently recognized. Mile. Arnould lias even been so 
malicious as to say that the music of 'Cephale' seemed to her much 
more French than the words. The word 'aura,' which the poet 
thought he should keep in French, has inspired puns, because it 
recalled e ora pro nobis: But all these jests of the moment do not 
destroy the interest inspired by a good work." 

Mile. Lespinasse was not pleased with the opera in Paris. She 
wrote : "This music is of a pale color. My friend Gretry should 
keep to his own style, which is gentle, agreeable, sensitive, witty — 
it is good enough, and when a man of a small figure is well made, 
it is dangerous and surely ridiculous for him to mount on stilts; 
he falls on his nose and the passers-by laugh. The worst of Gretry's 
operas for the Comedie Italienne is better than this one at the 
Theatre Lyrique." 

Perhaps Gretry was consoled by the sums given him at Versailles: 
2,000 francs for the composition and 3,599 for the "copies." 



* 



Overtures by "Gretrie" (sic) — "overture" of Carvane* {sic), and 
a "grand overture" without title — were performed in Charles- 
ton, S.C., December 17, 1793 ; an overture was played in the same 
town, March 6, 1794; "overture from La Rosiere"f was played at 
Norfolk, Va., April 20, 1797; overture to "Peter the Great"{ (prob- 
ably Gretry's) was played in New York, July 16, 1799; a "grand 
overture" without title was played in Concert Hall, Boston, May 15, 
1793, and on May 30, 1793, also in Boston, June 18, 1795. The 
"grand overture in Rosiere de Salenci" was played in Boston in 
the Assembly Room, September 9, 1794. We are indebted for these 
facts to Mr. O. G. Sonneck's "Early Concert Life in America," a 
work that shows uncommon research. It is not unlikely that ballet 
airs from Gretry's operas were also played in the United States 
before 1800. Gretry's "Richard Cceur de Lion" was performed in 
Boston in English on January 23, 1797, "with all the original 
music, songs, and choruses," and the orchestra was led by Mr. Trille 
La Barre, "who appears to have modified Gretry's score to some 
extent." (See Mr. Sonneck's article "Opera in America from 1783 
to 1800," published in the New Music Revieiv, New York, October, 

*"La Caravane du Caire" (Opera, Paris, October 30, 1783). 

t"La Rosiere de Salenci" (Aux Italiens, Paris, February 28, 1774). 

t"Pierre le Grand" (Aux Italiens. Paris, January 13, 1790). 



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1908.) The libretto of "Selima and Azore,* a new comic opera, 
translated into English from the Italian by Mrs. Rigaud, the music 
by the most celebrated composer, Signor Gretry," was published in 
Philadelphia, "probably in 1794, the year of performance" in that 
city. 



Prelude to ''The afternoon of a Faun (after the Eclogue of 
Stephane Mallarme)" Achille Claude Debussy 

(Born at St. Germain (Seine and Oise), August 22, 1862; died at Paris, March 

26, 1918.) 

"Prelude a PApres-Midi d'un Faune (Eglogue de S. MaHamae)" was 
played for the first time at a concert of the National Society of Music, 
Paris, December 23, 1894. The conductor was Gustave Doret. 

The first performance in Boston — it was also the first in the United 

States — was at a concert of the Boston Orchestral Club, Mr. Longy 

conductor, April 1, 1902. 

Let us read Mr. Gosse's explanation of the poem that suggested music 
to Debussy: "It appears in the florilege which he has just published, 
and I have now read it again, as I have often read it before. To say 
that I understand it bit by bit, phrase by phrase, would be excessive. 
But, if I am asked whether this famous miracle of unintelligibility gives 
me pleasure, I answer, cordially, Yes. I even fancy that I obtain from 
it as definite and as solid an impression as M. Mallarme desires to pro- 
duce. This what I read in it: A faun — a simple, sensuous, passionate 
being — wakens in the forest at daybreak and tries to recall his experience 
of the previous afternoon. Was he the fortunate recipient of an actual 
visit from nymphs, white and golden goddesses, divinely tender and in- 
dulgent? Or is the memory he seems to retain nothing but the shadow 
of a vision, no more substantial than the 'arid rain' of notes from his 
own flute? He cannot tell. Yet surely there was, surely there is, an 
animal whiteness among the brown reeds of the lake that shines out 
yonder? Were they, are they, swans? No! But Naiads plunging? 
Perhaps! Vaguer and vaguer grows the impression of this delicious ex- 
perience. He would resign his woodland godship to retain it. A garden 
of lilies, golden-headed, white-stalked, behind the trellis of red roses? 
Ah! the effort is too great for his poor brain. Perhaps if he selects One 
lily from the garth of lilies, one benign and beneficent yielder of her cup 
to thirsty lips, the memory, the ever-receding memory, may be forced 
back. So when he has glutted upon a bunch of grapes, he is wont to 
toss the empty skins into the air and blow them out in a visionary greedi- 
ness. But no, the delicious hour grows vaguer; experience or dream, 
he will never know which it was. The sun is warm, the grasses yield- 
ing; and he curls himself up again, after worshipping the efficacious star 
of wine, that he may pursue the dubious ecstasy into the more hopeful 
boskages of sleep. 

•"Z6mire et Azor" (Fontainebloau, November 9, 1771 ; Aux Italiens, Paris, Decem- 
ber 10, 1771). 

22 



CARNEGIE HALL 



923-1924 Forty-third Season 



B©§t©im 2)ympia©m; 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FIVE THURSDAY EVENING CONCERTS 

November 29 January 3 

January 31 March 13 April 3 

FIVE SATURDAY MATINEES 

December 1 January 5 February 2 

March 1 5 April 5 



The Programmes of the Evening and the Afternoon Concerts are 

entirely different. 



IMPORTANT NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS 

The option to renew the subscription for your present seats 
expires MAY 1. 

All communications should be addressed to 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager, 

Symphony Hail, Boston, Mass. 

23 



"Ballade of the Gnomides" Ottorino Resphigi 

(Born at Bologna, July 9, 1879; living at Rome.) 

The score of "Ballata delle Gnomidi" contains a "program" by Carlo 
Clausetti, which is printed also in French, German and English: — 

Dragging the raving gnome, the women go, abandoning their flimsy draperies to 

the wind. ... 
The diminutive man gambols between those, his two brides, whom a single nuptial 

bed awaits. 
Oh! gnomides, let the race be brief, lest he weary fall when falls the Bear! 

No torch was lighted at the distorted nuptials, but without, hordes of gnomes were 

waiting, eager for the prey. 
And in the thick night a sharp cry resounded, so painful as to rout the darkness. 

Then silence. The new dawn was breaking; the mad wives drew their vain 

booty from the alcove 
And fled with it, followed by the cunning throng of manlings thickly swarming 

about 
And muttering prayers worthy only of the anathemas to be heard, in blaspheming 

jargon, in the depths infernal. 
By a rough path, they reached a broad hill whose sharp ridge overlooked a sea of blue. 
In a twinkling the filthy husband was downward hurled and the rite thus ended. 



Now on the summit of the hill, after their sleepless night, the two women dance in 

the morning breeze. 
And, while the day is breaking, the tiny people join in the dance of the cruel widows. 
One shrieks, another mocks, still another bites or laughs aloud; a wild frenzy possesses 

them all, as at a witches' sabbath. 

The Ballade is scored for the following orchestra: Two piccolos, 
two flutes, two oboes, English horn, three clarinets, bass clarinet, two 
bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba, four kettledrums, triangle, side drum, bass drum and cymbals, 
gong, Glockenspiel, xylophone, two harps, strings. 

The work is freely constructed. Considerable use is made of the 
rhythmical figure which opens the work in the first violins (Allegro 
vivace, A major) and of the motive which is heard at the third measure 
in the muted trumpets. Eighteen pages of the score are devoted to 
development of this material. The next section opens with a cry from 
an E-flat clarinet, in its turn to be succeeded by a quieter section 
(Andante moderato) , whose material is drawn from the trumpet motive 
which began the work. Another division is a funeral march, the theme 
of which, beginning in the drums, is taken from the first measure of the 
piece. There are other sections, but their material has already been 
heard in one form or another. 



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24 



List of Works performed at the Afternoon Concerts during 

the Season of 1922-1923 



Beethoven 

Symphony No. 3, in E-flat major, "Eroica" 

Brahms 

Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 

Debussy 

Prelude a l'Apres-midi d'un Faune ("The Afternoon of a 
Faun"), Eclogue by S. Mallarme 

Franck 

Symphonic Poem: "Les Eolides" ("The Aeolidae") 

Gretry-Mottl 

Three Dance Numbers f rom ' "Cephale et Procris" 

Handel 

Concerto Grosso No. 5 in D major for String Orchestra 



V. April 7 
I. December 2 

V. April 7 
II. January 6 

V. April 7 
IV. March 17 



I. December 2 



(Edited by G. F. Kogel) 

Solo Violins: R. Burgin, J. Theodorowicz 
Solo Viola : G. Fourel, Solo Violoncello : J. Bedetti 

HONEGGER 

Horace Victorieux, Symphonie Mimee 

d'Indy 

"Wallenstein," Trilogy (after the Dramatic Poem of 

Schiller), Op. 12 II. January 6 

Liszt 

"Les Preludes," Symphonic Poem, No. 3 (after Lamartine) II. January 6 
A Faust Symphony in Three Character Pictures (after 

Goethe) IV. March 17 

Harvard Glee Club (Dr. Archibald T. Davison, Conductor) 
Arthur Hackett, Tenor 

Pergolesi-Stravinsky 

Suite No. 1, from the Ballet, "Pulcinella" for Small Orchestra II. January 6 



Respighi 

Ballad of the Gnomides 

Strauss 

Tone Poem, "Thus spake Zarathustra" 

(freely after Friedrich Nietzsche), Op. 30 



V. April 7 



I. December 2 



III. February 3 

III. February 3 

III. February 3 

III. February 3 



Wagner 

Overture to "The Flying Dutchman" 

Prelude to "Lohengrin" 

Prelude to "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg" 

Prelude and Love-Death, "Tristan and Isolde" 

Wotan's Farewell and Magic Fire Music (Close of "The 

Valkyrie") III. February 3 

Wotan — Clarence Whitehill 

Siegfried's Ascent to Bruennhilde's Rock (Siegfried); 
Morning Dawn, Siegfried's Rhine Journev and 
Close of "Dusk of the Gods" III. Februarv 3 



25 



Symphony No. 3, in E-flat major, "Eroica," Op. 55 

Ludwig van Beethoven 

(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

Anton Schindler wrote in his life of Beethoven (Minister, 1840) : 

"First in the fall of 1802 was his [Beethoven's] mental condition so 
much bettered that he could take hold afresh of his long-formulated 
plan and make some progress: to pay homage with a great instru- 
mental work to the hero of the time, Napoleon. Yet not until 1803 
did he set himself seriously to this gigantic work, which we now know 
under the title of 'Sinphonia Eroica': on account of many interrup- 
tions it was not finished until the following year. . . . The first idea of 
this symphony is said to have come from General Bernadotte, who 
was then French Ambassador at Vienna, and highly treasured Beet- 
hoven. I heard this from many friends of Beethoven. Count Moritz 
Lichnowsky, who was often with Beethoven in the company of Berna- 
dotte, . . . told me the same story." Schindler also wrote, with refer- 
ence to the year 1823: "The correspondence of the King of Sweden 
led Beethoven's memory back to the time when the King, then General 
Bernadotte, Ambassador of the French Republic, was at Vienna, and 
Beethoven had a lively recollection of the fact that Bernadotte in- 
deed first awakened in him the idea of the 'Sinphonia Eroica.' " 

These statements are direct. Unfortunately, Schindler, in the third 
edition of his book, mentioned Beethoven as a visitor at the house 
of Bernadotte in 1798, repeated the statement that Bernadotte in- 
spired the idea of the symphony, and added: "Not long afterward 
the idea blossomed into a deed"; he also laid stress on the fact that 
Beethoven was a stanch republican, and cited, in support of his ad- 
miration of Napoleon, passages from Beethoven's own copy of Schleier- 
macher's translation of Plato. 

Thayer admits that the thought of Napoleon may have influenced 
the form and the contents of the symphony; that the composer may 
have based a system of politics on Plato; "but," he adds, "Bernadotte 
had been long absent from Vienna before the Consular form of gov- 
ernment was adopted at Paris, and before Schleiermacher's Plato 
was published in Berlin." 

The symphony was composed in 1803-04. The story is that the 
title-page of the manuscript bore the word "Buonaparte" and at the 
bottom of the page "Luigi van Beethoven"; "and not a word more," 
said Ries, who saw the manuscript. "I was the first," also said Ries, 
"who brought him the news that Bonaparte had had himself declared 
Emperor, whereat he broke out angrily: 'Then he's nothing but an 
ordinary man! Now he'll trample on all the rights of men to serve 
his own ambition; he will put himself higher than all others and turn 
out a tyrant!' " 

26 



Furthermore, there is the story that, when the death of Napoleon 
at St. Helena was announced, Beethoven exclaimed, "Did I not fore- 
see the catastrophe when I wrote the funeral march in the 'Eroica'?" 

M. Vincent d'Indy in his remarkable Life of Beethoven argues 
against Schindler's theory that Beethoven wished to celebrate the 
French Revolution en bloc. "C'etait Vhomme de Brumaire" that Beet- 
hoven honored by his dedication (pp. 79-82). 

The original score of the symphony was bought in 1827 by Joseph 
Dessauer for three florins, ten kreuzers, at auction in Vienna. On 
the title-page stands "Sinfonia grande." Two words that should 
follow immediately were erased. One of these words is plainly "Bona- 
parte," and under his own name the composer wrote in large characters 
with a lead-pencil: "Written on Bonaparte." 

Thus it appears there can be nothing in the statements that have 
come down from Czerny, Dr. Bartolini, and others: the first allegro 
describes a sea-fight; the funeral march is in memory of Nelson or 
General Abercrombie, etc. There can be no doubt that Napoleon, 
the young conqueror, the Consul, the enemy of kings, worked a spell 
over Beethoven, as over Berlioz, Hazlitt, Victor. Hugo; for, according 
to W. E. Henley's paradox, although, as despot, Napoleon had "no 
love for new ideas and no tolerance for intellectual independence," 
yet he was "the great First Cause of Romanticism." 

The first performance of the symphony was at a private concert 
at Prince Lobkowitz's in December, 1804. The composer conducted, 
and in the second half of the first allegro he brought the orchestra 
to grief, so that a fresh start was made. The first performance in 
public was at a concert given by Clement at the Theatre an der Wien, 
April 7, 1805. The symphony was announced as "A new grand Sym- 
phony in D-sharp by Herr Ludwig van Beethoven, dedicated t 
his Excellence Prince von Lobkowitz." Beethoven conducted. Czerny 
remembered that some one shouted from the gallery: "I'd give an- 



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IBnston 

PROGRAMME BOOKS 

Containing Mr. Philip Hale's analytical 
and descriptive notes on all works per- 
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27 



other kreuzer if they would stop." Beethoven's friends declared the 
work a masterpiece. Some said it would gain if it were shortened, 
if there were more "light, clearness, and unity." Others found it a 
mixture of the good, the grotesque, the tiresome. 

The symphony was published in October, 1806. The title in Italian 
stated that it was to celebrate the memory of a great man. And 
there was this note: "Since this symphony is longer than an ordinary 
symphony, it should be performed at the beginning rather than at the 
end of a concert, either after an overture or an aria, or after a concerto. 
If it be performed too late, there is the danger that it will not produce 
on the audience, whose attention will be already wearied by preced- 
ing pieces, the effect which the composer purposed in his own mind to 
attain." 



* 
* * 



The first movement, Allegro con brio, E-flat major, 3-4, opens with 
two heavy chords for full orchestra, after which the chief theme is 
given out by the violoncellos. This theme is note for note the same 
as that of the first measures of the Intrade written by Mozart in 1786 
at Vienna for his one-act operetta, "Bastien et Bastienne," performed 
in 1786 at a Viennese garden-house (K. 50). Mozart's theme is in 
G major. 

The funeral march, Adagio assai, C minor, 2-4, begins, pianissimo 
e sotto voce, with the theme in the first violins, accompanied by simple 
chords in the other strings. 

M. dTndy, discussing the patriotism of Beethoven as shown in his 
music, calls attention to the "militarisme" the adaptation of a war- 
like rhythm to melody, that characterizes this march. 

Scherzo: Allegro vivace, E-flat major, 3-4. Strings are pianissimo 
and staccato, and oboe and first violins play a gay theme which Marx 
says is taken from an old Austrian folk-song. This melody is the basic 
material of the scherzo. The trio in E-flat major includes hunting- 
calls by the horns, which are interrupted by passages in wood-wind 
instruments or strings. 

Finale: Allegro molto, E-flat major, 2-4. A theme, or, rather, a 
double theme, with variations. Beethoven was fond of this theme, 
for he had used it in the finale of his ballet, "Die Geschopfe des Pro- 
metheus," in the Variations for pianoforte, Op. 35, and in a country 
dance. After a few measures of introduction, the bass to the melody 
which is to come is given out, as though it were an independent theme. 



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ACADEMY OF MUSIC . . . BROOKLYN 

Friday Evening, December 1, at 8.15 

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FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



»©§t©e SymphDinr 



INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FRIDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 1, at 8.15 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

GALEN L. STONE Vice-President 

ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

ALFRED L. AIKEN ARTHUR LYMAN 

FREDERICK P. CABOT HENRY B. SAWYER 

ERNEST B. DANE GALEN L. STONE 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 
PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 







Violins. 




Burgin. R. Hoffmann, 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 


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Kassman, N. 


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Goldstein, S. Bryant, M. 


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Knudsen, C. 


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H. Erkelens, H. 
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Messina, S. 


Fourel, G. 
Artieres, L. 


Werner, H. Grover, H. 
Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 


Fiedler, A. 
Mullaly, J. 




Gerhardt, . 
Deane, C. 


3. Kluge, M. 
Zahn, F. 

Violoncellos. 




Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller. J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

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Marjollet, L. 


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Keller, K. 


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Gerhardt, G. 


Ludwig, 0. Kelley, A. 
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Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
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Piccolo. 


English Horns. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


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Mueller, F 
Speyer, L. 


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Horns. 


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Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


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Ritter, A. Ludwig, C. Zahn, F. 
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Snow, A. 




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Thirty-fifth season in Brooklyn 



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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 
FRIDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 1 
AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Brahms 



I. Allegro non troppo. 

II. Andante moderate 

III. Allegro giocoso. 

IV. Allegro energico e passionate. 



Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 



Mozart . 
Debussy 
Strauss . 



( Aria, "Deh Vieni," from "Le Nozze di Figaro" 

• j Air, "Martern Aller Arten" from "Die Entfiihrung 
( aus dem Serail" 

"Prelude a l'Apres-Midi d'un Faune" (Prelude to "The 
Afternoon of a Faun"), Eclogue by S. Mallarme 

Tone Poem, "Thus Spake Zarathustra" 
(freely after Friedrich Nietzsche), Op. 30 



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FRIEDA HEMPEL 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 



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Symphony in E minor, Op. 98 Johannes Brahms 

(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.) 

This symphony was first performed at Meiningen, October 25, 
1885, under the direction of the composer. 

Simrock, the publisher, is said to have paid Brahms forty thousand 
marks for the work. 

The first performance in the United States was by the Symphony 
Society, New York, December 11, 1886. 

This symphony was composed in the summers of 1884 and 1885 at 
Mtirzzuschlag in Styria. The Allegro and Andante were composed 
during the first summer, the Scherzo and Finale during the last. Miss 
Florence May, in her Life of Brahms, tells us that the manuscript 
was nearly destroyed in 1885: "Returning one afternoon from a walk, 
he [Brahms] found that the house in which he lodged had caught fire, 
and that his friends were busily engaged in bringing his papers, and 
amongst them the nearly finished manuscript of the new symphony, 
into the garden. He immediately set to work to help in getting the 
fire under, whilst Frau Fellinger sat out of doors with either arm out- 
spread on the precious papers piled on each side of her." A scene 
for the "historical painter"! We quote the report of this incident, 
not on account of its intrinsic value, but to show in what manner Miss 
May was able to write two volumes, containing six hundred and twenty- 
five octavo pages, about the quiet life of the composer. But what is 
Miss May in comparison with Max Kalbeck, whose Life of Brahms 
contains 2,138 pages? 

In a letter, Brahms described this symphony as "a couple of 
entr'actes," also as "a choral work without text." Franz Wiillner, then 
conductor of the Giirzenich concerts at Cologne, asked that he might 
produce this new symphony. Brahms answered that first performances 
and the wholly modern chase after novelties did not interest him. He 
was vexed because Wiillner had performed a symphony by Bruckner; 
he acted in a childish manner. Wiillner answered that he thought it 
his duty to produce new works; that a symphony by Bruckner was 



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certainly more interesting than one by Gernsheim, Cowen, or 
Scharwenka. 

Brahms was doubtful about the value of his fourth symphony. He 
wished to know the opinion of Elisabet von Herzogenberg and Clara 
Schumann. He and Ignaz Brull played a pianoforte arrangement in 
the presence of Hanslick, Dr. Billroth, Hans Richter, C. F. Pohl, Gustav 
Dompke, and Max Kalbeck. He judged from their attitude that they 
did not like it, and he was much depressed. "If persons like Billroth, 
Hanslick, and you do not like my music, whom will it please?" he said 
to Kalbeck. 

There was a preliminary rehearsal at Meiningen in October, 1885, 
for correction of the parts.* Billow conducted it. There were pres- 
ent the Landgraf of Hesse, Richard Strauss, then second conductor 
of the Meiningen orchestra, and Frederick Lamond, the pianist. 
Brahms arrived in time for the first performance. The symphony 
was most warmly applauded, and the audience endeavored, but in 
vain, to obtain a repetition of the third movement. The work was 
repeated November 1 under Billow's direction, and was conducted 
by the composer in the course of a three weeks' tour with the orchestra 
and Billow in Germany and in Netherlands. The first performance 
in Vienna was at a Philharmonic concert, led by Richter, January 17, 
1886. "Though the symphony was applauded by the public and 
praised by all but the inveterately hostile section of the press, it did 

*Brahms wished that Elisabet could be present at this rehearsal: "You would be able to listen to 
the first movement with the utmost serenity, I am sure. But I hate to think of doing it, anywhere else, 
where I could not have these informal, special rehearsals, but hurried ones instead, with the performance 
forced on me before the orchestra had a notion of the piece." 




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not reach the hearts of the Vienna audience in the same unmistakable; 
manner as its two immediate predecessors, both of which had made a 
more striking impression on a first hearing in Austria than the first 
symphony in C minor. Strangely enough, the fourth symphony at 
once obtained some measure of real appreciation in Leipsic, where the 
first had been far more successful than the second and third." This 
statement is too friendly towards Brahms. As a matter of fact, the 
symphony disappointed Brahms's friends. Hugo Wolf wrote a bitter 
review in which he made all manner of fun at the fact, trumpeted by 
Brahms's admirers, that at last there was a symphony in E minor. 
(See "Hugo Wolfs Musikalische Kritiken," Leipsic, 1911, pp. 241-244.) 
It was performed under the composer's direction at the Gewandhaus 
concert in Leipsic of February 18, 1886. 

This symphony was performed at a Philharmonic concert in Vienna 
on March 7, 1897, the last Philharmonic concert heard by Brahms. 
We quote from Miss May's biography: "The fourth symphony had 
never become a favorite work in Vienna. Received with reserve 
on its first performance, it had not since gained much more from the 
general public of the city than the respect sure to be accorded there 
to an important work by Brahms. To-day [sic], however, a storm of 
applause broke out at the end of the first movement, not to be quieted 
until the composer, coming to the front of the artist's box in which he 
was seated, snowed himself to the audience. The demonstration was 
renewed after the second and the third movements, and an extraordinary 
scene followed the conclusion of the work. The applauding, shouting 



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house, its gaze riveted on the figure standing in the balcony, so familiar 
and yet in present aspect so strange, seemed unable to let him go. Tears 
ran down his cheeks as he stood there, shrunken in form, with lined 
countenance, strained expression, white hair hanging lank; and through 
the audience there was a feeling as of a stifled sob, for each knew that 
they were saying farewell. Another outburst of applause and yet an- 
other; one more acknowledgment from the master; and Brahms and 
his Vienna had parted forever."* 

In the summers of 1884 and 1885 the tragedies of Sophocles, trans- 
lated into German by Gustav Wendt, were read diligently by Brahms. 
It is thought that they influenced him in the composition of this sym- 
phony. Mr. Kalbeck thinks that the whole symphony pictures the 
tragedy of human life. He sees in the Andante a waste and ruined 
field, as the Campagna near Rome; he notes the appearance of a passage 
from Brahms's song "Auf dem Kirchhofe" with the words "Ich war an 
manch vergess'nem Grab gewesen"; to him the Scherzo is the Carnival 
at Milan. While Speidel saw in the Finale the burial of a soldier, Kal- 
beck is reminded by the music of the passage in Sophocles's "(Edipus 
Coloneus": "Not to have been born at all is superior to every view of 
the question; and this when one may have seen the light, to return 
thence whence he came as quickly as possible, is far the next best." 

The symphony was published in 1886. It is scored for two flutes 
(one interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, one double-bassoon, four horns, two trumpets,, three trom- 
bones, a set of three kettledrums, triangle, and strings. 



Aria "Deh vieni," from "Le Nozze di Figaro," Act IV., Scene 10 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.) 

"Le Nozze di Figaro: dramma giocoso in quadro atti; poesia di 
Lorenzo Da Ponte, f aggiustata dalla commedia del Beaumarchais, 
'Le Mariage de Figaro'; musica di W. A. Mozart," was composed at 
Vienna in 1786, and produced there on May 1 of the same year. The 
cast was as follows: il Conte Alma viva, Mandini; la Contessa, Laschi; 
Susanna, Storace; Figaro, Benucci; Cherubino, Bussani; Marcellina, 
Mandini; Basilio and Don Curzio, Ochelly (so Mozart wrote Michael 
Kelly's name, but Kelly says in his "Reminiscences" that he was called 
OKelly in Italy); Bartolo and Antonio, Bussani; Barberina, Nannina 
Gottlieb (who later created the part of Pamina in Mozart's "Magic 
Flute," September 30, 1791). Mozart conducted. 

The scene is a garden, — an arbor at the right and another to the 
left. Night. 

♦Brahms attended the production of Johann Strauss's operetta, "Die Gottin der Vernunft," March 
13, but was obliged to leave after the second act, and he attended a rehearsal of the Raeger-Soldat 
Quartet less than a fortnight before his death. — Ed. 

tLorenzo Da Ponte was born at Ceneda in 1749. He died at New York, August 17, 1838. His 
life was long, anxious, strangely checkered. "He had been improvisator e, professor of rhetoric, and 
politician in his native land; poet to the Imperial Theatre and Latin secretary to the Emperor in Austria; 
Italian teach' r, operatic poet, litterateur, and bookseller in England; tradesman, teacher, opera manager 
and bookseller in America." Even his name was not his own, and it is not certain that he ever took 
orders. lie arrived in New York in 1805. See Mr. H. E. Krehbiel's entertaining chapter, "Da Ponte 
in New York" ("Music and Manners," New York, 1898). 

10 



The Count Almaviva has begged Susanna, his wife's maid, to meet 
him. This she has promised to do, but she changes clothes with her 
mistress. The Countess dressed as Susanna meets the Count, whilst 
Susanna as the Countess accepts the advances of Figaro. 

Air. Andante, F major, 6-8. Accompanied' by flute, oboe, bassoon, 
and the usual strings. 

Deli vieni, non tardar, o gioja bella! 
Vieni ove amore per goder t' appella. 
Finche non splende in ciel notturna face. 
Finche 1' aria e ancor bruna, e il mondo tace. 

Qui mormora il ruscel, qui scherza 1' aura, 
Che col dolce susurro il cor ristaura, 
Qui ridono i fioretti, e 1' erba e fresca, 
Ai piaceri d' amor qui tutto adesca. 

Vieni, ben mio! tra queste piante ascose! 
Ti vo' la fronte incoronar di rose! 

come, my heart's delight, where love invites thee, 
Come then, for without thee no joy delights me, 
The moon and stars for us have veil'd their splendor. 
Philomela has hush'd her carols tender. 

The brooklet murmurs near with sound caressing, 
'Tis the hour for love and love's confessing. 
The zephyr o'er the flow'rs is softly playing, 
Love's enchantment alone all things is swaying. 

Come then, my treasure, in silence all reposes, 

Thy love is waiting to wreathe thy brow with roses!* 



Air. 



The first performance of the opera in the United States was one of 
Bishop's remodelled English version, in New York, on May 3, 1823. 

*The English version is by Natalie McFarren. 





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Am, "Martern aller Arten," from "Die Entfuhrung aus dem 
Serail," Act II., No. 11 . . . Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.) 

This air from "Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail" ("The Abduction 
from the Harem") is sung by Constanze. Mozart's comic Singspiel in 
three acts, the text adapted by Gottlob Stephanie from C. F. Bretzner's 
"Belmonte und Constanze, oder die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail," an 
operetta in three acts with music by Johann Andre (Leipsic, 1781), was 
produced at the National Theatre, Vienna, on July 12, 1782. 

The story is a simple one. A Spanish girl Constanze, her maid 
Blondchen (Blonda), and her valet Pedrillo are in the harem of Selim 
Pascha, under the charge of Osmin, the guardian of the harem. Bel- 
monte, the lover of Constanze, finds his way into the harem. Pedrillo 
drugs Osmin's wine. The guardian exposes the plot. The conspira- 
tors are about to be bowstringed, but Selim recognizes Belmonte as a 
citizen of Burges who once saved his life. He therefore frees the captives. 
The air "Martern aller Arten" is sung in the scene of Constanze's 
rejection of the Sultan's proposals. It is addressed to Selim, who has 
threatened the maid with all sorts of tortures. 
Allegro. 

Martern aller Arten 

Mogen meiner warten, 

Ich verlache nur dein Draun. 

Nichts soil mich erschtittern, 

Nur dann wiird' ich zittern, 

Konnt' ich untreu jemals sein. 

Lass dich bewegen? 

Verschone mich 

Des Himmels Segen belohne dich. 

Doch du bist entschlossen. 

Willig, unverdrossen 

Wahl' ich jede Pein und Noth. 

Ordne nur, gebiete, 

Larme, tobe, wuthe, 

Zuletzt befreit mich doch der Tod. 

Lass dich bewegen, etc. 

Doch du bist entschlossen, etc. 



Allegro assai. 



Tempo 
Allegro 



pnmo. 
assai. 



The following translation into English is by the Rev. 
beck: — 

Thou may'st learn to hate me, 
Tortures may await me, 
I but smile at all thy threats. 
Fear will ne'er assail me, 
My heart will not fail me, 
While it faithful beats. 

Hast thou no mercy? 

Oh, spare thou me! 

By heav'n thy kindness rewarded be. 

Yet if thou repent not, 

If thy heart relent not, 

Spare me not a pain or grief! 

Spare me not, compel me, 

Quarrel, bluster, kill me, 

In death at last will come relief. 

Hast thou no mercy, etc. 

Yet if thou repent not, etc. 

12 



John Trout- 



This air is preceded by a long orchestral ritornello, the greater part 
of which is now usually cut in opera house and concert hall. The aria 
begins with an Allegro movement in C major, 4-4 time; this is fol- 
lowed by an Allegro assai in the same key and time. The Allegro and 
the Allegro assai return again. The orchestral accompaniment is 
scored for two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettle- 
drums, solo flute, solo oboe, solo violin, solo violoncello, and the usual 
strings. 

The air was written to display the agility in florid passages of Kath- 
arina Cavalieri, who took the part of Constanze. 

This air has been sung in Boston at concerts of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra by Mme. Steinbach-Jahns on April 19, 1890, and by Mme. 
Sembrich on December 9, 1899. 



Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun (after the Eclogue of 
Stephane Mallarme)" Achille Claude Debussy 

(Born at St. Germain (Seine and Oise), August 22, 1862; died at Paris, March 

26, 1918.) 

"Prelude a l'Apres-Midi d'un Faune (Eglogue de S. Mallarme)" was 
played for the first time at a concert of the National Society of Music, 
Paris, December 23, 1894. The conductor was Gustave Doret. 

The first performance in Boston — it was also the first in the United 



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States — was at a concert of the Boston Orchestral Club, Mr. Longy 
conductor, April 1, 1902. 

Let us read Mr. Gosse's explanation of the poem that suggested music 
to Debussy: "It appears in the florilege which he has just published, 
and I have now read it again, as I have often read it before. To say 
that I understand it bit by bit, phrase by phrase, would be excessive. 
But, if I am asked whether this famous miracle of unintelligibility gives 
me pleasure, I answer, cordially, Yes. I even fancy that I obtain from 
it as definite and as solid an impression as M. Mallarme desires to pro- 
duce. This what I read in it: A faun — a simple, sensuous, passionate 
being — wakens in the forest at daybreak and tries to recall his experience 
of the previous afternoon. Was he the fortunate recipient of an actual 
visit from nymphs, white and golden goddesses, divinely tender and in- 
dulgent? Or is the memory he seems to retain nothing but the shadow 
of a vision, no more substantial than the 'arid rain' of notes from his 
own flute? He cannot tell. Yet surely there was, surely there is, an 
animal whiteness among the brown reeds of the lake that shines out 
yonder? Were they, are they, swans? No! But Naiads plunging? 
Perhaps! Vaguer and vaguer grows the impression of this delicious ex- 
perience. He would resign his woodland godship to retain it. A garden 
of lilies, golden-headed, white-stalked, behind the trellis of red roses? 
Ah! the effort is too great for his poor brain. Perhaps if he selects one 
lily from the garth of lilies, one benign and beneficent yielder of her cup 
to thirsty lips, the memory, the ever-receding memory, may be forced 
back. So when he has glutted upon a bunch of grapes, he is wont to 
toss the empty skins into the air and blow them out in a visionary greedi- 
ness. But no, the delicious hour grows vaguer; experience or dream, 
he will never know which it was. The sun is warm, the grasses yield- 
ing; and he curls himself up again, after worshipping the efficacious star 
of wine, that he may pursue the dubious ecstasy into the more hopeful 
boskages of sleep. 



Tone Poem, "Thus spake Zarathustra" (freely after Friedr. 
Nietzsche), Op. 30 Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living.) 

The full title of this composition is "Also sprach Zarathustra, Ton- 
dichtung (frei nach Friedr. Nietzsche) flir grosses Orchester." Com- 
position was begun at Munich, February 4, 1896, and completed there 
August 24, 1896. The first performance was at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, November 27 of the same year. The composer conducted, and 
also at Cologne, December 1. 

Nietzsche's Zarathustra is by no means the historical or legendary 
Zoroaster, mage, leader, warrior, king. The Zarathustra of Nietzsche 
is Nietzsche himself, with his views on life and death. Strauss's opera 
"Guntram" (1894) showed the composer's interest in the book. Before 
the tone-poem was performed, this programme was published: "First 
movement: Sunrise. Man feels the power of God. Andante religioso. 
But man still longs. He plunges into passion (second movement) and 
finds no peace. He turns towards science, and tries in vain to solve 
life's problem in a fugue (third movement). Then agreeable dance tunes 
sound and he becomes an individual, and his soul soars upward while 

14 





PIERRE MONTEUX 



WILHELM GERICKE 



The Boston Symphony 
Orchestra 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 

WILL GIVE A CONCERT 
IN SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

TUESDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 5 

FOR THE BENEFIT OF ITS 
FORMER CONDUCTOR 

WILHELM GERICKE 



PROGRAMME 



SCHUBERT 

BRAHMS . 
STRAUSS . 

BEETHOVEN 



I. 
II. 



Unfinished Symphony in B minor 

Allegro moderato 
Andante con moto 

Waltzes for Pianoforte Arranged for Orchestra by Wilhelm Gericke 
"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the Old Fashioned, Roguish 
Manner — in Rondo Form" for Full Orchestra, Op. 28 



I. 

II. 
III. 
IV. 



Allegro con brio 
Andante con moto 
Allegro; Trio 
Allegro 



Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 



^he trustees of the Boston Symphony Orchestra will be pleased 

to receive contributions from Boston Symphony subscribers, these gifts 

to be added to the receipts from this concert for Mr. Qericke's benefit. 

Please make cheques payable to Wilhelm Gericke Concert and mail to 
Symphony Hall, Boston. 



15 



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17 



the world sinks far beneath him." But Strauss gave this explanation 
to Otto Florsheim: "I did not intend to write philosophical music 
or to portray in music Nietzsche's great work. I meant to convey by 
means of music an idea of the development of the human race from its 
origin, through the various phases of its development, religious and 
scientific, up to Nietzsche's idea of the Superman. The whole sym- 
phonic poem is intended as my homage to Nietzsche's genius, which 
found its greatest exemplification in his book, 'Thus spake Zarathustra.' " 

* 

"Thus spake Zarathustra" is scored for piccolo, three flutes (one 
interchangeable with a second piccolo), three oboes, English horn, two 
clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-flat, bass clarinet, three bassoons, double- 
bassoon, six horns, four trumpets, three trombones, two bass tubas, 
kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, Glockenspiel, a low bell in 
E, two harps, organ, sixteen first violins, sixteen second violins, twelve 
violas, twelve violoncellos, eight double-basses. 

There is a simple but impressive introduction, in which there is a 
solemn trumpet motive, which leads to a great climax for full orchestra 
and organ on the chord of C major. There is this heading, "Von den 
Hinterweltlern" (Of the Dwellers in the Rear World). These are 
they who sought the solution in religion. Zarathustra, too, had once 
dwelt in this rear-world. (Horns intone a solemn Gregorian "Credo.") 

"Then the world seemed to me the work of a suffering and tortured God. A 
dream then the world appeared to me, and a God's fiction; colored smoke before 
the eyes of a godlike discontented one. . . . Alas ! brethren, that God whom I created 
was man's work and man's madness, like all Gods. Man he was, and but a poor 
piece of man and the I. From mine own ashes and flame it came unto me, that 
ghost, aye verily! It did not come unto me from beyond! What happened, breth- 
ren? I overcame myself, the sufferer, and carrying mine own ashes unto the moun- 
tains invented for myself a brighter flame. Arid lo! the ghost departed from me." 

The next heading is "Von der grossen Sehnsucht" (Of the Great 
Yearning) . This stands over an ascending passage in B minor in violon- 
cellos and bassoons, answered by wood-wind instruments in chromatic 
thirds. The reference is to the following passage: — 

. . . "O my soul, I understand the smile of thy melancholy. Thine over-great 
riches themselves now stretch out longing hands! . . . And, verily, O my soul! who 
could see thy smile and not melt into tears? Angels themselves melt into tears, 
because of the over-kindness of thy smile. Thy kindness and over-kindness wanteth 
not to complain and cry! And yet, my soul, thy smile longeth for tears, and thy 
trembling mouth longeth to sob. . . . Thou liketh better to smile than to pour out 
thy sorrow. . . . But if thou wilt not cry, nor give forth in tears thy purple melan- 
choly, thou wilt have to sing, O my soul! Behold, I myself smile who foretell such 
things unto thee. . . . O my soul, now I have given thee all, and even my last, and 
all my hands have been emptied by giving unto thee ! My bidding thee sing, lo, that 
was the last thing I had!" 

The next section begins with a pathetic cantilena in C minor (second 
violins, oboes, horn), and the heading is: "Von den Freud en und 
Leidenschaften" (Of Joys and Passions). 

"Once having passions thou calledst them evil. Now, however, thou hast nothing 
but thy virtues : they grew out of thy passions. Thou laidest thy highest goal upon 
these passions: then they became thy virtues and delights. . . . My brother, if thou 
hast good luck, thou hast one virtue and no more; thus thou walkest more easily 
over the bridge. It is a distinction to have many virtues, but a hard lot; and many 
having gone to the desert killed themselves, because they were tired of being the 
battle and battlefield of virtues." 

18 



"Grablied" (Grave Song). The oboe has a tender cantilena over 
the Yearning motive in violoncellos and bassoons. 

" 'Yonder is the island of graves, the silent. Yonder also are the graves of my 
youth. Thither will I carry an evergreen wreath of life.' Resolving this in my heart 
1 went over the sea. Oh, ye, ye visions and apparitions of my youth! Oh, all ye 
glances of love, ye divine moments! How could ye die so quickly for me! This 
day I think of you as my dead ones. From your direction, my dearest dead ones, 
a sweet odour cometh unto me, an odour setting free heart and tears. . . . Still I 
am the richest, and he who is to be envied most — I, the loneliest! For I have had 
you, and ye have me still." . . . 

"Von der Wissenschaft" (Of Science). The fugued passage begins 
with violoncellos and double-basses (divided) . The subject of this f ugato 
contains all the diatonic and chromatic degrees of the scale, and the 
real responses to this subject come in successively a fifth higher. 

"Thus sang the wizard. And all who were there assembled, fell unawares like 
birds into the net of his cunning. . . . Only the conscientious one of the spirit had 
not been caught. He quickly took the harp from the wizard, crying: 'Air! Let 
good air come in! Let Zarathustra come in! Thou makest this cave sultry and 
poisonous, thou bad old wizard* Thou seducest, thou false one, thou refined one, 
unto unknown desires and wilderness. . . . Alas, for all free spirits who are not on 
their guard against such wizards! Gone is their freedom. Thou teachest and thereby 
allurest back into prisons! We seem to be very different. And, verily, we spake 
and thought enough together ... to enable me to know we are different. We seek 
different things ... ye and I. For I seek more security. . . . But, when I see the 
eyes ye make, methinketh almost ye seek more insecurity.' " . . . 

Much farther on a passage in the strings, beginning in the violoncellos 
and violas, arises from B minor. "Der Genesende" (The Convalescent) : 

"Zarathustra jumped up from his couch like a madman. He cried with a terrible 
voice, and behaved as if some one else was lying on the couch and would not get up 
from it. And so sounded Zarathustra's voice that his animals ran unto him in terror, 
and that from all caves and hiding places which were nigh unto Zarathustra's cave 
all animals hurried away ... he fell down like one dead, and remained long like 
one dead. At last, after seven days, Zarathustra rose on his couch, took a rose apple 
in his hand, smelt it, and found its odour sweet. Then his animals thought the time 
had come for speaking unto him. . . . 'Speak not further, thou convalescent one! 
. . . but go out where the world waiteth for thee like a garden. Go out unto the 
roses and bees and flocks of doves ! But especially unto the singing birds, that thou 
mayest learn singing from them. For singing is good for the convalescent; the 
healthy one may speak. And when the healthy one wanteth songs also, he wanteth 
other songs than the convalescent one. . . . For thy new songs, new lyres are req- 
uisite. ' Sing and foam over, O Zarathustra, heal thy soul with new songs, that thou 
mayest carry thy great fate that hath not yet been any man's fate !' . . . Zarathustra 
. . . lay still with his eyes closed, like one asleep, although he did not sleep. For he 
was communing with his soul." * 

Tanzlied. The dance song begins with laughter in the wood-wind. 

"One night Zarathustra went through the forest with his disciples, and when 
seeking for a well, behold! he came unto a green meadow which was surrounded by 
trees and bushes. There girls danced together. As soon as the girls knew Zarathus- 
tra, they ceased to dance; but Zarathustra approached them with a friendly gesture 



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and spake these words: 'Cease not to dance, ye sweet girls! ... I am the advocate 
of God in the presence of the devil. But he is the spirit of gravity. How could I, 
ye light ones, be an enemy unto divine dances? or unto the feet of girls with beautiful 
ankles? . . . He who is not afraid of my darkness findeth banks full of roses under 
my cypresses. . . . And I think he will also find the tiny God whom girls like best. 
Beside the well he lieth, still with his eyes shut. Verily, in broad daylight he fell 
asleep, the sluggard! Did he perhaps try to catch too many butterflies? Be not 
angry with me, ye beautiful dancers, if I chastise a little the tiny God! True, he wiD 
probably cry and weep; but even when weeping he causeth laughter! And with 
tears in his eyes shall he ask you for a dance; and I myself shall sing a song unto his 
dance.' " 

"Nachtlied" ("Night Song"). 

"Night it is: now talk louder all springing wells. 
And my soul also is a springing well. 

Night it is : now only awake all songs of the loving. 
And my soul also is a song of one loving. 

Something never stilled, never to be stilled, is within me 

Which longs to sing aloud; 

A longing for love is within me, 

Which itself speaks the language of love. 

Night it is." 

"Nachtwanderlied" ("The Song of the Night Wanderer," though 
Nietzsche in later editions changed the title to "The Drunken Song"). 
The song comes after a fortissimo stroke of the bell, and the bell, sound- 
ing twelve times, dies away softly. 

"Sing now yourselves the song whose name is 
'Once more/ whose sense is Tor all Eternity!' 
Sing, ye higher men, Zarathustra's roundelay! 
ONE! 

O man, take heed! 

TWO! 

What saith the deep midnight? 

THREE! 

'I have slept, I have slept! — 
FOUR! 

From deep dream I woke to light. 
FIVE! 

The world is deep. 
SIX! 

And deeper than the day thought for. 

SEVEN! 

Deep is its woe, — 
EIGHT! 

And deeper still than woe — delight.' 
NINE! 

Saith woe: 'Vanish!' 
TEN! 

Yet all joy wants eternity. 
ELEVEN! 

Wants deep, deep eternity!" 
TWELVE! 

The mystical conclusion has excited much discussion. The ending is 
in two keys, — in B major in the high wood-wind and violins, in C major 
in the basses, pizzicati. "The theme of the Ideal sways aloft in the 
higher regions in B major; the trombones insist on the unresolved 
chord of C, E, F-sharp; and in the double-basses is repeated, C, G, C, 
the World Riddle." This riddle is unsolved by Nietzsche, by Strauss, 
and even by Strauss's commentators. 

20 



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WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

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Burgin. R. 

Concert-master. 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Gundersen, R. 
Kassman, N. 

Thillois, F.* 
Berger, H. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 



Fourel, G. 
Artieres, L. 



pivRSONNKI 

Violins. 



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Kraflt, W. 

Fiedler, B. 
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Mullaly, J. 





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Basses. 




Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. Ludwig, 0. Ke\ley, A. 
Gerhardt, G. Frankel, I. Demetrides, 


Girard, H. 
L. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Laurent, G. 
Brooke, A. 
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Lenom, C. 
Stanislaus, H. 


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Arcieri, E. 
Vannini, A. 


Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horns. 


Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


Battles, A. 


Mueller, F. 
Speyer, L. 


' Mimart, P. 


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Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


Wendler, G. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Hess, M. 
Van Den Berg 


Mager, G. 
C. Mann, J. 
Perret, G. 
Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C 
Adam, E. 
Mausebach, A. 
Kenfield, L. 


Tuba. 


Harps. 


Timpani. 


Percussion. 


Adam, E. 


Holy, A. 
Delcourt, L. 


Ritter, A. Ludwig, C. Zahn, F. 
Kandler, F. Sternburg, S. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


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3 


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Thirty-fifth season in Brooklyn 



i YfYnl" ^'i?i 5^wr?fW^ili)fn>?!iw Owlhif^ih 



S©§£©3! 5ympji]i©jmy Oireihestor; 

Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 
PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, JANUARY 5 

AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 

d'Indy . . "Wallenstein," Trilogy (after the Dramatic Poem of 

Schiller), Op. 12 

I. Wallenstein's Camp. 
LI. Max and Thekla (The Piccolomini). 
III. The Death of Wallenstein. 



Pergolesi-Stravinsky . . . Suite No 1, for Small Orchestra 

(from the Ballet, "Pulcinella") 

I. Sinfonia (Ouverture): Allegro modera to. 
II. Serenata: Larghetto. 
III. a. Scherzino. 

b. Allegro. 

c. Andantino. 

d. Allegro. 

(There will be no pause between Nos. II and III.) 

Grieg . . . * . Concerto in A minor, for Pianoforte, Op. 16 

I. Allegro mol to moderato. 
II. Adagio. 
III. Allegro moderato molto e marcato. 

Chabrier . . . "Espafia," Rhapsody for full Orchestra 



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There will he an intermission of ten minutes after d'lndy's "Wallenstein" 

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"Wallenstein" Trilogy (after the Dramatic Poem of Schiller) 

Vincent* d'Indy 

(Born at Paris, March 27, 1S52* ; now living in Paris.) 

The first work of Vincent d'Indy performed in Paris was his 
"Ouverture des Piccolomini," produced at a Pasdeloup concert, 
January 25, 1874. This overture, the second part of the "Wallen- 
stein" trilogy, showed, it is said, the marked influence of Schumann. 
It was afterwards changed materially, thoroughly rewritten. 

The "Wallenstein" trilogy was begun in 1873-74. It was com- 
pleted about 1881. The third movement, "La Mort de Wallenstein," 
was first performed at a Pasdeloup concert ("Concert Populaire") 
in Paris, March 1.4, 1880. The first movement, "Le Camp de Wallen- 
stein/' was first performed at a concert of the National Society, 
Paris, April 12, 1880. It was performed March 30, 1884, at a Con- 
cert Populaire, Pasdeloup conductor, in Paris. There were per- 
formances of this or that movement at the concerts of the National 
Society in Paris, at Angers, and at Antwerp, but the first perform- 
ance of the trilogy, complete, was at a Lamoureux concert in Paris, 
March 4, 1888. 

The first performance of the trilogy in the United States was at 
one of Anton SeidFs concerts in Steinway Hall, New York, Decem- 
ber 1, 1888. 

The first performance of the trilogy in Boston was on October 19, 
1907, at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. There was 
a second performance on December 20, 1918. 

When "The Death of Wallenstein" was first performed in Paris, 
there was an argument, an explanatory programme, for a contem- 

♦This year is given by the composer. The catalogue of the Paris Conservatory 
gives 1851, and 1851 is given by Adolphe Jullien, who says he verified the date by the 
register of d'Indy's birth. 



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porary reviewer then discussed the possibility of translating into 
music "Reves hero'iques de gloire et de liberte," "Trahison," "Mort," 
while he admitted d'Indy's success in the sections, "Souvenir de 
Thecla" and "Triomphe." The score of the trilogy is without a 
programme of any sort. 

Hugues Imbert's sketch of the trilogy was Englished by Stanley 
V. Makower as follows : — 

"The distinguishing feature of the symphonic music of Vincent 
d'Indy is that it paints with forcible truth, marvellous vividness, 
and astonishing vigor the various episodes in the drama of Schiller. 
For instance, in the first part, 'Le Camp/* after the slow valse, comes 

*James Churchill's translation into English of "Wallenstein's Camp" is thus pref- 
aced : — 

"The Camp of Wallenstein is an introduction to the celebrated tragedy of that 
name, and. by its vivid portraiture of the state of the General's army, gives the best 
clue to the spell of his gigantic power. The blind belief entertained in the unfailing 
success of his arms, and in the supernatural agencies by which that success is secured 
to him ; the unrestrained indulgence of every passion, and utter disregard of all law, 
save that of the camp ; a hard oppression of the peasantry, and plunder of the country ; 
have all swollen the soldiery with an idea of interminable sway. 

"Of Schiller's opinion concerning the Camp, as a necessary introduction to the 
tragedy, the following passage, taken from the Prologue to the first representation, will 
give a just idea and may also serve as a motto to the work : — 

" 'Not He it is, who on the tragic scene 

Will now appear — but in the fearless bands 
Whom his command alone could sway, and whom 
His spirit fired, you may his shadow see ; 
Until the bashful Muse shall dare to bring 
Himself before you in a living form ; 
For power it was that bore his heart astray — 
His Camp, alone, elucidates his crime.'." 



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the savage dance with its determined rhythm, the sermon, of tiie 
Capuchin father given to the bassoon, the theme of Wallenstein 
energetically illustrated by the trombones, and then the final tumult, 
in which we hear a few notes of Wallenstein's theme thrown out by 
the trumpets amid the fortissimi of the orchestra. In all this you 
will recognize the mastery of the musician who has approached very 
nearly to a musical translation of a scene crowded with movement. 
You will find not only the painting of events and acts, but the paints 
ing of the moral sentiments which animate the persons in the drama. 
Is there anything more exquisitely tender than the love episode be- 
tween Max and Thekla (second part) ? With what felicity do the 
two themes of the lovers unite and embrace each other; yet with 
what inevitability are the ideal transports of the happy pair stifled 
by the intervention of Fate, whose fell design has been suggested in 
the brief introduction by the horns ! The third and last episode is 
the death of Wallenstein. Very dramatic is the opening, in which 
strange chords, that recall the splendid sonority of the organ, char- 
acterize the influence of the stars on human destiny. These chords 
are the poetical rendering of this beautiful saying of Wallenstein in 
the Ticcolomini' (act ii., scene 6). Yet the mysterious force which 




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labors in the bowels of nature — the ladder of spirits that stretches 
from this world of dust up to the world of stars with a thousand 
ramifications, this ladder on which the heavenly powers mount and 
dismount ever restless — the circles within circles that grow narrower 
and narrower as they approach the sun their centre, — all this can be 
beheld alone by the eyes of the heaven-born joyous descendants of 
Zeus — those eyes from which the veil of blindness has fallen. After 
several episodes, an ascendiug progression of the basses brings back 
the complete statement of Wallenstein's theme in B major, which 
ends in a very widely constructed movement, in which the starry 
chords of the opening are reproduced, covered over with the wind 
instruments, while the quatuor winds its way rapidly in and out of 
them, and the trombones thunder out the fate-fraught song. Soon 
calm is restored, and the sound dies away gradually in a long pianis- 
simo of the stringed instruments." 



* 



The first movement, "Wallenstein's Camp," Allegro giusto, 3-4, 
is dedicated to Henri Duparc* It is in the general nature of a 
scherzo which portrays the camp life and the rude jesting of the 
soldiery. The chief theme is given immediately to full orchestra. It 
is constantly changed, and it passes through many keys, until the 
original tonality is restored. There is a lull in the tumult. The 
strings play a sort of slow waltz, which soon becomes boisterous, 
allegro moderato, 3-8. After development of these three motives the 
Capuchin monk appears. He is typified by the bassoons, which take 
up one after the other a theme, B minor, Allegro moderato e giocoso, 
2-4, in a fugal passage. f This section describes the Capuchin's ser- 
mon. The monk is mocked and derided by wood- wind instruments ; 
the trumpet parodies the fugue theme, and clarinets join in the 
caricature. The soldiers howl the monk down and drag him into the 
rough waltz. The uproar is not quelled until horns, trumpets, and 
trombones announce by a phrase, Largo e maestoso, 4-4, the presence 

♦Marie Eugene Henri Fouque Duparc was born at Paris, January 21, 1848. He 
studied at a Jesuit college and was admitted to the bar, but piano lessons from C€sar 
Franck promoted him to be a musician, and he also took lessons in. composition. His 
early friends were Saint-Saens, Faure\ de Castillon, and the painter Regnault. In 1870 
lie journeyed to Munich to hear operas by Wagner. He served as a soldier in the siege 
of Paris. About 1880 his health became such that he was obliged to give up work, and 
lie made his home at Monein, in the Lower Pyrenees. He is now living in Switzerland. 
His chief works are a svmphonic poem, "Lenore" (composed in 1874-75, performed at 
Paris, October 28, 1877, since revised, first performed in Boston at a Symphony concert, 
December 5, 1896), an orchestral suite, a violoncello sonata (destroyed), a set of 
waltzes for orchestra (1874) "Aux Etoilers," nocturne for orchestra (1910, performed at 
a Lamoureux concert, February 2(1, 1911), a suite for pianoforte, and some remarkable 
songs, the most important of which were composed during the years 1874-78. Franck 
repeatedly said that: Duparc, of all his pupils, was the one best organized to create 
musical ideas, the one whose vigorous temperament and dramatic sentiment should have 
brought success in the opera-bouse. Duparc worked on a lyric drama, "Roussalka, 
but was unable to complete it before his enforced retirement. 

tilermann Rretzsehmar, in his analysis of this movement, is reminded of the days 
of Reinhard Reiser (1074-1739), who wrote quartets, quintets, and sextets for bassoons. 

10 



of Wallenstein. The monk is at last free, and the scherzo trio, which 
began with the bassoon theme, is at an end. The Oamp motive and 
the waltz themes are worked out with changes in the instrumenta- 
tion, and the Wallenstein motive reappears (brass instruments) at 
the elose in the midst of the orchestra] storm. 

II. ".Max and Thekla" ("The Piccolomini"), Andante, Allegro, 
Adagio, E-flat major, B major, G major, E-flat minor, 4-4, is dedi- 
cated to Jnles Pasdeloup.* There is a short introduction full of 
bodement, with a rhythmic figure for kettledrums, plaintive wail of 
violins, and lamentation of the horns. This horn motive is identical 
with the second section of the Wallenstein motive, which was heard 
in the first movement. 

Max Piccolomini is then characterized by an expressive theme, 
Andante, E-flat major, 4-4, which is given first to the clarinets and 
horns, afterwards to the full orchestra. This theme is developed at 
length. The kettledrums interrupt, but the motive is repeated, and, 
varied, gains in emotional intensity. Brass and drums hint at the 
tragic ending, but the tempo changes to Allegro risoluto, and a 

♦Jules Etienne Pasdeloup was born at Paris, September 15, 1819. He died at Fon- 
tainebleau, August 13, 1S87. At the Paris Conservatory lie gained the first prize for 
solfege in 1832 and the first prize for pianoforte playing in 1834. He afterwards took 
lessons of Dourlen and Carafa in composition. As Governor of the Chateau of St. 
Cloud he made influential friends, and, discontented with the orchestral leaders who 
would not produce his works or those of young France, he founded in 1851 the "Society 
of Young Artists of the Conservatory," of which he was conductor. He produced sym- 
phonies by Gounod. Saint-Saens, Gouvy, and other French composers, also music hitherto 
unheard in Paris by Mozart, Schumann, and Meyerbeer. In 1861 he moved to the 
Cirque Napoleon, and on October 27 began his Concerts Populaires. A flaming admirer 
of Wagner, he produced "Rienzi" at the Theatre Lyrique (April 6, 1869), and lost 
much money. After the Franco-Prussian War he resumed his concerts, — he was man- 
ager of the Theatre Lyrique 1868—70, — and the French government gave him a subsidy 
of twenty-five thousand francs. He closed these concerts in 1884 and in that year 
a sum of nearly one hundred thousand francs was raised for him at a concert in his 
honor. But he could not be idle. In 1885 he organized concerts at Monte Carlo, and 
afterwards established pianoforte classes in Paris. In 1886 he began a new series of 
orchestral concerts with the old title, but the revival was not successful. A conductor 
of most catholic taste, he was ever a firm friend of young composers, and, though a 
patriotic Frenchman, he knew not chauvinism in art. 



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motive built on the first measure of the Max theme is associated 
with a dialogued motive for violin and violoncello. The Fate motive 
of the introduction enters. There is an energetic development of 
this theme and of that of the Allegro risoluto. This leads to a sec- 
tion in B major, Andante tranquillo. The clarinet, accompanied by 
tremulous strings, sings a theme that may be named the Thekla or 
Love motive. This theme is repeated by violas and violoncellos, and 
it is combined with the theme of Max. The love scene is interrupted 
by the entrance of Wallenstein's typical motive (brass, maestoso), 
which is now passionate and disquieted. The Allegro risoluto theme 
returns, and there is a conflict between it and the Fate motive, in 
which the tragic end of Max is determined. The oboe sighs out 
Thekla's lament : her theme now appears in E-flat minor. There is a 
final recollection of Max (theme for first horn) ; the end is mourning 
and desolation. 

III. Wallenstein's Death, Tres large, Allegro maestoso, B minor, 
2-2, is dedicated to Camille Benoit.* "One will listen in vain," says 
Mr. H. W. Harris, "for any musical description of the great warrior's 
tragic end. The composer adheres to the programme of Schiller's 
drama, in which, it will be remembered, the audience is not per- 
mitted to witness the assassination of the hero." 

There is a slow and ominous introduction, with the appearance 
of the theme of Wallenstein. The opening measures of the move- 
ment proper, Allegro, portray to some the conspiracy and the over- 
throw of the general, whose theme appears now in a distorted shape. 
Again is there the tumultuous confusion of the camp. A maestoso 
passage follows. This is succeeded by a repetition of the Allegro, 
which, however, is changed. The Thekla motive comes again, and 
another maestoso passage follows. The trilogy ends sonorously 
with the introduction used as a foundation. 

The trilogy is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clari- 
nets, bass clarinet, four bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two 
cornets-a-pistons, three trombones, tuba, a set of three kettledrums, 
bass drum, cymbals, eight harps, strings. 



Suite No. 1, for a Small Orchestra, from "Pulcinella," a Ballet 
with Song (after Pergolesi) Ivor Stravinsky 

(Stravinsky, born at Oranienbaum, near Petrograd; living in Paris. Giovanni 
Battista Pergolesi, born at Jesi, Italy, January 1, 1710; died at Pazzuoli, near Naples, 

March 16, 1736.) 

"Pulcinella," ballet with song in one act, music by Stravinsky (after 
Pergolesi) ; was performed for the first time at the Opera, Paris, on May 

« Camille BenoYt, appointed in 1895 conservatcur at the Louvre, was a pupil of 
C€sar Franck. His chief compositions are an overture (about 1880) ; symphonic poem, 
"Merlin, l'Enchanteur" ; lyric scene, "La Mort de C16opatre" (sung by Mine. Mauvernay 
at a Concert Populaire, Paris, March 30, 1884) ; music to Anatole France's "Noces 
Corintbiennes." He is the author of "Souvenirs" (1884) and "Musiciens, Pontes, et 
Philosophes" (1877). He translated into French extracts from Wagner's prose works; 
into Latin the text of Beethoven's "Elegische Gesang," and he arranged Berlioz's "Romeo 
and Juliet" for the pianoforte (four hands). 

12 



15, 1920, under the direction of Serge de Diaghileff. The choreography 
was arranged by L&mide Massine; the scenery and costume designed by 
Pablo Picasso were put in effect by Wladimir and Violette Polunine. 

Pulcinella, Massine; Pimpinella, Thamar Karsavina; Prudenza, 
Lubov Tchernicheva; Rosetta, Vera Nemtchinova; Fourbo, Sigmund 
Novak; Caviello, Stanislaw Idzikovsky; Florindo, Nikolas Zverev; 
II Dottore, Enrico Cechetti; Tartageia, Stanislaw Kostetsky; Quatre 
petits pulcinellas, MM. Bourman, Okimovsky, Micholaitchik, Loukine. 

Singers: Mme. Zoia Roskovska, Aurelio Anglada (tenor), Gino de 
Vecchi (bass). 

Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

The score contains this argument : 

The subject of "Pulcinella" is taken from a manuscript found at 
Naples in 1700, containing a great number of comedies which put on 
the stage the traditional personage of the Neapolitan folk-theatre. The 
episode chosen for the libretto of this ballet is entitled: "Four Similar 
Pulchinellas." 

All the young girls of the country are in love with Pulcinella; the 
young fellows, pricked with jealousy, try to kill him. At the moment 
when they +hink they have accomplished their purpose, they borrow 



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Pulcinella's costume to present themselves to their sweethearts. But 
the malicious Pulcinella has had his intimate friend take his place, 
and this substitute pretends to die from the hands of the assassins. 
Pulcinella himself takes the dress of a sorcerer and brings his double 
to life. At the moment when the young swains think they are relieved 
of him and go to visit their loved ones, the true Pulcinella appears 
and arranges all the marriages. He weds Pimpinella, blessed by his 
double, Fourbo, who in his turn appears as the mage.. 






When this ballet was performed at Co vent Garden, June 10, 1920, 
the Times published this review: "We are not very sure as to what 
the story actually is, and do feel pretty sure that it does not much 
matter. 'Pulcinella' does with a number of movements from Pergolesi's 
operas very much what 'The Good-Humored Ladies' does with 
Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas. The ballet, in fact, is primarily a means 
of showing us what vitality and charm there is in music which most 
of us had forgotten. But Stravinsky puts on the magician's cloak to 
resuscitate Pergolesi, just as Pulcinella on the stage puts on the magi- 
cian's cloak (we did not quite make out why) to resuscitate other Pul- 
cinellas. Stravinsky's work on the music is very cleverly carried out. 
A good deal of it is simply re-scoring, and in this single instruments, 
from the trumpet to the double-bass, are used to get the utmost effect 
from the simplest means, which is the very essence of good technique. 
But sometimes Stravinsky cannot hold himself in any longer, and, 
kicking Pergolesi out of his light, defeats the primary purpose by inter- 
polating a moment or two of sheer Stravinsky. The result then be- 
comes a little confusing, like the story. Being left in some doubt both 
about the story and the music, we have to look for complete satisfaction 
to the dancing. With M. Massine as the Pulcinella and Mme. Karsavina 
as the Pimpinella, whom he ultimately decides to love, with Mme. 
Tchernicheva and Mme. Vera Nemtchinova as the ladies whose affec- 
tions he steals, and MM. Woizikovsky and Idzikovsky as the two 
gallants, who try to kill him for the theft, we are given so brilliant a 
display that one almost forgets about the three singers who join with 
the orchestra in Pergolesi songs and trios, and justify the title of ballet- 
opera." Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

When the ballet was revived at London in July, 1921, with Woizikov- 
sky as Pulcinella, and with Mmes. Lopokova, Tchernicheva, 
Nemtchinova, and MM. Novak, Idzikovsky, dancers, and the singers 
Zoia Roskovska and MM. Ritch and Keedanov, the Daily Telegraph 
said (July 6) : — 

"Until it is about half-way through Tulcinella,' the old Italian story 
to which Stravinsky has fitted an arrangement of Pergolesi music, is 
as delightful a ballet-opera as one could wish to see. It has in their 

M 



quintessence those happy qualities which have put the Russian Ballet 
in a place by itself — invention, imagination, grace, and humor. The 
dances are of the daintiest; the comically serious imitation of the old- 
fashioned conventions is as entertaining as can be; the music is a particu- 
larly clever experiment in the difficult art of bringing an old composer 
up to date without overdoing it. So far as the rest of the ballet is con- 
cerned, one has no quarrel with the music, but dramatically it falls 
to pieces. It infringes two of the chief dramatic canons, for in the first 
place it becomes confusing, and it is extremely difficult to know which 
of the gentlemen in the large black noses is which and why he is doing 
what he does. In the second place, it loses its grip upon the audience, 
and may have been compared to a farce with two very good acts and 
one greatly inferior one to end up with. It is one of the very fine ballets 
in the Russians' repertory which really need cutting and revising. 
That it was enthusiastically received on its revival was due to the 
brilliant dancing . . . and to the fine singing." 

The score calls for these instruments: two flutes (second flute inter- 
changeable with piccolo), two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, trumpet, 
trombone, and solo quintet of strings, and the usual strings. 

* 

There is a dispute over the origin of the Neapolitan Pulcinella: 
whether he is descended from Maccus, the grotesque fool of Atellan 
farce, or from Pulcinella dalle Carceri, a queer patriot of the thirteenth 
century. This is certain, that in more modern times he made his appear- 
ance in the sixteenth century, "in the white shirt and breeches of a 
countryman of Acerra, his black mask, long nose, hump, dagger, and 
truncheon being later additions. Time, alas! has given him a foolish 
wife and made him a mere puppet, though little more than a century 
ago, in Cerlone's clever hand he mirrored a people and an age." He 
has also been described as a tall fellow, obstreperous, alert, sensual, 
with a long hooked nose, a black half-mask, a gray and pyramidal cap, 
white shirt without ruffles, white trousers creased and girdled with a 
cord from which a little bell was sometimes suspended. He with Scara- 
muccia was Neapolitan as Cassandrino was Roman, Girolamo of 
Naples, Gianduja of Turin. For a description of these popular heroes 
in Italian ' 'Improvised Comedy" and marionette shows, see Magnin's 
"Histoire des Marionettes en Europe" (Paris, 1852); the article "Pul- 
cinella" in Pougin's Dictionnaire du Theatre" (Paris, 1885); Celler's 
"Les Types populaires an Theatre" (Paris, 1870), and Chapter III in 
Chatfield-Taylor's "Goldoni" (New York, 1913). 

Pergolesi is now best known by his beautiful "Stabat Mater"; his 
opera "La Serva Padrona" (1733) which is still performed, and a few 



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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 

FRIDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 2, 1923, at 8.15 o'clock 





PIERRE MONTEUX 



GEORGES ENESCO 



* PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SOLOIST 



Violi 



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17 



songs still sung in concert-halls ("Nina" is falsely attributed to him); 
but he wrote nearly a dozen operas, several cantatas, and much music 
for the church. 

"La Serva Padrona" was performed as "The Mistress and Maid," 
by "the celebrated Italian Pere Golaise" (sic) at Baltimore, Md., by a 
French company of comedians, on June 14, 1790. It was performed in 
Italian at the Academy of Music, New York, on November 13, 1858, 
with Marie Piccolomini as the housemaid. It was in the repertoire of the 
Society of American Singers, New York, in 1917-18. 



Concerto in A minor, for Pianoforte, Op. 16 

Edvard Hagertjp Grieg 

(Born at Bergen, Norway, June 15, 1843; died at Bergen, September 4, 1907.) 

This concerto was composed in the summer of 1868 in the village of 
Sollerod, Denmark, where Grieg was spending his vacation. His home 
was then at Christiania, Norway, where he was conductor of the Phil- 
harmonic Society. The first performance took place at Copenhagen in 
1869. Edmund Neupert was the pianist. Grieg revised the concerto 
several times. A few months before his death he was rescoring it in 
part. 



Rhapsody for Orchestra, "Espana" .... Emmanuel Chabrier 

(Born at Ambert (Puy-de-D6me), France, January 18, 1841; died at Paris, 

September 13, 1894.) 

When Chabrier was six years old, he began the study of music at 
Ambert with a Spanish refugee, named Saporta. One day when the 
boy did not play to suit the teacher, Saporta, a violent person, raised 
his hand. Nanette,* the servant who reared Chabrier, and lived 
with him nearly all his life, came into the room. She saw the 
uplifted hand, rushed toward Saporta, slapped his face, and more 
than once. 

In 1882 Chabrier visited Spain with his wife.t Travelling there, 
he wrote amusing letters to the publisher Costallat. These letters 

were published in S. I. M., a musical magazine (Paris: Nos. Janu- 
ary 15 and February 15, 1909). Wishing to know the true Spanish 
dances, Chabrier with his wife went at night to ball-rooms where the 
company was mixed. As he wrote in a letter from Seville: "The 

♦Chabrier's delightful "Lettres a Nanette," edited by Legrand-Chabrier, were pub- 
lished al Paris in I'.ilO. 

f II in wife was Alice Dejean, daughter of a theatre manager. The wedding was 
In 1873. 

18 



gypsies sing their malaguenas or dance the tango, and the manzanilla 
is passed from hand to hand and every one is forced to drink it. 
These eves, these flowers in the admirable heads of hair, these shawls 
knotted about the body, these feet that strike an infinitely varied 
rhythm, these arms that run shivering the length of a body always 
in motion, these undulations of the hands, these brilliant smiles . . . 
and all this to the cry of 'Olle, Olle, anda la Maria! Anda la 
tthiquita! Eso cs! Baile la Carmen! Anda! Anda!' shouted by 
the other women and the spectators. However, the two guitarists, 
grave persons, cigarette in mouth, keep on scratching something or 
other in three time. (The tango alone is in two time.) The cries 
of the women excite the dancer, who becomes literally mad of her 
body. It's unheard of! Last evening, two painters went with us 
and made sketches, and I had some music paper in my hand. We 
had all the dancers around us ; the singers sang their songs to me, 
squeezed my hand and Alice's and went away, and then we were 
obliged to drink out of the same glass. Ah, it was a fine thing 
indeed ! He has really seen nothing who has not seen two or three 
Anclalusians twisting their hips eternally to the beat and to the meas- 
ure of Anda! Anda! Anda! and the eternal clapping of hands. They 
beat with a marvellous instinct 3-4 in contra-rhythm while the guitar 
peacefully follows its own rhythm. As tlie others beat the strong 
beat of each measure, each beating somewhat according to caprice, 
there is a most curious blend of rhythms. I have noted it all — but 
what a trade, my children." 

In another letter Chabrier wrote: "I have not seen a really ugly 
woman since I have been in Andalusia. I do not speak of their feet ; 
they are so little that I have never seen them. Their hands are 
small and the arm exquisitely moulded. Then added the arabesques, 
the beaux-catchers and other ingenious arrangements of the hair, 
the inevitable fan, the flowers on the hair with the comb on one side !" 

Chabrier took notes from Seville to Barcelona, passing through 
Malaga, Cadiz, Grenada, Valencia. The Rhapsody "Espaiia" is only 
one of two or three versions of these souvenirs, which he first played 
on the pianoforte to his friends. His Habanera for pianoforte 
(1885) is derived from one of the rejected versions. 

Lamoureux heard Chabrier play the pianoforte sketch of "Espaiia" 
and urged him to orchestrate it. At the rehearsals no one thought 
success possible. The score with its wild originality, its novel effects, 



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19 



frightened the players. The first performance was at a Lamoureux 
concert in Paris on November 4, 1883.* The snccess was instantane- 
ons. The piece was often played dnring the years following and 

often redemanded. -pi,ni,o« 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Philhar- 
monic Orchestra, Mr. Listemann conductor, in the Tremont Theatre, 
January 14, 1892. The Rhapsody has been played m Boston at con- 
certs of the Boston Symphony Orchestra October 16, 189V f***™, 
1907, November 23, 1907, April 30, 1915, November 17, 1916 i and at 
a concert of the Orchestral Club, Mr. Longy conductor, April 15, 1903. 
Theodore Thomas conducted it in Chicago as early as 1887. 
The Rhapsody is dedicated to Charles Lamoureux, and it is scored 
for piccolof two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, four bassoons, tour 
horns two trumpets, two cornets a piston, three trombones, bass 
tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, two 

ha ^spafia" i^bfled on two Spanish dances, the Jota vigorous and 
fiery, and the Malaguena, languorous and sensual. It is said that 
onlv the rude theme given to the trombones is of Ohabrier s in- 
vention; the other themes he brought from Spam, and the two first 
themes were heard at Saragossa. . 

Allegro con fuoco, F major, 3-8. A Spanish rhythm is given to 
strings and wood-wind. Then, while the violas rhythm an accom- 
paniment, bassoons and trumpet announce the chief theme of the 
Jota The horn then takes it, and finally the full orchestra A 
more expressive song is given to bassoons, horns, and violoncellos 
There is an episode in which a fragment of the second theme is 
used in dialogue for wind and strings. A third melodic idea is given 
to bassoons. There is another expressive motive sung by violins, 
violas, and bassoons, followed by a sensuous rhythm. Alter a 
stormy passage there is comparative calm. The harps sound the 
tonic and dominant, and the trombones have the rude theme re- 
ferred to above, and the rhythms of the Jota are m opposition. 
Such is the thematic material. 



* 
* * 



\ ballet "Espana," scenario by Mmes. Catulle Mendes and Kosita 
Mauri and M. Staats, based on Chabrier's Rhapsody, was produced 
at the Opera, Paris, May 3, 1911, when Chabrier's opera Gwen- 
doline" was revived. Mr. Pougin protested vigorously: "They have 
imagined a bizarre action, that of a village fair with all its shows 
and the entrance of dancers, <tra los monies' to end the festival 
hv dancing to the music of 'Espana.' I like the piece better in 
concert; its place is there. And where did they fish out the rest 
of the music? From the composer's portfolios? Fragments with- 
out continuitv and connection, taken as from a grab-bag! And who 
took upon himself the duty of sewing these patches together and 
oivi„o them the semblance of unity? T know nothing about it. 
The chief dancers were Miss Zambelli and Miss Aula Bom. 

•Oeonrea Servlerea in hie "Emmanuel Chabrier" (Paris. 1912) gives the date 
November!; bul see 11 mnettrcl of November 11, 1883, and "Lea Annales du rheAlre, 
by Noel and StOUllig, IKS.",, page 2J)4. 



20 



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ACADEMY OF MUSIC . . . BROOKLYN 

Friday Evening, February 2, at 8.15 

Under the atnpioea of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and the Philharmonic 

Society of Brooklyn 



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FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



i'tai Synaptu© 

INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Pro; 
THIR] 



FRIDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 2, at 8.15 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

GALEN L. STONE Vice-President 

ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

ALFRED L. AIKEN ARTHUR LYMAN 

FREDERICK P. CABOT HENRY B. SAWYER 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master. 
Theodorowicz, J. 
Gundersen, R. 
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Thirty-fifth season in Brooklyn 



'©ston 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 
FRIDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 2 
AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Beethoven Symphony No. 8 in F major, Op. 93 

I. Allegro vivace e con brio. 

II. Allegretto scherzando. 

III. Tempo di menuetto. 

IV. Allegro vivace. 

Smetana . . Symphonic Poem, "Vltava" ("The Moldau") from 

"Ma Vlast" ("My Country"), No. 2 



Brahms . . Concerto in D major for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 77 

I. Allegro non troppo. 
II. Adagio. 
III. Allegro giocoso, ma non troppo vivace. 

Wagner . . Siegfried's Ascent to Briinnhilde's Rock ("Siegfried"); 

Morning Dawn, Siegfried's Rhine Journey and 
Close of "Dusk of the Gods" 



SOLOIST 
GEORGES ENESCO 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Smetana's Symphonic Poem 

5 



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Symphony in F major, No. 8, Op. 93 



Ludwig van Beethoven 



(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

This symphony was composed at Linz in the summer of 1812. The 
autograph manuscript in the Royal Library at Berlin bears this inscrip- 
tion in Beethoven's handwriting: "Sinfonia — Lintz, im Monath Octo- 
ber 1812." GloggFs Linzer Musikzeitung made this announcement 
October 5: "We have had at last the long-wished-for pleasure to have 
for some days in our capital the Orpheus and the greatest musical poet 
of our tune, Mr. L. van Beethoven; and, if Apollo is gracious to us, 
we shall also have the opportunity of wondering at his art." The same 
periodical announced November 10: "The great tone-poet and tone- 
artist, Louis van Beethoven, has left our city without fulfilling our 
passionate wish of hearing him publicly in a concert." 

Beethoven was in poor physical condition in 1812, and as Stauden- 
heim, his physician, advised him to try Bohemian baths, he went to 
Toplitz by way of Prague; to Carlsbad, where a note of the postilion's 
horn found its way among the sketches for the Eighth Symphony; to 
Franzensbrunn and again to Toplitz ; and lastly to his brother Johann's 
home at Linz, where he remained until into November. 

The Seventh and Eighth Symphonies were probaby played over for 
the first time at the Archduke Rudolph's in Vienna, April 20, 1813. 
Beethoven in the same month endeavored to produce them at a con- 
cert, but without success. The Seventh was not played until December 
8, 1813, at a concert organized by Malzel, the mechanician. 

The first performance of the Eighth Symphony was at a concert given 
by Beethoven at Vienna in the "Redoutensaal" on Sunday, February 
27, 1814. 

The Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung in a review of this concert stated that 



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the Seventh Symphony (first performed December 8, 1813) was again 
heartily applauded, and the Allegro was repeated. "All were in 
anxious expectation to hear the new symphony (F major, 3-4), the 
latest product of Beethoven's muse; but this expectation after one 
hearing was not fully satisfied, and the applause which the work re- 
ceived was not of that enthusiastic nature by which a work that pleases 
universally is distinguished. In short, the symphony did not make, as 
the Italians say, furore. I am of the opinion that the cause of this was 
not in weaker or less artistic workmanship (for in this, as in all of 
Beethoven's works of this species, breathes the peculiar genius which 
always proves his originality), but partly in the mistake of allowing 
this symphony to follow the one in A major, and partly in the satiety 
that followed the enjoyment of so much that was beautiful and excel- 
lent, whereby natural apathy was the result. If this symphony in 
future should be given alone, I have no doubt concerning its favorable 
reception." 

Czerny remembered that on this occasion the new Eighth Symphony 
did not please the audience; that Beethoven was irritated, and said: 
"Because it is much better" (than the Seventh). 

There were in the orchestra at this concert eighteen first violins, 
eighteen second violins, fourteen violas, twelve violoncellos, seven 



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makes in models of many types 
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Fourth floor, Wat Building 



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UROOKLYN 



double-basses. The audience numbered about three thousand, al- 
though Schindler spoke of five thousand. 

Beethoven described the Kighth in a letter (June 1, 1815) to Salomon, 
of London, as "a little symphony in F," to distinguish it from its prede- 
cessor, the Seventh, which he called "a great symphony in A, one of 
my best." 

\\ "e know from his talk noted down that Beethoven originally planned 
an elaborate introduction to this symphony. 

It is often said that the second movement, the celebrated Allegretto 
Bcherzando, is based on the theme of "a three-voice circular canon, or 
round, 'Ta, ta, ta, lieber Malzel,' sung in honor of the inventor of the 
metronome" and many automata "at a farewell dinner given to Beet- 
hoven in July, 1812, before his leaving Vienna for his summer trip into 
the country.' ' Thayer examined into this story and came to this con- 
clusion: "That Malzel's 'ta, ta, ta/ suggested the Allegretto to Beet- 
hoven, and that by a parting meal the canon on this theme was sung, 
are doubtless true; but it is by no means sure that the canon preceded 
the symphony. ... If the canon was written before the symphony, 
it was not improvised at this meal; if it was then improvised, it was 
only a repetition of the Allegretto theme in canon form." However 
this may be, the persistent ticking of a wind instrument in sixteenth 




1 



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There may be more than one 
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notes is heard almost throughout the movement, of which Berlioz 
said: "It is one of those productions for which neither model nor pen- 
dant can be found. This sort of thing falls entire from heaven into 
the composer's brain. He writes it at a single dash, and we are amazed 
at hearing it." 

There has been a dispute concerning the pace at which the Menuetto 
should be taken. 

The first performance of the symphony in America was by the Phil- 
harmonic Society of New York on November 16, 1844. George Loder 
conducted. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings. 



Symphonic Poem "Vltava" ("The Moldau"), from "Ma Vlast" 
("My Country") No. 2 Friedrich Smetana 

(Born at Leitomischl, Bohemia, March 2, 1824; died in the mad-house at 

Prague, May 12, 1884.) 

Smetana, a Czech of the Czechs, purposed to make his country 
familiar and illustrious in the eyes of strangers by his cycle of sym- 
phonic poems, "Ma Vlast" ("My Country"). The cycle was dedi- 
cated to the town of Prague. "The Moldau," composed in 1874 
and performed for the first time at Zofin on April 4, 1875, is the 
second of the six symphonic poems. 

The first performance of the cycle as a whole was at a concert for 
Smetana's benefit at Prague, November 5, 1882. 



You desire to become an artistic pianist but you dread the inter- 
minable practice of finger exercises, or possibly you have a 
child who, "Just loves music, but hates to practice." 

Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, Jr. has prepared a system of 
study in which the practice of exercises — essential to the 
development of modern technique — is reduced to a minimum. 

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New York Brooklyn 

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10 



The following Preface* is printed on a page of the score pf "The 
Moldau" :— 

Two springs gush forth in the shade of the Bohemian Forest, the one warm 
and spouting, the other cold and tranquil. Their waves, gayly rushing 
onward over their rocky heds, unite and glisten in the rays of the morning 
sun. The forest brook, fast hurrying on, becomes the river Vltava (Moldau), 
which, flowing ever on through Bohemia's valleys, grows to be a mighty 
stream : it flows through thick woods in which the joyous noise of the hunt 
and the notes of the hunter's horn are heard ever nearer and nearer ; it flows 
through grass-grown pastures and lowlands where a wedding feast is cele- 
brated with song and dancing. At night the wood and water nymphs revel 
in its shining waves, in which many fortresses and castles are reflected as 
witnesses of the past glory of knighthood, and the vanished warlike fame of 
bygone ages. At the St. John Rapids the stream rushes on, winding in and 
out through the cataracts, and hews out a path for itself with its foaming 
waves through the rocky chasm into the broad river bed in which it flows on 
in majestic repose toward Prague, welcomed by time-honored Vysehrad, where- 
upon it vanishes in the far distance from the poet's gaze. 

♦The translation into English is by W. P. Apthorp. 



A New Volume of The Music Students Library 




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Oberlin Conservatory of Music 

Price, $1.50 postpaid 

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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 

FRIDAY EVENING, MARCH 16, 1923, at 8.15 o'clock 





PIERRE MONTEUX 



EMMA CALVE 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SOLOIST 



The Great French Dramatic Soprano 



TICKETS AT INSTITUTE BOX OFFICE 



13 



Concerto in D Major, for Violin, Op. 77 . . . Johannes Brahms 
(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.) 

This concerto was written during the summer and fall of 1878, 
at Portschach on Lake Worther in Carinthia, for Joseph Joachim, 
dedicated to him, and first played by him under the direction of the 
composer at a Gewandhaus concert, Leipsic, on January 1, 1879. 

Brahms, not confident of his ability to write with full intelligence 
for the solo violin, was aided greatly by Joachim, who, it appears 
from the correspondence between him and Brahms, gave advice 
inspired by his own opinions concerning the violinist's art. 

The concerto was originally in four movements. It contained a 
Scherzo which was thrown overboard. Max Kalbeck, the biographer 
of Brahms, thinks it highly probable that it found its way into the 
second pianoforte concerto. The Adagio was so thoroughly revised 
that it was practically new. 

Joachim complained of the "unaccustomed difficulties." As late 
as April 1879, when he had played the concerto at Leipsic, Vienna, 
Budapest, Cologne, and London he suggested changes which Brahms 
accepted. Kalbeck says of the first performance: "The work was 
heard respectfully, but it did not awaken a bit of enthusiasm. It 
seemed that Joachim had not sufficiently studied the concerto or he 
was severely indisposed." Brahms conducted in a state of evident 
excitement. A comic incident came near being disastrous. The 
composer stepped on the stage in gray street trousers, for on account 
of a visit he had been hindered in making a complete change of 
dress. Furthermore he forgot to fasten again the unbuttoned sus- 
penders, so that in consequence of his lively directing his shirt 
showed between his trousers and waistcoat. "These laughter-pro- 
voking trifles were not calculated for elevation of mood." 



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14 



Siegfried's Passing Through the Fire to Brunn miliums Kock 
(" Siegfried," Act III., Scene 2) ; Morning Dawn and Siegfried's 
Journey up the Rhine ; Close ("Dusk of the Gods"* — Prologue) 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

These selections were made for concert use by Hans Richter. His 
score is a reproduction of the respective passages in the music- 
dramas. 

Wo tan had condemned the Valkyrie, Briinnhilde, for disobedience, 
to sleep within a circle of fire, through which only a hero that does 
not know fear can pass to awaken her. Siegfried after he has 
shattered Wotan's spear, guided by the the song of the forest bird 
rushes "with all the tumult of Spring in his veins" to the sleeping 
maiden. The Volsung motive is followed by the first phase of the 
Siegfried motive. Then use is made of the Fire motive and Sieg- 
fried's Horn Call, which typifies the hero's passage through the 
flames. The Fire music dies away ; the Slumber motive is intro- 
duced, and, after the solemn harmonies of the Fate motive are heard, 
the first violins, unaccompanied, sing a long strain based on the 
motive of Freia, goddess of youth and love. 

Morning Dawn. This is the scene just before Siegfried and 
Briinnhilde come out of the cave after hours of happiness. Briinn- 
hilde has taught him the wisdom of the gods. Siegfried swears 
eternal fidelity, and as a pledge gives her the ring which he had worn. 
She gives him her horse Grane and her shield. The sun rises as 
Siegfried sets out on his journey to the Rhine and the home of the 
Gibichungs. Briinnhilde watches him making his way down the 
valley. The sound of his horn comes to her from afar. The motives 
are those of Fate, Siegfried the Hero, Briinnhilde the Wife, the Ride 
of the Valkyries. There is then a skip to the last and rapturous 
measures of the parting scene, with a climax worked out of Sieg- 
fried's Wander Song and Brunnhilde's Love. The height of the 
climax includes parts of the motives of Siegfried the Hero and the 
Ride of the Valkyries. 

♦George Bernard Shaw prefers "Night Falls on the Gods," although he gives 
"God's-gloaming" as a literal translation. 



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Siegfried's Journey up the Rhine, called by Wagner an orchestral 
scherzo, is the interlude between the Prologue and the first act of 
"Dusk of the Gods." The Scherzo is in three parts. The first is a 
working up of Siegfried's Horn Call and part of the Fire motive 
with use afterwards of the Wander Song. The second part begins 
with a full orchestral outburst. The Rhine motive is sounded by 
brass and wood-wind. Another motive is Renunciation of Love, 
which frightens away the Rhine motive. The third part is based 
on music of the Rhine Daughters, the Horn Call, Ring motive, Rhine- 
gold motive, and at last the Mbelungs' Power-for-Evil music; but 
Mr. Monteux has substituted final pages of "Dusk of the Gods" in 
place of Richter's addition of a few measures of the Walhalla 
motive ( "Rhinegold," Scene II.). 

Wagner conceived "Gotterdammerung" as early as 1848 and wrote the poem 
before those of the other music dramas in "Der Ring," entitling it at first 
"Siegfried's Death." He began to compose the music in 1869. The scoring 
was completed in 1874. 

"Gotterdammerung" was performed for the first time at the Festival Theatre 
in Bayreuth, August 17, 1876. The cast was as follows : Siegfried, Georg 
Unger ; Gunther, Eugen Gura ; Hagen, Gustav Siehr ; Alberich, Carl Hill ; 
Brtinnhilde, Amalia Friedrich-Materna ; Waltraute, Luise Jaide ; The Three 
Norns, Johanna Jachmann-Wagner, Josephine Scheffsky, Friedricke Griin; 
The Rhine Daughters, Lilli Lehmann, Marie Lehmann, Minna Lammert. Hans 
Richter conducted. 

The first performance in America was at the Metropolitan Opera House, 
New York, January 25, 1888. Siegfried, Alfred Niemann ; Gunther, Adolf 
Robinson ; Hagen, Emil Fischer ; Alberich, Rudolph von Milde ; Brtinnhilde, 
Lilli Lehmann ; Gutrune, Auguste Seidl-Kraus ; Woglinde, Sophie Traubmann ; 
Wellgunde, Marianne Brandt ; Flosshilde, Louise Meisslinger. Anton Seidl 
conducted. "The Waltraute and Norn scenes were omitted. They were 
first given at the Metropolitan on January 24, 1899, when Mme. Schumann- 
Heink was the Waltraute and also one of the Norns. The others were Olga 
Pevny and Louise Meisslinger. 'Der Ring des Nibelungen' was first performed 
without cuts at the Metropolitan on January 12, 17, 19, and 24, 1899." 



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10 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



Arthur J. Hubbard 

AND 

VINCENT V. HUBBARD and assistants 

Mrs. CAROLINE HOOKER and 

Miss EDITH BULLARD 

Vincent V. Hubbard representing the studio at 
M17-8 Carnegie Hall, New York on Mondays 



Teachers of Singing in all its branches 

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ARTHUR J. HUBBARD 

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.. TENOR .. 

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with the Boston Symphony Orchestra 



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Harris Stackpole Shaw 

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CIRCULAR SENT ON REQUEST 



All applications for advertising space 
in the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
programme book should be made to 
L. S. B. Jefferds, Advertising Manager, 
Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 




THE 

ST RA D I VA R I U S 

of Pianos 

When Stradivarius made his violins, neither cost of production 
nor volume of output was his chief concern. His mind was 
absorbed in producing a masterpiece — HIS contribution to the 
art of violin playing. 

The makers of the Mason & Hamlin Piano adhere to the 
same lofty ideal. If by putting into the Mason & Hamlin Piano 
a greater expenditure, it could be made a finer instrument, they 
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With them price is the last consideration — not the first. 

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The regulations of the Academy of Music will not permit the <lis( rihution of <h«ve 
programme hooks at the concert. They may be had at the Lliiifctt l>rm£ Co., Fulton 
.Strict and Lafayette Avenue. 

ACADEMY OF MUSIC . . . BROOKLYN 

Friday Evening, March 16, at 8.15 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and the Philharmonic 

Society of Brooklyn 



a* 



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BOSTON 



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SYAPHONY 
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FORTY-SECOND 
SEASON 

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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



5J:oB Symplioey Orchesta 



INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Pregin 

^ ] U U iii 1 n t U N L t K 1 

FRIDAY EVENING, MARGH 16, at 8.15 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

GALEN L. STONE Vice-President 

ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

ALFRED L. AIKEN ARTHUR LYMAN 

FREDERICK P. CABOT HENRY B. SAWYER 

ERNEST B. DANE GALEN L. STONE 

M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE BENTLEY W. WARREN 

JOHN ELLERTON LODGE E. SOHIER WELCH 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 

l 




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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 




PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



".liSDNNKf 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. Hoffmann, 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 


Gundersen, R. 
Kassinan, N. 


Pinfield, C 
Barozzi, S. 


Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 


Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 


Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 


Gorodetzky, L. Kurth, R. 
Goldstein, S. Bryant, M. 


Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C. 


Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 


Riedlinger, 
Tapley, R. 


H. Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 

Violas. 


Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 


Fourel, G. 
Artieres, L. 


Werner, H 
Van Wynb 


Grover, H. 
ergen, C. Shirley, P. 


Fiedler, A. 
Mullaly, J. 




Gerhardt, ! 
Deane, C. 


3. Kluge, M. 
Zahn, F. 

Violoncellos. 




Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller. J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio., E. 

Basses. 


Langendoen, J 
Marjollet, L. 


Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Ludwig, 0. Kelley, A. 
Frankel, I. Demetrides, 


Girard, H. 
L. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Laurent, G. 
Brooke, A. 
Amerena, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Stanislaus, 


Sand, A. 
Arcieri, E. 
H. Vannini, A. 


Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horns. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


Battles, A. 


Mueller, F 
Speyer, L. 


Mimart, P. 


Piller, B. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


Wendler, G. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Hess, M. Mager, G. 
Van Den Berg, C. Mann, J. 

Perret, G. 

Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C. 
Adam, E. 
Mausebach, A. 
Kenfield, L. 


Tuba. 


Harps. 


Timpani. 


Percussion. 


Adam, E. 


Holy, A, 
Delcourt, L. 


Ritter, A. Ludwig, C. Zahn, F. 
Kandler, F. Sternburg, S. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


Librarian. 


Snow, A. 




Fiedler, A. 

3 


Rogers, L. J. 



c Boston 
oymphony Orchestra 

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HIS MASTER'S VOICE" 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



Thirty-fifth season in Brooklyn 



Bosto 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 
PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, MARCH 16 

AT 8.15 



Schubert 



Gluck 



Strauss 



PROGRAMME 

Symphony in B minor ("Unfinished") 



I. Allegro mo derate 
II. Andante con moto. 



LoefHer 



Beethoven 
Enesco 



Aria, "Divinites du Styx," from "Alceste" 

'Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the 
Old-fashioned, Roguish Manner, in Rondo 
Form, " for Full Orchestra, Op. 28 



"La Mort de Tintagiles," Dramatic Poem after 
the Drama of Maurice Maeterlinck, for 
Orchestra and Viole d'Amour, Op. 6 
(Viole d'Amour — Richard Burgin) 

Song with Orchestra, "In Questa Tomba Oscura" 
Roumanian Rhapsody in A major, Op. n, No. 1 



SOLOIST 
EMMA CALVE 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Strauss's "Till Eulenspiegel" 

5 



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Unfinished Symphony in H minor Franz Schubert 

(Born at Lichtenthal, near Vienna, January 31, 1797; died at Vienna, 

November 19, 1828.) 

Two brothers, Anselm and Joseph HUttenbrenner, were fond of 
Schubert. Their home was in Graz, Styria, but they were living at 
Vienna. Anselm was a musician; Joseph was in a government office. 
Anselm took Schubert to call on Beethoven, and there is a story that 
the sick man said, "You, Anselm, have my mind; but Franz has my 
soul." Anselm closed the eyes of Beethoven in death. These brothers 
were constant in endeavor to make Schubert known. Anselm went 
so far as to publish a set of "Erlking Waltzes/' and assisted in putting 
Schubert's opera, "Alfonso and Estrella" (1822), in rehearsal at Graz, 
where it would have been performed if the score had not been too dif- 
ficult for the orchestra. In 1822 Schubert was elected an honorary 
member of musical societies of Linz and Graz. In return for the com- 
pliment from Graz, he began the Symphony in B minor, No. 8 (October 
30, 1822). He finished the Allegro and the Andante, and he wrote 
nine measures of the Scherzo. Schubert visited Graz in 1827, but neither 
there nor elsewhere did he ever hear his unfinished work. 

In 1865 Herbeck was obliged to journey with his sister-in-law, who 
sought health. They stopped in Graz, and on May 1 he went to Over- 
Andritz, where the old and tired Anselm, in a hidden, little one-story 
cottage, was awaiting death. Herbeck sat down in a humble inn. He 
talked with the landlord, who told him that Anselm was in the habit 
of breakfasting there. While they were talking, Anselm appeared. 
After a few words Herbeck said, "I am here to ask permission to pro- 
duce one of your works at Vienna." The old man brightened, he shed 
his indifference, and after breakfast took him to his home. The work- 



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room was stuffed with yellow and dusty papers, all in confusion. Anselm 
showed his own manuscripts, and finally Herbeck chose one of the ten 
overtures for performance. "It is my purpose," he said, "to bring 
forward three contemporaries, Schubert, Huttenbrenner, and Lachner, 
in one concert before the Viennese public. It would naturally be very 
appropriate to represent Schubert by a new work." "Oh, I have still 
a lot of things by Schubert," answered the old man; and he pulled a 
mass of papers out of an old-fashioned chest. Herbeck immediately 
saw on the cover of a manuscript "Symphonie in H moll," in Schubert's 
handwriting. Herbeck looked the symphony over. "This would do. 
Will you let me have it copied immediately at my cost?" "There is 
no hurry," answered Anselm, "take it with tou." 

Huttenbrenner 's overture was described as "respectable Kapell- 
meistermusik; no one can deny its smoothness of style and a certain 
skill in the workmanship." The composer died in 1868. 

The Unfinished Symphony was played at the Crystal Palace, Syden- 
ham, in 1867. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
strings. 



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Air, "Divinites du Styx," from "Alceste," Act I, Scene 7 

Christopii Willibald Cluck 

(Horn at WVidonwang, near Berchingin the Upper Palatinate, July 2, 1714: died 

at Vienna, November 15, 1787.) 

"Aiceste," an opera in throe acts, Italian libretto bj' Calzabigi, music 
by Gluck, was produced at Vienna on December 16, 17G7. The libretto 
was based on the tragedy of Euripides. Antonia Bernasconi took the 
pari o\ Aiceste. The score was published in 17G9. It contained the 
famous preface that expressed Gluck's views on the character of opera 
and his purpose in writing "Aiceste." 

"Aiceste: trage'die-opera," in three acts, with the French text by 
Bailli du Rollet, was produced at the Opera in Paris on April 23, 1776. 
Rosalie Levasseur took the part of the heroine. 

The air "Divinites du Styx" closes the first act. 

Divinites du Styx, ministres de la mort! 
Je n'invoquerai point votre pitie cruelle, 
J'enleve un tendre epoux a son funeste sort; 
Mais je vous abandonne une epouse fidele. 
Mourir pour ce qu'on aime est un trop doux effort, 

Une vertu si naturelle . . . 
Mon cceur est anime du plus noble transport. 

Je sens une force nouvelle, 

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Deities of the Styx, ministers of Death ! 

I will not invoke your cruel pity, 

I save a loving husband from his disastrous fate; 

But I abandon a faithful wife to you. 

To die for him we love is too sweet an effort, 

So natural a virtue . . . 
My heart is animated with the noblest transport. 

I feel new strength, 

I go whither my love calls me. 

English translation by W. F. Apthorp. 

Andante, B-flat major, 2-2, interrupted by a Presto in F major, 2-4. 
The accompaniment is scored for two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
two horns, three trombones, and strings. 

The opera was revived at the Paris Opera in An XIII, 1825. 1861, 
1866. It has been in the repertoire of the Opera-Comique, Paris, since 
1904, when Feb a Litvinne took the part of Alceste. 



"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the Old-fashioned, 
Roguish Manner, — in Rondo Form/' for Full Orchestra, 
Op. 28 Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living.) 

"Till Eulenspiegel's lustige Streiche, nach alter Schelmenweise — 
in Rondoform — fur grosses Orchester gesetzt, von Richard Strauss," 
was produced at a Gurzenich concert at Cologne, November 5, 1895. 
It was composed in 1894-95 at Munich, and the score was completed 
there, May 6, 1895. The score and parts were published in Sep- 
tember, 1895. 

Certain German critics were not satisfied with Strauss's meagre 
clew, and they at once began to evolve labored analyses. One of 
these programmes, the one prepared by Mr. Wilhelm Klatte, was 
published in the Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung of November 8, 1895, 
and frequently in programme books in Germany and England, in 
some cases with Strauss's sanction.* The translation is, for the 
most part, by Mr. C. A. Barry : — 

• It has been stated that Strauss gave Wilhelm Mauke a programme of this rondo 
to cssitt Mauke in writing his "Fuhrer" or elaborate explanation of the composition. 



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A strong sense of German folk-feeling {des Volksthumllchen) 
pervades the whole work ; the source from which the tone-poet drew 
his inspiration is clearly indicated in the introductory bars: 
Gemiichlich (Andante commodo), F major, 4-8. To some extent this 
stands for the "once upon a time" of ihe story-books. That what 
follows is not to be treated in the pleasant and agreeable manner 
ol narrative poetry, but in a more sturdy fashion, is at once made 
apparent by a characteristic bassoon figure which breaks in sforzato 
upon the piano of the strings. Of equal importance for the develop- 
ment of the piece is the immediately following humorous horn theme 
(F major, 6-8). Beginning quietly and gradually becoming more 
lively, it is at first heard against a tremolo of the "divided" violins 
and then again in the tempo primo, Sehr lebhaft (Vivace). This 
theme, or at least the kernel of it, is taken up in turn by oboes, 
clarinets, violas, violoncellos, and bassoons, and is finally brought 
by the full orchestra, except trumpets and trombones, after a few 
bars, crescendo, to a dominant half-close fortissimo in C. The 
thematic material, according to the main point, has now been fixed 
upon; the milieu is given by which we are enabled to recognize 
the pranks and droll tricks which the crafty schemer is about to 
bring before our eyes, or, far rather, before our ears. 

Here he is (clarinet phrase followed by chord for wind instru- 
ments). He wanders through the land as a thoroughgoing adven- 
turer. His clothes are tattered and torn: a queer, fragmentary 
version of the Eulenspiegel motive resounds from the horns. Fol- 
lowing a merry play with this important leading motive, which 
directly leads to a short but brilliant tutti, in which it again asserts 
itself, first in the flutes, and then finally merges into a softly 
murmuring and extended tremolo for the violas, this same motive, 



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gracefully phrased, reappears in succession in the basses, flute, first 
violins, and again in the basses. The rogue, putting on his best 
manners, slyly passes through the gate, and enters a certain city. 
It is market-day; the women sit at their stalls and prattle (flutes, 
oboes, and clarinets). Hop! Eulenspiegel springs on his horse 
(indicated by rapid triplets extending through three measures, 
from the low D of the bass clarinet to the highest A of the D 
clarinet), gives a smack of his whip, and rides into the midst of 
the crowd. Clink, clash, clatter ! A confused sound of broken pots' 
and pans, and the market-women are put to flight! In haste the 
rascal rides away (as is admirably illustrated by a fortissimo pas- 
sage for the trombones) and secures a safe retreat. 

Again the Eulenspiegel theme is brought forward in the previous 
lively tempo, 6-8, but is now subtly metamorphosed and chival- 
rously colored. Eulenspiegel has become a Don Juan, and he way- 
lays pretty women. And one has bewitched him: Eulenspiegel 
is in love ! Hear how now, glowing with love, the violins, clarinets, 
and flutes sing. But in vain. His advances are received with 
derision, and he goes away in a rage. How can one treat him so 
slightingly? Is he not a splendid fellow? Vengeance on the whole 
human race! He gives vent to his rage (in a fortissimo of horns 
in unison, followed by a pause), and strange personages suddenly 
draw near (violoncellos). A troop of honest, worthy Philistines! 
In an instant all his anger is forgotten. But it is still his chief 
joy to make fun of these lords and protectors of blameless decorum, 
to mock them, as is apparent from the lively and accentuated frag- 
ments of the theme, sounded at the beginning by the horn, which 
are now heard first from horns, violins, violoncellos, and then 
from trumpets, oboes, and flutes. Now that Eulenspiegel has had 
his joke, he goes away and leaves the professors and doctors behind 
in thoughtful meditation. Fragments of the typical theme of the 
Philistines are here treated canonically. The wood-wind, violins, 
and trumpets suddenly project the Eulenspiegel theme into their 
profound philosophy. It is as though the transcendent rogue were 
making faces at the bigwigs from a distance — again and again — 
and then waggishly running away. This is aptly characterized by 
a short episode (A-flat) in a hopping, 2-4 rhythm, which, similarly 
with the first entrance of the Hypocrisy theme previously used, is 
followed by phantom-like tones from the wood-wind and strings 
and then from trombones and horns. Has our rogue still no fore- 
boding? 

Interwoven with the very first theme, indicated lightly by trum- 
pets and English horn, a figure is developed from the second intro- 
ductory and fundamental theme. It is first taken up by the clari- 

12 



nets ; it seems to express the fact that the arch-villain has again got 
the upper hand of Eulenspiegel, who has fallen into his old manner 
of life. If we take a formal view, we have now reached the repe- 
tition of the chief theme. A merry jester, a born liar, Eulenspiegel 
goes wherever he can succeed with a hoax. His insolence knows 
no bounds. Alas ! there is a sudden jolt to his wanton humor. The 
drum rolls a hollow roll ; the jailer drags the rascally prisoner into 
the criminal court. The verdict "guilty" is thundered against the 
brazen-faced knave. The Eulenspiegel theme replies calmly to the 
threatening chords of wind and lower strings. Eulenspiegel lies. 
Again the threatening tones resound; but Eulenspiegel does not 
confess his guilt. On the contrary, he lies for the third time. His 
jig is up. Fear seizes him. The Hypocrisy motive is sounded 
piteously ; the fatal moment draws near ; his hour has struck ! The 
descending leap of a minor seventh in bassoons, horns, trombones, 
tuba, betokens his death. He has danced in air. A last struggle 
(flutes), and his soul takes flight. 

After sad, tremulous pizzicati of the strings the epilogue begins. 
At first it is almost identical with the introductory measures, which 
are repeated in full; then the most essential parts of the second 



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and third chief-theme passages appear, and finally merge into the 
soft chord of the sixth on A-flat, while wood-wind and violins sus- 
tain. Eulenspiegel has become a legendary character. The people 
tell their tales about him: "Once upon a time .... ." But that he 
was a merry rogue and a real devil of a fellow seems to be ex- 
pressed by the final eight measures, full orchestra, fortissimo. 



"La Mort de Tintagiles," Dramatic Poem after the Drama of 
M. Maeterlinck, for Full Orchestra and Viole d' Amour, 
Op. 6 Charles Martin Loeffler 

(Born at Muhlhausen-i-R (Alsace), January 30, 1861; now living at Medfield, Mass.) 

Three plays by Maurice Maeterlinck were published in one volume 
by Edmond Deman at Brussels in 1894. They were entitled: "Alla- 
dine et Palomides, Interieur, et la Mort de Tintagiles: Trois petits 
drames pour Marionnettes." 

Mr. Loeffler's symphonic poem was composed in the summer of 1897. 
It was composed originally for orchestra and two violes d 'amour obbli- 
gate. It was performed for the first time at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra in Music Hall, Boston, January 8, 1898, when the 
two violes d'amour were played by Messrs. Kneisel and Loeffler. At 
this performance a double-bass clarinet, invented and played by Mr. 
Kohl, formerly a member of Theodore Thomas's Orchestra, was heard 
in a public concert for the first time. The symphonic poem was re- 
peated that season, March 19, 1898, with Messrs. Kneisel and Loeffler 
as the soloists and without the use of the double-bass clarinet. 

Mr. Loeffler afterwards remodelled the score. He took out the second 
viole d'amour part, and lessened the importance of the part taken by 
the other, so that the poem may now be considered a purely orchestral 
work. He changed materially the whole instrumentation. The score 
as it now stands is dated September, 1900. "The Death of Tintagiles" 
in its present form was played in public for the first time at a concert 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Symphony Hall, February 16, 
1901. At a second performance, January 2, 1904, the viole d'amour 
was played by the composer. At performances on April 18, 1914, and 
October 23, 1915, Mr. Ferir played the viole d'amour. 

The poem is scored for three flutes (one interchangeable with piccolo), 
oboe, English horn, two clarinets, small E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, 
two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two cornets-a-pistons, three 
trombones, bass tuba, two pairs of kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, 
cymbals, gong, harp, viole d'amour, strings. The score, dedicated to 
Eugene Ysaye, was published by G. Schirmer in 1905. 

* * 

14 






"La Mort de Tintagiles," a little drama tor marionettes, is in five short 
acts. The characters are: the (ruder boy Tintagiles; his older' sisters, 
Ygraine and Bellangere; Aglovale, the warrior retainer, now old and 
weary; and the three handmaidens of the Queen. 

Tintagiles is the future monarch of the nameless land in the strange 
years of legends. He and his sisters are living in a gloomy and airless 
castle far down in a valley. In a tower that shows at night red-litten 
windows lurks the enthroned Queen. The serene ancients portrayed 
Death as beautiful of face, but this Queen in the nameless land is not 
beautiful in any way; she is as fat as a sated spider. She squats alone 
in the tower. They that serve her do not go out by day. The Queen 
is very old; she is jealous, and cannot brook the thought of another on 
the throne. They that by chance have seen her will not speak of her; 
and it is whispered that they who are thus silent did not dare to look 
upon her. 'Tis she who commanded that Tintagiles, her orphaned 
grandson, should be brought over the sea to the sombre castle where 
Ygraine and Bellangere have passed years as blind fish in the dull pool 
of a cavern. 

The sea howls, the trees groan, but Tintagiles sleeps after his fear 
and tears. The sisters bar the chamber door, for Bellangere has heard 
sinister muttering in rambling, obscure, corridors, chuckling over the 
child whom the Queen would see. Ygraine is all of a tremble; never- 
theless, she believes half-heartedly and for the nonce that he may yet 
be spared; then she remembers how the Horror in the tower has been 
as a tombstone pressing down her soul. Aglovale cannot be of aid, 
he is so old, so weary of it all. Her bare and slender arms are all that 
is between the boy and the hideous Queen of Darkness and Terror. 

Tintagiles awakes. He suffers and knows not why. He hears a 
vague something at the door. Others hear it. A key grinds in the 
lock outside. The door opens slowly. Of what avail is Aglovale's 
sword used as a bar? It breaks. The door is opened wider, but there 
is neither sight nor sound of an intruder. The boy has swooned; the 
chamber suddenly is cold and quiet. Tintagiles is again conscious, and 
he shrieks. The door closes mysteriously. 

Watchers and boy are at last asleep. The veiled handmaidens 
whisper in the corridor. They enter stealthily, and snatch Tintagiles 



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from the warm and sheltering arms of life. A cry comes from him: 
"Sister Ygraine!" — a cry as from some one afar off. 

The sister, haggard, with lamp in hand, agonizes in a dismal vault, — 
a vault that is black and cold, — agonizes before a huge iron cloor in 
the tower-tomb. The keyless door is a forbidding thing sealed in the 
wall. She has tracked Tintagiles by his golden curls, found on the 
steps along the walls. A little hand knocks feebly on the other side 
of the door; a weak voice cries to her. He will die if she does not come 
to him, and quickly; for he has struck the Queen, who was hurrying 
toward him. Even now he hears her panting in pursuit; even now 
she is about to clutch him. He can see a glimmer of the lamp through 
a crevice, which is so small that a needle could hardly make its way. 
The hands of Ygraine are bruised, her nails are torn; she dashes the 
lamp against the door in her wild endeavor; and she, too, is in the black- 
ness of darkness. Death has Tintagiles by the throat. "Defend your- 
self," screams the sister; don't be afraid of her. I'll be with you in 
a moment. Tintagiles? Tintagiles? Answer me! Help! Where are 
you? I'll aid you — kiss me — through the door — here's the place- 
here." The voice of Tintagiles — how faint it is! — is heard for the last 
time: "I kiss you, too — here — Sister Ygraine! Sister Ygraine! Oh!" 
The little body falls. 

Ygraine bursts into wailing and impotent raging. She beseeches 
in vain the hidden, noiseless monster. . . . 

Long and inexorable silence. Ygraine would spit on the Destroyer, 
but she sinks down and sobs gently in the darkness, with her arms on 
the keyless door of iron. 






It has been said that, "from a poetico-dramatic point of view, the 
music may be taken as depicting a struggle between two opposing 
forces, — say, the Queen and her Handmaids, on the one hand, and 
Tintagiles and Ygraine, on the other; but it does not seek to follow 
out the drama scene by scene." 

There is also the reminder of the storm and the wild night; there is 
the suggestion of Aglovale, old and scarred, wise and weary, with- 
out confidence in his sword; there is the plaintive voice of the timorous 
child; there are the terrifying steps in the corridor, the steps as of many, 
who do not walk as other beings, yet draw near and whisper without 
the guarded door. 



* 



Stage music for "La Mort de Tintagiles" has been written by Leon 
Dubois of Brussels; by A. von Ahn Carse of London; and by Jean 
Nougues. The music by Nougues was written for a performance a1 
the Theatres des Mathurins, Paris, December 21, 1905: Ygraine, Mme. 
Georgette Leblanc; Bellangere, Nina Russell (Mrs. Henry Russell); 
First Servant of the Queen, Ines Devries; Second Servant of the Queen, 

18 



Nathalie Var€sa (Mrs. Henry Russell's sister); Third Servant of the 
Queen, Marie Deslandres; Aglovale, Steph. Austin; Tintagiles, The 

Little Russell. 



* 

* * 



The Pall Matt Gazette of December 20, 1913, published this curious 
letter:— 

To the Editor of the Pall Mall Gazette:— 

Sir, — Will you allow me to say a word about Maeterlinck's "Death of 
ETintagiles"? I write liable to correction on the point of interpretation, 
but I venture to suggest that the fact that it is a symbolic play is self- 
evident. In your criticism of the performance at the St. James's Theatre 
on Wednesday last, the manifest meaning is only dealt with. But, 
is in the case of dreams, besides the manifest there is the latent mean- 
ing, which is really the only meaning that is worthy of the name. There 
are sufficient hints in the play that it symbolizes something, just as 
there are sufficient hints in a clear and vivid dream that a meaning 
underlies the panorama of images. 

Ygraine meets the "child' ' in the open, takes it to the castle, in spite 
of its fears, and keeps it in the sombre room with the old man, whose 
sword is rusty, and with the elder sister, who ultimately deserts her. 
The battle is against forces that time does not weaken, symbolized as 
three villains, but Ygraine does not know that they are manacled, be- 
cause she has never seen them. When the door is forced open by the 
unknown, no one enters, but white light streams in and terrifies Ygraine. 
Religion, kinship, and her own passionate ignorance fail her. The 
"child" is captured, and she cannot get to it because she cannot find 
the "key." It dies because it has never been given a chance to live. 
Prejudice, narrowness, the fear to find out too much, the horror of 
natural forces, have killed it. But it would be folly to attempt a dog- 
matic interpretation. — Yours, etc., M. N. 

December 18. 



Song: "In Questa Tomba" . . . Ludwig van Beethoven 

(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?) 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

The Journal des Luxus of November, 1806, printed this paragraph: 
"Countess Rzewuska improvised an aria at the pianoforte; The poet 
Carpani at once improvised a text for it. He imagined a lover who 
had died of grief because of the indifference of his lady-love; she re- 
penting of her hard-heartedness, bedews the grave; and now the shade 
calls to her: Tn questa tomba oscura.' " 



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19 



Sixty-three compositions with these words were published in 1808. 
Paer, Salieri, Zingarelli, Cherubini, Weigl, Asioli were among the 
composers. Beethoven's was No. 63. Not considered the best at the 
time, it is the only one that survives. It is dated 1807. 

In questa tomba oscura In this sepulchral darkness 
Lasciami riposar; O let me tranquil be; 

Quando vivevo, ingrata, While I yet lived, faithless creature, 
Dovevi a me pensar. Thou should'st have thought on me. 

Lascia ch Y oembre ignude O let the shades here denuded 
Godansi pace almen Of all that is worldly and vain 

E non bagnar mie ceneri Repose unwept by poisoned tears, 

D' inutile velen. And free from guile remain. 



Rhapsodie Roumaine in A major, Op. 11, No. 1 

Georges Enesco (Enescou) 

(Born at Cordaremi, Roumania, August 7, 1880; now in the United States.) 

This Rhapsody is the first of three Roumanian Rhapsodies. The 
other two are respectively in D major and G minor. Two were played 
at Pablo Casal's concert in Paris, February 16, 1908. It is dedicated 
to B. Croee-Spinelli and scored for these instruments: three flutes 
(one interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, English horn, two clari- 
nets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two cornets-a-pistons, 
three trombones, tuba, a set of three kettledrums, side-dram, triangle, 
two harps, and the usual strings. 

The Rhapsody is founded on Roumanian airs, which appear in turn, 
and are somewhat varied rather than developed. The Rhapsody 
begins with preluding (clarinet and oboe) on hints at the first theme, 
which is finally announced by violins and wood-wind. The first indica- 
tion reads Modere, A major, 4-4. The prevailing tonality, so constant 
that it has excited discussion, is A major. As the themes are clearly 
presented and there is little or no thematic development, there is no 
need of analysis. 

The Bucharest correspondent of the Menestrel, August 27, 1920, stated 
that Enesco was the honorary president of the artistic committee of 
the Philharmonic Society of that city, and that he was to join Alfred 
Alessandresco, pianist, in a series of eight concerts with programmes 
of modern violin and pianoforte sonatas, a complement to the series 
they gave in 1919. 

Enesco played Brahms's violin concerto and conducted his Suite, 
Op. 9, at the concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston, 
January 19-20, 1923. 



20 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



ARTHUR J. HUBBARD Teachers of Singing in all its branches 

inKtrvKrr v i_nmS? D i^ j ■ . an ^ °f Dramatic Action as 

VINCENT V. HUBBARD and assistants ,. , c . 

Mrs. CAROLINE HOOKER and A p?E ,fp d f° H n£§?#n 

Miss EDITH BULLARD \^]™ R . J * HU ? BARD 

Vincent V. Hubbard representing the studio at 246 Huntington Avenue 
807-8 Carnegie Hall. New York on Mondays 



THEO. VAN YORX 



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VOCAL STUDIOS 



VOICE TRIALS BY APPOINTMENT ONLY 



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Telephone. Fitz Roy 3701 
Mr. Van Yorx has frequently appeared with the Boston Symphony Orchest;a 



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Coaching, Repertoire, Programme building 
Piano (Leschetizky) and Accompanying 
Voice Culture— ARTHUR KRAFT 
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Phone Columbus 8993 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

STEINERT HALL 

I o2 BOYLSTON STREET . . BOSTON 



Teacher of PIANO 
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Copley 341 4-R 



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Qualified to develop male and female voice 

Reference: PHILIP HALE 

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CIRCULAR SENT ON REQUEST 



All applications for advertising space 
in the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
programme book should be made to 
L. S. B. Jefferds, Advertising Manager, 
Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 




THE 
PIANOFORTE 

There is a subtle satisfaction in knowing that one's possessions, 
whatever their nature, are of superlative excellence. A Gobelin 
tapestry or a da Vinci painting is a constant source of pleasure and 
bears testimony to the taste of its owner. To the music lover the 
same is true of the possession of a Mason & Hamlin Piano. 

Those who are musically sensitive, whose appreciation of tonal 
quality renders them competent to judge, pronounce the Mason & 
Hamlin Piano the leading instrument of its kind. 

Dame Melba, richly endowed with musical discrimination, says 
in this connection : It seems to me that the preference on the part 
of an individual for the Mason & Hamlin Piano is indicative of a 
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New York Warerooms, 313 Fifth Avenue, at 32nd Street 



I he regulations of the Academy of Music will not permit the distribution of these 
programme books at the concert. They may be had at the Lisiiiett Druii Co., Fulton 
Street and Lafayette Avenue. 

ACADEMY OF MUSIC . . . BROOKLYN 

Friday Evening, April 6, at 8.15 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of \rts and Scienoes and the Philharmonic 

Society of Brooklyn 




^« 




BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 
OROIESTRH 



INC. 

FORTY-SECOND 

SEASON 

J922-J923 



PRoGRHnnc 




71 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



in ob I o' a bymptaiw Oireihiesftra 



INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 






F1FT 



FRIDAY EVENING, APRIL 6, at 8.15 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
GALEN L. STONE 
ERNEST B. DANE 



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ERNEST B. DANE 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
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You may purchase a new Steinway piano 
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Symphony Orche 

Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



)stra 



PERSONNEL 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. Hoffmann, 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 


Gundersen, R. 
Kassman, N. 


Pinfield, C 
Barozzi, S. 


Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 


Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 


Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 


Gorodetzky, L. Kurth, R. 
Goldstein, S. Bryant, M. 


Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C. 


Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 


Riedlinger, 
Tapley, R. 


H. Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 

Violas. 


Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 


Fourel, G. 
ArtiSres, L. 


Werner, H. Grover, H. 
Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 


Fiedler, A. 
Mullaly, J. 




Gerhardt, 
Deane, C. 


5. Kluge, M. 
Zahn, F. 

Violoncellos. 




Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller, J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Basses. 


Langendoen, J 
Marjollet, L. 


Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Ludwig, 0. Kelley, A. 
Frankel, I. Demetrides, 


Girard, H. 
L. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Laurent, G. 
Brooke, A. 
Amerena, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Stanislaus, 


Sand, A. 
Arcieri, E. 
H. Vannini, A. 


Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horns. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


Battles, A. 


Mueller, F 
Speyer, L. 


Mimart, P. 


Piller, B. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


Wendler, G. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Hess, M. Mager, G. 
Van Den Berg, C. Mann, J. 

Perret, G. 

Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C. 
Adam, E. 
Mausebach, A. 
Kenfield, L. 


Tuba. 


Harps, 


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Percussion. 


Adam, E. 


Holy, A, 
Delcourt, L. 


Ritter, A. Ludwig, C. Zahn, F. 
Kandler, F. Sternburg, S. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


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Snow, A. 




Fiedler, A. 
3 


Rogers, L. J. 



Boston 
Symphony Orchestra 

VICTOR 

RECORDS 



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- Victrolas $25 to $1500 



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HIS MASTERS VOICE' 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC .... BROOKLYN 

Thirty-fifth season in Brooklyn 



Boston Symphony Qic 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 
PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, APRIL 6 

AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Tchaikovsky . . . Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetic, 

Op. 74 

I. Adagio; Allegro non troppo. 

II. Allegro con grazia. 

III. Allegro molto vivace. 

IV. Finale; Adagio lamentoso. 



Respighi Ballad of the Gnomides 

Schumann .... Concerto for Violoncello with Orchestral 

Accompaniment, in A minor, Op. 129 
Allegro non troppo — Andante — Molto vivace 

Wagner Overture to "Rienzi" 



SOLOIST 
PABLO CASALS 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 



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Symphony No. 0, in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74. 

Peter T< • i i a i k ovsk y 
(Born at Votkinsk, in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7. L840; died at 

Petrograd, November (>, l .sd:s. > 

This symphony was performed for the first time at Petrograd on 
October 28, L893. 

The morning after Modest found Peter at the tea-table with the 
score of the symphony in his hand. He regretted that, inasmuch as 
he had to send it that day to the publisher, he had not yet given it 
a title. He wished something more than "No. 6," and did not like 
^Programme Symphony." "What does Programme Symphony mean 
when I will give it no programme?" Modest suggested "Tragic," 
but Peter said that would not do. "I left the room before he had 
come to a decision. Suddenly I thought, 'Pathetic' I went back 
to the room, — I remember it as though it were yesterday, — and I 
said the word to Peter. 'Splendid, Modi, bravo, "Pathetic"!' and 
he wrote in my presence the title that will forever remain." 

Each hearer has his own thoughts when he is "reminded by the 
instruments." To some this symphony is as the life of man. The 
story is to them of man's illusions, desires, loves, struggles, vic- 
tories, and end. In the first movement they find with the despair of 
old age and the dread of death the recollection of early years with 
the transports and illusions of love, the remembrances of youth 
and all that is contained in that word. 

The second movement might bear as a motto the words of the 
Third Kalandar in the "Thousand Nights and a Night" : "And we 
sat down to drink, and some sang songs and others played the lute 
and psaltery and recorders and other instruments, and the bowl 
went merrily round. Hereupon such gladness possessed me that I 
forgot the sorrows of the world one and all, and said : 'This is indeed 
life. O sad that 'tis fleeting!' " The trio is as the sound of the clock 
that in Poe's wild tale compelled even the musicians of the orchestra 
to pause momentarily in their performance, to hearken to the sound ; 



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"and thus the waltzers perforce ceased their evolutions; and there 
was a brief disconcert of the whole gay company; and, while the 
chimes of the clock yet rang, it was observed that the giddiest grew 
pale, and the more aged and sedate passed their hands over their 
brows as if in confused revery or meditation." In this trio Death 
beats the drum. With Tchaikovsky, here, as in the "Manfred" sym- 
phony, the drum is the most tragic of instruments. The persistent 
drum-beat in this trio is poignant in despair not untouched with 
irony. Man says : "Come now, I'll be gay" ; and he tries to sing and 
to dance, and to forget. His very gayety is labored, forced, con- 
strained, in an unnatural rhythm. And then the drum is heard, 
and there is wailing, there is angry protest, there is the conviction 
that the struggle against Fate is vain. Again there is the deliberate 
effort to be gay, but the drum once heard beats in the ears forever. 

The third movement — the march-scherzo — is the excuse, the pre- 
text, for the final lamentation. The man triumphs, he knows all 
that there is in earthly fame. Success is hideous, as Victor Hugo 
said. The blare of trumpets, the shouts of the mob, may drown 
the sneers of envy ; but at Pompey passing Roman streets, at Tasso 
with the laurel wreath, at coronation of Tsar or inauguration of 
President, Death grins, for he knows the emptiness, the vulgarity, 
of what this world calls success. 

The symphony is scored for three flutes (the third of which is in- 
terchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three 
kettledrums, gong, and strings. 



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INC 



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^Ballade of the Gnomides" Ottorino Resphigi 

(Born at Bologna, July 9, 1879; living at Rome.) 

Thescoreof "Ballata delle Gnomidi" contains a "program" by Carlo 
Elausetti, which is printed also in French, German and English: — 

Dragging the raving gnome, the women go, abandoning their flimsy draperies to 

the wind. . . . 
The diminutive man gambols between those, his two brides, whom a single nuptial 

bed awaits. 
Oh! gnomides, let the race be brief, lest he weary fall when falls the Bear! 

No torch was lighted at the distorted nuptials, but without, hordes of gnomes were 

waiting, eager for the prey. 
And in the thick night a sharp cry resounded,, so painful as to rout the darkness. 

Then silence. The new dawn was breaking; the mad wives drew their vain 

boot)' from the alcove 
And fled with it, followed by the cunning throng of manlings thickly swarming 

about 
And muttering prayers worthy only of the anathemas to be heard, in blaspheming 

jargon, in the depths infernal. 
By a rough path, they reached a broad hill whose sharp ridge overlooked a sea of blue. 
In a twinkling the filthy husband was downward hurled and the rite thus ended. 

Now on the summit of the hill, after their sleepless night, the two women dance in 

the morning breeze. 
And, while the day is breaking, the tiny people join in the dance of the cruel widows. 
One shrieks, another mocks, still another bites or laughs aloud; a wild frenzy possesses 

them all, as at a witches' sabbath. 

The Ballade is scored for the following orchestra: Two piccolos, 





I 



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two flutes, two oboes, English horn, three clarinets, bass clarinet, two 
bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba, four kettledrums, triangle, side drum, bass drum and cymbals, 
gong, Glockenspiel, xylophone, two harps, strings. 

The work is freely constructed. Considerable use is made of the 
rhythmical figure which opens the work in the first violins (Allegro 
vivace, A major) and of the motive which is heard at the third measure 
in the muted trumpets. Eighteen pages of the score are devoted to 
development of this material. The next section opens with a cry from 
an E-flat clarinet, in its turn to be succeeded by a quieter section 
(Andante moderato) , whose material is drawn from the trumpet motive 
which began the work. Another division is a funeral march, the theme 
of which, beginning in the drums, is taken from the first measure of the 
piece. There are other sections, but their material has already been 
heard in one form or another. 



Concerto for Violoncello, with Orchestral Accompaniment, 
A minor, Op. 129 Robert Schumann 

(Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, July 29, 1856.) 

Clara Schumann wrote in her diary, November 16, 1850 : "Robert 
is now at work on something, I do not know what, for he has said 
nothing to me about it. The month before he composed a concerto 
for violoncello that pleased me very much. It appears to me to be 
written in true violoncello style." 

The unknown work was the Symphony in E-flat major. 

Mme. Schumann w T rote again about the concerto, October 11, 1851 : 
"I have played Robert's violoncello concerto again and thus pro- 
cured for myself a truly musical and happy hour. The romantic 
quality, the flight, the freshness and the humor, and also the highly 
interesting interweaving of violoncello and orchestra are, indeed, 
wholly ravishing, and what euphony and deep sentiment are in 
all the melodic passages!" 



You desire to become an artistic pianist but you dread the inter- 
minable practice of finger exercises, or possibly you have a 
child who, "Just loves music, but hates to practice." 

Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, Jr. has prepared a system of 
study in which the practice of exercises — essential to the 
development of modern technique — is reduced to a minimum. 

Mr. Freckelton will be glad to make an appointment for an 
interview with you at either of his studios, or will, upon request, 
be pleased to mail to you a booklet of interesting information. 

STUDIOS 

Carnegie Hall, 915 The Pouch Gallery 

7th AVENUE and 57th STREET 345 CLINTON AVENUE 
New York Brooklyn 

Telephone: Circle 2634 Telephone: Prospect 3115 



10 



list of Works performed at these Concerts during the 

;;, ; .u;oi. of :L!-v.?.-.u-)'.:'. 



Beethoven . . n Q „ 

Symphony No. 8 in I major, Op. 9d 
Song witf Orchestra, "In Questa lomba Oscura 
' Soloist Emma Calve 

Brahms . _ n ft n 

Symphony No. 4 in E minor. Op. 98 
Concerto in D major for \ iota and Orchestra, Op. 77 
Soloist, Georges Enesco 

"Espafia," Rhapsody for Full Orchestra 

DEBUS "prelude a l'Apres-midi d'un Faune" (Prelude to "The 
Afternoon of a Faun"), Eclogue by S. Mallarme 

Roumanian Rhapsody in A major, Op. 11, No. 1 

K Aria, "Divinites du Styx," from "Alceste" 

Soloist, Emma Calve 

Concerto in A minor, for Pianoforte, Op. 16 

Soloist, Olga Samaroff 

^•Wallenstein" Trilogv (after the Dramatic Poem of 
Schiller), Op. 12 

™a Mort de Tintagiles," Dramatic Poem after the Drama 
of Maurice Maeterlinck, for Orchestra and Viole 

d'Amour, Op. 6 

Viole d'Amour— Richard Burgin 

Mozart „ ,. _-. ,, 

\ria, "Deh Vieni," from "Le Nozze di Figaro 
Air, "Martern Aller Arten" from "Die Entfiihrung 
aus dem Serail" 

Soloist, Frieda Hempel 

Pergolesi-Stravinsky ut> , 

Suite No. 1, for Small Orchestra (from the Ballet Pul- 
cinella") 

Respighi 

Ballad of the Gnomides 

W p TT JT T5 IT T? T 1 

Symphony in B minor ("Unfinished") 

SCHUMAXX ', . . 

Concerto for Violoncello with Orchestral Accompani- 
ment, in A minor, Op. 129 

Soloist, Pablo Casals 

"5METANA , , , ,,. r u-MTA 

Symphonic Poem, "Vltava" ("The Moldau"), from Ma 
Vlast" ("My Country"), No. 2 

Strauss 

Tone Poem, "Thus Spake Zarathustra" (freely after Fried- 
rich Nietzsche), Op. 30 
"Till Eulenspiegel's Merrv Pranks, after the Old-fashioned, 
Roguish Manner, in Rondo Form," for Full Orches- 
tra, Op. 28 
Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

Siegfried's Ascent to Brunnhilde's Rock ("Siegfried"); 

Morning Dawn, Siegfried's Rhine Journey and 

Close of "Dusk of the Gods" 

Overture to "Rienzi" 

11 



III. February 2 
IV. March 16 



I. December 1 
III. February 2 



II. January 5 

I. December 1 
IV. March 16 
IV. March 16 

II. January 5 
II. January 5 
IV. March 16 

I. December 1 

II. January 5 

V. April 6 

IV. March 16 

V. April 6 

III. February 2 

I. December 1 

IV. March 16 
V. April 6 



III. February 2 
V. April 6 



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OPERA HOUSE ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



1923-1924 



Forty-third Season 



FIVE CONCERTS BY THE 



B 



% 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



ON FRIDAY EVENINGS 

November 30 January 4 February 1 

March 14 April 4 



DIETING 



Address all communications regarding season tickets for these concerts to 
2. D. Atkins, Institute of Arts and Sciences, Academy of Music, Brook - 
yn, New York. 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager, 

Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 

13 



The concerto was sketched at Diisseldorf between the 10th and 
16th of October, 1850; the instrumentation was completed October 
24 of the same year; the concerto was published at Leipsic in 
August, 1854. 

The first performance was probably the one in the hall of the 
Royal Conservatory, Leipsic, June 9, 1860, at an evening concert 
in commemoration of the fiftieth birthday of the composer. The 
solo violoncellist was Ludwig Ebert,* ducal chamber virtuoso at 
Oldenburg. 

Schumann wrote Dr. Hartel on November 1, 1852, that the con- 
certo was ready for publication. He had introduced the work in 
the sketch of a programme for the tenth subscription concert to 
be given at Dusseldorf, May 20, 1852. He was busied in correcting 
proofs of the concerto in February, 1854. 

The concerto was announced for a Gewandhaus subscription con- 
cert at Leipsic, December 18, 1862, and it excited doubt at the 
rehearsal. It was not performed, and Franz Neruda, the violon- 
cellist, substituted a concertino by Servais. David Popper and 
Bernhard Cossmann were among the first to make Schumann's con- 
certo familiar: the former at Breslau, December 10, 1867, and 
Lowenberg, December 15, 1867; the latter at Moscow, December 
14, 1867. 

The first movement, Mcht zu schnell (not too fast), A minor, 4-4, 
opens with four measures of sustained harmony in the wood-wind 
instruments with chords, pizzicato for the strings. The first theme 
is then given to the solo violoncello with accompaniment of strings, 
and it is developed. The full orchestra plays the first subsidiary 
theme forte. The violoncello has the second theme, C major, and 
then has brilliant passage-work which leads into the free fantasia. 

*Ebert was born April 13, 1834, at Kladrau, Bohemia, and he studied at the 
Conservatory in Prague. He was first violoncellist at Oldenburg from 1854 to 1874, 
and afterwards teacher at the Cologne Conservatory until 1888. With Heubner he 
founded the Coblenz Conservatory of Music. He was a member of the Heckmann 
Quartet, 1875-78. He composed pieces for his instrument. 



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The third part of the movement begins in an orthodox manner 
with the return of the first theme. The second theme returns in A 
major. A short orchestral coda leads to a recitative for the solo 
violoncello, and the second movement is thus connected. 

The second movement, Langsam (slow), F major, ^-4, is a romanza 
for the solo instrument. There is one song theme, accompanied by 
the strings, with here and there a note for wood-wind instruments. 
Phrases of recitative lead to the next movement. 

The third movement, Sehr lebhaft (very lively), A minor, 2-4, 
opens with passages between the solo violoncello and the orchestra. 
After a tutti, the first theme, which begins in C major and then 
goes into A minor, is given to the solo instrument. Passage-work 
leads to the appearance of the second theme (solo violoncello), and 
figures from the first theme are introduced in the accompaniment. 
There is more passage-work, and the first theme returns as an 
orchestral tutti. There is a short free fantasia which leads to 
the return of the first theme at the beginning of the third part of 
the movement. There is a coda with passage-work for the solo 
violoncello. 

The concerto is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings, and solo 
violoncello. 



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Overture to the Opera "Rienzi, the Last of the Tribunes'-' 

Richard Wagner 
(Bom at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

Wagner left Konigsberg in the early summer of 1837 to visit Dresden, 
and there he read Barmann's translation into German of Bulwer's 
c 'Rienzi. n * And thus was revived his long-cherished idea of making 
the last of the Tribunes the hero of a grand opera. "My impatience 
of a degrading plight now amounted to a passionate craving to begin 
something grand and elevating, no matter if it involved the temporary- 
abandonment of any practical goal. This mood was fed and strength- 
ened by a reading of Bulwer's 'Rienzi.' From the misery of modern 
private life, whence I could nohow glean the scantiest material for 
artistic treatment, I was wafted by the image of a great historico- 
political event, in the enjoyment whereof I needs must find a distrac- 
tion lifting me above cares and conditions that to me appeared noth- 
ing less than absolutely fatal to art." During this visit he was much 
impressed by a performance of Halevy's "Jewess" at the Court The- 
atre, and a warrior's dance in Spohr's "Jessonda" was cited by him 
afterward as a model for the military dances in "Rienzi." 

Wagner wrote the text of "Rienzi" at Riga in July, 1838. He began 
to compose the music late in July of the same year. He looked toward 
Paris as the city for the production. "Perhaps it may please Scribe," 
he wrote to Lewald, "and Rienzi could sing French in a jiffy; or it 
might be a means of prodding up the Berliners, if one told them that 
the Paris stage was ready to accept it, but they were welcome to pre- 
cedence." He himself worked on a translation into French. In May, 
1839, he completed the music of the second act, but the rest of the music 
was written in Paris. The third act was completed August 11, 1840; 
the orchestration of the fourth was begun August 14, 1840; the score 
of the opera was completed November 19, 1840. 

The overture to "Rienzi" was completed October 23, 1840. 

The opera was produced at the Royal Saxon Court Theatre,Dresden, 
October 20, 1842. 

The first performance of the opera in America was at the Academy 
of Music, New York, March 4, 1878. 

The overture is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two valve horns, two plain horns, serpent, two valve 
trumpets, two plain trumpets, three trombones, ophicleide, kettle- 
drums, two snare drums, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, and strings. 
The serpent mentioned in the score is replaced by the double-bassoon, 
and the ophicleide by the bass tuba. 

* Bulwer's novel was published at London in three volumes in 1835. 






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INC. 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEASON 1922-1923 
THURSDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 19, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

GALEN L. STONE Vice-President 

ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 
PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



ihestra 



PKHSONNiEL 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master. 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Gundersen, R. 
tassman, X. 

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Werner, H. Grover, H. 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 19 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Dvorak Symphony in F major, No. 3, Op. 76 

I. Allegro ma non troppo. 

II. Andante con moto. 

III. Andante; Allegro scherzando. 

IV. Finale : Allegro molto. 



Rabaud . "The Nocturnal Procession," Symphonic Poem (after Lenau) 

Gluck . . . Song of the Naiad, Act II, Scene 4, of "Armide" 

Berlioz . . . Songs with Orchestra, from "Une Nuit d'Ete" 

(Theophile Gautier) 

a. Absence. 

b. Villanelle. 

Wagner . . . Prelude to "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg' ' 



SOLOIST 
MADELEINE D'ESPINOY GOLONNE 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

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Symphony No. 3, F major, Op. 76 Anton Dvorak 

(Born on September 8, 1841, at Muhlhausen, near Kralup, Bohemia; died at Prague 

on May 1, 1904.) 

This symphony was composed in 1875. It originally bore the opus 
number 24, but at the request of Simrock the publisher Dvorak changed 
it to 76. 

Dvorak's name first became known by his Slavonic dances, Brahms, 
having called the attention of Simrock to them and to the talent of 
the composer. Simrock, was for a time unwilling to bring out any impor- 
tant orchestral or chamber work of Dvorak's, who insisted on the 
worth of some that were in manuscript and had not been performed. 
He said in his letter to Simrock (May 29, 1887) t "Hans Richter writes 
me from London: 'Your Symphonic Variations have had a great suc- 
cess, and in hundreds of concerts that I have directed in my life I have 
never had so great a success as with this.' I have still some more of 
such older works. I will enumerate them: F major symphony, Opus 
24, year 1875; Symphonic Variations, Opus 27, 1877; quartet for strings, 
Opus 18, 1871; string quartet in E major, 1875; quartet, A minor, 
Opus 16; and besides these, three symphonies, B-flat, E-flat, and 
D-minor, and still other things." 

Simrock answered that Dvorak could prepare the symphony in 
F major for the engraver. In November Dvorak wrote: "Hans von 
Btilow has accepted the dedication and has written me a letter that 
you should read! It is heavenly! Manns, of the Crystal Palace, has 
taken the new symphony, of which something had been told him by 
Ondricek. As at the last minute I am being plagued in England for a 
novelty, you must be so good as to give Manns alone the first per- 
formance of the F major symphony. He must be the first to make it." 

When the symphony was produced and published, the sale did not 
come up to Simrock's expectations. We quote Mr. Borowski, the 
excellent editor of the Chicago Symphony Programme Books: "The 
publisher who was not accustomed to give to Dvorak anything but the 
truth — especially if the truth was unflattering and likely to make the 
composer's future demands more modest than usual — sent him a tart 
letter, in which he caused it to be clear that he was displeased. The 
Bohemian master answered (December 23, 1888) rather pathetically, 
'My F major symphony has pleased very much in Kiel, Meiningen, 
Mannheim, and Budapest, and cannot therefore be so very bad.' " 

The first performance of this symphony was at the Crystal Palace, 
London, on April 7, 1888. The conductor was August Manns. The 
programme was as follows: Weber's overture to "Oberon"; Spohr's 
seventh concerto for violin (Hans Wessely); Elsa's Dream from 
"Lohengrin" (Mme. Valleria); the F major symphony by Dvorak; 

7 



two songs — "Winterlied," by Mendelssohn and Schumann's "Wid- 
mung" (Mme. Valleria); Wieniawski's fantasie on Gounod's "Faust" 
(Hans Wessely), and the overture to Wagner's "Tannhauser." 

Dvorak's symphonies when published were not numbered as they 
were composed. He had two symphonies completed as early as 1864 — 
B-flat major and E minor. A symphony in E-flat major and the Scherzo 
of one in D minor were performed in Bohemia in 1874. 



* 



The symphony in F major is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two 
clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, 
kettledrums, and strings. 

I. Allegro ma non troppo, F major, 2-4. The chief theme is an- 
nounced at once by the clarinet; then repeated an octave higher by the 
wood- wind. There is a new idea for full orchestra. The second chief 
theme, D major, is for strings. A triplet figure introduced by strings 
is used later to a considerable degree. The coda is built on the first 
theme. 

II. Andante con moto, A minor, 3-8. The opening motive is for 
the violoncellos, accompanied by violas and double-basses (pizzicato). 
This theme is taken up by the first violins; later by the wood- wind. 
There is a second motive, Un pochettino piu mosso, A major (wood- 
wind) . 

III. Andante, B-flat major, 3-8: Allegro scherzando. The opening 
measures serve as an introduction. The material for violoncellos is 
derived from the first notes of the preceding movement. The chief 
theme of the Scherzo is for flutes and clarinets. The Trio, D-flat major, 
has a theme alternately for wood-wind and strings. 

IV. Finale: Allegro molto, F major, 4-4. It opens with a subject 
for violoncellos and double-basses, which is preparatory to the chief 
theme for full orchestra. The second theme is for clarinet. The triplet 
figure of the first movement is heard (violas). The second motive is 
for the oboe. 



"La Procession Nocturne": Symphonic Poem (after Lenau), 
Op. 6 Henri Rabaud 

(Born in Paris, November 10, 1873; now living there.) 

"La Procession Nocturne" was performed for the first time at a Con- 
cert Colonne, Paris, January 15, 1899. 

There was a performance of this work by the Cincinnati Symphony 
Orchestra, Cincinnati, on November 30, 1900. Mr. Van der Stucken 
conducted. 



The first performance in Boston was by the Orchestral Club, Mr. 
Longy conductor, January 7, 1903. Mr. Chadwick conducted a per- 
formance at a concert of the New England Conservatory Orchestra, 
November 19, 1909. The first performance in Boston at a Boston Sym- 
phony concert was on December 27, 1918, conducted by Mr. Rabaud, 
the conductor of the season 1918-19. 

The programme book of the Cincinnati Orchestra contained this 
translation of Lenau's* poem: 

"From a lowering sky the heavy and sombre clouds seem to hang so close to 
the tops of the forest that they seem to be looking into its very depths. The night 
is muiky, but the restless breath of Spring whispers through the wood, a warm and 
living murmur. Faust is doomed to travel through its obscurity. His gloomy 
despair renders him insensible to the marvellous emotions which are called forth by 
the voices of Spring. He allows his black horse to follow him at his will, and as he 
passes along the road which winds through the forest he is unconscious of the fra- 
grant balm with which the air is laden. The further he follows the path into the 
forest the more profound is the stillness. 

"What is that peculiar light that illumines the forest in the distance, casting its 
glow upon both sky and foliage? Whence come these musical sounds of hymns 
which seem to be created to assuage earthly sorrow? Faust stops his horse and ex- 
pects that the glow will become invisible and the sounds inaudible, as the illusions 
of a dream. Not so, however; a solemn procession is passing near, and a multitude 
of children, carrying torches, advance, two by two. It is the night of St. John's 
Eve. Following the children there come, hidden by monastic veils, a host of virgins, 
bearing crowns in their hands. Behind them march in ranks, clad in sombre gar- 
ments, those grown old in the service of religion, each bearing a cross upon the 
shoulder. Their heads are bare, their beards are white with the silvery frost of 
Eternity. Listen how the shrill treble of the children's voices, indicative of the 
Spring of Life, intermingles with the profound presentiment of approaching wrath 
in the voices of the aged. 

"From his leafy retreat, whence he sees the passing of the faithful, Faust bitterly 
snvies them their happiness. As the last echo of the song dies away in the distance 
and the last glimmer of the torches disappears, the forest again becomes alight with 
the magic glow which kisses and trembles upon the leaves. Faust, left alone among 
:he shadows, seizes his faithful horse, and, hiding his face in its soft mane, sheds 
",he most bitter and burning tears of his life." 

Mr. Rabaud's symphonic poem is scored for three flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpet's, three trom- 
bones, bass tuba, kettledrums, bass drum (with kettledrum stick), 
harp, and strings. 

The composition is dedicated to Edouard Colonne. 

Liszt wrote "Two Episodes in Lenau's 'Faust': 'Der Nachtliche 
Zug' and 'Der Tanz in der Dorfschenke.' " The latter is familiar 
here as "Mephisto's Waltz." The former, composed 1858-60 at 

* Nicolaus Lenau, whose true name was Nicolaus Neimbsch von Strehlenau, was born at Cstatad, 
Hungary, August 13, 1802. He studied law and medicine at Vienna, but practised neither. In 1832 
he visited the United States and did not like the people. In October, 1844, he went mad. His love 
for Sophie von Loewenthal had much to do with the wretched mental condition of his later years. He 
died at Oberdoebling, near Vienna, August 22, 1850. He himself called "Don Juan," which suggested 
Richard Strauss's tone poem of that name, his strongest work. His "Faust" was left incomplete. 

9 



Weimar, was completed in January, 1861. The date of the first per- 
formance has not yet been determined. Pohl's statement that the 
two Episodes were performed at Weimar, April 8, 1860, is not correct. 
The Court concert was in 1861, not 1860, and only the second Episode 
was played. 



Air of the Naiad, from "Armide," Act II., Scene 4 

Christoph Willibald Gluck 

(Born at Weidenwang, near Berching, in upper Palatinate, July 2, 1714; died at 

Vienna, November 15, 1787.) 

On s'etonnerait moins que le saison nouvelle 
Revinirait sans aimer les fleurs et les zephyrs, 
Que de voir de nos ans la saison la plus belle 
Sans 1' amour et sans les plaisirs. 

Laissons au tendre amour la jeunesse en partage, 
La sagesse a son temps, il ne vient que trop tot. 
Ce n'est pas etre sage 
D'etre plus sage qu'il ne faut. 



Should the Spring return and find us 
Caring not for all its treasures, 
Would it less surprise and pain us, 
Than a youth devoid of pleasures? 

Love to youth — our dedication, 
Youth and love, and knowledge after. 
Not to great degree of goodness — 
Youth and love, and flowers and laughter. 

—E.R. 

Andante, 3-4. The original key is G major, and the accompaniment 
is scored for string quartet. 

"Armide," tragedy in five acts, libretto by Quinault, music by Gluck, 
was produced at the Opera, Paris, on September 23, 1777. Armide, 
Mile. Le Vasseur; Phenice, Mile. Le Bourgeois; Sidonie, Mile. Chateau- 
neuf; La Haine, Mile. Durancy; Renaud, Legros; Hidraot, Gelin; Le 
Chevalier Danois, Laine; Ubalde, L'Arrivee; Un demon and un plaisir, 
Mile. Saint-Huberti (debuts). 

The opera was produced at the Metropolitan Opera House on Novem- 
ber 14, 1910. Mmes. Fremstad, Homer, Sparkes, Marbourg, Gluck, 
Rappold (the Naiad); Messrs. Caruso, Amato, Gilly, de Segurola, 
Bada, Reiss. Mr. Toscanini conducted. 



10 



Two Songs with Orchestra: "Absence" and Villanelle, "Summer 
Nights," Op. 7, Nos. 4 and 1 Hector Berlioz 

"L'Absence" 

{Theophile Gautier) 

PReviens, reviens, ma bien-aimee! 
Comme une fleur loin du soleil, 
La fleur de ma vie est formee 
Loin de ton sourire vermeil. 

Entre nos cceurs quelle distance! 
Tant d'espace entre nos baisers! 

tO sort amer! o dure absence! 
O grands desirs inapaises! 
D'ici la-bas que de campagnes, 
Que de villes et de hameaux, 
Que de vallons et de montagnes, 
A lasser le pied des chevaux! 

Mr. George Harris, Jr., translated for concert use the first and last 
verses as follows: — 

Come back, come back, my only one, 

Across the distance, mile on mile; 
My spirit fades, far from the sun, 

Far from the perfume of your smile. 

What distance over hill and vale 

To weary out my steed's brave fires ! 
O bitter, absence ! fateful wail, 

Far from the goal of my desires! 

Villanelle 

(Theophile Gautier) 

Quand viendra la saison nouvelle, 

Quand auront disparu les froids, 
Tous les deux nous irons, ma belle 

Pour cueillir le muguet aux bois. 

Sous nos pieds egrenant les perles 

Que Ton voix au matin trembler, 
Nous irons ecouter les merles, 

Nous irons ecouter les merles sifHer. 

Le printemps est venu, ma belle, 

C'est le mois des amants beni; 
Et Foiseau, satinant son aile, 

Dit des vers au rebord du nid. 

Oh! Viens done sur ce banc de mousse 

Pour parler de nos beaux amours, 
Et dis-moi de ta voix si douce, 

Et dis-moi de ta voix si douce: Tou jours. 

Loin, bien loin egarant nos courses, 

Faisons fuir le lapin cache 
Et le daim, au miroir des sources 

Admirant son grand bois penche; 

n 



Puis chez nous, tout heureux, tout aises, 

En paniers enlacant nos doigts, 
Revenons, rapportant des fraises, 

Revenons, rapportant des fraises des bois. 

VlLLANELLE 

{Translation by Isabella G. Parker)* 

When shall come Spring's delightful weather, 

When bleak winter has passed away, 
Then, my love, we will go together, 

Gath'ring lilies in woodland gay. 

Pearls of dew from our footsteps flinging, 

Trembling bright in the morning ray, 
Then will we hear the blackbirds singing, 

Then will we hear the blackbirds singing, all day! 

Spring is come, O my love, so brightly; 

'Tis the month for all lovers blest: 
Birdling, poised on his wing so lightly, 

Singeth songs by his downy nest. 

Oh, come. On mossy bank reposing, 

We will talk of our love to-day, 
Thy gentle voice thy love disclosing, 

Thy gentle voice thy love disclosing alway. 

Far away through the wood we'll wander, 

Fright the hare, hiding as we pass, 
Where the deer sees his antlers yonder 

Mirrored fair in the spring's clear glass; 

Then alone in our sylvan pleasures, 

Fingers twining, the while we roam, 
We'll from the wood its fruity treasures, 

We'll from the wood its fruity treasures bring home. 

These songs, for mezzo-soprano or tenor, dedicated to Mile. Louise 
Bertin, were composed from 1837 to 1841, according to Boschot. (Others 
give the date 1834 to "Villanelle.") They were published with piano- 
forte accompaniment in 1841, with orchestral accompaniments, and 
revised in 1856. 

" Absence," with orchestra, was sung for the first time in Paris by 
the tenor Duprez on November 19, 1843. The accompaniment had 
been orchestrated at Dresden in February of that year for Marie Recio 
who then was travelling as a singer with Berlioz. 

The orchestration of these melodies was an easy task, "for the piano- 
forte accompaniments already seemed like a transcription of orchestral 



scores." 



*By permission of Oliver Ditson Company. 



12 



Prelude to "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg" 

Richard Wagner 

(Bom at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The Prelude to "Die Meistersinger von NurnTberg" was performed 
for the first time at Leipsic, November 1, 18G2. At a concert organ- 
ized by Wendelin Weissheimer, opera conductor at Wtirzburg and 
Mayence, and composer, for the production of certain works, Wagner 
conducted this Prelude and the overture to "Tannhauser." The hall 
was nearly empty, but the Prelude was received with so much favor 
that it was immediately played a second time. The opera was first 
performed at Munich, June 21, 1868.* 

This Prelude is in reality a broadly developed overture in the 
classic form. It may be divided into four distinct parts, which are 
closely knit together. 

1. An initial period, moderato, in the form of a march built on 
four chief themes, combined in various ways. The tonality of C 
major is well maintained. 

2. A second period, in E major, of lyrical character, fully de- 
veloped, and in a way the centre of the composition. 

3. An intermediate episode after the fashion of a scherzo, devel- 
oped from the initial theme, treated in diminution and in fugued 
style. 

4. A revival of the lyric theme, combined this time simultaneously 
with the two chief themes of the first period, which leads to a coda 
wherein the initial phrase is introduced in the manner of a stretto. 

The opening energetic march theme serves throughout the work 

* The chief singers at this first performance at the Royal Court Theatre, Munich, 
were Betz, Hans Sachs ; Bausewein, Pogner ; Holzel, Beckmesser ; Schlosser, David ; 
Nachbaur, Walther von Stolzing ; Miss Mallinger, Eva ; Mme. Diez, Magdalene. The 
first performance in the United States was at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, 
January 4, 1886 : Emil Fischer, Sachs ; Joseph Staudigl, Pogner ; Otto Kemlitz, Beck- 
messer ; Kramer, David ; Albert Stritt, Walther von Stolzing ; Auguste Krauss (Mrs. 
Anton Seidl), Eva; Marianne Brandt, Magdalene. The first performance in Boston was 
at the Boston Theatre, April 8, 1889, with Fischer, Sachs ; Beck, Pogner ; Modlinger, 
Beckmesser ; Sedlmayer, David ; Alvary, Walther von Stolzing ; Kaschoska, Eva ; Reil, 
Magdalene. Singers from the Orpheus Club of Boston assisted in the choruses of the 
third act. Anton Seidl conducted. 





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13 



to characterize the mastersingers. Secondary figures are formed 
from disintegrated portions of this theme. 

The exposition of the initial theme, with the first development, 
leads to a second theme. It is essentially lyrical ; given at first to 
the flute, it hints at the growing love of Walther for Eva. Oboe, 
clarinet, and horn are associated with the flute, and alternate with 
it in the development. 

A flourish of violins leads to a third theme, intoned by the brass, 
sustained by harp. This theme seems to have been borrowed by 
Wagner from the "Crowned Tone" of Heinrich Mugling. This 
pompous theme may be called the fanfare of the corporation, the 
theme of the guild, or the theme of the banner, the emblem of the 
corporation. It is soon combined with the theme of the master- 
singers, and at the conclusion the whole orchestra is used. 

A short and nervous episode of eight measures introduces a series 
of modulations, which lead to a broadly extended melody, — the 
theme that characterizes in general the love of Walther and Eva. 
Here begins the second part of the overture. The love theme after 
development is combined with a more passionate figure, which is 
used in the opera in many ways, — as when Sachs sings of the spring ; 
as when it is used as an expression of Walther's ardor in the accom- 
paniment to his trial song in the first act. 

The tonality of the first period is C major, that of the love music 
is E major. Now there is an allegretto. "The oboe, in staccato 
notes, traces in double diminution the theme of the initial march; 
while the clarinet and the bassoon supply ironical counterpoint. 
The theme of youthful ardor enters in contention; but irony 
triumphs, and there is a parody (in E-flat) of the solemn March of 
the Mastersingers, with a new subject in counterpoint in the basses. 
The counter-theme in the violoncellos is the theme which goes from 
mouth to mouth in the crowd when Beckmesser appears and begins 
his Prize Song, — 'What? He? Does he dare? Scheint mir nicht 
der RechtelF 'He's not the fellow to do it.' And this mocking 
theme has importance in the overture; for it changes position with 
the subject, and takes in turn the lead." 

After a return to the short episode there is a thunderous explo- 
sion. The theme of the mastersingers is sounded by the brass with 
hurried violin figures, at first alone, then combined simultaneously 
with the love theme, and with the fanfare of the corporation played 
scherzando by the second violins, violas, and a portion of the wood- 
wind. This is the culmination of the overture. The melodious 
phrase is developed broadly. It is now and then traversed by the 
ironical theme of the flouted Beckmesser, while the basses give a mar- 



14 



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tial rhythm until again breaks forth from the brass the theme of the 
corporation. The fanfare leads to a last and sonorous affirmation 
of the Mastersinger theme, which serves at last as a song of 

apotheosis. 

* 
» • 

The idea of the opera occurred to Wagner at Marienbad in 1845. 
The scenario then sketched differed widely from the one adopted. 
The libretto was completed at Paris in 1861. Wagner worked at 
Biebrich in 1862 on the music. The Prelude was sketched in Feb- 
ruary of that year; the instrumentation was completed in the fol- 
lowing June. 

The score and orchestral parts were published in February, 1866. 

The first performance of the Prelude in Boston was by Theodore 
Thomas's orchestra on December 4, 1871. 

The Prelude is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clari- 
nets, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba, kettledrums, triangle, cymbals, harp, and the usual 
strings. 



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SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

NAHAN FRANKO, Conductor 

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SEASON 1922-1923 
THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 16, at 8.00 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
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COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 







Violins. 




Burgin. R. Hoffmann, J. 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 


Gundersen, R. 
Kassman, N. 


Pinfield, C. 
Barozzi, S. 


Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 


Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 


Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 


Gorodetzky, L 
Goldstein, S. 


Kurth, R. 
Bryant, M. 


Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C 


Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 


Riedlinger, H. 
Tapley, R. 


Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 

Violas. 


Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 


Fourel, G. 
Artieres, L. 


Werner, H. Grover, H. 
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Mullaly, J. 




Gerhardt, S. 
Deane, C. 


Kluge, M. 
Zahn, F. 






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Bedetti, J. 
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Keller.. J. Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
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Basses. 




Kunze, M. 
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Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


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Longy, G. 
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Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horns. 


Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


Battles, A. 


Mueller, F. 
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Horns. 


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Wendler, G. 
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3 


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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 16 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Brahms . .... Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 
I. Allegro non troppo. 
II. Andante moderate 

III. Allegro giocoso. 

IV. Allegro energico e passionato. 



Bruch . . . Concerto for Violin, No. 1 in G minor, Op. 26 

I. Prelude. Allegro moderato. 
II. Adagio. 
III. Allegro energico. 

Liszt Symphonic Poem No. 3, "Les Preludes" 

(after Lamartine) 



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CARMELA IPPOLITO 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

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Symphony in E minor, Op. 98 . . - Johannes Brahms 

(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.) 

This symphony was first performed at Meiningen, October 25, 
1885, under the direction of the composer. 

Simrock, the publisher, is said to have paid Brahms forty thousand 
marks for the work. It was played at a public rehearsal of the Sym- 
phony Orchestra in Boston, November 26, 1886. Although Mr. 
Gericke "did not stop the orchestra," — to quote from a review of the 
concert the next da}^, — he was not satisfied with the performance. 
Schumann's Symphony in B-flat was substituted for the concert of 
November 27; there were further rehearsals. The work was played 
for the first time at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on 
December 23, 1886. 

The first performance in the United States was by the Symphony 
Society, New York, December 11, 1886. 

This symphony was composed in the summers of 1884 and 1885 at 
Murzzuschlag in Styria. The Allegro and Andante were composed 
during the first summer, the Scherzo and Finale during the last. Miss 
Florence May, in her Life of Brahms, tells us that the manuscript 
was nearly destroyed in 1885: "Returning one afternoon from a walk, 
he [Brahms] found that the house in which he lodged had caught fire, 
and that his friends were busily engaged in bringing his papers, and 
amongst them the nearly finished manuscript of the new symphony, 
into the garden. He immediately set to work to help in getting the 
fire under, whilst Frau Fellinger sat out of doors with either arm out- 
spread on the precious papers piled on each side of her." A scene 
for the "historical painter"! We quote the report of this incident, 
not on account of its intrinsic value, but to show in what manner Miss 
May was able to write two volumes, containing six hundred and twenty- 
five octavo pages, about the quiet life of the composer. But what is 
Miss May in comparison with Max Kalbeck, whose Life of Brahms 
contains 2,138 pages? 

In a letter, Brahms described this symphony as "a couple of 
entr'actes," also as "a choral work without text." Franz Wullner, then 
conductor of the Giirzenich concerts at Cologne, asked that he might 
produce this new symphony. Brahms answered that first performances 
and the wholly modern chase after novelties did not interest him. He 
was vexed because Wullner had performed a symphony by Bruckner; 
he acted in a childish manner. Wullner answered that he thought it 
his duty to produce new works; that a symphony by Bruckner was 
certainly more interesting than one by Gernsheim, Cowen, or 
Scharwenka. 

Brahms was doubtful about the value of his fourth symphony. He 



wished to know the opinion of Elisabet von Herzogenberg and Clara 
Schumann. He and Ignaz Brtill played a pianoforte arrangement in 
the presence of Hanslick, Dr. Billroth, Hans Richter, C. F. Pohl, Gustav 
Dompke, and Max Kalbeck. He judged from their attitude that they 
did not like it, and he was much depressed. "If persons like Billroth, 
Hanslick, and you do not like my music, whom will it please?" he said 
to Kalbeck. 

There was a preliminary rehearsal at Meiningen in October, 1885, 
for correction of the parts.* Bulow conducted it. There were pres- 
ent the Landgraf of Hesse, Richard Strauss, then second conductor 
of the Meiningen orchestra, and Frederick Lamond, the pianist. 
Brahms arrived in time for the first performance. The symphony 
was most warmly applauded, and the audience endeavored, but in 
vain, to obtain a repetition of the third movement. The work was 
repeated November 1 under Billow's direction, and was conducted 
by the composer in the course of a three weeks' tour with the orchestra 
and Billow in Germany and in Netherlands. The first performance 
in Vienna was at a Philharmonic concert, led by Richter, January 17, 
1886. "Though the symphony was applauded by the public and 
praised by all but the inveterately hostile section of the press, it did 
not reach the hearts of the Vienna audience in the same unmistakable 
manner as its two immediate predecessors, both of which had made a 
more striking impression on a first hearing in Austria than the first 
symphony in C minor. Strangely enough, the fourth symphony ^at 
once obtained some measure of real appreciation in Leipsic, where the 
first had been far more successful than the second and third." This 
statement is too friendly towards Brahms. As a matter of fact, the 
symphony disappointed Brahms's friends. Hugo Wolf wrote a bitter 
review in which he made all manner of fun at the fact, trumpeted by 
Brahms's admirers, that at last there was a symphony in E minor. 
(See "Hugo Wolf's Musikalische Kritiken," Leipsic, 1911, pp. 241-244.) 
It was performed under the composer's direction at the Gewandhaus 
concert in Leipsic of February 18, 1886. 

This symphony was performed at a Philharmonic concert in Vienna 
on March 7, 1897, the last Philharmonic concert heard by Brahms. 
We quote from Miss May's biography: "The fourth symphony had 
never become a favorite work in Vienna. Received with reserve 
on its first performance, it had not since gained much more from the 
general public of the city than the respect sure to be accorded there 
to an important work by Brahms. To-day [sic], however, a storm of 
applause broke out at the end of the first movement, not to be quieted 
until the composer, coming to the front of the artist's box in which he 

♦Brahms wished that Elisabet could be present at this rehearsal: "You would be able to listen to 
the first movement with the utmost serenity, I am sure. But I hate to think of doing it, anywhere else, 
where I could not have these informal, special rehearsals, but hurried ones instead, with the performance 
forced on me before the orchestra had a notion of the piece." 

8 



was seated, showed himself to the audience. The demonstration was 
renewed after the second and the third movements, and an extraordinary 
scene followed the conclusion of the work. The applauding, shouting 
house, its gaze riveted on the figure standing in the balcony, so familiar 
and yet in present aspect so strange, seemed unable to let him go. Tears 
ran down his cheeks as he stood there, shrunken in form, with lined 
countenance, strained expression, white hair hanging lank; and through 
the audience there was a feeling as of a stifled sob, for each knew that 
they were saying farewell. Another outburst of applause and yet an- 
other; one more acknowledgment from the master; and Brahms and 
his Vienna had parted forever."* 

In the summers of 1884 and 1885 the tragedies of Sophocles, trans- 
lated into German by Gustav Wendt, were read diligently by Brahms. 
It is thought that they influenced him in the composition of this sym- 
phonjr. Mr. Kalbeck thinks that the whole symphony pictures the 
tragedy of human life. He sees in the Andante a waste and ruined 
field, as the Campagna near Rome; he notes the appearance of a passage 
from Brahms's song "Auf dem Kirchhofe" with the words 'Teh war an 
manch vergess'nem Grab gewesen"; to him the Scherzo is the Carnival 
at Milan. While Speidel saw in the Finale the burial of a soldier, Kal- 
beck is reminded by the music of the passage in Sophocles's "(Edipus 
Coloneus": "Not to have been born at all is superior to every view of 
the question; and this when one may have seen the light, to return 
thence whence he came as quickly as possible, is far the next best." 

The symphony was published in 1886. It is scored for two flutes 
(one interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, one double-bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, three trom- 
bones, a set of three kettledrums, triangle, and strings. 



* 



Brahms warned Billow against the acerbity of this symphony. "I 
have often, while writing, had a pleasing vision of rehearsing it with 
you in a nice leisurely way — a vision that I still have, although I wonder 
if it will ever have any other audience! I rather fear it has been in- 
fluenced by this climate, where the cherries never ripen. You would 
never touch them." 

The tonality of this symphony has occasioned remark. Dr. Hugo 
Riemann suggests that Brahms chose the key of E minor, on account 
of its pale, wan character, to express the deepest melancholy. "E 
minor is the tonality of the fall of the year : it reminds one of the perish- 
ableness of all green and blooming things, which the two sister tonali- 
ties, G major and E major, are capable of expressing so truthfully to 

*Brahms attended the production of Johann Strauss's operetta, "Die Gottin der Vernunft," March 
13, but was obliged to leave after the second act, and he attended a rehearsal of the Raeger-Soldat 
Quartet less than a fortnight before hia death. — Ed. 

9 



life." Composers of symphonies have, as a rule, avoided E minor as 
the chief tonality. There is a symphony by Haydn, the "Trauer- 
symphonie" (composed in 1772), and, in marked contrast with Rie- 
mann's view, Raff's ninth symphony, "In Summer" (composed in 1878), 
is in E minor. One of Bach's greatest organ preludes and fugues, Beet- 
hoven's Sonata, Op. 90, and one of the quartets of his p. 59 are in this 
tonality, which has been described as dull in color, shadowy, suggestive 
of solitude and desolation. Huber's "Bocklin" symphony is in E minor; 
so is Rachmaninoff's Second Symphony. Chopin's Concerto in E 
minor for piano is surely not a long, desolate waste. Riemann reminds 
us that there are hints in this symphony of music by Handel — "Brahms's 
favorite composer" — not only in the tonality, but in moments of detail, 
as in the aria, "Behold and see," from "The Messiah," the structure 
of which contains as in a nutshell the substance of the first movement; 
also the dotted rhythm of the violoncellos in the aria, "I know that 
my Redeemer liveth," which, as will be remembered, is in E major. 

Heinrich Reimann does not discuss this question of tonality in 
his short description of the symphony. "It begins as in ballad fashion. 
Blaring fanfares of horns and cries of pain interrupt the narration, 
which passes into an earnest and ardent melody (B major, violon- 
cellos). The themes, especially those in fanfare fashion, change form 
and color. 'The formal appearance, now powerful, prayerful, now 
caressing, tender, mocking, homely, now far away, now near, now hur- 
ried, now quietly expanding, ever surprises us, is ever welcome: it 
brings joy and gives dramatic impetus to the movement.'* A theme 
of the second movement constantly returns in varied form, from which 
the chief theme, the staccato figure given to the wind, and the melodious 
song of the violoncellos are derived. The third movement, Allegro 
giocoso, sports with old-fashioned harmonies, which should not be taken 
too seriously. This is not the case with Finale, an artfully contrived 
Ciacona of antique form, but of modern contents. The first eight 
measures give the 'title-page' of the Ciacona. The measures that fol- 
low are variations of the leading theme; wind instruments prevail in the 
first three, then the strings enter; the movement grows livelier, clari- 
nets and oboes lead to E major; and now comes the solemn climax of 
this movement, the trombone passage. The old theme enters again 
after the fermata, and rises to full force, which finds expression in a 
Piu allegro for the close." 

We have seen that, while Dr. Hugo Riemann finds E minor the 
tonality of fall, Raff, the composer, chose that tonality for his sym- 
phony, "In Summer," which is thus arranged: I. "A Hot Day," E 
minor, with middle section in E major; II. "The Elfin Hunt," F major, 
D major, F major; III. Eclogue, C major; IV. "Harvest Wreath," 

*Dr. Reimann here quotes from Hermann Kretzschmar's "Filhrer durch den Concertsaal." — Ed. 

10 



E major, C major, E major. The tonality that reminds Dr. Riemann 
of decay and approaching death seemed to Raff the inevitable suggester 
of the blazing sun or the grinning dog-star. And Raff was of an ex- 
tremely sensitive organization. To him the tone of the flute was in- 
tensely sky-blue; oboe, clear yellow to bladder-green; cornet, green; 
trumpet, scarlet; flageolet, dark gray; trombone, purplish red to brownish 
violet; horn, hunter's green to brown; bassoon, grayish black. (See 
Raff's "Die Wagnerfrage," 1854, and Bleuler and Lehmann's "Zwang- 
massige Lichtempfindungen durch Schall," 1881.) 

Many singular statements have been made concerning the char- 
acter and influence of ancient modes and modern tonalities. Take 
this same tonality, E minor. C. F. D. Schubart (1739-91) described 
it as "naive, feminine, the declaration of innocent love, a lamenta- 
tion without querulous complaint, sighing with only a few tears. This 
tonality speaks of the serenest hope, which finds happiness by flowing 
into C major. As E minor has naturally only one color, the tonality 
may be likened unto a maiden robed in white, with a rose-red bow on 
her breast." Friedrich Zamminer, in his "Die Musik" (1855), quotes 
from an sesthetician of 1838, a popular and fruitful professor of taste, 
who characterized all the tonalities: "E minor is only limited and 
restricted life, a struggle, the complaint of compassion, sorrow over 
lack of strength." A celebrated pianist told Dr. A. Breton, of Dijon, 
that to her G major was red, E major red, E-flat deep blue, etc.; when 
any piece of music that she knew was transposed into another key, she 
was physically distressed. Did not Louis Ehlert declare that A major 
"says green"? 



Concerto for Violin, No. 1, in G- minor, Op. 26 . . . Max Brtjch 
(Born at Cologne, January 6, 1838 ; died at Friedenau, Berlin, October 3, 1920.) 

The first sketches of this concerto were made in Cologne in 1857. 
The concerto was completed in 1866 at Coblence. The first per- 
formance was set for April 10, 1866, with Jokann Naret-Koning, 
of Mannheim, as the solo violinist, but he fell sick. The first per- 
formance then took place at Coblence, in the hall of the City Gym- 
nasium, April 24, 1866, at a concert of the Musik Institut, and 
for the benefit of the Evangelical Women's Society. The violinist 
was Otto von Konigslow. Bruch conducted from manuscript. 

After this performance Bruch thoroughly revised the concerto, 
and sent the manuscript to Joachim in the summer of 1866. Joachim 

n 



had something to do with the formal arrangement of the work as 
it now stands. There was a private rehearsal of the revised con- 
certo in the Royal Court Theatre at Hanover, with Joachim violinist 
and Bruch conductor, in October, 1867. Joachim played the new 
version at Bremen, January 7, 1868, at a concert conducted by 
Rheinthaler. The score and parts were published at Bremen in 
April, 1868. Joachim played the concerto at Aix-la-Chapelle, Febru- 
ary 13, 1868 ; Brussels, April 5, 1868 ; Cologne, June 1868. 

The movements were thus entitled at the first performance at 
Coblence : "Introduzione, quasi Fantasia. Adagio sostenuto. Finale : 
Allegro con brio." On the programme of the Lower Rhine's Music 
Festival of 1868 the titles were : "Vorspiel, Andante and Finale." 

It was Bruch's intention to call the work a fantasie on account 
of the unconventional opening. Joachim wrote to him on August 
17, 1866, making suggestions for alterations. "I find the title 'con- 
certo' fully justified; for the name of fantasy, the last two move- 
ments are, in fact, too completely and symmetrically developed; 
the different parts are brought together in beautiful relationship, 
and yet there is sufficient contrast, which is the chief object. Spohr, 
moreover, calls his 'Gesangsszene' a 'concerto.' " 

The concerto is dedicated to "Joseph Joachim, in friendship." 
It is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, solo violin, and the usual 
strings. 

I. Vorspiel, Allegro moderato, G minor, 4-4. The Vorspiel, or 
Prelude, has no thematic connection with the rest of the movement. 
It consists of phrases for wind instruments and full orchestra, in- 
terrupted by short recitative-like cadenzas for the solo violin. 

The main body of the movement begins with a tremolo for second 
violins and violas (basses pizzicati, kettledrums), against which 
the solo instrument sketches the heroic first motive. After a short 
orchestral passage, D minor, the violin has the second theme, which 





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goes into B-flat major and is developed at length by the solo instru- 
ment, which then brings back the first theme in G minor. There 
is extended development with a use of the second theme in the 
accompaniment. After a long orchestral tutti there is a return 
to the Prelude. The movement is connected with the next by a 
transition passage for orchestra. 

II. Adagio, E-flat major, 3-8. The movement is a free applica- 
tion of the sonata form, and is based on three principal motives, 
given out in uninterrupted succession by the solo violin. The first 
is in E-flat major. The second, somewhat in the nature of passage- 
work, begins in G-flat major, but in the course of development 
shows a tendency to return to the tonic. The third begins in G 
major and ends in B-flat major. 

III. Finale: Allegro energico, G major, 2-2. There is a little 
orchestral preluding in E-flat major. This leads to G with the 

*march-like first theme given out by the solo violin. The full orches- 
tra interrupts the development, and there is a repetition of this 
theme by the violin and afterwards by full orchestra. The second 
and more cantabile theme, D major, is announced by full orchestra, 
and then developed and embroidered by the violin. The first theme 
returns (full orchestra). Passage-work for the violin leads to the 
coda. 



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Symphonic Poem No. 3, "The Preludes" (after Lamartine) 

Franz Liszt 

(Born at Raiding, near Oedenburg, Hungary, October 22, 1811 ; died at 

Bayreuth, July 31, 1886.) 

According to statements of Richard Pohl, this symphonic poem 
was begun at Marseilles in 1834, and completed at Weimar in 1850. 
According to L. Kamann's chronological catalogue of Liszt's works, 
"The Preludes" was composed in 1854 and published in 1856. 

Theodor Mtiller-Reuter says that the poem was composed at 
Weimar in 1849-50 from sketches made in earlier years, and this 
statement seems to be the correct one. 

Ramann tells the following story about the origin of "The Pre- 
ludes." Liszt, it seems, began to compose at Paris, about 1844, 
choral music for a poem by Aubray, and the work was entitled "Les 
4 Elements (la Terre, les Aquilons, les Flots, les Astres)."* The 
cold stupidity of the poem discouraged him, and he did not com- 
plete the cantata. He told his troubles to Victor Hugo, in the hope 
that the poet would take the hint and write for him ; but Hugo did 
not or would not understand his meaning, so Liszt put the music 
aside. Early in 1854 he thought of using the abandoned work for 
a Pension Fund concert of the Court Orchestra at Weimar, and it 
then occurred to him to make the music, changed and enlarged, 
illustrative of a passage in Lamartine's "Nouvelles Meditations 
poetiques," XV me Meditation: "Les Preludes," dedicated to Victor 
Hugo. 

The symphonic poem "Les Preludes" was performed for the first 
time in the Grand Ducal Court Theatre, Weimar, at a concert for 
the Pension Fund of the widows and orphans of deceased members 
of the Court Orchestra on February 23, 1854. Liszt conducted from 
manuscript. At this concert Liszt introduced for the first time 
"Gesang an die Ktinstler" in its revised edition and also led Schu- 
mann's Symphony No. 4 and the concerto for four horns. 

Liszt revised "Les Preludes" in 1853 or 1854. The score was pub- 
lished in May, 1856 ; the orchestral parts, in January, 1865. 

*"Les 4 filaments" were designed for a male chorus. "La Terre" was composed 
at Lisbon and Malaga, April, 1845; "Les Flots," at Valence, Easter Sunday, 1845; 
"Los Astres," on April 14, 1848. The manuscript of "Les Aquilons" in the Liszt 
Museum at Weimar is not dated. Raff wrote to Mme. Heinrich in January, 1850, 
of his share in the instrumentation and making a clean score of an overture "Die 4 
Blemente" for Liszt. Liszt in June, 1851, wrote to Raff over the question whether this 
work should be entitled "Meditation" Symphony, and this title stands on a hand- 
written score. 

14 



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The alleged passage from Lamartine that serves as a motto has 
thus been Englished : — 

"What is onr life but a series of preludes to that unknown song, 
the first solemn note of which is sounded by death? Love forms the 
enchanted daybreak of every life; but what is the destiny where 
the first delights of happiness are not interrupted by some storm, 
whose fatal breath dissipates its fair illusions, whose fell lightning 
consumes its altar? and what wounded spirit, when one of its 
tempests is over, does not seek to rest its memories in the sweet 
calm of country life? Yet man does not resign himself long to enjoy 
the beneficent tepidity which first charmed him on Nature's bosom ; 
and when 'the trumpet's loud clangor has called him to arms,' he 
rushes to the post of danger, whatever may be the war that calls 
him to the ranks to find in battle the full consciousness of himself 
and the complete possession of his strength." There is little in 
Lamartine's poem that suggests this preface. The quoted passage 
beginning "The trumpet's loud clangor" is Lamartine's "La trom- 
pette a jete le signal des alarmes." 

"The Preludes" is scored for three flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass 
tuba, a set of three kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, cymbals, 
harp, and strings. 



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FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEASON 1922-1923 
THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 7, at 8.00 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Violins. 



Burgin, R. Hoffmann, 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 


Gundersen, R. 

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SANDERS THEATRE .... CAMBRIDGE 

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Bbs'taii Sympli©imy Orchestra 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 7 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Beethoven .... Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 

(Three Movements) 
I. Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso. 
II. Molto vivace; Presto. 
III. Adagio molto e cantabile. 



Schumann . . . . Concerto in A minor for Pianoforte and 

Orchestra, Op. 54 
I. Allegro affetuoso. 
II. Intermezzo: Andantino grazioso. 
III. Allegro vivace. 

Franck Symphonic Poem, "Le Chasseur Maudit" 

("The Wild Huntsman") 



SOLOIST 
OLGA SAMAROFF 

STEINWAY PIANO USED 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 



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Symphony in D minor, No. 9, Or. 125 (First three movements) 

Ludwig van Beethoven 

(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

This symphony, for which sketches were made as early as 1815, 
was completed about February, 1824. The first performance was 
in the Karthnerthortheater, Vienna, May 7, 1824. The solo singers 
in the Finale were Henriette Sontag, Karoline Unger, Anton 
Heitzner, and J. Seipelt. The Musikverein assisted in the per- 
formance. Michael Umlauf conducted. The first performance in 
the United States was at a concert of the Philharmonic Society of 
New York, a festival concert at Castle Garden, May 20, 1846. The 
quartet was made up of Mme. Otto, Mr. Boulard, Mr. Munson, Mr. 
Mayer. George Loder conducted. 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Germania 
Musical Society, assisted by members of the Handel and Haydn 
Society, February 5, 1853, when the solo singers were Anna Stone, 
Miss S. Humphrey, J. H. Low, Thomas Ball. The programme also 
included the overture to "The Magic Flute" : Viotti's Violin Con- 
certo, B minor, No. 24 (Camilla Urso) ; Mendelssohn's Pianoforte 
Concerto, D minor (Alfred Jaell). Carl Bergmann conducted. The 
symphony was performed again at a farewell concert of the 
Germania Society, April 2, 1853, with the same singers. 

The symphony, dedicated to Friedrich Wilhelm III., King of 
Prussia, is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, three trom- 
bones, kettledrums, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, and the usual 
strings.* 

The first movement, Allegro, ma non troppo, un poco maestoso, D 
minor, 2-4, begins with a soft rustling on the fifth A-E (second vio- 
lins, violoncellos, horns), while the first violins, violas, and double- 
basses repeat hurriedly a scrap of the chief theme of the movement. 
The full orchestra, after sixteen measures, gives out this theme, for- 
tissimo, in unison and octaves, in D minor. When Wagner gave a 
performance of this symphony in 1872 at the laying of the corner- 
stone of the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, he prepared an annotated 
programme. Of this movement he wrote : f 

"The first movement appears to be founded on a titanic struggle 
of the soul, athirst for joy, against the veto of that hostile power 
which rears itself 'twixt us and earthly happiness. The great chief 
theme, which steps before us at one stride as if disrobing, from a 
spectral shroud, might perhaps be translated, without doing violence 

*The piccolo, double-bassoon, three trombones, triangle, cymbals, and bass drum are 
added in the Finale. 

fThe translation is by Henry G. Chapman. 

7 



to the spirit of the whole tone-poem, by Goethe's words : 'Entbehren 
sollst du! sollst entbehren.' (Thou shalt renounce, renounce thou 
shalt.) Against this mighty foe we find a noble forwardness, a 
manly energy of defiance advancing in the middle of the piece to an 
open fight with its opponent, a fight in which we think we see two 
giant wrestlers ; each of whom desists once more, invincible. In pass- 
ing gleams of light we recognize the sad, sweet smile of a happiness 
that seems to seek for us, for whose possession we strive, but whose 
attainment that arch fiend withholds, overshadowing us with its 
pitch-black wings; so even our distant glimpse of bliss is troubled, 
and back we sink to gloomy brooding that can only lift itself again 
to stern resistance, new war against the joy-devouring demon. Thus 
force, revolt, defiance, yearning, hope, midway attainment, fresh 
loss, new quest, repeated struggle, make out the elements of cease- 
less motion in this wondrous piece; which yet falls ever and anon 
to that abiding state of utter joylessness which Goethe pictures in 
the words : — 

'In very terror I at morn awake 

Upon the verge of bitter weeping, 
' To see the day of disappointment break, 

To no one hope of mine — not me — its promise keeping.' 

"At the movement's close this gloomy, joyous mood, expanding to 
colossal form, appears to span the All, in awful majesty to take 
possession of a world that God had made for — joy." 

The second movement, Molto vivace, D minor, 3-4, is really a 
scherzo, although it is not so named in the score. It is built on 
three leading themes; the peculiar rhythm of the "dotted triplet" 
is maintained either in the melody or in the accompaniment. The 
Trio is a presto, D major, 2-2. Berlioz wrote of the second move- 
ment: "It is especially by rhythmic means that Beethoven has 
known how to spread so much interest over this charming bit of 
badinage: the theme is so full of vivacity, when it presents itself 
with its fugued response after four measures, it sparkles with verve 
afterwards when the response, appearing a measure sooner, sketches 
out a ternary rhythm instead of the binary rhythm adopted at first. 
The middle of the Scherzo is taken up with a presto with two beats 
to the measure of a thoroughly countrified joviality, the theme of 
which unfolds itself on an intermediate organ-point, now on the 
Ionic, now on the dominant, with the accompaniment of a counter- 
theme which harmonizes equally well with both held notes, tonic and 
dominant. This melody is brought back at last by a phase on the 
oboe, of ravishing freshness, which after swaying to and fro for a 
while on the chord of the dominant major 9th of I), blossoms out 
in the key of F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is unex- 

8 



pected. One finds here a reflection of those tender impressions so 
dear to Beethoven, that are called up by the sight of calm, smiling 
Nature, the purity of the air, the first beams of a spring suhrise." 

The third movement, Adagio molto e cantabile, B-flat major, 4-4, 
has been described as "a double theme with variations." To quote 
Berlioz again: "In the Adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so 
little observed that one might see two distinct movements in it 
rather than one. After the first melody in B-flat major and 4-4 time 
comes another absolutely different melody in D major and 3-4 time. 
. . . One must hear this marvellous Adagio several times to accus- 
tom one's self wholly to so singular an arrangement. As for the 
beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments 
with which they are covered, the feelings of melancholy tenderness, 
passionate faintness, dreamy religiosity they express, if my prose 
could only give an approximate idea of them, music would have 
found a rival in written speech such as the greatest of poets himself 
would never succeed in pitting against her. It is an immense work, 
and when you have entered into its mighty charm, you can only 
reply to the criticism reproaching the composer for his violation of 
the law of unity : so much the worse for the law !" After two intro- 
ductory measures, the strings sing the first theme. The second 
theme is given out, Andante moderato, 3-4, at first by second violins 
and violas. William Foster Apthorp wrote : 

Nothing could be in stronger contrast than these two themes : the first all 
profound sentiment, the most expressive melody in all Beethoven's orchestral 
writing : the second graceful, moodily serene and beautiful, but wholly without 
the emotional depth of the other. And what is strangest of all is that these 
two themes have absolutely nothing to do with each other ; they are not only 
entirely different in mood, but there is no musical connection discoverable 
between them, to explain their juxtaposition ; all w T e can say is that the first 
dies away to make place for the second, and that the second dies away, with- 
out any real "cadence, but with a sudden modulation back to B-flat major, to 
make way for a return of the first. 

As the Choral Finale on Schiller's "Ode to Joy" is not performed 
at this concert, it is not necessary to describe it. 

In 1817 there was correspondence between the Philharmonic So- 
ciety of London and Beethoven with reference to the latter visiting 
England. George Hogarth in "The Philharmonic Society" (London, 
1862) writes: "An offer was made to him of 300 guineas in con- 
sideration of his coming to London and superintending the produc- 
tion of two symphonies to be composed by him for the Society. In 
answer he demanded 400 guineas, 150 to be paid in advance." One 
hundred guineas were for travelling expenses. "It appears from a 
minute of the Directors in August, 1817, that the previous offer was 
then repeated, but the arrangement was not carried into effect, 
Beethoven having ultimately abandoned the intention which he at 
one time entertained of visiting this country" (p. 18). 

We read in Hogarth's history (p. 31) apropos of the first perform- 
ance, in England of the Ninth Symphony, March 21, 1825, when the 
program read : "New Grand Characteristic Sinfonia MS. with vocal 
finale, the principal parts to be sung by Madame Caradori, Miss 



Goodall, Mr. Vaughan, and Mr. Phillips; composed expressly for 
this Society" ; "The composition of this Symphony was the result 
of a meeting of the Directors on the 10th of November, 1822, at 
which it was resolved to offer Beethoven £50 for a MS. symphony, 
it being stipulated that it should be delivered during the month 
of March following, . . . The money was immediately advanced, 
but the Symphony was not received till long past the stipulated 
time — not, indeed, till after it had been performed in Vienna. . . . 
The remuneration, therefore, received by him from the Philharmonic 
Society was not only adequate, but ample, considering that the 
symphony had not only been performed, but published in score at 
Vienna, before the Society had it in their power to make any use 
of it." The Philharmonic Society on February 28, 1827, unani- 
mously resolved to send £100 to Beethoven through Moscheles to 
supply comforts and necessities to Beethoven during his illness. 
Hogarth says the sum of £50 was "immediately advanced." The 
directors voted this sum November 10, 1822; but there is a receipt 
in the British Museum signed by Beethoven, dated April 27, 1824, 
acknowledging the receipt of £50 for the symphony composed for 
the Philharmonic Society. 

The King of Prussia acknowledged the dedication and wrote that 
he was sending Beethoven a diamond ring. The gem was not a 
diamond, but a reddish stone valued by the court jeweller at 300 
florins in paper money. Beethoven had thought of dedicating the 
symphony to the Tsar Alexander. 

A word about the reason of the first performance in Vienna. 
Beethoven wrote January 23, 1824, to the directors of the "Gesell- 
schaft der Musikfreunde" at Vienna, asking whether the society 
could make use of some words by him, among them "a new sym- 
phony." Keceiving no encouragement, he turned to the General 
Intendant, Count von Bruhl, at Berlin, to arrange a performance 
of the new works there. A group of Viennese amateurs and musi- 
cians then addressed him, begging him to have regard for the honor 
of the city, and not permit his "new masterpieces to leave the city of 
their birth." The address, which referred to the neglect of German 
music and the interest in foreigners, — Rossini then was the favorite 
composer, — was signed by thirty or more. Beethoven was greatly 
pleased by the compliment. 

The program of the concert, May 7, 1824, was as follows: Over- 
ture, "Dedication of the House," Op. 124 ; "Three Grand Hymns for 
solo voices and chorus", — these were the "Kyrie," "Credo," and 
"Agnus Dei" of the "Missa Solemnis," for the head of police, Sed- 
lintsky, obedient to the Archbishop of Vienna, had forbidden the 
titles of portions of a mass on a theatre programme; the Ninth 
Symphony. 

The rehearsals were laborious, and the solo singers had great 
difficulty in learning their parts. Mmes. Sontag and Unger begged 
Beethoven to make changes in their music. Beethoven smiled, but 
was obdurate. He said that they had been spoiled by Italian music. 
The gentle Mme. Sontag answered, "Continue, then, to torture us!" 

The success of the symphony was immediate and immense. When 
the drums alone beat the scherzo motive, the audience applauded so 

10 



that the orchestra could not be heard. At the end the enthusiasm 
was frenetic. Mine. Unger led Beethoven to the edge of the stage 
that he might see the crowd waving hats and handkerchiefs. He 
bowed and was very calm. According to an eye-witness, Mme. 
Grebner, who had sung in the chorus, and lived afterwards at Brus- 
sels where Felix Weingartner talked with her some years ago, 
Beethoven sat in the middle of the orchestra and followed the score. 
The success was unprecedented, but the net pecuniary result was 
the sum of about sixty dollars. Beethoven was incensed, and some 
days after accused Schindler and Duport of having swindled him. 
They were dining at a restaurant with others. Umlauf and Schup- 
panzigh tried to convince Beethoven that his charge was absurd, 
for his nephew Carl and his brother Johann had watched the cash- 
iers. Beethoven persisted, and Schindler, Umlauf, and Schuppan- 
zigh left the table. Beethoven soon afterwards wrote an outrageous 
letter to his secretary. 

Duport, however, organized another concert, May 23, 1874, for 
the performance of the symphony and other works, — Rossini's "Di 
tanti palpiti" was sung by David, — undertook all the expenses, and 
guaranteed the composer the sum of five hundred florins, about 
one hundred dollars. Duport lost money, for the concert was at 
noon, an inconvenient hour. 

In the spring of 1824, Beethoven offered the symphony to Probst, 
of Leipsic, for publication, for six hundred florins. Later he wrote 
to the Schotts at Mayence, and named the same sum. 



Concerto in A minor, for Pianoforte, Op. 54. . Robert Schumann 
(Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, June 29, 1856.) 

Schumann wrote, after he had heard for the first time Mendels- 
sohn play his own Concerto in G minor, that he should never dream 
of composing a concerto in three movements, each complete in itself. 
In January, 1839, and at Vienna, he wrote to Clara Wieck, to whom 
he was betrothed : "My concerto is a compromise between a sym- 
phony, a concerto, and a huge sonata. I see I cannot write a con- 
certo for the virtuosos : I must plan something else." 

It is said that Schumann began to write a pianoforte concerto 
when he was only seventeen and ignorant of musical form, and that 
he made a second attempt at Heidelberg in 1830. 

The first movement of the Concerto in A minor was written at 
Leipsic in the summer of 1841, — it was begun as early as May, — 
and it was then called "Phantasie in A minor." It was played for 
the first time by Clara Schumann, August 14, 1841, at a private 
rehearsal at the Gewandhaus. Schumann wished in 1843 or 1844 
to publish the work as an "Allegro affettuoso" for pianoforte with 
orchestral accompaniment, "Op. 48," but he could not find a pub- 

li 



lisher. The Intermezzo and Finale were composed at Dresden, 
May-July, 1845. 

The whole concerto was played for the first time by Clara Schu- 
mann at her concert, December 4, 1845, in the Hall of the Hotel 
de Saxe, Dresden, from manuscript. Ferdinand Hiller conducted, 
and Schumann was present. At this concert the second version of 
Schumann's "Overture, Scherzo, and Finale" was played for the 
first time. The movements of the concerto were thus indicated: 
"Allegro affettuoso, Andantino, and Rondo." 

The second performance was at Leipsic, January 1, 1846, when 
Clara Schumann was the pianist and Mendelssohn conducted. Ver- 
hulst attended a rehearsal, and said that the performance was 
rather poor; the passage in the Finale with the puzzling rhythms 
"did not go at all." 

The indications of the movements, "Allegro Affettuoso, Inter- 
mezzo, and Rondo Vivace," were printed on the programme of the 
third performance, — Vienna, January 1, 1847, — when Clara Schu- 
mann was the pianist and her husband conducted. 

The orchestral parts were published in July, 1846 ; the score, in 
September, 1862. 

Otto Dresel played the concerto in Boston at one of his chamber 
concerts, December 10, 1864, when a second pianoforte was sub- 
stituted for the orchestra. S. B. Mills played the first movement 
with orchestra at a Parepa concert, September 25, 1866, and the 
two remaining movements at a concert a night or two later. The 
first performance in Boston of the whole concerto with orchestral 
accompaniment was by Otto Dresel at a concert of the Harvard 
Musical Association, November 23, 1866. 

Mr. Mills played the concerto at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society of New York as early as March 26, 1859. 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for two flutes, two 
oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettle- 
drums, strings. The score is dedicated to Ferdinand Hiller. 



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12 




"The Wild Huntsman," Symphonic Poem. 

Cesar Augusts Franck 

(Born at Liege, December 10, 1822; died at Paris, November 8, 1890.) 

"Le Chasseur Maudit," composed in 1883, was played for the first 
time at a concert of the Societe Nationale, Paris, March 31, 1883. 
It was performed at a Pasdeloup concert in Paris, January 13, 1884. 
The first performance in the United States was at Cincinnati, Jan- 
uary 29, 1898. The first performance in Boston was at a concert 
of the Chicago Orchestra, Theodore Thomas conductor, in Music 
Hall, March 26, 1898. The work has been played in Boston at 
concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, March 2, 1901, Jan- 
uary 9, 1904, January 21, 1911, October 10, 1920. 

The composition is based on Burger's ballad, "Der wilde Jager." 
The argument in prose is printed on the fly r leaf of the score. This 
argument may be Englished as follows: — 

"'Twas a Sunday morning ; far away resounded the joyous sound of bells 
and the joyous chants of the crowd. . . . Sacrilege ! The savage Count of the 
Rhine has winded his horn. 

"Hallo ! Hallo ! The chase rushes over cornfields, moors and meadows. — 
'Stop, Count, I entreat you ; hear the pious chants.' — No ! Hallo ! Hallo ! — 
'Stop, Count, I implore you ; take care.' — No ! and the riders rush on like a 
whirlwind. 

"Suddenly the Count is alone ; his horse refuses to go on ; the Count would 
wind his horn, but the horn no longer sounds. ... A dismal, implacable voice 
curses him : 'Sacrilegious man,' it cries, 'be forever hunted by Hell !' 



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"Then flames flash all around him. . . . The Count, terror-stricken, flees 
faster and ever faster, pursued by a pack of demons ... by day across 
abysses, by night through the air." 

This symphonic poem is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, four bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two cornets- 
a-pistons, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, 
two bells, cymbals, triangle, bass drum, and strings. 

It is divided into four sections : the portrayal of the peaceful 
landscape, the religious chorus, the Sunday scene; the hunt; the 
curse; the infernal chase. 

The symphonic poem begins Andantino quasi allegretto, G major, 
3-4, with a horn theme, which in various forms is heard throughout 
the composition. Violoncellos intone a religious melody over an 
organ-point. The horns are heard again. Bells peal. The sacred 
song grows in strength until it is proclaimed by the full orchestra. 

G minor, 9-8. Enter the Count and his crew. The horns sound 
in unison the chief theme, which is repeated in harmony and softly 
by the wood-wind instruments. There is a musical description of 
the chase, and fresh thematic material is introduced. There are 
the voices of complaining peasants. 

The Count is alone. In vain he tries to wind his horn. An un- 
earthly voice is heard (bass tuba), then the curse is thundered 
out. The pace grows faster and faster till the end. The Infernal 
Hunt : new motives are added to the chief theme, and much use is 
made of the Count's wild horn call. 



The legend of the Wild Hunter and the Wild Chase is old, wide- 
spread, and there are many versions. The one most familiar to 
English readers is that on which Burger founded (1785?) his 
ballad, "Der wilde Jager," imitated by Sir Walter Scott in "The 
Wild Huntsman" (1796). One Hackenberg, or Hacklenberg, a lord 
in the Dromling, was passionately fond of hunting, even on the 
Lord's Day ; and lie forced the peasants to turn out with him. On 
a Sunday he was a-hunting with his pack and retainers, when two 
strange horsemen joined him. 

Who was each Stranger, left and right, 

Well may I guess, but dare not tell ; 
The right-hand steed was silver white, 

The left, the swarthy hue of hell. 

The right-hand Horseman, young and fair ; 

His smile was like the morn of May. 
The left, from eye of tawny glare, 

Shot midnight lightning's lurid ray. 

Hackenberg scouted the idea of worship, and hunted with his 
new and swarthy acquaintance across the field of husbandman, 
o'er moss and moor; he heeded not the cries of the widow and the 
orphan ; he chased the stag into the holy chapel of a hermit. Sud- 
denly, after he had blasphemed against God, there was an awful 
silence. In vain he tried to wind his horn ; there was no baying 
of his hounds; and a voice thundered from a cloud: "The measure 
of thy cup is full; be chased forever through the wood." Misbe- 
gotten hounds of hell uprose from the bowels of the earth. 

14 



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What ghastly Huntsman next arose, 
Well may I guess, but dare not tell ; 

His eye like midnight lightning glows, 
His steed the swarthy hue of hell. 

The Wildgrave flies o'er bush and thorn, 
With many a shriek of helpless wo ; 

Behind him hound, and horse, and horn, 
And "Hark away, and holla, ho!" 



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EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor 

Distinguished Soloists for all Concerts 

CHORUS OF FOUR HUNDRED AND ORCHESTRA 



THE MESSIAH 

TWO PERFORMANCES 

SUNDAY AFTERNOON, DECEMBER 17, at 3.30 
MONDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 18, at 8.15 

SOLOISTS 

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CHARLOTTE PEEGE, Contralto ROYAL DADMUN, Bass 

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PAUL BENDER, Baritone 



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16 



SYMPHONY HALL 



SUN. AFT. 

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DEC. 1 1 
JAN. 29 
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FIVE MONDAY EVENING CONCERTS 



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Soloists 

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RENEE CHEMET, Violin MAGDALEINE BRARD, Piano 

ESTER FERRABINI JACCHIA, Soprano 

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19 



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Address, SYMPHONY HALL. BOSTON 

Personal Telephone, 2383-R East Boston 



Will receive his pupils in 

Piano Playing at 

103 PINCKNEY STREET, BOSTON 

Telephone Haymarket 5662 



TEACHER of PIANOFORTE and ORGAN 

ORGANIST AT FIRST CHURCH (CONGREGATIONAL) CAMBRIDGE 

STUDIO: 10 REMINGTON ST., -CAMBRIDGE 
Telephone, University 8761 -W 

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STUDIO: 246 HUNTINGTON AVENUE 



"Why Do the Nations Rage;" sung 
fervently and skillfully as Mr. Flint 
sang it last evening .... His voice 
and ability are too well known here 
to require further commendation. 

— Boston Transcript, May i, 1922. 



••) 



Coaching, Repertoire, Programme building 

Piano (Leschetizky) and Accompanying 

Voice Culture — ARTHUR KRAFT 



14 W. 68th St., New York City 



'Phone Columbus 8993 



PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Classes in Two Piano Playing, four and eight hands 
a specialty. Interpretative talks on the Great 
Composers. Symphony Programmes Followed. . 

Studio. 502 PIERCE BUILDING 
COPLEY SQUARE Telephone, Back Bay 3040 



PIANIST 



BOSTON 

and 

NEW YORK 



Address: 

23 STEINERT HALL 

BOSTON 



TEACHER OF SINGING 
STEINERT HALL 

162 BOYLSTON STREET . . BOSTON 



Teacher of PIANO 

ORGAN, HARMONY and COACHING 

175 Dartmouth St. (Trinity Court) Boston, Mass. 

Copley 341 4-R 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

STUDIO -- - 609 PIERCE BUILDING 

Telephone, Back Bay 5145-R 



VOICE SPECIALIST and 
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Qualified to develop male and female voice 
Reference: PHILIP HALE 
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Thursday Evening, January II, at 8.00 




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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



ton SyehpIi 



INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEASON 1922-1923 
THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 11, at 8.00 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT . President 

GALEN L. STONE Vice-President 

ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

ALFRED L. AIKEN ARTHUR LYMAN 

FREDERICK P. CABOT HENRY B. SAWYER 

ERNEST B. DANE GALEN L. STONE 

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W. H. BRENNAN, Manager G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 

1 



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3>§t©I 



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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 






Burgin, R. 

Concert-master . 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Gundersen, R. 

Kassman, N. 

Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 



Fourel, G. 
Artieres, L. 



Hoffmann, J. 
Mahn, F. 

Pinfield, C. 
Barozzi, S. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Goldstein, S. 

Riedlinger, H. 
Tapley, R. 



Violins. 

Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 

Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 

Kurth, R. 
Bryant, M. 

Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violas. 

Werner, H. Grover, H. 

Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 

Gerhardt, S. Kluge, M. 

Deane, C. Zahn, F. 



Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 

Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 

Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C. 

Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 



Fiedler, A. 
Mullaly, J. 







Violoncellos. 






Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller. J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. 
Stockbridge, C. 

Basses. 


Warnke, J. 
Fabrizio, E. 


Langendoen, J 
Marjollet, L. 


Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. 
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Ludwig, 0. 
Frankel, I. 


Kelley, A. 
Demetrides, 


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L. 


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Laurent, G. 
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Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
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Piccolo. 


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Battles, A. 


Mueller, F 
Speyer, L. 


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Wendler, G. 
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Hess, M. Mager, G. 
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Perret, G. 

Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C. 
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Adam, E. 


Holy, A. 
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Ritter, A. 
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Sternburg, S. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 




Librarian. 


Snow, A. 




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3 




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TONE 



z^i voice that quickens the ??iusical ear of 
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^ Established 1823O- 

PIANO 

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The Chickering may be purchased 
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SANDERS THEATRE .... CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



S©§t©ini byi 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 
AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



d'Indy . . "Wallenstein," Trilogy (after the Dramatic Poem of 

Schiller), Op. 12 

I. Wallenstein's Camp. 
II. Max and Thekla (The Piccolomini). 
III. The Death of Wallenstein. 



Pergolesi-Stravinsky . . . Suite No 1, for Small Orchestra 

(from the Ballet, "Pulcinella") 
I. Sinfonia (Ouverture) : Allegro moderato. 
II. Serenata: Larghetto. 
III. a. Scherzino. 

b. Allegro. 

c. Andantino. 

d. Allegro. 

(There will be no pause between Nos. II and III.) 

Molique .... Concerto in D major for Violoncello and 

Orchestra, Op. 45 
I. Andante. 
II. Allegro! 

Wagner . . Prelude and Love-Death from "Tristan and Isolde" 



SOLOIST 
ALWIN SCHROEDER 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after d'lndy's "Wallenstein" 

5 



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"Wallenstein" Trilogy (after the Dramatic Poem of Schiller) 

Vincent d'Indy 

(Born at Paris, March 27, 1852*; now living in Paris.) 

The first work of Vincent (Finely performed in Paris was his 
"Ouverture des Piccolomini," produced at a Pasdeloup concert, 
January 25, 1874. This overture, the second part of the "Wallen- 
stein" trilogy, showed, it is said, the marked influence of Schumann. 
It was afterwards changed materially, thoroughly rewritten. 

The "Wallenstein" trilogy was begun in 1873-74. It was com- 
pleted about 1881. The third movement, "La Mort de Wallenstein," 
was first performed at a Pasdeloup concert ("Concert Populaire") 
in Paris, March 14, 1880. The first movement, "Le Camp de Wallen- 
stein," was first performed at a concert of the National Society, 
Paris, April 12, 1880. It was performed March 30, 1884, at a Con- 
cert Populaire, Pasdeloup conductor, in Paris. There were per- 
formances of this or that movement at the concerts of the National 
Society in Paris, at Angers, and at Antwerp, but the first perform- 
ance of the trilogy, complete, was at a Lamoureux concert in Paris, 
March 4, 1888. 

The first performance of the trilogy in the United States was at 
one of Anton SeidPs concerts in Steinway Hall, New York, Decem- 
ber 1, 1888. 

The first performance of the trilogy in Boston was on October 19, 
1907, at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. There was 
a second performance on December 20, 1918. 

When "The Death of Wallenstein" was first performed in Paris, 
there was an argument, an explanatory programme, for a contem- 
porary reviewer then discussed the possibility of translating into 
music "Keves heroiques de gloire et de liberte," "Trahison," "Mort," 
while he admitted d'Indy's success in the sections, "Souvenir de 
Thecla" and "Triomphe." The score of the trilogy is without a 
programme of any sort. 

Hugues Imbert's sketch of the trilogy was Englished by Stanley 
V. Makower as follows : — 

"The distinguishing feature of the symphonic music of Vincent 
d'lndy is that it paints with forcible truth, marvellous vividness, 
and astonishing vigor the various episodes in the drama of Schiller. 
For instance, in the first part, 'Le Camp/f after the slow valse, comes 
the savage dance with its determined rhythm, the sermon of tne 
Capuchin father given to the bassoon, the theme of Wallenstein 
energetically illustrated by the trombones, and then the final tumult, 
in which we hear a few notes of Wallenstein's theme thrown out by 
the trumpets amid the fortissimi of the orchestra. In all this you 
will recognize the mastery of the musician who has approached very 

♦This year is given by the composer. The catalogue of the Paris Conservatory 
gives 1851, and 1851 is given by Adolphe Jullien, who says he verified the date by the 
register of d'Indy's birth. 

f James Churchill's translation into English of "Wallenstein's Camp" is thus pref- 
aced : — 

"The Camp of Wallenstein is an introduction to the celebrated tragedy of that 
name, and, by its vivid portraiture of the state of the General's army, gives the best 
clue to the spell of his gigantic power. The blind belief entertained in the unfailing 
success of his arms, and in the supernatural agencies by which that success is secured 
to him ; the unrestrained indulgence of every passion, and utter disregard of all law, 



nearly to a musical translation of a scene crowded with movement. 
You will find not only the painting of events and acts, but the paint- 
ing of the moral sentiments which animate the persons in the drama. 
Is there anything more exquisitely tender than the love episode be- 
tween Max and Thekla (second part) ? With what felicity do the 
two themes of the lovers unite and embrace each other; yet with 
what inevitability are the ideal transports of the happy pair stifled 
by the intervention of Fate, whose fell design has been suggested in 
the brief introduction by the horns ! The third and last episode is 
the death of Wallenstein. Very dramatic is the opening, in which 
strange chords, that recall the splendid sonority of the organ, char- 
acterize the influence of the stars on human destiny. These chords 
are the poetical rendering of this beautiful saying of Wallenstein in 
the Ticcolomini' (act ii., scene 6). Yet the mysterious force which 
labors in the bowels of nature — the ladder of spirits that stretches 
from this world of dust up to the world of stars with a thousand 
ramifications, this ladder on which the heavenly powers mount and 
dismount ever restless — the circles within circles that grow narrower 
and narrower as they approach the sun their centre, — all this can be 
beheld alone by the eyes of the heaven-born joyous descendants of 
Zeus — those eyes from which the veil of blindness has fallen. After 
several episodes, an ascending progression of the basses brings back 
the complete statement of Wallenstein's theme in B major, which 
ends in a very widely constructed movement, in which the starry 
chords of the opening are reproduced, covered over with the wind 
instruments, while the quatuor winds its way rapidly in and out of 
them, and the trombones thunder out the fate-fraught song. Soon 
calm is restored, and the sound dies away gradually in a long pianis- 
simo of the stringed instruments." 

* * 

The first movement, "Wallenstein's Camp," Allegro giusto, 3-4, 
is dedicated to Henri Duparc* It is in the general nature of a 

save that of the camp ; a hard oppression of the peasantry, and plunder of the country ; 
have all swollen the soldiery with an idea of interminable sway. 

"Of Schiller's opinion concerning the Camp, as a necessary introduction to the 
tragedy, the following passage, taken from the Prologue to the first representation, will 
give a just idea and may also serve as a motto to the work : — 

" 'Not He it is, who on the tragic scene 

Will now appear — but in the fearless bands 

Whom his command alone could sway, and whom 

His spirit fired, you may his shadow see, 

Until the bashful Muse shall dare to bring 

Himself before you in a living form ; 

For power it was that bore his heart astray — 

His Camp, alone, elucidates his crime.' " 
♦Marie Eugene Henri Pouque Duparc was born at Paris, January 21, 1848. He 
studied at a Jesuit college and was admitted to the bar, but piano lessons from C€sar 
Franck promoted him to be a musician, and he also took lessons in composition. His 
early friends Were Saint-Saens, Faure, de Castillon, and the painter Regnault. In 1870 
he journeyed to Munich to hear operas by Wagner. He served as a soldier in the siege 
of Paris. About 1880 his health became such that he was obliged to give up work, and 
he made his home at Monein, in the Lower Pyrenees. He is now living in Switzerland. 
His chief works are a symphonic poem, "Lenore" (composed in 1874-75, performed at 
Paris, October 28, 1877, since revised, first performed in Boston at a Symphony concert, 
December 5, 1896), an orchestral suite, a violoncello sonata (destroyed), a set of 
waltzes for orchestra (1874) "Aux Btoilers," nocturne for orchestra (1910, performed at 
a Lamoureux concert, February 26, 1911), a suite for pianoforte, and some remarkable 
songs, the most important of which were composed during the years 1874—78. Franck 
repeatedly said that Duparc, of all his pupils, was the one best organized to create 
musical ideas, the one whose vigorous temperament and dramatic sentiment should have 
brought success in the opera-house. Duparc worked on a lyric drama, "Roussalka," 
but was unable to complete it before his enforced retirement. 

8 



scherzo which portrays the camp life and the rude jesting of the 
soldiery. The chief theme is given immediately to full orchestra. It 
is constantly changed, and it passes through many keys, until the 
original tonality is restored. There is a lull in the tumult. The 
strings play a sort of slow waltz, which soon becomes boisterous, 
allegro moderato, 3-8. After development of these three motives the 
Capuchin monk appears. He is typified by the bassoons, which take 
up one after the other a theme, B minor, Allegro moderato e giocoso, 
2-4, in a fugal passage.* This section describes the Capuchin's ser- 
mon. The monk is mocked and derided by wood-wind instruments; 
the trumpet parodies the fugue theme, and clarinets join in the 
caricature. The soldiers howl the monk down and drag him into the 
rough waltz. The uproar is not quelled until horns, trumpets, and 
trombones announce by a phrase, Largo e maestoso, 4-4, the presence 
of Wallenstein. The monk is at last free, and the scherzo trio, which 
began with the bassoon theme, is at an end. The Camp motive and 
the waltz themes are worked out with changes in the instrumenta- 
tion, and the Wallenstein motive reappears (brass instruments) at 
the close in the midst of the orchestral storm. 

II. "Max and Thekia" ("The Piccolomini"), Andante, Allegro, 
Adagio, E-fiat major, B major, G major, E-fiat minor, 4-4, is dedi- 
cated to Jules Pasdeloup.f There is a short introduction full of 
bodement, with a rhythmic figure for kettledrums, plaintive wail of 
violins, and lamentation of the horns. This horn motive is identical 
with the second section of the Wallenstein motive, which was heard 
in the first movement. 

Max Piccolomini is then characterized by an expressive theme, 
Andante, E-fiat major, 4-4, which is given first to the clarinets and 
horns, afterwards to the full orchestra. This theme is developed at 
length. The kettledrums interrupt, but the motive is repeated, and, 
varied, gains in emotional intensity. Brass and drums hint at the 
tragic ending, but the tempo changes to Allegro risoluto, and a 
motive built on the first measure of the Max theme is associated 
with a dialogued motive for violin and violoncello. The Fate motive 
of the introduction enters. There is an energetic development of 
this theme and of that of the Allegro risoluto. This leads to a sec- 
tion in B major, Andante tranquillo. The clarinet, accompanied by 
tremulous strings, sings a theme that may be named the Thekia or 

* Hermann Kretzschmar, in his analysis of this movement, is reminded of the days 
of Reinhard Keiser (1674-1739), who wrote quartets, quintets, and sextets for bassoons. 

f Jules Etienne Pasdeloup was born at Paris, September 15, 1819. He died at Fon- 
tainebleau, August 13, 1887. At the Paris Conservatory he gained the first prize for. 
solfege in 1832 and the first prize for pianoforte playing in 1834. He afterwards took 
lessons of Dourlen and Carafa in composition. As Governor of the Chateau of St. 
Cloud he made influential friends, and, discontented with the orchestral leaders who 
would not produce his works or those of young France, he founded in 1851 the "Society 
of Young Artists of the Conservatory," of which he was conductor. He produced sym- 
phonies by Gounod, Saint-Saens, Gouvy, and other French composers, also music hitherto 
unheard in Paris by Mozart, Schumann, and Meyerbeer. In 1861 he moved to the 
Cirque Napoleon, and on October 27 began his Concerts Populaires. A flaming admirer 
of Wagner, he produced "Rienzi" at the Theatre Lyrique (April 6, 1869), and lost 
much money. After the Franco-Prussian War he resumed his concerts, — he was man- 
ager of the Theatre Lyrique 1868-70, — and the French government gave him a subsidy 
of twenty-five thousand francs. He closed these concerts in 1884 and in that year 
a sum of nearly one hundred thousand francs was raised for him at a concert in his 
honor. But he could not be idle. In 1885 he organized concerts at Monte Carlo, and 
afterwards established pianoforte classes in Paris. In 1886 he began a new series of 
orchestral concerts with the old title, but the revival was not successful. A conductor 
of most catholic taste, he was ever a firm friend of young composers, and, though a 
patriotic Frenchman, he knew not chauvinism in art. 



Love motive. This theme is repeated by violas and violoncellos, and 
it is combined with the theme of Max. The love scene is interrupted 
by the entrance of Wallenstein's typical motive (brass, maestoso), 
which is now passionate and disquieted. The Allegro risoluto theme 
returns, and there is a conflict between it and the Fate motive, in 
which the tragic end of Max is determined. The oboe sighs out 
Thekla's lament : her theme now appears in E-flat minor. There is a 
final recollection of Max (theme for first horn) ; the end is mourning 
and desolation. 

III. Wallenstein's Death, Tres large, Allegro maestoso, B minor, 
2-2, is dedicated to Camille Benoit.* "One will listen in vain," says 
Mr. H. W. Harris, "for any musical description of the great warrior's 
tragic end. The composer adheres to the programme of Schiller's 
drama, in which, it will be remembered, the audience is not per- 
mitted to witness the assassination of the hero." 

There is a slow and ominous introduction, with the appearance 
of the theme of Wallenstein. The opening measures of the move- 
ment proper, Allegro, portray to some the conspiracy and the over- 
throw of the genera], whose theme appears now in a distorted shape. 
Again is there the tumultuous confusion of the camp. A maestoso 
passage follows. This is succeeded by a repetition of the Allegro, 
which, however, is changed. The Thekla motive comes again, and 
another maestoso passage follows. The trilogy ends sonorously 
with the introduction used as a foundation. 

The trilogy is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clari- 
nets, bass clarinet, four bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two 
cornets-a-pistons, three trombones, tuba, a set of three kettledrums, 
bass drum, cymbals, eight harps, strings. 



Suite No. 1, for a Small Orchestra, from "Pulcinella," a Ballet 
with Song (after Pergolesi) Ivor Stravinsky 

(Stravinsky, born at Oranienbaum, near Petrograd; living in Paris. Giovanni 
Battista Pergolesi, born at Jesi, Italy, January 1, 1710; died at Pazzuoli, near Naples, 

March 16, 1736.) 

"Pulcinella," ballet with song in one act, music by Stravinsky (after 
Pergolesi) ; was performed for the first time at the Opera, Paris, on May 
15, 1920, under the direction of Serge de DiaghilefT. The choreography 
was arranged by Leonide Massine; the scenery and costume designed by 
Pablo Picasso were put in effect by Wladimir and Violette Polunine. 

Pulcinella, Massine; Pimpinella, Thamar Karsavina; Prudenza, 
Lubov Tchernicheva; Rosetta, Vera Nemtchinova; Fourbo, Sigmund 

* Camille BenoYt, appointed in 1895 conservateur at the Louvre, was a pupil of 
C6sar Franck. His chief compositions are an overture (about 1880) ; symphonic poem, 
"Merlin, l'Enchanteur" ; lyric scene, "La Mort de C16opatre" (sung by Mme. Mauvernay 
at a Concert Populaire, Paris, March 30, 1884) ; music to Anatole France's "Noces 
Corinthicnnes." He is the author of "Souvenirs" (1884) and "Musiciens, Pontes, et 
Philosophos" (1877). He translated into French extracts from Wagner's prose works; 
into Latin the text of Beethoven's "Elegische Gesang," and he arranged Berlioz's "Romeo 
and Juliet" for the pianoforte (four hands). 

10 



Novak; Caviello, Stanislaw Idzikovsky; Florindo, Nikolas Zverev; 
II Dottore, Enrico Cechetti; Tartageia, Stanislaw Kostetsky; Quatre 
petits pulcinellas, MM. Bourman, Okimovsky, Micholaitchik, Loukine. 

Singers: Mme. Zoia Roskovska, Aurelio Anglada (tenor), Gino de 
Vecchi (bass). 

Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

The score contains this argument: 

The subject of "Pulcinella" is taken from a manuscript found at 
Naples in 1700, containing a great number of comedies which put on 
the stage the traditional personage of the Neapolitan folk-theatre. The 
episode chosen for the libretto of this ballet is entitled: "Four Similar 
Pulchinellas." 

AH the young girls of the country are in love with Pulcinella; the 
young fellows, pricked with jealousy, try to kill him. At the moment 
when they think they have accomplished their purpose, they borrow 
Pulcinella's costume to present themselves to their sweethearts. But 
the malicious Pulcinella has had his intimate friend take his place, 
and this substitute pretends to die from the hands of the assassins. 
Pulcinella himself takes the dress of a sorcerer and brings his double 
to life. At the moment when the young swains think they are relieved 
of him and go to visit their loved ones, the true Pulcinella appears 
and arranges all the marriages. He weds Pimpinella, blessed by his 
double, Fourbo, who in his turn appears as the mage. 



* * 



When this ballet was performed at Covent Garden, June 10, 1920, 
the Times published this review: "We are not very sure as to what 
the story actually is, and do feel pretty sure that it does not much 
matter. 'Pulcinella' does with a number of movements from Pergolesi's 
operas very much what 'The Good-Humored Ladies' does with 
Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas. The ballet, in fact, is primarily a means 
of showing us what vitality and charm there is in music which most 
of us had forgotten. But Stravinsky puts on the magician's cloak to 
resuscitate Pergolesi, just as Pulcinella on the stage puts on the magi- 
cian's cloak (we did not quite make out why) to resuscitate other Pul- 
cinellas. Stravinsky's work on the music is very cleverly carried out. 
A good deal of it is simply re-scoring, and in this single instruments, 
from the trumpet to the double-bass, are used to get the utmost effect 
from the simplest means, which is the very essence of good technique. 
But sometimes Stravinsky cannot hold himself in any longer, and, 
kicking Pergolesi out of his light, defeats the primary purpose by inter- 
polating a moment or two of sheer Stravinsky. The result then be- 
comes a little confusing, like the story. Being left in some doubt both 
about the story and the music, we have to look for complete satisfaction 
to the dancing. With M. Massine as the Pulcinella and Mme. Karsavina 
as the Pimpinella, whom he ultimately decides to love, with Mme. 
Tchernicheva and Mme. Vera Nemtchinova as the ladies whose affec- 
tions he steals, and MM. Woizikovsky and Idzikovsky as the two 
gallants, who try to kill him for the theft, we are given so brilliant a 

li 



display that one almost forgets about the three singers who join with 
the orchestra in Pergolesi songs and trios, and justify the title of ballet- 
opera." Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

When the ballet was revived at London in July, 1921, with Woizikov- 
sky as Pulcinella, and with Mmes. Lopokova, Tchernicheva, 
Nemtchinova, and MM. Novak, Idzikovsky, dancers, and the singers 
Zoia Roskovska and MM. Ritch and Keedanov, the Daily Telegraph 
said (July 6): — 

"Until it is about half-way through 'Pulcinella/ the old Italian story 
to which Stravinsky has fitted an arrangement of Pergolesi music, is 
as delightful a ballet-opera as one could wish to see. It has in their 
quintessence those happy qualities which have put the Russian Ballet 
in a place by itself — invention, imagination, grace, and humor. The 
dances are of the daintiest ; the comically serious imitation of the old- 
fashioned conventions is as entertaining as can be ; the music is a particu- 
larly clever experiment in the difficult art of bringing an old composer 
up to date without overdoing it. So far as the rest of the ballet is con- 
cerned, one has no quarrel with the music, but dramatically it falls 
to pieces. It infringes two of the chief dramatic canons, for in the first 
place it becomes confusing, and it is extremely difficult to know which 
of the gentlemen in the large black noses is which and why he is doing 
what he does. In the second place, it loses its grip upon the audience, 
and may have been compared to a farce with two very good acts and 
one greatly inferior one to end up with. It is one of the very fine ballets 
in the Russians' repertory which really need cutting and revising. 
That it was enthusiastically received on its revival was due to the 
brilliant dancing . . . and to the fine singing." 

The score calls for these instruments: two flutes (second flute inter- 
changeable with piccolo), two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, trumpet, 
trombone, and solo quintet of strings, and the usual strings. 






There is a dispute over the origin of the Neapolitan Pulcinella: 
whether he is descended from Maccus, the grotesque fool of Atellan 
farce, or from Pulcinella dalle Carceri, a queer patriot of the thirteenth 
century. This is certain, that in more modern times he made his appear- 
ance in the sixteenth century, "in the white shirt and breeches of a 
countryman of Acerra, his black mask, long nose, hump, dagger, and 
truncheon being later additions. Time, alas! has given him a foolish 
wife and made him a mere puppet, though little more than a century 
ago, in Cerlone's clever hand he mirrored a people and an age." He 



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has also been described as a tall fellow, obstreperous, alert, sensual, 
with a long hooked nose, a black half-mask, a gray and pyramidal cap, 
white shirt without ruffles, white trousers creased and girdled with a 
cord from which a little bell was sometimes suspended. He with Scara- 
muccia was Neapolitan as Cassandrino was Roman, Girolamo of 
Naples, Gianduja of Turin. For a description of these popular heroes 
in Italian "Improvised Comedy" and marionette shows, see Magnin's 
"Histoire des Marionettes en Europe" (Paris, 1852); the article "Pul- 
cinella" in Pougin's" Dictionnaire du Theatre" (Paris, 1885); Celler's 
"Les Types populaires an Theatre" (Paris, 1870), and Chapter III in 
Chatfield-Taylor's "Goldoni" (New York, 1913). 






Pergolesi is now best known by his beautiful "Stabat Mater"; his 
opera "La Serva Padrona" (1733) which is still performed, and a few 
songs still sung in concert-halls ("Nina" is falsely attributed to him); 
but he wrote nearly a dozen operas, several cantatas, and much music 
for the church. 

"La Serva Padrona" was performed as "The Mistress and Maid," 
by "the celebrated Italian Pere Golaise" (sic) at Baltimore, Md., by a 
French company of comedians, on June 14, 1790. It was performed in 
Italian at the Academy of Music, New York, on November 13, 1858, 
with Marie Piccolomini as the housemaid. It was in the repertoire of the 
Society of American Singers, New York, in 1917-18. 



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Andante and Allegro from the Concerto in D major for Violon- 
cello and Orchestra, Op. 45 . . Wilhelm Bernhard Molique 

(Born at Nuremberg, October 7, 1802; died at Kannstadt, near Stuttgart, 

on May 10, 1869.) 

Molique is better known by his violin concertos. There was a time 
when his oratorio " Abraham/' produced at the Norwich (Eng.) Festival 
of 1860, was popular. 

The son of a City Musician, he took lessons on various instruments 
from his father. King Maximilian I. of Bavaria provided Bernhard with 
the money for violin lessons from Pietro Rovelli, in 1817-19 a concert- 
master in Munich. For a short time Molique played in the orchestra 
of the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, but in 1820 he succeeded Rovelli. 
From 1826 to 1849 he was Court Concert-master at Stuttgart, making 
many tours as a virtuoso. In 1849 he made London his dwelling-place, 
where he was highly esteemed as violonist, quartet player, and teacher- 
He went to Kannstadt in 1866. His playing was described as "quiet," 
while he had a remarkable left-hand technic. In his compositions he 
was influenced by Spohr. He wrote six violin concertos, eight quartets 
for stringed instruments, a symphony, two pianoforte trios, a violin 
concertino, a pianoforte quartet, a quartet for flutes, two masses, small 
pieces for various instruments, and some vocal. Perhaps his best 
works are the third and fifth violin concertos. 



Prelude and " Love-Death" from " Tristan and Isolde" 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The subject of " Tristan und Isolde" was first mentioned by Wagner 
in a letter to Liszt in the latter part of 1854; the poem was written at 
Zurich in the summer of 1857, and finished in September of that year. 
The composition of the first act was completed at Zurich, December 31, 
1857 (some say, but only in the sketch) ; the second act was completed 
at Venice in March, 1859; the third act at Lucerne in August, 1859. 

This "action" in three parts was performed for the first time at the 
Royal Court Theatre, Munich, June 10, 1865.* The first performance 
in America was at the Metropolitan, New York, December 1, 1886. f 

The first performance in Boston was at the Boston Theatre, April 1, 

1895.J 

The Prelude and the Love-Death were performed in concerts before 
the production of the opera at Munich. The Prelude was played for 

♦Tristan, Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld; Kurvenal, Mitterwurzer; Melot, Heinrich; Marke, 
Zuttmayer; Isolde, Mme. Schnorr von Carolsfeld; Brangane, Miss Deinet. Hans von Biilow 
conducted. 

■fTristan, Albert Niemann; Kurvenal, Adolf Robinson; Melot, Rudolph von Milder; Marke» 
Ernil Fischer; Isolde, Lilli Lehmann; Brangane, Marianne Brandt; Ein Hirt, Otto Kemlitz; Steuer- 
mann, Emil Sanger; Seeman, Max Alvary. Anton Seidl conducted. 

JTristan, Max Alvary; Kurvenal, Franz Schwartz; Melot, James F. Thomson; Marke, Emil 
Fischer; Seemann, Mr. Zdanov; Isolde, Rosa Sucher; Brangane, Marie Brema. Walter Damrosch 
conducted. 

14 



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the first time at Prague, March 12, 1859, and Billow, who conducted, 
composed a close for concert purposes. It was stated on the programme 
that the Prelude was performed " through the favor of the composer." 
The Prelude was also played at Leipsic, June 1, 1859. Yet, when 
Johann Herbeck asked later in the year permission to perform it in 
Vienna, Wagner wrote him from Paris that the performance at Leipsic 
was against his wish, and that, as soon as Herbeck knew the piece, he 
would understand why Wagner considered it unsuitable for concert 
purposes. And then Wagner put the Prelude on the programme of his 
concert given in Paris, January 25, 1860, and arranged the ending. 

Wagner himself frequently conducted the Prelude and Love-Death, 
arranged by him for orchestra alone, in the concerts given by him in 
1863. At those given in Carlsruhe and Lowenberg the programme 
characterized the Prelude as "Liebestod" and the latter section, now 
known as "Liebestod," as "Verklarung" (" Transfiguration"). 

The Prelude, Langsam und schmachtend (slow and languishingly), 
in A minor, 6-8, is a gradual and long-continued crescendo to a most 
sonorous fortissimo; a shorter decrescendo leads back to pianissimo. 
It is free in form and of continuous development. There are two chief 
themes: the first phrase, sung by violoncellos, is combined in the third 
measure with a phrase ascending chromatically and given to the oboes. 

These phrases form a theme known as the Love Potion motive, or the 
motive of Longing; for passionate commentators are not yet agreed 
about the terminology. The second theme again sung by the violon- 
cellos, a voluptuous theme, is entitled Tristan's Love Glance. 

The Prelude is scored for three flutes (one interchangeable with 
piccolo), two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, three 
bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, and the usual strings. 

The first performance in Boston of the Prelude and Love-Death 
(orchestral) was at Theodore Thomas's concert of December 6, 1871. 



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Thursday Evening, February 8, 1 923 

AT EIGHT 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SOLOIST 



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Thursday Evening, February 8, at 8.00 



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Steinert Hall 



162 Boylston Street 



SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



INC. 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEASON 1922-1923 
THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 8, at 8.00 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

GALEN L. STONE Vice-President 

ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

ALFRED L. AIKEN ARTHUR LYMAN 

FREDERICK P. CABOT HENRY B. SAWYER 

ERNEST B. DANE GALEN L. STONE 

M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE BENTLEY W. WARREN 

JOHN ELLERTON LODGE E. SOHIER WELCH 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 

1 




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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



itra 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master. 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Gundersen, R. 
Kassinan, N. 

Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 



Fourel, G. 
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Goldstein, S. 

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Fiedler, B. 
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Bryant, M. 

Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 



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Werner, H. Grover, H. 

Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 

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Bassoons. 


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Piccolo. 


English Horns. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


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Mueller, F 
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BOSTON 



SANDERS THEATRE .... CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



§t 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 8 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 

Mozart . . . Symphony in E-fLat major (Koechel No. 543) 

I. Adagio; Allegro. 

II. Andante. 

III. Minuetto; Trio. 

IV. Finale: Allegro. 

Ballantine . . "From the Garden of Hellas," Suite for Orchestra 

I. Invocation to Pan. 

II. Nocturne. 

III. Aphrodite. 

IV. Unloose your Cables. 



Tchaikovsky . . . Concerto for Violin in D major, Op. 35 

I. Allegro moderate 
II. Canzonetta; Andante. 
III. Finale: Allegro vivacissimo. 

Strauss .... "Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after 

the Old-Fashioned, Roguish manner, — 
in Rondo Form," for Full Orchestra, 
Op. 28 



SOLOIST 
RICHARD BURGIN 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Ballantine's suite 

5 



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Symphony in E-flat major (K. 543). 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.) 

Mozart wrote his three greatest symphonies in 1788. The one in 
E-flat is dated June 26, the one in G minor July 25, the one in C major 
with the fugue-finale August 10. 

His other works of that year are of little importance with the 
exception of a piano concerto in D major which he played at the 
coronation festivities of Leopold II. at Frankfort in 1790. There 
are canons and piano pieces; there is the orchestration of Handel's 
"Acis and Galatea"; there are six German dances and twelve min- 
uets for orchestra. Nor are the works composed in 1789 of interest 
with the exception of the clarinet quintet and a string quartet dedi- 
cated to the King of Prussia. Again we find dances for orchestra, — 
twelve minuets and twelve German dances. 

Why is this? 1787 was the year of "Don Giovanni"; 1790, the 
year of "Cosi fan tutte." Was Mozart, as some say, exhausted by 
the feat of producing three symphonies in such a short time ? Or was 
there some reason for discouragement and consequent idleness? 

The Hitter Gluck, composer to the Emperor Joseph II., died No- 
vember 15, 1787, and thus resigned his position with salary of two 
thousand florins. Mozart was appointed his successor, but the thrifty 
Joseph cut down the salary to eight hundred florins. And Mozart 
at this time was sadly in need of money, as his letters show. In a 
letter of June, 1788, he tells of his new lodgings, where he could have 
better air, a garden, quiet. In another, dated June 27, he says : "I 
have done more work in the ten days that I have lived here than in 
two months in my other lodgings, and I should be much better here, 
were it not for dismal thoughts that often come to me. I must drive 
them resolutely away; for I am living comfortably, pleasantly, and 
cheaply." He borrowed from Puchberg, a merchant with whom he 
became acquainted at a Masonic lodge: the letter with Puchberg's 
memorandum of the amount is in the collection edited by Nohl. 

Mozart could not reasonably expect help from the Emperor. The 
composer of "Don Giovanni" and the "Jupiter" symphony was un- 
fortunate in his Emperors. 

We know little or nothing concerning the first years of the three 
symphonies. Gerber's "Lexicon der Tonktinstler" (1790) speaks 
appreciatively of him : the erroneous statement is made that the 
Emperor fixed his salary in 1788 at six thousand florins ; the varied 
ariettas for piano are praised especially; but there is no mention 
whatever of any symphony. 

The enlarged edition of Gerber's work (1813) contains an extended 



notice of Mozart's last years. It is stated in the summing up of his 
career : "If one knew only one of his noble symphonies, as the over- 
poweringly great, fiery, perfect, pathetic, sublime symphony in C." 
This reference is undoubtedly to the "Jupiter," the one in C major. 

Mozart gave a concert at Leipsic in May, 1789. The programme 
was made up wholly of pieces by him. Among them were two 
symphonies in manuscript. A story that has come down might 
easily lead us to believe that one of them was the one in G minor. 
At a rehearsal for this concert Mozart took the first allegro of a 
symphony at a very fast pace, so that the orchestra soon was unable 
to keep up with him. He stopped the players, began again at the 
same speed, stamped the time so furiously that his steel shoe-buckle 
flew into pieces. He laughed, and, as the players still dragged, he 
began the allegro a third time. The musicians, by this time exas- 
perated, played to suit him. Mozart afterwards said to some who 
wondered at his conduct, because he had on other occasions pro- 
tested against undue speed: "It was not caprice on my part. I 
saw that the majority of the players were well along in years. 
They would have dragged everything beyond endurance if I had 
not set fire to them and made them angry, so that out of sheer spite 
they did their best." Later in the rehearsal he praised the orches- 
tra, and said that it was unnecessary for it to rehearse the accom- 
paniment to the pianoforte concerto: "The parts are correct, you 
play well, and so do I." This concert, by the way, was poorly 
attended, and half of those who were present had received free 
tickets from Mozart, who was generous in such matters. He also 
gave a concert of his own words at Frankfort, October 14, 1790. 
Symphonies were played in Vienna in 1788, but they were by Haydn ; 
and one by Mozart was played in 1791. In 1792 a symphony by 
Mozart was played at Hamburg. 

The early programmes, even when they have been preserved, sel- 
dom determine the date of a first performance. It was the custom 
to print : "Symphonie von Wranitsky," "Sinf onie von Mozart," "Sin- 
fonia di Haydn." Furthermore, it must be remembered that "Sin- 
fonie" was then a term often applied to any work in three or more 
movements written for strings, or strings and wind instruments. 

The two symphonies played at Leipsic were not then published. 
The two that preceded the great three were composed in 1783 and 
1786. The latter of the two (in D major) was performed at Prague 
with extraordinary success. 

The symphony in E-flat induced A. Apel to attempt a translation 
of the music into poetry that should express the character of each 
movement. It excited the fantastical E. T. A. Hoffmann to an 
extraordinary rhapsody: "Love and melancholy are breathed forth 
in purest spirit tones; we feel ourselves drawn with inexpressible 
longing toward the forms which beckon us to join them in their 

8 



flight through the clouds to another sphere. The night Mots out the 
last purple rays of day, and we extend our arms to the beings who 
summon us as they move with the spheres in the eternal circles of 
the solemn dance." So exclaimed Johannes Kreisler in the "Phan- 
tasiestticke in Callots Manier." 

The symphony is scored for flute, two clarinets, two bassoons, two 
horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings. The autograph score is 
in the Royal Library in Berlin. 

The Minuetto appears in the ballet music introduced in perform- 
ances of "Le Nozze di Figaro" at Paris. 

I. Adagio, E-flat major, 4-4; Allegro, E-flat major, 3-4. 

II. Andante, A-flat major, 2-4. 

III. The Minuetto, E-flat major, 3-4, is known to household pian- 
ists through Jules Schulhoff's arrangement. 

IV. Finale. Allegro, E-flat major, 2-4. 



From the Garden op Hellas, Suite for Orchestra 

Edward Ballantine* 

(Born at Oberlin, Ohio, August 6, 1886; now living at Cambridge, Mass.) 

The present version of this suite, dedicated to Edward Burlin- 
game Hill, was completed in the summer of 1922 and is now being 
performed for the first time. A shorter version for smaller or- 
chestra was composed in 1919 and performed by the Boston Festival 
Orchestra, Harrison Keller conducting, at the festival of the Na- 
tional Federation of Music Clubs and the MacDowell Memorial 
Association at Peterboro, N.H., on July 2, 1919. 

The movements "Aphrodite" and. "Unloose your Cables" are tran- 
scriptions for orchestra of songs for voice and piano ; the Nocturne 
and the "Invocation to Pan," though begun as songs, were developed 
into purely orchestral pieces. The transcription of another song, 
"The Tomb of Sophocles," was included in the earlier suite but 
omitted from the present one, while the "Invocation to Pan" has 
been added. 

The suite is scored as follows: piccolo, three flutes, two oboes, 
English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, double- 
bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, three 
kettledrums, cymbals, triangle, Glockenspiel, celesta, two harps, 
and strings. 

The texts are poems from the Greek Anthology as translated by 
Lilla Cabot Perry in the volume "From the Garden of Hellas" 
(Lovell, 1891; Houghton Mifflin, 1904). 

The movements and texts are as follows : — 

I. Invocation to Pan. Allegro, B major. (Crinagoras,f Book VI, 
Epigram 253.) 

*We are indebted to Mr. Ballantine for these notes. — Ed. 

fCrinagoras of Mytilene, the author of 50 Epigrams in the Greek Anthology, lived 
in the reign of Augustus. — Ed. 



O many-watered caverns of the nymphs ! 

Where coolness trickles from the o'er-hanging rock, 

The echoing shrines of Pan with pine-trees crowned, 

The lurking valleys hid beneath the cliff, 

Or trunks of junipers, decayed and old, 

But sacred still to hunters ; heaps of rocks, 

The piled up shrines of Hermes, will not ye 

Receive propitious at Sosander's hands, 

The first fruits of his ever-favored chase? 

II. Nocturne. Andante, D major. (Crinagoras, Book VII, Epi- 
gram 633.) 

The moon, arising on the verge of twilight, 

Hath clouded all her beams to hide her tears, 

Since that Selene, her most lovely namesake, 

Doth life relinquish and to shades descend. 

For she would share death's darkness with the maiden 

Round whom she flung the beauty of her light. 

III. Aphrodite. Andante con moto, D major. (Antipater* Book 
IX, Epigram 143.)- 

On a Statue of Aphrodite by the Seashore 

Small indeed is this my home, 
Here where dashes the white foam 

On the shore. 
But I love it and rejoice 
In the distant threatening voice 

Of ocean's roar. 
Sailors, too, for help at sea 
Or in love here come to me 

And implore. 

IV. Unloose your Cables. Allegro, G major. (Marcus- Argenta- 
rius, Book X, Epigram 4.) 

Unloose your cables ! Be your swift sails spread 

All ready, sailors, now to plough the sea ! 
From smiling zephyr's touch the winter's fled, 

While the blue waves it smooths caressingly. 
The chirping swallow builds of straw and clay 

A nest to hold the little nestlings dear ; 
Fresh blossoms pierce the earth. Away ! Away ! 

Priapus bids you sail, nor dally here ! 

Edward Ballantine studied piano and harmony with John Her- 
mann Loud and Mary L. Regal in Springfield, Mass. ; then, while a 
special student in Harvard College, 1903-07, he studied composition 
with Messrs. Spalding and Converse, and piano with Edward Noyes 
and Helen Hopekirk. From 1907 to 1909 he studied piano in Berlin 
with Arthur Schnabel and Rudolph Ganz, and composition with 
Philippe Rufer. During the fall term of 1909 he studied composi- 
tion in the Scola Cantorum in Paris. Since 1912 he has been an 
instructor in the Music Department of Harvard College. 

Published compositions : — 

Solo Songs: Love's Creed and Palazzo Pagani (Schirmer) ; Seven 
Lyrics from the Greek (Schmidt) ; The Oak Tree (Ditson). 

Song of Night, for chorus of men's voices with piano accompani- 
ment, first performed by the Harvard Glee Club in Symphony Hall, 
April 17, 1922. 

» Antipater of Thessaloniea lived in the latter part of the reign of Augustus. — Ed. 

10 



Orchestral Works (MS.) : — 

"The Awakening of the Woods," tone-poem ; first performed at 
a "Pop" concert, Boston, in 1907; later at the Pierian Sodality Cen- 
tennial, May 22, 1908. 

Prelude to "The Delectable Forest," a play in one act by Hermann 
Hagedorn, first performed at the MacDowell Festival, Peterboro, 
N.H., August 22, 1914; at Cambridge at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, December 10, 1914. 

"The Eve of St. Agnes," symphonic poem, first performed by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, January 19, 20, 1917. 

"By a Lake in Kussia," lyric piece for orchestra, first performed 
at a "Pop" concert, Boston, June 27, 1922, and at a New England 
Conservatory Orchestra concert, December 20, 1922. 

Overture to "The Piper," play by Josephine Preston Peabody 
Marks. This overture has not been performed. 



Concerto in D major, for Violin, Or. 35. Peter Tchaikovsky 

(Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; 
died at Petrograd, November 6, 1893.) 

Tchaikovsky spent the winter and early spring of 1877-78 in cities 
of Italy and Switzerland. March, 1878, was passed at Clarens. On 
the 27th of that month he wrote Mrs. von Meek that the weather had 
been unfavorable for walking, and that therefore he had spent much 
time in hearing and playing music at home. "To-day I played the 
whole time for Kotek.* I have not heard or played any good music 
for so long that I thus busy myself with extraordinary gusto. Do 
you know the French composer Lalo's 'Spanish Symphony'? This 
piece has been produced by the now very modern violinist Sarasate." 
He praised Lalo's work for its "freshness, piquant rhythms, beauti- 
fully harmonized melodies," and added : "Like Leo Delibes and Bizet 
he shuns studiously all routine commonplaces, seeks new forms with- 
out wishing to appear profound, and, unlike the Germans, cares more 
for musical beauty than for mere respect for the old traditions." 
Two days after Tchaikovsky wrote to Mrs. von Meek that he was at 
that moment working on a pianoforte sonata, a violin concerto, and 
some smaller pieces. He wrote on April 12 that the sonata and the 
concerto interested him exceedingly. "For the first time in my life 
I have begun to work on a new piece without having finished the pre- 
ceding one. Until now I have always followed the rule not to begin a 
new piece before the old one was completed; but now I could not 
withstand the temptation to sketch the concerto, and I was so de- 
lighted with the work that I put the sonata aside ; yet now and then 
I go back to it." 

The concerto, dedicated at first to Leopold Auer, but afterwards to 
Adolf Brodsky, was performed for the first time at a Philharmonic 
concert, Vienna, December 4, 1881. Brodsky was the solo violinist. 

* Joseph Kotek, violinist, teacher and composer for violin, was born at Kamenez- 
Podolsk, in the government of Moscow, October 25, 1855. He died at Davos, January 
4, 1885. He studied at the Moscow Conservatory and afterwards with Joachim. In 
1882 he was appointed a teacher at the Royal High School for Music, Berlin. As a 
violinist, he was accurate, skilful, unemotional. Tchaikovsky was deeply attached to 
him. 

11 



The first movement was played in Boston by Bernhard Listemann 
with pianoforte accompaniment on February 11, 1888, but the first 
performance in the United States of the whole work was by Maud 
Powell at New York, January 19, 1889. 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for two flutes, two 
oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, kettle- 
drums, and strings. 

I. Allegro moderato, D major, 4-4. 

II. Canzonetta, Andante, G minor, 3-4. 

III. Finale, Allegro vivacissimo, D major, 2-4. A Kondo based 
on two themes of Russian character. 

This finale is Russian in many ways, as in the characteristic trick 
of repeating a phrase with almost endless repetitions. 



"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the Old-fashioned, 
Roguish Manner, — in Rondo Form/' for Full Orchestra, 
Op. 28 Richard Strauss 

(Boru at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living.) 

"Till Eulenspiegel's lustige Streiche, nach alter Schelmenweise — 
in Rondoform — fur grosses Orchester gesetzt, von Richard Strauss," 
was produced at a Gtirzenich concert at Cologne, November 5, 1895. 
It was composed in 1894-95 at Munich, and the score was completed 
there, May 6, 1895. The score and parts were published in Sep- 
tember, 1895. 

Certain German critics were not satisfied with Strauss's meagre 
clew, and they at once began to evolve labored analyses. One of 
these programmes, the one prepared by Mr. Wilhelm Klatte, was 
published in the Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung of November 8, 1895, 
and frequently in programme books in Germany and England, in 
some cases with Strauss's sanction.* The translation is, for the 
most part, by Mr. C. A. Barry : — 

A strong sense of German folk-feeling (des Volksthiimlichen) 
pervades the whole work ; the source from which the tone-poet drew 

• It has been stated that Strauss gave Wilhelm Mauke a programme of this rondo 
to assi»t Mauke in writing his "Fuhrer" or elaborate explanation of the composition. 



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his inspiration is clearly indicated in the introductory bars: 
Gemachlich (Andante commodo), F major, 4-8. To some extent this 
stands for the "once upon a time" of the story-books. That what 
follows is not to be treated in the pleasant and agreeable manner 
of narrative poetry, but in a more sturdy fashion, is at once made 
apparent by a characteristic bassoon figure which breaks in sforzato 
upon the piano of the strings. Of equal importance for the develop- 
ment of the piece is the immediately following humorous horn theme 
(F major, 6-8). Beginning quietly and gradually becoming more 
lively, it is at first heard against a tremolo of the "divided" violins 
and then again in the tempo primo, Sehr lebhaft (Vivace). This 
theme, or at least the kernel of it, is taken up in turn by oboes, 
clarinets, violas, violoncellos, and bassoons, and is finally brought 
by the full orchestra, except trumpets and trombones, after a few 
bars, crescendo, to a dominant half-close fortissimo in C. The 
thematic material, according to the main point, has now been fixed 
upon; the milieu is given by which we are enabled to recognize 
the pranks and droll tricks which the crafty schemer is about to 
bring before our eyes, or, far rather, before our ears. 

Here he is (clarinet phrase followed by chord for wind instru- 
ments). He wanders through the land as a thoroughgoing adven- 
turer. His clothes are tattered and torn: a queer, fragmentary 
version of the Eulenspiegel motive resounds from the horns. Fol- 



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lowing a merry play with this important leading motive, which 
directly leads to a short but brilliant tutti, in which it again asserts 
itself, first in the flutes, and then finally merges into a softly 
murmuring and extended tremolo for the violas, this same motive, 
gracefully phrased, reappears in succession in the basses, flute, first 
violins, and again in the basses. The rogue, putting on his best 
manners, slyly passes through the gate, and enters a certain city. 
It is market-day; the women sit at their stalls and prattle (flutes, 
oboes, and clarinets). Hop! Eulenspiegel springs on his horse 
(indicated by rapid triplets extending through three measures, 
from the low D of the bass clarinet to the highest A of the D 
clarinet), gives a smack of his whip, and rides into the midst of 
the crowd. Clink, clash, clatter ! A confused sound of broken pots 
and pans, and the market-women are put to flight! In haste the 
rascal rides away (as is admirably illustrated by a fortissimo pas- 
sage for the trombones) and secures a safe retreat. 

Again the Eulenspiegel theme is brought forward in the previous 
lively tempo, 6-8, but is now subtly metamorphosed and chival- 
rously colored. Eulenspiegel has become a Don Juan, and he way- 
lays pretty women. And one has bewitched him: Eulenspiegel 
is in love ! Hear how now, glowing with love, the violins, clarinets, 
and flutes sing. But in vain. His advances are received with 
derision, and he goes away in a rage. How can one treat him so 
slightingly ? Is he not a splendid fellow ? Vengeance on the whole 
human race! He gives vent to his rage (in a fortissimo of horns 
in unison, followed by a pause), and strange personages suddenly 
draw near (violoncellos). A troop of honest, worthy Philistines! 
In an instant all his anger is forgotten. But it is still his chief 
joy to make fun of these lords and protectors of blameless decorum, 
to mock them, as is apparent from the lively and accentuated frag- 
ments of the theme, sounded at the beginning by the horn, which 
are now heard first from horns, violins, violoncellos, and then 
from trumpets, oboes, and flutes. Now that Eulenspiegel has had 
his joke, he goes away and leaves the professors and doctors behind 
in thoughtful meditation. Fragments of the typical theme of the 
Philistines are here treated canonically. The wood-wind, violins, 
and trumpets suddenly project the Eulenspiegel theme into their 
profound philosophy. It is as though the transcendent rogue were 
making faces at the bigwigs from a distance — again and again — 
and then waggishly running away. This is aptly characterized by 
a short episode (A-flat) in a hopping, 2-4 rhythm, which, similarly 
with the first entrance of the Hypocrisy theme previously used, is 
followed by phantom-like tones from the wood-wind and strings 
and then from trombones and horns. Has our rogue still no fore- 
boding? 

Interwoven with the very first theme, indicated lightly by trum- 
pets and English horn, a figure is developed from the second intro- 
ductory and fundamental theme. It is first taken up by the clari- 
nets ; it seems to express the fact that the arch-villain has again got 
the upper hand of Eulenspiegel, who has fallen into his old manner 
of life. If we take a formal view, we have now reached the repe- 
tition of the chief theme. A merry jester, a born liar, Eulenspiegel 
goes wherever he can succeed with a hoax. His insolence knows 

14 



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HIS MASTER'S VOICE" 



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no bounds. Alas ! there is a sudden jolt to his wanton humor. The 
drum rolls a hollow roll; the jailer drags the rascally prisoner into 
the criminal court. The verdict "guilty" is thundered against the 
brazen-faced knave. The Eulenspiegel theme replies calmly to the 
threatening chords of wind and lower strings. Eulenspiegel lies. 
Again the threatening tones resound; but Eulenspiegel does not 
confess his guilt. On the contrary, he lies for the third time. His 
jig is up. Fear seizes him. The Hypocrisy motive is sounded 
piteously ; the fatal moment draws near ; his hour has struck ! The 
descending leap of a minor seventh in bassoons, horns, trombones, 
tuba, betokens his death. He has danced in air. A last struggle 
(flutes), and his soul takes flight. 

After sad, tremulous pizzicati of the strings the epilogue begins. 
At first it is almost identical with the introductory measures, which 
are repeated in full; then the most essential parts of the second 
and third chief-theme passages appear, and finally merge into the 
soft chord of the sixth on A-flat, while wood-wind and violins sus- 
tain. Eulenspiegel has become a legendary character. The people 
tell their tales about him : "Once upon a time . . ." But that he 
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16 



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EMIL MOLLENHAUER, Conductor 

CHORUS OF 400 — ORCHESTRA — ORGAN 
THE DREAM OF GERONTIUS 

(Sir Edward Elgar) (Text by Cardinal Newman) 

SOLOISTS 

MERLE ALCOCK, Contralto RICHARD CROOKS, Tenor 

CLARENCE WHITEHILL, Bass 

Tickets, $2.50, $2.00, $1.50, $1.00 (plus 10% tax) 



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PIERRE MONTEUX. Conductor 

Soloist, MAGDELEINE BRARD, Piano 
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FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



INC. 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEASON 1922-1923 
THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 1, at 8.00 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
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1 



<UHE INSTRUMENT OF THE IMMORTALS 




Franz Liszt 
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Boston 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. Hoffmann, 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 


Gundersen, R. 
Kassinan, N. 


Pinfield, C 
Barozzi, S. 


Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 


Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 


Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 


Gorodetzky, L. Kurth, R. 
Goldstein, S. Bryant, M. 


Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C. 


Stonestreet, L. 
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Riedlinger, 
Tapley, R. 


H. Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 

Violas. 


Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 


Fourel, G. 
Arti&res, L. 


Werner, H. Grover, H. 
Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 


Fiedler, A. 
MuUaly, J. 




Gerhardt, ! 
Deane, C. 


5. Kluge, M. 
Zahn, F. 

Violoncellos. 




Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller. J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Basses. 


Langendoen, J 
Marjollet, L. 


Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Ludwig, 0. Kelley, A. 
Frankel, I. Demetrides, 


Girard, H. 
L. 


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Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


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Sand, A. 
Arcieri, E. 
H. Vannini, A. 


Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horns. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


Battles, A. 


Mueller, F 
Speyer, L. 


Mimart, P. 


Piller, B. 


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Wendler, G. 
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Van Den Berg, C- Mann, J. 

Perret, G. 

Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C. 
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Librarian. 


Snow. A. 




Fiedler, A. 

3 


Rogers, L. J. 



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B©§toim Symphony 

Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Chausson 



SIXTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 1 



AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



I. Lent; Allegro vivo. 
II. Tres lent. 
III. Anime. 



Symphony in B-flat major, Op. 20 



Mozart 



Wagner 
Wagner 



Concerto for Pianoforte in D minor (Kochel No. 466) 

I. Allegro. 
II. Romanza. 
III. Rondo. 

Prelude to "Lohengrin" 

Overture to "Tannhauser" 



SOLOIST 
ALFREDO CASELLA 

BALDWIN PIANO USED 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

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Symphony in B-flat, Of. 20 Ernest Chausson 

(Born at Paris on January 21, 1855; killed at Limay by a bicycle accident, 

June 10, 1899.) 

This symphony, completed, if not wholly written, in 1890, was 
performed for the first time at a concert of the Societe Nationale, 
Paris, April 18, 1891, and again at its concert on April 30, 1892; 
but it was first "revealed to the Parisian puhlic" — to quote the 
phrase of M. Pierre de Breville — at a concert of the Berlin Philhar- 
monic Orchestra, led by Arthur Mkisch, at the Cirque d'Hiver, 
Paris, on May 13, 1897. In 1897 it was performed at an Ysaye con- 
cert in Brussels (January 10). 

The first performance of the symphony in this country was by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Vincent d'Indy conductor by invi- 
tation, at Philadelphia, December 4, 1905. 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Gericke conductor, January 19, 1906 ; 
the second performance was on October 20, 1916; the third on 
November 28, 1919. 

The symphony, dedicated to Henry Lerolle, is scored for three 
flutes (one interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, English horn, 
two clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, four horns, four trum- 
pets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, two 
harps, and strings. It is in three movements. 

The following sketch is, in large measure, a paraphrase of an 
article written by Stephane Kisvaeg. 

I. Lent, B-flat, 4-4. An introduction in a broad and severe style 
begins with a clearly defined figure in unison (violas, violoncellos, 
double-basses, clarinet, horn). The composer establishes at once 
the mood and announces the leading motives of the symphony, in 
their subtle essence at least, if not in their plastic reality. Strings 
and woodwind instruments are used delicately in counterpoint. 
After short episodes (horns and violas) the orchestra little by little 
becomes quiet, and, while the background is almost effaced, a little 
run of violins and wood- wind instruments introduces the Allegro 
vivo (3-4). 

The chief theme, one of healthy but restrained joy, exposed in a 
simple manner (mf) by horn and bassoon, passes then from horn 
and bassoon to oboe and violoncello and in fragments to other in- 
struments. The ornamentation, though habitually sombre, under- 
goes modifications. There is a fortissimo tutti, allegro molto, which 
is followed immediately by a second theme, more exuberant in its 
joy, more pronounced than the first. It is sung at first by flutes, 
English horn, and horns, with violins and violas, and with a harp 

7 



enlacement. A short phrase of a tender melancholy is given to 
viola, violoncello, and clarinet. The Allegro is based on these 
themes, which are developed and combined with artistic mastery 
and with unusual harmonization. "It is an unknown landscape, but 
it is seen in a clear light, and it awakens in the hearer impression 
of an inexpressible freshness." In the final measures of this move- 
ment the initial theme becomes binary (Presto) ; the basses repeat 
the elements of the Allegro, and the hearer at the end is conscious 
of human, active joy. 

II. Tres lent (with a great intensity of expression). The title 
should be "Grief." At first a deep and smothered lamentation, 
which begins and ends in D minor without far-straying modulations. 
"The sadness of a forest on a winter's day ; the desolation of a heart 
which has been forbidden to hope, from which every illusion has 
been swept away." The English horn, to the accompaniment of 
pianissimo triplets in the strings, gives out with greater distinct- 
ness the phrase of affliction, now and then interrupted fruitlessly 
by consolatory words of flutes and violins. The bitter lament is 
heard again, persistent and sombre; and then the English horn 
sings again, but more definitely, its song of woe. The violins no 
longer make any attempt at consolation: they repeat, on the con- 
trary, doubled by violoncellos, the lament of the English horn, 
which, though it is now embellished with delicate figuration, remains 
sad and inconsolable. After an excited dialogue between different 
groups of instruments, where a very short melodic phrase, thrown 
from the strings to the brass, is taken up with intensity by the whole 
orchestra, there is a return to the hopeless sorrow of the beginning, 
which is now "crystallized and made perpetual, if the phrase be 
allowed," in D major. 

III. Anime, B-flat, 4-4 (to be beaten 2-2). A crisp and loud tutti 
marks the beginning of the last movement. It is followed at once 
by a rapid figure for the violoncellos and double-basses, above which 
a summons is sounded by trumpets, then violins, violas, and the 
whole orchestra. The pace quickens, and the underlying theme of 
the finale is heard (violoncellos and bass clarinet). This clear and 
concise theme has a curiously colored background by reason of 
sustained horn chords. The phrase, taken up sonorously by the 
strings, is enlarged, enriched with ingenious episodes, and by an 
interesting contrapuntal device it leads to a thunderous chromatic 
scale in unison, which in turn introduces a serene choral (D major). 
Sung by all the voices, it is heard again in A major. A gentle phrase 
(for oboe, sung again and continued by the clarinet) brings again 
the choral (wind instruments). There is a return to B-flat major. 



A theme recalls one of those in the first movement, which goes 
through a maze of development, to end in a continued and gentle 
murmur of horns in thirds. The clarinet traces above them the 
choral melody. The chief theme is heard again, as is the choral, 
now sung by violins. The oboe interjects a dash of melancholy, but 
the trombones proclaim the chief theme of the first movement. A 
crescendo suddenly dies away at the height of its force, and the 
brass utter a sort of prayer into which enter both resignation and 
faith. The master rhythm of this finale reappears (basses), while 
the sublime religious song still dominates. A tutti bursts forth, 
which is followed by a definite calm. There are sustained chords, 
and the basses repeat, purely and majestically, the first measures of 
the introduction. 

* * 
Ernest Chausson was born at Paris in 1855. He was riding a 

bicycle down a hill on his estate at Limay, June 10, 1899. The 

bicycle escaped his control, and his head was dashed against a stone 

wall. 

His family was wealthy. His parents wished that he should be 

a lawyer, and they insisted that he should be admitted to the bar 

before he studied music. He was twenty-five years old when he 
became a pupil of Massenet at the Paris Conservatory. He was 

associated at that time with Bruneau, Vidal, Marty, Pierne, Leroux ; 
but, older than they, he brought to his work a certain maturity of 
intellect coupled with the indecision of one that did not see clearly 
his way. He was inclined to despise musical conventionalism; and 
he aimed at results which, in the opinion of his school-fellows, were 
beyond his reach. Some charming songs were composed as class 
exercises; but before the end of two years Chausson left the Con- 
servatory to become the pupil of Cesar Franck. With him he studied 
from 1880 to 1883. He joined the Societe Nationale, and became in- 
timate with Vincent d'Indy, Gabriel Faure, Henri Duparc, Pierre 
de Breville, Charles Bordes. With them he labored as secretary 
in every way for musical righteousness as it appeared to them. 

Henri Gauthier- Villa rs, better known as " Willy" or as "L'Ou- 
vreuse du Cirque d'Ete" in his feuilleton published in L'Echo de 
Paris, June 19, 1899, admitted that Chausson was less known to the 
crowd than this or that "muddler-together of lucrative operettas.'' 
"No one should be astonished that he had little reputation with the 
mob: he wrote only good music. ... It seems as though such rich 
flowerage of works should impose on criticism the duty of calling 
attention to it, but criticism, as always, was busy with less artistic 
and more remunerative tasks. Here is an instance. When the Ger- 
man Mkisch came to reveal to Paris the symphony of the Frenchman 

9 



Chausson, the composer on whom it was incumbent to judge his 
colleagues in a morning newspaper (which since . . . but it was 
then influential) mentioned the work in four disdainful lines. 
Chausson's friends were indignant, or grieved, according to their 
temperament; but he lost none of his smiling amiability: 'Pay no 
attention to these trifles. If my symphony is good, the critics will 
end sooner or later by acknowledging the fact.' . . . Chausson died 
at the moment when he had acquired the one quality that he lacked, 
self-confidence." 



Concerto in D minor, for the Pianoforte (K. 466) 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.) 

This concerto was completed in Vienna on February 10, 1785. It 
was performed for the first time at Mozart's subscription concert 
on February 11, 1785, "auf der Mehlgrube." This was the first of 
a series of subscription concerts given on Fridays. There were more 
than a hundred and fifty subscribers at three ducats a head. His 
father was in Vienna at the time and wrote to Mariane after the 
concert : "Wolfgang played a new and excellent piano-concerto, 
which the copyist was copying yesterday (February 10) when we 
called, and your brother did not have time to play through the 
Rondo once, because he had to look over the copying. The concerto 
is in I) minor (N. 8)." It is the eighteenth of the twenty-five 
written for one pianoforte, in the list of Kochel. The autograph 
score is in the library of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 
Vienna. 

The concerto has been performed in Boston at a Theodore 
Thomas concert, October 8, 1870, Anna Mehlig, pianist ; at concerts 
of the Harvard Musical Association, January 5, 1871, Anna Mehlig, 
pianist, January 18, 1872, Richard Hoffman, pianist; and at con- 
certs of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, February 20, 1886,, Mrs. 
H. H. A. Beach, pianist; April 24, 1915, Ossip Gabrilowitsch, 
pianist. 

The orchestral portion of the work is scored for flute, two oboes, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. 

I. Allegro, D minor, 4-4. The orchestral introduction prepares 
the thematic material of the movement. The chief theme is given 
out in full and unaccompanied by the pianoforte. This is developed 
with use of a characteristic figure heard at once in the basses of 
the introduction. The second theme, F major, is also given to the 

10 



pianoforte and extended by it. An orchestral, tutti brings to mind 
the introduction. The pianoforte takes up the chief theme. The 
material is used in the repetition section, and after an orchestral 
crescendo, there is a cadenza. The movement ends with motives 
taken from the introduction and played by the orchestra. 

II. Romanze, B-flat major, 2-2. There is no indication of 

tempo in the original manuscript. The chief theme, given immedi- 
ately to the pianoforte, is repeated forte by the orchestra. The 
flowing and ornamented song is continued by the pianoforte. After 
an orchestra] tutti, a side motive is introduced by the pianoforte. 
This finally leads in to the return of the chief theme. There is a 
middle section in G minor. The first section reappears without 
the use of the side theme. 

III. Rondo, D minor — D major, 2-2. No indication of tempo 
is given in the autograph manuscript. The old Breitkopf and 
Hartel edition has "Prestissimo"; the new edition of the score has 
"Allegro assai" as also the editions of Hummel and Andre. The 
pianoforte gives out the first theme and the orchestra takes it up. 
The second theme is given also to the pianoforte. Of the other 
thematic material a motive in F major first given to the orchestra 
is the most important. It plays a conspicuous part in the final 
section in D major after the cadenza. 

Cadenzas for this concerto were written by Beethoven and Hum- 
mel, but not published in the lifetime of the composer. 






Mozart, famed as the greatest pianist of his day, had small and 

beautiful hands. According to Memetschek, he moved them so 

quietly and naturally on the keyboard that the eye as well as the 

ear was pleased. That he could grasp so many keys was a source 

of wonder. His facility was due to his close study of Ph. E. Bach's 

works from which he worked out his system of fingering. Mozart 

demanded of a pianist a quiet and steady hand with such natural 
lightness, flexibility and speed that passages would "flow life oil," 
to use his own words. He insisted on absolute correctness, clear- 
ness, tasteful expression. He warned against undue haste. "It is 
much easier to play a piece fast than slowly." He himself excited 
wonder by playing in tempo rubato yet preserving the tempo with 
the left hand. As he wrote to his father: "That I always remain 
strictly in time surprises every one; they cannot understand that 
the left hand should not in the least be concerned in a tempo 
rubato. When they play, the left hand always follows." Mozart 
was the first great virtuoso who habitually used the "fortepiano," 
formed a style of playing to suit it. He became acquainted with 
Stein's instruments at Augsburg in 1777. Stein's pianoforte had a 
"genouilliere," or knee pedal for raising the dampers. This pre- 
ceded the foot-pedal. 

n 



Prelude to "Lohengrin" Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

Wagner began to sketch his opera "Lohengrin" in the summer 
of 1845 at Marienbad. The whole work was completed in 1847; 
it was produced on August 28, 1850,* by Liszt at the Court theatre 
at Weimar. 

The prelude to the first act was composed August 28, 1847, 
at Dresden. The first concert interpretation took place at Leipsic, 
January 17, 1853, at a performance given for the benefit of the 
Gewandhaus orchestra (Leipsic) pension fund. Julius Rietz was 
the conductor. Wagner directed the prelude at a concert given by 
him in the Zurich theatre May 18, 1853. Stating his reasons for 
giving this concert, Wagner wrote thus to Liszt, May 30, 1853 : "My 
chief object was to hear something from ' Lohengrin,' and especially 
the orchestral prelude, which interested me uncommonly. The 
impression was most powerful, and I had to make every effort 
not to break down. So much is certain: I fully share your pre- 
dilection for 'Lohengrin.' It is the best thing I have done so far." 

Wagner and Liszt wrote programme analyses of the prelude. 
The following is a transcription — compressed by Ernest Newman — 
of Wagner's version. 

"Out of the clear blue ether of the sky there seems to condense a won- 
derful, yet at first hardly perceptible, vision ; and out of this there gradually 
emerges, ever more and more clearly, an angel host bearing in its midst the 
sacred Grail. As it approaches earth it pours out exquisite odors, like streams 
of gold, ravishing the senses of the beholder. The glory of the vision grows 
and grows until it seems as if the rapture must be shattered and dispersed by 
the very vehemence of its own expansion. The vision draws nearer, and the 
climax is reached when at last the Grail is revealed in all its glorious reality, 
radiating fiery beams and shaking the soul with emotion. The beholder 
sinks on his knees in adoring self-annihilation. The Grail pours out its light 
on him like a benediction, and consecrates him to its service ; then the flames 
gradually die away, and the angel host soars up again to the ethereal heights 
in tender joy, having made pure once more the hearts of men by the sacred 
blessings of the Grail." 

♦The cast was as follows : Lohengrin, Beck ; Telramund, Milde ; King Henry, Hofer ; 
the Herald, Patsch ; Ortrud, Miss Fastlinger ; Elsa, Miss Agthe. 



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The first performance of "Lohengrin" in German in the United 
States was at the Stadt Theatre, New York, April 3, 1871. Adolf 
Neuendorif conducted. The cast was as follows : Lohengrin, Habel- 
mann; Telramund, Vierling; King Henry, Franosch; the Herald, 
W. Formes; Ortrud, Mme. Frederici; Elsa, Mme. Lichtmay. The 
first performance in Italian was at the Academy of Music, March 
23, 1874; Lohengrin, Campanini; Telramund, del Puente; King 
Henry, Nannetti ; the Herald, Blum ; Ortrud, Miss Cary ; Elsa, Miss 
Mlsson. 



Overture to "Tannhauser" .... Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

"Tannhauser und der Sangerkrieg auf Wartburg," romantic opera 
in three acts, book and music by Richard Wagner, was first performed 
at the Royal Opera House in Dresden, under the direction of the com- 



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poser, on October 19, 1845. The cast was as follows: Hermann, 
Dettmer; Tannhauser, Tichatschek; Wolfram, Mitterwurzer; Walther, 
Schloss; Biterolf, Wachter; Heinrich, Gurth; Reinmar, Risse; Elizabeth, 
Johanna Wagner; Venus, Schroeder-Devrient; a young shepherd, Miss 
Thiele. 

The first performance in the United States was at the Stadt Theatre, 
New York, April 4, 1859, and the cast was as follows: Hermann, Graff; 
Tannhauser, Pickaneser; Wolfram, Lehmann; Walther, Lotti; Biterlof, 
Urchs; Heinrich, Bolten; Reinmar, Brandt; Elizabeth, Mrs. Siedenburg; 
Venus, Mrs. Pickaneser. Carl Bergmann conducted. The New York 
Evening Post said that part of Tannhauser was beyond the abilities 
of Mr. Pickaneser: "The lady singers have but little to do in the opera, 
and did that little respectably." 

The first performance of the overture in Boston was October 22, 1853, 
at a concert of the Germania Musical Society, Carl Bergmann conductor. 
The programme stated that the orchestra was composed of "fifty 
thorough musicians." A "Finale" from the opera was performed at a 
concert of the Orchestral Union, December 27, 1854. The first per- 
formance of the pilgrims' chorus was at a Philharmonic concert, January 
3, 1857, a concert given by the society "with the highly valuable assis- 
tance of Herr Louis Schreiber, solo trumpet-player to the King of 
Hanover." 

The overture, scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, strings, begins with a slow 
introduction, Andante maestoso, E major, 3-4, in which the pilgrims' 
chorus, "Begluckt darf nun dich, o Heimath, ich schauen," from the 
third act, is heard, at first played piano by lower wood- wind instruments 
and horns with the melody in the trombones against a persistent figure 
in the violins, then sinking to a pianissimo (clarinets and bassoons). 
They that delight in tagging motives so that there may be no mistake 
in recognition call the first melody the "Religious Motive" or "The 
Motive of Faith." The ascending phrase given to the violoncellos is 
named the "Motive of Contrition," and the persistent violin figure the 
"Motive of Rejoicing." 

The main body of the overture, Allegro, E major, 4-4, begins even 
before the completion of the pilgrims' song with an ascending first 
theme (violas), "the typical motive of the Venus Mountain." 

Inside the Horsel here the air is hot; 
Right little peace one hath for it, God wot; 
The scented dusty daylight burns the air 
And my heart chokes me till I hear it not. 

The first period of the movement is taken up wholly with baccha- 
nalian music from the opening scene in the Venus Mountain; and the 

14 



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motive that answers the ascending typical figure, the motive for vio- 
lins, flutes, oboes, then oboes and clarinets, is known as the theme 
of the bacchanal, "the drunkenness of the Venus Mountain." This 
period is followed by a subsidiary theme in the same key, a passionate 
figure in the violins against ascending chromatic passages in the violon- 
cellos. The second theme, B major, is Tannhauser's song to Venus, 
"Dir tone Lob!" The bacchanal music returns, wilder than before. 
A pianissimo episode follows, in which the clarinet sings the appeal of 
Venus to Tannhauser, "Geliebter, komm, sieh' dort die Grotte." the 
typical phrase of the goddess. This episode takes the place of the free 
fantasia. The third part begins with the passionate subsidiary theme 
which leads as before to the second theme, Tannhauser's song, which is 
now in E major. Again the bacchanalian music, still more frenetic. 
There is stormy development; the violin figure which accompanied the 
pilgrims' chant returns, and the coda begins, in which this chant is 
repeated. The violin figure grows swifter and swifter as the fortissimo 
chant is thundered out by trombones and trumpets to full harmony 
in the rest of the orchestra. 



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MARCH 4 

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MAR. 7 

at 8.15 



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MAR. 1 1 

at 3.30 



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MARCH 12 

at 8.15 



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MAR. 18 

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BY THE 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

PIERRE MONTEUX. Conductor 

WAGNER PROGRAMME 

Soloists, SIGRID ONEGIN, Contralto, Metropolitan Opera Co. 

CHARLES H. BENNETT, Baritone 

Tickets, $2.50, $2.00, $1.50, $1.00 (tax free) 



"My Experiences at Scotland Yard" 

Under the Auspices and for the Benefit of the Boston Legal Aid Society 
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First Boston Appearance of the Celebrated Tenor 



Assisted by EMILIE ROSE KNOX, Violinist 
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ALEXANDER KOSHETZ, Conductor 
Soloists, NINA KOSHETZ, ODA SLOBODSKAJA, Sopranos 

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WILLIAM 



J^i Piano 
IN A RECITAL IN C-SHARP MINOR 

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FORTY-SECOND SEASON 192211923 



,K1 < p y^\ f 



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PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEASON 1922-1923 
THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 22, at 8.00 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. Hoffmann, 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
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Gundersen, R. 
Kassman, N. 


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Leveen, P. 


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Deane, C. 


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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEVENTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 22 
AT 8.00 



Beethoven 
Glazounov 



PROGRAMME 

Overture to Collin's Tragedy, "Coriolanus," Op. 62 
Symphony No. 4 in E-flat, Op. 48 



I. Andante; Allegro moderate 
II. Scherzo; Allegro vivace. 
III. Andante; Allegro. 



Handel 



Godard 

Verdi 

Ravel 



. Concerto Grosso No. 5 in D major for 
String Orchestra (Edited by G. F. Kogel) 

Solo Violins: R. Burgin, J. Theodorowicz 
Solo Viola: G. Fotjrel; Solo Violoncello: J. Bedetti 
I. Introduction; Allegro 
II. Presto. 

III. Largo. 

IV. Minuet. 
V. Allegro. 

Air of Leonora from "Le Tasse" 

Aria, "Ritorna Vincitor," from "Aida" 

Spanish Rhapsody 

I. Prelude a la Nuit. 
II. Malaguena. 

III. Habanera. 

IV. Feria ("The Fair"). 



SOLOIST 

ESTER FERRABINI JACCHIA 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

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Overture to "Coriolanus," Op. G2 . . . Ludwig van Beethoven 
(Born at Bonn, December 1G (?). 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

The original manuscript of the overture bears this inscription : 
"Overturn (zum Trauerspiel Coriolan) composta da L. v. Beethoven, 
1807." The words in parentheses are crossed ont. The overture 
was published in 1808: "Ouverture de Coriolan, Tragedie de M. de 
Collin, etc., composee et dediee a Monsieur de Collin, etc." The 
other compositions of 1807 were the first Mass in C, the overture to 
"Leonore-Fidelio," No. 1, which was published as Op. 138, the Fifth 
Symphony, the ariette, "In questa tonrba," the violin concerto 
changed into a pianoforte concerto, and probably the violoncello 
sonata, Op. 69. 

The tragedy by Heinrich Joseph von Collin* was produced Novem- 
ber 24, 1802, with entr'actes arranged from Mozart's music to 
"Idomeneo'' by the Abbe Stadler. It was afterwards revived with 
Lange as the hero and played often until March 3, 1805. From that 
date to the end of October, 1809, there was only one performance of 
the tragedy, and that was on April 24, 1807. Thayer concludes 
that the overture was not written for this performance, because the 
overture had been played at two concerts in March. These concerts 
were at the palace of Prince Lobkowitz in Vienna, and only pieces 
by Beethoven were performed, the first four symphonies, the "Corio- 
laims" overture, a pianoforte concerto, and airs from "Fidelio." 
The overture was criticised most favorably in the Journal des Luwus 
und dei" Moden and Cotta's Morgenblatt as a "new work." A cor- 
respondent of the Allgemeine Musik Zeitung wrote, "According 
to the inscription, the overture was intended for Collin's 'Corio- 
lanus.' " 

Thayer adds : "How nobly Beethoven comprehended the character 
of Coriolanus has long been known ; but how wonderfully the over- 
ture fits in the play can be judged properly only by those who have 
read Collin's nearly forgotten play," and he says in a footnote : 
"The author, from bcyhood a reader of Shakespeare's 'Coriolanus,' 
remembers well the dissatisfaction he experienced when he first 
heard Beethoven's overture; it did not seem to him to fit the sub- 
ject. When he read Collin's play, his discontent turned into wonder." 

Beethoven knew the Coriolanus presented by Plutarch as well as 
the Coriolanus of Shakespeare and Collin. One might say that the 
character of Coriolanus was in certain ways sympathetic to him ; 
and some may wonder at Thayer's dissatisfaction. Wagner had 
no thought of Collin, when he wrote — 

"If we recall to mind the impression made upon us by the figure 
of Coriolanus in Shakespeare's drama, and from all the details of 
the complicated plot first single that which lingered with us through 
its bearing on the principal character, we shall see one solitary 
shape loom forth : the defiant Coriolanus in conflict with his inmost 
voice, that voice which only speaks the more unsilenceably when 
issuing from his mother's mouth ; and of the dramatic development 

*Collin (r771-1811) was jurist and poet. In 1803 he was ennobled; in 1809 he 
became Court Councillor. Other tragedies by him were "Regulas," "Polyxena." Beet- 
hoven in 1807 was expecting a libretto from him. Collin tried "Macbeth," Tasso's 
"Jerusalem Delivered," and a "Bradamante*' to which J. F. Reichardt set music 
(Vienna, 1808). 



there will remain but that voice's victory over pride, the breakiDg 
of the stubbornness of a nature strong beyond all bounds. For his 
drama Beethoven chooses nothing but these two chief motives, 
which make us feel more surely than all abstract exposition the 
inmost essence of that pair of characters. Then if we devoutly 
follow the movement developing solely from the opposition of these 
two motives in strict accordance with their musical character, and 
allow in turn the purely musical detail to work upon us — the lights 
and shades, the meetings and partings of these two motives — we 
shall at like time be following the course of a drama whose own 
peculiar method of expression embraces all that held Our interest, 
the complex plot and clash of minor characters, in the acted work 
of the playwright. What gripped us there as an action set imme- 
diately before us, almost lived through by ourselves, we here re- 
ceive as inmost kernel of that action ; there set forth by characters 
with all the might of nature-forces, it is here just as sharply limned 
by the musician's motives, identical in inmost essence with the 
motives at work in those characters." (English bv W. Ashton 
Ellis.) 

* * 

The overture is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings. 

Wagner believed the overture to be a tone picture of the scene 
in the Volscian camp, before the gates of Koine, between Coriolanus, 
Volumnia, and Virgilia, ending with the death of the hero. 

The overture was played in Boston, April 19, 1851, at a concert 
given in the Melodeon by C. C. Perkins, and the programme stated 
that the performance was the first in America. Mr. Perkins's sec- 
ond symphony was played at this concert, and Adelaide Phillips, 
Messrs. Kreissmann, August and Wulf Fries, and Mr. Perabeau 
(sic) were the soloists. 



Symphony No. 4, in E-flat, Op. 48 ... . Alexander Glazounov 
(Born at Petrograd, August 10, 1865; now living at Petrograd.) 

This symphony, composed at Petrograd in 1893, was published 
in 1894. The advertisement of the publisher in October of that year 
included also Glazounov's "Triumphal March on the Occasion of the 
World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893," composed for a 
grand orchestra with chorus (ad lib.), Op. 40 (performed at Chicago, 
August 3, 1893, at the Russian concert, V. J. Hlavac, of Petrograd, 
conductor); "Carnaval," overture, Op. 45; "Chopiniana," suite for or- 
chestra, composed of Polonaise, Op. 40, II., Nocturne, Op. 15, Mazurka, 
Op. 50, IV., Tarantelle, Op. 43, orchestrated by Glazounov; Valse de 
Concert for orchestra, Op. 47. 

The symphony was performed at Petrograd (season of 1894-95). 
It was played for the first time in Boston at a Boston Symphony 
Orchestra concert, October 24, 1903. There was a second performance 
by request on January 2, 1904. 

It is scored for three flutes (two interchangeable with piccolos), two 



oboes, English horn, three clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, three 
trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, strings. It is 
dedicated to Anton Rubinstein. 

There are only three movements, but an andante serves as intro- 
duction in each instance to the first and third. 

The symphony opens with an Andante, E-flat minor, 9-8. After 
two measures of introduction a languorous melody is sung by the 
English horn. Cantabile passages for various instruments lead to 
the repetition of the theme (flutes, first and second violins), with sus- 
taining chords in wind instruments and with figuration for clarinet, 
bassoon, violas, and violoncellos. Transitional measures lead to the 
main body of the first movement, Allegro moderato, E-flat major, 4-4. 
The first and expressive theme is played by various instruments against 
a characteristic, pulsating accompaniment, which is now in violas and 
second violins and now in horns and other wind instruments. It is 
sung passionately by violins, violas, and flutes. Poco piu tranquillo. 
A suave theme for clarinet and first violins, and there is soon a return 
to the Allegro moderato with the first theme and its characteristic 
accompaniment. Piu mosso, G minor, scherzando. A clarinet solo 
is answered by flute, oboe, and violins. A passing recollection of the 
Allegro moderato is followed by an episode, scherzando, with florid 
solo work, and an episode tranquillo is followed by a section piu allegro 
ed agitato. The first theme of the Allegro moderato returns, and there 
is an organ-point in the basses. After more or less elaborate thematic 
treatment, the theme of the introductory Andante, E-flat minor, is 
heard, sung by flutes and violins: The reappearance of the first Allegro 
theme in an Allegro moderato of eight measures brings the end. 

Second movement. Scherzo, B-flat, Allegro vivace, 6-8. A gay 
movement with first theme announced by clarinets against bassoons 
and second violins (pizz.). The contrasting section, poco meno mosso, 
tranquillo, begins with a clarinet theme against muted strings, while 
the rhythm is marked by first violins (pizz.) and flutes. The response 
is given to the first violins. 



Concerto Grosso, No. 5, in D major . . George Frideric Handel 

(Edited by Gustav Friedrich Kogel) 
(Born at Halle on February 23, 1685; died at London, April 14, 1759.) 

Handel's twelve grand concertos for strings were composed between 
September 29 and October 30, 1739. The London Daily Post of October 
29, 1739, said: "This day are published proposals for printing by 
subscription, with His Majesty's royal license and protection, Twelve 
Grand Concertos, in Seven Parts, for four violins, a tenor, a violoncello, 
with a thorough-bass for the harpsichord. Composed by Mr. Handel. 
Price to subscribers, two guineas. Ready to be delivered by April next. 
Subscriptions are taken by the author, at his house in Brook Street, 
Hanover Square, and by Walsh." In an advertisement on November 
22 the publisher added: "Two of the above concertos will be performed 
this evening at the Theatre Royal, Lincoln's Inn." The concertos 
were published on April 21, 1740. In an advertisement a few days 
afterwards Walsh said, "These concertos were performed at the Theatre 
Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and now are played in most public places 



with the greatest applause." Victor Schoelcher made this comment 
in his Life of Handel: "This was the case with all the works of Handel. 
They were so frequently performed at contemporaneous concerts and 
benefits that they seem, during his lifetime, to have quite become public 
property. Moreover, he did nothing which the other theatres did not 
.attempt to imitate. In the little theatre of the Haymarket, evening 
entertainments were given in exact imitation of his 'several concertos 
for different instruments, with a variety of chosen airs of the best 
masters, and the famous Salve Regina of Hasse.' The handbills issued 
by the nobles at the King's Theatre make mention also of 'several 
concertos for different instruments.' " 

The year 1739, in which these concertos were composed, was the year 
of the first performance of Handel's "Saul" (January 16) and "Israel in 
Egypt" (April 4), — both oratorios were composed in 1738, — also of the 
music to Dryden's "Ode on St. Cecilia's Day" (November 22). 

M. Roniain Holland, discussing the form Concerto Grosso, which 
consists essentially of a dialogue between a group of soloists, the con- 
certino (trio of two solo violins and solo bass with cembalo* and the 
chorus of instruments, concerto grosso, believes that Handel at Rome 
in 1708 was struck by Corelli's works in this field, for several of his 
concertos of Opus 3 are dated 1710, 1716, 1722. Geminiani introduced 
the concerto into England, — three volumes appeared in 1732, 1735, 
1748, — and he was a friend of Handel. 

Handel's concertos of this set that have five movements are either 
in the form of a sonata with an introduction and a postjude (as Nos. 1 
and 6) ; or in the form of the symphonic overture with the slow move- 
ments in the middle, and a dance movement, or an allegro closely 
resembling a dance, for a finale (as Nos. 7, 11, and 12); or a series of 
three movements from larghetto to allegro, which is followed by two 
dance movements (as No. 3). 

The seven parts are thus indicated by Handel in the book of parts: 
Violino primo concertino, Violino secondo concertino, Violino primo 
ripieno, Violino seccndo ripieno, viola, violoncello, bass continuo. 






Handel in his day and generation was an experimenter in the art of 
instrumentation, and certain of his innovations in the combinations of 
instruments are of much interest. He had at his disposal the violins, 
first, second, and sometimes third; violas, the violetta marina, the 
viola da gamba, the violoncello, the double-bass; the lute, the theorbo, 
and the harp; trumpets, horns, trombones, the old cornet or zink; three 
varieties of the flute, oboes, bassoons, double-bassoons, and the drum 
family; clavecin and organ. He did not disdain the carillon, and it is 
recorded that he sighed for a cannon. 



Air of Leonora, from "Tasso," Op. 39: Part IIL, Scene S 

Benjamin Godard 
(Born at Paris. August 18, 1849; died at Cannes, January 10, 1895.) 

"Le Tasse," a dramatic symphony in three parts, text by Charles 
Grandmougin, music by Godard, was crowned ex tvquo with Theodore 
Dubois's "Paradis Perdu" in the competition for the prize ottered 

*The Germans in the concertino sometimes coupled an oboe or a bassoon with a violin. The 
Italians were faithful, as a rule, to the strings. 

10 



by the City of Paris in 1878. The first performance was at the 
Chatelet concert conducted by Colonne in Paris on December 18, 
1ST8. The singers were Villaret (Tasso) ; Lamvers (Duke d'Este) ; 
Taskin (Father Paolo) ; Mine. Brunet-Lafleur (Leonora) ; and Mile. 
Vergin ( Cornelia ) . 

Andante con moto, B-fiat major and G-fiat major. 

II ni'est cloux de revoir la place accoutumee. 

Ou dans ces beaux jardins il me parlait d'amour ; 
Mais ma chere blessure, helas, est mal i'ermee 

Puisque parfois eneor j'espere son retour. 

Dans nies units sans repos, vision triste et tendre 

II apparait parfois a mes yeux eblouis ; 
Mais ce n'est qu'un eclair, et rien ne pent me rendre 

Le prestige charmant des jours evanouis. 

O Poete adore, vers, toi mon cceur s'elance 

Jusque dans ton exil tu restes mon seul bien ; 
Eeoute ma pensee a travers le silence, 

Et quand je dis ton nom, prononce aussi le mien. 

This translation was published in a programme-book of the 
Detroit Symphony Orchestra, December 17, 1922 : — 

"It is sweet to revisit the place where he spoke to me of love ; but my deep 
wound is scarcely healed,for I still hope, alas ! for his return. In sleepless 
nights, a vision sad and tender sometimes appears before my dazzled eyes ; 
but it is only a vision, and nothing can give back to me the joys and prestige 
of vanished days. O adored Poet, to thee my soul cries out until it reaches 
thee in thine exile across the silence. And when thou hearest thy name, do 
thou likewise say mine." 

The orchestration of the accompaniment at that concert was by 
Henry Hadley for Mme. Inez Barbour. 



SCENA, "KlTORXA VlNCITOR," ACT I, "AlDA" . . . GlUSEPPB VERDI 

(Born at Roncole, near Busseto (Parma). Italy. October 10, 1813: died at 

Milan. January 27, 1001) 

"Aida" opera in four acts, text by Ghislanzoni and Camille du 
Locle, music by Verdi, was produced at the Theatre Italien, Cairo, 
on December 24, 1871. The opera was ordered by the Khedive of 
Egypt, Ismail-pacha, who paid Verdi £4,000 for it. The singers were 
Mme. Pozzoni-Anastasi (Aida) and Mme. Grossi (Amneris) ; 
Messrs. Mongini (Radames), Medini (Ramfis), Costa (Amonasro), 
and Steller (the King). Bottesini conducted. 

The first performance in the United States was at the Academy 
of Music, New York, November 26, 1873. Ottava Torriani (Aida)'; 
Annie Louise Gary (Amneris) ; Ttalo Campanini (Radames) ; Victor 
Maurel (Amonasro); Xannetti (Ramfis) ; Scolara (the King). 
Muzio conducted. 

"Ritorna Vincitor' is sung by Aida alone, at the end of the first 
scene of the first act. Radames has been ordered to lead the Egyp- 
tians against the army of Amonasro, the father of Aida. 

n 



Allegro agitato, 4-4. 

Ritorna vincitor ! E dal mio labbro usei 1' empia parola ! Vincitor del padre 
mio, di lui die impugna 1' armi per me, per ridonarmi una patria, una reggia 
e il nome illustre die qui celar m' e forza ! Vincitor de' miei fratelli, ond' io 
lo vegga, tinto del sangue amato. trionfar nel plauso dell' Egizie coorti ! 
E dietro il carro, un re mio padre di catene avvinto ! 

Pin mosso, 2-2. 

L' insana parola o Numi sperdete ! 

Al seno d' un padre la figlia rendete : 

Struggete le squadre dei nostri oppressor ! 

Ah! sventurata ! che dissi? e 1' amor mio? 

Dunque scordar poss' io questo fervido amore che, 

Oppressa e schiava, come raggio di sol qui mi beava? 

Imprechero la morte a Radames, a lui ch' amo pur tanto ! 

Ah ! non fu in terra mai da piu crudeli angoscie un core affranto. 

• 

Allegro giusto poco agitato, A-flat major, 4-4. 

I sacri nomi di padre, d' amante ne profferir poss' io. ne ricordar. 

Per 1' un, per 1' altro, confusa tremante. io piangere vorrei pregar. 

Ma la mia prece in bestemmia si muta, delitto e il pianto a me colpa il sospir, 

In notte cupa la mente e perduta, e nell' ansia crudel vorrei morir. 

Numi, pieta del mio soffrir ! 
Speme non v'ha pel mio dolor, 
Amor fatal, tremendo amor 
Spezzami il cor, fammi morir. 

This has been translated into English as follows : — 

Return victorious ! And from my lips 

Went forth the impious word ! Conqueror 

Of my father — of him who takes arms 

For me — to give me again 

A country, a kingdom ! And the illustrious name 

Which here I am forced to conceal. Conqueror 

Of my brothers, with whose dear blood 

I see him stained, triumphant in the applause 

Of the Egyptian hosts — And behind his chariot 

A king, my father, bound with chains ! 

The insane word forget, O gods ! 
Return the daughter to the bosom of her father ; 
Destroy the squadrons of our oppressors. 
Unhappy one ! What did I say ? 



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And my love can I ever forget, 

This fervid love which oppresses and enslaves, 

As the sun's ray which now blesses me. 

Shall I call death on Radames — 

On him whom I love so much? 

Ah ! Never on earth was heart torn 

By more cruel agonies. 

The sacred names of father, of lover, 

I can neither utter nor remember— 

For the one — for the other — confused, trembling, 

I would weep — I would pray. 

But my prayer changes to blasphemy — 

My tears are a crime — my sighs a wrong — 

In dense night the mind is lost— 

And in the cruel anguish I would die. 

O gods, have pity on my sufferings. 
Hope I have not, for my grief, 
A fatal love, dreadful love, 
Divides my heart, makes me die. 

Verdi scored this Scena for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two 
clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba,, kettledrums and strings. 



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Oberlin Conservatory of Music 

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Rapsodie Espagnole Joseph Maurice Ravel 

(Born at Ciboure, Basses Pyrenees, March 7, 1S75 ; now living in France.) 

The "Rapsodie Espagnole," dedicated to "Hon cher Maitre, 
Charles de Beriot," was completed in 1907 and published in the fol- 
lowing year. It was performed for the first time at a Coloune con- 
cert in Paris, March 15, 1908. The Rhapsody was enthusiastically 
received, and the second movement was repeated. The enthusiasm 
was manifested chiefly in the gallery, where some perfervid student 
shouted to the conductor after the Malaguena had. been repeated, 
"Play it once more for those downstairs who have not understood 
it." And at the end of the Rhapsody the same person shouted to the 
occupants of subscribers' seats, "If it had been something by Wagner 
you would have found it very beautiful." 

The Rhapsody was performed by the Theodore Thomas Orchestra 
in Chicago on November 12, 13, 1909. 

The Rhap&ody is scored for two piccolos, two flutes, two oboes, 
English horn, two clarinecs, bass clarinet, three bassoons, sarin so- 
phone, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set 
of four kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, side drum, triangle, tam- 
bourine, gong, xylophone, celesta, two harps, and the usual strings. 

It is really a suite in four movements : Prelude a la Nuit, Mala- 
guefla, Habanera, Feria. 

I. Prelude a la Nuit. Tres modero A minor, 3-4. The movement 
as a whole is based on a figure given at the beginning to muted vio- 
lins and violas. The second movement follows immediately. 

II. Malaguena. Assez vif, A minor, 3 1. The Halaguena, with 
the Rodena, is classed with the Fandango: "A Spanish dance in 
3-8 time ; of moderate movement (allegretto), with accompaniment 
of guitar and castanets. It is performed between rhymed verses, 
during the singing of which the dance stops." The castanei rhythm 
may be described as on a scheme of two measures, 3-8 time; the 
first of each couple of measures consisting of an eighth, four thirty- 
seconds, and an eighth; and the second, of four thirty-seconds and 
tw r o eighths. The word itself is applied to a popular air charac- 
teristic of Malaga, but Richard Ford described the women of Malaga, 
"las Malaguenas," as "very bewitching." Mrs. Grove snys the dance 
shares with the Fandango the rank of the principal dance of An- 
dalusia. "It is sometimes called the Flamenco } a term which in 
Spain signifies gay and lively when applied to song or dance. Ii is 
said to have originared with the Spanish occupation of Flandors. 
Spanish soldiers who had been quartered in the Netherlands were 
styled Flamencos. 

In Ravel's Malaguena there is at the beginning a figure for the 
double-basses repeated as though it were a ground bass. The key 
changes to D major, and there is a new musical thought expressed 
by muted trumpet accompanied by the tambourine and pizzicato 
chords. Alter a climax there is a pause. The English horn has a 
solo in recitative. The rhythmi: figure of the opening movement 
is suggested by the celesta and solo striugs. The figure in the basses 
returns with chromatic figures for flutes and clarinets. 

III. Habanera. Assez lent et d'un rythme las, 2-4. Ravel wrote 

14 



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in 1895 a Habanera for two pianofortes, four hands. This was 
utilized in the composition of the Habanera in the Ehapsody. The 
chief subject enters in the wood-wind after a short introduction in 
which the clarinet has an important syncopated figure. The solo 
viola continues the theme; the strings repeat the opening section. 
To wood-wind instruments and the first harp is given a new idea 
rhythmed by the tambourine, while the strings are busied with the 
syncopated figure. This theme is worked out till nearly the end, 
which is brought by harmonics for the harp, with the syncopated 
rhythm in the first violins and at last for the celesta. 

Perhaps the Habanera came from Africa. Perhaps after a sea 
voyage it went from Cuba into Spain.' The word is generally 
known chiefly by reason of Chabrier's pianoforte piece and the 
entrance song of Carmen. 

IV. Feria (The Fair). Assez anime^, C major, 6-8. The move- 
ment is in three parts. The first section is based on two musical 
ideas: the first, two measures long, is announced by the flute; 
the second by three muted trumpets rhythmed by a tambourine. 
Oboes and English horn repeat the figure, and the xylophone gives 
rhythm. Finally the full orchestra fortissimo takes up the thematic 
idea. The second section opens with a solo for the English horn. 
The solo is continued by the clarinet. The material of the third 
section is that of the opening part of the movement. 



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INC. 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEASON 1922-1923 

THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 12, at 8.00 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

GALEN L. STONE Vice-President 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Burgin, R 

Concert-master. 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Gundersen, R. 

Kassman, N. 

Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 

Stonestreet, L. 
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Jorty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Beethoven 

Wagner 

Liszt 



EIGHTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 12 
AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 

. "Good Friday Spell" ("Parsifal," Act III) 

Concerto in A major No. 2 for Pianoforte and Orchestra 



Brahms Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo. 
II. Adagio non troppo. 

III. Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino. 

IV. Allegro con spirito. 



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Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72. . . Ludwig van Beethoven 
(Born at Bonn, December 1G (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.) 

Beethoven's opera "Fidelio, oder die Eheliche Liebe," with text 
adapted freely by Jozef Sonnleithner from the French of Bouilly ("Leo- 
nore; ou V Amour Conjugal/' a "fait historique" in two acts and in prose, 
music by Gaveaux, Opera-Comique, Paris, February 19, 1798), was 
first performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, November 20, 
1805, with Anna Pauline Milder, afterwards Mrs. Hauptmann, as the 
heroine. The other parts were taken as follows: Don Fernando, Wein- 
kopf; Don Pizarro, Meier; Florestan, Demmer; Rocco, Rothe; Marzel- 
line (sic) j Miss Muller; Jacquino, Cache; Wachehauptmann, Meister. 

The first performance in New York — according to Col. T. Allston 
Brown, the first in America — was at the Park Theatre on September 
9, 1839: Giubilli, Manvers, Martyn, Edwin, Mrs. Martyn (Miss Inveri- 
arity), and Miss Poole. 

"Leonore" No. 2 was the overture played at the first performance in 
Vienna. The opera was withdrawn, revised, and produced again on 
March 29, 1806, when "Leonore" No. 3, a remodelled form of No. 2, 
was played as the overture. The opera was performed twice, and then 
withdrawn. There was talk of a performance at Prague in 1807. Beet- 
hoven wrote for it a new overture, in which he retained the theme drawn 
from Florestan's air, "In des Lebens Fruhlingstagen," but none of the 
other material used in Nos. 2 and 3. The opera was not performed, and 
the autograph of the overture disappeared. "Fidelio" was revived at 
Vienna in 1814, and for this performance Beethoven wrote the "Fidelio" 
overture. We know from his diary that he "rewrote and bettered" the 
opera by work from March to May 15 of that year. 

It is said that "Leonore" No. 2 was rewritten because certain passages 
given to the wood-wind troubled the players. Others say it was too 
difficult for the strings and too long. In No. 2, as well as in No. 3, the 
chief dramatic stroke is the trumpet signal, which announces the arrival 
of the Minister of Justice, confounds Pizarro, and saves Florestan and 
Leonore. 

The "Fidelio" overture is the one generally played before perform- 
ances of the opera in Germany, although Weingartner has tried earnestly 
to restore "Leonore" No. 2 to that position. "Leonore" No. 3 is some- 
times played between the acts. The objection to this is that the trumpet 
episode of the prison will then discount the dramatic effect when it 
comes in the following act, nor does the joyous ending of the overture 
prepare the hearer for the lugubrious scene with Florestan's soliloquy. 
Hans von Biilow therefore performed the overture No. 3 at the end of 
the opera. Zumpe did likewise at Munich. They argued with Wagner 
that this overture was the quintessence of the opera, "the complete and 



definite synthesis of that drama that Beethoven had dreamed of writing." 
There has been a tradition that the overture should be played between 
the scenes of the second act. This was done at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
London, in 1851, when Ferdinand Hiller conducted and Sophie Cruvelli 
took the part of Leonora; and when "Fidelio" was performed at the 
Theatre Italien, Paris, in 1852 and 1869, the overture was played before 
the last scene, which was counted a third act. Mottl and Mahler ac- 
cepted this tradition. The objection has been made to this that after 
the brilliant peroration, the little orchestral introduction to the second 
scene sounds rather thin. To meet the objection, a pause was made for 
several minutes after the overture. 



"Good Friday Spell" from "Parsifal" . . . Richard Wagner 
(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1815; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.) 

The Charfreitagszauber (Good Friday Spell) is at the end of Scene I., 
Act III. of the music drama. Gurnemanz, now a very old man, is living 
as a hermit in a rude hut at the edge of a forest. The scene represents a 
meadow dotted with flowers. Gurnemanz comes out of the hut at the 
left, for he has heard a groaning, as from a beast in pain. He finds Kun- 
dry half-dead, in lethargic sleep. He awakens her; she can say only: 
"To serve! To serve!" She goes for water. Kneeling by a spring, she 
sees some one coming by a forest road: a knight, in black armor with 
visor down, holding the sacred spear and a buckler. He says nothing 
at first, not even in reply to the old man, until the latter reminds him 
that it is Good Friday. Then the Knight plants the spear in the ground, 
raises his visor, takes off his helmet, and prays before the lance. Gurne- 
manz recognizes the fool whom he had rudely dismissed from the Temple 
of the Holy Grail. Parsifal knows him and tells him vaguely of his 
wanderings. He is now in search of a lamentation that he once heard 
without understanding. There is sore need of his presence, Gurnemanz 
replies, for Titurel is dead; Amfortas will not perform the duties of 
Grail-warder and the holy vessel is no more revealed. "And it is I," 
cries Parsifal, "who caused all this distress." He is about to faint, but 
Gurnemanz supports him and guides him towards the spring. Kundry 
washes Parsifal's feet, anoints them with precious oil, and wipes them 
with the hair of her head. 

Gurnemanz puts water on his forehead, blesses him, and salutes him 
king. Parsifal baptizes Kundry, then looks with delight at the forest 
and the meadow. 

The following paraphrase of Wagner's text is by Oliver Huckel: — 



"How beautiful these morning meadows are! 
So fresh, so sweet, so radiantly pure! 
Full many a flower in other days I saw, 
But full of subtile poison was their breath, 
And they were snares of baneful witchery. 

But these are God's own blossoms full of grace. 
These twining vines that burst with purple bloom, 
These fragrant flowers, so innocent and fair — 
They speak to me of loving childhood's days, 
And tell me of the boundless love of God." 

Then Gurnemanz: "On fair Good Friday morn, 
All nature seems athrill with new delight." 

And Parsifal: "Yet strange that it is so. 
That darkest day of agony divine 
Might well have cast a pall of gloom o'er all, 
And plunged all Nature into deepest woe." 

No, no," the gentle Gurnemanz replied, 
"The Saviour's work hath wrought a miracle, 
And now the grateful tears of penitence 
Are holy dew that falls upon the world, 
And makes it bloom in fair and lustrous beauty; 
And all creation knows God's saving work, 
And praises Him for His redeeming grace. 

No more the agony of that grim Cross, 

But now the joy of man redeemed and saved, 

Freed from the load of sin by conquering faith, 

And purified by Love's great sacrifice. 

Each sprouting blade and meadow-flower doth see 

Something of God's grace in the heart of man; 

For as the Lord was tender unto man, 

So man in turn will love God's flowering earth. 

The whole creation therefore doth rejoice, 

And every bird and flower is full of praise, 

And Nature everywhere is full of God, 

And sweet has dawned this day of innocence." 

Then Kundry, with the tears still in her eyes, 
Looked up at Parsifal, and soft he spake: 
"I saw the hearts that mocked us fade away, 
But love shall bloom eternal in God's grace. 
Blest tears that speak the blessing in thy heart. 
But weep no more. God's grace is full of joy — 
Smile with all Nature, joyously redeemed!" 

Bells sound mournfully from afar. Gurnemanz and Kundry robe 
Parsifal. They set out for Montsalvat. 

When Gurnemanz blesses Parsifal and salutes him king, horns, trum- 
pets, and trombones play the Parsifal motive, which is developed impo- 
singly and ends with the Grail theme intoned by the whole orchestra 
fortissimo. A series of chords leads to the motives of Baptism and 
Faith. 

When Parsifal turns slowly towards the meadow, a hymn of tender 
thanksgiving arises from the orchestra. The melody is played by 
flute and oboe, while muted strings sustain. In the development of this 
theme occur several figures and motives — Kundry's sigh, the Holy 

9 



Supper, the spear, the Grail harmonies, the complaint of the Flower 
Girls, which are all finally absorbed in the Good Friday melody. This 
pastoral is interrupted suddenly by the sound of distant bells. 

Wagner's head was full of "Parsifal" in the fifties. At work on 'Tris- 
tan' ' he thought of introducing Parsifal in the third act. In 1857 he 
composed, or at least sketched, the "Good Friday Spell." When 
living near Zurich, he was inspired by beautiful spring weather, and on 
Good Friday he remembered the story of Parsifal and the story told 
by Chretien de Troies and Wolfram von Eschenbach, of the knight 
meeting the pilgrims on Good Friday. In Wolfram's poem, probably 
dictated in the early years of the thirteenth century and published in 
1477, Parsifal meets an old knight and his wife tramping barefooted 
through the snow, on a pilgrimage to a hermit's dwelling. They rebuke 
him for not remembering the day : — 

"Knowest thou not the day, sweet youth? 
'Tis Holy Friday, in good sooth, 
When all bewail their guilt." 

The "Good Friday Spell" was first played in Boston on February 16, 
1884, at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 

* 

Wagner completed his poem on February 23, 1877; the score was 
completed on January 13, 1882, at Palermo. The first performance at 
Bayreuth was for the patrons on July 26, 1882. The first public per- 
formance was on July 30, 1882. Parsifal, Hermann Winkelmann; 
Amfortas, Theodore Reichmann; Titurel, August Kindermann; Kling- 
sor, Karl Hill; Gurnemanz, Emil Scaria; Kundry, Amalie Materna 
Hermann Levi conducted. 

The first performance of "Parsifal" as an opera outside of Bayreuth was at the 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York, Heinrich Conried director, December 24, 
1903. Alfred Hertz conducted. The cast was as follows: Kundry, Milka Ternina; 
Parsifal, Alois Burgstaller; Amfortas, Anton Van Rooy; Gurnemanz, Robert Blass; 
Titurel, Marcel Journet; Klingsor, Otto Goritz. 

"Parsifal" was performed in concert form in Boston, under the direction of B. J. 
Lang, on April 15, 1891, with Mme. Mielke, Messrs. Dippel, Reichmann, Meyn, 
and Fischer. The orchestra was from the Metropolitan Opera House, New York. 
It was performed under Mr. Lang, May 4, 1892, with the substitution of Mr. Hensche, 
for Mr. Reichmann. It was performed under Mr. Lang's direction in Symphony 
Hall, January 6, 1903, with Mme. Kirkby-Lunn, Emil Gerhauser, Anton Van Rooy, 
Robert Blass, and Mr. Muhlmann (who sang the music of Klingsor and Titurel) . _ 

The first performance in Boston was in English — the first performance in English 
on any stage — at the Tremont Theatre by Henry W. Savage's company, October 
17, 1904. Walter H. Roth well conducted. The cast was as follows: Kundry, Mme. 
Kirkby-Lunn; Parsifal, Alois Pennarini; Amfortas, Johannes Bischoff; Gurnemanz, 
Putnam Gr is wold; Titurel, Robert K. Parker; Klingsor, Homer Lind.* 

The first performance in German in Boston was on March 7, 1905, at the Boston 
Theatre by the Metropolitan Opera House Company of New York. Mr. Hertz 
conducted. The cast was as follows: Kundry, Mme. Nordica; Parsifal, Alois Burg- 
staller; Amfortas, Anton Van Rooy; Gurnemanz, Robert Blass; Titurel, Marcel 

♦On October 18, 1904, the cast was as follows: Kundry, Mme. Hanna Mara; Parsifal, Francis 
Maclennan; Amfortas, Franz Egenieff; Gurnemanz, Ottley Cranston; Titurel, Robert K. Parker; 
Klingsor, J. Parker Coombs. Moritz Grimm conducted. 

10 



Journet; Klingsor, Otto Goritz. On March 9 Mme. Fremstad took the part of Kun- 
dry. 

"Parsifal" was performed in German at the Boston Opera House by the Metro- 
politan Opera House Company of New York, January 15, 1910. Kundry, Olive 
Fremstad; Parsifal, Carl Burrian; Amfortas, Clarence Whitehall; Gurnemanz, Allen 
Hinckley; Titurel, Herbert Witherspoon; Klingsor, Otto Goritz. Mr. Hertz con- 
ducted. 

It was performed in German at the Boston Opera House by the Metropolitan 
Opera Company of New York, April 21, 1916. Kundry, Melanie Kurt; Parsifal, 
Johannes Sembach; Amfortas, Clarence Whitehill; Gurnemanz, Carl Braun; Titurel, 
Basil Ruysdael; Klingsor, Otto Goritz. Artur Bodanzsky conducted. 



Concerto for Pianoforte, No. 2, in A major .... Franz Liszt 

(Born at Raiding, near Odenburg, Hungary, October 22, 1811; died at Bayreuth, 

July 31, 1886.) 

This concerto was sketched in 1839. It was completed and scored 
in 1849. The concerto is dedicated to Hans von Bronsart, by whom it 
was playejd from manuscript for the first time at a concert for the benefit 
of the Orchestral Pension Fund in the Grand Ducal Court Theatre, 
Weimar, January 7, 1857. Liszt conducted. His symphonic poem 
"Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne" was also performed for the first 
time at this concert. The second performance of the concerto was at 
Berlin, January 14, 1858, in the Sing-Akademie, when Karl Tausig was 
the pianist and von Billow conducted. 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of Theodore Thomas's 
Orchestra, October 5, 1870, when Anna Mehlig was the pianist, and this 
performance is said to have been the first in the United States. 

The autograph manuscript of this concerto bore the title "Concert 
symphonique,'' and, as Mr. Ap thorp once remarked, the work might 
be called a symphonic poem for pianoforte and orchestra, with the 
title "The Life and Adventures of a Melody." 

The concerto is in one movement. The first and chief theme binds 
the various episodes into an organic whole. But let us use the words 
of Mr. Apthorp rather than a dry analytical sketch: "From this point 
onward the concerto is one unbroken series of kaleidoscopic effects of the 
most brilliant and ever-changing description ; of musical form, of musical 
coherence even, there is less and less. It is as if some magician in some 
huge cave, the walls of which were covered with glistening stalactites 
and flashing jewels, were revealing his fill of all the wonders of color, 
brilliancy, and dazzling light his wand could command. Never has 
even Liszt rioted more unreservedly in fitful orgies of flashing color. 
It is monstrous, formless, whimsical, and fantastic, if you will; but it 
is also magical and gorgeous as anything in the 'Arabian Nights.' It 
is its very daring and audacity that save it. And ever and anon the 
first wailing melody, with its unearthly chromatic harmony, returns in 

n 



one shape or another, as if it were the dazzled neophyte to whom the 
magician Liszt were showing all these splendors, while initiating it into 
the mysteries of the world of magic, until it, too, becomes magical, and 
possessed of the power of working wonders by black art." 






This concerto is scored for solo pianoforte, three flutes (one inter- 
changeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, horns, 
two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, cymbals, 
strings. 



Symphony No. 2. in I) major. Op. 78 . . . Johannes Brahms 
(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1S33 ; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.) 

Chamber music, choral works, pianoforte pieces, and songs had 
made Brahms famous before he allowed his first symphony to be 
played. The symphony in C minor was performed for the first time 
at Carlsruhe on November 4, 1876, from manuscript with Dessoff 
as conductor. Kirchner wrote in a letter to Marie Lipsius that he 
had talked about this symphony in 1863 or 1864 with Mme. Clara 
Schumann, who then showed him fragments of it. No one knew, it 
is said, of the existence of a second symphony before it was com- 
pleted. 

The second symphony, in D major, was composed, probably at 
Portschach-am-See, in the summer of 1877, the year that saw the 
publication of the first. Brahms wrote Dr. Billroth in September 
of that year : "I do not know whether I have a pretty symphony ; 
I must inquire of skilled persons." He referred to Clara Schumann, 
Dessoff, and Ernst Frank. On September 19 Mme. Schumann wrote 
that he had written out the first movement, and early in October 
he played to her the first movement and a portion of the last. The 
symphony was played by Brahms and Ignaz Brtill as a pianoforte 



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duet (arranged by the composer) to invited guests at the piano- 
forte house of his friend Ehrbar in Vienna a few days before the 
date of the first performance, the announced date December 11. 
Through force of circumstances the symphony was played for the 
first time in public at the succeeding Philharmonic concert of 
December 30, 1877.* Richter conducted it. The second perform- 
ance, conducted by Brahms, was at the Gewandhaus, Leipsic, on 
January 10, 1878. The review written by Eduard Hanslick after 
the performance at Vienna may serve to-day those who are unwill- 
ing to trust their own judgment. 

"It is well known that Wagner and his followers go so far as 
not only to deny the possibility of anything new in the symphonic 
form, — i.e., new after Beethoven, — but they reject the very right of 
absolute instrumental music to exist. The symphony, they say, is 
now superfluous since Wagner has transplanted it into the opera: 
only Liszt's symphonic poems in one movement and with a deter- 
mined poetical programme have, in the contemplation of the modern 

*Reimaiin, in his Life of Brahms, gives January 10, 1878, as the date, and says 
Brahms conducted. The date given in Erb's "Brahms" is December 24, 1877. Kalbeck, 
Deiters, and Miss May give December 30, 1877, although contemporaneous music 
journals, as the Signale, say December 20, 1877. 



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musical world, any vitality. Now if such absurd theories, which 
are framed solely for Wagner-Liszt household use, again need 
refutation, there can be no more complete and brilliant refutation 
than the long row of Brahm's instrumental works, and especially 
this second symphony. 

"The character of this symphony may be described concisely as 
peaceful, tender, but not effeminate serenity, which on the one 
side is quickened to joyous humor and on the other is deepened 
to meditative seriousness. The first movement begins immediately 
with a mellow and dusky horn theme. It has something of the 
character of the serenade, and this impression is strengthened still 
further in the scherzo and the finale. The first movement, an 
Allegro moderato, in 3-4, immerses us in a clear wave of melody, 
upon which we rest, swayed, refreshed, undisturbed by two slight 
Mendelssohnian reminiscences which emerge before us. The last 
fifty measures of this movement expire in flashes of new melodic 
beauty. A broad singing Adagio in B major follows, which, as it 
appears to me, is more conspicuous for the skilful development of 
the themes than for the worth of the themes themselves. For this 
reason, undoubtedly, it makes a less profound impression upon 
the public than do the other movements. The scherzo is thoroughly 
delightful in its graceful movement in minuet tempo. It is twice 
interrupted by a Presto in 2-4, which flashes, spark-like, for a 
moment. The finale in D, 4-4, more vivacious, but always agreeable 
in its golden serenity, is widely removed from the stormy finales 
of the modern school. Mozartian blood flows in its veins. 

"This symphony is a contrast rather than a companion to the 
first motives which, however, slumber there as flowers beneath the 
snow, or float as distant points of light beyond the clouds. It is 
true that the second symphony contains no movement of such 
noble pathos as the finale of the first. On the other hand, in its 
uniform coloring and its sunny clearness, it is an advance upon the 
first, and one that is not to be underestimated. 

"Brahms has this time fortunately repressed his noble but dan- 
gerous inclination to conceal his ideas under a web of polyphony 
or to cover them with lines of contrapuntal intersection; and 
if the thematic development in the second symphony appears less 
remarkable than that in the first, the themes themselves seem more 
flowing, more spontaneous, and their development seems more 
natural, more pellucid, and therefore more effective. We cannot, 
therefore, proclaim too loudly our joy that Brahms, after he had 
given intense expression in his first symphony to Faust-like conflicts 
of the soul, has now in his second returned to the earth, — the 
earth that laughs and blossoms in the vernal months." 

Certain German critics in their estimate of Brahms have ex- 

14 



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hausted themselves in comparison and metaphor. One claims that, 
as Beethoven's fourth symphony is to his "Eroica," so is Brahms's 
second to his first. The one in C minor is epic, the one in D major 
is a fairy-tale. When Billow wrote that Brahms was an heir of 
Cherubim, he referred to the delicate filigree work shown in the 
finale of the second. Felix Weingartner, whose "Die Symphonie 
nach Beethoven" (Berlin, 1898) is a pamphlet of singularly acute 
and discriminative criticism, coolly says that the second is far 
superior to the first: "The stream of invention has never flowed 
so fresh and spontaneous in other works by Brahms, and nowhere 
else has he colored his orchestration so successfully." And after 
a eulogy of the movements he puts the symphony among the very 
best of the new classic school since the death of Beethoven, — "far 
above all the symphonies of Schumann." 

This symphony was first played in Boston at a concert of the 
Harvard Musical Association, January 9, 1879. It was then con- 
sidered as perplexing and cryptic. John S. Dwight probably voiced 
the opinion prevailing at the time when he declared he could con- 
ceive of Sterndale Bennett writing a better symphony than the 
one by Brahms in D major. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, and strings. 



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FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



tan Sympb 



INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SEASON 1922-1923 
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 3, at 8.00 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
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PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. Hoffmann, J. 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
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>©§foe Sympl 

Forty-second 5 

PIERRE MONTI 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 



NINTH. CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 3 
AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Tchaikovsky . . Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

I. Adagio; Allegro non troppo. 

II. Allegro con grazia. 

III. Allegro molto vivace. 

IV. Finale; Adagio lamentoso. 



Wagner . . . . ..; Scene, "Gerechter Gott!" and Aria 

Gretry-Mottl . Three Dance Numbers from "Cephale et Procris" 

I. Tambourin. 

II. Menuet ("The Nymphs of Diana") 
III. Gigue. 

Saint-Saens . . . Aria, "Mon Cceur s'ouvre a ta voix" from 

"Samson and Delilah" 

Weber Overture to "Oberon" 



SOLOIST 
EMMA ROBERTS 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

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Symthony No. 6, in B minor, "Pathetic," Or. 74. 

Peter Tchaikovsky 

(Born at Votkinsk, in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; died at 

Petrograd, November 6, 1893.) 

This symphony was performed for the first time at Petrograd on 
October 28, 1893. 

The morning after Modest found Peter at the tea-table with the 
score of the symphony in his hand. He regretted that, inasmuch as 
he had to send it that day to the publisher, he had not yet given it 
a title. He wished something more than "No. 6," and did not like 
"Programme Symphony." "What does Programme Symphony mean 
when I will give it no programme?" Modest suggested "Tragic," 
but Peter said that would not do. "I left the room before he had 
come to a decision. Suddenly I thought, 'Pathetic.' I went back 
to the room, — I remember it as though it were yesterday, — and I 
said the word to Peter. 'Splendid, Modi, bravo, "Pathetic"!' and 
he wrote in my presence the title that will forever remain." 

Each hearer has his own thoughts when he is "reminded by the 
instruments." To some this symphony is as the life of man. The 
story is to them of man's illusions, desires, loves, struggles, vic- 
tories, and end. In the first movement they find with the despair of 
old age and the dread of death the recollection of early years with 
the transports and illusions of love, the remembrances of youth 
and all that is contained in that word. 

The second movement might bear as a motto the words of the 
Third Kalandar in the "Thousand Nights and a Night" : "And we 
sat down to drink, and some sang songs and others played the lute 
and psaltery and recorders and other instruments, and the bowl 
went merrily round. Hereupon such gladness possessed me that I 
forgot the sorrows of the world one and all, and said : 'This is indeed 
life. O sad that 'tis fleeting !' " The trio is as the sound of the clock 
that in Poe's wild tale compelled even the musicians of the orchestra 
to pause momentarily in their performance, to hearken to the sound ; 
"and thus the waltzers perforce ceased their evolutions; and there 
was a brief disconcert of the whole gay company; and, while the 
chimes of the clock yet rang, it was observed that the giddiest grew 
pale, and the more aged and sedate passed their hands over their 
brows as if in confused revery or meditation." In this trio Death 
beats the drum. With Tchaikovsky, here, as in the "Manfred" sym- 
phony, the drum is the most tragic of instruments. The persistent 
drum-beat in this trio is poignant in despair not untouched with 
irony. Man says : "Come now, I'll be gay" ; and he tries to sing and 
to dance, and to forget. His very gayety is labored, forced, con- 
strained, in an unnatural rhythm. And then the drum is heard, 
and there is wailing, there is angry protest, there is the conviction 
that the struggle against Fate is vain. Again there is the deliberate 
effort to be gay, but the drum once heard beats in the ears forever. 

7 



The third movement — the march-scherzo — is the excuse, the pre- 
text, for the final lamentation. The man triumphs, he knows all 
that there is in earthly fame. Success is hideous, as Victor Hugo 
said. The blare of trumpets, the shouts of the mob, may drown 
the sneers of envy ; but at Pompey passing Koman streets, at Tasso 
with the laurel wreath, at coronation of Tsar or inauguration of 
President, Death grins, for he knows the emptiness, the vulgarity, 
of what this world calls success. 

The symphony is scored for three flutes (the third of which is in- 
terchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three 
kettledrums, gong, and strings. 



Scena, "Gerechter Gott!" and Aria, "In seiner Bluthe," from 
"Rienzi," Act III., No. 9 Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic on May 22, 1813; died at Venice on February 13, 1883.) 

"Rienzi, der Letzte der Tribunen," grand opera in five acts, based 
on Bulwer's novel, libretto and music by Wagner, was produced at 
the Court Theatre in Dresden on October 20, 1842. The chief singers 
were Tichatschek (Rienzi), Miss Wiist (Irene), Dettmer (Colonna), 
Mme. Schroder-Devrient (Adriano), Wachter (Orsini). Carl Gottlieb 
Reisseger conducted. 

The first performance in New York was on March 4, 1878, when 
Charles R. Adams, Miss Herman, H. Wiegand, Eugenia Pappenheim 
(Adriano), and A. Blum were the chief singers. Max Maretzek con- 
ducted. 

"The situation of the scene sung at this concert is, briefly, this: 
Adriano Colonna, a young Roman nobleman, is in love with, and be- 
loved by, Rienzi's sister, Irene; Rienzi has been chosen Tribune of the 
People, and his assassination has been attempted by the Colonna- 
Orsini faction; the recreant nobles have been pardoned, but have again 
banded together against the Tribune; civil war is imminent; Adriano, 
whose father, Stefano Colonna, is one of the chiefs of the noble faction, 
is torn with conflicting feelings of loyalty to his father (whose head is 
forfeit, if the nobles are vanquished) and love for Irene, Rienzi's sister." 

The text is as follows : — 

Adriano (tritt auf). 

Scena. 
Gerechter Gott, so ist's entschieden schon! 
Nach Waffen schreit das Volk, — kein Traum ist's mehr! 
O Erde, nimm mich Jammervollen auf! 
Wo giebt's ein Schicksal, das dem meinen gleicht? 

Wer liess mich dir verfallen, finst're Macht? 
Rienzi, Unheilvoller, welch' ein Loos 
Beschwurst du auf diess ungliicksel'ge Haupt! 
Wohin wend' ich die irren Schritte? 
Wohin diess Schwert, des flitters Zier? 
Wend' ich's auf dich, Irenens Bruder .... 
Zieh' ich's auf meines Vaters Haupt? — 

(Er laS8t sich erschopft auf einer umgesturzten Sdule nieder.) 



Aria. 

In seiner Bl tithe bleicht mein Leben, 

Dahin ist all' mein Ritterthum; 

Der Thaten Hoffnung ist verloren, 

Mein Haupt kront nimmer Gliick und Ruhm. 

Mit triibem Flor umhiillet sich 

Mein Stern ini ersten Jugendglanz; 

Durch dust're Gluthen dringet selbst 

Der schonsten Liebe Strahl in's Herz. — 

(Man hort Signale geben von der Sturmglocke.) 
Wo bin ich? Ha, wo war ich jetzt? — 
Die Glocke — ! Gott, es wird zu spat! 
Was nun beginnen! — Ha, nur Ein's! 
Hinaus zum Vater will ich flieh'n; 
[Versohnung gliickt vielleicht dem Sohne. 
Er muss mich horen, denn sein' Knie 
Umfassend sterbe willig ich.] 
Auch der Tribun wird milde sein; 
Zum Frieden wandF ich gluh'nden Hass ! 

Du Gnadengott, zu dir fleh' ich, 

Der Lieb' in jeder Brust entflammt: 

Mit Kraft und Segen riiste mich, 

Versohnung sei mein heilig Amt ! 

(Er eilt ab.) 

The English prose of which is: 

Adriano (enters). 

Scena. 
Just God, so 'tis already decided! The people cry for arms, — 'tis no longer a 
dream ! O Earth, engulf me, lamentable one ! Where is a fate that's like to mine? 
Who let me fall thy victim, dark Power? Rienzi, thou disastrous one, what a fate 
didst thou conjure upon this hapless head! Whither shall I wend my wandering 
steps? Whither this sword, the knight's adornment'? Shall I turn it toward thee, 
Irene's brother . . . Shall I draw it against my father's head? — 

(He falls exhausted upon an overturned column.) 

Aria. 

My life fades in its blossom, all my knighthood is gone; the hope of deeds is lost, 
happiness and fame shall never crown my head. My star shrouds itself in murky 
crape in its first brightness of youth; through sombre glows even the ray of the 
beautifullest love pierces me to the heart. — (Tocsin signals are heard.) Where am 
I? Ha! where was I but now? — The tocsin — ! God, 'tis soon too late! What 
shall I do! — Ha! only one thing! I will flee outside the walls to my father; [per- 
haps his son will succeed in reconciliation. He must hear me, for I will die will- 
ingly, grasping his knees.] The Tribune, too, will be merciful; I will turn glowing 
hatred to peace! Thou God of mercy, to Thee I pray, who inflamest every bosom 
with love : arm me with strength and blessing, let reconciliation be my sacred office ! 
(He hurries off. ) * 

The introductory scena is marked Molto agitato (2-2 time) ; the aria 
is in two parts: Andante in G major (4-4 time) and Allegro in F minor 
and B-flat major (2-2 time), followed by Maestoso in G major (4-4 
time) and Vivace in G major (2-2 time). "The orchestral part is scored 
for full modern grand orchestra, with a bell in low D-flat."t 

translation by William Foster Apthorp. 

t After the publication of the first edition of the pianoforte score of "Rienzi," Wagner made many 
cuts in the work. The opera was originally intended for the Paris Academie de Musique, and its length 
calculated on the opera-going habits of the Parisian public; when it was first given in Dresden, it was 
found far too long for a German opera-evening, and was given in two parts, the first and second acts 
on one evening, and the third, fourth, and fifth on the next. Wagner's subsequent cuts reduced it to 
a normal opera-evening's length. Some of these cuts affect this aria; the most important of them is 
the omission of the closing Vivace movement. — W. F. A. 



Three Dance Pieces from "Cephalus and Procris," Heroic 
Ballet: Tambourin; Menuet ("The Nymphs of Diana") ; Gigue; 
Freely Arranged for Concert Performance by Felix Mottl. 

Andre Erneste Modeste Gretry 

(Gretry, born at Liege, February 8, 1741; died at Montmorency, near Paris, 

September 24, 1813.) 

(Mottl, born at Unter St. Veit. near Vienna, August 29, 1856; died at 

Munich on July 2, 1911.) 

Gretry's "Cephale et Procris," heroic ballet in three acts, words by 
Jean Francois Marmontel (1723-99), was performed for the first 
time at Versailles before Louis XV., December 30, 1773, at the 
wedding festivities of Charles Philippe of France, Count of Artois, 
who married the Princess Marie Theresa of Savoy, November 16 of 
that year.* At Versailles there was only this one performance. 
The singers were: Larrivee, Cephale; Sophie Arnould, Procris; 
Mme. Larrivee, l'Aurore; Mile. Rosalie (afterwards Levasseur), 
Flore and F Amour; Mile. Beaumenil, Pales; Mile. Duplant, la 
Jalousie; Mile. La Suze, la Soupcon; Mile. Dubois, Une Nymphe. 
The ballets were arranged by Vestris and Gardel. 

"Cephale et Procris" was produced at the Academie Royale de 
Musique, Paris, May 2, 1775, and was performed a dozen times. 
Larrivee, Cephale; Mile. Levasseur, Procris; Mile. Mallet, Flore et 
1 'Amour ; Mile. Beaumenil, Pales ; Mile. Duplante, la Jalousie ; 
Mile. Chateauneuf , la Soupgon ; Mile. Dubois, Une Nymphe. The 
chief dancers were Mmes. Guimard, Paeslin, Dorival; Messrs. 
Vestris, d'Auberval, Gardel. 

There was a revival on May 23, 1777, with twenty-six perform- 
ances that year. 

Marmontel based his libretto on the story as told by Ovid in the 
seventh book of the "Metamorphoses." In Marmontel's version, 
Aurora, in love with Cephalus, disguises herself as a nymph, and 
comes down from her celestial home to see him ; but her brilliance 
betrays her. Learning from him that he loves Procris, she informs 
him that Diana has condemned Procris to die by the hand of her 
lover, but Cephalus runs to his fate. Jealousy and her followers 
prepare to take vengeance on Aurora, who appears as one of Diana's 
nymphs. Procris calls Cephalus. Jealousy advances, and tells her 
that her lover has abandoned her for Aurora. Cephalus, wearied 
by the chase, falls on the ground. Faint and wishing a refreshing 
breeze, he calls on Aura'.f There is a stir in the foliage, and he 
hurls a dart. Procris comes forward with the dart that she has 

*Gustave Chouquet, in his "Histoire de la Musique Dramatique en France" (p. 357), 
says that "Cephale et Procris" was performed at Versailles at the end of the series 
of entertainments in honor of the marriage of the Dauphin and Marie Antoinette. 
The late conservator of the collection of musical instruments belonging to the Paris 
Conservatory was an unusually accurate and sound writer, but the marriage of the 
Dauphin and Marie Antoinette took place on May 16, 1770, over three years before 
the performance of "C6phale et Procris" at Versailles. The marriage of the Comte 
d' Artois and Marie Theresa was first by procuration at Turin in the palace of the 
King of Sardinia and Savoy, Marie's father, October 24, 1773. On November 14 of 
that year she arrived in the environs of Fontainebleau, and was there met by the 
King of France. Castil-Blaze, in his "L'Academie Imp6riale de Musique" (Pans, 1855), 
makes the mistake of Chouquet. No doubt Chouquet followed Castil-Blaze blindly in 
the matter. 

tAura, a light wind. There were two statues called "Aurae" at Rome in the time 
of Pliny the Elder. The Aurae were represented by the ancients as clothed in long 
and floating veils of a light texture. 

10 



drawn from her breast. Jealousy rejoices, but Love brings Procris 
back to life, and the lovers are joined. 

Mottl took three of the dance numbers and arranged them for 
concert use. The fifth scene of the first act is entitled "Les Nymphes 
de Diane." There is a chorus, which is followed by a ballet of 
Diana's nymphs: Minuet, Contredanse, Pantomime (followed by a 
repetition for chorus of the Minuet), Tambourin. The Gigue of 
Mottl's suite is from the fifth scene of the second act; chorus, 
"Mouvement de Loure," Gigue. 



"My Heart at thy Dear Voice," from "Samson and Delilah" 

Camille Saint-Sacns 

(Born in Paris on October 9, 1835; died at Algiers, December 16, 1921.) 

"Samson et Dalila," opera in three acts, text by Ferdinand Lemaire, 
music by Saint-Saens, was completed about 1872, although the second 
act was rehearsed with Augusta Holmes, Regnault, the painter, and 
Brussine, as the singers, in 1870. The same act was sung in 1874 at 
Pauline Viardot's country place, when she, Nicot, and Auguez were 
the singers. The first act was performed in concert form at the 
Chatelet, Paris, on Good Friday, 1875. 

The first operatic performance was in Germany at Weimar, December 
2, 1877. The opera was afterwards performed at Hamburg (1883), 
Cologne, Prague, and Dresden. 



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li 



The first performance in France of the work as an opera was at 
Rouen, March 3, 1890. The first operatic performance in Paris was 
at the Eden Theatre, October 31, 1890. Rosine Bloch was the Delilah. 
Not until November 23, 1892, was there a performance at the Opera, 
and then Mme. Deschamps-Jehin was the Delilah; Vergnet and Lassalle 
were the other chief singers. 

The first performance in the United States was in concert form at 
New York, March 25, 1892, by the Oratorio Society, led by Walter 
Damrosch. The singers were Mme. Ritter-Goetze, Montariol, Moore, 
Fischer. 

The first performance in New England was in concert form at a 
Worcester Festival, September 27, 1893, when Mrs. Carl Alves was 
the Delilah and J. H. McKinley was the Samson. 

The air, "My Heart at thy Dear Voice," is in the second act, scene hi. 
It is night, and Samson visits Delilah at her home in the valley of Sorek. 
A thunder-storm is nearing. 

The air is really part of a duet between Delilah and Samson; but 
Samson's replies to these entreaties of the woman of Sorek are omitted 
in the concert version. 

Andantino, D-flat major, 3-4. 

Mon cceur s'ouvre a ta voix 

Comme s'ouvrent les fleurs 

Aux baisers de l'aurore ! 

Mais, 6 mon bien-aime, 

Pour mieux secher mes pleurs, 

Que ta voix parle encore! 

Dis-moi qu'a Dalila tu reviens pour jamais, 

Redis a ma tendresse 

Les serments d' autrefois, 

Ces serments que j'aimais! 

Un poco piu lento. 

Ah! reponds a ma tendresse, 
Verse moi Pivresse! 

Ainsi, qu'on voit des bles 

Les epis onduler 

Sous la brise legere, 

Ainsi fremit mon cceur, 

Pret a se consoler 

A ta voix qui m'est chere ! 

La fleche est moins rapide 

A porter le trepas 

Que ne Test ton amante 

A voler dans tes bras. 

Ah! reponds a ma tendresse, 
Verse moi l'ivresse! 

The English prose translation* of which is as follows: — 

Delilah. — My heart opens at the sound of thy voice as the flowers open to the kisses 
of sunrise! But, O my well-beloved, let thy voice speak again, the better to dry my 
tears! Tell me that thou hast come back to Delilah forever, repeat to my love the 
oaths of yore, the oaths that I loved! Ah! respond to my love, pour out intoxi- 
cation for me! 

As you see the bearded wheat wave beneath the light breeze, so does my heart 
tremble, ready to console itself at thy dear voice! The arrow is less swift to bring 
death than thy beloved to fly to thy arms! Ah! respond to my love, pour out 
intoxication for me! 

*Translation by William Foster Apthorp. 
12 



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Overture to the Opera "Oberon" . Carl Maria von Weber 
(Born at Eutin, Oldenburg, December. 18, 1786; died at London, June 5, 1826.) 

"Oberon; or, the Elf-king's Oath," a romantic opera in three acts, 
book by James Robinson Planche, music by Carl Maria von Weber, 
was first performed at Covent Garden, London, on April 12, 1826. 
Weber conducted. The cast was as follows: Rezia, Mary Anne Paton; 
Mermaid, Mary Anne Goward; Fatima, Mme. Vestris; Puck, Harriet 
Cawse; Huon, John Braham; Oberon, Mr. Gownell; Scherasmin, acted 
by Mr. Fawcett, "but a bass singer, named Isaacs, was lugged in head 
and shoulders to eke out the charming quatuor, 'Over the Dark Blue 
Waters.' " 

The first performance in Boston was in Music Hall by the Parepa- 
Rosa Company, May 23, 1870.* 

A new version prepared by the royal conductor Josef Schlar and 
the librettist Josef Lauff was brought out at Wiesbaden in May, 1900, 
as one of festal performances in which William Hohenzollern took 
special interest. For an account of the revision see the Monthly Musical 
Record (London), July 1, 1900. 

Weber was asked by Charles Kemble in 1824 to write an opera for 
Covent Garden. A sick and discouraged man, he buckled himself to 
the task of learning English, that he might know the exact meaning 
of the text. He therefore took one hundred and fifty-three lessons 
of an Englishman named Carey, and studied diligently, anxiously. 
Planche sent the libretto to Dresden an act at a time. Weber made 
his first sketch on January 23, 1825. The autograph score contains 
this note at the end of the overture: "Finished April 9, 1826, in the 
morning, at a quarter of twelve, and with it the whole opera. Soli 
Deo Gloria!!! C. M. V. Weber." This entry was made at London. 

The overture, scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 

*The cast was as follows: Rezia, Mme. Parepa-Rosa; Fatima, Mrs. E. Seguin; Puck, Miss Geral- 
dine Warden; Sir Huon, William Castle; Scherasmin, A. Laurence (sic) ; Oberon, G. F. Hall; Mermaid, 
Miss Isaacson (?). Carl Rosa conducted. A song "Where Love is, there is Home," arranged by Howard 
Glover from a theme in one of Weber's pianoforte sonatas, was introduced. The audience was not 
large, and it was cool. 



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strings, begins with an introduction (Adagio sostenuto ed il tutto 
pianissimo possibile, D major, 4-4). The horn of Oberon is answered 
by muted strings. The figure for flutes and clarinets is taken from 
the first scene of the opera (Oberon's palace; introduction and chorus 
of elf s) . After a pianissimo little march there is a short dreamy passage 
for strings, which ends in the violas. There is a full orchestral crash- 
ing chord, and the main body of the overture begins (Allegro con fuoco 
in D major, 4-4). The brilliant opening measures are taken from the 
accompaniment figure of the quartet, "Over the dark blue waters/' 
sung by Rezia, Fatima, Huon, Scherasmin (act ii., scene x.). The horn 
of Oberon is heard again; it is answered by the skipping fairy figure. 
The second theme (A major, sung first by the clarinet, then by the 
first violins) is taken from the first measures of the second part of Huon's 
air (act i., No. 5). And then a theme taken from the peroration, presto 
con fuoco, of Rezia's air "Ocean! Thou mighty monster" (act ii., No. 
13), is given as a conclusion to the violins. This theme ends the first 
part of the overture. The free fantasia begins with soft repeated chords 
in bassoons, horns, drums, basses. The first theme is worked out in 
short periods; a new theme is introduced and treated in fugato against 
a running contrapuntal counter-theme in the strings. The second 
theme is treated, but not elaborately; and then the Rezia motive brings 
the spirited end. 

At the first performance of the opera the overture was repeated. 



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BOUND COPIES of the 

PROGRAMME^BOOKS 

Containing Mr. Philip Hale's analytical and de- 
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season ("musically speaking, the greatest art an- 
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Sun), may be obtained by addressing 



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16 



J .bl: - ).[■ 



s performed at tihese Concerts 
Seasomi of 1922=1923 



Ballantine 

"From the Garden of Hellas," Suite for Orchestra 

Beethoven 

Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 (Three Movements) 
Overture to Collin's Tragedy, "Coriolanus," Op. 62 

Berlioz . 

Songs with Orchestra, from "Une Nuit d'Ete" (Theophile Gautier) 
(a) Absence 
(6) Villanelle 

Soloist: Madeleine d'Espinoy Colonne 
Brahms 

Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 
Bruch 

Concerto for Violin, No. 1 in G minor, Op. 26 

Soloist: Carmela Ippolito 
Chausson 

Symphony in B-flat major, Op. 20 
Dvorak 

Symphony in F major, No. 3, Op. 76 
Franc k 

Symphonic Poem, "Le Chasseur Maudit" ("The Wild Huntsman") 
Glazounov 

Symphony No. 4 in E-flat, Op. 48 
Gluck 

Song of the Naiad, Act II, Scene 4, of "Armide" 

Soloist: Madeleine d'Espinoy Colonne 

Godard 

Air of Leonora from "Le Tasse" 

Soloist: Ester Ferrabini Jacchia 
Gr^try-Mottl 

Three Dance Numbers from "Cephale et Procris" 

Handel 

Concerto Grosso No. 5 in D major for String Orchestra (Edited by G. F. 
Kogel) 

Solo Violins: R. Burgin, J. Theodorowicz 
Solo Viola: G. Fourel; Solo Violoncello: J. Bedetti 
d'Indy 

"Wallenstein," Trilogy (after the Dramatic Poem of Schiller), Op. 12 
Liszt 

Symphonic Poem No. 3, "Les Preludes" (after Lamartine) 
Molique 

Concerto in D major for Violoncello and Orchestra, Op. 45 

Soloist: Alwin Schroeder 
Mozart 

Symphony in E-flat major (Kochel No. 543) 
Concerto for Pianoforte in D minor (Kochel No. 466) 

Soloist: Alfredo Casella 
Pergolesi-Stravinsky 

Suite No. 1 for Small Orchestra (from the Ballet "Pulcinella") 

Rabaud 

"The Nocturnal Procession," Symphonic Poem (after Lenau) 
Ravel 

Spanish Rhapsody 



V. February 8 

III. December 7 
VII. March 22 



I. October 19 
II. November 16 

II. November 16 
VI. March 1 

I. October 19 

III. December 7 
VII. March 22 

I. October 19 

VII. March 22 
IX. May 3 



VII. March 22 

IV. January 11 

II. November 16 

IV. January 11 

V. February 8 

VI. March 1 

IV. January 11 

I. October 19 
VII. March 22 



Saint-Saens 

Aria, "Mon Coeur s'ouvre a, ta Voix" from "Samson and Delilah" 

Soloist: Emma Roberts IX. May 3 
Schumann 

Concerto in A minor for Pianoforte and Orchestra, Op. 54 

Soloist: Olga Samaroff III. December 7 
Strauss 

"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the Old-Fashioned, Roguish Manner, 

— in Rondo Form," for Full Orchestra, Op. 28 V. February 8 

Tchaikovsky 

Concerto for Violin in D major, Op. 35 

Soloist: Richard Burgin V. February 8 

Symphony No 6 in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 IX. May 3 

Verdi 

Aria, "Ritorna Vincitor," from "Aida" 

Soloist: Ester Ferrabini Jacchia VII. March 22 
Wagner 

Prelude to "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg" I. October 19 

Prelude and Love-Death from "Tristan and Isolde" IV. January 11 

Prelude to "Lohengrin" VI. March 1 

Overture to "Tannhauser" VI. March 1 

Aria, "Gerechter Gott," from "Eienzi" 

Soloist: Emma Roberts IX. May 3 
Weber 

IX. May 3 



Overture to "Oberon" 



17 



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Telephone. Back Bay 5145-R 



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TEACHER OF ARTISTIC SINGING 

Qualified to develop male and female voice 
Reference: PHILIP HALE 
175 Hemenway St., Boston Tel., Copley 1113-M 

CIRCULAR SENT ON REQUEST 






TEACHER of PIANO and HARMONY 

117 REVERE STREET 

between Charles St. and the Esplanade 
Tel. Bowdoin3162-R 



INSTRUCTOR and COACH 

will receive his pupils in 

PIANOFORTE PLAYING at 

16 Martin Street - Cambridge, Mass. 



Me. MtOUKA UUVAL 
DRAMATIC SOPRANO 

Now Booking 

CONCERTS OPERA RECITALS 

Home Address 
647 CRANSTON STREET - PROVIDENCE, R.I. 



BARITONE 

ORATORIO— CONCERT— RECITAL 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

81 Audubon Road, Boston Copley 1817-M 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

WHITNEY SCHOOL FOR VOCALISTS 

1126 BOYLSTON STREET. BOSTON 

Also STUDIO at NEEDHAM 180 Nehoiden Street 



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INSTRUCTION: PIANO| 
Theory and Harmony. Editing | 
Trinity Court, Boston — B. B. 4030 | 

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BOSTON'S GREAT ART PRODUCT 

Pianos 

It is impossible to convey in words an adequate idea 
of the surpassing tonal quality of the Mason & Hamlin 
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And yet, that which baffles verbal expression is a very real 
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MASON & HAMLIN CO. 

Warerooms, 492-494 Boylston Street 
Boston 



PROVIDENCE PROGRAMMES 



INFANTRY HALL . . . PROVIDENCE 

Tuesday Evening, November 21, at 8.15 



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BOSTON 



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SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



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INFANTRY HALL 



PROVIDENCE 



FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



'©sftoifii Symp 



INC. 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



TUESDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 21, at 8.15 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
GALEN L. STONE 
ERNEST B. DANE 



ALFRED L. AIKEN 
FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



ARTHUR LYMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
GALEN L. STONE 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
E. SOHIER WELCH 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



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1NWAY 



'CHE INSTRUMENT OF THE IMMORTALS 




Franz Liszt 
at his Steinway 



OOMETIMES people who want 
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the beginning and wait for a 
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You may purchase a new Steinway piano 
with a cash deposit of 10%, and the bal- 
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'Prices: $875 and up. 
Convenient terms. Used pianos taken in exchange. 



109 EAST 14th STREET NEW YORK 

Subway Express Stations at the Door 

REPRESENTED BY THE FOREMOST DEALERS EVERYWHERE 




Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. Hoffmann, 

Concert-master. Mahn, F. 
Theodorowicz, J. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 


Gundersen, R. 
Kassman, N. 


Pinfield, C 
Barozzi, S. 


Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 


Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 


Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 


Gorodetzky, L. Kurth, R. 
Goldstein, S. Bryant, M. 


Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C. 


Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 


Riedlinger, 
Tapley, R. 


H. Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 

Violas. 


Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 


Fpurel, G. 
Artieres, L. 


Werne*, H 
Van Wynb 


Grover, H. 
ergen, C. Shirley, P. 


Fiedler, A. 
Mullaly, J. 




Gerhardt, * 
Deane, C. 


5. Kluge, M. 
Zahn, F. 

Violoncellos. 




Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller, J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Basses. 


Langendoen, J 
Marjollet, L. 


Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Ludwig, 0. Kelley, A. 
Frankel, I. Demetrides, 


Girard, H. 
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Flutes. 


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Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


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Piccolo. 


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Wendler, G. 
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Hain, F. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Hess, M. Mager, G. 
Van Den Berg, C. Mann, J. 

Perret, G. 

Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C. 
Adam, E. 
Mausebach, A. 
Kenfield, L. 


Tuba. 


Harps. 


Timpani. 


Percussion. 


Adam, E. 


Holy, A. 
Delcourt, L. 


Ritter, A. Ludwig, C. Zahn, F. 
Kandler, F. Sternburg, S. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


Librarian. 


Snow, A. 




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THIS clear toned instrument may be had in several 
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Be sure to try the Graduola which gives you the pleasure 
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For the most perfect phonograph music \?ou ever 

heard try the Vocalion Red Records upon your 

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(ARTHUR F. GARDINER) 

472 WESTMINSTER STREET 



The Rhode Island home of the Weber, Ivers & Pond, Steck, Emerson, 
Stroud and Wheelock upright and baby grand pianos. Tel. Gaspee 2985. 



INFANTRY HALL 



• • ■ 



PROVIDENCE 



One Hundred and Seventy-fourth Concert in Providence 



Forty-second Season. 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 
TUESDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 21 
AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Brahms 



. Symphony No. i in C minor, Op. 68 



I. Un poco sostenuto; Allegro. 

II. Andante sostenuto. 

III. Un poco allegretto e grazioso. 

IV. Adagio; Allegro non troppo, ma con brio. 



Mozart 

Rabaud . 
Weber . 

Tchaikovsky 



. Aria, "Deh Vieni," from "Le Nozze di Figaro" 
'La Procession Nocturne," Symphonic Poem (after Lenau) 

Recitative, "Wie nahte mir der Schlummer," and Aria, 
"Leise, leise," from "Der Freischiitz" 



. Ouverture Solennelle, "1812" in 
E-rlat major, Op. 49 



SOLOIST 
FRIEDA HEMPEL 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 



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suming our popular tours to Mex- 
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54 Exchange Street, Providence 

17 Temple Place, Boston 



Symphony in C minor, No. 1, Op. 68 Johannes Brahms 

(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.) 

Brahms was not in a hurry to write a symphony. He heeded not the 
wishes or demands of his friends, he was not disturbed by their im- 
patience. As far back as 1854 Schumann wrote to Joachim: "But 
where is Johannes? Is he flying high or only under the flowers? Is 
he not yet ready to let drums and trumpets sound? He should always 
keep in mind the beginning of the Beethoven symphonies: he should 
try to make something like them. The beginning is the main thing; 
if only one makes a beginning, then the end comes of itself." 

Max Kalbeck of Vienna, the author of a life of Brahms in 2138 pages, 
is of the opinion that the beginning, or rather the germ, of the Symphony 
in C minor is to be dated 1855. In 1854 Brahms heard in Cologne for 
the first time Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. It impressed him greatly, 
so that he resolved to write a symphony in the same tonality. 

A performance of Schumann's "Manfred" also excited him when he 
was twenty-two. Kalbeck has much to say about the influence of these 
Works and the tragedy in the Schumann family over Brahms as the com- 
poser of the C minor Symphony. The contents of the symphony, ac- 
cording to Kalbeck, portray the relationship between Brahms and 
Robert and Clara Schumann. The biographer finds significance in the 



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Convenient Terms Arranged 



first measures poco sostenuto that serve as introduction to the first 
allegro. It was Richard Grant White who said of the German com- 
mentator on Shakespeare that the deeper he dived the muddier he came 
up. 

In 1862 Brahms showed his friend Albert Dietrich an early version 
of the first movement of the symphony. Brahms was then sojourn- 
ing at Minister. 

Dietrich saw the first movement in 1862. It was then without the 
introduction. Clara Schumann on July 1 of that year wrote to Joachim 
that Brahms had sent her the movement with a "bold" beginning. She 
quoted in her letter the first four measures of the Allegro as it now stands 
and said that she had finally accustomed herself to them; that the move- 
ment was full of wonderful beauties and the treatment of the thematic 
material was masterly. Dietrich bore witness that this first move- 
ment was greatly changed. The manuscript in the possession of Sim- 
rock, the publisher, is an old copy by some strange hand. It has a white 
linen envelope on which is daubed with flourishes, "Sinfonie von 
Johannes Brahms Mus: Doc: Cantab:" etc., etc. Kalbeck makes the 
delightful error of translating the phrase "Musicae doctor cantabilis." 
"Cantabilis!" Did not Kalbeck know the Latin name of the university 
that gave the degree to Brahms? 

The manuscripts of the other movements are autographic. The 





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second movement, according to the handwriting, is the youngest. The 
third and fourth are on thick music paper. At the end is written "J. 
Brahms Lichtenthal Sept. 76." Kalbeck says that the Finale was con- 
ceived in the face of the Zurich mountains, in sight of Alps and the lake; 
and the horn solo with the calling voices that fade into a melancholy 
echo were undoubtedly suggested by the Alpine* horn; the movement 
was finished on the Island of Rxigen. 

Max Bruch in 1870 wished to produce the symphony, but there was 
only one movement at that time. When the work was completed 
Brahms wished to hear it before he took it to Vienna. He thought of 
Otto Dessoff , then conductor at Carlsruhe, and wrote to him For some 
reason or other, Dessoff did not understand the drift of Brahms's letter, 
and Brahms was impatient. Offers to produce the symphony had come 
from conductors on Mannheim, Munich, and Vienna; but, as Brahms 
wrote again to Dessoff, he preferred to hear "the thing for the first time 
in the little city that has a good friend, a good conductor and a good 
orchestra." 

The s}miphony was produced at Carlsruhe by the grand duke's or- 
chestra on November 4, 1876. Dessoff conducted. There was a per- 
formance a few days later at Mannheim where Brahms conducted. 
Many musicians journeyed to hear the symphony. Simrock came in 
answer to this letter: "It's too bad you are not a music-director, other- 

*Alpenhorn, or Alphorn, is an instrument of wood and bark, with a cupped mouthpiece. It is 
nearly straight, and is from three to eight feet in length. It is used by mountaineers in Switzerland 
and in other countries for signals and simple melodies. The tones produced are the open harmonies 
of the tube. The "Ranz des Vaches" is associated with it. The horn, as heard at Grindelwald, inspired 
Alexis Chauvet (1837-71) to write a short but effective pianoforte piece, one of his "Cinq Feuillets 
d'Album." Orchestrated by Henri Marechal, it was played here at a concert of the Orchestral Club, 
Mr. Longy conductor, January 7, 1902. The solo for English horn in Rossini's overture to "William 
Tell" is too often played by an oboe. The statement is made in Grove's Dictionary of Music and 
Musicians (Revised Edition) that this solo was originally intended for a tenoroon and played by it. 
Mr. Cecil Forsyth, in his "Orchestration," says that this assertion is a mistake, "based probably on the 
fact that the part was written in the old Italian notation; that is to say, in the bass clef an octave below 
its proper pitch." (The tenoroon, now obsolete, was a small bassoon pitched a fifth higher than the 
standard instrument.) 




is Prepared to Furnish Solo and Ensemble Artists 
for Terms or Appointments 

Address Secretary, 300-301 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Office Hours 10-1 Telephone Union 2760-W 



wise you could have a sjmiphony. It's at Carlsruhe on the fourth. I 
expect from you and other befriended publishers a testimonial for not 
bothering you about such things." Simrock paid five thousand thalers 
for the symphony He did not publish it till the end of 1877. 

There was hot discussion of this symphony. Many in the first years 
characterized it as labored, crabbed, cryptic, dull. Hanslick's article 
of 1876 was for the most part an inquiry into the causes of the popular 
dislike. He was faithful to his master, as he was unto the end. And 
in the fall of 1877 Billow wrote from Sydenham a letter to a German music 
journal in which he characterized the Symphony in C minor in a way 
that is still curiously misunderstood. 

"One touch of nature makes the whole world kin." This quotation 
from "Troilus and Cressida" is regarded by thousands as one of Shake- 
speare's most sympathetic and beneficent utterances. But what is the 
speech that Shakespeare put into the mouth of the wily, much-enduring 
Ulysses? After assuring Achilles that his deeds are forgotten; that 
Time, like a fashionable host, "slightly shakes his parting guest by the 
hand," and grasps the comer in his arms; that love, friendship, charity, 
are subjects all to "envious and calumniating time," Ulysses says: — 



Sarhntrfj 

Portraits 



for CHRISTMAS 

Their quality and prestige are known and will be 

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requires time and care. 

Make an appointment for a sitting now. 



311 WESTMINSTER STREET 






WHATEVER the occasion for 
which you would be impec- 
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theatre, reception or any of the 
functions that fill Fashion's calendar 
— Gladding's can best interpret the 
mode of the moment in terms of 
your own individuality. 



'SINCE 1766 AT THE BUNCH OF GRAPES" 



Gladding'* 



10 



"One touch of nature makes the whole world kin, — 
That all, with one consent, praise new-born gauds, 
Though they are made and moulded of things past, 
And give to dust, that is a little gilt, 
More laud than gilt o'er-dusted." 

This much-admired and thoroughly misunderstood quotation is, in 
the complete form of statement and in the intention of the dramatist, 
a bitter gibe at one of the most common infirmities of poor humanity. 

Ask a music-lover, at random, what Blilow said about Brahms's Sym- 
phony in C minor, and he will answer, "He called it the Tenth Sym- 
phony.' ' If you inquire into the precise meaning of this characteriza- 
tion, he will answer: "It is the symphony that comes worthily after 
Beethoven's Ninth"; or, "It is worthy of Beethoven's ripest years"; 
or in his admiration he will go so far as to say: "Only Brahms or Beet- 
hoven could have written it." 

Now what did Billow write? "First after my acquaintance with the 
Tenth Symphony, alias Symphony No. 1, by Johannes Brahms, that is 
since six weeks ago, have I become so intractable and so hard against 
Bruch-pieces and the like. I call Brahms's first symphony the Tenth, 
not as though it should be put after the Ninth; I should put it between 
the Second and the 'Eroica,' just as I think by the first Symphony should 
be understood, not the first Beethoven, but the one composed by Mozart, 
which is known as the 'Jupiter.' " 



Choice Flowers and Plants 



31 Westminster Street 



Providence, R.I 



Of Imperial Russian Ballet 



PROVIDENCE 

Crown Hotel 



Normal and Professional Courses 



NEW YORK 

24 W. 57th St. 



li 



Aria "Deh vieni," from "Le Nozze di Figaro/' Act IV., Scene 10 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.) 

"Le Nozze di Figaro: dramma giocoso in quadro atti; poesia di 
Lorenzo Da Ponte,* aggiustata dalla commedia del Beaumarchais, 
'Le Mariage de Figaro'; musica di W. A. Mozart," was composed at 
Vienna in 1786, and produced there on May 1 of the same year. The 
cast was as follows: il Conte Alma viva, Mandini; la Contessa, Laschi; 
Susanna, Storace; Figaro, Benucci; Cherubino, Bussani; Marcellina, 
Mandini; Basilio and Don Curzio, Ochelly (so Mozart wrote Michael 
Kelly's name, but Kelly says in his "Reminiscences" that he was called 
OKelly in Italy); Bartolo and Antonio, Bussani; Barberina, Nannina 
Gottlieb (who later created the part of Pamina in Mozart's "Magic 
Flute," September 30, 1791). Mozart conducted. The Wiener Zeitung 
(No. 35. 1786) published this review: "On Monday, May 1, a new 

*Lorenzo Da Ponte was born at Ceneda in 1749. He died at New York, August 17, 1838. His 
life was long, anxious, strangely checkered. "He had been improvisator e, professor of rhetoric, and 
politician in his native land; poet to the Imperial Theatre and Latin secretary to the Emperor in Austria; 
Italian teacher, operatic poet, litterateur, and bookseller in England; tradesman, teacher, opera manager 
and bookseller in America." Even his name was not his own, and it is not certain that he ever took 
orders. He arrived in New York in 1805. See Mr. H. E. Krehbiel's entertaining chapter, "Da Ponte 
in New York" ("Music and Manners," New York, 1898). 




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Visit our Shoppe for Christmas Suggestions 

HOSIERY LINGERIE NECKWEAR 

HANDKERCHIEFS BOUDOIR CAPS 

and NOVELTIES 



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at Elevator 



Adaptations with the French Chic 



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Specializing in Smart Dresses 
for Large Women 



155 Angell Street 
Permanent Shoppe 



12 




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Steinway & Sons 

STEINERT 

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M. STEINERT & SONS 

STEINERT BUILDING PROVIDENCE 



13 



Italian Singspiel in four acts was performed for the first time. It is 
entitled 'Le Nozze di Figaro/ and arranged after the French comedy 
of Hrn. v. Beaumarchais by Hrn. Abb. Da Ponte, theatre-poet. The 
music to it is by Hrn. Kapellmeister Mozart. La Sign. Laschi, who 
came here again a little while ago, and la Sign. Bussani, a new singer, 
appeared in it for the first time as Countess and Page." The opera 
was performed nine times that year. Only Martin's "Burbero di buon 
cuore" had as many performances. But when Martin's "Cosa rara" 
met with overwhelming success on November 17, 1786, emperor and 
public forgot "The Marriage of Figaro," which was not performed in 
Vienna in 1787 and 1788, and was first heard thereafter on August 29, 
1789. 

The scene is a garden, — an arbor at the right and another to the 
left. Night. 

The Count Almaviva has begged Susanna, his wife's maid, to meet 

him. This she has promised to do, but she changes clothes with her 

mistress. The Countess dressed as Susanna meets the Count, whilst 

Susanna as the Countess accepts the advances of Figaro. 

Air. Andante, F major, 6-8. Accompanied by % flute, oboe, bassoon, 
and the usual strings. 

Deh vieni, non tardar, o gioja bella! 
Vieni ove amore per goder t' appella. 
Finche non splende in ciel notturna face. 
Finche Y aria e ancor bruna, e il mondo taee. 

Qui mormora il ruscel, qui scherza Y aura, 
Che col dolce susurro il cor ristaura, 
Qui ridono i fioretti, e 1' erba e fresca, 
Ai piaceri d' amor qui tutto adesca. 

Vieni, ben mio! tra queste piante ascose! 
Ti vo' la fronte incoronar di rose! 



PIANIST 

123 BENEVOLENT STREET .-. PROVIDENCE, R.I. 

Management, WENDELL H. LUCE, 492 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 

CONTRALTO SOLOIST 

STUDIO, Room 404 LEDERER BUILDING, MATTHEWSON STREET 

14 







will play for you in your own home at any time 
you wish if you own an 

AMP1CO 



The Ampico is easily identified. It may be 
obtained in the Chickering, J. & C. Fischer, Haines 
Bros, and Marshall & Wendell and is distributed in 
Rhode Island by our Piano Salon only. We would 
gladly give you an informal recital at any time. 




mm 









wmmm m m ammam 



15 



Air. 

O come, my heart's delight, where love invites thee, 
Come then, for without thee no joy delights me, 
The moon and stars for us have veil'd their splendor. 
Philomela has hush'd her carols tender. 

The brooklet murmurs near with sound caressing, 
'Tis the hour for love and love's confessing. 
The zephyr o'er the flow'rs is softly playing, 
Love's enchantment alone all things is swaying. 

Come then, my treasure, in silence all reposes, 

Thy love is waiting to wreathe thy brow with roses!* 

Ann (otherwise Anna) Selina Storace, soprano (1766-1817), who 
created the part of Susanna, was the daughter of Stefano Storace (orig- 
inally Sorace), Italian double-bass player. She studied with her father 
and Ranzzini in London, and appeared there in concerts from 1774 to 
1778. She studied with Sacchini at Venice, and appeared in 1780 at 
La Pergola, Florence, with great success. In 1781 she sang at Parma, 
and in 1782 at La Scala in Cimarosa's "II Pittore Parigino" (August 
10), and in Sarti's "Fra i due litiganti il terzo gode" (September 14). 
In 1784 she was engaged at the Imperial Theatre, Vienna, at a salary 
equal to $2,500 for the season, — a remarkably high sum for that period. 
In Vienna she contracted an unhappy marriage with John Abraham 
Fisher, the violinist. He beat her. They soon separated, and she never 
afterwards used her husband's name. The Emperor ordered Fisher 
to leave Austria. Returning to London in 1787, she sang in opera. 
She became intimate with Braham, and sang with him on the Con- 
tinent. On May 30, 1808, she left the stage, farewelling the public in 
"The Cabinet." She left a large fortune, — £11,000 in pecuniary legacies 
and about £40,000 for a cousin as residuary legatee. There is much 

*The English version is by Natalie McFarren. 



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entertaining gossip about her as woman and singer. (See Kelly's "Remi- 
niscences" for stories of her life in Vienna.) 

The first performance of the opera in the United States was one of 
Bishop's remodelled English version, in New York, on May 3, 1823. 



"La Procession Nocturne": Symphonic Poem (after Lenatj), 
Op. 6 Henri Rabatjd 

(Born in Paris, November 10, 1873; now living there.) 

"La Procession Nocturne" was performed for the first time at a Con- 
cert Colonne, Paris, January 15, 1899. 

There was a performance of this work by the Cincinnati Symphony 
Orchestra, Cincinnati, on November 30, 1900. Mr. Van der Stucken 
conducted. 

The programme book of the Cincinnati Orchestra contained this 
translation of Lenau's poem: 

"From a lowering sky the heavy and sombre clouds seem to hang so close to 
the tops of the forest that they seem to be looking into its very depths. The night 
is murky, but the restless breath of Spring whispers through the wood, a warm and 



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18 



living murmur. Faust is doomed to travel through its obscurity. His gloomy 
despair renders him insensible to the marvellous emotions which are called forth by 
the voices of Spring. He allows his black horse to follow him at his will, and as he 
passes along the road which winds through the forest he is unconscious of the fra- 
grant balm with which the air is laden. The further he follows the path into the 
forest the more profound is the stillness. 

"What is that peculiar light that illumines the forest in the distance, casting its 
glow upon both sky and foliage? Whence come these musical sounds of hymns 
which seem to be created to assuage earthly sorrow? Faust stops his horse and ex- 
pects that the glow will become invisible and the sounds inaudible, as the illusions 
of a dream. Not so, however; a solemn procession is passing near, and a multitude 
of children, carrying torches, advance, two by two. It is the night of St. John's 
Eve. Following the children there come, hidden by monastic veils, a host of virgins, 
bearing crowns in their hands. Behind them march in ranks, clad in sombre gar- 
ments, those grown old in the service of religion, each bearing a cross upon the 
shoulder. Their heads are bare, their beards are white with the silvery frost of 
Eternity. Listen how the shrill treble of the children's voices, indicative of the 
Spring of Life, intermingles with the profound presentiment of approaching wrath 
in the voices of the aged. 

''From his leafy retreat, whence he sees the passing of the faithful, Faust bitterly 
envies them their happiness. As the last echo of the song dies away in the distance 
and the last glimmer of the torches disappears, the forest again becomes alight with 
the magic glow which kisses and trembles upon the leaves. Faust, left alone among 
the shadows, seizes his faithful horse, and, hiding his face in its soft mane, sheds 
the most bitter and burning tears of his life." 



.. CONCERT "DIRECTION 

PIERCE BUILDING 



BOSTON 



As heretofore, Mr. Richmond continues his policy of featuring artists 
of distinction. Appearing under his direction this season: 

RICHARD BURGIN, Violinist — FELIX FOX, Pianist — 

LAURA LITTLEFIELD, Soprano (lyric)— MARIA CONDE, 
Soprano (coloratura)— JEAN BEDETTI, 'Cellist— FIEDLER 
TRIO — Henry Gideon in "CONCERTS with COM- 
MENTS" -and 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ENSEMBLE 

"A Miniature Symphony Orchestra" 
AUGUSTO VANNINI, Conductor 



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ORGAN AND PIANO LESSONS 



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Address before December 
64 Smith Street 
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19 



Kecitative, "How tranquilly I slumber'd," and Aria, "Softly 
sighing/' from the Opera, "Der Freischutz" 

Carl Maria von Weber 
(Born at Eutin, Oldenburg, December 18, 1786; died at London, June 5, 1826.) 

"Der Freischutz," a romantic opera in three acts, book by Fried- 
rich Kind, music by Weber, was first performed at Berlin, June 18, 
1821. 

The recitative and aria of Agathe (act ii., No. 8) are sung by her 
in a narrow antechamber with two side doors. In the centre is a 
curtained doorway, which leads to a balcony. Aennchen's spinning- 
wheel is on one side ; on the other is a large table, upon which are a 
lighted lamp and a white dress trimmed with green. Agathe is now 
alone. 

*How tranquilly I slumber'd before on him I gaz'd ! But evermore with 
sorrow love hand in hand must go. The moon reveals her silv'ry light. ( She 
draws the curtain -from before the balcony; a bright starlight night is seen.) 
O lovely night! (She steps out upon the balcony and folds her hands in 
prayer.) 

Softly sighing, day is dying, ; 

Soar my prayer heav'nward flying ! 

Starry splendor shining yonder, 

Pour on us thy radiance tender ! 

(Looking out.) How the golden stars are burning thro' yon vault of ether 
blue ; but, lo, gath'ring o'er the mountains is a cloud, foreboding storm, and 
along yon pinewood's side veils of darkness slowly glide. 

Lord, watch o'er me, I implore thee ; 
Humbly bending, I adore thee ; 
Thou hast tried us, ne'er denied us, 
Let thy holy angels guide us ! 
Earth has lull'd her care to rest ; 
Why delays my loit'ring love? 
Fondly beats my anxious breast: 
Where, my Rodolph,f dost thou rove? 

Scarce the breeze among the boughs wakes a murmur thro' the silence ; 
save the nightingale lamenting, not a sound disturbs the night. But hark ! 
doth my ear deceive? I heard a footstep; there in the pinewood's shadow I 
see a form. 'Tis he, 'tis he ! O love, I will give thee a sign. Thy maiden 
waits through storm and shine. (She waves a white kerchief.) He seems 
not to see me yet. Heav'n, can it be I see a-right? With flow'ry wreath his 
hat is bound ! Success at last our hopes have crown'd. What bliss to-mor- 
row's dawn will bring ! Oh ! joyful token, hope renews my soul ! 

How ev'ry pulse is flying, 
And my heart beats loud and fast ; 
We shall meet in joy at last. 
Could I dare to hope such rapture? 
Frowning Fate at last relents 
And to crown our love consents 
Oh, what joy for us to-morrow ! 
Am I dreaming? Is this true? 

Bounteous heav'n, my heart shall praise thee 

For this hope of rosy hue. 

How ev'ry pulse is flying, 

And my heart beats loud and fast; 

We shall meet in joy at last. 

The accompaniment is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clari- 
nets, two bassoons, four horns, strings. 

♦The translation into English is by Natalia Macfarren. 

tHere the translator follows an old English version, in which Rodolph was 
substituted for Max. 

20 



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Overture, "1812," in E-flat major, Opus 49 . Peter Tchaikovsky 

(Born at Votinsk, in the government of Viatka, Russia, May, 1840; died at 
Petrograd, November 6, 1893.) 

The new Church of the Redeemer in Moscow was solemnly dedicated 
in the summer of 1881. Nicholas Rubinstein in the fall of 1880 had asked 
Tchaikovsky to compose something for the service. Tchaikovsky wrote 
to Mrs. von Meek on October 10, 1880, that Rubinstein had requested 
him to write an important work for chorus and w orchestra. "Nothing 
is more unpleasant to me than the manufacturing of music for such 
occasions. . . . But I have not the courage to refuse." On the 22d he 
wrote that he had written two works very rapidly: "a festival over- 
ture for the exhibition and a serenade in four movements for string 
orchestra." 

The overture, "1812," was finished at Kamenka in 1880. The church 
was dedicated to the memory of the famous year when the might 
of Napoleon was shaken at Borodino and consumed in the flames of 
Moscow. The overture was to be performed in the public square 
before the church by a colossal orchestra, church bells were to be used, 
and big drums were to be replaced by cannon. 

The repulse of the Napoleonic invasion of Russia in 1812 is cele- 
brated in this overture. 



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The overture begins Largo, E-flat major, 3-4. Violas and violon- 
cellos play a theme in four-part harmony. This theme has both ec- 
clesiastical and folk-song character. Berezovsky says that this largo 
is built on a Russian hymn, "God, preserve thy people." After the 
climax an Andante comes in 4-4. Oboes, clarinets, and horns give 
out a gay fanfare, while the strings have a quieter cantilena. 

The main body of the overture (Allegro giusto, E-flat minor, 4-4) 
begins with a tempestuous first theme, which is developed by the full 
orchestra. Fragments of the Marseillaise are heard sounded by horns 
and cornets. There is a quieter second theme, and this and a third 
theme, or conclusion theme (E-flat minor), with dance rhythm and 
Oriental character, is said to characterize the Cossacks in the Russian 
Army. The fragments of the Marseillaise return, and are worked up 
with other thematic material. It seems as though the French hymn 
were about to triumph, and its first phrase is sounded in almost com- 
plete form by trumpets and cornets, but only to be lost in an orchestral 
storm. The theme of the Largo is heard as a triumphal anthem; the 
fanfares heard before, now are used as in a triumphal march, while 
against them the Russian Hymn, composed by Lvoff, is thundered out 
by horns, bassoons, trombones, tuba, violoncellos, violas, and basses. 

The French Army is typified, of course, by the Marseillaise, over- 
powered at last by the Russian Hymn. Tchaikovsky has been charged 




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with anachronism; for the Marseillaise* was not in favor during the 
First Empire, and the Russian Hymn was not composed by LvofT 
before 1833. This reproach is, however, not to be taken seriously; for 
these tunes are used as typical of two nations, and not in any attempt 
at realism. 

When Tchaikovsky visited Berlin in 1888, this overture was played 
at the concert of his works, much to his dislike, for he wrote in his diary: 
"I considered and still consider my Overture '1812' quite mediocre; 
it has only a patriotic and local significance which makes it unsuitable 
for any but Russian concert room; but it was precisely this overture 
that Mr. Schneider wished to put on the program, and he said that 
it had been performed several times in Berlin with success." 

*The words and music of the Marseillaise were composed by Rouget de Lisle, April 24, 1792, at 
Strasburg. The song was first known as "Chant de guerre pour l'armee du Rhin." On June 25, 1792, 
a singer, Mireur, made so great an effect with it at a civic banquet at Marseilles that the song was printed 
and given to the volunteers of a battalion starting for Paris. When they entered Paris, they were sing- 
ing this hymn, which was thenceforth known as the "Chanson" or "Chant des Marseillais." The 
authorship of the music has been disputed, but it is now generally agreed that de Lisle wrote both the 
music and the words. See "Les Melodies populaires de la France" by Loquin (Paris, 1879) and Tiersot's 
"Histoire de la Chanson populaire en France" (Paris, 1889). 



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PROVIDEN CE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 

AMD MRS. ROBERT N. LISTER 

(30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE, BOSTON) 

Art of SINGING, all branches 

ALSO CLASSES IN VOICE DEVELOPMENT. Nominal Expense 

212 LAUDERDALE BUILDING, 144 WESTMINSTER STREET, PROVIDENCE 

Mondav and Thursday Telephone, Union I856-W 

COACHING IN OPERA AND ORATORIO 



CHARLES F. KELLEY 



VOICE and PIANO 

55 Steinert Building Phone, Gaspee 1910 



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Studio 45 STEINERT BUILDING 



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201 Clarendon Street 
BOSTON 

41 Conrad Building - - Providence, R.I. 



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41 Conrad Building 31 Gladstone Street 

Telephone. Broad 3428-W 



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Director of ensemble singing — Lincoln Private School — Concerts — Songs in Costume 

Pawtucket Studio Providence Studio Fridays, with 

18 Brook Street Mrs. A. M. WILLIAMSON 

Phone. Pawtucket 2711 612 Angell Street 



VIOLONCELLO 



SOLOIST INSTRUCTOR 

Teacher of Ensemble and Orchestra Coach 
Studio, 37 CONRAD BUILDING 



TEACHER of SINGING 

Pupil of Henrietta Hascall of Boston 
142 GLEN ROAD Telephone. Angell 1353 



PIANO 
615 JACKSON BUILDING 

Telephone 
27 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



PIANOFORTE 



Studio 
51 1 Jackson Bldg. 



196 Sargeant Street 
Hartford, Conn. 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

TEACHER of VOICE and PIANO 



STUDIO 
110-11-12 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Telephones, Union 2170, Pawt. 3152 



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Room 15 

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212 UNION STREET 



Union 1939- J 



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For appointment only address 



231 LOWELL AVE. 



Telephone, West 3197-J 



Dorothea Scott Bytovetzski PaYeJ L. Bytovetzski 

PIANO VIOLIN 

Mr. Bytovetzski taught the violin several seasons for Anton Witek. He is the author of ten pedagogical works for 

the violin, among them "How to Master the Violin," "Specific Studies,' 

"Progressive Graded Technics," "Scale Studies," etc. 

Address, THE BYTOVETZSKI MUSIC ROOMS, 28 MOORE STREET, PROVIDENCE, R.I. 

Telephone, Broad 3903 
28 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 

BEATRICE WARDEN 

PIANISTE . ACCOMPANISTE 

announces that for the season 1922-23 she is under 
the management of the 

MONDAY MORNING MUSICAL CLUB BUREAU 



For Engagements Apply Secretary 
300 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Telephone Union 2760-W Angell 41 46-W 



Office Hours 10-1 



TEACHER OF VOICE 



Studio, 301 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Tuesday Mornings and Saturday Afternoons 



Residence Studio 
27 TABER AVENUE 



VIOLONCELLO 

Management, Monday Morning Musical Club Bureau 

300 LAUDERDALE BUILDING For Trio engagements 

Telephone, Union 2760-W Telephone, Angell 3144-R 



TEACHER OF VIOLIN 

131 Niagra Street Telephone Broad 1522 



TEACHER OF PIANOFORTE 

STUDIOS 

Attleboro, Mass, Providence, R. I. 

Residence, 8 Prospect St. Telephone, Attleboro 445-M 



SOPRANO SOLOIST TEACHER OF SINGING 

Residence Studio: 476 Morris Ave. 

Telephone, Angell 3264 



CONTRALTO 
65 KEENE STREET 

Angell 4382-R 



FRANCES WATERMAN 
Soprano Soloist and Violin 



LOUISE WATERMAN 
'Cello 



MARION WATERMAN 
Harp 



96 CHAPIN AVENUE, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

29 



Phone, West 3001 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

33 CONRAD BUILDING 



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14 CONRAD BUILDING Music League of America, 1 West 34th St., N.Y. City 



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Providence Studio: 

41 Conrad Building 

Wednesday Afternoons 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

East Greenwich Studio: 
Church Street 
Telephone, 85-J 



Studio 
613 Jackson Bldg. 



PIANOFORTE 

Pupil of American Conservatory in Fontainebleau, France 



Telephone, Valley 383-R 



VIOLIN 
SOLOIST — TEACHER 

1396 Narragansett Blvd. Tel. Broad 4990-R 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

BILLINGS BLOCK 
48 SNOW STREET 

TELEPHONE 



VOICE and PIANO 



8 CONRAD BUILDING 

Residence telephone, Broad I876-R 
Studio telephone, Union 4066 



ALZADA X SPRAG 

PIANO and HARMONY 

Children's classes in Theory 
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30 



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Tel. Union 2802-R 



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PIANOFORTE 

72 CHARLES FIELD STREET 



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HARP -PIANO 



Studio: II CONRAD BUILDING 

Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays 

Telephone Union 743 1 -W 

Resident Studio; LONGMEADOW, R.I. 

Telephone Warwick Neck 31 -J 

Special Instruction for Children on the Irish Harp 



TEACHER OF PIANOFORTE 

SOLOIST 
121 BENEVOLENT STREET 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 
STUDIO, 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

CONRAD BUILDING Wednesdays 



HELEN DRAKE 

SOPRANO 

143 Meeting Street 

PeOVIDEXCE, BHODE ISIiAUD 



VOICE 

Fridays: 38 Conrad Building 



PIANO 



VOCAL COACHING 



Boston Studio: 214 Huntington Avenue 



PIANOFORTE 

106 CHAPIN AVENUE 



DRAMATIC SOPRANO 
SOLOIST TEACHER 

Assisting Teacher of the former Signora Elena Bianchini, Cappelli Conservatory, New York City 
Engagements for season 1922-23 now booking 

Providence Studio: 647 CRANSTON STREET 

Pupils accepted in Private or Class work. For appointment Phone, West 2027-R 



VIOLIN 
17 CONRAD BUILDING 



31 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



VOICE and PIANOFORTE 
415-417 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 



CONCERTS — ENTERTAINMENTS — FUNERALS 



S. D. ROGERS 
W. L. ROGERS 



214 Hanover Street 

Telephone West 363-W 



R. A. LAWDER 
R. A. GARDINER 



TENOR SOLOIST and TEACHER OF SINGING 

Assistant to Arthur J. Hubbard & Son, of Boston 
Studio, 48 SNOW STREET Residence, 278 WEBSTER AVENUE 

Tuesdays 9-8 Phone, West 71 -R 



28 NORWICH AVENUE 



TEACHER OF PIANO 

ACCOMPANIST 



Telephone, Broad 580-W 



BASS SOLOIST 

TELEPHONE, BROAD 5545-W 



CONTRALTO SOLOIST TEACHER of SINGING 

33 CONRAD BUILDING 
Phone, Broad 85-R 



PIANO ORGAN THEORY 

41 MITCHELL ST., PROVIDENCE 
Telephone, Broad 1282-M 



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SOPRANO SOLOIST 

and 

TEACHER of VOICE 

55 Health Ave. West. 2398-R 

WALTER A. SCHULZE 

VIOLIN SOLOIST and TEACHER 



Studio, 212 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 
Telephone, Union 1856-W 



Residence Telephone, Broad 1029-W 



32 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



( [RACE A. CONLON 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 
TEACHER OF SINGING PIANO AND HARP 

Studio, 14 Conrad Building 
Telephone, Union 743 1-M 



Residence Phone 
Union 1592-J 



CONTRALTO SOLOIST 

Telephone, Broad 103 



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'Phone Columbus 8993 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

STEINERT HALL 
162 BOYLSTON STREET . . . BOSTON 



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FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



INC. 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



TUESDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 12, at 8.15 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 







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One Hundred and Seventy-fifth Concert in Providence 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 

TUESDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 12 

AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 

Mozart . . . Symphony in E-flat major (Koechel No. 543) 

I. Adagio ; Allegro. 

II. Andante. 

III. Minuetto; Trio. 

IV. Finale: Allegro. 

Vaughan Williams . . Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis 

for Double Stringed Orchestra 



Schumann .... Concerto in A minor for Pianoforte 

and Orchestra, Op. 54 
I. Allegro affettuoso. 
II. Intermezzo; Andantino grazioso. 
III. Allegro vivace. 

Franck .... Symphonic Poem: "Le Chasseur Maudit" 

("The Wild Huntsman") 



SOLOIST 
OLGA SAMAROFF 

STEINWAY PIANO USED 



There wili be an intermission of ten minutes after Williams' Fantasia 

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Symphony in E-flat major (K. 543). 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 175G ; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.) 

Mozart wrote his three greatest symphonies in 1788. The one in 
E-flat is dated June 26, the one in Gr minor July 25, the one in C major 
with the fugue-finale August 10. 

His other works of that year are of little importance with the 
exception of a piano concerto in D major which he played at the 
coronation festivities of Leopold II. at Frankfort in 1790. There 
are canons and piano pieces; there is the orchestration of Handel's 
"Acis and Galatea"; there are six German dances and twelve min- 
uets for orchestra. Nor are the works composed in 1789 of interest 
with the exception of the clarinet quintet and a string quartet dedi- 
cated to the King of Prussia. Again we find dances for orchestra, — 
twelve minuets and twelve German dances. 

Why is this ? 1787 was the year of "Don Giovanni" ; 1790, the 
year of a Cosi fan tutte." Was Mozart, as some say, exhausted by 
the feat of producing three symphonies in such a short time ? Or was 
there some reason for discouragement and consequent idleness? 

The Hitter Gluck, composer to the Emperor Joseph II., died No- 
vember 15, 1787, and thus resigned his position with salary of two 



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thousand florins. Mozart was appointed his successor, but the thrifty 
Joseph cut down the salary to eight hundred florins. And Mozart 
at this time was sadly in need of money, as his letters show. In a 
letter of June, 1788, he tells of his new lodgings, where he could have 
better air, a garden, quiet. In another, dated June 27, he says : "I 
have done more work in the ten days that I have lived here than in 
two months in my other lodgings, and I should be much better here, 
were it not for dismal thoughts that often come to me. I must drive 
them resolutely away; for I am living comfortably, pleasantly, and 
cheaply." He borrowed from Puchberg, a merchant with whom he 
became acquainted at a Masonic lodge: the letter with Puchberg's 
memorandum of the amount is in the collection edited by Nohl. 

Mozart could not reasonably expect help from the Emperor. The 
composer of "Don Giovanni" and the "Jupiter" symphony was un- 
fortunate in his Emperors. 

We know little or nothing concerning the first years of the three 
symphonies. Gerber's "Lexicon der Tonkunstler" (1790) speaks 
appreciatively of him : the erroneous statement is made that the 
Emperor fixed his salary in 1788 at six thousand florins ; the varied 
ariettas for piano are praised especially; but there is no mention 
whatever of any symphony. 

The enlarged edition of Gerber's work (1813) contains an extended 





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notice of Mozart's last years. It is stated in the summing up of his 
career : "If one knew only one of his noble symphonies, as the over- 
poweringly great, fiery, perfect, pathetic, sublime symphony in C." 
This reference is undoubtedly to the "Jupiter," the one in C major. 
Mozart gave a concert at Leipsic in May, 1789. The programme 
was made up wholly of pieces by him. Among them were two 
symphonies in manuscript. A story that has come down might 
easily lead us to believe that one of them was the one in G minor. 
At a rehearsal for this concert Mozart took the first allegro of a 
symphony at a very fast pace, so that the orchestra soon was unable 
to keep up with him. He stopped the players, began again at the 
same speed, stamped the time so furiously that his steel shoe-buckle 
flew into pieces. He laughed, and, as the players still dragged, he 
began the allegro a third time. The musicians, by this time exas- 
perated, played to suit him. Mozart afterwards said to some who 
wondered at his conduct, because he had on other occasions pro- 
tested against undue speed : "It was not caprice on my part. I 
saw that the majority of the players were well along in years. 
They would have dragged everything beyond endurance if I had 
not set fire to them and made them angry, so that out of sheer spite 
they did their best." Later in the rehearsal he praised the orches- 
tra, and said that it was unnecessary for it to rehearse the accom- 
paniment to the pianoforte concerto : "The parts are correct, you 
play well, and so do I." This concert, by the way, was poorly 
attended, and half of those who were present had received free 
tickets from Mozart, who was generous in such matters. Mozart 
also gave a concert of his own words at Frankfort, October 14, 1790. 
Symphonies were played in Vienna in 1788, but they were by Haydn ; 
and one by Mozart was played in 1791. In 1792 a symphony by 
Mozart was played at Hamburg. 





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The early programmes, even when they have been preserved, sel- 
dom determine the date of a first performance. It was the custom 
to print : "Symphonie von Wranitsky," "Sinfonie von Mozart," "Sin- 
fonia di Haydn." Furthermore, it must be remembered that "Sin- 
fonie" was then a term often applied to any work in three or more 
movements written for strings, or strings and wind instruments. 

The two symphonies played at Leipsic were not then published. 
The two that preceded the great three were composed in 1783 and 
1786. The latter of the two (in D major) was performed at Prague 
with extraordinary success. 

The symphony in E-flat induced A. Apel to attempt a translation 
of the music into poetry that should express the character of each 
movement. It excited the fantastical E. T. A. Hoffmann to an 
extraordinary rhapsody: "Love and melancholy are breathed forth 
in purest spirit tones; we feel ourselves drawn with inexpressible 
longing toward the forms which beckon us to join them in their 
flight through the clouds to another sphere. The night blots out the 
last purple rays of day, and we extend our arms to the beings who 
summon us as they move with the spheres in the eternal circles of 
the solemn dance." So exclaimed Johannes Kreisler in the "Phan- 
tasiestiicke in Callots Manier." 

The symphony is scored for flute, two clarinets, two bassoons, two 
horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings. The autograph score is 
in the Royal Library in Berlin. 

The Minuetto appears in the ballet music introduced in perform- 
ances of "Le Nozze di Figaro" at Paris. 

I. Adagio, E-flat major, 4-4; Allegro, E-flat major, 3-4. 

II. Andante, A-flat major, 2-4. 

III. The Minuetto, E-flat major, 3-4, is known to household pian- 
ists through Jules Schulhoff's arrangement. 

IV. Finale. Allegro, E-flat major, 2-4. 





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Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis for Double-Stringed 
Orchestra Ralph Vaughan Williams 

(Williams: Born at Down Amprey, on the borders of Gloucestershire and Wilt- 
shire, England, on October 12, 1872; living in London. Tallis: Supposed to have 
been born in the second decade of the sixteenth century in London; died on November 

23, 1585.) 

This Fantasia was written for the Gloucester (Eng.) Festival of 1910 
and first performed in the Gloucester Cathedral. The first performance 
in the United States was at a concert of the Symphony Society of 
New York, Walter Damrosch conductor, on March 9, 1922. The 
Fantasia was published in 1921. 

The score contains this note: 

"The second orchestra: two first violin players, two second violin 
players, two viola players, two violoncello players and one contrabass 
player — these should be taken from the third deck of each group (or 
in the case of the contrabass by the first player of the second deck) 
and should if possible be placed apart from the first orchestra. If this 
is not practicable, they should play sitting in their normal places. The 
solo parts are to be played by the leader in each group." 

Thomas Tallis, called "The father of English cathedral music," 
organist, retained his position in the Chapel Royal uninterruptedly 
from his appointment in the reign of Henry VIII. until his death in the 
reign of Elizabeth. The long list of his printed compositions and man- 
uscripts not printed is to be found in Grove's Dictionary (revised 
edition) . 



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For the following information we are indebted in great part to the 
Programme Notes of the New York Symphony Society's concert already 
named. 

In 1567 Tallis wrote eight tunes, each in a different mode, for Arch- 
bishop Parker's Metrical Psalter. (The famous tune of Tallis for 
"Veni Creator" is of this period.) The Cantus Firmus is in the tenor 
part. The explanatory note in the vocal score is worth quoting: 

"The tenor of these partes (sic) be for the people when they will syng 
alone, the other parts (sic) put for greater queers, or to such as will 
syng or play them privately." 

The nature of the eight tunes was thus described : 

The first is meeke; deuout to see. 
The second sad in majesty. 
The third doth rage : and roughly brayth. 
The fourth doth fawne; and flattery playth. 
The fyfth delight: and laugheth the more. 
The sixth bewaileth: it weepeth full sore. 
The seventh tredeth stoute : in f roward race. 
The eyghth goeth milde : in modest pace. 

Vaughan Williams chose the third tune for his Fantasia. Modern 
ears will fail to hear the raging and braying; but Tallis thought this 
tune appropriate for the second Psalm: 







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Why fumeth in sight : the Gentile spite 
In fury raging stout? 

The ecclesiastical character is preserved in this Fantasia by Williams, 
who retained the old harmonies, in spite of his modern instrumentation. 

* 

Vaughan Williams was educated at Charterhouse (1887-90) and 
at Trinity College, Cambridge (1892-95). In 1890-92 he was at 
the Royal College of Music, London, and after taking his degree at 
Cambridge he spent 1895-96 at the Music College, where he studied 
composition with Parry and Stanford, the organ with Parratt, the 
pianoforte with Herbert Sharpe and G. P. Moore. At Cambridge 
he had studied composition with Charles Wood. In 1897-98 he had 
lessons in composition from Max Bruch in Berlin. He also took lessons 
in Paris for two months from Ravel. "When the Frenchman had 
asked relentlessly, 'But why do you do so and so?' and 'Why should 
such and such be done?' the Englishman could only rub his eyes and 
say: 'Well, why indeed? And thank you very much for the hint.' 
After which he came home and wrote 'Wenlock Edge.'" In 1901 
Williams received the degree of Mus.D. from Cambridge. From 1896 
to 1899 he was organist of South Lambert Church. He has lectured 
for the Oxford University Extension in Oxford and London. In 1914, 
at the age of forty-two, he enlisted as a private in the R. A. M. C. As 
stretcher-bearer and scrubber of floors he served in France and at 
Salonica. He passed the examination for an artillery commission in 
1917 and won special commendation for his place on the list. He is 
now conductor of the Bach Choir in London. 

His chief works are as follows : — 

Serenade for * small orchestra (1898); Heroic Elegy for orchestra 
(1901); "Willow Wood"* (Rossetti) for baritone, female voices, and 
orchestra (1903); "The House of Life": Six Sonnets by Rossetti (1903); 
"Harnham Down" and "Boldrewood," Two Orchestral Impressions 

*Originally a song with pianoforte accompaniment at a Broadwood concert, 1903; in the extended 
form, Liverpool, September, 1909. 



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(1904); Pianoforte Quintet, C minor (1904); "In the Fen Country," 
Symphonic Impression (1905); "Toward the Unknown Region" (Walt 
Whitman) for chorus and orchestra (1906) — Leeds Festival, 1907; 
Norfolk Rhapsody No. 1, E minor, built on "The Captain's Prentice" 
and "On Board a 98" (1904), produced in London, 1906, revised in 
1914; Norfolk Rhapsody No. 2 (1905), Cardiff Festival, 1907; Quartet 
in G minor; Sea Symphony (Walt Whitman) for solo, chorus, and 
orchestra (1903-09);* "On Wenlock Edge" (Housman's "Shropshire 
Lad") for tenor, string quartet, and pianoforte (1909); music to "The 
Wasps" of Aristophanes, Cambridge, 1909, and Orchestral Suite from 
the same; Five Mystical Songs (Herbert) for Solo, chorus, and orchestra 
(1910); Fantasia for orchestra on a theme by Tallis (1910); Fantasia 
on Christmas Carols, for solo, chorus, and orchestra (1912); Five Folk- 
songs for unaccompanied chorus (1913); Fantasy Quintet; "The Lark 
Ascending" for violin and orchestra, written for Marie Hall (1914); 
Four Hymns for tenor, voice and string quintet with violin solo (1914); 
"Hugh the Drover," a ballad opera, unfinished (1911-14); "O Clap 
Your Hands," motet for mixed voices, with accompaniment of trum- 
pets, trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, cymbals, and organ (1919); 
"Pastoral" Symphony (London, January 26, 1922) ;f Suite of six short 
pieces for pianoforte (1922); vocal and instrumental music for "The 
Shepherds of the Delectable Mountains," a scene from "The Pilgrim's 
Progress" (Royal College of Music, London, 1922). 

A list announced as complete, and revised by the composer, also 
includes songs, part-songs, arrangements of English and French folk- 
songs, carols, an anthem or two, and three preludes for organ. 

In another list, not acknowledged by Vaughan Williams, we find 
"Orchestral Impression," "The Solent"; Bucolic Suite, Bournemouth 
1902; Norfolk Rhapsody No. 3 (Cardiff Festival, 1907); Fantasia on 
English Folk-songs (Studies for a Ballad Opera); Three Nocturnes 
for baritone and orchestra; Choruses and incidental music to Ben 

*Performed in New York on April 5, 1922, by The Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, H. A. Fricker 
conductor, assisted by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, Florence Hinkle, soprano, and John 
Barclay, baritone. 

tPerformed at the Litchfield Co. (Conn.) Festival early in June, 1922. The composer was present. 



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Jonson's Masque, "Pan's Anniversary" (Stratford-on-Avon, 1905); 
"The Garden of Proserpine" (Swinburne) for chorus and orchestra; 
Quintet for pianoforte, violin, clarinet, violoncello, and horn (1901); 
two small pieces for string quintet; a string quartet that has been 
dropped; three studies in English folk-song for violin and pianoforte. 
Vaughan Williams has edited collections of folk-songs; also the "Wel- 
come Songs" of Purcell for the Purcell Society. 

It was stated in September this year that Vaughan Williams was 
writing a lyric work in which the scene is an English village in the time 
of Napoleon Bonaparte. 



Concerto in A minor, for Pianoforte, Op. 54. . Robert Schumann 
(Born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, June 29, 1856.) 

Schumann wrote, after he had heard for the first time Mendels- 
sohn play his own Concerto in G minor, that he should never dream 
of composing a concerto in three movements, each complete in itself. 
In January, 1839, and at Vienna, he wrote to Clara Wieck, to whom 
he was betrothed : "My concerto is a compromise between a sym- 
phony, a concerto, and a huge sonata. I see I cannot write a con- 
certo for the virtuosos : I must plan something else." 

It is said that Schumann began to write a pianoforte concerto 
when he was only seventeen and ignorant of musical form, and that 
he made a second attempt at Heidelberg in 1830. 

The first movement of the Concerto in A minor was written at 
Leipsic in the summer of 1841, — it was begun as early as May, — 
and it was then called "Phantasie in A minor." It was played for 
the first time by Clara Schumann, August 14, 1841, at a private 



Edwards Conservatory of Music, inc. 

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18 



rehearsal at the Gewandhaus. Schumann wished in 1843 or 1844 
to publish the work as an "Allegro affettuoso" for pianoforte with 
orchestral accompaniment, "Op. 48," but he could not find a pub- 
lisher. The Intermezzo and Finale were composed at Dresden, 
May-July, 1845. 

The whole concerto was played for the first time by Clara Schu- 
mann at her concert, December 4, 1845, in the Hall of the Hotel 
de Saxe, Dresden, from manuscript. Ferdinand Hiller conducted, 
and Schumann was present. At this concert the second version of 
Schumann's "Overture, Scherzo, and Finale" was played for the 
first time. The movements of the concerto were thus indicated : 
"Allegro affettuoso, Andantino, and Rondo." 

The second performance was at Leipsic, January 1, 1846, when 
Clara Schumann was the pianist and Mendelssohn conducted. Ver- 
hulst attended a rehearsal, and said that the performance was 
rather poor; the passage in the Finale with the puzzling rhythms 
"did not go at all." 

The indications of the movements, "Allegro" Affettuoso, Inter- 
mezzo, and Rondo Vivace," were printed on the programme of the 
third performance, — Vienna, January 1, 1847, — when Clara Schu- 
mann was the pianist and her husband conducted. 



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Portraits 



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CONCERT ORGANIST 
ORGAN AND PIANO LESSONS 



199 ANGELL STREET 
PROVIDENCE, R.I. 



Address before December 1st 

64 Smith Street 

North Attleboro, Massachusetts 



19 



The orchestral parts were published in July, 1846 ; the score, in 
September, 1862. 

Otto Dresel played the concerto in Boston at one of his chamber 
concerts, December 10, 1864, when a second pianoforte was sub- 
stituted for the orchestra. S. B. Mills played the first movement 
with orchestra at a Parepa concert, September 25, 1866, and the 
two remaining movements at a concert a night or two later. The 
first performance in Boston of the whole concerto with orchestral 
accompaniment was by Otto Dresel at a concert of the Harvard 
Musical Association, November 23, 1866. 

Mr. Mills played the concerto at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society of New York as early as March 26, 1859. 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for two flutes, two 
oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettle- 
drums, strings. The score is dedicated to Ferdinand Hiller. 



"The Wild Huntsman," Symphonic Poem. 

Cesar Auguste Franck 

(Born at Liege, December 10, 1822; died at Paris, November 8, 1890.) 

"Le Chasseur Maudit," composed in 1883, was played for the first 
time at a concert of the Societe Nationale, Paris, March 31, 1883. 
It was performed at a Pasdeloup concert in Paris, January 13, 1884. 
The first performance in the United States was at Cincinnati, Jan- 
uary 29, 1898. The first performance in Boston was at a concert 
of the Chicago Orchestra, Theodore Thomas conductor, in Music 
Hall, March 26, 1898. The work has been played in Boston at 
concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, March 2, 1901, Jan- 
uary 9, 1904, January 21, 1911, October 10, 1920. 

The composition is based on Burger's ballad, "Der wilde Jager." 
The argument in prose is printed on the fly-leaf of the score. This 
argument may be Englished as follows: — 

'"Twas a Sunday morning ; far away resounded the joyous sound of bells 
and the joyous chants of the crowd. . . . Sacrilege! The savage Count of the 
Rhine has winded his horn. 

"Hallo ! Hallo ! The chase rushes over cornfields, moors and meadows. — 
'Stop, Count, I entreat you ; hear the pious chants.' — No ! Hallo ! Hallo ! — 
'Stop, Count, I implore you ; take care.' — -No ! and the riders rush on like a 
whirlwind. 

"Suddenly the Count is alone ; his horse refuses to go on ; the Count would 
wind his horn, but the horn no longer sounds. ... A dismal, implacable voice 
curses him: 'Sacrilegious man,' it cries, 'be forever hunted by Hell!' 

20 



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"Then flames flash all around him. . . . The Count, terror-stricken, flees 
faster and ever faster, pursued by a pack of demons ... by day across 
abysses, by night through the air." 

This symphonic poem is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets, four bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two cornets- 
a-pistons, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, 
two bells, cymbals, triangle, bass drum, and strings. 

It is divided into four sections: the portrayal of the peaceful 
landscape, the religious chorus, the Sunday scene; the hunt; the 
curse; the infernal chase. 

The symphonic poem begins Andantino quasi allegretto, G major, 
3-4, with a horn theme, which in various forms is heard throughout 
the composition. Violoncellos intone a religious melody over an 
organ-point. The horns are heard again. Bells peal. The sacred 
song grows in strength until it is proclaimed by the full orchestra. 

G minor, 9-8. Enter the Count and his crew. The horns sound 
in unison the chief theme, which is repeated in harmony and softly 
by the wood-wind instruments. There is a musical description of 
the chase, and fresh thematic material is introduced. There are 
the voices of complaining peasants. 

The Count is alone. In vain he tries to wind his horn. An un- 



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PIANO COMPOSITIONS 

Edited and with Preface by VINCENT D'INDY 

Cesar Franck, the great genius who gave to absolute music in France its most 
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only of the highest beauty, but are permanent contributions to the history of the art, 
in that he invented new forms, or adapted old ones to modern uses. His pupil and 
devoted disciple, Vincent d'Indy, contributes a biography which has abiding critical 
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earthly voice is heard (bass tuba), then the curse is thundered 
out. The pace grows faster and faster till the end. The' Infernal 
Hunt : new motives are added to the chief theme, and much use is 
made of the Count's wild horn call. 



The legend of the Wild Hunter and the Wild Chase is old, wide- 
spread, and there are many versions. The one most familiar to 
English readers is that on which Burger founded (1785?) his 
ballad, "Der wilde Jager," imitated by Sir Walter Scott in "The 
Wild Huntsman" (1796). One Hackenberg, or Hacklenberg, a lord 
in the Dromling, was passionately fond of hunting, even on the 
Lord's Day ; and he forced the peasants to turn out with him. On 
a Sunday he was a-hunting with his pack and retainers, when two 
strange horsemen joined him. 

Who was each Stranger, left and right, 

Well may I guess, but dare not tell ; 
The right-hand steed was silver white, 

The left, the swarthy hue of hell. 



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RICHARD BURGIN, Violin 
JEAN BEDETTI, Violoncello 



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Trio, Op. 1 8, F major 
Trio, Op. 50, A minor 



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24 



INFANTRY HALL 

TUESDAY EVENING. JANUARY 23, 1923, at 8.15 





PIERRE MONTEUX 



JEAN BEDETTI 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SOLOIST 



Violoncello 



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The right-hand Horseman, young and fair ; 

His smile was like the morn of May. 
The left, from eye of tawny glare, 

Shot midnight lightning's lurid ray. 

Hackenberg scouted the idea of worship, and hunted with his 
new and swarthy acquaintance across the field of husbandman, 
o'er moss and moor; he heeded not the cries of the widow and the 
orphan ; he chased the stag into the holy chapel of a hermit. Sud- 
denly, after he had blasphemed against God, there was an awful 
silence. In vain he tried to wind his horn; there was no baying 
of his hounds ; and a voice thundered from a cloud : "The measure 
of thy cup is full; be chased forever through the wood." Misbe- 
gotten hounds of hell uprose from the bow r els of the earth. 

What ghastly Huntsman next arose, 

Well may I guess, but dare not tell ; 
His eye like midnight lightning glows, 

His steed the swarthy hue of hell. 

The Wildgrave flies o'er bush and thorn, 

With many a shriek of helpless wo ; 
Behind him hound, and horse, and horn, 

And "Hark away, and holla, ho !" 



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26 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 
MR. AMD MRS. ROBERT N. LISTER 

(30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE. BOSTON) 

Art of SINGING, all branches 

ALSO CLASSES IN VOICE DEVELOPMENT. Nominal Expense 

212 LAUDERDALE BUILDING, 144 WESTMINSTER STREET, PROVIDENCE 

Monday and Thursday Telephone, Union 1 856-W 

COACHING IN OPERA AND ORATORIO 



CI 



VOICE and PIANO 

55 Steinert Building Phone, Gaspee 1910 



PIANO ORGAN 

Studio 45 STEINERT BUILDING 



VOICE 

201 Clarendon Street 
BOSTON 

41 Conrad Building - - Providence, R.I. 



VIOLIN 

Studios Residence 

41 Conrad Building 31 Gladstone Street 

Telephone. Broad 3428- W 



TEACHER 
OF 



oic< 



Soprano Soloist Central Congregational Church. Providence 
Director of ensemble singing — Lincoln Private School — Concerts — Songs in Costume 

Pawtucket Studio Providence Studio Fridays, with 

1 8 Brook Street Mrs. A. M. WILLIAMSON 

Phone. Pawtucket 2711 612 Angell Street 



VIOLONCELLO 



SOLOIST INSTRUCTOR 

Teacher of Ensemble and Orchestra Coach 
Studio, 37 CONRAD BUILDING 



TEACHER of SINGING 

Pupil of Henrietta Hascall of Boston 

142 GLEN ROAD Telephone. Angell 1353 



PIANO 
615 JACKSON BUILDING 

Telephone 
27 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



PIANOFORTE 



Studio 
51 1 Jackson Bldg. 



196 Sargeant Street 
Hartford, Conn. 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

TEACHER of VOICE and PIANO 



STUDIO 
110-11-12 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Telephones. Union 2170, Pawt. 3152 



Late of Covent Garden Theatre, London, Eng. 

EXPONENT OF THE ART OF SINGING FROM SPEECH 
The only natural method of VOICE PRODUCTION 

Telephone, Broad 500 1-W 



MANDOLINIST 

SOLOIST and TEACHER 
Lederer Building Providence, R.I. 



PIANO 

Room 15 
Conrad Building 

Telephone 




c*s 



Mandolin Ukulele 



212 UNION STREET 



Soprano Soloist and Teacher of Singing 
For appointment only address 



231 LOWELL AVE. 



Telephone, West 3197J. 



PIANO 



i¥el L. By fo¥etoki 

VIOLIN 



Mr. Bytovetzski taught the violin several seasons for Anton Witek. He is the author of ten pedagogical works for 

the violin, among them "How to Master the Violin," "Specific Studies," 

"Progressive Graded Technics," "Scale Studies," etc. 

Address, THE BYTOVETZSKI MUSIC ROOMS, 28 MOORE STREET, PROVIDENCE, R.I. 

Telephone, Broad 3903 
28 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



PIANISTE 



ACCOMPANISTE 



announces that for the season 1922-23 she is under 
the management of the 

MONDAY MORNING MUSICAL CLUB BUREAU 



For Engagements Apply Secretary 
300 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Telephone Union 2760-W Angell 41 46-W 



Office Hours 10-1 



TEACHER OF VOICE 



Studio, 301 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 
Tuesday Mornings and Saturday Afternoons 



Residence Studio 
27 TABER AVENUE 



VIOLONCELLO 

Management, Monday Morning Musical Club Bureau 
Address Secretary 
300 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Telephone, Union 2760-W 



For Trio engagements 

Telephone, Angell 31 44-R . 



TEACHER OF VIOLIN 

131 Niagra Street Telephone Broad 1522 



TEACHER OF PIANOFORTE 

STUDIOS 

Attleboro, Mass. Providence, R. I. 

Residence, 8 Prospect St. Telephone, Attleboro 445-M 



SOPRANO SOLOIST TEACHER OF SINGING 

Residence Studio: 476 Morris Ave. 

Telephone, Angell 3264 



CONTRALTO 
65 KEE NE STREET 

Angell 4382-R 



FRANCES WATERMAN 
Soprano Soloist and Violin 



LOUISE WATERMAN 
'Cello 



MARION WATERMAN 
Harp 



96 CHAPIN AVENUE, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 



Phone, West 3001 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



TEACHER OF SINGING 
33 CONRAD BUILDING 

Most magnetic artists before the public to-day. — N. Y. Times. 



CONCERT PIANISTS 
SOLO and ENSEMBLE 

Studio Management 

14 CONRAD BUILDING Music League of America, 1 West 34th St., N. Y. City 



CONTRALTO — TEACHER OF SINGING 

Providence Studio: 

41 Conrad Building 

Wednesday Afternoons 



East Greenwich Studio: 
Church Street 
Telephone, 85-J 



Studio 
613 Jackson Bldg. 



PIANOFORTE 

Pupil of American Conservatory in Fontainebleau, France 



Telephone, Valley 383-R 



VIOLIN 
SOLOIST — TEACHER 

1396 Na-ragansett Blvd. Tel. Broad 4990-R 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

BILLINGS BLOCK 
48 SNOW STREET 

TELEPHONE 



VOICE and PIANO 



18 CONRAD BUILDING 

Residence telephone, Broad 1876-R 
Studio telephone, Union 4066 



PIANO and HARMONY 



Children's classes in Theory 
Ear-training and Rhythmic nods 



415 Jackson Building 
Tel. Union 2802-R 



30 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



PIANOFORTE 

72 CHARLES FIELD STREET 



iraimees 



HARP -PIANO 



Studio: 11 CONRAD BUILDING 

Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays 

Telephone Union 743 1 -W 

Resident Studio; LONGMEADOW, R.I. 

Telephone Warwick Neck 31 -J 

Special Instruction for Children on the Irish Harp 



il 



TEACHER OF PIANOFORTE 

SOLOIST 
121 BENEVOLENT STREET 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

STUDIO, 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

CONRAD BUILDING Wednesdays 



HELEN DRAKE 

SOPRANO 

14 3 Meeting Street 
Peovidestce, Rhode Island 



VOICE 

Fridays: 36 Ccrrad Building 



VOCAL COACHING 



PIANO 



Boston Studio: 214 Huntington Avenue 



PIANOFORTE 

106 CHAPIN AVENUE 



"dramatic SOPRANO 
SOLOIST TEACHER 

Assisting Teacher of the former Signora Elena Bianchini, Cappelli Conservatory, New York City 
Engagements for season 1 922-23 now booking 

Providence Studio: 647 CRANSTON STREET 
Pupils accepted in Private or Class work. For appointment Phone, West 2027-R 



VIOLIN 
17 CONRAD BUILDING 



31 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



VOICE and PIANOFORTE 

415-417 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 



CONCERTS — ENTERTAINMENTS — FUNERALS 



S. D. ROGERS 
W.L. ROGERS 



214 Hanover Street 

Telephone West 363-W 



R. A. LAWDER 
R. A. GARDINER 



TENOR SOLOIST and TEACHER OF SINGING 

Assistant to Arthur J. Hubbard & Son, of Boston 
Studio, 48 SNOW STREET Residence, 278 WEBSTER AVENUE 

Tuesdays 9-8 v Phone, West 71 -R 



TEACHER OF PIANO 

ACCOMPANIST 
28 NORWICH AVENUE Telephone, Broad 580-W 



BASS SOLOIST 

TELEPHONE, BROAD 5545-W 



CONTRALTO SOLOIST TEACHER of SINGING 

33 CONRAD BUILDING 
Phone, Broad 85-R 



PIANO ORGAN THEORY 

41 MITCHELL ST., PROVIDENCE 
Telephone, Broad 1282-M 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

and 

TEACHER of VOICE 

55 Health Ave. West. 2398-R 



L1ER Ao SCHULZE 

VIOLIN SOLOIST and TEACHER 



Studio, 212 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 
Telephone, Union 1856-W 



Residence Telephone, Broad 1029-W 



32 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



GRACE A 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 
TEACHER OF SINGING PIANO AND HARP 



Studio, 14 Conrad Building 
Telephone, Union 7431 -M 



Residence Phone 
Union 1592- J 



CONTRALTO SOLOIST 

Telephone, Broad 103 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



TEACHER OF THE HARP 

Address, 236 BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON 
Tel. Copley 5294-M 



HARP VIRTUOSO 

and Interpreter of classical music, ancient and 

modern — whose artistry has been 

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Available for a limited number of New 
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Order your de luxe copy of original tone 
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hear them rendered by the composer. 
Address. 3 SOUTH AVE., AUBURNDALE, MASS. 
Tel. West Newton 1404 



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.. TENOR .. 

VOCAL STUDIOS 
22 West 39th Street, New York City 

Telephone, Fitz Roy 3701 
Mr. Van Yorx has frequently appeared with the Boston Symphony Orchestra 



VOICE TRIALS BY APPOINTMENT ONLY 



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(i 







Coaching, Repertoire, Programme building 
Piano (Leschetizky) and Accompanying 
Voice Culture— ARTHUR KRAFT 
14 W. 68th St., New York City 



Phone Columbus 8993 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

STEINERT HALL 
1 62 BOYLSTON STREET . . . BOSTON 



Teacher of PIANO 
ORGAN, HARMONY and COACHING 

1 75 Dartmouth St. (Trinity Court) Boston, Mass. 

Copley 341 4-R 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

TEACHER OF SINGING 
STUDIO - - 609 PIERCE BUILDING 

Telephone. Back Bay 5145-R 



BLANCHE TOWLE 

VOICE SPECIALIST and 
TEACHER OF ARTISTIC SINGING 

Qualified to develop male and female voice 

Reference: PHILIP HALE 

175 Hemenway St., Boston Tel., Copley 1 113-M 

CIRCULAR SENT ON REQUEST 





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When Stradivarius made his violins, neither cost of production 
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same lofty ideal. If by putting into the Mason & Hamlin Piano 
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INFANTRY HALL . . . PROVIDENCE 

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FORREST E. LAKEY ARNOLD S. HOFFMAN 



INFANTRY HALL 



PROVIDENCE 



FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



INC. 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



TUESDAY EVENING, JANUARY 23, at 8.15 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
GALEN L. STONE 
ERNEST B. DANE 



ALFRED L. AIKEN 
FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



ARTHUR LYMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
GALEN L. STONE 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
E. SOHIER WELCH 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



'CHE INSTRUMENT OF THE IMMORTALS 




Franz Liszt 
at his Steinway 



QOMETIMES people who want 
a Steinway think it economi- 
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You may purchase a new Steinway piano 
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109 EAST 14th STREET NEW YORK 

Subway Express Stations at the Door 

REPRESENTED BY THE FOREMOST DEALERS EVERYWHERE 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master. 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Gundersen, R. 

Kassman, N. 

Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 



Fourel, G. 
Artieres, L. 



Hoffmann, J. 
Mahn, F. 

Pinfield, C. 
Barozzi, S. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Goldstein, S. 

Riedlinger, H. 
Tapley, R. 



Violins. 

Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 

Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 

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Bryant, M. 

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Violas. 

Werner, H. Grover, H. 

Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 

Gerhardt, S. Kluge, M. 

Deane, C. Zahn, F. 



Hamilton, V. 
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One Hundred and Seventy-sixth Concert in Providence 



Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 
TUESDAY EVENING, JANUARY 23 
AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Schubert 



Strauss 



I. Allegro moderato. 
II. Andante con moto. 



Unfinished Symphony in B minor 



"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after 
the Old-Fashioned, Roguish manner, — 
in Rondo Form, " Op. 28 



Pergolesi-Stravinsky 



Bruch 

Dvorak 

Chabrier 



Suite No. 1 for Small Orchestra, from the 

Ballet, "Pulcinella" 

I. Sinfonia (Ouverture) : Allegro moderato. 
II. Serenata: Larghetto. 
III. a. Scherzino. 

b. Allegro. 

c. Andantino. 

d. Allegro. 

(There will be no pause between Nos. II and III) 

"Kol Nidrei" for Violoncello and Orchestra, Op. 47 

Allegro from the Violoncello Concerto in B minor, Op. 104 

Rhapsody, "Espafia" 



SOLOIST 
JEAN BEDETTI 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Strauss's "Till Eulenspie^el" 

5 





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Unfinished Symphony in B minor ...... Franz Schubert 

(Born at Lichtenthal, near Vienna, January 31, 1797; died at Vienna, 

November 19, 1828.) 

Two brothers, Anselm and Joseph Huttenbrenner, were fond of 
Schubert. Their home was in Graz, Styria, but they were living at 
Vienna. Anselm was a musician; Joseph was in a government office. 
Anselm took Schubert to call on Beethoven, and there is a story that 
the sick man said, "You, Anselm, have my mind; but Franz has my 
soul." Anselm closed the eyes of Beethoven in death. These brothers 
were constant in endeavor to make Schubert known. Anselm went 
so far as to publish a set of "Erlking Waltzes/' and assisted in putting 
Schubert's opera, " Alfonso and Estrella" (1822), in rehearsal at Graz, 
where it would have been performed if the score had not been too dif- 
ficult for the orchestra. In 1822 Schubert was elected an honorary 
member of musical societies of Linz and Graz. In return for the com- 
pliment from Graz, he began the Symphony in B minor, No. 8 (October 
30, 1822). He finished the Allegro and the Andante, and he wrote 
nine measures of the Scherzo. Schubert visited Graz in 1827, but neither 
there nor elsewhere did he ever hear his unfinished work. 

In 1865 Herbeck was obliged to journey with his sister-in-law, who 
sought health. They stopped in Graz, and on May 1 he went to Over- 
Andritz, where the old and tired Anselm, in a hidden, little one-story 
c )ttage, was awaiting death. Herbeck sat down in a humble inn. He 
talked with the landlord, who told him that Anselm was in the habit 
of breakfasting there. While they were talking, Anselm appeared. 




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After a few words Herbeck said, "I am here to ask permission to pro- 
duce one of your works at Vienna." The old man brightened, he shed 
his indifference, and after breakfast took him to his home. The work- 
room was stuffed with yellow and dusty papers, all in confusion. Anselm 
showed his own manuscripts, and finally Herbeck chose one of the ten 
overtures for performance. "It is my purpose," he said, "to bring 
forward three contemporaries, Schubert, Huttenbrenner, and Lachner, 
in one concert before the Viennese public. It would naturally be very 
appropriate to represent Schubert by a new work." "Oh, I have still 
a lot of things by Schubert," answered the old man; and he pulled a 
mass of papers out of an old-fashioned chest. Herbeck immediately 
saw on the cover of a manuscript "Symphonie in H moll," in Schubert's 
handwriting. Herbeck looked the symphony over. "This would do. 
Will you let me have it copied immediately at my cost?" "There is 
no hurry," answered Anselm, "take it with you." 

Huttenbrenner' s overture was described as "respectable Kapell- 
meistermusik; no one can deny its smoothness of style and a certain 
skill in the workmanship." The composer died in 1868. 

The Unfinished Symphony was played at the Crystal Palace, Syden- 
ham, in 1867. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
strings. 





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"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the Old-fashioned, 
Roguish Manner, — in Rondo Form/' for Full Orchestra, 
Op. 28 Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living.) 

"Till Eulenspiegel's lustige Streiche, nach alter Schelmenweise — 
in Rondoform — fur grosses Orchester gesetzt, von Richard Strauss," 
was produced at a Gtirzenich concert at Cologne, November 5, 1895. 
It was composed in 1894-95 at Munich, and the score was completed 
there, May 6, 1895. The score and parts were published in Sep- 
tember, 1895. 

Certain German critics were not satisfied with Strauss's meagre 
clew, and they at once began to evolve labored analyses. One of 
these programmes, the one prepared by Mr. Wilhelm Klatte, was 
published in the Allgemeine Musik-Zeitung of November 8, 1895, 
and frequently in programme books in Germany and England, in 
some cases with Strauss's sanction.* The translation is, for the 
most part, by Mr. C. A. Barry : — 

A strong sense of German folk-feeling (des Volksthumlichen) 
pervades the whole work; the source from which the tone-poet drew 
his inspiration is clearly indicated in the introductory bars: 
Gemachlich (Andante commodo), F major, 4-8. To some extent this 
stands for the "once upon a time" of the story-books. That what 
follows is not to be treated in the pleasant and agreeable manner 
of narrative poetry, but in a more sturdy fashion, is at once made 
apparent by a characteristic bassoon figure which breaks in sforzato 
upon the piano of the strings. Of equal importance for the develop- 
ment of the piece is the immediately following humorous horn theme 
(F major, 6-8). Beginning quietly and gradually becoming more 
lively, it is at first heard against a tremolo of the "divided" violins 
and then again in the tempo primo, Sehr lebhaft (Vivace). This 
theme, or at least the kernel of it, is taken up in turn by oboes, 
clarinets, violas, violoncellos, and bassoons, and is finally brought 

* It has been stated that Strauss gave Wilhelm Mauke a programme of this rondo 
to assist Mauke in writing his "Fuhrer" or elaborate explanation of the composition. 





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by the full orchestra, except trumpets and trombones, after a few 
bars, crescendo, to a dominant half-close fortissimo in C. The 
thematic material, according to the main point, has now been fixed 
upon; the milieu is given by which we are enabled to recognize 
the pranks and droll tricks which the crafty schemer is about to 
bring before our eyes, or, far rather, before our ears. 

Here he is (clarinet phrase followed by chord for wind instru- 
ments). He wanders through the land as a thoroughgoing adven- 
turer. His clothes are tattered and torn: a queer, fragmentary 
version of the Eulenspiegel motive resounds from the horns. Fol- 
lowing a merry play with this important leading motive, which 
directly leads to a short but brilliant tutti, in which it again asserts 
itself, first in the flutes, and then finally merges into a softly 
murmuring and extended tremolo for the violas, this same motive, 
gracefully phrased, reappears in succession in the basses, flute, first 
violins, and again in the basses. The rogue, putting on his best 
manners, slyly passes through the gate, and enters a certain city. 
It is market-day; the women sit at their stalls and prattle (flutes, 
oboes, and clarinets). Hop! Eulenspiegel springs on his horse 
(indicated by rapid triplets extending through three measures, 
from the low D of the bass clarinet to the highest A of the D 
clarinet), gives a smack of his whip, and rides into the midst of 
the crowd. Clink, clash, clatter ! A confused sound of broken pots 
and pans, and the market-women are put to flight! In haste the 
rascal rides away (as is admirably illustrated by a fortissimo pas- 
sage for the trombones) and secures a safe retreat. 

Again the Eulenspiegel theme is brought forward in the previous 
lively tempo, 6-8, but is now subtly metamorphosed and chival- 
rously colored. Eulenspiegel has become a Don Juan, and he way- 
lays pretty women. And one has bewitched him: Eulenspiegel 
is in love ! Hear how now, glowing with love, the violins, clarinets, 
and flutes sing. But in vain. His advances are received with 
derision, and he goes away in a rage. How can one treat him so 
slightingly ? Is he not a splendid fellow ? Vengeance on the whole 
human race! He gives vent to his rage (in a fortissimo of horns 





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in unison, followed by a pause), and strange personages suddenly 
draw near (violoncellos). A troop of honest, worthy Philistines! 
In an instant all his anger is forgotten. But it is still his chief 
joy to make fun of these lords and protectors of blameless decorum, 
to mock them, as is apparent from the lively and accentuated frag- 
ments of the theme, sounded at the beginning by the horn, which 
are now heard first from horns, violins, violoncellos, and then 
from trumpets, oboes, and flutes. Now that Eulenspiegel has had 
his joke, he goes away and leaves the professors and doctors behind 
in thoughtful meditation. Fragments of the typical theme of the 
Philistines are here treated canonically. The wood-wind, violins, 
and trumpets suddenly project the Eulenspiegel theme into their 
profound philosophy. It is as though the transcendent rogue were 
making faces at the bigwigs from a distance — again and again — 
and then waggishly running away. This is aptly characterized by 
a short episode (A-flat) in a hopping, 2-4 rhythm, which, similarly 
with the first entrance of the Hypocrisy theme previously used, is 
followed by phantom-like tones from the wood-wind and strings 
and then from trombones and horns. Has our rogue still no fore- 
boding? 

Interwoven with the very first theme, indicated lightly by trum- 
pets and English horn, a figure is developed from the second intro- 
ductory and fundamental theme. It is first taken up by the clari- 
nets ; it seems to express the fact that the arch-villain has again got 
the upper hand of Eulenspiegel, who has fallen into his old manner 




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of life. If we take a formal view, we have now reached the repe- 
tition of the chief theme. A merry jester, a born liar, Eulenspiegel 
goes wherever he can succeed with a hoax. His insolence knows 
no bounds. Alas ! there is a sudden jolt to his wanton humor. The 
drum rolls a hollow roll; the jailer drags the rascally prisoner into 
the criminal court. The verdict "guilty" is thundered against the 
brazen-faced knave. The Eulenspiegel theme replies calmly to the 
threatening chords of wind and lower strings. Eulenspiegel lies. 
Again the threatening tones resound; but Eulenspiegel does not 
confess his guilt. On the contrary, he lies for the third time. His 
jig is up. Fear seizes him. The Hypocrisy motive is sounded 
piteously ; the fatal moment draws near ; his hour has struck ! The 
descending leap of a minor seventh in bassoons, horns, trombones, 
tuba, betokens his death. He has danced in air. A last struggle 
(flutes), and his soul takes flight. 

After sad, tremulous pizzicati of the strings the epilogue begins. 
At first it is almost identical with the introductory measures, which 
are repeated in full; then the most essential parts of the second 
and third chief-theme passages appear, and finally merge into the 
soft chord of the sixth on A-flat, while wood-wind and violins sus- 
tain. Eulenspiegel has become a legendary character. The people 
tell their tales about him : "Once upon a time . . ." But that he 
was a merry rogue and a real devil of a fellow seems to be ex- 
pressed by the final eight measures, full orchestra, fortissimo. 




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Suite No. 1, for a Small Orchestra, from "Pulctnella," a Ballet 
with Song (after Pergolesi) " Ivor Stravinsky 

(Stravinsky, born at Oranienbaum, near Petrograd; living in Paris. Giovanni 
Battista Pergolesi, born at Jesi, Italy, January 1, 1710; died at Pazzuoli, near Naples, 

March 16, 1736.) 

"Pulcinella," ballet with song in one act, music by Stravinsky (after 
Pergolesi) ; was performed for the first time at the Opera, Paris, on May 
15, 1920, under the direction of Serge de DiaghilerT. The choreography 
was arranged by Leonide Massine ; the scenery and costume designed by 
Pablo Picasso were put in effect by Wladimir and Violette Polunine. 

Pulcinella, Massine; Pimpinella, Thamar Karsavina; Prudenza, 
Lubov Tchernicheva; Rosetta, Vera Nemtchinova; Fourbo, Sigmund 
Novak; Caviello, Stanislaw Idzikovsky; Florindo, Nikolas Zverev; 
II Dottore, Enrico Cechetti; Tartageia, Stanislaw Kostetsky; Quatre 
petits pulcinellas, MM. Bourman, Okimovsky, Micholaitchik, Loukine. 

Singers: Mme. Zoia Roskovska, Aurelio Anglada (tenor), Gino de 
Vecchi (bass). 

Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

The score contains this argument: 

The subject of "Pulcinella" is taken from a manuscript found at 
Naples in 1700, containing a great number of comedies which put on 
the stage the traditional personage of the Neapolitan folk-theatre. The 
episode chosen for the libretto of this ballet is entitled: "Four Similar 
Pulchinellas." 



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All the young girls of the country are in love with Pulcinella; the 
young fellows, pricked with jealousy, try to kill him. At the moment 
when they think they have accomplished their purpose, they borrow 
Pulcinella's costume to present themselves to their sweethearts. But 
the malicious Pulcinella has had his intimate friend take his place, 
and this substitute pretends to die from the hands of the assassins. 
Pulcinella himself takes the dress of a sorcerer and brings his double 
to life. At the moment when the young swains think they are relieved 
of him and go to visit their loved ones, the true Pulcinella appears 
and arranges all the marriages. He weds Pimpinella, blessed by his 
double, Fourbo, who in his turn appears as the mage. 






When this ballet was performed at Covent Garden, June 10, 1920, 
the Times published this review: "We are not very sure as to what 
the story actually is, and do feel pretty sure that it does not much 
matter. Tulcinella' does with a number of movements from Pergolesi's 
operas very much what 'The Good-Humored Ladies' does with 
Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas. The ballet, in fact, is primarily a means 
of showing us what vitality and charm there is in music which most 
of us had forgotten. But Stravinsky puts on the magician's cloak to 
resuscitate Pergolesi, just as Pulcinella on the stage puts on the magi- 
cian's cloak (we did not quite make out why) to resuscitate other Pul- 
cinellas. Stravinsky's work on the music is very cleverly carried out. 
A good deal of it is simply re-scoring, and in this single instruments, 
from the trumpet to the double-bass, are used to get the utmost effect 
from the simplest means, which is the very essence of good technique. 
But sometimes Stravinsky cannot hold himself in any longer, and, 
kicking Pergolesi out of his light, defeats the primary purpose by inter- 
polating a moment or two of sheer Stravinsky. The result then be- 
comes a little confusing, like the story. Being left in some doubt both 
about the story and the music, we have to look for complete satisfaction 
to the dancing. With M. Massine as the Pulcinella and Mme. Karsavina 
as the Pimpinella, whom he ultimately decides to love, with Mme. 
Tchernicheva and Mme. Vera Nemtchinova as the ladies whose affec- 
tions he steals, and MM. Woizikovsky and Idzikovsky as the two 



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gallants, who try to kill him for the theft, we are given so brilliant a 
display that one almost forgets about the three singers who join with 
the orchestra in Pergolesi songs and trios, and justify the title of ballet- 
opera." Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

When the ballet was revived at London in July, 1921, with Woizikov- 
sky as Pulcinella, and with Mmes. Lopokova, Tchernicheva, 
Nemtchinova, and MM. Novak, Idzikovsky, dancers, and the singers 
Zoia Roskovska and MM. Ritch and Keedanov, the Daily Telegraph 
said (July 6) : — 

"Until it is about half-way through 'Pulcinella, ' the old Italian story 
to which Stravinsky has fitted an arrangement of Pergolesi music, is 
as delightful a ballet-opera as one could wish to see. It has in their 
quintessence those happy qualities which have put the Russian Ballet 
in a place by itself — invention, imagination, grace, and humor. The 
dances are of the daintiest; the comically serious imitation of the old- 
fashioned conventions is as entertaining as can be ; the music is a particu- 
larly clever experiment in the difficult art of bringing an old composer 
up to date without overdoing it. So far as the rest of the ballet is con- 
cerned, one has no quarrel with the music, but dramatically it falls 
to pieces. It infringes two of the chief dramatic canons, for in the first 
place it becomes confusing, and it is extremely difficult to know which 
of the gentlemen in the large black noses is which and why he is doing 
what he does. In the second place, it loses its grip upon the audience, 
and may have been compared to a farce with two very good acts and 
one greatly inferior one to end up with. It is one of the very fine ballets 
in the Russians' repertory which really need cutting and revising. 
That it was enthusiastically received on its revival was due to the 
brilliant dancing . . . and to the fine singing." 

The score calls for these instruments: two flutes (second flute inter- 
changeable with piccolo) , two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, trumpet, 
trombone, and solo quintet of strings, and the usual strings. 



* 



Pergolesi is now best known by his beautiful "Stabat Mater"; his 
opera "La Serva Padrona" (1733) which is still performed, and a few 
songs still sung in concert-halls ("Nina" is falsely attributed to him); 



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but he wrote nearly a dozen operas, several cantatas, and much music 
for the church. 

"La Serva Padrona" was performed as "The Mistress and Maid," 
by "the celebrated Italian Pere Golaise" (sic) at Baltimore, Md., by a 
French company of comedians, on June 14, 1790. It was performed in 
Italian at the Academy of Music, New York, on November 13, 1858, 
with Marie Piccolomini as the housemaid. It was in the repertoire of the 
Society of American Singers, New York, in 1917-18. 



"Kol Nidrei," Adagio for Violoncello with Orchestra and Harp, 
Op. 47 Max Bruch 

(Born at Cologne, January 6, 1838; died at Friedenau, Berlin, October 3, 1920.) 

"Kol Nidrei" is the first prayer intoned in the Synagogue by the 
Jewish High Priest on the Day of Atonement. Bruch took the ritual 
melody of this prayer for the principal theme of his composition. Some 
other melodies of Hebrew origin are used as subsidiary themes. The 
composition is free in form; the orchestral part is fully scored. The 
piece is dedicated to the violoncellist Robert Hausmann (1852-1909), 
the violoncellist of the Joachim Quartet from 1879 to 1907. 



CONCERT ORGANIST 
ORGAN AND PIANO LESSONS 

Address before December 1st 
199 ANGELL STREET 64 Smith Street 

PROVIDENCE, R.I. North Attleboro, Massachusetts 



.. CONCERT "DIRECTION .. 

PIERGE BUILDING - - - BOSTON 

As heretofore, Mr. Richmond continues his policy of featuring artists 
of distinction. Appearing under his direction this season: 
RICHARD BURGIN, Violinist — FELIX FOX, Pianist — 
LAURA LITTLEFIELD, Soprano (lyric)— MARIA CONDE, 
Soprano (coloratura)— JEAN BEDETTI, Cellist— FIEDLER 
TRIO — Henry Gideon in "CONCERTS with COM- 
MENTS" -and 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ENSEMBLE 

"A Miniature Symphony Orchestra" 
AUGUSTO VANNINI, Conductor 



19 



Concerto, B minor, for Violoncello, Op. 104 . Anton Dvorak 

(Born at Muhlhausen (Nelahozeves), near Kralup, in Bohemia, September 8, 1841; 

died at Prague, May 1, 1904.) 

Dvorak left New York in 1895 to return to Prague, where he lived 
till the day of his death. This concerto was one of the last compositions 
written by him before he left the United States. "In much of the 
bravura passage-work for the solo instrument he had the assistance 
of Mr. Alwin Schroeder, who, indeed, wrote many of the passages him- 
self." The Concerto was performed for the first time at a Philharmonic 
concert in London on March 19, 1896, by Leo Stern (1867-1904). 
Dvorak conducted. Stern married Nettie Carpenter, the violinist, 
who, born in New York, took a first prize at the Paris Conservatory 
in 1884. They were divorced. His second wife was Suzanne Adams, 
the opera singer, born in Cambridge, Mass. 



.Rhapsody for Orchestra, "Espana" .... Emmanuel Chabrier 

(Born at Ambert (Puy-de-Ddrne), France, January 18, 1841; died at Paris, 

September 13, 1894.) 

When Chabrier was six years old, he began the study of music at 
Ambert with a Spanish refugee, named Saporta. One day when the 
boy did not play to suit the teacher, Saporta, a violent person, raised 
his hand. Nanette,* the servant who reared Chabrier, and lived 
with him nearly all his life, came into the room. She saw the 
uplifted hand, rushed toward Saporta, slapped his face, and more 
than once. 

In 1882 Chabrier visited Spain with Ms wife.t Travelling there, 
he wrote amusing letters to the publisher Costallat. These letters 
were published in S. I. M., a musical magazine (Paris: Nos. Janu- 
ary 15 and February 15, 1909). Wishing to know the true Spanish 
dances, Chabrier with his wife went at night to ball-rooms where the 
company was mixed. As he wrote in a letter from Seville: "The 
gypsies sing their malaguenas or dance the tango, and the manzanilla 
is passed from hand to hand and every, one is forced to drink it. 
These eyes, these flowers in the admirable heads of hair, these shawls 
knotted about the body, these feet that strike an infinitely varidd 
rhythm, these arms that run shivering the length of a body always 
in motion, these undulations of the hands, these brilliant smiles . . . 
and all this to the cry of 'Olle, Olle, anda la Maria! Anda la 
Chiquita! Eso es! Baile la Carmen! Anda! Anda!' shouted by 
the other women and the spectators. However, the two guitarists, 
grave persons, cigarette in mouth, keep on scratching something or 
other in three time. (The tango alone is in two time.) The cries 
of the women excite the dancer, who becomes literally mad of her 
body. It's unheard of! Last evening, two painters went with us 
and made sketches, and I had some music paper in my hand. We 
had all the dancers around us; the singers sang their songs to me, 

♦Chabrier's delightful "Lettres a Nanette," edited by Legrand-Chabrier, were pub- 
lished at I'Jiris in 1910. 

f His wife was Alice Dejean, daughter of a theatre manager. The wedding was 
in 1873. 

20 



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21 



squeezed my hand and Alice's and went away, and then we were 
obliged to drink out of the same glass. Ah, it was a fine thing 
indeed ! He has really seen nothing who has not seen two or three 
Andalusians twisting their hips eternally to the beat and to the meas- 
ure of Anda! Anda! Anda! and the eternal clapping of hands. They 
beat with a marvellous instinct 3-4 in contra-rhythm while the guitar 
peacefully follows its own rhythm. As the others beat the strong 
beat of each measure, each beating somewhat according to caprice, 
there is a most curious blend of rhythms. I have noted it all — but 
what a trade, my children." 

In another letter Chabrier wrote: "I have not seen a really ugly 
woman since I have been in Andalusia. I do not speak of their feet ; 
they are so little that I have never seen them. Their hands are 
small and the arm exquisitely moulded. Then added the arabesques, 
the beaux-catchers and other ingenious arrangements of the hair, 
the inevitable fan, the flowers on the hair with the comb on one side VI 

Chabrier took notes from Seville to Barcelona, passing through 
Malaga, Cadiz, Grenada, Valencia. The Rhapsody "Espaiia" is only 
one of two or three versions of these souvenirs, which he first played 
on the pianoforte to his friends. His Habanera for pianoforte 
(1885) is derived from one of the rejected versions. 

Lamoureux heard Chabrier play the pianoforte sketch of "Espaiia" 
and urged him to orchestrate it. At the rehearsals no one thought 
success possible. The score with its wild originality, its novel effects, 



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22 



frightened the players. The first performance was at a Lamoureux 
concert in Paris, on November 4, 1883.* The success was instantane- 
ous. The piece was often played during the years following and 
often redemanded. 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Philhar- 
monic Orchestra, Mr. Listemann conductor, in the Tremont Theatre, 
January 14, 1892. The Rhapsody has been played in Boston at con- 
certs of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, October 16, 1897, April 27, 
1907, November 23, 1907, April 30, 1915, November 17, 1916 ; and at 
a concert of the Orchestral Club, Mr. Longy conductor, April 15, 1903. 

Theodore Thomas conducted it in Chicago as early as 1887. 

The Rhapsody is dedicated to Charles Lamoureux, and it is scored 
for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, four bassoons, four 
horns, two trumpets, two cornets a piston, three trombones, bass 
tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, two 
harps, and strings. 

"Espaiia" is based on two Spanish dances, the Jota, vigorous and 
fiery, and the Malaguena, languorous and sensual. It is said that 
only the rude theme given . to the trombones is of Chabrier's in- 
vention ; the other themes he brought from Spain, and the two first 
themes were heard at Saragossa. 

Allegro con fuoco, F major, 3-8. A Spanish rhythm is given to 
strings and wood-wind. Then, while the violas rhythm an accom- 
paniment, bassoons and trumpet announce the chief theme of the 

•Georges Servieres in his "Emmanuel Chabrier" (Paris, 1912) gives the date 
November 6 ; but see Le Menestrel of November 11, 1883, and "Les Annales du Theatre," 
by Noel and Stoullig, 1883, page 294. 




SCHOOI 





FELIX FOX, DIRECTOR 

PIANOFORTE 
INSTRUCTION 

FROM ELEMENTARY TO ADVANCED GRADES 
PUPILS MAY ENTER AT ANY TIME 

For circular and information address the Secretary 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 

Telephone, Back Bay 973 

MASON & HAMLIN PIANOFORTE 



23 




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24 



INFANTRY HALL 

TUESDAY EVENING. FEBRUARY 27, 1923, at 8.15 





PIERRE MONTEUX 



CLARA CLEMENS 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SOLOIST 



Soprano 



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Jota. The horn then takes it, and finally the full orchestra. A 
more expressive song is given to bassoons, horns, and violoncellos. 
There is an episode in which a fragment of the second theme is 
used in dialogue for wind and strings. A third melodic idea is given 
to bassoons. There is another expressive motive sung by violins, 
violas, and bassoons, followed by a sensuous rhythm. After a 
stormy passage there is comparative calm. The harps sound the 
tonic and dominant, and the trombones have the rude theme re- 
ferred to above, and the rhythms of the Jota are in opposition. 
Such is the thematic material. 

• * * 
A ballet "Espana," scenario by Mmes. Catulle Mendes and Rosita 
Mauri and M. Staats, based on Chabrier's Rhapsody, was produced 
at the Opera, Paris, May 3, 1911, when Chabrier's opera "Gwen- 
doline" was revived. Mr. Pougin protested vigorously : "They have 
imagined a bizarre action, that of a village fair with all its shows 
and the entrance of dancers, 'tra los monies' to end the festival 
by dancing to the music of 'Espana.' I like the piece better in 
concert; its place is there. And where did they fish out the rest 
of the music? From the composer's portfolios? Fragments with- 
out continuity and connection, taken as from a grab-bag ! And who 
took upon himself the duty of sewing these patches together and 
giving them the semblance of unity? I know nothing about it." 
The chief dancers were Miss Zambelli and Miss Aida Boni. 



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26 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 
MIR. AMD MRS. ROBERT N. LISTER 

(30 HUNTINGTON AVENUE. BOSTON) 

Art of SINGING, all branches 

ALSO CLASSES IN VOICE DEVELOPMENT. Nominal Expense 

212 LAUDERDALE BUILDING, 144 WESTMINSTER STREET, PROVIDENCE 

Monday and Thursday Telephone, Union 1 856- W 

COACHING IN OPERA AND ORATORIO 



I ( vlvOl- i I,^tO) ii o it^SJ'L i ■ L.-i ! L. i ; La j£ 



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55 Steinert Building Phons, Gaspee 1910 



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Studio 45 STEINERT BUILDING 



VOICE 

201 Clarendon Street 
BOSTON 

41 Conrad Building - - Providence, R.I. 



VIOLIN 

Studios Residence 

41 Conrad Building 31 Gladstone Street 

Telephone. Broad 3428-W 



Soprano Soloist Central Congregational Church, Providence 
Director of ensemble singing — Lincoln Private School — Concerts — Songs in Costume 

Pawtucket Studio Providence Studio Fridays, with 

1 8 B^ook Street Mrs. A. M. WILLIAMSON 

Phone. Pawtucket 2711 612 Angell Street 



VIOLONCELLO 



SOLOIST INSTRUCTOR 

Teacher of Ensemble and Orchestra Coach 
Studio, 37 CONRAD BUILDING 

TEACHER of SINGING 

Pupil of Henrietta Hascall of Boston 
142 GLEN ROAD Telephone. Angell 1353 



PIANO 
615 JACKSON BUILDING 

Telephone 
27 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



PIANOFORTE 



Studio 
51 1 Jackson Bldg. 



196 Sargeant Street 
Hartford, Conn. 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

TEACHER of VOICE and PIANO 



STUDIO 
10-11-12 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Telephones. Union 2170, Pawt. 3152 



Late of Covent Garden Theatre, London, Eng. 

EXPONENT OF THE ART OF SINGING FROM SPEECH 
The only natural method of VOICE PRODUCTION 

Telephone, Broad 500 1-W 



MANDOLINIST 

SOLOIST and TEACHER 
Lederer Building Providence, R.I. 



PIANO 

Room 15 
Conrad Building 

Telephone 




^as 



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Union 1.939- J 



andolin Ukulele 



212 UNION STREET 



Soprano Soloist and Teacher of Singing 
For appointment only address 



231 LOWELL AVE. 



Telephone, West 3197J. 



u E 



PIANO 



i. Bytovefc 

VIOLIN 



Mr. Bytovetzski taught the violin several seasons for Anton Witek. He is the author of ten pedagogical works for 

the violin, among them "How to Master the Violin," "Specific Studies," 

"Progressive Graded Technics," "Scale Studies," etc. 

Address, THE BYTOVETZSKI MUSIC ROOMS, 28 MOORE STREET, PROVIDENCE, R.I. 

Telephone, Broad 3903 

28 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



BEAT P11 



^,11 



PIANISTE 



ACCOMPANISTE 



announces that for the season 1922-23 she is under 
the management of the 

MONDAY MORNING MUSICAL CLUB BUREAU 



For Engagements Apply Secretary 
300 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 

Telephone Union 2760-W Angell 41 46-W 



Office Hours 10-1 



TEACHER OF VOICE 

Studio, 301 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 
Tuesday Mornings and Saturday Afternoons 



Residence Studio 
27 TABER AVENUE 



VIOLONCELLO 

Management, Monday Morning Musical Club Bureau 
Address Secretary t-. -t-. . 

300 LAUDERDALE BUILDING ^ or 1 rl ° engagements 

Telephone, Union 2760-W Telephone, Angell 3144-R 



TEACHER OF VIOLIN 

131 Niagra Street Telephone Broad 1522 



TEACHER OF PIANOFORTE 

STUDIOS 

Attleboro, Mass. Providence, R. I. 

Residence, 8 Prospect St. Telephone, Attleboro 445-M 



SOPRANO SOLOIST TEACHER OF SINGING 

Residence Studio: 476 Morris Ave. 

Telephone, Angell 3264 



I] 



CONTRALTO 



65 KEE NE STREET 

Angell 4382-R 



FRANCES WATERMAN 
Soprano Soloist and Violin 



LOUISE WATERMAN 
'Cello 



MARION WATERMAN 
Harp 



kTEEMAN TRIO 

96 CHAPIN AVENUE, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

29 



Phone, West 3001 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

33 CONRAD BUILDING 

Most magnetic artists before the public to-day. — N.Y. Times. 



CONCERT PIANISTS 
SOLO and ENSEMBLE 

Studio Management 

14 CONRAD BUILDING Music League of America, 1 West 34th St., N.Y. City 



CONTRALTO 

Providence Studio: 

41 Conrad Building 

Wednesday Afternoons 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

East Greenwich Studio: 

Church Street 

Telephone, 85-J 



Studio 
613 Jackson Bldg. 



PIANOFORTE 

Pupil of American Conservatory in Fontainebleau, France 



Telephone, Valley 383-R 



VIOLIN 
SOLOIST — TEACHER 

1396 Narragansett Blvd. Tel. Broad 4990-R 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

MI If I FM BILLINGS BLOCK 

ULLiEiIN 48 SNOW STREEJ 

TELEPHONE 



VOICE and PIANO 



1 8 CONRAD BUILDING 

Residence telephone, Broad 1876-R 
Studio telephone, Union 4066 



PIANO and HARMONY 



Children's classes in Theory 
Ear-training and Rhythmic nods 



415 Jackson Building 
Tel. Union 2802-R 



30 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



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PIANOFORTE 

72 CHARLES FIELD STREET 



HARP — PIANO 



Studio: II CONRAD BUILDING 

Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays 

Telephone Union 743 1 -W 

Resident Studio; LONGMEADOW, R.I. 

Telephone Warwick Neck 31 -J 

Special Instruction for Children on the Irish Harp 



m 



TEACHER OF PIANOFORTE 

SOLOIST 
121 BENEVOLENT STREET 



SOPRANO SOLOIST TEACHER OF SINGING 

STUDIO, 11 CONRAD BUILDING Wednesdays 

HELEN DRAKE 

SOPRANO 

143 Meeting Street 
Pkotidesce, Bhode Island 



VOICE 



Fridays: 36 Corrad Building 



PIANO 



VOCAL COACHING 



Boston Studio: 214 Huntington Avenue 



PIANOFORTE 

06 CHAPIN AVENUE 



DRAMATIC SOPRANO 
SOLOIST TEACHER 

Assisting Teacher of the former Signora Elena Bianchini, Cappelli Conservatory, New York City 
Engagements for season 1922-23 now booking 

Providence Studio: 647 CRANSTON STREET 

Pupils accepted in Private or Class work. For appointment Phone, West 2027-R 



VIOLIN 
17 CONRAD BUILDING 

31 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



VOICE and PIANOFORTE 

415-417 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 



CONCERTS — ENTERTAINMENTS — FUNERALS 



S. D. ROGERS 
W. L. ROGERS 



214 Hanover Street 

Telephone West 363-W 



R. A. LAWDER 
R. A. GARDINER 



TENOR SOLOIST and TEACHER OF SINGING 

Assistant to Arthur J. Hubbard & Son, of Boston 
Studio, 48 SNOW STREET Residence, 278 WEBSTER AVENUE 

Tuesdays 9-8 Phone, West 71 -R 



TEACHER OF PIANO 

ACCOMPANIST 
28 NORWICH AVENUE Telephone, Broad 580-W 



BASS SOLOIST 
TELEPHONE, BROAD 5545-W 



CONTRALTO SOLOIST TEACHER of SINGING 

33 CONRAD BUILDING 
Phone, Broad 85-R 



PIANO ORGAN THEORY 

41 MITCHELL ST., PROVIDENCE 
Telephone, Broad 1282-M 



1 d HI!R ( 

giLe0 \Sa JL liiLJ. VS.E 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

and 

TEACHER of VOICE 

55 Health Ave. West. 2398-R 



SALTER A. SCHULZE 

VIOLIN SOLOIST and TEACHER 



Studio 212 LAUDERDALE BUILDING 
Telephone, Union 1856-W 



Residence Telephone, Broad 1029-W 



32 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS' DIRECTORY 



GRACE 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

TEACHER OF SINGING PIANO AND HARP 



Studio, 14 Conrad Building 
Telephone, Union 7431 -M 



Residence Phone 
Union 1592-J 



CONTRALTO SOLOIST 

Telephone, Broad 103 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



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TEACHER OF THE HARP 

Address, 236 BAY STATE ROAD, BOSTON 
Tel. Copley 5294-M 



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.. TENOR .. 

VOCAL STUDIOS 
22 West 39th Street, New York City 

Telephone, Fitz Roy 3701 
Mr. Van Yorx has frequently appeared with the Boston Symphony Orchestra 



VOICE TRIALS BY APPOINTMENT ONLY 



(I 



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14 W. 68th St. 



Coaching, Repertoire, Programme building 
Piano (Leschetizky) and Accompanying 
Voice Culture— ARTHUR KRAFT 
New York City / 



Phone Columbus 8993 



TEACHER OF SINGING 

STEINERT HALL 

162 BOYLSTON STREET . . . BOSTON 



Teacher of PIANO 
ORGAN, HARMONY and COACHING 

175 Dartmouth St. (Trinity Court) Boston, Mass. 
Copley 34 1 4-R 



SOPRANO SOLOIST 

TEACHER OF SINGING 

STUDIO - - 609 PIERCE BUILDING 

Telephone, Back Bay 5145-R 



VOICE SPECIALIST and 
TEACHER OF ARTISTIC SINGING 

Qualified to develop male and female voice 

Reference: PHILIP HALE 

175 Hemenway St . Boston Tel.. Copley 1 1 13-M 

CIRCULAR SENT ON REQUEST 




I 



THE 

PIANOFORTE 

The Mason & Hamlin Piano costs more than any other ; and 
yet those competent to judge declare that its worth far exceeds 
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Sunday Afternoon, February 18, 1923, at 3.00 
AUSPICES, PROVIDENCE MUSIC LEAGUE 



§■ s 



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50ST0N 

SYMPHONY 

OROIESTRH 



INC. 



FORTY-SECOND 
SEASON 

J922-J923 



PR5GR7W\E 



3* V % 

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J^lew evidence of the 
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E. F. ALBEE THEATRE . ... PROVIDENCE 



Btesfc 



FORTY-SECOND SEASON 1922-1923 



INC. 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 18, at 3.00 o'clock 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 



COPYRIGHT, 1923, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

GALEN L. STONE Vice-President 

ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

ALFRED L. AIKEN ARTHUR LYMAN 

FREDERICK P. CABOT HENRY B. SAWYER 

ERNEST B. DANE GALEN L. STONE 

M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE BENTLEY W. WARREN 

JOHN ELLERTON LODGE E. SOHIER WELCH 

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1 



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Forty-second Season, 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



:ra 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J 

Gundersen, R. 

Kassinan, N. 


Hoffmann, 
Mahn, F. 

Pinfield, C. 
Barozzi, S. 


J. Gerardi, A. 
Krafft, W. 

Fiedler, B. 
Leveen, P. 


Hamilton, V. 
Sauvlet, H. 

Siegl, F. 
Mariotti, V. 


Thillois, F. 
Berger, H. 


Gorodetzky, L. Kurth, R. 
Goldstein, S. Bryant, M. 


Murray, J. 
Knudsen, C. 


Stonestreet, L. 
Diamond, S. 


Riedlinger, 
Tapley, R. 


H. Erkelens, H. 
Del Sordo, R. 

Violas. 


Seiniger, S. 
Messina, S. 


Fourel, G. 
Artieres, L. 


Werner, H. Grover, H. 
Van Wynbergen, C. Shirley, P. 


Fiedler, A. 
Mullaly, J. 




Gerhardt, i 
Deane, C. 


5. Kluge, M. 
Zahn, F. 

Violoncellos. 




Bedetti, J. 
Schroeder, A. 


Keller, J. 
Barth, C. 


Belinski, M. Warnke, J. 
Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Basses. 


Langendcen, J 
Marjollet, L. 


Kunze, M. 
Keller, K. 


Seydel, T. 
Gerhardt, G. 


Ludwig, 0. Kelley, A. 
Frankel, I. Demetrides, 


Girard, H. 
L. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Laurent, G. 
Brooke, A. 
Amerena, P. 


Longy, G. 
Lenom, C. 
Stanislaus, 


Sand, A. 
Arcieri, E. 
H. Vannini, A. 


Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horns. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


Battles, A. 


Mueller, F 
Speyer, L. 


Mimart, P. 


Piller, B. 


Horns. 


Horns. 


Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


Wendler, G. 
Lorbeer, H. 
Hain, F. 
Gebhardt, W. 


Hess, M. Mager, G. 
Van Den Berg, C. Mann, J. 

Perret, G. 

Kloepfel, L. 


Hampe, C 
Adam, E. 
Mausebach, A. 
Kenfield, L. 


Tuba. 


Harps. 


Timpani. 


Percussion. 


Adam, E. 


Holy, A, 
Delcourt, L. 


Ritter, A. Ludwig, C. Zahn, F. 
Kandler, F. Sternburg, S. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


Librarian. 


Snow, A. 

■ 




Fiedler, A. 
3 


Rogers, L. J. 



c noston 
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HIS MASTERS VOICE' 



E. F. ALBEE THEATRE 



PROVIDENCE 



forty-second Season. 1922-1923 

PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



Berlioz . 



Dvorak 



Liszt 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 18 

AT 3.00 



a. Largo. 

b. Scherzo 



Mendelssohn . 



PROGRAMME 



. Overture, "The Roman Carnival/' Op. g 

Symphony, "From the New World," No. 5, in 
E minor, Op. 95 (two movements) 



"Les Preludes," Symphonic Poem, No. 3 
(after Lamartine) 



Concerto in E minor for Violin, Op. 64 

(two movements) 

a. Andante. 

b. Allegretto non troppo; Allegro molto vivace. 



Chabrier 
Tchaikovsky 



Rhapsody, "Espana" 
. Ouverture Solennelle, "181 2," Op. 49 



SOLOIST 
RICHARD BURGIN 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Liszt's "Les Preludes" 

5 



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Overture, "The Roman Carnival/' Op. 9 . . Hector Berlioz 
(Born at la Cote Saint- Andr6, December 11, 1803; died at Paris, March 9, 1869.) 

Berlioz's overture, "Le Carnaval Romain," originally intended as 
an introduction to the second act of "Benvenuto # Cellini," is dedicated 
to Prince de Hohenzollern-Hechingen. It was performed for the first 
time, and under the direction of the composer, at the Salle Herz, Paris, 
on February 3, 1844. 

The overture was composed in Paris in 1843, shortly after a jour- 
ney in Germany. The score and parts were published in June, 1844. 

The chief thematic material of the overture was taken by Berlioz 
from his opera "Benvenuto Cellini,"* originally in two acts, libretto 
by Leon de Wailly and Augusta Barbier. It was produced at the Opera, 
Paris, on September 10, 1838. The cast was as follows: Benvenuto 
Cellini, Duprez; Giacomo Balducci, Derivis; Fieramosca, Massol; 
le Cardinal Salviati, Serda; Francesco, Wartel; Bernardino, Ferdinand 
Prevost; Pompeo, Molinier; un Cabaretier, Trevaux; Teresa, Mme. 
Dorus-Gras; Ascanio, Mme. Stolz. 



Symphony in E minor, No. 5, "From the New World" ("Z Novecho 
Sveta"), Op. 95 Anton Dvorak 

(Born at Miilhausen (Nelahozeves), near Kralup, Bohemia, September 8, 1841; 

died at Prague, May 1, 1904.) 

This symphony was performed for the first time, in manuscript, 
by the Philharmonic Society of New York on Friday afternoon, Decem- 
ber 15, 1893. Anton Seidl conducted. Dvorak was present. 

Dvorak made many sketches for the symphony. In the first of the 
three books he noted "Morning, December 19, 1892." Fuller sketches 
began January 10, 1893. The slow movement was then entitled "Le- 
genda." The Scherzo was completed January 31; the Finale, May 
25, 1893. A large part of the instrumentation was done at Spill ville, 
la., where many Bohemians dwelt. 

When this symphony was played at Berlin in 1900 Dvorak wrote 

*For a full and entertaining account of this opera and its first performance, with quotations from 
the contemporaneous criticisms, see Adolphe Boschot's "Un Romantique sous Louis Philippe," Chap. 
VII. (Librairie Plon, Paris, 1908). 



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to Oskar Nedbal, who conducted it: "I send you Kretzschmar's analysis 
of the symphony, but omit that nonsense about my having made use 
of 'Indian' and 'American' themes — that is a lie. I tried to write only 
in the spirit of those national American melodies. Take the introduction 
to the symphony as slowly as possible." 



Symphonic Poem No. 3, "The Preludes" (after Lamartine) 

Franz Liszt 

(Born at Raiding, near Oedenburg, Hungary, October 22, 1811; died at 

Bayreuth, July 31, 1886.) 

According to statements of Kichard Pohl, this symphonic poem 
was begun at Marseilles in 1834, and completed at Weimar in 1850. 
According to L. Kamann's chronological catalogue of Liszt's works, 
"The Preludes" was composed in 1854 and published in 1856. 

Theodor Mtiller-Keuter says that the poem was composed at 
Weimar in 1849-50 from sketches made in earlier years, and this 
statement seems to be the correct one. 

The symphonic poem "Les Preludes" was performed for the first 
time in the Grand Ducal Court Theatre, Weimar, at a concert for 
the Pension Fund of the widows and orphans of deceased members 
of the Court Orchestra on February 23, 1854. Liszt conducted from 
manuscript. At this concert Liszt introduced for the first time 
"Gesang an die Kunstler" in its revised edition and also led Schu- 
mann's Symphony No. 4 and the concerto for four horns. 

Liszt revised "Les Preludes" in 1853 or 1854. The score was pub- 
lished in May, 1856 ; the orchestral parts, in January, 1865. 

The alleged passage from Lamartine that serves as a motto has 
thus been Englished : — 

"What is our life but a series of preludes to that unknown song, 
the first solemn note of which is sounded by death ? Love forms the 
enchanted daybreak of every life; but what is the destiny where 
the first delights of happiness are not interrupted by some storm, 
whose fatal breath dissipates its fair illusions, whose fell lightning 
consumes its altar? and what wounded spirit, when one of its 
tempests is over, does not seek to rest its memories in the sweet 
calm of country life? Yet man does not resign himself long to enjoy 
the beneficent tepidity which first charmed him on Nature's bosom ; 
and when 'the trumpet's loud clangor has called him to arms,' he 
rushes to the post of danger, whatever may be the war that calls 
him to the ranks to find in battle the full consciousness of himself 
and the complete possession of his strength." There is little in 
Lamartine's poem that suggests this preface. The quoted passage 
beginning "The trumpet's loud clangor" is Lamartine's "La trom- 
pette a jete" le signal des alarmes." 

"The Preludes" is scored for three flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass 
tuba, a set of three kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, cymbals, 
harp, and strings. 



Concerto in E minor, for Violin, Or. 64 

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 

(Born at Hamburg, February 3, 1809; died at Leipsic, November 4, 1874.) 

Mendelssohn in his youth composed a violin concerto with ac- 
companiment of stringed instruments, also a concerto for violin 
and pianoforte (1823) with the same sort of accompaniment. These 
works were left in manuscript. It was at the time that he was put 
into jackets and trousers. Probably these works were played at 
the musical parties at the Mendelssohn house in Berlin on alternate 
Sunday mornings. Mendelssohn took violin lessons first with Carl 
Wilhelm Henning and afterwards with Eduard Rietz,* for whom he 
wrote this early violin concerto. When Mendelssohn played any 
stringed instrument, he preferred the viola. 

As early as 1838 Mendelssohn conceived the plan of composing 
a violin concerto in the manner of the one in E minor, for on 
July 30 he wrote to Ferdinand David: "I should like to write a 
violin concerto for you next winter. One in E minor is running in 
my head, and the beginning does not leave me in peace." On July 
24 of the next year he wrote from Hochheim to David, who had 

*Mendelssohn spelled this musician's name "Ritz." They were intimate friends. 
Born in 1802 in Berlin, Rietz died there in 1832. He played in the Royal Orchestra and 
was a tenor in the Singakademie. In 1826 he founded and conducted the Philharmonic 
Society. His career as a violin virtuoso was cut short by a nervous affection of the 
left hand. V v 



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pressed him to compose the concerto : "It is nice of you to urge me 
for a violin concerto! I have the liveliest desire to write one for 
you, and if I have a few propitious days here, I'll bring you some- 
thing. But the task is not an easy one. You demand that it should 
be brilliant, and how is such a one as I to do this? The whole 
of the first solo is to be for the E string !" 

The concerto was composed in 1844 and completed on September 
16 of that year at Bad Soden, near Frankfort-on-the-Main. David 
received the manuscript in November. Many letters passed between 
the composer and the violinist, David gave advice freely. Men- 
delssohn took time in revising and polishing. Even after the score 
was sent to the publishers in December there were more changes. 
David is largely responsible for the cadenza as it now stands. 

The parts were published in June, 1845 ; the score in April, 1862. 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for two flutes, two 
oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettle- 
drums, and strings. 

Mendelssohn played parts of the concerto on the pianoforte to 
his friends ; the whole of it to Moscheles at Bad Soden. 

The first performance was from manuscript at the twentieth 
Gewandhaus concert in Leipsic, March 13, 1845. Ferdinand David 
was the violinist. Neils W. G-ade conducted. Mendelssohn did not 
leave Frankfort. At this concert Beethoven's music to "The Ruins 
of Athens" was performed, and the programme stated that the 
greater portion of it was still unpublished. 

The second performance was at a Gewandhaus concert in Leipsic, 
October 23, 1845. David was the violinist and Mendelssohn con- 
ducted. The third was at Dresden in the hall of the Hdtel de Saxe, 
November 10, 1845, at one of the concerts founded by Hiller and 
Schumann. The violinist was Joseph Joachim, then fourteen years 
old. He took the place of Clara Schumann, who had been an- 
nounced as soloist, but was sick. Ferdinand Hiller conducted. 
At this concert the second version of Schumann's "Overture, Scherzo, 
and Finale" was performed for the first time. 



.. CONCERT "DIRECTION .. 
PIERCE BUILDING - - - BOSTON 

As heretofore, Mr. Richmond continues his policy of featuring artists 
of distinction. Appearing under his direction this season: 
RICHARD BURGIN, Violinist — FELIX FOX, Pianist — 

LAURA LITTLEFIELD, Soprano (lyric)— MARIA CONDE, 
Soprano (coloratura)— JEAN BEDETTI, 'Cellist— FIEDLER 
TRIO — Henry Gideon in "CONCERTS with COM- 
MENTS" -and 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ENSEMBLE 

"A Miniature Symphony Orchestra" 
AUGUSTO VANNINI, Conductor 



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INFANTRY HALL 

TUESDAY EVENING. FEBRUARY 27, 1923, at 8.15 





PIERRE MONTEUX 



CLARA CLEMENS 



PIERRE MONTEUX, Conductor 



SOLOIST 



Mezzo-Soprano 

Clara Clemens, who is the daughter of Mark Twain and the wife 
of the pianist, Gabrilowitsch, has attracted considerable attention 
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13 



.Rhapsody for Orchestra, "E span a" 



Emmanuel Chabrier 



(Born at Ambert (Puy-de-D6me), France, January 18, 1841; died at Paris, 

September 13, 1894.) 

When Chabrier was six years old, lie began the study of music at 
Ambert with a Spanish refugee, named Saporta. One day when the 
boy did not play to suit the teacher, Saporta, a violent person, raised 
his hand. Nanette,* the servant who reared Chabrier, and lived 
with him nearly all his life, came into the room. She saw the 
uplifted hand, rushed toward Saporta, slapped his face, and more 
than once. 

In 1882 Chabrier visited Spain with his wife.t Travelling there, 
he wrote amusing letters to the publisher Costallat. These letters 
were published in 8. I. M., a musical magazine (Paris : Nos. Janu- 
ary 15 and February 15, 1909). Wishing to know the true Spanish 
dances, Chabrier with his wife went at night to ball-rooms where the 
company was mixed. As he wrote in a letter from Seville: "The 
gypsies sing their malaguenas or dance the tango, and the manzanilla 
is passed from hand to hand and every one is forced to drink it. 
These eyes, these flowers in the admirable heads of hair, these shawls 
knotted about the body, these feet that strike an infinitely varied 
rhythm, these arms that run shivering the length of a body always 
in motion, these undulations of the hands, these brilliant smiles . . . 
and all this to the cry of 'Qlle, Olle, anda la Maria! Anda la 
Chiquita! Eso es! Baile la Carmen! Anda! Anda? shouted by 
the other women and the spectators. However, the two guitarists, 
grave persons, cigarette in mouth, keep on scratching something or 
other in three time. (The tango alone is in two time.) The cries 
of the women excite the dancer, who becomes literally mad of her 
body. It's unheard of ! Last evening, two painters went with us 
and made sketches, and I had some music paper in my hand. We 
had all the dancers around us ; the singers sang their songs to me, 
squeezed my hand and Alice's and went away, and then we were 
obliged to drink out of the same glass. Ah, it was a fine thing 
indeed ! He has really seen nothing who has not seen two or three 
Andalusians twisting their hips eternally to the beat and to the meas- 
ure of Anda! Anda! Anda! and the eternal clapping of hands. They 
beat with a marvellous ins