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Full text of "Boston Symphony Orchestra concert programs, Season 49,1929-1930"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Symphony Orchestra, National Endowment for the Humanities 



http://archive.org/details/bostonsymphonyor2930bost 



New York Programmes 



CARNEGIE HALL .... NEW YORK 

Thursday Evening, November 21, at 8.30 
Saturday Afternoon, November 23, at 2.30 




PR5GRHME 



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The Plaza, New York 



Fred Sterry 
President 



John D. Owen 
Manager 







T/k Savoy-Plaza 

Henry A. Rost Ne%y Yo rk 
ident 




■j£' ;| S4 



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<T& Copley- Plaza 



Arthur L. Race 
Managing Director 



Boston 





cjtotels of ^Distinction 



Unrivalled as to location* Distin- 

1 throughout the Work! 
their etppointmenti and 




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ii 



CARNEGIE HALL 



NEW YORK 



Fourty-fourth Season in New York 



FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 21, at 8.30 

AND THE 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 23, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 



COPYRIGHT, 1929, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Fedorovsky, P. Leibovici, J. 
Leveen, P. Tapley, R. 

Knudson, C. Gorodetzky, L 

Zide, L. Fiedler, B. 

Stonestreet, L. Messina, S. 

Erkelens, H. Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

Cauhap6, J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 
Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 

Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 
Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Bassoons. 

Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam, E. 

Percussion. 
Ludwig, C 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 




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CARNEGIE HALL . NEW YORK 

Forty-fourth Season in New York 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 21 

AT 8.30 



PROGRAMME 

Beethoven .... Overture to Goethe's "Egmont," Op. 84 

Ravel ..... "Ma Mere FOye" ("Mother Goose") 

Five Children's Pieces 

I. Pavane de la Belle au Bois Dormant. 
(Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty.) 

II. Petit Poucet. 

(Hop o' my Thumb.) 

III. Laideronnette, Imperatrice des Pagodes. 

(Laideronnette, Empress of the Pagodas.) 

IV. Les Entretiens de la Belle et de la Bete. 

(The Conversations of Beauty and the Beast.) 
V. Le Jardin Feerique. 

(The Fairy Garden.) 

Strauss . . ^ . . . "Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks," 

after the Old-fashioned, Roguish Manner, 
in Rondo Form, Op. 28 



Beethoven .... Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 

I. Allegro con brio. 
II. Andante con moto. 
f III. Allegro; Trio. 
I IV. Allegro. 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the symphony 



The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

5 





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Overture to "Egmont," Op. 84 . . . . Ludwig van Beethoven 
(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

This overture was composed in 1810; it was published in 1811. 
The music to Goethe's play — overture, four entr'actes, two songs 
sung by Clarchen, "Clarchen's Death," "Melodrama," and "Triumph 
Symphony" (identical with the coda of the overture) for the end of 
the play, nine numbers in all — was performed for the first time with 
the tragedy at the Hofburg Theater, Vienna, May 24, 1810. Antonie 
Adamberger was the Clarchen. 

When Hartl took the management of the two Vienna Court thea- 
tres, January 1, 1808, he produced plays by Schiller. He finally de- 
termined to produce plays by Goethe and Schiller with music, and 
he chose Schiller's "Tell" and Goethe's "Egmont." Beethoven and 
Gyrowetz were asked to write the music. The former was anxious 
to compose the music for "Tell" ; but, as Czerny tells the story, there 
were intrigues and, as "Egmont" was thought to be less suggestive 
to a composer, the music for that play was assigned to Beethoven. 
Gyrowetz's music to "Tell" was performed June 14, 1810. It was 
described by a correspondent of a Leipsic journal of music as "char- 
acteristic and written with intelligence." No allusion was made at 
the time anywhere to Beethoven's "Egmont." 



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The overture lias a short, slow introduction, sostenuto ma dob 
troppo, P minor. 3 2. The main body of the overture is an allegro, F 
minor. 3-4. The first theme is in the strings; each phrase is a de- 
scending arpeggio in the violoncellos, closing with a sigh in the first 
violins; the antithesis begins with a "sort of sigh" in the woodwind, 
then in the strings, then there is a development into passage-work. 
The second theme has for its thesis a version of the first two meas- 
ures of the sarabande theme of the introduction, fortissimo 
i strings I . in A-ilat major, and the antithesis is a triplet in the wood- 
wind. The coda Allegro con brio, F major. 4-4, begins pianissimo. 
The full orchestra at Last has a brilliant fanfare figure, which ends 
in a shouting climax, with a famous shrillness of the piccolo against 
fanfares of bassoons and brass and between crashes of the full 
orchestra. 

The overture is scored for two ilutes (one interchangeable with 
piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two 
trumpets, kettledrums and strings. 



What Beethoven thought of Goethe is well known. In 1S09 he 
wrote to Breitkopf and Ilartel: "Goethe and Schiller are my favorite 
poets, as also Ossian and Homer, the latter of whom, unfortunately. 




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I can read only in translation." In 1811 lie wrote to Bettina von 
Brentano: f< When you write to Goethe about me, select all words 
which will express to him my inmost reverence and admiration. I 
am just on the point of writing to him about 'Egmont,' to which I 
have written the music, and indeed purely out of love for his poems 
which cause me happiness. Who can be sufficiently thankful for a 
great poet, the richest jewel of a nation? And now, no more, dear 
good B. 1 came back from a bacchanalian festival only at four 
o'clock this morning, at which, indeed, I was forced to laugh a great 
deal, with the result that I have to wee]) almost as much to-day. 
Noisy joy often drives me powerfully back into myself." This letter 
was dated February 10. On April 12 (1S11) he wrote to Goethe: — 

"Your Excellence : 

"The pressing opportunity of a friend of mine, one of your great admirers 
(:is I also ami. who is leaving here" (Vienna) ''in a great hurry, gives rne 
only a moment to offer my thanks for the long time I have known you (for I 
know you from the days of my childhood) — that is very little for so much. 
Bettina Brentano has assured me that you would receive me in a kindly, yes. 
Indeed, friendly spirit. But how could I think of such a reception, seeing that 
1 am only in a position to approach you with the deepest reverence, with an in- 
expressibly deep feeling for your noble creations. You will shortly receive 
from Leipsie through Breitkopf and Hiirtel the music to 'Egmont,' this glorious 
'Egmont," with which 1. with the same warmth with which I read it, was again 
thn ugh you impressed by it, and set it to music. I should much like to know 
your opinion of it ; even blame will be profitable for me and for my art, and 
will be as willingly received as the greatest praise. 

"Your Excellency's great admirer, 

"Ludwig van Beethoven." 




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Goethe answered this letter at Carlsbad on June 25, 1811 : — 

''Your friendly letter, highly esteemed sir, I received to my great pleasure 
through Herr von Oliva. I am most thankful to you for the opinions expressed 
therein, and I assure you that I can honestly reciprocate them, for I have 
never heard one of your great works performed by skilful artists and amateurs 
without wishing that I could for once admire you at the pianoforte, and take 
delight in your extraordinary talent. The good Bettina Brentano really de- 
serves the sympathy you have shown her. She speaks of you with rapture 
and the liveliest affection, and counts the hours she spent with you as the 
happiest of her life. The 'Egmont' music I shall probably find when I return 
home, and I thank you in advance — for I have already heard it spoken of in 
high terms by several persons, and I think I shall be able to give it this winter 
at our theatre, accompanied by the music in question ; by this means I hope to 
prepare great enjoyment both for myself and for your numerous admirers in 
our parts. What, however, I most wish, is to have properly understood Herr 
Oliva, who held out the hope that in the course of a journey you propose to 
take that you might visit Weimar. May it take place when the court and the 
whole music-loving public is here. You would certainly meet with a reception 
in keeping with your merits and sentiments. But no one would take greater 
interest in it than I myself. I wish you farewell, beg you to keep me in kind 
remembrance, and offer you hearty thanks for the pleasure which through you 
I have often received." 



As we have seen, Goethe had much to say about his "Egmont" to 
Eckermann, but in the record of the conversations there is no allu- 
sion to Beethoven's music for the play. 

In 1822, Beethoven, remembering his talk with Goethe at Teplitz, 
where he met him for the first time in 1812, said to Rochlitz : "I 
would have gone to death, yes ten times to death, for Goethe. Then, 
when I was in the height of my enthusiasm, I thought out my 
'Egmont' music. Goethe — he lives and wants us all to live with him. 
It is for that reason that he can be composed. Nobody is so easily 
composed as he. But I do not like to compose songs." But the 
"Egmont" music had been composed and performed before the com- 
poser ever met the poet. Schindler said that Beethoven's recollec- 
tion of past events was always vague. 

The story of Beethoven's haughtiness and Goethe's obsequiousness 
in the presence of the imperial court has often been related, but the 




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authenticity of the letter in which Beethoven told the adventure to 
BettLna has been disputed. 

Bottina wrote Puckler-Muskau an account of Goethe and Bee- 
thoven together at Teplitz, and spoke of the composer playing to the 
poet and deeply moving him. Albert Schaefer states calmly that 
Beethoven played the "Egmont" music to Goethe at Vienna, and 
that the latter did not value it, had no suspicion of its worth, — a 
statement lor which we find no authority. This is certain, that in 
1812 lU'ethoven said to Hartel : ''Goethe is too fond of the atmosphere 
of the court; fonder than becomes a poet. There is little room for 
sport over the absurdities of the virtuosi, when poets, who ought to 
be looked upon as the foremost teachers of the nation, can forget 
everything else in the enjoyment of court glitter." It is also certain 
that Goethe cared little for Beethoven's music, that he did not men- 
tion his name in his memoirs; but in a letter to Zelter he wrote in 
1S12 : k 'I made the acquaintance of Beethoven at Teplitz. His talent 
astonished me prodigiously, but he is, unfortunately, a wholly un- 
tamed person. It is true that he is not utterly wrong when he finds 
the world detestable, but this will not make it more enjoyable for 
himself or for others. Yet he is to be excused and much pitied, for 
he has lost his hearing, which perhaps is of less injury to his art 
than to his social relations. Already laconic by nature, he will be 
doubly so by reason of this infirmity. " 

When Mendelssohn visited Weimar in 1830, he endeavored to 
make Goethe appreciate Beethoven's music. Mendelssohn played to 
hi in music by Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Weber. The poet enjoyed espe- 
cially an overture by Bach. "How pompous and stately it is!" ex- 
claimed Goethe: "I imagine a procession of noble persons in festal 
dress, going down the steps of a grand staircase!" But Mendels- 
sohn recognized Goethe's antipathy towards Beethoven's music. He 
played to him the first movement of the Symphony in C minor. It 
made a singular impression on Goethe, who began by saying: "This 
music produces only astonishment; it does not move one at all: it is 



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19 



grandiose." He muttered some words, and after a long silence said : 
'•It is very great and indeed astonishing ; one is tempted to say that 
the house is about to crumble into pieces ; but what would happen if 
all men together should set themselves to playing it ?" 

Goethe, who likened music to architecture, drew a singular paral- 
lel between Napoleon Bonaparte and Hummel. "Napoleon treats 
the world as Hummel his pianoforte. In each instance the manner 
of treatment seems impossible; we understand the one as little as 
the other, and yet no one can deny the effects. The grandeur of 
Napoleon consists in being the same at any hour. . . . He was al- 
ways in his element, always equal to the emergency, just as Hummel 
is never embarrassed, whether he has to play an adagio or an allegro. 
This facility is found wherever real talent exists, in the arts of 
peace as in those of war, at the pianoforte as behind a battery." 



"Ma Mere l'Oye," 5 Pieces Enpantines ("Mother Goose."* Five 
Children's Pieces) Joseph Maurice Ravee 

(Born at Ciboure, Basses Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; now living near Paris) 
These pieces were originally composed in 1908 for pianoforte (four 
hands), and for the pleasure of the children, Mimie and Jean Godeb- 
ski, to whom they were dedicated when the pieces were published in 
1910. They were first performed at a concert of the Societe Musical 
Independante, Salle Gaveau, Paris, on April 20, 1910. The pianists 
were Christine Verger, six years old, and Germaine Duramy, ten 
years old. 

1. Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty. Lent, A minor, 4-4. This 
movement is only twenty measures long. It is based on the open- 
ing phrase for flute, horns, and violas. 

*Mother Goose in English does not tell fairy tales. — Ed. 



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II. "Hop o' my Thumb." Ravel has quoted in the score this pas- 
sage from Perraulfs tale: "He believed that he would easily find his 
path by the means of his bread crumbs which he had scattered wher- 
ever lie had passed; but he was very much surprised when he could 
not find a single crumb : the birds had come and eaten everything 
op." 

III. "Laideronnette, Empress of the Pagodes." The French 
give the name "pagode" to a little grotesque figure with a movable 
head, and thus extend the meaning, which was also found in Eng- 
lish for pagoda, "an idol or image." This latter use of the word is 
now obsolete in the English language. A "laideron" is any ugly 
young girl or young woman. There is this quotation from "Ser- 
pen tin Vert" by the Countess Marie Catherine d'Aulnoy (about 
1655-1705) who wrote romances and also fairy tales in imitation of 
Perrault. "She undressed herself and went into the bath. The 
pagodes and pagodines began to sing and play on instruments ; some 
had theorbos made of walnut shells; some had viols made of almond 
shells ; for they were obliged to proportion the instruments to their 
figure." Laideronnette in the story, the daughter of a king and 
queen, was cursed in her cradle by Magotine, a wicked fairy, with 
the curse of the most horrible ugliness. When the princess grew up, 
she asked that she might dwell far away in a castle where no one 
could see her. In the forest near by she met a huge green serpent, 
who told her that he was once handsomer than she was. Laideron- 
nette had many adventures. In a little boat, guarded by the ser- 
pent, she went out to sea, and was wrecked on the coast of a land 
inhabited by pagodes, a little folk whose bodies were formed from 
porcelain, crystal, diamonds, emeralds, etc. The ruler was an tin- 
Been monarch, — the green snake who also had been enchanted by 



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Magotine. Finally, he was changed into human shape, and he 
married Laideronnette, whose beauty was restored. 

IV. "The Conversations of Beauty and the Beast." Quotations 
from Mme. Leprince de Beaumont are given : 

"When I think how good-hearted you are, you do not seem to me so ugly." 
"Yes, I have, indeed, a kind heart; but I am a monster." 
"There are many men more monstrous than you." 

"If I had wit, I would invent a fine compliment to thank you, but I am 
only a beast." 



"Beauty, will you be my wife?" 

"No, Beast!" 

"I die content since I have the pleasure of seeing you again." 

"No, my dear Beast, you shall not die ; you shall live to be my husband !" 

The Beast had disappeared, and she saw at her feet only a prince 
more beautiful than Love, who thanked her for having broken his 
enchantment. 

Mouvement de Valse tres modere, F major, 3-4. This movement 
is based chiefly on a melody for the clarinet, which begins in the 
second measure. There is a middle section with a subject suggest- 
ing the Beast and given to the double bassoon. The two subjects are 
combined. At the end, a solo violin plays the theme of the middle 
section. 

V. a The Fairy Garden." Lent et grave, C major, 3-4. The move- 
ment is based on the opening theme for strings. 




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15 



"Till Eulenspiegei/s Merry Pranks, After the Old-fashioned 
Koguish Manner, — in Rondo Form/' for Full Orchestra, 
Op. 28 Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich, June 11, 1864; now living at Vienna) 

"Till Eulenspiegel's lustige Streicke, nack alter Sckelmenweise — 
iii Rondoform — fur grosses Orckester gesetzt, von Rickard Strauss,*' 
was produced at a Giirzenick concert at Cologne, November 5, 1895. 
It was composed in 1894-95 at Munich, and tke score was com- 
pleted there, May. 6, 1895. Tke score and parts were -published in 
September, 1895. 

Tkere kas been dispute concerning tke proper translation of tke 
phrase, "nach alter Schelmenweise," in the title. Some, and Mr. 
Apthorp was one of tkem, translate it "after an old rogue's tune/' 
Otkers will not kave tkis at all, and prefer "after tke old, — or old- 
faskioned, — roguisk manner," or, as Mr. Krekbiel suggested, "in the 
style of old-time waggery," and this view is in all probability the 
sounder. It is hard to twist "Schelmenweise" into "rogue's tune." 
"Schelmensttick," for instance, is "a knavish trick," a "piece of 
roguery." As Mr. Krehbiel well said: "The reference [Schelmen- 
weise] goes, not to the thematic form of the phrase, but to its struc- 
ture. This is indicated, not only by the grammatical form of the 
phrase but also by the parenthetical explanation: 'in Rondo form.' 
What connection exists between roguishness, or waggishness, and 
the rondo form it might be difficult to explain. The roguish wag in 
this case is Richard Strauss himself, who, besides putting the puzzle 
into his title, refused to provide the composition with even the 
smallest explanatory note which might have given a clue to its 
contents." It seems to us that the puzzle in the title is largely 



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imaginary. There is no need of attributing any intimate connection 
between "roguish manner" and "rondo form." 

Till (or Tyll) Eulenspiegel is the hero of an old Volksluch of the 
fifteenth century attributed to Dr. Thomas Murner (1475-1530). 
Till is supposed to be a wandering mechanic of Brunswick, who plays 
all sorts of tricks, practical jokes, — some of them exceedingly coarse, 
— on everybody, and he always comes out ahead. In the book, Till 
(or Till Owlglass, as he is known in the English translation) goes 
to the gallows, but he escapes through an exercise of his ready wit, 
and dies peacefully in bed, playing a sad joke on his heirs, and re- 
fusing to lie still and snug in his grave. Strauss kills him on the 
scaffold. The German name is said to find its derivation in an 
old proverb: "Man sees his own faults as little as a monkey or an 
owl recognizes his ugliness in looking into a mirror." 

When Dr. Franz Wullner, who conducted the first performance at 
Cologne, asked the composer for an explanatory programme of the 
"poetical intent" of the piece, Strauss replied : "It is impossible for 
me to furnish a programme to 'Eulenspiegel' ; were I to put into 
words the thoughts which its several incidents suggested to me, 
they would seldom suffice, and might even give rise to offence. Let 
me leave it, therefore, to my hearers to crack the hard nut which the 
Rogue has prepared for them. By way of helping them to a better 
understanding, it seems sufficient to point out the two 'Eulenspiegel' 
motives, which, in the most manifold disguises, moods, and situa- 
tions, pervade the whole up to the catastrophe, when, after he has 
been condemned to death, Till is strung up to the gibbet. For the 
rest, let them guess at the musical joke which a Rogue has offered 
them." Strauss indicated in notation three motives, — the opening 



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theme of the introduction, the horn theme that follows almost im- 
mediately, and the descending interval expressive of condemnation 
and the scaffold. 

Certain German critics were not satisfied with Strauss's meagre 
cine, and they at once began to evolve labored analyses. One of 
these programmes, the one prepared by Wilhelm Klatte, was pub- 
lished in the AUgcmcinc Musik-Zeitung of November 8, 1895, and 
frequently in programme books in Germany and England, in some 
cases with Strauss's sanction.* The translation is, for the most 
part, by C. A. Barry: — 

A strong sense of German folk-feeling (des Volksthumlichen) per- 
vades the whole work ; the source from which the tone-poet drew his 
inspiration is clearly indicated in the introductory bars : Gemachlich 
(Andante commodo), F major, 4-8. To some extent this stands for 
the "once upon a time-' of the story-books. That what follows is 
not to be treated in the pleasant and agreeable manner of narrative 
poetry, but in a more sturdy fashion, is at once made apparent by 
a characteristic bassoon figure which breaks in sforzato upon the 
piano of the strings. Of equal importance for the development of 
the piece is the immediately following humorous horn theme (F 
major, 6-8). Beginning quietly and gradually becoming more lively, 
it is at first heard against a tremolo of the "divided" violins and 
then again in the tempo primo, Sehr lebhaft (Vivace). This theme, 
or at least the kernel of it, is taken up in turn by oboes, clarinets, 
violas, violoncellos, and bassoons, and is finally brought by the full 
orchestra, except trumpets and trombones, after a few bars, cres- 
cendo, to a dominant half-close fortissimo in C. The thematic ma- 
terial, according to the main point, has now been fixed upon ; the 
milieu is given, by which we are enabled to recognize the pranks 
and droll tricks which the crafty schemer is about to bring before 
our eyes, or, far rather, before our ears. 

Here he is (clarinet phrase followed by chord for wind instru- 
ments). He wanders through the land as a thoroughgoing adven- 
turer. His clothes are tattered and torn: a queer, fragmentary 
Tendon of the Knlcnspiegel motive resounds from the horns. Follow- 
ing a merry play will) this important leading motive, which directly 
leads i<» ;i short but brilliant tutti, in which it again asserts itself, 
fust in the flutes, and then finally merges into a softly murmuring 
and extended tremolo for the violas, this same motive, gracefully 

phrased, reappears in succession in the basses, flute, first violins, and 

i in in the hasses. The P0gU6, putting on his best manners, slyly 
passes through the gate, and enters ;i certain city. It is market day; 
the women sit ;it their stalls and prattle (flutes, nixies, and clari- 

oets). Sop! Bulenspiege] springs on his horse (indicated by 

rapid triplets extending through three measures, from the low 
I> of the baSfi Clarinet tO the highest A of the D clarinet), trives a 
imack of hifl whip, and rides into the midst of the crowd. Clink, 

clash, clatter! A confused sound of broken pots and pans, and 
the tnarket-womeo are put t<> flight! in haste the rascal rides 

•I( wiih. hii tfanke •'' programme of iiiN rondo 

i in writing bli "Ffthrer," or elaborate explanation <»f the composition. 



away (as is admirably illustrated by a fortissimo passage for the 
trombones) and secures a safe retreat. 

This was his first merry prank; a second follows immediately: 
Gemachlich (Andante commodo), F major, 2-4. Eulenspiegel has 
put on the vestments of a priest, and assumes a very unctuous mien. 
Though posing as a preacher of morals, the rogue peeps out from the 
folds of his mantle (the Eulenspiegel motive on the clarinet points 
to the imposture). He fears for the success of his scheme. A figure 
played by muted violins, horns, and trumpets makes it plain that 
he does not feel comfortable in his borrowed plumes. But soon he 
makes up his mind. Away with all scruples! He tears them off 
(solo violin, glissando). 

Again the Eulenspiegel theme is brought forward in the previous 
lively tempo, 6-8, but is now subtly metamorphosed and chivalrously 
colored. Eulenspiegel has become a Don Juan, and he waylays 
pretty women. And one has bewitched him: Eulenspiegel is in 
love! Hear how now, glowing with love, the violins, clarinets, and 
flutes sing. But in vain. His advances are received with derision, 
and he goes away in a rage. How can one treat him so slightingly ? 
Is he not a splendid fellow ? Vengeance on the whole human race ! 
He gives vent to his rage (in a fortissimo of horns in unison, 
followed by a pause), and strange personages suddenly draw near 
(violoncellos). A troop of honest, worthy Philistines! In an 
instant all his anger is forgotten. But it is still his chief joy to 
make fun of these lords and protectors of blameless decorum, to 
mock them, as is apparent from the lively and accentuated frag- 
ments of the theme, sounded at the beginning by the horn, which 
are now heard first from horns, violins, violoncellos, and then from 
trumpets, oboes, and flutes. Now that Eulenspiegel has had his 
joke, he goes away and leaves the professors and doctors behind in 
thoughtful meditation. Fragments of the typical theme of the 
Philistines are here treated canonically. The wood-wind, violins, 
and trumpets suddenly project the Eulenspiegel theme into their 
profound philosophy. It is as though the transcendent rogue were 



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making faces at the bigwigs from a distance — again and again — 

and then waggishly running away. This is aptly characterized by 
a short episode (A-flat) in a hopping, 24 rhythm, which, similarly 
with the first entrance of the Hypocrisy theme previously used, 
is followed by phantoin-like tones from the wood-wind and strings 
and then from trombones and horns. Has our rogue still no 
foreboding? 

Interwoven with the very first theme, indicated lightly by trum- 
pets and English horn, a figure is developed from the second in- 
troductory and fundamental theme. It is first taken up by the 
clarinets: it seems to express the fact that the arch-villain has 
again got the upper hand of Eulenspiegel, who has fallen into his 
old manner of life. If we take a formal view, we have now reached 
the repetition of the chief theme. A merry jester, a born liar, 
Eulenspiegel goes wherever he can succeed with a hoax. His in- 
solence knows no bounds. Alas! there is a sudden jolt to his 
wanton humor. The drum rolls a hollow roll; the jailer drags the 
rascally prisoner into the criminal court. The verdict "guilty" is 
thundered against the brazen-fact 1 knave. The Eulenspiegel theme 
replies calmly to the threatening chords of wind and lower strings. 
Eulenspiegel lies. Again the threatening tones resound; but Eulen- 
spiegel does not confess his guilt. On the contrary he lies for the 
third time. His jig is up. Fear seizes him. The Hypocrisy mo- 
tive is sounded piteously; the fatal moment draws near; his hour 
has struck! The descending leap of a minor seventh in bassoons, 
horns, trombones, tuba, betokens his death. He has danced in air. 
A hist struggle (flutes), and his soul takes flight. 

Alter sad, tremulous pizzicati of the strings, the epilogue begins. 
At first it is almost identical with the introductory measures, which 
are repeated in full; then the most essential parts of the second 
and third chief theme passages appear, and finally merge into the 
soft chord of the sixth on A-flat, while wood-wind and violins 
sustain. Eulenspiegel has become a Legendary character. The 
people tell their tales about him: "Once upon a time . . ." Bui 



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that he was a merry rogue and a real devil of a fellow seems to 
be expressed by the final eight measures, full orchestra, fortissimo. 

Such is Wilhelm Klatte's explanation of the poetic contents of 
Strauss's rondo, and though the composer may smile in his sleeve 
and whisper to himself, "Not a bit like it!" he never publicly 
contradicted Mr. Klatte. 

The rondo, dedicated to Dr. Arthur Seidl, is scored for piccolo, 
three flutes, three oboes, English horn, small clarinet in D, two 
clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns 
(with the addition of four horns ad lib.), three trumpets (with 
three additional trumpets ad lib.), three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, a watch- 
man's rattle, strings. 



Symphony No. 5, C minor, Op. 67 . Ludwig van Beethoven 

(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

Beethoven sketched motives of the allegro, andante, and scherzo 
of this symphony as early as 1800 and 1801. We know from sketches 
that while he was at work on "Fidelio" and the pianoforte concerto 
in G major, — 1804-1806, — he was also busied with this symphony, 
which he put aside to compose the fourth symphony, in B-flat. 

The symphony in C minor was finished in the neighborhood of 
Heiligenstadt in 1807. Dedicated to the Prince von Lobkowitz and 
the Count Rasumovsky, it was published in April, 1809. 

It was first performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, De- 
cember 22, 1808. All the pieces were by Beethoven ; the symphony 
described on the programme as "A symphony entitled 'Recollections 
of Life in the Country,' in F major, No. 5" (sic) ; an Aria, "Ah, 
perfido," sung by Josephine Kilitzky ; Hymn with Latin text written 
in church style with chorus and solos ; Pianoforte Concerto in G 
major, played by Beethoven ; Grand Symphony in C minor, No. 6 
(sic) ; Sanctus, with Latin text written in church style (from the 
Mass in C major), with chorus and solos; Fantasia for pianoforte 
solo ; Fantasia for pianoforte "into which the full orchestra enters 
little by littie, and at the end the chorus joins in the Finale." 
Beethoven played the pianoforte part. The concert began at half- 
past six. We know nothing about the pecuniary result. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings; and 
in the last movement piccolo, double-bassoon, and three trombones 
are added. 

This symphony was performed in Boston at an Academy concert 
as early as November 27, 1841. 

Other first performances: London, April 15, 1816, Philharmonic 
Society; Paris, April 13, 1828, Societe des Concerts; Leningrad, 
March 23, 1859 ; Rome, November 9, 1877 ; Madrid, 1878. 

The fifth symphony was the opening number of the first concert 
of the Philharmonic Society of New York, December 7, 1842. U. L. 
Hill conducted the symphony. 

21 



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FIRST MATINEE 
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 23 

AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 



Handel . . Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra, Op. 6, No. 10 
Overture — Allegro; Air: Lento; Allegro moderato; Allegro. 

Gruenberg . . . "The Enchanted Isle," Symphonic Poem 



Tchaikovsky . . Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

I. Adagio; Allegro non troppo. 

II. Allegro con grazia. 

III. Allegro molto vivace. 

IV. Finale : Adagio lamentoso. 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the Symphony 



The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 



23 



Concerto Grosso No. 10, in D minor . . George Frideric Handel 
(Born at Halle on February 23, 1685; died at London, April 14, 1759) 

Handel's twelve grand concertos for strings were composed be- 
tween September 29 and October 30, 1739. The tenth bears the date 
October 22. The London Daily Post of October 29, 1739, said : "This 
day are published proposals for printing by subscription, with His 
Majesty's royal license and protection, Twelve Grand Concertos, 
in Seven Parts, for four violins, a tenor, a violoncello, with a 
thorough-bass for the harpsichord. Composed by Mr. Handel. Price 
to subscribers, two guineas. Keady to be delivered by April next. 
Subscriptions are taken by the author, at his house* in Brook Street, 
Hanover Square, and by Walsh." In an advertisement on Novem- 
ber 22 the publisher added, "Two of the above concertos will be per- 
formed this evening at the Theatre Royal, Lincoln's Inn." The 
concertos were published on April 21, 1740. In an advertisement 
a few days afterwards Walsh said, "These concertos were per- 
formed at the Theatre Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and now are 
played in most public places with the greatest applause." Victor 
Schoelcher made this comment in his Life of Handel: "This was 
the case with all the works of Handel. They were so frequently 
performed at contemporaneous concerts and benefits that they seem, 
during his lifetime, to have quite become public property. More- 
over, he did nothing which the other theatres did not attempt to 
imitate. In the little theatre of the Haymarket, evening entertain- 
ments were given in exact imitation of his 'several concertos for 
different instruments, with a variety of chosen airs of the best 
master, and the famous Salve Regina of Hasse.' The handbills 
issued by the nobles at the King's Theatre make mention also of 
'several concertos for different instruments.' " 

*This was the little house, No. 25 Lower Brook Street (now Brook Street), in 
which Handel lived from 1725 until his death. Here he composed the "Messiah/* 
"Saul," and other oratorios. "After his death his valet rented the house and made 
the most of Handel's long residence to secure lodgers." "Sydney Smith lived in this 
house in 1835" (George H. Cunningham's "London." Handel lived for three years 
in Old Burlington House, erected by the third Earl of Burlington, amateur architect 
and friend of Pope.) In the rate-book of 1725 Handel was named owner, and the 
house rated at £35 a year. Mr. W. H. Cummins, about 1903, visiting this house, 
found a cast-lead cistern, on the front of which in bold relief was "1721. G, P. H." 
The house had then been in possession of a family about seventy years, and various 
structural alterations had been made. A back room on the first floor was said to 
have been Handel's composition-room. 



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24 



ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 

MECCA AUDITORIUM 

133 West 55th Street 

Sunday Afternoon, November 24th, at 4 Sharp 

BRAHMS' 
DEUTSCHES REQUIEM 

Soloists: Elisabeth Rethberg — Lawrence Tibbett 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS— Metropolitan Opera Orchestra 

Sunday Afternoon, December 8th, at 4 Sharp 

ORCHESTRAL PROGRAMME 

Soloist: Margaret Matzenauer 

Sunday Afternoon, December 1 5th, at 4 Sharp 

BACH'S "Weinacht's (Christmas) Oratorio 

Soloists: Ethyl Hayden, Margaret Matzenauer, George Meader, Fraser Gange 
FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS— Metropolitan Opera Orchestra 

Tickets on sale at 10 East 43rd Street, Room 503 Van. 0659-J 

Open from 9 to 5; Saturday until noon 

Sundays on sale at Mecca Box Office, open at i 1 A.M. 

Concert Manager: RICHARD COPLEY. Steinway Piano 

Town Hall, Monday Evening, November 25th, at 8.30 

ROTH QUARTET 

Edison Records 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S CONCERT HOUR 

Town Hall, Afternoons at 3. Nov. 29, Dec. 28, Jan. 25 

DOROTHY GORDON 

Author of "Sing It Yourself," etc. 
Subscription Tickets, $1.00 to $5.00. Boxes (seating six) $36.00 
On sale at Box Office or office of the 
Manager: RICHARD COPLEY, 10 East 43rd Street Steinway Piano 

CARNEGIE HALL 

Tuesday Evening, December 3rd at 8.30 

CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA 

Nikolai Sokoloff, Conductor 
PROGRAMME WILL INCLUDE 

*FIRST AIRPHONIC SUITE FOR R.C.A. 

THEREMIN and ORCHESTRA - . - - Schilling 

*NEW YEAR'S EVE IN NEW YORK 

for full Orchestra and Jazz Band ---.---- Warner Janssen 

*First time in New York. 

Local Management: RICHARD COPLEY Steinway Piano 



25 



The year L739, in which these concertos were composed, was the 
vcar of the first performance of Handel's "Saul" (January 1G) 
and "Israel in Egypt" (April -4), — both oratorios were composed in 
L738, — also of the music to Dryden's "Ode for St. Cecilia's Day" 
I November 22). 

Romain Holland, discussing the form concerto grosso, which 
consists essentially of a dialogue between a group of soloists, the 
concertino (trio of two solo violins and solo bass with cembalo*) 
and the chorus of instruments, concerto grosso, believes that Handel 
at Koine in 170S was impressed by Corelli's works in this field, for 
several of his concertos of Opus 3 are dated 1710, 1716, 11'2'2. 
Geminiani introduced the concerto into England, — three volumes 
appeared in 1732, 1735, 174S, — and he was a friend of Handel. 

Handel's concertos of this set that have five movements are either 
in the form of a sonata with an introduction and a postlude (as 
Nos. 1 and 0) ; or in the form of the symphonic overture with the 
slow movements in the middle, and a dance movement, or an allegro 
closely resembling a dance, for a finale (as Nos. 7, 11, and 12) ; or 
a scries of three movements from larghetto to allegro, which is 
followed by two dance movements (as No. 3). 

The seven parts are thus indicated by Handel in book of parts: 
Violino priino concerto, Violino secondo concertino, Violino primo 
ripieno, Violino secondo ripieno, viola, violoncello, bass continuo. 



T. Ouverture. D minor, 4-4: Allegro, D minor, G-S. The over- 
ture is after the French pattern, in two sections. The Allegro is 
in the form of a three-voiced fugue. In its course, there is four- 
voiced work, but in reality only three voices are in counterpoint. 

II. Air. Lento, D minor, 3-2. Alternate passages are played by 
the concertino alone, and by it and the concerto ripieno together. 

III. Allegro, I) minor, 1-1. A rhythmically strongly marked 
theme is developed contrapuntally in four-part writing. 

IV. Allegro, 1) minor, 3-4. In this the longest movement of the 
work the first and second violins of the concertino really play 
concertanti. 

V. Allegro moderate, D major, 4-4. For concertino and ripieno 
together. 



•'Tiii En< h wii.i) [sl r:." .\ Symphonic Poem roa Orchestra 

Lor is ( tRUENBBBG 
in in Russia "ii August ::. L883; Living In Brooklyn, N.Y.) 

This symphonic poem was performed for the first time at the 

ml concert of the 70th Annual Festival of the Worcester i Mass. I 
County Musical Association, held at Mechanics Ball, Worcester. 
This concert took place on the afternoon of October '•'<. i!>*J!). Al- 
bert Si conducted the Festival Orchestra. The other orches- 

i / in>, tomet Imei coupled an oba wli h 

faithful, mm i mi,- to tin- itiinga. 

SS 



tral pieces were Monsigny's Chaconne et Eigaudon and Gustav 
Hoist's Japanese Suite. The Marmeins danced their drama dances 
to music by Dukas, Franck, Rebikov, MacDowell, Mendelssohn, 
Prokofieff, Jaernevelt, Hoist. We wrote to Mr. Gruenberg ask- 
ing if he had any particular isle in mind. He answered by the 
following interesting letter: 

"It has always been my firm conviction that a composition should 
stand on its own legs (so to speak) if able, or if not, that no 
amount of props in shape of words could possibly help it to stand 
upright. And having stated the above, I shall do what one must 
always do to firm convictions, if one is to continue to function 
artistically; that is, destroy or ignore them, and proceed to tell 
you what there is to be told about The Enchanted Isle' and other 
matters related to it. 

" 'The Enchanted Isle' is the second of a series of four tone- 
poems projected during the World War, in an attempt to make a 
world somewhat pleasanter than the one existing then. These 
tone-poems had the following fanciful titles : a. 'The Hill of Dreams' 
(this won the New York Symphony Prize in 1919) ; ~b. 'The En- 
chanted Isle'; c. 'The Valley of Voices'; d. 'The Blue Castle.' 

"The last two were never finished, owing to the fact that I lost 
interest in the series after leaving for Europe in 1919 (only to 
return to New York early last year). In rummaging through a 
bale of manuscripts which I had not seen for over eight years, I 
found the score of 'The Enchanted Isle,' whose very existence I 



1929 - SEASON - 1930 
SECOND SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT 

CONDUCTORLESS 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CARNEGIE HALL 
SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 30th, AT 8.45 O'CLOCK 

Soloist 
JOHN POWELL 

PROGRAMME 
BACH Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G Major 

MOZART Concerto for Piano in D Minor 

John Powell 

MITYA STILLMAN "Serenade" 

GLISRE "Siren" 

Boxes: - - $20.00 and $24.00 
Tickets: - $1.00 to $2.50 

Now on sale at Box Office, Carnegie Hall and at Office of Conductorless Symphony 

Orchestra, 22 East 55th Street, New York 

Telephone: Wickersham 7870 
Steinway Piano 



27 



had completely forgotten. As I idly turned its pages, a theme here, 
a passage there gradually brought hack to me the wistful romantic 
.lays of my youth, when all is well, oven if it isn't. I grew senti- 
menta] and determined to recapture a whiff of these enchanted is- 
lands of memory, gradually making a complete new score, retaining 
the emotions— most of the melodies of the original work — hut making 
use of my newly acquired freedom, knowledge of orchestration, 
harmony, and construction. And that sums up what 'The En- 
chanted Isle' represents in my artistic career to-day — a bridge 
between the old and the new. 

"Other works are: (1) 'Daniel Jazz'*; (2) 'Creation'; (3) 'Jazz 
Suite' (which Mr. Btokowsky is doing soon) ; (4) 'Vagabondia' 
i which had a first performance in Prague with the Prague Phil- 
harmonic) ; (5) a Ballet (the book, which I wrote myself, stand- 
ing in the way of a production) ; (6) 'The Dumb Wife/t opera in 
two acts (never produced because of failure of obtaining the per- 
forming rights) ; (7) a mass of chamber works; (S) three new works 
yet to be heard even by the composer." 

According to the Worcester Festival Programme Book, edited by Walter 
Edward Howe, Mr. Grnenberg came to the United States in 1S8.~> and was 
educated in the public schools of New York. He took piano lessons of Adele 
Bfargulies. No Later studied at the master school of the Vienna Conservatory; 
<\\\\ later, with Busoni, piano-playing and composition. (Riemann's "Musik- 
Lexikon" niii'L' i says that he also studied composition at Berlin with Fr. E. 
Koch). Having toured in European countries as a pianist, he returned to the 
United States with Busoni and composed the music of an opera-libretto by 
Busoni, "The Bride of the Gods." In 1011) be played at a recital in New York 
some of bis own compositions, among them "Five Impressions based on Oriental 
Themes." The list of his work Includes sonatas for violin and piano, a sym- 
phony. ;i piano concerto, songs, and piano pieces. lie is one of the founders 
of the American Composers' Guild and a director of the international Corn- 
ea' Guild. Not long ago he was made president of the United Slates 
section of the international Society for Contemporary Music. 

"The Enchanted Isle" is published by the Juillard Musical Foundation. 



8 IPHONT NO. 0. B MINOR, "PATHETIC," Op. 71 

Firi!: [lich Tchaikovsky 

(Born .-it Votkin^k in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, L840; died at 

Leningrad, November 6, i s !».*'.) 

Tchaikovsky on the voyage from Now York to Hamburg in May. 
1891, n ketches for ;i sixth symphony. lie worked on this 

gym phony in i s !>*_\ was dissatisfied with it, and destroyed ii before 
ho bognn i'» orchestrate if. Ilis third pianoforte concerto, <)|>. 75, 

''Daniel .f.-i//' ormed i'i B< ton --ii a concert of the Chamber Music Club 

Club in Jordan Bail on kprll 1928 Colin O'More, tenor, 

Vacbel LJndsay'i poem; Rlrl ircl Burjrln conducted the Chamber 

Orch* r-.i Th< pr< o Included Schopntx ' Plerrol Lunalre" (Greta 

TorpadJe, kIi >cte1 f..r wind Instruments, and Hlndemlth'i "Mnrlen- 

i pa die, Mr. Tlllotson, plan I 

\ r i .- 1 1 . • i « * I'r.oii-.'s "< '< ■ i u ■'• ■ i i < • de <-<;iii qui epouss une femms 
• i' Martin Pai on May 80, \'>\~. « 11 b Mlli 

irt o( Catherine? The plnj In Bo ton \\itii Milan 

herlne In 1 1 • * - translation mad< bj Curtli Hidden Page for Granville 

■ r 



CARNEGIE HALL 



SEASON 1929-1930 



Thursday Evening, January 2, 1930, at 8.30 

Saturday Afternoon, January 4, 1930, at 2.30 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



29 



was based on the first movement of the rejected work. (This con- 
certo was played after his death by TaneViev in Leningrad.) An- 
other work, posthumous, the Andante and Finale for pianoforte with 
orchestra, orchestrated by Taneiev, and produced at Leningrad on 
February 20, L896, was also based on the sketches for this Sym- 
phony. 



The first mention of the "Pathetic" Symphony is in a letter from 
Tchaikovsky to his brother Anatol, dated Klin, February 22, 1893: 
"I am now wholly occupied with the new work (a symphony) and 
it is hard for me to tear myself away from it. I believe it comes 
into being as the best of my works. I must finish it as soon as 
possible, for I have to wind up a lot of affairs and I must also soon 
go to London. I told you that I had completed a symphony which 
suddenly displeased me, and I tore it up. Now I have composed 
a new symphony which I certainly shall not tear up" He was 
still eager for an inspiring opera libretto. He did not like one on 
the story of Undine, which had been suggested. He wrote to Mod- 
esl : "For God's sake, find or invent a subject, if possible not a 
fantastic one. but something after the manner of 'Carmen' or of 
'Cavalleria Kusticana.' " 

Tchaikovsky went to London in May, and the next month he was 
at Cambridge, to receive, on June 13, with Saint-Saens, Grieg, Boito, 
Bruch, the Doctor's degree honoris causa. Grieg, whom Tchaikov- 
sky Loved as man and composer, was sick and could not be present. 
"Outside of Saint-Saens the sympathetic one to me is Boito. 
Bruch — an unsympathetic, bumptious person." At the ceremonial 
concert. Tchaikovsky's "Franceses da Rimini" was played. General 
Roberts was also made a Doctor on this occasion, as were the 
Maharaja of Bhonnaggor and Lord Herschel. 

At home again, Peter wrote to Modest early in August that he 
\\;is up to hia neck in his symphony. "The orchestration is the 
more difficult, the farther I go. Twenty years ago I Lei myself 
write a1 ease without much thought, and it was all right. Now I 
have become cowardly and uncertain. I have sal the whole day 
ov<r two pages: thai which I wished came constantly to naught. 
in spite of this, I make progress." He wrote to Davidov, August 

L5: "The Symphony which 1 intended to dedicate to you — I shall 

reconsider this on account of your Long silence is progressing. 

I am \ < -T- \ well Batisfied with the contents, bul not wholly with the 
Orchestration. I do not succeed In my intentions. It will not 
Surprise me in the least if the symphony is cursed or judged un- 



VENTY-I IVE YEARS* Ki I'l I a i ION 

BROWN'S bronchial TROCHES 

An old (i! .| |, v eoU 8f BM "f 'li- Voice I Ttt f' MB DDtll 

•ny I • r iii ! 1 1 Ik Pi <i n;). ,1 oVuffUti -r by nail. 

BROWN'S V, DENTIFRICE 

Will • thy conditi . ii drugfUtl W b* BtiL 

iohn ii .. bo roi 



favorably ; 'twill not be for the first time. I myself consider it the 
best, especially the most open-hearted of all my works. I love it 
as I never have loved any other of my musical creations. My life is 
without the charm of variety; evenings I am often bored; but I 
do not complain, for the symphony is noAV the main thing, and I 
cannot work anywhere so well as at home." He wrote Jurgenson, 
his publisher, on August 24 that he had finished the orchestration : 
"I give you my word of honor that never in my life have I been 
so contented, so proud, so happy, in the knowledge that I have 
written a good piece." It was at this time that he thought seriously 
of writing an opera with a text founded on "The Sad Fortunes of 
the Keverend Mr. Barton," by George Eliot, of whose best works 
he was an enthusiastic admirer. 

Early in October he wrote to the Grand Duke Constantine: "I 
have without exaggeration put my whole soul into this symphony, 
and I hope that your highness will like it. I do not know whether 
it will seem original in its material, but there is this peculiarity 
of form : the Finale is an Adagio, not an Allegro, as is the custom." 
Later he explained to the Grand Duke why he did not wish to 
write a Requiem. He said in substance that the text contained 
too much about God as a revengeful judge; he did not believe in 
such a deity; nor could such a deity awaken in him the necessary 
inspiration: "I should feel the greatest enthusiasm in putting music 
to certain parts of the gospels, if it were only possible. How often, 
for instance, have I been enthusiastic over a musical illustration 
of Christ's words: 'Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden' ; also, 'For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light' ! What 
boundless love and compassion for mankind are in these words!" 

Tchaikovsky left Klin forever on October 19. He stopped at Mos- 
cow to attend a funeral, and there with Kashkin he talked freely 
after supper. Friends had died; who would be the next to go? 
"I told Peter," said Kashkin, "that he would outlive us all. He 
disputed the likelihood, yet added that never had he felt so well 
and happy." Peter told him that he had no doubt about the first 
three movements of his new symphony, but that the last was still 



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season ("musically speaking, the greatest art an- 
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31 



doubtful in his mind; after the performance he might destroy it 
and write another finale. He arrived at Leningrad in good spirits, 
but he was depressed because the symphony made no impression 
on the orchestra at the rehearsals. He valued highly the opinion 
of players, and he conducted well only when he knew that the 
orchestra liked the work. He was dependent on them for the linesse 
of interpretation. "A cool facial expression, an indifferent glance, 
a yawn. — these tied his hands; he lost his readiness of mind, he 
went over the work carelessly, and cut short the rehearsal, that 
the players might be freed from their boresome work." Yet he in- 
sisted that he never had written and never would write a better 
composition than this symphony. 






What was the programme in Tchaikovsky's mind? Kashkin says 
that, if the composer had disclosed it to the public, the world would 
not have regarded the symphony as a kind of legacy from one filled 
with a presentiment of his own approaching end; that it seems 
more reasonable "to interpret the overwhelming energy of the third 
movement and the abysmal sorrow of the Finale in the broader 
light of a national or historical significance rather than to narrow 
them t<> the expression of an individual experience. If the last 
movement is intended to be predictive, it is surely of things vaster 
and issues more fatal than are contained in a mere personal appre- 
hension of death. It speaks rather of a 'lamentation large et soujj- 
rance incormue/ and seems to set the seal of finality on all human 
hopes. Even if we eliminate the purely subjective interest, this 
autumnal inspiration of Tchaikovsky, in which we hear 'the ground 
whirl of the perished leaves of hope, still remains the most pro- 
foundly stirring of his works.' . . ." 



• 



The symphony is scored for three (lutes (the third is interchange- 
able with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four 
horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three 
kettledrums, tamtam, and strings. 



All applications for advertising space in the BostOD 

Symphony Orchestra programme should be made to 
L 8. B. Jefferds, Advertising Manager, Symphony 
Mull. Boston, M:i 






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Teachers and Professionals: For space in this program, consult me. 




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;^ s 



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41 



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BOSTON 
SYAPHOW 

ORCHESTRA 



INC. 



FORTY-NINTH 
SEASON 

J929-J930 



PRSGRHrtftE 






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Fourty-fourth Season in New York 



FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 9, at 8.30 
AND THE 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 11, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artteres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Fedorovsky, P. Leibovici, J. 

Leveen, P. Tapley, R. 

Knudson, C. Gorodetzky, L. 

Zide, L. Fiedler, B. 

Stonestreet, L. Messina, S. 

Erkelens, H. Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

Cauhape", J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 

English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 
Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

{E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 



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Bettoney, F. 



Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
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Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 

Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
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CARNEGIE HALL . ■ . . . NEW YORK 

Forty-fourth Season in New York 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Walton 



Bax 



SECOND CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 9 

AT 8.30 



PROGRAMME 



Overture, "Portsmouth Point" 
Symphony No. 2 in E minor and C 



I. Allegro moderate 
II. Andante. 
III. Allegro feroce. 



Loeffler 



Ravel 



Canticum Fratris Solis (After St. Francis of Assisi) 
for Voice and Orchestra 



'Bolero" 



SOLOIST 
POVLA FRIJSH 

STEINWAY PIANO USED 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the Symphony 



The music of these programmes is available at the 53th Street Library 



Please note that the next Evening Concert will be given on Friday Evening 
(February 7) instead of Thursday 




They will make their West Indies Cruise 

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TWO MID-WINTER CKUISES 
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Overture, "Portsmouth Point' 



William Turner Walton 



(Born at Oldham, Lancashire, England, on March 29, 1902; now living in London) 

This overture was performed for the first time at the third concert 
of the International Society for New Music on June 22, 1926, in the 
larger room of the Tonhall, Zurich, Switzerland. Volkmar Andrae of 
Zurich conducted the overture. The first performance in the United 
States was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston, Dr. 
Koussevitzky, conductor, on November 19, 1926; there was a second 
performance on January 3, 1930. 

The programme of the Zurich concert also comprised Hindemith's Con- 
certo for orchestra, Op. 38 (Fritz Busch, conductor) ; Casella's Partita for 
piano and orchestra (Walter Gieseking, pianist ; Casella, conductor) ; 
Levy's Fifth Symphony for violin (Willem de Boer), trumpet (Ernst 
Sodling), and . orchestra (Andrae, conductor); Webern's Five Pieces 
for orchestra, Op. 10 (Webern, conductor); Ferroud's "Foules" for 
orchestra (Walther Straram, conductor); Tansman's "Dance de la 
Sorciere" (Gregor Fitelberg, conductor). 

Mr. Walton has sent to us the following note, signed "C. L.": "The 
title 'Portsmouth Point' is taken from a print by the great English 
caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827), representing a quayside 
in the utmost confusion. The music, which is remarkable for its 
exuberant melodic outline and exhilarating rhythmic syncopation, is 
so lucid as to render analysis superfluous. The overture enjoys the 
distinction of being the only work chosen to represent England at the 
International Festival at Zurich in 1926." 



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Rowlandson's print was published by T. Tegg in 1814. The follow- 
ing quotation from "The Portsmouth Road: The Sailors' Highway," 
by Charles G. Harper, describes the print: 

"Here, where the stone stairs lead down into the water, is Portsmouth 
Point. Mark it well, for from this spot have embarked countless 
fine fellows to serve King and country afloat. What would we not 
give for a moment's glimpse of 'Point' (as Portsmouth folk call it, 
with a brevity born of everyday use) just a hundred years ago!" 
(This book was first published in 1895. We quote from the second 
and revised edition, published in 1923 by Edwin Valentine Mitchell 
of Hartford, Conn.) "Fortunately, the genius of Rowlandson has 
preserved for us something of the appearance of Portsmouth Point 
at that time, when war raged over nearly all the civilized world, when 
wooden ships rode the waves buoyantly, when battles were the rule 
and peace the exception. 

"The Point was in those days simply a collection of taverns* giving 
upon the harbor and the stairs, whence departed a continuous stream 
of officers and men of the navy. It was a place throbbing with life 
and excitement — the sailors going out and returning home; the leave- 
takings, the greetings, the boozing and the fighting are all shown in 
Rowlandson's drawing as on a stage, while the tall ships form an 
appropriate background, like the back-cloth of a theatrical scene. 
It is a scene full of humor. Sailors are leaning on their arms out of 
window; a gold-laced officer bids good-bye to his girl, while his trunks 

♦Rowlandson's print also shows second-hand clothing shops; a pawn shop with the sign "Moses 
Levy: Money lent," and cheap lodging houses. — P. II. 




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are being carried down the stairs; a drunken sailor and his equally 
drunken woman are belaboring one another with all the good will in 
the world, and a wooden-legged sailor man is scraping away for very 
life on a fiddle and dancing grotesquely to get a living." 

RowlandsOD also shows small craft pulling off to the ships; luggage, 
spirit -casks, packages wheeled or shouldered. A lady is in a sedan 
chair. A drunken girl is borne off on the shoulders of a sailor. 



* * 



The Programme Book of this Zurich Festival contained an article 
signed "AY. T. W.": "Mr. Walton ended his studies at Christ's College, 
Oxford, and received his first musical .instruction from Sir Hugh Percy 
Allen."* (He won a probationership at the age of ten in Christ Church 
Cathedral, Oxford; at sixteen became an undergraduate of Christ 
Church; passed first two examinations for Mus. Bac. at the ages of 
sixteen and seventeen; he also studied under Edward Joseph Dent.) 
"After his fifteenth year, he was his own teacher. His chief works 
besides the 'Portsmouth Point' overture are a string quartet (Salzburg, 
1923), a pianoforte quartet (Carnegie Prize). He has also composed a 
Toccata for violin and pianoforte, songs, and Tagade,' a divertissement 
on poems by Edith Sitwell, recited through a megaphone behind a 
curtain." 

We may add to this list: "Dr. Syntax: a pedagogic overture for full 
orchestra" (1921); Pianoforte quartet (1918); "The Passionate Shep- 
herd," for tenor and small orchestra (1920); songs, "The Winds" and 
"Tritons," composed in 1920-2; "Siesta."f 

The String quartet was played bv the McCullogh Quartet at Salzburg 
on August 4, 1923. 



•Allen, horn :it Reading, Deeember 23, 1SC>9, was first assistant organisl at Chichester Cathedral- 




of < hrford. 

t "Mr. W. T. Walton's 'Siesta' is an orchestra] lyric, perfectly scored and bearing 

the stamp of an authentic musical individuality. Its reception was something more 

than favourable, In itself a tribute to a composer whose own outlook is completely 

modern. Whatever the influences that have moulded his style." London Daily Tele- 
graph November 21, L929. The performance was at a concert of the New English 

.Music Society. 



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"Facade" was produced at the Chenil Galleries, London, on April 27, 
1926. The audience was warned that it might regard "Facade" as an 
entertainment and that it need not repress any impulse to laugh if it 
felt one. The megaphone was placed in "the mouth of a big face 
painted half in white, half in pink, on the curtain. The orchestra, 
behind this curtain, consisted of piccolo, flute, clarinet, bass clarinet, 
saxophone, trumpet, violoncello, and percussion." 

Ernest Newman wrote of "Facade": "How much I enjoyed the fun 
may be estimated from the fact that I — a critic — actually not only 
stayed to the end but added my voice and my umbrella to the clamor 
for encores of the best 'items' long after the official proceedings were 
finished. 

"Mr. Sitwell, in his prefatory remarks, half hinted, apologetically, 
that the speaker of the words might not be able to get them all 'over/ 
but that if we happened to miss any of them there was always the music 
to fall back upon. His scruples were unnecessary. It is true that 
against the jolly stridencies of Mr. Walton's scoring what we got from 
the megaphone was often sound rather than sense, but for my part I 
felt that one or two of the poems were rather improved than otherwise 
by our not being able to catch the words. We got the essential things 
all right, such as — 

Or the sound of the onycha 

When the phoca has the pica 

In the palace of the Queen Chinee! 

(from the 'Trio for Two Cats and a Trombone'). But really, the words 
mattered very little, in the majority of cases, as against the music. 

"The experience was another illustration of how necessary it is to 
find the right instrument for a tune, in poetry as in music. If I have 
missed, in my study, the inner meaning of some of Miss Sitwell's ingen- 
iously wrought verses, it was because in my innocence I read them as 
I would read ordinary poetry. Mr. Osbert Sitwell (if it were he at 
the back of the megaphone), showed me that they really demand a 
method of reading of their own. Get Kreisler to play one of Paul 
Whiteman's shirt-sleeves tunes on his violin, and the tune will sound 
nothing. Hear the free-and-easy thing on the trombone or the baritone 



' 



From Lillian Littl eh alls' recent volume, 
"PABLO CASALS" 

It i impo Bible to lay too much stress upon the significance or 
the stimulating effeci of Casals' ideas, their working out both in 
theory and in practice. The most active agents in giving expres- 

m to this revolutionary method of cello instruction are Diran 
Alexanian in Paris and Lief! Rosanoff in New York." 

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II 



saxophone, and you are bound to admit that it has its qualities and its 
virtues; with tunes, as with people, the clothes are almost as important 
as what is inside them. Now when I read this of Miss Sitwell's: — 

Long steel brass — 

The white soldiers pass — 

The light is braying like an ass. 

See 

The tall Spanish jade 

With hair black as nightshade 

Worn as a cockade! 

Flee 

Her eyes' gasconade 
And her gown's parade 
(As stiff as a brigade) . 
Tee-hee! 



or this — 



or this — 



Beside the castanetted sea 

Where stocks II Capitaneo 

Swaggart braggadocio 

Sword and moustachio — 

He 

Is green as a cassada 

And his hair is an Armada! 

When, 
Sir 



Beelzebub called for his syllabub in the hotel at Hell, 

the device of the broken line misses fire with me, because I am not used 
to that sort of thing in the poetry I was brought up on. But when 
the megaphone bellows the words at me with a sledge-hammer insistence 
on the 'See/ Tlee,' 'When/ and 'Sir,' I get the poet's idea, and, I must 
confess, enjoy it. 

"These, in fact, are saxophone tunes, not violin melodies, and must 
be played on the right instrument, with the right technique, and in 
the right spirit. The reciter brought out also all sorts of queer delightful 
rhythms and cross-rhythms and unexpected stabbing accents that 
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knows what's what where they are concerned, a vast delight. It is 
all very well for old-fashioned purists to say that poetry should not be 
read through a megaphone. The answer is that the Sitwells know what 
they are driving at better than we do, and that, beyond a doubt, Tues- 
day's reading of some of these poems gave us a delight in them that we 
had not previously felt. To hear Osbert and the megaphone pounding 
out — 

THE 

Trumpet and the drum, 

And the martial cornet come 

To make the people dumb — 

But WE 

Won't wait for sly-foot night 

with a rhythm and an accent like those of a military march, was to see 
the poem — for the first time with many of us — from the poet's point of 
view. 

"But the entertainment owed a great deal also to Mr. Walton's music 
All I knew of this young man's before Tuesday was a horrible quartet 
of his that was given at the Royal College three or four years ago. 
On the strength of this, I take leave to dislike intensely Mr. Walton's 
serious music — if, indeed, that quartet was serious and was music, 
both of which I doubt. But as a musical joker he is a jewel of the first 
water. Not all the 'Facade' music came off, it is true. Some of 
it was too imitative of the sort of thing we used to hear in the great days 
of about 1920, when M. Diaghileff was writing — or at all events signing 
— those wonderful letters to the papers in which a new scheme of musical 
values was foreshadowed, Beethoven and Brahms and Elgar being 
reduced to the status of mere straphangers by the Stravinskys and 
Saties and Prokofieffs and Milhauds of the new dawn. Here and 
there Mr. Walton could be seen diving into that sequestered and now 
stagnant pool and coming up with bits of Stravinsky sticking in his 
honest English hair; indeed, now and then the music was so like Stra- 
vinsky thai it might have been written by Eric Fogg. 

"Bui when the true-born Briton settled down to the true-born 
Briton'- historic role of guying things thai have a natural touch of 



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absurdity about them, he was, as the modern stylist would say, priceless. 
Here is obviously a humorous musical talent of the first order; nothing 
so good in the mock-serious line of music has been heard for a long time 
as the 'Valse/ the Tolka,' the 'Jodelling Song' and 'I do like to be beside 
the seaside'; and the deft workmanship, especially in the orchestration, 
made the heart of the listening musician' glad. 

"The curious thing was the happiness of the correspondence between 
all the factors of the affair, the music, the words, the megaphone, 
and the piquant phrasing of the lines by the reciter were as much born 
of each other's bone and flesh of each other's flesh as the words and 
the music are of each other in 'Tristan' or Telleas.' At its best, 'Fa- 
§ade' was the j oiliest entertainment of the season. . . . And Mr. Walton 
ought to seek out a librettist after his own heart and give us a little 
musical comedy in the jazz style." 



* * 



Walton's Sinfonia Concertante for orchestra with pianoforte (quasi 
obligato) was performed for the first time in Boston (if not in the United 
States) at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on March 2, 
1928. Bernard Zighera was the pianist. This Sinfonia Concertante 
in three movements, composed in 1927 was performed for the first time 
at a concert of the Royal Philharmonic Society in London on January 5, 
1928. York Bowen was the pianist; Ernest Ansermet, conducted. 



Symphony, E minor — C major, No. 2 

Arnold Edward Trevor Bax 

(Born at London, England, November 6, 1883; living in London) 

This symphony, dedicated to Serge Koussevitzky, was published in 
1929. The first performance anywhere was in Boston at a concert of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 13, 1929. There was 
a second performance in Boston led by Dr. Koussevitzky on January 
3, 1930. The score calls for these instruments: three flutes (the third 
interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, English horn, three clarinets, 




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in A and B-flat, bass clarinet in A and B-flat, two bassoons, double- 
bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tenor tuba, bass 
tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, side drum, tambourine, cymbals, xylo- 
phone, Glockenspiel, tam-tam, celesta, piano, two harps, organ, and the 
usual strings. 

Mr. Bax, in a letter dated London, November 22, regretting that 
engagements prevent him from hearing the first performance of his 
symphony, wrote: "L particularly want to hear this work, as I put a 
great deal of time (and emotion) into the writing of it." He says 
nothing about the contents of the work except that the end "should 
be very broad indeed, with a kind of oppressive catastrophic mood. 
... I am confident that this symphony will receive a finer first per- 
formance than any previous work of mine." In a later letter he stated 
that the symphony was composed in 1924-1925. "There is absolutely 
no communicable programme associated with the music, which is entirely, 
rely 'absolute' as a classical work." He called attention to the 
cyclic character of the form and to the persistence in all the three move- 
ments of a three-note figure. 

The symphony is in three movements: 

I. Molto moderato, 4-4. The introduction advances a rugged 
theme strongly rhythmed for wind instruments. Allegro moderato. 
There are many changes of tempo, as moderato semplice for a section 
introduced by flutes, molto largemante, "riotously," etc. 

II. Andante, B major, 3-4, 4-4. 

III. After a prelude poco largamente, 4-4, comes an Allegro feroce, 
( major, for full orchestra. The thematic material is worked until, 
after stormy measures for full orchestra with organ, there is a diminuendo 
to pianissimo. 

* * 
Bax was educated musically at the Royal Academy of Music, London, 
which he entered in 1900. He studied the pianoforte with Tobias 
Matt hay; composition with Frederick Corder (1900-1905). He was 
known ;t< one of the most brilliant students in the history of the Acad- 
emy. Hie early works are the pianoforte Trio (1906); "Fatherland," 







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for tenor solo, chorus, and orchestra (1907); the orchestral poem 
"Into the Twilight" (1908), which has been discarded, and a string 
quintet of which only an "Interlude" has been retained. The works 
that survive Bax's criticism are dated beginning with 1909. Leaving 
the Royal Academy in 1905, he went to Ireland, where he lived in the 
western region of that country. Later he went to Dublin, and was 
associated with the writers and the artists of the "Irish Renaissance." 
In 1910 Bax visited Russia for a short time. The pianoforte pieces 
"May Night in the Ukraine," "Gopak," and the remarkable "In a 
Vodka Shop" were the result. 



* 



Mr Edwin Evans of London contributed an article on Arnold Bax 
to Modern Music of November-December, 1927. He said in part: 

"If, as so many critics maintain, classification is of the devil, then 
Arnold Bax is to be congratulated upon his escape. Of all contem- 
porary British composers, he is the most difficult correctly to classify. 
He corresponds to none of the labels which pass as current coin today. 
He is neither an impressionist, nor an expressionist; neither a revolu- 
tionary, nor that still more subversive apparition, a neo-classicist. 
Atonality, polytonality, and linear counterpoint may all be met with 
in his later works and doubtless quarter-tones would be there also if he 
felt that he needed them, but none of these technical seasonings mean 
anything in his still comparatively young life beyond their use as season- 
ing the fare he has to offer us. Some say he is not a modernist — what- 
ever that may mean — but he certainly is no conservative, nor is he a 
traditionalist except in the praiseworthy sense in which every heir to 
the materia musica of his predecessors and in fact every artist is under 
obligation to the material in which he works. Those critics who must 
classify at all costs have discovered that there is only one label that fits 
him: romantic; and that fits him because, in one way or another, it fits 
every artist with the love of beauty in his soul. That the term should 
in our day have acquired frumpish associations is a mere verbal accident 
that reflects not upon romance but upon ourselves. As everyone knows, 
none can be so ascetic as the reformed libertine. Having wallowed 
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virtuous abstemiousness. It is as if the obese gentleman whose excesses 
have driven him to 'take the waters' prided himself upon his Spartan 
way of life. Moreover, it is rarely genuine. Catch even those German- 
Savonarolas unawares, and you will find them in ecstasy before a clump 
of Myosotis palustris, though they may indignantly protest that it is 
only its line and color that interests them. The Schoenberg of the 
'Wind Quartet' is also the Schoenberg of 'Verklaerte Nacht.' 

"But there is one quality which Bax possesses in abundance, and 
which in our world of atonality and jazz is so rare that its possession in 
itself is romantic. And it is this quality which has caused the label to 
stick. It is the musical equivalent of the lyrical impulse in poetry, the 
attribute which causes utterance to take spontaneously beautiful forms, 
irrespective of all else. In the true lyric poet the sentiment and the 
expression are so closely linked as to be practically identical. He does 
not express in the ordinary sense. He feels, and therefore he sings. 
And if he is of the elect, his song will have all its euphony without 
the intervention of the craftsman, whose task has as much to do with 
this initial beauty as the frame-maker's with the picture. Bax has, in 
a rare measure, this innate quality. His thoughts may be unequal, but 
even in the most debatable of them there lurks always this element of 
lyrical beauty, to the rich vein of which is due the fluency and abund- 
ance which has at times been ascribed to technical facility. While so 
many modern musicians are racking themselves with constructive 
energy, this one oozes music through his pores because there is so much 
of it within him that he can scarcely contain it." 



"Canticle of the Sun" (Canticum fratris solis), after St. Francis 
of Assisi : For Voice and Orchestra . Charles Martin Loeffler 

(Born at Mulhouse, Alsace, January 30, 1861; now living in Medfield, Mass.) 

This work was written for the occasion of the opening of the New 
Chamber Music Hall in the Library of Congress at Washington, pre- 
sented to the nation by Mrs. F. S. Coolidge. It was performed for 
the first time, anywhere, on October 28, 1925, at the "Library of 
Congress Festival of Chamber Music (Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge 
Foundation)." Mme. Povla Frijsh sang the soprano part. 

The text is the hymn of St. Francis of Assisi, called by some "Canticle 
of the Sun"; by some "Hymn to the Sun," and by others "The Song of 
Brother Sun" (Canticum fratris solis), the title chosen by Mr. LoefHer. 
Tin- hymn ifl a poetical rhapsody in the Umbrian dialect. The genuine* 
of the hymn has been attacked by some scholars, but the majority 
believe in its authenticity. Mr. Loefiler used for his music a modernized 
Italian version by Mr. (lino Pereraof Boston. Matthew Arnold trans- 
lated as follows the hymn in its original form: 

most high, almighty, good Lord God, to thee belong praise, glory, honor, and 

all blaring I 

l'raised be my Lord for our mother the earth, the which doth BUStain IIS and 
keep US| and bringeth forth divers fruits, and flowers of mam colors, and grass. 

Praised be my Lord for our sister water, who is very serviceable unto us, and 
humble, and precious, and clean* 

Praised be my Lord for our brother the wind, and for air and cloud, calms and 

all sreather, bj the arhicfa thou upholdest in Life all creatures. 

Praised oc m-. Lord for our brother fire, through whom thou givest us light in 
the darkness; and he if bright, and pleasant, and very mighty, and strong. 

is 



Praised be my Lord for our sister, the death of the body, from whom no man 
escapeth. Woe to him who dieth in mortal sin! Blessed are they who are found 
walking by the most holy will, for the second death shall have no power to do them 
harm. 

Praised be my Lord for all those who pardon one another for his love's sake, 
and who endure weakness and tribulation; blessed are they who peaceably shall 
endure, for thou, O most High, shalt give them a crown! 

Praised be my Lord for our sister the moon, and for the stars, the which he has 
set clear and lovely in heaven. 

Praised be my Lord God with all his creatures; and specially our brother the sun, 
who brings us the day, and who brings us the light; fair is he, and shining with a 
very great splendor: O Lord, he signifies to us thee! 

Praise ye, and bless ye the Lord, and give thanks unto Him, and serve him with 

great humility. 

* 
* * 

When Mrs. Coolidge asked Mr. Loeffler to compose something for 
the opening concert of her Washington Festival of Chamber Music, 
he thought of this hymn. She approved. He composed it in the first 
half of the year 1925, writing for voice and chamber orchestra — three 
flutes, English horn, two horns in F, piano, celesta, two harps, organ, 
and strings. When the hymn was performed in Philadelphia by the 
Philadelphia Orchestra on January 2, 1926 (Mme. Frijsh, soprano; Mr. 
Stokowski, conductor), Mr. Lawrence Gilman, the brilliant editor of 
that orchestra's programme books, wrote the following notes: 

"The composer uses definite liturgical motives. Thus we hear the 
Deo gratias in the flutes and English horn as the voice ascends to F-sharp 
on the word 'benedizione' ('To Thee belong praise, glory, honor, and all 
blessing!'). As the singer praises that 'Sister Death' whom Francis so 
joyfully nailed at the end ('Laudato sia, mio Signore, per sora nostra 
morte corporate, Dalla quale nessun uomo vivente puo scappare 1 ) — 'our 
sister, the death of the body, from whom no man escapeth' — the English 
horn remembers the Kyrie eleison, as it does again at 'nella tue santissime 
volantaj later in the same verse. And this verse is prefaced in the 
orchestra by an intoning of the Introit Resurrexi, for the basses, organ, 
and piano. Throughout the work the influence of the old liturgical 
modes is apparent in the melodic and harmonic structure of the music. 

* 



Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, teacher of the piano, desires to call to your 
attention his inauguration of Group Lessons in response to the growing demand for 
instruction of this type. 

Each group will consist of three students of practically equal ability. All will study 
the same material and each will receive an equal amount of individual attention. 
The period will be of one hour duration. 

Mr. Freckelton is assured that this innovation will be welcomed by those who de- 
sire expert and artistic instruction but feel unable to meet the riecesssarily high fees 
required for private instruction, and by those who appreciate the returns received 
from the competitive spirit developed by such lessons. 

Mr. Freckelton will gladly send to you full information in regard to these group 
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New York Brooklyn, N. Y. 



19 



"The hymn is introduced by an instrumental prelude, Andante 
con moto, 5-4, with a phrase for muted violoncello solo, muted horn, and 
organ, over a pedal G-sharp of the basses, piano, and organ, joined 
in the next measure by the violins; and there is a subject for the flute 
that has significance in the development. The voice enters in an 
Allegro moderato, against the flute theme of the introduction. 

''The two harps, in four-part harmony, join in liquid praise of 'our 
sister water.' Harp glissandi, with tremolos of wood and strings, 
hymn 'our brother the wind' (Allegro). There are glints from the 
celesta, piano, harps, and rapid woodwind figures for 'our brother fire'; 
but we hear only the quiet of a gravely poignant cantilena for solo 
viola and other strings, with the Kyrie eleison on the English horn 
(Andante mesto, quasi adagietto), as the singer praises Sister Death." 



Bolero ... Joseph Maurice Ravel 

(Born at Ciboure (Basses-Pyr6nces) France, on March 7, 1875; living at 

Montfort-l'Amaury and Paris) 

This Bolero, dedicated to Ida Rubinstein, was brought out by her 
and danced by her at Paris in November, 1928. Alexandre Benoist 
designed the settings and the .costume to represent a scene that Goya 
might have painted: a Spanish inn, with the dancer on a trestle table, 
men surrounding it. At first calm, the actors on the Parisian stage were 
little by little excited to frenzy as the dancer became more and more 
animated. Knives were drawn — the woman was tossed from arms to 
arms, until her partner intervened; they danced until quiet was restored. 
So was the scene described by French and English reporters. 

The first performance in the United States of this Bolero as a concert 
piece was by the Philharmonic Society of New York, Mr. Toscanini 
conductor, on November 14, 1929. The first performance in Boston 
was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Dr. Koussevitzky conductor, 
on December G, 1929. 

Tempo di ballo, moderato assai, 3-4. A drum gives the dance rhythm, 
which is maintained throughout; a flute announces the theme, which is 
taken up by wind instruments in turn; then by groups of instruments. 
There is a crescendo for about twenty minutes, until there is an explosive 
modulation — brass and percussion instruments swell the din until at 
last there is what has been described as a "tornado of sound." 

M. Prunierefl called attention to the fact that Ravel was not the first 
to repeal a simple, common theme until by the monotony of tune and 
rhythm the hearer was excited (as are Oriental hearers by the same 
method). Padilla, the composer of "Valencia," had worked this 
obsession by the repetition of a tune for at least twenty times. 

Ravel's Bolero calls for these instruments: piccolo, two flutes, two 
Oboes, oboe d'amour, English horn, two clarinets, one K-flat clarinet, 
two h;: double-bassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trom- 

DOn< tuba, thl rophoncs, kettledrums, side drums, cymbals, 

tam-tam, celesta, harp, and the- usual strings. 

* 
* * 

The Bolero is not a very ancient dance of Spain. It is said that 
Don Sebastian Terezo, an accomplished and celebrated dancer of his 

2d 



time, invented it about 1780. It is a modest, noble dance, much more 
decent than the fandango, but, like that dance, it is performed by two 
persons. By its beauty, the significance of its movements, and its 
compelling effect on eyes and ears, it is incomparable. While its 
rhythm is strongly marked, it has a lyrical character. In tempo and 
in its measures, it resembles the minuet — according to Albert Czer- 
winski, a dancing teacher at Danzig — but it impresses by rhythmic 
accentuation rather than by melodic variety. There are sections of 
the dance. First comes the paseo or promenade, like a prelude or an 
introduction. Then follow the traversia for the changing of places; 
the differentia for changing a second time ; the finale to regain the first 
places; the Men parado, steps and graceful attitudes performed by 
the dancing couple facing another couple that is not dancing. Is not 
Desrat mistaken in saying that the Bolero is in two-time? The music 
of all the Boleros we have seen is in 3-4 or 3-8, but Blasis also says that 
the Bolero is usually in duple time. The step is at first low and gliding, 
but always well marked. 

On the stage this dance is performed by several couples. One of the 
most graceful attitudes is the dar la vuelta, in which the dancers are 
face to face after a half-turn. The woman's part in the dance is 
much more expressive, more passionate than that of the man. 

The name "Bolero" or "Volero" is supposed by some to come from 
volar, to fly, "because a Manchega expert had danced the Seguidillas 
so, wonderfully and lightly that he seemed to fly." Is the Bolero the 
outcome of the Seguidillas? When the Bolero or Fandango is danced 
as a ballet by eight persons, it is usually called the Seguidillas. 

* * 

The Bolero is to be found in some operas, as in Auber's "La Muette 
di Portici" ("Masaniello"), Act I, Scene 3, Allegretto moderato, C major, 
3-4; MehuFs "Les deux Aveugles de Tolede"; Weber's stage music for 
"Preciosa." Perhaps the most famous Bolero in opera is that sung by 
the Duchess Helene in the fifth act of Verdi's "Vepres Siciliennes" 
(Allegro, A minor — A major, 3-4), sung first in Paris by Mme. Cruvelli; 
in Boston by Mme. Colson, when Verdi's opera was first performed 
here on January 2, 1860 — this Bolero has often been sung here in con- 



(Frank) (Ernesto) 

a Forge - Berui 



La Forge voice method used and endorsed by : Mmes. Alda, Hempel, 

Matzenauer, Miss Emma Otero, Messrs. Lawrence Tibbett, Harrington 

van Hoesen, etc. Also endorsed by Dr. W. J. Henderson. 



Ellsworth Bell, Secretary 

14 West 68th Street, New York, N. Y. Telephone: Trafalgar 8993 



21 



cert halls. There are Boleros for orchestra by Alexandra Josifovna, 
Grand Duchess of Russia; T. A. Kui, J. L. Nicode, Pachulski; songs by 
Gounod, Laconic d'Estalenx; piano pieces, of which Chopin's is the 
best known, although it has little true Spanish character, and might 
be called a Bolero a la Polonaise. Nevertheless Chopin received 500 
francs for it when it was published as a "Souvenir d'Andalousie." 



* 
* * 



The Bolero has been noticed by English poets. Byron, in a song 
intended for the first canto of "Childe Harold," but replaced (Verse 
I.XXXIV) by the lines "To Inez," wrote in praise of the lovery girl 
of Cadiz: 

And when beneath the evening star, 

She mingles in the gay Bolero, 
Or sings to her attuned guitar 

Of Christian knight or Moorish hero. 

Thomas Hood introduced the dance in his "Drinking Song," by a 
member of a Temperance Society, as sung bv Mr. Spring at Waterman's 
Hall: 

The vintage, they cry, think of Spain's and of France's, 

The jigs, he boleros, fandangos and jumps; 
But water's the spring of all civilized dances, 
We go to a ball not in bottles, but pumps! 

Then hey for a bucket, a bucket, a bucket, 

Then hey for a bucket, filled up to the brim! 
Or, best of all notions, let's have it by oceans, 
With plenty of room for a sink or a swim! 

William Beckford, for his delightful "Italy, with Sketches of Por- 
tugal and Spain," delightful for its malice and cynicism as well as for 
the graphic description of scenery, cities, men, women, and manners, 
did not hesitate to coin the verb "to bolero": "Thirteen or fourteen 
couples started and boleroed and fandangoed away upon a thick carpet 
for an hour or two, without intermission. There are scarcely any 
boarded floors in Madrid; so the custom of dancing upon rugs is univer- 
sally established"* (Vol. II, Letter XVI). 

He himself, at Seiior Pacheco's at Madrid, danced a bolero, snapping 
his fingers and stamping his feet, while twenty voices accompanied 
with "its appropriate words" in full chorus; but he admits that he 
committed solecisms in good dancing at every step. "I am more than 
apt to conjecture we were but very slightly entitled to any applause; 
vet the transports we called forth were as fervid as those the l':nnous 

Le Pique excited at Naples, in the zenith of his popularity." At last 
the Duchess of Ossuna, the patroness of the composer Boccherini, 
said to Beckford, in the plainest language: "You are making the greatest 
fool of yourself I ever beheld; and as to those riotous self-taught hoydens, 

your partner.-, I tell von what, they are scarcely worthy to figure in 

the third rank at a second-rate theatre." 

* 
* * 

When Ravel's Bolero was first performed, people surrounded the 

table on which Mile Elubin8teiD danced. Havelock Ellis, in "The 

Soul of Spain/' states that a characteristic of Spanish dancing, and 

•i'.. : 787, Mid 1796. They « 

89 



especially of the most typical type, called flamenco,* lies in its accom- 
paniments, and particularly in the fact that under proper condition? 
all the spectators are themselves performers. "In flamenco dancing, 
among an audience of the people, everyone takes a part, by rhythmic 
clapping and stamping, and by the occasional prolonged 'oles' and other 
cries by which the dancer is encouraged or applauded. Thus the dance 
is not a spectacle for the amusement of a languid and passive public, 
as with us. It is rather the visible embodiment of an emotion in which 
every spectator himself takes an active and helpful part; it is, as it were, 
a vision evoked by the spectators themselves and upborne on the 
continuous waves of rhythmical sound which they generate. Thus 
it is that, at the end of a dance, an absolute silence often falls, with no 
sound of applause: the relation of performer and public has ceased to 
exist. So personal is this dancing that it may be said that an intimate 
association with the spectators is required for its full manifestation. 
The finest Spanish Dancing is at once killed or degraded by the presence 
of an indifferent or unsympathetic public, and that is probably why it 
cannot be transplanted, but remains local." 

There is a vivid description of dancing in and out of Spanish theatres 
in Richard Ford's "Gatherings from Spain, "f He speaks of the con- 
tagious excitement which seizes the spectators, who, like Orientals, 
beat time with their hands in measured cadence, and at every pause 
applaud with cries and clappings. "Dancing among Spanish ladies of 
a high order was introduced with the Bourbons, but the lower classes 
adhered to the primitive steps and tunes of their Oriental forefathers. 
In the theater the sound of the castanet awakens the most listless. 
The sharp, spirit-stirring click is heard behind the scenes — the effect is 
instantaneous — it creates life under the ribs of death — it silences the 
tongues of countless women — on n'ecoute que le ballet The curtain 
draws up; the bounding pair dart forward from the opposite sides like 
two separated lovers, who, after long search, have found each other 

*The Flamenco shares with the Fandango the rank of principal dance of Andalusia. The word 
"naming" is tropically used in Spain as "gay," "lively," when applied to song or dance. The Flamenco 
in 3-8 time, and of a moderate movement (allegretto), is performed with accompaniment of guitars and 
castanets between rhymed verses. Spanish soldiers who had been quartered in the Netherlands 
during the Spanish occupation were called Flamencos. On their return there was feasting, there was 
gaiety. A lyric drama, "La Flamenca," libretto by Cain and Adenis, music by Lucien Lambert, 
was produced at the Galt6, Paris, October 30, 1903. The heroine is a concert-hall singer. The scene 
is Havana in 1807. The plot is based on the revolutionary history of the time. Mr. Jackson, an 
American who is helping the insurgents, is one of the chief characters in the tragedy. The composer 
told a Parisian reporter before the performance that no place was more picturesque than Havana 
during the struggle between "the ancient Spanish race, the young Cubans, and the rude Yankees, 
so unlike the two other nations"; that the opera would contain "Spanish songs of a proud and lively 
nature, Creole airs languorous with love, and rude and frank Yankee songs." The last-named were 
to be sung by an insurgent or "rough rider." The singer at the Cafe Flamenco was impersonated by 
Mme. Marie Thiery. The opera was performed eight times. 

Salillas says that the returned Flamenco often degenerated into a worthless braggart, at last 
to be coupled with and confounded, being looked on as "a rowdy, dissipated type," with the picaro 
and the gypsy. 

•{•"Gatherings from Spain" was published in 1846. — P. H. 



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23 



again, nor do they seem to think of the public, but only of each other; 
the glitter of the gossamer costume of the Majo and Maja seems invented 
for this Dance — the sparkle of the gold lace and silver filigree adds to 
the lightness of their motions; the transparent, form-designing saya 
of the lady heightens the charms of a faultless symmetry which it fain 
would conceal; no cruel stays fetter her serpentine flexibility. They 
pause — bend forward an instant — prove their supple limbs* and arms; 
the band strikes up, they turn fondly towards each other, and start into 
life. . . . The accompaniment of the castanet gives employment to 
their upraised arms. 'C'est,' say the French, l le pantomime d' amour.' 
The enamored youth persecutes the coy, coquettish maiden; who 
shall describe the advances — her timid retreat; his eager pursuit, like 
Apollo chasing Daphne? Now they gaze on each other; now all is life, 
love, and action; now there is a pause. They stop motionless at a 
moment, and grow into the earth. It carries all before it. There is a 
truth which overpowers the fastidious judgment. Away, then, with 
the studied grace of the French danseuse, beautiful but artificial, cold 
and selfish as is the flicker of her love, compared to the real impassioned 
abandon of the daughters of the South. There is nothing indecent in 
this dance; no one is tired or the worse for it; indeed, its only fault is its 
being too short, for, as Moliere says, l Un ballet ne saurait etre trop long, 
pourvu que la morale soit bonne, et la metaphysique bien entendue.' Not- 
withstanding this most profound remark, the Toledan clergy, out of 
mere jealousy, wished to put the Bolero down, on the pretense of 
immorality. The dancers were allowed in evidence to give a view to 
the court; when they began, the bench and bar showed symptoms of 
recklessness, and, at last, casting aside gowns and briefs, both joined, 
as if tarantula-bitten, in the irresistible capering. Verdict, for the 
defendant with costs." 

In 1882, Emmanuel Chabrier journeyed in Spain. The result was 
his superb orchestral rhapsody "Espafia." He wrote to his publisher 
Costellat letters descriptive of the dances he saw in the Andalusian 
bailes, where the " upper classes" were not to be seen. These letters 
about the authentic Spanish dances were published in the Music Review 
S. I. M. (January 15, February 15, 1909). Extracts from them are given 
in Georges Servieres' life of Chabrier: "Two guitarists, solemn, cigarette 
between the lips, continue to scratch no matter what, in three time. 
(Only the tango is in duple time.) The cries of the woman excite the 
dancer, who becomes literally mad of her body" (these dancers were 
- in Seville). Chabrier spoke of the spectators clapping their 
hands in 3-4 a COfUretemp8 t while the guitar followed peacefully its own 
rhythm. "Afl Others beat time forte with each measure, each one 
beating a little at will, there was a most curious amalgamation of 
rhythms." 

Then there are Theophile Gautier'e descriptions of Spanish dancers; 

and in the five volumes of his theatrical criticisms, eloquent studies 
of Spanish danoera and Others dancing Spanish dances in Paris opera 
DOUSefl and theatres. Ilavelock Kllis's chapter is the more analytical 
study. Me refer- to i he "Kscenas And:iluzas" (1847) of Kstebanez 

Calderon, and for "the deeper significance of Spanish dancing" to the 

■holotfical analysis ^iven by Salillas in "Hanipa" (1896). 
• 'i ightd n' 'ii>- kiMrioMi f'>r ii-rtiiin prudish raphMnias. — P. H. 



M 



Special 3KCatinee 'Performance 




Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

BENNO RABINOFF 

Violinist 

For the benefit of 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR RELIEF OF RUSSIAN EXILES, Inc. 
in Collaboration with High Commission for Refugees, League 
of Nations and International Anti-Tuberculosis Union. 

FRIDAY AFTERNOON 

January, 10, 1930, at 2.30 
AT GARNEGIE HALL 

PROGRAMME 

MOUSSORGSKY ----- Prelude to "Khovantchina" 

STRAVINSKY - - - Orchestral Suite from the Ballet, "Petrouchka" 

PROKOFIEFF ----- Concerto for Violin and Orchestra 

Benno Rabinoff, Soloist 

RIMSKY-KORSAKOV ------ Suite from "Sadko" 

TCHAIKOVSKY ------- Overture "181 2" 



MASON & HAMLIN PIANOFORTE 



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SECOND MATINEE 
SATURDAY AFTERNOON. JANUARY 1 

AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 



J. S. Bach . . . Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major 

for String Orchestra 
I. Allegro moderate 
IT. Allegro. 



Beethoven .... Symphony No. 4 in B-flat Major, Op. 60 

I. Adagio; Allegro vivace. 

II. Adagio. 

III. Allegro vivace; Trio: Un poco meno allegro. 

IV. Finale: Allegro ma non troppo. 



Pick-Mangiagalli Prelude and Fugue 

Strauss . . . Interlude from "Intermezzo": A Domestic Comedy 

with Symphonic Interludes, Op. 72 

Ravel . . .,. . . . . . . . . Bolero 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony. 



The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 



27 



CON'CERTO, G MAJOR, No. 3 (OF THE BRANDENBURG Set) FOR THREE 

Violins, three Violas, three Violoncellos, with Bass by 
the Cembalo Johann Sebastian Bach 

(Born at Eisenach on March 21, 1685; died at Leipsic on July 28, 1750) 

This composition is the third of the six Brandenburg Concertos. 
Completed on March 24, 1721, they were written in answer to the 
wish of a Prussian prince, Christian Ludwig, Margraf of Brandenburg, 
the youngest son of the Great Elector by a second wife. This prince 
was provost of the Cathedral at Halberstadt. He was a bachelor, 
living now at Berlin and now on his estate at Malchow. Fond of 
music, and not in an idle way, he was extravagant in his tastes and 
mode of life, and often went beyond his income of nearly fifty thousand 
thalers. In May, 1718, Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen, at whose 
court Bach was Capellmeister, journeyed to Carlsbad to drink the 
waters. He took with him Bach and a quintet from his orchestra; 
also his clavicembalo with three "servants to care for it"; he was also 
thus attended when he visited Carlsbad in 1720. The Margraf may 
have been at Carlsbad, and as he was very fond of music and had his 
own orchestra, he undoubtedly attended Leopold's musical parties. 
At any rate, he gave Bach a commission. It was on March 24, 1721, 
that Bach — possibly some one at the Court — wrote a dedication in 
French : 

11 A son altesse royale, Monseigneur Cretien Louis, Margraf de Branden- 

bourg, etc., etc., etc. 
Monseigneur, 

Two years ago, when I had the honor of playing before your Royal 
Highness, I experienced your condescending interest in the insignificant 
musical talents with which heaven has gifted me, and understood 
your Royal Highness's gracious willingness to accept some pieces of 
my composition. In accordance with that condescending command, 
I take the liberty to present my most humble duty to your Royal 
Highness in these Concerti for various instruments, begging your 
Highness not to judge them by the standards of your own refined and 



MARTIN BECK THEATRE, Sun. eve., Jan. 12 

at 8.30 

BEATRICE HARRISON 

FAMOUS ENGLISH 'CELLIST and 
THE CHAMBER ORCHESTRA OF BOSTON 

(Mrmbcn of tlr- Boston Symphony Orrheitrn) 

Tickets 75c. to $2.50 on sale at Box Office or office of management 

BECKHARD & MACFARLANE, Inc. ggg Sgjfjgj 

Mi»» Harrison is under the management of A. H. HANDLEY ( Boston, Mass. 






ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 
MECCA AUDITORIUM 133 West 55th Street 

Sunday Afternoon, January 12th, at 4 P. M. 
CHERUBINrS "REQUIEM" and old instrumental 

SOT OTSTS J REGINA PATORNI-CASADESUS (harpsichord) 
SULUISIS: I HENRI CASADESUS {dole i amour) 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS f\Q pLJC QTR A 
METROPOLITAN OPERA UlX^niLO 1 l\J\ 

SUNDAY, JANUARY 19, at 4 P. M. 
SOLOIST: 

HAROLD BAUER, Pianist 
FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS METROPOLITAN OPERA 

PROGRAMME 
FINGALSH6HLE OVERTURE .... Mendelssohn 

CONCERTO IN D MINOR Brahms 

Mr. BAUER 

MORGENHYMNE/ 

FEUERREITER \ * * „ * ' ' ' f 

' CHORUS 

Tickets now on sale daily at Mecca Box Office, at Ampico Box Office, 584 Fifth Ave., 
and 10 East 43rd St., Room 503; Vanderbilt 0659-J 

RICHARD COPLEY, Concert Manager (Steinway Piano) 

Richard Copley Management 

10 East 43rd Street, New York 
Garnegie Hall, SUNDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 12th, at 3.00 

JOSEF HOFMANN Piano Recital (Steinway Piano) 

Garnegie Hall, MONDAY EVENING, JANUARY 13th, at 8.30 

FRANK SHERIDAN PianO Recital (Mason & Hamlin Piano) 



Garnegie Hall, FRIDAY EVENING, JANUARY 17th, at 8.30 
NINA KOSHETZ, Soprano and NICHOLAS MEDTNER, Composer Pianist 

Program of Mr. Medtner's Composition (Steinway Piano) 



Town Hall, SATURDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 18th, at 2.30 

HAROLD SAMUEL 

PIANO RECITAL— Bach Programme (Steinway Piano) 



Garnegie Hall, SATURDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 18th, at 2.30 

ELEANOR SPENGER 

PIANO RECITAL (Steinway Piano) 

Tickets for all concerts now on sale at respective box offices 



2D 



delicate taste, but to seek in them rather the expression of my profound 
respect and obedience. In conclusion, Monseigneur, I most respect- 
fully beg your Royal Highness to continue your gracious favor toward 
me, and to be assured that there is nothing I so much desire as to 
employ myself more worthily in your service. 

With the utmost fervor, Monseigneur, I subscribe myself, 
Your Royal Highness's most humble and most obedient servant, 

Jean Sebastien Bach. 
Coethen, 24 March, 1721."* 

These concertos — ''Concerts avec Plusieurs Instruments" — were 
intended as a gift for the Margraf s birthday in March. Nothing is 
known about the reception in Berlin, nor is it positively known whether 
they were ever played at the palace of the Margraf. "The condition 
of the autograph suggests that, like the parts of the Kyrie and Gloria 
of the B minor Mass at Dresden, it was never performed by the recipi- 
ent." It was the Margraf s habit to catalogue his library. The name 
of Bach was not found in the list, although the names of Vivaldi, Vent- 
urini, Valentiri, Brescianello, and other writers of concertos were 
recorded. After the death of the Margraf in 1734, Bach's score was 
put for sale with other manuscripts in a "job lot." Spitta thinks that 
Bach's concertos were probably among "77 concertos by different 
masters and for various instruments at 4 ggr (altogether 12 thlr, 20 
ggr)" or "100 concertos by different masters for various instruments — 
No. 3, 3 16th." The Brandenburg concertos came into the possession 
of J. P. Kirnberger. They were later owned by the Princess Amalie, 
sister of Frederick the Great and a pupil of Kirnberger. Their next 
and final home was the Royal Library, Berlin, No. 78 in the Amalien- 
bibliothek. They were edited by S. W. Dehn, and published by Peters, 
Leipsic, in 1850. 

Bach retained a copy of the score and performed the music at Cothen 
by Prince Leopold's orchestra, reinforced by visiting players, before the 
concertos were offered elsewhere. "The first concerto is scored for two 
horns, an instrument just coming into vogue, of which Bach made no 
other use at Cothen. His Capelle contained no horn player, and an entry 
in the accounts, under the date, 6 June, 1722, 'An die beyden Wald- 
hornisten, so sich alhier horen lassen, 15 Thaler,' indicates with con- 

Translation into English by Charles Banford Terry ("Bach: A Biography" — London, 1028). 




Portraits in COLOUR 

Words are really Inadequate to describe the 
newetti exclusive creation In - Bachrach — 
Portraiti In ( Colour. They must be seen to be appreciated. 

You are Invited t<> Inspect them ;it any <>< our studios. 



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TOWN HALL • • • NEW YORK 
Saturday Evening, January 18 

JESUS MARIA 

SANROMA 

Pianist 




Italian Concerto Bach 

Kreisleriana Schumann 

Ballade Chopin 

Mazurka Chopin 

Scherzo Chopin 

Six Little Piano Pieces Schbnberg 

Om aggi , Malipiero 

March Prokofieff 

Prelude Prokofieff 

Polichinelle Villa-Lobos 

Marche Joyeuse Halffter 

Danza Fantastica, No. 1 Turina 

El Puerto (from "Iberia") Albeniz 

Danse Rituelle du Feu de Falla 

STEINWAY PIANO 



31 



siderable certainty a performance of the Concerto and not improbably 
the first one" (C/S. Terry). 

* * 

The first movement, in a somewhat different form, was used by 
Bach for the opening section — entitled a Sinfonia or Concerto — of his 
Whitsuntide cantata: 'Teh liebe den Hochsten von ganzem Gemuthe," 
scored for two oboes, two horns, taille (oboe da caccia), three violins, 
three violas, three violoncellos, and continuo.* 

I. G major, 2-2. The strings, divided into three groups, begin 
with a lively theme. The movement consists of developments in many 
forms of portions of this theme; for example, the motive of the first 
measure is used with a new figure in opposition; measures 4, 5, 6 are 
contrapuntally treated. A half-cadence on D introduces the working- 
out of motives from the third measure of the theme, while the initial 
motive of the first measure appears in violoncellos (and double basses), 
until the chief theme leads to a cadence, G major. A new episode is 
based on the second part of the second measure. When G major 
again comes, a new theme is opposed to the chief theme. The voices 
alternate in double counterpoint. At last the movement ends with the 
chief theme. "One passage," says Spitta, "is as fine as anything in 
the whole realm of German instrumental music. The chief subject 
is given out in the second violin part; the first violin then starts an 
entirely new subject, which next appears in the second violin, drawing 
in more and more instruments, and is at last taken up by the third 
violin and third viola and given out weightily on their G strings; this 
is the signal for a flood of sound to be set free from all sides, in the 
swirl of which all polyphony is drowned for several measures." Spitta 
refers here to a place near the middle of the movement. 

In the original score there is a transitional measure, adagio, 4-4, "two 
big chords, forming what is known as a Phrygian cadence, and landing 
us for a moment in B major. Their purpose," thinks Fuller-Maitland, 
"clearly is to avoid the monotony of beginning the new movement in 
the same key as the old. We cannot but feel that these two chords 
are a poor substitute for the slow movement which, in the ordinary 
course of things, would have given the same relief; but even Bach may 
have felt the great difficulty of inventing a movement which would 
be a contrast to these two expressions of happiness without causing a 
feeling of incongruity." 

To supply this want, some conductors have introduced as a second 
movement Bachrich's arrangement of an Andante from one of Bach's 
Sonatas for violin solo. This was done when the concerto was played 

at concerts of the Philharmonic Society of New York, February 13, 
l l. L9034 

II. Allegro. G major, 12-8. The theme started by the violins in 

succession and close imitation, then developed elaborately, is followed 

by Other figures, which contend in alternation with the chief theme to 
t he end. 

* * 

m ii little itartling i<< find thai * f • « • merry opening movement li used iin.'iin In 

troh '-fnii Ifei the Incongruity would only I"- f «*1 1 l»\ lHoho who, In the reign 

rd Victoria, made a hard and fasl line between sacred end seouler musio " i a. Puller-Mai tlftnd. 

t \ • rt oi the f'i,i, ihony Orchestra, the interpolated Idagio was the slow move* 

rto f.,r violin iii I. tnnj-.r, whioh he hiniMolf nrnuin' , 'l •'' - :> |m:hi>> << . n.-< r 1 < >, cIimiiki n« 

a the violin concerto is in C sharp minor; in the piano 
n li minor At thi i was] las ''' '" ( ' minor. 



The first performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston 
was on March 9, 1907, Dr. Muck conductor. The second was on 
October 22, 1910, Mr. Fiedler conductor, John P. Marshall, harpsi- 
chord. The third was on May 2, 1914, Dr. Muck conductor, Mr. 
DeVoto pianist; Dr. Koussevitzky conducted the fourth (May 1, 1925), 
the fifth (January 28, 1927) and sixth (December 6, 1929) performances. 

At a concert of the New York Philharmonic Society in Boston — its 
first concert in Boston — Gustav Mahler, the conductor, put on the 
programme his arrangement of movements from Suites Nos. 2 and 3, 
and played a "piano-harpsichord." 



Symphony in B-flat major, No. 4, Op. 60, Ludwig van Beethoven 
(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 
The composition of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, in C minor, was 
not begun before the performance of the "Eroica," No. 3, and the 
first public performance of the "Eroica" was at Vienna on April 7, 
1805.* Nottebohm found in a sketch-book of Beethoven, dated 1795, 
notes for a symphony in C minor, and one sketch bears a resemblance 
to the opening measures of the Scherzo as it is now known to us ; but 
the composition, properly speaking, did not begin until the "Eroica" 
had been performed. This composition was interrupted by work on 
the Symphony in B-flat major, No. 4, a symphony of a very different 

♦The "Eroica" was performed for the first time at a private concert at Prince 
Lobkowitz's in December, 1804. 



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33 



character. The symphony was probably planned and composed in 
the summer of 1S06. In September, 1806, Beethoven, writing to 
Breitkopf and Hitrtel spoke of a "new" symphony he wished to 
publish. 

After the performance of the "Eroica," Beethoven also worked on 
his opera, "Fidelio." The French army entered Vienna, November 
13, 1805 ; on the 15th, Napoleon sent to the Viennese a proclamation 
dated at Schonbrunn, and on November 20, 1805, "Fidelio" was per- 
formed for the first time, before an audience largely composed of 
French officers. There were three performances, and the opera was 
withdrawn until March 29, 1806, when it was reduced from three 
acts to two. The opera was again coldly received; there were two 
performances ; and there was no revival in Vienna until 1814. 

Beethoven, disturbed by this disaster, went in 1806 to Hungary 
to visit his friend, Count Brunsvik, and he visited the Prince Lich- 
nowsky at Castle Gratz, which was near Troppau in Silesia. It has 
been said that at Martonv&sar, visiting the Brunsviks, he found that 
he loved Therese and that his love was returned.* Some, therefore, 
account for the postponement of the Fifth Symphony, begun before 
the Fourth, "by the fact that in May, 1806, Beethoven became en- 
gaged to the Countess Therese. . . . The B-flat symphony has been 
mentioned as 'the most tenderly classical' of all works of its kind ; 
its keynote is 'happiness' — a contentment which could have come to 
the master only through such an incident as the one above set forth 
— his betrothal." We do not see the force of this reasoning.! 

It is better to say with Thayer that nothing is known about the 
origin of the Fourth beyond the inscription put by the composer on 
the manuscript which belongs to the Mendelssohn family: "Sinfonia 
4 ta 1806. L. v. Bthvn." 

This we do know : that, while Beethoven was visiting Prince Lich- 
nowsky at the hitter's Castle Gratz, the two called on Franz Count 
Oppersdorf, who had a castle near Grossglogau. This count, born 
in 177s, rich and high-born, was fond of music; he had at this 
castle a well-drilled orchestra, which then played Beethoven's Sym- 
phony in 1) major in the presence of the composer. In June, 1807, 
lie commissioned Beethoven to compose a symphony, paid him two 
hundred florins in advance and one hundred and fifty florins more in 
1S0S. Beethoven accepted the oiler, and purposed to give the Sym- 
phony in C minor to the count ; hut lie changed his mind, and in No- 
vember, L808, the count received, not the symphony, but a letter of 
apology, in which Beethoven said that he had been obliged to sell the 

Symphony Which lie had composed for him. and also another, —these 
were probably 'lie Fifth and (he Sixth, hut that the count would 

receive soon the one intended for him. The Fifth and sixth were 

1»V 



84 



dedicated respectively to Prince Lobkowitz and Count Rasumowsky. 
Oppersdorf at last received the Fourth Symphony, dedicated to him, 
a symphony that was begun before he gave the commission; he re- 
ceived it after it had been performed. He was naturally offended, 
especially as the Fourth Symphony at first met with little favor. He 
did not give Beethoven another commission, nor did he meet him 
again, although Beethoven visited again at the Castle Gratz in 1811. 
The count died January 21, 1818. 

The Fourth Symphony was performed for the first time at one of 
two concerts given in Vienna about the 15th of March, 1807, at 
Prince Lobkowitz's. The concert was for the benefit of the com- 
poser. The Journal des Luxus und der Moden published this review 
early in April of that year : — 

"Beethoven gave in the dwelling-house of Prince L. two concerts in 
which only his own compositions were performed : the first four sym- 
phonies, an overture to the tragedy 'Coriolanus,' a pianoforte con- 
certo, and some arias from 'Fidelio.' Wealth of ideas, bold origi- 
nality, and fulness of strength, the peculiar characteristics of 
Beethoven's Muse, were here plainly in evidence. Yet many took 
exception to the neglect of noble simplicity, to the excessive amas- 
sing thoughts, which on account of their number are not always 
sufficiently blended and elaborated, and therefore often produce the 
effect of uncut diamonds. " 

Was this "Prince L." Lobkowitz or Lichnowsky? Thayer decided 
in favor of the former. 

The first performance in Boston was probably the one at a concert 
of the Musical Fund Society on December 8, 1849. 






The separate orchestral parts of the Fourth Symphony were pub- 
lished in March, 1809,* by the Bureau of Arts and of Industry at 
Vienna and Budapest. The complete score in octavo, one hundred 
and ninety-five pages, was published in 1821 with this title: "4e 

*Thayer says 1808, but see the Intelligenz-Blatt of the Allgemeine Musikalische 
Zeitung, April, 1809, Col. 35. 



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35 



Grande Siiiiphonie en si benwl majcur (B dnr) composee et dedid£e 
a Mons le Comte d'Oppersdorf* par Louis van Beethoven, Op. 60. 
Partition. Prix 16 Fr. Bonn et Cologne chez N. Simrock, 2078." 

An arrangement for pianoforte by Fr. Stein was published early 
in 1S09. 

The symphony is scored for flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings. 

Xo one has written more acutely, and with more poetic apprecia- 
lioii of the symphonies of Beethoven than Hector Berlioz: — 

"Here Beethoven abandons wholly the ode and the elegy," — a ref- 
erence to the "Eroica" Symphony, — "to return to the less lofty and 
sombre but perhaps no less difficult style of the Second Symphony. 
The character of this score is generally lively, nimble, joyous, or of 
a heavenly sweetness. If we accept the meditative adagio, which 
serves as an introduction, the first movement is almost entirely given 
up to joyfulness. The motive in detached notes, with which the al- 
legro begins, is only a canvas, on which the composer spreads other 
and more substantial melodies, which thus render the apparently 
chief idea of the beginning an accessory. This artifice, although it 
is fertile in curious and interesting results, has already been em- 
ployed by Mozart and Haydn with equal success. But we find in 
the second section of this same allegro an idea that is truly new, the 
first measures of which captivate the attention ; this idea, after lead- 
ing the hearer's mind through mysterious developments, astonishes 
it by its unexpected ending. . . . This astonishing crescendo is one 
of the most skilfully contrived things we know of in music: you will 
hardly find its equal except in that which ends the famous scherzo 
of the Symphony in C minor. And this latter, in spite of its im- 
mense effectiveness, is conceived on a less vast scale, for it sets out 
from piano to arrive at the final explosion without departing from 
the principal key, while the one whose march we have just described 
starts from mezzo-forte, is lost for a moment in a pianissimo beneath 
which are harmonies with vague and undecided coloring, then re- 
appears with chords of a more determined tonality, and bursts out 
only at the moment when the cloud that veiled this modulation is 
completely dissipated. You might compare it to a river whose 
calm waters suddenly disappear and only leave the subterranean 
bed to plunge with a roar in a foaming waterfall. 

"As for the adagio it escapes analysis. It is so pure in form, the 
melodic expression is so angelic and of such irresist ible tenderness, 
that the prodigious art of the workmanship disappears Completely. 
You are seized, from the first measure, by an emotion which at the 
end becomes overwind mi Dg in its intensity; and it is only in the 
works of one of these giants of poetry that we can find a point of 

comparison with this Bublime page of the giant of music. Nothing, 

indeed, more resembles the Impression produced by this adagio than 

•i',,;nit I'r.Mh/. von Opperedorf related t<> many Austrian noble famliee Lobkowtta, 
Lichi thronga blood, marriage, or Friendship, ums ■ lover of manic Re main* 

rained an orchestra in bin caatle, and insisted that nil the offldali in his employ 
nhouM be able to play n ii orchestral Instrument. Hie caatle erae near the town <>f 
Ober-Glogan, hardly a oay'i tourney fr<>m the ensile of Llchnowsky at Oriitz. I'rlnce 

, y and I'..<tlmv.ii visited tin- Cunt In the fall of 1806. 'Die COUnt'l 

orchentra then pi Bymphonj No. 2. For a lona account of Beethoven'i 

relatione with the Connt, lee Thajer-Krehhlel'H "Life of Beethoven." Volume II, 
2 128 



CARNEGIE HALL 



SEASON 1929-1930 



Friday Evening, February 7, 1930, at 8.30 

Saturday Afternoon, February 8, 1930, at 2.30 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SOLOIST AT BOTH CONCERTS 
SERGE PROKOFIEFF 

Composer and Pianist 



37 



that which we experience when we read the touching episode of 
Francesca da Kimini in the 'Divina Commedia,' the recital of which 
Virgil cannot hear 'without weeping in sobs,' and which, at the last 
verse, makes Dante 'fall, as falls a dead body.' This movement 
seems to have been sighed by the archangel Michael, one day, when, 
overcome by melancholy, he contemplated the worlds from the 
threshold of the empyrean. 

"The scherzo consists almost wholly of phrases in binary rhythm 
forced to enter into combinations of 3-4 time. . . . The melody of 
the trio, given to wind instruments, is of a delicious freshness; the 
pace is a little slower than that of the rest of the scherzo, and its 
simplicity stands out in still greater elegance from the opposition of 
the little phrases which the violins throw across the wind instru- 
ments, like so many teasing but charming allurements. 

"The finale, gay and lively, returns to ordinary rhythmic forms; 
it consists of a jingling of sparkling notes, interrupted, however, by 
some hoarse and savage chords, in which are shown the angry out- 
bursts which we have already had occasion to notice in the com- 
poser." 

Ferdinand Ries, writing from London in June, 1817, to Beethoven, 
refers to the "beautiful symphony in A-sharp" as played on the 8th 
"with extraordinary applause." 

The first performance in Paris was by the Conservatory Orchestra, 
February 21, 1830. In Spain, the symphony was played with the 
other eight at Madrid in 1878 ; at Rome, on March 30, 1878 ; at Len- 
ingrad, Damcke heard a performance on March 13, 1853. 



Prelude and Fugue Riccardo Pick-Mangiagalli 

(Born at Strakonitz, Bohemia, on July 10, 1882, of a Czech father and an 

Italian mother; living at Milan) 

Riccardo Pick-Mangiagalli was a pupil of the Milan Conservatory, 
where he took lessons in composition under Vincenzo Ferroni ami 
piano lessons of Vincenzo Appiani. He received his diploma in 
L903. He gave concerts in Germany and Austria. German pub- 
lishers were the firsl to pay attention to him, but the greater part 
of his music is published by Bicordi. 

The first performance of the Prelude and Fugue in Boston was by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra on October LI, L929. 

The list Of his works includes : 

Ballots: "La Berceuse"; k 'ii Salice d'Oro" (La Scala, Milan, 
L913 — it w;is performed for fourteen successive nights); "II Caril 
inn liagico" i La Scala, Milan, fall or L918; also performed at Rome, 
Florence, Palermo, Varese, Bergamo); "Sumitra" (1!)17); "Basi e 
Bote/' ;i lyric comedy in Venetian dialect, text by A.rrigo Boito 
(Argentina Theatre, Borne, March .">, i!>i!7 Mariano Stabile, Arlec 
rhino; Sassone Sost, Colombina ; Alessio de L'aolis, Plorinda: 
Autori at Pantaleone). 

Symphonic Works: "Notturno e Rondo, Fantastico," for orches 
i ra : Symphonic Poem, "Sortilegi" | L918) ror pianoforte and orches 

38 



tra; Ballata Sinfonica, for full orchestra; Two Preludes, for 
orchestra 

Chamber Music: String Quartet in G minor, Op. 18; a violin 
sonata, E minor, Op. 8 ; piano pieces ; songs. 

The Notturno and Kondo Fantastico were performed at Symphony 
Hall, Boston, on January 7, 1921, by La Scala Orchestra, conducted 
by Arturo Toscanini. 



Interlude prom "Intermezzo : Burgerliche Komodie mit Simfon- 

ISCHEN ZWISCHENSPIELEN" (DOMESTIC COMEDY WITH SYMPHONIC 

Interludes) . . . Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich on June 11, 1864; now living at Vienna) 

"Intermezzo' 7 was produced at the Dresden Opera House on No- 
vember 4, 1924. Strauss first entrusted the writing of the libretto 
to Hofmannsthal, later to Hermann Bahr, the dramatist, known in 
the United States by his plav, "The Concert"; but neither pleased 
him. Then he wrote the libretto himself, with help from Max 
Reinhardt. 

The first performance of this "Interlude- in Boston was by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 18, 1929. 

• • 

Dr. Rudolf Felber of Vienna wrote the preliminary history of this 
opera and told the story of the action: 

"At the time when Richard Strauss was court conductor in Berlin, 
a letter came to his house one day during his absence, in which a 
'bar-lady' asked him for the two tickets he had promised her for the 
next performance at the opera. Fran Strauss, a lady of very 
choleric temperament, reacted promptly upon this, by entering on a 
suit for divorce, of which the unfaithful husband was at once notified 
by telegraph. By the same means Strauss — who at most pursues 
unlicensed paths only on music paper — avowed his innocence with- 
out, however, being believed by his wife. When at last, convinced 
of the seriousness of the situation, he hastened home full of anxiety, 
the matrimonial sky had already cleared, as one of his colleagues, 
the legitimate addressee of the letter, had explained the misunder- 
standing and delivered up his guilty-innocent self to the anger of 
Frau Strauss. 

"When the curtain rises we see Court Conductor Robert Storch 
occupied with the final preparatons for a journey, while as a parting 
gift his wife hurls some sweet remarks at him, such as that he is not 
her equal in family; that he is only a plebeian, and that — the very 
acme of contempt — he is only a music-maker. Finally, after strict 
injunctions for the journey, he is graciously dismissed with his 
bottle of milk and his medicine chest. Upon easing her mind to her 
maid by accusing her husband of diverse failings, she ends by saying 

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L S. B. Jefferds, Advertising Manager, Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 

39 



that his predilection for a nomadic life seems to indicate that he has 
Jewish blood in his veins. Then she dons her outdoor wraps and 
goes to seek calm for her disturbed nerves at the skating rink. There 
she becomes acquainted with the young Baron Lummer, who after- 
ward, at a visit to her in the course of by no means unexciting 
events, tries to persuade her to lend him 1,000 marks — prewar 
marks, be it noted. Already disturbed at this, it is high time for the 
bar-lady's letter to arrive at the house. Hereupon boundless indig- 
nation, entrance upon the suit for divorce, and then a touching finale 
scene, the sorrowing wife weeping at the bedside of the eight-year- 
old son. 

"The second act opens with a card party at which Frau Storch's 
virtues and vices are discussed. Conductor Storch, entering, dilates 
on her virtues only, and at this moment he receives as reward the 
letter notifying him of her suit for divorce. Storch disappears and 
is later seen wandering disconsolately about in a park, where he 
meets Conductor Stroll, who explains the mistake and promises to 
make matters clear to Frau Storch. Finally Storch returns to his 
wife, who, however, is not read}' to make peace at once, but allows 
him to remain for a while in anxiety as to the outcome. At this he 
flies into such a rage that she is impressed (see analogous scene be- 
tween the dyer Barak and his wife in 'The Woman Without a 
Shadow')* and vows to be kindness itself to him ever afterward." 

At Dresden, Correck took the part of Storch; Lotto Lehmann, bor- 
rowed from the Vienna State Opera, that of the wife. Fritz Busch 
conducted. 



• 



"In 'Intermezzo,' Strauss has so subordinated his orchestra thai 
there is no hindrance to the dialogue, which runs on in the natural 
style of everyday life, and is not only heard but understood. 

"The lyric element, the spiritual presentation of the action, lies 
chiefly with the orchestra between acts; the singer is given oppor- 
tunity for fuller expression in the two closing scenes in the lirst and 
second acts. Strauss is particularly insistent as to the driving 
power of the consonant to pierce through a polyphonic and indiscreet 
orchestra. The director begged in the study of 'Intermezzo' thai 
special attention be paid to the transition from the spoken, half- 
Bpoken, and sim^ words, that the changes between the spoken, prose. 

the secco-recitativo, the recitativo accompagnato, and the be] canto 

he minutely observed. In the distribution of the parts, Strauss al- 
lowed do pretensions from the prima donna or the baritone, in 
'Intermezzo' there are no opera heroes, hut real men; elocution is 
niial to the presentation of a modern conversation piece." Veto 
) ork Times, November 23, 1924. 



I k>LBRO JOKEl'l i Mai rice \\ w i.i 

(Born :it Ci bou re < Bai*H*»H L'yr(^noi»H) France, on March 7. 187ft; Living ;ii 

M<iii| fori 1 . \ 1 1 1 ; i ni\ ;i ml I'.i lis i 



l'<>r miles see page 20. 



I 1 I I r.ni OhllC Srli.'i I 1 in" \\;i- | p I < m| iln <l ;i I \ iinn.i in 1010. 

40 



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FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 






1,1 



f 



;I7 IE) 



FRIDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 7, at 8.30 
AND THE 

H I R D M A ' I ■' I N E E 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 8, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



• President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
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EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
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BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN. Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 



Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 



Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Fourel, G. 
Cauhap6, J. 



Violas. 

Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 
Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Barth, C. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 
Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 

Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 

Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 

Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 



Bassoons. 
Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 

3 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 
Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 
Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 




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Forty-fourth Season in New York 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 
FRIDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 7 

AT 8.30 



PROGRAMME 



Mozart .... Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (K. No. 525) 

I. Allegro. 

II. Romanza: Andante. 

III. Menuetto: Allegretto. 
IV. Rondo: Allegro. 

Prokofieff ....... Scythian Suite, Op. 20 

I. The adoration of Veles and Ala. 

II. The Enemy God and the Dance of the Black Spirits. 

HI. Night. 

IV. The Glorious Departure of Lolly and the Procession of the Sun. 



Prokofieff . . Second Piano Concerto in G minor, Op. 16 

I. Andantino: Allegretto. 

II. Scherzo. 

III. Intermezzo. 

IV. Finale. 

DeFalla . . . Three Dances from "El Sombrero de Tres 

. Picos," Ballet 

a. The Neighbors. 

b. Dance of the Miller. 

c. Final Dance. 



SOLOIST 

SERGE PROKOFIEFF 

STEINWAY PIANO USED 
There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Prokofieff 's Scythian Suite 



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"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" : Serenade for String Orchestra 
(K. 525) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791) 

This music was composed at Vienna, August 10, 1787. There are 
four movements : — 

I. Allegro, G- major, 4-4. The energetic chief theme is exposed 
at once. It is followed by an episode of a gentler character. Two 
motives of importance are introduced later. The developments and 
coda are short. 

II. The Romanze, Andante, C major, 2-2, is in rondo form with 
four themes. 

III. Minuet, Allegretto, G major, 3-4. Trio, D major, "sotto 
voce." 

IV. Rondo, Allegro, 2-2. In spite of the title "Rondo," this 
Finale is not so strictly in rondo form as the foregoing Romanze. 

"Serenade" and "aubade" are terms that have been loosely used. 
If one speaks by the card, an aubade is a concert of voice and instru- 
ments, or voices alone and instruments alone, given under the win- 
dow of someone toward daybreak, quod sub alban; yet the aubade is 
often called serenade, even when the concert is in the morning : wit- 
ness the morning "serenade" in Rossini's "Barber of Seville." Dur- 
ing the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries serenades were ex- 
ceedingly popular in Germany. They were composed of vocal music 
or instrumental; sometimes voices and instruments were united. 
The vocal serenades were usually male trios, quartets, or quintets. 



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There were serenades also of wind instruments, with music of the 
chase, or simple fanfares. There were "torchlight serenades." 
Rousseau, who defines a serenade as a concert given at night, gen- 
erally with instruments, insists that the delightful effect was due 
largely to the darkness, and also to the silence, "which banishes all 
distraction." Georges Kastner comments on this statement, and 
adds that the celebrated viola player, the mystic Urban, would never 
play to his friends unless the blinds of his little room were hermetic- 
ally closed. Kastner mentions ancient collections of serenades and 
nocturnes that might be called scholastic, written by Praetorius, 
Werckmeister, and others, and he classes these works with 
quodWbets. 

In the eighteenth century* nearly every prince or rich nobleman 
had his own orchestra, which on summer evenings played in a park. 
In cities, as Vienna, there was much music in the streets, music of 
a complimentary or amorous nature. The music composed for these 
open-air and evening concerts was also performed in halls. 

Short movements for one instrument or several were known in 
Germany as Parthien, and they were seldom published. Then there 

♦Even in the sixteenth century, princes and dukes plumed themselves upon their 
household musicians. The Duchess of Ferrara had her own orchestra, composed 
of women. What was the composition of this orchestra? Were wind instruments in- 
cluded? Lord Julian, at the Court of Urbino, would have a woman use only in- 
struments of music that were suitable to her : "Iinagin with your selfe what an un- 
sightly matter it were to see a woman play upon a tabour or drumm, or blowe in a 
flute or trompet, or anye like instrumente : and this bicause the boisterousnesse of 
rhem doeth both cover and take away that sweete mildenes which setteth so forth 
everie deede that a woman doeth." — Sir Thomas Hoby's translation of Castiglione's 
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was the cassazione, or cassation, from the Latin cassatio. This 
species of music should have been a piece that brought the end of the 
concert, an overcoat-and-galoshes piece ; but the term was applied to 
any piece suitable for performance in the open air at night. The 
serenade, which in form is much like the cassation, was performed 
during parties, dinners, wedding feasts, in the parlors or the gardens 
of princes or rich merchants. Haydn and Mozart wrote much music 
of this nature, but did not always distinguish between the cassation 
and the serenade, according to Michel Brenet, who says that the 
serenade always opened with a march, and that the movements were 
separated by Minuettos. The number of movements was from one 
to ten, and the instruments were from four to six. When the pieces 
were played in the open air, the parts were not doubled. A cassa- 
tion of four instruments was played by only four musicians. 

The Serenade, Notturno, Cassation, and Divertimento differed 
from the older Suite in that all the movements were not in the same 
key, and the older dance forms — gavotte, sarabande, passacaglia, 
courante, bourree, gigue, etc. — seldom appeared in them. "It is 
highly probable that compositions of this description were not in- 
tended to be played continuously, or with only such short waits be- 
tween the separate movements as are customary in symphonies or 
concertos ; upon the whole they were not strictly concert music, but 
intended to be given at festive gatherings. It is most likely that the 
several movements were intended to be played separately, with long 
intervals for conversation, feasting or other amusements between. 
Only in this way can the extreme length of some Serenades be ac- 
counted for. We find no instance of concert compositions of such 
length in other forms in Mozart's and Haydn's day." 

Johann Mattheson believed that a serenade should be played on 
the water : "Nowhere does it sound better in still weather ; and one 
can there use all manner of instruments in their strength, which in 
a room would sound too violent aud deafening, as trumpets, drums, 
horns, etc. . . . The chief characteristic of the serenade must be 
tenderness, la tendresse. . . . No melody is so small, no piece so great 




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that in it a certain chief characteristic should not prevail and dis- 
tinguish it from others ; otherwise it is nothing. And when one em- 
ploys a serenade out of its element — I mean effect — in congratula- 
tions, pageants, advancement of pupils in schools, etc., he goes 
against the peculiar nature of the thing. Things of government and 
military service are foreign to it; for the night is attached to noth- 
ing with such intimate friendship as it is to love" ("Kern melo- 
discher Wissenschaft," Hamburg, 1737, p. 101). 

The first symphonies of Sammartini (1705-75?) were written for 
open-air performance, and Mozart wrote his father in 1782 that one 
Martin had obtained permission to give twelve concerts in the Au- 
garten at Vienna and four "grand concerts of night-music" in the 
finest squares of the town. Volkmann planned his three serenades 
for concert-hall use. Brahms applied the term "serenade" to his 
Op. 11 and Op. 16, which were published in 1860, but Hans Volkman 
in his biography of Kobert Volkmann (Leipsic, 1903) says that the 
latter did not know these works of Brahms when he composed his 
own serenades. Those of Brahms are more in the symphonic man- 
ner; while the purpose of Volkmann was perhaps to write music 
that would satisfy the dictum of the talker reported by Athenaeus: 
"Music softens moroseness of temper; first dissipates sadness, and 
produces affability and a sort of gentlemen-like joy." Yet Volk- 
mann's third Serenade begins in doleful dumps. 

Scythian Suite, "Ala and Lolli," Op. 20 

Serge Sergievich Prokofieff 

(Born at Sontsovka, Russia, April 24, 1891; now living) 

This Suite was composed in 1914. The first performance was at 
the Imperial Maryinski Theatre, Petrograd (now Leningrad) on 
January 29, 1916. The composer conducted. 

The first performance in the United States was by the Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra at Chicago on December 6, 1918. The first 



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performance in Boston was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Dr. 
Koussevitzky conductor, on October 24, 1924; there was a second 
performance on March 2, 1928. 

The Suite is scored for piccolo, three flutes, three oboes, English 
horn, three clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, double-bassoon, 
eight horns, four trumpets, four trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, 
bass drum, side drum, tambourine, cymbals, triangle, celesta, xylo- 
phone, bells, two harps, pianoforte, and strings. 

The four movements have this programme : 

I. Invocation to Veles and Ala. Allegro feroce, 4-4 time. The 
music describes an invocation to the sun, worshipped by the Scyth- 
ians as their highest deity, named Veles. This invocation is fol- 
lowed by the sacrifice to the beloved idol, Ala, the daughter of Veles. 

II. The Evil-God and dance of the pagan monsters. Allegro sos- 
tenuto, 4-4 time. The Evil-God summons the seven pagan monsters 
from their subterranean realms and, surrounded by them, dances a 
delirious dance. 

III. Mght. Andantino, 4-4 time. The Evil-God comes to Ala in 
the darkness. Great harm befalls her. The moon rays fall upon 
Ala, and the moon-maidens descend to bring her consolation. 

IV. Lolli's pursuit of the Evil-God and the sunrise. Tempestuoso, 
4-4 time. Lolli, a Scythian hero, went forth to save Ala. He fights 
the Evil-God. In the uneven battle with the latter, Lolli would have 
perished, but the sun-god rises with the passing of night and smites 
the evil deity. With the description of the sunrise the Suite comes 
to an end. 



Scythia is a name that has been applied to different countries 
at different times. The Scythia described by Herodotus comprised 
the southeastern parts of Europe between the Carpathian Mountains 
and the River Tana'is (now Don). Herodotus gives a graphic and 
singularly interesting account of these wild, barbaric nomads in the 
fourth book of his history. We are interested here only with what 
he has to say about their religion : 



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"They propitiate the following gods only: Vesta, most of all; 
then Jupiter, deeming the Earth to be the wife of Jupiter; after 
these, Apollo, and Venus Urania, and Hercules and Mars. All the 
Scythians acknowledge these, but those who are called Royal 
Scythians sacrifice also to Neptune. Vesta in the Scythian language 
is named Tahiti; Jupiter is, in my opinion, very rightly called 
Papaeus; the Earth, Apia; Apollo, Oetosyrus; Venus Urania, 
Artimposa ; and Neptune, Thamimasadas. They are not accustomed 
to erect images, altars, and temples, except to Mars; to him they 
are accustomed." Then follows a minute description of the manner 
in which they sacrificed cattle and enemies taken prisoners, the latter 
to Mars. "Swine they never use, nor suffer them to be reared in 
their country." 

These compositions by Prokofieff have been performed by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston : 

1922. March 3, Song Without Words (Nina Koshetz, singer; Mr. 
Monteux, conductor). 

1924. October 24, Scythian Suite (Dr. Koussevitzky, conductor). 

1925. April 24, Violin Concerto (Richard Burgin, violinist). 
(First performance in the United States.) 

1926. January 29, Third piano concerto (Mr. Prokofieff, pianist). 
April 23, "Sept, ils sont sept," Incantation for tenor (Charles Strat- 
ton), chorus (rehearsed by Malcolm Lang), and orchestra. Two 
performances in the concert. October 8, Suite from the ballet 
"Chout." November 12, Suite from the opera "The Love for Three 
Oranges." 

1927. January 28, Classical Symphony. March 4, "Sept, ils sont 
sept," (Mr. Stratton, tenor; Cecilia chorus). April 1, Classical 
Symphony. October 21, Suite from the ballet, "Le Pas d'Acier." 

1928. March 2, Scythian Suite. October 2G, Classical Symphony. 
December 14, Violin Concerto (Lea Luboschutz, violinist). 



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Concerto No. 2, G minor, for Pianoforte and Orchestra 

Serge Sergievich Prokofieff 

(Born at Sontsovka, Russia, April 24, 1891 ; now living) 

This concerto, composed in the spring of 1913, was played in 
August of that year by Mr. Prokofieff at one of the famous concerts 
at Pavlovsk near Leningrad. There were several performances after 
that, with the composer pianist at the symphony concerts at Len- 
ingrad ; there was also one in 1915 at an Augusteo concert in Rome, 
directed by Mr. Molinari. 

The manuscript score was left in Leningrad when Prokofieff came 
to the United States in 1918, and was lost with the orchestral parts 
with other manuscripts when his apartment was confiscated by the 
decree of the Soviet Government. Sketches of the piano part were 
saved. They were taken away by the composer's mother in 1921. 
From these sketches, Mr. Prokofieff in 1923 remade the concerto as 
it now stands. 

The new version differs greatly from the original. While the com- 
poser endeavored to leave intact the thematic material and the form 
of the original version, he at the same time wished to avail himself 
of the technical resources acquired by him during the ten years that 
stood between the two versions. 

This information and the notes that follow are taken from the 
programme book of the Koussevitzky concert in Paris when the con- 
certo was performed for the first time in that city on May 8, 1924. 

I. Andantino — Allegretto — Andantino. The movement begins 
with the announcement of the first theme, to which is opposed a 
second episode of a faster pace in A minor. The piano enters solo 
in a technically complicated cadenza, with a repetition of the first 
episode in the first part. 

II. Scherzo. This Scherzo is in the nature of a moto perpetuo 
in sixteenth notes by the two hands in the interval of an octave, 
while the orchestral accompaniment furnishes a background. 




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III. Intermezzo. This movement, moderato, is conceived in a 
strictly classical form. 

IV. Fiuale. After measures in quick movement, the first subject 
is given to the piano. The second is of a calmer, more cantabile 
nature — piano solo at first — followed by several canons for piano 
and orchestra. Later the two themes are joined, the piano playing 
one, the orchestra the other. There is a short coda based chiefly 
upon the first subject. 



Three Dances taken from the Ballet "The Three-cornered Hat' 1 
("El Sombrero de Tres Picos") .... Manuel de Falla 

(Born at Cadiz. November 23, 1877; now living at Grenada) 

I. The Neighbors. II. The Miller's Dance. III. Final Dance. 

The score calls for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, English horn, two 
clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba, kettledrums, side drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, 
xylophone, tam-tam castanets, celesta, harp, piano, and the usual 
strings. 

"When the Russian Ballet visited Spain, Serge de Diaghilev was 
so much interested in the work of de Falla that he commissioned 
him to write a ballet on the subject of Alarcon's novel, 'El Sombrero 
de Tres Picos.' "* 

•Don Antonio Pedro de Alarc6n (1833-91) based this famous story, which was 
first entitled "El Corregidor y la Molinera" ("The Corregidor and the Miller's Wife") 
on an old Spanish tale which he heard in his youth. In the summer of 1874 he was 
asked to write a story for a Cuban weekly: but a friend persuaded him to publish it 
in the Revista Europea, -Madrid. It appeared in book form a month later, and met with 
great success. It has been translated into at least seven languages. Librettos 
for these operas have been derived from it : "Der Corregidor," by Hugo Wolf (Mann- 
heim, June 7, 189G) ; "Margitta," by Erik Meyer-IIelmund (Magdeburg, 18S9) ; "Der 
Richter von Grenada, " by Richard von Perger (Cologne, 1SS!)) ; "Die Lachtaune," by 
J. .-en Taund (Vienna, 1895). 









Esperanza Garrigue 












■4JF ' 


Arc or oiiiV''in i • 

Recommended by 

Adelina Patti, Enrico Caruso, 

W. J. Henderson 

"You hare my permission to quote me any- 
where at any time as saying that I know 
thatyou understand Voice placing, and I'll 
hack my belief '. as heretofore, by sending you 

pupils" II. / HENDERSON 








Sl udio: 

Metropolitan Opera House 




1 


\ 


1425 BROADWAY, N.Y. 






i. ('' in.- . I v.itu« 2M4 



This ballet "The Three-cornered Hat" was performed for the first 
time on any stage by the Russian Ballet at the Alhambra, London, 
on July 23, 1919. The scenario was arranged by Martinez Sierra; 
the stage settings and costumes were designed by Pablo Picasso. 
The Miller, Leonide Massine; the Corregidor, Leon Woisikovsky; 
the Miller's Wife, Thamar Karsavina; the Corregidor' s Wife, Miss 
Grantzeva; the Dandy, Stanislas Idzikovsky; the Singer, Zoia 
Rosovsky. Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

Joaquin Turina says (The Chesterian, May, 1920) that the first 
version of "The Three-cornered Hat" was produced at the Eslava 
Theatre, Madrid, under the title of U E1 Corregidor y la Molinera." 
Turina was then conducting this theatre's orchestra. The "pan- 
tomime" of de Falla was accompanied by only seventeen players. 
"The composer was confronted with one great difficulty, and that 
was to follow musically the action of the play without spoiling the 
unity of his score. The music therefore continually reflected a cer- 
tain anxiety on the composer's part, as if he were trying to disen- 
tangle himself, so to speak, from the external network. The trans- 
formation of the 'pantomime' into a ballet at once cleared away all 
these difficulties. This is quite natural, for in the new version the 
action became reduced to a strictly indispensable minimum, and the 
dances became predominant, those already existing being consider- 
ably amplified." 

Turina finds the Miller's Dance the most interesting, "because of 
its typically Andalusian character, its fascinating rhythm which is 
like an affirmation of southern art, and its Moorish character." In 
the Final Dance the jota and the folk theme called vito are in- 
troduced. 

The Daily Telegraph (July 24, 1919) said of the ballet:— 

"Over the whole brisk action is the spirit of frivolous comedy of a kind by 
no means common only to Spain of the eighteenth century. A young miller 
and his wife are the protagonists, and if their existence be idyllic in theory, 
it is extraordinarily strenuous in practice — chorographically. But that is 
only another way of saying that M. Massine and Madame Karsavina, who 



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17 



enact the couple, are hardly ever off the stage, and that both of them work 
with an energy and exuberance that almost leave one breathless at moments. 
The miller and his wife between them, however, would scarcely suffice even 
for a slender ballet plot. So we have as well an amorous Corregidor (or 
Governor), who orders the miller's arrest so that the way may be cleared 
for a pleasant little flirtation — if nothing more serious — with the captivating 
wife. Behold the latter fooling him with a seductive dance, and then evading 
her admirer with such agility that, in his pursuit of her, he tumbles over a 
bridge into the mill-stream. But, as this is comedy, and not melodrama, the 
would-be lover experiences nothing worse than a wetting, and the laugh, which 
is turned against him, is renewed when, having taken off some of his clothes 
to dry them, and gone to rest on the miller's bed, his presence is discovered 
by the miller himself, who, in revenge, goes off in the intruder's garments 
after scratching a message on the wall to the effect that 'Your wife is no less 
beautiful than mine !' Thereafter a 'gallimaufry of gambols' and — curtain !" 



De Falla has been represented at concerts of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra in Boston as follows : 

1921. December 30, Three Dances from "The Three-Cornered 
Hat." Mr. Monteux, conductor. 

1924. March 28, "Nights in the Gardens of Spain" (Heinrich 
Gebhard, pianist). Mr. Monteux, conductor. October 17, 1924, "El 
Amor Brujo" (piano, Mr. Sanrom&). Dr. Koussevitzky, conductor. 

1926. March 5, "Three Dances" from the "Three-Cornered Hat." 
Dr. Koussevitzky, conductor. December 31, Concerto for harp- 
sichord (Wanda Landowska), flute, oboe, clarinet, violin, violoncello. 
Dr. Koussevitzky, conductor. 

L927. October 14, "El Amor Brujo." 

1929. January 18, Three Dances from "The Three-Cornered Hat." 



De Falla studied harmony with Alejandro Odero and Enrique 
Broca. Going to Madrid, he took pianoforte lessons of Jos6 Trigo 
and studied composition with Felipe Pedrell. Before De Falla was 
fourteen, the .Madrid Academy of Music awarded him the first prize 



( .'• ..:-]•■.) (. : : .:; j) 

La Forge - Berumen Studios 

VOICE PIANO 



La Forge voice method used and endorsed by: Mines. Alda, 
Alatzenaner, Mlaa EOmma Otero, Messrs. Lawrence Tibbett, Barrlngton 

vim Boeflen, etc Also endorsed by Dr. W. .7. Henderson. 



EllfWOrth Bell, Secretary 

14 West 68th Street, New York, N. Y. Telephone: Trafalgar 8993 



18 



for pianoforte-playing. Between 1890 and 1904 he was busy as a 
virtuoso and a composer. About 1900 he wrote light music for the 
theatre. Having received in 1905, for his opera "La Vida breve," 
the award offered by the Spanish Academy of Fine Arts, he was 
enabled to live and compose a little more comfortably. In 1907, 
going to Paris, he was befriended by Debussy and Dukas. At that 
time his only published works were Quatres Pieces Espagnoles: 
Aragonesa, Cubana, Montanesa, and Andaluza for the pianoforte; 
and three songs : Les Colombes, Chinoiserie, and Seguidille* (words 
by Gautier. He made his debut in Paris as a pianist in 1910. The 
next year he played in London. In 1905 his opera "La Vida breve v 
won a prize in Madrid. The opera "La Vida breve" was produced 
at Mce on April 1, 1913. An American Lillian Grenville,f took the 
part of Salud.j: This opera was given at Madrid on November 14, 
1914. De Falla returned to Spain when the World War broke out. 
His second work for the stage, an opera, "El Amor Brujo," was 
suppressed the spoken and sung parts, enlarged the orchestration, 
and made of it a symphonic suite, 'semi-Abrabian' in style. Pastera 
Imperio, too, has used this music for her dances." 

"Noches en los Jardines de Espana: En el Generalife, Danse 
Lejana, and En los Jardines de la Sierra de Cordoba," a suite of 

•Sung here by Mme. Eva Gauthier, March 21, 1920. — P.H. 

f "Lillian Grenville" (Katherine Goertner), was born in New York on December 23, 
1884, educated at a convent in Montreal, and went to Paris in 1901, where she studied 
singing. She made her first appearance in opera at Nice as Juliet on February 15, 
1906, having sung at the San Carlo, Naples, the Monnaie, Brussels, Lisbon, Genoa, 
Milan, and elsewhere. She was a member of the Chicago Opera Company (1910-11), 
taking the parts of Mimi, Tosca, Marguerite. She "created" leading parts in "Laura," 
"Fortunio," "Marcella," "Quo Vadis," "L'Auberge Rouge," and Herbert's "Natoma." 
Her birthday is also given as November 20, 1888. 

jrhis opera in two acts and four scenes was heard at a public rehearsal at the 
Op6ra-Comique, Paris, on December 30, 1913, also on January 6, 1914, and in March, 
1928. Paul Milliet translated Carlos Fernandez Shaw's libretto. The opera was warmly 
praised by the critics. S'alud, Mme. Carre" ; La Grandm&re, Mile. Brohly ; Carmela, 
Mile. Syril ; Paco, Francell ; L'Oncle Sarvaor, Vieuille. Ruhlmann conducted. One 
of the critics said that De Falla had been in Spain a pupil of Albeniz. The opera at 
this theatre was performed publicly for the first, time on January 6, 1914. There 
were eight performances that season. The opera was produced at the Metropolitan, 
New York, on March 6, 1926. 



Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, teacher of the piano, desires to call to your 
attention his inauguration of Group Lessons in response to the growing demand for 
instruction of this type. 

Each group will consist of three students of practically equal ability. All will study 
the same material and each will receive an equal amount of individual attention. 
The period will be of one hour duration. 

Mr. Freckelton is assured that this innovation will be welcomed by those who de- 
sire expert and artistic instruction but feel unable to meet the necesssarily high fees 
required for private instruction, and by those who appreciate the returns received 
from the competitive spirit developed by such lessons. 

Mr. Freckelton will gladly send to you full information in regard to these group 
lessons. He will of course continue his work with individual students. 

STEINWAY HALL Residence 

113 WEST 57th STREET 214 ARLINGTON AVENUE 

New York Brooklyn. N. Y. 



19 



Night Pieces, was first performed in 1916 at Madrid. "The thematic 
material is built, as in 'La Vida breve' or in 'El Amor Brujo' on 
rhythms, modes, cadences, or forms inspired by but never borrowed 
from Andalusian folk-song."* 

De Falla and his pupil, Rosa Garcia Ascott, played in Paris, on 
June 3, 1920, his transcription of "Night in Spanish Gardens" for 
two pianofortes. On May 29, 1920, in Paris, Mme. Madeleine Gresle" 
sang in Spanish "Seven Spanish Folk-Songs" arranged by De Falla, 
who accompanied her. De Falla's puppet play, "El Retablo de 
Maese Pedro" was performed (privately) at Paris on June 25, 1923; 
in New York by the League of Composers on December 29, 1925, at 
Town Hall, with puppets designed by Remo Bufano. His Concerto 
for harpsichord (or piano), flute, oboe, clarinet, violin, and violon- 
cello, was performed for the first time at the De Falla Festival held 
at Barcelona on November 5, 1926. Wanda Landowska played the 
harpsichord. 

He wrote for the guitar "Homenaje" "(Homage") for the "Tom- 
beau de Claude Debussy." This piece, which is also transcribed for 
the piano, was published in 1921. 

The second book of his songs includes "El Pane- moruno," "Segui- 
dilla murciana," "Asturiana," "Joto," "Nana," "Cancion," "Polo." 
De Falla lives on the Alhambra Mount in Grenada. Joaquin 
Turina described him in 1920 : "Manuel de Falla, with his almost 
ascetic features, his large forehead, and bright eyes like two glowing 
embers, might almost be taken for an anchorite. His gentle bearing 
and invariably courteous manner do not conceal the inflexibility 
of his ideas, the strength of his principles, and a certain tenacity of 
purpose." 

An elaborate study of De Falla and his composition by Edgar 
Istel was published in the Musical Quarterly (New York) of Oc- 
tober, 1926. 

•Fragments from "El Amor Brujo" ("Love, the Wizard"), "Danza del fin del dia" 
for Dianoforte, and a song for low voice, "Cancion del amor dolido," have been pub- 
lished. An orchestral suite from the ballet was announced in London for performance 
on November 23, 1921. 




Portraits in COLOUR 

Words arc really inadequate to describe the 
newest, exclusive creation by Bachrach — 

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You are invited to Inspect them at any o( our studios. 

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Photographs of Distinction Washington Dttioll Cleveland Philadelphia 






SYMPHONY HALL, Boston March 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 



Brahms Festival 

By the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY 

Conductor 

Assisted by the 

HARVARD and RADCLIFFE CHORUSES 

Dr. ARCHIBALD T. DAVISON and G. WALLACE WOODWORTH, 

Conductors 

ARTUR SCHNABEL JEANNETTE VREELAND 

Piano Soprano 

MARGARET MATZENAUER FRAZER GANGE 

Mezzo-Soprano Baritone 

BURGIN STRING QUARTET 



The Festival Programmes will include: 

Orchestral Music — The four Symphonies, the two 
Pianoforte Concertos, the Academic Festival 
Overture, and the Variations on a Theme 
by Haydn. 

Choral Music — "A German Requiem," "A Song 
of Destiny," "Liebeslieder" Waltzes, the 
Rhapsody for Alto with Male Chorus. 

Chamber Music — Violin Sonata, Music for Piano- 
forte solo, and the Piano Quintet in F minor, 
and Songs (by Mme. Matzenauer). 

Tickets for the four extra concerts (March 23-26) are now available 

by means of the Automatic Subscription Board in 

Symphony Hall, or by Mail Order 

(The Concerts of March 21 and 22 are part of the regular 
Friday and Saturday series, which are already subscribed.) 



21 







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22 



THIRD MATINEE 
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, FEBRUARY 8 

AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 



Walton Overture, "Portsmouth Point" 

Bax ...... Symphony No. 2 in E minor and C 

I. Allegro moderato. 
II. Andante. 
III. Allegro feroce. 



ProkofierT . . . Second Piano Concerto in G minor, Op. 16 

I. Andantino: Allegretto. 

II. Scherzo. 

III. Intermezzo. 

IV. Finale. 

DeFalla .... Three Dances from "El Sombrero de 

Tres Picos," Ballet 

a. The Neighbors. 

b. Dance of the Miller. 

c. Final Dance. 



SOLOIST 

SERGE PROKOFIEFF 



STEINWAY PIANO USED 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 



The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

23 



Overture, "Portsmouth Point" . . . William Turner Walton 

(Born at Oldham, Lancashire, England, on March 29, 1902; now living in London) 

This overture was performed for the first time at the third concert 
of the International Society for New Music on June 22, 1926, in the 
larger room of the Tonhall, Zurich, Switzerland. Yolkmar Andrae of 
Zurich conducted the overture. The first performance in the United 
States was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston, Dr. 
Koussevitzky, conductor, on November 19, 1926; there wa^ a second 
performance on January 3, 1930. 

The programme of the Zurich concert also comprised Hindemith's Con- 
certo for orchestra, Op. 38 (Fritz Busch, conductor) ; Casella's Partita for 
piano and orchestra (Walter Gieseking, pianist; Casella, conductor); 
Levy's Fifth Symphony for violin (Willem de Boer), trumpet (Ernst 
Sodling), and orchestra (Andrae, conductor); Webern's Five Pieces 
for orchestra, Op. 10 (Webern, conductor) ; Ferroud's "Foules" for 
orchestra (Walther Straram, conductor); Tansman's "Dance de la 
Sorciere" (Gregor Fitelberg, conductor). 

Mr. Walton has sent to us the following note, signed "C. L.": "The 
title 'Portsmouth Point' is taken from a print by the great English 
caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827), representing a quayside 
in the utmost confusion. The music, which is remarkable for its 
exuberant melodic outline and exhilarating rhythmic syncopation, is 
so lucid as to render analysis superfluous. The overture enjoys the 
distinction of being the only work chosen to represent England at the 
International Festival at Zurich in 1926." 

Rowlandson's print was published by T. Tegg in 1814. The follow- 
ing quotation from "The Portsmouth Road: The Sailors' Highway," 
by Charles G. Harper, describes the print: 

"Here, where the stone stairs lead down into the water, is Portsmouth 
Point. Mark it well, for from this spot have embarked countless 
fine fellows to serve King and country afloat. What would we not 
give for a moment's glimpse of 'Point' (as Portsmouth folk call it, 
with a brevity born of everyday use) just a hundred years ago!" 
(This book was first published in 1895. We quote from the second 
and revised edition, published in 1923 by Edwin Valentine Mitchell 
of Hartford, Conn.) "Fortunately, the genius of Rowlandson has 
preserved for us something of the appearance of Portsmouth Point 
at thai time, when war raged over nearly all the civilized world, when 
wooden ships rode the waves buoyantly, when battles were the rule 
and peace the exception. 

••'The Point was in those days simply a collection of taverns* giving 

upon the harbor and the stairs, whence departed a continuous stream 
Of officers and men of the navy. It was a place throbbing with life 

and excitement the sailors going out and returning home; the Leave- 
takings, the greetings, the boozing and the fighting are all shown in 

Eiowlandson'fi drawing as on a stage, while the tall ships form an 

appropriate background, like the hack-cloth of a theatrical scene. 

It if ;i scene full of humor. Sailors are leaning on their arms out of 

ad-hand clothing ■hop*; n paws ihop with thfl Ki«n "\i 
! cheap lodging houMi P 1 1 

M 



RICHARD COPLEY, Announcement 



ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 
MECCA AUDITORIUM 133 West 55th Street 

Sunday Afternoon, February 9th, at 4 Sharp 

BACH PROGRAMME 

I. AIR and Thirty Variations, known as the 
GOLDBERG VARIATIONS. 

HAROLD SAMUEL 

This number takes forty-five minutes to perform and will be played without pause, and no admission 
to Hall while the Artist is playing. 

II. CANTATA No. 201 : "Phoebus und Pan." 
SOT OT^T^ 1 EDITHA FLEISCHER, MARION TELVA, GEORGE MEADER, 
SULU1S 1 d J MAX BL0 CH, FRASER GANGE, DUDLEY MARWICK. 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS f|R PUr QTR A 
METROPOLITAN OPERA UIX^riE^ 1 IW 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON, MARCH 9th, at 4 Sharp 

BACH'S "St. John's Passion" 

( ETHYL HAYDEN, MARION TELVA, GEORGE MEADER, 

SOLOISTS 1 FRIEDRICH SCHORR, CARL SCHLEGEL, LYNNWOOD 

( FARNAM. 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS HRPWTTQTR A 
METROPOLITAN OPERA UI\\^nH.O 1 lYrA 

Tickets on sale at Mecca Auditorium, Ampico Hall, 584 Fifth Ave., and office of the 
Society, 10 East 43rd St., Room 503. 

(Steinway Piano) 



Town Hall, MONDAY EVENING, February 10th, at 8.30 

ELEANOR SPENGER 

SECOND PIANO RECITAL (Steinway Piano) 

Town Hall, WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON, February 26th, at 3.00 

WILLIAM BUSH 

PIANIST— American Debut (Baldwin Piano) 

Town Hall, WEDNESDAY EVENING, February 26th, at 8.30 

HARRY GUMPSON 

PIANO RECITAL v Steinway Piano) 

Carnegie Hall, SUNDAY EVENING, March 2nd, at 8.30 

LEA LUBOSHUTZ 

VIOLIN RECITAL (Steinway Piano) 

Carnegie Hall, SATURDAY AFTERNOON, March 15th, at 2.30 

JOSEF HOFMANN (Steinway Piano) 



25 



window; a gold-laced officer bids good-bye to his girl, while his trunks 
are being carried down the stairs; a drunken sailor and his equally 
drunken woman are belaboring one another with all the good will in 
the world, and a wooden-legged sailor man is scraping away for very 
life on a fiddle and dancing grotesquely to get a living." 

Rowlandson also shows small craft pulling off to the ships; luggage, 
spirit-casks, packages wheeled or shouldered. A lady is in a sedan 
chair. A drunken girl is borne off on the shoulders of a sailor. 



* 
* * 



"Facade" was produced at the Chenil Galleries, London, on April 27, 
1926. The audience was warned that it might regard "Facade" as an 
entertainment and that it need not repress any impulse to laugh if it 
felt one. The megaphone was placed in "the mouth of a big face 
painted half in white, half in pink, on the curtain. The orchestra, 
behind this curtain, consisted of piccolo, flute, clarinet, bass clarinet, 
saxophone, trumpet, violoncello, and percussion." 

Ernest Newman wrote of "Facade": "How much I enjoyed the fun 
may be estimated from the fact that I — a critic — actually not only 
stayed to the end but added my voice and my umbrella to the clamor 
for encores of the best 'items' long after the official proceedings were 
finished. . 

"Mr. Sitwell, in his prefatory remarks, half hinted, apologetically, 
that the speaker of the words might not be able to get them all 'over/ 
but that if we happened to miss any of them there was always the music 
to fall back upon. His scruples were unnecessary. It is true that 
against the jolly stridencies of Mr. Walton's scoring what we got from 
the megaphone was often sound rather than sense, but for my part I 
felt that one or two of the poems were rather improved than otherwise 
by our not being able to catch the words. We got the essential things 
all right, such as — 

Or the sound of the onycha 

When the phoca has the pica 

In the palace of the Queen Chinee! 

(from the 'Trio for Two Cats and a Trombone'). Bui really, the words 
mattered very little, in the majority of cases, as againsl the music. 

"The experience was another illustration of how accessary it is to 
find the right instrument For a tunc, in poetry as in music, [f l have 
ed, in my st udy, the inner meaning of some of Miss Sit well's ingen- 
iously wroughl verses, it was because in my innocence I read them as 
I would read ordinary poetry. Mr. Osberi Sitwell (if it were he at 
the back of the megaphone), showed me thai they really demand a 
method of reading of their own. Gel Kreisler to play one of Paul 
Whiteman's Bhirt-sleevefl tunes on his violin, and the tune will sound 
nothing. Bear the free-and-easy thing on the trombone or the baritone 
iphone, and you are bound to admit that it has its qualities and its 
virtues; with tunes, as with people, the clothes are almost as important 
what ie inside them. \'<>\\ when I read this of Miss SitwelPs: 

The white sold — 

The liL r lif i- braving like 



or this — 



See 

The tall Spanish jade 

With hair black as nightshade 

Worn as a cockade! 

Flee 

Her eyes' gasconade 
And her gown's parade 
(As stiff as a brigade) . 
Tee-hee! 

Beside the castanetted sea 

Where stocks II Capitaneo 

Swaggart braggadocio 

Sword and moustachio — 

He 

Is green as a cassada 

And his hair is an Armada! 

When, 

Sir 

Beelzebub called for his syllabub in the hotel at Hell, 

the device of the broken line misses fire with me, because I am not used 
to that sort of thing in the poetry I was brought up on. But when 
the megaphone bellows the words at me with a sledge-hammer insistence 
on the 'See/ 'Flee/ 'When/ and 'Sir/ I get the poet's idea, and, I must 
confess, enjoy it. 

"These, in fact, are saxophone tunes, not violin melodies, and must 
be played on the right instrument, with the right technique, and in 
the right spirit. The reciter brought out also all sorts of queer delightful 



or this — 



1929 - SEASON - 1930 
FOURTH SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT 

CONDUCTORLESS 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CARNEGIE HALL 
FRIDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 21st, AT 8.45 P.M: 

Soloist 
BENNO RABINOFF, Violinist 

PROGRAMME 

MOZART Overture, "Magic Flute" 

MENDELSSOHN Violin Concerto in E Minor 

Benno Rabinoff 

WEISS Scherzo, "American Life" 

BEETHOVEN Symphony No. 8, in P Major 

Boxes: - - $20.00 and $24.00 
Tickets: - $1.00 to $2.50 

Now on sale at Box Office, Carnegie Hall and at Office of Conductorless Symphony 
Orchestra, 22 East 55th Street, New York 

Telephone: Wickersham 7870 
Steinway Piano 



27 



rhythms and cross-rhythms ami unexpected stabbing accents that 
gave me, as a musician whose trade is in these things and who therefore 
knows what's what where they are concerned, a vast delight. It is 
all very well for old-fashioned purists to say that poetry should not be 
read through a megaphone. The answer is that the Sitwells know what 
they are driving at better than we do, and that, beyond a doubt, Tues- 
day's reading of some of these poems gave us a delight in them that we 
had not previously felt. To hear Osbert and the megaphone pounding 
out — 

THE 

Trumpet and the drum, 
And the martial cornet come 
To make the people dumb — 
But WE 
Won't wait for sly-foot night 

with a rhythm and an accent like those of a military march, was to see 
the poem — for the first time with many of us — from the poet's point of 
view. 

"But the entertainment owed a great deal also to Mr. Walton's music 
All I knew of this young man's before Tuesday was a horrible quartet 
of his that was given at the Royal College three or four years ago. 
On the strength of this, I take leave to dislike intensely Mr. Walton's 
serious music — if, indeed, that quartet was serious and was music, 
both of which I doubt. But as a musical joker he is a jewel of the first 
water. Not all the 'Facade' music came off, it is true. Some of 
it was too imitative of the sort of thing we used to hear in the great days 
of about 1920, when M. DiaghilefT was writing — or at all events signing 
— those wonderful letters to the papers in which a new scheme of musical 
values was foreshadowed, Beethoven and Brahms and Elgar being 
reduced to the status of mere straphangers by the Stravinskys and 
Saties and Prokofieffs and Milhauds of the new dawn. Here and 
there Mr. Walton could be seen diving into that sequestered and now 
stagnant pool and coming up with bits of Stravinsky sticking in his 
honest English hair; indeed, now and then the music was so like Stra- 
vinsky thai it might have been written by Eric Fogg. 

"Bui when the true-born Briton settled down to the true-born 
Briton's historic role of guying things that have a natural touch of 
absurdity about them, he was. as the modern stylist would say, priceless. 
Here is obviously a humorous musical talent of the first order; nothing 
so good in the mock-serious line of music has been heard tor a long time 
ad the 'Y.'iUc.' the 'Polka.' the Modelling Song' and 'I do like to be beside 
the seaside'; and the deft workmanship, especially in the orchest rat ion. 

made the heart of the Listening musician glad. 

"The curious thing was the happiness of the correspondence between 

:ill the factors of 'he affair, lli<' music, the words, the megaphone, 

and the piquant phrasing of the lines by the reciter were as much born 

Bach Other's bone and flesh of each Other's flesh as the words and 

the music are of each other in 'Tristan 1 or 'PeU6as.' At its best, 'la- 

gade' was the jollicst entertainment of the season \nd Mr. Walton 

ought ' oui :i librettist after his own heart and give us a little 

musical comedy in the jass style/ 1 



CARNEGIE HALL 



SEASON 1929-1930 



Thursday Evening, March 6, 1930, at 8.30 

Saturday Afternoon, March 8, 1930, at 2.30 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



29 



Walton's Sinfonia Concertante for orchestra with pianoforte (quasi 
obligato) was performed for the first time in Boston (if not in the United 
States) at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on March 2, 
192S. Bernard Zighera was the pianist. This Sinfonia Concertante 
in three movements, composed in 1927 was performed for the first time 
at a concert of the Royal Philharmonic Society in London on January 5, 
192S. York Bowen was the pianist; Ernest Ansermet, conducted. 



Symphony, E mixor — C major, No. 2 

Arnold Edward Trevor Bax 

(Born at London, England, November 6, 1883; living in London) 

This symphony, dedicated to Serge Koussevitzky, was published in 
1929. The first performance anywhere was in Boston at a concert of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 13, 1929. There was 
a second performance in Boston led by Dr. Koussevitzky on January 
3, 1930. The score calls for these instruments: three flutes (the third 
interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, English horn, three clarinets, 
in A and B-flat, bass clarinet in A and B-flat, two bassoons, double- 
bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tenor tuba, bass 
tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, side drum, tambourine, C3'mbals, xylo- 
phone, Glockenspiel, tam-tam, celesta, piano, two harps, organ, and the 
usual strings. 

Mr. Bax, in a letter dated London, November 22, regretting that 
engagements prevent him from hearing the first performance of his 
symphony, wrote: "I particularly want to hear this work, as I put a 
greal deal of lime (and emotion) into the writing of it." He says 
nothing about the contents of the work except that the end "should 
be very broad indeed, with a kind of oppressive catastrophic mood. 
... I am confident that this symphony will receive a finer first per- 
formance than any previous work of mine." In a later letter he stated 
thai the Bymphony was composed in 1924-1925. "There is absolutely 
Q( communicable programme associated with the music, which is entirely, 
severely 'absolute' as a classical work." He called attention to the 
cyclic character of the form and to the persistence in all the three move- 
ments of a three-note figure. 

The Bymphony is in three movements: 

I. Molto nioderato, 4-4. The introduction advances a rugged 
theme strongly rhythmed for wind instruments. Allegro moderate. 
There are many changes of tempo, as moderate semplice for a section 
introduced by flutes, molto Largemante, "riotously," etc. 

I I. Andante, I', major, :'>- 1. 1- 1. 

III. After a prelude poco largamente, 4-4, comes an Allegro feroce, 
< major, lor lull orchestra. The thematic material is worked until, 

stormy measures tor full orchest ra with organ, t here is a diminuendo 
to pianissimo. 

I'a\ was educated musically at the Royal Academy of Music, London, 

which he entered in L900. ll<' studied the pianoforte with Tobias 
Matthay; composition with Frederick ('order (1900 L005). H< v was 



known as one of the most brilliant students in the history of the Acad- 
emy. His early works are the pianoforte Trio (1906); "Fatherland/ ' 
for tenor solo, chorus, and orchestra (1907); the orchestral poem 
"Into the Twilight" (1908), which has been discarded, and a string 
quintet of which only an "Interlude" has been retained. The works 
that survive Bax's criticism are dated beginning with 1909. Leaving 
the Royal Academy in 1905, he went to Ireland, where he lived in the 
western region of that country. Later he went to Dublin, and was 
associated with the writers and the artists of the "Irish Renaissance." 
In 1910 Bax visited Russia for a short time. The pianoforte pieces 
"May Night in the Ukraine," "Gopak," and the remarkable "In a 
Vodka Shop" were the result. 

Mr Edwin Evans of London contributed an article on Arnold Bax 
to Modern Music of November-December, 1927. He said in part: 

"If, as so many critics maintain, classification is of the devil, then 
Arnold Bax is to be congratulated upon his escape. Of all contem- 
porary British composers, he is the most difficult correctly to classify. 
He corresponds to none of the labels which pass as current coin today. 
He is neither an impressionist, nor an expressionist; neither a revolu- 
tionary, nor that still more subversive apparition, a neo-classicist. 
Atonality, polytonality, and linear counterpoint may all be met with 
in his later works and doubtless quarter-tones would be there also if he 
felt that he needed them, but none of these technical seasonings mean 
anything in his still comparatively young life beyond their use as season- 
ing the fare he has to offer us. Some say he is not a modernist — what- 
ever that may mean — but he certainly is no conservative, nor is he a 
traditionalist except in the praiseworthy sense in which every heir to 
the materia musica of his predecessors and in fact every artist is under 
obligation to the material in which he works. Those critics who must 
classify at all costs have discovered that there is only one label that fits 
him: romantic; and that fits him because, in one way or another, it fits 
every artist with the love of beauty in his soul. That the term should 
in our day have acquired frumpish associations is a mere verbal accident 
that reflects not upon romance but upon ourselves. As everyone knows, 



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31 



none can be so ascetic as the reformed libertine. Having wallowed 
in the maurais lieux of romance, music is at present affecting a kind of 
virtuous abstemiousness. It is as if the obese gentleman whose excesses 
have driven him to 'take the waters' prided himself upon his Spartan 
way of life. Moreover, it is rarely genuine. Catch even those German- 
Savonarolas unawares, and you will find them in ecstasy before a clump 
of Myosotds palustris, though they may indignantly protest that it is 
only its line and color that interests them. The Schoenberg of the 
'Wind Quartet' is also the Schoenberg of 'Yerklaerte Nacht.' 

"But there is one quality winch Bax possesses in abundance, and 
which in our world of atonality and jazz is so rare that its possession in 
itself is romantic. And it is this quality which has caused the label to 
stick. It is the musical equivalent of the lyrical impulse in poetry, the 
attribute which causes utterance to take spontaneously beautiful forms, 
irrespective of all else. In the true lyric poet the sentiment and the 
expression are so closely linked as to be practically identical. He does 
not express in the ordinary sense. He feels, and therefore he sings. 
And if he is of the elect, his song will have all its euphony without 
the intervention of the craftsman, whose task has as much to do with 
this initial beauty as the frame-maker's with the picture. Bax has, in 
a rare measure, this innate quality. His thoughts may be unequal, but 
even in the most debatable of them there lurks always this element of 
lyrical beauty, to the rich vein of which is due the fluency and abund- 
ance which has at times been ascribed to technical facility. While so 
many modern musicians are racking themselves with constructive 
energy, this one oozes music through his pores because there is so much 
of it within him that he can scarcely contain it." 



< joncbrto no. 2, <i minor, for pianoforte and orchestra 

Serge Sergievicii Prokofikff 

(Bom at Sontsovka, Russia, April 24, 1891; now living) 

For Notes see page 1 5. 

Threi Dances taken from the Ballet "The Three-cornered ll \i" 

("El Sombrero db Tees Pi cos") .... Manuel db Falla 

(Born ;ii Cadiz, November 23, 1^77: now Living at Grenada) 

POT Notes sec page Hi. 



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MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



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Mr. Tillotson has received his training from Heinrich Gebhard, Boston, and Tobias Matthay, 
London. He conducts Master Classes at the Lamont School, Denver, during the summer 

The Longy School is now using exclusively the 
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CARNEGIE HALL - - - NEW YORK 

Fourty-fourth Season in New York 
FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, MARGH 6, at 8.30 
AND THE 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MARGH 8, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

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ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

FREDERICK P. CABOT FREDERICK E. LOWELL 

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Used pianos accepted in partial exchange) 

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'trilled in ilo»ton and othci Ni w England iitic-. by M. StcincM Si Son* 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 



Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Fourel, G. 
CauhapS, J. 

Avierino, N. 
Gerhardt, S. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. Cherkassky, P. 

Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. Eisler, D. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 

Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 

Violas. 

Van Wynbergen, C. 
Bernard, A. 



Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Grover, H. 
Werner, H. 



Fiedler, A. 



Deane, C. 
Jacob, R. 



Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 
Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 

English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 
Hamelin, G 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 

Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 



Bassoons. 

Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Timpani. 
Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 

3 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L- 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 
Ludwig, C 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 




ANITA KERRY in "Criminal Code" 



A FUR COAT by SHAYXE 

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The solo part in Block's 
"Schelomo" will be played "by Jean 
Bedetti instead of by four violon- 
cellos as announced. 



CARNEGIE HALL . NEW YORK 

Forty-fourth Season in New York 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 6 
AT 8.30 



PROGRAMME 

Haydn . . . Symphony in D major (with the Horn Call) 

(B.&H. No. 31) 
I. Allegro. 
II. Adagio. 

III. Menuet. 

IV. Finale (Theme with Variations) . 

Gruenberg ....... Jazz Suite, Op. 28 

Fox-Trot Tempo. 
Boston Waltz Tempo. 
Blues Tempo, Slow Drag. 
One-step Tempo. 

(First performance in New York) 



Bloch "Schelomo" ("Solomon") 

Hebrew Rhapsody for Violoncello and Orchestra 
The solo part will be played in unison by four violoncellos 

Jean Bedetti Jacobus Langendoen 

Alfeed Zighera Hippolyte Droeghmans 

Bach Prelude and Fugue in E-flat (for Organ) 

(Arranged for Orchestra by Schonberg) 
(First performance in New York) 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Gruenberg's Jazz Suite 



The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

5 



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I 



Symphony in D major (with the Horn Call), B. & H. No. 31 

Joseph Haydn 

(Born at Rohrau-on-the-Leitha on April 1, 1732 ; died at Vienna on May 31, 

1809) 

This symphony, composed in 1765,* is known as "Mit dem Horn- 
signal" ; also as "Auf den Anstand."f The music has the joy of the 
chase. One remembers that Haydn wrote another symphony, "La 
Chasse" (1781), which has been performed at concerts of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. He gave titles to certain symphonies ; others 
supplied titles to some. The title often had reference to the "pro- 

♦Haydn was then the second Kapellmeister in the service of Prince Nikolaus 
Joseph Esterhazy, who maintained an orchestra at Eisenstadt. Haydn had in 1761 
filled this position under Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy, who died in 1762. Gregorius 
Joseph Werner was the first Kapellmeister. When he died in 1766, Haydn succeeded 
him and remained at Eisenstadt until 1790, when Prince Anton, the son of Paul 
Anton, dismissed the orchestra. Haydn then moved to Vienna. The Esterhazy or- 
chestra numbered fifteen members when Haydn was called there. Under Nikolaus 
Joseph, it was increased to thirty (without singers). Haydn's first symphony was 
written in 1759, when he was the musical director of Count Morzin's Orchestra at 
Lukavec near Pilsen. 

fAnstand meant originally "address, bearing, deportment, dignity" ; then, "delay, 
suspension, pause" ; also, "hesitation, doubt, apprehension." 

In hunting it meant "a stand, a hiding-place (to lie in wait for game)." Auf den 
Anstand gehen — "to go shooting from a hiding-place," etc. This definition evidently 
applies to the second title of the symphony. 

The German dictionary of the eighteenth century that is at hand does not give 
this last definition. Christian Ludwig's "Teutsch (sic) Englisches Lexicon" (Leipsic, 
1765), contains many curious colloquial expressions, phrases, even slang terms — a most 
readable book of 2,370 double columns, quarto — but the hunting term is not mentioned. 



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gramme character" of the music, even though it was applicable to 
only one movement. And so one finds Le Matin, Le Midi, Le Soir, 
Der Philosophy Weihnachtssinfonie, Abschiedsinfonie, Maria 
Theresia, La Passione, L'Imp6riale, Der Schulmeister, Feuersin- 
fonie, II Distrato, La Roxolane, Laudon, L'Ours, La Poule, La Reine 
de France, Militiirsinfonie, Die Uhr, Salomon, The Drum Stroke or 
The Surprise, Oxford, etc. 

This symphony is noteworthy because the score calls for four 
horns. This is the first instance, it is believed, that so many horns 
were employed in a symphony. There are four horns for the hunters' 
chorus in Haydn's "Seasons," so that the symphony seems to some 
a preparatory study. The score also calls for one flute, two oboes, 
and the usual strings. 

I. Allegro, D major, 3-4. The first theme is in two sections: 
first, the horn call; the second, as a distant answer. A figure is 
introduced at the end of this second section that was a favorite one 
with Mozart — as in the "Jupiter" Symphony. There are quieter 
melodic measures. The flute introduces the horns for a second 
theme, with succeeding measures for the strings. In the working- 
out section following this last subject, but inverted, comes the second 
theme also the earlier echoing answer. The repetition section be- 
gins with the supplementary theme, now in D minor, the "answer- 



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ing v section in D major; there is a passing reference to the quieter, 
more melodic measures; finally, the ending of the movement with 
the first section of the first theme. In Haydn's catalogue, the tempo 
is given as Larghetto, but this is probably due to some error. 

II. Adagio, G major, 6-8. Only horns and strings are employed. 
The most important thematic material is in the opening solo for 
violin, with its ornamented melody. Horns are in dialogue with 
this violin and a solo violoncello. Horns at once take the beginning 
of the theme for the solo violin. In this movement, the horns are 
used in two keys, D and G. The Adagio has somewhat the character 
of a Sicilienne, in the accompaniment to the melody as in the melody 
itself. 

III. Menuet, D major, 3-4. A sturdy movement in which all the 
instruments are simultaneously engaged; but in the Trio, D major, 
34, there is alternate play of instruments. 

IV. The Finale — Molto moderato — Presto, has an unusual char- 
acter. The strings play a quiet theme in simple song-form. Then 
follow seven variations: 

1. Two oboes and two horns, accompanied by strings. 

2. Violoncello solo, with strings accompanying. 

3. Flute solo, with strings. 

4. Horn quartet, with strings. The first horn part goes to i^-sharp. 

5. Violin solo, with strings. 

6. The full orchestra. The theme is not changed melodically or 
harmonically, but the instrumentation differs from that of the first 
entrance. The orchestra remains piano throughout the variation. 

7. Violoncello solo, with strings. A short passage leads to a 
Presto in 3-4. Figures in sixteenth notes, until A is held in the 




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upper voice (first violins, two horns), while a new theme enters. It 
is repeated in echo fashion, and then the first theme of the first 
movement brings the end. 

Some — Deldevez among them — refer to this symphony as Concer- 
t a nte on account of the solo parts. 



Jazz-Suite for Orchestra, Op. 28 . . . . . Louis Gruenberg 
(Bora in Russia on August 3, 18S3 ; living in Brooklyn, N.Y.) 

When this Suite was performed for the first time anywhere at 
Cincinnati, by the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, on March 22, 
1929, Fritz Reiner, conductor, a pencil note in the score stated that 
the first movement was composed and completed December 15, 1925. 
The last movement bore only one word in the score — "Paris.'' The 
Suite was then in manuscript. Dr. James G. Heller of Cincinnati 
is the author of the following synopsis: 

"I. Fox Trot tempo (Allegro ben ritmico). A bassoon begins the 
dance with down-rushing flutes, plucking strings, and muted 
trumpets. Flutes and other woodwinds continue to revel. Trom- 
bones slide softly; next bassoons and clarinets, then a solo viola. 
But the voices follow upon one another too fast to record. Two 
trumpets rise above the other instruments in a langourous jazz- 
plirase, followed by a rhythmic 'break 1 by the woodwinds. Again 
the trumpets, then the horns, then the trombones. First violins rise 
to a Long-drawn song of a decidedly blue color, increasing in power 



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with rapid intakes of breath, culminating in a stuttering trumpet. 
The violins sing, and are answered by the brasses. Now the or- 
chestra rises to a tutti syncopation, followed by the woodwinds. 
This is followed by a slow dance-song by the contra-bassoon and 
other woodwinds. This is further developed, and finally the move- 
ment comes to an end, pizzicato. 

"II. Boston Waltz tempo (Valse lento e molto languido). 
Against a soft tremulous accompaniment of strings begins the waltz. 
In the intervals between its phrases there are elaborate figures in 
the woodwinds and string — also strange cackles by other of the 
brasses. First woodwinds and then the first violins continue the 
dance-strain in broader and more lyric fashion. Suddenly the tempo 
shifts to Presto, and for a few measures the waltz swirls dizzily, 
then returns to its former measured pace. Then follow several of 
these frenetic interludes, and the movement comes to a close (in the 
strings and bassoons). 

"III. Blues tempo, slow drag (Modera to ma non troppo). Horns 
begin the blues; the 'break' is in muted trumpets, bassoon, and a 
muted trombone. Strings meanwhile descend chromatically. Next 
the violoncellos have the song. Then it leaps about grotesquely from 
voice to voice, always with elaborate rhythmic figures between the 
phrases. And thus it continues, with occasional climaxes of richer 
tone by the orchestra, and the movement again comes to a soft close. 

"IV. One-step tempo (Allegro assai). In contrast with the pre- 
ceding movement, gayety and movement now reign. The orchestra 
beats out a rapid and decided tempo, against which the strings begin 
to leap. The trumpet, the mainstay of jazz, replies. The dance- 
phrases are lengthened out in both. We cannot follow the entire 



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movement in detail. Its main characteristic is the inexorable march 
of the tempo with its one-two beat. Occasionally there are little 
interludes, as of bassoon and bass-clarinet at one place. The Suite 
concludes in a wild blare, to which the orchestra rises by chromatic 
steps." 

The Suite was performed in Los Angeles by the Philharmonic 
Orchestra of that city, Dr. Artur Rodzinski, conductor, on January 
30, 1930. 



Gruenberg's symphonic poem, "The Enchanted Isle," was per- 
formed in Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on Novem- 
ber 8, 1929. 

His "Daniel Jazz" was performed in Boston at a concert of the 
Chamber Music Club and the Flute Players Club in Jordan Hall on 
April 23, 192S. Colin O'More, tenor, sang the text of Vachel Lind- 
say's poem ; Richard Burgin conducted the Chamber Orchestra. The 
programme also included Schoenberg's "Pierrot Lunaire" (Greta 
Torpadie, singer), Stravinsky's Octet for wind instruments, and 
Hindemith's "Marienlider" (Miss Torpadie, singer; Mr. Tillotson, 
pianist). 

Among his compositions are "Creation"; "Vagabondia" (first per- 
formance in Prague by the Prague Philharmonic) ; a Ballet, "the 
book, which 1 wrote myself, standing in the way of a production"; 
"The Dumb Wife"* opera in two acts, "never produced because of 

•Is this opera based on Anatole Franco's "Comedie de celui qui opousa une femme 
muette," produced at the Porte-Saint-Martin, Paris, on May 30, 1912, with Mile, de 
Pouzola taking the part of Catherine? The play was teen in Boston with Lilian 
McCarthy as Catherine In the translation made by Curtis Hidden Page for Granville 
Barker. 



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failure of obtaining the performing rights" ; the music of an opera- 
libretto by Busoni, "The Bride of the Gods" ; sonatas for violin and 
piano, a symphony, a piano concerto, songs, and piano pieces. 



* 



Mr. Gruenberg came to the United States in 1885 and was edu- 
cated in the public schools of New York. He took piano lessons of 
Adele Margulies. He later studied at the master school of the 
Vienna Conservatory; still later, with Busoni, piano-playing and 
composition. He also studied composition at Berlin with Fr. E. 
Koch. Having toured in European countries as a pianist, he re- 
turned to the United States with Busoni. In 1919 he played at a 
recital in New York some of his own compositions, among them 
"Five Impressions based on Oriental Themes." He is one of the 
founders of the American Composers' Guild; a director of the 
International Composers' Guild; president of the United States 
section of the International Society for Contemporary Music. 



"Schelomo" ("Solomon"), Hebrew Rhapsody for Violoncello ani> 
Orchestra . Ernest Bloch 

(Born at Geneva, Switzerland, July 24, 1880; living at San Francisco, Calif.) 

"Schelomo" was composed at Geneva, Switzerland, in the first 
two months of 1916. With the "Trois Poemes Juifs" (composed in 
1916 and played in Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
March 23, 1917), the Three Psalms— 114, 137, and 22 (1912-14— 
Psalms 114 and 137 were sung in Boston by Mme. Povla Frijsh at 




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a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, November 14, 1919), 
and the symphony "Israel" (1913-18), it is that portion of Mr. 
Bloch's work that is peculiarly Hebraic in character. In a letter 
to the writer of these Programme Books in 1917, Mr. Block men- 
tioned a "Symphonie Orientale" on Jewish themes, a Jewish opera, 
"Jezabel," on which he had begun work, and numerous sketches 
for other Jewish works. He also wrote at the time that the Psalms, 
"Schelomo, " and "Israel" were more representative than the "Jew- 
ish Poems" because they came from the passion and the violence 
that he believed to be the characteristics of his nature. "It is not 
my purpose, not my desire, to attempt a 'reconstitution' of Jewish 
music, or to base my works on melodies more or less authentic. I 
am not an archaeologist. I hold it of first importance to write 
good, genuine music, my music. It is the Jewish soul that interests 
me, the complex, glowing, agitated soul, that I feel vibrating 
throughout the Bible: the freshness and naivete* of the Patriarchs; 
the violence that is evident in the prophetic books ; the Jew's savage 
love of justice; the despair of the Preacher in Jerusalem; the sor- 
row and the immensity of the Book of Job ; the sensuality of the 
Song of Songs. All this is in us; all this is in me, and it is the 
better part of me. It is all this that I endeavor to hear in myself 
and to transcribe in my music : the venerable emotion of the race 
that slumbers way down in our soul." 

"Schelomo" was performed in New York at a concert of the 
Society of the Friends of Music on May 3, 1917, Hans Kindler, 
violoncellist. The orchestral score was published in 1918. The piece 
was performed in Philadelphia by the Philadelphia Orchestra, Mr. 
Kindler, violoncellist, on October 27, 1922. The first performance 









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in Boston was at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Jean 
Bedetti, violoncellist, April 13, 1923. 

The Musical Quarterly of January 1921, published a translation 
by Theodore Barker of Guido M. Gatti's estimate of "Schelomo" 
contributed to La Critica Musicale of April — May, 1920 : — 

"The Hebrew rhapsody for solo violoncello with orchestra bears 
the name of the great king Schelomo (Solomon). In this, without 
taking thought for development and formal consistency, without 
the fetters of a text requiring interpretation, he has given free 
course to his fancy ; the multiplex figure of the founder of the Great 
Temple lent itself, after setting it upon a lofty throne, and chisel- 
ing its lineaments, to the creation of a phantasmagorical entourage 
of persons and scenes in rapid and kaleidoscopic succession. The 
violoncello, with its ample breadth of phrasing, now melodic and 
with moments of superb lyricism, now declamatory and with ro- 
bustly dramatic lights and shades, lends itself to a reincarnation 
of Solomon in all his glory, surrounded by his thousand wives and 
concubines, with his multiude of slaves and warriors behind him. 
His voice resounds in the devotional silence, and the sentences of 
his wisdom sink into the heart as the seed into a fertile soil: 
'Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, all is vanity. What profit 
hath a man of all his labor which he taketh under the sun? One 
generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the 
earth abideth forever. . . . He that increaseth knowledge increas- 
eth sorrow.' ... At times the sonorous voice of the violoncello is 
heard predominant amid a breathless and fateful obscurity throb- 
bing with persistent rhythms; again, it blends in a phantasma- 
gorical paroxysm of polychromatic tones shot through with silvery 



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clangors and frenzies of exultation. And anon one finds oneself 
in the heart of a dream-world, in an Orient of fancy, where men 
and women of every race and tongue are holding argument or hurl- 
ing maledictions; and now and again we hear the mournful accents 
of the prophetic seer, under the influence of which all bow down 
and listen reverently. The entire discourse of the soloist, vocal 
rather than instrumental, seems like musical expression intimately 
conjoined with the Talmudic prose. The pauses, the repetitions of 
entire passages, the leaps of a double octave, the chromatic pro- 
gressions, all find their analogues in the Book of Ecclesiastes — in 
the versicles, in the fairly epigraphic reiteration of the admoni- 
tions ('and all is vanity and vexation of spirit'), in the unexpected 
shifts from one thought to another, in certain crescendi of emotion 
that end in explosions of anger or grief uncontrolled." 

Mr. Lawrence Gilman, editor of the Philadelphia Orchestra's 
Programme Books, wrote when "Schelomo" was performed in 
Philadelphia: — 

"The texture of the music, and especially the writing for the solo 
violoncello, is extraordinary in its richness of dramatic, poetical, 
and pictorial suggestion — an imaginative projection of singular 
vividness and intensity. The violoncellist and the seconding orches- 
tra are by turns lyrist and tragedian, poet and seer. The great king 
amid his gorgeousness, reflecting in disillusionment upon his silver 
and his gold, the treasures of his provinces, the abundance of his 
gardens and his orchards, the fulfilled desires of his heart and eyes; 
and the Preacher, sombre and mournful in his acrid wisdom, utter- 
ing bitter admonitions as he contemplates the vanishing mist that is 
all delight, the sorrowing echoes of beauty and splendor, 'the 
shadows of rippled waters, the mysterious reflections of a destiny 
unguessed and unnsccrtainable,' the rumor of the darkening Wings; 
these thoughts are implicit in the imaginings of the tone-poet — in 
the poignant chief subject for the violoncello, with its characteristic 
figure of a dotted eighth-note, that is heard after the opening five 
bnrs of Introduction (Piu animato, 12-8, 'with the utmost expres- 
sion') ; in the piercing outbursts of despair thai invoke the full 
Voicing of the orchestra; in the Strange and impressive recitatives 
for the bassoon and Other solo voices— ultimately, with mordant 
power, for two trumpets fortissimo — which are as the sombre exhor- 
tations f»f the Preacher; in the Intervals of sensuous lyricism and 

Imperial pageantry; in the final descent into the depths, the brood- 
ing of the violoncello tilling the music with the darkness of shut 

doors and shadowed windows and resolving dust." 

18 



It is perhaps unnecessary to say that Solomon was not the author 
of that strange book "Ecclesiastes," or "Koheleth." The book is 
post-exilic in date. It was written either in the last century of 
Persian rule, when the empire of Cyrus gradually broke up (in the 
fourth century), or in the period of the later Ptolemies and Seleu- 
cids, "in a corrupt Hellenistic period" (in the third century). The 
background is not at all that of Solomon's time, but post-Solomonic. 
It is reasonable to suppose that the author was a scribe, a leading 
Jew, in the territory of a king subject to the Persians. "Ecclesias- 
tes" is a monologue which, in the opinion of some commentators, 
conceals a real dialogue. Mr. W. L. Courtney in "The Literary 
Man's Bible" says of it : "Its philosophy, such as it is (and it may be 
derived from the Greek), is Epicurean, or rather Cyrenaic combined 
with a weary pessimism. Sometimes it is like Omar Khayyam, 
sometimes like Euripides or Leopardi. Occasionally the author 
puts in phrases of a quite opposite tenor, and quite inconsistent 
with his general position, perhaps, to put himself right with the 
orthodox party. But he never gives up his belief in God, he is no 
atheist, and his last chapter (XII) is fine. Koheleth=the preacher, 
is, of course, a mask for anonymity. His general position is this: 
(i) Nature does not progress, it merely recurs, (ii) Man's work is 
futile, because it has no continuity and no endurance. (Hi) Only 
chance regulates the world : there is no purpose, no artistic justice. 
(iv) There is no future world to put this one straight, (v) Better 
enjoy what you can. Austerity is of no avail; one should be 
neither over-good, nor over-bad. Do not take life too seriously. 
But make your account with God. Walk carefully, as you come to 
the house of God. Say as little as you can, for whatever you say 
will be used against you. It is only because the book is supposed 



Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, teacher of the piano, desires to call to your 
attention his inauguration of Group Lessons in response to the growing demand for 
instruction of this type. 

Each group will consist of three students of practically equal ability. All will study 
the same material and each will receive an equal amount of individual attention. 
The period will be of one hour duration. 

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19 



to be by Solomon — Solomon repentant and disillusioned — that it 
ever found a place in the Canon." 

''The son hides not Virginia's Dismal Swamp/' says Herman 
Melville in "Moby Dick," "nor Rome's accursed Campagna, nor 
wide Sahara, nor all the millions of miles of deserts and of griefs 
beneath the moon. The sun hides not the ocean, which is the dark 
side of this earth, and which is two-thirds of this earth. So, there- 
fore, that mortal man who hath more of joy than sorrow in him, 
that mortal man cannot be true, — not true, or undeveloped. With 
books the same. The truest of all men was the Man of Sorrows, 
and the truest of all books is Solomon's, and Ecclesiastes is the 
fine hammered steel of woe. 'All is vanity.' ALL. This wilful 
world hath not got hold of unchristian Solomon's wisdom yet. But 
he who dodges hospitals and jails, and walks fast crossing grave- 
yards, and would rather talk of operas than hell ; calls Cowper, 
Young, Pascal, Rousseau, poor devils all of sick men; and through- 
out a carefree lifetime swears by Rabelais as passing wise, and 
therefore jolly; — uot that man is fitted to sit down on tombstones, 
and break the green damp mould with unfathomably wondrous 
Solomon." 



Organ Prelude and Fugue, E-flat major, by J. S. Bach: arranged 
for Orchestra by Arnold Schonberg 

(Bach, born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died at Leipsic, July 28, 1750. 
Schonberg, born at Vienna on September 13, 1874; now living) 

The Prelude and the Fugue are not necessarily joined together, 
but are regarded as independent composition. The Fugue is com- 
monly known as "St. Ann's."* The first performance of Schon- 
berg'fl arrangement was at a concert of the Cincinnati Orchestra in 
Cincinnati, in February, 1930. 

•"A misleading title, ;is, except in the identity of its subject with the first strain 
of it, 'Ann's,' the fugue has no connection with the hymn tune." — (I. A. Ckawfoud. 



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SYMPHONY HALL, Boston March 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 

Brahms Festival 

Efy the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY 

Conductor 

Assisted by the 

HARVARD and RADCLIFFE CHORUSES 

Dr. ARCHIBALD T. DAVISON and G. WALLACE WOODWORTH, 

Conductors 

ARTUR SCHNABEL JEANNETTE VREELAND 

Piano Soprano 

MARGARET MATZENAUER FRAZER GANGE 

Mezzo-Soprano Baritone 

BURGIN STRING QUARTET 



The Festival Programmes will include: 

Orchestral Music — The four Symphonies, the two 
Pianoforte Concertos, the Academic Festival 
Overture, and the Variations on a Theme 
by Haydn. 

Choral Music — "A German Requiem," "A Song 
of Destiny," "Liebeslieder" Waltzes, the 
Rhapsody for Alto with Male Chorus. 

Chamber Music — Violin Sonata, Music for Piano- 
forte solo, and the Piano Quintet in F minor, 
and Songs (by Mme. Matzenauer). 



Tickets for four extra concerts (March 23-26) are available by 

Mail Order. 

(The Concerts of March 21 and 22 are part of the regular 
Friday and Saturday series, which are already subscribed.) 



21 



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FOURTH MATINEE 
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MARCH 8 

AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 



Lazar 



I. Largo; Allegro. 

II. Largo. 

III. Allegretto. 

IV. Allegro. 



Concerto Grosso No. i for Orchestra, 
in the Old Style 



(First time in New York) 



Sibelius 



. Symphony No. 6, Op. 104 



I. Allegro molto moderato. 

II. Allegro moderato. 

III. Poco vivace. 

IV. Allegro molto 



Sibelius 



I. Allegro moderato. 
II. Adagio di molto. 
III. Allegro ma non tanto. 



Concerto for Violin and Orchestra 
in D minor, Op. 47 



Gruenberg 



Jazz Suite, Op. 28 



Fox-trot Tempo. 
Boston Waltz Tempo. 
Blues Tempo, Slow Drag. 
One-step Tempo. 



SOLOIST 

RICHARD BURGIN 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 



The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 



23 



Concerto Grosso No. 1 for Orchestra, in the Old Style 

Filip Lazar 

(Born at Craiova, Roumania, on May 18, 1S94; living at Paris) 

This concerto was composed in 1929. Lazar's "Music for an Or- 
chestra" was performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, for 
the first time anywhere, on March 23, 1928. His "Tziganes" 
("Gypsies"), a Scherzo, was played for the very first time at a con- 
cert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 29, 1926. Dr. 
Koussevitzky conducted both performances. 






Lazar entered the Bucharest Conservatory of Music when he was 
nine years old. He studied the pianoforte with Emilie Saegin, and 
theory with D. C. Kiriac. From 1909 to 1913 his teacher of harmonv, 
counterpoint, and fugue was Alfonso Castaldi. At the Leipsic Con- 
servatory of Music (1913-14), Lazar took pianoforte lessons of 
Kobert Teichmuller. His teacher in composition was Stephan 
Krehl.* A pianoforte sonata showing the strong influence of Schu- 
mann and Brahms was written by Lazar at this period. He returned 
to Roumania a few days before the war broke out. In 1915 he re- 
entered the military school, and remained there until Roumania 
declared war against the central Allies. He served actively in the 
army, was cited in an "order of the day," and he received the Rou- 
manian War Cross. 

The list of his compositions includes a violin sonata (1919), which 
was awarded the second national prize for composition ; in 1920-22 
he composed some orchestral pieces, his first attempts in large 
musical form ; in 1924 he wrote a pianoforte suite, "Bagatelle," for 
double bass or violoncello with piano; "Divertissement," for full 
orchestra — all of which are published by Universal Edition. In 
L924 lie composed two Folk Choruses {MS.); in 1925, Two Rou- 
manian Folk Dances (Oxford University Fress) ; 1926 "Deux 
Ghansonfl d'amonr et une autre gaie" (Durand, Paris). 



Lr 1/ V tirstrcl of January ,°>, L930j announced (lie performance of 

Lasar 9 ! "Ring" by the Orchestre Bymphonlque de Paris, M. Gor- 

£6000, conductor, on .January 10. 

•Krr-Jil. horn at Latoalfl In 1864. I pupil of 1 1n* Leipslc Conservatory, taught the 

plnno ari'l theory In 1 S8tl at the Carlsn'ihe Conservatory J In 1 007. at the I>oipHlc 

rvntr.ry. when- In 1 * 1 1 hi. wan made 1 ProfetSOr. He Is known iih n composer 

(honlc Prritldc tO H.iupt nuinn's "Ilnnnel." ; Chamber music (Including 

a clarinet quintet, string quartet, and violin K>nata) ; n cantata ("Trdstong") for 

■olo rolcee, chorus, and orchestra; pianoforte pieces, nnd hoiikh. He lias written 
ral theoretical trentiHCB. — P. H. 



RICHARD COPLEY, Management 

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ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 
MECCA AUDITORIUM 133 West 55th Street 

NEXT CONCERT SUNDAY, MARCH 9th, at 4 P.M. 
BACH'S "ST. JOHN PASSION" 

(Annual Performance) 

SOLOISTS: 

ETHYL HAYDEN GEORGE MEADER MARION TELVA 

FRIEDRICH SCHORR CARL SCHLEGEL 

LYNNWOOD FARNAM, Organist 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS : : METROPOLITAN OPERA ORCHESTRA 

SUNDAY, MARCH 16th, at 4 P.M. 
Choral-Instrumental Programme 

SOLOIST 

FELIX SALMOND, 'Cellist 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS : : METROPOLITAN OPERA ORCHESTRA 

Among the works to be given at this concert will be the 

Elgar Concerto (Mr. Salmond) and the Brahms "Parzengesang" (Chorus) 

SUNDAY, MARCH 30th, at 4 P.M. 
PURCELL'S "DIDO and AENEAS" 

and Old English Music for the Organ 

SOLO'STS' 

DOROTHEA FLEXER MARION TELVA MARGARET MATZENAUER 

GEORGE MEADER CARL SCHLEGEL 

LYNNWOOD FARNAM, Organist 

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MONDAY EVENING, March 10th, at 8.30 
ETHYL HAYDEN 

Kurt Ruhrseitz at the Piano 



(Steinway Piano) 



WEDNESDAY EVENING, March 12th, at 8.30 
WILLIAM KROLL 

Emanuel Bay at the Piano (Steinway Piano) 

SATURDAY AFTERNOON, March 15th, at 2.30 
JOSEF HOFMANN 

(Steinway Piano) 

WEDNESDAY EVENING, March 19th, at 8.30 
MAUD Von STEUBEN 

Harold Genther at the Piano (Steinway Piano) 

WEDNESDAY EVENING, March 26th, at 8.30 
COMPINSKY TRIO 

(Steinway Piano) 



25 



Symphony No. 6, Or. lOi Jan Sibelius 

(Born at Tevastehus. Finland, December 8, 1S65 ; now living at 

Jarvenpiiii, Finland) 

This symphony, composed in 1923,* and dedicated to Wilhelm 
Stenhammer, has no key signature. The score, without date of pub- 
lication or of composition, is dedicated to Dr. Wilhelm Sten- 
hammer.f The first performance in the United States was by the 
Philadelphia Orchestra, Mr. Stokowski, conductor, in Philadelphia, 
on April 23, 192G. Mr. Lawrence Oilman, the brilliant editor of that 
orchestra's Programme Books, states that "the score and parts of 
the Sixth Symphony were sent from Stockholm to the orchestra at 
the request of Mr. Stokowski, following the enthusiastic reception 
of the Fifth when it was repeated this season. Sibelius, announcing 
the dispatch of the score and parts, wrote as follows in a letter to 
Mr. Mattson, assistant manager of the orchestra: 'It will be an 
honor and a joy to have the first performance in America of my 
Sixth Symphony under Mr. Stokowski, to whom I beg you to convey 
my respectful and appreciative greeting.' " 

Mr. Oilman called attention to the marked fondness shown by 
Sibelius in this symphony, as in his Seventh, for scales of various 
character "as the stuff of thematic structure." 

I. Allegro moderato, A minor, 2-2. An introduction is for 
strings along without basses. A theme for flutes moves in thirds. 
Subsidiary themes, also in thirds, march diatonically. The domi- 
nating musical idea is in eighth notes, played by the first violins in 
three parts ; an idea in its melodic nature, not unlike the preceding 
theme for flutes. This is played with for many measures until it 
passes into the flute theme, in which violoncellos now join. The 
familiar thirds are to be found in the figures in thirty-second notes 
for woodwind instruments; for violins and violas; in ascending and 
descending scale passages for the violoncellos. Arpeggio figures for 

IFOOdwind usher in a section in major. Second violins and violon- 
cellos i with violas later) ^ r o up and down the scale against octaves, 
for bassoons and flutes. "A tremolo figure for the violoncellos and 

basses, rushing scales In unison and octaves for the woodwind and 

'According to the biographical sketch of Sibelius In th<> "Dictionary of Modern 

If title "in I Music in ns." 

tStenhammer, composer, pianist, conductor, born si Stockholm In 1871, died 
there In 1927. He studied a( the Stockholm Conservatory of Musi.- and In 1892 M 
o playing frith Helnrich Berth, at Berlin. n< % was conductor of the Philhar- 
monic Society, Stockholm (1897) : second conductor al the Royal Theatre (1900): 
conductor <>f the Gothenburg Syrophons Orchestra (1907). He eras ••! member <>f 
til*- Tor a ii i i ii String Quartet B reputation as ;i pianist was high throughout 
;■•• hIh chief works were "PrlnsesMan och SYennen," i<>r suio voices, chorus, 
and orchestra (1892) ; 1 1 1 « - opera "Tlrflng" (Stockholm, 1898) ; the opera "Das Pern 
auf Bolhaug" (Stuttgart, 1899) choral works; Symphony In IT major; overture, 
r" ; orchestra] ' dy, "Mldvlnter" four string quartets, two piano 

piano sonata : manj songs In 1916, .'ii the Jubilee of 1 1 1 « - Oothenbuil 
School, he was given 1 1 1 • - title "Dr. phlL i> 

M 



strings, and a final reminiscence of the chief theme for clarinets in 
thirds, against a scale fragment for the violins, end the movement, 
poco tranquillo. The final effect is modal, with a suggestion of the 
first authentic mode, the Dorian." 

II. Allegretto moderato, 3-4. The movement begins with a pas- 
sage in four-part harmony (flutes and bassoons), at first in D minor, 
but going into G minor, the tonality of the movement. The chief 
theme, mp, espressivo, is given to the first violins, divided, with 
chords for the woodwind. Ascending scales follow in the other 
strings. The first violins restate the chief theme. A lyrical theme 
in B-flat major is announced by first violins and violoncellos, but the 
earlier scale subject returns. Then comes a passage poco con moto, 
in which the strings have a figure in thirty-second notes, with the 
woodwind talking lightly. The* movement ends with a cadence for 
strings, oboe, and harp. 

III. Scherzo. Poco vivace, 6-8. The theme that begins the move- 
ment is chiefly rhythmical, for violins over a chord, D minor. The 
contrasting theme, more lyrical, is at first for woodwind instruments 
in thirds ; then for violins, developing into a melody for the strings. 
But the agitated opening theme busies the whole orchestra. After 
a vigorous crescendo and a chord for the brass, the lyrical theme re- 



1929 - SEASON - 1930 
FIFTH SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT 

CONDUCTORLESS 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CARNEGIE HALL 
FRIDAY EVENING, MARCH 28th, AT 8.45 RM. 

Sohist 
SOPHIE BRASLAU, Contralto 

PROGRAMME 

BORODIN SYMPHONY NO. 2, B MINOR 

GOOSSENS SUITE FOR STRINGS 

MOUSSORGSKY GROUP OF SONGS 

SOPHIE BRASLAU 
WEBER OVERTURE "EURYANTHE" 

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Steinway Piano 



27 



turns, increasing in strength, until there is a sudden ending in 
thirds. 

Finale. Allegro molto, C major, 44. A heroic theme for violins, 
woodwind, and two horns is answered by a phrase for lower strings. 
The music becomes more and more agitated. And here the diatonic 
character found prevailing in the symphony becomes chromatic. A 
crescendo leads to a climax fff. The first theme follows now for 
strings alone, and the opening section is elaborated harmonically 
and by the instrumentation. The Coda, Doppio piu lento, sums up 
the significant features of the symphony: the diatonic scale and the 
intervals of the third. There is a quiet ending in D minor. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
bass clarinet, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trom- 
bones, kettle drums, harp, and the usual strings. 



Sibelius came to the United States in 1914, arriving in New York. 
He came as the guest of Carl Stoeckel (now dead), to take a promi- 
nent part at the twenty-eighth meeting and concert of the Litchfield 
County Choral Union, held in the Music Shed at Norfolk, Conn. 
On June 4, Sibelius conducted his "Pohjola's Daughter" ; incidental 
music to Adolph Paul's tragedy, ''King Christian II" ; "The Swan 
of Tuonela" ; "Finlandia" ; "Valse Triste" ; and a composition, then 
new, the sea-sketch "Aalottarex," which was performed for the first 
time. Sibelius soon afterwards visited Boston. 

On June 17, 1914, the degree of Doctor of Music was conferred 
on him by Yale University. President Hadley said, presenting the 
degree : "Dr. Jean Sibelius. By his music intensely national in 
inspiration and yet in sympathy with the mood of the West, Dr. 
Sibelius long since captured Finland, Germany, and England, and 
on coming to America to conduct a symphonic poem found that his 
fame had already preceded him also. Still in the prime of life, he 
l;;h become, by the power and originality of his work, one of the 
most distinguished of living composers. What Wagner did with 
Teutonic legend, Dr. Sibelius has done in his own impressible way 
with the lengends of Finland as embodied in her national epic. He 
ha- translated the Kalevala into the universal language of music, 
remarkable for its breadth, large simplicity, and the infusion of a 
deeply DOetiG personality." The commencement exercises included 

three of Sibelius'fl compositions. They were conducted by Horatio 

\V. Parker i now dead). 



CARNEGIE HALL 



SEASON 1929-1930 



LAST CONCERTS OF THE SEASON 



Thursday Evening, April 10, 1930, at 8.30 

Saturday Afternoon, April 12, 1930, at 2.30 




Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SOLOIST AT BOTH CONCERTS 

ARTUR SGHNABEL 

Piano 



29 



Concerto, D minor, for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 47 

Jan Sibelius 

(Born at Tavastehus, Finland, on December S, 1865; now living at 

Jiirvenpaa, Finland) 

This concerto was published in 1905. It was played by Carl 
Halir at Berlin on October 19 of that year. The first performance 
in the United States was at a concert of the Philharmonic Society 
of New York on November 30, 1906, Maud Powell, violinist. She 
played it with the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in Chicago on Janu- 
ary 25, 1907. 

The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra on April 20, 1907, Mine. Powell, violinist, Dr. 
Muck, conductor. She played it again in Boston with the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra on March 9, 1912. There was a performance 
in Boston at concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on March 
1 and 2, 1929. Richard Burgin, violinist. 

Mrs. Newmarch says in her sketch of Sibelius: "With the ad- 
vance of years he (Sibelius) has shown an increasing respect for 
the requirements of conventional form, without, however, becoming 
conventional in the contemptible sense of the word. The sign of 
this reaction has been the revision of many of his early works. The 
Violin Concerto, Op. 47, is a case in point. We cannot judge it by 
comparison with its original conception, but the Finnish critics con- 
sider it to be far more acceptable in its revised form. Sibelius's 
Violin Concerto, like that of Tchaikovsky's has been pronounced 
impossibly difficult; but it has not had to wait so long for its in- 
terpreter as the Russian concerto wailed for a Brodsky."* 

I. Allegro moderato, 1) minor, various rhythms. This move- 
ment is somewhat in the nature of an improvisation. The tradi- 
tional two themes are to be recognized clearly, but they are treated 
in ;i rhapsodic rather than formal manner. The first chief theme, 
given to the solo violin at the beginning, over an accompaniment 

of violins, divided and united, is of fl dark and mournful character. 

it is treated rhapsodically until an unaccompanied passage for 

the solo violin lends lo a climax. A short orchestral tutti brings 

in the announcement by the solo instrument of (he more tranquil 

rid theme. After the development of this motive, there is a 
long tntli |»;: : then tlie solo violin, having had an nnaeeom- 

panied cadenza, states again the dark first theme. The second one 
reappears, but in altered rhythm. The movement ends in a brilliant 

'Adolpti Brod r tii'- Ural t< chalkoTtky'i violin concerto (Philhannonli 

Vienna, December 4, 16 L) The concerto wai compoaed in i 

30 



climax. The time taken by the solo violin in this movement to 
develop the themes without orchestral aid deserves attention. 

II. Adagio di molto, B-flat major, 4-4. A contemplative romanza, 
which includes a first section based on the melody sung by the 
solo violin after a short prelude, and a contrasting middle section. 
The latter begins, after an orchestral passage, with a motive given 
to the solo instrument. There is elaborate passage-work used as 
figuration against the melodious first theme, now for the orchestra. 
The solo violin has the close of this melody. There is a short con- 
clusion section. 

III. Allegro, ma non tanto, D major, 3-4. The first theme of 
this aggressive rondo is given to the solo violin. The development 
leaps to a climax. The second theme — it is of a resolute nature — is 
given to the orchestra with the melody in violins and violoncellos. 
The movement is built chiefly on these two motives. A persistent 
and striking rhythmic figure is coupled with equally persistent har- 
monic pedal-points. 

* • 

Maud Powell, the most famous of the female American violinists, 
was born at Peru, 111., on August 22, 1868. She died suddenly at 
Uniontown, Pa., on January 8, 1920, on one of her many tours. She 
studied violin playing with William Lewis, Chicago; Schradieck, 
Leipsic; Dancta, Paris; Joachim, Berlin. (At the age of nine she 
played the violin, also the piano, in public after early lessons in 
Aurora from William Fickensher and his daughter.) She went to 
Leipsic when she was thirteen years old. In 1883 she played in Lon- 
don and the English provinces. In 1885 she made her debut with the 



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31 



Philharmonic Orchestra of Berlin. Returning to the United States, 
she played with the Philharmonic Society of New York, Theodore 
Thomas conductor, on November 14, 18S5 (Bruclrs First Concerto). 
From that time until her death, she lived the life of a travelling 
virtuoso, playing with orchestras and in recitals in the chief cities 
of Europe and the United States, touring Germany, Austria, Hol- 
land, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Russia, Denmark, South 
Africa. With the Boston Symphony Orchestra, she played Bruch's 
Concerto No 1 (March 5, 18S7) ; Tchaikovsky's Concerto (April 13, 
1901) ; also Sibelius's concerto, as mentioned above. She was the 
first to play the following concertos in the United States: Saint- 
Saens's C major; Dvorak's A minor; Shelley's G minor; Huss's D 
minor, Arensky's A minor; and the concerto by Sibelius. She 
played Tchaikovsky's concerto in New York on January 19, 1889, 
but it is possible that Dr. Leopold Damrosch played it before her. 
She married H. Godfrey Turner. The marriage was a happy one. 

In 1894 she organized the Maud Powell String Quartet, which 
was disbanded in 1898. 

Her father was of English-Welsh extraction ; her mother was of 
German-Hungarian stock. Maud Powell was a woman of strong 
character; of sound sense; of physical and mental energy; not 
disturbed by difficulties or discouragement; a staunch friend. 



Jazz-Suite for Orchestra, Or. 28 Louis Gruenberg 

(Born in Russia on August 3, 1SS3 ; living in Brooklyn, N.Y.) 

For Notes see page 12 



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CARNEGIE HALL - - - NEW YORK 

Fourty-fourth Season in New York 
FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 10, at 8.30 
AND THE 



SATURDAY AFTERNOON, APRIL 12, at 2.30 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
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COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



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Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 



Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Fourel, G. 
Cauhap6, J. 

Avierino, N. 
Gerhardt, S. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. Cherkassky, P, 

Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. Eisler, D. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 

Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 

Violas. 

Van Wynbergen, C. 
Bernard, A. 



Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Grover, H. 
Werner, H. 



Fiedler, A. 



Deane, C. 
Jacob, R. 



Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 
Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 
Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-ftat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 



Bassoons. 
Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 

Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 




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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 10 
AT 8.30 



Brahms 



PROGRAMME 

Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 



Brahms 



Concerto No. 2 in B-flat major for Pianoforte and 

Orchestra, Op. 83 
I. Allegro non troppo. 
II. Allegro appassionato. 

III. Andante. 

IV. Allegretto grazioso. 



Brahms Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 

I. Allegro non troppo. 
II. Andante moderato. 

III. Allegro giocoso. 

IV. Allegro energico e passionato. 



SOLOIST 
ARTUR SGHNABEL 

BECHSTEIN PIANO 



There wiil be an intermission of ten minutes after the Concerto 



The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 

5 




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Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 . . . . Johannes Brahms 
(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897) 

Brahms wrote two overtures in the summer of 1880 at Ischl — 
the "Academic" and the "Tragic." They come between the Sym- 
phony in D major and that in F major in the list of his orchestral 
works. The "Tragic" overture bears the later opus number, but 
it was written before the "Academic"; as Reimann says, "The 
satyr-play followed the tragedy." It is said by Heuberger that 
Brahms wrote two "Academic Festival Overtures;" so he must 
have destroyed one of them. The "Academic" was first played 
at Breslau, January 4, 1881. The university of that town had 
given him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (March 11, 1879)*; 
this overture was the expression of his thanks. The Rector and 
Senate and members of the Philosophical Faculty sat in the front 
seats at the performance, and the composer conducted his work, 
which may be described as a skilfully made potpourri or fantasia 

*"Q. D. B. V. Summis auspiciis Serenissimi ac potentissirai principis Guilelmi 
Imperatoris Auguste Germanici Regis Borussicae, etc.. eiusque auctortitate regia Uni- 
versitatis Litterarum Vratislavieusis Rectore Magnifico Ottone Spiegelberg Viro II- 
lustrissimo Joanni Brahms Holsato artis musicae sevcrioris in Germania nunc principi 
ex decreto ordinis philosophorum promotor legitime constitutus Petrus Josephus El- 
venich Ordinis Philosophorum h. a. Decanus philosophiae doctoris nomen iura et 
privilegia honoris causa contulit collataque publico hoc diplomate declaravit die XI 
mensis Martii A. MDCCCLXX1X. (L.S.)" Brahms in 1877 was offered the title 
of Mus. Doc. from the University of Cambridge, England. 




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on students' songs. Brahms was not a university man, but he 
had known with Joachim the joyous life of students at Gottingen — 
at the university made famous by Canning's poem: 

Whene'er with hazard eyes I view 

This dungeon that I'm rotting in, 
I think of those companions true 
Who studied with me at the U — 

— niversity of Gottingen — 

niversity of Gottingen ; 

che university satirized so bitterly by Heine. 

Brahms wrote to Bernhard Scholz that the title "Academic" 
did not please him. Scholz suggested that it was "cursedly aca- 
demic and boresonie," and suggested "Viadrina," for that was the 
poetical name of the Breslau University. Brahms spoke flippantly 
of this overture in the fall of 1880 to Max Kalbeck. He described 
it as a "very jolly potpourri on students' songs a la Suppe"*; and, 
when Kalbeck asked him ironically if he had used the "Foxsong," 

•Franz Suppe" (1S19-1S95), theatre conductor and voluminous composer, wrote 
serious works of worth, but was best known by his operettas, which had a world- 
wide popularity, as "Fatinitza" (1876), "Boccaccio" (1879). He wrote for the 
stage no less than 211 works — among them 31 operettas, music for 180 farces, ballets, 
etc. He was probably first known in this country by the overture to the play, "Poet 
and Peasant." There is a statue over his grave in Vienna. Otto Keller wrote his 
life. Suppe"s full name was Francesco Ezechiele Ermenegildo Cavaliere Suppe Demelli. 
Born at Spalato, he died at Vienna. A pupil of Sechter and Seyfried at the Vienna 
Conservatory, he received valuable advice from Donizetti. 



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he answered contentedly, "Yes, indeed." Kalbeck was startled, and 
said he could not think of such academic homage to the ''leathery 
Hen Rektor," whereupon Brahms duly replied, "That is also 
wholly unnecessary." 

The first of the student songs to be introduced in Binzer's "Wir 
batten gebauel ein Btattlichea Haus"*: tf We had built a stately 
house, and trusted in (Jod therein through bad weather, storm, and 
horror." The first measures are given out by the trumpets with a 
peculiarly stately effect. The melody of "Der Landesvater"f is 
given to the second violins. And then for the first time is there any 
deliberate attempt to portray the jollity of university life. The 
u Fuchslied ,, J (Freshman Bong), ^Was konimt dort von der Hoh'," 
is introduced suddenly by two bassoons accompanied by violon- 
cellos and violas pizzicati. There are hearers undoubtedly who re- 

•"Wir hatten gebauet." Tho versos of A. Binzer. to an old tune, were sung for 
(ho first timo at .Trim. November 1!>. IMIt. on tho occasion of tho dissolution of the 
HurschctiMchaft , tho German students' association founded in 1615 for patriotic pur- 
Tho music is by Friedrich Sllcher, who was born at Schnalth, in Wurtemberg. 
on Juno 27, 1789, and died at Tiibingon on August 26, 1860. Ho studied music under 
ins father, and later under Auborlon. who was Organist at Fellbach. near Stuttgart. 
He lived for a while af Sohorndorf and Ludwigsburg, and then moved to Stuttgart, 
whore lie supported himself by teaching music. In 1S17 ho was appointed Music 
Director at the University of Tubingen, where he received the honorary degree of 
I >cctor in 1852. lie wrote many vocal works, and was especially noteworthy as one 

of the foremost promoters of the German Volktlied. His "Sammlung deutscher Voiks- 
lieder"' is a classic. Among his best-known songs are "Loroloy" ('"Ich weiss nicht 
was sol] es bedeuten"), "Aennchen von Tharau." "Zu Strassburg auf dor Schanz," 
and "Wir batten gebauet.*' This latter is a sort of students' hymn, sung in Ger- 
man universities very much in (he same spirit that "Integer vitae" (Christian Gottlieb 
Fleming's "Lobet den Vater") is in ours. The words lire: — 

Wir batten gebauet 

Kin Btattlichea Hans. 

Darin auf Gotl rertrauet 

Durch Wetter. Sturm, und Grans. 

+ "I><r Landesrater" is a student song of the eighteenth century. It was pub- 
.(■out 1750. 

|""Waa kOmml dort" is a student BOng as old as the beginning of th(> oigh(eonth 

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member the singing of this song in Longfellow's "Hyperion" ; how 
the Freshman entered the Kneipe, and was asked with ironical 
courtesy concerning the health of the leathery Herr Papa who reads 
in Cicero. Similar impertinent questions were asked concerning 
the "Fran Mama" and the "Mamsell Seeur"; and then the struggle 
of the Freshman with the first pipe of tobacco was described in 
song. "Gaudeamus igitnr,"* the melody that is familiar to students 
of all lands, serves as the finale. 

The overture is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two 
clarinets, two bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, 
three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, bass drums, 
cymbals, triangle, strings. 

The overture was played for the first time in Boston by Theodore 
Thomas's Orchestra, October 14, 1881. 



This overture is "the half-sad, half-solemn retrospect of a mature 
man looking back over his own vanished youth and the fun of his 
glorious student daysy rather than an exuberant, boisterous piece 
of student life in the present. This is at once evident from the 
significant stress laid upon its meditative parts, which, in the whole 
of the first third of it, seem, as it were, to force themselves to take 
a humorous turn by an effort. It is in this blend of past and 
present, of seriousness and jollity. Badness and exuberance, that 

•There are singular legends concerning the origin <»f "Gaudeamus Igltor," but 
there seems to be do authentic appearance of the Bong, is it is now known, before 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, when the Bong was popular at Jena and 

U ipsic. 

tiint Brahms himself knew not those days.- -P. II. 



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the peculiar beauty of this overture consists, as well as the human 
and poetic charm which are all its own. It does not, indeed, advance 
matters much to know which German student songs have been made 
use of . . . . For all the simplicity and fidelity to the originals of 
their setting, the artistic form imparted to them by means of tone- 
color is so subtle that we only notice, as it were, half-consciously, 
how, in their very choice, the comical humor of the descent of the 
young foxes seems to be fully counterbalanced, if not outweighed, 
by the solemn, chivalrous pride of the 'Landesvater' the stately 
and restrained rejoicing of the hymnlike 'Gaudeamus', and the 
earnest, patriotic devotion of 'Ich hab' mich ergeben.' " — "Brahms," 
by Walter Niemann. 



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CONCUtTO NO. -. IN B-FLAT MAJOR. FOR PlANOFOKTK AND ORCHESTRA, 

Op. B8 Johannes Brahms 

(Born at Hamburg on May 7, 1S33 ; died at Vienna on April 3, 18J>7) 

Tli is concerto was performed for the first time at Budapest, from 
manuscript, November 9, 1881, when the composer was the pianist* 

On April 8, L878, Brahms, in company with Dr. Billroth and 
Carl Goldmarkj made a journey to Italy. Goldmark, who went 
to Borne to be present at the last rehearsals of his opera, "Die 
Koniizin von Saba." — production was postponed until the next year 
on account of the illness of the leading soprano, — did not accom- 
pany his friends to Naples and Sicily. Returning to Portschach, 
Brahms sketched themes of the Concerto in B-flat major on the 
evening before his birthday ; but he left the sketches, in which "he 
mirrored the Italian spring turning to summer," undeveloped. 

His violin concerto originally contained a scherzo movement. 
Conferring with Joachim, he omitted this movement. Max Kalbeck 
thinks that this Scherzo found a home in the second pianoforte 
concerto. 

In March, 1881, Brahms set out on a second journey in Italy. He 
visited Venice, Florence, Siena, Orvieto, Rome, Naples, and Sicily. 
He returned to Vienna on his birthday of that year with his mind 
full of Italian scenes in springtime and with thoughts of the piano* 
forte concerto inspired by his first visit. On May 22 he went to 
Presslmum near Vienna, and lived in the villa of Mine. Heingartner. 
In 1907, Orestes Bitter von Connevay, then the possessor of the villa, 
erected a monument to Brahms in the garden. A bronze bust 

•The utatemenl made bj Mite Florence May in her Life of Brahmi (VoL II.. p. 

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stands on a stone pedestal An iron tablet bears ibis inscription: 
"Here in the summer of 1881 Johannes Brahms completed 'Name/ 
Op. 82, and the pianoforte concerto, Op. 83." Brahms was moved 
by the death of Anselm Feuerbach, the painter, to set music for 
chorus and orchestra to Schiller's poem, "Name." 

M;i\ Kalbeck, the exhaustive and exhausting biographer of 
Brahms, says that Elisabet von Herzogenberg was the first to 
know something about the existence of the concerto. In the 
Brahms-Herzogenberg correspondence, edited by Kalbeck and trans- 
lated into English by Hannah Bryant (New York, 1900), is a letter 
written by Brahms to Eliasbet from Pressbaum, July 7, 1881. In 
it he says: "I don't mind telling you that I have written a tiny, 
tiny pianoforte concerto with a tiny, tiny wisp of a scherzo. It is 
in B-flat, and I have reason to fear I have worked this udder, 
which has always yielded good milk before, too often and too 
vigorous! v." In a footnote, Kalbeck savs that the concerto was 
completed on July 7; on July 11, Brahms sent the whole of it to 
Billroth with this note: "I am sending you some small pianoforte 
pieces." In her answer Elisabet thanked Brahms for the news 
of "a tiny, tiny pianoforte Konzerterl with a tiny, tiny Scherzerl 
and in B-flat — the true and tried B-flat." "Scherzerl," Kalbeck takes 
pains to say, "is the name given to the crusty ends of a long roll 
of bread in Vienna." 

In a letter to Billroth accompanying the concerto. Brahms 
bogged him not to show "the little pianoforte pieces" to anyone 
and to return them as soon as possible; if they interested him. he 
would like a word about them. Billroth immediately wrote out 
Ins opinion. lie praised the "musical music," rejoiced in the happy 

mood, sjiid that the second concerto was to the first as the man 
to the youth, but he thought the "charming Scherzo hardly in 
keeping with the simpler form of the first movement. This Allegro 

appassionato put between the Allegro non troppo and the Andante 

gave the concerto the form of ;i symphony. Indeed, Ilanslick. KMe 

ni.-inn. and others have described the concerto as "a symphony 
with pianoforte obbligato." lint Brahms did not insert the 
Scherzo for the sake <>f symphonic form; lie feared that without 
it the "Adagio mood" would dominate the work. Billroth, who 

afterwards wrote i<> Wilhelm Liihkc that the Scherzo could be 
omitted without injury, fur. interesting ;is il was, it \v;is unnecefl 

sary. conferring with Brahms in the matter, received the answer 

that, .'is the tir-i movement \v;is so simple, there was need of a 

vigoroufl and paHHionate movement before the simple Andante. 



• < 

16 



The accompaniment of the concerto is scored for two flutes, two 
oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, kettle- 
drums, and strings. 

* 
* * 

I. Allegro non troppo, B-flat major, 4-4. The movement opens 
with hints at the first theme. The horn gives out a phrase which to 
Kalbeck is the awakening cry of Spring to cross the Alps and to 
inspire the longing heart of the composer with a new romantic 
feeling. The pianoforte answers this phrase ; there is another horn 
phrase, with an answer. The wood- wind, strengthened later by 
strings, completes the period. Cadenza-like passage work follows 
for the pianoforte alone. This leads to a tutti in which the first 
and second themes, also subsidiary themes, are exposed. The de- 
velopment and the free fantasia section are long and elaborate. The 
coda is in the shape of a decrescendo passage-work, with ornamental 
arpeggios for the pianoforte. A few fortissimo measures bring 
the close. 

II. Allegro appassionato, D minor, 3-4. The movement is in the 
form of a scherzo. A middle section in D major answers for the 
traditional Trio. 

III. Andante, B-flat major, 6-4. The movement opens with the 
announcement and development of an expressive theme, sung first 
by a solo violoncello, and later by first violins and bassoons. There 
is a resemblance between this theme and the melody of Brahms's 
song "Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer" ; but Kalbeck says that 
Brahms had no thought of quoting himself, for he did not know 
Lingg's poem until five years later, and he set music to it in 1886. 
(There is also in this movement a reminder of Brahms's "Todes- 



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sehneii." composed In L878.) The pianoforte enters with free prelud- 
ing passages. The orchestra lakes up the theme again. There is 
figuration of a varied character for the pianoforte i B-ilat major, 
B-flal minor i. A transitional passage in B major leads to the last 
return of the theme. The orchestra uses it for the coda, while the 
pianoforte has trills and arpeggios. 

IV. Allegretto gra/.ioso, B-llat major, 2-4. The Finale is in full 
rondo form. There are three themes: a lively one announced by the 
pianoforte and developed at length by it and the orchestra; a more 
cantabile theme of a Hungarian character given out alternately by 
strings and wood-wind with an arpeggio accompaniment by the 
pianoforte; a playful theme, which first appears for the pianoforte 
with a pizzicato string accompaniment. These themes are elabo- 
rately developed. There is a long coda, un poco piu presto. 



Symphony in E minor, Or. 98 Johannes Brahms 

(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1807) 

This symphony was first performed at Meiningen, October 25, 
1 vv .~). under the direction of the composer. 

Simrock, the publisher, is said to have paid Brahms forty thou- 
sand marks for the work. It was played at a public rehearsal of 
the Symphony Orchestra in Boston, November 26, 18S6. Although 
Mr. Gericke "did not stop the orchestra" — to quote from a review 
of the concert the next day — lie was not satisfied with the per- 
formance. Schumann's Symphony in B-flat was substituted for the 
conceit of November 27: there were further rehearsals. The work 
w;is played for the first time in Boston at a concert of this or- 
chestra on December 23, L886. The first performance in the United 
States was by the Symphony Society. New York. December 11. 1886. 

Hie symphony was composed in the summers of 1884 and L886 at 

Binrzzn8Cblag in Styria: the Allegro and Andante 4 during the first 

summer, the Scherzo and Finale during the last. Miss Florence 

May in lier Life of Brahms says thai the manuscript was nearly 
destroyed in L885: "Returning one afternoon from a walk, he 
(Brahms) found thai the house in which he lodged had caught tire, 
and that bis friends were busily engaged in bringing his papers, 
and amongst them the nearly finished manuscript of the new sym- 
phony, into the garden. He immediately set to work to help in 

getting tin- Are under, whilst Fran Pellinger Bat out of doors with 
either arm outspread on the precious papers piled on each side 

of her." 

Fn :t letter, Brahms described this symphony :is M a couple of 

entr'actes," also ;<^ ";• choral work without text." He was doubtful 

about it^ worth, lie consulted his friends, and he and Ign.'iz BrfUl 

played ;i pianoforte arrangement in the presence of several of them. 

lb- judged from their attitude that the\ did not like it and he was 
much depressed. There was a preliminary orchestral rehearsal ;it 



Meiningen in October, 1885, conducted by Hans von Btilow. 
Brahms arrived in time for the first performance. The symphony 
was most warmly applauded, and the audience endeavored, but in 
vain, to obtain a repetition of the third movement. The work was 
repeated November 1 under Billow's direction, and was conducted 
by the composer in the course of a three weeks' tour with the or- 
chestra and Btilow in Germany and in Netherlands. The first per- 
formance in Vienna was at a Philharmonic concert, led by Bichter, 
January 17, 1886. "Though the symphony was applauded by the 
public and praised by all but the inveterately hostile section of the 
press, it did not reach the hearts of the Vienna audience in the 
same unmistakable manner as its two immediate predecessors, 
both of which had made a more striking impression on a first 
hearing in Austria than the first symphony in C minor. Strangely 
enough, the fourth symphony at once obtained some measure of 
real appreciation in Leipsic, where the first had been far more 
successful than the second and third." This statement is too 
friendly towards Brahms. As a matter of fact, the symphony 
disappointed Brahms's friends. Hugo Wolf wrote a bitter review 
in which he made all manner of fun at the fact, trumpeted by 
Brahms's admirers, that at last there was a symphony in E minor. 
(See "Hugo Wolf's Musikalische Kritiken," Leipsic, 1911, pp. 
241-244.) It was performed under the composer's direction at the 
Gewandhaus concert in Leipsic of February 18, 1886. 

This symphony was performed at a Philharmonic concert in 
Vienna on March 7, 1897, the last Philharmonic concert heard by 
Brahms. We quote from Miss May's biography: "The fourth sym- 
phony had never become a favorite work in Vienna. Received with 
reserve on its first performance, it had not since gained much more 
from the general public of the city than the respect sure to be ac- 
corded there to an important work by Brahms. To-day [sic], how- 
ever, a storm of applause broke out at the end of the first movement, 
not to be quieted until the composer, coming to the front of the 
artist's box in which he was seated, showed himself to the audience. 



(Ernesto) 



La Forge voice method used and endorsed by: Mmes. Alda, 
Matzenauer, Miss Emma Otero, Messrs. Lawrence Tibbett, Harrington 
van Hoesen, etc. Also endorsed by Dr. W. J. Henderson. 



Ellsworth Bell, Secretary 

14 West 68th Street, New York, N. Y. Telephone: Trafalgar 8993 



19 



The demonstration was renewed after the second and the third 

movements, and an extraordinary scene followed the conclusion of 

the work. The applauding, Shouting house, its gaze riveted on the 
figure Standing in the balcony, so familiar and yet in present 

aspect so strange, seemed unable to let him go. Tears ran down 
his cheeks as he stood there, shrunken in form, with lined coun- 
tenance, strained expression, white hair hanging lank: and through 
the audience there was a feeling as of a stilled sob. for eaeli knew 
thai they were saying farewell. Another outburst of applause and 
yet another: one more acknowledgment from the master; and 
Brahms and his Vienna had parted forever."* 

In the summers of L884 and 1885 the tragedies of Sophocles, trans- 
lated into German by (Justav Wendt, were read diligently by 
Brahms. It is thought that they influenced him in the composition 
of this symphony. Kalbeck thinks that the whole symphony pictures 
the tragedy of human life. He sees in the Andante a waste and 
ruined field, as the Gampagna near Koine ; he notes the appearance 
of a passage from Brahms's song, u Auf dem Kirchhofe,'' with the 
words "Ich war an maneh vergessnem Grab gewesen" ; to him the 
Scherzo is the Carnival at Milan. While Kpeidel saw in the Finale 
the burial of a soldier. Kalbeck is reminded by the music of the 
passage in Sophocles's "CEdipus Coloneus": "Not to have been born 
at all is superior to every view of the question; and this, when one 
may have seen the light, to return thence whence he came as quickly 
.is possible, is far the next best." 

The symphony was published in L886. It is scored for two flutes 
lone interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, one double bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, three trom- 
bones, a set Of three kettledrums, triangle, and strings. 

'Brahms attended the production <>f Johann st muss's operetta, "Die Ci<">ttin dor 
Vernunft," March 18, but waa obliged to leave after the Becond act. ami be attended 

B rehearsal of the Kae^er-Scildat Quartet less than a fortnight before blfl death. — Ed. 







f ' 


Q&ortraits 








. . . .lie \»iulli\ nt llic line-.! DnOtOff" 

ii|ili\ I'. 11 Im. uli Portrait! in ( aroon. 






>£& 


IBaclnncf) 

/ hut- \arap A ' Distinction 






mm 


I M I II \\ T. \ ■.,„,i,,i.,li : -loo 

W* ' l> 'fit ( |r V rl.-w>.| rilil.vlrlpliin 












Bach 



Bax 



Prelude and Fugue in E-flat (for Organ) (Arranged 
for Orchestra by Schonberg) 

Symphony No. 2 in E minor and C 



Beethoven 

Overture to Goethe's "Egmont," Op. 84 

Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 

Bloch 

"Schelomo" ("Solomon") Hebrew Rhapsody for 

Violoncello and Orchestra 

Soloist : Jean Bedetti 

Brahms 

Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 

Concerto No. 2 in B-flat major for Pianoforte and 

Orchestra, Op. 83 

Soloist : Artur Schnabel 

Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 

DeFalla 

Three Dances from ''El Sombrero de Tres Picos," 
Ballet 

GrRUENBERG 

Jazz Suite, Op. 28 

Haydn 

Symphony in D major (with the Horn Call) 
(B. & H. No. 31) 

LOEFFLER 

Canticum Fratris Solis (After St. Francis of Assisi) 
for Voice and Orchestra 

Soloist : Povla Frijsh 

Mozart 

Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (K. No. 525) 

Prokofieff 

Second Piano Concerto in G minor, Op. 16 

Soloist : Serge Prokofieff 
Scythian Suite, Op. 20 

Ravel 

"Ma MSre l'Oye" ("Mother Goose"). Five Children's 

Pieces 
"Bolero" 

Strauss 

"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks," after the Old- 
fashioned, Roguish Manner, in Rondo Form, 
Op. 28 

Walton 

Overture, "Portsmouth Point" 

21 



IV. March 6 

II. January 9 

I. November 21 
I. November 21 

IV. March 6 
V. April 10 



V. April 10 
V. April 10 



III. February 7 
IV. March 6 

IV. March 6 

II. January 9 
III. February 7 



III. February 7 
III. February 7 



I. November 21 
II. January 9 



I. November 21 
II. January 9 




pM 



K9!Z ^3P W*Ww V- 




The PARTY SEASON 

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New York City 
10 West 48th St. 

Phonr.-I3ry.nt 6828. 6829 







FIFTH MATINEE 
SATURDAY AFTERNOON. APRIL 12 

AT 2.30 



PROGRAMME 



Brahms 



Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 



Brahms . . Concerto for Pianoforte No. 1 in D minor, Op. 1 5 

I. Maestoso. 

II. Adagio. 

III. Rondo: Allegro non troppo. 



Brahms ..... Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 68 
I. Un poco sostenuto; Allegro. 
II. Andante sostenuto. 

III. Un poco allegretto e grazioso. 

IV. Adagio; Allegro non troppo, ma con brio. 



SOLOIST 
ARTUR SCHNABEL 

BECHSTEIN PIANO 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the concerto 



The music of these programmes is available at the 58th Street Library 



23 



A. DBMIC Festival Ovkktikk, Or. 80 .... JOHANNES Bkahms 

For Notes see Page 7 



CONCERTO FOB PlAKOFOETI No. 1. I> MINOR, Op. 



Johannes Brahms 



(Bom at Hamburg, May 7, 1S33 ; died at Vienna, April 3, 1S97) 

This concerto was played for the first time on January 22, 1S59, at 
Hanover. Brahms was the pianist, and Joachim conducted. 

The concerto was announced for performance at a Theodore 
Thomas concert in Music Hall, Boston, December 9, 1871, with Miss 
Marie Krebs,* pianist; but the concert did not take place, for Mr. 
Thomas, with "graceful courtesy," gave way to the musical festival 
of twelve hundred public-school children in honor of the Grand 
Duke Alexis, who was visiting Boston. 

Mr. Bauer played the concerto in Boston at a concert of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, December 1, 1900, when he played 
for the first time in the United States. He gave a second per- 
formance with the same orchestra on January 17, 1914; a third 
on October IT). L920; a fourth on December 4, 1925. 

Mr. Joseffy played the concerto in Boston at a concert of the 
New fork Symphony Societv in Symphony Hall on January IS, 1901). 

Brahms, living in Hanover in 1854, worked in the spring and 
summer on a symphony. The madness of Schumann and his at- 
tempt to commit suicide by tin-owing himself into the Rhine had 
deeply affected him. He wrote to Joachim in January. L855, from 
Dflsseldorf, "I have been trying my hand at a symphony during 
the past summer, have even orchestrated the first movement, and 
Composed tli<- second ami third." This symphony was never com- 
pleted. The work ;is it stood was turned into a sonata for two 
pianofortes. The first two movements became Later the first and 
the second of the Pianoforte ('oncerto in I) minor; the third is 

the movement "Behold all flesh" in "A German Requiem." The 
sonatfl for i\\<> pianofortes was frequently played in private in 
lie- middle fifties by Brahms with (Mara Schumann, <>r his friend 
Julius Otto Grimm, who bad assisted him in the orchestration of 
the symphony. Grimm (1827 L 903), philologist, conductor, Lecturer, 

doctor of philosophy, composer of ;i symphony, suites, and other 

•" i. (or Marie), born ai i". den, December ■. L851, died then on 

.inn.- ■ daught< Karl ■ 1 80 1 si ". celebrated 

1 1- r -hi her piano plaj Ing, and - '"■ 

\ • i.r man] Journej i I \ Irt 
i ■ :• ii sin- u .. ed to one Brenning, 



RICHARD COPLEY, ^Management 

10 East 43rd Street, New York 



ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 

SEASON 1930-1931 

TEN SUNDAY AFTERNOON CONCERTS 

Gommencing at 4 sharp 

METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE 

October 26th, November 9th and 23rd, December 7th and 21st 
January 18th, February 1st and 15th, March 8th and 22nd 



Subscription tickets, $7.50 to $30.00, may be secured at the office of the Society, 
10 East 43rd Street, Room 503. Renewal of subscriptions closes April 26th. 
Locations will be allotted to new subscribers May 1st. Write for prospectus. 

Management: RICHARD COPLEY (Steinway Piano) 



RICHARD COPLEY, Management 

Steinway Hall, SUNDAY EVENING, April 13th, at 8.45 

JAY FASSETT 

BASS-BARITONE Greta Why at the Piano (Steinway Piano) 



Town Hall, SATURDAY EVENING, April 26th, at 8.30 

The first performance in complete form 

IRA B. ARNSTEIN'S OPERA ORATORIO 
"THE SONG OF DAVID" 

EMINENT SOLOISTS • CHORUS • ORCHESTRA 
Conducted by the Composer 



Town Hall, SATURDAY EVENING, May 3rd, at 8.30 

VASSAR COLLEGE CHOIR 

E. Harold Geer, Conductor (Steinway Piano) 



25 



works, declared iliat the musical contents of this sonata deserved 
a more dignified form, and persuaded Brahms to put them into a 
concerto. The task busied Brahms for two years or more. The 
movements were repeatedly sent to Joachim, whose advice was of 
much assistance. In 1858 the Signals reported that Brahms had 
arrived in Detmold, and it was hoped that some of his compositions 
might be performed there. "He has completed, among other things, 
a pianoforte concerto, the great beauties of which have beeu re- 
ported to us.'* The musicians at Detmold were not inclined to 
appreciate Brahms; it is said that the Kapellmeister, Kiel, was 
prejudiced against him ; but the concerto was rehearsed at Hanover, 
and Joachim, in spite of a certain amount of official opposition, 
put it on the programme of the Hanover Subscription Court Con- 
certs, the third of the series for 1858-51). 

The concerto was then coldly received. The Hanover correspon- 
dent of the Signale wrote, ''The work had no great success with 
the public, but it aroused the decided respect and sympathy of 
the best musicians for the gifted artist." Brahms played the con- 
certo at a Gewandhans concert in Leipsic on January 27, 1859. 
The public and the critics were unfriendly. The composer wrote 
to Joachim : "A brilliant and decided failure. ... In spite of all this, 
the concerto will please some day when I have improved its con- 
struction." Breitkopf and Hiirtel refused to publish it; but 
Kieter-Biedennann gave it to the world in 1861. 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for two flutes, two 

oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, kettle- 
drums, and the usual strings. 



Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, teacher of the piano, desires to call to your 
attention his inauguration of Group Lessons in response to the growing demand for 
instruction of this type. 

Each group will consist of three students of practically equal ability. All will study 
the same material and each will receive an equal amount of individual attention. 
The period will be of one hour duration. 

Mr. Freckelton is assured that this innovation will be welcomed by those who de- 
sire expert and artistic instruction but feel unable to meet the nccesssarily high fees 
required for private instruction, and by those who appreciate the returns received 
from the competitive spirit developed by such lessons. 

Mr Freckelton will gladly send to you full information m regard to these group 
lessons. He will of course continue his work with individual tudents. 

STKINWAY HALL Residence 

113 WEST 57th STREET 214 ARLINGTON AVENUE 

m York Brooklyn. N. Y. 



J. S. Bach 

Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major for String 

Orchestra 



Bax 



Symphony No. 2 in E minor and C 



Beethoven 

Symphony No. 4 in B-flat major, Op. 60 

Brahms 

Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 

Concerto for Pianoforte No. 1 in D minor, Op. 15 

Soloist : Artur Schnabel 

Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 68 

DeFalla 

Three Dances from "El Sombrero de Tres Picos," 

Ballet 

Gruenberg 

"The Enchanted Isle," Symphonic Poem 
Jazz Suite, Op. 28 



II. January 11 

III. February 8 

II. January 11 

V. April 12 

V. April 12 
V. April 12 

III. February 8 



I. November 23 
IV. March 8 



Handel 

Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra, Op. 6, No. 10 I. November 23 



Lazar 



Concerto Grosso No. 1 for Orchestra, in the Old Style IV. March 8 

II. January 11 



Pick-Mangiagalli 

Prelude and Fugue 



Prokofieff 

Second Piano Concerto in G minor, Op. 16 
Soloist : Serge Prokofieff 



Ravel 



Bolero 



III. February 8 
II. January 11 



Sibelius 

Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D minor, Op. 47 

Soloist : Richard Burgin IV. March 8 

Symphony No. 6, Op. 104 IV. March 8 

Strauss 

Interlude from "Intermezzo" : A Domestic Comedy 

with Symphonic Interludes, Op. 72 II. January 11 



Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

Walton 

Overture, "Portsmouth Point" 

27 



I. November 23 



III. February 8 



I. Maestoso, D minor, 6-8. There is a long orchestral introduc- 
tion. The chief theme begins fortissimo in the strings over a roll of 
kettledrums. There is an orchestral diminuendo, and the pianoforte 
enters with material in continuation of that which has been heard. 
The second theme, F major, is announced and developed by the 
pianoforte alone, but later is taken up by the strings with the piano- 
forte in figuration against it. This is worked out at length. The 
development section begins with a sturdy passage for pianoforte, 
and the orchestra alternates with suggestions of the chief theme, 
but there are figures that almost have the aspect of fresh motives. 
A crescendo leads back to the recapitulation with the chief theme 
for the pianoforte. The second theme for pianoforte alone is in D 
major. There is a brilliant coda on the first theme, ending in 
D minor. 

II. Adagio, D major, 6-4. In the manuscript score is this motto, 
"Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini," suggested by the thought 
of Schumann's ending. The movement is an elaborately treated 
Romanza on a single theme (strings and bassoons, later the piano- 
forte), with a subsidiary theme (clarinets) in the middle section. 

III. Rondo : Allegro non troppo, D minor, 2-4. The first theme is 
given out by the pianoforte. The second motive is in F major 
(pianoforte). This material is developed. The first theme re- 



1929 - SEASON - 1930 
SIXTH SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT 

CONDUCTORLESS 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CARNEGIE HALL 
SATURDAY EVENING, APRIL 26th, AT 8.45 P.M. 

Soloists 

HENRY COWELL SERGE KOTLARSKY MITYA STILLMAN 

PROGRAMME 
BACH Concerto Cor 2 Violins and Orchestra 

Si SOI KOTL aicsk v 

M [ \ \ \ Sii i.i.m \N 

iii:\i:v COWELL "Tone Clusters" 

For Piano and Orchestra 

1 1 1 \m COWBLL 

BRAHMS s.\ mphony No. 8 In F major 

Boxes: - - $20.00 and $24.00 
Tickets: - $1.00 to $2.50 

Now on sale at Box Office, Carnegie Hall and at the Offices of the Conductor less 

Symphony Orchestra, 22 East 55th Street, New York 

Telephone: Wick<rihnm 7870 
»«y Pi » no 

M 



CARNEGIE HALL 



/ 



FIFTIETH SEASON 
1930-1931 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Two Series of Five Concerts Each 

EVENING CONCERTS at ^30 £ l f $*~ 

Thursday, November 40, January 8 
Friday, February 6 
Thursday, March 5, April 9 *f 

SATURDAY AFTERNOONS at 2.30 

November 22~"~> January 10 February 7 

March 7 April 11 



SEASON TICKETS 



Five Concerts, A $l 5, $12.50, $10, $7, $5 
Boxes (8 seats) $96 and $120. (No tax) 

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IMPORTANT NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS 

The option to renew the subscription for your present seats 
expires MAY 15, after which date seats not re-engaged will be 
offered to the waiting list. 

All communications should be addressed to 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager, 

Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 

29 



appears. The third theme is introduced by first violins, B-flat 
major. This is developed. Then comes a fugato, after which the 
chief theme is given to the orchestra, with broken octaves for the 
pianoforte. The second theme returns in D minor. There is a 
cadenza for the solo instrument. The third theme comes back in 
D major. There is a long coda, chiefly on the first theme, now in 
D major. 



Symphony in C minor, No. 1, Op. 68 ... . Johannes Brahms 
(Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1S9T) 

Brahms was not in a hurry to write a symphony; he heeded 
not the wishes or demands of his friends. In 1854, Schumann 
wrote to Joachim: "Where is Johannes? Is he flying high or only 
under the flowers? Is he not yet ready to let drums and trumpets 
sound? He should always keep in mind the beginning of the 
Beethoven symphonies : he should try to make something like them. 
The beginning is the main thing; if only one makes a beginning, 
then the end comes of itself." 

In 1854, Brahms heard Beethoven's Ninth Symphony for the 
first time. He resolved to write a symphony in the same tonality. 
The next year, he orchestrated the first movement and composed 
the second and third. The symphony was never completed. The 
work as it stood was turned into a sonata for two pianofortes. 
The first two movements became later the first and the second of 
the pianoforte concerto in 1) minor, and the third is the movement 
''Behold all flesh" in "A German Requiem." 

Kalbeck has much to say about the influence of Beethoven's 
Ninth Symphony, Schumann's "Manfred,* 1 and the tragedy in the 
Schumann family, on Brahms, as the composer of the C minor 
Symphony. The contents of the symphony, according to Kalbeck, 
portray tin* relationship between Brahms and Robert and Clara 
Schumann. The biographer finds significance in the first measures 
poco sostenuto that serve as introduction to the tirst Allegro. 11 
was Richard Grant White who said of the German commentator 
on Shakespeare that the deeper he dived the muddier he came up, 

Just when Brahms began t<» make the first sketches of this sym- 
phony is not exactly known. lie \v;is in the habit, as a young man, 

«>f jotting down his musical thoughts when they occurred t<> him. 

Later be worked OO Several Compositions at the same time and let 

tin-in grOW under his band. There are instances where Ihis gTOWtb 

N 



was of very long duration. He destroyed the great majority of 
his sketches. The few that he did not destroy are, or were recently, 
in the Library of the Gesellschaft de Musikfreunde at Vienna. 

In 1862 Brahms showed his friend Albert Dietrich an early ver- 
sion of the first movement of the symphony. He saw the first 
movement in 1862. It was then without an introduction. The 
Finale was conceived in the face of the Zurich mountains, in sight 
of the Alps and the lake ; and the horn solo with the calling voices 
that fade into a melancholy echo was undoubtedly suggested by 
the Alpine horn; the movement was finished on the Island of 
Rugen. The first movement was afterwards greatly changed. 
Brahms was working on the Adagio and Scherzo in 1876. In 
October of that year he played the whole symphony to Clara Schu- 
mann. She noted her disappointment in her diary; she missed 
the "melodic flight." 

The symphony was produced when Brahms was in his forty- 
fourth year, at Carlsruhe, by the Grand Duke's orchestra, on No- 
vember 4, 1876. Dessof conducted from manuscript. Simrock paid 
5,000 thalers for the symphony and published it at the end of 1877. 

The first performance in Boston was by the Harvard Musical 
Association on January 3, 1878. Carl Zerrahn conducted. John S. 
Dwight wrote in his Journal of Music that the total impression 
made on him was "as something depressing and unedifying, a work 
coldly elaborated, artificial ; earnest to be sure, in some sense great, 
and far more satisfactory than any symphony by Raff, or any 
others of the day, which we have heard ; but not to be mentioned 
in the same day with any symphony by Schumann, Mendelssohn, 
or the great one by Schubert, not to speak of Beethoven's. . . . Our 
interest in it will increase, but we foresee the limit ; and certainly 
it cannot be popular; it will not be loved like the dear master- 
pieces of genius." The Harvard Musical Association gave a second 
performance on January 31, 1878. The first performance in New 
York was conducted by Dr. Leopold Damrosch on December 15, 1877. 



FOR 



in Educational Institutions 
Also tor CHURCH MUSICIANS. 

GUIDANCE. COUNSELLING 
Address. HENRY C LAHEE 
Boston Musical and Educational Bureau 
513 Pierce Building. Copley Square. Boston. Mass. 



BOUND COPIES of the 

Unatrm j^gmpffnttg (§tttyBtm*B 

PROGRAMME BOOKS 

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The first movement opens with a short introduction, Un poco 
- -tenuto, C minor, 6-S, which leads without a pause into the first 
movement proper. Allegro, C minor. 

Second movement. Andante sostenuto, E major, 3-4. 

The place of the traditional Scherzo is supplied by a movement, 
Qn poco allegretto e grazioso, A-flat major, 2-4. 

The finale begins with an Adagio, C minor, 44, in which there 
are hints of the themes of the Allegro which follows. Here "William 
Foster Apthorp should be quoted: 

"With the thirtieth measure the tempo changes to piu andante, and we come 
upon one of the most poetic episodes in all Brahms. Amid hushed, tremulous 
harmonies in the strings, the horn and afterward the flute pour forth an 
utterly original melody, the character of which ranges from passionate plead- 
ing to a sort of wild exultation, according to the instrument that plays it. 
The coloring is enriched by the solemn tones of the trombones, which appear 
for the first time in this movement. It is ticklish work trying to dive down 
into a composer's brain, and surmise what special outside source his inspira- 
tion may have had ; but one cannot help feeling that this whole wonderful 
episode may have been suggested to Brahms by the tones of the Alpine horn, 
as it awakens the echoes from mountain after mountain on some of the high 
passes in the Bernese Oberland. This is certainly what the episode recalls to 
any one who has ever heard those poetic tones and their echoes. A short, 
solemn, even ecclesiastical interruption by the trombones and bassoons is of 
more thematic importance. As the horn-tones gradually die away, and the 
clondlike harmonies in the strings sink lower and lower — like mist veiling the 
landscape — an impressive pause ushers in the Allegro non troppo, ma con brio 
(in C major, 4-4 time). The introductory Adagio has already given us 
mysterious hints at what is to come; and now there bursts forth in the strings 
the most joyous, exuberant Volkslied melody, a very Hymn to Joy. which in 
some of its phrases, as it were unconsciously and by sheer affinity of nature. 
flows into strains from the similar melody in the Finale of Beethoven's Ninth 
Symphony. One cannot call it plagiarism: it is two men saying the same 
thing." 

This melody is repeated by horns and wood-wind with a pizzicato string 
accompaniment, and is finally taken up by the whole orchestra fortissimo 
(without trombones). The second theine is announced softly by the strings. 
In the rondo finale the themes hinted at in the introduction are brought in 
and developed with Bome new ones. The coda is based chiefly on the first 
theme. 

Dr. Heinricfa Beimann finds Max Klinger's picture of "Prometheus Unbound" 
'the true parallel" to this symphony. 



APPLICATIONS FOR ADVERTISING SPACE IN THIS PRO- 
GRAMME SHOULD BE MADE TO L. S. R. JEFFERDS, 
ADVERTISING MANAGER, SYMPI IONY I IALL, BOSTON, MASS. 






MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 




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ACCOMPANIST and COACH 
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Teachers and Professionals: For space in this program, consult me. 



TEACHER o/ SINGING 

Director 

Radio Programme Service 

of America 

Auditions Daily 
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Teacher of the Pianoforte 
Mr. Tillotson has received his training from Heinrich Gebhard, Boston, and Tobias Matthay, 
London. He conducts Master Classes at the Lamont School, Denver, during the summer. 

The Longy School is now using exclusively the 
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voice in relation to the motion picture art. 

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Brooklyn Programmes 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



Friday Evening, November 22, at 8.15 

;s an 
yn 

/ 



Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and the Philharmonic 

Society of Brooklyn 




PR5GRZW\E 







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President 



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Manager 



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Managing Director Boston 





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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 22, at 8.15 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 



COPYRIGHT, 1929, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



You <* si u enio\ 



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for it at your 
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really a simple matter. You have 
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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Arti&res, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 



Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, # G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Fedorovsky, P. Leibovici, J. 
Leveen, P. Tapley, R. 

Knudson, C. Gorodetzky, L. 

Zide, L. Fiedler, B. 

Stonestreet, L. Messina, S. 

Erkelens, H. Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 
Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

CauhapS, J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 
Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Barth, C. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 
Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 

Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 



Bassoons. 

Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Timpani. 
Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 
Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam, E. 

Percussion. 

Ludwig, C 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 



ABRAHAM <f 

FULTON ST. at HOYT . *y* 



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Style at ABRAHAM A STRAUS 

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23 

> 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



Forty-second season in Brooklyn 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIRST CONCERT 



FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 22 



AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Handel . . Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra, Op. 6, No. 10 
Overture — Allegro; Air: Lento; Allegro moderato; Allegro. 

Wagner Prelude to "Lohengrin" 



Strauss 



"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks," 

after the Old-fashioned, Roguish Manner, 

in Rondo Form, Op. 28 



Beethoven .... 
I. Allegro con brio. 
II. Andante con moto. 
f III. Allegro; Trio. 
I IV. Allegro. 



Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the symphony 

5 




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Concerto Grosso No. 10, in D minor . . George Frideric Handel 
(Born at Halle on February 23, 1685; died at London, April 14, 1759) 

Handel's twelve grand concertos for strings were composed be- 
tween September 29 and October 30, 1739. The tenth bears the date 
October 22. The London Daily Post of October 29, 1739, said : "This 
day are published proposals for printing by subscription, with His 
Majesty's royal license and protection, Twelve Grand Concertos, 
in Seven Parts, for four violins, a tenor, a violoncello, with a 
thorough-bass for the harpsichord. Composed by Mr. Handel. Price 
to subscribers, two guineas. Ready to be delivered by April next. 
Subscriptions are taken by the author, at his house* in Brook Street, 
Hanover Square, and by Walsh." In an advertisement on Novem- 

*This was the little house, No. 25 Lower Brook Street (now Brook Street), in 
which Handel lived from 1725 until his death. Here he composed the "Messiah," 
"Saul," and other oratorios. "After his death his valet rented the house and made 
the most of Handel's long residence to secure lodgers." "Sydney Smith lived in this 
house in 1835" (George H. Cunningham's "London." Handel lived for three years 
in Old Burlington House, erected by the third Earl of Burlington, amateur architect 
and friend of Pope.) In the rate-book of 1725 Handel was named owner, and the 
house rated at £35 a year. Mr. W. H. Cummins, about 1903, visiting this house, 
found a cast-lead cistern, on the front of which in bold relief was "1721. G. F. H." 
The house had then been in possession of a family about seventy years, and various 
structural alterations had been made. A back room on the first floor was said to 
have been Handel's composition-room. 



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bei -- the publisher added, "Two of the above concertos will be per- 
formed this evening at the Theatre Royal, Lincoln's Inn." The 
concertos were published on April 21, 1740. In an advertisement 
a few <lays afterwards Walsh said, "These concertos were per- 
formed at the Theatre Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and now are 
played in most public places with the greatest applause." Victor 
Bchoelcher made this comment in his Life of Handel: "This was 
the case with all the works of Handel. They were so frequently 
performed at contemporaneous concerts and benefits that they seem, 
during his lifetime, to have quite become public property. More- 
over, he did nothing which the other theatres did not attempt to 
imitate. In the little theatre of the Haymarket, evening entertain- 
ments were given in exact imitation of his 'several concertos for 
different instruments, with a variety of chosen airs of the best 
master, and the famous Salve Regina of Hasse.' The handbills 
issued by the nobles at the King's Theatre make mention also of 
'several concertos for different instruments.' " 

The year 1739, in which these concertos were composed, was the 
year of the first performance of Handel's "Saul" (January 1G) 
and "Israel in Egypt" (April 4), — both oratorios were composed in 
1T3S, — also of the music to Dryden's "Ode for St. Cecilia's Day" 
i November 22). 




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Roma in Holland, discussing the form concerto grosso, which 
consists essentially of a dialogue between a group of soloists, the 
concertino (trio of two solo violins and solo bass with cembalo*) 
and the chorus of instruments, concerto grosso, believes that Handel 
at Rome in 170$ was impressed by Corelli's works in this field, for 
several of his concertos of Opus 3 are dated 1710, 1716, 1722. 
Geminiani introduced the concerto into England, — three volumes 
appeared in 1732, 1735, 1748, — and he was a friend of Handel. 

Handel's concertos of this set that have five movements are either 
in the form of a sonata with an introduction and a postlude (as 
Nos. 1 and 6) ; or in the form of the symphonic overture with the 
slow movements in the middle, and a dance movement, or an allegro 
closely resembling a dance, for a finale (as Nos. 7, 11, and 12) ; or 
a scries of three movements from larghetto to allegro, which is 
followed by two dance movements (as No. 3). 

The seven parts are thus indicated by Handel in book of parts: 
Violino primo concerto, Violino secondo concertino, Violino primo 
ripieno, Violino secondo ripieno, viola, violoncello, bass continuo. 

I. Ouverture. D minor, 4-4 : Allegro, D minor, 6-S. The over- 

*The Germans in the concertino sometimes coupled an oboe or a bassoon with 
a violin. The Italians were faithful, as a rule to the strings. 




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ture is after the French pattern, in two sections. The Allegro is 
in the form of a three-voiced fugue. In its course, there is four- 
voiced work, but in reality only three voices are in counterpoint. 

II. Air. Lento, D minor, 3-2. Alternate passages are played by 
the concertino alone, and by it and the concerto ripieno together. 

III. Allegro, D minor, 4-4. A rhythmically strongly marked 
theme is developed contrapuntally in four-part writing. 

IV. Allegro, D minor, 3-4. In this the longest movement of the 
work the first and second violins of the concertino really play 
concertanti. 

V. Allegro moderato, D major, 4-4. For concertino and ripieno 
together. 

Prelude to the Opera "Lohengrin" .... Richard Wagner 
(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813 ; died at Venice, February 13, 1SS3) 

"Lohengrin," an opera in three acts, was performed for the first 
time at the Court Theatre, Weimar, August 28, 1850. The cast was 
as follows : Lohengrin, Beck ; Telramund, Milde ; King Henry, 
Hofer; the Herald, Patsch; Orturd, Miss Fastlinger; Elsa, Miss 
Agthe. Liszt conducted. 



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Liszt described the prelude as "a sort of magic formula which, like 
a mysterious initiation, prepares our souls for the sight of un- 
accustomed things, and of a higher signification than that of our 
terrestrial life." 

Wagner's own explanation has been translated into English as 
follows : — 

"Love seemed to have vanished from a world of hatred and quar- 
relling; as a lawgiver she was no longer to be found among the com- 
munities of men. Emancipating itself from barren care for gain and 
possession, the sole arbiter of all worldly intercourse, the human 
heart's unquenchable love-longing again at length craved to appease 
a want, which, the more warmly and intensely it made itself felt 
under the pressure of reality, was the less easy to satisfy, on ac- 
count of this very reality. It was beyond the confines of the actual 
world that man's ecstatic imaginative power fixed the source as 
well as the outflow of this incomprehensible impulse of love, and 
from the desire of a comforting sensuous conception of this super- 
sensuous idea invested it with a wonderful form, which, under the 
name of the 'Holy Grail,' though conceived as actually existing, yet 
unapproachably far olf, was believed in, longed for, and sought for. 
The Holy Grail was the costly vessel out of which, at the Last 



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12 



Supper, our Saviour drank with His disciples, and in which His 
blood was received when out of love for His brethren He suffered 
upon a cross, and which till this day has been preserved with lively 
zeal as the source of undying love; albeit, at one time this cup of 
salvation was taken away from unworthy mankind, but at length 
was brought back again from the heights of heaven by a band of 
angels, and delivered into the keeping of fervently loving, solitary 
men, who, wondrously strengthened and blessed by its presence, and 
purified in heart, were consecrated as the earthly champions of 
eternal love. 

"This miraculous delivery of the Holy Grail, escorted by an angelic 
host, and the handing of it over into the custody of highly favored 
men, was selected by the author of 'Lohengrin,' a knight of the Grail, 
for the introduction of his drama, as the subject to be musically 
portrayed; just as here, for the sake of explanation, he may be al- 
lowed to bring it forward as an object for the mental receptive 
power of his hearers." 



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Remounting of 

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' k TlLL EUUDNSPIBGBl/S MERRY PRANKS, AFTER THE OLD-FASHIONED 

Roguish Manner— in Rondo Form;' for Full Orchestra, 

Op 28 • • R ICHARD Strauss 

(Horn at Munich, June 11, 18G4 ; now living at Vienna) 

"Till Euleuspiegel's lustige Streiche, uach alter Schelmenweise— 
iu Rondoform— ftir grosses Orcliester gesetzt, von Richard Strauss,*' 
was produced at a Gurzenich concert at Cologne, November 5, 1895. 
It was composed in 1894-95 at Munich, and the score was com- 
pleted there. May G, 1895. The score and parts were published in 
September, 1895. 

There has been dispute concerning the proper translation of the 
phrase, "nach alter Schelmenweise," in the title. Some, and Mr. 
Apthorp was one of them, translate it a after an old rogue's tune.'' 
Others will not have this at all, and prefer "after the old,— or old- 
fashioned,— roguish manner," or, as Mr. Krehbiel suggested, "in the 
style of old-time waggery," and this view is in all probability the 
sounder. It is hard to twist "Schelmenweise" into "rogue's tune." 
"Schelmenstuck," for instance, is "a knavish trick," a "piece of 
roguery." As Mr. Krehbiel well said: "The reference [Schelmen- 
weise] goes, not to the thematic form of the phrase, but to its struc- 
ture. This is indicated, not only by the grammatical form of the 




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phrase but also by the parenthetical explanation: 'in Hondo form.' 
What connection exists between roguishness, or waggishness, and 
the rondo form it might be difficult to explain. The roguish wag in 
this case is Richard Strauss himself, who. besides putting the puzzle 
into his title, refused to provide the composition with even the 
smallest explanatory note which might have given a clue to its 
contents. " It seems to us that the puzzle in the title is largely 
imaginary. There is no need of attributing any intimate connection 
between "roguish manner" and "rondo form." 

Till (or Tyll) Eulenspiegel is the hero of an old Volksbuch of the 
fifteenth century attributed to Dr. Thomas Murner (1475-1530). 
Till is supposed to be a wandering mechanic of Brunswick, who plays 
all sorts of tricks, practical jokes, — some of them exceedingly coarse, 
— on everybody, and he always comes out ahead. In the book, Till 
(or Till Owlglass, as he is known in the English translation) goes 
to the gallows, but he escapes through an exercise of his ready wit, 
and dies peacefully in bed, playing a sad joke on his heirs, and re- 
fusing to lie still and snug in his grave. Strauss kills him on the 
scaffold. The German name is said to find its derivation in an 
old proverb : "Man sees his own faults as little as a monkey or an 
owl recognizes his ugliness in looking into a mirror." 




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ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 

MECCA AUDITORIUM 

133 West 55th Street 

Sunday Afternoon, November 24th, at 4 Sharp 

BRAHMS' 
DEUTSCHES REQUIEM 

Soloists: Elisabeth Rethberg — Lawrence Tibbett 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS— Metropolitan Opera Orchestra 

Sunday Afternoon, December 8th, at 4 Sharp 

ORCHESTRAL PROGRAMME 

Soloist: Margaret Matzenauer 

Sunday Afternoon, December 1 5th, at 4 Sharp 

BACH'S "Weinacht's (Christmas) Oratorio 

Soloists: Ethyl Hayden, Margaret Matzenauer, George Meader, Fraser Gange 
FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS— Metropolitan Opera Orchestra 

Tickets on sale at 10 East 43rd Street, Room 503 Van. 0659-J 

Open from 9 to 5; Saturday until noon 

Sundays on sale at Mecca Box Office, open at 1 1 A.M. 

Concert Manager: RICHARD COPLEY. Steinway Piano 

Town Hall, Monday Evening, November 25th, at 8.30 

ROTH QUARTET 

Edison Records 

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CARNEGIE HALL 

Tuesday Evening, December 3rd at 8.30 

CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA 

Nikolai SokolofT, Conductor 
PROGRAMME WILL INCLUDE 

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17 



When Dr. Franz AViillner, who conducted the first performance at 
Cologne, asked the composer for an explanatory programme of the 
"poetical intent'' of the piece, Strauss replied : "It is impossible for 
me to furnish a programme to 'Eulenspiegel' ; were I to put into 
words the thoughts which its several incidents suggested to me, 
they would seldom suffice, and might even give rise to offence. Let 
me leave it, therefore, to my hearers to crack the hard nut which the 
Rogue has prepared for them. By way of helping them to a better 
understanding, it seems sufficient to point out the two 'Eulenspiegel' 
motives, which, in the most manifold disguises, moods, and situa- 
tions, pervade the whole up to the catastrophe, when, after he has 
been condemned to death, Till is strung up to the gibbet. For the 
rest, let them guess at the musical joke which a Rogue has offered 
them." Strauss indicated in notation three motives, — the opening 
theme of the introduction, the horn theme that follows almost im- 
mediately, and the descending interval expressive of condemnation 
and the scaffold. 

Certain German critics were not satisfied with Strauss's meagre 
clue, and they at once began to evolve labored analyses. One of 
these programmes, the one prepared by Wilhelm Klatte, was pub- 
lished in the Allgemeinc Musik-Zeitung of November 8, 1895, and 
frequently in programme books in Germany and England, in some 
c;iscs with Strauss's sanction.* The translation is, for the most 
part, by C. A. Barry: — 

A strong sense of German folk-feeling (dcs VolksthiimUchen) per- 

vades the whole work; the source from which the tone-poet drew his 

inspiration is clearly indicated in the introductory bars: Gemachlich 

•n has been stated timt strauss gave Wilhelm Mauke n programme of this rondo 

to assist Mauke in writing his "Fiihrcr," or elaborate explanation of the composition. 




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(Andante commodo), F major, 4-8. To some extent this stands for 
the "once upon a time" of the story-books. That what follows is 
not to be treated in the pleasant and agreeable manner of narrative 
poetry, but in a more sturdy fashion, is at once made apparent by 
a characteristic bassoon figure which breaks in sforzato upon the 
piano of the strings. Of equal importance for the development of 
the piece is the immediately following humorous horn theme (F 
major, 6-8). Beginning quietly and gradually becoming more lively, 
it is at first heard against a tremolo of the "divided" violins and 
then again in the tempo primo, Sehr lebhaft (Vivace). This theme, 
or at least the kernel of it, is taken up in turn by oboes, clarinets, 
violas, violoncellos, and bassoons, and is finally brought by the full 
orchestra, except trumpets and trombones, after a few bars, cres- 
cendo, to a dominant half-close fortissimo in C. The thematic ma- 
terial, according to the main point, has now been fixed upon; the 
milieu is given, by which we are enabled to recognize the pranks 
and droll tricks which the crafty schemer is about to bring before 
our eyes, or, far rather, before our ears. 

Here he is (clarinet phrase followed by chord for wind instru- 
ments). He wanders through the land as a thoroughgoing adven- 
turer. His clothes are tattered and torn: a queer, fragmentary 
version of the Eulenspiegel motive resounds from the horns. Follow- 
ing a merry play with this important leading motive, which directly 
leads to a short but brilliant tutti, in which it again asserts itself, 
first in the flutes, and then finally merges into a softly murmuring 
and extended tremolo for the violas, this same motive, gracefully 
phrased, reappears in succession in the basses, flute, first violins, and 



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again in the basses. The rogue, putting on his best manners, slyly 
parses through the gate, and enters a certain city. It is market-day ; 
the women sit at their stalls and prattle (flutes, oboes, and clari- 
nets). Hop! Enlenspiegel springs on his horse (indicated by 
rapid triplets extending through three measures, from the low 
1> oi the bass clarinet to the highest A of the D clarinet), gives a 
smack of his whip, and rides into the midst of the crowd. Clink, 
clash, clatter! A confused sound of broken pots and pans, and 
the market-women are put to flight! In haste the rascal rides 
away (as is admirably illustrated by a fortissimo passage for the 
trombones) and secures a safe retreat. 

This was his first merry prank; a second follows immediately: 
Gemachlich (Andante commodo), F major, 2-4. Eulenspiegel has 
put on the vestments of a priest, and assumes a very unctuous mien. 
Though posing as a preacher of morals, the rogue peeps out from the 
folds of his mantle (the Eulenspiegel motive on the clarinet points 
to the imposture). He fears for the success of his scheme. A figure 
played by muted violins, horns, and trumpets makes it plain that 
he does not feel comfortable in his borrowed plumes. But soon he 
makes up his mind. Away with all scruples! He tears them off 
(solo violin, glissando). 

Again the Eulenspiegel theme is brought forward in the previous 
lively tempo, G-8, but is now subtly metamorphosed and chivalrously 
colored. Eulenspiegel has become a Don Juan, and he waylays 
pretty women. And one has bewitched him: Eulenspiegel is in 
love! Hear how now, glowing with love, the violins, clarinets, and 
flutes sing. But in vain. His advances are received with derision, 
and he goes away in a rage. How can one treat him so slightingly? 
Is he not a splendid fellow? Vengeance on the whole human race! 
lit- gives vent to his rage (in a fortissimo of horns in unison, 
followed by ;i pause), and strange personages suddenly draw near 
(violoncellos). A troop of honest, worthy Philistines! In an 
Instant all his anger is forgotten. But it is still his chief joy to 




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make fun of these lords and protectors of blameless decorum, to 
mock them, as is apparent from the lively and accentuated frag- 
ments of the theme, sounded at the beginning by the horn, which 
are now heard first from horns, violins, violoncellos, and then from 
trumpets, oboes, and flutes. Now that Eulenspiegel has had his 
joke, he goes away and leaves the professors and doctors behind in 
thoughtful meditation. Fragments of the typical theme of the 
Philistines are here treated canonically. The wood-wind, violins, 
and trumpets suddenly project the Eulenspiegel theme into their 
profound philosophy. It is as though the transcendent rogue were 
making faces at the bigwigs from a distance — again and again — 
and then waggishly running away. This is aptly characterized by 
a short episode (A-flat) in a hopping, 2-4 rhythm, which, similarly 
with the first entrance of the Hypocrisy theme previously used, 
is followed by phantom-like tones from the wood-wind and strings 
and then from trombones and horns. Has our rogue still no 
foreboding ? 

Interwoven with the very first theme, indicated lightly by trum- 
pets and English horn, a figure is developed from the second in- 
troductory and fundamental theme. It is first taken up by the 
clarinets; it seems to express the fact that the arch-villain has 
again got the upper hand of Eulenspiegel, who has fallen into his 
old manner of life. If we take a formal view, we have now reached 
the repetition of the chief theme. A merry jester, a born liar, 
Eulenspiegel goes wherever he can succeed with a hoax. His in- 
solence knows no bounds. Alas! there is a sudden jolt to his 
wanton humor. The drum rolls a hollow roll; the jailer drags the 
rascally prisoner into the criminal court. The verdict "guilty" is 
thundered against the brazen-face knave. The Eulenspiegel theme 
replies calmly to the threatening chords of wind and lower strings. 
Eulenspiegel lies. Again the threatening tones resound ; but Eulen- 
spiegel does not confess his guilt. On the contrary he lies for the 
third time. His jig is up. Fear seizes him. The Hypocrisy mo- 



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tive is sounded piteously ; the fatal moment draws near; his hour 
has struck! The descending leap of a minor seventh in bassoons, 
horns, trombones, tuba, betokens his death. He has danced in air. 
A last struggle (flutes), and his soul takes flight. 

After sad, tremulous pizzicati of the strings, the epilogue begins. 
At first it is almost identical with the introductory measures, which 
are repeated in full; then the most essential parts of the second 
and third chief-theme passages appear, and finally merge into the 
soft chord of the sixth on A-flat, while wood-wind and violins 
sustain. Eulenspiegel has become a legendary character. The 
people tell their tales about him : "Once upon a time . . ." But 
that he was a merry rogue and a real devil of a fellow seems to 
be expressed by the final eight measures, full orchestra, fortissimo. 

Such is Wilhelm Klatte's explanation of the poetic contents of 
Strauss's rondo, and though the composer may smile in his sleeve 
and whisper to himself, "Not a bit like it!" he never publicly 
contradicted Mr. Klatte. 

The rondo, dedicated to Dr. Arthur Seidl, is scored for piccolo, 
three flutes, three oboes, English horn, small clarinet in D, two 
clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns 
(with the addition of four horns ad lib.), three trumpets (with 
three additional trumpets ad lib.), three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, a watch- 
man's rattle, strings. 

"Till Eulenspiegel 

"This piece is like an hour of now music at the madhouse, — clarinets 
describe distracted trajectories, trumpets arc always muted, horns foresee a 
latent sneeze and hurry to say politely, 'God bless you!' a big drum makes 
the boum-boum that italicizes the clown's kick and gesture. You hurst with 
laughter or howl in agony, and you are surprised to find things in their 
usual place, Cor if the double-basses blew through their hows, if the tromhones 
rubbed their tubes with an Imaginary how, and if Mr. Nikisch were found 



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seated on the knees of an otwreuse, all this would not surprise you. But 

in spite of this the piece is full of genius in certain ways, especially in the 

prodigious surety of the instrumentation, and the mad spirit that sweeps 

one along from beginning to end." 

— Claude Debussy. 



* 
* * 



Operas founded on Till's pranks : 

"Eulenspiegel," Singspiel by S. Schmidt (Konigsberg, 1806, text by 
Kotzebue) ; Rungenhagen (about 1815) ; Ad. Miiller (Vienna, about 1925) ; 
musical comedy in two acts, music by Cyrill Kistler (Wiirzburg, 1689). 

"Till Eulenspiegel," opera in two acts and an epilogue, by E. von Reznicek 

(Karlsruhe, January 12, 1902). In the libretto, Eulenspiegel, after his fun, 

after his heroic deeds, leading a revolt of peasants against rapacious knights, 

dies in a hospital at Molin. The heavens open. He sees among the angels his 

wife Gertrudis, who promise him he shall never be forgotten on earth. 

"Thyl Uylenspiegel," lyric drama in three acts, text by Henri Cain and 
Lucien Solvay, founded on Charles de Costar's epic legend, music by Jan 
Blockx (Brussels, January 18, 1900). In this opera, the hero is the mind 
of the people of Flanders ; Nelle, the heart ; Soetkin, its valiant mother ; 
Claes, its courage ; Lamme, its belly. For a study of this opera, which has 
been revised, with an inquiry into the legend, see Robert Parville's "Thyl 
Uylenspiegel" (Brussels. 1900). 



1929 - SEASON - 1930 
SECOND SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT 

CONDUCTORLESS 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CARNEGIE HALL 
SATURDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 30th, AT 8.45 O'CLOCK 

Soloist 
JOHN POWELL 

PROGRAMME 

BACH Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G Major 

MOZART Concerto for Piano in D Minor 

John Powell 

MITYA STIKLMAN "Serenade" 

GLI£RE "Siren" 

Boxes: - - $20.00 and $24.00 
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23 



Symphony No. 5, C minor, Op. 67 . Ludwig van Beethoven 

(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

Beethoven sketched motives of the allegro, andante, and scherzo 
i>\' this symphony as early as 1S00 and 1S01. We know from sketches 
that while he was at work on "Fidelio" and the pianoforte concerto 
in G major, — 1S04-1S06, — he was also busied with this symphony, 
which he put aside to compose the fourth symphony, in B-flat. 

The symphony in C minor was finished in the neighborhood of 
Heiligenstadt in 1807. Dedicated to the Prince von Lobkowitz and 
the Count Rasumovsky, it was published in April, 1S09. 

It was first performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, De- 
cember 22, 180S. All the pieces were by Beethoven ; the symphony 
described on the programme as "A symphony entitled 'Recollections 
of Life in the Country,' in F major, No. 5" (sic) ; an Aria, "Ah, 
perfido," sung by Josephine Kilitzky ; Hymn with Latin text written 
in church style with chorus and solos; Pianoforte Concerto in G 
major, played by Beethoven ; Grand Symphony in C minor, No. 6 
(sic) ; Sanctus, with Latin text written in church style (from the 
Mass in C major), with chorus and solos; Fantasia for pianoforte 
solo; Fantasia for pianoforte "into which the full orchestra enters 
little by little, and at the end the chorus joins in the Finale," 
Beethoven played the pianoforte part. The concert began at half- 
past six. We know nothing about the pecuniary result. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings ; and 
in the last movement piccolo, double-bassoon, and three trombones 
are added. 



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Instead of inquiring curiously into the legend invented by 
Schindler, — "and for this reason a statement to be doubted," as 
Btilow said, — that Beethoven remarked of the first theme, "So 
knocks Fate on the door!";* instead of investigating the statement 
that the rhythm of this theme was suggested by the note of a bird, — 
oriole or goldfinch, — heard during a walk ; instead of a long analysis, 
which is vexation and confusion without the themes and their 
variants in notation, — let us read and ponder the words of the great 
Hector Berlioz : 

"The most celebrated of them all, beyond doubt and peradventure, 
is also the first, I think, in which Beethoven gave the reins to his 
vast imagination, without taking for guide or aid a foreign thought. 
In the first, second, and fourth, he more or less enlarged forms al- 
ready known, and poetized them with all the brilliant and passion- 
ate inspirations of his vigorous youth. In the third, the 'Eroica,' 
there is a tendency, it is true, to enlarge the form, and the thought is 
raised to a mighty height ; but it is impossible to ignore the influence 
of one of the divine poets to whom for a long time the great artist 
had raised a temple in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the 
Horatian precept, 'Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna/ reatf 
Homer constantly, and in his magnificent musical epopee, which, 
they say, I know not whether it be true or false, was inspired by a 
modern hero, the recollections of the ancient Iliad play a part that 
is as evident as admirably beautiful. 

"The symphony in C minor, on the other hand, seems to us to come 
directly and solely from the genius of Beethoven ; he develops in it 
his own intimate thought ; his secret sorrows, his concentrated rage, 

*It is said that Ferdinand Ries was the author of this explanation, and that 
Beethoven was grimly sarcastic when Ries, his pupil, made it known to him. 



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his reveries charged with a dejection, oh, so sad, his visions at night, 
his hursts of enthusiasm — these furnish him the subject; and the 
forms of melody, harmony, rhythm, and orchestration are displayed 
as essentially individual and new as they are powerful and noble. 

'The first movement is devoted to the painting of disordered 
scniinu'iits which overthrow a great soul, a prey to despair: not the 
concentrated, calm despair that borrows the shape of resignation: 
not the dark and voiceless sorrow of Romeo who learns the death of 
Juliet ; but the terrible rage of Othello when he receives from Iago's 
month the poisonous slanders which persuade him of Desdemona's 
guilt. Now it is a frenetic delirium which explodes in frightful 
cries: and now it is the prostration that has only accents of regret 
and profound self-pity. Hear these hiccups of the orchestra, these 
dialogues in chords between wind instruments and strings, which 
come and go, always weaker and fainter, like unto the painful 
breathing of a dying man, and then give way to a phrase full of 
violence, in which the orchestra seems to rise to its feet, revived by 
a flash of fury: see this shuddering mass hesitate a moment and 
then rush headlong, divided in two burning unisons as two streams 
of lava ; and then say if this passionate st}de is not beyond and 
above everything that had been produced hitherto in instrumental 
music. . . . 

"The adagio''* — andante con mo to — "has characteristics in com- 
mon with the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and 
the slow movement of the fourth. It partakes alike of the melan- 
choly soberness of the former and the touching grace of the latter. 
The theme, at first announced by the united violoncellos and violas, 

• Indifference of Berlioz to exact terminology is not Infrequently shown in his 

Ed. 



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Mr Freckelton ired that this innovation will he welcomed by those- who de- 

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CITIZENS' 


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BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CONCERTS 


Season 1929 -1930 


Chairman 


Mr. Adrian Van Sinderen 


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Mrs. Herman Stutzer 


Mr. S. Raymond Estey 


Miss Marion J. Terry 


Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 


Mr. William Armour Thayer 


; Mr. Theodore L. Frothingham 


Mr. Carl H. Tollefsen 


Mr. William Peter Hamilton 


Mrs. Walter Truslow 


Mr. Walter Hammitt 


Mrs. James P. Warbasse 


j Mr. George Hewlett 


Mrs. Edwin Carrington Ward 


! Miss Amelia B. Hollenback 


Mrs. Walter F. Wells 


Dr. Alexander C. Howe 


Mrs. J. B. Whitney 


Mr. William T. Hunter 


Mr. Eugene A. Widmann 


Mr. Darwin R. James 


Dr. Ralph C. Williams 


Dr. William A. Jewett 


Hon. George A. Wingate 


Mr. James H. Jourdan 


Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 


Mr. Charles D. Lay 


Mrs. W. H. Ziegler 



27 




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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



FRIDAY EVENING, JANUARY 10, 1930, at 8.15 o'clock 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



TICKETS AT INSTITUTE BOX OFFICE 



29 



with a simple accompaniment of the double-basses pizzicato, is fol- 
lowed by a phrase for wind instruments, which return constantly, 
and in the same tonality throughout the movement, whatever be the 
successive changes of the first theme. This persistence of the same 
phrase, represented always in a profundly sad simplicity, produces 
little by little on the hearer's soul an indescribable impression. . . . 
"The Scherzo is a strange composition. Its first measures, which 
are not terrible themselves, provoke that inexplicable emotion which 
you feel when the magnetic gaze of certain persons is fastened on 
yon. Here everything is sombre, mysterious: the orchestration, 
more or less sinister, springs apparently from the state of mind that 
created the famous scene of the Blocksberg in Goethe's 'Faust/ 
Nuances of piano and mezzoforte dominate. The trio is a double- 
bass figure, executed with the full force of the bow ; its savage rough- 
ness shakes the orchestral stands, and reminds one of the gambols 
of a frolicsome elephant. But the monster retires, and little by little 
the noise of his mad course dies away. The theme of the scherzo 
reappears in pizzicato. Silence is almost established, for you hear 
onlv some violin tones lightly plucked and strange little duckings 
of bassoons. ... At last the strings give gently with the bow the 
chord of Aflat and doze on it. Only the drums preserve the rhythm ; 
light blows struck bv sponge-headed drumsticks mark the dull 
rhythm amid the general stagnation of the orchestra. These drum- 
notes are ("s: the tonality of the movement is C minor; but the 
Chord of Vital sustained for a long time by the other instruments 
seems to introduce a different tonality, while the isolated hammer- 
ing the C on the drums tends to preserve the feeling oi the founda- 
tion tonality The ear hesitates,— hul will this mystery ot harmony 
end ''—and now the dull pulsations of the drums, growing louder and 
louder rencli with the violins, which now take pari in the movement 



your VICTOR RECORDS of 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra 




SYMPHONY SERIES 

— of — 

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H IDIOS OJ U / M IK] S 

i M i \ i /mi, si 10 i i 
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The advertisers in this 
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HOWARD A. KEELER 

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Beth " :.immc 

225 Wr.i Mth St., N. Y. C. 



80 



and with a change of harmony, to the chord of the dominant seventh, 
G, B, D, P, while the drums roll obstinately their tonic C : the whole 
orchestra, assisted by the trombones which have not yet been heard, 
bursts in the major into the theme of a triumphal march, and the 
Finale begins. . . . 

"Criticism has tried, however, to diminish the composer's glory 
by stating that he employed ordinary means, the brilliance of the 
major mode pompously following the darkness of a pianissimo in 
minor; that the triumphal march is without originality, and that 
the interest wanes even to the end, whereas it should increase. I 
reply to this : Did it require less genius to create a work like this 
because the passage from piano to forte and that from minor to 
major were the means already understood? Many composers have 
wished to take advantage of the same means; and what result did 
they obtain comparable to this gigantic chant of victory in which 
the soul of the poet-musician, henceforth free from earthly shackles, 
terrestrial sufferings, seems to mount radiantly towards heaven? 
The first four measures of the theme, it is true, are not highly origi- 
nal ; but the forms of a fanfare are inherently restricted, and I do 
not think it possible to find new forms without departing utterly 
from the simple, grand, pompous character which is becoming. 
Beethoven wished only an entrance of the fanfare for the beginning 
of his finale, and he quickly found in the rest of the movement and 
even in the conclusion of the chief theme that loftiness and origi- 
nality of style which never forsook him. And this may be said in 
answer to the reproach of not having increased the interest to the 
very end ; music, in the state known at least to us, would not know 
how to produce a more violent effect than that of this transition 
from scherzo to triumphal march ; it was then impossible to enlarge 
the effect afterwards. 

"To sustain one's self at such a height is of itself a prodigious 
effort; yet in spite of the breadth of the developments to which he 
committed himself, Beethoven was able to do it. But this equality 



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31 



from the beginning to end is enough to make t he charge of dimin- 
ished interest plausible, on account of the terrible shock which the 
ears receive at the beginning; a shock that, by exciting nervous 
emotion to its most violent paroxysm, makes the succeeding instant 
the more difficult. In a long row of columns of equal height, an 
optical illusion makes the most remote appear the smallest. Perhaps 
our weak organization would accommodate itself to a more laconic 
peroration, as that of (Hack's 'Notre general vons rappelle.' Then 
the audience would not have to grow cold, and the symphony would 
end before weariness had made impossible further following in the 
steps of the composer. This remark bears only on the mise en scene 
of the work; it does not do away with the fact that this finale in 
itself is rich and magnificent; very few movements can draw near 
without being crushed by it." 

This symphony was performed in Boston at an Academy concert 
as earlv as November 27, 1841. 

Other first performances: London, April 15, 1S1G, Philharmonic 
Societv ; Paris, April 13, 1828, Societe des Concerts; Leningrad, 
March 23, 1859: Rome, November 9, 1877; Madrid, 1S7S. 

The fifth symphony was the opening number of the first concert 
of the Philharmonic Society of New York, December 7, 1812. U. L. 
Hill conducted the symphony. 



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ACADEMY OF MUSIC . . . BROOKLYN 

Friday Evening, January 10, at 8.15 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and the Philharmonic 

Society of Brooklyn 

/ 



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wwmij/j//^ 



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BOSTON 



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SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 



INC. 



FORTY 



NINTH 
SEASON 

J929-J930 



PRSGRHftttE 



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Tie PLAZA, New York 




Fred Sterry 
President 



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Henry A. Rost N ew York 
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John D. Owen 
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Arthur L. Race 
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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FRIDAY EVENING, JANUARY 10, at 8.15 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 



COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



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I led pianot accepted in partial 
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TMtF MXS Tit f TMEN T 
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l<r[ rr*cntcd in Boiton and other New Kn'larwl ritiei by M.Steinert tV BOO! 

a 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 
Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 
Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. Cherkassky, P. 

Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. Eisler, D. 

Fedorovsky, P. Leibovici, J. Jacob, R. 

Leveen, P. Tapley, R. 

Knudson, C. Gorodetzky, L. 

Zide, L. Fiedler, B. 



Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 



Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

Cauhap6, J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 
Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 

English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. Bassoons. 

Hamelin, G. Laus, A. 

Arcieri, E. Allard, R. 

Allegra, E. Bettoney, F. 
(E-flat Clarinet) 



Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 

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Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Contra-Bassoon. 
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Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L- 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 

Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 



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FULTON ST. at HOYT . |y^ 



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ACADEMY OF MUSIC BROOKLYN 

Second Concert 
Friday Evening, January 10 



" ■■'■ " » " ' ■ ■ »" 



the Programme has been changed aa follower 

....<,..♦ Symphony No. 5 in E minor, 

*Frora the Hew World*, Op, 95 



Piok^Mangiagalli. . » • Prelude and Fugu* 
StgasiMU ♦ .,,.., ♦Interlude from "Interme^©* 
tor* » . * * • . ♦ . Prelude to *Die leister** 

singer Ton Mrnbdrg 11 




■— — a— iW»«»>iii * iiiimi i > n ii n pi' n i u ii. r iiii. mu ^.i .^ i 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



Forty-second season in Brooklyn 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 
FRIDAY EVENING, JANUARY 10 
AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



Dvorak . 



I. Adagio; Allegro molto. 

II. Largo. 

III. Scherzo. 

IV. Allegro con fuoco. 



. Symphony No. 5 in E minor, 
"From the New World," Op. 95 



Wagner 



Wagner 



Wagner 



Prelude to " Lohengrin" 
The Ride of the Valkyries from "Die Walkure" 



Wagner Introduction to Act III, "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg" 



. Prelude to "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg" 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes alter the symphony 



Please note that next concert of the series will be given on Thursday Evening 
(February 6) instead of Friday. (See page 29) 




They will make their West Indies Cruise 

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February Cruise — January 29 to February 23 
Second Long Cruise — February 25 to March 22 

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Symphony in E minor, No. 5, "From the New World" ("Z Novecho 
Sveta"), Op. 95 Anton Dvorak 

(Born at Muhlhausen (Nelahozeves) near Kralup, Bohemia, September 8, 
1841 ; died at Prague, May 1, 1904) 

Dvorak in 1892-93 was living in New York as the Director of the 
National Conservatory of Music. He made many sketches for this 
symphony. In the first of the three books used for this purpose, he 
noted "Morning, December 19, 1892." Fuller sketches began Jan- 
uary 10, 1893. The slow movement was then entitled "Legenda." 
The Scherzo was completed January 31; the Finale, May 25, 1893. 
A large part of the instrumentation was done at Spillville, Iowa, 
where many Bohemians dwelt. 

This symphony was performed for the first time, in manuscript, 
by the Philharmonic Society of New York on Friday afternoon, 
December 15, 1893. Anton Seidl conducted. Dvorak was present. 
The first performance in Boston was by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, Mi. Paur conductor, on December 30 of the same year. 

When this symphony was played at Berlin in 1900, Dvorak wrote 
to Oskar Nedbal, who conducted it: "I send you Kretzschmar's 




oeser's Resort Fashions 
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OESER'S 

Fulton at Bond Triangle 8100 



analysis of the symphony, but omit that nonsense about my having 
made use of 'Indian' and 'American' themes — that is a lie. I tried 
to write only in the spirit of those national American melodies. 
Take the introduction to the symphony as slowly as possible.'' 

The symphony aroused a controversy, in which there was shedding 
of much ink. The controversy long ago died out, and is probably 
forgotten even by those who read the polemical articles at the time 
and expressed their own opinions. The symphony remains. It is 
now without associations that might prejudice. It is now enjoyed 
or appreciated, or possibly passed by, as music, and not as an ex- 
hibit in a case on trial. 

Yet it may be good to recall the circumstances of the symphony's 
origin. In the feverish days of the discussion excited by the first 
performance of this symphony, it was stated that Mr. Krehbiel and 
others called the attention of Dvorak, who was then living in New 
York, to Negro melodies and rhythms; that the Bohemian composer 
then wept with joy and rushed after music paper; that he journeyed 
to a Western town inhabited chiefly by Bohemians, a town in Iowa, 
where he could find the stimulating atmosphere to write master- 
pieces of a truly American nature. Some may also remember that 
soon after the first performances of the symphony there was a dis- 
tressing rumor that portions of it had been composed long before 




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LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS 

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Dvorak came to New York ; long before his eyes were dimmed and 
his knees turned to water by hearing Negro tunes. 

As the late Henry Edward Krehbiel was deeply interested in the 
conception and birth of the symphony, it is better to quote his 
words* : 

"Last spring the eminent Bohemian composer published his belief 
that there was in the songs of the Negroes of America 'a sure foun- 
dation for a new National School of Music,' and that an intelligent 
cultivation of them on the part of American composers might result 
in the creation of an American School of Composition. His utter- 
ances created a deal of comment at that time, the bulk of which was 
distinguished by flippancy and a misconception of the composer's 
meaning and purposes Much of the American criticism, in par- 
ticular, was based on the notion that, by American music, Dr. 
Dvorak meant the songs of Stephen C. Foster and other contributors 
to old-time Negro minstrelsy, and that the school of which he 
dreamed was to devote itself to the writing of variations on 'The 
Old Folks at Home' and tunes of its class. Such a blunder, pardon- 
able enough in the popular mind, was yet scarcely venial on the part 
of composers and newspaper reviewers who had had opportunities 

♦From a little pamphlet, "Antonin Dvorak's Quartet in F major, Op. 96" (New 
York, 1894). 



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to study the methods of Dr. Dvorak in his published compositions. 
Neither is it creditable to them, though perhaps not quite so blame- 
worthy, that they have so long remained indifferent to the treasures 
of folk-song which America contains. The origin of that folk-song 
has little to do with the argument, if it shall turn out that in it 
there are elements which appeal to the musical predilections of the 
American people, and are capable of utilization in compositions in 
the higher form. As a matter of fact, that which is most character- 
istic, most beautiful, and most vital in our folk-song has come from 
the Negro slaves of the South, partly because those slaves lived in 
the period of emotional, intellectual, and social development which 
produces folk-song, partly because they lived a life that prompted 
utterance in song, and partly because as a race the Negroes are 
musical by nature. Being musical, and living a life that had in 
it romantic elements of pleasure as well as suffering, they gave 
expression to those elements in songs, which reflect their original 
nature as modified by their American environment. Dr. Dvorak, 
to whom music is a language, was able quickly to discern the 
characteristics of the new idiom and to recognize its availability 
and value. He recognized, too, what his critics forgot, that that 
music is entitled to be called characteristic of a people which gives 
the greatest pleasure to the largest fraction of a people. It was 



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therefore a matter of indifference to him whether the melodies 
which make the successful appeal were cause or effect; in either 
case, they were worthy of his attention. 

"He has not said these things in words, but he has proclaimed 
them in a manner more eloquent and emphatic : he has composed a 
symphony, a quartet, and a quintet for the purpose of exemplifying 
his theories. The symphony he wrote in New York, the chamber 
music in Spillville, Iowa, a village which contains a large Bohemian 
population." 

It was said by some, in answer to these statements, that, while 
the Negro is undoubtedly fond of music, he is not inherently 
musical. Observers of the Negro in Africa were quoted in support 
of this statement, from Bosman to Sir Richard F. Burton, who 
wrote in his chapter "Of the Negro's Place in Nature" (Chapter 
XIX of "A Mission to Gelele, King of Dahome") : "The Negro has 
never invented an alphabet, a musical scale, or any other elements 
of knowledge. Music and dancing, his passions, are, as arts, still 
in embryo." Since Burton wrote, Alfred Friedenthal has this to 
say about the African's music* : "The African Negroes possess great 
musical talent. It must be admitted, though, that in the invention 

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of melodies, they do not come up to the European standard, but the 
greater is their capacity for rhythms. The talent exhibited by the 
Bantus in contriving the most complex rhythms is nothing short 
of marvelous.'' Andre Gide, who had studied music in Paris, has 
much to say about Negro music he heard in the Congo.* He ana- 
lyzed melodies and rhythms. Speaking of an extraordinary chant 
of boatmen, sung by six singers, each one singing something a little 
different, without its being exactly "in parts" — the result being 
"a kind of thickness in the harmony, which is extremely strange" — 
he exclaims: "Oh, if only Stravinsky could hear it! . . . Our folk 
songs, compared with these, seem coarse, foolishly simple, rudi- 
mentary. This morning in Marc's whale boat, I listened to the 
Saras' chorus — very different from the one my boatmen were sing- 
ing yesterday. It was like nothing I have ever heard. As pro- 
foundly moving as the songs of the Russian boatmen — perhaps 
more so. . . . The soloist had an admirable voice, totally different 
in quality from what is required by the Conservatoire ; a voice which 
sometimes sounded choked with tears — and sometimes nearer a sob 
than a song — and sometimes had accents that are hoarse and ap- 
parently out of tune. Then there came suddenly a few very soft 
notes of a disconcerting suavity . . . their rhythmical and melodic 
invention is prodigious (and apparently naive) — but what shall I 
say of their harmonies? For that is what I find especially surpris- 

• "Voyage au Congo" (Paris, 1927) and "Le Retour du Tchad" (Paris, 1928). 
The two volumes, translated into English by Dorothy Bussy, are published as one 
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ing. I thought that all the songs here would be monophonic. This 
is the reputation that has been made for them, for there are never 
any songs in thirds and sixths. But this polyphony, in its widening 
and narrowing of the sound, is so puzzling to our northern ears 
that I doubt whether it be possible to take it down with our means 
of notation." 

It was also said when the symphony was first performed that the 
American Negro, peculiarly mimetic, founded his "folk-songs" on 
sentimental ballads sung by the white women of the plantation or 
on camp-meeting tunes ; that he brought no primitive melodies with 
him from Africa, and that the "originality" of his "folk-songs" was 
misunderstanding of perversion of the tunes he imitated,* that, 
even if the Negro brought tunes from Africa, they could hardly, 
even after long usage, be called "American folk-songs," any more 
than the tunes of the aboriginal Indians or Creole ditties can be 
called justly "American folk-songs" ; that it would be absurd to 
characterize a school of music based on such a foundation as an 
"American school" ; that, if "that music is entitled to be called 
characteristic of a people which gives the greatest pleasure to the 
largest fraction of a people," then German folk-songs are character- 
istic of the city of New York, and Irish folk-songs are characteristic 
of the city of Boston. 

♦Concerning the origin and nature of Negro "spirituals," see Mr. James Weldon 
Johnson's long Introduction to "The Book of American Negro Spirituals." edited by 
him with musical arrangements by J. Rosamond Johnson and Lawrence Brown (New 
Vork, 1025). He stoutly maintains that the statement that the spirituals are imita- 
tions made by the Negro of other music heard is an "absurdity." He believes that 
the production of the spirituals was a miracle. 



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The discussion was no doubt healthful and profitable, for, with- 
our lively discussion, art is stagnant. MacDowell's "Indian" 
suite was sketched before Dvorak's symphony was announced; but 
the controversy led to still more careful investigation, especially 
into the character of the North American Indians' music. Mr. 
Krehbiel studied carefully this music and discussed it in articles 
of permanent value. Mr. Fillmore, who began the study in 1888, 
Alice C. Fletcher, Frederick K. Burton, Henry F. Gilbert, and others 
have made valuable contributions to this branch of musical inquiry. 



William Hitter, the author of a life of Smetana (Paris, 1898), 
contributed letters from Prague to the Mercure Musical, Paris. In 
the number for May 15, 1907, he discussed this symphony. 

He wrote to the sons of Dvorak, to Antonin and Otaker, and 
asked them eleven questions, with this preface : "I ask you to reply 
as soon as possible to the following questions, with the utmost exact- 
ness, if not categorically by 'yes' or 'no.' "* The first four questions 
were concerning the use of Negro tunes in the symphony "From the 
New World," whether Dvorak had used them at all, or, if he had, 
whether he had modified them. The other questions were concern- 
ing Dvorak's use of chorals of Brittany or Eussian folk-songs in the 

*"That those in America who bad been close to Dvorak when he composed this 
work, and who knew his purposes and procedures in creating it, might be supposed 
to have more accurate information on the subject, was a consideration that seems to 
have had little weight with Mr. Ritter." — Mr. LAWRENCE GilmAn, the brilliant editor 
of the Philadelphia Orchestra's Programme Books, Book of December 6-7, 1929. 





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symphony, whether he had known and consulted collections of folk- 
Bong by Balakirev, Rimsky-Korsakov, Moussorgsky, Bourgault-Du- 
coudray, and whether he had road Villemarque's work on songs of 
Brittany. 

Fortunately for the sons, this letter was written in February, 
when the air was cool and the nights were long. 

The sons answered in effect as follows: Dvorak knew nothing 
about the folk-songs and chorals of Brittany. He knew the Russian 
composers by name, but he had never studied thoughtfully their 
compositions. "Any one who knows his [Dvorak's] own works will 
surely smile at the mere suggestion that there was any necessity 
of borrowing from any one of these masters." Nor did Dvorak 
know anything about the researches of the two Frenchmen. 

Now, as regards the Negro question. "In America, Negro airs, 
which abound in melodic particularities, interested our father. He 
studied them and arranged the scale according to which they are 
formed. But the passages of the symphony and of other works of 
this American period which, as some pretend, have been taken from 
Negro airs, are absolutely our father's own mental property; they 
were only influenced by Negro melodies. As in his Slav pieces, he 
never used Slav songs, but, being a Slav, created what his heart 
dictated, all the works of this American period — the symphony in- 
cluded — respond to Slav origin, and any one who has the least 
feeling will proclaim this fact. Who will not recognize the home- 
sickness in the Largo of this symphony? The secondary phrase of 
the first movement, the first theme of the scherzo, the beginning of 
the finale, and perhaps also the melody of the Largo which give a 
certain impression of the groaning Negro song, are only influenced 
by this song and determined by change of land and the influence of 
a foreign climate." 



The symphony is scored for two flutes (one of which is inter- 
changeable with piccolo), two oboes (one of which is interchange- 



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ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 
MECCA AUDITORIUM 133 West 55th Street 

Sunday Afternoon, January 12th, at 4 P. M. 
CHERUBINrS "REQUIEM" and old instrumental 

<™ nT o T o I REGINA PATORNI-CASADESUS (harpsichord) 
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PROGRAMME 
FINGALSH6HLE OVERTURE .... Mendelssohn 

CONCERTO IN D MINOR Brahms 

Mr. BAUER 

MORGENHYMNE> 

FEUERREITER \ ' ' nfIC " f 

} CHORUS 

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JOSEF HOFMANN Piano Recital (Steinway Piano) 

Garnegie Hall, MONDAY EVENING, JANUARY 13th, at 8.30 

FRANK SHERIDAN PianO Recital (Mason & Hamlin Piano) 



Garnegie Hall, FRIDAY EVENING, JANUARY 17th, at 8.30 

NINA KOSHETZ, Soprano and NICHOLAS MEDTNER, Composer Pianist 

Program of Mr. Medtner's Composition (Steinway Piano) 



Town Hall, SATURDAY AFTERNOON, JANUARY 18th, at 2.30 

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19 



able with English horn), two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, 
two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, cymbals, 
triangle, and strings. 

The first movement opens with a short introduction, Adagio, E 
minor, 4-8, which, as all admit, is not characterized by "folk-song." 
The strings, pianissimo, are promptly answered by the wood-wind. 
There is a sudden fortissimo, in which a figure in all the strings is 
answered by kettledrums. There is development, in which the 
orchestra grows stronger and stronger. 

The first portion of the chief theme of the main body of the first 
movement. Allegro molto, E minor, 24, is given out by two horns 
in unison; the second, by the wood-wind. This theme is developed 
at length, and modifications suggest occasionally a new and con- 
trasting subject. Folklorists have called attention to the species of 
syncopation known as the "Scotch snap," that distinguishes this 
chief theme, and also pointed out the five-note, or pentatonic, scale, 
from which the theme is derived. In a subsidiary theme announced 
by flutes and oboes, there is a use of the flat seventh, a use that 
is common to Oriental races as well as the Negro of the camp-meet- 
ing. The second theme, G major, is given out by the flute, and was 
probably derived from the familiar melody, "Swing Low, Sweet 
Chariot."* The violins take up this theme. There is some develop- 

•Harry Thaeker Burleigh, composer, and baritone soloist at St. George's Church, 
New York, since 1894, was born at Erie, Pa., December 2, I860. He was a student 
at the National Conservatory of Music while DvofAk was Director. Mr. Burleigh 
at the Conservatory studied singing with Christian Fritsch, harmony with Rubin Gold- 
mark, counterpoint with Max Spicker. "There is no doubt at all [Mr. Burleigh has said] 
that Dr. Dvorak was deeply impressed by the old Negro spirituals and also by the 
Foster songs. It was my privilege repeatedly to sing some of the old plantation 
-cults Tor him at his home in East Seventeenth Street, and one in particular. 'Swing 
Low, Sweet Chariot,' greatly pleased him and part of this old 'spiritual' will be 
found in the second theme; of the first movement of the symphony — it is in G 
major and is first given out by the flute. The similarity is so evident that it 
doesn't even need to he heard; the eye can see it. Dvofftk just saturated himself 
with the spirit of these old tunes and then invented his own themes. There is a 
subsidiary theme in (J minor in the first movement with a flat seventh, and I feel 
Hire the doctor caught this peculiarity of most of the slave BODga from some that I 
sang to him ; for lie used to stop me and ask if that was the way the slaves sang." 



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ment, but less than that of the first; and there is the traditional 
repeat. In the free fantasia the thematic material of the first part 
is worked out; and then there is a return of the first theme in the 
tonic at the beginning of the third part, which is in general a regu- 
lar reproduction of the first, with changes of tonalities. The bril- 
liant coda is built chiefly on the first theme. 

In the second movement, Largo, D-flat major, 4-4, Dvorak is 
said to have attempted the suggestion of the mood in the story of 
Hiawatha's wooing, as told by Longfellow.* The chief and romantic 
theme is sung by the English horn over a soft accompaniment of 
strings. The development is extended. After the theme is sung by 
two muted horns, there is a change to C-sharp minor, un poco piu 
mosso. A short transitional passage on a contrasting theme leads 
to the second theme in the wood-wind over a bass in counterpoint 
and pizzicato. There are several melodies in this movement; but, 
while the sentiments are diverse, there is no abruptness in contrast. 
There is a return to the first theme in the English horn. The move- 
ment ends pianissimo with a chord in the double-basses alone. 

Third movement, Scherzo : Molto vivace, E minor, 3-4. It opens 
with a theme, for flutes and oboes, which appears as a rule in imi- 
tations. The second theme, in E major, poco sostenuto, also for 
flutes and oboes, is of more song-like character. The trio, C major, 
opens with a lively theme for wind instruments. This is followed 
by a second theme for strings. A reminiscence of the opening theme 
of the first movement is heard just before the trio, and also in the 
coda. 

The Finale, Allegro con fuoco, E minor, 4-4, opens with a few 
introductory measures. The first theme is given out fortissimo by 
horns and trumpets against staccato chords in the rest of the 
orchestra. The development is first in the strings, then in the 
full orchestra. After the development of subsidiary matter the 
clarinet sings the second theme. In the development that follows 

* It is said that Dvorak thought of "Hiawatha" as the subject for an opera. 




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are recollections of the opening theme of the first movement, the 
English horn melody of the second, and the opening phrase of the 
scherzo. There is a tumultuous coda, based on the union of the 
chief theme of the first movement with the first theme of the finale. 



PRBLUDH TO THE OPERA "LOHENGRIN" 



Richard Wagner 



(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1S83) 

•'Lohengrin,'' an opera in three acts, was performed for the first 
time at the Court Theatre, Weimar, August 28, 1850. The cast was 
as follows: Lohengrin, Beck; Telramund, Milde; King Henry, 
Holer; the Herald, Patsch; Orturd, Miss Fastlinger; Elsa, Miss 
Agthe. Liszt conducted. 



Liszt described the prelude as "a sort of magic formula which, like 
a mysterious initiation, prepares our souls for the sight of un- 
accustomed things, and of a higher signification than that of our 
terrestrial life." 

Wagner's own explanation has been translated into English as 
follows : — 

"Love seemed to have vanished from a world of hatred and quar- 
relling; as a lawgiver she was no longer to be found among the com- 
munities of men. Emancipating itself from barren care for gain and 
possession, the sole arbiter of all worldly intercourse, the human 
heart's unquenchable love-longing again at length craved to appease 
a want, which, the more warmly and intensely it made itself felt 
under the pressure of reality, was the less easy to satisfy, on ac- 
count of this very reality. It was beyond the confines of the actual 
world thai man's ecstatic imaginative power tixed the source as 
well as the outflow of this incomprehensible impulse of love, and 




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Academy of Music Brooklyn 

Thursday evening, January 23 

Recital by 





Tenor 

Accompanist 
PERCIVAL PARHAM 



PROGRAMME 

I. 

CESTI (1618-1669) "S'io non vedo Alidoro" 

HANDEL (1685-1759) "Dolcimente in tuon leggiadro" from 

"Alexander's Feast" 
BONONCINI (1675-1726) "Carl, si tumi consumi" 

II. 

FRANCK "Nocturne" 

KOECHLIN "Le The" 

DUPARC "L'Invitation au Voyage" 

SAINT-SAeNS "Turnoiement" from "Melodies Persanes" 

III. 
SIR GEORGE HENSCHEL 

"A Melody from Purest Sphere" 
"My Weary heart can find no rest" 
"The Angels dear" 
"Siehst du das Meer?" 

IV. 
NEGRO SPIRITUALS 

"Done made my vow" 
"Lord, I wish I had-a come" 
"Keep me from sinking down" 
"Good News" 

Tickets at Institute Box Office 

23 



from the desire of a comforting sensuous conception of this super- 
BensilOUfl idea Invested it with a wonderful form, which, under the 
name of the 'Holy Grail,' thongs conceived as actually existing, yet 

unapproachably far off, was believed in, longed for, and sought for. 
[The Holv < 1 rail was the costly vessel out of which, at the Last 
Supper, our Saviour drank with His disciples, and in which His 
blood was received when out of love for His brethren He suffered 
upon a cress, and which till this day lias been preserved with lively 
zeal as the source of undying love: albeit, at one time this cup of 
salvation was taken away from unworthy mankind, but at length 
was brought back again from the heights of heaven by a band of 
angels, and delivered into the keeping of fervently loving, solitary 
men, who, wondrously strengthened and blessed by its presence, and 
purified in heart, were consecrated as the earthly champions of 
eternal love. 

"This miraculous delivery of the Holy Grail, escorted by an angelic 
host, and the handing of it over into the custody of highly favored 
men, was selected by the author of 'Lohengrin,' a knight of the Grail, 
for the introduction of his drama, as the subject to be musically 
portrayed ; just as here, for the sake of explanation, he may be al- 
lowed to bring it forward as an object for the mental receptive 
] tower of his hearers." 



Tin: Bids of the Valkyries prom "Die Walkubb" ("Thb Val- 
kyrie") Richard Wagneb 

(Born ;n Lelpsic, May 22, 1813; died mi Venice, February 13, L883) 

The third ad of "Die Walkure" begins with the mnsie of the ride 
of the Valkyries. After some forty measures, the curtain rises 
Bhowing the Slimmil of a rocky mount, ■— the "Brunnhildonstein."' 
"To the right a forest of pines bounds the scene, to the left the 



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at 8.30 



FAMOUS ENGLISH 'CELLIST and 
THE CHAMBER ORCHESTRA OF BOSTON 

(Members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra) 

Tickets 75c. to $2.50 on sale at Box Office or office of management 

BECKHARD & MACFARLANE, Inc. SSg 

Miss Harrison is under the management of A. H. HANDLEY, Boston, Mass. 




Telephone Pennsylvania 2634 



Esperanza Garrigue 



Recommended by 

Adelina Patti, Enrico Caruso, 
W. J. Henderson 

"You have my permission to quote me any- 
where at any time as saying thai I \now 
that you understand voice placing, and I'll 
back my belief, as heretofore, by sending you 
pupils." w. J. HENDERSON 

Studio: 

Metropolitan Opera House 
1425 BROADWAY, N. Y. 



25 



entrance to a rocky cave; above the cave, the crag rises to its high- 
est point. Towards the rear the view is unobstructed; higher and 
lower rocks form the edge of the abyss. Clouds sweep by the ridge, 
as though driven by a storm, Gerhilde, Ortlinde, Waltraute and 
Bchwertleite have camped on the summit, over the cave; they are 
in full armor. ... A bi£ cloud approaches from the rear." 

The Valkyries hail a sister who is disclosed by the lightning as 
bringing a fallen warrior on her horse through the heavens. The 
cry of the Valkyries resounds. As they gather in number, more 
voices are added. Brunnhilde appears bringing in Sieglinde, and 
begs her sisters' protection from the wrath of her father, Wotan, 
whom she has disobeyed. 



Prelude to Act III of "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg" 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1S13 ; died at Venice, February 13, 1SS3) 

"Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg" was performed for the first 
time at the Royal Court Theatre, Munich, on June 21, 1SGS.* 

The idea of the opera occurred to Wagner at Marienbad in 1845. 
His firsl sketch was made at Dresden in. 1845. The scenario then 
sketched differed widely from the one adopted. The libretto was 

•The chief singers at this first performance at the Royal Court Theatre, Munich. 
were Bets, Hans Sach ; Bausewein, Pogner; Hftlzel, Beckmesser; Schlosser, David; 

Nachbaur. Walther von Stolzing ; Miss Afallinger, Eva : Mine. Die/.. Magdalene. The 

first perfomance in the United states was at the Metropolitan Opera House, New 

Vnrk. January 1. 1886: Eniil Fischer, Saclis ; .Joseph Staudigl, Pogner ; Otto Kemlitz. 

Beckmesser; Kramer, David: Albert stritt. Walther von Stolzing; Auguste Krauss 

i.Mrs. Anton Seidl), Eva: Marianne Brandt, Magdalene. The first performance Is 

Boston was at the Boston Tlieatre. April S, 1889, With Fischer, Sachs; neck. I'oirner : 

M5dlinger, Beckmesser; Sedlmayer, David; Alvary, Walther von Storing; Kaselioskn. 
Bra; Bell, Magdalene. Singers from the Orpheus Club of Boston assisted in the 

• lionises of the third act. Anton Seidl conducted. 



Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, teacher of the piano, desires to call to your 
attention his inauguration of Group Lessons in response to the growing demand for 
instruction of this type. 

Each group will consist of three students of practically equal ability. All will study 
the same material and each will receive an equal amount of individual attention. 
The period will be of one hour duration. 

Mr Freckelton is assured that this innovation will be welcomed by those who dc- 
1 xp<rt and artistic instruction but feel unable to meet the ncccsssarily high fees 
.''-quired for private instruction, and by those who appreciate the returns received 
from the competitive spirit developed by such lessons. 

Mr Freckelton will gladly send to you full information in regard t:> these group 
lessons. He will of course continue his work with individual student |, 

9TEINWAY HALL Residence 

113 WEST 57th Mki i/i 214 ARLINGTON AVENUE 

New York Brooklyn. N. Y. 



CITIZENS' COMMITTEE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CONCERTS 

Season 1929 -1930 



Chairman 

Mr. Adrian Van Sinderen 

Vice-Chairmen 

Mr. Frank L. Babbott Mrs. William H. Good 

Mrs. Edward C. Blum Mr. H. F. Gunnison 

Hon. Frederick E. Crane Mr. Henry A. Ingraham 

Mr. Walter H. Crittenden Mrs. Frederic B. Pratt 

Mrs. H. E. Dreier Mrs. B. Herbert Smith 

Mr. R. Huntington Woodman 



Mr. Frederick T. Aldrddge 

Dr. Joseph D. Allen 

Mr. Juan A. Almirall 

Dr. Frank L. Babbott, Jr. 

Dr. Nathan T. Beers 

Dr. W. B. Brinsmadb 

Mrs. Charles R. Buckley 

Mr. F. A. M. Burrell 

Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler 

Rev. S. Parkes Cadman, D.D. 

Hon. William M. C alder 

Mr. J. Norman Carpenter 

Mrs. Otis Swan Carroll 

Mrs. George W. Chauncey 

Mrs. I. Sherwood Coffin 

Mrs. Frederick L. Cranford 

Hon. James C. Cropsey 

Hon. Norman S. Dike 

Rev. Samuel M. Dorrance 

Mrs. Guy DuVal 

Mr. S. Raymond Estey 

Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 

Mr. Theodore L. Frothingham 

Mr. William Peter Hamilton 

Mr. Walter Hammitt 

Mr. George Hewlett 

Miss Amelia B. Hollenback 

Dr. Alexander C Howe 

Mr. William T. Hunter 

Mr. Darwin R. James 

Dr. William A. Jewett 

Mr. James H. Jourdan 

Mr. Charles D. Lay 



Mrs. John Eadie Leech 
Miss Hilda Loines 
Mrs. Charles J. McDermott 
Hon. George V. McLaughlin 
Mrs. William W. Marshall 
Mr. W. S. Morton Mead 
Mr. Frank C. Munson 
Mr. Charles F. Murphy 
Mrs. George Notman 
Mr. Neilson Olcott 
Mrs. Fbank H. Parsons 
Mr. James H. Post 
Mr. Charles E. Potts 
Mrs. George H. Prentiss 
Mrs. Benjamin Prince 
Mrs. Clinton L. Rossiter, Jr. 
Mr. H. Stavely Sammond 
Mrs. Henry Spelman 
Mr. Porter Steele 
Mrs. Herman Stutzer 
Miss Marion J. Terry 
Mr. William Armour Thayer 
Mr. Carl H. Tollefsen 
Mrs. Walter Truslow 
Mrs. James P. Warbasse 
Mrs. Edwin Carrington Ward 
Mrs. Walter F. Wells 
Mrs. J. B. Whitney 
Mr. Eugene A. Widmann 
Dr. Ralph C. Williams 
Hon. George A. Wingate 
Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 
Mrs. W. H. Ziegler 



27 




H K # ¥< W 




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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 6. 1930, at 8.15 o'clock 




Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SOLOIST 
SERGE PROKOFIEFF 

Composer and Pianist 



TICKETS AT INSTITUTE BOX OFFICE 



29 



completed at Paris in 1861. Wagner worked at Biebrick in 1862 on 
the music. The score was finished on October 20, 1867. 

The prelude to Act III begins with a slow unison passage for 
violoncellos — a theme associated with the character of Hans Sachs. 
The second phase is made the subject of a quasi-fugal exposition in 
the strings. This passage, Eticas gcdehnt (un poco largo), G 
minor, -44, is followed by measures in G major, the choral greeting 
to Sachs, sang as the poet appears as a judge in the singing contest 
(Act III). This greeting is here in full harmony for bassoons,- 
horns, trumpets, trombones and bass tuba. The strings interrupt 
by playing passages based on phrases from Sachs's cobbler song 
and the Sachs motive heard at the beginning of the Prelude, and 
ends with some reminiscences (violins) of Walther's Spring Song in 
Act I. The aforesaid wind instruments now give out the second 
half of the greeting to Sachs. The orchestra then develops poly- 
phonically the Sachs motive. There is a diminuendo which fades 
away in violins, violas and violoncellos, with a final reference to the 
cobbler's song. 



Prelude to "The Mastersingers of Nuremberg" 

Richard Wagner 

(Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883) 

The Prelude to "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg" was performed 
for the first time in the Gewandhaus at Leipsic, November 1, 1862. 
At a concert organized by Wendelin Weissheimer for the production 
of certain works, Wagner conducted this Prelude and the overture to 
"Tannhauser." The hall was nearly empty, but the Prelude was 



Get your VICTOR RECORDS of 

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The advertisers in this 
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when the quality of merchandise or 

service oflered meets the require- 
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tra discriminating subscribers, we 
are happy to present tin ir announce- 
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HOWARD A. KEELER 

A'nO )VrA .Idealising f^tprrsenltilii'e of tbt 

Bm/Im SjupboHj Ottbutni Ptuf-ffw 

225 W«l 34th St., N. Y. C. 



80 



received with so much favor that it was immediately played a second 
time. The opera was first performed at Munich, June 21, 1868. 

One critic wrote of the Prelude, "The overture, a long movement 
in moderate march tempo, with predominating brass, without any 
distinguishing chief thoughts and without noticeable and recurring 
points of rest, went along and soon awakened a feeling of monot- 
ony." The critic of the Mitteldeutsche Yolkzeitung wrote in terms 
of enthusiasm. The Signaled critic was bitter in opposition. He 
wrote at length, and finally characterized the Prelude as "a chaos," 
a 'tohu-wabohu' and nothing more." For an entertaining account 
of the early adventures of the Prelude, see "Erlebnisse mit Kichard 
Wagner, Franz Liszt, und vielen anderen Zeitgenossen, nebst deren 
Brief en," by W. Weissheimer (Stuttgart and Leipsic, 1898), pages 
163-209. 

This Prelude is in reality a broadly developed overture in the 

classic form. It may be divided into four distinct parts, which are 
closely knit together. 

1. An initial period, moderato, in the form of a march built on 
four chief themes combined in various ways. The tonality of C 
Major is well maintained. 

2. A second period, E major, of lyrical character, fully developed, 
and in a way the centre of the composition. 

3. An intermediate episode in the nature of a scherzo, developed 
from the initial theme, treated in diminution and in fugued style. 

4. A revival of the lyric theme, combined this time simultaneously 
with the two chief themes of the first period, which leads to a coda 
wherein the initial phrase is introduced in the manner of a stretto. 

The opening energetic march theme serves throughout the work to 
characterize the mastersingers. As Wagner said, "The German is 
angular and awkward when he wishes to show his good manners, but 



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31 



he is noble and superior to all when he takes fire." The theme might 
characterize the German bourgeoisie (compare Elgar's theme of 
"London Citizenship" in "Cockaigne"). 

Wagner in his Autobiography tells how the idea of "Die Meister- 
singer" formed itself ; how he began to elaborate it in the hope that 
it might free him from the thrall of the idea of "Lohengrin" ; but 
he was impelled to go back to the latter opera. The melody for the 
fragment of Sachs's poem 6n the Reformation occurred to him while 
going through the galleries of the Palais Royal on his way to the 
Taverne Anglaise. "There I found Truinet already waiting for me 
and asked him to give me a scrap of paper and a pencil to jot down 
my melody, which I quietly hummed over to him at the time." "As 
from the balcony of my flat, in a sunset of great splendor, I gazed 
upon the magnificent spectacle of 'Golden' Mayence, with the ma- 
jestic Rhine pouring along its outskirts in a glory of light, the 
prelude to my 'Meistersinger' again suddenly made its presence 
closely and distinctly felt in my soul. Once before had I seen it 
rise before me out of a lake of sorrow, like some distant mirage. 
1 proceeded to write down the prelude exactly as it appears to-day 
in the score, that is, containing the clear outlines of the leading 
themes of the whole drama." One night when he had sketched the 
theme of Pogner, "Das schone Fest Johannistag," he heard suddenly 
the mad laughter, horrible whimpering, and frightful howling of 
his servant Lieschen attacked with hysterical convulsions. 



»•*-"»" 




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MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



PERFECT PRACTISE PERIODS 

PREPARE PERFECT PERFORMANCES 

ANTOINETTE HALL-WHYTOCK. A.A.G.O. 

ACCOMPANIST and COACH 
205 West 57th St., Wednesdays Personal address, St. Ann's Church 

Circle 5420 Sayville, Long Island, Tel. 516 

Teachers and Professionals: For space in this program, consult me. 




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announces a new member of its faculty 



FREDERIC TILLOTSON 

Teacher of the Pianoforte 
Mr. TiLLOTSON'has received his training from Heinrich Gebhard, Boston, and Tobias Matthay, 
London. He conducts Master Classes at the Lamont School, Denver, during the summer 

The Longy School is now using exclusively the 
Cataloeue sent upon request Baldwin Piano 103 Hemenway Street, Boston, Mass. 



FRANK 



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La Forge voice method used and endorsed by: 
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Ellsworth Bell, Secretary. 
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Importers, Music Publishers and Dealers, 11 East 22nd Street. New York 

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Artist-pupil Leschetizky, Joseffy, R.A.M. London 

Lecturer Piano-playing University Extension, Boston 

NEW YORK BOSTON (Thursdays only) 

902 Steinway Hall 26 Steinert Hall 

Two-Piano Sight-reading Classes 

Coaching Lessons to Pianists and Teachers 



PIANO, ORGAN, COACHING 

Studio: TRINITY COURT 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET . BOSTON 
(Kenmore 8431) 



Vocal Coaching, Voice Production 
Programme Building 



MONDAYS 
Steinway Hall 
New York City 



STUDIO 
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Copley Square, Boston 



TEACHER OF SINGING 



STEINERT HALL 

162 BOYLSTON STREET 

Telephone Hubbard 6677 



BOSTON 



TENOR 



Special attention to the speaking and singing, 
voice in relation to the motion picture art. 

Studio: 4 WEST 40th STREET. NEW YORK 

Opposite Public Library Tel. Penn. 4792 

If co answer ring Susquehanna 4500. 



THE LONELY TASK 



Every art, every science, has its passionate seekers of perfec- 
tion — men consecrated to the lonely task. An achievement 
far beyond the understanding of the crowd is the goal 
toward which their whole endeavor is shaped. They 
will never be known of the multitude. They do 
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WIS 




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fully told only to the true musician's ear — when the keys of the 
Mason & Hamlin speak under his delighted ringers. 

It is obvious that the makers of the Mason &P Hamlin must make fewer 
pianos than other manufacturers.The price of the Mason &? Hamlin is, 
of necessity, higher than that of any other piano. Few, therefore, will 
ever possess this supreme instrument. But in the patronage of these 
few, whose selection is tt\{% c~f* \ ♦ 

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BOSTON • NEW YORK 



based on their own sure 
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$ I ,650 to $3,000 Period Models to $2 2,500 

An initial payment $/ 10% will place a Mason (J Hamlin mytur turn*. 
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AM PI CO HALL, 6] PLATBUSH AVKNUh 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC . . . BROOKLYN 
Thursday Evening, February 6, at 8.15 J 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and the Philharmonic 

Society of Brooklyn 




PR5GRSAAE 



P 3 31 
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Fred Sterry 
President 



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Henry A. Rost N ew y rk 
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Arthur L. Race 
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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 6, at 8.15 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



For so tine a piano 




the cost is 



surprisingly 
small 



The making of a fine piano, as of 
any other fine thing, involves cer- 
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reduced beyond a certain point, the 
prodncl ceases to he fine. . . . \et 
more than 70 years 1 experience in 
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ha- taught Steinway & Son- how to 
reduce these costs to the safest pos- 
sible minimum. I<> them is added 
a modest profit and ili<- result Lb 
the market price bo moderate that 
it i- a pleasanl Burprise to those 
wlio are already familiar uitli tin- 



incomparable tone and durability 
of Steinway pianos. There are many 
styles and prices. Make your visit 
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today. 



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piano can be bought for 



*H75 
grands »i5SO ;;t s ;;/;,^t 



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with ;i cash deposit of 1095 . and the bat 
snee will !>«• extended over ;i period of twt 
years* I sed pianos accepted in partial 
exchange! 

Sri inw \t & Sons. Steinwa) Hall 
109 Wert 57th Street! Nei« York 



ST K IX WAY 



Till: IX ST Mil MKXT 
OF THE WMMORTAL& 



enlcd in I'.otton mid nlhrr New Iritflunil rilietj by M Slciiurl A Sum 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 



Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

* 

Organ. 
Snow, A 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Fedorovsky, P. Leibovici, J. 

Leveen, P. Tapley, R. 

Knudson, C. Gorodetzky, L. 

Zide, L. Fiedler, B. 



Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 



Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

Cauhap6, J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 
Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 



Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 

'A 



Bassoons. 

Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 

Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 

Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 



ABRAHAM <f 

FULTON ST. at HOYT . gg^ 



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ACADEMY OF MUSIC .... BROOKLYN 

Forty-second season in Brooklyn 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 6 

AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 

Tchaikovsky . . Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

I. Adagio. Allegro non troppo. 

II. Allegro con grazia. 

III. Allegro molto vivace. 

IV. Finale: Adagio lamentoso. 



Prokofieff Second Piano Concerto, in G minor, Op. 16 

I. Andantino; Allegretto. 

II. Scherzo. 

III. Intermezzo. 

IV. Finale. 

DeFalla .... Three Dances from "El Sombrero de 

Tres Picos," Ballet 

a. The Neighbors. 

b. Dance of the Miller. 

c. Final Dance. 



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Symphony No. 6, B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky 

(Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; died at 

Leningrad, November 6, 1893) 

Tchaikovsky on the voyage from New York to Hamburg in May, 
1891, made sketches for a sixth symphony. He worked on this 
symphony in 1892, was dissatisfied with it, and destroyed it before 
he began to orchestrate it. His third pianoforte concerto, Op. 75, 
was based on the first movement of the rejected work. (This con- 
certo was played after his death by Taneiev in Leningrad.) An- 
other work, posthumous, the Andante and Finale for pianoforte with 
orchestra, orchestrated by Taneiev, and produced at Leningrad on 
February 20, 1896, was also based on the sketches for this Sym- 
phony. 

« 

* • 

The first mention of the "Pathetic" Symphony is in a letter from 
Tchaikovsky to his brother Anatol, dated Klin, February 22, 1893 : 
"I am now wholly occupied with the new work (a symphony) and 
it is hard for me to tear myself away from it. 1 believe it comes 
into being as the best of my works. I must finish it as soon as 
possible, for I have to wind up a lot of affairs and I must also soon 
go to London. I told you that I had completed a symphony which 



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suddenly displeased me, and I tore it up. Now 1 have composed 
a new symphony which I certainly shall not tear up." He was 
Mill eager for an inspiring opera libretto. He did not like one on 

the story of liuline, which had been surest ed. He wrote to Mod- 
est : 'For God's sake, find or invent a subject, if possible not a 
fantastic one, but something after the manner of 'Carmen' or of 
H Javalleria Rnsticana.' " 

Tchaikovsky went to London in May, and the next month he was 
at Cambridge, to receive, on June 13, with Saint-Saens, Grieg, Boito, 
Uracil, the Doctor's degree honoris causa. Grieg, whom Tchaikov- 
sky loved as man and composer, was sick and could not be present. 
•'Outside of Saint-Saens the sympathetic one to me is Boito. 
Bruch — an unsympathetic, bumptious person." At the ceremonial 
concert. Tchaikovsky's k, Francesca da Rimini" was played. General 
Roberts was also made a Doctor on this occasion, as were the 
Maharadja of Bhonnaggor and Lord Herschel. 

At home again, Peter wrote to Modest early in August that he 
was up to his neck in his symphony. "The orchestration is the 
more difficult, the farther I go. Twenty years ago I let myself 
write at ease without much thought, and it was all right. Now I 
have become cowardly and uncertain. I have sat the whole day 
over two pages: that which I wished came constantly to naught. 
In spite of this. I make progress." He wrote to Davidov, August 
15: "The symphony which I intended to dedicate to you — I shall 
reconsider this on account of your long silence — is progressing. 
I am verv well satisfied with the contents, but not wholly with the 







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orchestration. I do not succeed in my intentions. It will not 
surprise me in the least if t he symphony is cursed or judged un- 
favorably; 'twill not be for the lirst time. I myself consider it the 
best, especially the most open-hearted of all my works. I love it 
as I never have loved any other of my musical creations. My life is 
without the charm of variety: evenings I am often bored; but I 
do not complain, for the symphony is now the main thing, and [ 
cannot work anywhere so well as at home." lie wrote Jurgenson, 
his publisher, on August 2-4 that he had finished the orchestration: 
•1 give you my word of honor that never in my life have 1 been 
so contented, so proud, so happy, in the knowledge that 1 have 
written a good piece." It was at this time that he thought seriously 
of writing an opera with a text founded on "The Sad Fortunes of 
the Reverend Mr. Barton," by George Eliot, of whose best works 
he was an enthusiastic admirer. 

Early in October he wrote to the Grand Duke Constantine : "I 
have without exaggeration put my whole soul into this symphony, 
and I hope that your highness will like it. I do not know whether 
it will seem original in its material, but there is this peculiarity 
of form : the Finale is an Adagio, not an Allegro, as is the custom." 
Later he explained to the Grand Duke why he did not wish to 
write a Requiem. He said in substance that the text contained 
too much about God as a revengeful judge; he did not believe in 
such a deity; nor could such a deity awaken in him the necessary 
inspiration: "I should feel the greatest enthusiasm in putting music 
to certain parts of the gospels, if it were only possible. How often. 



I 



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for instance, have I been enthusiastic over a musical illustration 
of Christ's words : 'Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden ; also, 'For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light' ! What 
boundless love and compassion for mankind are in these words'" 
Tchaikovsky left Klin forever on October 19. He stopped at Mos- 
cow to attend a funeral, and there with Kashkin he talked freelv 
after supper. Friends had died; who would be the next to go? 
"I told Peter," said Kashkin, "that he would outHve us all He 
disputed the likelihood, yet added that never had he felt so well 
and happy." Peter told him that he had no doubt about the first 
three movements of his new symphony, but that the last was still 
doubtful m his mind; after the performance he might destroy it 
and write another finale. He arrived at Leningrad in good spirits 
but he was depressed because the symphony made no impression 
on the orchestra at the rehearsals. He valued highly the opinion 
of players, and he conducted well only when he knew that the 
orchestra liked the work. He was dependent on them for the finesse 
of interpretation. "A cool facial expression, an indifferent glance 
a yawn— these tied his hands; he lost his readiness of mind he 
went over the work carelessly, and cut short the rehearsal, that 
the players might be freed from their boresome work " Yet he in 
sisted that he never had written and never would write a better 
composition than this symphony. e 

*r!d oStlT^T t? S perform ^ d f <* tte fi™t time at Lenin- 

a .°r 7 er 8 ' ! 893 T - The P ro g r amme included an overture to an 

unfinished opera by Laroche, Tchaikovsky's B-flat minor Concerto 



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for pianoforte, played by Adele ana der Ohe, the dances from 
Mozart's "Idomeneo," and Liszt's Spanish Rhapsody for pianoforte. 

Tchaikovsky conducted. The symphony failed. "There was ap- 
plause," Bays Modest, "and the composer was recalled, but with no 
mure enthusiasm than on previous occasions. There was not the 
mighty, overpowering impression made by the work when it was 
conducted by Naprawnik, November 18, 1893, and later, wherever 
it was played." The critics were decidedly cool. 



The morning after Modest found Peter at the tea-table with the 
score of the symphony in his hand. He regretted that, inasmuch 
as he had to send it that day to the publisher, he had not yet given 
it a title. He wished something more than "No. 6," and did not 
like "Programme Symphony." u What does Programme Symphony 
mean when 1 will give it no programme ?" Modest suggested 
"Tragie." but Peter said that would not do. "I left the room before 
he had come to a decision. Suddenly I thought, 'Pathetic.' I went 
back to the room, — I remember it as though it were yesterday, — and 
1 said the word to Peter. 'Splendid, Modi, bravo, ''Pathetic"!' and 
lie wrote in my presence the title that will forever remain." 

On October 30 Tchaikovsky asked Jurgenson by letter to put on 
the title page the dedication to Vladimir Liwowitsch Davidov, ami 
added: "This symphony met with a singular fate. It has not exactly 
failed, but it has incited surprise. As for me, I am prouder of it 
than anv other of my works." 



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On November 1 Tchaikovsky was in perfect health. He dined 
with an old friend and went to the theatre. In the cloak-room 
there was talk about Spiritualism. Warlamov objected to all talk 
about ghosts and anything that reminded one of death. Tchaikov- 
sky laughed at Warlamov's manner of expression, and said: ''There 
is si ill time enough to become acquainted with this detestable snub- 
nosed one. At any rate, lie will not have us soon. I know that 1 
shall live lor a long time." He then went with friends to a restau- 
rant, where he ate macaroni and drank white wine with mineral 
water. When he walked home about 2 a.m., Peter was well in body 
and in mind. 

There arc some who find pleasure in the thought that the death 
of a great man was in some way mysterious or melodramatic. For 
years some insisted that Salieri caused Mozart to be poisoned. 
There was a rumor after Tchaikovsky's death that he took poison 
or sought deliberately the cholera. When Mr. Alexander Siloti, 
a pupil of Tchaikovsky, first visited Boston, in 1898. he did not 
hesitate to say that there might be truth in the report, and. asked 
as to his own belief, he shook his head with a portentous gravity 
that Burleigh might have envied. We have been assured by other 
Russians who knew Tchaikovsky that he killed himself, nor was the 
reason for his so doing withheld. Peter's brother Modest gives a 
circumstantial account of Peter's death from natural causes. Peter 
awoke November 2 after a restless night, but he went out about noon 
to make a call: he returned to luncheon, ate nothing, and drank a 



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glass of water that had not been boiled. Modest and others were 
alarmed, but Peter was not disturbed, for he was less afraid of the 
cholera than of other diseases. Not until night Avas there any 
Thought of serious illness, and then Peter said to his brother: "I 
think this is death. Good-by, Modi." At eleven o'clock that night it 
was determined that his sickness was cholera. 

Modest tells at length the story of Peter's ending. Their mother 
had died of cholera in 1854, at the very moment that she was put 
into a bath. The physicians recommended as a last resort a warm 
bath for Peter, who. when asked if he would take one, answered : 
"I shall be glad to have a bath, but I shall probably die as soon 
as I am in the tub — as my mother died." The bath was not given 
that night, the second night after the disease had been determined, 
for Peter was too weak. He was at times delirious, and he often 
repeated the name of Mine, von Meek in reproach or in anger, for 
lie had been sorely hurt by her sudden and capricious neglect after 
her years of interest and devotion. The next day the bath was 
given. A priest was called, but it was not possible to administer 
the Communion, and he spoke words that the dying man could no 
longer understand. "Peter Ilich suddenly opened his eyes. There 
was an indescribable expression of unclouded consciousness. Pass- 
ing over the others standing in the room, he looked at the three 
nearest him, and then toward heaven. There was a certain light 
for a moment in his eyes, which was soon extinguished, at the same 
lime with his breath. It was about three o'clock in the morning." 



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What was the programme in Tchaikovsky's mind? Kashkin says 
that, if the composer had disclosed it to the public, the world would 
not have regarded the symphony as a kind of legacy from one filled 
with a presentiment of his own approaching end; that it seems 
more reasonable "to interpret the overwhelming energy of the third 
movement and the abysmal sorrow of the Finale in the broader 
light of a national or historical significance rather than to narrow 
them to the expression of an individual experience. If the last 
movement is intended to be predictive, it is surely of things vaster 
and issues more fatal than are contained in a mere personal appre- 
hension of death. It speaks rather of a 'lamentation large et souff- 
rance inconnue/ and seems to set the seal of finality on all human 
hopes. Even if we eliminate the purely subjective interest, this 
autumnal inspiration of Tchaikovsky, in which we hear 'the ground 
whirl of the perished leaves of hope, still remains the most pro- 
foundly stirring of his works/ . . ." 



Each hearer has his own thought when he is "reminded by the 
instruments." To some this symphony is as the life of man. The 
story is to them of man's illusions, desires, loves, struggles, vic- 
tories, and end. In the first movement they find with the despair 
of old age and the dread of death the recollection of early years 
with the transports and illusions of love, the remembrance of youth 
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The second movement might bear as a motto the words of the 
Third Kalander in the "Thousand Mghts and a Night": "And we 
sat down to drink, and some sang songs and others played the lute 
and psaltery and recorders and other instruments, and the bowl 
went merrily round. Hereupon such gladness possessed me that 
I forgot the sorrows of the world one and all, and said: "This is 
indeed life. O sad that 'tis fleeting!" The trio is as the sound of 
the clock that in Poe's wild tale of the Masque of the Ked Death 
compelled even the musicians of the orchestra to pause momentarily 
in their performance, to hearken to the sound; "and thus the 
waltzers perforce ceased their evolutions; and there was a brief 
disconcert of the whole gay company; and, while the chimes of the 
clock yet rang, it was observed that the giddiest grew pale, and the 
more aged and sedate passed their hands over their brows as if in 
confused revery or meditation." In this trio Death beats the drum. 
With Tchaikovsky, here, as in the "Manfred" symphony, the drum 
is the most tragic of instruments.* The persistent drum-beat in 
this trio is poignant in despair not untouched with irony. Man 
says: "Come now, I'll be gay"; and he tries to sing and to dance, 
and to forget. His very gayety is labored, forced, constrained, in 
an unnatural rhythm. And then the drum is heard, and there is 
wailing, there is angry protest, there is the conviction that the 
struggle against Fate is vain. Again there is the deliberate effort 
to be gay, but the drum once heard beats in the ears forever. For 
this, some, who do not like Tchaikovsky, call him a barbarian, a 
savage. They are like Danfodio, who attempted to abolish the 
music of the drum in Africa. But, even in that venerable and 
mysterious land, the drum is not necessarily a monotonous instru- 
ment. Winwood Keade, who at first was disturbed by this music 
through the night watches, wrote before he left Africa: "For the 
drum has its language: with short, lively sounds it summons to 
the dance, it thunders for the alarm of fire or war, loudly and 

*Note the effect of the constant drum-beats in O'Neill's "The Emperor Jones." 




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RICHARD COPLEY, Announcement 



ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 

MECCA AUDITORIUM 133 w est 55th street 

Sunday Afternoon, February 9th, at 4 Sharp 

BACH PROGRAMME 

I. AIR and Thirty Variations, known as the 
GOLDBERG VARIATIONS. 

HAROLD SAMUEL 

This number takes forty-five minutes to perform and will be played without pause, and no admission 
to Hall while the Artist is playing. 

II. CANTATA No. 201 : "Phoebus und Pan." 

SOT OTSTS J EDITHA FLEISCHER, MARION TELVA, GEORGE MEADER, 
aULUia 1 3 J MAX BL0CH FRASER GANGE, DUDLEY MARWICK. 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS 
METROPOLITAN OPERA ORCHESTRA 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON, MARCH 9th, at 4 Sharp 

BACH'S "St. John's Passion" 

( ETHYL HAYDEN, MARION TELVA, GEORGE MEADER, 
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19 



nuicklv with DO intervals between the beats; it rattles for the 
marriage ; it tolls for the death, and now it says in deep and mutter- 
in <r sounds, "Come to the ordeal, come to the ordeal come, come 
come • - Kowbotham's claim that the drum was the hrst musica 
instrument known to man has been disputed by some who insist 
that knowledge and use of the pipe were first; but his chapters o* 
the dram are eloquent as well as ingenious and learned He lints 
that the dripping of water at regular intervals on a rock and the 
regular knocking of two boughs against one another m a wood are 
of a totally different order of sound from the continual chirrup 
of birds or the monotonous gurgling of a brook. And why . Be- 
cause in this dripping of water and knocking of boughs is the 
innuendo of design/' Rowbotham also shows that there was a 
period in the history of mankind when there was an organized 
BTBtem of religion in which the drum was worshipped as a god, 
iust as years afterward bells were thought to speak to be alive, 
were dressed and adorned with ornaments. Now Tchaikovsky s 
drum has -the innuendo of design"; we are not sure but lie wor- 
shipped it with fetishistic honors; surely the Tchaikovsky of the 
Pathetic Symphony cries out with the North American brave: Do 
you understand what my drum says?" 



Concerto No 2, (i minor, for Pianoforte and Orchestra 

^ ~ ' Serge Sergievich Prokofieff 

(Bom at Sontsovka, Russia, April 24, 1S91 ; now living) 

This concerto, composed in the spring of 1913, was played in 
\ugust of that year by Mr. Prokofietf at one of the famous concerts 
at Pavlovsk near Leningrad. There were several performances alter 
that, with the composer pianist at the symphony concerts at Len- 

r^ -n it jQj^-^ i m n n.>>.n**i 

1 

(7lirI)aui^(Daiiiu^j{DusirSi{iLUif 

157 East Seventy-fourth Street. New York 

VOCAL DEPARTMENT 

FRANK BIBB 
ADIMKWK REMENYl VON ENDK 



i 



with 
oTTM.li. SCHELUG 



ij)* i ■ ■ "~ ^J 



ingrad ; there was also one in 1915 at an Augusteo concert in Rome, 
directed by Mr. Molinari. 

The manuscript score was left in Leningrad when Prokofieff came 
to the United States in 1918, and was lost with the orchestral parts 
with other manuscripts when his apartment was confiscated by the 
decree of the Soviet Government. Sketches of the piano part were 
saved. They were taken away by the composer's mother in 1921. 
From these sketches, Mr. Prokofieff in 1923 remade the concerto as 
it now stands. 

The new version differs greatly from the original. While the com- 
poser endeavored to leave intact the thematic material and the form 
of the original version, he at the same time wished to avail himself 
of the technical resources acquired by him during the ten years that 
stood between the two versions. 

This information and the notes that follow are taken from the 
programme book of the Koussevitzky concert in Paris when the con- 
certo was performed for the first time in that city on May 8, 1924. 

I. Andantino — Allegretto — Andantino. The movement begins 
with the announcement of the first theme, to which is opposed a 
second episode of a faster pace in A minor. The piano enters solo 
in a technically complicated cadenza, with a repetition of the first 
episode in the first part. 

II. Scherzo. This Scherzo is in the nature of a moto perpetuo 
in sixteenth notes by the two hands in the interval of an octave, 
while the orchestral accompaniment furnishes a background. 

III. Intermezzo. This movement, moderato, is conceived in a 
strictly classical form. ' 

IV. Finale. After measures in quick movement, the first subject 
is given to the piano. The second is of a calmer, more cantabile 
nature — piano solo at first — followed by several canons for piano 
and orchestra. Later the two themes are joined, the piano playing 
one, the orchestra the other. There is a short coda based chiefly 
upon the first subject. 




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21 



Thru Danch takms prom thm Balldt "The Thrbb-cornbred Hal" 
("El Sombrero db Trbs Picos") .... ICanubl db Falla 

(B .: ..: Cadiz, November 23, i>77 ; now living at Grenada) 

1. The Neighbors. II. The Miller's Dauce. III. Final Dance. 

The score rails for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, English horn, two 
clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, 
bass tuba, kettledrums, side drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, 
xylophone, tain-tain castanets, celesta, harp, piano, and the usual 
strings. 

"When the Russian Ballet visited Spain. Serge de Diaghilev was 
so much interested in the work of de Falla that he commissioned 
him to write a ballet on the subject of Alareon's novel, TE1 Sombrero 
de Tres Picos.' "• 

Phis ballet "The Three-cornered Hat" was performed for the first 
time on any stage by the Russian Ballet at the Alhambra, London, 
on July 23, 1919. The scenario was arranged by Martinez Sierra; 
the Btage settings and costumes were designed by Pablo Picasso. 
The Miller, Leonide Massine; the Corregidor, Leon Woisikovsky; 
the Miller's Wife. Thamar Karsavina : the Corregidor's Wife, Miss 
Grantzeva; the Handy. Stanislas Idzikovsky; the Singer, Zoia 
Rosovsky. Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

Joaquin Turina says (The Chesterian, May, L920) that the firel 

•Don Antonio Pedro do Alarc.'n (1833 91) based tliis famous story, which was 

Brat entitled "El Corregidor y la B&ollnera" ("The Corregidor and the Miller's Wife") 

On an Old Spanish talc which he heard in his Youth. In the summer of 1 s7 } ],,. ^as 
asked to \vrit<' a story for a Cuban weekly : hut a friend persuaded him to publish it 
in the IO i istn Europea, Madrid. It appeared in hook form a month later, and met with 
^•reat success. It has been translated into at least seven languages. Librettos 
for these operas have been derived from it: "Der Corregidor. "" by BugO Wolf (Mann- 
heim, June 7. 1896); "Margitta," by Brlk Meyer-Helmund (Magdeburg, 1889); "Der 
Rlchter von Grenada," by Richard von Perger (Cologne, 18.89) : "Die Lachtaune," bv 
■ n Taund (Vienna, 1895). 




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SYMPHONY HALL, Boston March 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 



Brahms Festival 

By the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY 

Conductor 

Assisted by the 

HARVARD and RADCLIFFE CHORUSES 

Dr. ARCHIBALD T. DAVISON and G. WALLACE WOODWORTH, 

Conductors 

ARTUR SCHNABEL JEANNETTE VREELAND 

Piano Soprano 

MARGARET MATZENAUER FRAZER GANGE 

Mezzo-Soprano Baritone 

BURGIN STRING QUARTET 



The Festival Programmes will include: 

Orchestral Music — The four Symphonies, the two 
Pianoforte Concertos, the Academic Festival 
Overture, and the Variations on a Theme 
by Haydn. 

Choral Music — "A German Requiem," "A Song 
of Destiny," "Liebeslieder" Waltzes, the 
Rhapsody for Alto with Male Chorus. 

Chamber Music — Violin Sonata, Music for Piano- 
forte solo, and the Piano Quintet in F minor, 
and Songs (by Mme. Matzenauer). 

Tickets for the four extra concerts (March 23-26) are now available 

by means of the Automatic Subscription Board in 

Symphony Hall, or by Mail Order 

(The Concerts of March 21 and 22 are part of the regular 
Friday and Saturday series, which are already subscribed.) 



23 



rergfon of "The Three-cornered Hat'' was produced at the Eslava 

Theatre, Madrid, under the title of "El Corregidor y la Molinera.' 1 

Turina was then conducting this theatre's orchestra. The ''pan- 
tomime" of de Falla was accompanied by only seventeen players. 
"Tiie composer was confronted with one great difficulty, and that 
WSL8 to follow musically the action of the play without spoiling the 
unity of his score. The music therefore continually reflected a cer- 
tain anxiety on the composer's part, as if he were trying to disen- 
tangle himself, so to speak, from the external network. The trans- 
formation of the 'pantomime' into a ballet at once cleared away all 
these difficulties. This is quite natural, for in the new version the 
action became reduced to a strictly indispensable minimum, and the 
dances became predominant, those already existing being consider- 
ably amplified." 

Turina finds the Miller's Dance the most interesting, "because of 
its typically Andalusian character, its fascinating rhythm which is 
like an affirmation of southern art, and its Moorish character." In 
the Final Dance the jota and the folk theme called vito are in- 
troduced. 

The Daily Telegraph (July 24, 1919) said of the ballet:— 

"Over the whole brisk action is the spirit of frivolous comedy of a kind by 
no means common only to Spain of the eighteenth century. A young miller 
and his wife are the protagonists, and if their existence be idyllic in theory, 
it Ifl extraordinarily strenuous in practice — chorographically. But that is 
only another way of saying that M. Massine and Madame Karsavina. who 
enact the couple, are hardly ever off the stage, and that both of them work 
witli an energy and exuberance that almost leave one breathless at moments. 
The miller and his wile between them, however, would scarcely sutt'uv even 
for a Blender ballot plot. So we have as well an amorous Corregidor (or 



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Governor), who orders the miller's arrest so that the way may be cleared 
for a pleasant little flirtation— if nothing more serious— with the captivating 
wife. Behold the latter fooling him with a seductive dance, and then evading 
her admirer with such agility that, in his pursuit of her, he tumbles over a 
bridge into the mill-stream. But, as this is comedy, and not melodrama, the 
would-be lover experiences nothing worse than a wetting, and the laugh, which 
is turned against him, is renewed when, having taken off some of his clothes 
to dry them, and gone to rest on the miller's bed, his presence is discovered 
by the miller himself, who, in revenge, goes off in the intruder's garments 
after scratching a message on the wall to the effect that 'Your wife is no less 
beautiful than mine !' Thereafter a 'gallimaufry of gambols' and — curtain !" 



De Falla has been represented at concerts of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra in Boston as follows : 



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25 



1921. December 30, Three Dances from "The Three-Cornered 
Bat." Mr. Monteux, conductor. 

1924. March 28, "Nights in the Gardens of Spain" (Heinrich 
Qebhard, pianist). Mr. Monteux, conductor. October 17, 1024, "El 
Amor Brnjo" (piano, Mr. Banroma). Dr. Koussevitzky, conductor. 

L926. March 5, "Three Dances'' from the "Three-Cornered Hat.'' 
Dr. Koussc\ itzky, conductor. December 31, Concerto for harp- 
sichord (Wanda Landowska), flute, oboe, clarinet, violin, violoncello. 
Dr. Kousscvitzky, conductor. 

1927. October 14, "El Amor Brujo." 

1929. January 18, Three Dances from "The Three-Cornered Hat." 



De Falla studied harmony with Alejandro Odero and Enrique 
Broca. Going to Madrid, he took pianoforte lessons of Jose Trigo 
and studied composition with Felipe Pedrell. Before De Falla was 
fourteen, the Madrid Academy of Music awarded him the first prize 
for pianoforte-playing. Between 1890 and 1904 he was busy as a 
virtuoso and a composer. About 1900 he wrote light music for the 
theatre. Having received in 1905, for his opera "La Vida breve," 
the award offered by the Spanish Academy of Fine Arts, he was 



1929 - SEASON - 1930 
FOURTH SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT 

CONDUCTORLESS 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CARNEGIE HALL 
FRIDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 21st, AT 8.45 P.M. 

Soloist 
BENNO RABINOFF, Violinist 

PROGRAMME 

MOZART Overture, "Magic Fli 

MENDELSSOHN Vi"i i\ CONCERTO i\ B Minor 

I'.i \ \n R \i:i \..i i 

\v f:iss Scberzo, "American Lira" 



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Telephone: Wickcrihim 7H70 



CITIZENS' 


COMMITTEE 


BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CONCERTS 


Season 1929 -1930 


Chairman 


Mr. Adrian Van Sinderen 


Vice-Chairmen 


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Mrs. William H. Good 


\ Mrs. Edward C. Blum 


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Dr. Joseph D. Allen 


Miss Hilda Loines 


Mr. Juan A. Almirall 


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Hon. George V. McLaughlin 


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Hon. George A. Wingate 


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Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 


Mr. Charles D. Lay 


Mrs. W. H. Ziegler 



27 




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•J9 



enabled to live and compose a little more comfortably. In 1!N)7, 
going to Paris, he was befriended by Debussy and Dukas. At that 
time his only published works were Quatrea Pieces Espagnoles: 
Aragonesa, Cnbana, Montafiesa, and Andalnza for the pianoforte: 
and three songs: Lea Colombes, Chinoiserie, and Seguidille* (words 
by Gautier. He made his debut in Paris as a pianist in 1910. The 
next year he played in London. In 11)05 his opera ''La Vida breve" 
won a prize in Madrid. The opera u La Vida breve" was produced 
at Nice on April 1, 1913. An American Lillian Grenville,f took the 
part of Balud.J This opera was given at Madrid on November 1-1, 
ID 14. De Falla returned to Spain when the World War broke out. 
His second work for the stage, an opera, "El Amor Brujo," was 
suppressed the spoken and sung parts, enlarged the orchestration, 
and made of it a symphonic suite, 'senri-Abrabian' in style. Pastera 
linperio, too, has used this music for her dances." 

"Noches en los Jardines de Espana : En el Generalife, Danse 
Lejana, and En los Jardines de la Sierra de Cordoba," a suite of 



'Song here bj Mine. Eva (lauthicr, March 21, 1D20. — P. II. 

"Lillian Grcn vilic" (Katherlne Goertner), was bom in New York on December 28, 

_.,..„., t ...l ., * .. ............. :.. M .... *_.^.. l .....l „ *• *■„ t».._:~ i.. idai —.1. ._. .i... .... ii i 




Her birthday is also given as November 20, I88fl 

JTliis opera in two acts and four scenes was heard at a public rehearsal at the 

Opera-Comtque, Parle, on December 80, LOIS, also on January 6, 1014, end in March, 
1028. Paul Miliiet translated Carlos Fernandez, shaw's libretto. The opera was warmly 
praised by the critics. Ralud, Mine. carr<5: La Grandmere, Mile Brohly; Carmela, 
Mile, s.vrii : Paco, Prancell ; L'Oncle Harvaor, Vleuille. Ruhlmnnn conducted. One 
of rhe critics natd that De Falla had been in Spain a pupil of Albenia. 'The opera at 
this theatre wa* performed publicly tor the tirst time on January '">. 1014, There 
eight performancea that season. The opera was produced ;»t the Metropolitan, 
New y, ,,-].. ,,„ March <;. 1026. 



Mr. Alfred Edward Freckclton, teacher of the piano, desires to call to your 
attention his inauguration of Group Lessons in response to the growing demand for 
instruction of this type. 

group will COOtist of three students of practically equal ability. All will study 

the same material and each will receive an equal amount of individual attention. 

I bi i " n,d will he of one hour duration. 

Mr I -'rrrkelton is assured that this innovation will he welt mnnl by those w\\n tle- 

•irr expert and ertistii instruction but feel unable to meet the necesssarily high feel 
required for private instruction, and by those who appreciate the returns received 
from the competitive spirit developed by such lessons. 

Mr I rtikelton M 11 gUdl) lend tO >'»u full inform.it ion in regard to these group 
lesson*. He will of course continue his work with individual itudents. 



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in v. i i i7tfa . rw II 

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Brooklyn, N. Y. 






Night Pieces, was first performed in 1916 at Madrid. "The thematic 
material is built, as in 'La Vida breve' or in 'El Amor Brujo' on 
rhythms, modes, cadences, or forms inspired by but never borrowed 
from Andalusian folk-song."* 

De Falla and his pupil, Rosa Garcia Ascott, played in Paris, on 
June 3, 1920, his transcription of "Night in Spanish Gardens" for 
two pianofortes. On May 29, 1920, in Paris, Mme. Madeleine Gresle 
sang in Spanish "Seven Spanish Folk-Songs" arranged by De Falla, 
who accompanied her. De Falla's puppet play, "El Retablo de 
Maese Pedro" was performed (privately) at Paris on June 25, 1923; 

♦Fragments from "El Amor Brujo" ("Love, the Wizard"), "Danza del fin del dia" 
for Dianoforte, and a song for low voice, "Cancion del amor dolido," have been pub- 
lished. An orchestral suite from the ballet was announced in London for performance 
on November 23, 1921. 



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21 



in New York by the League of Composers ou December 29, 1925, at 
Town Hall, with puppets designed by Remo Bufano. His Concerto 
for harpsichord i or piano), Hute, oboe, clarinet, violin, and violon- 
cello, was performed for the first time at the De Falla Festival held 
at Barcelona on November 5, L926. Wanda Landowska played the 

harpsichord. 

He wrote for the guitar "Homenaje" "(Homage") for the ''Tom- 
beau de Claude Debussy." This piece, which is also transcribed for 
the piano, was published in 1921. 

The second book of his songs includes "El Paiio moruno," "Segui- 
dilla murciana," "Asturiana," "Joto," "Nana," "Cancion," "Polo." 
De Falla lives on the Alhambra Mount in Grenada. Joaquin 
Turina described him in 1920: "Manuel de Falla, with his almost 
ascetic features, his large forehead, and bright eyes like two glowing 
embers, might almost be taken for an anchorite. His gentle bearing 
and invariably courteous manner do not conceal the inflexibility 
of his ideas, the strength of his principles, and a certain tenacity of 
purpose." 

An elaborate study of De Falla and his composition by Edgar 
Istel was published in the Musical Quarterly (New York) of Oc- 
tober, 1920. 




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162 BOYLSTON STREET 

Telephone Hubbard 6677 



BOSTON 



Special attention to the speaking and singing 

voice in relation to the motion picture art. 

Studio: 4 WEST 40th STREET. NEW YORK 

Opposite Public Library Tel. Penn. 4792 

If no answer ring Susquehanna 4500 



Prosperity 



Opportunistic 

speculation in the hope of quick profit, such 
as we have very recently witnessed, must 
more and more give way to systematic plan- 
ning for the assurance of permanent gain.*' 

A quotation from an address "Prosperity" deli 
by U alii r S. Gifford, President, American T>-U-phone 
and Telegraph Company, befarm the Chicago .-Isso- 
nation of Comment' I) ■< , mlur J_\ 1929, 

An Investment Management account with 
the Lee, Higginson Trust Company provides 
"systematic planning** under expert admin- 
istration. 



u;e, higginson trust co. 

50 FEDEB \l. STREET. BOSTON 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC . . . BROOKLYN 
Friday Evening, March 7, at 8.15 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and the Philharmonio 

Society of Brooklyn 




PR5GRSAME 



W 4 '- 

mm 




M 



The PLAZA, New York 




Fred Sterry 
President 



John D. Owen 
Manager 



The Savoy-Plaza 

Henry A. Rost >J ew York 
President 




T/^Copley-Plaza 

Arthur L. Race R/%e«v™ 

Managing Director DOSton 





Jiotels of ^Distinction 



Unrivalled as to location. Distin* 
guished throughout the World for 
their appointment! and service. 





■c. 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FRIDAY EVENING, MARCH 7, at 8.15 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



TRUE 



THRIFT 



is built on value — not on price 




A Steinway naturally costs more 
than an ordinary piano, because 
it is a more-tlian-ortlinary instru- 
ment. Its price exceeds those of 
other makes, yet in point of long 
life, prestige, and beauty of line 
and tone it is the greatest piano 
value ever offered. • Steinway 
pianos never have been built to 
meefl a price. They are made as 
well Bfl human -kill can make 
tlxni. and the price is determined 

later. The resull \e the world's 
fined piano. • Such a piano ifl 
an investment which will con- 
tinue to make it- rich and -lire 



return years after less distin- 
guished instruments have gone 
their way. . . . And the new con- 
venient terms place it within the 
reach of every one. Make your 
^ i>it to your nearest Steinway 
dealer — today. 

A new Steinuay Upright <ii( •• >^ .■? 
piano can he bought for *• • •" 

CBAVIkfi Ml i -—r " r ' '""/"/' plus 
GRANDS '1475 transports* 



HV r «IOYVII 



( 



balance fin 

tuo wars 



\ 1 1 > Steinway piano may l>c purchased with 
a «-- • — 1 1 <l< |M> it of Id'f , and the balance will 
be extended over •> period <>f two year*. 
I sed pianos accepted in partial exchange* 

STEINWAl & So\s. Steinway Hall 
109 West 57th Street, New York 



STKIXWAY 



THE INSTRUMENT 

OF TUK tMMOIti \tS 



■ I m ('>•(. ii and olhci New I ngland citie* l-\ M. s irinrrt 6* Son* 

2 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Arti&res, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Fourel, G. 
Cauhap6, J. 

Avierino, N. 
Gerhardt, S. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. Cherkassky, P. 

Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. Eisler, D. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 

Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 

Violas. 

Van Wynbergen, C. 
Bernard, A. 



Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Grover, H. 
Werner, H. 



Fiedler, A. 



Deane, C. 
Jacob, R. 



Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, 0. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 
Hamelin, G 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-Jlat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 



Bassoons. 

Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 

3 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 

Ludwig, C 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 



ABRAHAM <f 



FULTON ST. at HOYT 



CAN 



f 



afford the right style i 



TN the old days — not so very long ago at that — be- 
fore you could be stylish, you simply hid to be rich. 
In the last few years, right under our very noses and 
so close that some folks still don't realize it, there has 
been a change. Style can no longer be measured in 
terms of how much you spend. 

That is the truth. Every department store, every 
fashion expert, every interior decorator, knows it. We 
know it in this store, and it has been our guiding 
principal for a long time. 

This is how it works. We learn of practically every 
important style development almost as soon as it 
happens. We watch it. Some of these new styles fall 
on stony ground and never do grow. But those that 
.-how promise get our enthusiastic support. As quickly 
as brains and hands can do their work, these new styles 
arc brought into this store and this is the vital thing 

offered at a price you are glad to pay. 

i Occasionally (very seldom) another store is ahead of 

ii- a few days. More often we arc ahead of the other-. 
Bui practically never will you find that our price for 
the right styles can he bettered. Any day we an 1 pre- 
pared to prove to you that "You CAN afford the ri<jht 
Styh at ABRAHAM A STRAl sr 



. . . YES YOU CAN 



09 
O 



YOU %^ 



-< 

z 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC .... BROOKLYN 

Forty-second season in Brooklyn 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 
FRIDAY EVENING, MARCH 7 
AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 

Haydn . . . Symphony in D major (with the Horn Call) 

(B. & H. No. 31) 
I. Allegro. 
II. Adagio. 
III. Menuet. 
IV. Finale (Theme with Variations). 

Bach .... Prelude and Fugue in E-flat (for Organ) 

(Arranged for Orchestra by Schonberg) 



Bloch "Schelomo" ("Solomon") 

Hebrew Rhapsody for Violoncello and Orchestra 

Ravel "Bolero" 



SOLOIST 
JEAN BEDETTI 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Bach's Prelude and Fugue 

5 



EUROPE 



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Passion Play. With visits en route to a dozen historic cities . . . such as 
Algiers and Tunis, Seville and Carcassonne. Sailing on April 8, on the S. S. 
"Carinthia." Rates (including return any time this year), $725 and up. 

Send for the booklet — " Mediterranean Spring Cruise" 

RAYMOND-WHITCOMB 

NORTH CAPE-RUSSIA CRUISE 

<( A midsummer cruise of five weeks that will make an interesting and 
restful prelude to a visit to the Passion Play or other travel Abroad. For 
years this has been the favorite summer cruise. This year it is more com- 
plete than ever before. With visits (without extra charge) to Moscow and 
Leningrad — as well as to Iceland, the North Cape, the Norwegian Fjords 
and cities, Stockholm and Copenhagen. Sailing June 24, on the "Carinthia." 
Rates (including return passage any time this year), $800 and upward. 

Send for the booklet — "North Cape Cruise" 
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TOURS WITH ESCORT 

<(The easiest way to see Europe ^ Raymond-Whitcomb have arranged 
tours that are comprehensive and easy to make. You have only to select 
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day you sail until you land in America again, everything that enters into 
foreign travel will be provided. ATour Manager will attend to all the de- 
tails and see that you have a pleasant trip. For Spring and Summer there 
are 57 Raymond-Whitcomb European Tours . . . They cost from $825 
to $2890. They cover all Europe. Most of them include the Passion Play. 

Send for the booklet — "European Tours" 

RAYMOND-WHITCOMB 

INDEPENDENT TRIPS 

<| This is individualized travel. Instead of taking an escorted tour, planned 
and run by a travel company, you will make a trip which is planned cs- 

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670 FIFTH AVENUE. Telephone Volunteer 3400 
225 FIFTH AVENUE. Telephone A.hland 9530 



Symphony in D major (with the Horn Call), B. & H. No. 31 

Joseph Haydn 

(Born at Rohrau-on-the-Leitha on April 1, 1732; died at Vienna on May 31, 

1809) 

This symphony, composed in 1765,* is known as "Mit dem Horn- 
signal" ; also as "Auf den Anstand."f The music has the joy of the 
chase. One remembers that Haydn wrote another symphony, "La 
Chasse" (1781), which has been performed at concerts of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. He gave titles to certain symphonies ; others 
supplied titles to some. The title often had reference to the "pro- 
gramme character" of the music, even though it was applicable to 

♦Haydn was then the second Kapellmeister in the service of Prince Nikolaus 
Joseph Esterhazy, who maintained an orchestra at Eisenstadt. Haydn had in 1761 
filled this position under Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy, who died in 1762. Gregorius 
Joseph Werner was the first Kapellmeister. When he died in 1766, Haydn succeeded 
him and remained at Eisenstadt until 1790, when Prince Anton, the son of Paul 
Anton, dismissed the orchestra. Haydn then moved to Vienna. The Esterhazy or- 
chestra numbered fifteen members when Haydn was called there. Under Nikolaus 
Joseph, it was increased to thirty (without singers). Haydn's first symphony was 
written in 1759, when he was the musical director of Count Morzin's Orchestra at 
Lukavec near Pilsen. 

fAnstand meant originally "address, bearing, deportment, dignity" ; then, "delay, 
suspension, pause" ; also, "hesitation, doubt, apprehension." 

In hunting it meant "a stand, a hiding-place (to lie in wait for game)." Auf den 
Anstand gehen — "to go shooting from a hiding-place," etc. This definition evidently 
applies to the second title of the symphony. 

The German dictionary of the eighteenth century that is at hand does not give 
this last definition. Christian Ludwig's "Teutsch (sic) Englisches Lexicon" (Leipsic, 
1765), contains many curious colloquial expressions, phrases, even slang terms — a most 
readable book of 2,370 double columns, quarto — but the hunting term is not mentioned. 



LOESER'S 

fULTON AT BONO, BROOKLYN, TRIANGLE tlOO 

Kranich and 
Bach Queen 
Anne Grand 

$ 



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A great deal of intensive study has gone into the' making of the 
Queen Anne Grand photographed above. It is but one of the many 
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tone, exquisitely proportioned, as structurally perfect in every detail as 
the piano mechanism itself," See it, hear it, play it today at Loeser's. 

'"LOESER'S PIANO SALON— FOURTH FLOOR 



only one movement. And so one finds Le Matin, Le Midi, Le Soir, 
Der Philosoph, Weihnachtssinfonie, Abscbiedsinfonie, Maria 
Theresia, La Passione, L'ImpGriale, Der Scbnlmeister, Feuersin- 
fonie, II Distrato, La Roxolane, Laudon, L'Ours, La Poule, La Reine 
de France, Militarsinfonie, Die Ubr, Salomon, Tbe Drum Stroke or 
Tbe Surprise, Oxford, etc. 

Tbis symphony is notewortby because tbe score calls for four 
bonis. Tbis is tbe first instance, it is believed, tbat so many borns 
were employed in a sympbony. Tbere are four borns for tbe hunters' 
cborus in Haydn's "Seasons," so that the symphony seems to some 
a preparatory study. Tbe score also calls for one flute, two oboes, 
and the usual strings. 

I. AllegTO, D major, 3-4. The first theme is in two sections: 
first, tbe born call ; the second, as a distant answer. A figure is 
introduced at the end of this second section tbat was a favorite one 
with Mozart — as in the "Jupiter" Symphony. Tbere are quieter 
melodic measures. The flute introduces the horns for a second 
theme, with succeeding measures for the strings. In the working- 
out section following tbis last subject, but inverted, comes the second 
theme also the earlier echoing answer. The repetition section be- 
gins with tbe supplementary theme, now in D minor, the "answer- 
ing" section in D major; there is a passing reference to the quieter, 




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Descriptive Booklets on Rcifucst 

BROOKLYN TRUST COMPANY 

C 'li.irtrrrJ 1 H(»(. 

Main Office 177 Montague Street, Brooklyn 

Twttlty-onc Offices in Brooklyn and New York 



The 
MUSICAL ART QUARTET 

Makes Records Exclusively for Columbia 

The Columbia New Process Records of this admirable 
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of their records are of the celebrated Columbia Viva- 
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Ask Your Columbia Dealer for the following: 

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Magic (■■^■■l Notes" 




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more melodic measures; finally, the ending of the movement with 
the first section of the first theme. In Haydn's catalogue, the tempo 
is given as Larghetto, but this is probably due to some error. 

II. Adagio, G major, 6-8. Only horns and strings are employed. 
The most important thematic material is in the opening solo for 
violin, with its ornamented melody. Horns are in dialogue with 
this violin and a solo violoncello. Horns at once take the beginning 
of the theme for the solo violin. In this movement, the horns are 
used in two keys, D and G. The Adagio has somewhat the character 
of a Sicilienne, in the accompaniment to the melodv as in the melody 
itself. 

III. Menuet, D major, 3-4. A sturdy movement in which all the 
instruments are simultaneously engaged; but in the Trio, D major, 
3-4, there is alternate play of instruments. 

IV. The Finale — Molto moderato — Presto, has an unusual char- 
acter. The strings play a quiet theme in simple song-form. Then 
follow seven variations: 

1. Two oboes and two horns, accompanied by strings. 

2. Violoncello solo, with strings accompanying. 

3. Flute solo, with strings. 

4. Horn quartet, with strings. The first horn part goes to F-sharp. 

5. Violin solo, with strings. = 

6. The full orchestra. The theme is not changed melodically or 
harmonically, but the instrumentation differs from that of the first 
entrance. The orchestra remains piano throughout the variation. 

7. Violoncello solo, with strings. A short passage leads to a 



I 



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lulton and Smith Streets 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



10 



Presto in 3-4. Figures in sixteenth notes, until A is held in the 
upper voice (first violins, two horns), while a new theme enters. It 
is repeated in echo fashion, and then the first theme of the first 
movement brings the end.. 

Some — Deldevez among them — refer to this symphony as Concer- 
tante on account of the solo parts. 



Organ Prelude and Fugue, E-flat major, by J. S. Bach : arranged 
for Orchestra by . . Arnold Schonberg 

(Bach, born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685 ; died at Leipsic, July 28, 1750. 
Schonberg, born at Vienna on September 13, 1874; now living) 

The Prelude and the Fugue are not necessarily joined together, 
but are regarded as independent composition. The Fugue is com- 
monly known as "St. Ann's."* The first performance of Schon- 
berg's arrangement was at a concert of the Cincinnati Orchestra in 
Cincinnati, in February, 1930. 

*"A misleading title, as, except in the identity of its subject with the first strain 
of it, 'Ann's,' the fugue has no connection with the hymn tune." — G. A. Crawford. 



"Of nothing, nothing is made" 

The man who, like Dickens' Micawber, is always "wait- 
ing for something to turn up," has a hard row to hoe. And 
has only himself to blame that he gets nowhere. 

While everybody cannot save a lot, virtually everybody 
can put aside regularly a little. Once the first step of open- 
ing a savings account is taken, it is surprising how easy 
and interesting the practice soon becomes! Then, after a 
while, you will be ready when an opportunity to make a 
profitable investment turns up. 

We now pay compound interest quarterly at the rate of 

4/4% Per Annum 

The Dime Savings Bank 
of Brooklyn 

DeKalb Ave. and Fulton St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Resources over $159,000,000 
ESTABLISHED 1859 Surplus over $21,000,000 



11 



"Schelomo" ("Solomon"), Hebrew Rhapsody for Violoncello ani> 
Orchestra Ernest Bloch 

(Born at Geneva, Switzerland, July 24, 1880; living at San Francisco, Calif.; 

"Schelomo" was composed at Geneva, Switzerland, in the firsv 
two months of 191G. With the "Trois Poeines Juifs" (composed in 
191G and played in Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
March 23, 1917), the Three Psalms— 114, 137, and 22 (1912-14— 
Psalms 114 and 137 were sung in Boston by Mine. Povla Frijsh at 
a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, November 14, 1919), 
and the symphony "Israel" (1913-18), it is that portion of Mr. 
Bloch's work that is peculiarly Hebraic in character. In a letter 
to the writer of these Programme Books in 1917, Mr. Block mem- 
tioned a "Symphonic Orientale" on Jewish themes, a Jewish opera, 
•'J£zabel," on which he had begun work, and numerous sketches 
for other Jewish works. He also wrote at the time that the Psalms, 
"Schelomo," and "Israel" were more representative than the "Jew- 
ish Poems" because they came from the passion and the violence 
that he believed to be the characteristics of his nature. "It is not 
my purpose, not my desire, to attempt a '^constitution' of Jewish 
music, or to base my works on melodies more or less authentic. I 
am not an archaeologist. I hold it of first importance to write 



ESTABLISHED 1854 



For 

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"Self Service" 

Merely say "SELF SERVICE" to the man at 
the door and ramble about to your heart's con- 
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Plainly marked prices will tell you all you 
wish to know. If you desire, an attendant will 
call a salesman. Many who have availed them- 
selves of this form of inspection have been m<> 1 
favorably impressed with our wide variety of 

od furniture and the extremely low prices. 

B. G. LATIMLR & SONS CO. 

I ! 35 FLATBUSH AM BROOKLYN 



IS 




ANITA KERRY in "Criminal Code" 



A FUR COAT by SHAYNE 

To the natural loveliness of your Shayne fur is added 
the satisfaction of a label which politely indicates 
that your purchase was not impelled by a cut price, 
a reduction or any other form of so-called "sale". 

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STRICTLY RELIABLE FURS 

126 West 42nd Street i New York 



Established 1865 



Still Under Same O toner shi 



13 



good, genuine music, my music. It is the Jewish soul that interests 
me, the complex, glowing, agitated soul, that I feel vibrating 
throughout the Bible: the freshness and naivete* of the Patriarchs; 
the violence that is evident in the prophetic books; the Jew's savage 
love of justice ; the despair of the Preacher in Jerusalem ; the sor- 
row and the immensity of the Book of Job; the sensuality of the 
Song of Songs. All this is in us; all this is in me, and it is the 
better part of me. It is all this that I endeavor to hear in myself 
and to transcribe in my music : the venerable emotion of the race 
that slumbers way down in our soul." 

"Schelomo'' was performed in New York at a concert of the 
Society of the Friends of Music on May ;:, L917, Hans Kindler, 
violoncellist. The orchestral score was published in 191S. The piece 
was performed in Philadelphia by the Philadelphia Orchestra, Mr. 
Kindler, violoncellist, on October 27, 1922. The first performance 
in Boston was at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Jean 
Bedetti, violoncellist, April 13, 1923. 

The Musical Quarterly of January 1921, published a translation 
by Theodore Barker of Guido M. Gatti's estimate of "Schelomo" 
contributed to La Critica Musicale of April — May, 1920: — 

"The Hebrew rhapsody for solo violoncello with orchestra bears 
the name of the great king Schelomo (Solomon). In this, without 



A. A. WEBSTER CO., Inc. 

ESTABLISHED I860 

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BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

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must be maintained. 

Back of the Baldwin 
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of Baldwin has never been content 
to rest upon laurels of the past. 
Constantly changing conditions 
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Because true recognition has 



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been accorded this fact, the Bald- 
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NEW YORK CITY 



15 



taking thought for development and formal consistency, without 
the fetters of a text requiring interpretation, he has given free 
course to his fancy ; the multiplex figure of the founder of the Great 
Temple lent itself, after setting it upon a lofty throne, and chisel- 
ing its lineaments, to the creation of a phantasmagorical entourage 
of persons and scenes in rapid and kaleidoscopic succession. The 
violoncello, with its ample breadth of phrasing, now melodic and 
with moments of superb lyricism, now declamatory and with ro- 
bustly dramatic lights and shades, lends itself to a reincarnation 
of Solomon in all his glory, surrounded by his thousand wives and 
concubines, with his multiude of slaves and warriors behind him. 
His voice resounds in the devotional silence, and the sentences of 
his wisdom sink into the heart as the seed into a fertile soil: 
'Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, all is vanity. What profit 
hath a man of all his labor which he taketh under the sun? One 
generation passeth away, and another generation cometh : but the 
earth abideth forever. . . . He that increaseth knowledge increas- 
eth sorrow/ ... At times the sonorous voice of the violoncello is 
heard predominant amid a breathless and fateful obscurity throb- 
bing with persistent rhythms; again, it blends in a phantasma- 
gorical paroxysm of polychromatic tones shot through with silvery 
clangors and frenzies of exultation. And anon one finds oneself 



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in the heart of a dream-world, in an Orient of fancy, where men 
and women of every race and tongue are holding argument or hurl- 
ing maledictions ; and now and again we hear the mournful accents 
of the prophetic seer, under the influence of which all bow down 
and listen reverently. The entire discourse of the soloist, vocal 
rather than instrumental, seems like musical expression intimately 
conjoined with the Talmudic prose. The pauses, the repetitions of 
entire passages, the leaps of a double octave, the chromatic pro- 
gressions, all find their analogues in the Book of Ecclesiastes — in 
the versicles, in the fairly epigraphic reiteration of the admoni- 
tions ('and all is vanity and vexation of spirit'), in the unexpected 
shifts from one thought to another, in certain crescendi of emotion 
that end in explosions of anger or grief uncontrolled." 

Mr. Lawrence Oilman, editor of the Philadelphia Orchestra's 
Programme Books, wrote when "Schelomo" was performed in 
Philadelphia : — 

"The texture of the music, and especially the writing for the solo 
violoncello, is extraordinary in its richness oi dramatic, poetical, 
and pictorial suggestion — an imaginative projection of singular 
vividness and intensity. The violoncellist and the seconding orches- 
tra are by turns lyrist and tragedian, poet and seer. The great king 
amid his gorgeousness, reflecting in disillusionment upon his silver 



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17 



and his gold, the treasures of his provinces, the abundance of his 
gardens and his orchards, the fulfilled desires of his heart and eyes; 
and the Preacher, sombre and mournful in his acrid wisdom, utter- 
ing bitter admonitions as he contemplates the vanishing mist that is 
all delight, the sorrowing echoes of beauty and splendor, 'the 
shadows of rippled waters, the mysterious reflections of a destiny 
unguessed and unascertainable,' the rumor of the darkening Wings; 
these thoughts are implicit in the imaginings of the tone-poet — in 
the poignant chief subject for the violoncello, with its characteristic 
figure of a dotted eighth-note, that is heard after the opening live 
bars of introduction (Piu animato, 12-8, 'with the utmost expres- 
sion') ; in the piercing outbursts of despair that invoke the full 
voicing of the orchestra; in the strange and impressive recitatives 
for the bassoon and other solo voices — ultimately, with mordant 
power, for two trumpets fortissimo — which are as the sombre exhor- 
tations of the Preacher; in the intervals of sensuous lyricism and 
imperial pageantry; in the final descent into the depths, the brood- 
ing of the violoncello filling the music with the darkness of shut 
doors and shadowed windows and resolving dust." 

It is perhaps unnecessary to say that Solomon was not the author 
of that strange book "Ecclesiastes," or "Koheleth." The book is 
post-exilic in date. It was written either in the last century of 
Persian rule, when the empire of Cyrus gradually broke up (in the 
fourth century), or in the period of the later Ptolemies and Seleu- 
cids, "in a corrupt Hellenistic period'' (in the third century). The 
background is not at all that of Solomon's time, but post-Solomonic. 
It is reasonable to suppose that the author was a scribe, a leading 







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RICHARD COPLEY, Management 

10 East 43rd Street, New York 



ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 
MECCA AUDITORIUM 133 West 55th Street 

NEXT CONCERT SUNDAY, MARCH 9th, at 4 P.M. 
BACH'S "ST. JOHN PASSION" 

(Annual Performance) 

SOLOISTS: 

ETHYL HAYDEN GEORGE MEADER MARION TELVA 

FRIEDRICH SCHORR CARL SCHLEGEL 

LYNNW00D FARNAM, Organist 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS : : METROPOLITAN OPERA ORCHESTRA 



SUNDAY, MARCH 16th, at A P.M. 
Choral-Instrumental Programme 

SOLOIST 
FELIX SAiJViOND, 'Cellist 

FRIENDS OF MUSIC CHORUS : : METROPOLITAN OPERA ORCHESTRA 

Among the works to be given at this concert will be the 

Elgar Concerto (Mr. Salmond) and the Brahms "Parzengesang" (Chorus) 

SUNDAY, MARCH 30th, at 4 P.M. 
PURCELL'S "DIDO and AENEAS" 

and Old English Music for the Organ 

SOLO'STS- 

DOROTHEA FLEXER MARION TELVA MARGARET MATZENAUER 

GEORGE MEADER CARL SCHLEGEL 

LYNNWOOD FARNAM, Organist 

Tickets every day, including days of concerts, at Mecca Box Office. Daily, except Sunday at Ampico 
Box Office. 584 Fifth Avenue, and 10 East 43rd Street. Room 503. Vanderbilt 0659-J 

RICHARD COPLEY. Concert Manager 
(The Steinway is the Official Piano of the Society) 

Carnegie Hall, MONDAY EVENING, March 10th, at 8.30 

ETHYL HAYDEN 

SONG RECITAL Kurt Ruhrseitz at the Piano (Steinway Kano) 

Carnegie Hall, WEDNESDAY EVENING, March 12th, at 8.30 

WILLIAM KROLL 

VIOLIN RECITAL Emanuel Bay at the Piano (Steinway Piano) 

Carnegie Hall, SATURDAY AFTERNOON, March 15th, at 2.30 

JOSEF HOFMANN 

PIANO RECITAL (Steinway Piano) 

Carnegie Hall, WEDNESDAY EVENING, March 19th, at 8.30 

MAUD Von STEUBEN 

SONG RECITAL Harold Genther at the Piano (Steinway Piano) 

Town Hall, WEDNESDAY EVENING, March 26th, at 8.30 

COMPINSKY TRIO 

(Steinway Piano) 
19 



Jew, in the territory of a king subject to the Persians. "Ecclesias- 
tic" is a monologue which, in the opinion of some commentators, 
conceals a real dialogue. Mr. W. L. Courtney in "The Literary 
Man's Bible'' says of it: "Its philosophy, such as it is (and it may be 
derived from the Greek), is Epicurean, or rather Cyrenaic combined 
with a weary pessimism. Sometimes it is like Omar Khayyam, 
sometimes like Euripides or Leopardi. Occasionally the author 
puts in phrases of a quite opposite tenor, and quite inconsistent 
with his general position, perhaps, to put himself right with the 
orthodox party. But he never gives up his belief in God, he is no 
atheist, and his last chapter (XII) is fine. Koheleth=the preacher, 
is, of course, a mask for anonymity. His general position is this: 
(t) Nature does not progress, it merely recurs, (ii) Man's work is 
futile, because it has no continuity and no endurance. (Hi) Only 
chance regulates the world : there is no purpose, no artistic justice. 
(iv) There is no future world to put this one straight, (v) Better 
enjoy what you can. Austerity is of no avail; one should be 
neither over-good, nor over-bad. Do not take life too seriously. 
But make your account with God. Walk carefully, as you come to 
the house of God. Say as little as you can, for whatever you say 
will be used against you. It is only because the book is supposed 
to be by Solomon — Solomon repentant and disillusioned — that it 
ever found a place in the Canon." 



"The sun hides not Virginia's Dismal Swamp," says Herman 
Melville in "Moby Dick," "nor Koine's accursed Campagna, nor 

wide Sahara, nor all the millions of miles of deserts and of griefs 
beneath the moon. The sun hides not the ocean, which is the dark 



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side of this earth, and which is two-thirds of this earth. So, there- 
fore, that mortal man who hath more of joy than sorrow in him, 
that mortal man cannot be true, — not true, or undeveloped. With 
books the same. The truest of all men was the Man of Sorrows, 
and the truest of all books is Solomon's, and Ecclesiastes is the 
fine hammered steel of woe. 'All is vanity.' ALL. This wilful 
world hath not got hold of unchristian Solomon's wisdom yet. But 
he who dodges hospitals and jails, and walks fast crossing grave- 
yards, and would rather talk of operas than hell; calls Cowper, 
Young, Pascal, Rousseau, poor devils all of sick men; and through- 
out a carefree lifetime swears by Rabelais as passing wise, and 
therefore jolly; — not that man is fitted to sit down on tombstones, 
and break the green damp mould with unfathomably wondrous 
Solomon." 



Bolero ... , Joseph Maurice Ravel 

(Born at Ciboure (Basses-Pyr6nc*es) France, on March 7, 1875; living at 

Montfort-l'Amaury and Paris) 

This Bolero, dedicated to Ida Rubinstein, was brought out by her 
and danced by her at Paris in November, 1928. Alexandre Benoist 
designed the settings and the costume to represent a scene that Goya 
might have painted: a Spanish inn, with the dancer on a trestle table, 
men surrounding it. At first calm, the actors on the Parisian stage were 
little by little excited to frenzy as the dancer became more and more 
animated. Knives were drawn — the woman was tossed from arms to 
arms, until her partner intervened; they danced until quiet was restored. 
So was the scene described by French and English reporters. 

The first performance in the United States of this Bolero as a concert 
piece was by the Philharmonic Society of New York, Mr. Toscanini 




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conductor, on November 14, 1929. The first performance in Boston 
was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Dr. Koussevitzky conductor, 
on December 6, 1929. 

Tempo di ballo, moderato assai, 3-4. A drum gives the dance rhythm, 
which is maintained throughout; a flute announces the theme, which is 
taken up by wind instruments in turn; then by groups of instruments. 
There is a crescendo for about twenty minutes, until there is an explosive 
modulation — brass and percussion instruments swell the din until at 
last there is what has been described as a "tornado of sound." 

M. Prunieres called attention to the fact that Ravel was not the first 
to repeat a simple, common theme until by the monotony of tune and 
rhythm the hearer was excited (as are Oriental hearers by the same 
method). Padilla, the composer of "Valencia," had worked this 
obsession by the repetition of a tune for at least twenty times. 

Ravel's Bolero calls for these instruments: piccolo, two flutes, two 
oboes, oboe d'amour, English horn, two clarinets, one E-flat clarinet, 
two bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trom- 
bones bass tuba, three saxophones, kettledrums, side drums, cymbals, 
tam-tam, celesta, harp, and the usual strings. 



* 
* * 



The Bolero is not a very ancient dance of Spain. It is said that 
Don Sebastian Terezo, an accomplished and celebrated dancer of his 
tune, invented it about 1780. It is a modest, noble dance, much more 
decent than the fandango, but, like that dance, it is performed by two 
persons. By its beauty, the significance of its movements, and its 
compelling effect on eyes and ears, it is incomparable. While its 
rhythm is strongly marked, it has a lyrical character. In tempo and 
in its measures, it resembles the minuet — according to Albert Czer- 




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SYMPHONY HALL, Boston March 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 

Brahms Festival 

By the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY 

Conductor 

Assisted by the 

HARVARD and RADCLIFFE CHORUSES 

Dr. ARCHIBALD T. DAVISON and G. WALLACE WOODWORTH, 

Conductors 

ARTUR SCHNABEL JEANNETTE VREELAND 

Piano Soprano 

MARGARET MATZENAUER FRAZER GANGE 

Mezzo-Soprano Baritone 

BURGIN STRING QUARTET 



The Festival Programmes will include: 

Orchestral Music — The four Symphonies, the two 
Pianoforte Concertos, the Academic Festival 
Overture, and the Variations on a Theme 
by Haydn. 

Choral Music — "A German Requiem," "A Song 
of Destiny," "Liebeslieder" Waltzes, the 
Rhapsody for Alto with Male Chorus. 

Chamber Music— Violin Sonata, Music for Piano- 
forte solo, and the Piano Quintet in F minor, 
and Songs (by Mme. Matzenauer). 



Tickets for four extra concerts (March 23-26) are available by 

Mail Order. 

(The Concerts of March 21 and 22 are part of the regular 
Friday and Saturday series, which are already subscribed.) 



23 



winski, a dancing teacher at Danzig — but it impresses by rhythmic 
accentuation rather than by melodic variety. There are sections of 
the dance. First comes the paseo or promenade, like a prelude or an 
introduction. Then follow the traversia for the changing of places; 
the differentia for changing a second time; the finale to regain the first 
places; the bicti parado, steps and graceful attitudes performed by 
the dancing couple facing another couple that is not dancing. Is not 
Desrat mistaken in saying that the Bolero is in two-time? The music 
of all the Boleros we have seen is in 3-4 or 3-8, but Blasis also says that 
the Bolero is usually in duple time. The step is at first low and gliding, 
but always well marked. 

On the stage this dance is performed by several couples. One of the 
most graceful attitudes is the dar la vuelta, in which the dancers are 
face to face after a half-turn. The woman's part in the dance is 
much more expressive, more passionate than that of the man. 

The name "Bolero" or "Volero" is supposed by some to come from 
volar, to fly, "because a Manchega expert had danced the Seguidillas 
so wonderfully and lightly that he seemed to fly." Is the Bolero the 
outcome of the Seguidillas? When the Bolero or Fandango is danced 
as a ballet by eight persons, it is usually called the Seguidillas. 



* 
* * 



The Bolero is to be found in some operas, as in Auber's "La Muette 
di Portia" ("Masaniello"), Act I, Scene 3, Allegretto moderato, C major, 
3-4; MehuTs "Les deux Aveugles de Tolede"; Weber's stage music for 
"Preciosa." Perhaps the most famous Bolero in opera is that sung by 
the Duchess Helene in the fifth act of Verdi's "Vepres Siciliennes" 
(Allegro, A minor — A major, 3-4), sung first in Paris by Mine. Cruvelli; 
in Boston by Mme. Colson, when Verdi's opera was first performed 
here on January 2, 1860 — this Bolero has often been sung here in con- 
cert halls. There are Boleros for orchestra by Alexandra Josifovna, 
Grand Duchess of Russia; T. A. Kui, J. L. Nicode, Pachulski; songs by 
Gounod, Lacome d'Estalenx; piano pieces, of which Chopin's is the 



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best known, although it has little true Spanish character, and might 
be called a BoUro a la Polonaise. Nevertheless Chopin received 500 
francs for it when it was published as a "Souvenir d'Andalousie." 



* 
* * 



The Bolero has been noticed by English poets. Byron, in a song 
intended for the first canto of "Childe Harold," but replaced (Verse 
LXXXIV) by the lines "To Inez," wrote in praise of the lovely girl 
of Cadiz: 

And when beneath the evening stai", 

She mingles in the gay Bolero, 
Or sings to her attuned guitar 
Of Christian knight or Moorish hero. 

Thomas Hood introduced the dance in his "Drinking Song," by a 
member of a Temperance Society, as sung by Mr. Spring at Waterman's 
Hall: 



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The vintage, they cry, think of Spain's and of France's, 

The jigs, he boleros, fandangos and jumps; 
But water's the spring of all civilized dances, 
We po to a hall not in bottles, but ptwipst 

Then hey for a bucket, a bucket, a bucket, 

Then hey for a bucket, filled up to the brim! 
Or, best of all notions, let's have it by oceans, 
With plenty of room for a sink or a swim! 

William Bcckford, for his delightful "Italy, with Sketches of Por- 
tugal and Spain," delightful for its malice and cynicism as well as for 
the graphic description of scenery, cities, men, women, and manners, 
did not hesitate to coin the verb "to bolero": "Thirteen or fourteen 
couples started and boleroed and fandangoed away upon a thick carpet 
for an hour or two, without intermission. There are scarcely any 
boarded floors in Madrid; so the custom of dancing upon rugs is univer- 
sally established"* (Vol. II, Letter XVI) ; 

He himself, at Senor Pacheco's at Madrid, danced a bolero, snapping 
his fingers and stamping his feet, while twenty voices accompanied 
with "its appropriate words" in full chorus; but he admits that he 
committed solecisms in good dancing at every step. "I am more than 
apt to conjecture we were but very slightly entitled to any applause; 
yet the transports we called forth were as fervid as those the famous 
Le Pique excited at Naples, in the zenith of his popularity." At last 
the Duchess of Ossuna, the patroness of the composer Boccherini, 
said to Beckford, in the plainest language: "You are making the greatest 

♦Beckford's Letters from Spain were written in 17S5, 1787, and 1795. They were first published 
in 18^4. 



1929 - SEASON - 1930 
FIFTH SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT 

CONDUCTORLESS 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CARNEGIE HALL 
FRIDAY EVENING, MARCH 28th, AT 8.45 RM. 

Soloist 
SOPHIE BRASLAU, Contralto 

PROGRAMME 

BORODIN SYMPHONY NO. 2, B MINOR 

SUITE FOB STRINGS 

IIOUssi ii!(;>KY group OF SONGS 

BOPHIS I'.i: \<\.\V 
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CITIZENS' COMMITTEE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CONCERTS 

Season 1929 -1930 



Mr. 



Chairman 

Adrian Van Sinderen 



Vice-Chairmen 

Mr. Frank L. Babbott Mrs. William H. Good 

Mrs. Edward C. Blum Mr. H. F. Gunnison 

Hon. Frederick E. Crane Mr. Henry A. Ingraham 

Mr. Walter H. Crittenden Mrs. Frederic B. Pratt 

Mrs. H. E. Dreier Mrs. B. Herbert Smith 

Mr. R. Huntington Woodman 



Mr. Frederick T. Aldrddge 
Dr. Joseph D. Allen 
Mr. Juan A. Almirall 
Dr. Frank L. Babbott, Jr. 
Dr. Nathan T. Beers 
Dr. W. B. Brinsmadb 
Mrs. Charles R. Buckley 
Mr. F. A. M. Burrell 
Mrs. Glentworth R. Butler 
Rev. S. Parkes Cadman, D.D. 
Hon. William M. Caldbr 
Mr. J. Norman Carpenter 
Mrs. Otis Swan Carroll 
Mrs. George W. Chauncey 
Mrs. I. Sherwood Coffin 
Mrs. Frederick L. Cranford 
Hon. James C. Cropsey 
Hon. Norman S. Dike 
Rev. Samuel M. Dorrance 
Mrs. Guy DuVal 
Mr. S. Raymond Estey 
Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 
Mr. Theodore L. Frothingham 
Mr. William Peter Hamilton 
Mr. Walter Hammitt 
Mr. George Hewlett 
Miss Amelia B. Hollenback 
Dr. Alexander C. Howe 
Mr. William T. Hunter 
Mr. Darwin R. James 
Dr. William A. Jewett 
Mr. James H. Jourdan 
Mr. Charles D. Lay 



Mrs. John Eadie Leech 
Miss Hilda Loines 
Mrs. Charles J. McDermott 
Hon. George V. McLaughlin 
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Mr. W. S. Morton Mead 
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Mr. Charles F. Murphy 
Mrs. George Notman 
Mr. Neilson Olcott 
Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 
Mr. James H. Post 
Mr. Charles E. Potts 
Mrs. George H. Prentiss 
Mrs. Benjamin Prince 
Mrs. Clinton L. Rossiter, Jr. 
Mr. H. Stavely Sammond 
Mrs. Henry Spelman 
Mr. Porter Steele 
Mrs. Herman Stutzer 
Miss Marion J. Terry 
Mr. William Armour Thayer 
Mr. Carl H. Tollefsen 
Mrs. Walter Truslow 
Mrs. James P. Warbasse 
Mrs. Edwin Carrington Ward 
Mrs. Walter F. Wells 
Mrs. J. B. Whitney 
Mr. Eugene A. Widmann 
Dr. Ralph C Williams 
Hon. George A. Wingate 
Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 
Mrs. W. H. Ziegler 



27 




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ACADEMY OF MUSIC 

FRIDAY EVENING, APRIL 11, 1930, at 8.15 o'clock 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SOLOIST 

ARTUR SCHNABEL 

Piano 



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29 



fool of yourself I ever beheld; and as to those riotous self-taught hoydens, 

your partners, I tell you what, they are scarcely worthy to figure in 

the third rank at a second-rate theatre." 

* 
* * 

When Ravel's Bolero was first performed, people surrounded the 
table on which Mile. Rubinstein danced. Havelock Ellis, in "The 
Soul of Spain," states that a characteristic of Spanish dancing, and 
especially of the most typical type, called flamenco, lies in its accom- 
paniments, and particularly in the fact that under proper condition:? 
all the spectators are themselves performers. "In flamenco dancing, 
among an audience of the people, everyone takes a part, by rhythmic 
clapping and stamping, and by the occasional prolonged 'oles' and other 
cries by which the dancer is encouraged or applauded. Thus the dance 
is not a spectacle for the amusement of a languid and passive public, 
as with us. It is rather the visible embodiment of an emotion in which 
ever> T spectator himself takes an active and helpful part; it is, as it were, 
a vision evoked by the spectators themselves and upborne on the 
continuous waves of rhythmical sound which they generate. Thus 
it is that, at the end of a dance, an absolute silence often falls, with no 
sound of applause: the relation of performer and public has ceased to 
exist. So personal is this dancing that it may be said that an intimate 
association with the spectators is required for its full manifestation. 
The finest Spanish Dancing is at once killed or degraded by the presence 
of an indifferent or unsympathetic public, and that is probably why it 
cannot be transplanted, but remains local." 

There is a vivid description of dancing in and out of Spanish theatres 
in Richard Ford's "Gatherings from Spain."* He speaks of the con- 
tagious excitement which seizes the spectators, who, like Orientals, 
beat time with their hands in measured cadence, and at every pause 
applaud with cries and clappings. "Dancing among Spanish ladies of 
a high order was introduced with the Bourbons, but the lower classes 
adhered to the primitive steps and tunes of their Oriental forefathers. 
In the theater the sound of the castanet awakens the most listless. 

♦"Gatherings from Spain" was published in L846. — P. H. 



Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, teacher of the piano, desires to call to your 
attention his inauguration of Group Lessons in response to the growing demand for 
instruction of this type. 

Each group will consist of three students of practically equal ability. All will study 
the same material and each will receive an equal amount of individual attention. 
The period will be of one hour duration. 

Mr. Freckelton is assured that this innovation will be welcomed by those who de- 
sire expert and artistic instruction but feel unable to meet the necesssarily high fees 
required for private instruction, and by those who appreciate the returns received 
from the competitive spirit developed by such lessons. 

Mr. Freckelton will gladly send to you full information in regard to these group 
lessons. lie will of course continue his work with individual students. 

STEIN WAY HALL Residence 

113 WE5T 57th STREET 214 ARLINGTON AVENUE 

New York Brooklyn. N. Y. 



30 



The sharp, spirit-stirring click is heard behind the scenes — the effect is 
instantaneous — it creates life under the ribs of death — it silences the 
tongues of countless women — on n'ecoute que le ballet. The curtain 
draws up; the bounding pair dart forward from the opposite sides like 
two separated lovers, who, after long search, have found each other 
again, nor do they seem to think of the public, but only of each other; 
the glitter of the gossamer costume of the Majo and Maja seems invented 
for this Dance — the sparkle of the gold lace and silver filigree adds to 
the lightness of their motions; the transparent, form-designing say a 
of the lady heightens the charms of a faultless symmetry which it fain 
would conceal; no cruel stays fetter her serpentine flexibility. They 
pause — bend forward an instant — prove their supple limbs* and arms; 
the band strikes up, they turn fondly towards each other, and start into 
life. . . . The accompaniment of the castanet gives employment to 
their upraised arms. 'C'est,' say the French, 'le pantomime d' amour.' 
The enamored youth persecutes the coy, coquettish maiden; who 
shall describe the advances — her timid retreat; his eager pursuit, like 
Apollo chasing Daphne? Now they gaze on each other; now all is life, 
love, and action; now there is a pause. They stop motionless at a 
moment, and grow into the earth. It carries all before it. There is a 
truth which overpowers the fastidious judgment. Away, then, with 
the studied grace of the French danseuse, beautiful but artificial, cold 
and selfish as is the flicker of her love, compared to the real impassioned 
abandon of the daughters of the South. There is nothing indecent in 
this dance; no one is tired or the worse for it; indeed, its only fault is its 
being too short, for, as Moliere says, 'Un ballet ne saurait itre trop long, 
pourvu que la morale soit bonne, et la metaphysique bien entendue. 1 Not- 
withstanding this most profound remark, the Toledan clergy, out of 
mere jealousy, wished to put the Bolero down, on the pretense of 
immorality. The dancers were allowed in evidence to give a view to 
the court; when they began, the bench and bar showed symptoms of 
recklessness, and, at last, casting aside gowns and briefs, both joined, 
as if tarantula-bitten, in the irresistible capering. Verdict, for the 
defendant with costs." 

*Yet the English have laughed at the Americans for certain prudish euphemisms. — P. H. 



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HOWARD A. KEELER 

Nr$ York Advertising Representative oftbe 

Boston Symphony Orchestra Programme 

225 West 34th St., N. Y. C. 



31 



In 1882, Emmanuel Chabrier journeyed in Spain. The result was 
his superb orchestral rhapsody "Espana." He wrote to his publisher 
Costellat letters descriptive of the dances he saw in the Andalusian 
bailcs, where the "upper classes" were not to be seen. These letters 
about the authentic Spanish dances were published in the Music Review 
S. I. M. (January 15, February 15, 1909). Extracts from them are given 
in Georges Servieres' life of Chabrier: "Two guitarists, solemn, cigarette 
between the lips, continue to scratch no matter what, in three time. 
(Only the tango is in duple time.) The cries of the woman excite the 
dancer, who becomes literally mad of her body" (these dancers were 
gypsies in Seville). Chabrier spoke of the spectators clapping their 
hands in 3-4 d contretemps, while the guitar followed peacefully its own 
rhythm. "As others beat time forte with each measure, each one 
beating a little at will, there was a most curious amalgamation of 
rhythms." 

Then there are Th6ophile Gau tier's descriptions of Spanish dancers; 
and in the five volumes of his theatrical criticisms, eloquent studies 
of Spanish dancers and others dancing Spanish dances in Paris opera 
houses and theatres. Havelock Ellis's chapter is the more analytical 
study. He refers to the "Escenas Andaluzas" (1847) of Estebanez 
Calderon, and for "the deeper significance of Spanish dancing" to the 
psychological analysis given by Salillas in "Hampa" (1898). 



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For space in this program, consult me. 




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Teacher of the Pianoforte 
Mr. Tillotson has received his training from Heinrich Gebhard, Boston, and Tobias Matthay, 
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The Longy School is now using exclusively the 
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tKenmore 8431) 



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ACADEMY OF MUSIC . . . BROOKLYN 
Friday Evening, April 11, at 8.15 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and the Philharmonic 



Society of Brooklyn 




PRSGRKttttE 



iff 



cV 




The PLAZA, New York 




Fred Sterry 
President 



John D. Owen 
Manager 



The Savoy-Plaza 

Henry A. Rost New York 

President 




M^Iflifill 



T^Copley-Plaza 



Arthur L. Race 



Managing Director DOSton 





Jlotels of ^Distinction 



Unrivalled as to location. Distin- 
guished throughout the World for 
their appointments and service. 




^5j 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FRIDAY EVENING, APRIL 11, at 8.15 



WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 



COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E JUDD, Assistant Manager 



the 




I i w things today are really built to 
la-t . But the Steinway is a notable 
exception Ii is made like a watch, 
inside and <»m. Only the finest work- 
manship and materials enter into it. 
For 30, 10 <»r 50 years and more it 
w i 1 1 continue t<> bring delighl and 
entertainment i<> \<>ur family* . . . 
^ (in nerd never l»n\ another piano! 

Such durability a- llii- sprlln real 

economy. The Steinwai will outlast 



STEINWAY 

that you buy II 
today will serve 
your children's 



children 



three ordinary pianos, besides giving 
you the depth and beauty of tone 
which only a Steinway can give 
There are many models and pri< 
Make your visit to your neat 
Steinway dealer — today. 



A nciv Steinway Upright 

piano can be bought for 



#a75 

1 ©% down 



transportatioi 

balance in 
two years 



\ny Steinway piano may he purchase 
with ;i <;i-li deposit of 10%, and the bal 
once will be extended over n period of tw< 
years, Used pianos accepted in pnrtia 

exchange. 

Stkinway & Sons. Steinway Hal 
109 We i 57th Street, New York 



ST K I X WAY 



THE i\STitlMi:\ 
OF THE iMMOHTAl 



Represented in llnilon ami other Nm Borland oitici hy M.Strinrrt t\ Sons 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 







Violins. 




Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 


' Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 


Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. Cherkassky, P 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. Eisler, D. 


Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 


Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 


Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 


Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 


Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 


Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 


Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 


Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 


Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 


Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 


Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 

Violas. 


Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 


Lefranc, J. 
Arti&res, L. 


Fourel, G. 
Cauhap6, J. 


Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. Fiedler, A 
Bernard, A. Werner, H. 




Avierino, N. 
Gerhardt, S. 


Deane, 
Jacob, 

Violoncellos. 


C. 

R. 


Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 


Langendoen, J. 
Barth, C. 


Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 
Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L 






Basses. 




Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 


Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 


Ludwig, 0. Girard, H. Kelley, A. 
Frankel, I. Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 


Gillet, F. Hamelin, G 
Devergie, J. Arcieri, E. 
Stanislaus, H. Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet] 


Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horn. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon. 


Battles, A. 


Speyer, 


L. Mimart, P. 


Piller, B. 


Horns. 


Horns. Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 


Valkenier, 
Schindler, 
Lannoye, 
Blot, G. 


W. Mager, G. 
G. Voisin, R. 
M. Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 


Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 


Tubas. 


Harps. 


Timpani. 


Percussion. 


Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 


Zighera, E 
Caughey, 


Ritter, A. 
E. Polster, M. 


Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


Librarian. 


Snow, A. 




Fiedler, A. 


Rogers, L. J. 



ABRAHAM <f 

FULTON ST. at HOYT . *y* 



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terms of how much you spend. 

That is the truth. Every department store, every 
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know it in this store, and it has been our guiding 
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This is how it works. We learn of practically every 
important style development almost as soon as it 
happens. We watch it. Some of these new styles fall 
on Btony ground and never do i^row. But those that 
show promise get our enthusiastic support. As quickly 
as brains and hands can do their work, these new styles 

arc brought into this store and this is (he vital thing 

offered at a price you are glad to pay. 

I Occasionally (very seldom) another store is ahead of 
tie .1 few days. .More often we are ahead of the others. 
Bui practically never will you find that our price for 
the right styles ran be bettered. Any day we arc pre- 
pared fco prove to you that "You CAN afford the right 
StyU at ABRAHA \l A STRA I S. M 

. . . YES YOU CAN 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



BROOKLYN 



Forty-second season in Brooklyn 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Beethoven 



Beethoven 



FIFTH CONCERT 

FRIDAY EVENING, APRIL ! 1 

AT 8.15 



PROGRAMME 



I. Allegro moderate 
( II. Andante con moto. 
I III. Rondo vivace. 



Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 



. Concerto for Pianoforte No. 4, in 
G major, Op. 58 



Brahms 



Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 



I. Allegro non troppo. 

II. Adagio non troppo. 

III. Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino. 

IV. Allegro con spirito. 



SOLOIST 
ARTUR SCHNABEL 

BECHSTEIN PIANO 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the concerto 

5 




Raymond-Whitcomb 



announce 



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visit five of the larger and historic Mediterranean islands — Sicily, Malta, 
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cities which are truly typical — as Palermo, 'Taormina. GattOfO and Ragusa. 
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Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 . . Ludwig van Beethoven 
(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

Beethoven's opera, "Fidelio, oder die eheliche Liebe," with text 
adapted freely by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Bouilly 
("Leonore; ou L' Amour Conjugal/' a "historical fact" in two acts 
and in prose, music by Gaveaux, Opera-Comique, Paris, February 
19, 1798), was first performed at the Theatre an der Wien, Vienna, 
November 20, 1805, with Anna Pauline Milder, afterwards Mme. 
Hauptmann, as the heroine. The other parts were taken as follows : 
Don Fernando, Weinkopf ; Don Pizarro, Meier; Florestan, Demmer; 
Rocco, Rothe; Marzelline (sic), Miss M tiller; Jacquino, Cache; 
Wachthauptmann, Meister. "The opera was hastily put upon the 
stage, and the inadequacy of the singers thus increased by the lack 
of sufficient rehearsals." Beethoven had received the text in 1804. 
He worked on the music the following summer at Hetzendorf . On 
his return to Vienna, rehearsals were begun. In later years Fidelio 
was one of Anna Milder's great parts : "Judging from the contempo- 
rary criticism, it was now (1805), somewhat defective, simply from 
lack of stage experience." 

In the year that saw the production of "Fidelio," Napoleon's army 
was hastening toward Vienna. There was an exodus from the town 






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are these records by Seige Koussevitsky and the Boston 
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Surprise Symphony No. 6 in G major $6 

Petrouchka Suite, Appolon Musagite Ballet 6 



LOESER'S 



MUSIC SALON — FOURTH FLOOR 

entail and Telephone Orders 

niton at Bond. Brooklyn, Triangle 81 OO Carefully attended tO 



of tlu' nobility, merchants, and other residents. The vanguard of 
the French army entered on November L3. Those of the Viennese 
who would have appreciated the opera had fled the town. The 

theatre was not well tilled. Many in the audience were or had been 
Officers in Napoleon's army. The success of the opera was small. 
Only two performances followed the first. At the first and at the 
second the overture, "Leonora,"' No. 2, was performed. Dr. Henry 
Reeve, not a musician, heard the opera at the third performance. He 
gave an account of what took place: "Beethoven presided at the 
pianoforte and directed the performance himself. He is a small, 
dark, young-looking man, wears spectacles, and is like Mr. Koenig.* 
This is the first opera he ever composed, and it was much applauded ; 
a eopy of complimentary verses was showered down from the upper 
gallery at the end of the piece. f . . . The story and plan of the piece 
are a miserable mixture of low manners and romantic situations; 
the airs, duets, and choruses equal to any praise. The several over- 
tures, for there is an overture to each act, J appear to be too artifici- 
ally composed to be generally pleasing, especially on first being 
heard. Intricacy is the character of Beethoven's music, and it re- 

•Koonig was the inventor of a printing press. 

"fTlie verses were written by Beethoven's friend Stephan von Breuning. He had 
the printed copies distributed among the audience. 

$ It is not easy to know what is here meant. There were not any entr'actes for 
the opera, whieh was in three acts when it was first produced. 




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quires a well-practiced ear or a frequent repetition of the same piece 
to understand and distinguish its beauties." 

"Leonore" No. - was the overture played at the first performance 
in Vienna. The opera was withdrawn, revised, and produced again 
on March 29, L806, when "Leonora," No. '>\, a remodelled form of No. 
2, was the overture. There was talk of a performance at Prague in 
1807. Beethoven wrote for it a new overture, retaining the theme 
derived from Florestan's air, "In des Lehens Fruhlingstagen." The 
other material in Nos. 2 and 3 was not used. The opera was not 
performed; the autograph of the overture disappeared. "Pidelio'] 
was revived at Vienna in 1S14. For this performance Beethoven 
wrote the "Fidelio" overture. We know from his diary that he "re- 
wrote and bettered" the opera by working on it from March to May 
15 of that year. 

The dress rehearsal was on May 22, but the promised overture was 
not ready. On the 20th or 21st, Beethoven was dining at a tavern 
with his friend Bartolini. After the meal was over, Beethoven took 
a bill-of-fare, drew lines on the back of it, and began to write. 
"Come let us go," said Bartolini. "No, wait a while: I have the 
scheme of my overture," answered Beethoven, and he sat until he 
had finished his sketches. Nor was he at the dress rehearsal. They 
waited for him a long time, then went to his lodgings. He was fast 
asleep in bed. A cup of wine and biscuits were near him, and sheets 
of the overture were on the bed and the floor. The candle was burnt 
out. It was impossible to use the new overture, which was not even 
finished. Schindler said a Leonore overture was played. According 



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to Seyfried, the overture used was that to "The Ruins of Athens," 
and his view is now accepted, although Treitsche asserted that the 
"Prometheus" overture was the one chosen. After Beethoven's 
death, a score of an overture in C was found among his manuscripts. 
It was not an autograph score, as I have said, but it was bought by 
Tobias Haslinger at the sale of Beethoven's effects in November, 
1827. This score was not dated, but a first violin part bore the 
words in the composer's handwriting: "Overtura in C, charakteris- 
tische Ouverture. Violino I mo ." This work was played at Vienna at 
a concert given by Bernhard Romberg, February 7, 1828, and it was 
then described as a "grand characteristic overture" by Beethoven. 
It was identified later, and circumstances point to 1807 as the date 
of composition. The overture was published in 1832 or 1833. 

The order, then, of these overtures, according to the time of com- 
position, is now supposed to be "Leonore" No. 2, "Leonore" No. 3, 
"Leonore" No. 1, "Fidelio." It was said that "Leonore" No. 2 
was rewritten because certain passages given to the wood-wind 
troubled the players. Others say it was too difficult for the strings 
and too long. In No. 2, as well as in No. 3, the chief dramatic 
stroke is the trumpet signal, which announces the arrival of the 
Minister of Justice, confounds Pizarro, and saves Florestan and 
Leonore. 

The "Fidelio" overture is the one generally played before per- 
formances of the opera in Germany, although Weingartner has 
tried earnestly to restore "Leonore" No. 2 to that position. 
"Leonore" No. 3 is sometimes played between the acts of the opera. 



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The objection to this is that the trumpet episode of the prison will 
then discount the dramatic ending of the overture when it conies 
in the following act, nor does the joyous ending of the overture 
prepare the hearer for the lugubrious scene with Florestan solilo- 
quy. Btilow therefore performed the overture at the end of the 
opera. Zumpe did likewise in Munich. They argued with Wagner 
that this overture is the quintessence of the opera, "the complete 
and definite synthesis of the drama that Beethoven had dreamed 
of writing." There has been a tradition that the overture should 
be played between the scenes of the second act. This was done at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, London, in 1851, when Sophie Cruvelli took 
the part of Leonore, and Ferdinand Hiller conducted. When 
"Fidelio" was performed at the Theatre Italien, Paris, in 1852 
and 1809, the overture was played before the last scene. This 
scene was then counted a third act. Mottl and Mahler accepted 
this tradition. The objection has been made to this that after 
the peroration, the little orchestral introduction to the second scene 
sounds rather thin. To meet this objection, a pause was made for 
several minutes after the overture. 

The key of the "Leonore" Overture No. 3 is C major. A short 
fortissimo is struck. It is diminished by woodwind and horns, then 
taken up, piano, by the strings. From this G there is a descent 
down the scale of C major to a mysterious F-sharp. The key of B 
minor is reached, finally A-flat major, when the opening measures 
of Florestan's air, "In des Lebens Frtihlingstagen" (act ii. of the 



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opera), is played. The theme of the Allegro, C major, begins pian- 
issimo, first violins and violoncellos, and waxes impetuously. The 
second theme has been described as ''woven out of sobs and pitying 
sighs." The working-out consists in alternating a pathetic figure, 
takes from the second theme and played by the wood-wind over a 
nervous string accompaniment, with furious outbursts from the 
whole orchestra. Then comes the trumpet-call off stage. The twice- 
repeated call is answered in each instance by the short song of 
thanksgiving from the same scene. Leonore's words are: "Ach! du 
bist gerettet! Grosser Gott!'' A gradual transition leads from this 
to the return of the first theme at the beginning of the third part 
(flute solo). The third part is developed in general as the first part 
and leads to a wildly jubilant coda. 

The overture "Leonore'' No. 3 was first played in Boston at a 
concert of the Musical Fund Society on December 7, 1850. G. J. 
Webb was the conductor. The score and the parts were borrowed ; 
for the programme of a concert by the Society on January 24, 1852, 
states that the Overture was then "presented by C. C. Perkins, Esq." 

The score calls for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
and the usual strings. 



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Concerto in G major, for Pianoforte, No. 4, Or. 58 

LUDWIG VAN BeETHOVKN 

(Born at Bonn, December 16, 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1S27) 

This concerto was probably composed for the most part, and it 
was surely completed, in 1806, although Schindler, on advice from 
Ries, named 1804 as the year, and an edition of the concerto pub- 
lished by Breitkopf & Hartel states that the year 1S05 saw the com- 
pletion. 

The concerto was performed by Beethoven in one of two private 
subscription concerts of his works given in the dwelling-house of 
Prince Lobkowitz, Vienna, in March 1807. The first public per- 
formance was in the Theatre an der YYien, Vienna, December L'L', 
1 SOS. All the pieces were by Beethoven: the symphony described 
on the programme as "A symphony entitled 'Recollections of Life 
in the Country,' in F major, No. 5" (sic) ; an Aria, "Ah, perfido," 
sung by Josephine Kilitzky*; Hymn with Latin text written in 

♦Josephine Kilitzky. born in 171*0. was persuaded to sins; after Anna Pauline 
Milder refused, in obedience to her betrothed, one Ilauptmann, a jeweller, -who 
grew angry when Beethoven called him "a stupid ass." Antonia Cainpi's husband 
was vexed because she had not been asked first, and he would not allow her to sing, 
though she bad a beautiful voice in spite of the fact that she had seventeen children, 
among them four pairs of twins and a set of triplets. Josephine was badly frightened 
when Beethoven led her out. and could not sing a note. Rockel says a cordial was 
given to her behind the scenes ; it was too strong, and the aria suffered in consequence. 
Reichardt describes her as a beautiful Bohemian with a beautiful voice. "That the 
beautiful child trembled more than Bang was to be laid to the terrible cold; for we 
shivered in the boxes, although wrapped in furs and cloaks." She was later celebrated 
for her "dramatic colorature." Her voice was at tirst of only two octaves, said 
Ledebur, but all her tones were pure and beautiful, and later she gained upper ton< 
She Bang from 1813 to 1831 at Berlin, and pleased in many parts, from Fidelio to 
Arsaces. from Donna Elvira to Fatime in "Abu Hassan." Slje died, very old, in Berlin. 



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church style, with chorus aud solos; Pianoforte Concerto in G major, 
played by Beethoven; Grand Symphony in C minor, No. 6 (sic) ; 
Sanctus. with Latin text written in church style (from the Mass 
in C major), with chorus and solos: Fantasia for pianoforte solo; 
Fantasia for pianoforte "into which the full orchestra enters little 
by Little, and at the end the chorus joins in the Finale." Beethoven 
played the pianoforte part. The concert began at half-past six. "We 
know nothing about the pecuniary result. 

When A. W. Thayer published his catalogue on Beethoven's com- 
positions (1865), Carl Haslinger, music publisher and composer, 
was iu possession of autograph cadenzas written by Beethoven for 
this concerto. Two were for the first movement. Over one of them, 
which had very difficult double trills towards the end, Beethoven 
had written "Cadenza (ma senza cadere)." There was a cadenza 
for the Rondo. Haslinger died late in 18G8; his publishing busi- 
ness passed through purchase into the house of Schlesinger (Rob. 
Lienau), of Berlin. Franz Kullak, the editor of the five concertos 
in the Steingraber edition, published the three cadenzas in an ap- 
pendix to the Fourth Concerto, and said in a footnote that these 
cadenzas, which are undoubtedly Beethoven's, were not published 
during the life of the composer, and that the autograph manuscripts 
were in possession of the firm of Breitkopf $ Hartel, who were the 
first to publish them. 

The score was dedicated ''humbly" by Beethoven to "His Imperial 
Highness, the Archduke Rudolph of Austria." 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for flute, two oboes. 



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RICHARD COPLEY, Management 

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ARTUR BODANZKY, Conductor 

SEASON 1930-1931 

TEN SUNDAY AFTERNOON CONCERTS 

Gommencing at 4 sharp 

METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE 

October 26th, November 9th and 23rd, December 7th and 21st 
January 18th, February 1st and 15th, March 8th and 22nd 



Subscription tickets, $7.50 to $30.00, may be secured at the office of the Society, 
10 East 43rd Street, Room 503. Renewal of subscriptions closes April 26th. 
Locations will be allotted to new subscribers May 1st. Write for prospectus. 

Management: RICHARD COPLEY (Steinway Piano) 



RICHARD COPLEY, Management 

Steinway Hall, SUNDAY EVENING, April 13th, at 8.45 

JAY FASSETT 

BASS-BARITONE Greta Why at the Piano (Steinway Piano) 



Town Hall, SATURDAY EVENING, April 26th, at 8.30 

The first performance in complete form 

IRA B. ARNSTEIN'S OPERA ORATORIO 
"THE SONG OF DAVID" 

EMINENT SOLOISTS • CHORUS • ORCHESTRA 
Conducted by the Composer 



Town Hall, SATURDAY EVENING, May 3rd, at 8.30 

VASSAR COLLEGE CHOIR 

E. Harold Geer, Conductor (Steinway Piano) 



19 



two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, 
and strings. 

I. Allegro moderato, Q major, 4-4. The iirst movement, contrary 
to the tradition that prevailed at the time, begins with the piano- 
forte alone. The pianoforte announces the first four measures of 
the first theme, five measures if an introductory chord be counted. 
(These measures are to be found in a sketch-hook of Beethoven 
which is dated 1803, but in this book they end in the tonic, and 
DOl in the dominant.) The orchestra then enters in B major, but 
soon returns to (J major, and develops the theme, until alter a 
short climax with a modulation a second theme appears, which is 
given to the iirst violins There is a third theme fortissimo in G 
major, with a supplement for the wood-wind instruments, and still 
another new theme, an expressive melody in B-flat major. 

II. Andante con moto, E minor, 2-4. This movement is free in 
form. Beethoven put a footnote in the full score to this eifect : 
"During the whole Andante, the pianist must use the soft pedal 
[una corda) unintermittently ; the sign k lY<r refers to the occasional 
use of the ordinary pedal." This footnote is contradicted at one 
point in the score by the marking ec tre corde" for live measures near 
the end of the movement. A stern and powerful recitative for 
strings alternates with gentle and melodic passages for the piano- 
forte. "The strings of the orchestra keep repeating a forbidding 
figure of strongly marked rhythm in staccato octaves; this figure 
continues at intervals in stern, unchanging forte through about 
half the movement and then gradually dies away. In the intervals 
Of ihis harsh theme the pianoforte as ii were improvises little scraps 
of tin- tenderest, sweetest harmony and melody, rising for a moment 
into the wildest frenzied exultation after its enemy, the orchestra, 
lias beer silenced by its soft pleading, then falling back into hushed 
Badness as the orchestra comes in once more with a whispered recol 

lection of iis once so cruel phrase; saying as plainly as an orchestra 
c;m say it. 'The rest is silence!' " i William Foster Apthorp). 

III. Rondo: Vivace. The iirst theme, of a sunny and gay char- 



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acter, is announced immediately by the strings. The pianoforte 
follows with a variation. A short but more melodic phrase for the 
strings is also taken up by the pianoforte. A third theme, of a 
bolder character, is announced by the orchestra. The fourth theme 
is given to the pianoforte. The Rondo, "of a reckless, devil-may- 
care spirit in its jollity," is based on this thematic material. At 
the end the tempo becomes presto. 

The first performance of the Fourth Concerto in Boston was 
probably by Robert Heller* at a Germania concert, February 4, 

*Robert Palmer, known as Robert Heller, was born at Canterbury, England, in 
1833. He studied music, and at the age of fourteen won a scholarship in the Royal 
Academy of Music, London. Fascinated by the performances of Robert Houdin, he 
dropped music to become a magician, and he came to the United States in September, 
1852. Some say that he made his first appearance in New York at the Chinese 
Gardens as a Frenchman ; others, that his first appearance was at the Museum, Albany, 
N.Y. He met with no success, and he then went to Washington, D.C., where he 
taught the piano and served as a church organist. He married one of his pupils, 
Miss Kieckhoffer, the daughter of a rich banker, and at once went back to magic. In 
New York he opened Heller's Hall, and was eminently successful. He then went to 



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L864. He played Beethoven's Fifth Concerto at a Qermania con- 
cert, March 4 of thai year. 

The Fourth Concerto lias been played in Boston at concerts of the 

.mi Symphony orchestra by George \\\ Sunnier (December i~. 
L881 I, Carl Baermann (January 27. L883, December 23, L893), Mary 
B. Qarlichs (November 29, L884), Anna Clark-Steiniger (November 
it. L885), Rafael Joseffy (December is, L886), Perraccio B. BusonJ 
(November n. L891), Ernst von Dohnanyi (March 17. L900), Otto 
Neitzel (December 22, L906), Leopold (Jodowskv (December 14, 
l'UL'i. Harold Bauer (November 28, 1914), Winifred Christie (April 
27, 1917), Arthur Rubinstein (April 1, 1921) J Artur Schnabel, 
March ;U), U)2'.\\ Kdouard Kisler (February 22, 1924). 



Symphony ^No. 2, in D major, Or. 73 . . . . Johannes Brahms 
(Bern at Hamburg, May 7, 1S33 ; died at Vienna, April 3, 1S97) 

Chamber music, choral works, pianoforte pieces, and songs had 
made Brahms famous before he allowed his first symphony to be 
played. The symphony in C minor was performed for the first time 
at Carlsruhe on November 4, 1876, from manuscript with Dessoff as 
conductor. Kirchner wrote in a letter to Marie Lipsius that he had 
talked about this symphony in 1SG3 or 1804 with Mine. Clara Schu- 
mann, who then showed him fragments of it. No one knew, it is 
said, of the existence of a second symphony before it was completed. 

London, opened Poole'a Theatre; hut came bark t<> New York in 1879. He had given 
exhibitions of his sk ; n In Australia and India, lie died at Philadelphia, November 

28, 1878. His name stands very high in the list of magicians. His tricks of "second 
Bight" for a long time perplexed the most skilful of his colleagues. And he was one 
of the lirst tO use electricity as a confederate. In his will he instructed his executors 

to destroy nil his apparatus. For a long and Interesting explanation of his "second 

sight" tricks, see "Magic." by A. A. Hopkins (Minn. & Co.. New York, 1807), 




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The second symphony, D major, was composed, probably at 
POrtschaeh-am-See, in the summer of 1877, the year that saw the 
publication of the first. Brahms wrote Dr. Billroth in September 
of that year: "I do not know whether I have a pretty symphony; 
1 must inquire of skilled persons." He referred to Clara Schumann, 
Dessoff, and Ernst Frank. On September 19, Mme. Schumann wrote 
that he had written out the first movement. Early in October he 
played it to her, also a portion of the finale. The symphony was 
played by Brahms and Ignaz Brull as a pianoforte duet (arranged 
by the composer) to invited guests at the pianoforte house of his 
friend Ehrbar in Vienna a few days before the announced date of 
the orchestral performance, December 11, 1877. Through force 
of circumstances the symphony was played for the first time in 



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public at the succeeding Philharmonic concert of December 30.* 
Hans Richter conducted. The second performance, conducted by 
Brahms, was at the Gtewandhans, Leipsic, on January 10, 1878. 

The review written by Eduard Hanslick after the performance 
at Vienna may reassure those who are unwilling to trust their own 
judgment : 

••It is well known that Wagner and his followers go so far as not 
only to deny the possibility of anything new in the symphonic form, 
— i.e., new after Beethoven,— but they reject the very right of abso- 
lute instrumental music to exist. The symphony, they saw, is now 
superfluous since Wagner has transplanted it into the opera: only 
Liszt's symphonic poems in one movement and with a determined 
practical programme have, in the contemplation of the modern 
musical world, any vitality. Now if such absurd theories, which 
are framed solely for Wagner-Liszt household use. again need re- 
lutation, there can be no more complete and brilliant refutation 
than the long row of Brahms's instrumental works, and especially 
this second symphony. 

"The character of this symphony may be described concisely as 
peaceful, tender, but not effeminate; serenity, which on the one 
side is quickened to joyous humor and on the other is deepened 
to meditative seriousness. The first movement begins immediately 
with a mellow and dusky horn theme. It has something of the 
character of the serenade, and this impression is strengthened still 
further in the scherzo and the finale. The first movement, an 
Allegro moderato, in 3-4, immerses us in a clear wave of melody, 
upon which we rest, swayed, refreshed, undisturbed by two slight 
Mendelssolmian reminiscences which emerge before us. The last 
fifty measures of this movement expire in flashes of new melodic 
beauty. A broad singing Adagio in B major follows, which, as it 
appears to nie, is more conspicuous for the skilful development of 

'Relmann, in his Life <»f Brahms, gives January 10, 1878, as tin- date, and says 
Brahms conducted. The date given in Brb's "Brahms" is December 24, istt. Kaibock, 

is. ;hk1 Mix m.iv give December .".<>. l^TT, although contemporaneous journals, as 
t)i<- sifjnuh i. s.iy December -<>. istt. 



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Mr. Darwin R. James 


Dr. Ralph C. Williams 


Dr. William A. Jewett 


Hon. George A. Wingate 


Mr. James H. Jourdan 


Mr. Cornelius D. Wood 


Mr. Charles D. Lay 


Mrs. W. H. Ziegler 



25 



the themes than for the worth of the themes themselves. For this 
reason, undoubtedly, it makes a less profound impression upon 
the public than do the other movements. The scherzo is thoroughly 
delightful in its graceful movement in minuet tempo. It is twice 
interrupted by a Presto in 24, which Hashes, spark-like, for a 
moment. The finale in D, 4-4, more vivacious, but always agreeable 
in its golden serenity, is widely removed from the stormv finales 
of the modern school. Mozartian blood Hows in its veins. 

u This symphony is a contrast rather than a companion to' the 
first motives which, however, slumber there as flowers beneath the 
snow, or float as distant points of light beyond the clouds. It is 
true that the second symphony contains no movement of such 
noble pathos as the finale of the first. On the other hand, in its 
uniform coloring and its sunny clearness, it is an advance upon the 
first, and one that is not to be underestimated. 

"Brahms has this time fortunately repressed his noble but dan- 
gerous inclination to conceal his ideas under a web of polyphony 
or to cover them with lines of contrapuntal intersection; and 
if the thematic development in the second symphony appears less 
remarkable than that in the first, the themes themselves seem more 
flowing, more spontaneous, and their development seems more 
natural, more pellucid, and therefore more effective. We cannot, 
therefore, proclaim too loudly our joy that Brahms, after he had 
given intense expression in his first symphony to Faust-like conflicts 
of the soul, has now in his second returned to the earth, — the earth 
that laughs and blossoms in the vernal months." 



1929 - SEASON - 1930 
SIXTH SUBSCRIPTION CONCERT 

CONDUCTORLESS 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CARNEGIE HALL 
SATURDAY EVENING, APRIL 26th. AT 8.45 P.M. 

Soloists 

HENRY COWELL SERGE KOTLARSKY MITYA STILLMAN 

PROGRAMME 
BACH Con en- to for 2 v lol ins Mini Orchestra 

BCEQl KOTLARSK1 

\l [TS \ Sri i.i. m I \ 

HENRI COWELL "Tone Clatters" 

For Piano and Orchestra 

I li. Mtv CO* iii 

BRAHMS symphony No. •"• in IF major 

Boxes: - - $20.00 nnd $24.00 
Ticket*: - $1.00 to $2.50 

Now 00 *»le at Box Office, Carnegie I lall nn I ;it tlic Offn es of the ConductOrlSSI 
Symphony ( Orchestra. 22 East 5 3th Street, New York 

TeltpheOM W,rkrnh«m 7870 
- w- Pimm 



List of W< 



Bach 



Prelude and Fugue in E-flat (for Organ) (Arranged 
for Orchestra by Schonberg) 



IV. March 7 



Beethoven 

Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 

Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 

Concerto for Pianoforte, No. 4, in G major, Op. 58 

Soloist : Artur Schnabel V. April 11 



I. November 22 
V. April 11 



Bloch 



"Schelomo" ("Solomon") Hebrew Rhapsody for Violoncello 
and Orchestra 

Soloist : Jean Bedetti IV. March 7 



Brahms 

Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

DeFalla 

Three Dances from "El Sombrero de Tres Picos," 
Ballet 

Dvo&Ak 

Symphony No. 5 in E minor, "From the New World," 
Op. 95 



V. April 11 



III. February 6 



II. January 10 



Handel 

Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra, Op. 6, No. 10 I. November 22 



Haydn 

Symphony in D major (with the Horn Call) 
(B. & H. No. 31) 

Pick-Mangiagalli 

Prelude and Fugue 

Prokofieff 

Second Piano Concerto, in G minor, Op. 16 

Soloist: Serge Prokofieff 



Ravel 



'Bolero" 



IV. March 7 

II. January 10 

III. February 6 

IV. March 7 



Strauss 

"Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks," after the Old- 
fashioned, Roguish Manner, in Rondo Form, 
Op. 28 

Interlude from "Intermezzo" 

Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

Wagner 

Prelude to "Lohengrin" 

Prelude to "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg" 



I. November 22 
II. January 10 

III. February 6 

I. November 22 
II. January 10 



27 




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OPERA HOUSE ACADEMY OF MUSIC 

FIFTIETH SEASON 
1930-1931 

FIVE CONCERTS BY THE 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

ON THE EVENINGS OF 

Friday, November 21 and January 9 
Thursday, February 5 
Friday, March 6 and April 10 



Address all communications regarding season tickets for these concerts to 
C. D. Atkins, Institute of Arts and Sciences, Academy of Music, Brook- 
lyn, New York. 



29 



Yel some inav prefer this short sketch by Hugues Imbert (1842- 
L905), one of the first in France to admire Brahms: 

'The second symphony, which was played at a Popular Concert 
in Paris, November 21, L880, and at the Paris Conservatory Concert 
of December 19 of the same year, does not in any way deserve the 
reproach made against it by Victorin Joncieres, — that it is full of 
brushwood. Nor should it incur the reproach made by Arthur 
l'ou^in, — that it is childish! It is true that the first movement 
contains some dissonances which, after a first hearing, are piquant 
and not at all disagreeable. The peroration, the last fifty measures 
of this Allegro, is of a pathetic serenity, which may be compared 
with that of the first movement of the two sextets for strings. The 
Adagio is built according to the plan of adagios in the last quartets 
of Beethoven — an idea, tinged with the deepest melancholy, is led 
about in varying tonalities and rhythms. The scherzo is one of the 
most delightful caprices imaginable. The first trio, with its biting 
staccati, and the second, with its rapid movement, are only the 
mother-idea of the scherzo, lightened and flung at full speed. Unity, 
which is unjustly denied Brahms, is still more strikingly observed in 
the finale, an admirable masterpiece." 

Certain German critics in their estimate of Brahms have ex- 
hausted themselves in comparison and metaphor. One claims that, 
as Beethoven's fourth symphony is to his "Eroica," so is Brahms'a 
second to his first : the one in C minor is epic, the one in D major 
is a fairytale. When Biilow wrote that Brahms was an heir of 
Cherubini, he referred to the delicate filigree work shown in the 
finale of the second. Felix Weingartner whose "Die Symphonic 
nach Beethoven" (Berlin. 1898)* is a pamphlet of singularly acute 
and discriminative criticism, coolly says that the second is far su- 
perior to the first: "The stream of invention lias never tlowed so 
Fresh and spontaneous in other works hv Brahms, and nowhere else 
lias he colored his orchestration so successfully." And after a 

•A second and somewhat revised edition was published In 1901. The second edi- 
tion has hern translated into English hv Arthur IMes. 



Mr. Alfred Edward Freckelton, teacher of the piano, desires to call to your 
attention his inauguration of Group Lessons in response to the growing demand for 
instruction of this type. 

Each group will consist of three students of practically equal ability. All will study 
the same material and each will receive an equal amount of individual attention. 
The period will be of one hour duration. 

Mr Freckelton is assured that this innovation will be welcomed by those who de- 
sire expert and artistic instruction but feel unable to meet the ncccsssarily high fees 
required foi private instruction, and by those who appreciate the returns received 
from the competitive spirit developed by such lessons. 

Mr. Freckelton will gladly send to you full information in regard to these group 
lesions. He will of course OOQtffllM his work with individual :tudcnts. 

9TE1NWAY HALL Residence 

113 WEST 57th STREET 214 ARLINGTON AVENUE 

New York Brooklyn, N. Y. 



31 1 



eulogy of the movements he puts the symphony among the very best 
of the new classic school since the death of Beethoven, — "far above 
all the symphonies of Schumann." 

This symphony was first played in Boston at a concert of the Har- 
vard Musical Association, January 9, 1879. It was then considered 
as perplexing and cryptic. John Sullivan D wight probably voiced 
the prevailing opinion when he declared he could conceive of Stern- 
dale Bennett writing a better symphony than the one by Brahms in 
D major. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, and strings. 



The second symphony was naturally more warmly received at first 
in Vienna than was its predecessor, "it was of 'a more attractive 
character,' more 'understandable,' than its predecessor. It was to be 
preferred, too> inasmuch as the composer had not this time 'entered 
the lists with Beethoven.' The third movement was especially 
praised fcr its 'original melody and rhythms.' The work might 
be appropriately termed the 'Vienna Symphony,' reflecting as it 
did, 'the fresh, healthy life to be found in beautiful Vienna.' " But 
Florence May, in her life of Brahms,* says the second symphony 
was not liked: "The audience maintained an attitude of polite 
cordiality throughout the performance of the symphony, courteously 
applauding between the movements and recalling the master at the 
end ; but the enthusiasm of personal friends was not this time able 
to kindle any corresponding warmth in the bulk of the audience, 
or even to cover the general consciousness of the fact. The most 
favorable of the press notices damned the work with faint praise, 
and Dorffel, whom we quote here and elsewhere, because he alone 

* "The Life of Johannes Brahms," by Florence May, in two volumes, London, 1905. 



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225 West 34th St., N. Y. C. 



31 



of the professional Leipsic critics of the seventies seems to have 
been imbued with a sense of Brahma's artistic greatness, showed 
himself quite angry from disappointment. 'The Viennese/ he wrote, 

'are much more easily satisfied than we.' We make quite different 
demands on Brahms and require from him music which is some- 
thing more than 'pretty' and 'very pretty' when he comes before us 
as a symphonist. Not that we do not wish to hear him in his com- 
plaisant moods, not that we disdain to accept from him pictures 
of real life, but we desire always to contemplate his genius, whether 
he displays it in a manner of his own or depends on that of Bee- 
thoven. We have not discovered genius in the new symphony, and 
should hardly have guessed it to be the work of Brahms had it been 
performed anonymously. We should have recognized the great 
mastery of form, the extremely skilful handling of the material, the 
conspicuous power of construction, in short, which it displays, but 
should not have described it as pre-eminently distinguished by in- 
ventive power. We should have pronounced the work to be one 
worthy of respect, but not counting for much in the domain of sym- 
phony. Perhaps we may be mistaken; if so, the error should be 
pardonable, arising as it does from the great expectations which our 
reverence for the composer induced us to form." 



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Teachers and Professionals: For space in this program, consult me. 




TEACHER oj SINGING S^J f J GRAND OPERA and 

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For Musical Comedy, Radio Hours and Concerts to Pupils who Qualify 

Studio: 32 METROPOLITAN OPERA HOUSE 1425 BROADWAY Tel. Longacre 5913 



Sty? ffiflttgg ^rljool of Mmu 

announces a new member of its faculty 



FREDERIC TILLOTSON 

< Teacher of the Pianoforte 
Mr. Tillotson has received his training from Heinrich Gebhard, Boston, and Tobias Matthay, 
London. He conducts Master Classes at the Lamont School, Denver, during the summer. 

The Longy School is now using exclusively the 
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Artist-pupil Leschetizky, Joseffy, R.A.M. London 

Lecturer Piano-playing University Extension, Boston 

NEW YORK BOSTON (Thursdays only) 

902 Steinway Hall 26 Steinert Hall 

Two-Piano Sight-reading Classes 

Coaching Lessons to Pianists and Teachers 



Professionals a Specialty 

Tel. Circle 5149 mornings 



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PIANO, ORGAN, COACHING 

Studio: TRINITY COURT 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET BOSTON 
(Kenmore 8431) 



Vocal Coaching, Voice Production 
Programme Building 

MONDAYS STUDIO 

Steinway Hall Pierce Building 

New York Citv Coplev Square. Boston 



TEACHER OF SINGING 



STEINERT HALL 

162 BOYLSTON STREET 

Telephone Hubbard 6677 



BOSTON 



THEOo VAN YORX tenor 

Special attention to the speaking and singing 

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Studio: 4 WEST 40th STREET. NEW YORK 
Opposite Public Library Tel. Penn. 4792 



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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON 1929-1930 

THURSDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 17, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1929, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY, ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



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for tow n and eonntry. 

Steinwa] & Son8 t Steinway TTall 
109 Weal 57th Street, New York 



ST K I X WAY 



Ttii<; INSTRUMENT 
OF THE IMMORTALS 



I 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 



Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 



Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 



Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 



Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 
Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

Cauhape, J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 
Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warlike, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 



Harps. 

Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 

Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 

Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 
Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Bassoons. 
Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 

3 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam, E. 

Percussion. 
Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 



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SANDERS THEATRE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Handel 



FIRST CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 17 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra, Op. 6, No. io 
Overture; Allegro; Air: Lento; Allegro moderato 



Debussy .... "La Mer," Trois Esquisses Symphoniques 
I. De FAube a midi sur la mer (From Dawn till Noon on the Ocean). 
II. Jeux de Vagues (Play of the Waves). 
III. Dialogue du Vent et de la, Mer (Dialogue of Wind and Sea) . 



Beethoven .... 
I. Allegro con brio. 
II. Andante con mo to. 
fill. Allegro; Trio. 
I IV. Allegro. 



Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 



STEINWAY PIANO USED 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the symphony. 



SECOND CONCERT, THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 7 

at 8 o 'clock 



1880-1890 ~*| 



At 296 Washington Street, during the *80's and '90's, Raymond-Whitcomb 
managed and sold to the people of Boston. 



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ami wnii the Foreign Department of the First National Hank 

at 69 Milk Street. 




Concerto Grosso No. 10, in D minor . . George Frideric Handeu 
(Born at Halle on February 23, 1685 ; died at London, April 14, 1759) 

Handel's twelve grand concertos for strings were composed be- 
tween September 29 and October 30, 1739. The tenth bears the date 
October 22. The London Daily Post of October 29, 1739, said : "This 
day are published proposals for printing by subscription, with His 
Majesty's royal license and protection, Twelve Grand Concertos, 
in Seven Parts, for four violins, a tenor, a violoncello, with a 
thorough-bass for the harpsichord. Composed by Mr. Handel. Price 
to subscribers, two guineas. Keady to be delivered by April next. 
Subscriptions are taken by the author, at his house* in Brook Street, 
Hanover Square, and by Walsh." In an advertisement on Novem- 
ber 22 the publisher added, "Two of the above concertos will be per- 
formed this evening at the Theatre Royal, Lincoln's Inn." The 

*This was the little house, No. 25 Lower Brook Street (now Brook Street), In 
which Handel lived from 1725 until his death. Here he composed the "Messiah," 
"Saul," and other oratorios. "After his death his valet rented the house and made 
the most of Handel's long residence to secure lodgers." "Sydney Smith lived in this 
house in 1835" (George H. Cunningham's "London." Handel lived for three years 
in Old Burlington House, erected by the third Earl of Burlington, amateur architect 
and friend of Pope.) In the rate-book of 1725 Handel was named owner, and the 
house rated at £35 a year. Mr. W. H. Cummins, about 1903, visiting this house, 
found a cast-lead cistern, on the front of which in bold relief was "1721. G. F. H." 
The house had then been in possession of a family about seventy years, and various 
structural alterations had been made. A back room on the first floor was said to 
have been Handel's composition-room. 



by 

PERCY GOETSCHIUS, Mus. Doc. 

Fifth Book in the 

COURSE OF STUDY IN MUSIC UNDERSTANDING 

Cloth, $2.00 

In this notable work, richly illustrated with music quo- 
tations, Dr. Goetschius has given students a thought- 
ful and erudite survey of the Symphony and its devel- 
opment from its genesis to the present day. The 
Epilogue is devoted to American Symphonic writers. 



OUV1 



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Founded 1783 : Established 1835 



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Incorporated 1889 



concertos were published on April 21, 1740. In an advertisement 
a few days afterwards Walsh said, "These concertos were per- 
formed at the Theatre Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and now are 
played in most public places with the greatest applause." Victor 
Schoelcher made this comment in his Life of Handel: "This was 
the case with all the works of Handel. They were so frequently 
performed at contemporaneous concerts and benefits that they seem, 
during his lifetime, to have quite become public property. More- 
over, he did nothing which the other theatres did not attempt to 
imitate. In the little theatre of the Haymarket, evening entertain- 
ments were given in exact imitation of his 'several concertos for 
different instruments, with a variety of chosen airs of the best 
master, and the famous Salve Regina of Hasse.' The handbills 
issued by the nobles at the King's Theatre make mention also of 
'several concertos for different instruments.' " 

The year 1739, in which these concertos were composed, was the 
year of the first performance of Handel's "Saul" (January 16) 
and "Israel in Egypt" (April 4), — both oratorios were composed in 
1738, — also of the music to Dryden's "Ode for St. Cecilia's Day" 
(November 22). 

Romain Rolland, discussing the form concerto grosso, which 
consists essentially of a dialogue between a group of soloists, the 
concertino (trio of two solo violins and solo bass with cembalo*) 

•The Germans in the concertino sometimes coupled an oboe or a bassoon with 
a. yiolin. The Italians were faithful, as a rule, to the strings. 







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tal value of $13,500,000. On September 1, 
1929, there were 437 accounts with a capi- 
tal value of $60,000,000 — an increase in 
number of accounts of 285%, and in capital 
represented of 340%. 

We believe this substantial growth reflects 
the increasing interest of investors in the 
constructive and modern investment policy 
under which we administer the property 
entrusted to our care. 

Our Officers will be glad to discuss with you 
how this investment policy may be advan- 
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investment problem. 



LEE, HIGGINSON TRUST CO. 

50 FEDERAL STREET, BOSTON 
Lee, Higginson Office Building 



and the chorus of instruments, concerto grosso, believes that Handel 
;it Rome in 1708 was impressed by Corelli's works in this field, for 
several of his concertos of Opus 3 are dated 1710, 1716, 1722. 
Geminiani introduced the concerto into England, — three volumes 
appeared in 17:>L ) . L735, 17 IS. — and he was a friend of Handel. 

Handel's concertos of this set that have five movements are either 
in the form of a sonata with an introduction and a postlude (as 
Nos. 1 and 6) ; or in the form of the symphonic overture with the 
slow movements in the middle, and a dance movement, or an allegro 
closely resembling a dance, for a finale (as Nos. 7, 11, and 12) ; or 
a scries of three movements from larghetto to allegro, which is 
followed by two dance movements (as No. 3). 

The seven parts are thus indicated by Handel in book of parts : 
Viol i no primo concerto, Violino secondo concertino, Violino primo 
ripieno, Violino secondo ripieno, viola, violoncello, bass continuo. 



* 



I. Ouverture. D minor, 4-4: Allegro, D minor, 6-S. The over- 
ture is after the French pattern, in two sections. The Allegro is 
in the form of a three-voiced fugue. In its course, there is four- 
voiced work, but in reality only three voices are in counterpoint. 

II. Air. Lento, D minor, 3-2. Alternate passages are played by 
the concertino alone, and by it and the concerto ripieno together. 

III. Allegro, D minor, 4-4. A rhythmically strongly marked 
theme is developed contrapuntally in four-part writing. 

IV. Allegro, D minor, 3-4. In this the longest movement of the 
work the first and second violins of the concertino really play 
concertanti. 

V. Allegro moderato, D major, 4-4. For concertino and ripieno 
together. 



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SYMPHONY HALL 



Sunday Afternoon Course of Six 
Concerts in Symphony Hall 

November 10, November 24, December 15, January 12, 
February 23, March 16 



<^. ♦ «j> 



LOUISE HOMER 

AND DAUGHTERS 

CYRENA VAN GORDON 
ROLAND HAYES 

JESUS MARIA SANROMA 

ALBERT SPALDING 

VLADIMIR HOROWITZ 



Season Tickets are Available at the Automatic Subscription 
Board, in the Huntington Avenue Lobby, $7.50, $10, $12 

A Novel Method of Choosing Your Own Seats 



Coming— THE ENGLISH SINGERS— Sunday Afternoon, Nov. 3 
LA ARGENTINA— Saturday Afternoon, Nov. 9 



n 



TO THE SUBSCRIBERS AND PATRONS OF 

We submit herewith a comparative statement for the years 1921 U 
season of 1928-29 showed a probable deficit of $134,000, and we askedfo 
$145,493.68. The actual subscriptions received amounted to $101,4817 



RECEIPTS 

Gross Income from Concerts 
Symphony Hall Rents, etc. . 

Programmes 

Sale of Bound Volumes . . 
Interest on Bank Balances . 
Sundry Receipts 



1927 


1928 


1929 


$549,357.31*x 


$520,286. 17x 


$482,054.58 


97,474.14 


101,827.67 


94,131.6$ 
• 


52,711.00 


50,889.86 


52,915.82 


248.00 


275.00 


533.0C 


3,866.47 


4,352.73 


3,872.4Gi 


495.68 


329.33 


862.2£ 






Operating Income .... $704,152.60 $677,960.76 $634,369.7* 
Payments 762,183.73 780,957.46 796,375.7< 



Operating Deficit $58,031.13 $102,996.70 $162,005.9* 

Income Endowment Fund 

and Interest 13,734.15 15,928.47 16,512.3( 



Net Loss $44,296.98 $87,068.23 $145,493.6* 

•Includes Beethoven Festival $26,342.50 

xlncludes returns from Broadcasting 

1927 $32,000.00 

1928 $31,000.00 
neither of which was available for 1929. 

Your previous subscriptions have been very much appreciated an a 

more general response. We request this year towards deficits $100,00 I 

carried over from last year. 



E. B. Dane, Treasurer, 

6 Beacon Street, 

Boston, Mass. 



12 



BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

'Jd 1929 at the close of business July 31st. Our estimate for the 
illcriptions to cover this amount. The actual deficit amounted to 
living an actual deficit for the year of $44,012.01. 



$164,613.39 $159,434.96 



J r MENTS 1927 1928 1929 

:fcimses of Concerts, Rents, 
1 1 'a veiling Expenses, Solo- 
Is, etc $175,361.69 

j I phony Hall Mainten- 

ce 110,245.02 109,233.95 107,109.69 

Grammes 41,442.49 40,112.14 40,955.03 

restra Salaries .... 387,703.77 420,887.33 442,982.55 

tr Salaries 29,351.00 29,991.00 29,648.00 

ij-ance 1,760.04 1,718.45 1,681.12 

l|c 5,702.67 4,159.79 4,624.16 

iiry Expense 10,617.05 10,241.41 9,940.22 






$762,183.73 $780,957.46 $796,375.73 



' essential. We hope they will be continued, and we ask for a 
mprises the deficit for the ensuing year, plus the $45,000 deficit 



EjiRICK P. CABOT 
1|T B. DANE 
'IjrROSE HALLOWELL 
^DeWOLFE HOWE 
NELLERTON LODGE 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 

Trustees 



13 



"The Sea" (Three Orchestral Sketches): I, From Dawn Till 
Noon on the Ocean; II, Frolics of Waves, III, Dialogue of 
Wind and Sea Achille Claude Debussy 

(Born at Saint-Germain (Seine and Oise), France, August 22, 1862; died at 

Paris, March 26, 1918) 

These orchestral pieces ("La Mer: De l'aube a midi sur la mer; 
II. Jeux de Vagues; III, Dialogue du vent et de la mer — trois 
esquisses symphoniques") were performed for the first time at a 
Lamoureux concert in Paris, October 15, 1905. The concert, the first 
of the season of 1905-06, was also the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
establishment of the Concerts Lamoureux. Camille Chevillard 
conducted. 

Debussy wrote in August, 1903, from Bichain to his publisher 
Jacques Durand that he was at work on "La Mer." "If God will be 
good to me, the work will be in a very advanced state on my return 
[to Paris]." He wrote later that the sketches would have these 
titles : "Mer belle aux lies Sanguinaires" ; "Jeux de Vagues" ; "Le 
vent fait danser la mer"; and in September he said the work was 
intended for Chevillard. In September, 1904, he wrote from Dieppe. 
"I wanted to finish 'La Mer' here, but I must still work on the or- 
chestration, Avhich is as tumultuous and varied as the sea (with 

all my excuses to the latter)." In January, 1905. he was not sure 
that the title, "De l'aube a midi sur la mer" would do: "So many 
contradictory things are dancing in my head, and this last attack 
of grippe has added its particular dance." He also wrote that he 
had remade the end of "Jeu de Vagues." He was disturbed because 
Chevillard spoke of the difficulties in the music, but if he gave the 
score to Colonne there might be a row. In July and September, 
1905, he complained of "very curious corrections" made by some one 
in the proofs; and the idea of a performance at Chevillard's first 
concert seemed to him as bad as a performance at the last one of the 
season : "I am not so proud as to believe that l La Mer' can be a check 
lo Wagner and Mile. Litvinne together." At rehearsal it was found 
that the proofs had been badly read. 



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Concerto grew to he a \i!-,- plea ant thing '" her hands." 

Transcript "With the concerto Miss William showed herself an art it of rare 

[bility, abundant kill, consummate art! try. The e are trite phra sa in reviewing. 

trit<- or ordinary in Mi William ' playing) however, mu-t they he taken 

to reflect. For uch qualitiei that playing did not contain. Mi William apparently 

i an art i t ami a rim icinn to h.r fingertip 

Soloist with the Boston CItIc S\ mplnm \ 

llrrnlil "Mi William appeared In LI •'' Hungarian Fanta y. She hi 

plea Ing of playii and many-sided technic, which allowed bei 

h delicacy wrhere needed and with delightful freedom In the firmer i 

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15 



The Sketches, dedicated to Jacques Durand, were published at 
Paris in 1905. Debussy made an arrangement for two pianos; 
Andre Caplet made one in 1008 for three pianos. 

The first performance in the United States was in Boston at a con- 
cert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on March 2, 1907. "La Mer" 
was performed again that season by request on April 20, 1907. There 
were later performances on March 1, 1913, December 18, 1915, No- 
vember 16, 1917, January 14, 1921, November 21, 1924, April 27, 1928. 

"From Dawn till Noon on the "Ocean" is scored for piccolo, two 
Antes, two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, three bassoons, four 
horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three 
kettledrums, cymbals, tam-tam, two harps, and strings. 

"Frolics of Waves" is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, 
English horn, two clarinets, three bassoons, four horns, three 
trumpets, cymbals, triangle, a Glockenspiel (or celesta), two harps, 
and strings. 

"Dialogue of Wind and Sea" is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two 
oboes, English' horn, two clarinets, three bassoons, double-bassoon, 
four horns, three trumpets, two cornets-a-pistons, three trombones, 
bass tuba, a set of three kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, tam-tam, 
Glockenspiel, two harps, and strings. 






These sketches are impressionistic. The titles give the cue to the 
hearer. As M. Jean d'Udine said of these very compositions : "When 
art is concerned, grammatical analyses belong to the kingdom of 
technical study; they have a didactic character and interest only 
professionals.- The public demands logical analyses from the critics. 
I Jut how can anyone analyze logically creations that come from a 
dream, if not from a nightmare, and seem the fairy materialization 
of vague, acute sensations, which, experienced in feverish half-sleep, 
cannot be disentangled? By a miracle, as strange as it is seductive, 
M. Debussy possesses the dangerous privilege of being able to seize 
the most fantastical sports of light and of fluid whirlwinds. He is 
cater-cousin to the sorcerer, the prestidigitator; his art rests al- 
most wholly on the association of musical ideas whose relations are 
clearly perceived only in a state of semiconsciousness, with the con- 
dition of not thinking about them. M is an exclusively sensual art, 

wholly like that of I>erlioz, situated almost outside of lime, floating 

in Bpace with the disturbing absence of rhythm shown by the care- 
less, intoxicated butterfly, an art that is astonishingly French, 

pictorial and Literary to that degree of disembodiment where sound 
is only a cabal ist Lc Bign." 

Whether one disputes or agrees to this characterization of De- 
bussy's art the comparison of it with the art of Berlioz is at least 

surprising If not Inexplicable .M. d'Udine's statement that these 
sketches do not submit to analysis is unanswerable. To speak of 

I tonalities WOUld be absurd, for there is incessant modulation. 

To describe Debussy's thematic material without the aid of illustra- 
tions in Dotation would be futile. To speak of form and development 
would i>c to offer a stumbling-block to those who can see nothing in 

the saying Of Plot inns, as translated by Thomas Taylor: "Hut the 
simple beauty Of color arises, when Light, which is something in- 

16 



corporeal, in reason and form, entering the obscure involutions of 
matter, irradiates and forms its dark and formless nature. It is on 
this account that fire surpasses other bodies in beauty, because, 
compared with the other elements, it obtains the order of form ; for 
it is more eminent than the rest, and is the most subtle of all, border- 
ing as it were on an incorporeal nature." 

* * 

"Debussy has not wished to confide himself indefinitely to the 
rambling of his senses: he became jealous of his instinct. In <La 
Mer' one will discover an effort to substitute for sensuous sponta- 
neity of developments, the management of the mind." — Jacques 
Riviere. 



Debussy was greatly pleased when "La Mer" was performed in 
Paris at a Franco-Italian concert conducted by Molinari in 1917: 
"I do not believe that the Parisians often have the opportunity of 
hearing a performance comparable to this; Molinari is a kind of 
sorcerer who has roused the orchestra from its apathy. As the in- 
strumentalists have much talent, they played like angels. Are 
angels as good musicians as legends and the Primitives would have 
us believe ?" m * 9 

Debussy and the Sea 

Debussy loved and respected the ocean. In 1905 he wrote from 
Eastbourne : "The sea rolls with a wholly British correctness. There 
is a lawn combed and brushed on which little bits of important and 
imperialistic English frolic. But what a place to work ! No noise, 
no pianos, except the delicious mechanical pianos, no musicians 
talking about painting, no painters discussing music. In short, a 
pretty place to cultivate egoism." 

At Le Puy near Dieppe, August, 1906 : "here I am again with my 
old friend the sea, always innumerable and beautiful. It is truly 
the one thing in nature that puts you in your place ; only one does 
not sufficiently respect the sea. To wet in it bodies deformed by the 



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daily life should not be allowed; truly these arms and legs which 
move in ridiculous rhythms — it is enough to make the fish weep. 
There should be only Sirens in the sea. and could you wish that 
these estimable persons would be willing to return to waters so 
badly frequented?" 

Houlgate, L911: "Here life and the sea continue — the first to 
contradict our native savagery, the second to accomplish its sonorous 
going and coining, which cradles the melancholy of those who are 
deceived by the beach." 

Pourville, August, 1915 : "Trees are good friends, better than the 
ocean, which is in motion, wishing to trespass on the land, bite the 
rocks, with the anger of a little girl — singular for a person of its 
importance. One would understand it if it sent the vessels about 
their business as disturbing vermin." 



Symphony No. 5, C minor, Op. 67 . Ludwig van Beethoven 

(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

Beethoven sketched motives of the allegro, andante, and scherzo 
of this symphony as early as 1800 and 1801. We know from sketches 
that while he was at work on "Fidelio" and the pianoforte concerto 
in G major, — 1804-1806, — he was also busied with this symphony, 
which he put aside to compose the fourth symphony, in B-tlat. 

The symphony in C minor was finished in the neighborhood of 
Bciligenstadt in 1807. Dedicated to the Prince von Lobkowitz and 
the Count Kasnmovsky, it was published in April, 1809. 

It was first performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, De- 
cember 22, 180S. All the pieces were by Beethoven; the symphony 
described on the programme as "A symphony entitled 'Recollections 
of Life in the Country,' in P major, No. 5" (sic) ; an Aria, "Ah, 
pci ■lido," Bung by Josephine Kilitzky; Hymn with Latin text written 
in church style with chorus and solos; Pianoforte Concerto in G 
major, played by Beethoven; Grand Symphony in O minor, No. 
(sic) \ BanctUB, with Latin text written in chnrch style (from the 
Mass in G major), with chorus and solos; Fantasia for pianoforte 
solo; Fantasia for pianoforte "into which the full orchestra enters 
Little by little, and at the end the chorus joins in the Finale. '' 

Beethoven played the pianoforte part. The concert began at half" 
past six. We know nothing about the pecuniary result. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two Oboes, two clarinets, 

two bassoons, two imrns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings; and 
in the last movement piccolo, double-bassoon, and three trombones 
ar< added. 

Instead of Inquiring curiously into the legend Invented by 
Schindler, "and for this reason a statement i<> be doubted/' as 
Bulow said, that Beethoven remarked of the first theme, "So 
knocks Fate on the door!";* Instead of Investigating the statement 
thai tin- rhythm <»f this theme was suggested by the note <>f :i bird, — 
oriole or goldfinch, heard during ;i walk ; instead of a long analysis, 
which is vexation and confusion without the themes and their 

•rt !k «ni<i thai rvniin.MiHi BJef irai fin- author <>f ttali explanation! and that 
grimly aarcaatlc when Blaa, IiIh pupU, made n known to him. 

is 



variants in notation, — let us read and ponder the words of the great 
Hector Berlioz : 

"The most celebrated of them all, beyond doubt and peradventure, 
is also the first, I think, in which Beethoven gave the reins to his 
vast imagination, without taking for guide or aid a foreign thought. 
In the first, second, and fourth, he more or less enlarged forms al- 
ready known, and poetized them with all the brilliant and passion- 
ate inspirations of his vigorous youth. In the third, the 'Eroica,' 
there is a tendency, it is true, to enlarge the form, and the thought is 
raised to a mighty height; but it is impossible to ignore the influence 
of one of the divine poets to whom for a long time the great artist 
had raised a temple in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the 
Horatian precept, 'Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna/ read 
Homer constantly, and in his magnificent musical epopee, which, 
they say, I know not whether it be true or false, was inspired by a 
modern hero, the recollections of the ancient Iliad play a part that 
is as evident as admirably beautiful. 

"The symphony in C minor, on the other hand, seems to us to come 
directly and solely from the genius of Beethoven ; he develops in it 
his own intimate thought ; his secret sorrows, his concentrated rage, 
his reveries charged with a dejection, oh, so sad, his visions at night; 
his bursts of enthusiasm — these furnish him the subject; and the 
forms of melody, harmony, rhythm, and orchestration are displayed 
as essentially individual and new as they are powerful and noble. 

"The first movement is devoted to the painting of disordered 
sentiments which overthrow a great soul, a prey to despair : not the 
concentrated, calm despair that borrows the shape of resignation: 
not the dark and voiceless sorrow of Komeo who learns the death of 
Juliet ; but the terrible rage of Othello when he receives from Iago's 
mouth the poisonous slanders which persuade him of Desdemona's 
guilt. Now it is a frenetic delirium which explodes in frightful 
cries ; and now it is the prostration that has only accents of regret 
and profound self-pity. Hear these hiccups of the orchestra, these 
dialogues in chords between wind instruments and strings, which 
come and go, always weaker and fainter, like unto the painful 
breathing of a dying man, and then give way to a phrase full of 
violence, in which the orchestra seems to rise to its feet, revived by 
a flash of fury: see this shuddering mass hesitate a moment and 



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then rush headlong, divided in two burning unisons as two streams 
of lava; and then say if this passionate style is not beyond and 
above everything that had been produced hitherto in instrumental 
music. . . . 

"The adagio"* — andante con moto — "has characteristics in com- 
mon with the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and 
the slow movement of the fourth. It partakes alike of the melan- 
choly soberness of the former and the touching grace of the latter. 
The theme, at first announced by the united violoncellos and violas, 
with a simple accompaniment of the double-basses pizzicato, is fol- 
lowed by a phrase for wind instruments, which return constantly, 
and in the same tonality throughout the movement, whatever be the 
successive changes of the first theme. This persistence of the same 
phrase, represented always in a profundly sad simplicity, produces 
little by little on the hearer's soul an indescribable impression. . . . 

"The Scherzo is a strange composition. Its first measures, which 
are not terrible themselves, provoke that inexplicable emotion which 
y<»u feel when the magnetic gaze of certain persons is fastened on 
you. Here everything is sombre, mysterious: the orchestration, 
more or less sinister, springs apparently from the state of mind that 
created the famous scene of the Blocksberg in Goethe's 'Faust/ 
Nuances of piano and mezzoforte dominate. The trio is a double- 
bass figure, executed with the full force of the bow; its savage rough- 
ness shakes the orchestral stands, and reminds one of the gambols 
of a frolicsome elephant. But the monster retires, and little by little 
the noise of his mad course dies away. The theme of the scherzo 
reappears in pizzicato. Silence is almost established, for you hear 
only some violin tones lightly plucked and strange little duckings 
ot bassoons. ... At last the strings give gently with the bow the 
chord of A-flat and doze on it. Only the drums preserve the rhythm ; 
light blows struck by sponge-headed drumsticks mark the dull 
rhythm amid the general stagnation of the orchestra. These drum- 
notes are ("s: the tonality of the movement is C minor; but the 
Chord of Aflat sustained for a long time by the other inst ruments 
seems to introduce a different tonality, while the isolated hammer- 
ing the C on the drums tends to preserve the reeling of the founda- 
tion tonality. The ear hesitates, — but will this mystery of harmony 

end ? -and now the (lull pulsations of the drums, growing louder and 
louder. re;icli with the violins, which now take part in the movement 

and with ;i change <>r harmony, to the chord of the dominant seventh] 

<!. B, I>. P, while the dmiDS POU obstinately their tonic (': the whole 
Orchestra, n^istod by the trombones which have not \v\ been heard, 
bursls in the major into the theme of ;i triumphal march, and the 

Finale begins. . . . 

"Criticism has tried, however, to diminish the composer's glory 
by Stating thai he employed ordinary means, the brilliance of the 
major mode pompously following the darkness of a pianissimo in 
minor; th;il ihe t riumph.'i 1 march is without Originality, and that 

the Interest wanes even t«> the end. whereas it should increase. I 

reply to this: I'i'l it require less genius to create a work like this 
because the i e from piano to forte and that from minor to 

• IndifT. r<n<<- <<f BerliOl to cxnrl t crin Innlogy 1h not Infrequently shown in hi* 
• M Ki' 

20 



major were the means already understood? Many composers have 
wished to take advantage of the same means; and what result did 
they obtain comparable to this gigantic chant of victory in which 
the soul of the poet-musician, henceforth free from earthly shackles, 
terrestrial sufferings, seems to mount radiantly towards heaven? 
The first four measures of the theme, it is true, are not highly origi- 
nal ; but the forms of a fanfare are inherently restricted, and I do 
not think it possible to find new forms without departing utterly 
from the simple, grand, pompous character which is becoming. 
Beethoven wished only an entrance of the fanfare for the beginning 
of his finale, and he quickly found in the rest of the movement and 
even in the conclusion of the chief theme that loftiness and origi- 
nality of style which never forsook him. And this may be said in 
answer to the reproach of not having increased the interest to the 
very end; music, in the state known at least to us, would not know 
how to produce a more violent effect than that of this transition 
from scherzo to triumphal march ; it was then impossible to enlarge 
the effect afterwards. 

"To sustain one's self at such a height is of itself a prodigious 
effort; yet in spite of the breadth of the developments to which he* 
committed himself, Beethoven was able to do it. But this equality 
from the beginning to end is enough to make the charge of dimin- 
ished interest plausible, on account of the terrible shock which the 
ears receive at the beginning; a shock that, by exciting nervous 
emotion to its most violent paroxysm, makes the succeeding instant 
the more difficult. In a long row of columns of equal height, an 
optical illusion makes the most remote appear the smallest. Perhaps 
our weak organization would accommodate itself to a more laconic 
peroration, as that of Gluck's 'Notre general vous rappelle.' Then 
the audience would not have to grow cold, and the symphony would 
end before weariness had made impossible further following in the 
steps of the composer. This remark bears only on the mise en scene 
of the work; it does not do away with the fact that this finale in 
itself is rich and magnificent; very few movements can draw near 
without being crushed by it." 

This symphony was performed in Boston at an Academy concert 
as early as November 27, 1841. 

Other first performances: London, April 15, 1816, Philharmonic 
Society; Paris, April 13, 1828, Societe des Concerts; Leningrad, 
March 23, 1859 ; Rome, November 9, 1877 ; Madrid, 1878. 

The fifth symphony was the opening number of the first concert 
of the Philharmonic Society of New York, December 7, 1842. U. L. 
Hill conducted the symphony. 



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SYMPHONY HALL 49th SEASON, 19294930 

SIX TUESDAY AFTERNOON 

CONCERTS 

December 10 January 7 February 11 February 25 March 11 April 22 



SIX MONDAY EVENING 

CONCERTS 

November 11 December 2 January 27 February 17 March 17 April 28 



THE BOSTON 





(110 Musicians) 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON TICKETS ARE .STILL AVAILABLE 
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W. H. BRENNAN, Manager G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



23 



Initttb TMumea 



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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



il 



SEASON 1929-1930 
THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 7, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE . 

COPYRIGHT, 1929, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

BENTLEY W. WARREN . ... Vice-President 
ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

FREDERICK P. CABOT FREDERICK E. LOWELL 

ERNEST B. DANE ARTHUR LYMAN 

N. PENROSE HALLOWELL EDWARD M. PICKMAN 

M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE HENRY B. SAWYER 

JOHN ELLERTON LODGE BENTLEY W. WARREN 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 

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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 
Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Fedorovsky, P. Leibovici, J. 
Leveen, P. Tapley, R. 

Knudson, C. Gorodetzky, L 

Zide, L. Fiedler, B. 

Stonestreet, L. Messina, S. 

Erkelens, H. Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

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Devergie, J. 
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Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
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Clarinets. 

Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

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Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 
Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Bassoons. 
Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 

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SANDERS THEATRE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SECOND CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 7 
AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Beethoven 



Overture to Goethe's "Egmont," Op. 84 



Stravinsky . Suite from "L'Oiseau de Feu" ("The Fire-Bird") 

A Danced Legend 
I. Introduction; Katschei's Enchanted Garden and 
Dance of the Fire-Bird. 
II. Supplication of the Fire-Bird. 

III. The Princesses play with the Golden Apples. 

IV. Dance of the Princess. 

V. Infernal Dance of all the Subjects of Katschei. 



Tchaikovsky . . Symphony No. 6 in B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

I. Adagio; Allegro non troppo. 

II. Allegro con grazia. 

III. Allegro molto vivace. 

IV. Finale: Adagio lamentoso. 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the symphony 

5 



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Overture to "Egmont," Op. 84 ... . Ludwig van Beethoven 
(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

This overture was composed in 1810; it was published in 1811. 
The music to Goethe's play — overture, four entr'actes, two songs 
sung by Clarchen, "Clarchen's Death," "Melodrama," and "Triumph 
Symphony" (identical with the coda of the overture) for the end of 
the play, nine numbers in all — was performed for the first time with 
the tragedy at the Hofburg Theater, Vienna, May 24, 1810. Antonie 
Adamberger was the Clarchen. 

When Hartl took the management of the two Vienna Court thea- 
tres, January 1, 1808, he produced plays by Schiller. He finally de- 
termined to produce plays by Goethe and Schiller with music, and 
he chose Schiller's "Tell" and Goethe's "Egmont." Beethoven and 
Gyrowetz were asked to write the music. The former was anxious 
to compose the music for "Tell" ; but, as Czerny tells the story, there 
were intrigues and, as "Egmont" was' thought to be less suggestive 
to a composer, the music for that play was assigned to Beethoven. 
Gyrowetz's music to "Tell" was performed June 14, 1810. It was 
described by a correspondent of a Leipsic journal of music as "char- 
acteristic and written with intelligence." No allusion was made at 
the time anywhere to Beethoven's "Egmont." 

The overture has a short, slow introduction, sostenuto ma non 
troppo, F minor, 3-2. The main body of the overture is an allegro, F 
minor, 3-4. The first theme is in the strings; each phrase is a de- 
scending arpeggio in the violoncellos, closing with a sigh in the first 



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violins; the antithesis begins with a "sort of sigh" in the wood-wind, 
then in the strings, then there is a development into passage-work. 
The second theme lias for its thesis a version of the first two meas- 
ures of the sarabaude theme of the introduction, fortissimo 
(strings), in A-liat major, and the antithesis is a triplet in the wood- 
wind. The coda Allegro con brio, F major, 4-4, begins pianissimo. 
The full orchestra at last has a brilliant fanfare figure, which ends 
in a shouting climax, with a famous shrillness of the piccolo against 
fanfares of bassoons and brass and between crashes of the full 
orchestra. 

The overture is scored for two flutes (one interchangeable with 
piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two 
trumpets, kettledrums and strings. 



What Beethoven thought of Goethe is well known. In 1809 he 
wrote to Breitkopf and Hiirtel : "Goethe and Schiller are my favorite 
poets, as also Ossian and Homer, the latter of whom, unfortunately, 
I can read only in translation." In 1811 he wrote to Bettina von 
Brentano : "When you write to Goethe about me, select all words 
which will express to him inv inmost reverence and admiration. I 
am just on the point of writing to him about 'Egmont,' to which I 
have written the music, and indeed purely out of love for his poems 
which cause me happiness. Who can be sufficiently thankful for a 
great poet, the richest jewel of a nation? And now, no more, dear 





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good B. I came back from a bacchanalian festival only at four 
o'clock this morning, at which, indeed, I was forced to laugh a great 
deal, with the result that I have to weep almost as much to-day. 
Noisy joy often drives me powerfully back into myself." This letter 
was dated February 10. On April 12 (1811) he wrote to Goethe: — 

"Your Excellence : 

"The pressing opportunity of a friend of mine, one of your great admirers 
(as I also am), who is leaving here" (Vienna) "in a great hurry, gives me 
only a moment to offer my thanks for the long time I have known you (for I 
know you from the days of my childhood) — that is very little for so much. 
Bettina Brentano has assured me that you would receive me in a kindly, yes, 
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I am only in a position to approach you with the deepest reverence, with an in- 
expressibly deep feeling for your noble creations. You will shortly receive 
from Leipsic through Breitkopf and Hartel the music to 'Egmont,' this glorious 
'Egmont,' with which I, with the same warmth with which I read it, was again 
through you impressed by it, and set it to music. I should much like to know 
your opinion of it ; even blame will be profitable for me and for my art, and 
will be as willingly received as the greatest praise. 

"Your Excellency's great admirer, 

"Ltjdwig van Beethoven." 

Goethe answered this letter at Carlsbad on June 25, 1811 : — 

"Your friendly letter, highly esteemed sir, I received to my great pleasure 
through Herr von Oliva. I am most thankful to you for the opinions expressed 
therein, and I assure you that I can honestly reciprocate them, for I have 
never heard one of your great works performed by skilful artists and amateurs 
without wishing that I could for once admire you at the pianoforte, and take 
delight in your extraordinary talent. The good Bettina Brentano really de- 
serves the sympathy you have shown her. She speaks of you with rapture 
and the liveliest affection, and counts the hours she spent with you as the 
happiest of her life. The 'Egmont' music I shall probably find when I return 
home, and I thank you in advance — for I have already heard it spoken of in 
high terms by several persons, and I think I shall be able to give it this winter 
at our theatre, accompanied by the music in question ; by this means I hope to 
prepare great enjoyment both for myself and for your numerous admirers in 
our parts. What, however, I most wish, is to have properly understood Herr 
Oliva, who held out the hope that in the course of a journey you propose to 
take that you might visit "Weimar. May it take place when the court and the 
whole music-loving public is here. You would certainly meet with a reception 
in keeping with your merits and sentiments. But no one would take greater 
interest in it than I myself. I wish you farewell, beg you to keep me in kind 
remembrance, and offer you hearty thanks for the pleasure which through you 
I have often received." 

As we have seen, Goethe had much to say about his "Egmont" to 
Eckermann, but in the record of the conversations there is no allu- 
sion to Beethoven's music for the play. 

In 1822, Beethoven, remembering his talk with Goethe at Teplitz, 
where he met him for the first time in 1812, said to Rochlitz : "I 
would have gone to death, yes ten times to death, for Goethe. Then, 
when I was in the height of my enthusiasm, I thought out my 
'Egmont' music. Goethe — he lives and wants us all to live with him. 
It is for that reason that he can be composed. Nobody is so easily 
composed as he. But I do not like to compose songs." But the 
"Egmont" music had been composed and performed before the com- 
poser ever met the poet. Schindler said that Beethoven's recollec- 
tion of past events was always vague. 

10 



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SPAIN'S GREAT DANCER 



11 



The story of Beethoven's haughtiness and Goethe's obsequiousness 
in the presence of the imperial court has often been related, but the 
authenticity of the letter in which Beethoven told the adventure to 
Bettina has been disputed. 

Bottina wrote rtickler-Muskau an account of Goethe and Bee- 
thoven together at Teplitz, and spoke of the composer playing to the 
poet and deeply moving him. Albert Schaefer states calmly that 
Beethoven played the "Egmont" music to Goethe at Vienna, and 
that the latter did not value it, had no suspicion of its worth, — a 
statement for which we find no authority. This is certain, that in 
1812 Beethoven said to Hiirtel : "Goethe is too fond of the atmosphere 
of the court ; fonder than becomes a poet. There is little room for 
sport over the absurdities of the virtuosi, when poets, who ought to 
be looked upon as the foremost teachers of the nation, can forget 
everything else in the enjoyment of court glitter." It is also certain 
tli at Goethe cared little for Beethoven's music, that he did not men- 
tion his name in his memoirs ; but in a letter to Zelter he wrote in 
1812 : "I made the acquaintance of Beethoven at Teplitz. His talent 
astonished me prodigiously, but he is, unfortunately, a wholly un- 
tamed person. It is true that he is not utterly wrong when he finds 
the world detestable, but this will not make it more enjoyable for 
himself or for others. Yet he is to be excused and much pitied, for 
he has lost his hearing, which perhaps is of less injury to his art 
than to his social relations. Already laconic by nature, he will be 
doubly so by reason of this infirmity."' 

When Mendelssohn visited Weimar in 1830, he endeavored to 
make Goethe appreciate Beethoven's music. Mendelssohn played to 
him music by Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Weber. The poet enjoyed espe- 
cially an overture by Bach. "How pompous and stately it is!" ex- 
claimed Goethe: "I imagine a procession of noble persons in festal 
dress, .^oing down the steps of a grand staircase!'' But Mendels- 
sohn recognized Goethe's antipathy towards Beethoven's music. He 
played to him the first movement of the Symphony in C minor. It 
made a singular impression on Goethe, who began by saying: "This 
music produces only astonishment ; it does not move one at all; it is 
grandiose." Ho muttered some words, and alter a long silence said : 
"I i is very great and indeed astonishing; one is tempted to say thai 
the bouse is about to crumble into pieces; hut what would happen if 
;ill men together should soi themselves to playing ii ?" 

Goethe, who likened music io architecture, drew a singular paral- 
lel between Napoleon Bonaparte and Hummel. "Napoleon treats 
the world ;is Hummel his pianoforte, in each Instance the manner 
of treatment seems impossible) we understand the one ns Little as 
the other, and yd no one can deny the effects. The grandeur of 
Napoleon consists in being the same at any hour. . . . lie was al 
ways in his element^ always equal to the emergency, just as Hummel 
is aever embarrassed, whether he has i<> play an adagio or an allegro. 
This facility is found wherever real talent exists, in the arts of 
peace as in those of war, at the pianoforte ns behind a battery." 



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13 



Suite derived prom the Danced Story, "The Fire-Bird" 

Igor Fedorovitch Stravinsky 

(Born at Qranienbaum, near Leningrad, on June 5, 1SS2; now living) 

In the slimmer of 1009 Diaghilev asked Stravinsky to write a bal- 
let founded on the old Russian legend of the Fire-Bird. The score 
was ready in May, 1910. The scenario was the work of Fokine. 

The first performance of the "Oiseau de Fen" a "Conte danse" in 
two scenes, was at the Paris Opera on June 25, 1910. The Fire-Bird. 
Tamara Karsavina; The Beautiful Tsarevna, Mine. Fokina ; Ivan 
Tsarevitch, Fokine; KatseheJi, Boulgakov. Gabriel Fierne" con- 
ducted. The stage settings were by Golovine and Bakst. Balakirev 
had sketched an opera in which the Fire-Bird was the central figure, 
but nothing came of it. Katschei (or Kotsche'i) is the hero of 
Rimsky-Korsakov's opera "Katschei the Immortal: an Autumn 
Legend," produced at the Private Opera, Moscow, in 1902. He also 
figures as "the man-skeleton" in Rimsky-Korsakov's "Mlada,"* a 
fairy opera-ballet (Leningrad, 1893) and, by implication, in Mous- 
sorgsky'fi symphonic poem, "A Night on Bald Mountain."! 

Mr. Montagu-Nathan says in his sketch of Stravinsky — "Contem- 
porary Russian Composers": "In identifying the literary basis of 
'The Fire-Bird' with that of Korsakov's 'Katschei,' it should be 
pointed oul that the latter work is but a pastiche of episodes derived 
from legendary lore, with the monster as a central figure. In 
Stravinsky's ballet, the ogre is an accessory character, so far as 
concerns the dramatic action, but his presence in the scheme is 
neverthless vital to it." 

Pokine's scenario may thus be described: After a short prelude, 

*The third act "Night on the Mount Trijrlav," arranged for concert use, was played 
in Boston by the lioston Symphony Orchestra on December 23, lf>21. 

[This symphonic poem was produced in Boston by the Orchestral Club, Mr. Lonpy 
nductor, on January 4. 1905, 



)AN VVIfJ, fAl.VC), Pianist 



Orchestral Appearances in Boston — Soloisl with the People's Symphony 
Herald — "Su an Williami playa easily .- > i n 1 wall. There i; poetry In her music and 
n<> feeblen* when ■ forte pa age confronts her. she can then drop naturally to 

beauty and good clean melody, thai i now oft. now bright, The MacDoweU 
com • leai anl thing tn her band 

Transcript "With Oh- concerto Miss William bowed her elf an artist of rare 

ibility, abundanl skill, consummate artistry. The >■ are trite phra es in reviewing. 

ordinary in Ml William ' playing, however, must they be taken 

,ch qualities thai playing did not contain. Mis William, apparently 

i an artl t and ■ mu Ician t<» her fingertip ." 

KoIojkI with the lioston Civic Symphonj 
' ■''/ "Ml '•'■ lliam appeared In I I llunrarian Kant a y. She ha a 

plea of playing, and many-sided technic, which allowed her to 

th delicacy wl led and with delightful freedom In the firmer parts. 

en •• of the kind <>f touch to use, and made the dell- 

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the curtain rises and the grounds of an old castle are seen. Ivan 
Tsarevitch, the hero of many tales, in the course of hunting at night, 
conies to the enchanted garden and sees a beautiful bird with flam- 
ing golden plumage. She attempts to pluck fruit of gold from a 
silver tree. He captures her, but, heeding her entreaties, frees her. 
In gratitude, she gives him one of her feathers which has magic prop- 
erties. The dawn breaks. Thirteen enchanted princesses appear, 
coming from the castle. Ivan, hidden, watches them playing with 
golden apples, and dancing.. Fascinated by them, he finally discloses 
himself. They tell him that the castle belongs to the terrible 
Katschei, who turns decoyed travellers -into stone. The princesses 
warn Ivan of his fate, but he resolves to enter the castle. Opening 
the gate, he sees Katschei with his train of grotesque and deformed 
subjects marching towards him in pompous procession. Katschei 
attempts to work his spell on Ivan, who is protected by the feather. 
Ivan summons the Fire-Bird, who causes Katschei and his retinue 
to dance until they drop exhausted. The secret of Katschei' s immor- 
tality is disclosed to Ivan : the sorcerer keeps an egg in a casket ; if 
this egg should be broken or even injured, he would die. Ivan 
swings the egg backwards and forwards. Katschei and his crew 
sway with it. At last the egg is dashed to the ground; Katschei 
dies; his palace vanishes; the petrified knights come to life; and 
Ivan, amid great rejoicing, receives the hand of the most beautiful 
princess. 

According to Ralston in his "Russian Folk-Tales," the Fire-Bird 
is known in its native haunts as the Zhar-Ptitsa. Its name, he says, 
indicates its close connection with flame or light. Zhar means 
" 'glowing heart/ as of a furnace"; and Zhar-Ptitsa means, literally, 
"the Glow-Bird." "Its appearance corresponds with its designa- 
tion. Its feathers blaze with golden or silvery sheen, its eyes shine 
like crystal, it dwells in a golden cage. In the depth of the night it 
flies into a garden and lights it up as brilliantly as could a thousand 
burning fires. A single feather from its tail illuminates a dark 
room. It feeds upon golden apples, which have the power of bestow- 





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bug youth and beauty — or, according to a Croatian version, on magic 

grasses.' 4 

Katsche'i is one of the many incarnations of the dark spirit. 
"Sometimes he is described as altogether serpent-like in form; some- 
times he seems to be of a mixed nature, partly human and partly 
ophidian, hut in some stories he is apparently framed after the 
fashion of a man. . . . lie is called 'immortal' or 'deathless' because 
of his superiority to the ordinary laws of existence. . . . Sometimes 
his 'death' — that is, the object with which his life is indissoluble* 
connected — does not exist within this body." — Kalston's "Russian 
Folk-Tales." 

The movements of the Suite are as follows : 

I. Introduction. Enchanted Garden of Katsche'i, and the dance of the 
Fire-Bird. 

II. Entreaties of the Fire-Bird. 

III. The Princesses Play with the Golden Apples. 

Ill (a). Berceuse. This Lullaby is not in the Suite as first published. 

IV. Dance (Ronde) of the Princesses. 

V. Infernal Dance of Katschei's subjects. 

No movement of the Suite depends for its musical effect on the 
stage setting or a dramatic situation. 

The Suite is scored for piccolo, three flutes (one interchangeable 
with a second piccolo), three oboes, English horn, three clarinets in 
A (one interchangeable with a little clarinet in D), bass clarinet, 
three bassoons (one interchangeable with a second double-bassoon), 
double-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, bass tuba, kettledrums, 
bass drum, cymbals, triangle, bells, tambourine, xylophone, celesta, 
pianoforte, three harps, sixteen first violins, sixteen second violins, 
fourteen viohis. eight violoncellos, six double basses. 

Mr. Montagu-Nathan says of this ballet music that the orchestra 
supplies the usual musical commentary upon the dramatic action, 
and on occasion takes upon itself a function which renders it some- 
thing nunc than an accessory. "The music describes with an ex 

traordinary wealth or suggestion the various weird figures of the 

drama, and is of a nature never allowing us to forget that it is 
fantasy and not life that we are witnessing. Tin 1 flight of the Fire 

Bird, iis dance, and iis vain resistance are rendered in music whose 
primary purpose is the description of movement ami not descriptive 
itself, while the quarry's pleading is brought to our ears 

through ;i veil of make-believe; her supplication is in accents that 
BUggest the conventional posturing of the ballerina and uol of a real 

bird ensnared. Throughout the ballet the music serves as a prepara* 
ti<<n. by means of the ear, for what the eye is to witness. Even the 
graceful nocturnal dance of the captive maidens has a note that 
Kuggestfl the dominion of their villainous jailer, and the episodic 
theme of their play with the apples is that which Later heralds their 
liberation through the good graces of the Fire Bird. Ere the delight 
ful melody of the Khorovode* bas died away, we are aware that we 
Khali soon have something less dainty to contemplate, and, with the 
approach of the monster and his awful satellites, it is clear thai 

!-ilv tl: Into "n • l>< i 1 thai will protoc! her from Knl^rlni ,* 

16 



another musical picture is to be added to the gallery inaugurated by 
Glinka with his march of Chernomov in 'Russian and Ludmilla.' "* 

The first performance of this ballet in the United States was by 
Serge Diaghilev's Ballet Russe Company at the Century Theatre, 
New York, January 17, 1916. The ballet was chosen for the opening 
of the season. The dancers were Mile. Xenia Maclezova,f The Fire- 
Bird; Mme. Labow Tchernicheva, La Belle Tsarevna; L. Massine, 
Ivan Tsarevitch; Cecchetti, Katschei. Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

The same dancers were seen at the Boston Opera House in "The 
Fire-Bird" on January 31, 1916. 

The Suite was performed in New York, by the New York Sym- 
phony Society on December 31, 1916; in Philadelphia, by the Phila- 
delphia Symphony Orchestra on November 2, 1917 ; in Boston, by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 31, 1919 (Mr. Monteux 
conductor). 

When the Suite was conducted in Boston by Mr. Koussevitzky 
(January 23, 24, 1925), the programme also comprised these pieces 
by Stravinsky: Song of the Volga Boatman (arranged for wind in- 
struments and percussion) ; Suite from "Petrouchka" ; and Concerto 
for piano and wind instruments with double basses (Mr. Stravinsky, 
pianist; first performance of the Concerto in America). 

Stravinsky in 1919 rescored this Suite to make it more available 
for an orchestra of ordinary size: two flutes, two oboes, English 
horn, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three 
trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, 
xylophone, harp, piano, and strings. 

He also rearranged and added from material in the original bal- 
let. He retained from the first suite the Introduction, the "Dance 
of the Fire-Bird," the "Dance of the Princesses," and "Katschef s 
Infernal Dance," but omitted "The Enchanted Garden," "The Sup- 

* "Russian and Ludmilla" was produced at Leningrad on November 27 (o. S.) 1842. The 
overture was played in Boston at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on 
March 3, 1894. 

t She quarrelled in Boston with the management. She was replaced on February 2, 1916, 
by Lydia Lopokova. 



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17 



plications of the Fire-Bird," and "The Princesses Playing with the 
Golden Apples." He added two numbers from the ballet: the 
Berceuse and the Finale. The revised suite, published in 1920, was 
played in Philadelphia by the Philadelphia Orchestra on October 
17,1924. 

At the performance in Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
Mr. Koussevitzky, conductor, on December 10, 1926, the programme 
read : 

a. Introduction: Katschei's Enchanted Garden and Dance of the Fire-Bird; 
h. Supplication of the Fire-Bird; c. The Princesses Play with the Golden 
Apples ; d. Dance of the Princesses ; e. Infernal Dance of all the Subjects of 
Katscliei: /. Berceuse and Finale. 

At the performance in Boston by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
led by Mr. Koussevitzky on March 23, 1928, the order was as follows : 
1. Introduction : Katschei's Enchanted Garden and Dance of the 
Fire-Bird. 2. Supplication of the Fire-Bird. 3. The Princesses Play 
With the Golden Apples. 3a. Berceuse. 4. Dance of the Princesses. 
5. Infernal Dance of all the Subjects of Katscliei. 



Symphony No. G, B minor, "Pathetic," Op. 74 

Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky 

(Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; died at 

Leningrad, November 6, 1893) 

Tchaikovsky on the voyage from New York to Hamburg in May, 
L891, made sketches for a sixth symphony. He worked on this 
symphony in 1892, was dissatisfied with it, and destroyed it before 
he began to orchestrate it. His (bird pianoforte concerto, Op. 75, 
was based on the first movement of the rejected work. (This con- 
certo was played after his death by TanoTev in Leningrad.) An- 
other work, posthnmons, the Andante and Finale for pianoforte with 
orchestra, orchestrated by Taneiev, and produced at Leningrad on 
February 20, L896, was also based on the sketches for this Sym- 
phony. 

The first mention of the "I'a tliet ie" Symphony is in a letter from 

Tchaikovsky to hie brother Anatol, dated Klin, February 22, L893: 

,% I ;im now wholly occupied wit } i (lie new work (a symphony) and 
ii is hard for me to tear myself away from it. I believe it comes 
into being ;is the besl Of my works. I must finish it as soon as 
ible, for I have to wind n|> a lol of affairs and I must also soon 
gO to London. I told yon that I had Completed a symphony which 

suddenly displeased me, and I tore it up. .\<»w I have composed 
;i new symphony which I certainly shall not tear up." lie was 
still eager for an Inspiring opera libretto, lie did not like one on 
the story of Undine, which had been suggested. lie wrote to .Mod 
est: "lor God's sake, And or invent ;i Bubject, if possible not <i 
fantastic one, i»im something after the manner of 'Carmen' or of 
'Cavalleria Etasticana.' " 

Tchaikovsky went In London in May, and the next month he w;is 

is 



at Cambridge, to receive, on June 13, with Saint-Saens, Grieg, Bo'ito, 
Bruch; the Doctor's degree honoris causa. Grieg, whom Tchaikov- 
sky loved as man and composer, was sick and could not be present. 
"Outside of Saint-Saens the sympathetic one to me is Bo'ito. 
Bruch — an unsympathetic, bumptious person." At the ceremonial 
concert, Tchaikovsky's "Francesca da Rimini" was played. General 
Roberts was also made a Doctor on this occasion, as were the 
Maharaja of Bhonnaggor and Lord Herschel. 

At home again, Peter wrote to Modest early in August that he 
was up to his neck in his symphony. ur the orchestration is the 
more difficult, the farther I go. Twenty years ago I let myself 
write at ease without much thought, and it was all right. Now I 
have become cowardly and uncertain. 1 have sat the whole day 
over two pages: that which I wished came constantly to naught. 
In spite of this, I make progress." He wrote to Davidov, August 
15: a The symphony which I intended to dedicate to you — I shall 
reconsider this on account of your long silence — is progressing. 
I am very well satisfied with the contents, but not wholly with the 
orchestration. I do not succeed in my intentions. It will not 
surprise me in the least if the symphony is cursed or judged un- 
favorably ; 'twill not be for the first time. I myself consider it the 
best, especially the most open-hearted of all my works. I love it 
as I never have loved any other of my musical creations. My life is 
without the charm of variety; evenings I am often bored; but I 
do not complain, for the symphony is now the main thing, and I 
cannot work anywhere so well as at home." He wrote Jurgenson, 
his publisher, on August 24 that he had finished the orchestration : 
"I give you my word of honor that never in my life have I been 
so contented, so proud, so happy, in the knowledge that I have 
written a good piece." It was at this time that he thought seriously 
of writing an opera with a text founded on "The Sad Fortunes of 
the Reverend Mr. Barton," by George Eliot, of whose best works 
he was an enthusiastic admirer. 

Early in October he wrote to the Grand Duke Constantine.: "I 
have without exaggeration put my whole soul into this symphony, 
and I hope that your highness will like it. I do not know whether 
it will seem original in its material, but there is this peculiarity 
of form : the Finale is an Adagio, not an Allegro, as is the custom." 



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Later he explained to the Grand Duke why he did not wish to 
write a Requiem. He said in substance that the text contained 
too much about God as a revengeful judge; he did not believe in 
such a deity: nor could such a deity awaken in him the necessary 
inspiration: "I should feel the greatest enthusiasm in putting music 
to certain parts of the gospels, if it were only possible. How often, 
for instance, have I been enthusiastic over a musical illustration 
of Christ's words : 'Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy 
laden'; also, 'For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light'! What 
boundless love and compassion for mankind are in these words!" 
Tchaikovsky left Klin forever on October 19. He stopped at Mos- 
cow to attend a funeral, and there with Kashkin he talked freely 
after supper. Friends had died; who would be the next to go? 
"I told Peter," said Kashkin, "that he would outlive us all. He 
disputed the likelihood, yet added that never had he felt so well 
ami happy." Feter told him that he had no doubt about the first 
three movements of his new symphony, but that the last was still 
doubtful in his mind ; after the performance he might destroy it 
and write another finale. He arrived at Leningrad in good spirits, 
but he was depressed because the symphon}- made no impression 
on the orchestra at the rehearsals. He valued highly the opinion 
of players, and he conducted well only when he knew that the 
orchestra liked the work. He was dependent on them for the finesse 
of interpretation. "A cool facial expression, an indifferent glance, 
;i yawn, — these tied his hands; he lost his readiness of mind, he 
went over the work carelessly, and cut short the rehearsal, that 
the players might be freed from their boresome work." Yet he in- 
sisted that he never had written and never would write a better 
composition than this symphony. 

• * 

What was the programme in Tchaikovsky's mind? Kashkin says 
that, if the composer had disclosed it to the public, the world would 
not have regarded the symphony as a kind of legacy from one filled 
will) a presentiment of his own approaching end; that it seems 
more reasonable "to interpret the overwhelming energy of the third 
movement and the abysmal sorrow of the Finale in the broader 
Light of a national or historical significance rather than to narrow 
them to the expression of an individual experience. If the last 
movement is intended to be pred iet ive, it is surely of things vaster 
and issues more fatal than are contained in a mere personal appre 

hension of death. It speaks rather of a lamentation large et $ouff< 

rance inCOnnuef and seems to set the seal of finality on all human 
hopes. Fvon if we eliminate the purely subjective interest, this 

autumnal inspiration of Tchaikovsky, in which we hear 'the ground 

whirl of the perished Leaves Of hope, still remains the most pro 
foundly stirring of his works. 1 . . ." 



The symphony is scored for three Antes (the third is interchange- 
able with pi<<<»|u i. tWO oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four 

horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set of three 
kettledrums, tamtam, and strings. 



SYMPHONY HALL 49th SEASON, 19294930 

SIX TUESDAY AFTERNOON 

CONCERTS 

December 10 January 7 February 11 February 25 March 11 April 22 






THE BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



(110 A Musicians) 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



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21 




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Thursday Evening, December 5, 1 929 

AT EIGHT 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



23 



Snmtft InhtmeH 



OF THE 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Programme 



Containing 

Mr. Philip Hale's analytical and descriptive notes 

on all works performed during the season: 

The Friday and Saturday Symphony Programmes 

The Monday and Tuesday Programmes 

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"A Musical Education in One Volume" 

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Thursday Evening, December 5, at 8.00 



k# 






^ ^ ^ 



BOSTON 

SYAPIIONY 

ORCHESTRA 



INC. 



FORTY-NINTH 
SEASON 

1929-1930 



PRSGRHttttE 






51 







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President 



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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON 1929-1930 
THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 5, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1929, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
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♦ President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
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HENRY B. SAWYER 
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W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



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ST K IX WAY 



TH E I YS TH I A# E X T 
OF THE IMMORTALS 






Kcpreteotcd in Botloa sod other New lniluml ciCic* by M. Stemcri A SOOJ 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 

Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Fedorovsky, P. Leibovici, J. 

Leveen, P. Tapley, R. 

Knudson, C. Gorodetzky, L 

Zide, L. Fiedler, B. 

Stonestreet, L. Messina, S. 

Erkelens, H. Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

Cauhap6, J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 
Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 

Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 

Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Bassoons. 
Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 

Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam, E. 

Percussion. 

Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 



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i 



SANDERS THEATRE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



THIRD CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, DECEMBER 5 

AT 8.00 



Bach 



PROGRAMME 



I. Allegro moderato. 
II. Allegro. 



Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major 
for String Orchestra 



Schumann .... Symphony No. 2 in C major, Op. 61 

I. Sostenuto assai; Allegro ma non troppo. 

II. Scherzo; Allegro vivace: Trio (1), Trio (2). 

III. Adagio expressive 

IV. Allegro molto vivace. 



Ravel 



Strauss 



I. 



. "Ma Mere l'Oye" ("Mother Goose") 
Five Children's Pieces 
Pavane de la Belle aii Bois Dormant. 
(Pavane of the Sleeping Beauty.) 
II. Petit Poucet. 

(Hop o' my Thumb.) 

III. Laideronnette, Imperatrice des Pagodes. 

(Laideronnette, Empress of the Pagodas.) 

IV. Les Entretiens de la Belle et de la Bete. 

(The Conversations of Beauty and the Beast.) 
V. Le Jardin Feerique. 

(The Fairy Garden.) 

"Till EulenspiegeFs Merry Pranks," after the 
Old-fashioned Roguish Manner, — in 
Rondo Form, Op. 28 

STEINWAY PIANO USED 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 




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Concerto, G major, No. 3 (of the Brandenburg Set) for three 
violins, three violas, three violoncellos, with bass 

Johann Sebastian Bauh 

(Born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died at Leipsic, July 28, 1750) 

The autograph title of this work is as follows: "Concerto 3 a tre 
Violini, tre Viole, e tre Violoncelli col Basso peril Cembalo." 

When the Concerto was played by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
on May 2, 1914, Mr. DeVito was the pianist. 

The first movement in a somewhat different form was used by Bach 
in the cantata, "Ich Hebe den Hochsten von ganzem Gemuthe." Bach 
added for this cantata two horns and three oboes obbligati. 

I. G major, 2-2. The strings, divided into three groups, begin 
with a lively theme. The movement consists of developments in many 
forms of portions of this theme; for example, the motive of the first 
measure is used with a new figure in opposition; measures 4, 5, 6 are 
contrapuntally treated. A half-cadence on D introduces the working- 
out of motives from the third measure of the theme, while the initial 
motive of the first measure appears in violoncellos and double-basses, 
until the. chief theme leads to a cadence, G major. A new episode is 
based on the second part of the second measure. When G major 
again comes, a new theme is opposed to the chief theme. The voices 
alternate in double counterpoint. At last the movement ends with 




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the chief theme. "One passage," saya Spitta, "is as fine as anything 

in the whole realm of German instrumental music. The chief sub- 
ject Is given out in the second violin part; the first violin then start 8 
an entirely new subject, which next appears in the second violin, draw- 
ing in more and more instruments, and is at last taken up by the third 
violin and third viola and given out weightily on their (1 strings; this 
18 the signal for a flood of sound to be sen free from all sides, in the swirl 
of which all polyphony is drowned for several measures." Spitta 
refers here to a place near the middle of the movement. 



Symphony in C major, No. 2, Op. 61 

Robert Alexander Schumann 

(Born at Zwickau, on June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, on July 29, 1856) 

In October, 1S44, Schumann left Leipsic, where he had lived for 
about fourteen years.* He had in July given up the editorship of the 
X< ut Zeitsckrift; he had been a teacher of pianoforte playing and com- 
position at the Leipsic Conservatory from April, 1843. A singularly 
n served man, hardly fitted for the duties of a teacher and without 
pupils, he was in a highly- nervous state, so that a physician recom- 

•Tnere ia ;i story of Wagner complaining in Dresden thai Schumann was so silent; it is impos- 
sible to discuss with a mail who will scarcely open his mouth; while Schumann complained that it is 
impossible to endure for lon^ a man who talks incessantly. 




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mended a change of scene and told him ho should not hear too much 
music. Schumann therefore moved back to Dresden.* "Here," he 
wrote in 1844, "one can recover the old lost longing for music, there 

18 50 little to hear. This suits my condition, for I still suffer very 
much from my nerves, and everything affects and exhausts me imme- 
diately." He saw few people; he talked little. In the early eighties 
they still showed in Dresden a restaurant frequented by him, where, 
seated in a room with his head against a wall, he would sit for hours 
at a time, dreaming day dreams. In 1846 he was very sick, mentally 
and bodily. "He observed that he was unable to remember the melodies 
that occurred to him when he was composing; the effort of invention 
fatigued his mind to such an extent that it impaired his memory.' ' 
When he did work, he applied himself to contrapuntal problems. 

The Symphony in C major, known as Xo. 2, but really the third, — 
for the one in D minor, first written, was withdrawn after perform- 
ance, remodelled, and finally published as Xo. 4, — was composed 
in the years 1S45 and 1846. Other works of those years arc four 
fugues for pianoforte, studies and sketches for pedal piano, six fugues 
on the name of Bach for organ, intermezzo, rondo, and finale to "Fan- 
tasic" (published as Concerto, Op. 54), five songs by Burns for mixed 
chorus, four songs for mixed chorus, Op. 59, and a canon from Op. 124. 
The symphony was published, score and parts, in November, 1847. 

The symphony was first played at the Gewandhaus, Leipsic, under 
Mendelssohn's direction, on November 5, 1846. t The first perform- 
ance in Boston was at a concert of the Harvard Musical Association, 
March 1, 1866. The Philharmonic Society of Xew York performed it 
as early as .January 14, 1854. 

Schumann wrote from Dresden on April 2, 1849, to Otten,J a writer 
and conductor at Hamburg, who had brought about the perform- 
ance of the symphony in that city: "I wrote the symphony in 
December, 1S45, when 1 was still half-sick. It seems to me one must 
hear this in the music. In the Finale I first began to feel myself: 
and indeed I was much better after I had finished the work. Yet, 
ae 1 have said, it recalls to me a dark period of my life. That, in spite 
of all, such tones of pain can awaken interest, shows me your sym- 
pathetic interest. Everything you say about the work also shows me 
liow thoroughly you know music; and that my melancholy bassoon 
in the adagio, which I introduced in that spot with especial fondness, 
has not escaped your notice, gives me the greatest pleasure. 11 In 
the Bame letter he expressed the opinion that Bach's Passion according 
to John was ;t more powerful and poetic work than his Passion according 

to Matthew. 

And yel when .lean .1. II. Yerhnlst of The Hague (1816 91) visited 

•II lint i,. i.h.mI in- could no I survive the journey. His wife wrote after their 

i»- don i,f tin- tir -t daj "Robert did not sleep a single night; bis imagination painted 

t.-rr 1 1 ») . in id.- early morning I usually found him bathed in t«'urs, mid lie nave liiniHcll up 

■ the programme included the overture, an aria, anil the finale <>t let 11 "i 

i finale "t Let II ol "William Tell " The latter overture made 

n under Mc*nd«'liwoiin'i» direction that it was imperiouslj rcdemanded. Tin- lymphony, 

i bat i he demand t"i a second 

reflection "ti Srhutnunn, whom* -uui|iliiin\ was 

• I 

Dicthcl • Hamburg in 1806, bowed a marked talent for drawing, which 

and 1 1,< • organ; I>tit 1 1 ■ - linalh devoted himsoU to music, and !■■ 

1 • ■ H and led 1 ii ncorts <>t the 

'in. which be founded, fr.iin i v.:. i., 1863 In 1883 he moved t" V*< 
nd 

10 



SYMPHONY HALL 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON CONCERTS 

THE WORLD'S GREATEST ARTISTS 



Sunday 

DEC. 8 

at 3.30 



Sunday 

DEC. 1 5 

at 3.30 



Sunday 

DEC. 22 

at 3.30 



Sunday 

DEC. 29 
at 3.30 



Sunday 

JAN. 5 
at 3.30 



Sunday 

JAN. 12 

at 3.30 



CONTRALTO 

Chicago Civic Opera Co. 



HANDEL and HAYDN SOCIETY 



BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



PIANO 



11 



Schumann in 1845, and asked him what ho had written that was new 
and beautiful, Schumann answered he had just finished a new sym- 
phony. Yerhulst asked him if he thought he had fully succeeded. 
Schumann then said. "Yes, indeed, I think it's a regular Jupiter." 



* 
* * 



There is a dominating motive, or motto, which appears more or less 
prominently in three of the movements. This motto is proclaimed 
at the very beginning, Sostenuto assai, 6-4, by horns, trumpets, alto 
trombone, pianissimo, against Mowing counterpoint in the strings. 
This motto is heard again in the finale of the following allegro, near 
the end of the scherzo, and in the concluding section of the finale. 
(It may also be said here that relationship of the several movements 
is further founded by a later use of other fragments of the introduc- 
tion and by the appearance of the theme of the adagio in the finale.) 
This motto is not developed: its appearance is episodic. It is said 
by one of Schumann's biographers that the introduction was com- 
posed before the symphony was written, and that it was originally 
designed for another work. The string figure is soon given to the 
wood-wind instruments. There is a crescendo of emotion and an 
acceleration of the pace until a cadenza for the first violins brings 
in the allegro, ma non troppo, 3-4. The first theme of this allegro is 
exposed frankly and piano by full orchestra with the exception of 
trumpets and trombones. The rhythm is nervous, and accentuation 
gives the idea of constant syncopation. The second theme, if it may 
be called a theme, is not long in entering. The exposition of this 
movement, in fact, is uncommonly short. Then follows a long and 
elaborate development. In the climax the motto is sounded by the 
trumpets. 

The scherzo, Allegro vivace, C major, has 2-4 two trios. The scherzo 
proper consists of first violin figures in sixteenth notes, rather simply 
accompanied. The first trio, in G major, 2-4, is in marked contrast. 
The first theme, in lively triplet rhythm, is given chiefly to wood- 
wind and horns; it alternates with a quieter, flowing phrase for strings. 
This trio is followed by a return of the scherzo. The second trio, in 
A minor, 2-4, is calm and melodious. The simple theme is sung at 
first in full harmony by strings (without double-basses) and then 
developed against a running contrapuntal figure. The scherzo is 
repeated, and, towards the close, trumpets and horns loudly sound 
the motto. 

William Foster Apthorp contributed an interesting personal note 

concerning the scherzo. "The late Otto I )resel once told me a curious 
fad about tbifl trio. When, as a boy, he was studying under 

Mendelssohn, in Leipsic, be happened to be left alone one day in 

Mendelssohn's study. While mousing around there with a boy's 
Curiosity, he espied OB a desk a MS. score that was not in Mendels- 
Bhon'fi handwriting. It turned out to be the MS. of Schumann's 
( ' major symphony then unknown, save to the composer and a friend 

or t wo; it had evidently been senl to Mendelssohn to look over, Dresel, 

much interested in bifl Unexpected find, forthwith began to read the 

• and bad time to read it through and replace it where he bad 
found n before Mendelssohn returned. !!<• told me thai, curiously 

enough, the triplet theme <.i the first trio of 'he Scherzo was exposed 

U 




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and carried through by the strings alone. Yet when, some weeks later, 
he heard the symphony rehearsed at the Gewandhaus, this theme 
was played by the wood-wind and horns, just as it stands now in the 
published score. Dresel thought it pretty plain that Schumann trans- 
ferred this theme from the strings to the wind on Mendelssohn's advice, 
li was not uncharacteristic of Schumann's greenness in orchestral 
matters at the time that he should not have thought of giving the 
theme to the wind — after the carnival of the violins in the Scherzo 
proper — without being prompted thereto by his friend." 

The third movement, Adagio espressivo, 2-4, is the development of 
an extended cantilena that begins in C minor and ends in E-flat major. 
Violins first sing it; then the oboe takes it, and the song is more and 
more passionate in melancholy until it ends in the wood-wind against 
violin trills. This is followed by a contrapuntal episode, which to 
Borne is incongruous in this extremely romantic movement. The 
melodic development returns, and ends in C major. 

The finale, Allegro molto vivace, C major, 2-2, opens after two or 
three measures of prelude with the first theme of vigorous character 
(full orchestra except trombones). This is lustily developed until 
it reaches a transitional passage, in which the violins have prominent 
figures. All this is in rondo form. The second theme is scored for 
violas, violoncellos, clarinets, and bassoons, while violins accompany 
with the figures mentioned. This theme recalls the opening song of 
the adagio. A new theme, formed from development of the recollec- 
tion, long hinted at, finally appears in the wood-wind, and is itself 
developed into a coda of extraordinary length. Figures from the 
first theme of the finale are occasionally heard, but the theme Itself 
does not appear in the coda, although there is a reminiscence of a por- 
tion of the first theme of the first movement. The motto is sounded 
by the brass. There is a second exultant climax, in which the intro- 
ductory motive is of great importance. 

This symphony, dedicated to Oscar I., King of Sweden and Norway, 
UB scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two 
horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, strings. 



'\M.\ .Mi.Ki: l'OtB," 5 Pl£lCE8 ENFANTINES ("MOTHER (Joosk."* Fiyk 

Children's Pieces) Joseph Maurice Ravel 

(Born ;it <'ii»<)urc, liasws l'viY-iuVs, March 7. 1875; now Living neai Paris) 
These pieces were originally composed in lints for pianoforte (four 

lands), and lor the pleasure of the children, Minnie and dean (iodeh- 

ski, lo whom they were dedicated when the pieces were published in 
1910. They were first performed ;ii 8 concert of the Socie'te' .Musical 
[ndependante, Salle Gaveau, Paris, on April 20, L910. The pianist! 
were Christine Verger, sii years "id, ami Germaine Duramy, ten 

years old. 

I. Pavane "i the Bleeping Beauty. Lent, a minor, I I. Thia 

•M<.flnT <."<>•<• In I : r t tr 1 i « li doei QOl tell f:iiry t;il<s l-'.n. 

1 I 



movement is only twenty measures long. It is based on the open- 
ing phrase for flute, horns, and violas. 

II. "Hop o' my Thumb." Ravel has quoted in the score this pas- 
sage from Perrault's tale : "He believed that he would easily find his 
path by the means of his bread crumbs which he had scattered wher- 
ever he had passed ; but he was very much surprised when he could 
not find a single crumb: the birds had come and eaten everything 
up." 

III. "Laideronnette, Empress of the Pagodes." The French 
give the name "pagode" to a little grotesque figure with a movable 
head, and thus extend the meaning, which was also found in Eng- 
lish for pagoda, "an idol or image." This latter use of the word is 
now obsolete in the English language. A "laideron" is any ugly 
young girl or young woman. There is this quotation from "Ser- 
pentin Vert" by the Countess Marie Catherine d'Aulnoy (about 
1655-1705) who wrote romances and also fairy tales in imitation of 
Perrault. "She undressed herself and went into the bath. The 
pagodes and pagodines began to sing and play on instruments ; some 
had theorbos made of walnut shells ; some had viols made of almond 
shells ; for they were obliged to proportion the instruments to their 
figure." Laideronnette in the story, the daughter of a king and 
queen, was cursed in her cradle by Magotine, a wicked fairy, with 
the curse of the most horrible ugliness. When the princess grew up, 
she asked that she might dwell far away in a castle where no one 
could see her. In the forest near by she met a huge green serpent, 
who told her that he was once handsomer than she was. Laideron- 
nette had many adventures. In a little boat, guarded by the ser- 
pent, she went out to sea, and was wrecked on the coast of a land 
inhabited by pagodes, a little folk whose bodies were formed from 
porcelain, crystal, diamonds, emeralds, etc. The ruler was an un- 
seen monarch, — the green snake who also had been enchanted bv 





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Magotine. Finally, he was changed into human shape, and lie 
married Laideronnette, whose beauty was restored. 

IV. "The Conversations of Beauty and the Beast." Quotations 
from Mine. Leprinee de Beaumont are given: 

•When I think how good-hearted you are, you do not seeni to me so ugly." 
•Yes. I have. Indeed, B kind heart; but I am a monster." 

"There are many men more monstrous than you." 

'•If I had wit. I would invent a fine compliment to thank you, hut I am 
only a beast." 

"Beauty, will you be my wife?" 
"No, Beast I" 

"I die content since I have the pleasure of seeing you again." 

"No, my dear Beast, you shall not die; you shall live to be my husband!" 

The Beast had disappeared, and she saw at her feet only a prince 
more beautiful than Love, who thanked her for having broken his 
enchantment. 

Mouvement de Valse tres modere, F major, 3-4. This movement 
is based chiefly on a melodv for the clarinet, which begins in the 
second measure. There is a middle section with a subject suggest- 
ing the Beast and given to the double bassoon. The two subjects are 
combined. At the end, a solo violin plays the theme of the middle 
section. 

V. "The Fairy Garden."' Lent et grave, C major, 34. The move- 
ment is based on the opening theme for strings. 



"Till Eulenspiegei/s Merry Pranks, After the Old-fashioned 
Roguish Manner, — in Rondo Form/' for Full Orchestra, 
Op. 28 Richard Strauss 

(Born at Munich. June 11, 18G4 ; now living at Vienna) 

"Till Eulenspiegel's lustige Streiche, nach alter Schelmenweise — 
in Rondoform — fur grosses Orchester gesetzt, von Richard Strauss," 
\\;i< produced at a GKirzenicfa concert at Cologne, November 5, IS!)."). 
It was composed in 1894-05 at Munich, and the score was com- 
pleted there, May 6, 1895. The score and parts were published in 
September, L895. 

There has been dispute concerning the proper translation of the 
phrase, "nach alter Schelinenweise." in the title. Some, and Mr. 
Apthorp was one of them, translate it "after an old rogue's tune." 
Othen will not have this at all. and prefer "after the old.- or old* 
fashioned,— roguish manner,'' or, as Mr. Krehbiel suggested, "in the 

ityle of old tine- raggery," and this Hew is in all probability the 
sounder, it i^> bard t<> twisl 'Mschelmenweise" Into "rogue's tune." 

"S< -helnieustiick," for instance, is "a knavish trick," a "piece of 
roguery.' 1 Aj -Mr. Krehbiel well said: "The reference \s r /,, luiffi- 

1C 



weise] goes, not to the thematic form of the phrase, but to its struc- 
ture. This is indicated, not only by the grammatical form of the 
phrase but also by the parenthetical explanation : 'in Kondo form.' 
What connection exists between roguishness, or waggislmess, and 
the rondo form it might be difficult to explain. The roguish wag in 
this case is Richard Strauss himself, who, besides putting the puzzle 
into his title, refused to provide the composition with even the 
smallest explanatory note which might have given a clue to its 
contents." It seems to us that the puzzle in the title is largely 
imaginary. There is no need of attributing any intimate connection 
between "roguish manner" and "rondo form." 

Till (or Tyll) Eulenspiegel is the hero of an old Volksbuch of the 
fifteenth century attributed to Dr. Thomas Murner (1475-1530). 
Till is supposed to be a wandering mechanic of Brunswick, who plays 
all sorts of tricks, practical jokes, — some of them exceedingly coarse, 
— on everybody, and he always comes out ahead. In the book, Till 
(or Till Owlglass, as he is known in the English translation) goes 
to the gallows, but he escapes through an exercise of his ready wit, 
and dies peacefully in bed, playing a sad joke on his heirs, and re- 
fusing to lie still and snug in his grave. Strauss kills him on the 
scaffold. The German name is said to find its derivation in an 
old proverb: "Man sees his own faults as little as a monkey or an 
owl recognizes his ugliness in looking into a mirror." 

When Dr. Franz Wtillner, who conducted the first performance at 
Cologne, asked the composer for an explanatory programme of the 
"poetical intent" of the piece, Strauss replied : "It is impossible for 
me to furnish a programme to 'Eulenspiegel' ; were I to put into 
words the thoughts which its several incidents suggested to me, 
they would seldom suffice, and might even give rise to offence. Let 
me leave it, therefore, to my hearers to crack the hard nut which the 
Rogue has prepared for them. By way of helping them to a better 



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understanding, it seems sufficient to point out the two 'EulenspiegeF 
motives, which, in the most manifold disguises, moods, and situa- 
tions, pervade the whole up to the catastrophe, when, after he has 
been condemned to death, Till is strung up to the gibbet. For the 
rest, let them guess at the musical joke which a Rogue has offered 
them.'' Strauss indicated in notation three motives, — the opening 
theme of the introduction, the horn theme that follows almost im- 
mediately, and the descending interval expressive of condemnation 
and the scaffold. 

Certain German critics were not satisfied with Strauss's meagre 
clue, and they at once began to evolve labored analyses. One of 
these programmes, the one prepared b} T Wilhelm Klatte, was pub- 
lished in the Allgemcinc Musik-Zeitung of November 8, 1895, and 
frequently in programme books in Germany and England, in some 
cases with Strauss's sanction.* The translation is, for the most 
part, by C. A. Barry: — 

A strong sense of German folk-feeling (dcs Volksthiimlichen) per- 
vades the whole work; the source from which the tone-poet drew his 
inspiration is clearly indicated in the introductory bars: Gemiichlich 
(Andante commodo), F major, 4-8. To some extent this stands for 
the "once upon a time" of the stor3 T -books. That what follows is 
not to be treated in the pleasant and agreeable manner of narrative 
poetry, but in a more sturdy fashion, is at once made apparent by 
a characteristic bassoon figure which breaks in sforzato upon the 
piano of the strings. Of equal importance for the development of 
the piece is the immediately following humorous horn theme (F 
major, 6-8). Beginning quietly and gradually becoming more lively, 
it is at first heard against a tremolo of the "divided" violins and 
then again in the tempo primo, Sehr lebhaft (Vivace). This theme, 
or at least the kernel of it, is taken up in turn by oboes, clarinets, 
violas, violoncellos, and bassoons, and is finally brought by the full 
orchestra, except trumpets and trombones, after a few bars, cres- 
cendo, to a dominant half-close fortissimo in C. The thematic ma- 
terial, according to the main point, has now been fixed upon; the 
milieu is given, by which we are enabled to recognize the pranks 
and droll tricks which the crafty schemer is about to bring before 
our eyes, or, tar rather, before our ears. 

Here he is (Clarinet phrase followed by chord for wind instru- 
ments). He wanders through the land as a thoroughgoing adven- 
turer. His clothes are tattered and torn: a queer, fragmentary 

version of the Bulenspiege] motive resounds from the horns. Follow- 
ing a merry play with this Important leading motive, which directly 
leads i«» fl short but brilliant tutti. in which it again asserts itself, 
lii-t in the times, urn] then finally merges into a softly murmuring 

and extended tremolo for the violas, this same motive, gracefully 

phrased, reappears in succession in the basses, (lute, first violins, and 
again in the l»;i-.vr<. Tli** rogue, putting on his best manners, slyly 
through the gate, and enters a certain city. It is market dayj 
the women sit a! their stalls ami prattle (llutes. oboes, and clari 

•n Iimh boon itated that SfrmiHn Ktivr wiiholm Maukc » programme of Mils rondo 
t«. #1 pwi Ht Ifaake i r * writing bli "FiiimT," or elaborate explanation <>f the compoHition. 

18 



nets). Hop! Eulenspiegel springs on his horse (indicated by 
rapid triplets extending through three measures, from the low 
D of the bass clarinet to the highest A of the D clarinet), gives a 
smack of his whip, and rides into the midst of the crowd. Clink, 
clash, clatter! A confused sound of broken pots and pans, and 
the market-women are put to flight! In haste the rascal rides 
away (as is admirably illustrated by a fortissimo passage for the 
trombones) and secures a safe retreat. 

This was his first merry prank ; a second follows immediately : 
Gemachlich (Andante commodo), F major, 2-4. Eulenspiegel has 
put on the vestments of a priest, and assumes a very unctuous mien. 
Though posing as a preacher of morals, the rogue peeps out from the 
folds of his mantle (the Eulenspiegel motive on the clarinet points 
to the imposture). He fears for the success of his scheme. A figure 
played by muted violins, horns, and trumpets makes it plain that 
he does not feel comfortable in his borrowed plumes. But soon he 
makes up his mind. Away with all scruples! He tears them off 
(solo violin, glissando). 

Again the Eulenspiegel theme is brought forward in the previous 
lively tempo, 6-8, but is now subtly metamorphosed and chivalrously 
colored. Eulenspiegel has become a Don Juan, and he waylays 
pretty women. And one has bewitched him: Eulenspiegel is in 
love! Hear how now, glowing with love, the violins, clarinets, and 
flutes sing. But in vain. His advances are received with derision, 
and he goes away in a rage. How can one treat him so slightingly ? 
Is he not a splendid fellow? Vengeance on the whole human race! 
He gives vent to his rage (in a fortissimo of horns in unison, 
followed by a pause), and strange personages suddenly draw near 
(violoncellos). A troop of honest, worthy Philistines! In an 
instant all his anger is forgotten. But it is still his chief joy to 
make fun of these lords and protectors of blameless decorum, to 
mock them, as is apparent from the lively and accentuated frag- 
ments of the theme, sounded at the beginning by the horn, which 
are now heard first from horns, violins, violoncellos, and then from 
trumpets, oboes, and flutes. Now that Eulenspiegel has had his 
joke, he goes away and leaves the professors and doctors behind in 



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thoughtful meditation. Fragments of the typical theme of the 
Philistines are here treated canonically. The wood-wind, violins, 
and trumpets suddenly project the Eulenspiegel theme into their 
profound philosophy. It is as though the transcendent rogue were 
making faces at the bigwigs from a distance — again and again — 
and then waggishly running away. This is aptly characterized by 
B short episode (A-flat) in a hopping, 2-4 rhythm, which, similarly 
with the first entrance of the Hypocrisy theme previously used, 
is followed by phantom-like tones from the wood-wind and strings 
and then from trombones and horns. Has our rogue still no 
foreboding? 

Interwoven with the very first theme, indicated lightly by trum- 
pets and English horn, a figure is developed from the second in- 
troductory and fundamental theme. It is first taken up by the 
clarinets; it seems to express the fact that the arch-villain has 
again got the upper hand of Eulenspiegel, who has fallen into his 
old manner of life. If we take a formal view, we have now reached 
the repetition of the chief theme. A merry jester, a born liar, 
Eulenspiegel goes wherever he can succeed with a hoax. His in- 
solence knows no bounds. Alas ! there is a sudden jolt to his 
wanton humor. The drum rolls a hollow roll ; the jailer drags the 
rascally prisoner into the criminal court. The verdict "guilty" is 
thundered against the brazen-face knave. The Eulenspiegel theme 
replies calmly to the threatening chords of wind and lower strings. 
Eulenspiegel lies. Again the threatening tones resound; but Eulen- 
spiegel does not confess his guilt. On the contrary he lies for the 
third time. His jig is up. Fear seizes him. The Hypocrisy mo- 
tive is sounded piteously; the fatal moment draws near; his hour 
has struck! The descending leap of a minor seventh in bassoons, 
horns, trombones, tuba, betokens his death. He has danced in air. 
A last struggle (flutes), and his soul takes flight. 

After sad, tremulous pizzicati of the strings, the epilogue begins, 
At first it is almost identical with the introductory measures, which 
are repeated in full; then the most essential parts of the second 
and third chief-theme passages appear, and finally merge into the 
soft Chord of the sixth on A-flat, while wood-wind and violins 
Sustain. Eulenspiegel lias become a legendary character. The 
people tell their tales about him: "Once upon a time . . ." I*>ut 
thai he was a merry rogue and a real devil of a fellow seems to 

he expressed by the final eight measures, full orchestra, fortissimo. 

Such i^ Wilhelm Kla1te*s explanation of the poetic contents of 
Straus's rondo, and though the composer may smile in his sleeve 
and whisper to himself, M No1 a bit like it!" he never publicly 

contradicted Mr. EQatte. 

The rondo, dedicated to Dr. Arthur Beidl, is scored for piccolo, 

three flutes, three oboes, English horn, small clarinet in 1), two 
Clarinets, baSS clarinet, three bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns 

(with the addition of four horns ad ///>.), three trumpets (with 

three additional trumpets ad lib,), three 4 trombones, bass tuba, 

kettledrums, snare-drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, a watch- 
nan's rattle, strings. 



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December 10 January 7 February 11 February 25 March 11 April 22 



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BACH . .... Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 

MOZART Symphony in E-flat 

BEETHOVEN Symphony No. 5, in C minor 



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Thursday Evening, January 16, at 8.00 



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SYAPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



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1929-1930 



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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON 1929-1930 

THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 16, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



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G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



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Tiil<; INSTRUMENT 
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«-ntr<i hi BottOfl mill nthrr New I ni'liml rieici by M. Slcincrt i\ Soin 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Arti&res, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 
Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 



Leibovici, J . 
Tapley, R. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 



Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

CauhapS, J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 

Violoncellos. 
Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, 0. 
Frankel, T. 



Girard, H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 

Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-Jlat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Bassoons. 
Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 

Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 
Ludwig, C 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 



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SANDERS THEATRE .... CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FOURTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, JANUARY 16 
AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 

ALEXANDER GLAZOUNOV will conduct this concert 

Glazounov Symphony No. 6, in C minor, Op. 58 

I. Adagio — allegro 
II. Tema con variazioni 

III. Intermezzo 

IV. Finale 



Glazounov Concerto for Violin, Op. 82 

I. Moderato 
II. Andante 
III. Allegro 

Glazounov "Stenka Razin," Symphonic Poem, Op. 13 



SOLOIST 
BENNO RABINOFF 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 




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Symphony No. G, C minor, Op. 58 



Alexander Glazounov 



(Born at St. Petersburg (now Leningrad) on August 10, 1865; living 

in Leningrad) 

This symphony was completed in 1896. It was performed for 
the first time on February 20, 1897, at one of the concerts in Lenin- 
grad of the Young Russian School, concerts organized by Belaiev, 
the publisher. 

(The name of Belaiev, the publisher, must necessarily be asso- 
ciated with that of Glazounov. Belaiev, who had gained a great 
fortune as a merchant in grain, offered to publish at his own cost 
the compositions of Glazounov, his intimate friend. The young 
musician accepted the proposition, but insisted on introducing the 
Maecenas to his colleagues. Thus the hypo-modern Russians found 
a publisher, and one that delighted in handsome editions. Further- 
more, Belaiev gave at his own expense, in St. Petersburg, concerts 
devoted exclusively to the works of the younger school. It was he 
that in 1889 organized and paid all the cost of the concerts of 
Russian music at the Trocadero, Paris. As Bruneau said: "Noth- 
ing can discourage him, neither the indifference of the crowd, nor 
the hate of rivals, nor the enmity of fools, nor the inability to 
understand, the inability on which one stumbles and is hurt every 
time one tries to go out of beaten paths. I am happy to salute 



l 



Edited by Percy Goetschius, Mus. Doc. 

An analytic edition of the master symphonies, symphonic 
poems, and classic overtures, arranged for the piano, two 
hands. Designed for analysis and appreciation classes 
and for all students of music in its higher forms. Each 
volume contains a portrait and biographical sketch of the 
composer, and a critique of his work. 

The Latest Editions: 



No. 16. TCHAIKOVSKY. 

No. 18. MOZART. 

No. 20. BRAHMS. 

No. 34. BEETHOVEN. 



Symphony No. 4, in F minor 1 .00 

Symphony No. 47, in Eb major .75 

Symphony No. 1 , in C minor 1 .00 

Symphony No. 4, in Bb major 1 .00 



179 Tremont Street 

Founded 1783 : Established 1835 



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here this brave man. who is probably without as imitator.'' Mil 
rofan Petrowitsch Belaiev, horn al St Petersburg, February 22, 
1836, died there January LO, 1904. He founded his publishing-house 
in L885; in the same rear the Russian Symphony Concerts; and in 
1891 the Russian Chamber Music Evenings. His firm was changed 
by his will into a fund directed by Glazounov, Liadov, and Rimsky- 
Korsakov.) 

The program of this concert on February 20, L897, included als,> 
a posthumous Andante and Finale for pianoforte and orchestra by 
Tchaikovsky* (Serge Taneiev, pianist); Taneiev's overture 
"Oresteia," and a Mazurka for orchestra by Felix Blumenfeld. The 
compositions by Glazounov, Taneiev, and Blumenfeld were con- 
ducted by the respective composers. 

The first performance of this symphony in Boston was by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, on October 21, 1899; Mr. (Jericke, 

conductor. The second performance here was by this orchestra on 

January 5, 1901. Tin 1 symphony is scored for three flutes (the 
third tlute interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes, three clarinets, 

•These movements, found at Klin after Tchaikovsky's death, were arranged by 
him from sketches for a symphony planned in 1862. He wrote to Taneiev From Klin 
in July of that year: "Before I went abroad in May, l hail sketched the first 
movement ami finale of a symphony. When 1 was abroad, it <li<l not at all progress. 

Now I have no time for it." The instrumentation of these fragments was by Taneiev. 




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two bassoons, lour horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass 
tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, and strings. The 
score is dedicated to Felix Blument'eld.* 

I. There is an Introduction, Adagio, C minor, 3-4. A theme 
is announced "pianissimo misterioso" by violoncellos and double- 
basses, and worked in full contrapuntal imitation, (loser imita- 
tions follow until there is a fortissimo climax. Syncopated 
chromatic harmonies are given to brass instruments over a sus- 
tained tremolo in the strings. Such developments lead to the main 
body of the movement. Allegro passionata, C minor, 2-2. It opens 
with the first theme (strings), which is the theme of the introduc- 
tion with a different rhythm and a fuller development. The second 
theme, pin tranquillo, E-flat major, is for the violins; it is taken 
up later by the wood-wind. The first theme returns in a more 
condensed form. Figures from it are put against the second theme 
in a sonorous climax. (This second theme is a more melodic ver- 
sion of a sighing phrase in the Introduction.) The dramatic free 
fantasia ends with a return of the syncopated harmonies for the 
brass in the introduction. The third part begins piano witli the 
second theme in Aflat major for the wind, then is like the first 
part until a stormy coda sets in, Poco piu mosso, C minor. 

II. Tenia con variazioni. There are seven variations on a theme 
given out in harmony by the strings. Some of the variations are 
contrapuntal; some are freely romantic. 

Yar. T. Fin mosso. Allegro moderato, (J major, 2-4. 

Var. II. Allegretto, G major. 3-8, leading without pause into 

Yar. ITT. Scherzino, Allegro, E major, 6-8. 

Var. IV. Fugato. Andante mistico, C major. 4-4, in the Gre- 
gorian Phrygian mode; i.e., the scale of "white keys" beginning 
and ending on 10. This variation leads into 

Var. A'. Notturno. B major, 4-4. 

Var. VI. Allegro moderato, E minor, 3-4. 

Var. VII. Finale. Moderato maestoso, <i major, 4-4. 

TIT. Intermezzo: Allegretto, Ivflat major, 3-8, in the form of 8 
scherzo With trio. The chief theme is given at once to the wood- 
wind with ;i pizzicato bass for the violoncellos. The Trio is in 
Y flat major. Fid mosso. Theme for llute and first violins pizzicato. 

After ;i repetition of the first part's material, there are hints at 

'lie Trio'fl theme as a \'vc^ code for the ending. 

IV. The fourth movement, C major, has somewhat the character 
of n Russian dance. There is free development of two themes, not 
eery dissimilar melodically. There is persistent use of the first 

•Fell Micini llowlt s<ii r.iuini'ii feld tviifl born at Kovalevska in the Russian govern* 

i Chersson, on April 19, L808 n. waa •••incM i «-<i musically ;i( tin- si. Petersburg 

now Leningrad Conservatory where in' took piano lessons <>f Theodore Stein 

He taught piano playing at this conservatory in 1885 and in 1897 was made 

•i professor. During tin- yearn IKHfl 1012 be was one of tin- conductors •''< tin 

.i) Opera Hon ■ ajnong iii-- compositions sre i symphony, C minor, Op. 89; «• 

Masorka for oi sn Allegro in \ major for piano and orchestra : a string 

i|inirti-i in r major, Op 26, whlcb waa awarded i prise bj tin Society for Chamber 

I'M' On- violoncello, Op 19, Op. ■-'•"•: songs, and man) piano plecei 

IIIm brother (1800 1897) wan a pianist, ;> teacher, and th" director of « 

music scl i knottier brother, Nlglnmund (born st Odessa in is.vji. q composer 

i • in i .< •!> Ingrad. 

in 



SYMPHONY HALL 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON CONCERTS 

THE WORLD'S GREATEST ARTISTS 



Sunday 

JAN. 19 

at 3.30 



Sunday 

JAN. 26 
at 3.30 



Sunday 

FEB. ] 6 

at 3.30 



PROGRAMME 

Bononcini "Cara, si, tu mi consumi" 

Handel "Rendil sereno al ciglio" 

(from the Opera Sosarme) 

Handel "Pack clouds away"* 

Arne "Love me or love me not"* 

Howard "Love in thy Youth"* 

*Prom "An old English Song Cycle" 

Arranged by Henry Coleman 

Brahms "Ruhe, sussliebchen" 

"Nicht mehr zu dir zu gehen" 

"Sontag" 

"Nachtigal" 

"Botschaft" 

Negro Spirituals "Who is dat a writin' " 

"Choose your seat and sit down" 
(Arr. by Edward Boatner) 
"Oh, shepherd, feed my sheep" 
"Lit'l David play on a yo' harp" 
"In-a dat mornin' " 



11 



one, which is carried through various tempi and rhythms: An- 
dante maestoso, 4-1'; Moderate maestoso, 6-4; alter which the second 
theme enters in Scherzando; the first returns. Allegro pesante, 9-4, 
and later. Allegro moderato, 4-2. The second returns. Moderate 

maestoso, 2-2; the triplet, (>-4 rhythm, is soon established, and the 
pace quickens up to the end. 



Concerto fob Violin with Orchestra, Op. 82 

Alexander Constantinovitch G-lazounov 

(Born ;it St. Petersburg (now Leningrad) on August 10, 1865; now 

living there) 

This concerto, composed in 1904-1905, was published in 1905. It 
is dedicated to Leopold Auer. The composer's intention was to have 
it first played in public by Auer, but hearing Mischa Elinan taking 
a lesson with Auer, he was so impressed by the boy's talent that lie 
asked the teacher to allow his pupil to produce the work.* The lirst 
public performance was in the Queen's Hall, London, October IT, 
11)05: Elinan, violinist — he was then in his fifteenth year; Henry .1. 
Wood conductor. Auer was the iirst to play the concerto in 
Russia — at the last concert of the Imperial Musical Society at 
Leningrad in the season of 1904-05. The lirst performance in the 
United States was by the Russian Symphony Society in New York 
on March 3, 1910; Mischa Elman, violinist. 

The lirst performance in Boston was at a concert of tin 1 Boston 
Symphony Orchestra on October 28, 11)11: Efrem Zimbalist, 
violinist; Max Fiedler, conductor. Richard Burgin was the 
violinist at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on March 
IS. 1927; Dr. Koussevitzky, conductor. 

The concerto is scored for piccolo, two Mutes, two oboes, two 
clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trom- 
bones i/;o/i. kettledrums, campanelli (poi) triangle, cymbals, harp 
(poi), solo violin, and the usual strings. It is practically in four 
movements without interruption, Moderato, A minor, 4-4. The 

chief theme is of ;in expressive nature, announced at once by the 

solo violin with a Light accompaniment, chiefly clarinets and bus 
soons. This theme recurs frequently. The second subject, a flowt 

ing one, is also ,ui\<'ii to the solo violin, Amhinle, I) Hat, 3 I. This 
-••(lion, in ;ij-i;i form, is followed by ;m agitated section; then 
there is ;i return to the iirst movement. An elaborate cadenza 
leads i" the Finale, Allegro, A major, 6 8. The chief theme is 
dialogued, ;n oral bj trumpets and violin, h is afterwards given 
"Hi in ;in orchestral fortissimo. Other thematic material is <>f a 
his nature. 

•The WuHcol Timet, reviewing the performance, stated that the concerto 

ited i" m Leopold Auer, srho .-ii the composer's requesl had undertaken i" pla] 

the in ' time, but m Glazounov, vi^iiin^ the profei or while ii<' \\;i^ giving 

Blmnn a Ii a Imprei ed bj bit extraordinary n hi lit; thai the eomposer 

m Auer If ii«- would ;iii"\\ Blman t«. give the in-^i performance of the work, 

n "mh | i.. which tin- distinguished violin Isl wllllngl' • .1 " 



COLUMBIA 

ANNOUNCES 

S TRAVIN SKY'S 

Qreat Ballet 

LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS 

Conducted by the Composer 

IN THIS recording by Stravinsky of his most famous ballet 
every care has been taken to present the work in the most 
authoritative manner possible, with due emphasis upon the 
extraordinary features which have brought this composition 
world fame. The engagement of the composer himself for this 
Columbia Masterworks performance. insures not only the high- 
est authenticity in interpretation but also enjoyment of Strav- 
insky's virile qualities as a conductor. 

Ask for Columbia Masterworks Set No. 1 29 

SXRAVINSKY: Le Sacre du Printemps— Ballet Suite for 

Orchestra by Igor Stravinsky and Symphony 
Orchestra. In 10 Parts, $10.00 with album 




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1000 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 






"NEW PROCESS" RECORDS 

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*Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. ' 

13 



ENTR' ACTE 

TCHAIKOVSKY AND GLAZOHNOV 

'I i haiko\ sky was fond of Glazounov and corresponded with him. 
lie saw him in St. Petersburg the night before he was attacked with 
cholera. Tchaikovsky had been to the theater and talked with the 
actor Varlamov in his dressing-room. The actor described his loath- 
ing tor "nil those abominations" which remind one of death. Peter 
laughed and said: "There is plenty of time before we need reckon 
with this snnl>-noscd horror; il will not come to snatch US nil' vet! 
1 feel J shall live a long time." lie then went to a restaurant with 
two of his nephews. His brother Modest, entering later, found one 
or two other visitors with Peter, among them Glazounov. "They 
had already had their supper, and I was afterwards told my brother 
had eaten macaroni and drunk, as usual, white wine and sodawater. 
^.\ Y went home about two a.m. Peter was perfectly well and serene." 

Peter wrote- to his brother Modest, September 24, 1883: "1 bought 
Glazounov's quartet in Kiev, and was pleasantly surprised. In spite 
of the imitations of Korsakov, in spite of the tiresome way he has of 
contenting himself with the endless repetition of an idea instead of 
its development, in spite of the neglect of melody and the pursuit 
of till kinds of harmonic eccentricities, the composer has undeniable 
talent. The form is so perfect it astonishes me, and 1 suppose his 
teacher helped him in this. I recommend yon to buy the quartet and 
play it for four hands." This work must have been the String 
Quartet in I>. Op. 1. composed some time between (Jlazonnov's 
fifteenth and seventeenth birthdays. 

Tchaikovsky wrote to Glazounov from Berlin i February 27, 
1889) : "If my whole tour consisted only of concerts and rehearsals, 
it would be very pleasant. Unhappily, however. I am overwhelmed 
with invitations to dinners and suppers. ... I mnch regret that 
the Russian papers have said nothing as to my victorious campaign. 
What can I do? I have no friends on the Russian press. Even if 
I had, I should never manage to advertise myself. My press notices 
abroad are curious: some find fault, others Hatter; but all testify to 

the fact that Germans know very little about Russian music. There 

are exceptions, of course. In Cologne and in other towns I cam,' 

across people who took great interest in Russian music, and were 

well acquainted with it. In most instances Borodin's K Hal Sym 

phony is well known. Borodin seems to be a special favorite in (Jer- 

tnany (although they only care for this symphony). Many people 
ask for information about yon. They know yon are still very 
young, but are amazed when l tell them yon were only fifteen when 

yon wrote your Symphony in Ivllat. which h;is become very well 

known simc its performance at the Festival. EQindworth intends 
to produce a Russian work at his concert in Berlin. I recommended 
him lvimsk\ ECorsakov'fi 'Capriccio Bspagnol' ami your 'Stenka 
loi/in ' But iiiis first symphony was in E major, not in iMlat 
major. The latter, No. I. was aot composed until L893. is the 
mistake Modest'e or the translator's? 

Into Kni'ii h "i tl from Tchaikowiky'i eorrc pondei 

irch. 

] t 



Early in 1890 Tchaikovsky was sojourning in Florence. He wrote 
to Glazounov : "Your kind letter touched me very much. Just now 
I am sadly in need of friendly sympathy and intercourse with people 
who are intimate and dear. I am passing through a very enigmatical 
stage on my road to the grave. Something strange, which I cannot 
understand, is going on within me. A kind of life-weariness has 
come over me. Sometimes I feel an insane anguish, but not that 
kind of anguish which is the herald of a new tide of love for life, 
rather something hopeless, final, and — like every finale — a little 
commonplace. Simultaneously a passionate desire to create. The 
devil knows what it is ! In fact, sometimes I feel my song is sung, 
and then, again, an unconquerable impulse, either to give it fresh 
life or to start a new song. ... As I have said, I do not know what 
has come to me. For instance, there was a time when I loved Italy 
and Florence. Now I have to make a great effort to emerge from 
my shell. When I do go out, I feel no pleasure whatever, either in 
the blue sky of Italy, in the sun that shines from it, in the architec- 
tural beauties I see around me, or in the teeming life of the streets. 
Formerly all this enchanted me, and quickened my imagination. 
Perhaps my trouble actually lies in those fifty years to which I 
shall attain two months hence, and my imagination will no longer 
take color from its surroundings? 

"But enough of this! I am working hard. Whether what I am 
doing is really good is a question to which only posterity can give 
the answer. 

"I feel the greatest sympathy for your misgivings as to the failure 
of your 'Oriental Fantasia.'* There is nothing more painful than 
such doubts. But all evil has its good side. You say your friends 
did not approve of the work, but did not express their disapproval 
at the right time — at a moment when you could agree with them. It 
was wrong of them to oppose the enthusiasm of the author for his 
work before it had time to cool. But it is better that they had the 
courage to speak frankly, instead of giving you that meaningless, 

*"Rhapsodie orientale" for Orchestra Op. 29. 



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15 



perfunctory praise sonic friends consider it their duly to bestow, to 

which we listen, and which we accept, because we are only too glad 
to believe. Von are strong enough to guard your feelings as com 
poser in those moments when people tell you the truth. ... I, too, 
dear Alexander Constant inovieh. have sometimes wished to be quite 
frank with you about your work. I am a ureal admirer of your 
gifts. 1 value the earnestness of your aims and your artistic sense 
of honor. And yet I often think about you. I feel thai as an older 
friend who loves you. I ought to warn you against exclusive tend- 
encies and a kind of one-sidedness. Yet how to tell you this I do 
not quite know. In many respects you are a riddle to me. You have 
genius, but something prevents you from broadening out and pene- 
trating the depths. ... In short, during the winter you may expect 
a lei 1 ci- from me. in which T will talk to you after due reflection. If 
1 fail to say anything apposite, it will be a proof of my incapacity, 
not the resull of any lack of affection and sympathy for you." 



ov 



Dedi 
or 



"Stknka Razix," Symphonic Poem for Fill Orchestra, Op. L3 

Alexander G-lazoun 

(Born ;it si. Petersburg (now Leningrad) on August 10, is<>.">: now 

living ;it Leningrad I 

"Stenka Razin" was composed at St. Petersburg in L885. De 
cated "to the memory of the great Russian talent, Alexander Pur- 
phirievitch Borodin," it is scored for three flutes (one interchange- 
able with piccolo), two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four 
horns, two trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, four kettledrums, 
l»;iss drum, cymbals, tam-tam, liar]), and strings. The composer con- 
ducted the symphonic poem at a concert of Russian music at the 
Trocadero, Paris, on June 22, L889 — the year of a World's exposi- 
tion there. Tchaikovsky in February of that year recommended the 
poem x» Klindwortli for a concert of Russian music in Berlin. The 
work was first heard in Boston at a Checkering Production Concert, 
March 23, 1904, R. J. Lang conductor, it was played at concerts 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra od January 2 and :;, L920; 
November •"'. and I. 1922. The Russian Symphony Society, Modest 
Altschuler, conductor, performed ii in Now York on December 24 
1904. 

At first Olazounov was given to fantastic, imaginative music. 
suites and tunc poems told of carnivals, funerals, the volup 
hi on 8 Bast, the forest with wood sprites, water nymphs, and will 
o'-the-wisps, the ocean, the Kremlin of Moscow with all its holy 
•'"d dramatic associations. "Stenka Razin" is buill on three 
themes: the first is the melancholy Bong of the bargemen of the 
Volga; tii<' second theme, Bhort, savage, bizarre, typifies the bero 
who -i\c< hi^ name to the piece; and the third, ;i seductive melody, 
pictures in i<>n<^ the captive Persian princess. The chant of ih< 
bargemen i- that which vitalizes the orchestral piece, ii is for- 
ever appearing, transformed in a thousand ways. The river Is 



personified. It is alive, enormous. One is reminded of Gogol's de- 
scription of another Russian stream: "Marvellous is this river in 
peaceful weather, when it rolls at ease through forests and be- 
tween mountains. You look at it, and you do not know whether 
it moves or not, such is its majesty. You would say that it were 
a road of blue ice, immeasurable, endless, sinuously making its 
way through verdure. What a delight for the broiling sun to cool 
his ravs in the freshness of clear water, and for the trees on the 
bank to admire themselves in that looking-glass, the giant that he 
is ! There is not a river like unto this one in the world." 

In Turgeniev's strange story, "Visions," the narrator takes one 
of his flights in air with the unseen companion Ellis at night over 
the Volga. Ellis told him to shout the old war-cry of the river 
pirates, "Saryn na Kitchou." He gave the cry: there were answer- 
ing shouts, there were groans and yells, lamentations, indescribable 
noises. At least the voice of Stenka was heard giving a horrible 
command. There was the knowledge of bloody deeds, and then — the 
vision faded. 

This Razin was a Cossack, who long ago ruled the Volga, led an in- 
surrection of the Cossacks of the Don in 1667, took Astrakan, dev- 
astated provinces; planned a march against Moscow, but was de- 
feated by the Tsar's army and betrayed by his companions. He was 
broken on the wheel in the reign of the Tsar Alexis, 1672. 

The score contains an argument in Russian : 

"The calm expanse of the Volga. The peaceful land around has 
been disturbed by the dare-devil exploits of Razin and his brave 
fellows in skiffs. His sweetheart, a captive Persian Princess, ac- 
companying Razin in his incursions, tells the band of a dream in 
which she had seen the hetman shot, the oarsmen shut up in prisons, 
and herself drowned in the Volga. The Tsar's soldiers surround 
Stenka. Realizing that the river demands a sacrifice, he throws 
his sweetheart overboard as the dearest of his possessions. His 
followers shout, glorifying Stenka, and rush upon the soldiers of 
the Tsar." 



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17 



Mr. Nathan Haskell Dole translated the folk song quoted below, 
and probably the argument published at the performance in Boston 
on March 23, 1904: 

"The Volga immense and placid! For many years those along its 
banks bad dwelt in peace when suddenly appeared the terrible het- 
man Stenka, who at the head of his savage band ran up and down 
the Volga devastating and pillaging the villages and towns along its 
shores. As the folk-song has it : 

••Forth swiftly swam the Light canoe, 
The light canoe of the Ataman, 
Of the Ataman, Stenka Razin. 
The craft was everywhere adorned ; 
Seats it had for the Kazaki ; 
The sails were wove of silken cloth : 
The sweeps were tipt with solid gold. 
Amid the boat was a brocaded tent, 
And in that brocaded tent there lay 
Great barrels stuft with golden hoards. 
( >n the treasure sat a beauteous maiden, 
The mistress of the Ataman. . . . 
A Persian princess, taken captive by Stenka Razin. 

"One day she grew pensive, and addressing herself to the com 
fades of her master, she told them of a dream she had once dreamt : 

"'Listen to me, ye gallant braves; 

When I was young, my sleep was light ; 
My sleep was light, but much I dreamed. 
To me my dream seemed far from good : 
1 dreamed our chief was shot to death ; 
The Kazak oarsmen sat chained in prison : 
And I— 
I was drowned in Mother Volga.' 

"The dream of the Princess came true. Stenka was surrounded by 
I lie soldiers of tin 4 Tsar. Seeing his ruin at hand, Stenka cried out : 

u 'Never, during all the thirty years of my going up and down 
Mother Volga, have I made her a gift. To-day I shall give Iter what 
is in my eyes the most precious of earthly treasures/ Saying this, 
he threw the Princess into the Volga. The savage hand began to 
ging the praise of their leader, and they all rushed upon the soldiers 

of the Tsar." 

Mr. Montagu-Nathan finds "Stenka Razin" a "tribute to the music- 
historical method of nationalism.'' He said, writing in L916: "At 
the recent production in Russia of the pallet 'Stenka Ka/in,' in 
which Glazounov's music was used, it was complained that the syni 
phonic movement did not coincide with the dramatic action. This 
ifl nut. ;is might have been supposed, the fault of the composer, but 
Of the producer, the music having been written many years before the 
b;i I let w .is designed." 



Bong of the Volga Bargbmi n 
i a i 1m •me in "Stenka Razin") 
Mr. QlaZOUnOV used this song for an orchestral composition, 

w iii'h Rimsky Korsakov In his Autobiography characterizes as 

18 



"magnificent." It was performed in Leningrad in the season of 
1905-06. Mr. Glazounov conducted a performance of it at his con- 
cert in New York on December 3, 1929. 

This song is classed among the "Volzhskia" or "Burlatzkia," songs 
of the "Burlaki," or pullers of barges: a traditional song of these 
men, who, according to Mr. Kurt Schindler (Preface to his collec- 
tion of "Sixty Russian Folk-Songs"), were "the most miserable 
slaves of the times of Russian serfdom. The inhuman practice of 
using human labor to haul the freighted barges up and down the 
river was abandoned toward the middle of the last century. Only 
with the help of rhythmical songs could the laborers stand the ter- 
rific strain of their physical task, songs that accentuated and sys- 
tematized rhythmically their efforts of pulling and spasms of 
relaxation. . . . The sentiment of aspiration which speaks in the 
'Razboinitchia' (robber-songs) sounds even stronger from the won- 
derful Volga Songs of the 'Burlaka.' . . . These songs, which (after 
the abolition of this slavery) have survived and spread all over the 
world, appeal to the sentiment of infinite and passionate longings 
as do no other musical strains. In them lives what the Russians like 
to term 'shirokoie razdolie,' the feeling of a wide, vast expansion. 

"The text of the song consists of a few exclamations ('Eh, 
Uglmyem' — 'Pull on, pull!" and 'Ai da da, ai da' — 'Hi! Ho'), to- 
gether with six other words. These six words are so cryptic, so 
puzzling in their meaning, that the editor could never get a satis- 
factory translation from his many and scholarly Russian friends 
These words are : Razovyom mui oeriozu, Razovyom mui kudryavu. 
The form razovyom is derived from the verb razvit, meaning to un- 
wind. Thus we would deduce the literal translation to be: 'Let us 
unwind the birch. Let us unwind the curly one!' The most plau 
sible explanation, then, would be that the ropes at which the indi- 
vidual laborers pulled were fastened around the stem of a birch, and 
wound and unwound with each movement, successively (in his folk- 
poetry, the Russian peasant always likens the fluffy foliage of his 
beloved birch-tree to the curly locks of a maiden)." 

The English version of the song, as given by Deems Taylor and 
Kurt Schindler, is as follows : 



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19 



•Pull, boys, pull! Pull, boys, pull! 
Once again, lads, once again! 
Pull the rope that rows the boat. 
Winding round yon curly birch. 
AY. da da : af, da da. 
Once again, lads! Once again! 
Pull, boys, pull !" 



Mr. Schindler in bis "Songs of the Russian People" (mixed 
voices), including "Ballad of the Volga/' says that any Eussian, 
questioned about the Volga Song, will at once think of ''Ballad of 
the Volga," an early mediaeval song in the days of independent 
nomadic tribes under their Hetmans, rather than the "Ei Uchnjem." 

The "Volga Bargemen's Song" was sung in Boston on February 
i'. 4 *), 1S9:>, by Eugenia LinefiTs Russian Choir of mixed voices. It was 
played here with thrilling effect at a concert of the Russian Bala- 
laika Orchestra at the Hollis Street Theater on December 19, 1910. It 
was played here with scenic action at performances of the Ckauve- 
Souris. 

Composers have treated it in more or less elaborate form: as 
Stravinsky, whose arrangement for piccolo, flute, two oboes, two 
clarinets, three bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trom- 
bones, bass tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, and tam-tam, was first 
performed in April 1917, at the Costanzi Theatre, Rome, Ballet 
Russe, entertainment for the benefit of the Italian Red Cross. The 
score was published in 1920. The first performance in Boston was 
at a Young People's Concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
Dr. Koussevitzky conductor, on November 4, 1924. The Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra played it at its concert on January 23, 1925, when 
the programme was devoted to Stravinsky and his works,. (He 
played his concerto for piano and wind orchestra with double basses 
— first performance in this country.) 

Charles Martin Loeftler's Sextet, A minor, for strings (Kneisel 
Quartet I. performed in Boston, February 27, 1893; Agide JacchiaV 
orchestra] transcription, performed in Boston at "Pop" concerts. 



DULFER- LILLIAN chamber mLc 

ARY DULFER, Violin CYRUS ULLIAN, Piano 

WOMEN'S REPUBLICAN CLUB 

46 BEACON STREET, BOSTON 

Tomorrow, January 1 7th, at 8.30 P.M. 
Guest A tist, JEAN LEFRANC, Viola 

Tickets $1.50 it 1 1. ill or mail orders and checlu to Dulfer-UlUan management, 17 
Exeti r Street, Boi ion. 






SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S 
CONCERTS 

THE AFTERNOONS OF 

Tuesday, January 28, and Wednesday, January 29, 

1930 
at 4 o'clock 

BY THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager G. E. JUDD. Asst. Manager 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky and Richard Burgin will conduct. 
There will be brief explanatory remarks with stereoptican slides, by Alfred H. Meyer 

PROGRAMME FOR BOTH CONCERTS 

Rameau .... Ballet Suite from "Acante et Cephisse" 

(Edited by H. Kretzschmar) 

I. Musette. II. Rigaudon and Minuet. III. Gavotte. 

Tournier . . . . "Fairie," for Harp and Orchestra 

Harp Solo — Bernard Zighera • 

Prokofieff . . . • March from "The Love for Three Oranges" 

Saint-Saens . ... . . "The Animals' Carnival" 

a. Cocks and Hens. 

b. The Elephant. (Solo double-bass — M. Kunze.) 

c. Aquarium. 

d. Personages with long ears. 

e. The Cuckoo in the depth of the forest. 

f. Aviary. (Solo Flute) G. Laurent. 

g. The Swan. (Solo Violoncello) Jean Bedetti. 

Pianos, Jesus Maria Sanroma, Arthur Fiedler. 
Wagner . - . . • The Ride of the Valkyries. 



Three hundred desirable floor seats have been reserved, to be sold directly to 
individuals for their children. These special reserved tickets are available to 
Symphony Subscribers at the Symphony Hall box office at $1.00 each. 

No adult will be admitted unless accompanied by one or more children. The balance 
of the seats will, as before, be offered the schools of Greater Boston at 35 cents each. 

21 




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23 



Stftmft Internes 



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on all works performed during the season: 

The Friday and Saturday Symphony Programmes 

The Monday and Tuesday Programmes 

The Young People's Concerts Programmes 



"A Musical Education in One Volume" 

"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowledge 19 



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FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON 1929-1930 
THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 20, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
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President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



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ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



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bas taughl Steinwaj & Son- how to 
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STEINWAY 



THK MNSTRUMEN1 
OF THE IMMORTAL* 



Herrcicntcil in Motion ami oilirr New Bnglud cities by M . Stainrrf K BMI 



. 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artifcres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 
Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Manotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 

Jacob, R. 



Fedorovsky, P. Leibovici, J. 
Leveen, P. Tapley, R. 

Knudson, C. Gorodetzky, L 

Zide, L. Fiedler, B. 

Stonestreet, L. Messina, S. 

Erkelens, H. Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

Fourel, G. Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. 

Cauhap6, J. Bernard, A. Werner, H. 

Avierino, N. Fiedler, A. 

Gerhardt, S. Deane, C. 



Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. 
Barth, C. 



Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 
Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Xemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard/H. Kelley, A. 

Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 
Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 
Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 



Bassoons. 
Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 
Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L- 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 
Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian.. 
Rogers, L. J. 



J ,aeo (usora% IVrl: 13ovv8 and 

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SANDERS THEATRE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



FIFTH CONCERT 
THURSDAY EVENING, FEBRUARY 20 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Mozart .... "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" (K. No. 525) 

I. Allegro. 
II. Romanza: Andante. 

III. Menuetto: Allegretto. 

IV. Rondo: Allegro. 



Honegger 



Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra 



Ravel 



Bolero 



Dvorak 



I. Adagio; Allegro molto. 

II. Largo. 

III. Scherzo. 

IV. Allegro con fuoco. 



. Symphony No. 5 in E minor 
From the New World," Op. 95 



SOLOIST 
MAURICE MARECHAL 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the symphony 




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"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" : Serenade for String Orchestra 
(K. 525) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791) 

This music was composed at Vienna, August 10, 1787. There are 
four movements : — 

I. Allegro, G major, 4-4. The energetic chief theme is exposed 
at once. It is followed by an episode of a gentler character. Two 
motives of importance are introduced later. The developments and 
coda are short. 

II. The Komanze, Andante, C major, 2-2, is in rondo form with 
four themes. 

III. Minuet, Allegretto, G major, 3-4. Trio, D major, "sotto 
voce." 

IV. Rondo, Allegro, 2-2. In spite of the title "Rondo," this 
Finale is not so strictly in rondo form as the foregoing Romanze. 

"Serenade" and "aubade" are terms that have been loosely used. 
If one speaks by the card, an aubade is a concert of voice and instru- 
ments, or voices alone and instruments alone, given under the win- 
dow of someone toward daybreak, quod sub alban; yet the aubade is 
often called serenade, even when the concert is in the morning : wit- 
ness the morning "serenade" in Rossini's "Barber of Seville." Dur- 



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ing the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries serenades were ex- 
ceedingly popular in Germany. They were composed of vocal music 
or instrumental ; sometimes voices and instruments were united. 
The vocal serenades were usually male trios, quartets, or quintets. 
There were serenades also of wind instruments, with music of the 
chase, or simple fanfares. There were "torchlight serenades." 
Rousseau, who defines a serenade as a concert given at night, gen- 
erally with instruments, insists that the delightful effect was due 
largely to the darkness, and also to the silence, "which banishes all 
distraction." Georges Kastner comments on this statement, and 
adds that the celebrated viola player, the mystic Urban, would never 
play to his friends unless the blinds of his little room were hermetic- 
ally closed. Kastner mentions ancient collections of serenades and 
nocturnes that might be called scholastic, written by Praetorius, 
Werckmeister, and others, and he classes these works with 
(juodlibets. 

In the eighteenth century* nearly every prince or rich nobleman 
had his own orchestra, which on summer evenings played in a park. 
In cities, as Vienna, there was much music in the streets, music of 

*Even in the sixteenth century, princes and dukes plumed themselves upon their 
household musicians. The Duchess of Ferrara had her own orchestra, composed 
of women. What was the composition of this orchestra? Were wind instruments in- 
cluded? Lord Julian, at the Court of Urbino, would have a woman use only in- 
struments of music that were suitable to her: "Imagin with your selfe what an un- 
sightly matter it were to see a woman play upon a tabour or drumm, or blowe in a 
tlutr or tromnet, or anye like instrumente : and this bicause the boisterousnessr of 
thorn doetli both cover and take away that sweete mildenes which setteth so forth 
everie deede that a woman doeth." — Sir Thomas lloby's translation of Caatiglione'e 
•*I1 T.ibro del Cortigiano.'* 



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COLUMBIA MASTERWORKS SET No. 130 

Albeni^; Iberia; Evacacion; El Puerto; El Corpus en Sevilla; Triana 

By E.nrique Fernandez. Arbos and Madrid Symphony Orchestra 

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Quartet in D Major 
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a complimentary or amorous nature. The music composed for these 
open-ail and evening concerts was also performed in halls. 

Short movements for one instrument or several were known in 
Germany as Parthien, and they were seldom published. Then there 
was the cassetzione, or cassation, from the Latin cassatio. This 
species of music should have been a piece that brought the end of the 
concert, an overcoat-and-galoshes piece; but the term was applied to 
any piece suitable for performance in the open air at night. The 
serenade, which in form is much like the cassation, was performed 
during parties, dinners, wedding feasts, in the parlors or the gardens 
of princes or rich merchants. Haydn and Mozart wrote much music 
of this nature, but did not always distinguish between the cassation 
and the serenade, according to Michel Brenet, who says that the 
serenade always opened with a march, and that the movements were 
separated by Minuettos. The number of movements was from one 
to ten, and the instruments were from four to six. When the pieces 
were played in the open air, the parts were not doubled. A cassa- 
tion of four instruments was played by only four musicians. 

The Serenade, Notturno, Cassation, and Divertimento differed 
from the older Suite in that all the movements were not in the same 
key, and the older dance forms — gavotte, sarabande, passacaglia, 
con ran te, bourree, gigue, etc. — seldom appeared in them. "It is 
highly probable that compositions of this description were not in- 
tended to be played continuously, or with only* such short waits be- 
tween the separate movements as are customary in symphonies or 
concertos; upon the whole they were not strictly concert music, but 
intended to be given at festive gatherings. It is most likely that the 
several movements were intended to be played separately, with long 
intervals for conversation, feasting or other amusements between. 
Only in lliis way can the extreme length of some Serenades be ac- 
counted for. We find no instance of concert compositions of such 
length in other forms in Mozart's and Haydn's day." 

Johann Mattheson believed thai a serenade should be played on 
the water: "Nowhere does it sound better in still weather; and one 
can there use all manner of instruments in their strength, which in 
a room would sound too violent and deafening, as trumpets, drums, 
horns, etc. . . . The chief characteristic of the serenade must be 
tenderness, l<> tendresse. . . . No melody is so small, no piece so great 

that in it a certain chief characteristic should not prevail and dis- 
tinguish it from others; otherwise it is nothing. And when one em- 
ploys a serenade oul of its element -I mean effect — in congratula- 
tions, pageants, advancement of pupils in schools, etc., lie goes 

against the peculiar nature of the thing. Things of government ami 
military service are foreign to it ; for the night is attached to noth- 
ing with such intimate friendship :is it is to love" ("Kern melo- 

discher Wissenschaft," Hamburg, it:'.", p. L01). 

The firsl symphonies of Sammartini (1706 76?) were written for 
open air performance, and Mozart wrote his father in itsi* that one 
Martin had obtained permission t<» give twelve concerts in the An 

garten at Vienna and four "grand concerts of night music" in the 

finest squares of tin- town. Volkmann planned his three serenades 
for concert-hall use. Brahms applied Hie term "serenade" to his 



in 



SYMPHONY HALL 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON CONCERTS 

THE WORLD'S GREATEST ARTISTS 



Sunday 

FEB. 23 

at 3.30 



Sunday 

MAR. 2 

at 3.30 



Sunday 

MAR. 9 

at 3.30 



Sunday 

MAR. 1 6 

at 3.30 



AND 



t*H 



11 



Op. 11 and Op. L6, which were published in 1S60, but Hans Volkman 
in his biography of Robert Volkmann (Leipsic, 19U3) says that the 
latter did not know these works of Brahms when he composed his 
own serenades. Those of Brahms are more in the symphonic man- 
ner; while the purpose of Volkmann was perhaps to write music 
that would satisfy the dictum of the talker reported by Athenjeus: 
"Music softens moroseness of temper; first dissipates sadness, and 
produces affability and a sort of gentlemen-like joy." Yet Volk- 
man n's third Serenade begins in doleful dumps. 



Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra . . Arthur Honbggbr 
(Born at Havre, France, on March 10, 1892; living at Paris) 

This concerto is in manuscript. Honegger wrote a sonata for 
violoncello and piano in 1920. 

Mr. Honegger supplies the following note : 

"This concerto was composed for Maurice Marechal in L928 and 
192!) at Paris. The three movements, which are enchained without 
interruption, are in the classic form, as in nry concertino for the 
piano. The first movement is composed of two very distinct ele- 
ments: a placid theme and a rythmic theme. The second movement 
is a song in imitation of a North American Indian Chant. The gay 
and rhy tinned Finale brings in little by little a second sentimental 
theme, which, always desirous of introducing itself, is finally re- 
pulsed." 



ENTR' ACTE 
GLlfiRE'S SOVIET BALLET 

The Daily Telegraph (London) of June 24, W-S. published the 
following letter from an unnamed correspondent : 
"The first ballet based on the artistic and cultural ideals of the 

Soviet hafl recent l\ been produced at Hie State Opera House in MOS- 
COW. While production, Bcenic design, music and dancing all closelj 
adhere to the old tradition the ballet is probably the most con 
icrvative institution in Soviet Russia the attempt lias been made 
to frame a storj on political and propaganda lines. 'The Red Poppy' 
pictures Russian hopes of ;i Communist Revolution in China j the 
contending interests symbolized in the persons of ;• beautiful Chinese 
dancer, the hero ;• Doble and extremely dull young Soviet mercantile 



SYMPHONY HALL, Boston March 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 



Brahms Festival 



■ . 





BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY 

Conductor 

Assisted by the 

HARVARD and RADCLIFFE CHORUSES 

Dr. ARCHIBALD T. DAVISON and G. WALLACE WOOD WORTH, 

Conductors 

ARTUR SCHNABEL JEANNETTE VREELAND 

Piano Soprano 

MARGARET MATZENAUER FRAZER GANGE 

Mezzo-Soprano Baritone 

BURGIN STRING QUARTET 
Season Tickets, $8, $10, $12, at Box Office 



13 



marine officer, the villain his British colleague, resplendent in white 
ducks and profuse gold braid, with the symbolical British pipe 
firmly clasped between his protuberant teeth. 

"The first tableau, the only one even mildly showing a striving 
for novel scenic design, shows a gang of coolies unloading mer- 
chandise from a Soviet ship. A stumbling coolie is mercilessly 
whipped by the Chinese overseer, whilst the Briton calmly refrains 
from interference. The Soviet officer intervenes to protect the re- 
volting coolies and orders his sailors to fraternize with them and 
to assist them. At a tea-house by the wharf rich and elderly English 
and American capitalists dally with pretty ladies. The Chinese 
dancer, enamoured of the upright Russian, makes advances to him. 
Btit. refusing the tender embrace desired by the Englishman, he 
offers her the hand of comradeship, which she wonderingly learns 
to shake. 

"In a scene of great magnificence 'English ollicers' and feminine 
members of the ballet dance the fox-trot and Charleston (elsewhere 
discouraged in Russia) to jazz music. A plot is hatched to kill the 
Russian. The Englishman invites him to the party, at which the 
Chinese dancer is ordered to offer him a poisoned cup. As he is 
about i<> drink tin the presence of the villainous and delighted 
Briton) she dashes it from his lips. Wherefore she is promptly 
shot by one of her Europeanized and corrupt compatriots, aided 
by sonic ugly-looking thugs. The final scene, her deathbed, is the 
apotheosis of stricken China, when, under tin 1 illuminated blood-red 
Soviet emblem appearing in the darkened sky. the naval hero hands 
her the red poppy, symbol of China's revolutionary future. Small 
coolie children gather round her bier, strewing il with poppy petals 
and hoisting 6ver ii the Red flag. 

"The story is ;is simple and straightforward as (hat of 'Red 
Riding Hood.' The mounting is of an order of magnificence in 
certain scenes exceeding the resplendencies of Drury Lane. Cos* 
himes, hangings, ami tapestries have been partly lent l»\ the Museum 
of Oriental Art. partly copied From its treasures. The music blends 
the lusciousness and even some of the Leitmotifs <>i 'Madams Butter 
fly' with the strong rhythms of Richard Strauss and the syncopa- 
tions "i a Uershwin. its intrinsic value is not great. 'The dancing, 
particularly the work of half-a-dozen leading male performers, la 
Miperb. Certain p<u neuls performed by male soloists in the first 
scene attain the perfection of traditional ballel technique, as we 
know ii. Among the large crowd of performers are groups <>f chil 
dren, some aol more than seven or eight years old, training at the 
si. mi Ballet School, attached to the Opera Mouse. 

iii ingenuonnneHfl <>i idea, sumptiiousness of staging and lack 

1 1 



of original intellectual production are typical of modern Russian 
art, with the exception of that invented by Meyerbold. One is far 
from convinced that political propaganda will lend itself success- 
fully to the creation of theatrical works of lasting value." 



Bolero ... Joseph Maurice Ravel 

(Born at Ciboure (Basses-Pyr6nr'es) France, on March 7, 1875; living at 

Montfort-FAmaury and Paris) 

This Bolero, dedicated to Ida Rubinstein, was brought out by her 
and danced by her at Paris in November, 1928. Alexandre Benoist 
designed the settings and the costume to represent a scene that Goya 
might have painted: a Spanish inn, with the dancer on a trestle table, 
men surrounding it. At first calm, the actors on the Parisian stage were 
little by little excited to frenzy as the dancer became more and more 
animated. Knives were drawn — the woman was tossed from arms to 
arms, until her partner intervened; they danced until quiet was restored. 
So was the scene described by French and English reporters. 

The first performance in the United States of this Bolero as a concert 
piece was by the Philharmonic Society of New York, Mr. Toscanini 
conductor, on November 14, 1929. The first performance in Boston 
was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Dr. Koussevitzky conductor, 
on December 6, 1929. 

Tempo di ballo, moderato assai, 3-4. A drum gives the dance rhythm, 
which is maintained throughout; a flute announces the theme, which is 
taken up by wind instruments in turn; then by groups of instruments. 
There is a crescendo for about twenty minutes, until there is an explosive 
modulation — brass and percussion instruments swell the din until at 
last there is what has been described as a "tornado of sound." 

M. Prunieres called attention to the fact that Ravel was not the first 
to repeat a simple, common theme until by the monotony of tune and 
rhythm the hearer was excited (as are Oriental hearers by the same 
method). Padilla, the composer of "Valencia," had worked this 
obsession by the repetition of a tune for at least twenty times. 




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15 



Ravel's Bolero calls for these instruments: piccolo, two flutes, two 
oboes, oboe d'amour, English horn, two clarinets, one K-tlat clarinet, 

two bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trom- 
bones, bass tuba, three saxophones, kettledrums, side drums, cymbals, 
tam-tam, celesta, harp, and the usual stringe 

* 
* * 

The Bolero is not a very ancient dance of Spain. It is said that 

Don Sebastian Terezo, an accomplished and celebrated dancer of his 

time, invented it about 1780. It is a modest, noble dance, much more 
decent than the fandango, but, like that dance, it is performed by two 

persons. By its beauty, the significance of its movements, and its 
compelling effect on eyes and ears, it is incomparable. While 4 its 
rhythm is strongly marked, it has a lyrical character. In tempo and 
in its measures, it resembles the minuet— according to Albert Czer- 
winski, a dancing teacher at Danzig— but it impresses by rhythmic 
accentuation rather than by melodic variety. There are sections of 
the dance. Flrsl comes the paseo or promenade, like 1 a prelude or an 
introduction. Then follow the traversia for the changing of places; 
the differentia for changing a second time; the finale to regain the first 
place-: the bien parado, steps and graceful attitudes performed by 
the dancing couple facing another couple that is not dancing. Is not 
Desrat mistaken in saying that the Bolero is in two-time? The music 
of all the Boleros we have seen is in 3-4 or 3-8, but Blasis also says that 
the Bolero is usually in duple time. The step is at first low and gliding, 
but always well marked. 
( )n the stage this dance is performed by several couples. One of the 

m- iceful attitudes is the <!<ir hi rut ltd, in which the dancers are 

face to face after a half-turn. The woman's part in the dance is 
much more expressive, more passionate than that of the man. 

The name "Bolero" or "Yolero" is supposed by some to come from 
volar, to fly, ••because a Manchega expert had danced the Seguidillas 

SO wonderfully and lightly that he seemed to fly." Is the Bolero the 
outcome of the Segllidilla8? When the Bolero or Fandango is danced 

b ballet by eight persons, it is usually called the Seguidillas. 

* * 

When Ravel's Bolero was first performed, people surrounded the 

table on which Mile. Rubinstein danced. Ilavelock Kllis, in "The 
3oul "f >pam," Btatefl that a characteristic of Spanish dancing, and 

pecially of the most typical type, called flamenco, lies in its accomg 
paniments, and particularly in the fact that under proper conditions 

all the spectators are themselves pel -formers. "In llamenco dancing, 

among an audience of the people, everyone takes a part, by rhythmic 

clapping and stamping, and by the occasional prolonged 'oles' and other 

cri< which the dancer is encouraged or applauded. Thus the dance 

etaele for the amusement of a languid and passive public, 

with us. It ie rather the visible embodiment of an emotion in which 

tor himself takes an active and helpful part ; it is, as it weir, 

Oked by 'he Bpectators themselves and upborne on the 

of rhythmical sound winch they generate. Thus 

' tin- end of a dance. :m absolute silence often falls, with no 

ili'- relation <»i performer and public has ceased to 

thifl dancing that it ma\ be -aid that an intimate 



association with the spectators is required for its full manifestation. 
The finest Spanish Dancing is at once killed or degraded by the presence 
of an indifferent or unsympathetic public, and that is probably why it 
cannot be transplanted, but remains local." 

There is a vivid description of dancing in and out of Spanish theatres 
in Richard Ford's "Gatherings from Spain."* He speaks of the con- 
tagious excitement which seizes the spectators, who, like Orientals, 
beat time with their hands in measured cadence, and at every pause 
applaud with cries and clappings. " Dancing among Spanish ladies of 
a high order was introduced with the Bourbons, but the lower classes 
adhered to the primitive steps and tunes of their Oriental forefathers. 
In the theater the sound of the castanet awakens the most listless. 
The sharp, spirit-stirring click is heard behind the scenes — the effect is 
instantaneous — it creates life under the ribs of death — it silences the 
tongues of countless women — on n'ecoute que le ballet. The curtain 
draws up; the bounding pair dart forward from the opposite sides like 
two separated lovers, who, after long search, have found each other 
again, nor do they seem to think of the public, but only of each other; 
the glitter of the gossamer costume of the Majo and Maja seems invented 
for this Dance — the sparkle of the gold lace and silver filigree adds to 
the lightness of their motions; the transparent, form-designing say a 
of the lady heightens the charms of a faultless symmetry which it fain 
would conceal; no cruel stays fetter her serpentine flexibility. They 
pause — bend forward an instant — prove their supple limbsf and arms; 
the band strikes up, they turn fondly towards each other, and start into 
life. . . . The accompaniment of the castanet gives employment to 
their upraised arms. 'C'est,' say the French, 'le pantomime d' 'amour. : 
The enamored youth persecutes the coy, coquettish maiden; who 
shall describe the advances — her timid retreat; his eager pursuit, like 
Apollo chasing Daphne? Now they gaze on each other; now all is life, 
love, and action; now there is a pause. They stop motionless at a 
moment, and grow into the earth. It carries all before it. There is a 

♦"Gatherings from Spain" was published in 1846. — P. H. 

fYet the English have laughed at the Americans for certain prudish euphemisms. — P. H. 



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17 



truth which overpowers the fastidious judgment. Away, then, with 
the studied grace of the French danseuse, beautiful but artificial, cold 
and selfish as is the flicker of her love, compared to the real impassioned 
abandon of the daughters of the South. There is nothing indecent in 
this dance; no one is tired or the worse for it; indeed, its only fault is its 
being too short, for, as Moliere says, 'Un ballet ne saurait etre trop long, 
pourvu que la morale soit bonne, et la metaphysique bien entendueS Not- 
withstanding this most profound remark, the Toledan clergy, out of 
mere jealousy, wished to put the Bolero down, on the pretense of 
immorality. The dancers were allowed in evidence to give a view to 
the court ; when they began, the bench and bar showed symptoms of 
recklessness, and, at last, casting aside gowns and briefs, both joined, 
as if tarantula-bitten, in the irresistible capering. Verdict, for the 
defendant with costs." 

In 1882, Emmanuel Chabrier journeyed in Spain. The result was 
his superb orchestral rhapsody "Espana." He wrote to his publisher 
Costellat letters descriptive of the dances he saw in the Andalusian 
bailes, where the " upper classes" were not to be seen. These letters 
about the authentic Spanish dances were published in the Music Review 
S. I. M. (January 15, February 15, 1909). Extracts from them are given 
in Georges Servieres' life of Chabrier: "Two guitarists, solemn, cigarette 
between the lips, continue to scratch no matter w r hat, in three time. 
(Only the tango is in duple time.) The cries of the woman excite the 
dancer, who becomes literally mad of her body" (these dancers were 
gypsies in Seville). Chabrier spoke of the spectators clapping their 
hands in 3-4 a contretemps, while the guitar followed peacefully its own 
rhythm. "As others beat time forte with each measure, each one 
beating a little at will, there was a most curious amalgamation of 
rhythms." 

Then there are Theophile Gau tier's descriptions of Spanish dancers; 
and in the five volumes of his theatrical criticisms, eloquent studies 
of Spanish dancers and others dancing Spanish dances in Paris opera 
houses and theatres. Havelock Ellis's chapter is the more analytical 
study. He refers to the "Escenas Andaluzas" (1847) of Estebanez 
Calderon, and for "the deeper significance of Spanish dancing" to the 
psychological analysis given by Salillas in "Hampa" (1898). 



Bympuoni in E minor, No. 5, "From the Nbw Woeld" ("Z Novbcho 

S\i:ia"j, Op. 95 Anton Dvorak 

(Born at .Miililliaiiscn ( Nelahozcves ) near Kralup, Bohemia, September 8| 
IX! 1 ; died at Prague, .May I, 1904) 

Dvof&k in L892 93 was Living in New York as the Director of the 

National Conservatory Of .Music. He made many sketches for this 

symphony. In the first of the three hooks used for this purpose, he 

noted "Morning, December n>. 1892." Fuller sketches began Jan- 
uary i". 1893. The slow movement was then entitled "Legenda." 
The Scherzo wslb completed Januarj 31; the EVnale, May 25, is!>.">. 
a Large pari of 'he Instrumentation was done nt Spillville, Lowa, 
where bis Dy i tohemin ds dwelt . 

18 



This symphony was performed for the first time, in manuscript, 
by the Philharmonic Society of New York on Friday afternoon, 
December 15, 1893. Anton Seidl conducted. Dvorak was present. 
The first performance in Boston was by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, Mr. Paur conductor, on December 30 of the same year. 

When this symphony was played at Berlin in 1900, Dvorak wrote 
to Oskar Nedbal, who conducted it: "I send you Kretzschmar's 
analysis of the symphony, but omit that nonsense about my having 
made use of 'Indian' and 'American' themes — that is a lie. I tried 
to write only in the spirit of those national American melodies. 
Take the introduction to the symphony as slowly as possible." 

The symphony aroused a controversy, in which there was shedding 
of much ink. The controversy long ago died out, and is probably 
forgotten even by those who read the polemical articles at the time 
and expressed their own opinions. The symphony remains. It is 
now without associations that might prejudice. It is now enjoyed 
or appreciated, or possibly passed by, as music, and not as an ex- 
hibit in a case on trial. 

Yet it may be good to recall the circumstances of the symphony's 
origin. In the feverish days of the discussion excited by the first 
performance of this symphony, it was stated that Mr. Krehbiel and 
others called the attention of Dvorak, who was then living in New 
York, to Negro melodies and rhythms ; that the Bohemian composer 
then wept with joy and rushed after music paper ; that he journeyed 
to a Western town inhabited chiefly by Bohemians, a town in Iowa, 
where he could find the stimulating atmosphere to write master- 
pieces of a truly American nature. Some may also remember that 
soon after the first performances of the symphony there was a dis- 
tressing rumor that portions of it had been composed long before 



^tAJ hen all the world 



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is the hallmark of a successful debut 
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Photographs of Distinction 

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19 




Dvorak came to New York; long before his eyes were dimmed and 
his knees turned to water by hearing Negro tunes. 

As the late Henry Edward Krehbiel was deeply interested in the 
conception and birth of the symphony, it is better to quote his 
words* : 

"Last spring the eminent Bohemian composer published his belief 
that there was in the songs of the Negroes of America k a sure foun- 
dation lor a new National School of Music,' and that an intelligent 
cultivation of them on the part of American composers might result 
in the creation of an American School of Composition. His utter- 
ances created a deal of comment at that time, the bulk of which was 
distinguished by tlippancy and a misconception of the composer's 
meaning and purposes Much of the American criticism, in par* 
ticular. was based on the notion that, by American music. Dr. 
Dvorak meant the songs of Stephen C. Foster and other contributors 
to old-time Negro minstrels}', and that the school of which he 
dreamed was to devote itself to the writing of variations on 'The 

Old Folks at Home' and tunes of its class. Such a blunder, pardon- 
able enough in the popular mind, was yet scarcely venial on the part 
of composers and newspaper reviewers who had had opportunities 
to study the methods of Dr. Dvorak in his published compositions. 
Neither is it creditable to them, though perhaps not quite so blame 
worthy, that they have so long remained indifferent to the treasures 
of folk-song which America contains. The origin of that folk-song 
lias little to do with the argument, if it shall turn out that in it 
there are elements which appeal to the musical predilections of the 
American people, and are capable of utilization in compositions in 
the higher form. As a matter of fact, that which is most character 
istic. most beautiful, and most vital in our folk-song has come from 
the Negro slaves of the South, partly because those slaves Lived in 
the period of emotional, intellectual, and social development which 
produces folk song, partly because they lived a life that prompted 

Utterance in song, and partly because as a race the Negroes are 
musical by nature. Being musical, ami living a life that had in 

ii romantic elements of pleasure as well as Buffering, they gave 

expression to those elements in songs, which reflect their original 
nature as modified by their American environment. \h\ Dvorak. 

to whom music is a language, was able quickly to discern the 

characteristics of the new idiom and to recognize its availability 
and value. He recognized, too, what his critics forgot, that that 

music is entitled to be called characteristic Of a people which gives 

the greatest pleasure t<> the largest fraction of a people, it was 
therefore 8 matter of indifference to him whether the melodies 
which make the successful appeal were cause or effect; in either 

<•. they were worthy of his attention. 

•Fr'-rn | lltflc p.i rnplili t . " A n t 00 1 D DvoMk'l Qofl r f »• t in I' m.i jor Op 96" CNrw 



J1N1TA "DAVIS-CHASE announces 



JORDAN HALL 
NIKOLAI Saturday Afternoon, March 1, at 3 

ORLOFF 

Russian Pianist 

Mr. Orloff's programme will include Sonata in E-flat major, BEETHOVEN; Papillons, 
SCHUMANN; Two Etudes, SCRIABINE; and pieces by CHOPIN and DEBUSSY. 

Tributes from the Press, February, 1930 

"GREAT PIANISTS are few and far between but JORDAN HALL OFFERED ONE 
YESTERDAY in the person of NIKOLAI ORLOFF." 

— Warren Storey Smith, Boston Post 

"AN UNCOMMONLY ABLE, INTERESTING. POISED PIANIST with a dependable 
and increasing audience. IT FLOCKED to JORDAN HALL LAST SATURDAY to hear 
him." — H. T. Parker. Boston Transcript , 

"HE IS A STAR OF THE KEYBOARD." — W. J. Henderson, N. Y. Sun 

"Orloff won from A LARGE AND EXCITED AUDIENCE one of the most heartfelt 
responses of the season." — Richard Stokes, N. Y. Evening World 

Mr. Orloff uses the Mason & Hamlin Piano 

Saturday Afternoon, March 8, at 3 
The Only Boston Appearance of 

Mrs. Patrick Campbell 

Distinguished English Actress 

In Scenes from Her Greatest Successes, Supplemented by An 
Informal Talk on " Beautiful Speech and the Art of Acting " 

Mrs. Campbell will present excerpts from 

"The Second Mrs. Tanqueray" "Pelleas and Melisande" 
"Pygmalion" "Ophelia" and other plays 

Benefit of the South End Music School 

Tuesday Evening, March II, at 8.15 

APOLLO CLUB 

Seventy -five Trained Male Voices 

THOMPSON, STONE, Conductor 
Tickets for above attractions on sale at Jordan Hall Box Office 10 day sin advance 



21 




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Thursday Evening, March 1 3, 1 930 

AT EIGHT 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 






SYMPHONY HALL 



Tuesday evening, February Twenty-fifth, at eight-fifteen 

ARTHUR C. P1LLSBURY 

MIRACLES IN NATURE 

Growth of flowers in beautifully colored mo. ion pictures 
Tickets $2.50, $2.00, $1.50, $1.00, now at Box Office 

The photographic mechanism used to produce these unusual motion 
pictures was invented by Mr. Pillsbury. In this work he has also 
used X-Ray for the first time in the production of motion pictures. 
It has been truly said that Mr. Pillsbury's lecture on "Miracles in 
Nature" is one of the rarely unusual programs which all who attend 
are sincerely glad to have seen and heard. 

BENEFIT OF NORFOLK HOUSE CENTRE 



APPLICATIONS FOR ADVERTISING SPACE IN THIS PRO- 
GRAMME SHOULD BE MADE TO L. S. B. JEFFERDS, 
ADVERTISING MANAGER. SYMPHONY HALL BOSTON, MASS. 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 

JSTI EmtsQ ^rluuil rf «ualx K, , N r 

Beginning Friday, Fcbruarv 14, at 7 o'clock 
A CHAMBER MUSIC COURSE TO "rf n ™ M Yves Chardon 

'Cellist and Oraanuer of the Chardon String Quartet 
ber of the Boston Symphony OrclM itrs 

MAYSLEEPER-RUGGLES Mrs. Charles Adams White 

'• r . ll,K Of VOl Vocal Coaching, Voice Production 



ng anrl Spiking , , q •, ,- 

ment and Retorsion ' rogramme Building 

lio STUDIO 

Him^l'n H»ll. I ' ig--. Man. Steinw»y Hull 'liriR 

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VOICE 
DEVELOPMENT 

KENmore 3763 



SINGING 



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Studio: 138 Newbury Street, Boston 



TEACHER OF SINGING 
77a CHARLES STREET 

HOME: HAYMARKET 6634 STUDIO: HAYMARKET 1465 



VIOLINIST 

Member of Music Faculty 

The Beaver Country Day School 

Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 



AND TEACHER 

Address: 16 Traill Street, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Telephone University 1997-R 



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VOICE PIANO 

La Forge voice method used and endorsed by: Mmes. Alda, Matzenauer, Miss Emma Otero, Mes r* 
Lawrence Tibbett, Harrin-t^n van Hoesen, etc. Also endorsed by Dr. W. J. Henderson 
Ellsworth Bell, Secretary 
14 West 68th Street. New York N Y T.l.„h nne Trafalgar 890* 



EDWARD SCHUBERTH & COMPANY 

Importers, Music Publishers and Dealers, 11 East 22nd Street, New York 

PUBLISHERS' AGENTS IN THE UNITED STATES FOR 
Steingraeber Edition, Leipzig Gould & Bolttler. London J. B. Cramer & Co.. London 

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Practical Pianoforte School Beal, Stuttard & Co., London F. Holmeister.-Germer Works, Leipzig 

Banks & Co., York Joseph Williams, Ltd., London Bach Boekelmar Works in colors 

AGENTS FOR AND PUBLISHERS OF. H. GERMER'S INSTRUCTIVE EDITIONS 
SEND FOR A FREE THFMATIC CATALOG 



HARRIS S. SHAW 

PIANO, ORGAN, COACHING 

Stud ; o: TRINITY COUR r 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET BOSTON 
(Kenmore 8431) 



PIANO STUDIOS 

282 DARTMOUTH STREET . BOSTON 

41 CONCORD AVENUE CAMBRIDGE 

Telephone: COMMONWEALTH 4994 



TEACHER OF SINGING 



STEINERT HALL 

162 BOYLSTON STREET 

Telephone Hubbard 6677 



BOSTON 



THEO. YAM YORX tenor 

Special attention to the speaking and singing 

voice in relation to the motion picture art 

Studio: 4 WEST 40th STREET. NEW YORK 

Opposite Public Library Tel. Penn. 4792 

If no answer ring Susquehanna 4500 



Artist-pupil Leschetizky, Joseffy, R.A.M. London 
Lecturer Piano-playing University Extension, Boston 

NEW YORK BOSTON (Thursdays only) 

902 Steinway Hall 26 Steinert Hall 

Two-Piano Sight-reading Classes 
Coaching Lessons to Pianists and Teachers 



TEACHER OF PIANO 

25 Westbourne Terrace. Brookline 



Studi 



( 64 Commonwealth Ave., Tel. Aspinwall 8584 



Milton Academy. Milton 



Professionals a Specialty 

Tel. Circle 5149 mornings 



)6 Steinway Hall 



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68 Cheney St. 



ROXBURY, MASS. 



Tel: Maiden, 3558 or Garrison 5545 



Your Will Should Be 

Kept Up-To-Date 

AT is of the utmost importance 
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What more important thing can you do today 
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We suggest that in making this revision of your 
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An up-to-date executor is ju>t as important as an 
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LEE, HIGGINSON TRUST CO. 

50 FEDEB \l. STREET, BOSTON 



SANDERS THEATRE . . . CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 
Thursday Evening, March 13, at 8.00 



vJ»WWl"%te, 



:#* 



?% 



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BOSTON 

SYAPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



INC. 



FORTY-NINTH 
SEASON 

I929-J930 



ji 



PRoGRKttftE 







Tie PLAZA, New York 




Fred Sterry 
President 



John D. Owen 
Manager 



The Savoy-Plaza 

Henry A. Rost New y or ^ 
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Arthur L. Race "R^o^^« 

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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON 1929-1930 

THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 13, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M, A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 



true THRIFT 

is built on value — not on price 




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ST K IX WAY 



THE INSTRUMENT 
OF THE M3MMORTALM 



Represented in Boston anil other New I:nulanJ citici hy M. Stcinert &. Sons 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Arti&res, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tobas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Fourel, G. 
Cauhap6, J. 

Avierino, N. 
Gerhardt, S. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauviet, H. Cherkassky, P. 

Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. Eisler, D. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 

Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 



Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Violas. 

Van Wynbergen, C. 
Bernard, A. 



Grover, H. 
Werner, H. 

Deane, C. 
Jacob, R. 



Fiedler, A. 



Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, 0. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. 
Dufresne, G. 



Kelley, A. 
Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 
Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Bassoons. 

Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 
3 



Contra-Bassoon. 
Piller, B. 

Trombones. 
Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 
Ludwig, C 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
Rogers, L. J. 



i tin 



Dx\L iu 



op 



Bri 

amid Shallow C 
are Advanced for Spri 




Brims not an inch wide at the front 
rise to a peak over one eye and droop 
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The turned back brim is smart in 
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Soft chifTon felt allows its brim to 
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SANDERS THEATRE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SIXTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, MARCH 13 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Haydn . . . Symphony in D major (with the Horn Call) 

(B. & H. No. 31) 
I. Allegro. 
II. Adagio. 

III. Menuet. 

IV. Finale (Theme with Variations). 



Mozart . 



I. Allegro maestoso. 
II. Andante. 
III. Allegro vivace assai. 



. Concerto in C major, for Pianoforte and 
Orchestra (Koechel No. 467) 



Sibelius 



Symphony No. 6, Op. 104 



I. Allegro molto moderate 

II. Allegro moderate 

III. Poco vivace. 
IV. Allegro molto. 



Bach 



Prelude and Fugue in E-flat (for Organ) 
(Arranged for Orchestra by Schonberg) 



SOLOIST 
LUCILLE MONAGHAN 



MASON & HAMLIN PIANOFORTE 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the concerto 

5 



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Symphony in D major (with the Horn Call), B. & H. No. 31 

Joseph Haydn 

(Born at Rohrau-on-the-Leitha on April 1, 1732; died at Vienna on May 31, 

1809) 

This symphony, composed in 1765,* is known as "Mit dem Horn- 
signal" ; also as "Auf den Anstand."f The music has the joy of the 
chase. One remembers that Haydn wrote another symphony, "La 
Chasse" (1781), which has been performed at concerts of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. He gave titles to certain symphonies ; others 
supplied titles to some. The title often had reference to the "pro- 
gramme character" of the music, even though it was applicable to 

*Haydn was then the second Kapellmeister in the service of Prince Nikolaus 
Joseph Esterhazy, who maintained an orchestra at Eisenstadt. Haydn had in 1761 
filled this position under Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy, who died in 1762. Gregorius 
Joseph Werner was the first Kapellmeister. When he died in 1766, Haydn succeeded 
him and remained at Eisenstadt until 1790, when Prince Anton, the son of Paul 
Anton, dismissed the orchestra. Haydn then moved to Vienna. The Esterhazy or- 
chestra numbered fifteen members when Haydn was called there. Under Nikolaus 
Joseph, it was increased to thirty (without singers). Haydn's first symphony was 
written in 1759, when he was the musical director of Count Morzin's Orchestra at 
Lukavec near Pilsen. 

■fAnstand meant originally "address, bearing, deportment, dignity" ; then, "delay, 
suspension, pause" ; also, "hesitation, doubt, apprehension." 

In hunting it meant "a stand, a hiding-place (to lie in wait for game)." Auf den 
Anstand gehen — "to go shooting from a hiding-place," etc. This definition evidently 
applies to the second title of the symphony. 

The German dictionary of the eighteenth century that is at hand does not give 
this last definition. Christian Ludwig's "Teutsch (sic) Englisches Lexicon" (Leipsic, 
1765), contains many curious colloquial expressions, phrases, even slang terms — a most 
readable book of 2,370 double columns, quarto — but the hunting term is not mentioned. 



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only one movement. And so one finds Le Matin, Le Midi, Le Soir, 
Der Philosoph, Weihnachtssiufonie, Abschiedsinfonie, Maria 
Theresia, La Passione, L'lmperiale, Der Schulineister, Feuersin- 
fonie, II Distrato, La Roxolane, Laudon, L'Ours, La Poule, La Reine 
de France, Militarsinfonie, Die Uhr, Salomon, The Drum Stroke or 
The Surprise, Oxford, etc. 

Tli is symphony is noteworthy because the score calls for four 
horns, litis is the first instance, it is believed, that so many horns 
were employed in a symphony. There are four horns for the hunters' 
chorus in Haydn's "Seasons," so that the symphony seems to some 
a preparatory study. The score also calls for one flute, two oboes, 
and the usual strings. 

I. Allegro, D major, 3-4. The first theme is in two sections: 
first, the horn call; the second, as a distant answer. A figure is 
introduced at the end of this second section that was a favorite one 
with Mozart — as in the "Jupiter" Symphony. There are quieter 
melodic measures. The flute introduces the horns for a second 
theme, with succeeding measures for the strings. In the working- 
out section following this last subject, but inverted, comes the second 
theme also the earlier echoing answer. The repetition section be- 
gins with the supplementary theme, now in D minor, the "answer- 
ing" section in 1) major; there is a passing reference to the quieter, 



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more melodic measures ; finally, the ending of the movement with 
the first section of the first theme. In Haydn's catalogue, the tempo 
is given as Larghetto, but this is probably due to some error. 

II. Adagio, Q major, 6-8. Only horns and strings are employed. 
The most important thematic material is in the opening solo for 
violin, with its ornamented melody. Horns are in dialogue with 
this violin and a solo violoncello. Horns at once take the beginning 
of the theme for the solo violin. In this movement, the horns are 
used in two keys, D and G. The Adagio has somewhat the character 
of a Sicilienne, in the accompaniment to the melody as in the melody 
itself. 

III. Menuet, D major, 34. A sturdy movement in which all the 
instruments are simultaneously engaged; but in the Trio, D major, 
34. there is alternate play of instruments. 

IV. The Finale — Molto moderato — Presto, has an unusual char- 
acter. The strings play a quiet theme in simple song-form. Then 
follow seven variations : 

1 . Two oboes and two horns, accompanied by strings. 

2. Violoncello solo, with strings accompanying. 

3. Flute solo, with strings. 

4. Horn quartet, with strings. The first horn part goes to F-sharp. 

5. Violin solo, with strings. = 

6. The full orchestra. The theme is not changed melodically or 
harmonically, but the instrumentation differs from that of the first 
entrance. The orchestra remains piano throughout the variation. 

7. Violoncello solo, with strings. A short passage leads to a 
Presto in 34. Figures in sixteenth notes, until A is held in the 
upper voice (first violins, two horns), while a new theme enters. It 
is repeated in echo fashion, and then the first theme of the first 
movement brings the end. 

Some — Deldevez among them — refer to this symphony as Concer- 
tante on account of the solo parts. 



Concerto, C majob iK. 467) for Piano and Orchestra 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

(Born al Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna. December 5, 1 701 > 

This concerto was composed <»n .March 9, L785, al Vienna. It was 
played by Mozart on March I- <>r that year. His father heard th< i 
performance and described the beauty of the performance} how 
the audience applauded, many moved to tears. The orchestral ac- 
companimenl calls for flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, 
two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. 

I. a I legro maestoso, ( ' major, i I. 

II. A odante, F major, i I 

ill. A l legro \ i\ ace. ( * major, 2 4. 

i pom Mozart's letters, one learns something aboul his own man* 

Der '-i pia \ i og t he piano \ 

10 



SYMPHONY HALL 



SUNDAY AFTERNOON CONCERTS 

THE WORLD'S GREATEST ARTISTS 



NEXT 
Sunday 

MAR. 1 6 
at 3.30 



Sunday 

MAR. 23 
at 3.30 



Sunday 
MAR. 30 
at 3.30 



Sunday 

APR. 6 
at 3.30 



PROGRAMME 

Sonata in G Major Bach 

(First performance in Boston) 

Allegro Padre Martini 

Fantasy in C Major, Op. 159, 

for piano and violin Schubert 

Symphonie Espagnole Lalo 

La Fontaine d'Arethuse Szymanowski 

Am Springbrunnen i „ , 

v Schumann 

Abendlied j 

La Campanella Paganini 



(See page 13) 



THOMPSON STONE, Conductor 



11 



"Herr Stein sees and hears that I am more of a player than 
Beecke* — that without making grimaces of any kind I play so ex- 
pressively that, aecordmg to his own confession, no one shows off his 
pianoforte as well as I. That I always remain strictly in time sur- 
prises everyone; they cannot understand that the left hand should 
not in the least be concerned in a tempo rubato. When they play, 
the left hand always follows" i 1777). 

About Nannette Stein's playing: "She sits opposite tin 1 treble in- 
stead of in the middle of the instrument, so that there may be 
greater opportunities for swaying about ami making grimaces. 
Then she rolls up her eyes and smirks. If a passage occurs twice, 
it is played slower the second time; if three times, still slower. 
When a passage comes, up goes the arm, and, if there is to be an 
emphasis it must come from the arm, heavily and clumsily, not from 
the fingers. Hut the best of all is that when there comes a passage 
(which ought to flow like oil) in which there necessarily occurs a 
change of fingers, there is no need of taking care: when the time 
comes you stop, lift the hand and nonchalantly begin again. This 
helps one the better to catch a false note, and the effect is frequently 
curious" (1777). Nannette was then eight years old. 

At Anrrihammer's : "The voting womanf is a fright, but she plays 
ravishingly. though she lacks the true singing style iu her cantabile; 
she is too jerky" 1 1781 ).t 

"Whenever I played for him (Richter, a pianist), he looked immov- 
ably at my lingers, and one day he said. 'My God! how I am obliged 
to torment myself and sweat, and yet without obtaining applause; 
and for you. my friend, it is mere play!' 'Yes,' said I. 'I had to labor 
once in order not to show labor now' n | 1784). 

It is much easier to play rapidly than slowly: you can drop a few 
notes in passages without anyone noticing it. Hut is it beautiful? 
At such speed vou can use the hands indiscriminately: but is that 
beautiful?" 1 1778). 

"Give me the best clavier in Europe and at the same time hearers 
who understand nothing or want to understand nothing, and who do 
not feel what I play with me. and all my joy is gone" ( 177Si. 

•The Andante is going to give US the most trouble, for it is full of 
expression and must be played with taste. ... If 1 were her I Kose 
Cannabich's) regular teacher. I would lock up all her music, cover 

the keyboard with a handkerchief, and make her practice on nothing 

but passages, trills, mordents, etc.. until the difficulty with the left 

hand w as remedied." 

S;i in t -Saens. lover Of irony and paradox, wrote a preface to his 

edition of Mozart's Pianoforte Sonatas, published at Paris in 1913, 
in which, after ;> discussion of the ornaments, be lias this to say: 

"One i v ttCCU8tomed in modern editions to be prodigal with liui 

$0fi8 f to indicate constantly legato, molto legato, seinpre legato. 
There Is nothing of tins in the manuscripts and the old editions. 

"Ignai roi I bom in 17"..".. « 1 1 • - « 1 In 1803, ami) officer, himself aa 

• h? plan! I friend ol (Jlucl Jompllt, and Moaart, wen a voluminous comp 
■ i • 1 1 .- ■ Aurnhammi In net day, composer of piano pieces^ 

■ -i • •: • r. ■ • mi i« i>f v lenna In i 798. 

I r ti found tbls fault arlth Moaart'i playing 

13 



SYMPHONY HALL, Boston March 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 



Brahms Festival 

By the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY 

Conductor 

Assisted by the 

HARVARD and RADCLIFFE CHORUSES 

Dr. ARCHIBALD T. DAVISON and G. WALLACE WOODWORTH, 

Conductors 

ARTUR SCHNABEL JEANNETTE VREELAND 

Piano Soprano 

MARGARET MATZENAUER FRAZER GANGE 

Mezzo-Soprano Baritone 

BURGIN STRING QUARTET 



The Festival Programmes will include: 

Orchestral Music — The four Symphonies, the two 
Pianoforte Concertos, the Academic Festival 
Overture, and the Variations on a Theme 
by Haydn. 

Choral Music — "A German Requiem/* " A Song 
of Destiny," "Liebeslieder" Waltzes, the 
Rhapsody for Alto with Male Chorus. 

Chamber Music — Music for Pianoforte solo, and 
the Piano Quintet in F minor, and Songs (by 
Mme. Matzenauer). 



Last days of Season Sale. Tickets, $8, $10, $12, at Box Office 
Single tickets now on sale at Box Office. 

13 



Everything lends us to believe that this music should be performed 
lightly, that the figures should produce an effecl analogous to that 
obtained on the violin by giving a stroke to each note without leav- 
ing the string. When -Mozart wished the legato, he indicated it. 
Jn the middle of the last century, pianists were still found whose 
playing was singularly leaping (as one may say). The old non- 
legato, being exaggerated, became a staccato. This exaggeration 
brought a reaction in the contrary sense, and this was pushed too 
far. . . . 

"This music of Mozart during his early years is destitute of 
nuances; occasionally a piano or a forte; nothing more. The reason 
for this abstinence is because these pieces were written for the 
clavecin, and its sonority could not be modified by a pressure of 
the lingers. Clavecins with two keyboards could alternate with forte 
and piano, but nuances, properly speaking, were unknown to them. 

"In the ISth century, one lived more quietly than to-day. nor were 
there in music our modern habits of speed, which is often inflicted 
on ancient compositions to their great injury. It is necessary to 
shun in the case of Mozart this tendency to hurry the movements, 
as too often happens. His presto corresponds to our allegro; his 
allegro to our allegro moderate. His adagios are extremely slow y 
as is shown by the multiplicity of notes sometimes contained in a 
single beat. The andante is not very slow. 

"It was the rule, in his time, not to put the thumb on a black key 
except from absolute necessity. This method of fingering gives to 
the hand great restfulness, precious for the performance' of old 
music that demands perfect equality of the lingers. 

"The first pianofortes were far from having the powerful sonority 
of the great modern instruments. Therefore, it is not always neces- 
sary to take Mozart's forte literally; ii is often the equivalent of 
our mezzo forte." 

Compare with Saint-Saons's definitions of various tempi, .!.<i. 
Walther's in his "Musikalisches Lexicon" i Leipsic, \T.\'1\ : 

"Andante, to go with equal steps. Somewhat faster than adagio. 



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"Adagio. Comfortably; slow. 

''Allegro. Joyfully, in a lively manner ; very often fast and flit- 
ting; but also, often, moderate, though gay and lively. 

"Presto. Fast." 

The indication Allegro moderate is not in Walther's "Lexicon," 
nor in Brossard's "Dictionn aires de Musique" (first edition, 1703; 
freely used by Walther). They define "moderate" Brossard: 
"With moderation, discretion, wisdom, etc. ; not too loud, not too 
soft, not too quick, not too slow, etc." 



Symphony No. 6, Op. 104 . 



. Jan Sibelius 



(Born at Tevastehus, Finland, December 8, 1865; now living at 

Jarvenpaa, Finland) 

This symphony, composed in 1923,* and dedicated to Wilhelm 
Stenhammer, has no key signature. The score, without date of pub- 
lication or of composition, is dedicated to Dr. Wilhelm Sten- 
hammer. f The first performance in the United States was by the 
Philadelphia Orchestra, Mr. Stokowski, conductor, in Philadelphia, 
on April 23, 1926. Mr. Lawrence Oilman, the brilliant editor of that 
orchestra's Programme Books, states that "the score and parts of 
the Sixth Symphony were sent from Stockholm to the orchestra at 

♦According to the biographical sketch of Sibelius in the "Dictionary of Modern 
Music and Musicians." 

tStenhammer, composer, pianist, conductor, born at Stockholm in 1871, died 
there in 1927. He studied at the Stockholm Conservatory of Music and in 1892-93 
piano playing with Heinrich Barth, at Berlin. He was conductor of the Philhar- 
monic Society, Stockholm (1897) ; second conductor at the Royal Theatre (1900) ; 
conductor of the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra (1907). He was a member of 
the Tor Aulin String Quartet. His reputation as a pianist was high throughout 
Europe. His chief works were "Prinsessan och S'vennen," for solo voices, chorus, 
and orchestra (1892) ; the opera "Tirfing" (Stockholm, 1898) ; the opera "Das Fest 
auf Solhaug" (Stuttgart, 1899); choral works; Symphony in F major; overture, 
"Excelsior" ; orchestral Rhapsody, "Midvinter" ; four string quartets, two piano 
concertos, a piano sonata ; many songs. In 1916, at the Jubilee of the Gothenburg 
High School, he was given the title "Dr. phil. h. c." 




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the request of Mr. Stokowski, following the enthusiastic reception 
of the Fifth when it was repeated this season. Sibelius, announcing 
the dispatch of the score and parts, wrote as follows in a letter to 
Mr. Mattson, assistant manager of the orchestra: 'It will be an 
honor and a joy to have the first performance in America of my 
Sixth Symphony under Mr. Stokowski, to whom I beg you to convey 
my respectful and appreciative greeting.' " 

Mr. Oilman called attention to the marked fondness shown by 
Sibelius in this symphony, as in his Seventh, for scales of various 
character "as the stuff of thematic structure." 

I. Allegro moderato, A minor, 2-2. An introduction is for 
strings along without basses. A theme for flutes moves in thirds. 
Subsidiary themes, also in thirds, march diatonically. The domi- 
nating musical idea is in eighth notes, played by the first violins in 
three parts ; an idea in its melodic nature, not unlike the preceding 
theme for flutes. This is played with for many measures until it 
passes into the flute theme, in which violoncellos now join. The 
familiar thirds are to be found in the figures in thirty-second notes 
for woodwind instruments ; for violins and violas ; in ascending and 
descending scale passages for the violoncellos. Arpeggio figures for 
woodwind usher in a section in C major. Second violins and violon- 
cellos (with violas later) go up and down the scale against octaves, 
for bassoons and flutes. "A tremolo figure for the violoncellos and 
basses, rushing scales in unison and octaves for the woodwind and 
strings, and a final reminiscence of the chief theme for clarinets in 
thirds, against a scale fragment for the violins, end the movement, 
poco tranquillo. The final effect is modal, with a suggestion of the 
first authentic mode, the Dorian." 

IT. Allegretto moderato, 3-4. The movement begins with a pas- 
gage in four-part harmony (flutes and bassoons), at first in D minor, 
but going into G minor, the tonality of the movement. The chief 
theme, mp, espressivo, is given to the first violins, divided, with 
chords for the woodwind. Ascending scales follow in the other 
strings. The first violins restate the chief theme. A lyrical theme 
in IMhit major is announced by first violins and violoncellos, but the 



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earlier scale subject returns. Then comes a passage poco con moto, 
in which the strings have a figure in thirty-second notes, with the 
woodwind talking lightly. The movement ends with a cadence for 
strings, oboe, and harp. 

III. Scherzo. Poco vivace, 6-8. The theme that begins the move- 
ment is chiefly rhythmical, for violins over a chord, D minor. The 
contrasting theme, more lyrical, is at first for woodwind instruments 
in thirds ; then for violins, developing into a melody for the strings. 
But the agitated opening theme busies the whole orchestra. After 
a vigorous crescendo and a chord for the brass, the lyrical theme re- 
turns, increasing in strength, until there is a sudden ending in 
thirds. 

Finale. Allegro molto, C major, 4-4. A heroic theme for violins, 
woodwind, and two horns is answered by a phrase for lower strings. 
The music becomes more and more agitated. And here the diatonic 
character found prevailing in the symphony becomes chromatic. A 
crescendo leads to a climax ///. The first theme follows now for 
strings alone, and the opening section is elaborated harmonically 
and by the instrumentation. The Coda, Doppio piu lento, sums up 
the significant features of the symphony : the diatonic scale and the 
intervals of the third. There is a quiet ending in D minor. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
bass clarinet, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trom- 
bones, kettle drums, harp, and the usual strings. 



Organ Prelude and Fugue, E-flat major, by J. S. Bach : arranged 
for Orchestra by Arnold Schonberg 

(Bach, born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died at Leipsic, July 28, 1750. 
Schonberg, born at Vienna on September 13, 1874; now living) 

The Prelude and the Fugue are not necessarily joined together, 
but are regarded as independent composition. The Fugue is com- 
monly known as "St. Ann's."* The first performance of Schon- 
berg's arrangement was at a concert of the Cincinnati Orchestra in 
Cincinnati, in February, 1930. 

•*"A misleading title, as, except in the identity of its subject with the first strain 
of it, 'Ann's,' the fugue has no connection with the hymn tune." — G. A. Crawford. 



APPLICATIONS FOR ADVERTISING SPACE IN THIS PRO- 
GRAMME SHOULD BE MADE TO L. S. B. JEFFERDS, 
ADVERTISING MANAGER, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON, MASS. 



17 








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Thursday Evening, April 3, 1 930 

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Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SOLOIST 

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OF THE 



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on all works performed during the season: 

The Friday and Saturday Symphony Programmes 

The Monday and Tuesday Programmes 

The Young People's Concerts Programmes 



"A Musical Education in One Volume" 

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BOSTON, MASS. 



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GUIDANCE. COUNSELLING 

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The Beaver Country Day School Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Chestnut Hill. Massachusetts Telephone University 1997-R 



FRANK 



ERNESTO 



-BERUMEN STUDIOS 



VOICE PIANO 

La Forge voice method used and endorsed by: Mmes. Alda, Matzenauer, Miss Emma Otero. Messrs. 
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Studio: TRINITY COURT 

175 DARTMOUTH STREET BOSTON 
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voice in relation to the motion picture art. 

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If no answer ring Susquehanna 4500 



MARGARET ANDERTON 

Artist-pupil Leschetizky, Joseffy, R.A.M. London 
Lecturer Piano-playing University Extension. Boston 

NEW YORK BOSTON (Thursdays only) 

902 Steinway Hall 26 Steinert Hall 

Two-Piano Sight-reading Classes 
Coaching Lessons to Pianists and Teachers 



MISS IJULA NL HOLMilD 

TEACHER OF PIANO 
25 Westbourne Terrace, Brookline 

Studios •$ — p ornrnonwea ^h Ay e *« Tel. Aspinwall 858 



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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 
Thursday Evening, April 3, at 8.00 



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SYAPHOW 

ORCHESTRA 



INC. 



FORTY-NINTH 
SEASON 

1929-1930 



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President 



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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON 1929-1930 
THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 3, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 

THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc 

FREDERICK P. CABOT President 

BENTLEY W. WARREN ..... Vice-President 
ERNEST B. DANE Treasurer 

FREDERICK P. CABOT FREDERICK E. LOWELL 

ERNEST B. DANE ARTHUR LYMAN 

N. PENROSE HALLOWELL EDWARD M. PICKMAN 

M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE HENRY B. SAWYER 

JOHN ELLERTON LODGE BENTLEY W. WARREN 

W. H. BRENNAN, Manager G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 

l 



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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 
Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Fourel, G. 
CauhapS, J. 

Avierino, N. 
Gerhardt, S. 



Langendoen, J. 
Barth, C. 



Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 



Violins. 
Gundersen, R. 
Kassman, N. 



Sauvlet, H. 
Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 

Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 

Violas. 

Van Wynbergen, C. 
Bernard, A. 



Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 



Grover, H. 
Werner, H. 



Fiedler, A. 



Deane, C. 
Jacob, R. 

Violoncellos. 

Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
Frankel, I. 



Girard, H. 
Dufresne, G. 



Kelley, A. 
Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 

Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 
Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey, E. 



Clarinets. 

Hamelin, G 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 
Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 
Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Bassoons. 

Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 

CONTRA-B ASSOON . 

Piller, B. 

Trombones. 

Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 

Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
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SANDERS THEATRE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEVENTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 3 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Schubert . 



Symphony in B minor, "Unfinished' ' 



I. Allegro moderato. 
II. Andante con moto. 



Piston 



Suite for Orchestra 



I. Allegro. 

II. Andante. 

III. Allegro. 



(Conducted by the Composer) 



Beethoven 



I. Allegro moderato. 

II. Andante con moto. 

III. Rondo vivace. 



Brahms 



. Concerto for Pianoforte No. 4, in 
G major, Op. 58 



"Academic Festival" Overture, Op. 80 



SOLOIST 
ARTUR SCHNABEL 

BECHSTEIN PIANO 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Piston's Suite 



SANDERS THEATRE .... CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEVENTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 3 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Schubert . 



Piston 



I. Allegro moderate 
II. Andante con moto. 



I. Allegro. 

II. Andante. 

III. Allegro. 



Symphony in B minor, "Unfinished" 



Suite for Orchestra 



(Conducted by the Composer) 



Beethoven 



. Concerto for Pianoforte No. 4, in 
G major, Op. 58 



I. Allegro moderato. 

II. Andante con moto. 

III. Rondo vivace. 



Beethoven 



Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 



SOLOIST 
ARTUR SCHNABEL 

BECHSTEIN PIANO 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after Piston's Suite 

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Unfinished Symphony in B minor 



Franz Schubert 



(Born at Lichtenthal, near Vienna, January 31, 1797; died at Vienna, 

November 19, 1828) 

Two brothers, Anselm and Joseph Huttenbrenner, were fond of 
Schubert. Their home was in Graz, Styria, but they were living at 
Vienna. Anselm was a musician; Joseph was in a government 
office. Anselm took Schubert to call on Beethoven, and there is 
a story that the sick man said, "You, Anselm, have my mind; but 
Franz has my soul." Anselm closed the eyes of Beethoven in 
death. These brothers were constant in endeavor to make Schubert 
known. Anselm went so far as to publish a set of "Erlking 
Waltzes," and assisted in putting Schubert's opera, "Alfonso and 
Estrella" (1822), in rehearsal at Graz, where it would have been 
performed if the score had not been too difficult for the orchestra. 
In 1822 Schubert was elected an honorary member of musical soci- 
eties of Linz and Graz. In return for the compliment from Graz, 
he began the Symphony in B minor, No. 8 (October 30, 1822). He 
finished the Allegro and the Andante, and he wrote nine measures 
of the Scherzo. Schubert visited Graz in 1827, but neither there 
nor elsewhere did he ever hear his unfinished work. 

Anselm Hiittenbrenner went back to his home about 1820. It 
was during a visit to Vienna that he saw Beethoven dying. Joseph 
remained at Vienna. In 1860 he wrote from the office of the 
Minister of the Interior a singular letter to Johann Herbeck, who 
then conducted the concerts of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. 



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He begged permission to sing in concerts as a member of the 
society, and urged him to look over symphonies, overtures, songs, 
quartets, choruses by Anselm. He added towards the end of the 

letter, "He [Anselm] has a treasure in Schubert's B minor sym- 
phony, which we put on a level with the great Symphony in C, his 
instrumental swan-song, and any one of the symphonies by 
Beethoven.*' 

Herbeck was inactive and silent for five years, although he visited 
Graz several times. Perhaps he was afraid that if the manuscript 
came to light, he could not gain possession of it, and the symphony, 
like the one in C, would be produced elsewhere than in Vienna. 
Perhaps he thought the price of producing one of Anselm Hfitten- 
brenner's works in Vienna too dear. There is reason to believe 
that Joseph insisted on this condition. (See "Johann Herbeck," 
by L. Herbeck, Vienna, 1S85, page 165.) 

In 1805 Herbeck was obliged to journey with his sister-in-law, 
who sought health. They stopped in Graz. On May 1 he went to 
Ober-Andritz, where the old and tired Anselm, in a hidden, little 
one-story cottage, was awaiting death. Herbeck sat down in a hum- 
ble inn. He talked with the landlord, who told him that Anselm 
was in the habit of breakfasting there. While they were talking, 
Anselm appeared. After a few words Herbeck said, "I am here to 
ask permission to produce one of your works at Vienna." The old 
man brightened, he shed his indifference, and after breakfast took 
him to his home. The workroom was stuffed with yellow and dusty 
papers, all in confusion. Anselm showed his own manuscripts, and 



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finally Herbeek chose one of the ten overtures for performance. "It 
is inv purpose," he said, "to bring forward three contemporaries, 
Schubert, Buttenbrenner, and Lachner, in one concert before the 
Viennese public. It would naturally be very appropriate to rep- 
resent Schubert by a new work." "Oh, I have still a lot of things 
by Schubert,*' answered the old man: and he pulled a mass of 
papers out of an old fashioned chest. Herbeek immediately saw on 
the cover of a manuscript "Symphonic in II moll,'' in Schubert's 
handwriting. Herbeek looked the symphony over. '-This would do. 
Will you let me have it copied immediately at my cost?" "There 
is no hurry." answered Anselm, "take it with you." 

The symphony was first played at a Gesellschaft concert, Vienna, 
December 17, 1:865, under Herbeck's direction. The programme was 
as Follows : — 

< I ertnre in C minor (new) Hiiftcnbrcnncr 

Symphony in B minor Sohubert 

1. Allegro ) 

2. Andante ( <MS. Flwt time.) 
Presto vivace, D major 

old German Songs, unaccompanied 

L Liebesklage t Ilcrbcck 

2. Jftgergliick $ (First time.) 
Symphony in A Mendelssohn 

What was this "Presto vivace, D major," put on the programme 

as the third movement of the "Unfinished" Symphony? There are 
only nine completed measures of the Scherzo, which is in B minor. 
Neither Ludw ig Herbeek nor Hanslick tells us.* 

•"Seine years after the discovery of the 'Unfinished' Symphony, the Friends of 
Music instituted a search for another missing work, often referred to as the Ninth 
Symphony. The archives at (lastein were ransacked. They found no trace of the 
work they were seeking, hut unexpectedly turned up a thin bundle of Original manu- 
scripts in Schubert's handwriting containing fragments of songs — the original of the 
'Trout' quintet, and four pages bearing the notation in Schubert's handwriting 

'Sketches for the Sclier/.o of the II moll.' 

■The BrBl public performance took place on Sunday. October .'{0, 1 * » 12 T . before the 
radio audience of America, when the sixteen stations of the Columbia Broadcasting 
in played the two movements Of the Symphony and then surprised the audienre 
b] playing Scbubert'B sketches for the third movement, orchestrated b\ Mitya Still 

man of New York." K. L. Dinyon. 




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Htittenbrenner's overture was described as "respectable Kapell- 
meistermusik ; no one can deny its smoothness of style and a cer- 
tain skill in the workmanship." The composer died in 1868. 

The Unfinished Symphony was played at the Crystal Palace, 
Sydenham, in 1867. The first performance in Boston was by the 
Orchestral Union, led by Carl Zerrahn, February 26, 1868. The 
first performance at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
in Boston was on February 11, 1882, Georg Henschel, conductor. 
The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettle- 
drums, strings. 



Suite for Orchestra Walter Piston 

(Born at Boston, Mass., on January 20,* 1894; living at Belmont, Mass.) 

Mr. Piston writes that his Suite was written at Belmont in the 
summer of 1929. 

"The first movement is light in character and contains some 
'Americanisms' ; but it is in no sense an attempt to write jazz. The 
second movement is calm, and is a development of two motives : one 
announced by the violas, the other by the English horn. The third 
movement is a fugue. 

"The score calls for these instruments: piccolo, two flutes, two 
oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, 
double-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, 
kettle drums, snare drum, bass drum, tambourine, cymbals, triangle, 
wood-block, pianoforte, and strings." 



Mr. Piston studied violin playing with Messrs. Fiumara, Theo- 
dorowicz, and Winternitz in Boston; piano playing with Harris 
Shaw. He studied theory and composition chiefly at Harvard Uni- 



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versity, but also with Nadia Bonlanger* in Paris. A sonata by Mr. 

Piston was played in Paris by Marcel Ciampi at a concert of the 
s. If, I. on May 5, L926. The programme also comprised Copland's 
Nocturne and Serenade for violin and piano (Samuel Dnshkin and 
Copland); Virgil Thomson's "Sonata d'fijjlise — Choral, Tango, 
Fugue for clarinet, trumpet, viola, horn, and trombone (played by 
Messrs. Ginot, Verney, Devenv. Chaine, and Lafosse, Chester McKee, 
conductor) ; (i. H. Elwell's Nine Piano Pieces (Mr. Ciampi) ; Cop- 
land's "As It Pell upon a Day" i Mine. MacLeish, soprano; M. 
Boulze, flute; M. Verney. clarinet I ; a quartet by (J. Antheil (Kretty 
Quartet I : and a sonata Tor violin and piano by Th. Chanter (Messrs. 
Dnshkin and Ciampi). 

A "Symphonic Piece" by Mr. Piston was performed in Boston at 
a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on March 23, 1928. 
Three pieces for flute, clarinet, and bassoon were performed by the 
Boston Flute Players Club on February 13, 1827 (Messrs. Laurent, 
Hamelin, and Laus). They were played at a concert of the Societe 
Nationals Paris, on May S, 1926 (Messrs. Blanquart, Coste, and 
Dherin), and in 1928 at Philadelphia by the Chamber Music Asso- 
ciation of that city. 

• » 

For several seasons Mr. Piston was the conductor of the Pierian 
Sodality. Harvard University. He now teaches in the Music Depart- 
ment of Harvard University, and acted as chairman of the Depart- 
ment during Mr. Edward Burlingame Hill's absence. He has 
sketched a sonata for flute and piano and a quintet for wind instru- 
ments, and has in mind a string quartet. 



Concerto in <! major, for Pianoforte, No. 4. Or. 58 

Ludwig van Beethoven 

(Born ;it Bonn, December L6, 1770: died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

This concerto was probably composed lor the most part, and it 
was surely completed, in L806, although Schindler, on advice from 

Ries. named 1804 as the year, and an edition of the concerto pilb« 

I i shed by Breitkopf & Bartel stales that the year L805 saw the com* 
plel ion. 

The concerto was performed by Beethoven in one of two private 
subscription concerts <>i his works given in the dwelling-house of 
Prince Lobkowitz, Vienna, in March L807. The firsl public per 
formance \\;is in the Theatre an der Wien, Vienna. December 22* 

|H0S. All the pieces were b\ I ieel In »\ en : ihe s\niphmiv described 

nn the programme as "A symphony entitled 'Recollections of Life 

'Juliette \. : .ii;i Boulanger, born nl Parli on Rpptomber 16, i sv T. w ;i ^ nwnrded 

prise i"i counterpo nt and ;i first prise for organ playing in 1908 she tool 

G ind I'll- de Rome On Februarj 20, 11>2B, sin- plnyed with 

n Kymphonj Orchi tra In Ho ton Handel's Concerto in i» minor for < • i- ^ : 1 1 1 

Copland' Symphonj i"i organ and orchestra She n<>\\ teaches th€ 

irmony, counterpoint, and fugue in Paris, and the organ at the American 

i i ontalnblenu Tb€ ii I nl h< r compoi Itlons Includes nn opera, "Tin 

I, collaboration with Raoul Pugno (libretto bj d'Annunzlo. based 

on i trlng quartet, -n i * • i i i i and plnno pleci etc She i pr of l.ili 

•i,-. i composer who • I'oui I ■•■ Funeralllea d'un Soldat" 
bj i in lii ton Nymphonj Orchestra "ii Febrnnrj 20, 192fJ 

i • 



BECHSTEIN 



THE PIANO OF 
THE MASTERS 






To Say 

. . . that one piano is better than another is to express an opinion — 



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that the Bechstein is better than any other is to express the enthu- 
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READ WHAT THEY SAID: 



/ 



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years I have now used your Pianos, 
and they have maintained their su- 
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. . . To pass judgment upon your in- 
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RICHARD WAGNER: The warm 
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ANTON RUBINSTEIN: At my con- 
certs I use BECHSTEIN'S Pianos 
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CLAUDE DEBUSSY: One should com- 
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RICHARD STRAUSS: / consider the 
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is the realization of my ideal of a 
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And Now 



BECHSTEIN The Piano of the Masters 

has come to America and is as great in this country as it is in the rest of the world. 

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13 



in thf Country,' in F major, No. 5*' {sic) ; an Aria, "Ah, perfido," 
sung by Josephine Kilitzky*; Hymn with Latin text written in 
church style, with chorus and solos; Pianoforte Concerto in G major, 
played by Beethoven; Grand Symphony in C minor, No. 6 (sic); 
Sanctus, with Latin text written in church style (from the Mass 
in C major), with chorus and solos; Fantasia for pianoforte solo; 
Fantasia for pianoforte "into which the full orchestra enters little 
by little, and at the end the chorus joins in the Finale." Beethoven 
played the pianoforte part. The concert began at half-past six. AVe 
know nothing about the pecuniary result. 

When A. W. Thayer published his catalogue on Beethoven's com- 
positions (1865), Car] Haslinger, music publisher and composer, 
was in possession of autograph cadenzas written by Beethoven for 
this concerto. Two were for the first movement. Over one of them, 
which had very difficult double trills towards the end. Beethoven 
had written "Cadenza (ma senza cadere)." There was a cadenza 
for the Rondo. Haslinger died late in 1808; his publishing busi- 
ness passed through purchase into the house of Schlesinger (Bob. 
Lienau), of Berlin. Franz Kullak, the editor of the five concertos 
in the Steingraber edition, publishes the three cadenzas in an ap- 
pendix to the Fourth Concerto, and says in a footnote that these 
cadenzas, which are undoubtedly Beethoven's, were not published 
during the life of the composer, and that the autograph manuscripts 
were in possession of the firm of Breitkopf & Hartel, who were the 
first to publish them. 

The score was dedicated "humbly"' by Beethoven to "Ilis Imperial 
Highness, the Archduke Rudolph of Austria." 

The orchestral part of the concerto is scored for flute, two oboes, 
nvo clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums. 
and strings. 

1. Allegro moderato, <i major, 14. The first movement, contrary 
to the tradition that prevailed at the time, begins with the piano* 
forte alone. The pianoforte announces the first four measures of 

the first theme, live measures if an introductory chord be counted, 
i These measures are to be found in a sketch-book of Beethoven 
which is d.ited L803, but in this book they end in the tonic, and 
not in the dominant. I The orchestra then enters in 1> major, but 
soon returns to (} major, and develops the theme, until alter a 
short climax with a modulation a second theme appears, which is 
given to the first violins There is a third theme fortissimo in <; 
major, with a supplement lor the wood-wind instruments, and still 

another new theme, an expressive melody in HHat major. 

•jo ephlne Etllltsky. born to L790, was persuaded to sing after Anna Pauline 

Milder refused, in obedience i" her betrothed, one Hauptmann, a Jeweller, who 

when Beethoven called blm ";i atupld aaa." Antouia Cnmpl'a husband 

in- bad not been asked first, and ii<" would uoi allow her o> sing, 

though i"- bad a beautiful voice in ipite of fin- fad i o.it sin- bad seventeen children, 

them four pain of twins and ^ ael of triplets. Josephine was badly frightened 

when Beethoven i«''i her out, and <•< • 1 1 1 < I nut sing ;i note. ROckel Baya a cordial \\-i^ 

given tn her behind the scenes; it \\;is tun strong, and tin- aria suffered in consequence. 

Bcichardi dPMcrlbe* her aa a beautiful Bohemian With a beautiful rolce. "Thai the 

beautiful child trembled more than sang was t" l" 1 laid i<» the terrible cold; for wa 

ahlvered in the boxes, although wrapped in furs and cloaks." She waa later celebrated 

fur in r "dramatic coloi ller roloi '> , >- 1 at fir I of onlj two octaves, Bald 

Ledebur, but -ill bei nil beautiful, and later --in- gained upper tones. 

si' from IR18 i" IR31 a( B< i n, and Dlenaed In manj parts, .rom Fldello to 

-in in. mi. i Elvira i" I'.iiiin' in Aim ii. i ;in " She died, very old, in Berlin. 

1 1 



SYMPHONY HALL . . BOSTON 

Sunday Aft., April 20, at 3.30 
RECITAL by 

ROLAND HAYES 

The programme will include: — 

Bach — "He would in Christ be Living," 
from the Cantata "Der Himmel Lacht" 

Bach — Denke Doch 

Schubert — "The Crow" 

Schubert — Joys of Childhood 

Hugo Wolf— "Blessed be the Holy Mother" 

Hugo Wolf— E'en Little Things 

Josten — Roundelay 

Santoliquido — Second Persian Poem 

Slonimsky— "My Little Pool" 

Bacon — The Last Invocation (Whitman) 

and a Group of Negro Spirituals. 



15 



II. Andante con inoto. E minor, 2-4. This movement is free iu 
form. Beethoven pui a footnote in the full score to this effect: 
"During the whole Andante, the pianist must use the soft pedal 
[iota corda) unintermittently ; the sign 'Ped' refers to the occasional 

use of the ordinary pedal." This footnote is contradicted at one 
point in the score by the marking "tre corde" for five measures near 
the end of the movement. A stern and powerful recitative for 
strings alternates with gentle and melodic passages for the piano- 
forte. "The st tings of the orchestra keep repeating a forbidding 
figure of strongly marked rhythm in staccato octaves; this figure 
continues at intervals in stern, unchanging forte through about 
half the movement and then gradually dies away. In the intervals 
of this harsh theme the pianoforte as it were 4 improvises little scraps 
of the tenderest. sweetest harmony and melody, rising for a moment 
into the wildest frenzied exultation after its enemy, the orchestra, 
lias been silenced by its soft pleading, then falling back into hushed 
sadness as the orchestra comes in once more with a whispered recol- 
lection of its once so cruel phrase; saying as plainly as an orchestra 
can say it. 'The rest is silence!''' (William Foster Apthorp). 

III. Rondo: Vivace. The first theme, of a sunny and gay char- 
acter, is announced immediately by the strings. The pianoforte 
follows with a variation. A short but more melodic phrase for the 
strings is also taken up by the pianoforte. A third theme, of a 
bolder character, is announced by the orchestra. The fourth theme 
is given to the pianoforte. The Hondo, "of a reckless, devil-may- 
care spirit in its jollity," is based on this thematic material. At 
the end the tempo becomes presto. 

The first performance of the Fourth Concerto in Boston was 

probably by Robert Heller* at a Germania concert, February 4, 
i • • < 

'Robert Palmer, Known as Robert Holler, was born at Canterbury, England, in 
1833. He studied music, and at the age of fourteen won a scholarship in the Royal 

Academy of Music London. Fascinated by the performances of Robert Iloudin. be 

dropped music to become a magician, and he came to the United states in September, 

l B52. Some say thai be made his first appearance in New York at the Chinese 

Gardens as a Frenchman: others, t lint his tirst appearance was at the Museum, Albany, 
NY. He met wit ] i no success, and he then went to Washington, D.C., where he 
taught the piano and served as a church organist. He married one of his pupils. 
MiS8 Kieckhoffer. the daughter of a rich banker, and at once went back to inniric. In 
New York he opened Heller's Hall, and was eminently successful. He then went to 



^3\AJ hen all the world 

is ^oung f 1 

A Debutante portrait by Dacnracn 


J^r 


is (In- hi 1 1 ma i U <>t ■ MHicsstuI debut 


j 


Upon •'"<' wondrous .stage ot lite. 




rhotograpiu <>f uistuu Hon 

1 , l'i, . \ I ton ,S| t c.-l 

hrnnf.tr • * ""* 
!,,,, QuUICJ I \ n ii 


/ 
/ 

/ 



II. 



1854. He played Beethoven's Fifth Concerto at a Germania con- 
cert, March 4 of that year. 

The Fourth Concerto has been played in Boston at concerts of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra by George W. Sumner (December 17, 
1881), Carl Baermann (January 27, 1883, December 23, 1893), Mary 
E. Garlichs (November 29, 1884), Anna Clark-Steiniger (November 
14, 1885), Rafael Joseffy (December 18, 1886), Ferruccio B. Busoni 
(November 14, 1891), Ernst von Dohnanyi (March 17, 1900), Otto 
Neitzel (December 22, 1906), Leopold Godowsky (December 14, 
1912), Harold Bauer (November 28, 1914), Winifred Christie (April 
27, 1917), Arthur Rubinstein (April 1, 1921) ; Artur Schnabel, 
March 30, 1923; Edouard Risler (February 22, 1924). 



Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Or. 72 . . Ludwig van Beethoven 
(Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

Beethoven's opera, a Fidelio, oder die eheliche Liebe," with text 
adapted freely by Joseph Sonnleithner from the French of Bouilly 
("Leonore; ou L' Amour Conjugal," a "historical fact" in two acts 
and in prose, music by Gaveaux, Opera-Comique, Paris, February 
19, 1798), was first performed at the Theatre an der Wien, Vienna, 
November 20, 1805, with Anna Pauline Milder, afterwards Mme. 
Hauptmann, as the heroine. The other parts were taken as follows : 
Don Fernando, Weinkopf ; Don Pizarro, Meier; Florestan, Demmer; 
Rocco, Rothe; Marzelline (sic), Miss Mtiller; Jacquino, Cache; 
Wachthauptmann, Meister. "The opera was hastily put upon the 
stage, and the inadequacy of the singers thus increased by the lack 
of sufficient rehearsals." In later years Fidelio was one of Anna 
Milder's great parts : "Judging from the contemporary criticism, her 
performance was now (1805) somewhat defective, simply from lack 
of stage experience." 

The first performance of the opera in Boston was at the Boston 
Theatre on April 1, 1857, with Mmes. Johannsen and Berkiel, and 
Messrs. Beutler, Neumann, Oehlein, and Weinlich. 

"Leonore" No. 2 was the overture played at the first performance 
in Vienna. The opera was withdrawn, revised, and produced again 
on March 29, 1806, when "Leonore" No. 3, a remodelled form of No. 
2, was played as the overture. 

The order of these overtures, according to the time of composition, 
is now supposed to be "Leonore" No. 2, "Leonore" No. 3, "Leonore" 
No. 1, "Fidelio." It may here be added that Beethoven wished, 
and for a long time insisted, that the title of his opera should be 
"Leonore" ; and he ascribed the early failures to the substitution of 
the title "Fidelio." 

London, opened Poole's Theatre ; but came back to New York in 1875. He had given 
exhibitions of his skill in Australia and India. He died at Philadelphia, November 
28, 1878. His name stands very high in the list of magicians. His tricks of "second 
sight" for a long time perplexed the most skilful of his colleagues. And he was one 
of the first to use electricity as a confederate. In his will he instructed his executors 
to destroy all his apparatus. For a long and interesting explanation of his "second 
sight" tricks, see "Magic," by A. A. Hopkins (Minn. & Co., New York, 1897). 

APPLICATIONS FOR ADVERTISING SPACE IN THIS PROGRAMME SHOULD BE 
MADE TO L. S. B. JEFFERDS, ADVERTISING MANAGER, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

17 




t * W W ^aW teWM i y 'k S 




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and sparkle in the fabric — a gleam and glint of fresh- 
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SANDERS THEATRE 



CAMBRIDGE 



Thursday Evening, April 17, 1 930 

AT EIGHT 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



19 



The key ol the "Leonora" Overture No. 3 is C major. A short 
fortissimo is struck. It is diminished by woodwind and horns, then 
taken up, piano, by the strings. From this G there is a descent down 
the scale of C major to a mysterious P-sharp. The key of B minor 
is reached, finally Aflat major, when the opening measures of Flo- 
1 (Man's air, "In des Lebens Frfihlingstagen" iaet ii. of the opera), 
is played. The theme of the Allegro, C major, begins pianissimo! 
first violins and violoncellos, and waxes impetuously. The second 
theme has been described as "woven out of sobs and pitying sighs.'! 
The working-out consists in alternating a pathetic figure, taken from 
tin 1 second t Inane and played by the wood-wind over a nervous string 
accompaniment, with furious outbursts from the whole orchestra. 
Then comes the trumpet-call off stage. The twice-repeated call is 
answered in each instance by the short song of thanksgiving from 
the same scene. Leonore's words are: "Ach! du bist gerettet! 
Grosser Gott!" A gradual transition leads from this to the return 
of the lirst t Inane at the beginning of the third part (flute solo). 
This Third part is developed in general as the first part and leads 
to a wildly jubilant coda. 

The overture "Leonore" No. 3 was first played in Boston at a con- 
cert of the Musical Fund Society on December 7, 1850. G. J. Webb 
was the conductor. The score and the parts were borrowed; for the 
programme of a concert by the Society on January 24, 1852, states 
that the Overture was then ''presented by C. C. Perkins, Esq." 

The score calls for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bas- 
soons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, and 
the usual strings. 



SALARIED POSITIONS 

FOR 

Teachers of Music 

in Educational Institutions 
Also lor CHURCH MUSICIANS. 

GUIDANCE. COUNSELLING 
Addrcsi. HENRY C. LAHEE 
Boston Musical and Educational Bureau 
Sn Pierce Building. Copley Square. Boston. Mass. 



BOUND COPIES of the 

SoBtun £>ympljmtB (JrrljrHtra'B 

PROGRAMME BOOKS 

Containing Mr Philip Hale's analytical and de- 
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PRICE. $6.00 SYMPHONY HALL 



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announces :i lieu nii'iiihrr (if it- faculty 

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training from Heinrioh Qebhardi Boston, and Tobias Mattbay, 

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20 



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77a CHARLES STREET 

HOME: HAYMARKET 6634 STUDIO: HAYMARKET 1465 



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Member of Music Faculty 

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Address: 16 Traill Street, 

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Telephone University 1997-R 



FRANK 



VOICE 
La Forge voice method used and endorsed 
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Cotta Edition. Stuttgart Forsyth Bros., Ltd.. London Cary & Co . London 

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AGENTS FOR AND PUBLISHERS OF, H. GERMER'S INSTRUCTIVE EDITIONS 
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PIANO, ORGAN, COACHING 

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175 DARTMOUTH STREET BOSTON 
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Telephone Hubbard 6677 



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IX 



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Special attention to the speaking and singing: 

voice in relation to the motion picture art. 

Studio: 4 WEST 40th STREET. NEW YORK 

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Artist-pupil Leschelizky, JosefFy. R.A.M. London 
Lecturer Piano-playing University Extension. Boston 

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Coaching Lessons to Pianists and Teachers 



TEACHER OF PIANO 

25 Westbourne Terrace. Brookline 



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LEE,HIGGINSON TRUST CO 

50 I I.Dl I; \l. STREET, BOSTON 



SANDERS THEATRE . . . CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 
Thursday Evening, April 17, at 8.00 




PRSGRKttttE 



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The PLAZA, New York 




Fred Sterry 
President 



John D. Owen 
Manager 



The Savoy-Plaza 

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Arthur L. Race Rrkct-r>r« 

Managing Director oustun 





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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON 1929-1930 
THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 17, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



FREDERICK E. LOWELL 
ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager 




the stEINWAY 

that you buy I 



today will serve 
your children's 



children 



I i w things today are really built to 
last. Bui the Steinway is a notable 

exception. It is made like a watch. 
inside and out. Only tin- finest work- 
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For 30, 1" or 50 jreara and more ii 
will continue i<> bring delignl and 
i n tei I a i niiHiit to your family. . . . 
ion need never l»u\ another piano! 

Sllfli durability ;i- llii- spells real 

economy. The Steinwai will outlasl 



three ordinary pianos, besides giving 
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There are many models and prices. 
Make your visit to your nearest 
Stein wav dealer — tod a v. 



A new Steinway Upright 
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\ny Steinway piano may I>o purchased 
with a cash deposit of 10 r ; . and the bal- 
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exchange. 

Steinwai & Sons. Steinway Hall 
109 WetH 57th Street, Now York 



ST E I .\ WAY 



'####<; INSTRUMENT 
OF THE IMMOHT \l S 



Rrprrirntcd in Flout on .mJ ollirr New \ n^l.itul liiirs by M. Stcinetl ■ SODfl 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 





4 


Violins. 




Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 


Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 


Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. Cherkassky, P 
Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. Eisler, D. 


Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 


Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 


Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 


Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 


Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 


Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 


Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 


Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 


Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 


Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 


Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 

Violas. 


Messina, S. 
Seiniger, S. 


Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 


Fourel, G. 
Cauhap6, J. 


Van Wynbergen, C. Grover, H. Fiedler, A 
Bernard, A. Werner, H. 




Avierino, N. 
Gerhardt, S. 


Deane, 
Jacob, 


C 

R. 




Violoncellos. 




Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 


Langendoen, J. 
Barth, C. 


Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 
Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L 






Basses. 




Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 


Lemaire, J. 
Oliver, F. 


Ludwig, 0. Girard, H. Kelley, A. 
Frankel, I. Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 


Flutes. 


Oboes. 


Clarinets. 


Bassoons. 


Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 


Gillet, F. Hamelin, G 
Devergie, J. Arcieri, E. 
Stanislaus, H. Allegra, E. 

(E-flat Clarinet] 


Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 


Piccolo. 


English Horn. Bass Clarinet. 


Contra-Bassoon 


Battles, A. 


Speyer, 


L. Mimart, P. 


Piller, B. 


Horns. 


Horns. Trumpets. 


Trombones. 


Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 


Valkenier, 
Schindler, 
Lannoye, 
Blot, G. 


W. Mager, G. 
G. Voisin, R. 
M. Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 


Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 


Tubas. 


Harps. 


Timpani. 


Percussion. 


Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 


Zighera, I 
Caughey, 


Ritter, A. 
E. Polster, M. 


Ludwig, C. 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 


Organ. 




Celesta. 


Librarian 


Snow, A. 




Fiedler, A. 

3 


Rogers, L. J. 



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SANDERS THEATRE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 
Dr SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



EIGHTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, APRIL 17 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Beethoven 



Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68, 
"Pastorale" 



I. Awakening of serene impressions on arriving in the country; 
Allegro, ma non troppo. 

II. Scene by the brookside: Andante molto moto. 

III. Jolly gathering of country folk: Allegro; in tempo d'allegro 

Thunderstorm; Tempest: Allegro. 

IV. Shepherd's Song; Gladsome and thankful feelings after the 

storm: Allegretto. 



Stravinsky "Apollon Musagete" Ballet 

(Apollo, Leader of the Muses) 
Scene I: Birth of Apollo. 

Scene II: Variation of Apollo (Apollo and the Muses) — Variation of Polymnia 

— Variation of Terpsichore — Variation of Apollo — Apollo and 

Terpsichore — Coda (Apollo and the Muses) — Apotheosis. 

Wagner . . . . . . Prelude and Liebestod from 

"Tristan und Isolde" 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes after the symphony 

5 



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Symphony No. 6, in F major, "Pastoral," Op. 68 

Ludwig van Beethoven 



(Borti at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827) 

This symphony — "Sinfonia pastorale" was composed in the coun- 
try round about Heiligenstadt in the summer of 1808. It was first 
performed at the Theatre an der Wien, Vienna, December 22, 1808. 
The symphony was described on the programme as a A symphony en- 
titled 'Recollections of Life in the Country,' in F major, No. 5" (sic). 
All the pieces performed were by Beethoven : an Aria, u Ah, perfido," 
sung by Josephine Kilitzky ; Hymn with Latin text written in church 
style, with chorus and solos ; Pianoforte Concerto in G major, played 
by Beethoven; Grand Symphony in C minor, No. 6 (sic) ; Sanctus, 
with Latin text written in church style from the Mass in C major, 
with chorus and solos; Fantasie for pianoforte solo; Fantasie for 
pianoforte, "into which the full orchestra enters little by little, and 
at the end the chorus joins in the Finale." The concert began at 
half-past six. We know nothing about the pecuniary result. 

J. F. Reichardt wrote a review of the new works. He named, but 
incorrectly, the subtitles of the Pastoral Symphony, and added, 
"Each number was a very long, complete, developed movement full 
of lively painting and brilliant thoughts and figures; and this, a 



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pastoral symphony, lasted much Longer than a whole court concert 
lasts in Berlin." Of the one in C minor lie simply said: U A great, 
highly-developed, too long symphony. A gentleman next us assured 
us he had noticed at the rehearsal that the violoncello part alone — 
and tin 1 violoncellists wore kept very busy — covered thirty-four 
It is true that the copyists here understand how to spread 
out their copy, as the law scriveners do at home." No record of the 
reception by the audience of the new works has come down to us. 
liardt censured the performance of the Hymn — a Gloria — and 
the SanctuSj and said that the piano concerto was enormously diffi- 
cult, hut Beethoven played it in an astounding manner and with 
incredible speed. "He literally sang the Adagio, a masterpiece of 
beautiful, developed song, with a deep and melancholy feeding that 
streamed through me also." Count AVilhourski told Ferdinand 
Hiller that he sat alone in an orchestra stall at the performance, and 
that Beethoven, called out, bowed to him personally, in a half- 

friendly. half-ironical manner. 

* 
• * 

In a letter to Breitkopf and Ilartel, Leipsic, written on March 4. 
I s "!), Beethoven says: "You will receive to-morrow a list of small 
improvements which I made during the performance of the sym- 
phonies—when T gave them to you 1 had not heard a note of either. 



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One most not pretend to be so divine as not to make improvements 
here and there in one's creations. Herr Stein offers to you to tran- 
scribe the Symphonies for two pianofortes ; write to me whether you 
wish that, or whether you wish and are willing to pay." 

The Pastoral was described on the programme of 1808 as follows : — 

Pastoral Symphony [No. 5 (sic)], more expression of feeling than painting. 

First Piece. Pleasant feelings which awake in man on arriving in the 
country. 

Second. Piece. Scene by the brook. 

Third Piece. Jovial assemblage of the country folk, in which appear 
suddenly 

Fourth Piece. Thunder and storm, in which enter 

Fifth Piece. Beneficial feelings, connected with thanks to the Godhead 
after the storm. 

The hen dings finally chosen are on the title-page of this Pro- 
gramme Book. The descriptive headings were probably an after- 
thought. In the sketch-book, which contains sketches for the first 
movement, is a note : ''Characteristic Sjmiphony. The recollections 
of life in the country." There is also a note : ''The hearer is left to 
find out the situations for himself." 

M. Vincent d ? Indy in his "Beethoven" (Paris, 1911) devotes sev- 
eral pages to Beethoven's love of nature. "Nature was to Beethoven 
not only a consoler for his sorrows and disenchantments ; she was 
also a friend with whom he took pleasure in familiar talk, the only 
Intercourse to which his deafness presented no obstacle." Nor did 
Beethoven understand Nature in the dryly theoretical manner of 
Jean Jacques Rousseau, whose writings then were in fashion, for 
there could be no point of contact between the doctrines of this 
Calvinisl of Geneva and the effusions of Beethoven, a Catholic by 
birth and by education. Nor did Beethoven share the views of many 
romantics about Nature. lie would never have called her "immense, 
impenetrable, and haughty," as Berlioz addressed her through the 
mouth of liis Faust. A Little nook, a meadow, a tree, — these sufficed 
for Beethoven. He bad so penetrated tin 4 beauty of nature that for 
more than a dozen years all his music was impregnated by it. 

His bedside book for many, many years soon alter his passion for 
Giulietta Guicciardi was the "Lehr and Erbauungs Buch" of Sturm] 

Passages underscored show the truth of the assertions just made, 
and he copied these lines (hat they might always be in his Bight: 
"Nature Can b<' justly called the school of the heart ; it shows us be- 
yond ;ill doubl Our duty towards God and our Neighbor. I wish 

therefore to become a disciple of this school, and offer my heart to it. 

[rOUfl Of Belf instruction. I wish to search after the wisdom that 

no disi II iision can reject ; I wish to arrive at the knowledge of God] 
;ui<i iii tins knowledge I shall find a foretaste of celestial joys." 

M . d'liKh draws a picture of the Little Wirthschaften in the sub* 
urbfl of the large towns, humble inns "nol yet ticketed with the 
pompous barbarism of 'restaurant.' 1 Thej were frequented by the 
bourgeoisie, who breathed the fresh air and on tables of wood ate t he 
habitual sausage and drank the traditional beer, There was a dance 

hall with a sin;ill orchestra; there was a discreet garden with odor 

in 



ous alleys in which lovers could walk between the dances. Beyond 
was the forest where the peasant danced and sang and drank, but the 
songs and dances were here of a ruder nature. 

Beethoven, renting a cottage at Dobling, Grinzing, or Heiligen- 
stadt, which then were not official faubourgs, could in a few minutes 
be in the forest or open country. Thus influenced, he wrote the 
pianoforte sonatas, Op. 28 and Op. 31 ; the "Waldstein" sonata ; the 
violin sonata, Op. 30, No. 3 ; three movements of the seventh quartet 
(1806); the sixth, seventh, and eighth symphonies; and the tenth 
sonata for violin, Op. 96; also Village Dances, the finales of Trios, 
Op. 70, No. 2, and Op. 97, and the pastoral entr'acte of "Egmont." 

Beethoven did not attempt to reproduce the material, realistic im- 
pression of country sounds and noises, but only the spirit of the 
landscape. 

According to M. d'Indy the Andante is the most admirable expres- 
sion of true nature in musical literature. Only some passages of 
"Siegfried" and "Parsifal" are comparable. Conductors usually 
take this Andante at too slow a pace, and thus destroy the alert 
poetry of the section. The brook furnishes the basic movement, ex- 
pressive melodies arise, and the feminine theme of the first Allegro 
reappears, alone, disquieted by the absence of its mate. Each section 
is completed by .a pure and prayer-like melody. It is the artist who 
prays, who loves, who crowns the diverse divisions of his work by a 
species of Alleluia.* 

* * 

It has been said that several of the themes in this symphony were 
taken from Styrian and Carinthian folk-songs. f 

The symphony, dedicated to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count 
Rasoumoffsky, is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings. Two 

*I have condensed and paraphrased the beautiful pages of M. d'Indy (65—74). 
A translation into English of his "Beethoven" has been published by the Boston 
Music Company. — P. H. 

fSee the volume of folk-songs collected by Professor Kuhac, of Agram. 




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11 



trombones are added in the fourth and fifth movements and a piccolo 
in thf fourth. The work was published in ISO!).* 

It mav here be said that Borne programme-makers uive live move- 
ments t<> this symphony. They make the thunder-storm an inde- 
pendent movement. Others divide the work into three movements, 
beginning the third with the "jolly gathering of country-folk." 



One of the earliest performances in Boston of this symphony was 
at a Boston Academy of Music Concert, January 15. L842. The pro* 
gramme included Cherubini's overture, "Les deux Journess" (sic) ; a 
soii£. "The Stormy Petrel," by the Chevalier Neukomm and snng by 
Mr. Knot; an oboe solo, fantasia, "Norma," played by "Signor 
Ribas" ;f and then the first two movements of the "Pastoral" Sym- 
phony ended the first part. The programme stated that the notes of 
quail and enckoo are heard in the second movement. Part II. began 
with the last three movements of the "Pastoral," after which Mr. 
Wetherby sang a ballad, "When the Flowers of Hope are Fading," 
by Linley, and the overture to "Masaniello," by Caraffa (sic), ended 
the concert. The programme published this Macedonian appeal : 
"The Academy regret to be obliged to add that without increased 
patronage the series of concerts they were prepared- to give must be 
discontinued, as the receipts fall far short of the expenses. The 
hopes entertained of a different result have induced the Academy to 
persevere thus far, and it will be with great reluctance that they 
abandon their plan." The concert were continued, certainly until 
February 27, 1S47.J 



Ries tells us that Beethoven often laughed at the idea of "musical 
painting," even in the two oratorios of Haydn, whose talent he fully 
appreciated, but that he often thought of a set and stated argument 
when be composed, lie especially disclaimed any attempt at "paint- 
ing" in this symphony; yet one analyst found in the nmsic the ad- 
ventures of an honest citizen of a little town — it was located in 
Bavaria — who took his children with him for a holiday outing. An- 
Other analyst, in a pantheistic trance 1 , heard in the music "all the 
voices of Nature." William Gardiner in L832 made a remark, a 

singular one for that period : "Beethoven in his 'Pastoral' Symphony 

given us the warm hum of the insects by the side of the babbling 
brook; and as onr musical enterprise enlarges, noises will be intro 
dined Into the modern orchestra that Will give a new feature to onr 

grand performances." 
Ambrot wrote in "The Boundaries of Music and Poetry": "After 

•i •! in June, 1808, offered tbli symphony and 1 1 » « - one in B minor, with. 

tin- MfiHM in C mill the violoncello tonnta, A major, Op. 69, i<> Breltkopf and Hartal 

1 1 • . r i 1 1 .- This gum, however, "muni !"• paid, according i<> Vienna Owt'tnofft 

in convention coin, and thin mu i !>■• expn ited on the draft." 

fAntolne i. D< R bee, (xth ni Madrid on January 12, 1814, died in Boston "n 
.limn tlngulahed virtuoso, ii<' made iii^ i . rs i appearance in l/<>inii>n 

in 1837: in \.". , i • ri in iflan n<< wsm the flrsjl oboe when tin- Boston Symphony 
Orcbwitra wai established in i vv >i. hih associate at 1 1 1 « - oboe desk wai Paul INschef. 

J The Qmt i In London was al •■' concert for the benefit of Uni 

than, <m M;iy 27, i~ii Other Brsi performance!: Paris, Marco IB L829; Parll 
1 i ograd, March 1, 1833; Spain Barcelona, la L86fl 



all, the very superscriptions 'Sinfonia eroica,' 'Sinfonia pastorale,' 
point to a profound individuality of the art work, which is by no 
means deducible from the mere play of the tones with forms. It 
has as yet not occurred to anybody to find the 'Heroic' symphony 
not heroic and the 'Pastoral' symphony not pastoral ; but it surely 
would have called forth contradictions on all sides if the title-pages 
of both works had been accidentally interchanged. He that denies 
any other content of music than mere tone-forms set in motion 
has no right whatever to join in this contradiction." 

But Hanslick questioned the propriety of the title "Heroic." 
Rubinstein argued at length against the title. He expressed him- 
self in favor of the programme "to be divined"; against the pro- 
gramme determined in advance: "I believe that a composer puts 
into his work a certain disposition of his soul, a programme, but 
with the firm belief that the performer and the hearer will know 
how to understand it. He often gives to his work a general title 
as an indication; that is all that is necessary, for no one can pre- 
tend to express by speech all the details of a thought. I do not 
understand programme-music as a deliberate imitation, with the 
aid of sounds, of certain things or certain events. Such imita- 
tion is admissible only in the naive and the comic. The 'Pastorale' 
in Western music is a characteristic expression of simple country 
life, jolly, awkward, rather rude; and this is expressed by a fifth 
held on the tonic of the bass. The imitation in music of natural 
phenomena, as storm, thunder, lightning, etc., is precisely one of 
the naivetes of which I have spoken, and yet is admitted into art, 
as the imitation of a cuckoo, the twittering of birds, etc. Bee- 
thoven's symphony, with the exception of these imitations, portrays 
only the mood of the villager and of Nature; and this is why it 
is programme music in the most logical acceptation of the term." 



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13 



"Apollon Misackti:" i.Vroi.i.o. Lbader op the Muses"), a Ballet 

Igor Fedorovitch Stravinsky 

(Born at Oranlenbaum, near Leningrad, on June 5, 1SS2; now living) 

This music, scored for strings only, was first heard at Elizabeth 
Coolidge's Chamber Music Festival in the Library of Congress, 
Washington, I>.(\, on April ~7, L928. It was then performed by 
Adolph Bolm and his associates Mines. Reiman, Holmes, and Page. 

The first performance in Boston was by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, I>r. Koussevitzky, conductor, on October 12, 192S. 

Serge Diaghilev's Ballet Russe brought out the work in Faris at 
the Sara Bernhardt Theatre in June, 1928. Serge Lifar mimed 
Apollo; Mines. Alice Nikitina, Terpsichore; Lubov Tchernicheva, 
Calliope; Felia Doubrovska, Polymnia. The choreography was by 
George Balanchin. Stravinsky conductor "Apollon Musagete," also 
the ballet "Ode"* by Nicolas Nabokov. 

Scene I ; Birth of Apollo. 

Scene II ; Variation of Apollo (Apollo and the Muses i — Variation 
of Polymnia — Variation of Terpsichore — Variation of Apollo — 
Apollo and Terpsichore — Coda (Apollo and the Muses) — Apotheosis. 

"Apollo Musagetes," with the same dancers and conductor, was 
produced in London at liis Majesty's Theatre on dune 25, L928. The 
other compositions were "Cimarosiana," conducted by Dr. Malcolm 
Sargent, and "The Fire Bird." conducted by Stravinsky. 

The Paris correspondent of the London Times wrote for the issue 
of June '2'2 this article concerning the production at the Sarah 
Bernhardt Theatre : 

"A new work by Stravinsky is inevitably an event of some im- 
portance in the world of music, but the developments of his style 
are perhaps awaited and discussed with greater interest in Parift 
than in any oilier capital. The interest of 'Apollo Musagetes' cer- 
tainly lies primarily in the music, though with the attention half 
distracted by the color ami movement of the stage it is difficult 
to appreciate fully the beauties of the score. 

"'Apollo Musagetes' has no story and is little more than a series 
of 'divertissements' dealing with the birth of the god and his in- 
spiration of the Muses. It is dancing rather than action or symbolic 

significance which counts in 'Apollo.' The choreography by M. Bal- 
anchin is rounded no doubt on the steps and movements of fchfl 
Cla88ic school, and, while presenting new elements of striking origi- 
nality and beauty, avoids the grotesque attitudes which have 
marked the productions of recent years. M. Lifar is the Etruscan 
Apollo of Veil come to life. From tin' moment when he emerges 

from the lock upon which liis mother LetO is sitting until the 

chariot descends from tin- sk\ in carry him and the .Muses to their 
new home upon Parnassus, he maintains the lines ami gestures 
of archaic Bculpture. Compared with the -<>d, the Muses Terpsi- 
chore, Calliope, and Polymnia seem Btrangely nineteenth century 
in their formal ballet Bkirts and tight mauve bodices, but the 
contrast Is doI unpleasant, and Mmes. Nikitina, Tchernicheva, ami 

tten t" iim rersei of ao eighteenth-century poet. The vertN 
celebrnh o.« fflorj r»l '....i a* retire pnrerl In Sti Aurora borealt 

1 1 



Doubrovska convey with their accustomed grace and beauty the 
special attributes of each." 

* * 

Mr. Bonavia, in the Daily Telegraph, wrote of the production 
of "Apollo" in London: 

"That it marks a return to classical tendencies is perhaps 
an exaggerated way of saying that it consists of clear and less 
sophisticated music than one would have expected from the com- 
poser of "The Nightingale. 7 

"There is no plot, but a programme, which for ballet purposes 
serves probably even better. 

"We assist at the very birth of the god ; we see him received by 
two goddessess, who offer him nectar and ambrosia ; he grows before 
our eyes, he moves his limbs tentatively at first, then with ever 
greater confidence he leaps, till we feel sure that this young god 
was destined from the first to fall under the notice of M. Diaghilev. 

"Three Muses appear — Calliope, Polymnia, and Terpsichore. 
Apollo has something to say and something to give to each of 
them. With his gifts and under his tuition, they become the guard- 
ians of poetry, of mimic action, and of the dance. But, as could 
be expected, Terpsichore is the favorite. Apollo dances with her 
a 'pas de deux/ during which, it would seem, they look in the 
future, and hear the dances which fascinated Europe until the 
end of the last century, the waltz occupying a conspicuous position. 

"This undoubtedly is the part which puzzled the audience most. 



J. H. HANDLEY, Announces 



TWO MUSIC DRAMAS 

WITH 

Mme. BERENICE WYER, Composer-Pianist 

AND 

HUGH WILLIAM TOWNE, Reader 

A new and exquisite Art, combining Music and Blank Verse. 

PAOLO AND FRANCESCA 

By Stephen Phillips 

A modern version of the immortal love-story, embodied in Dante's Divine 
Comedy. 

The music is based on three leading motives, with interludes for piano 
alone, which are rich and colorful tone-pictures. 

MARY MAGDALENE 
By Maurice Maeterlinck 
A little-known masterpiece of the great Belgian dramatist, which is founded 
on the Biblical narrative. A story of profound significance to the whole 
Christian world. The Divine Voice is heard, giving forth The Beatitudes. 
The music is subdued and reverent, closing with the triumphant prophecy 
of the Resurrection. 

Both plays given in costume, with the composer at the Piano. 

Circulars sent upon application to 

A. H. Handley, Manager 
162 Boylston Street Boston, Mass. 



15 



They expected the incredible, and they found music but too well 
authenticated; they were waiting for rhythms, constant only in 
inconstancy, and they heard measures as smooth as those of 
'Rosenkavalier.' Naturally enough, there were some who wondered 
after the performance whether Stravinsky would not some day 
repudiate the works of his younger days and begin to write in the 
manner of Tchaikovsky or Mendelssohn. 

"It is difficult to say what a man who can adopt or divest him- 
self of a style as easily as we put on or take off a garment will do 
next. Perhaps he only chose to be transparent because Apollo 
was the god of light and the enemy of darkness. But this new 
style suits the ballet admirably; it is ballet music par excellence, 
and must have given a free hand to the choreographer, M. G. 
Balanchin, whose ideas were most admirably carried out." 



* 



The following interesting article by W. H. Haddon Squire was 
published in the Christian Science Monitor of July 14, 1928: 

••Stravinsky has spoilt his public. He began a meteoric career 
by letting off 'fireworks/ and no other contemporary composer has 
given his admirers so much that may be truly described as sensa- 
tional. In fact, audiences and critics alike now positively demand 
that everything he does must startle and dazzle them. They feel 
cheated if on every occasion the giant does not, in the words of the 
ancient .metaphor. 'Ossa on Olympus heave, on Ossa roll Pelion 
with all his woods; so scale the starry pole.' They would make the 
giant their slave. 

"Dazzlement and glitter are completely absent from the la test 
Stravinsky ballet, 'Apollo Musagetes.' Instead, we are confronted 
both on the stage and in the orchestra, witli an economy and sim- 
plicity that perhaps only the sophisticated will not find puzzling 
and mistake for bareness or emptiness. Artistically, 'Apollo Musa- 
getes' is the yery negation of those ideals which for more than a 
century have dominated middle Europe and which can be observed 
limning to seed in Stranss's ballet 'The Legend of Joseph.' 

"Twenty years have passed since Gordon Craig wrote '. . . in 
lining through the stage door of the theatre, I saw there the follow 
ing words. •'Sprechon strong verhoten," which means "Speaking 

Strictly Forbidden." The first moment I thought I was in heaven. 

I thought, "At last they have discovered the Art of the Theatre." 
. . .' And happily, in the art-form of ballet, unlike in that of 
Opera, speaking is strictly forbidden. Apollo .Musagetes and his 

Muses and goddesses do not demean themselves by the utterance 
nf oin' common tongue. 

"Their eloquence is music made visible in movement a language 
more fitting for gods and goddesses, Apollo .Musagetes. ami his 
Muses; and we were left in no doubt that on this occasion Terpsi- 
chore wen of the three his favorite Muse, as obviously she was also 
of her brilliant choreographer George Bnlanchin to say nothing 
nf (he composer himself. 

"There are two wsljb of approaching Stravinsky's score. The 



SYMPHONY HALL . . BOSTON 

Sunday Aft., April 20, at 3.30 



RECITAL by 

Roland Hayes 

The programme will include: — 

Bach — "He would in Christ be Living," 
from the Cantata "Der Himmel La cut" 

Bach — Denke Doch 

Schubert — The Crow 

Schubert — Joys of Childhood 

Hugo Wolf— "Blessed be the Holy Mother" 

Hugo Wolf — E'en Little Things 

Josten — Roundelay 

Santoliquido — Second Persian Poem 

Slonimsky — My Little Pool 

Bacon — The Last Invocation (Whitman) 

and a 

Group of Negro Spirituals. 



TICKETS NOW ON SALE AT BOX OFFICE 



17 



first, followed by nearly all the professional critics, is carefully 
to detach the music from the ballet and consider it purely as music. 
The second is to regard the ballet as a whole and examine the 
score, its substance, style, and treatment, by their relations to the 
rest of what is, after all, a synthetic form. And it need not be 
urged thai in either case it is useless to bring to 'Apollo Musagetes,' 
those aesthetic ideals which were responsible for the famous catch- 
phrase, 'Every picture tells a story.' 

••Scored wholly for string orchestra this simple music — a child 
can understand it — is in the authentic ballet tradition. One is 
constantly diverted by melodic turns and rhythms that are as 
familiar as the flounced skirt of the ballerina herself. This, no 
doubt, explains why many critics describe the score as 'common- 
place/ For anyone with ears to hear, however, even a single per- 
formance reveals a hundred felicities and a sober yet apparent 
beauty. It is said by those who dance to this music that familiarity 
only adds to its attractiveness. 

"Musicians generally, and composers in particular, are apt to 
lag behind their colleagues who use the brush and pen. Inspired 
by a wide artistic culture, Stravinsky's art is definitely of its time. 
No contemporary composer has been so quick to seize in music the 
possibilities exploited by progressive workers, in other mediums. 

"And it is here, to use a colloquialism, that the average mystified 
critic gets him wrong. Cocteau has described one incident in the 
general uproar which greeted the 'Sacre de Printemps' in Paris: 
'Standing up in her loge, her tiara awry, the old Countess de i\ 
flourished her fan and shouted, scarlet in the face, "It's the first time 
for sixty years that anyone's dared to make a fool of me." ' Cocteau. 
adds. 'The good woman was sincere; she thought there was some 
mystification.' 'Apollo Musagetes' will mystify neither the sophis- 
ticated artist nor — the child/' 

li has beeu said of this ballet that it has two ancestral homes: 
Parnassus and Versailles. 









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SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S 
CONCERTS 

THE AFTERNOONS OF 

Wednesday, April 23, and Thursday, April 24, 1930 

at 4 o'clock 
BY THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
W. H. BRENNAN. Manager G. E. JUDD. Asst. Manager 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky and Richard Burgin willconduct. 
There will be brief explanatory remarks with steroptican slides, by Alfred H. Meyer. 

PROGRAMME FOR BOTH CONCERTS 

Beethoven First Movement from the Fifth Symphony, in C minor 

Allegro con brio. 

Haydn .... Finale from the Symphony in D major 

(B. & H. No. 31) 
Theme with Variations. 

Ravel From the "Mother Goose" Suite 

Beauty and the Beast Converse. 

Strauss . . : "Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks," 

after the Old-fashioned, Roguish 
Manner, in Rondo Form 

Wagner ...... The Ride of the Valkyries 

Three hundred desirable floor seats have been reserved, to be sold directly to in- 
dividuals for their children. These special reserved tickets are available to 
Symphony Subscribers at the Symphony Hall box office at $1.00 each. 

No adult will be admitted unless accompanied by one or more children. The bal- 
ance of the seats will, as before, be offered the schools of Greater Boston at 35 
cents each. 

19 



Prelude v.\i» "Love-Death" from "Tristan and Isolde' 7 

Richard Wagner 

Born at Leipslc, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883) 

The subject of "Tristan und Isolde" was first mentioned by 

Wagner in a letter to Liszt in the latter part of 1854; the poem was 
written at Zurich in the summer of 1857, and finished in September 
of that year. The composition of the first act was completed at 
Zurich, December 31, 1857 (some Bay, but only in the sketch) ; the 
second act was completed at Venice in March, 1S59; the third act 
at Lucerne in August, 1859. 

This "action ' in three parts was performed for the first time at 
the Royal Court Theatre, Munich, June 10, 1865.* The first per- 
formance in America was at the Metropolitan, New York, December 
1, 1886.f 

The first performance in Boston was at the Boston Theatre, April 
1, 18954 

The Prelude and the Love-Death were performed in concerts be- 
fore 1 the production of the opera at Munich. The Prelude was 
played for the first time at Prague, March 12, 1859, and Bulow, 
who conducted, composed a close for concert purposes. It w r as 
stated on the programme that the Prelude was performed "through 
the favor of the composer." The Prelude was also played at Leipsie, 
June 1, L859. Yet, when Johann Herbeck asked later in the year 
permission to perform it in Vienna, Wagner wrote him from Paris 
that the performance at Leipsie was against his wish, and that. 
as soon as Herbeck knew the piece, he would understand why 
Wagner considered it unsuitable for concert purposes. And then 
Wagner put the Prelude on the programme of his concert given in 
Paris, January 25, 1860, and arranged the ending. 

Wagner himself frequently conducted the Prelude and Love- 
Death, arranged by him for orchestra alone, in the concerts given 
by him iii L863. At those given in Carlsruhe and Lowenberg the 
programme characterized (he Prelude as "Liebestod" and the latter 
section, now known as "Liebestod," as "Verklarung" ("Trans- 
ftgural ion"). 

The Prelude, Langsam and schmachtend (slow and languish 

Ingly), in A minor, 6-8, is a gradual and long emit Inued crescendo 

•'[ r ; !-t .-in. Ludwlg Bchnorr von Carolefeld; Kurvenal, Mitterwurier ; Nfelot, Heln 
rich; M.iri.i. Zuttmayer ; Isolde, Ume. Behnorr von Carolefeld; BrangBne, mikh Delnet. 
\<»n BQlon conducted. 

Iri't/ni. Albert Niiiii.iini ; K urvi-n.-i I. Adolf RoblllSOD j BlelOt, Rudolph von Milder; 

Mai ■ i ■ i olde, Lllll Lehmann ; Brangine, Marianne Brandt; Eln lllrt. 

Steuennann, Bmll Singer; Seemann, Ifaj Alvary. Anton Seldl con 
dnd • 

D, Mn\ Al\.ir\ ; Kurv<n:il. Fran/ Schwartz. J Mclot. Jamei P. Thomson; 
I FIk'Iiit; S..m.inn. Mr. ZdanOV ; [eolde, Rota Surlier; Brangfine, Marie 

Bn in. i. Walter Durnroscli conducted. 

90 



to a most sonorous fortissimo; a shorter decrescendo leads back 
to pianissimo. It is free in form and of continuous development. 
There are two chief themes: the first phrase, sung by violoncellos, 
is combined in the third measure with a phrase ascending chro- 
matically and given to the oboes. 

These phrases form a theme known as the Love Potion motive, 
or the motive of Longing; for passionate commentators are not 
yet agreed about the terminology. The second theme, again sung 
by the violoncellos, a voluptuous theme, is entitled Tristan's Love 
Glance. 

The Prelude is scored for three flutes (one interchangeable with 
piccolo), two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, three 
bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, 
kettledrums, and the usual strings. 

The first performance in Boston of the Prelude and Love-Death 
(orchestral) was at Theodore Thomas's concert of December 6, 1871. 

Wagner wrote this explanatory programme : 

"A primitive old love poem,* which, far from having become 
extinct, is constantly fashioning itself anew, and has been adopted 
by every European language of the Middle Ages, tells us of Tristan 
and Isolde. Tristan, the faithful vassal, woos for his king her for 
whom he dares not avow his own love, Isolde. Isolde, powerless to 
do otherwise than obey the wooer, follows him as bride to his lord. 
Jealous of this infringement of her rights, the Goddess of Love takes 
her revenge. As the result of a happy mistake, she allows the couple 
to taste of the love potion which, in accordance with the custom of 
the times, and by way of precaution, the mother had prepared for 
the husband who should marry her daughter from political motives, 
and which, by the burning desire which suddenly inflames them after 
tasting it, opens their eyes to the truth, and leads to the avowal that 
for the future they belong only to each other. Henceforth, there is 
no end to the longings, the demands, the joys and woes of love.. The 
world, power, fame, splendor, honor, knighthood, fidelity, friendship, 
all are dissipated like an empty dream. One thing only remains; 
longing, longing, insatiable longing, forever springing up anew, pin- 
ing and thirsting. Death, which means passing away, perishing, 
never awakening, their only deliverance. . . . Powerless, the heart 
sinks back to languish in longing, in longing without attaining ; for 
each attainment only begets new longing, until in the last stage of 
weariness the foreboding of the highest joy of dying, of no longer 
existing, of the last escape into that wonderful kingdom from which 
we are furthest off when we are most strenuously striving to enter 
therein. Shall we call it death? Or is it the hidden wonder-world, 
from out of which an ivy and vine, entwined with each other, grew 
up upon Tristan's and Isolde's grave, as the legend tells us?" 

*The story was known to poets long ago ; to the Norman minstrel, Berould, 
somewhere in the middle of the twelfth century ; to the German Eilhard von Oberge 
a little later ; to English writers in the thirteenth century. — Ed. 



APPLICATIONS FOR ADVERTISING SPACE IN THIS PROGRAMME SHOULD BE 
MADE TO L. S. B. JEFFERDS, ADVERTISING MANAGER, SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

21 




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SANDERS THEATRE :: CAMBRIDGE 



CLOSING CONCERT 

OF THE SEASON 



Thursday Evening, May 1 , 1 930 

\T EIGHT 



Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



23 



BACH CANTATA CLUB 

G. WALLACE WOODWORTH, Conductor 

EMMANUEL CHURCH, 15 Newbury St., Boston 

(Through the courtesy of Dr. Washburn) 

THURSDAY, APRIL 24, at 8.30 P. M. 

PALESTRINA— STABAT MATER 

BACH -CANTATA 4 Christ lay in death's dark prison 

HOLST PSALM CLXVIII 



Tickets may be had at 

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at HOMEYER'S, 458 Boylston Street, Boston 

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SANDERS THEATRE . . CAMBRIDGE 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

FORTY-NINTH SEASON 1929-1930 



INC. 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



SEASON 1929-1930 

THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 1, at 8.00 o'clock 

WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 
NOTES BY PHILIP HALE 

COPYRIGHT, 1930, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. 



THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 
ERNEST B. DANE 



FREDERICK P. CABOT 
ERNEST B. DANE 
N. PENROSE HALLOWELL 
M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE 
JOHN ELLERTON LODGE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



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ARTHUR LYMAN 
EDWARD M. PICKMAN 
HENRY B. SAWYER 
BENTLEY W. WARREN 



W. H. BRENNAN, Manager 



G. E= JUDD, Assistant Manager 




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Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Burgin, R. 

Concert-master 
Theodorowicz, J. 

Hansen, E. 
Pinfield, C. 

Thillois, F. 
Mayer, P. 

Bryant, M. 
Murray, J. 



Lefranc, J. 
Artieres, L. 



Elcus, G. 
Kreinin, B. 

Lauga, N. 
Mariotti, V. 

Zung, M. 
Diamond, S. 

Beale, M. 
Del Sordo, R. 



Fourel, G. 
Cauhap6, J. 

Avierino, N. 
Gerhardt, S. 



Violins. 

Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. 

Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. 



Cherkassky, P. 
Eisler, D. 



Fedorovsky, P. 
Leveen, P. 

Knudson, C. 
Zide, L. 

Stonestreet, L. 
Erkelens, H. 

Violas. 

Van Wynbergen, C. 
Bernard, A. 



Leibovici, J. 
Tapley, R. 

Gorodetzky, L. 
Fiedler, B. 

Messina, S, 
Seiniger, S. 



G rover, H. 
Werner, H. 



Fiedler, A. 



Bedetti, J. 
Zighera, A. 



Kunze, M. 
Vondrak, A. 

Flutes. 

Laurent, G. 
Bladet, G. 
Amerena, P. 



Piccolo. 
Battles, A. 

Horns. 

Boettcher, G. 
Pogrebniak, S. 
Van Den Berg, C. 
Lorbeer, H. 

Tubas. 
Sidow, P. 
Adam, E. 

Organ. 
Snow, A. 



Deane, C. 
Jacob, R. 



Violoncellos. 

Langendoen, J. Chardon, Y. Stockbridge, C. Fabrizio, E. 

Barth, C. Droeghmans, H. Warnke, J. Marjollet, L. 



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Oliver, F. 



Basses. 
Ludwig, O. 
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Dufresne, G. Demetrides, L. 



Oboes. 
Gillet, F. 
Devergie, J. 
Stanislaus, H. 



English Horn. 

Speyer, L. 

Horns. 
Valkenier, W. 
Schindler, G. 
Lannoye, M. 
Blot, G. 

Harps. 
Zighera, B. 
Caughey; E. 



Clarinets. 
Hamelin, G. 
Arcieri, E. 
Allegra, E. 

(E-Jlat Clarinet) 

Bass Clarinet. 

Mimart, P. 

Trumpets. 

Mager, G. 
Voisin, R. 
Lafosse, M. 
Perret, G. 
Mann, J. 

Timpani. 

Ritter, A. 
Polster, M. 



Celesta. 
Fiedler, A. 



Bassoons. 

Laus, A. 
Allard, R. 
Bettoney, F. 

Contra-Bassoon. 

Piller, B. 

Trombones. 
Raichman, J. 
Rochut, J. 
Hansotte, L. 
Kenfield, L. 
Adam E. 

Percussion. 
Ludwig, C 
Sternburg, S. 
White, L. 

Librarian. 
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SANDERS THEATRE 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



CAMBRIDGE 



Forty-ninth Season, 1929-1930 

Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



NINTH CONCERT 

THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 1 

AT 8.00 



PROGRAMME 



Weber 



Overture "Oberon" 



Hill 



Ravel 



I. Prelude a la Nuit. 

II. Malaguefia. 

III. Habanera. 

IV. Feria. 



'Lilacs/' Poem for Orchestra, Op. 33 
(after Amy Lowell) 



Rapsodie Espagnole 



Brahms 



Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo. 

II. Adagio non troppo. 

III. Adagietto grazioso, quasi andantino. 

IV. Allegro con spirito. 



STEINWAY PIANO USED 



There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the symphony 

5 




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BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 



Overture to the Opera "Oberon" 



Carl Maria von Weber 



(Born at Eutin, Oldenburg, December 18, 1786; died at London, June 5, 1826) 

"Oberon; or, the Elf-King's Oath/' a romantic opera in three acts, 
book by James Robinson Planche, music by Carl Maria von Weber, 
was first performed at Covent Garden, London, on April 12, 1826. 
Weber conducted. The cast was as follows: Rezia, Mary Anne Paton; 
Mermaid, Mary Anne Go ward; Fatima, Mme. Vestris; Puck, Harriet 
Cawse; Huon, John Braham; Oberon, Mr. Gownell; Scherasmin, acted 
by Mr. Fawcett, "but a bass singer, named Isaacs, was lugged in head 
and shoulders to eke out the charming quatuor, 'Over the Dark Blue 
Waters.' " 

The first performance in Boston was in Music Hall by the Parepa- 
Rosa Company, May 23, 1870.* 

Weber received for the opera £500. William Thomas Parke, the 
first oboist of Covent Garden at the time of the production, wrote in 
his entertaining "Musical Memoirs": "The music of this opera is a 
refined, scientific and characteristic composition and the overture is 

*The cast was as follows: Rezia, Mme. Parepa-Rosa; Fatima, Mrs. E. Seguin; Puck, Miss Geraldine 
Warden; Sir Huon, William Castle; Scherasmin, A. Laurence (sic); Oberon, G. F. Hall; Mermaid, Miss 
Isaacson (?). Carl Rosa conducted. A song "Where Love is, there is Home," arranged by Howard 
Glover, from a theme in one of Weber's pianoforte sonatas, was introduced. The audience was not 
large, and it was cool. 




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an ingenious and masterly production. It was loudly encored. This 
opera, however, did not become as popular as that of 'Der Freischi'itz.' n 



The story of the opera was founded by Planche on Wieland's "Oberon," which 
in turn was derived from an old French romance, "Huon of Bordeaux." Oberon 
and Titania have vowed never to be reconciled until they find lovers faithful in 
adversity. Puck resolves to serve Oberon, his master, by bringing together Huon 
and Rezia. Huon has been ordered by Charlemagne to kill the favorite at Baghdad 
and to wed the Caliph's daughter, Rezia. The lovers, having met, in a vision, are 
in love. At Baghdad, Huon being sent there because he had slain a son of 
Charlemagne, kills Babekan, bethrothed to Rezia, and escapes with her, by the aid 
of a magic horn given to him and blown by Scherasmin, Huon's shield-bearer. The 
horn compels the Caliph's court to dance. Oberon appears and makes the lovers 
swear to be faithful in spite of all temptation. They are shipwrecked. Rezia is 
captured by pirates; Huon i,s wounded. The Emir Tunis has Rezia in his harem; 
his wife Roschana is enamored of Huon. The Emir orders the wife and Huon to 
be burned; but again the magic horn is blown. Oberon, reconciled to Titania, brings 
the lovers to Charlemagne's court , where they are welcomed with pomp and ceremony. 

There is another pair of lovers in the opera: Scherasmin and Rezia's Arabian 
maid, Fatima. 

The overture, scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two 
bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, kettledrums, 
strings, begins with an introduction (Adagio sostenuto ed il tut to 
pianissimo possibile, D major, 4-4). The horn of Oberon is answered 
by muted strings. The figure for flutes and clarinets is taken from the 
first scene of the opera (Oberon's palace; introduction and chorus of 
elfs). After a pianissimo little march, there is a short dreamy passage 
for strings, which ends in the violas. There is a full orchestral crashing 
chord, and the main body of the overture begins (Allegro con fuoco 



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in D major, 4-4). The brilliant opening measures are taken from the 
accompaniment figure of the quartet, "Over the Dark Blue Waters," 
sung by Rezia. Fatima, Huon, Scherasmin (act ii., scene x.). The 
horn of Oberon is heard again; it is answered by the skipping fairy 
figure. The second theme (A major, sung first by the clarinet, then 
by the first violins) is taken from the first measures of the second part 
of Huon's air (act L, Xo. 5). And then a theme taken from the pero- 
ration, presto con fuoco, of Rezia's air "Ocean! Thou mighty monster" 
i act ii., Xo. 13), is given as a conclusion to the violins. This theme 
ends the first part of the overture. The free fantasia begins with soft 
repeated chords in bassoons, horns, drums, basses. The first theme is 
worked out in short periods; a new theme is introduced and treated 
in fugato against a running contrapuntal counter-theme in the strings. 
The second theme is treated, but not elaborately; and then the Rezia 
motive brings the spirited end. 

At the first performance of the opera the overture was repeated. 



* 

* * 



Weber was asked by Charles Kemble in 1824 to write an opera for 
the Theatre Royal, Co vent Garden. Weber chose "Oberon" for the 
subject. Planche was selected to furnish the libretto. In a letter to 
him, Weber wrote that the fashion of it was foreign to his ideas:' "The 
intermixing of so many principal actors who do not sing — the omission 
of the music in the most important moments — all these things deprive 
our 'Oberon' of the title of an opera, and will make him (sic) unfit for 
all other theatres in Europe, which is a very bad thing for me, but — 
pas sons Id-dessous." 

Weber, a sick and discouraged man, buckled himself to the task of 
learning English, that he might know the exact meaning of the text. 
He therefore took one hundred and fifty-three lessons of an Englishman 
Darned Carey, and studied diligently, anxiously. Planche sent the 
libretto to Dresden an act at a time. Weber made his first sketch on 
January 23, 1825. The autograph score contains this note at the end 
of the overture: "Finished April 9, 1826, in the morning, at a quarter 
of twelve, and with it the whole opera. Soli Deo Gloria! ! ! C. M. V. 
Weber." This entry was made at London. Weber received for the 
opera £500. He was bo feeble that he could scarcely stand without 

Support, but he rehearsed and directed the performance seated at the 
piano. Ih- died of consumption about two months after the production. 
Planche* gives a lively account of the genesis and production of 
u Oberon."* He describes the London public as unmusical. "A 
dramatic >il nation in music was 'caviare l<> I he general,' and inevitably 

ived with en''- of 'Cut it short V from the gallery, and obstinate 

toughing or ot her significant signs of impat ience from I he pit. \ot hing 

hut the 1 1 un! -men's (Chorus and the diableru in 'Der Freischutz* saved 
that fine work from Immediate condemnation in England; and 1 remem- 
ber perfectly well the exquisite melodies in it being compared by English 
Musical critic* to 'wind through a keyholef't • • • None of our actors 

could Bing, and hut one singer could art, Madame Yeslris, who made a 

i i: I • i .■ 1 1 1 . ),. . \ ..i I. |.|> 7 i 36 1 1 ondon. i s ^ 
\\- Q M '.' . /. < >r fur .linn. i^7.v "NVorlj 

• meb dull " 

Hi 



charming Fatima. . . . My great object was to land Weber safe amidst 
an unmusical public, and I therefore wrote a melodrama with songs, 
instead of an opera such as would be required at the present day."* 
The first performance in Germany of "Oberon" in "its original shape" 
was at Leipsic, December 23, 1826. 



"Lilacs," Poem for Orchestra, Op. 33 (after Amy Lowell) 

Edward Burlingame Hill 

(Born in Cambridge, Mass., September 9, 1872; now living there) 

"Lilacs" was performed for the first time at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra in Boston on April 1, 1927. Mr. Hill contributed 
the following notes to the Orchestra's programme back of that date: 

"Long an admirer of Miss Lowell's poetry, it one day struck me 
forcibly that 'Lilacs'f was an excellent 'subject' for musical treatment 
by one of New England ancestry. On reflection, I soon saw the 
impracticability of attempting to follow the poem in detail, and the 
present work is the result of impressions connected with portions of 
the poem, chiefly the beginning and the end. 

"After a brief introduction, the principal theme is heard in the wood- 
wind, later in the strings, and at last in the full orchestra. From this 
grows a contrasting episode, after which the material of the first part 
returns with a varied development and closes with a reference to the 
introduction. 

'"Lilacs' is scored for three flutes (third interchangeable with piccolo), 
two oboes, English horn, two clarinets in B-flat, bass clarinet in B-flat, 
two bassoons, contrabassoon, six horns, three trumpets, three trombones 
and tuba, kettledrums, triangle, cymbals, bass-drum, celesta, harp, 
piano, and the usual strings. The score is inscribed In Memoriam A. L." 

*There was a performance in London with German text by Th. Hell in 1841 (Rezia, Mme. Heine- 
fitter; Huon, Haizinger; in Italian, on July 3, 1860 (Rezia, Mme. Tietjens; Fatima, Mme. Alboni). 
Benedict furnished recitatives, partly his own, partly from other works of Weber's. 

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LILACS* 

Lilacs, 
False blue, 
White, 

Purple, 

Colour of lilac, 

Your great puffs of flowers 

Are everywhere in this my New England. 

Among your heart-shaped leaves, 

Orange orioles hop like music-box birds and sing 

Their little weak, soft songs; 

In the crooks of your branches, 

The bright eyes of song sparrows sitting on spotted eggs, 

Peer restlessly through the light and shadow 

Of all springs. 

Lilacs in door-yards 

Holding quiet conversations with an early moon: 

Lilacs watching a deserted house 

Settling sideways into the grass of an old road: 

Lilacs, wind-beaten, staggering under a lopsided shock of bloom 

Above a cellar dug into a hill. 

You are everywhere. 

Lilacs, 

False blue, 

White, 

Purple, 

Colour of lilac 

Heart leaves of lilac all over New England, 

Roots of lilac under all the soil of New England; 

Lilac in me because I am New England, 

Because my roots are in it. 

Because my leaves are of it, 

Because my flowers are for it; 

Because it is my countrv 

And I speak to it of itself, 

And sing of it with my own voice 

Since certainly it is mine. 



Rapsodie Espagxole Joseph Maurice Ravel 

(Born at Ciboure, Basses- Pyrenees, March 7, 1875;at home at Montfort-l'Amaury 

and Paris) 

The "Rapsodie Bspagnole," dedicated to "Mod cher Mattre, Charles 
de B6riot," was completed in 1907 and published in the following year 

It was performed lor the firsl time at a ( 'olonne concert in Paris, .March 

15, L908. The Rhapsody was enthusiastically received; the second 
movement was repeated. The enthusiasm was manifested chiefly 
in the gallery, where some perfervid student shouted to the conductor 
after the malaguefia bad been repeated: "Play it once more for those 

downstairs who have not understood it." At the end of the Rhapsody 

t he -a 1 1 ic person shouted to the occupants of subcribers' seats: "If it bad 

been something by Wagner you would have found it very beautiful. ') 

The in -i performance of the Rhapsody in Roston was l>v the Boston 

Orchestral Club on January 26, L910. Ravel conducted it when he 

conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on January 

i i. L928. Mr Longy conducted 

The KhapMidv was performed by the Theodore Thomas Orchestra 

on of the puhli hn . M< >■• ir.utfliton Mifllin (\>mpnny. Ro 

11- 



in Chicago on November 12, 13, 1909. The first performance by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra was on November 21, 1914. Ravel 
conducted it when he was guest conductor of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra on January 13, 14, 1928. 

The Rhapsody is scored for two piccolos, two flutes, two oboes, 
English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, three bassoons, sarruso- 
phone, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, a set 
of four kettledrums, ba^ss drum, cymbals, side drum, triangle, 
tambourine, gong, xylophone, celesta, two harps, and the usual strings. 

It is really a suite in four movements : Prelude a la Nuit, Malaguefia, 
Habanera, Feria. 

I. Prelude a la Nuit. Tres modere, A minor, 3-4. The move- 
ment as a whole is based on a figure given at the beginning to muted 
violins and violas. The clarinets have a short subject, and this is 
repeated at the end by solo strings. Cadenzas, now for two clarinets 
and now for two bassoons, interrupt the movement. The cadenza for 
bassoons is accompanied by arpeggios in harmonics for a solo violin 
and trills for three other violins. The movement ends with a chord in 
harmonics for divided violoncellos and double-basses. The second 
movement follows immediately. 

II. Malaguefia. Assez vif, A minor, 3-4. The Malaguefia, with 
the Rodena, is classed with the Fandango: "A Spanish dance in 3-8 
time, of moderate movement (allegretto), with accompaniment of 
guitar and castanets. It is performed between rhymed verses, during 
the singing of which the dance stops". The castanet rhythm may be 
described as on a scheme of two measures, 3-8 time; the first of each 
couple of measures consisting of an eighth, four thirty-seconds, and an 
eighth; and the second, of four thirty-seconds and two eighths. The 
word itself is applied to a popular air characteristic of Malaga, but 
Richard Ford described the women of Malaga, "las Malaguenas," 
as "very bewitching." Mrs. Grove says the dance shares with the 
Fandango the rank of the principal dance of Andalusia. "It is some- 
times called the Flamenco, a term which in Spain signifies gay and 
lively when applied to song or dance. It is said to have originated 
with the Spanish occupation of Flanders. Spanish soldiers who had 



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been quartered in the Netherlands were styled Flamencos. When 
they returned to their native land, it was usually with a full purse; 
generous entertainment and jollity followed as a matter of course." 
In Ravel's Malaguena there is at the beginning a figure for the 
double-basses repeated as though it were a ground bass. The key 
changes to D major, and there is a new musical thought expressed 
by muted trumpet accompanied by the tambourine and pizzicato 
chords. After a climax there is a pause. The English horn has a 
solo in recitative. The rhythmic figure of the opening movement is 
suggested by the celesta and solo strings. The figure in the basses 
returns with chromatic figures for flutes and clarinets. 

III. Habanera. Assez lent et d'un rythme las, 2-4. Ravel wrote 
in 1S95 a Habanera for two pianofortes, four hands. This was utilized 
in the composition of the Habanera in the Rhapsody. The chief subject 
enters in the wood-wind after a short introduction in which the clarinet 
has an important syncopated figure. The