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Full text of "Boston Symphony Orchestra concert programs, Season 63,1943-1944, Subscription"

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BOSTON 



SYAPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 

FOUNDED IN 1881 BY HENRY L. HIGGINSON 

SIXTY-THIRD 
SEASON 
1943-1944 

(11 



"BefferWor/d" 

To Come 




85 



years have passed on into the endless Corridors of Time 
since this store first came into being. 

Much history has been written during those years. Many 
changes have taken place. 

Familiar landmarks, old customs and other marks of another 
day have passed into limbo. 

And yet, as America fights the greatest of all wars, certain 
fundamentals remain unchanged. 

These have to do with human aspirations and with people. 
85 years ago men dreamed and planned and struggled for a 
better world — a better world for themselves, their children 
and their children's children. 

This is the greatest of human aspirations — to leave the world 
a better place than you found it. 

And so as we pay homage to the past, we look into the future. 
We see a post-war world in which the good things of life will 
be made available to more people. 

We at R. H. White's see ourselves as one of the instruments 
for that better world — by placing the good things of life within 
reach of more people. 

This is no mere lip-service, for we will demonstrate how, 
through the magic of Value, a store can contribute to a better 
life for the Average Man and his Family. 




KEYED TO THESE TIMES 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 
Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen N. Penrose Hallowell 

John Nicholas Brown M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[1] 




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[2] 



SYMPHONIANA 



ANNIVERSARY 

In the Boston Evening Transcript for 
October 11, 1924, H. T. Parker wrote, 
under the heading 

"KOUSSEVITZKY BEGINS . . ." 

the following review of the first concert 
of that season: 

"Conductor, orchestra and audience 
regarded every tradition; fulfilled every 
rite. On the tick of two-thirty yester- 
day afternoon Mr. Koussevitzky emerged 
upon the stage of Symphony Hall; while 
the shade of Henry Higginson, no doubt 
watching from the celestial hills, blessed 
him for such punctuality. As the new 
conductor crossed to his stand the whole 
house rose to salute and applaud him. 
Making the distinction of a musician 
who cherishes his instrument, he ac- 
knowledged first the greeting of the 
band — with a collective handshake be- 
stowed individually upon Mr. Burgin. 
Next Mr. Koussevitzky turned to his 
audience, then to the score of his first 
piece, an eighteenth-century Concerto 
by Vivaldi. . . . 

"No eminent conductor would be 
worthy of the name and of a new post, 
did he not, upon arrival, alter the ar- 
rangement of the orchestra. Accordingly, 
the double-basses at Symphony Hall 
now fringe the left end of the stage with 
the harps ensconced among the adjacent 
strings. Back from the wood-wind choir, 
in the centre of the platform, stretch 
horns, trumpets and trombones ; while 
to right strings and instruments of per- 
cussion again expand. The clear purpose, 
readily gained, is a concentrating and a 
deepening of the wind-tone, both brass 
and reed. Only here and there did a 
new face rise from the orchestra; but 
the connoisseurs of method observed 
that while the bowing of the violins 
changed with the course of the music, 
at any given moment it was exactly uni- 
form, evidently under prescription from 
Mr. Koussevitzky for precise phrasing. 
To his program, moreover, none might 
reasonably demur. It ranged many times, 
temperaments and manners. It arrayed 
an ancient Italian, a romantic French- 
man, a classic German, a Russian mod- 
ern, a Parisian modernist. It contained 
two numbers — one dated 1924 — that 
were heard for the first time in Boston. 
It was not over-long; cultivated diver- 
sity; singled out no piece of virtuoso- 
display. . . . 

"In outer semblance, the new conduc- 
tor somewhat belied report, oral, tex- 
tual, pictorial. He is in the flower of 




1918- 1943 



This is our greeting to our 
friends, neighbors and all 
who have liked us and 
aided our progress toward 
this pleasant age which en- 
titles us to be taken se- 
riously. It is our silver 
anniversary, but since sil- 
ver has gone to war, and 
many of our fine lads, too, 
we shall just continue to / 
do consistent, forthright 
shopkeeping and put all 
our surplus energies into 
the cause of Victory. 



[33 



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middle years; but no lingering aura of 
youth seems to gild them; while to one 
pair of eyes, he was less romantic pres- 
ence than twentieth-century musician 
in the unglamored practice of his pro- 
fession. As he approaches or leaves the 
stand, his step is quick; his carriage 
erect; his manner serene; his tailor 
admirable. Gravely and simply he re- 
ceives applause; likes not to tarry be- 
tween numbers. About to begin a piece, 
Mr. Koussevitzky enforces a moment of 
suspensive silence upon orchestra and 
audience as though he would have the 
music pulse upon the waiting air. Al- 
ways his beat is clarity itself. Usually 
it has a graphic precision as of both 
muscular and spiritual tensity. 

"Otherwise Mr. Koussevitzky's ges- 
ture takes character from the music in 
hand. In an ancient Concerto, it curves 
the line and evens the accents. In a 
romantic overture, like Berlioz's 'Roman 
Carnival,' it is sedulous for the drama- 
tizing and poetizing play of the voices, 
the distribution and shading of the tonal 
colors. In the Variations of Brahms, it 
is linear again, light also and adroit. 
With Monsieur Honegger's locomotive, 
it whips rhythm, up-piles tonal masses, 
outflings climax. In Scriabin's 'Poem of 
Ecstasy,' it is like the leap of the con- 
ductor's to the composer's intensities 
and fires. Then does Mr. Koussevitzky 
ply that characteristic gesture of ingath- 
ering arm for outpouring orchestra. Then 
does he visibly mould great crescendos. 
Then does his figure rise and draw tense 
until the whole force of his being has 
launched the tonal thunderbolt. Kousse- 
vitzky superbus, as the old Romans 
might have written; but Koussevitzky 
passioning for the music — not for him- 
self. 

"The fundamental trait, the basic 
merit, of this conducting is regard for 
musical line, progress, structure. It ex- 
presses itself in a marvelous clarity, pre- 
cision, onflow. Wagner himself did not 
more passionately pursue that germ 
whence music unfolds, expands, runs 
course, in animating and characterizing 
curve. The clarity is never dry, brittle, 
hard. The precision is also plastic. The 
current parts and reparts, gathers, floods, 
ever unbroken. . . . 

"For in Mr. Koussevitzky by the 
oroofs of yesterday dwell those four- 
fold powers which define and consum- 
mate a conductor of the first order. The 
ability to discover, unfold, curve and 
modulate the intrinsic and essential 
line of the music; to weave it into pat- 
tern; by pace and rhythm to give it 
motion; by accent to impart it- charac- 



[4] 



ter. The ability to distribute over the 
surface of this pattern the harmonic and 
instrumental colors which are light and 
shade, heat and cold upon it. The ability 
to give to each piece and each composer 
in it his particular voice, quality, life — 
Vivaldi winding into his staid patterns 
golden threads of sumptuous, sensuous 
melody; Berlioz lining and coloring his 
fresco of a dancing, singing, rioting yet 
stately Rome, Cellini's city; Brahms 
twining wreaths of fancy round the grave 
brows of meditation; Honegger passion- 
ing in tone for machine, writing the 
music of mass, drive, impact; Scriabin 
from the depths of longing, loosing his 
voluptuous sea, till it scales a heaven of 
plangent ecstasy. 

"Last, the ability to draw from the 
orchestra the tone that shall bear these 
powers and beauties in a manifold elo- 
quence ; the accent that shapes and marks ; 
the color that is glamour and relief. 
Great arcs of tone the Symphony Or- 
chestra achieved yesterday for Scriabin; 
thudding masses for Honegger; silken 
threads intertwined for Vivaldi; glows 
and tumults for Berlioz; ripples and 
gentle floods for Brahms. Mr. Kousse- 
vitzky caresses his slow song with lin- 
gering fingers. Yet not once did his 
orchestra let it sag. Mr. Koussevitzky 
loves measures cameo-cut. His orchestra 
was master of such phrasing. With Ber- 
lioz, with Scriabin, Mr. Koussevitzky 
courts the pause, the suspension, the 
isolated or contrasted timbres that are 
spur upon the listening nerves. His or- 
chestra is a band of virtuosi in such 
rhetoric. In all Europe he has not been 
so well served." 

EXHIBIT 

In the First Balcony Gallery is to 
be seen a portrait of Dr. Koussevitzky 
painted by Boris Chaliapin, as well as 
a bronze bust of the conductor by the 
late Madame Koussevitzky. Several ex- 
hibit cases contain items of interest at 
this beginning of Dr. Koussevitzky's 1 
twentieth year as conductor of the Bos- j 
ton Symphony Orchestra. 

There is also on exhibit a collection : 
of paintings by W. Lester Stevens. A I 
member of the National Academy, he i 
first studied with Parker S. Perkins and 
later at the School of the Museum of 
Fine Arts in Boston. He first became 
known to the art public when he was 
awarded the Fourth William A. Clark 
Prize at the Corcoran Art Gallery. 
Since then he has been awarded over a 
dozen outstanding awards. His paint- 
ings are owned both privately and by 
museums in every State of the Union 
and in many foreign countries. 




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[5] 



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ONE FEDERAL STREET, BOSTON 



T. Jefferson Coolidge 
Chairman 



Channing H. Cox 
President 




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Trustee * Guardian 

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[6] 



NOTICE 

Attention is called to the fact that the first part of 
next week's programme (October 15, 16) consists of 
a single number. Promptness is urged in order that the 
audience may enjoy the music without interruption. 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



First Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, October 8, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, October 9, at 8:15 o'clock 



Vivaldi Concerto in D minor for Orchestra with Organ 

(Edited by A. Siloti) 

I. Maestoso 
II. Largo 

III. Allegro 

Stravinsky Ode in Three Parts, for Orchestra 

Eulogy 

Eclogue 

Epitaph 

(First performance) 

Moussorgsky "Pictures at an Exhibition," Pianoforte Pieces 

arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel 

Promenade — Gnomus — Tuileries — Ballet of Chicks in their Shells 
— Samuel Goldenburg and Schmuyle — Limoges; The Marketplace — 
Catacombs (Con mortuis in lingua mortua) - The Hut on Fowls' Legs — 

The Great Gate at Kiev 

INTERMISSION 

Brahms Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 68 

I. Un poco sostenuto; Allegro 

II. Andante sostenuto 

III. Un poco allegretto e grazioso 

IV. Adagio; Allegro non troppo, ma con brio 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:15 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



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[8] 



CONCERTO IN D MINOR, Op. 3, No. 11 
By Antonio Vivaldi 

(Born about 1680 in Venice; died there in 1743) 
Transcribed for Orchestra with Organ by Alexander Siloti : 



This is the eleventh of the set of twelve concerti grossi published by Vivaldi as 
Opus 3, under the title "L'Estro armonico" ("Harmonic inspiration"). They ap- 
peared in Amsterdam about 1714 or 1716, under the publication of "Roger et le 
Cene," dedicated to Ferdinand III of Tuscany. Vivaldi wrote these concertos for four 
violins, two violas, 'cello and organ bass. The Concerto in D minor, No. 11, has 
been edited also by Sam Franko and by Dezso d'Antalffy.f The edition of Alexander 
Siloti is based directly upon Vivaldi's original manuscript. It is scored for two flutes, 
two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, contra-bassoon, organ and strings. 

The concerto in this arrangement was the opening number on Serge Kousse- 
vitzky's first programme in America — at the Boston Symphony concerts of October 



* Alexander Siloti, pianist and conductor, was born in Kharkov, Russia, October 10, 1863. 
A pupil of Nikolas Rubinstein and Tchaikovsky (at the Moscow Conservatory), and of Liszt, 
a friend and contemporary in his youth of such musicians as Rachmaninoff and Scriabin, 
he holds perhaps more extensively than anyone living the experience and memory of Russia's 
musical past. Alexander Siloti appeared as piano soloist at these concerts February 4, 1898, 
and April 7, 1922. He is now living in New York. 

t DAntalffy's transcription is for full orchestra, is based on Bach's arrangement, and exer- 
cises considerable freedom, putting the fugue at the end. This version was performed by the 
New York Philharmonic Society, February 29, 1940, John Barbirolli conducting. 



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[9] 



io-ii, 1924. The concerto was also performed October 25, 1929; May 1, 1936, and 
October 7, 1938. The most recent performance — April 10, 1941 —was in memory of 
Ernest B. Dane. 

This concerto bears its story of neglect, confusion and restitution. 
The music of Vivaldi has been so little known and regarded that 
when it was unearthed a century after his death in the State Library at 
Berlin in a copy made by Bach, many more years were destined to pass 
before it was recognized as the music of Vivaldi. 

The history of the concerto is this: Johann Sebastian Bach, probably 
in the last years of his Weimar period, evidently copied this concerto, 
according to a way we had of copying string concertos of the Italian 
master, adapting them for his own uses on the harpsichord or organ. 
Bach arranged this concerto for organ with two manuals and pedal. 
In about the year 1840, two copies in Bach's hand came to the light of 
day in the Prussian Staatsbibliothek, and the concerto was circulated 
once more in the world, but this time in Bach's organ arrangement. 
It was presented by F. K. Griepenkerl in the Peters Edition at Leipzig, 
not as Vivaldi's music, not even as music of Sebastian Bach, but as the 
work of his son Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. The error is explained by 
the examination of the manuscript: The cover is missing, and at the 
top of the first page of the score, which is in the neat and unmistakable 



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script of Sebastian Bach, there stands in the scrawled writing of Bach's 
eldest son: Di W. F. Bach," and underneath this: "Manu mei Patris 
description." Herr Griepenkerl took the line "Copied by the hand of 
my father" on its face value and supposed the concerto to be the 
original work of Friedemann Bach, not questioning why the elder Bach 
should trouble to copy his son's music, and supporting his assumption 
by pointing out that the music is plainly in the style of Wilhelm Friede- 
mann and just as plainly not in the style of his father. 

The supposed original organ concerto of Friedemann Bach had a 
long and wide vogue and further appeared in an arrangement for 
piano by August Stradal. It was not until 1911 that Vivaldi's author- 
ship was established. Max Schneider made the correction in the Bach 
Jahrbuch of that year.* 

The introduction to the first movement is based on broad arpeggios 
and runs by the strings against sonorous chords. There follows a fugue, 
in which Siloti doubles strings and wood winds in the various voices, 
bringing in the organ for the full chords of the climax. The second 
movement is an even-flowing Largo in 6-8 rhythm, subdued and con- 
templative, and so in contrast with the surrounding movements. The 
editor scores the Largo for strings only. The final Allegro again de- 
velops fast, supple figurations, mostly by the violins, roundly supported 
by successions of chords. 



* "The so-called Original Concerto in D minor of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach." 



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[ 12] 



The Permanent Charity Fund 

and 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
either by will or in your lifetime, with the request 
that the income be paid to the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. The gifts so made will be held perpetually 
in trust by this Company as Trustee and the income 
will be paid to the Orchestra as long as the need exists. 
Thereafter the income will be used for some other 
worthy purpose of your choice; or failing that, one 

selected by the Committee 
which annually distributes 
the income of the Fund. 

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make a thorough investiga- 
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[13 1 



Little is known about Vivaldi, save that he was a Venetian, the son of 
a violinist at St. Mark's, and that he was a musician to Duke Philip of 
Hesse, probably during his residence at Mantua from 1707 to 1713. On 
the Duke's departure Vivaldi returned to Venice, where he became 
violinist at St. Mark's Church, and likewise maestro di concerti at the 
Ospedale della Pieta, a foundling hospital for girls with a female or- 
chestra and choir. His nickname, "the red priest" (il preto rosso") , has 
been supposed to derive from the color of his hair. Carlo Goldoni, the 
eighteenth-century Venetian playwright, has spoken in his memoirs 
of the "Abbe Vivaldi, called 'il preto rosso' on account of his hair. 
He was much better known by this soubriquet than by his real name." 
But Bernardino Molinari, the Italian conductor and a modern au- 
thority on Vivaldi, has put forward the theory that the name came from 
"his custom of wearing a semi-clerical habit of red." 

A Mr. Wright, in his "Travels through Italy from 1720 to 1722," 
found it "very unusual" to observe a priest playing in the orchestra, 
and added that "the famous Vivaldi, whom they call the 'preto rosso,' 
very well known among us for his concertos, was a topping man among 
men." Philip Hale has quoted Ernst Ludwig Gerber, who in his 
"Lexikon der Tonkilnstler" (Leipzig, 1790) says that Vivaldi in his 
old age, "about 1730, was extraordinarily pious, so that he would not 
put his rosary aside until he took up the pen to write an opera, which 



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happened frequently." "It is also said of him," remarked Mr. Hale, 
"that once, celebrating his daily Mass, a musical idea came into his 
head that delighted him. He left the altar and went into the sacristy 
to write it down, and then returned to go on with the Mass. Taken 
before officers of the Inquisition, he was declared not wholly sane. The 
only punishment meted out to him was that he should not be allowed 
to celebrate the Mass. Is this fact or legend?" 

The felicities of Vivaldi the composer have had scant recognition. 
Although he was a popular figure in his day, authorities were inclined 
to condescend to him. Charles Burney spoke of him in his history of 
music as "Don Antonio Vivaldi" and classed him among the "flashy 
players" whose chief merit was "rapid execution." "If acute and rapid 
tunes are evil," wrote Burney, "Vivaldi has much of the sin to answer 
for." He grouped Vivaldi together with Albinoni Alberti and Tessarini 
"among the light and irregular troupes," as compared to the illustrious 
Roman school formed by Corelli. Sir John Hawkins in his history 
found some of the showy violin passages of Vivaldi to be "wild and 
irregular . . . transgressing the bounds of melody and modulation." 
Like Burney, he stressed the point that Vivaldi must have owed much 
to Corelli. 

But Bach himself gave unmistakable evidence of his deep regard for 




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Vivaldi by carefully copying eleven of the Italian composer's string 
concertos, six for harpsichord, four for organ, and one (the concerto for 
four violins) for four harpsichords. 

It can be ventured, from the success nowadays of occasional per- 
formances of his concertos or violin music, that the genius of Vivaldi 
has not even yet had its due on the part of those who compile and 
record. There has been no collected edition of his works. Those of his 
operas, symphonies and religious music which survive, do so as manu- 
scripts in Old World archives, for the most part quite undisturbed. 
Some of his many concertos have come down to us as scarce relics of 
editions now long extinct. The music in current circulation consists 
mostly of individual concertos exhumed and arranged by the individual 
enterprise of various editors. 

At a Vivaldi Festival in Siena, in 1939, a number of unknown scores 
were brought to performance, including the opera "L'Olimpiade." 
Alfredo Casella, a tireless enthusiast on the subject of Vivaldi and his 
period, then wrote: 

"The compositions chosen for the festival confronted us with a 
Vivaldi who can be compared without hesitation to J. S. Bach (every 
day it is more evident that the influence exerted by Vivaldi on the 
Cantor was considerable and perhaps even decisive in his molding) . 



THANK YOU 

Our third year finds us sincerely grateful to the many 
subscribers to these concerts who have come increasingly to 
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The prodigious wealth of musical invention; the dramatic force (which 
recalls so imperatively the brilliance and fire of the great Venetian 
painters) ; the mastery of choral polyphony; the marvelous dynamism 
of the instrumental part, the incessant movement of which, independent 
of the voices and chorus, plainly forecasts the Wagnerian style, and 
finally, the high quality of the emotion which animates his works — 
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SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

6 MONDAY EVENING CONCERTS at 8:15 
6 TUESDAY AFTERNOON CONCERTS at 3 



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December 27, 28 



January 24, 25 
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April 10, 1 1 



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[21] 



"ODE," in Three Parts for Orchestra 
By Igor Stravinsky 

(Born at Oranienbaum, near St, Petersburg, June 17, 1882) 



The Ode, recently completed, was composed for the Koussevitzky Music Founda- 
tion, Inc., and is dedicated to the memory of Mme. Natalie Koussevitzky. The present 
performances are the first. 

The Ode is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, two trumpets, timpani and strings. 

The composer has provided this explanation: "I was asked by the 
Koussevitzky Music Foundation to compose a symphonic piece 
which I have called 'Ode.' The Ode is a chant in three parts for 
orchestra. It is an appreciation of Natalie Koussevitzky's spiritual con- 
tribution to the art of the eminent conductor, her husband, Dr. Serge 
Koussevitzky. 

"Part I. 'Eulogy,' praise, a song in sustained melody with accom- 
paniment, the whole in fugal treatment. 

"Part II. 'Eclogue,' a piece in lively mood, a kind of concert 
champetre, suggesting out-of-door music, an idea cherished by Nat- 
alie Koussevitzky and brilliantly materialized at Tanglewood by her 
husband. 

"Part III. 'Epitaph,' an inscription, serein air, closes this memorial 
triptych." 



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1943-44 

Lectures, with Music 

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Boston Symphony Concerts 

Wednesdays preceding the Concerts 
First meeting, Wednesday, October 13, 1943, at 4:45 

IN THE 

Lecture Hall, Boston Public Library 

(Boylston Street Entrance) 

The lecturer for the season of 1943-44 will be Nicolas Slonimsky, 
author of "Music Since 1900," co-operating with Richard G. 
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[23] 



"PICTURES AT AN EXHIBITION" 
(Pianoforte Pieces) 

By Modest Petrovitch Moussorgsky 

Rom at Karevo, district of Toropeta, in the government of Pskov, on March 21 
1839; died at St. Petersburg on March 28, 1881 

Arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel 

Born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyr£nees, on March 7, 1875; died in Paris, December 28, 1937 



Moussorgsky composed his suite of piano pieces in June 1874. Maurice Ravel 
made his orchestral setting of them in 1923. The first performance of this orchestra- 
tion was at a "Koussevitzky Concert" in Paris, May 3. 1923. Dr. Koussevitzky first 
played the suite at the Boston Symphony concerts November 7, 1924. The most 
recent performance was October io, 1941. 

The orchestration consists of two flutes and piccolo, two oboes and English horn, 
two clarinets and bass clarinet, two bassoons and contra-bassoon, alto saxophone, 



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[24] 



four horns, three trumpets, three trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, 
snare drum, triangle, tam-tam, whip, celesta, xylophone, glockenspiel, two harps, 
rattle, chime and strings. 

Moussorgsky composed his suite of piano pieces in June, 1874, on 
the impulse of his friendship for the architect Victor Hartmann, 
after a posthumous exhibit of the artist's work which immediately 
followed his death. "It almost asks for orchestration," wrote A. Eagle- 
field Hull of the music, some years ago, and indeed no less than six 
musicians have been tempted to try a hand at the task. Toushmalov (in 
St. Petersburg, 1891) set eight of the pieces, and in more recent years 
Sir Henry Wood in London, Leonidas Leonardi in Paris, and Maurice 
Ravel in Paris, have arranged the whole suite. Ravel made his setting 
in 1923 for Dr. Koussevitzky, at the conductor's suggestion. There have 
been still later orchestrations by Lucien Cailliet and Leopold 
Stokowski. 



iAutlt Ut& tim&i NO W • • • 



"up to 1943 



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[25] 



"Hartmann is bubbling over, just as Doris did," wrote Moussorgsky 
to his friend Stassov, while at work upon his "Pictures at an Exhibi- 
tion." "Ideas, melodies, come to me of their own accord, like the roast 
pigeons in the story - 1 gorge and gorge and over-eat myself. I can 
hardly manage to put it down on paper fast enough." 

Moussorgsky, so his friends have said, was seldom moved to exuber- 
ance over his work — was more often inclined to anxious questionings 
in such confidences. As a matter of fact, both the subject and the 
moment were just right to draw forth the very best from Moussorgsky's 
genius. He was deeply moved by the death of his artist friend, and his 
music was at its best when quick, graphic characterization was called 
for, liberated from such heavy responsibilities as development, ex- 
tended form, detail of instrumentation. 

Moussorgsky's suite has aroused curiosity about the friend he 
remembered with so much affection, and the drawings which he has 
seemed so clearly to delineate in tone. But little is known of Hartmann, 
and in the passage of years (during many of which the suite itself lay 
unnoticed) most of his drawings have been scattered or lost. 

The collected writings of Stassov contain strong eulogies of Victor 
Hartmann, which, however, have until recently existed only in Rus- 
sian. Brief descriptions of the pictures by Stassov, printed in Mous- 



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[2 7 ] 



sorgsky's score, have been the western world's entire knowledge of 
them. Alfred Frankenstein, who is the program annotator of the 
San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, has done the musical world a 
service in exhuming all of the drawings of Hartmann and all the in- 
formation about him that research could bring forth.* Mr. Franken- 
stein obtained photographic prints of a number of the sketches, in- 
cluding those which prompted the movements "Ballet of Chicks in 
their Shells," "The Hut on Fowls' Legs, and "The Great Gate at 
Kiev." He also obtained in photostatic copy the itemized catalogue of 
the Memorial Exhibition of 1874. This catalogue listed four hundred 
drawings, including architectural designs, water colors of buildings or 
people noted during the artist's European travels, designs for cos- 
tumes or for ornamental household objects. 

The pictures are not all that the music might lead one to expect. 
The design for a gate at Kiev, for example, was not nearly so massive 
as the tonal architecture of Moussorgsky. The composer evidently 
looked upon the drawings with the indulgent eye of friendship. Hart- 
mann's heavy insistence upon Slavic allusions was quite in accord 
with the nationalistic creed of the circle which took him to its bosom. 
His free play of fantasy and ornamental use of the grotesque, in what 

*This information, together with a number of illustrations, appeared in The Musical 
Quarterly of July, 1939, under the title, "Victor Hartmann and Modeste Musorgsky." 




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[29] 



might be called "Slavic gingerbread," quite entranced Moussorgsky, 
and set him tone-gathering in a similar vein of piquant fantasy. 



Promenade. As preface to the first "picture," and repeated as a 
link in passing from each to the next, so far as the fifth, is a prom- 
enade. It is an admirable self-portrait of the composer, walking from 
picture to picture, pausing dreamily before one and another in fond 
memory of the artist. Moussorgsky said that his "own physiognomy 
peeps out through all the intermezzos," an absorbed and receptive 
face "nel modo russico." The theme, in a characteristically Russian 
1 1-4 rhythm suggests, it must be said, a rather heavy tread.* 

Gnomus. There seems reason to dispute Riesmann's description: 
"the drawing of a dwarf who waddles with awkward steps on his 
short, bandy legs; the grotesque jumps of the music, and the clumsy, 
crawling movements with which these are interspersed, are forcibly 
suggestive." Stassov, writing to Kerzin in reply to the latter's inquiry 
explained: "The gnome is a child's plaything, fashioned, after Hart- 
mann's design in wood, for the Christmas tree at the Artists' Club 
(1869). It is something in the style of the fabled Nutcracker, the nuts 
being inserted in the gnome's mouth.- The gnome accompanies his 
droll movements with savage shrieks." This description is in accord 
with the exhibition catalogue. 

*One recalls the story of Bernard Shaw, reviewing an exhibition of Alpine landscapes in 
London, tramping through the galleries in hob-nailed boots. 




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[33] 



Il Vecchio Castello. No such item occurs in the catalogue, but 
the Italian title suggests a group of architectural water colors which 
Hartmann made in Italy. "A mediaeval castle," says Stassov, "before 
which stands a singing troubadour." Moussorgsky seems to linger 
over this picture with a particular fascination. (Ravel used the saxo- 
phone to carry his nostalgic melody.) 

("Il Vecchio Castello" is omitted at this performance.) 

Tuileries. Children disputing after their play. An alley in the 
Tuileries gardens with a swarm of nurses and children. (The cata- 
logue names this drawing merely as Jardin des Tuileries.) The com- 
poser, as likewise in his children's songs, seems to have caught a 
plaintive intonation in the children's voices, which Ravel scored for 
the high woodwinds. 

Bydlo. "Bydlo" is the Polish word for "cattle." A Polish wagon 
with enormous wheels comes lumbering along, to the tune of a "folk 
song in the Aeolian mode, evidently sung by the driver." Moussorgsky 
was not nearly so explicit. He described this movement in a letter to 
Stassov as "Sandomierskie Bydlo," or "Cattle at Sandomierz," adding 
that the picture represents a wagon, "but the wagon is not inscribed 
on the music; that is purely between us." There is a long crescendo as 
the wagon approaches — a diminuendo as its disappears in the dis- 
tance. Calvocoressi finds in the melody "une penetrante poe'sie." 
(Ravel, again departing from usual channels, has used a tuba solo 
for his purposes.) 

("Bydlo" is omitted at this performance.) 





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Ballet of Chicks in Their Shells. Hartmann made sketches for 
the costumes and settings of the ballet "Trilbi," which, with choreog- 
raphy by Marius Petipa and music by Julius Gerber, was performed 
at the Bolshoi Theater in St. Petersburg in 1871. The sketches de- 
scribed in the exhibition catalogue show canaries "enclosed in eggs 
as in suits of armor. Instead of a head-dress, canary heads, put on like 
helmets, down to the neck." There is also a "canary-notary-public, in 
a cap of straight feathers," and "cockatoos: gray and green." The story 
of "Trilbi" concerned a chimney sprite in a Swiss chalet, who fell in 
love with the housewife. The fact that the plot in no way suggested 
either canaries or chickens in their shells did not bother the choreog- 
rapher, who was looked upon to include in his spectacle the child 
dancers of the Imperial Russian Ballet School in the traditional garb 
of birds and butterflies. 

Samuel Goldenburg and Schmuyle. This depiction, like "Bydlo," 
is identified with sketches made at Sandomierz, a small town in 
Poland not far from Warsaw. Hartmann's wife was Polish. He spent 
a month at Sandomierz in 1868, sketching many figures in the Jewish 
district. According to Frankenstein, there is no authority for the use 
of the two names in connection with this movement. Moussorgsky in 
his original manuscript neglected to put any title upon this one move- 
ment, and it was Stassov who added the title, "Two Polish Jews, one 
rich, the other poor." The music derives from two pencil drawings 
shown in the exhibition and listed as belonging to Moussorgsky. 
They were entitled, "A rich Jew wearing a fur hat: Sandomir," and 




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"A poor Sandomir Jew." Stassov may have been thinking of another 
picture among the several which were made at this time when he 
used the names of Goldenburg and Schmuyle. Riesmann calls this 
number "one of the most amusing caricatures in all music — the two 
Jews, one rich and comfortable and correspondingly close-fisted, 
laconic in talk, and slow in movement, the other poor and hungry, 
restlessly and fussily fidgeting and chatting, but without making the 
slightest impression on his partner, are musically depicted with a 
keen eye for characteristic and comic effect. These two types of the 
Warsaw Ghetto stand plainly before you — you seem to hear the caftan 
of one of them blown out by the wind, and the flap of the other's 
ragged fur coat. Moussorgsky's musical power of observation scores a 
triumph with this unique musical joke: he proves that he can repro- 
duce the 'intonations of human speech' not only for the voice, but 
also on the piano." (Ravel has made the prosperous Jew speak from 
the low-voiced strings, in unison. His whining neighbor has the voice 
of a muted trumpet.) 

Limoges. The Market-place. Market women dispute furiously. 
Seventy-five sketches of the locale of Limoges are listed in the cata- 
logue, but none mentions the market-place. Moussorgsky jotted an 
attempt at peasant chatter in the margin of his score, a suggestion of 
Hartmann's whimsical style: "Great news! Monsieur de Puissangeout 
has just recovered his cow, The Fugitive. But the good gossips of 
Limoges are not totally agreed about this because Mme. de Rem- 
boursac has just acquired a beautiful new set of false teeth whereas 



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[37] 



Monsieur de Panta-Pantaleon's nose, which is in his way, remains 
always the color of a peony." 

Catacombs. According to the catalogue: "Interior of Paris cata- 
combs with figures of Hartmann, the architect Kenel, and the guide 
holding a lamp." In the original manuscript, Moussorgsky had written 
above the Andante in B minor: "The creative spirit of the dead 
Hartmann leads me towards skulls, apostrophizes them — the skulls 
are illuminated gently from within." 

The Hut on Fowls' Legs. The drawing is listed as "Baba Yaga's 
hut on fowls' legs. Clock, Russian style of the 14th century. Bronze 
and enamel." The design, of Oriental elaboration, shows the clock in 
the shape of a hut surmounted by two heads of cocks and standing on 
the legendary chickens' feet, done in metal. The subject suggested to 
the composer the witch Baba Yaga, who emerged from her hut to 
take flight in her mortar in pursuit of her victims To every Russian 
this episode recalls the verses of Pushkin in his introduction to "Russ- 
ian and Ludmilla." 

The Great Gate at Kiev. Six sketches for the projected gate at 
Kiev are listed in the catalogue and thus described: "Stone city-gates 
for Kiev, Russian style, with a small church inside; the city council 
had planned to build these in 1869, in place of the wooden gates, to 
commemorate the event of April 4, 1866. The archway rests on granite 
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a huge headpiece of Russian carved designs, with the Russian im- 
perial eagle above the peak. To the right is a belfry in three stories, 
with a cupola in the shape of a Slavic helmet. The project was never 
carried out." The "event of April 4, 1866," so discreetly referred to, 
was the escape of Czar Alexander II from assassination on that date. 
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by a huge, carved headpiece, seem sunk into the earth as though 
weighted down by old age, and as though God knows how many cen- 
turies ago they had been built. Above, instead of a cupola, is a Slavic 
war helmet with pointed peak. The walls are decorated with a pattern 
of colored brick! How original is this!" 



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[40] 




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Enjoy the magnificent music 
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. . . Thrill to the performance 
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on 

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RECORDS 



KOUSSEVITZKY RECORDINGS 



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□ Symphony #4 in E Minor Brahms 

□ Symphony #29 in A Major Mozart 

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□ Elegie, parts 1 & 2 Fane 

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□ Bolero Ravel 

□ Lieutenant Kije Prokofieff 

□ Peter and the Wolf Prokofieff 

□ Romeo and Juliet Tschaikowsky 

□ Symphony #4 in F minor. .Tschaikowsky 

□ Mefisto Waltz Liszt 



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□ Polovetzian Dances from "Prince Igor" for 

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[41] 



ENTR'ACTE 

KOUSSEVI TZKY AND THE BOSTON SYMPHONY REPERTOIRE 

By Alfred H. Meyer 



At the beginning of Dr. Koussevitzky's twentieth season with the 
. Boston Symphony Orchestra it is fitting to take thought concerning 
the impact of this conductor upon the orchestra which many of us con- 
sider to be the world's greatest. The story of much that he has wrought 
with this orchestra has been repeated so often that it need not be retold: 
we all know how he rescued an orchestra that was in danger of be- 
coming not quite first-rate, and established it in its present high place; 
we know his electrifying interpretations, his searching and rewarding 
re-reading of many a score. Some of us recall that he finally fully estab- 
lished the principle that a soloist's part in a concert must be of true 
symphonic character. Others may or may not remember that it was 
Koussevitzky who began the refreshing custom of having one or more 
guest conductors each season. All these are in greater or lesser degree 
well known. But the impact of Koussevitzky upon the repertoire of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra (and possibly thereby upon the sym- 
phonic repertoire throughout the land) may well be freshly considered 
at the beginning of this anniversary year. 




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[42] 



It was a concert prophetic of things to come which we heard on Oc- 
tober 10 or 11, 1924. Probably few of us were aware of its prophetic 
nature. It brought to the programs for the first time in a symphonic work 
one of the great contemporaries of Bach: Vivaldi. In 1913 a soloist had 
played one of his violin concertos. But otherwise the great conductors 
in the classical tradition who had preceded Koussevitzky had overlooked 
this important composer. The concert brought also a novelty fresh from 
the pen of a contemporary composer, in the startling Pacific 231 of 
Honegger. It brought further two works from the established repertoire, 
that we might observe the new conductor's way with well-known music 
— Brahms' Variations on a Theme by Haydn and Berlioz' Roman 



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[43] 



Carnival. Finally, and for the work of largest scope, there was Scriabin's 
Poem of Ecstasy, product of the conductor's personal friend, and semi- 
novelty in that it had been heard but twice at these concerts. 

But if that first concert might have been taken as giving a hint of 
things to come, the first season as a whole could and should have been 
a revelation that we, were to be treated to a new and wider-ranging 
type of programme making. For out of 1 10 compositions performed that 
year, thirty-seven, or almost exactly one-third, were new to these con- 
certs! No, they were by no means principally the productions of con- 
temporaries; they gave contemporaries a reasonable place, but began 
also at once to atone for neglect in other fields. Only eight new com- 
posers were introduced, one the American Copland, another the long 
neglected seventeenth-century Corelli. These thirty-seven works in- 
cluded, in addition to four new American works (by Copland, Eich- 
heim, Hadley, Hill), only twenty-two that could be by any chance called 
"modernistic." The rest were new discoveries among the ancients or 
among the beloved Classicists and Romanticists: C.P.E. Bach, two; 
Borodin, one; Corelli, one; Glazounov, one; Moussorgsky, two; Vivaldi, 
one; Weber, one. At least half of these discoveries of this first season 
from older composers have remained active in the repertoire. 




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[45] 



The promises of that first season have been fulfilled throughout these 
two decades. The repertoire has been greatly enriched (1) by the intro- 
duction of a host of new composers and their works, many of them 
American, many from the only partially explored seventeenth and early 
eighteenth centuries, (2) by the introduction of new works by com- 
posers from all periods already represented in the repertoire, (3) by 
re-introducing important works that had been neglected for many years, 
(4) by the revivified choral performances and the introduction of con- 
cert versions of operatic acts and scenes, (5) by the festivals devoted to 
individual composers. 

The composers of high rank whose works have come for the first 
time to Symphony Hall during these nineteen years number thirty- 
eight, among them the ancients, Corelli, Gabrieli, Locatelli, Monteverdi, 
Purcell, D. Scarlatti, and the Americans Barber, Berezowski, Copland, 
Gershwin, Gruenberg, Hanson, Harris, Piston, Schuman, Sessions. The 
list includes all the great names of the present unless previously heard 
here. Of lesser distinction there have been fifty-nine new composers, 
including four ancients and fourteen Americans. Of composers who had 
had only one or two previous performances there have been introduced 
fifteen, including three ancients and one American. 




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[47] 



Perhaps even more amazing is the number of works new to the 
repertoire Dr. Koussevitzky has found among composers already well 
established at these concerts. The outstanding example is that of J. S. 
Bach, twelve of whose works the conductor brought to Symphony Hall 
for the first time. Is it perhaps fair to say that the orchestral Bach 
renaissance in Boston dates from this period? Twelve works by Mozart, 
unplayed at these concerts, were also introduced. And the same number 
holds for Stravinsky, while Sibelius furnished eleven additions to the 
repertoire. Americans are well represented in these groups, notably Car- 
penter, Converse, Eichheim, Gilbert, Hadley, Hill, D. S. Smith. 

Finally one comes to the list of those works which had remained 
forgotten for many years. Ph. Em. Bach had remained unplayed 
from '13 to '24. Certain of J. S. Bach's works gathered dust on library 
shelves from '14 to '25, '02 to '28, '15 to '31. Bruckner's Seventh Sym- 
phony, now a popular phonograph classic, had not been heard here for 
nineteen years until the conductor restored it in 1934; and the same 
composer's Eighth had to wait, twenty years for its revival. The list can 
be extended through significant works of Dvorak, Elgar, Glazounov, 
Gluck, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Schubert, Schumann, and even Sibelius 
in the case of the Fourth Symphony, The Sxvan of Tuonela, and the 
Violin Concerto. It includes the Americans Chadwick, Foote, Griffes, 
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[49] 



To give fuller and more detailed statistics could easily grow bore- 
some. Suffice it to say that the main tendencies of the conductor's way 
with the repertoire have been indicated. Truly a repertoire which 
before him had chiefly consisted of works of the Viennese classicists, the 
early and late Romanticists, with an occasional obeisance to the great 
ones of an earlier day and a more frequent nod to contemporaries, be 
they journeymen of masters, has become a veritable dictionary of 
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co-operation of advertisers who believe that the 
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money spent on space in its pages gives adequate 
returns. 

• Because, in many cases, checking on such re- 
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the firms whose advertisements appear in it — either 
personally or through a note when a bill is paid. 

• In this way each member of the audience will 
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high standard of this publication — by justifying the 
advertisers' faith in this medium. 




[51] 



SYMPHONY IN C MINOR, NO. 1, Op. 68 
By Johannes Brahms 

Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897 



The First Symphony of Brahms had its initial performance November 4, 1876, 
at Carlsruhe, Otto Dessoft conducting. 

The first performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra was December 9, 1881. 
The most recent performance in this series took place March 27, 1942. 

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
contra-bassoon, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani and strings. 
The trombones are used only in the finale. 

The known fact that Brahms made his first sketches for the sym- 
phony under the powerful impression of Beethoven's Ninth, which 
he had heard in Cologne for the first time in 1854, may have led his 
contemporaries to preconceive comparisons between the two. Walter 
Niemann, not without justice, finds a kinship between the First Sym- 
phony and Beethoven's Fifth through their common tonality of C 
minor, which, says Niemann, meant to Brahms "hard, pitiless struggle, 
daemonic, supernatural shapes, sinister defiance, steely energy, drama- 
tic intensity of passion, darkly fantastic, grisly humor." He calls it 
"Brahms' Pathetic Symphony." 

The dark and sinister side of the C minor Symphony seems to have 
taken an unwarranted hold on the general consciousness when it was 
new. For a long while controversy about its essential character waxed 
hot after every performance. W. F. Apthorp bespoke one faction when 
he wrote in 1878 of the First Symphony that it "sounds for the most 
part morbid, strained and unnatural; most of it even ugly." Philip 
Hale, following this school of opinion, some years later indulged in a 
symbolic word picture, likening the symphony to a "dark forest" where 
"it seems that obscene, winged things listen and mock the lost." But 
Philip Hale perforce greatly modified his dislike of the music of 
Brahms as with the passage of years its oppressive aspects were somehow 
found no longer to exist. 

Instead of these not always helpful fantasies of earlier writers or a 
technical analysis of so familiar a subject, let us turn to the characteris- 
tic description by Lawrence Gilman, the musician who, when he 
touched upon the finer things in his art, could always be counted upon 
to impart his enthusiasm with apt imagery and quotation: 

The momentous opening of the Symphony (the beginning of an 
introduction of thirty-seven measures, Un poco sostenuto, 6-8) is one 
of the great exordiums of music — a majestic upward sweep of the 
strings against the phrase in contrary motion for the wind, with the 
basses and timpani reiterating a somberly persistent C. The following 

[52] 



VICTOR RED SEAL RECORDS 

by the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEV1TZKY, Conductor 

Also Sprach Zarathustra Strauss 

Battle of Kershenetz Rimsky-Korsakov 

Bolero Ravel 

Capriccio ( Jesus Maria Sanroma, Soloist) Stravinsky 

Classical Symphony Prokofieff 

Concerto for Orchestra in D major K. P. E. Bach 

Concerto Grosso in D minor Vivaldi 

Concerto in D major (Jascha Heifetz, Soloist) Brahms 

Concerto No. 2 (Jascha Heifetz, Soloist) Prokofieff 

Concerto No. 12 — Larghetto Handel 

Damnation of Faust : Minuet — Waltz — Rakoczy March Berlioz 

Danse , Debussy-Ravel 

Daphnis et Chloe — Suite No. 2 Ravel 

filegie ( Violoncello solo : Jean Bedetti ) Faur6 

"Enchanted Lake" Liadov 

Fair Harvard Arr. by Koussevitzky 

Frtihlingsstimmen — Waltzes (Voices of Spring) Strauss 

Gymnopedie No. 1 Erik Satie-Debussy 

"Khovanstchina" Prelude Moussorgsky 

La Valse Ravel 

"La Mer" ("The Sea") Debussy 

Last Spring Grieg 

"Lieutenant Kije" Suite Prokofieff 

Love for Three Oranges — Scherzo and March Prokofieff 

Ma Mere L'Oye (Mother Goose) Ravel 

Mefisto Waltz Liszt 

Missa Solemnis Beethoven 

Passion According to Saint Matthew (Three Albums) Bach 

"Peter and the Wolf" Prokofieff 

Pictures at an Exhibition Moussorgsky-Ravel 

Pohjola's Daughter Sibelius 

"Romeo and Juliet," Overture-Fantasia Tchaikovsky 

Rosamunde — Ballet Music Schubert 

Sal6n Mexico, El Aaron Copland 

San Juan Capistrano — 2 Nocturnes Harl McDonald 

Sarabande Debussy-Ravel 

Song of Volga Boatmen Arr. by Stravinsky 

"Swanwhite" ( "The Maiden with Roses" ) Sibelius 

Symphony No. 1 in B-flat major ( "Spring" ) Schumann 

Symphony No. 2 in D major Beethoven 

Symphony No. 2 in D major Sibelius 

Symphony No. 3 Harris 

Symphony No. 4 in A major ("Italian") Mendelssohn 

Symphony No. 4 in E minor Brahms 

Symphony No. 4 in F minor Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major Sibelius 

Symphony No. 6 in B minor ("Pathetique") Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 8 in F major Beethoven 

Symphony No. 8 in B minor ( "Unfinished" ) Schubert 

Symphony No. 29 in A major Mozart 

Symphony No. 34 in C majci Mozart 

Symphony No. 94 in G major ( "Surprise" ) Haydn 

Symphony No. 102 in B flat major Haydn 

Tapiola ( Symphonic Poem ) , Sibeiius 

Waltz (from String Serenade) . Tchaikovsky 

Wiener Blut — Waltzes ( Vienna Blood ) Strauss 

3 5SC 



Allegro is among the most powerful of Brahms' symphonic move- 
ments. 

In the deeply probing slow movement we get the Brahms who is 
perhaps most to be treasured: the musical poet of long vistas and 
grave meditations. How richly individual in feeling and expression 
is the whole of this Andante sostenuto! No one but Brahms could 
have extracted the precise quality of emotion which issues from the 
simple and heartfelt theme for the strings, horns, and bassoon in the 
opening pages; and trie lovely complement for the oboe is inimitable 
— a melodic invention of such enamouring beauty that it has lured 
an unchallengeably sober commentator into conferring upon it the 
attribute of "sublimity." Though perhaps "sublimity" — a shy bird, 
even on Olympus — is to be found not here, but elsewhere in this 
symphony. 

The third movement (the Poco allegretto e grazioso which takes the 
place of the customary Scherzo) is beguiling in its own special loveli- 
ness; but the chief glory of the symphony is the Finale. 

Here — if need be — is an appropriate resting-place for that diffi- 
dent eagle among epithets, sublimity. Here there are space and air 
and light to tempt its wings. The wonderful C major song of the 
' horn in the slow introduction of this movement (Piu Andante, 4-4) , 
heard through a vaporous tremolo of the muted strings above softly 
held trombone chords, persuaded William Foster Apthorp that the 
episode was suggested to Brahms by "the tones of the Alpine horn, 
as it awakens the echoes from mountain after mountain on some of 
the high passes in the Bernese Oberland." This passage is interrupted 
by a foreshadowing of the majestic chorale-like phrase for the trom- 
bones and bassoons which later, when it returns at the climax of the 
movement, takes the breath with its startling grandeur. And then 
comes the chief theme of the Allegro — that spacious and heartening 
melody which sweeps us onward to the culminating moment in the 
Finale: the apocalyptic vision of the chorale in the coda, which may 
recall to some the exalted prophecy of Jean Paul: "There will come 
a time when it shall be light; and when man shall awaken from 
his lofty dreams, and find his dreams still there, and that nothing has 
gone save his sleep." 

Not until he was forty-three did Brahms present his First Symphony 
to the world. His friends had long looked to him expectantly to carry 
on this particular glorious German tradition. As early as 1854 
Schumann, who had staked his strongest prophecies on Brahms' future, 
wrote to Joachim: "But where is Johannes? Is he flying high, or only 
under the flowers? Is he not yet ready to let drums and trumpets 
sound? He should always keep in mind the beginning of the Beethoven 
symphonies: he should try to make something like them. The begin- 
ning is the main thing; if only one makes a beginning, then the end 
comes of itself." Schumann, that shrewd observer, knew that the brief 
beginnings of Brahms were apt to germinate, to expand, to lead him 
to great ends. Also, that Beethoven, symphonically speaking, would 
be his point of departure. 

[54l 



THE 1943 

BOSTON HERALD , 

BOOK FAIR 



SYMPHONY HALL 

OCTOBER 18,19,20,21 



Again this fall, the Book Fair brings to Boston the 
nation's outstanding authors — Lloyd Douglas, Fannie Hurst, 
Carl Carmer, Colonel Carlos P. Romulo, David Hinshaw, 
Elizabeth Hawes, Milton Caniff, Pierre van Paassen, John 
Roy Carlson, Harlow Shapley, Emily Kimbrough, John Kieran, 
and many others. 

Unusual book displays — including the Thousand Best 
Books of the Year and an extraordinary war art exhibit which 
has probably never been equalled before in Boston. The 
Fair will be open to visitors from 1:30 to 6 p.m., and 7:30 
to II p.m., each day. 

Admission this year is 35 cents, tax paid, with all seats 
reserved. This gives opportunity for large groups to be 
seated together. Information about the Book Fair appears 
daily and Sunday in the Boston Herald. Watch the Herald 
for programmes. Programmes may also be obtained free at 
the Symphony Hall Box Office. 



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BOOK STORES IN GREATER BOSTON 

[553 



To write a symphony after Beethoven was "no laughing matter," 
Brahms once wrote, and after sketching a first movement he admitted 
to Hermann Lev? — "I shall never compose a symphony! You have no 
conception of how the likes of us feel when we hear the tramp of a 
giant like him behind us." 

To study Brahms is to know that this hesitancy was not prompted 
by any craven fear of the hostile pens which were surely lying in wait 
for such an event as a symphony from the newly vaunted apostle of 
classicism. Brahms approached the symphony (and the concerto too) 
slowly and soberly; no composer was ever more scrupulous in the com- 
mitment of his musical thoughts to paper. He proceeded with elaborate 
examination of his technical equipment, with spiritual self-questioning, 
and with unbounded ambition. The result — after a period of fourteen 
years between the first sketch and the completed manuscript — was a 
score which, in proud and imposing independence, in advance upon all 
precedent, has absolutely no rival among the first-born symphonies, 
before or since. 

His first attempt at a symphony, made at the age of twenty, was 
diverted in its aim, the first two movements eventually becoming the 
basis of his piano concerto No. 1, in D minor. He sketched another 
first movement at about the same time (1854), but it lay in his desk for 
years before he felt ready to take the momentous plunge. "For about 
fourteen years before the work appeared," writes D. Millar Craig,* 
"it was an open secret among Brahms' best friends that his first sym- 
phony was practically complete. Professor Lipsius of Leipzig University, 
who knew Brahms well and had often entertained him, told me that 
from 1862 onwards, Brahms almost literally carried the manuscript 
score about with him in his pocket, hesitating to have it made public. 
Joachim and Frau Schumann, among others, knew that the symphony 
was finished, or at all events practically finished, and urged Brahms 
over and over again to let it be heard. But not until 1876 could his 
diffidence about it be overcome." 

It would be interesting to follow the progress of the sketches. We 
know from "Madame Schumann that she found the opening, as origi- 
nally submitted to her, a little bold and harsh, and that Brahms ac- 
cordingly put in some softening touches. "It was at Munster am Stein," 
(1862) says Albert Dietrich, "that Brahms showed me the first move- 
ment of his symphony in C minor, which, however, only appeared 
much later, and with considerable alterations." 

At length (November 4, 1876), Brahms yielded his manuscript to 
Otto Dessoff for performance at Carlsruhe. He himself conducted it at 
Mannheim, a few days later, and shortly afterward at Vienna, Leipzig, 



*British Broadcasting Corporation Orchestra programme notes. 
[56] 



Printing 



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[57] 



and Breslau. Brahms may have chosen Carlsruhe in order that so cru- 
cial an event as the first performance of his first symphony might have 
the favorable setting of a small community, well sprinkled with friends, 
and long nurtured in the Brahms cause. "A little town," he called it, 
"that holds a good friend, a good conductor, and a good orchestra." 
Brahms' private opinion of Dessoff, as we now know, was none too high. 
But Dessoff was valuable as a propagandist. He had sworn allegiance 
to the Brahms colors by resigning from his post as conductor of the 
Vienna Philharmonic because Brahms' Serenade in A major was re- 
fused. A few years before Dessoff at Carlsruhe, there had been Hermann 
Levi, who had dutifully implanted Brahms in the public consciousness. 

Carlsruhe very likely felt honored by the distinction conferred upon 
them — and in equal degree puzzled by the symphony itself. There was 
no abundance of enthusiasm at these early performances, although 
Carlsruhe, Mannheim and Breslau were markedly friendly. The sym- 
phony seemed formidable at the first hearing, ar>d incomprehensible 
— even to those favored friends who had been allowed an advance ac- 
quaintance with the manuscript score, or a private reading as piano 
duet, such as Brahms and Ignatz Briill gave at the home of Friedrich 
Ehrbar in Vienna. Even Florence May wrote of the "clashing disso- 
nances of the first introduction. " Respect and admiration the symphony 
won everywhere. It was apprehended in advance that when the com- 
poser of the Deutsches Requiem at last fulfilled the prophecies of Schu- 
mann and gave forth a symphony, it would be a score to be reckoned 
with. No doubt the true grandeur of the music, now so patent to every- 
one as by no means formidable, would have been generally grasped far 
sooner, had not the Brahmsians and the neo-Germans immediately 
raised a cloud of dust and kept their futile controversy raging for years. 
The First Symphony soon made the rounds of Germany, enjoying 
a particular success in Berlin, under Joachim (November 11, 1877). In 
March of the succeeding year it was also heard in Switzerland and Hol- 
land. The manuscript was carried to England by Joachim for a per- 
formance in Cambridge, and another in London in April, each much 
applauded. The first performance in Boston took place January 3, 
1878, under Carl Zerrahn and the Harvard Musical Association. When 
the critics called it "morbid," "strained," "unnatural," "coldly elabo- 
rated," "depressing and unedifying," Zerrahn, who like others of his 
time knew the spirit of battle, at once announced a second perform- 
ance for January 31. Sir George Henschel, an intrepid friend of 
Brahms, performed the C minor Symphony, with other works of the 
composer, in this orchestra's first year. 

Still more ink has been expended on a similarity admitted even by 
Florence May between the expansive and joyous C major melody sung 
by the strings in the Finale, and the theme of the Hymn to Joy in 

[58] 



^^_3^^^3^~^^3^~^^_3^^4. ~^4^_3^~^4^p£ 



ANNOUNCEMENT 



SIXTEENTH SEASON • 1943-1944 

"Boston zooming ^hCusicales 

for benefit of 
BOSTON SCHOOL of OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 



HOTEL STATLER BALLROOM 

Wednesday mornings at eleven o'clock 



MARIAN ANDERSON . . . November 10 
LUBOSHUTZ and NEMENOFF . . December i 
RICHARD CROOKS .... December 15 

EZIO PINZA January 12 

JOSEPH SZIGETI . . . . . February 16 
GLADYS SWARTHOUT March 8 



Mrs. John W. Myers, Chairman 

Co-Chairmen 
Mrs. William Emerson Barrett 
Mrs. John A. Greene 
Miss Harriet A. Robeson 
Mrs. Theodore T. Whitney, Jr. 
Mrs. H. Parker Whittington 



BOSTON SCHOOL of OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 

7 Harcourt Street, Boston, Mass. 
Telephone: Kenmore 2832 



[59] 



Beethoven's Ninth. The enemy of course raised the cry of "plagiarism." 
But a close comparison of the two themes shows them quite different 
in contour. Each has a diatonic, Volkslied character, and each is in- 
troduced with a sudden radiant emergence. The true resemblance 
between the two composers might rather lie in this, that here, as pat- 
ently as anywhere, Brahms has caught Beethoven's faculty of soaring 
to great heights upon a theme so naively simple that, shorn of its 
associations, it would be about as significant as a subject for a musical 
primer. Beethoven often, and Brahms at his occasional best, could lift 
such a theme, by some strange power which entirely eludes analysis, 
to a degree of nobility and melodic beauty which gives it the unmis- 
takable aspect of immortality. 



^L^ 



01 



TjQ 







© 



(L0@A(L 



10 



[60] 



CHOICEST 
SEATS AT 
SERIES SAVING 




SERIES TICKETS 
208 PIERCE BLDG., 
COPLEY SQUARE 




SYMPHONY HALL 
JORDAN HALL 
OPERA HOUSE 

SELECT 
8 EVENTS 

at reduced 
series prices 

SUN. AFT'S 

excepting 

Ballet, Dunham, 

Thomas 

Skinner 

Kreisler 

Anderson 

Pons 

Posselt 

Serkin 

Arrau 

Ballet 

Heifetz 

Iturbi 

Lehmann 

Peerce 

Curtis Quartet 
Goldovsky 

Budapest 
Quartet 

Dunham & 

Dancers 
Thomas 
Vronsky & 

Babin 

*Cossacks 
*Smeterlin 
*Trapp Family 

*Extia Events 




[61] 



AK 



KREISLER 



Sun. Aft., Oct. 24 
Symphony Hill 



TICKETS AT BOX OFFICE 

JORDAN HALL EVENTS 

THIS SUNDAY AT 3:30 

KLAUS 
G O E T Z E 

Pianist 

Program includes: Hindemith, Third So- 
nata; Josef Suk, "Things loved and dreamed"; 
Beethoven, 32 Variations on an Original 
Theme; works by Haydn (E-flat major So- 
nata) , Schubert (6 Moments Musicaux) , and 
Brahms (E-flat minor Scherzo) (steinway Piano) 





JORDAN HALL 

SAT. MAT. 2:30 — SAT. EVE. 8:30 
SUN. MAT. 3:30 — OCT. 16-17 

3 Programs of Character Sketches 

CORNELIA OTIS 

SKINNER 

New Numbers and Old Favorites 



JAN SMETERLIN — Sun. Aft., October 31 
ISABEL FRENCH— Tues. Eve., November 2 

Tickets for above events at Jordan Hall ^. 

Hear the noted pianist-commentator 
discuss the weekly B. S. O. concerts 

. BORIS 
GOLDOVSKY 

SYMPHONY LUNCHEONS 

COPLEY-PLAZA $2 



Every Friday 

at 

12:15 




Reservations 

(Ken. 5600) 

are advised 



[62] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Second Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, October 15, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, October 16, at 8:15 o'clock 



Berlioz Fantastic Symphony, Op. 14A 

I. Dreams, Passions 

Largo: Allegro agitato e appassionato assai 

II. A Ball 

Waltz: Allegro non troppo 

III. Scene in the Meadows 

Adagio 

IV. March to the Scaffold 

Allegretto non troppo 

V. A Witches' Sabbath 
Larghetto: Allegro 



INTERMISSION 

Lukas Foss "The Prairie" 

(First performance) 

Strauss . .' "Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the Old- 
fashioned, Roguish Manner, in Rondo Form," Op. 28 



This programme will end about 4:20 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:05 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[63] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 

PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 

10 MUSEUM ROAD HIGHLANDS 9419 

JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 
Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
256 Huntington Avenue 

Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK El DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




[64] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 



[Sixty-third Season, 1943-1944] 
SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 







Violins 






BURGIN, R. ELCUS, G. 

Concert-master tapley, r. 

THEODOROWICZ, J. 


LAUGA, N. KRIPS, A. 
KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, 


RESNIKOFF, V. 
P. LEIBOVICI, J. 


HANSEN, E. 
EISLER, D. 


DICKSON, H. 
PINFIELD, C. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 
BEALE, M. 




ZAZOFSKY, G. 
DUBBS, H. 


KNUDSON, C. 
MAYER, P. 


ZUNG, M. 
DIAMOND, S. 


LEVEEN, P. 
DEL SORDO, R. 




GORODETZKY, L. 
HILLYER, R. 


BRYANT, M. 
MURRAY, J. 


STONESTREET, L. 
ERKELENS, H. 


messina, s. 
seiniger, s. 

Violas 




TRAMPLER, W. 
SAUVLET, H. 


LEFRANC, J. 
CAUHAPE, J. 


FOUREL, G. 
ARTIERES, L. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, 
BERNARD, A. 


C. 


GROVER, H. 
WERNER, H. 




LEHNER, E. 
GERHARDT, S. 


KORNSAND, E. 
HUMPHREY, G. 






Violoncellos 






BEDETTI, J. 
ZIGHERA, A. 


LANGENDOEN, J. DROEGHMANS, H. ZEISE, K. 
ZIMBLER, J. NIELAND, 


M. 


FABRIZIO, E. 
MARJOLLET, L. 






Basses 






MOLEUX, G. 
DUFRESNE, G. 


JUHT, L. GREENBERG, H. GIRARD, H, 
FRANKEL, I. PORTNOI, H. PROSE, P. 




BARWICKI, J. 


Flutes 


Oboes 


Clarinets 




Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 
PAPPOUTSAKIS, 
KAPLAN, P. 


GILLET, F. 
J. DEVERGIE, J. 
LUKATSKY, J. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 
YA1.ERIO, M. 
CARDILLO, P. 




ALLARD, R. 
PANENKA, E. 
LAUS, A. 


Piccolo 


English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 




Contra-Bassoon 


MADSEN, G. 


SPEYER, L. 


MAZZEO, R. 




FILLER, B. 


Horns 


Horns 


Trumpets 




Trombones 


VALKENIER, W. 
MACDONALD, W 
MEEK, H. 
KEANEY, P. 


LANNOYE, M. 
SHAPIRO, H. 
GEBHARDT, W. 


MAGER, G. 
LAFOSSE, M. 
VOISIN, R. L. 
VOISIN, R. 




RAICHMAN, J. 
HANSOTTE, L. 
COFFEY, J. 


Tuba 


Harps 


Timpani 




Percussion 


ADAM, E. 


ZIGHERA, B. 
CAUGHEY, E. 


SZULC, R. 

polster, m. 

Librarian 
rogers, l. j. 




STERNBURG, S. 
SMITH, C. 
ARCIERI, E. 




SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY 



AND THE 



BOSTON 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



USE 



THE BALDWIN PIANO 



"The Baldwin Piano for the Orchestra, as 
well as for my own use, is perfection >-* a truly orchestral 
tone, round, full and of magnificent resonance and color. 
1 consider it a great work of musical art." 



TODAY'S GREAT PIANO 



EASTERN HEADQUARTERS: 

THE BALDWIN PIANO 
COMPANY 

20 E. 54th Street. N. Y. C. 
IN BOSTON: 

THE BALDWIN PIANO 
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150 BOYLSTON STREET 

BALDWIN ALSO BUILDS 
HAMILTON, ACROSONIC and HOWARL PIANC 




SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 
Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen N. Penrose Hallo well 

John Nicholas Brown M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[65] 




Estate Analysis 

nOW have wartime changes 
affected your estate plans? A 
Shawmut Estate Analysis will 
help you determine whether 
changes are necessary or desir- 
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TRUST DEPARTMENT 

The Rational 

Shawmut Bank 

Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 

Listen to John Barry with "Frontline Headlines" 
WNAC — Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays at 7:45 p. m. 



[66] 



SYMPHONIANA 

Book Fair at Symphony Hall 
Exhibit 



BOOK FAIR AT SYMPHONY HALL 

The Boston Herald Book Fair, which 
since it was begun in 1937 has become 
a famous New England annual, will 
open in Symphony Hall next Monday, 
October 18, and continue through 
Thursday evening. 

During each of the previous six 
Fairs, thousands of people have come 
to Boston to hear the distinguished au- 
thors who speak at the Fair and to see 
the displays of the year's outstanding 
books. 

As usual, many of the nation's best- 
known authors will speak at the eight 
afternoon and evening programmes. 
Robert Frost will speak at the opening 
session on Monday afternoon. Joseph C. 
Grew, former United States Ambas- 
sador to Japan, will speak at the 
Wednesday afternoon meeting. John 
Kieran, New York Times sports writer 
and wizard of "Information Please," 
will share the "All-American Night" 
programme on Wednesday evening, 
October 21, with Neal O'Hara, Bill 
Cunningham, and Col. Charles P. 
Romulo, General MacArthur's personal 
aide, who was with him during the war 
in the Philippines. 

Among the other prominent authors 
to appear at the Book Fair are Loyd 
Douglas, author of "The Robe"; Bertha 
Damon, author of "A Sense of Humus" ; 
Carroll Alcott, who wrote "My War with 
Japan" ; Henry Morton Robinson, Senior 
Editor of The Readers' Digest and au- 
thor of "Fantastic Interim"; Fannie 
Hurst, indefatigable authoress; Louis 
Untermeyer; Agnes Smedley, author of 
"Babble Hymn of China"; Pierre Van 
Paassen, whose new book, "The For- 
gotten Ally", will be published next 
week; Edward Weeks, editor of The 
Atlantic Monthly; and Marjorie Mills, 
familiar to all New Englanders through 



') 




1918-1943 



Ufc CU& }U> 

This is our greeting to our 
friends, neighbors and all 
who have liked us and 
aided our progress toward 
this pleasant age which en- 
titles us to be taken se- 
riously. It is our silver 
anniversary, but since sil- 
ver has gone to war, and 
many of our fine lads, too, 
we shall just continue to ). 
do consistent, forthright 
shopkeeping and put all 
our surplus energies into 
the cause of Victory. 



[67] 



Under the New 
Slim Silhouette 




Warner's LeGant Royale 
Sta-Up-Top 

The smartest girdle in the best qual- 
ity that can be obtained under war-time 
restrictions. • 

The fine workmanship and detail of 
these superb foundations is in keeping 
with our purpose, in War or Peace, of 
offering only the best at whatever price 
your budget dictates. 

GIRDLES - BRAS - LINGERIE 
SWEATERS - SKIRTS - HOSIERY 
DRESSES - HATS - SPORTSWEAR 



K^-ota K^IkivlJLL 



et 4 



50 TEMPLE PLACE 



her food columns and author of the 
recently published "Cooking on a 
Ration". 

A special war exhibit will include a 
series of paintings by the famous Ameri- 
can artist, Thomas Benton. These include 
eight original canvases which have been 
shown only once before — in New York 
at the Associated American Artists Gal- 
leries — where more than 50,000 saw 
them in two weeks' time. The latest 
work of this series is a new canvas 
called "Invasion," which will go on ex- 
hibition at the Book Fair for the first 
time anywhere. These paintings are part 
of the Abbott Laboratories' collection 
of war art, which is to be donated to 
the United States Government later for 
use in furthering the war effort. They 
are being lent to the Herald Book Fair 
through the courtesy of that organiza- 
tion. The Abbott Laboratories has fur- 
nished in the past year the material for 
80 per cent of the Treasury's War Bond 
posters, thirteen original canvases of 
which will be shown at the Book Fair 
showing the works of Paul Sample, 
James Chapin, Andrew Ruellan, Marion 
Greenwood, Aaron Bohrod, Peter Helck, 
Cathal O'Toole, Robert Benney, Thomas 
Benton, William Gropper, Carlos An- 
derson, David Stone Martin, and John 
Steuart Curry. 

Along with this colorful display the 
collection of Vernon Howe Bailey will 
be on exhibition. Mr. Bailey, who is 
under contract to the United States 
Government, has drawn and painted 
forty-five pictures having to do with the 
United States Navy land activities. 
These are lent by the Office of War 
Information. 

To all aviation fans there will be a 
treat this year at the Fair because "Fly- 
ing," the dominant aeronautical journal, 
has furnished a display of color photo- 
graphs of every conceivable type of 
airplane now used by the United States 
Army. This will be supplemented by 
another similar aviation exhibit, fur- 
nished by the Naval Aviation Division 
of the United States Navy. 

Milton Caniff, the artist who draws 



[68] 



"Terry and the Pirates" comic strip, 
will furnish an exhibition of drawing 
and sketches, showing how he produces 
his work, from beginning to the finished 
product. Mr. Caniff also will speak at 
the Fair on Tuesday evening, October 
19. 

Perennially popular exhibits like the 
"1,000 Best Books of the Year," the 
year's best books for boys and girls, and 
the finest reprints will be repeated this 
year. 

There will be a special display of 
outstanding books about music. 

Visitors may see the exhibits from 
1:30 to 6 p.m. and from 7:30 to 11 p.m. 
each day. Speaking programmes will 
begin at 3 and 8:30. 

The Boston Herald Book Fair is a 
non-profit, non-commercial enterprise 
sponsored by the Herald and the book- 
sellers of New England. Nothing is 
sold at the Fair, although visitors may 
leave orders for books at an order desk 
located near the exhibits. 

General admission is thirty-five cents 
with all seats reserved. Tickets are on 
sale at the Box Office. 

• • • 

EXHIBIT 

In the First Balcony Gallery is to 
be seen a portrait of Dr. Koussevitzky 
painted by Boris Chaliapin, as well as 
a bronze bust of the conductor by the 
late Madame Koussevitzky. Several ex- 
hibit cases contain items of interest at 
this beginning of Dr. Koussevitzky's 
twentieth year as conductor of the Bos- , 
ton Symphony Orchestra. 

There is also on exhibit a collection 
of paintings by W. Lester Stevens. A f 
member of the National Academy, he I 
first studied with Parker S. Perkins and i 
later at the School of the Museum of 
Fine Arts in Boston. He first became I 
known to the art public when he was i 
awarded the Fourth William A. Clark | 
Prize at the Corcoran Art Gallery. 
Since then he has been awarded over a 
dozen outstanding awards. His paint- 
ings are owned both privately and by 
museums in every State of the Union 
and in many foreign countries. 




ay, 

Yriote "than efor 9 
so a s.Wp 



taste is important . . . 

this is no time for short-lived fads. It is a 
time for fundamentals. A time when 
Fredleys' clothes come into their own, for 
in them you find the well-bred simplicity 
that endures ... 

quality is important . . . 

in clothes as in everything else, quality is 
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Fredleys', no matter how much or how 
little you spend . . . 

value is important . . . 

good clothes have always proved a good 
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time is important . . . 

At Fredleys' you can accomplish more in 
less time. Here is selective service in the 
hands of skilled salespeople in an atmos- 
phere gracious and refreshing. Whether 
you stay a few minutes or a few hours, 
you're glad you came . . . 




. *, MO yoytytn jfoet 



[6 9 ] 



Old Colony 

Trust Company 

ONE FEDERAL STREET, BOSTON 



T. Jefferson Coolidge 
Chairman 



Channing H. Cox 
President 




Investment and Management 
of Property 



Custodian 

Trustee * Guardian 

Executor 



^Allied with The First National Bank ^Boston 



[70] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Second Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, October 15, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, October 16, at 8:15 o'clock 



Berlioz Fantastic Symphony, Op. 14A 

I. Dreams, Passions 

Largo: Allegro agitato e appassionato assai 

II. A Ball 

Waltz: Allegro non troppo 

III. Scene in the Meadows 

Adagio 

IV. March to the Scaffold 

Allegretto non troppo 

V. A Witches' Sabbath 
Larghetto: Allegro 



INTERMISSION 

Lukas Foss "The Prairie" 

(First performance) 

Strauss "Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, after the Old- 
fashioned, Roguish Manner, in Rondo Form," Op. 28 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:20 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:05 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



[71] 



dati fvt&fai^ 



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with^ pride by the 
world's loveliest women 
. . . styled by Jordan 
Marsh with the artistry 
it deserves. 

$850 to $2500 (plus tax) 

FUR SALON THIRD FLOOR 




[72] 



FANTASTIC SYMPHONY (SYMPHON1E FANTASTIQUE), 

Op. 14A 

By Hector Berlioz 

Born at la Cote Saint-Andre (Isere) , December 11, 1803; died in Paris, March 9, 1869 



Berlioz's title, "Episode in the Life of an Artist," Op. 14, included two works: 
"The Fantastic Symphony" and "Lelio; or, The Return to Life," a lyric monodrama. 

The Symphony, composed in 1830, had its first performance December 5 of that 
year at the Conservatoire in Paris, Habeneck conducting. 

The first performance in the United States was at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society of New York, Carl Bergmann conducting, January 27, 1866. The Symphony 
was first performed in Boston by the Harvard Musical Association, February 12, 
1880, and first performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, December 19, 1885. 
The most recent performance at these concerts was on December 20, 1940. 

It is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, English horn, two clarinets and 
E-flat clarinet, four bassoons, two cornets-a-pistons, two trumpets, four horns, three 
trombones, two tubas, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, chimes, two harps, 
and strings. 

The score is dedicated to Nicholas I. of Russia. 

No description of the "Fantastic Symphony," or its composer, will 
ever approach in vividness his letters of the time, and the narrative 
found in his own memoirs. The following letter (of February 6, 1830) 



MARY HAD A LITTLE LAMB 




*£g?^ 



*$&. 



S^tf* 5 



In The Styles Of 

FRANCK, SCHUMANN, BACH, 
BRAHMS, R. STRAUSS, PUCCINI, 
STRAVINSKY, GERSHWIN, SOUSA 
J. STRAUSS 1 

STILL YOUNGER J 



[, 



Published by: 

THE ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT CO. 
120 Boylston St. Boston 12, Mass. 

For Sale at all Music Stores 



[73] 



gives a glimpse of the Berlioz bursting with love for an actress he had 
never met, and possessed with ideas for a symphony he was about to 
write. The letter is addressed to his friend Humbert Ferrand: 

"I am again plunged in the anguish of an interminable and inex- 
tinguishable passion, without motive, without cause. She is always at 
London, and yet I think I feel her near me: all my remembrances 
awake and unite to wound me; I hear my heart beating, and its pulsa- 
tions shake me as the piston strokes of a steam engine. Each muscle 
of my body shudders with pain. In vain! 'Tis terrible! O unhappy 
one! if she could for one moment conceive all the poetry, all the 
infinity of a like love, she would fly to my arms, were she to die 
through my embrace. I was on the point of beginning my great sym- 
phony ('Episode in the Life of an Artist'), in which the development 
of my infernal passion is to be portrayed; I have it all in my head, 
but I cannot write anything. Let us wait." 

The object of Berlioz's love, by turn divine and "infernal," was of 
course Harriet (Henrietta) Smithson, the statuesque and "golden- 
voiced" Shakespearean actress from Ireland. He had not met Miss 
Smithson — knew her as yet only by the pathos of her Ophelia or Juliet, 
conveyed to him in a language entirely strange as he shivered with 
frenzy at his place in the stalls. The "Fantastic Symphony" was Berlioz's 
declaration of passion for the lovely tragedian. It was by its performance 



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that he convinced her of his sincerity and finally won her as his wife. 

"M. Berlioz was madly in love with this woman for three years/' 
wrote Julien Tiersot, "and it is to this passion that we owe the savage 
symphony that we hear today." It is possible to demur that there 
might still have been a "Fantastic Symphony," or something very like 
it, without Harriet Smithson, just as there might still have been a 
"Tristan and Isolde," if Mathilde Wesendonck had never entered the 
life of Richard Wagner. One may believe that Berlioz's state of mind 
and k~art could have found fuel elsewhere if the Irish beauty had 
never crossed the English channel; when she returned to London the 
flame raged with equal ferocity over Camille Moke, the diminutive 
pianist who never gave him more than a grudging share of her heart, 
and the symphony progressed without abatement.* But the actress, or 
that composite of Ophelia and Juliet which in 1830 dominated his 
fervid imagination, was indisputably the center of the vortex of his 
feelings as the score took its shape. The music became the mirror of the 
unreined speculations of the artist, as he paced boulevards and quays 
through sleepless nights, was racked by emotional storms which he 



*Hippeau has tried to build a case that Berlioz's vengeful feelings in the "Fantastic" were 
really prompted by the inconstant Camille. Tiersot assembles the evidence of dates to 
disprove him. 



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himself had worked up. He allowed himself to be carried away by 
waking nightmares of macabre imaginings. 

The image of his beloved one is expressed in a constantly recurring 
melody, an "idie fixe" as he called it, an obsessing idea which is almost 
a pathological "fixation," persisting in the music as in the artist's 
thoughts, becoming by turn impassioned, beatific, remote, ignoble, ac- 
cording to the nature of the changing scene. 

The following programme was published in the score: 

PROGRAMME 

OF THE SYMPHONY 

A young musician of morbid sensibility and ardent imagination poisons himself 
with opium in a fit of amorous despair. The narcotic dose, too weak to result in 
death, plunges him into a heavy sleep accompanied by the strangest visions, during 
which his sensations, sentiments, and recollections are translated in his sick brain 
into musical thoughts and images. The beloved woman herself has become for him 
a melody, like a fixed idea which he finds and hears everywhere. 

PART I 

DREAMS, PASSIONS 

He first recalls that uneasiness of soul, that vague des passions, those moments of 
causeless melancholy and joy, which he experienced before seeing her whom he 
loves; then the volcanic love with which she suddenly inspired him, his moments 
of delirious anguish, of jealous fury, his returns to loving tenderness, and his 
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[79] 



PART II 
A BALL 
He sees his beloved at a ball, in the midst of the tumult of a brilliant fete. 

PART III 

SCENE IN THE FIELDS 
One summer evening in the country he hears two shepherds playing a ranz-des- 
vaches in alternate dialogue; this pastoral duet, the scene around him, the light 
rustling of the trees gently swayed by the breeze, some hopes he has recently con- 
ceived, all combine to restore an unwonted calm to his heart and to impart a more 
cheerful coloring to his thoughts; but she appears once more, his heart stops beat- 
ing, he is agitated with painful presentiments; if she were to betray himl . . . One 
of the shepherds resumes his artless melody, the other no longer answers him. The 
sun sets . . . the sound of distant thunder . . . solitude . . . silence. . . . 

PART IV 
MARCH TO THE SCAFFOLD 
He dreams that he has killed his beloved, that he is condemned to death, and 
led to execution. The procession advances to the tones of a march which is now 
sombre and wild, now brilliant and solemn, in which the dull sound of the tread 
of heavy feet follows without transition upon the most resounding outburst. At the 
end, the fixed idea reappears for an instant, like a last love-thought interrupted by 
the fatal stroke. 

PART V 
WALPURGISNIGHT'S DREAM 
He sees himself at the witches' Sabbath, in the midst of a frightful group of 
ghosts, magicians, and monsters of all sorts, who have come together for his obse- 
quies. He hears strange noises, groans, ringing laughter shrieks to which other 
shrieks seem to reply. The beloved melody again reappears; but it has lost its noble 
and timid character; it has become an ignoble, trivial, and grotesque dance-tune; it 




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is she who conies to the witches' Sabbath. . . . Howlings of joy at her arrival . . . 
she takes part in the diabolic orgy. . . . Funeral knells, burlesque parody on the 
Dies Irae. Witches' dance. The witches' dance and the Dies Irae together. 

The originality of the "Fantastic Symphony" lay not in its pro- 
gramme: unbridled, Hoffmannesque fantasy was the order of the day 
in France, though Berlioz worked up a fever some degrees above that 
of Hugo or Chateaubriand. He led the pace in his craze for Shake- 
speare and for Harriet Smithson — but he was by no means alone in 
his enthusiasm. The English Bard had become the topic of every 
salon, and so had his fair purveyor from Ireland. It was the theatrical 
idol of Paris upon whom the unknown student boldly set his heart. 
But that quality in Berlioz which set him above his fellows was a 
burning power directly to transfer his emotions into music, suffusing 
it completely with his mood, his "vagues des passions," his melan- 
choly of solitude. 

When Berlioz composed his "immense symphony," as he called it, 
with an eye to startling Parisian audiences, and to impressing Miss 
Smithson herself with the depth and enormity of his feelings, he had 
reason for content in having achieved a score truly monstrous for its 
time. For it should be borne in mind that symphonic music by the 
year 1830 had never departed from strictly classical proprieties. The 
waltz had never risen above the ballroom level. Beethoven had been 



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[83] 



dead but a few years and the "Pastoral Symphony" and "Leonore" 
Overtures were still the last word in descriptive music. Even opera 
with its fondness for eery subjects had produced nothing more 
graphic than the Wolf's Glen scene from "Der Freischutz" — musical 
cold shivers which Berlioz had heard at the Opera and absorbed with 
every fibre in his being. Wagner was still an obscure student of seven- 
teen with all of his achievement still ahead of him. Liszt was not to 
invent the "symphonic poem" for nearly twenty years, and the later 
flood of programme music would be deeply indebted to its precursor of 
two decades. This piece of bold and vivid coloring, descriptive music 
in the fullest sense, finding its own form with clarity and precision of 
detail, was the first important, the first lasting effort of a youth of 
twenty-five. He was an aspirant of the Prix de Rome, a little-trained 
and intractable student, looked down upon with cold disfavor for the 
most part by the officialdom, the musical grammarians of the 
Conservatoire. He had contrived some performances of his early mu- 
sical attempts and had attracted some attention, but those performances 
were notorious, and had put him in bad odor with all musical "right 
thinking." When the "Fantastic" was performed at the Conservatory, 
November 19, 1830, Cherubini, the venerable director who according 
to Berlioz did his best to prevent it, pointedly stayed outside, and when 




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asked afterwards whether he had heard it, answered sourly with his 
thick Italian accent: "Ze n'ai pas besoin d'aller savoir comment il ne 
faut pas faire." 

M. Boschot points out that Berlioz finally abandoned his printed 
programme, allowing the bare titles to suffice. The question thus re- 
solves itself to the inevitable basis of music serving its own ends. As 
music, the symphony must stand for final judgment, and as music 
freed from the prejudices which literary extravagances usually breed, 
it can best survive the tests of balance and continence, integration of 
style, perfection of workmanship. It should always be remembered that 
these literary extravagances did not really give birth to the music, but 
were the composer's post facto attempt to justify it. Unfortunately, they 
had the wrong effect upon the public, who could not see that while 
word images ran away with Berlioz's judgment, tonal images did not. 
When the music, however vivid, possessed him, the sure instinct and 
fine control of the master were never relaxed. 

Robert Schumann, defending the "Fantastic Symphony," made a 
tactical advance upon a general prejudice against its verbal explana- 
tions by approaching it purely as a piece of musical structure, establish- 
ing its fundamental soundness as a symphony before so much as 




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mentioning its labels. The Symphony has never had a more tactful 
apologia than this one by the constant friend of untrammelled fantasy. 
Writing perhaps for the benefit of those German pedants who dis- 
approved of "signboards" in music, he pointed out in effect that the 
score needs no interlineal programme, for it weaves its own fantasy 
with inescapable forcefulness. With remarkable discernment, con- 
sidering that he had seen it only in piano score, Schumannn lays 
his finger upon the essential virtues of the music: "If, as M. Fetis 
declares,* not even Berlioz's best friends dare break a lance for him 
in regard to melody, then I must be counted among his enemies. . . . 
His melodies are distinguished by such intensity of almost every tone, 
that like some old folk-songs they will scarcely bear a harmonic accom- 
paniment, and even seem to lose in fulness of tone when accompanied. 
. . . His melodies are not to be listened to with the ears alone, else 
they will pass by misunderstood by those who do not know how to 

'Berlioz had brought the eternal enmity of this influential French critic upon his head by 

denouncing him in the very text of his "Lelio," declaimed publicly while Fetis sat in his box. 



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[88] 



sing them in their hearts; but for those who do, they possess a meaning 
that seems to grow deeper the more often they are heard." 

"It was immediately after my first effort at setting 'Faust,' " wrote 
Berlioz in his memoirs, "and while I was yet strongly under the in- 
fluence of Goethe's poem, that I wrote my 'Symphonie F antastique .' 
Some portions cost me great labor, while others were composed with 
incredible ease. For instance, I labored for three weeks over the Adagio 
(Scene aux Champs), which always affects the public so keenly — and 
myself too, for that matter — and two or three times gave it up as 
hopeless. 'La Marche au Suppli.ce,' on the other hand, was written in 
one night. Still, I kept on adding finishing touches to both numbers, 
and to the whole work for several years." It is not strictly true that 
he wrote his Symphony in a single burst of inspiration. The "idee 
fixe," the long-breathed melody of the romantic lover which is de- 
veloped or reverted to in each movement, may be found almost bar 
for bar with little variation in the cantata "Herminie" with which he 



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took the second prize in the Academie des Beaux-Arts competition in 
the same year. It can be traced back to his twelfth year when he "fell in 
love, desperately, hopelessly" with Estelle Debceuf, the girl of eighteen 
at St. Andre whose beautiful "pink shoes" completed his captivation. 
Hurt and mortified when his evident infatuation only caused smiles of 
amusement, the boy of the precocious heart poured his melancholy, 
his "mal d'isolement," into a melody as a setting for Florian's "Estelle 
et Nemorin." The song was destroyed and, as he believed, lost,* but 
he remembered it when he composed the "Fantastic Symphony." "No, 
time itself is powerless — no after-loves can blot out the first," wrote 
Berlioz, and the same can be said of his first vivid musical impulses. 
"When I began to write my 'Symphonie Fantastique,' in 1829, tne 
melody came back to me, and, as it seemed to express the overwhelm- 
ing grief of a young heart in the pangs of a hopeless passion, I wel- 
comed it. It is the air for the first violins at the opening of the largo 
in the first part of the work — Reveries, Passions; I put it in just as 
it was." The "March to the Scaffold," if Tiersot's theory is correct, 
was none other than a "Marche des gardes" which Berlioz wrote in 
1826 for the unperformed opera "Les Francs Jugues." He added the 
melody of the idee fixe in a few bars inserted at the end. The students 
of Berlioz further suppose that the waltz measures may have first come 

* The song has survived in a copy which was made at the time. 



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[91] 



to his mind as a sketch for "Faust"; that the final orgy, the "Witches' 
Sabbat," may have first taken shape as a "Walpurgisnacht" for a pro- 
jected "Faust" ballet at the Opera. The Symphony, as such, underwent 
rewriting and retouching long after the perfervid months when Ber- 
lioz's infatuation for the Irish Ophelia was at its crest. In other words, 
it is far more than a specific record of his love for Henrietta Smithson. 
The sceptical might call it a thrifty garnering of unused fragments — 
an exhibition of careful husbandry. They might go further and say 
that he stretched the plausibilities beyond all reason in incorporating 
a waltz, a march, an orgy into a symphony of romantic passion. 
Adolphe Boschot, whose biography adds penetrating understanding to 
scholarship, points out that it possesses a true unity over and above 
its disparate elements and its preposterous story, a unity by virtue of 
the passion which filled the "jeune romantique" in this particular 
period, burned with a constant flame, and fired his imagination to a 
frenzy which had like musical consequences, whether the object of the 
moment was Estelle, Henrietta, or the bewitching Camille Moke. "In 
every part this work bears so aptly the character of 1830, it is so pre- 
cisely the musical reflection of the sensibility of the Berlioz of the 
epoch (and also it contains so much of his youth) that, studying it, 
one does not look for perfection. To tell the truth, it is born, it comes 
to life as of the spring of 1830." 




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[93l 



BERLIOZ'S "HENRIETTE" 

Harriet Constance Smithson (whom Berlioz called "Henri- 
ette"), winning the adulation of literary and theatre-going Paris, 
could hardly have failed to come to the ardent attention of the 
youthful Berlioz. For Shakespeare, first beheld upon the boards of 
Paris at that time, was the true craze, the glowing topic of the hour, 
and this craze, Berlioz, constituted as he was, could never have escaped. 
In 1827, as Julien Tiersot, studying the period, has pointed out, 
Shakespeare was virtually unknown in Paris. An English troupe had in- 
vaded the city in 1823, Dut memories of Waterloo then still lingered in 
the popular mind; they were hissed from the stage. In 1827 another 
company took possession of the Odeon with far different success. 
Eugene Delacroix wrote to Victor Hugo that the neighboring streets 
of the Odeon were "trembling under the wheels of carriages. The 
consequences of this innovation are incalculable. There is a Mile. 
Smythson who makes a furore." Hugo paid his homage to Shakespeare 
as "Dante and Homer in one," and Alexander Dumas compared his 
sensations to those of a blind man first given sight, an Adam first open- 
ing his eyes upon the Garden of Eden: "O Shakespeare, merci! O 
Kemble et Smithson, merci! merci a mon dieu! merci a mes anges de 
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Paris, in the full flux of its wave of romanticism, was enraptured 
at the grisly scene of Hamlet contemplating the skull of Yorick at 
Ophelia's grave. They were enthralled at the mad scene of Ophelia. 
Few knew English, but this left Miss Smithson the full advantage of 
the sheer music of her voice. The audience was agreeably oblivious 
of a certain Irish accent which stood in the way of her acceptance in 
London. The meaning was clear enough, and the dulcet tones of the 
actress in her snatches of song made their inescapable effect. Charles 
Jarrin, a spectator, wrote in his memoirs: 

"Ophelia entered. General surprise. There was nothing of the slight 
and diaphanous creature one had expected, nothing of the elf about 
to take flight. We had before us a fair person of rather more than 
average figure. Her young bosom was concealed by a neat white dress, 
her arms bare; her neck charming, firmly molded, was that of a young 
woman in the full and rich development of her beauty. Her face was 
regular, slightly rounded, her complexion of a whiteness to which the 
art of cosmetics was as nothing. Great blue eyes, wide opened, full of 
light and of suffering, transfigured the woman. A spontaneous burst 
of applause greeted that glance. Ophelia, reassured, began her pitiable 
song. Most of us hardly knew her language; but at once we understood, 
every soul of us, her deep sob, the absolute despair which it revealed, 
the advance shudders of the madness to come. The silence which hung 




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over the deeply moved audience was broken at the first delirious 
cry, by the warmest demonstration of 'bravos' I have ever heard." 

In those audiences, probably none succumbed as completely to the 
spell of Shakespeare as the youthful Hector Berlioz, and Shakespeare's 
Ophelia became inextricably associated with Henrietta in that sub- 
jugation. 

Berlioz beheld "Hamlet" at the Odeon, September 11, 1827, five days 
after her debut. On September 15 he saw her "Juliet" and was entirely 
overwhelmed. "At the end of the third act, scarcely able to breathe, 
I fled with a feeling as though an iron hand held my heart in its grip. 
I cried out, 'Ah, I am lost!' I must add that I did not then know a 
syllable of English, that I only dimly discerned Shakespeare through the 
misty medium of Letourneur's translation." 

Berlioz then refers to an article printed years later in the Illustrated 
London News to the effect "that, after seeing Miss Smithson as Juliet, 
I cried out, 'I will marry that woman! and I will write my greatest 
symphony on that play!'* I did both; but I never said anything of the 
kind. My biographer has endowed me with a vaster ambition than I 
possessed." He did marry her five years later, but was "too over- 
whelmed to dream of such a thing at the time." Instead, he kept away 



- Berlioz sketched his Dramatic Symphony, "Romeo and Juliet" in 1829, published and 
performed it ten years later. 




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from the English theatre: "more experiences of that sort would have 
killed me." 

To become known to the famous actress as one not entirely ob- 
scure and unworthy of her interest, Berlioz agitated for a concert 
of his works at the Conservatoire, and achieved his end. But he learned 
later that "absorbed in her own brilliant career, she never even heard 
of my name, my struggles, my concert, or my success!" 

He plied her with letters which remained unanswered. They fright- 
ened her, and she ordered her maid not to take in any more of them. 
As the French season of the company drew to a close, he arranged 
to have one of his overtures played before the rise of the curtain at a 
benefit performance at which she was to appear. He entered the theater 
as the actors were in rehearsal. "I came in just as the poor distracted 
Romeo carries Juliet off in his arms. As my eyes fell on the Shake- 
spearean group, I gave a loud cry and rushed out of the theatre, wildly 
wringing my hands. Juliet had seen and heard me [her first sight 
of Berlioz]. I had frightened her. Indicating me, she begged the 
other actors on the stage to watch that gentleman whose eyes augured 
no good." At the performance, Miss Smithson, busy with prepara- 
tions in her greenroom, knew nothing of the overture. 

Berlioz next decided to compose a symphony of which she herself 
should be the center, which would make such a sensation that she 
would be compelled at last to recognize his existence. He worked upon 
his score, although its object was back in London, pursuing her pro- 
fession there. He wrote to Humbert Ferrand on April 16, 1830, out- 
lining the scheme of his symphony. It is noteworthy that in this early 
version the artist is described as taking his dose of opium only before 
the last two movements. Thus the March and Sabbat alone become 
nightmares attributable to the drug; the first three movements are 
the "lively imaginings" of the dreamer in his normal state. In this 
same letter he writes: "I have experienced terrible hurricanes, and 
my vessel has cracked and groaned horribly, but at last it has righted 
itself; it now sails tolerably well." Whereupon he hints at "frightful 
truths, discoverable and indisputable." He had evidently been listen- 
ing to gossip besmirching the character of Miss Smithson. Any such 
scandal was untrue, as he was to find out later, but for the present 
it well served his purpose of taking vengeance upon her in his sym- 
phony. Vengeance there must be, otherwise how to justify the inclu- 
sion of a ghoulish orgy (a particularly effective climax, ready to 
hand) in a symphony of the pining lover? Hence the loved one ap- 
pears in the final movement as "only a courtesan worthy to figure 
in such an orgy." 

He arranged a concert at which the symphony was to be performed 
at the Nouveautes in May, Miss Smithson having returned to Paris. 

[101] 



It was to be a monster performance with "two hundred and twenty 
players." He wrote to Ferrand in anticipation on May 13 that the 
vengeance would not be too great, although he did not really wish 
to avenge himself. "I pity her and I despise her. She is an ordinary 
woman, endowed with an instinctive genius for expressing the lacera- 
tions of the human soul, but she has never felt them, and she is in- 
capable of conceiving an immense and noble sentiment, as that with 
which I honored her." One hundred and thirty musicians assembled 
for rehearsal. But there was no place for them upon the small stage, 
and there was an appalling shortage of desks. The confusion was 
complete. The concert was never given. "Thus my plan fell to the 
ground for want of a few stools and desks." He heard that she too had 
been listening to gossip, believed him an epileptic, and in a rage 
of despair wandered for two days without sleep, over the plains out- 
side of Paris. His friends searched for him in vain — even looked in 
the morgue. 

Meanwhile, the famous actress found herself famous no longer. 
Her vogue had passed. She was obliged to accept small walking-on 
parts. Berlioz, whether or not he was influenced by the sudden loss of 
glamour in his heroine, turned to a new passion. Camille Moke (Marie 
Felicite Denise Moke), the charming eighteen-year-old pianist who 
made up in beauty what she lacked in artistic understanding, was soon 
in his heart and on his tongue at every possible moment. "My ravish- 
ing Sylph, my Ariel, my life," was his description of her to the patient 
and much enduring Ferrand. Taking the Prix de Rome, he found 
himself obliged to leave Paris for Rome, and urged marriage upon her. 
When her mother would not consent, he could not bring himself to 
forfeit his scholarship, and took a reluctant departure. 

When the news came that she had married another — a middle-aged 
but wealthy manufacturer of pianos — Camille Pleyel, he took the first 
coach for Paris with pistols in his pockets and murder in his heart. 
At Nice he thought better of his folly, survived a crisis, and returned 
to Rome. (The details of this mad journey are entertainingly told in 
the Memoirs.) When Harriet Smithson returned to Paris, the interest 
of Berlioz was revived. He met her at last, and again wooed her with the 
symphony. A performance was given on December 5, 1830, there was 
considerable excitement, the march was encored — but Miss Smithson 
was not present. Berlioz had with questionable judgment arranged the 
concert on the same date in which a benefit was given for her at the 
Opera. Again, on December 9, 1832, the "Fantastic" was performed, 
with its companion piece, "Lelio." 

This time, Miss Smithson was induced to attend. The reference to 
the "courtesan" had long since been excised from the programme, and 
there was no scandal. She was impressed — even flattered. Berlioz re- 

[ 102 ] 




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newed his proposals of marriage, and when he went so far as to take 
poison before her eyes, she yielded at last. In March, descending from 
a carriage, she fell and broke her leg. The accident marked the end 
of her stage career, for it left her with a perceptible limp. In October, 
1833, Berlioz married a woman whose beauties were fading, whose 
glories were of the past, who had little to bring him but a certain 
affection barbed with jealousy and a disheartening burden of debts. 
Berlioz found simple lodgings for her in the Montmartre, took faithful 
care of her, according to his meagre purse. After a while they no longer 
attempted to live together. As Legouve has written: "He went to see 
her as a friend, for he had never ceased to love her, he loved her as much 
as ever; but he loved her differently, and that difference had produced 
a chasm between them." Berlioz formed an alliance with Marie Recio, 
a singer of indifferent abilities who caused the rightful Mme. Berlioz 
some bitter hours and became a burden to Berlioz by accompanying 
him upon his concert tours and forcing herself upon his programmes. 
The once-Ophelia died March 3, 1854. In October, out of a sense of 
obligation, he married Mile. Recio and thus prolonged a second un- 
happy alliance. J. n. b. 



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[ 104] 



ENTR'ACTE 
THE PUBLIC - HAS IT CHANGED? 

By Eugene Goossens 

(Reprinted from Modern Music, January-February, 1943) 



Contemplating with a reminiscent and somewhat jaundiced eye 
the stretch of years between the last war and the present day, I am 
moved to ruminate upon the progress (or otherwise) of the so-called 
contemporary idiom in music, and ponder the reactions of the public 
towards it during these past twenty-five years. Most of us have by 
now formed an opinion concerning the worth and durability of the 
idioms encountered during that period — up to and including the years 
of disgrace 1939-1943. Few, however, have been in a position to ob- 
serve, on the one hand, the varying degrees of boredom, apathy, be- 
wilderment, resentment, consternation; and on the other, enthusiasm, 
excitement, amazement, acclamation and fervor, manifested by the 
audiences who have frequented our concert halls during this fright- 
ening period of flux and perturbation of creative spirit. It has been 
my privilege to bring forward much new music to public attention 
since those remote days when "the war to end all wars" fizzled out, 
to its ineffective end — and people began to turn to the pursuit of 
things of peace and of the spirit under the misapprehension that the 
god of tranquil pursuits was once more in his heaven and all was right 
with the world. 

I had watched the hysterical enthusiasm of the pre-war London and 
Paris audiences created by Diaghilev between 1909 and 1914, for those 
meaty dishes of Moussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin, seasoned 
with the highly spiced novelties of the early Stravinsky, middle Ravel, 
Strauss, Debussy et al. The Babylonian season of Russian Ballet and 
opera at Drury Lane two months before Sarajevo was the culminating 
point of this era. 

I had taken part in the post-war renaissance of those early roaring 
twenties when scarcely a week passed without the production of some 
significant piece of ballet, symphonic or operatic music, and when 
Diaghilev (whose company I conducted) again held sway because of 
his unerring infallibility of taste and his capacity to inspire those who 
surrounded him to a frenzy of creative exuberance. Again, all this to 
the accompaniment of vociferous enthusiasm on the part of the public. 
In 1921 I had given half a dozen expensive concerts of contemporary 
music in London, with a specially picked orchestra; and another half- 
dozen chamber concerts, the artistic results of which were as admirable 
as the financial ones were lamentable. The public swooned in an 

[ 105 ] 



ecstasy of admiration. In '23, I was a member of the jury for the First 
Festival of the International Society for Contemporary Music at 
Salzburg. Bartok, Casella, Ansermet and I had sat in Zurich poring 
over three hundred orchestral scores, and in four anguished days had 
finally selected fifteen of them for performance. The public, from all 
corners of the earth, nocked to the festival to admire and applaud. 

In the fall of that year, as conductor of the newly-formed Rochester 
Philharmonic Orchestra, I arrived in New York just in time to witness 
the foundation of The League of Composers, and later to conduct 
many of the conceits of its predecessor, the International Composers' 
Guild. The New York public, curious but vaguely hostile, smiled 
tolerantly, but nevertheless turned up in fair numbers at Aeolian Hall. 
Muriel Draper gave a pre- 19 14 cachet to the crowd in the foyer and 
Florence Mills sang songs by William Grant Still to the great joy 
of Toscanini — and many up-town visitors. Carl Ruggles, however, 
successfuly scared everybody with his New England starkness and 
gave us anxious moments in performance. Three years later, conduct- 
ing the first concert performance of Stravinsky's Sacre given by the 
New York Symphony Orchestra, I witnessed the spontaneous exodus 



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of all Friday afternoon subscrib- 
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(Helen Hokinson would have 
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trast to this was the performance 
of Antheil's Ballet Mecanique in 
the same year at Carnegie. Ten 
pianists, two aeroplane propellers, 
a pianola, electric balls, a steel 
sheet, nine rehearsals, twelve im- 
perturbable performers, a hostile 
audience of some five thousand — 
the hall was scandalously over- 
crowded — yelling and shrieking, 
throwing missiles, waving hand- 
kerchiefs for forty minutes, are my 
principal recollections of the oc- 
casion. A year or so later, under 
the auspices of The League of 
Composers, I conducted a move- 
ment from the New England Sym- 
phony of Charles Ives with the 
Philharmonic. This piece of ster- 
ling music was so complex that it 
necessitated an unheard-of con- 
ductorial technic, and very often 
I found myself beating simulta- 
neously the counts of three, four, 
five and seven with my right hand, 
left hand, head and foot, respec- 
tively, in order to synchronize the 
various instrumental parts. The 
public was utterly bewildered, the 
composer delighted, and the mu- 
sicians (including myself) amazed 
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Ghout, Train Bleu, ha Ghatte, Romeo and similar confections by 
"Les Six," Satie, Sauguet, Lambert, et al. continued to interest the 
Western Europeans. But in proportion as the virility of the new 
American idiom of composition began to manifest itself, that of 
Europe began to decline into a train of effete but not un-amusing 
preciosities. The vogue for the "new-at-any-price" across the At- 
lantic was fading in direct ratio to the increasing paucity of sig- 
nificant output. By 1930, the public in Europe had relapsed into a 
completely reactionary indifference concerning contemporary music, an 
indifference which mirrored itself in the increasing dullness of or- 
chestral programs. So that when, at this time, I tested out the London 
public in a couple of special concerts at Queen's Hall, it took the 
enormous paraphernalia of Respighi's Feste Romane to arouse them 
to any kind of demonstration comparable to former days. More- 
over, from this period onwards, increasing political unrest and the 
first signs of the ghastly catastrophe which was to follow seemed to 
act as a paralyzing influence on the composers of Europe. Only in 
England and Russia did they show signs of any real vitality, and it 
seemed almost as though the concert-going public perversely wel- 
comed the lull which had fallen upon the strenuous activity — whether 
superficial or not is a question — of the hectic 'twenties and their com- 
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Over here, at that time (about 1930), things were stirring. Having 
assimilated the European devices of technic and idiom they needed, 
and discarding the superfluous ones, our leading composers were be- 
ginning to make hay while the creative sun set over Europe. Copland, 
Piston, Sessions, Hanson, Harris, Gruenberg, and other young names 
were not only appearing more and more in the symphony programs 
of American orchestras, but it was also evident that besides having 
something of importance to say in their own right, they were finding in 
the country of their birth quite a source of inspiration to help them 
say it. True, they were twenty years behind their colleagues, the paint- 
ers, in this respect, but the graphic arts have always stolen a march on 
music in the matter of local color. (You had only to visit the Carnegie 
shows at Pittsburgh in the 'twenties to realize this!) Since the turn of 
the 'thirties to the present day — in other words, during the last thir- 
teen years — the development of the American composer is a matter 
of record. No other country during a similarly short period at any 
time in its history can show such a correspondingly rapid and sig- 
nificant growth as can the United States. It would be superfluous for 
me here to enlarge on this. We can honestly say that as compared with 
1930, eighty percent more American music is today being written 
and performed for a public many times as numerous, and, sometimes, 
as sympathetic as existed at the close of the 'twenties. 

II 

May we not, therefore, fairly ask ourselves whether, in comparison 
with these present times, the public of that day was any less intelligent 
than that of today, or conversely, whether our 1943 audiences, espe- 
cially in the light of radio facilities and increased opportunities for 
listening to contemporary music, have shown a proportionately greater 
enthusiasm and capacity for intelligent appreciation than did that 
handful of keen listeners in pre-network days? Personally, I often 
doubt it. 

True, the cult of music in America is today nationwide, thanks to the 
far-reaching influence of radio and the increase in the number of com- 
munities blessed with orchestras, however modest their operations. The 
audiences in the big cities today are amply served by a group of con- 
ductors who, it must be admitted, recognize for the most part their 
responsibility to the community in the matter of keeping it in touch 
with the latest manifestations of the contemporary language. But do 
the audiences bring to the concerts a higher average of discernment, 
discrimination and general intelligence than in those dim days twenty 
or thirty years ago when they youthfully started assimilating in gentle 
doses the physic known as "modern music?" 

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[110] 



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chestra — save one — in the land; not once, but many times. On these 
occasions I have observed audience-reaction very closely, particularly 
at certain times when the resident conductor happened to be in charge. 
I have — regrettably be it noted — watched the vague atmosphere of 
suspicion and mistrust creep over sections of the audience when the 
performance of an unknown piece of contemporary music has started. 
(The bristling-up of those quills of defense-mechanism in the in- 
herently suspicious listener is as evident in his expression as are the 
quibblings of a person subjected to the lie-detector.) In the past ten 
years I have watched an audience in Carnegie Hall superciliously con- 
descending to sit through a good American piece whilst deliberately 
refusing to be carried away by its virtues, and completely intolerant 
of its intricacies. Equally, I have watched morose audiences in certain 
other centers of reputedly high culture confronted by the magnificently 
prepared performance of a work which while it presented certain prob- 
lems to the listener, ought, because of the repute of its composer and 
the high integrity of its interpreter, to have merited at least a 'sym- 
pathetic hearing and an un-biased reception. In all these cases a weak 
splutter of applause was the reward to the composer for months of 
labor, and to the conductor and orchestra for long hours of preparation. 
But there is a brighter side to the picture. How many times have I 



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not played to an audience of students in one of the many beautiful 
college auditoriums of this country when some provocative piece of 
Americana (listened to with rapt attention) evoked at its conclusion 
an outburst of genuine appreciation! How often have I not encoun- 
tered adult audiences, sensitive in mood and generous in appreciation, 
to whom seemingly nothing that one could play could ever prove 
baffling! How often, by a few preliminary explanatory remarks con- 
cerning the works to be played, all fears concerning their in- 
comprehensibility have been immediately allayed in the minds of a 
discriminating, intelligent audience. 

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being written and performed in the way of contemporary American 
music. There is far too much of the "I-know-what-I-like, and like- 
what-I-know" attitude among our audiences today. It displays itself in 
a thinly veiled indifference to everything new and unfamiliar — espe- 
cially American — except certain highly-publicized and sometimes 
wholly admirable contemporaneous works. An artificial and quickly- 
whipped-up enthusiasm for Shostakovitch is by no means an indication 
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[114 3 



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are not altogether to blame for their seeming inability to capture the 
voracious spirit of the old European audiences of 1914 and '21. Quite 
frankly, the cause of the contemporary American composer has yet to 
be properly "sold" to the concert public. In spite of many distin- 
guished and notable exceptions, some of my colleagues of the baton 
have still to learn the necessity of winning over their audiences in this 
respect by a judicious and systematic presentation of the best contem- 
porary work in their programs. Two or three indifferently chosen works 
played at random during the season just won't work the miracle! 

Ill 

People go to a concert primarily for entertainment. Why quibble 
about it? The doses of uplift and culture they absorb in the process 
are purely subconscious and incidental. The sooner composers and con- 
ductors acknowledge the possibility of a person being at one and the 
same time deeply moved and likewise entertained by music, the sooner 
will both discover the secret way. to the hearts of their audience. Com- 
posers can no longer afford to preserve that attitude of subjective 
isolation which results in long, sententious symphonic works, filled 
with a morbid self-contemplation, and devoid of the one element which 
puts them in sympathy with their audience. The public, in short, 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERQE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Monday Evening, October 25, at 8:15 
Tuesday Afternoon, October 26, at 3 

First Concerts of this Series 

Programme 
Brahms Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 68 

Grieg Concerto for Pianoforte in A minor, Op. 16 

Grieg Suite No. 1 from the Incidental Music to 

Ibsen's "Peer Gynt" 

SOLOIST 

ANIA DORFMAN 
Tickets at Box Office 



[115] 



insists on adopting a very realistic attitude about the whole business, 
and there is little one can do about it. Notwithstanding any suggestion 
to the contrary in this article, I have known audiences strive with all 
their might to find the key to a work which the composer has so 
effectively hidden that he might have spared himself the trouble of 
writing the work at all. This is not a matter of "idiom." The opus can 
be as contrapuntally, harmonically and rhythmically "advanced" as 
you like. (The public will probably like it all the more for that.) But 
there comes a psychological moment in any piece of music when, 
unless the composer has already established some kind of "rapport" 
with at least a fraction of his audience, the conductor might as well 
stop and proceed to the next item on the program. There is here no 
question of "compromise" on the part of the composer, but rather a 
question of the composer having something interesting to say, and 
knowing how to project it to the listener. 

What kind of reception awaits the avant-garde American composer 
at the end of this war, in the concert halls of our big cities? Certain 
it is that he will have something provocative ready for public con- 
sumption by then, and, just as was the case after the last war, there'll 
be a spate of creative activity more uncompromising than any hitherto 
imagined. And if it brings with it phenomena compared with which 
the painting movements of post-impressionism, cubism, vorticism and 
surrealism prove but feeble straws in the wind, it behooves the Amer- 
ican public to gird its loins and prepare, not to resist, but to enjoy the 
coming onslaught. In preparation for it, conductors and composers 
alike can, and must, combine to win over, intrigue, educate, and 
entertain the public in anticipation; not by offering it syrupy con- 
coctions in the manner of a weak compromise, but by strong vigorous 
doses of first-rate, important music, as American as the painting of 
Grant Wood and Thomas Hart Benton, and the writings of Steinbeck 
and Hemingway. 

Then, and only then, will our concert public be mentionable in the 
same breath as the rousing, fighting, new-blood-at-any-price, percep- 
tive, alive audiences of the old Europe in 1914 and the early 'twenties. 



[ n61 



1IACKR3>/ 




FAMED FOR OVER 80 YEARS. ..OVER ALL THE GLOBE 




AWARDED 35 MEDALSf FOR EXCELLENCE SINCE 1862 




A Bacardi Cocktail MUST be made with Bacardi (Ruling of the N. Y. Supreme 
Court, April 28, 1936) RUM— 89 PROOF-Schenley Import Corp., N.Y. Copr. 1943 

AND REMEMBER . . . NOTHING TAKES THE PLACE OF WAR BONDS 

[117] 



"THE PRAIRIE" 

By Lukas Foss 

(Born in Berlin, August 15, 1922; now living in New York, N.Y.) 



"The Prairie," which is here having its first performances, is scored for two flutes 
and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, 
three trombones and tuba, timpani, xylophone, bass drum, triangle, snare drum, 
cymbals, piano, harp and strings. 

T^his composition takes its name from a cantata, a setting of Carl 
Sandburg's poem "Prairie" (from the collection "Cornhuskers"). 
The composer states that this orchestral piece is built on themes from 
the cantata, which has not been performed to date, but that it is only 
vaguely related to the larger work. He explains that "The Prairie" is 
not programme music; "however, the opening fanfare-like sonorities 
clearly suggest vast open landscapes and lots of fresh air." 

Lukas Foss, having grown up, received his principal musical educa- 
tion, and reached his majority in the United States, is rightly con- 
sidered what he naturally considers himself — an American composer. 
Born abroad, it is true, and having studied at the Paris Conservatoire 
from the age of eleven (1933) until he was fifteen, he was at that time 
(1937) brought to this country by his parents. At the Conservatoire 
he had studied piano with Lazare-Levy and composition with Noel 
Gallon, continuing instruction he had had from Julius Goldstein. He 
attended the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, studying com- 
position with Rosario Scalero, conducting with Fritz Reiner and piano 
with Isabelle Vengerova, and graduating with honors after three years. 
During the three summers of the Berkshire Music Center he was a 
conductor-pupil of Dr. Koussevitzky and joined the composition class 
of Paul Hindemith, continuing his work with this composer at Yale 
University. 

Mr. Foss's compositions have been performed with the composer 
himself at the piano or at the conductor's desk. His music for Shake- 
speare's "The Tempest," commissioned by the King-Coit School for a 
Theater Guild production of the play, took a Pulitzer Prize in 1942. 
A Sonata for violin and piano, a set of three pieces for two pianos, 
and a Duo for 'cello and piano have been presented by the League of 
Composers in the American Composers' Series and also in radio per- 
formances. An Allegro Concertante was performed in 1942 in New 
York and Philadelphia by members of the NBC Symphony and the 
Philadelphia Orchestra with the composer conducting. • 

His published works are: Four two-voiced inventions: Grotesque 
Dance; Passacaglia, for piano solo; a Set of Three Pieces (a) March, 
(b) Andante, (c) Concertino, for two pianos. 

[118] 



THE 1943 

BOSTON HERALD, 

BOOK FAIR 



SYMPHONY HALL 

OCTOBER 18,19,20,21 



Again this fall, the Book Fair brings to Boston the 
nation's outstanding authors — Lloyd Douglas, Fannie Hurst, 
Carl Carmer, Colonel Carlos P. Romulo, David Hinshaw, 
Elizabeth Hawes, Milton Caniff, Pierre van Paassen, John 
Roy Carlson, Harlow Shapley, Emily Kimbrough, John Kieran, 
and many others. 

Unusual book displays — including the Thousand Best 
Books of the Year and an extraordinary war art exhibit which 
has probably never been equalled before in Boston. The 
Fair will be open to visitors from 1:30 to 6 p.m., and 7:30 
to II p.m., each day. 

Admission this year is 35 cents, tax paid, with all seats 
reserved. This gives opportunity for large groups to be 
seated together. Information about the Book Fair appears 
daily and Sunday in the Boston Herald. Watch the Herald 
for programmes. Programmes may also be obtained free at 
the Symphony Hall Box Office. 



TICKETS ON SALE AT SYMPHONY HALL, 
THE BOSTON HERALD AND LEADING 
BOOK STORES IN GREATER BOSTON 



J 



"TILL EULENSPIEGELS MERRY PRANKS, AFTER THE OLD- 

FASHIONED ROGUISH MANNER -IN RONDO FORM," 

for Full Orchestra, Op. 28 

By Richard Strauss 
Born at Munich, June 11, 1864 



The first performance was at a Giirzenich concert in Cologne, November 5, 1895. 
Strauss had completed his score in Munich the previous May. It had been pub- 
lished in September. The first performance at the Boston Symphony Concerts (and 
in America) was February 21, 1896. The last performance was November 14, 1941. 

The rondo, dedicated to Dr. Arthur Seidl, is scored for piccolo, three flutes, three 
oboes, English horn, small clarinet in E-flat, two clarinets, bass clarinet, three bas- 
soons, double-bassoon, four horns (with the addition of four horns ad lib.), three 
trumpets (with three additional trumpets ad lib.), three trombones, bass tuba, kettle- 
drums, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, a watchman's rattle, strings. 

at first, Strauss was inclined to let the title: "Till Eulenspie gel's 
Q lustige Streiche, nach alter Schelmenweise — in Rondoform" 
stand as sufficient explanation of his intentions. Franz Wiillner, about 
to perform the work in Cologne, coaxed from him a letter which 
revealed a little more: 

"It is impossible for me to furnish a programme to 'Eulenspie gel'; 
were I to put into words the thoughts which its several incidents 
suggested to me, they would seldom suffice, and might even give rise 
to offence. Let me leave it, therefore, to my hearers to crack the hard 
nut which the Rogue has prepared for them. By way of helping them 
to a better understanding, it seems sufficient to point out the two 
'Eulenspie gel' motives, which, in the most manifold disguises, moods, 
and situations, pervade the whole up to the catastrophe, when, after 
he has been condemned to death, Till is strung up to the gibbet. 
For the rest, let them guess at the musical joke which a Rogue has 
offered them." Strauss finally noted three themes: the opening of the 
introduction, the horn motive of Till, and the portentous descending 
interval of the rogue's condemnation. 

And again, Strauss was persuaded by Wilhelm Mauke, the most 
elaborate and exhaustive of Straussian analysts, to jot the following 
indications in pencil in his score: 

"Once upon a time there was a Volksnarr; Named Till Eulenspie gel; 
That was an awful hobgoblin; Off for New Pranks; Just wait, you 
hypocrites! Hop! On horseback into the midst of the market-women; 
With seven-league boots he lights out; Hidden in a Mouse-hole; Dis- 

[ 120] 



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THE BOSTON MUSIC COMPANY 

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[121] 



guised as a Pastor, he drips with unction and morals; Yet out of his 
big toe peeps the Rogue; But before he gets through he nevertheless 
has qualms because of his having mocked religion; Till as cavalier 
pays court to pretty girls; She has really made an impression on him; 
He courts her; A kind refusal is still a refusal; Till departs furious; 
He swears vengeance on all mankind; Philistine Motive; After he has 
propounded to the Philistines a few amazing theses he leaves them in 
astonishment to their fate; Great grimaces from afar; Till's street tune; 
The court of Justice; He still whistles to himself indifferently; Up the 
ladder! There he swings; he gasps for air, a last convulsion; the mortal 
part of Till is no more." 



The abuse that fell upon the head of "Till Eulenspiegel" when the 
piece was new is less difficult to understand when one stops to 
think of the punctilious and well-behaved musical world of 1895 mto 
which Strauss suddenly dropped his outrageous rogue. The squealing 
and squirming music, appearing on a typical programme of the nine- 
ties (its innocuous companions at the first Boston performance, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1896, were a fantasia, "Midnight at Sedan" by Zollner and a 
Violin Concerto of Moszkowski) must have had somewhat the effect, 
as Lawrence Gilman once wrote, of a "lightning bolt at a family 
reunion." 

A glance at the newspaper reports of some of the first "Till" per- 
formances will give some idea of the general consternation the piece 
must have caused. The first American performances were brought to 
pass by Emil Paur and the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston and 
New York (February, 1896), and in other cities on tour. The "musical 
joke" had gone the rounds of Europe. The young German composer, 
"brilliant but erratic," was not without fame and esteem in New 
York and Boston — but the reviews showed no glimmer of conscious- 
ness that a masterpiece had had its first hearing. Most of the critics 
gave it a grudging paragraph near the bottom of the column, after 
lengthy dissertations on the "novelty" by Zollner and the perform- 
ance by the violinist Emile Sauret of the concerto of Moszkowski. 
Most were agreed that Strauss had prodigious skill, however mis- 
guided, and all praised the virtuoso performance which Paur led. 

One critic in Boston referred to the new work as "a trifle from 
Strauss — a nerve-distracting piece — worth a hearing, however, be- 
cause of the composer." Another called it "a blood-curdling night- 
mare," and another " — a musical obscenity, an inexplicable hodge- 
podge, which should not have been heard at this concert, neither at 
any respectable concert. The tone picture, with all its abnormal and 
hideously grotesque proportions, is that of a heavy, dull, and witless 

[ 12*] 



Teuton. The orchestration of the work is sound and fury, signifying 
nothing. The very worthiest novelty of the concert was the concerto 
by Moszkowski." Still another: "A noisy, nerve-destroying, heavy piece 
of work, weak in ideas and strong in energy; a sketch of Beardsley 
set to music, crude in color, confusing in design, and utterly unlov- 
able." A critic of some standing raised a voice of protest: "Strauss 
seems to have thought he could imitate Eulenspiegel by playing a 
practical joke on the general public. Why should such things be given 
at a Symphony concert?" 

In New York also there was marked applause, which was taken as 
intended for the performance rather than the piece. One critic called 
Strauss "a man of enormous talent who says nothing in an unparalleled 
manner." Two further criticisms shall suffice: 

"Strauss has made an elaborate and intricate piece of work, very 
unique and very charming to listen to, though it is often painfully 
noisy, and its interjectional, spasmodic, jerky character makes it trying 
to follow in certain portions." 

"There was no doubt about the humor of it all; it would have made 
even a doctor of music laugh. But it was a vast and coruscating jumble 
of instrumental cackles for all that. — A horrible example of what 
can be done with an orchestra by a determined and deadly decadent." 

Similar opinions seem to have been freely expressed in Europe. Dr. 
Hanslick, who, true to his colors, delivered an invective against each 
of the Straussian tone poems as it appeared, called "Till" — "frankly a 
crazy piece, in which each witty idea is followed by another which 
jumps on its head to break its neck. It is a mistake to look on this 
immoderate and masterless chase of pictures as an overflowing of 
youthful creative power, the dawn of a great new art; I can see in it 
only the exact opposite: a product of subtly calculated decadence." In 
this way did the word "decadence," compounded of resentment and 
unease, pursue Strauss for years, until it finally evaporated, like 
all myths. 

Behind the impudent and leering Till, some discerned the brazen 
face of the composer, recklessly and madly bent upon the destruction 
of every musical principle. It took the passing of a generation to re- 
veal Strauss as no revolutionist after all, but a deep respecter of the 
musical tenets in which he had been thoroughly schooled from child- 
hood; a routined conductor who knew his orchestra with a special 
sense, a lover of tradition, impatient only at the complacent stagna- 
tion into which it had fallen. 

The first critics of "Till" could hardly miss the more obvious points 
of its style of pure folk melody. They might have seen that it was an 
honest rondo as its name implied — a marvelous application of struc- 

[ 123 ] 



ture to the matter in hand. They might also have realized that Strauss 
was no Till upsetting the applecart, but a meek follower of the form 
which Berlioz and Liszt left him, and which he found the most suit- 
able vehicle for his overflowing exuberance, his greatly enriched in- 
strumental and harmonic color, his heavy complex of counterpoint. 



<sL*£Xiy^ 



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70 







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c 124] 



VICTOR RED SEAL RECORDS 

by the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Also Sprach Zarathustra Strauss 

Battle of Kershenetz Rimsky-Korsakov 

Bolero Ravel 

Capriccio (Jestis Maria Sanroma, Soloist) Stravinsky 

Classical Symphony Prokofieff 

Concerto for Orchestra in D major K. P. E. Bach 

Concerto Grosso in D minor Vivaldi 

Concerto in D major ( Jascha Heifetz, Soloist) Brahms 

Concerto No. 2 (Jascha Heifetz, Soloist) Prokofieff 

Concerto No. 12 — Larghetto Handel 

Damnation of Faust : Minuet — Waltz — Rakoczy March Berlioz 

Danse Debussy-Ravel 

Daphnis et Chloe — Suite No. 2 Ravel 

filegie (Violoncello solo : Jean Bedetti) Faur6 

"Enchanted Lake" Liadov 

Fair Harvard Arr. by Koussevitzky 

Friihlingsstimmen — Waltzes (Voices of Spring) Strauss 

Gymnopedie No. 1 Erik Satie-Debussy 

"Khovanstchina" Prelude Moussorgsky 

La Valse Ravel 

"La Mer" ("The Sea") Debussy 

Last Spring Grieg 

"Lieutenant Kije" Suite Prokofieff 

Love for Three Oranges — Scherzo and March Prokofieff 

Ma Mere L'Oye (Mother Goose) Ravel 

Mefisto Waltz Liszt 

Missa Solemnis Beethoven 

Passion According to Saint Matthew (Three Albums) Bach 

"Peter and the Wolf Prokofieff 

Pictures at an Exhibition Moussorgsky-Ravel 

Pohjola's Daughter Sibelius 

"Romeo and Juliet," Overture-Fantasia Tchaikovsky 

Rosamunde — Ballet Music Schubert 

Sal6n Mexico, El Aaron Copland 

San Juan Capistrano — 2 Nocturnes Harl McDonald 

Sarabande Debussy-Ravel 

Song of Volga Boatmen Arr. by Stravinsky 

"Swanwhite" ("The Maiden with Roses") Sibelius 

Symphony No. 1 in B-flat major ("Spring") Schumann 

Symphony No. 2 in D major Beethoven 

Symphony No. 2 in D major Sibelius 

Symphony No. 8 Harris 

Symphony No. 4 in A major ("Italian" ) Mendelssohn 

Symphony No. 4 in E minor Brahms 

Symphony No. 4 in F minor Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major Sibelius 

Symphony No. 6 in B minor ( "Pathetique" ) Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 8 in F major Beethoven 

Symphony No. 8 in B minor ("Unfinished") Schubert 

Symphony No. 29 in A major Mozart 

Symphony No. 34 in C major , Mozart 

Symphony No. 94 in G major ( "Surprise" ) Haydn 

Symphony No. 102 in B-flat major Haydn 

Tapiola ( Symphonic Poem ) Sibelius 

Waltz (from String Serenade) . - Tchaikovsky 

Wiener Blut — Waltzes (Vienna Blood) Strauss 

[125] 



AK 



KREISLER 



Sun. Aft., Oct. 24 
Symphony Hall 



TICKETS AT BOX OFFICE 



COSSACKS &ft 



J fi n CHAMBER SERIES 

$5.10, $6.80, $8.50 (inc. tax) 

4 GREAT EVENTS: Budapest Quartet — Ruth Posselt — 
Vronsky & Babin. Opening with Curtis Quartet & Boris 
Goldovsky, Sunday Afternoon, November 14. 

Series Tickets ONLY at 208 Pierce Bldg., Copley Sq. 




THIS SAT.-SUN. 



Oct. 

16-17 



Sat. Mat. 2:30, Sun. Mat. 3:30 
Sat. Eve 8:30 

JORDAN HALL 

Tickets at Fall ard FILE F E £ 

3 Programs of Character Sketches 

CORNELIA OTIS 
SKINNER 

New Numbers and Old Favorites 

MISS SKINNER WILL GIVE A PERFORMANCE NEXT WED. EVENING 
(Oct. 20) in ALUMNAE HALL, WELLESLEY, SPONSORED by the DEP'T 
OF SPEECH, WELLESLEY COLLEGE. Remaining tickets $1.10, $1.65, $2.20 
at Thrift Shop, 34 Church St., Wellesley. 



SMETERLIN 

Eminent Polish Pianist (Steinway Piano) 

Fri. Eve. Oct. 29 — Andover (Phillips Academy) 

$i. # io, $1.65, $2.20 (Mail orders filled) 

SUN. AFT. OCT. 3 1 — JORDAN HALL 
CHOPIN PROGRAM includes B minor Sonata, 24 
Preludes, Mazurkas in C-sharp minor, A minor, 
B-flat minor, Waltz C-sharp minor, A-flat Ballade, 
3 Etudes. 




ISABEL FRENCH — Song Recital 

assisted by GEORGE REEVES at the piano 
Tue. Eve. Nov. 2 in Jordan Hall 

Tickets NOW: $2.20, $1.65, $1.10 and 55 cents 



[ 126] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Third Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, October 22, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, October 23, at 8:15 o'clock 



Mozart "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Serenade for 

String Orchestra (Koechel No. 525) 
I. Allegro 
II. Romanza 

III. Menuetto: Allegretto 

IV. Rondo: Allegro 

Beethoven Symphony No. 6, in F major, Op. 68, "Pastoral" 

I. Awakening of serene impressions on arriving in the country: Allegro 
ma non troppo 

II. Scene by the brookside: Andante molto moto 

III. Jolly gathering of country folk; Allegro; in tempo d'allegro; Thunder- 

storm; Tempest: Allegro 

IV. Shepherd's Song: Gladsome and thankful feelings after the storm: 

Allegretto 

INTERMISSION 

Berezowsky Symphony No. 4, Op. 29 

I. Allegro non troppo, cantabile 
II. Scherzo, vivace 

III. Andante, molto sostenuto 

IV. Allegro commodo, ma bravura 

(First performance) 

Rimsky-Korsakov Capriccio Espagnol, Op. 34 

Alborado — Variations — Alborado — Scene and Gypsy Song — 
Fandango of the Asturias 



BALDWIN PIANO 



The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[ 127] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 071 6 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 
Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 

256 Huntington Avenue 

Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




II T — 1 




[ 128] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 
Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen N. Penrose Hallo well 

John Nicholas Brown M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[ 129 ] 




Estate Analysis 

riOW have wartime changes 
affected your estate plans? A 
Shawmut Estate Analysis will 
help you determine whether 
changes are necessary or desir- 
able. We invite your inquiry. 

•TRUST DEPARTMENT 

The Rational 

Shawmut Bank 

Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 

Listen to John Barry with "Frontline Headlines" 
WNAC — Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays at 7:45 p. m. 



[ 13° ] 



SYMPHONIANA 



NORDIC COMPOSER, A 
NATIONAL HERO 

By Paul Nettl 

(The Boston Symphony Orchestra will 
observe the hundredth anniversary of 
the birth of Edvard Grieg at the open- 
ing concerts of the Monday and Tuesday 
series next week, with the Piano Con- 
certo and the "Peer Gynt" Suite. The 
following article on the Norwegian com- 
poser is quoted from the Christian 
Science Monitor of June 26 last.) 

Recently the newspapers brought the 
news that the Nazis had replaced the 
Polish inscription on the Chopin monu- 
ment in Warsaw with a German one to 
indicate that Chopin was of German 
descent. Accordingly, one should not be 
surprised to hear reports that Edvard 
Grieg, whose hundredth anniversary was 
celebrated on June 15, is also being 
claimed by the Nazis as one of their 
own. 

Even before the Nazis, the Nordic 
qualities in Grieg had fascinated the 
Emperor William II, who, on one of his 
excursions to the north, invited the com- 
poser onto his yacht, showed him all 
kinds of courtesies and would have liked 
to have him for his own private skald. 
When he heard Grieg's "Sigurd Iorsal- 
far" he became so enthusiastic that he 
had his newly born grandson baptized 
Sigurd. 

But still Norwegian music from time 
immemorial has been quite different 
from German music. In some respects 
it has much stronger connections with 
Scottish and Irish music than with Ger- 
man. The name of the composer, in fact, 
is Scottish. The founder of Norwegian 
music is of Scotch descent on his father's 
side of the family. The grandfather of 
the composer spelled his name John 
"Greig." He was from Aberdeen, and 
held the position of British Consul Gen- 
eral in Bergen. It may well be the 
Scottish-Norwegian mixture which has 
had such a beneficent effect on the de- 
velopment of Grieg's particular musical 
talent. 

Grieg is to Norway a national hero 
perhaps even more significant than Ibsen 



~*^^ r 








1918-1943 



25Uwu> 

This is our greeting to our 
friends, neighbors and all 
who have liked us and 
aided our progress toward 
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and Bjornson. His music expresses the 
introspective lyric nature of the Nor- 
wegian and his land. The music of Nor- 
way belongs, like that of the Russians, 
the Czechs, the Poles, the Hungarians, 
and the Spaniards, to that distinctive 
periphery group of musical cultures. 
These peoples on the borders of Euro- 
pean culture have a music more closely 
related to folk music than have the 
nations with a whole musical culture, as, 
for instance, the Germans, the French, 
and the Italians. Also, the music of 
Smetana, Dvorak, Albeniz and Bartok 
is saturated with folk music. But there is 
hardly any other composer who has such 
an intimate relationship with the folk 
music as Grieg. Without the Norwegian 
song and the Nordic dance Grieg would 
be nothing. 

In Norway has dwelt for thousands of 
years a people which, under the influence 
of a peculiar environment and an in- 
herited, peculiar, natural ability, de- 
veloped a cultural difference from that 
of the rest of Europe. From the four- 
teenth to the eighteenth century, how- 
ever, this people passed through a period 
of cultural hibernation, that "Nordic 
sleep" which Ibsen ridiculed, which, 
however, prepared the way for the 
dream-like romantic culture which a 
Nordic poet has designated as the cul- 
ture of "dewy roses." 

It almost seems as if the musical 
poetry of Grieg, his numerous lyrical 
pieces, his elfin dances, his spring dances, 
his colorful marriage processions, were 
less reflection of this Nordic sleep. The 
adventurous vikings and heroic warriors 
had turned into dreamy Nordic poets 
and harpists. Grieg belongs in this cate- 
gory. His life was in no way heroic. It 
was the life of a dreamer. He was an 
indifferent student in the elementary 
school of his home town, Bergen, and 
in his autobiographical sketch of himself 
he related humorously how as a boy he 
thought up the most remarkable excuses 
for playing hookey from school to avoid 
the tortures of instruction and concen- 
tration on his studies. 

Already then Grieg was a dreamer and 
when as a twelve-year-old he proudly 
brought his first composition to school, 
he was laughed at. He wasn't even a 
good musician in his youth, and even as 
an old man he never forgot the threaten- 



[ 132 3 



ing voice of his musical mother, who 
called from the kitchen to him when he 
was playing the piano: "F-sharp! F- 
sharp! not F!" But not even in Leipzig, 
where he studied at the world-famous 
conservatory, was he a good student. He 
remained a dreamer who hated the 
etudes of Czerny, Kuhlau, and Clementi 
as he himself said, "like the plague." 
Only Ignaz Moscheles and Carl Rei- 
necke succeeded in brushing up a bit 
the technical side of his piano playing, 
and the famous theoretician, Ernst 
Richter, the teacher of two generations 
of composers, couldn't inspire to any 
great degree the blond, bright-eyed, 
snub-nosed Norwegian. His classmates, 
Arthur Sullivan, Franklin Taylor, Wal- 
ter Bache, put him completely in the 
shade. 

Grieg later said that he had to shake 
the dust of Leipzig from his shoes be- 
fore he became what he really was. In 
Leipzig he had been a dismal imitator 
of Schumann and Mendelssohn. Not 
until he became acquainted in Copen- 
hagen with a Nordic musician, Richard 
Nordraak, did he recognize the true 
foundation of his genius. "It was as if 
the scales fell from my eyes," he said. 
"From Nordraak I learned for the first 
time what the Norwegian folk song was, 
and learned to know my own nature." 

From then on Grieg's career pro- 
gressed ever upward. He went to Oslo 
and then in 1870, under a state stipend, 
to Rome, where he met Liszt and se- 
cured his hearty approval. Liszt was 
enthusiastic about Grieg's music. The 
characteristic harmonies, the archaistic 
melodies and rhythms fascinated him. 
In fact, the discovery of northern 
national music in Europe resulted from 
Grieg's unparalleled career. Almost 1 
overnight Grieg became one of the most 
frequently played composers of Europe 
and America. However, it must not be 1 
forgotten that the music publishing ! 
house Peters, in Leipzig, or its head, I 
Dr. Abraham, whom Grieg called his 
second father, was greatly responsible [ 
for the spread of Grieg's music around 
the year 1900. There was hardly a piano 
in Europe and America upon which the 
pink volumes of the Peters editions with 
the curlicued initial G did not repose. 

It must be admitted that the Grieg in- 
flation perhaps went a little too far. It 




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1 133] 



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has lessened the appreciation of the real 
worth of Grieg's music. People became 
tired of Grieg, and that is the real rea- 
son for the fact that this composer with 
his original melodic thoughts and spar- 
kling temperament is today so under- 
estimated. He shares this fate with Ed- 
ward MacDowell, who not only on 
account of his Scotch descent has affinity 
with Grieg, but also in intellectual- 
musical respects is related to him. Like 
Grieg, he was a musician of the type of 
the old Scottish bards, and like Grieg he 
expressed musically the beauties of 
his homeland — in MacDowell's case, 
America. Thus Grieg, through Mac- 
Dowell, has exerted an influence on the 
development of American music, just as 
did Dvorak, another European national 
musician. 

Grieg wrote no operas, wrote no great 
symphonies and only a little chamber 
music of grand style. He is a lyric writer, 
whose strength is in small, precise, but 
unusually plastic, forms. In these 
smaller genre he dreams the life of his 
youth and of the Norwegian people. In 
his "Lyric Pieces," in his "Norwegian 
Dances," in the orchestral suites and 
the three magnificent violin sonatas, in 
the piano concerto, the piece de resis- 
tance of thousands of pianists, in his 
piano sonatas, in his quartets, in his 
songs — there is found life in the Fiord, 
in the Hardanger moor, in the Nor- 
wegian village, and in the lofty moun- 
tains of the north. 

There we are encompassed by the en- 
chantment of the icy northern night and 
there the good and the evil creatures of 
the Nordic saga world from the Eddas — 
the dwarfs, the gnomes, the sylphs and 
kobolds — appear. We hear the bells of 
the little church, the rushing mountain 
stream, the thunder of the avalanches, 
we see the hallings and "Rural Dances" 
and hear the melancholy tones of the 
Hardanger fiddle. Like Chopin, Sme- 
tana, and Albeniz, Grieg has unbeliev- 
ably plastic ability. Dreamily his musi- 
cal poetry covers up all the scenes of 
northern life. They give plastic form 
to the visions of his youth. 

It is often remarked that Norwegian 
music displays certain melodic and har- 
monic parallels with Russian and Czech 
music and quite frequently also with 
Hungarian and Spanish music. In one of 
Grieg's Norwegian dances we find the 
theme of a Czech folk song and another 
echoes Russian folk dances — just as the 



[ 134] 



main theme of Smetana's "Moldau" is 
an ancient Spanish folk song (Virgen de 
la cueva), but is also found in Poland 
and last of all even in the Jewish 
national hymn, the "Hatikra." Many 
ascribe this remarkable phenomenon to 
a common original home of all these 
peoples where these melodies were cre- 
ated, these melodies which have been 
preserved long after the various peoples 
had lost contact with each other and 
had forgotten their relationship. In fact, 
the character and style of the Norwegian 
folk song has the same basis as the 
Slavic, Hungarian, and Spanish music 
which have been influenced by Arabian 
folk music. 

All these things are not only closely 
related to the folk melodies but are also 
common property of the composers 
Grieg, Balakireff, and even of the mod- 
ern Czech, Janacek. And thus they form 
a bridge to modern music. The often 
bold harmonies of Grieg, the absolute 
dissonances which do not demand and 
cannot stand resolution, go back to the 
primitive harmonic consciousness of 
this folk musician. And a great part of 
the atonal music movement can be 
ascribed to his primitivism, a fact which 
is not always recognized and appre- 
ciated. 

Grieg's melodic system, in accordance 
with his being rooted in folk music, is 
brief and just the opposite of the Brahms 
school. The result is that his lyricism 
often tires, a characteristic which it has 
in common with the music of Dvorak 
and Albeniz. It is not fair to judge Grieg 
by criteria reflecting the music of 
Brahms and Wagner. 

Grieg found it impossible to take long 
trips. A tour of America, which he had 
planned, had to be given up. Wherever 
he appeared, his success was tremen- 
dous. Only in Paris he was once hissed 
out, not on account of his music, but on 
account of politics. That was in 1903, 
when in France the anti-Semitic re- 
actionary waves of the Dreyfus affair 
rose high. 

Grieg was called a "Dreyfusard," but 
bore the title with pride, as that is in 
the most genuine Norwegian democratic 
tradition. Will Herr Quisling or his 
adjutant develop this fact from Grieg's 
life when he gives his memorial speech 
for the national hero? One thing is cer- 
tain, the Norwegians see in Grieg the 
symbol of their independence and free- 
dom to which they soon shall return 
from slavery and oppression, just as 
Norwegian music through Grieg once 
awoke from its deep sleep. 



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[ 135 1 



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T. Jefferson Coolidge Channing H. Cox 

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[136] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Third Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, October 22, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, October 23, at 8:15 o'clock 



Mozart "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Serenade for 

String Orchestra (Koechel No. 525) 
I. Allegro 
II. Romanza 

III. Menuetto: Allegretto 

IV. Rondo: Allegro 

Beethoven Symphony No. 6, in F major, Op. 68, "Pastoral" 

I. Awakening of serene impressions on arriving in the country: Allegro 

ma non troppo 
II. Scene by the brookside: Andante molto moto 

III. Jolly gathering of country folk: Allegro; in tempo d'allegro; Thunder- 

storm; Tempest: Allegro 

IV. Shepherd's Song: Gladsome and thankful feelings after the storm: 

Allegretto 

INTERMISSION 

Berezowsky Symphony No. 4, Op. 29 

I. Allegro non troppo, cantabile 

II. Scherzo, vivace 

III. Andante, molto sostenuto 

IV. Allegro commodo, ma bravura 

(First performance; conducted by the composer) 

Rimsky-Korsakov Capriccio Espagnol, Op. 34 

Alborado — Variations — Alborado — Scene and Gypsy Song — 
Fandango of the Asturias 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:40 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:25 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 

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[138] 



"EINE KLEIN E NACHTMUSIK," Serenade for String Orchestra 

(K. 525) 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



The score was dated by Mozart August 10, 1787. The first performance was 
probably in Vienna. 

The most recent performance by this orchestra in Boston was in a Monday- 
Tuesday programme, March 3-4, 1941. The last performance at the Friday and 
Saturday concerts was January 27, 1933. It was played at the chamber concerts of 
August 15-16, 1943, by members of the Orchestra, G. Wallace Woodworth, conducting. 

Mozart's contemporaries expected from him, as from any musi- 
cian of high standing, an inexhaustible fertility in deft music, 
which could be ordered at will by the prosperous citizens, for their 
entertainments. The " Unterhaltungsmusik" would grace the festivities 
at a wedding, or offer pleasing interludes to the good wine and con- 
versation at table. It might help celebrate the ''name day" of some 
prominent personage, with perhaps a serenade in a garden where a 
small group of wind players, with "Nachtmusik" composed for the 
occasion, would make an evening party quite charming. Divertimenti, 



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[139] 



cassations, serenades, Mozart provided on the shortest notice (Koechel's 
catalogue lists thirty-three of them as surviving). A standing wonder 
of Mozart's genius was that he often gave something infinitely better 
than was asked of him — that he now and then squandered on these 
frequent and passing gaieties some of his truly precious and undying 
musical thoughts. 

Mozart's serenades or divertimenti are usually scored for strings 
with winds, or completely for wind instruments. They were mostly 
written for Salzburg; after 1782, no more were forthcoming. Mozart's 
light music for Viennese consumption seems to have consisted of 
German and contra-dances, and minuets. "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" 
is an exception in that it was written for strings alone and for per- 
formance in Vienna. The score was dated by Mozart as of August 10, 
1787, which puts it in the important year of "Don Giovanni" and 
the two fine string quintets in C major and G minor. It was un- 
doubtedly composed for some special occasion. The wealthier families 
of Vienna frequently kept musicians for their more elaborate enter- 
tainments, and the Emperor Joseph liked to have music played during 
those meals which he held in the imperial pleasure gardens. Hostelries 
of the better class also retained groups of musicians for "Harmonie- 
musik" with which their guests were entertained at table. Mozart's 



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specific purpose for his "Fine Kleine Nachtmusik/' as he himself 
labeled it, is not known. Otto Jahn listed it among the string quartets, 
with doubtful justification, since the bass part, marked "violoncello e 
contrabasso" as well as the conception in general, indicates a larger 
group. "A short serenade," Jahn calls it, "an easy, precisely worked 
out occasional piece." 

With Mozart, the term "divertimento" and "cassation" were appar- 
ently interchangeable. He strung together brief movements of various 
sorts, often using folk-like themes aimed to capture the popular taste. 
The "serenade" is certainly little different, except that it tends to fall 
into the pattern of a march-like opening, a minuet, a slow movement, 
a second minuet, and a swift finale. "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" origi- 
nally had, according to Mozart's own catalogue of his works, an addi- 
tional minuet between the first movement and the Romanze. Having 
lost this, it falls into the four-movement scheme of a symphony or 
quartet in miniature. 

A serenade of Mozart was not, like the Standchen, intended for per- 
formance under a window in honor of the person who dwelt therein, 
but it was played at night, and often in the open air.* The way in 



* Mozart referred to one of his serenades in a letter to his father as "Nacht Musique." His 
"Nottumo," for four orchestras divided, echo fashion (1776, K. 286), is in three movements, 
the finale evidently missing. 



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[142] 



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[ 144] 



which serenades came into Mozart's life is illustrated by the following 
letter which he wrote to his father from Vienna (November 3, 1781): 

"I must apologize for not writing by the last post. It fell just on my 
birthday (October 31), and the early part of the day was given to my 
devotions. Afterwards, when I should have written, a shower of con- 
gratulations came and prevented me. At twelve o'clock I drove to the 
Leopoldstadt, to the Baroness Waldstadten, where I spent the day. At 
eleven o'clock at night I was greeted by a serenade for two clarinets, 
two horns, and two bassoons, of my own composition. I had com- 
posed it on St. Theresa's day (October 15) for the sister of Frau von 
Hickl (the portrait-painter's wife), and it was then performed for the 
first time. The six gentlemen who execute such pieces are poor fellows, 
but they play very well together, especially the first clarinet and the 
two horns. The chief reason I wrote it was to let Herr von Strack (who 
goes there daily) hear something of mine, and on this account I made 
it rather serious. It was very much admired. It was played in three 
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[ 145 1 



SYMPHONY NO. 6, IN F MAJOR, "PASTORAL," Op. 68 
By Ludwig van Beethoven 
Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The "Pastoral" Symphony, completed in 1808, had its first performance at 
the Theater-an-der-Wien, in Vienna, December 22, 1808, the concert consisting 
entirely of unplayed music of Beethoven, including the C minor Symphony, the 
Fourth Piano Concerto, and the Choral Fantasia. 

The "Pastoral" Symphony had its most recent performance in this series of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, November 14, 1941. 

The Symphony is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, two trombones, timpani, and strings. The 
dedication is to Prince Lobkowitz and Count Razumoffsky. 

Beethoven had many haunts about Vienna which, now suburbs, 
were then real countryside. Here, probably in the neighborhood of 
Heiligenstadt, he completed the Pastoral Symphony, and the C minor 
Symphony as well. The sketchbooks indicate that he worked upon the 
two concurrently; that, unlike the C minor Symphony, which had 
occupied him intermittently, the Pastoral was written "with unusual 
speed." The C minor Symphony was, in the opinion of Nottebohm, 




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completed in March, 1808. The Pastoral, as some have argued, may 
have been finished even earlier, for when the two were first performed 
from the manuscript at the same concert, in December, the programme 
named the Pastoral as "No. 5," the C minor as "No. 6" — which is 
building a case on what looks like nothing more than a printer's error. 

After the tension and terseness, the dramatic grandeur of the Fifth 
Symphony, its companion work, the Sixth, is a surprising study in 
relaxation and placidity. One can imagine the composer dreaming 
away lazy hours in the summer heat at Dobling or Grinzing, linger- 
ing in the woods, by a stream, or at a favorite tavern, while the 
gentle, droning themes of the symphony hummed in his head, taking 
limpid shapes. The symphony, of course, requires in the listener some- 
thing of this patient relaxation, this complete attunement to a mood 
which lingers fondly and unhurried. There are the listeners such as 
an English critic of 1823, wno found it "always too long, particularly 
the second movement, which, abounding in repetitions, might be 
shortened without the slightest danger of injuring that particular 
part, and with the certainty of improving the effect of the whole." 
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vainly for the customary contrasting episodes, and at the same time 
missing the detail of constant fresh renewal within the more obvious 
contours of thematic reiteration. 

Opening in the key of F major, which according to the testimony 
of Schindler was to Beethoven the inevitable sunny key for such a 
subject, the symphony lays forth two themes equally melodic and 
even-flowing. They establish the general character of the score, in 
that they have no marked accent or sharp feature; the tonal and 
dynamic range is circumscribed, and the expression correspondingly 
delicate, and finely graded. There is no labored development, but a 
drone-like repetition of fragments from the themes, a sort of mur- 
muring monotony, in which the composer charms the ear with a con- 
tinuous, subtle alteration of tonality, color, position. "I believe," 
writes Grove, "that the delicious, natural May-day, out-of-doors feel- 
ing of this movement arises in a great measure from this kind of 
repetition. It causes a monotony which, however, is never monotonous 
— and which, though no imitation, is akin to the constant sounds 
of Nature — the monotony of rustling leaves and swaying trees, and 
running brooks and blowing wind, the call of birds and the hum of 
insects." One is reminded here (as in the slow movement) of the 
principle of exfoliation in nature, of its simplicity and charm of 
surface which conceals infinite variety, and organic intricacy. 

The slow movement opens suggestively with an accompaniment of 



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[151] 



gently falling thirds, in triplets, a murmuring string figure which the 
composer alters but never forgets for long, giving the entire move- 
ment a feeling of motion despite its long-drawn songfulness. The ac- 
companiment is lulling, but no less so than the graceful undulation of 
the melody over it. Professor Tovey states that the slow movement is 
"one of the most powerful things in music," basing his adjective on 
the previous assertion that this symphony "has the enormous strength 
of someone who knows how to relax." He adds: "The strength and 
the relaxation are at their highest point in the slow movement." The 
analyst finds sufficient proof for his statement in the form, which is 
like a fully developed first movement.* 



* To achieve this in a slow tempo always implies extraordinary concentration and terseness 
of design; for the slow tempo, which inexperienced composers are apt to regard as having 
no effect upon the number of notes that take place in a given time, is much more rightly 
conceived as large than as slow. Take a great slow movement and write it out in such a 
notation as will make it correspond in real time values to the notes of a great quick move- 
ment; and you will perhaps be surprised to find how much in actual time the mere first 
theme of the slow movement would cover of the whole exposition of the quick movement. 
Any slow movement in full sonata form is, then, a very big thing. But a slow movement in 
full sonata form which at every point asserts its deliberate intention to be lazy and to say 



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[152] 



The episode of the bird-call inserted before the three concluding 
measures has come in for plentiful comment, and cries of "Malerei."^ 
The flute trill of the nightingale, the repeated oboe note of the 
quail (in characteristic rhythm) and the falling third (clarinet) of 
the cuckoo, are blended into an integrated phrase in a pendant to 
the coda before its final rapturous cadence. Beethoven may have re- 
ferred to these bars as a "joke" in a conversation with Schindler, but 
it was a whim refined so as to be in delicate keeping with the affecting 
pianissimo of his close. Perhaps his most serious obstacle was to over- 
come the remembrance among his critics of cruder devices in bird 
imitation. 

The third movement is a scherzo in form and character, though 
not so named, and, as such, fills symphonic requirements, fits in with 
the "programme" scheme by providing a country dance, and brings 



whatever occurs to it twice in succession, and which in so doing never loses flow and never 
falls out of proportion, such a slow movement is as strong as an Atlantic liner that should 
bear taking out of water and supporting on its two ends. 

t Beethoven at first inscribed this warning on the title-page of his score : "More an expres- 
sion of feeling than painting." 



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[ 153] 



the needed brightness and swift motion alter the long placidities. The 
trio begins with a delightful oboe solo, to a simple whispered ac- 
companiment for the violins and an occasional dominant and octave 
from the bassoon, as if two village fiddlers and a bassoon were doing 
their elementary best. Beethoven knew such a rustic band at the 
tavern of the "Three Ravens" in the Upper Bruhl, near Modling. 
"Their music and their performance were both absolutely national 
and characteristic, and seem to have attracted Beethoven's notice 
shortly after his first arrival in Vienna. He renewed the acquaintance 
at each visit to Modling, and more than once wrote some waltzes 
for them. In 1819 he was again staying at Modling, engaged on the 
Mass in D. The band was still there, and Schindler was present 
when the great master handed them some dances which he had found 
time to write among his graver labours, so arranged as to suit the 
peculiarities which had grown on them; and as Dean Aldrich, in 
his Smoking Catch, gives each singer time to fill or light his pipe, 
or have a puff, so Beethoven had given each player an opportunity 
of laying down his instrument for a drink, or even for a nap. In the 
course of the evening he asked Schindler if he had ever noticed the 
way in which they would go on playing till they dropped off to 
sleep; and how the instrument would falter and at last stop altogether, 
and then wake with a random note, but generally in tune. 'In the 
Pastoral Symphony,' continued Beethoven, 'I have tried to copy this.' " 



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[ 154] 







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From the goats of some localities is obtained a soft down used in the 
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There is a brief episode of real rustic vigor in duple time,* a re- 
prise, likewise brief, which rises to a high pitch of excitement, and is 
broken off suddenly on its dominant of F by the ominous rumble of 
the 'cellos and basses in a tremolo on D-flat. The storm is sometimes 
looked upon as the fourth of five movements. It forms a sort of 
transition from the scherzo to the finale, which two movements it 
binds without any break. The instrumental forces which Beethoven 
calls upon are of interest. In his first two movements, he scaled his 
sonority to the moderation of his subject, using only the usual wood 
winds and strings, with no brass excepting the horns, and no per- 
cussion. The scherzo he appropriately brightened by adding a trumpet 
to his scheme. In the storm music he heightened his effects with a 
piccolo and two trombones, instruments which he had used in his 
symphonies for the first time when he wrote his Fifth. The trombones 
are retained in the Finale, but they are sparingly used. The timpani 
makes its only entrance into the symphony when Beethoven calls 
upon it for his rolls and claps of thunder; and he asks for no other 
percussion. There are those who find Beethoven's storm technique 



* Berlioz sees, in this "melody of grosser character the arrival of mountaineers with their 
heavy sabots," while the bassoon notes in the "musette," as he calls it, reminds him of 
"some good old German peasant, mounted on a barrel, and armed with a dilapidated 
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[ 156] 



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[157] 



superseded by Liszt, who outdid his predecessor in cataclysmic effects, 
and at the same time put the stamp of sensationalism upon Bee- 
thoven's chromatics and his diminished seventh chords. Beethoven 
could easily have appalled and terrified his audience with devices 
such as he later used in his "Battle of Victoria," had he chosen to 
plunge his Pastoral Symphony to the pictorial level of that piece, 
mar its idyllic proportions, and abandon the great axiom which he 
set himself on its title-page. Beethoven must have delighted in sum- 
mer thunder showers, and enjoyed, so his friends have recorded, 
being drenched by them. This one gives no more than a momentary 
contraction of fear as it assembles and breaks. It clothes nature in 
majesty always — in surpassing beauty at its moment of ominous 
gathering and its moment of clearing and relief. Critics listening 
to the broad descending scale of the oboe as the rumbling dies away 
have exclaimed "the rainbow" — and any listener is at liberty to 
agree with them. 

Peaceful contentment is re-established by yodelling octaves in peasant 
fashion from the clarinet and horn, which rises to jubilation in the 
"Hirtengesang" the shepherd's song of thanks in similar character, 
sung by the violins. Robert Haven Schauffler went so far as to say that 
"the bathetic shepherd's pipe and thanksgiving hymn that follow 
suddenly reveal a degenerate Beethoven, almost on the abject plane 
of the 'Battle' symphony." There will be no lack of dissenters with 
this view, who will point out that slight material has been used to 
great ends — and never more plainly than here. Beethoven was in- 




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deed at this point meekly following convention, as in every theme 
of the Pastoral Symphony, in writing which he must have been in a 
mood of complacent good-humor, having expended his revolutionary 
ardors upon the C minor. No musical type has been more conven- 
tion-ridden than the shepherd, with his ranz des vaches, and even 
Wagner could "stoop" to gladsome shepherd's pipings in "Tristan," 
clearing the air of tensity and oppression as the ship was sighted. 
Beethoven first noted in the sketchbooks the following title for the 
Finale: "Expression of Thankfulness. Lord, we thank Thee"; where- 
upon we need only turn to Sturm's "Lehr und Erbauungs Buck/' 
from which Beethoven copied lines expressing a sentiment very com- 
mon at the time: the "arrival at the knowledge of God," through 
Nature — "the school of the heart." He echoed the sentiment of his 
day in his constant praise of "God in Nature," but the sentiment 
happened also to be a personal conviction with him, a conviction 
which, explain it how you will, lifted a music of childlike simplicity 
of theme to a rapturous song of praise without equal, moving sus- 
tained and irresistible to its end. One cannot refrain from remarking 
upon the magnificent passage in the coda where the orchestra makes 
a gradual descent, serene and gently expanding, from a high pitched 
fortissimo to a murmuring pianissimo. There is a not unsimilar pas- 
sage before the close of the first movement. 



Berlioz, who could admire, and practice, a fine restraint in music, 
if not always in prose, was moved to an infectious rapture by this 




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symphony, in its attainment of the true pastoral ardor, the clear 
supremacy of his own art over the poets of all time: 

"But this poem of Beethoven! — these long periods so richly 
coloured! — these living pictures! — these perfumes! — that lightl — 
that eloquent silence! — that vast horizon! — those enchanted nooks 
secreted in the woods! — those golden harvests! — those rose-tinted 
clouds like wandering flecks upon the surface of the sky! — that im- 
mense plain seeming to slumber beneath the rays of the mid-day 
sun! — Man is absent, and Nature alone reveals itself to admiration! 
— and this profound repose of everything that lives! This happy life 
of all which is at rest! — the little brook which runs rippling towards 
the river!— the river itself, parent of waters, which, in majestic silence, 
flows down to the great sea! — Then, Man intervenes; he of the fields, 
robust and God-fearing — his joyous diversion is interrupted by the 
storm — and we have his terror, his hymn of gratitude. 

"Veil your faces! ye poor, great, ancient poets — poor Immortals! 
Your conventional diction with all its harmonious purity can never 
engage in contest with the art of sounds. You are glorious, but van- 
quished! You never knew what we now call melody; harmony; the 
association of different qualities of tone; instrumental colouring; 
modulation; the learned conflict of discordant sounds, which first en- 
gage in combat, only afterwards to embrace; our musical surprises; 
and those strange accents which set in vibration the most unexplored 
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[165] 



you named Music could give you no idea of this. You alone were the 
great melodists and harmonists — the masters of rhythm and expres- 
sion for the cultivated spirits of your time. 

"But these words bore, in all your tongues, a meaning quite dif- 
ferent from that which is nowadays their due. The art of sounds, 
properly so-called and independent of everything, is a birth of yester- 
day. It is scarcely yet of age, with its adolescence. It is all-powerful; 
it is the Pythian Apollo of the moderns. We are indebted to it for 
a whole world of feelings and sensations from which you were en- 
tirely shut out. 

"Yes! great and adored poets! you are conquered: Inclyte sed victi." 



It was with care and forethought that Beethoven wrote under the 
title of his Pastoral Symphony: "A recollection of country life. More 
an expression of feeling than painting."* Beethoven was probably 
moved to special precautions against the literal-minded, in that he 
was divulging provocative subtitles for the first and only time. The 
following notations in the sketchbooks show that Beethoven gave 
anxious consideration to the problem of divulging much or little in 
the way of subtitles upon his score: 



* The inscription "Mehr Ausdruck der Empfindung als Malerei" was probably on the original 
manuscript. It appeared in the programme of the first performance (December 22, 1808) 
and on the published parts (1809), but was omitted when the score was published (1824). 



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[167] 



"The hearers should be allowed to discover the situations." 

"All painting in instrumental music, if pushed too far, is a failure." 

"Sinfonia pastorella. Anyone who has an idea of country life can make out for 
himself the intentions of the author without many titles." 

"People will not require titles to recognize the general intention to be more 
a matter of feeling than of painting in sounds." 

"Pastoral Symphony: No picture, but something in which the emotions are ex- 
pressed which are aroused in men by the pleasure of the country (or), in which 
some feelings of country life are set forth." 

Some have not needed the warning in a symphony where "feeling" 
controls every page, where the "painting" is never more than a sug- 
gestive course to thoughts which are purely musical. Yet Beethoven's 
wisdom in giving this plain road sign (whatever his motive may have 
been for withdrawing it) is proved by the abundance of critics (early 
and late) who have been inclined to object to the birds, the brook, 
the storm, or the peasants. Those who at various times in England 
during the past century have tied the music to stage tableaux, some- 
times with action, would have done well to pay a little attention to 
the composer's injunction. Beethoven had, no doubt, very definite 
pictures in his mind while at work upon the symphony. Charles 
Neate has reported a conversation on the very subject of the Pastoral 

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[ 168] 



Symphony, in which Beethoven said: "I have always a picture in 
mind while composing, and work up to it." He might have added 
(except that the evidence is plain enough in his music) that these 
images were always completely transmuted into the tonal realm, 
where, as such, they took their place in his musical scheme. 

Beethoven had a still more direct reason for trying to set his public 
straight on his musical intentions in this symphony. He wished, no 
doubt, to distinguish his score from the "programme music" highly 
popular in his day, trivial imitations by composers entirely incapable 
of the "feeling" Beethoven justly stressed in his similarly entitled 
score. He could not even approve the literal imitation of animal life 
in Haydn's "Creation," an oratorio which was in great vogue in Vienna 
at that time. He did indeed later capitulate to the lower order of 
"Malerei" in his "Battle of Victoria," but for this excursion in the 
popular taste he never claimed a preponderance of feeling over 
imagery. There were nature pictures in music as well as battle pieces 
at that time, and they were on a similar level. A symphony of this 
sort has been found which may well have suggested Beethoven's Pas- 
toral Symphony, and its plan of movements. It is a "Grand Sym- 
phony" subtitled "A Musical Portrait of Nature" by a Swabian com- 
poser, Justin Heinrich Knecht, published about 1784. This work was 
advertised in the publication of Beethoven's Opus 2, his first three 



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[l6 9 ] 



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until 1808." Grove, who examined the score, hastened to reassure his 
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blow, the streams cross the valley, the birds twitter, a cascade mur- 
murs, a shepherd pipes, the sheep leap, and the shepherdess lets her 
gentle voice be heard. 

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and are afraid, the black clouds pile up, the wind makes a rushing 
sound, the thunder growls from afar, the storm slowly descends. 

3. The storm, with noise of wind and driving rain, roars with all 
its force, the tops of the trees murmur, and the torrent rolls down 
with a terrifying sound. 

4. The storm is appeased little by little, the clouds scatter and the 
sky clears. 

5. Nature, in a transport of gladness, raises its voice to heaven, and 
gives thanks to its Creator in soft and agreeable song. 



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[171] 



SYMPHONY NO. 4, Op. 29 
By Nicolai Berezowsky 

Born at St. Petersburg, May 17, 1900 



Nicolai Berezowsky began to compose this symphony in New York late in the 
spring of 1942 and completed it in November. The symphony was commissioned 
by the Koussevitzky Music Foundation and bears the dedication "In memory of 
dearly beloved Natalia Constantinovna Koussevitzky." The Foundation was estab- 
lished in memory of Mme. Koussevitzky. 

The score calls for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes and English horn, two 
clarinets and bass clarinet, two bassoons and contra-bassoon, four horns, four 
trumpets, three trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, side drum, triangle, 
xylophone, glockenspiel, chimes, celesta and strings. 

The first movement of the symphony is marked Allegro non troppo, 
cantabile, alia breve. As a whole, the nature of the movement is 
lyric, although there is a decided climax just before the recapitulation. 
The principal theme is announced at the very opening by the wood- 
winds, which are followed immediately by the strings. After fifty bars 
the second theme appears as a triple rhythm is introduced, the melody 
being played by the clarinet moderato con moto. In the development 
a new motive appears in the brass which is used again at the conclu- 
sion. The movement ends with a quiet coda. 

The second movement, a scherzo, is marked Vivace, 3-4. The main 




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theme is announced by the E-flat clarinet, but before this, indeed in 
the very opening bars, there appears a three-bar motto with a charac- 
teristic descending octave, a figure which is to pervade the scherzo 
proper. The main theme, which the clarinet brings forward, is gay 
and simple in design and treatment. Later on a rhythmic figure ap- 
pears in the brass in various forms. The initial motto figure reappears 
throughout the scherzo. In the coda (after a quiet trio and da capo) 
this same figure alia breve becomes the basis for an alia breve treat- 
ment of all the thematic material. 

The Andante, molto sostenuto, opens with the main theme played 
by the English horn solo. There is an extended middle section in 
more impassioned style. At the conclusion, the English horn over a 
timpani tremolo repeats the theme. . 

The last movement, Allegro commodo, ma bravura, common time, 
opens with a rapid theme played by the volins and violas over the 
background of an ostinato figure in the horns. There is a middle 
section of a broader nature which, when it is played a second time, 
leads to the maestoso ending. The ostinato figure which appeared at 
the beginning is used repeatedly throughout in altered tempi (half 
notes, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths) and at the end this figure is 
played simultaneously by the entire orchestra in four different rhythms. 

Berezowsky conducted his First Symphony at a Monday evening 
concert of this orchestra on March 16, 1931. His Third Symphony was 
performed in this series March 3-4, 1941. The following works of this 



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composer have been performed at the Friday and Saturday series: 
Violin Concerto (the composer as soloist), December 4-5, 1931; Second 
Symphony, February 16-17, 1934; Concerto Lirico for Violoncello and 
Orchestra (Gregor Piatigorsky as soloist), February 22-23, 1935; 
Toccata Variations and Finale for String Quartet and Orchestra, 
October 21, 1938. In addition to these works Berezowsky has composed 
for orchestra a Sinfonietta, Hebrew Suite, Fantasia for Two Pianos, 
and Introduction and Waltz. His chamber music includes three string 
quartets, two woodwind quintets, two string sextets, and a sextet for 
strings with clarinet and piano; a piano sonata; "Poeme" for eleven in- 
struments; a duo for viola and clarinet, and a suite for seven brass 
instruments. He has written a single choral work: a Cantata on 
Dryden's "Hymn to St. Cecilia." 



It was in 1922 that Nicolai Berezowsky came to this country. He 
studied in the Juilliard Graduate School — violin with Paul Kochanski, 
and composition with Rubin Goldmark. In 1923 he joined the New 
York Philharmonic Orchestra as leader of the second violins. He was 
first violinist of the League of Composers String Quartet, and subse- 
quently became a member of the Coolidge String Quartet of the 
Library of Congress in Washington. He is associated with the 
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The Russian career of Berezowsky is described by his wife in the 
introduction to her highly entertaining book, "Duet with Nicky."* 
"It is always somewhat of a shock to people," begins Mrs. Berezowsky, 
"when they discover that Nicky hasn't a beard. They feel that a Russian 
composer ought to have a beard. When they see that he has light blue 
eyes, very blond hair and lair skin, they are almost indignant. How can 
a man be a Russian composer and not look like one? 

"Then there is the matter of his name. When Nicky became an 
American citizen, the presiding judge took a personal interest in him. 
'Young man, you're too nice to have a name like that,' he kindly coun- 
seled. 'I'd like to suggest that you change your name to Beresford.' 
'Thank you, your honor,' Nicky replied, 'but in my profession, if my 
name were Smith I would change it to Berezowsky.' Of course, that 
was back in 1928, when many music listeners were snobs and first-class 
American composers were made to suffer because their names were not 
foreign. 

"Nicky was born in St. Petersburg in 1900, the second child of his 
father's third marriage. Since there was a disparity of fifty years in 
their ages, little companionship was possible between father and son. 



* "Duet with Nicky," by Alice Berezowsky, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1943. 



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[ 178] 



Nicky's mother, whom he adored, died when he was eleven, and his 
sister, who was older than he, married when she was not quite six- 
teen. Deprived of family affection, Nicky's childhood was lonely and 
miserable." 

Berezowsky's father, Tikhon Mihailovitch, entered him as a pupil 
of the Imperial Capella in St. Petersburg, where he sang soprano solo 
in the choir until his voice changed. "The gorgeous services at the 
court chapel were attended solely by the royal family and Rasputin. 
Historians tell gory tales of Rasputin, the mad monk. Nicky remembers 
only that the choir boys threw spitballs at him. 

"Nicky learned to play the violin. When he was thirteen he began to 
earn his own pocket-money by playing in symphony orchestras during 
his summer vacation. The money was needed, for his father had lost a 
once considerable fortune. 

"The Imperial Capella continued its activities after Russia entered 
the war in 1914, but the boys suffered great privations, principally a 
serious lack of food. Nicky was graduated with high honors in 1917, 
just in time to join the students' militia mobilized during the first 
revolution." Under the Bolshevik regime he was assigned the post of 
concert master at the Opera House at Saratov. Restive at the "small- 
town atmosphere" of this position, he tried in vain to be transferred to 
Moscow, and when this was not granted he went there in disguise. 
Although he had trouble with the authorities he was allowed to remain 
at the Moscow Bolshoi Theatre. 

"Towards the end of 1920, the Soviet Commission of Education sent 
Nicky, with several other musicians, on a tour to the south of Russia. 
Nicky could and did endure the hardships of the tour: extremely diffi- 
cult traveling, the hazards of being caught in a cross-fire of guerilla 
warfare, the meagre food, the dirt and disorder; but he could not 
endure starvation for what was to him the only real staff of life, not 
bread, but a free and boundless artistic horizon. Of necessity Russia 
had locked herself within her own borders. Foreign professors had 
quit Russia and young Russian artists were not allowed to travel 
abroad. There was no artistic intercourse with the outside world. Few 
young artists can thrive with clipped wings and Nicky, like many 
others, felt a tremendous need for contact with western musical culture. 
However strong his sympathy with the Soviet Government's reorganiza- 
tion of Russia, it could not overcome that craving. He decided to leave 
Russia. Since it was impossible to obtain permission to leave, he made 
plans to escape. For each concert he played on tour he was paid with 
the most precious currency of the times . . . butter and sugar. After 
each concert he exchanged his pay for something infinitely less 
precious . . . gold. When he had the equivalent of about fourteen 

[179] 



dollars in gold, he simply left his companions and started out on foot 
towards the Polish frontier, hiding by day and walking by night. 
Nicky walked out of Russia. It was quite a long walk because it lasted 
four months. At the frontier, he used his pieces of gold to bribe a guard 
to get him across. In Poland he had plenty of time to rest his feet. 
The Poles were fighting the Russians in a misguided attempt to make 
the world safe from the Bolsheviki. Nicky had a violin and no papers; 
a shirt and a toothbrush were no proof he wasn't a Bolshevik. The 
Polish police wanted to send Nicky back across a little bridge into 
Russia. 

" 'Look here,' said Nicky, 'if you want to get rid of me, shoot me right 
here and now. I'm not going to walk any more, not even fifty yards to 
get shot.' 

"The puzzled Poles hit on a plan to identify Nicky and to decide his 
fate. They had quite a prize in the jail ... a Russian general. 

" 'We'll ask the General,' said a policeman, with pride in his own 
ingenuity. 'If the General has heard of you, you can stay in jail. If the 
General doesn't know you, you go back to the bridge.' 

" 'Well,' said Nicky, 'there are only 170,000,000 people in Russia. 
I'm sure he knows me. Lead me to him,' he said and was mentally half- 
way across the bridge. 

" 'Nothing doing,' said the ingenious policeman. 'We'll just ask him 
if he knows Nicolai Berezowsky, a musician.' 

"Nicky started to make for the bridge. 

" 'Halt! Stay where you are,' shouted the policeman. 

"Nicky stood still and a guard pointed a gun at him while the police- 
man went to see the incarcerated general. In a few minutes the police- 
man returned. 

" 'Put him in a cell,' he ordered the guard. 

" 'Good Lord, did the General know me?' exclaimed Nicky. 

" 'Well, he says his wife dragged him to a concert once in Kiev. He 
says he'll never forget having to sit still for two hours while a blond 
blue-eyed fellow played some of that damned classical stuff on a violin. 
He says what he likes is a good gypsy tune.' 

" 'Please,' said Nicky, 'will you give him a message from me? Just tell 
him that if he and I ever get out of this place he can send me a postal 
card. I'll come and play gypsy tunes for him anytime, anywhere and in 
any country.' Nicky has never heard from the General, but the offer 
still stands." 

He succeeded in finding and communicating with his sister in New 
York, it was arranged for him to come to America, and he landed safely 
in New York City. "He found a job as a violinist in the orchestra at 
the Capitol Theater. Erno Rapee and Eugene Ormandy were the con- 

[ 180] 




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ductors. Rapee now conducts for the Rockefellers in Radio City, and 
Ormandy conducts the glorious orchestra in the Quaker City. Nicky 
played at the Capitol during the entire winter, and during the summer 
played in an orchestra at an Atlantic City hotel. 

"In October, 1923, Nicky became a member of the New York Phil- 
harmonic violin section. His first thought, now he was finally settled 
somewhere, was to continue his studies. After making inquiries, he 
applied to the Juilliard Graduate School of Music for two scholarships, 
one to study composition and the other to study the violin. Despite the 
fact that he had graduated from one of the finest schools in Russia and 
had studied composition with Klimov, a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakoff, 
Nicky after his years of upheaval wanted to feel musical terra firma 
under his feet. He wanted guiding hands to take him over all the 
ground he knew before starting out an independent exploration. The 
scholarships were granted and Nicky began to study with Rubin 
Goldmark, the composer, and Paul Kochanski, the violinist. Both 
teachers were amazed at Nicky's ambition and energy, for playing in 
the Philharmonic was no part-time job and neither was holding down 
two scholarships with two such professors. 

"Nicky's teachers had human, warm personalities. Goldmark was a 
wise, earnest musician and a great idealist. He wore a walrus mustache, 
was stout and partly bald, and suffered from that special torment the 
devil devised for musicians, difficulty with his hearing. Goldmark was 
also a perpetual cigar-smoker, a gourmet and raconteur of the first 
order. 

"Nicky's composition lessons took place at eight o'clock in the morn- 
ing at the Juilliard School, which was then on East 52nd Street. 
Goldmark always joked about composing for the charwomen, as only 
the cleaning women were about at that early hour, but he knew Nicky's 
Philharmonic schedule was too arduous to permit lessons at a more 
normal hour and he never complained about getting up so early. 
Nicky's broken English was a source of endless amusement between 
them. The articles as a part of speech do not exist in the Russian 
languag'e, and Russians invariably fail to recognize their existence 
when learning English. Each lesson Goldmark greeted Nicky with, 
'Well, my boy, have you had letter from friend today?' 

"Lessons with Paul Kochanski were very different. Kochanski was a 
celebrated virtuoso and a darling of society, with an equal passion for 
roulades and roulette. The proceeds of many of his recitals were 
donated to the roulette tables at Monte Carlo. He was a slim, elegant 
man, a brilliant and progressive musician. With him Nicky studied the 
modern repertoire for the violin. 

"Nicky learned a great deal from Willem Mengelberg, then con- 

[ 182 ] 



ill 






ductor of the Philharmonic, who made that orchestra the great musical 
instrument it is. The players swore at Mengelberg's 'school-teaching' 
but they learned every angle of his principal precept for the acquire- 
ment of fine orchestral technique, what he called 'together-playing/ . . . 
"All three musicians, Mengelberg, Goldmark and Kochanski, agreed 
that the ideal thing would be for Nicky to devote himself entirely to 
composition. Since Nicky could not find a method whereby he and his 
father, who was still in Russia and whom he supported, could eat 
do-re-mi-fa-sol-la for meals, this was more desirable than practical." 



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[184] 



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[185] 



"SPANISH CAPRICCIO" 
By Nicolas Andrejevitch Rimsky-Korsakov 

Born at Tikhvin, in the government of Novgorod, March 18, 1844; died at 
St. Petersburg, June 21, 1908 



The "Capriccio Espagnol," composed in the summer of 1887, had its first per- 
formance at the "Russian Symphony Concerts" in St. Petersburg, November 12 of 
the same year — the composer conducting. It was performed at a popular concert 
under the direction of Anton Seidl, at Brighton Beach, New York, in the summer 
of 1891. The first performance in Boston was at a concert of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, February 15, 1908. The most recent performance in this series was 
December 24, 1942. 

The orchestration includes two flutes and piccolo, two oboes and English horn, 
two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones and tuba, 
timpani, side drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, castanets, harp and 
strings. 

The "Spanish Capriccio" is grouped by Rimsky-Korsakov with his 
"Scheherazade" and the Overture, "The Russian Easter," as 
belonging to "a period of my activity, at the end of which my orchestra- 
tion had reached a considerable degree of virtuosity and bright sonority 
without Wagner's influence, within the limits of the usual make-up 
of Glinka's orchestra. These three compositions show a considerable 
falling off in the use of contrapuntal devices, which is noticeable after 
'Snyegourochka.' The place of the disappearing counterpoint is taken 
by a strong and virtuoso development of every kind of figuration 
which sustains the technical interest of my compositions." 

It was in the summer of 1887, at a rented villa on a lake shore of 
the Looga canton, that the Capriccio was written. The summer was 
principally occupied by the very sizable task of filling out a complete 
orchestration of "Prince Igor." Borodin had died in the previous 
winter, and his colleague was fulfilling his usual role of rounding out 
the opera scores of others into performable shape. A long and assidu- 
ous summer was not enough to complete this considerable labor. "In 
the middle of the summer," writes Rimsky-Korsakov, "this work was 
interrupted: I composed the Spanish Capriccio from the sketches of 
my projected virtuoso violin fantasy on Spanish themes. According to 
my plans, the Capriccio was to glitter with dazzling orchestral color 
and, manifestly, I had not been wrong." 

The composer directs that there be no pauses between the move- 
ments. 

1. "Alborada" (Vivo e strepitoso). The alborada (French — au bade) 
is defined as a morning serenade. Two themes, given by the full orches- 
tra, are repeated by the solo clarinet; there is a cadenza for the solo 
violin, ending pianissimo. 

[ 186] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

"Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERQE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Monday Evening, October 25, at 8:15 
Tuesday Afternoon, October 26, at 3 

First Concerts of this Series 

Programme 
Brahms Symphony No. l in C minor, Op. 68 

Grieg Concerto for Pianoforte in A minor, Op. 16 

Grieg Suite No. i from the Incidental Music to 

Ibsen's "Peer Gynt" 

SOLOIST 

ANIA DORFMANN 
Tickets at Box Office 



[»87] 



2. Variations (Andante con moto). The theme, stated by the horn 
over string arpeggios, has five variations. 

3. Alborada. The opening movement is repeated, but transposed 
from A major to B-flat, and with a different orchestration. Clarinets 
and violins have now exchanged their parts. The solo that was origi- 
nally for clarinet is now for solo violin; the cadenza that was originally 
for the solo violin is now for the solo clarinet. 

4. Scene and Gypsy Song. Allegro, D minor, 6-8. This dramatic 
scene is a succession of five cadenzas. The movement begins abruptly 
with a roll of side-drum, with a fanfare, quasi-cadenza, in syncopated 
rhythm, gypsy fashion, for horns and trumpets. The drum-roll con- 
tinues, now ppp. The second cadenza, which is for solo violin, intro- 
duces the chief theme. This is repeated by flute and clarinet. The third 
cadenza, freer in form, is for flute over a kettledrum roll; the fourth, 
also free, for clarinet over a roll of cymbals. The fifth cadenza is for 
harp with triangle. 

The gypsy song begins after a harp glissando. 

The song is attacked savagely by the violins, and is punctuated by 
trombone and tuba chords and cymbal strokes. The cadenza theme 
enters, full orchestra, with a characteristic figure for accompaniment. 
The two themes are alternated. There is a side theme for solo violon- 
cello. Then the strings, in guitar fashion, hint at the fandango rhythm 
of the Finale, and accompany the gypsy song, which is now blown 
staccato by wood-wind instruments. The cadenza theme is enwrapped 
in triplets for strings. The pace grows more and more furious, and leads 
into the Finale. 

5. Fandango of the Asturias. The chief theme is announced imme- 
diately by the trombones, and a related theme for wood-wind instru- 
ments follows. Both themes are repeated by oboes and violins. There 
is a variation for solo violin. The chief theme in a modified version is 
given to bassoons and violoncellos. The clarinet has a solo with fan- 
dango accompaniment, and the dance grows always wilder, until the 
chief theme is heard again from the trombones. The fandango sud- 
denly is changed into the Alborado of the first movement. "Coda, 
vivo." There is a short closing Presto. 



01 











T^ 






m 



[188] 



The Massachusetts Committee 

of the 

French Relief Fund 

Announces a Concert 
to be given by 

Sixty Members of the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 

under the direction of 

BERNARD ZIGHERA 

assisted by 
CLEORA WOOD, Soprano 

GEORGES LAURENT, Flutist 
GASTON ELGUS, Ffttfr** 

THURSDAY EVE., NOVEMBER 4, AT 8:15 
AT JORDAN HALL 



An address by Madame DENISE DAVEY 



The official film of the Greater Boston United 
War Fund will be shown 



Tickets $1.50, $1.00, 50c (plus 10% government tax) at 
Jordan Hall and French Relief Fund, Inc., 121 Newbury St. 



[189] 



AK 



Aaron Rich ond Events: 

KREISLER 

THIS SUN. 3:30 

Paganini B minor concerto; Tar tint 
Devil's Trill Sonata; Chausson 
"Poeme"; pieces by Rims ky -Korsakoff 
and Fenandez-Arbos 

(Steinway Piano) 

TICKETS AT SYMPHONY HALL BOX-OFFICE NOW 




DON 




DON COSSACK 
RUSSIAN CHORUS 

SUN. NOV. 21 at 3:30 



TICKETS AT JORDAN HALL (10:30 to 5:30) DAILY 



SMETERLIN 

Eminent Polish Pianist (Steinway Piano) 

Fri. Eve. Oct. 29 — Andover (Phillips Academy) 

$1.10, $1.65, $2.20 (Mail orders filled) 

SUN. AFT. OCT. 31 —JORDAN HALL 
CHOPIN PROGRAM includes B minor Sonata, 24 
Preludes, Mazurkas in C-sharp minor, A minor, 
B -flat minor, Waltz C-sharp minor, A-flat Ballade, 
3 Etudes. 




ISABEL FRENCH 

Song Recital 

TUES. EVE. NOV. 2 

GEORGE REEVES at the piano 

NORMA FARBER 

Songs of the Americas 

SUN. AFT. NOV. 7 at 3:30 

GEORGE REEVES at the piano 

Concert by Pan-America Society of Mass. 



[ 19°] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Fourth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, October 29, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, October 30, at 8:15 o'clock 



Piston Prelude and Allegro for Organ and Strings 

(First performance at these concerts) 

Soloist: E. POWER BIGGS 

Barber Commando March 

(First performance at these concerts) 

Khatchatourian Piano Concerto 

I. Allegro ma non troppo e maestoso 
II. Andante con anima 
III. Allegro brillante 

(First performance at these concerts) 

Soloist: WILLIAM KAPELL 

INTFRMISSION 

Debussy Two Nocturnes 

Nuages 
Fetes 

Debussy "La Mer," Trois Esquisses Symphoniques 

I. De l'aube a midi sur la mer 
II. Jeux de vagues 
III. Dialogue du vent et de la mer 



This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:15 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[191 ] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 

PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 

Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
256 Huntington Avenue 

Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




[ 192 ] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 
Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen N. Penrose Hallo well 

John Nicholas Brown M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[ 193 ] 




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WNAC — Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays at 7:45 p. m. 



C '94] 



SYMPHONIANA 



EXHIBIT 

In the First Balcony Gallery is to be 
seen a collection of oil paintings by W. 
Lester Stevens. 

A member of the National Academy, 
he first studied with Parker S. Perkins 
and later at the School of the Museum 
of Fine Arts in Boston. He first became 
known to the art public when he was 
awarded the Fourth William A. Clark 
Prize at the Corcoran Art Gallery. 
Since then he has been awarded over a 
dozen outstanding awards. His paintings 
are owned both privately and by mu- 
seums in every State of the Union and 
in many foreign countries. 

The following works comprise this 
exhibit : 
Sentinels 
Road to the City 
Falling Snow 
Roots of Democracy 
Queen Street, Charleston 
Approaching Blizzard 
Late February 
Peonies 

Home in the Hills 
Rockport Street 
Pigeon Cove Harbor 
Opening Brook 
Blossomtime 
Foothills 
The Red Vase 
Punkin Time 
Maytime 
Cyclamen 
Brook at Bristol 
Meredith Centre 
Farm in New Hampshire 
Meredith Hills 
Southern Saga 
Late Afternoon — Winter 
Clearing 

Berkshire Village 
New Hampshire Farm 
King Street, Rockport 
Arrangement: Chrysanthemums and 

Rhododendron Leaves 
Cathedral Woods 
Peace in New England 
On the Berkshire Trail 

THE ART OF SINGING— 
IN DECLINE 
By Edwin Evans 
(Reprinted from The Musical Times, 
London, July, 1943) 
One of the most paradoxical phe- 
nomena of present conditions in the 
musical world is the marked and still 



, 




COFFEE BEAN 
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here is decided inter- 
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of this handsome tuxedo 
coat of lamb from far- 
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1 195] 



Under the New 
Slim Silhouette 




Warner's LeGant Royale 
Sta-Up-Top 

The smartest girdle in the best qual- 
ity that can be obtained under war-time 
restrictions. 

The fine workmanship and detail of 
these superb foundations is in keeping 
with our purpose, in War or Peace, of 
offering only the best at whatever price 
your budget dictates. 

GIRDLES - BRAS - LINGERIE 
SWEATERS - SKIRTS - HOSIERY 
DRESSES - HATS - SPORTSWEAR 

50 TEMPLE PLAC E 



widening divergence between the stand- 
ards of vocal and instrumental perform- 
ance. Within living memory the degree 
of technical proficiency expected in the 
latter has advanced by leaps and bounds. 
Many works which at their appearance 
were pronounced to be almost unplay- 
able are now assumed to be within the 
scope of advanced students. Some years 
ago I gave a series of lectures on piano 
music, illustrated by a group of boys 
and girls whose prowess at the keyboard 
was astonishing. Today pianists of great 
attainments are so numerous that one 
cannot help wondering whether the 
giants of the past would have reached 
their pinnacles of fame if they had had 
to face such competition. Much the 
same applies to violinists, and though 
there are sections of the orchestra which 
are not so thickly populated with play- 
ers of remarkable attainments, the tend- 
ency is appreciably in the same direc- 
tion. Under present conditions it is not 
surprising that there should be some 
relaxing of the standard in orchestral 
playing, as there was during the last 
war, but that can scarcely be held to 
affect the norm which, for ten years or 
more before the outbreak, stood high. 

At this point one must expect to be 
told that one must look to individuals, 
not to masses, and that there are also 
good singers. There are also bad pianists 
and violinists. But a prolonged course of 
professional listening necessarily pro- 
vides one with a basis of what might be 
termed reasonable expectation. If first 
recitals are announced by a pianist and 
a singer the experienced listener knows 
that it is most unlikely that the per- 
formance of the former will fall below, 
or that of the latter rise above, a cer- 
tain standard, and surprises are few in- 
deed. What makes matters worse is that 
the tendency has so long been down- 
wards that it has induced in the public 
a fatal tolerance. A singer who is equally 
unintelligible in three or four languages 
and leaves one guessing which she is 
using, who rises to a note by means of 
an inclined plane, who confuses can- 
tando with tretnolando, is assured of 
applause from an audience which, alas, 
has had too little experience of anything 
better to realize the poor quality of the 
exhibition offered it. And if one were 
even to begin to tell the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
the result would become so monoto- 
nous, such an unrelieved jeremiad that 
if singers did not slaughter their critics, 
editors would do it for them. So the 
polite fiction continues, though among 
themselves musical folk can be heard 
describing the evil in scathing and even 



[ 196] 



sulphurous terms. I heard one the other 
day declare that it had gone beyond all 
remedy but the lethal chamber. Ana" he 
was one entitled to speak with authority. 
When disease causes widespread 
havoc the health authorities usually in- 
vestigate the breeding-ground and seek 
out the causes which have made it 
favourable to the outbreak. If in this 
case instrumentalists have remained 
comparatively immune from the decay 
which has overtaken singers, there must 
be some condition that protects the 
former but not the latter. That condi- 
tion is not far to seek. It is musicianship, 
the standard of which is far higher 
among players than among singers. We 
can ignore the cliches which, in many 
languages (e.g., bete comme un tenor), 
imply that when Nature bestows a voice 
she makes up for it by a niggardly allot- 
ment of intelligence. That belongs to 
the domain of popular mythology. The 
low level of musicianship among singers 
is not necessarily due to inability, or 
even unwillingness to acquire it. It is 
due to a false conception of Nature's 
gift, a confusion of the means with the 
end. A voice is an instrument. Posses- 
sion of a good one no more implies 
musicianship than possession of a good 
piano. A voice that has been made even 
through its register is equivalent to a 
piano that has been regulated, and accu- 
rate intonation simply means that the 
piano is in tune. But many singers — one 
is almost tempted to say, most singers — 
seem to believe that when they have got 
that far, all that remains for them to do 
is to acquire a repertory. How many of 
them do this by ear? To be dependent 
on a piano, with or without a pianist, in 
tackling a new song is to learn it by ear. 
I have even met a soprano who learned 
operatic arias with the aid of a gramo- 
phone. Of course, we have all heard of 
wonderful pianists and other instru- 
mentalists who play by ear. It is even 
featured in their publicity that they 
"do not know a note of music," as mak- 
ing their performance the more wonder- 
ful. But we do not take illiterate players 
seriously, whereas illiterate singers ex- 
pect us to do so. The musicianship of 
violinists is not always above suspicion. 
I once had a quartet leader who was a 
good soloist. When score and parts of a 
new work were added to our library, he 
would ignore the former, pick out the 
first fiddle part, and tell me whether it 
was a good quartet or not, blissfully 
unaware of the low degree of musician- 
ship he was revealing. But even he 
could read, and read well. Keyboard 
players, having to master the texture 
of the composition, are almost com- 




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taste is important . . . 

this is no time for short-lived fads. It is a 
time for fundamentals. A time when 
Fredleys' clothes come into their own, for 
in them you find the well-bred simplicity 
that endures . . . 

quality is important . . . 

in clothes as in everything else, quality is 
farsighted economy. And quality is a basic 
attribute of everything you buy at 
Fredleys', no matter how much or how 
little you spend . . . 

value is important . . . 

good clothes have always proved a good 
investment. They pay dividends at every 
wearing. At Fredleys' you get not only full 
value, but plus value . . . that extra some- 
thing inherent 1 in Fredleys' clothes . . . 

time is important . . . 

At Fredleys' you can accomplish more in 
less time. Here is selective service in the 
hands of skilled salespeople in an atmos- 
phere gracious and refreshing. Whether 
you stay a few minutes or a few hours, 
you're glad you came . . . 




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[197] 



presents 

Music a la Carte 

KOUSSEVITZKY 
RECORDINGS 



The music you love . . when and 
how you want it . . as played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

ALBUMS 

685 — Stravinsky — Capriccio $2.63 

566 — Prokofieff— Peter and the 
Wolf $3.68 

294 — Mendelssohn — Italian 
Symphony #4 $3.68 

319— Schubert— Symphony #8 

in B Minor $3.68 



327 — Tschaikowsky— Sym- 
phony #4 in F Minor 



$5.78 



730 — Brahms — Symphony #4 

in E Minor $5.25 

795 — Mozart — Symphony #29 $5.25 
870 — Liszt— Mefisto Waltz $2.63 

352 — Ravel — Bolero $2.63 

347 — Tschaikowsky — Romeo 

and Juliet $3.68 

RECORDS 

7196— Prokofieff— Classical 
Symphony $1.05 

7197— Prokofieff— Classical 
Symphony $1.05 

7143— Ravel— Daphnis et 

Chloe, #land2 $1.05 

7144— Ravel— #3 and 4 $1.05 

14078 — Liadow — Enchanted 

Lake $1.05 

14415 — Moussorgosky — Intro- 
duction $1.05 

Mail Your Order 

or Call Hubbard 9400 

Fourth Floor 

[ 198 ] 



pelled to acquire a certain degree of 
musicianship. In comparison with all 
these what is the status of a singer who 
learns a few songs with an experienced 
coach? I submit that there is ample 
ground for asserting that it is this low 
level of musicianship that has made so 
many singers easy victims to the ills 
that have beset their art. 

Foremost of these is vocal palsy. 
There is a theory that the disease was 
first caught from string players who, 
when they turned from classical purity 
to persistent espressivo playing, began 
to wobble on the fingerboard for addi- 
tional romantic effect. Plausible as this 
may seem, it is really improbable be- 
cause not many singers are sufficiently 
interested in string music to have ob- 
served its idiosyncrasies so closely. 
Their interest is generally limited to 
vocal music as presented by other sing- 
ers. Still, when one sees a 'cellist's left 
hand performing strange antics out of 
season it does suggest an analogy with 
singers' palsy. At present a well- 
rounded sustained note is a rare experi- 
ence. There is even a superstition that 
such a note sounds 'dead.' So one singer 
after another adopts the wobble. And 
the tragedy is that once it has become a 
habit, it cannot be eradicated. I was told 
the other day that singers' palsy is 
pathological and incurable, beyond the 
reach even of hospital treatment. That 
was when the lethal chamber was 
recommended. 

Another terrible disease is that of 
which the virulent form is crooning, but 
it has many stages before that is 
reached. It begins as an emotional 
slither, a passionate portamento, the 
mildest form of which, rising to the 
note, is sometimes called scooping. A 
famous prima donna was given to this 
failing. She happened to be also a great 
actress, and felt that it aided the ex- 
pression of dramatic emotion. When she 
made her debut in New York the audi- 
ence, startled at the unusual sight of a 
singer who could act, roared its ap- 
proval. The next day one of the news- 
papers splashed the head-line: "She 
Scoops to Conquer." For some mysteri- 
ous reason the downward portamento 
sounds less offensive — or is it that it has 
become so common that we notice it 
less? With the coming of sound-films 
singing stars began to be advertised as 
possessing a sob in their voice. Instead 
of being advised to adopt the ancient 
and honourable profession of hired 
mourners they found that sob — in real- 
ity a portamento beyond cure or con- 
trol — was a source of profit, and thus 
they launched the lachrymose age in 



song. The microphone did the rest by 
proving that so long as the sob was 
there, it did not matter much whether 
the voice was or not. Thus originated 
the extreme form of crooning. I shall 
probably be told that such phenomena 
belong to another world than that of 
music — and I agree. But to assume that 
the world of music has not been in- 
fected is "wishful thinking." The lachry- 
mose tone and sentimental slither are 
spreading. One hears them nowadays 
in the most unlikely music — in the 
virile light music of the past century 
when it is revived, in popular drawing- 
room ballads of the same period, but 
also in modern songs if their sentiment 
offers the slightest excuse for it, and 
occasionally even in a classic. This 
again appears to be a habit which, once 
acquired, is difficult to cure. 

There is, however, one virtue — and 
only one — which can be conceded to 
crooners. Thanks, perhaps, to the aid 
of the microphone, their words are 
usually intelligible. In fact, one is gen- 
erally inclined to wish they were not, 
for there is never a spark of wit or true 
sentiment in the balderdash they sing. 
Alas, in our concert halls the words are 
for the most part inaudible. Sometimes 
it is even difficult to recognize the 
language. In this respect the women 
are commonly much worse than the 
men. Can it be that self-assertive con- 
sonants are unladylike? The vowels are 
not always well pronounced, but at least 
they are audible, whereas the con- 
sonants have to be taken on trust. I 
have referred elsewhere to the pastime 
of crosswords in which so many of us 
indulge as being the mental equivalent 
of physical jerks. Everyone who does 
this knows the difference between guess- 
ing a word of which the vowels are open 
and the consonants "blocked," and a 
word to which the reverse applies. It is 
the consonants that carry the meaning 
of speech. The vowels are adjuncts. In 
some languages — Arabic, for instance — 
they are represented by signs which 
hardly anybody troubles to add when 
writing. The language of many singers 
is the exact opposite. The consonants 
are mere signs which they do not 
trouble to pronounce, so that the listener 
is left perpetually guessing insoluble 
crosswords. In peacetime he could con- 
sult the "book of words," the necessity 
for which was an infliction on a long- 
suffering public. The paper shortage has 
temporarily put an end to that. One is 
reduced to listening to a song as an in- 
strumental performance on an instru- 
ment that often wobbles, and some- 
times slithers from note to note. 



the 

house of tweed 

130 Newbury Street, Boston 

Showing a collection 

of daytime and dinner 

Clothes by 

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Designers. 



Anthoney Blotta 
Hattie Carangie 
Rose Barrack 
Clare Potter 
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custom tailoring 

Suits — Coats 

of the finest 

Imported Woolens 



[ !99] 



Old Colony 

Trust Company 

ONE FEDERAL STREET, BOSTON 



T. Jefferson Coolidge 
Chairman 



Channing H. Cox 
President 




Investment and Management 
of Property 



Custodian 

Trustee * Guardian 

Executor 



^Allied with The First National Bank <?/Boston 



[ 200 ] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Fourth ^Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, October 29, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, October 30, at 8:15 o'clock 



Piston Prelude and Allegro for Organ and Strings 

(First concert performance) 

Soloist: E. POWER BIGGS 
Barber Commando March 

(First performance at these concerts) 

Khatchatourian Piano Concerto 

I. Allegro ma non troppo e maestoso 
II. Andante con anima 
III. Allegro brillante 

(First performance at these concerts) 
Soloist: WILLIAM KAPELL 

INTERMISSION 

Debussy ! Two Nocturnes 

Nuages 
Fetes 

Debussy "La Mer," Trois Esquisses Symphoniques 

I. De l'aube a midi sur la mer 
II. Jeux de vagues 
III. Dialogue du vent et de la mer 



STEINWAY PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:15 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



[ 201 ] 



JORDAN MARSH COMPANY 




[ 202 ] 



PRELUDE AND ALLEGRO FOR ORGAN AND STRINGS 

By Walter Piston 

Born in Rockland, Maine, January 20, 1894 



The Prelude and Allegro was composed for the Germanic Museum series of Sun- 
day morning organ recitals which are sponsored by Mrs. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge 
and broadcast by the Columbia Broadcasting Company. The piece was thus per- 
formed on August 8, 1943, by E. Power Biggs, and string players of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, Arthur Fiedler conducting. The present performances are 
the first in a public concert. The dedication is to Mr. Biggs. 

r ~T , HE Prelude is quiet in character, with melodic development in 
the strings and a background in three-part canon for the organ. 
The Allegro is a free development in variation form of a theme first 
set forth by the lower strings. The organ part in this movement is 
in the classical toccata style. 

Walter Piston has just finished his Second Symphony, a score com- 
missioned by the Alice H. Ditson Fund, Columbia University. 

Mr. Piston studied violin with Messrs. Fiumara, Theodorowicz, and 
Winternitz in Boston, and piano with Harris Shaw. Attending Har- 



HAIL YE TYME OF HOLIEDAYES 

GENA BRANSCOMBE 

Arrangement for Chorus of Mixed Voices 
(Also published as a Solo and for Women's Voices) 

CANDLYN In Excelsis Gloria 

For Chorus of Mixed Voices 
(Also published for women's voices) 

MANSFIELD Five Christmas Carols 

(Junior Choir Leaflet) 
(2-part) 
BARNES There is no Rose — Carol 

For Chorus of Mixed Voices 

HOLST Three Old English Carols 

(Junior and Senior Choirs) 



CAROLS FROM FAR AND NEAR 

Arranged for piano by Purcell J. Mansfield 
18 favorite carols adapted as easy piano solos. One verse of each is 
provided for singing if desired. 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 446) Price 75c 



THE ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT CO. : 120 Boylston Street 

[203] 



vard University, he studied theory and composition in the music de- 
partment there, and later went to Paris to study with Nadia Boulanger. 
He is upon the musical faculty at Harvard University. 

The works of Walter Piston are as follows: 



1926 
1926 
1928 

1929 
1931 
1931 
1933 
*933 
1934 
1935 
J935 
*937 
1937 
*938 



Piano Sonata. 

Three Pieces for Flute, Clarinet and Bassoon. 

Symphonic Piece. 

Suite for Orchestra. 

Sonata for Flute and Piano. 

Suite for Oboe and Piano. 

String Quartet No. 1. 

Concerto for Orchestra. 

Prelude and Fugue for Orchestra. 

String Quartet No. 2 

Trio for Violin, 'Cello and Piano. 

Concertino for Piano and Orchestra. 

Symphony No. 1. 

Ballet, "The Incredible Flutist."* 



* The Ballet "The Incredible Flutist," was first performed by Hans Wiener and his Dancers, 
at a Pop Concert in Symphony Hall, Arthur Fiedler conducting, May 30, 1938. An or- 
chestral suite has been drawn from this ballet. 

The Suite was sent by micro-film to Moscow last summer for a concert of American music 
given in the Conservatory on July 4 in celebration of our Independence Day. The programme 
also included Harris's Overture "When Johnny Comes Marching Home," an arrangement of 
the same tune by Shostakovitch, Samuel Barber's Overture "The School for Scandal," a 
group of "American Folk Songs" (which included "The Old Folks at Home," and "Till We 
Meet Again"), and Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue. 



For Victory 

HELP YOUR COUNTRY HELP YOURSELF 

Keep on Buying 

United States War 

Stamps and Bonds 

Regularly 



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£>tate Street t^rustf Company 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Main Office: Corner State and Congress Streets 

Union Trust Office: 24 Federal Street 

Copley Square Office: 581 Boylston Street 

Massachusetts Avenue Office: 

Corner Massachusetts Avenue and Boylston Street 

Safe Deposit Vaults at all Offices 

member federal reserve system 
member federal deposit insurance corporation 



[204] 



Chandler's 




A Howard Hodge Origina 
casts flattering shadows! 



A cleverly designed fur felt hat that gives a proud 
lift to one's carriage with its self bow and shadows the 
face subtly with its rayon velvet chenille brim. In 
black or purple, $20. In fuchsia, $22. 

MILLINERY SALON— SECOND FLOOR 



[205] 



1 939- Concerto for Violin and Orchestra. 

1941. Sinfonietta. 

1943. Prelude and Allegro for Organ and Strings. 

The following have had their first performances by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra: 

1928. March 23, Symphonic Piece. 
1930. March 28, Suite for Orchestra. 

1934. March 29, Concerto for Orchestra. (First pei formed at a Cambridge con- 
cert, March 8, 1934. Also performed at a Berkshire Symphonic Festival 
Concert, August 5, 1939.) 

1938. April 8, Symphony No. 1. 



<sk£Xii2> 



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[806] 



The Permanent Charity Fund 

and 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
either by will or in your lifetime, with the request 
that the income be paid to the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. The gifts so made will be held perpetually 
in trust by this Company as Trustee and the income 
will be paid to the Orchestra as long as the need exists. 
Thereafter the income will be used for some other 
worthy purpose of your choice; or failing that, one 

selected by the Committee 
which annually distributes 
the income of the Fund. 

We cordially invite you to 
make a thorough investiga- 
tion of the purposes and 
methods of the Permanent 
Charity Fund. 

Full information may be 
obtained by consulting our 
Officers. Our booklet on the 
Permanent Charity Fund will 
be sent free upon request. 

Boston Safe Deposit 
and Trust Company 

lOO Franklin Street 

QMt Arch and Devonshire Streets 




[207 ] 




Oxford Beret 

A DARFORD CLASSIC 

Our "Oxford" flatters all ages from the blithe young 
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music, winning a scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music in Lon- 
don, where he studied with Sir Henry Wood and others. He graduated 
in 1929 with the highest awards in organ, harmony and counterpoint, 
and piano. He appeared as an organist and came in the following year 
to this country, when he made two concert tours. He now lives in 
Cambridge, where he has given notable series of recitals on the baroque 
organ in the Germanic Museum of Harvard University. He has given 
similar series at Columbia University in New York and is now giving 
weekly broadcast recitals upon the Harvard organ under the aus- 
pices of Mrs. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge. Mr. Biggs has appeared as 
soloist with the Chicago and Cincinnati Orchestras. With the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra he played the Concerto of Leo Sowerby on April 
22, 1938, and Handel's Organ Concerto No. 10, in D minor (April 22, 

1943)- 



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[ 209 ] 



COMMANDO MARCH 
By Samuel Barber 

Born at West Chester, Pa., March 9, 1910 



Samuel Barber, now a member of our armed forces, composed this March in 
February, 1943, for military band, and it was first performed by the Army Air 
Force Band at Atlantic City, New Jersey, in April last, and later by the Goldman 
Band in New York. After Edwin Franko Goldman had performed the Commando 
March, the Goldman Band recorded it for the Office of War Information, the com- 
poser conducting, and it has been used in American short wave propaganda 
broadcasts throughout the world. The orchestral version, which the composer later 
prepared at the suggestion of Dr. Koussevitzky, is scored for three flutes and piccolo, 
three oboes and English horn, three clarinets, E-flat clarinet and bass clarinet, three 
bassoons and contra-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones and tuba, 
timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, xylophone, wood block, and 
strings. 

The present performances of the March in its symphonic version are the first. 

Music has figured in the background of Samuel Barber's upbring- 
ing. He is a nephew of the famous contralto Louise Homer. It 
is told that he had piano lessons at the age of six, and at seven made his 
first attempt at composition. He entered the Curtis Institute of 




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[211] 



Music in Philadelphia when he was thirteen, and was shortly awarded 
the Prix de Rome in 1935 and the Pulitzer Prize for music in the 
following year. There have been performances of his music by the 
orchestras of the United States, in London, in Rome, and at Salzburg. 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra has performed his Overture "The 
School for Scandal," his Essay for Orchestra No. 1, and his Violin 
Concerto. His Adagio for Strings was conducted numerous times by 
Arturo Toscanini and taken by him to South America. Mr. Barber 
has also written a Symphony in One Movement, a second "Essay," 
and "Music for a Scene from Shelley." His chamber music includes a 
Serenade for String Quartet, "Dover Beach" (for baritone voice and 
string quartet), a Violoncello Sonata, and a String Quartet in B 
minor. For chorus he has written "The Virgin Martyrs" (women's 
voices), "Reincarnation," and "A Stop Watch and an Ordnance Map" 
(for men's voices and kettledrums). He has also written a number 
ot songs. 

Mr. Barber's plans for several new works, including an opera, were 
interrupted in September, 1942, when he was called for service in the 
United States Army. He is at present attached to the Army Air Corps 
at Stewart Field, New York. 




. tftv€y feet/ 'jffiwiffiy 



[212 ] 



PIANO CONCERTO 

By Aram Khatchatourian 

Born in Tiflis, Armenia, on June 6, 1903 



This concerto was composed in 1935 and then performed in Moscow and other 
parts of the Soviet Union. Its first American performance was at the Juilliard 
School of Music in New York on March 14, 1942, when the late Albert Stoessel 
conducted and the soloist was the Armenian girl pianist Maro Ajemian. There was 
another performance by the same musicians at a Russian Relief concert in the 
Cosmopolitan Opera House in New York on May 17. The concerto was first heard 
in Boston at the Pop Concerts in Symphony Hall on July 13, 1942, when Bernhard 
Weiser was the soloist and Arthur Fiedler conducted. At a performance in Cin- 
cinnati, February 5, 1943, Eugene Goossens conducted and Artur Rubinstein 
took the solo part. The accompaniment is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two 
clarinets and bass clarinet, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trom- 
bones and tuba, small drum, bass drum, cymbals, and strings. 

HHhe country which produced Michael Arlen and William Saroyan 
-■* has now also a composer who is attracting the attention of the 
musical world — Aram Khatchatourian. Nicolas Slonimsky, always 
a principal source of Western information on Soviet music, has de- 
voted a special article to this composer.* This writer points out that 
while Russian composers, particularly those of the nationalist group 
in St. Petersburg, were always attracted by the melodies of the Rus- 
sian Orient, "it was only after the revolution that the minority nations 
brought forth native composers who make use of melodic and rhythmic 
resources of their countries not in the form of exotic stylization, but 
as creative reconstruction." 

Khatchatourian, he continues, is such a composer. "His life his- 
tory is typical of musicians of his generation who entered adolescence 
at the time of the Revolution. He was the son of an Armenian book- 
binder. He began to study music very late, at the age of nineteen, 
when he went to Moscow, and enrolled in a music school. He selected 
the 'cello as his instrument, but soon his interest turned to creative 
composition. His first teacher was Michael Gnessin. Later he studied 
under Miaskovsky and Vassilenko at the Moscow Conservatory. He 
learned the formal science quickly, supplementing his studies with the 
analysis of masterworks, from Bach to Ravel. 

"Khatchatourian began to write music almost as soon as he had 
mastered the rudiments. In 1926, after three years of study, he com- 
posed a 'Dance' for violin and piano, and in the next year wrote a 
piano piece, 'Poem.' These were simple pieces inspired by the melo- 



* "Aram Khatchatourian, A New Soviet Composer," by Nicolas Slonimsky, American Review 
on the Soviet Union, February, 1941. 

[218 J 



dies of his native Armenia, and this folk character has remained the 
chief characteristic of his style. 

"At one time Khatchatourian was interested in the effective em- 
ployment of dissonance in modern music. Among the products of this 
period was a piano piece, 'Study in Ninths.' But this phase of 
modernistic experimentation was brief. Soon Khatchatourian returned 
to his true vocation; the recreation of his native Caucasian folk music 
within the bounds of new harmony. 

"Although Khatchatourian started late, he was in no hurry to 
catch up with the times, and to build up an imposing catalogue of 
opus numbers. His first performances were invariably successful with 
the public and the press; what is more important, second and third 
performances followed with similar success." 

Khatchatourian's Symphony, completed in 1934, was written as 
a celebration of the fifteenth anniversary of the Sovietization of 
Armenia. This Symphony is pointed out by Mr. Slonimsky as the 
composer's "most significant composition," and he calls it "an 
authentic expression of the spirit of Armenian music. The ability to 
recreate melodies in popular style is the crucial test of a national 
composer, and by that test Khatchatourian's Symphony has a claim to 
success. . . . 

"As orchestrator, Khatchatourian follows the traditions of Borodin 



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[215] 



and Glazoimov, contrasting instrumental solos with the full orchestral 
passages. The effect is secured by means of sonorous accumulation, 
reaching a maximum brilliance, and then subsiding to another period 
of calm. Khatchatourian's Symphony is a succession of sonorous waves, 
mounting and receding, in conformity with the larger lines of the 
formal design." 

The composer ventured into chamber music in 1932 with a Trio 
for violin, clarinet and piano. "In it he has used not only his native 
Armenian melodies and rhythms, but also themes from other minority 
republics. There is an Uzbek theme in the last movement which is 
adroitly elaborated so as to create an impressive climax." 

The Piano Concerto is music of technical brilliance, with frank 
display passages in the first and last movements. "The slow middle 
movement is a poetic interlude with a lilting waltz rhythm. The 
orientalism of the Concerto is revealed in the scales of eight and nine 
notes and the consequent emphasis on the small intervals in thematic 
treatment." There are extended cadenzas in the first and last move- 



(reprint from 1902 Symphony Program) 



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[216] 



merits. The Concerto was discussed in the Sovietskaya Musica of 
Moscow (September, 1939) by Georgi Khubov, who compares the 
slow movement with Borodin at his best and who finds in this move- 
ment the essence of present-day lyricism, "its perfect inner harmony, 
its vitality, and its folk character." Khatchatourian wrote in 1938 a 
"Poem about Stalin," a symphonic work for the October Festival of 
that year. The "Poem about Stalin" concludes with a chorus to a 
text by the folk-poet Ashug Mirza, from the town of Taus in Azer- 
beidzhan. "Khatchatourian has been greatly influenced by the art of 
the Ashugs, Caucasian poet-minstrels who have created a new litera- 
ture of truly popular poems and tales, successors, after a lapse of 
many centuries, of the great popular epics, the Bylini. Khatchatourian 
cultivates this new folk art, making it an integral part of Soviet music." 
His works include the Ballet "Happiness," which uses national dance 
rhythms from Russia, the Ukraine and Georgia, as well as Armenia. 
He has followed a general Soviet custom in composing a number of 
mass songs and choruses. 



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[217] 



WILLIAM KAPELL 

William Kapell was born in New York City, September 20, 1922. 
His father was a "New Yorker of Russian and Spanish heri- 
tage," and his mother a native of Poland.* As a child the boy showed 
remarkable ability as a pianist, winning an Inter-Settlement Contest 
shortly after he had begun to study. On graduating from school at 
sixteen, he won a scholarship at the Philadelphia Conservatory, and 
studied there with Mme. Olga Samaroff Stokowski, with whom he 
continued his studies at the Juilliard Graduate School (1940-41). In 
that season he won the Youth Contest of the Philadelphia Orchestra 
and duly appeared with the orchestra. Last year he was selected for 
the Town Hall Endowment Series award and gave a recital in Town 
Hall. He appeared last summer at New York's Stadium Concerts, 
playing the Concerto of Khatchatourian. His present appearances are 
his first in Boston. 



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[219] 



ENTR'ACTE 

LETTER FROM THE ARMY 

Robert Ward 

(The following letter, quoted from Modern Music (March-April, 1943), was 
contributed to that magazine, and addressed to its Editor, Minna Lederman.) 

Fort Ord, Calif., February 24, 1943 

DEAR Miss L, 
You ask me, what of the musician's life in the Army and how are 
his talents being used? And what sort of audience do soldiers make and 
what are their reactions to the entertainment we armed musicians give 
them? A broad swath to cut, and one which causes me much hesitation. 
Three months or even a day might radically change the scene. (As in the 
case of the Army Specialist Corps, for instance, which existed for a while 
and then one morning a couple of months ago, by War Department 
order was no more.) Trusting that this will be taken into consideration, 
however, and hoping that you will forgive omissions that must in- 
evitably occur in a report based on one person's experiences in enter- 
taining the Army, I will try to answer your questions. 



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[ 220 ] 



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[181] 



In the first year of our actual participation in the war, government 
printing presses poured out tons of Special Orders and new and re- 
vised regulations affecting every man in the ranks, musicians not ex- 
cluded. The great majority of soldier-musicians are still bandsmen. In 
garrison the band continues to play for military ceremonies and dances, 
and to provide concerts just as it always has. By a recent War Depart- 
ment order clarifying the band's combat duties, those in active units 
are now training to fulfill specific assignments in the battle zone. 
There has also been an authorization of more non-commissioned rat- 
ings and provisions for stringed instruments to encourage the develop- 
ment of orchestras. 

The music the band must play for military ceremonies is its first, yet 
simplest, duty. One of the greatest problems of the band-leader is to 
organize an adequate dance orchestra from the ranks of his band. 
Within two years amazingly high standards have been set for such 
orchestras. Some have already developed so that they play as well as 
any but a very few of the top swing bands in the country, and they 
are kept extremely busy by the many organizations set up for the en- 
tertainment of the soldier. 

Planning programs for band concerts is another problem for the 
band-leader whose desire is, naturally, the musical satisfaction of the 




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greatest possible number of listeners. I made my first programs with the 
feeling that, though I could perhaps slightly interest the men with 
arrangements of better known standard works, I would have to let 
the dance orchestra give them what they really wanted to hear. Con- 
sequently I was amazed to find the response to the Overture to Eury- 
anthe as enthusiastic as that for Harry James' Trumpet Blues and 
Cantabile, although the latter was better played and had the advantage 
of being heard in the medium for which it was originally written. 
Furthermore the average soldier does not seem to have heard of those 
two neatly fashioned and detestable pigeonholes of "classical" and 
"popular" music into which so many musicians and laymen place every- 
thing they hear. The sort of class distinctions which have all-too-long 
existed between musicians who make with their instruments from 
Carnegie Hall and those who swing out down at Cafe Society, as well as 
between their respective audiences, break down completely before the 
typical soldier audience. There is no plush-seat attitude of a certain 
obligation to politely like "classical" music since it is supposed to be 
uplifting or the sort of thing the best people want, nor, on the other 
hand, any inhibition in showing an appreciation for "popular" music 
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[226] 



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[ 227 ] 



blended at the Service Clubs. There is enthusiasm for everyone, from 
the hill-billy singers and Gene Autry to Glenn Miller and Serge Kous- 
sevitzky. This psychological attitude is of course strained and unnatural 
since the mere presence of most of the audience is the result of lone- 
liness and boredom which haunt one's evenings in the comparative 
isolation of an Army Camp and drive the men out of the barracks to 
seek some form of amusement. Many of our concert artists have had 
sad experiences with the soldier audience because they failed to under- 
stand its characteristics. The average soldier will succumb gladly to 
the appeal of simple and direct music. He very much wants an easy 
stimulation to either his nostalgia or his feet. What the well-meaning 
artist as often as not gives him is a Bach unaccompanied sonata or an 
operatic aria (in a foreign language, of course), or, as in the case of a 
concert Stokowski led in a western camp, the Shostakovitch Seventh 
Symphony. Jehoshaphat! and with Fifi D'Orsay scheduled as the sex 
attraction later on the same program. Naturally the men became 
restless and talked, the conductor grew indignant, but perfunctorily 
finished his part of the program and a bad time was had by all. 

Many with conducting experience ask how one becomes a band- 
leader. Some few have been commissioned in the past, others were 
Master Sergeants first, and the rest were Warrant Officers who had 




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[ 229] 



completed what has become the standard procedure for making band- 
leaders today, a course of study in the Army Music School at Fort 
Myer, Virginia. To enter the school one must fulfill the age require- 
ment, be physically fit, have had three months' previous service, and 
rank among the highest of those taking a competitive examination 
covering conducting, theory, arranging, and performance on an in- 
strument. It is a two-month course at present. Many changes have been 
made in the curriculum in order to meet the needs of the type of stu- 
dent the new Army is sending there. The Dean of the school, Captain 
Thomas F. Darcy, summed up the significance of this new regime in 
a brief graduation address last October when he said, "The school was 
orginally organized to make musicians of soldiers; now we must make 
soldiers out of musicians." Up until about a year ago applicants had to 
have at least three years' experience in an Army band and be non-com- 
missioned officers. Such men were naturally familiar with the cere- 
monial and administrative procedure of the Army, but in most cases 
were sadly lacking in theoretical background. With the new drastic 
changes in requirements, however, many well trained musicians with- 
out any band experience whatsoever are more than qualified for the 
course, but their need is for instruction in the non-musical functions 
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[230] 




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[ 231 ] 



Many organists, pianists, and singers have found their talents useful 
in the capacity of Chaplain's Assistants. Their duties here are secretarial 
as well as musical and they have a margin of personal freedom beyond 
that of most soldiers. Also a Hammond Organ to work on while they 
are in garrison. 

I doubt if anyone can give a full picture of the musical activity 
sponsored by Special Services. Examples of wonderful accomplishment 
as well as sorry inaction can be cited. The field is so vast and so new 
that the War Department scarcely knows how to define duties nor how 
to vest power in the officers in charge. It would take nine lives to 
acquire the background that every Special Service Officer should 
rightly possess. Theatricals and movies, athletics of every sort, Post 
Exchange (Army general store) supervision and library administration 
are all included in his job. To make things more difficult his staff 
is primarily an office staff (totally inadequate to do anything more 
than direct or supervise the entertainment projects). For the rest of his 
personnel he must go begging. With a sympathetic Commanding 
Officer he can work wonders. Without, nothing. 

One of the newest phases of Special Service is the development of 
Overseas Units. Of the hundred and twenty-one men in such units four 
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[232 ] 



were, their duties being to lead group singing, produce theatricals and 
interest the men in playing anything from the violin and guitar to the 
harmonica and ocarina, all of which are in their kit. 

Of the All-Soldier-Shows one might say there is This Is The Army 

(it should have been called This Isn't The Army) and a great many 
others. It is not surprising that the former still sells out weeks ahead of 
the opening wherever it goes, having been born with the silver spoon 
of total support of the War Department and Irving Berlin Inc. in its 
mouth. For the others, however, the road was rougher. The history of 
the musical revue which we put on at Fort Riley, The Life of Riley, is 
probably typical of many others produced in Army camps about the 
same time. First a group of writers got together and turned out lyrics 
and skits. After they were approved by the Commanding Officer, sev- 
eral composers wrote and arranged the tunes. Then began casting 
from the talent at hand and sometimes discouraging rehearsals in the 
evenings and on Sundays. The men were all taking basic training at 
the time; nothing but the joy they found in the work, and release from 
details in off-duty hours rewarded their efforts. Because we had virtually 
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we were ready for production the men had completed their basic train- 
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formance when our future would be decided. Fortunately the show 
took, and within a week we had more requests for additional showings 
than we could fill. On the road life was fine and worth the headaches 
of preparation. Civilians were wonderful to us. Eventually, however, 
the enthusiasm wore off and there was a hang-over of restlessness, since 
obviously there was no future in what we were doing. Meanwhile the 
other men with whom we had trained were going up the ranks. One 
by one the key men left for Officers' Training Schools and no replace- 
ments were to be found. 

There was also a more basic reason why the All-Soldier Show days 
were numbered. Except for original performances in their own camps 
they played almost completely to civilian audiences which at that time 
were avid in their desire to support anything that soldiers produced 
and to satisfy their curiosity about Army life. Though millions of 
young Americans were already in training camps, few had gone abroad. 
Hence the civilian interest centered on the activity in the camp where 
everyone had a relative or friend, and this was the theme of the scripts. 
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come a shift in civilian interest which momentarily is spent on the 
news and what Hollywood dreams up. For the soldier's story those 
back home will have to wait till the end of the war. 

Many believe that the War will not be short and that even after it is 
over vast numbers will be kept in military service. Oh, say it won't be 
so, — but if it is, those musicians who because of ill-considered "artistic" 
scruples have assumed the veil of martyrs and made no attempt to 
give their fellows the benefit of their talents will probably increasingly 
regret their separation from their civilian profession. Those who have 
had faith that the. Army would use their talents to as great a degree 
as possible — considering, after all, that its business is war — and have 
at the proper moment asserted their gifts, will probably find themselves 
happier and better prepared to return to civilian life in the long run. 

There is of course a real challenge and much to be learned from try- 
ing to please the motley soldier audience. If the ends of this war are 
worth our lives, then certainly they are worth the best our talents can 
produce. There is also a very simple satisfaction in contributing to 
our comrades' happiness by playing the music they deeply wish to 
hear, even when that music is not what would give us the greatest 
personal satisfaction. This is something for artists to think about in 
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These changes must eventually end the commercial exploitation of the 
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[239] 



TWO NOCTURNES ("CLOUDS" and "FESTIVALS") 

By Claude Debussy 

Born at St. Germain (Seine-et-Oise) France, August 22, 1862; died at Paris, 

March 25, 1918 



The "Nocturnes" were completed in 1899. "Nuages" and "Fetes" were first per- 
formed by the Lamoureux Orchestra of Paris under Chevillard, December 9, 1900. 
The nocturnes (including the third, "Sirenes") were given at the same concerts, 
October 27, 1901. The first performance in this country was at a Chickering con- 
cert in Boston, February 10, 1904, Mr. Lang conducting. Vincent d'Indy, conducting 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra as guest, introduced the two nocturnes at concerts in 
Philadelphia, Washington, New York, December 4, 5, 9, 1905. Max Fiedler gave 
the first Boston performances, conducting the three nocturnes December 12, 1908. 
The most recent performance by this Orchestra of the two nocturnes at this series 
was November 15, 1940. 

The orchestration of "Nuages" includes two flutes, two oboes, English horn, 
two clarinets, three bassoons, four horns, timpani, harp and strings. "Fetes" adds 
these instruments to the above: a third flute, three trumpets, three trombones and 
tuba, a second harp, cymbals, and snare-drum. The score is dedicated to Georges 
Hartmann, music publisher and librettist. 

r-p he world waited six years after hearing Debussy's first purely or- 
-*- chestral work, the "Prelude a V Apres-midi d'un Faune," before 
his "Nocturnes" were made known. The "Nocturnes," composed in 
the years 1897-99, were but an interlude in Debussy's labors upon 
"Pelleas," which had been occupying the composer since 1892 and was 
not to attain performance until 1902, two years after the instrumental 
nocturnes. 

The Paris performances brought applause and general critical praise 
upon Debussy. He had established himself with the "Faune,** set up a 
new style of undeniable import, suffering nothing from the subdued 
grumbles of the entrenched old-school formalists. The "Nocturnes'" 
were very evidently an advance, and a masterly one, in the quest of 
harmonic and modulatory liberation. What Mallarme* and his fellow 
symbolist poets had done in the way of freeing poetry from the metri- 
cal chains of the Parnassians, this Debussy had done for the musical 
formulae of two centuries past. Periodic melody and orientation of 
tonality were gone. Debussy conjured his aerial sound structures with 
all the freedom which the "tdchistes," dropping conventions of line, 
could cultivate. It was inevitable that Debussy should turn to the im- 
pressionist painters for a title that would not confine, and from 
Whistler, no doubt, he took the convenient abstraction "nocturne," 
which no more than points the composer's purpose of evoking a mood.* 



* Debussy wrote Eugene Ysaye, September 22, 1894, that he was composing three "nocturnes" 
for violin solo with orchestra; the first to be for strings, the second for flutes, horns, 
trumpets and harps, the third for these two groups combined. The composer wrote : "It is 
in fact an experiment in the different combinations that can be achieved with one color — 
what a study in gray would be in painting." Leon Vallag believes that these nocturnes, 
which were never completed in the form indicated above, were the beginnings of the or- 
chestral nocturnes. He discerns "traces of the original instrumentation" in the two first 
especially. 

[ 240] 



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Debussy, who was wary of wordy explanations of his music, is said 
to have written this description of his intentions in the "Nocturnes": 

"The title 'Nocturnes' is to be interpreted here in a general and, 
more particularly, in a decorative sense. Therefore, it is not meant to 
designate the usual form of the Nocturne, but rather all the various 
impressions and the special effects of light that the word suggests. 
'Nuages' renders the immutable aspect of the sky and the slow, solemn 
motion of the clouds, fading into poignant grey softly touched with 
white.* 'Fetes' gives us the vibrating, dancing rhythm of the atmos- 
phere with sudden flashes of light. There is also the episode of the 
procession (a dazzling fantastic vision) which passes through the festive 
scene and becomes merged in it. But the background remains persis- 
tently the same: the festival with its blending of music and luminous 
dust participating in the cosmic rhythm. 'Sirenes' depicts the sea and 
its countless rhythms and presently, amongst waves silvered by the 
moonlight, is heard the mysterious song of the Sirens as they laugh 
and pass on." 

Vallas, who admits frankly that "Debussy was always a borrower," 
a trait however which by no means detracts from the essential "origi- 
nality" of the "Nocturnes" as a work of art, points to the soft chain 
chords which open the "Nuages" as taken from Moussorgsky's song, 
"Sunless," reappearing, by the way, in the prologue to Stravinsky's 
opera, "Le Rossignol." The same writer leads us into a more dubious 
accusation, that two motives of "Fetes," "in fact the whole atmos- 
phere," was suggested by Charpentier's "Louise" which was first pro- 
duced in 1900. 

The early critics of the "Nocturnes" were not aware of derivations 
from Moussorgsky. The Echo de Paris did notice an exotic touch, 
"Flutes a la Russe" pizzicati from the Far East. They might have 
found it difficult to be more specific, knowing at that time little or 
nothing of Moussorgsky's music. 

Making a close study of the original reception of the "Nocturnes" 
in Paris, M. Vallas quotes freely from the notices, which were pre- 
ponderantly enthusiastic. Even Jean d'Udine, who lived to denounce 
Debussy's music as "immoral," expressed his sheer delight in "Nuages/' 
adding: "And yet, I almost think I prefer 'Fetes.' Oh, what lively 
gaiety there is in the atmosphere, what fairy-like effects the light pro- 
duces as it plays through the furbelows of the cirrus clouds that whirl 
until they fray. And how subtly naive it was to render these ethereal 
frolics in dance rhythms; such an infinite variety of old-world rhythms, 
with their skilful syncopations, suggesting dainty gavottes and rigau- 
dons, and expressing infectious gaiety, full of peals of laughter and 
delightful fun, with sudden flourishes of the bassoons or a sparkling 



f'C'est I'aspect immuable du del avec la marche lente et melancolique des nuages, finissant 
dans une agonie grise, doucement teintee de blanc." 



[ 242 ] 






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harp scale ending in a joyful clash of cymbals. It represents the French 
taste of a century ago, with all its delicate tenderness, its wit and ele- 
gance; the rustling dresses of the 'Embarquement pour Cythere* and 
the charm of the 'Nymphe endormie.' It is Verlaine a la Fragonard, 
and the effect is accentuated when the fantastic vision of a procession 
in old-world costumes passes through the festive scene, heralded by a 
discreet and harmonious fanfare on two short trumpets." 

High praise was in order from such sworn adherents as Alfred 
Bruneau, Louis Laloy, Paul Dukas. Pierre de Breville, a Franckian, 
said that Debussy's music might be described as the despair of critics, 
and that the terms "to defy analysis" and "indefinable" seemed to 
have been especially invented for it. "M. Debussy does not demand 
of music all that she can give, but rather that which she alone is 
capable of suggesting. He looks upon music as the art of the inexpres- 
sible, whose role begins where inadequate words fail." 

Jean Marnold, more confident, proceeded to chart the new and 
baffling tonal sea, showing that the "harmony was really orderly, logical, 
and even historically inevitable. He traced the evolution of the dis- 
sonant chord throughout the centuries. He pointed out the gradual 
increase in the number of chords that were considered consonant, and 
their eventual acceptance as such, which occurred in the order of the 
harmonic sounds themselves. According to his theory, the seventh and 
the ninth should have been accepted, as they actually were, after the 
fifth and the third, and before the eleventh and the thirteenth. The 
history of harmony, thus reduced to a progressive piling up of thirds, 
became an article of faith to musicians. Henceforward Debussy's inno- 
vations could be regarded as normal and inevitable. In the land of 
Rameau, the mathematical ideal is always paramount." 

Mr. H. T. Parker, discussing the first two nocturnes in the Boston 
Transcript, made a notable differentiation between them. Speaking of 
"Nuages" he wrote: "The evocation fails not; within it lingers some- 
thing magical. The contours of Debussy's music become as the shapes 
of clouds. The motion of the music is as their motion. It dissolves, re- 
gathers, stirs anew; and again is it cloudlike. Stillness haunts sound. 
These skies are monotonous and melancholy. . . . Scintillant is the 
beginning; brilliant is the end of 'Fetes.' There are audible effects, as 
when the visioned procession sounds from the distance through the 
hushed orchestra. The practiced listener knows when to sit up and take 
notice. 'Fetes* is a music for performance in the concert hall; whereas 
'Clouds,' though it be heard there, is music of intimate personal dis- 
closure, of spiritual impression into music flowing and channelled. 
There are no prepared effects and contrasts in 'Clouds' — only vistas 
and horizons." 



[244] 




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[245] 



"THE SEA" (Three Orchestral Sketches) 

By Claude Debussy 

Born at Saint-Germain (Seine-et-Oise), France, August 22, 1862; 
died at Paris, March 25, 1918 



It was in the years 1903-05 that Debussy composed "La Mer." It was first per- 
formed at the Concerts Lamoureux in Paris, October 15, 1905. The first per- 
formance at the Boston Symphony concerts was on March 2, 1907, Dr. Kari Muck 
conductor (this was also the first performance in the United States). 

The most recent performance in this series was on February 5, 1943. 

"La Mer" is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, 
three bassoons, double bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, two cornets-a-pistons. 
three trombones, tuba, cymbals, triangle, tam-tam, glockenspiel (or celesta), 
timpani, bass drum, two harps, and strings. 

Debussy made a considerable revision of the score, which was published in 1909. 

When Debussy composed "La Mer: Trois Esquisses Symphoni- 
ques," he was secure in his fame, the most argued composer in 
France, and, to his annoyance, the most imitated. "L'AprSs-midi d'un 
Faune" of 1894 and the Nocturnes of 1898 were almost classics, and 
the first performance of "Pelleas et Melisande" was a recent event 
(1902). Piano, chamber works, songs were to follow "La Mer" with 
some regularity; of larger works the three orchestral "Images" were to 
occupy him for the next six years. "Le Martyr de St. Sebastien" was 
written in 1911; "Jeux" in 1912. 

In a preliminary draft* of "La Mer" Debussy labeled the first 
movement "Mer Belle aux lies Sanguinaires"; he was attracted prob- 
ably by the sound of the words, for he was not familiar with Corsican 
scenery. The title "Jeux de Vagues" he kept; the finale was originally 
headed "Le Vent fait danser la mer." 

There could be no denying Debussy's passion for the sea: he fre- 
quently visited the coast resorts, spoke and wrote with constant en- 
thusiasm about "my old friend the sea, always innumerable and beauti- 
ful." He often recalled his impressions of the Mediterranean at Cannes, 
where he spent boyhood days. It is worth noting, however, that 
Debussy did not seek the seashore while at work upon his "La Mer." 
His score was with him at Dieppe, in 1904, but most of it was written 
in Paris, a milieu which he chose, if the report of a chance remark 
is trustworthy, "because the sight of the sea itself fascinated him to 
such a degree that it paralyzed his creative faculties." When he went 
to the country in the summer of 1903, two years before the completion 
of "La Mer" it was not the shore, but the hills of Burgundy, whence 



*This draft, dated "Sunday, March 5 at six o'clock in the evening," is in present posses- 
lion of the Eastman School of Music at Rochester. 

[246] 






- *M&»&&M(tKfi finf * 



he wrote to his friend Andre Messager (September 12): "You may 
not know that I was destined for a sailor's life and that it was only 
quite by chance that fate led me in another direction. But I have al- 
ways retained a passionate love for her [the sea]. You will say that 
the Ocean does not exactly wash the Burgundian hillsides — and my 
seascapes might be studio landscapes; but I have an endless store of 
memories, and to my mind they are worth more than the reality, 
whose beauty often deadens thought." 

Debussy's deliberate remoteness from reality, consistent with his 
cultivation of a set and conscious style, may have drawn him from 
salty actuality to the curling lines, the rich detail and balanced 
symmetry of Hokusai's "The Wave." In any case, he had the famous 
print reproduced upon the cover of his score. His love for Japanese 
art tempted him to purchases which in his modest student days were 
a strain upon his purse. His piano piece, "Poissons d'or," of 1907, was 
named from a piece of lacquer in his possession. 



What other writers deplored in Debussy's new score when it was 
new, M. D. Calvocoressi, who was then among the Parisian critics, 
welcomed as "a new phase in M. Debussy's evolution; the inspiration 
is more robust, the colors are stronger, the lines more definite." Louis 
Laloy, who was always Debussy's prime rhapsodist, wrote in the same 
vein. Until that time his music had been "an art made up of sugges- 
tions, nuances, allusions, an evocative art which awoke in the hearer's 
soul echoes of thoughts that were not merely vague, but intentionally 
incomplete; an art capable of creating delightful impressionistic pic- 
tures out of atmospheric vibrations and effects of light, almost without 
any visible lines or substance. Without in any way abandoning this 
delicate sensitiveness, which is perhaps unequalled in the world of art, 
his style has today become concise, decided, positive, complete; in a 
word, classical." 

It would be hard to think of a score more elusive than "La Mer" 
to minute analysis. The cyclic unity of the suite is cemented by the 
recurrence in the last movement of the theme in the first, heard after 
the introductory measures from the muted trumpet and English horn. 
A theme for brass, also in the opening sketch, becomes an integral 
part of the final peroration. Music to set the imagination aflame, it 
induced from the pen of Lawrence Gilman one of his most evocative 
word pictures: 

"Debussy had what Sir Thomas Browne would have called 'a solitary 
and retired imagination.' So, when he essays to depict in his music 
such things as dawn and noon at sea, sport of the waves, gales and 
surges and far horizons, he is less the poet and painter than the 

[248] 



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instructions for the use of tools, operation of machines, and 
techniques of organization. 

* Preventing Accidents 

By cards, folders and safety charts, replacing and supplement- 
ing experience today. In addition to the factor of human safety, 
the reduction of spoilage on machinery and materials is also of 
major account in these priority times. Printing can help. 

* Preserving Manpower 

By releasing salesmen for active production work. Sending 
product-literature through the mails is the best way to reach the 
customer and still maintain the feeling of personal contact. 

* The Geo. H. Ellis Co. 

With a backlog of 70 years' experience can produce for you 
printing that pays dividends in manpower, production, and 
higher morale. Boston, Massachusetts, LIBerty 7800. 



and 'tiecetot&fm 



) tf BOSTON/ 

( Hearhere//^ 




GO BOSTON CAB 

THE DELUXE WAY 

Too many accept public conven- 
ience as a matter of fact. Many, 
too, discriminate and accept only 
a Boston Cab. You, too, should 
discriminate and enjoy the safety 
of Boston Cabs. 




5010 KENmore 5010 



[ 249] 



spiritual mystic. It is not chiefly of those aspects of winds and waters 
that he is telling us, but of the changing phases of a sea of dreams, 
a chimerical sea, a thing of strange visions and stranger voices, of 
fantastic colors and incalculable winds — a phantasmagoria of the 
spirit, rife with evanescent shapes and presences that are at times 
sunlit and dazzling. It is a spectacle perceived as in a trance, vaguely 
yet rhapsodically. There is a sea which has its shifting and lucent sur- 
faces, which even shimmers and traditionally mocks. But it is a sea 
that is shut away from too curious an inspection, to whose murmurs 
or imperious commands not many have wished or needed to pay heed. 
"Yet, beneath these elusive and mysterious overtones, the reality of 
the living sea persists: the immemorial fascination lures and enthralls 
and terrifies; so that we are almost tempted to fancy that the two are, 
after all, identical — the ocean that seems an actuality of wet winds 
and tossing spray and inexorable depths and reaches, and that un- 
charted and haunted and incredible sea which opens before the magic 
casements of the dreaming mind." 



01 



j|Q 







© 



AM® 



m 







[250] 






The Massachusetts Committee 

of the 

French Relief Fund 

Announces a Concert 
to be given by 

Sixty Members of the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 

under the direction of 

BERNARD ZIGHERA 

assisted by 
CLEORA WOOD, Soprano 

GEORGES LAURENT, Flutist 
GASTON ELCUS, violinist 

THURSDAY EVE., NOVEMBER 4, AT 8:15 
AT JORDAN HALL 



An address by Madame DENISE DAVEY 



The official film of the Greater Boston United 
War Fund will be shown 



Tickets $1.50, $1.00, 50e (plus 10% government tax) at 
Jordan Hall and French Relief Fund, Inc., 121 Newbury St. 



[251] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Sixty-third Season, 1943-1944] 
SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



BURGIN, R. ELCUS, G. 

Concert-master tapley, r. 

THEODOROWICZ, J. 



Violins 

LAUGA, N. 
KASSMAN, N. 



KRIPS, A. 
CHERKASSKY, P. 



HANSEN, E. 
EISLER, D. 

KNUDSON, C. 
MAYER, P. 

BRYANT, M. 
MURRAY, J. 



LEFRANC, J. 
CAUHAPE, J. 



BEDETTI, J. 
ZIGHERA, A. 



MOLEUX, G. 

dufresne, g. 

Flutes 

laurent, g. 
pappoutsakis, j. 

KAPLAN, P. 

Piccolo 

MADSEN, G. 

Horns . 

valkenier, w. 
macdonald, w. 

MEEK, H. 
KEANEY, P. 

Tuba 

ADAM, E. 



DICKSON, H. 
PINFIELD, C. 

ZUNG, M. 
DIAMOND, S. 

STONESTREET, L. 
ERKELENS, H. 



FOUREL, G. 
ARTIERES, L. 

LEHNER, E. 
GERHARDT, S. 



FEDOROVSKY, P. 
BE ALE, M. 
LEVEEN, P. 

del sordo, r. 

messina, s. 
seiniger, s. 

Violas 

van wynbergen, c. 
bernard, a. 

kornsand, e. 

humphrey, g. 



RESNIKOFF, V. 
LEIBOVICI, J. 

ZAZOFSKY, C. 
DUBBS, H. 
GORODETZKY, L. 
HILLYER, R. 

TRAMPLER, W. 
SAUVLET, H. 



Violoncellos 

langendoen, j. droeghmans, h. zeise, k. 

zimbler, j. nieland, m. 



JUHT, L. 
FRANKEL, I. 



Basses 
greenberg, h. 
portnoi, h. 



GIRARD, H. 
PROSE, P. 



Oboes 

GILLET, F. 

devergie, j. 
lukatsky, j. 

English Horn 

SPEYER, L. 

Horns 
lannoye, m. 
shapiro, h. 
gebhardt, w. 

Harps 

zighera, b. 
caughey, e. 



Clarinets 
polatschek, v. 

VALERIO, m. 

cardillo, p. 

Bass Clarinet 
mazzeo, R. 

Trumpets 

MAGER, G. 
LAFOSSE, M. 
VOISIN, R. L. 
VOISIN, R. 

Timpani 

szulc, R. 
polster, m. 

Librarian 

ROGERS, l. j. 



GROVER, H. 
WERNER, H. 



FABRIZIO, E. 
MARJOLLET, L. 



barwicki, j. 
Bassoons 

ALLARD, R. 
PANENKA, E. 
LAUS, A. 

Contra-Bassoon 

PILLER, B. 

Trombones 
raichman, j. 
hansotte, l. 

COFFEY, J. 
OROSZ, J. 

Percussion 
sternburg, s. 

SMITH, C. 
ARCIERI, E. 



[252] 



*7a the SympJuMUf, AudUestcel : 



vJ/ c7 his 



his Programme, 
unique among symphony programmes in the 
adequacy of its notes, is made possible through the 
co-operation of advertisers who believe that the 
Concert Bulletin is a good advertising medium: that 
money spent on space in its pages gives adequate 
returns. 

• Because, in many cases, checking on such re- 
turns is difficult, readers of this programme are asked 
to mention the Concert Bulletin in purchasing from 
the firms whose advertisements appear in it — either 
personally or through a note when a bill is paid. 

• In this way each member of the audience will 
make a direct contribution toward maintaining the 
high standard of this publication — by justifying the 
advertisers' faith in this medium. 




[253] 



AK 



Aaron Richmond Events: 



TICKETS AT SYMPHONY HALL BOX-OFFICE NOW 



DON COSSACK 

RUSSIAN CHORUS 

& DANCERS 

SUN. NOV. 21 at 3:30 




JOHN CHARLES THOMAS 

TUE. EVE. NOV. 30 

TICKETS NOW ON SALE 
TICKETS AT JORDAN HALL (10:30 to 5:30) DAILY 



THIS TUE. EVE. Jordan Hall 

ISABEL 
FRENCH 

Song Recital 
GEORGE REEVES at the Piano 




SUN. AFT., NOV. 7 Jordan Hall 
"Songs of the Americas" 

NORMA FARBER 

GEORGE REEVES at the piano 
Sponsored by the Pan-American Society of Mass. 

SUN. AFT., NOV. 14 Jordan Hall 

CURTIS QUARTET and 

BORIS GOLBOVSRY 

Haydn Quartet, Op. 77 No. 1 

Debussy Quartet 
Brahms Piano Quartet, Op. 25 



L254 J 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Fifth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 5, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, November 6, at 8:15 o'clock 



Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 5 in E minor, Op. 64 

(Died November 6, 1893) 

I. Andante: Allegro con anima 

II. Andante cantabile, con alcuna licenza 

III. Valse: Allegro moderato 

IV. Finale: Andante maestoso; Allegro vivace 



INTERMISSION 

Tchaikovsky Concerto for Pianoforte No. 1, in 

B-flat minor, Op. 23 
I. Allegro non troppo e molto maestoso. Allegro con spirito 
II. Andantino semplice. Allegro vivace assai 
III. Allegro con fuoco 



SOLOIST 

ALEXANDER BRAILOWSKY 



STEINWAY PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:25 on Friday Afternoon 
10:10 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[255] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 



403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 
Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



Kenmore 1287 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 

Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
856 Huntington Avenue 



Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




[256] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 

CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

» 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen N. Penrose Hallowell 

John Nicholas Brown M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[257] 




Estate Analysis 



nOW have wartime changes 
affected your estate plans? A 
Shawmut Estate Analysis will 
help you determine whether 
changes are necessary or desir- 
able. We invite your inquiry. 

TRUST DEPARTMENT 

The Rational 

Shawmut Bank 

Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 

Listen to John Barry with "Frontline Headlines" 
WNAC — Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays at 7:45 p. m. 



[258] 



SYMPHONIANA 

Trips 

Exhibit 

Orchestral Cinderellas 



TRIPS 

On Sunday, October 31, the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra and Dr. Serge 
Koussevitzky journeyed to Newport, 
R.I., where they gave their first out-of- 
state concert for service men before 
over 4500 officers and enlisted men at 
the United States Naval Training Sta- 
tion there. The program for this con- 
cert, for which Dr. Koussevitzky and 
the members of the Orchestra con- 
tributed their services, included the 

Commando March by Barber 

Schubert's Unfinished Symphony 

Grieg's Suite from the Incidental 
Music to Ibsen's Peer Gynt 

Moussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibi- 
tion and 

Sousa's Stars and Stripes Forever 
On Tuesday evening, November 2, the 
Orchestra, Dr. Koussevitzky conducting, 
presented the following program at 
Portland, Maine, under the auspices of 
the Community Concert Service: 

Vivaldi, Concerto in D minor for Or- 
chestra (Edited by A. Siloti). 

Debussy, Prelude a L'Apres-midi 
d'un Faune" (Eclogue of Stephane 
Mallarme). 

Rimsky-Korsakov, Capriccio Espagnol, 

Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 5 in E 
minor. 

• • • 

EXHIBIT 
In the First Balcony Gallery there 
are on exhibit paintings by five local 
artists: 

George Kelley has studied art in his 
native Boston, as well as in East 
Gloucester and Provincetown. He is 
kept busy most of the time in teaching 
and in painting for Boston publishers, 
but managed to take time off this sum- 
mer to paint fifteen water colors of 
Truro and Provincetown. His meticulous 
rendering has a spontaneous quality 




COFFEE BEAN 
INDIAN LAMB 

-L here is decided inter- 
est in the rich dark brown 
of this handsome tuxedo 
coat of lamb from far- 
away India .... 329.00 



h 






[259] 



Under the New * 
Slim Silhouette 




Warner's LeGant Royale 
Sta-Up-Top 

The smartest girdle in the best qual- 
ity that can be obtained under war-time 
restrictions. 

The fine workmanship and detail of 
these superb foundations is in keeping 
with our purpose, in War or Peace, of 
offering only the best at whatever price 
your budget dictates. 

GIRDLES - BRAS - LINGERIE 
SWEATERS - SKIRTS - HOSIERY 
DRESSES - HATS - SPORTSWEAR 



K^/Qta K^kauJLL 



e% 4 



50 TEMPLE PLAC E 



which captures the atmosphere familiar 
only to the Cape. 

Roland M. Newhall was born in 
Lynn, Mass. After graduating from the 
Classical High School he entered the 
Massachusetts School of Art where he 
studied under Ernest L. Major and 
Vesper George. The first world war 
interrupted his studies and after serv- 
ice overseas in camouflage work with 
the 301st artillery, he returned to school 
and graduated. Primarily interested in 
architectual subjects, Mr. Newhall's 
carefully rendered pictures show a some- 
what nostalgic feeling for a bygone era. 
He has exhibited at the Fitzwilliam 
Art Association, and The Jordan Marsh 
New England Show. 
Forrest W. Orr was born in Harpswell, 
Maine, and was cartoonist for the Port- 
land Press-Herald while still a high 
school student. He studied at the Art 
Students' League in New York City 
under Frank Vincent DuMond, George 
Bridgeman and Harvey Dunn. He has 
been an active member of and exhibitor 
at the Providence Art Club and Water 
Color Club. He has illustrated various 
magazine stories and books. 

F. Wenderoth Saunders is a native 
of Philadelphia. He studied painting 
at Harvard and the Massachusetts Art 
School, and under Allan Philbrick of 
Chicago. In 1925 he spent a year in 
Europe working and studying inde- 
pendently. For four years while paint- 
ing in Cuba he was a member of the 
Society of Painters and Sculptors of 
Cuba. Many of his prints have been 
reproduced in the Christian Science 
Monitor. He has also headed for some 
years a summer association of artists 
at Wiscasset, Maine. 

• • • 

ORCHESTRAL CINDERELLAS* 

By Lionel R. Bentley 
(Reprinted from The Musical Times, 
London, May, 1943) 
The "principals" of any well-known 

* The writer, now in the Forces, is a 
sfring-player in a famous orchestra, and 
also a chamber-music performer. — Editor. 



[26o] 



orchestra receive recognition of their 
executive skill in various ways. Their 
names are familiar to a large number 
of concert-goers, who listen for their 
solo parts and discuss their perform- 
ance. A difficult passage flawlessly 
played, or an artistically turned phrase 
occasions comment from their col- 
leagues, and, most gratifying of all, an 
occasional compliment from the con- 
ductor. 

The merits of these performers are 
admitted, but it cannot be denied that 
they are inclined to overshadow the 
efforts of the string sections, who, al- 
though perhaps not so outstanding as 
the principals, have frequently to tackle 
extremely exacting parts which demand 
a high standard of ability and musician- 
ship. 

These rank-and-file string-players rep- 
resent the backbone of an orchestra, 
but because their work is necessarily 
team work, they are too often looked 
upon as a body with no individuality. 

The fact is that the orchestral violin- 
ist, violist or 'cellist works at a great 
disadvantage compared with his col- 
leagues in the wind and other sections. 

Orchestral playing is essentially a 
matter of co-operation with the con- 
ductor, and individuality is apt to be 
deprecated when a good ensemble is re- 
quired. Nevertheless, a wind-player can 
manage to put character and artistry 
into his performance, and, moreover, is 
expected to do so. Why not? He has 
the gratification of knowing that his per- 
formance is being heard and appre- f 
ciated, and also that his reputation is i 
at stake. 

Such incentives can have but one j 
result. The player strives to make every 
note count, endeavours to impress his 
listeners, and will continue to improve 1 
his performance. r 

Not so the luckless string-player. In 
all probability he enters orchestral cir- 
cles fresh from his studies, with con- 
certos, sonatas and various concert 
pieces in his repertory, only to find that . 
unless he sits in the leader's chair he I 




yv)ore Inan £vtef f 
women iur*'»t 



taste is important . . . 

this is no time for short-lived fads. It is a 
time for fundamentals. A time when 
Fredleys' clothes come into their own, for 
in them you find the well-bred simplicity 
that endures . . . 

quality is important . . . 

in clothes as in everything else, quality is 
farsighted economy. And quality is a basic 
attribute of everything you buy at 
Fredleys', no matter how much or how 
little you spend . . . 

value is important . . . 

good clothes have always proved a good 
investment. They pay dividends at every 
wearing. At Fredleys' you get not only full 
value, but plus value . . . that extra some- 
thing inherent in Fredleys' clothes . . . 

time is important . . . 

At Fredleys' you can accomplish more in 
less time. Here is selective service in the 
hands of skilled salespeople in an atmos- 
phere gracious and refreshing. Whether 
you stay a few minutes or a few hours, 
you're glad you came . . . 







♦ * •» t * 



IfiD 




[26l] 



presents 

Music a la Carte 

KOUSSEVITZKY 
RECORDINGS 

The music you love . . when and 
how you want it . . as played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

ALBUMS 

685 — Stravinsky — Capriccio $2.63 

566— Prokofieff— Peter and the 
Wolf $3.68 

294 — Mendelssohn — Italian 
Symphony #4 $3.68 

319— Schubert— Symphony #8 

in B Minor $3.68 



327 — Tschaikowsky — Sym- 
phony #4 in F Minor 



$5.78 



730 — Brahms — Symphony #4 

in E Minor $5.25 

795— Mozart— Symphony #29 $5.25 
870— Liszt— Mefisto Waltz $2.63 

352— Ravel— Bolero $2.63 

347 — Tschaikowsky — Romeo 

and Juliet $3.68 

RECORDS 

7196— Prokofieff— Classical 
Symphony $1.05 

7197— Prokofieff— Classical 
Symphony $1.05 

7143— Ratf el— Daphnis et 

Chloe, #1 and 2 $1.05 

7144— Ravel— #3 and 4 $1.05 

14078 — Liadow — Enchanted 

Lake $1.05 

14415 — Moussorgosky — Intro- 
duction $1.05 

Mail Your Order 

or Call Hubbard 9400 

Fourth Floor 



will remain just one of the cogs in the 
wheel, and never be heard (apart from 
an occasional "domino"!) except by 
the player next to him — and fellow- 
players are not in the habit of throwing 
bouquets. 

With a living to make, it is not sur- 
prising that the average orchestral 
string-player eventually loses the am- 
bitions with which he started his career, 
and finding that such things as beauty 
of tone, artistic phrasing, and individu- 
ality are ignored in favour of efficient 
sight-reading, exaggerated dynamics and 
slave-like attention to the conductor 
(to say nothing of strict observance of 
the leader's little whims and fancies), 
subsides, sometimes unwillingly but 
usually unconsciously, into the oblivion 
of a mechanical instrumentalist. 

Hence the opinion of those who con- 
tend that the orchestral string-player is 
not an artist. 

Such an attitude is understandable 
and in some cases correct. But is such 
an unsatisfactory state of affairs inevi- 
table or necessary? 

Whether a player becomes a musical 
mechanic or retains his artistic ability 
is entirely a matter for him to decide. 

The trouble with a large number of 
instrumentalists is that they become 
"orchestrally-minded." A conductor is 
delighted to have under him a body of 
players with this outlook: they respond 
quickly to the baton, and ensemble be- 
comes a fact instead of a fiction. 

The quality of individual perform- 
ance under these conditions, however, 
is rarely all that could be desired. The 
principals get their chance to shine, 
the unfortunate rank and file being 
taken for granted. 

Yet there is a medium through which 

the rank and file could retain their 
orchestral ensemble while giving a per- 
formance combining artistry and effi- 
ciency. 

I refer to what is possibly the high- 
est, and certainly the least appreciated 
form of musical art — chamber music. 

Chamber music ■ should become the 
principal interest of a string-player who 



[262] 



dreads the prospect of a life of oblivion 
in an orchestra. 

It is not always easy to find several 
instrumentalists who are willing to col- 
laborate, with "art for art's sake" as 
a goal, but it is worth all the difficulties 
when, say, a string quartet has been 
formed, to experience the satisfaction 
of working together in some of the finest 
music of the great masters. 

Ensemble is essential to a degree al- 
most unknown in any but the very 
finest orchestras; and individuality is 
fostered rather than suppressed, the 
members of the quartet being equally 
important. 

Apart from the value of chamber 
music as a means of maintaining a high 
standard of performance, the test of 
musicianship alone is worth working 
for. Friendly criticisms can be given 
their true value, and serve the useful 
purpose of making the players strive 
to improve, while the gradual building 
up of a high standard of musical effi- 
ciency is accompanied by increasing en- 
joyment. 

The difficulty of keeping the players 
together cannot be overlooked: pro- 
fessional musicians are notoriously ir- 
regular in their movements for a variety 
of reasons; and after a hard day of re- 
hearsing for a symphony concert it may 
savour of a busman's holiday to start 
rehearsing chamber music. But when 
settled down with, say, a Beethoven 
quartet, the effort invariably resolves 
itself into sheer pleasure. 

Consistent and conscientious effort 
frequently brings reward in the shape 
of a public engagement. A favourable 
reception of their performance opens 
up a new world to them, lifting them 
out of the orchestral rut, and obtaining 
recognition of their talents. 

Though remaining orchestral players, 
they are able to become individuals and 
artists. 

The fact that an instrumentalist be- 
comes a member of the rank and file is 
no reason for a fatalistic outlook and 
unquestioning acceptance of a subordi- 
nate position just to earn a living. 



the 

house of tweed 

130 Newbury Street, Boston 

Showing a collection 
of daytime and dinner 

Clothes by 


America's foremost 

Designers. 

Anthoney Blotta 
Hattie Carangie 
Rose Barrack 
Clare Potter 
B. H. Wragge 

custom tailoring 

Suits — Coats 

of the finest 

Imported Woolens 

[263] 



Old Colony 

Trust Company 

ONE FEDERAL STREET, BOSTON 



T. Jefferson Coolidge 
Chairman 



Channing H. Cox 
President 




Investment and Management 
of Property 



Custodian 

Trustee * Guardian 

Executor 



Allied with The First National Bank a/Boston 



[264] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Fifth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 5, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, November 6, at 8:15 o'clock 



Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 5 in E minor, Op. 64 

(Died November 6, 1893) 

I. Andante: Allegro con anima 

II. Andante cantabile, con alcuna licenza 

III. Valse: Allegro moderato 

IV. Finale: Andante maestoso; Allegro vivace 

INTERMISSION 



Tchaikovsky Concerto for Pianoforte No. 1, in 

B-flat minor, Op. 23 

I. Allegro 11011 troppo e molto maestoso. Allegro con spirito 
II. Andantino semplice. Allegro vivace assai 
III. Allegro con fuoco 



SOLOIST 

ALEXANDER BRAILOWSKY 



STEINWAY PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:25 on Friday Afternoon 
10:10 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



[265] 



JORDAN MARSH COMPANY 




[266] 



PETER ILYITCH TCHAIKOVSKY 

Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; 
died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893 



When Tchaikovsky died fifty years ago he was a world figure and 
tolerably secure in his fame, in spite of a certain conflict of 
opinion, and plain disregard in some quarters. The leap which his 
fame took immediately after his death was excessive, and could not 
last. There has been more than one fluctuation on the part of those 
who pronounce musical judgments in print. Even at this moment there 
is certainly a wide variation of opinion. And this proves, if it proves 
nothing else, that a half-century is none too much for the final evalua- 
tion of a composer. Changing musical fashions have brought upon 
Tchaikovsky's head a good deal of condescension from musicians with 
other points of view. But the real decision always rests with the world 
at large — the world that listens. And this world has paid very little 
attention indeed to the scoffers. They have simply gone on listening 
— and they continue to insist upon their Tchaikovsky with a stead- 
fastness that is eloquent. 

The public appetite for Tchaikovsky began immediately after his 
death. Romantic conductors such as Nikisch and Napravnik learned 

how to release the full force of Tchaikovsky's music. The impact of 
1 



NEW 

HAIL YE TYME OF HOLIEDAYES 

by GENA BRANSCOMBE Arrangement for Chorus of Mixed Voices 

(Also published as a Solo and for Women's Voices) 

CANDLYN In Excelsis Gloria 

For Chorus of Mixed Voices 
(Also published for women's voices) 

MANSFIELD Five Christmas Carols (Two-part) 

(Schmidt's Junior Choir Leaflet No. 4) 

BARNES There is no Rose — Carol 

For Chorus of Mixed Voices 

HOLST Three Old English Carols 

(Junior and Senior Choirs) 



CAROLS FROM FAR AND NEAR 

Arranged for piano by Purcell J. Mansfield 
18 favorite carols adapted as easy piano solos. One verse of each is 
provided for singing if desired. 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 446) Price 75c 



THE ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT CO. : 120 Boylston Street 

[267] 



his brass and the affecting flood of his melody swept audiences into 
tumults of enthusiasm. No critical praise could be too high. 

Then came the reaction. Tchaikovsky had overstepped, it was 
said, and time was finding him out. What really happened was that 
the general pendulum of musical taste was swinging away from highly 
charged fervor and moving in the direction of elegance, delicate 
coloring and formal restraint. There were other accusations: The 
connoisseurs who looked for rare shades and hidden depths in music 
were distrustful. This music was shamelessly obvious and direct in 
its appeal. Before you had time to adjust yourself soberly for a guarded 
judgment, it would throw its arms around your neck. It was far too 
popular to be really good. Those who were afraid to rely on their 
emotions withdrew behind a protective barrier of suspicion and 
aloofness. 

There is the old objection that "Tchaikovsky wears his heart on 
his sleeve." The plain answer to that objection is, "Why shouldn't 
he?" There is a whole lot to be said for the quality of a direct sensuous 
address to the ear, of delight in intense melody and engaging sonority. 
Time may prove, if it has not already proved, that Tchaikovsky's 
abundant melodic genius is his first claim to immortality. It took a 
melodist of the very first order to write his unforgettable songs and 
to write instrumental music even more full-throated and indelible 



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in the impression it makes. Tchaikovsky's melodies are too good to 
down — they are omnipresent. They even penetrate into Tin Pan 
Alley. Perhaps there is something in the make-up of the spontaneous 
melodist that requires in a man a childlike simplicity, an openly 
affectionate nature, a direct desire to please all about him, which are 
translated into tones. Tchaikovsky's friends have testified as to his 
affectionate nature and his geniality, which concealed an inward 
shyness. He was like two other melodists in this respect — Mozart and 
Schubert. These two were good fellows in company, and their music, 
light and sparkling, was an overflow of sociability. Their melody was 
a thing of sheer delight — innocent of philosophies or pretensions. 
It was no coincidence that Tchaikovsky loved Mozart far more than 
any other composer. He wrote in his diary: "To me Mozart is the 
culminating point of all beauty in the sphere of music. He alone can 
make me weep and tremble with delight." Sometimes you can sum 
up a composer's inmost nature by his likes and dislikes. Tchaikovsky 
could never stand the music of Brahms. He found it "cold," "bar- 
ren," "repellent." His praise for his other contemporary, Richard 
Wagner, was very grudging indeed. But about two French scores 
which he got hold of he went into raptures. One was Bizet's "Carmen" 
and the other the ballet "Sylvia" by Delibes. There were three other 
composers of his time — simple-hearted lyric geniuses whose music 



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he could not praise too highly. They were Dvorak, Grieg and 
Mascagni. 

There are those who protest that Tchaikovsky fills his music with 
his personal troubles and inflicts his depressions and neuroses upon 
the world. But this protest is academic and unjust — it springs not 
from the music itself but from preconceived notions which read the 
man into his music. Tchaikovsky, the poet of melancholy, no doubt 
experienced in his life every shade of gloom, but that which emerges 
in his music is not painful to listen to — it is luscious, even exuberant, 
reveling in the Byronic moods which were fashionable at the time. 
Tchaikovsky's neurotic fears were part of a terrible instability which 
would probably appall us if we could really probe his secrets. They 
were painful feelings which could never be found in the province 
of music. On the contrary, it was by losing himself in a new score, and 
in no other way, that he could rise above the mental suffering which 
was always hounding him. He gives testimony of this again and again 
in his letters to his benefactress, Nadejda von Meek. 

He speaks of "that capacity for finding in music (the most idealistic 
of the arts), and there only, the answer to the problems of living." 

And elsewhere: "Truly there would be reason to go mad were 
it not for music! Music is heaven's greatest gift to man — poor 
wanderer in the dark. Only music can interpret, pacify and quiet." 



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"Music means permanent reconciliation with life. It is a lucid and 
happy thing." 

"Today I could not resist sitting down to plan my next symphony. 
And immediately I became well and calm and full of courage." 

"My musical work redeems my difficulties and raises me to man- 
hood in its truest sense." The passages could be multiplied. 

The pathological and the musical Tchaikovsky were two different 
people. The first was mentally sick, pitiably feeble; the second was 
bold, sure-handed, increasingly masterful, eminently sane. The com- 
poser himself substantiates this duality in another letter to Mme. 
von Meek: "With no special reason for rejoicing, I can experience 
a happy mood while creating, and conversely, among the happiest 
surroundings I may write music suffused with darkness and despair. 
In brief, the artist lives a double life — an everyday human one and 
an artistic one. And these two lives do not always coincide. Anyway 
I repeat that for composition the important thing is to rid oneself 
temporarily of the troubles of everyday existence and to give oneself 
unconditionally to, the artistic life." Those who knew Tchaikovsky 
were struck by the difference between the composer and the man. 
Saint-Saens referred to him as "the gentlest and kindest of men," who 
could in his music "let loose a whirlwind." The weakling held in his 




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hand a special magic property which made him a giant, a man of 
iron. Doubts, inward reproaches, panics, dropped away. 

To account for his last three symphonies, one falls back on that 
modern (and much abused) word "escape." The Fourth Symphony he 
wrote in the midst of the most terrible crisis of his life. The Symphony 
was perhaps what saved him from a complete breakdown; and observe 
that this Symphony surpassed anything that he had done in brilliance 
and exultant strength. It was his refuge, his healing resource when 
life had become unbearable. The dark-voiced "Pathetic" Symphony, 
on the other hand, was written when his reputation was assured and 
his spirits high. Working upon it, he was invariably in a state of ela- 
tion. He had his doubts about the worth of the Fifth Symphony, but 
there is no slightest shadow of doubt in the music itself. It luxuriates 
in melody for all its sombre hues, and rises at last in a great tide of 
ringing affirmation. Tchaikovsky wrote of the voice of inexorable 
"fate" in the cyclic themes which dominate the Fourth and Fifth sym- 
phonies. But the imperious voice is of course the voice of the com- 
poser. Tchaikovsky himself is calling the tune. 

J. N. B. 




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[276] 



FIFTH SYMPHONY IN E MINOR, Op. 64 
By Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky 

Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; 
died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893 



Completed in August of 1888, Tchaikovsky's Fifth Symphony was first performed 
at St. Petersburg on November 17 under the composer's direction. 

It is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, two trumpets, three trombones and tuba, timpani, and strings. It is 
dedicated to Theodor Ave-Lallemant of Hamburg. 

The most recent performances at the Friday and Saturday concerts of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra were on May 1-2, 1942. 

r T~ 1 CHAiKOVSKY's slight opinion of his Fifth Symphony as compared 
"*■ to his ardent belief in his Fourth and Sixth is a curious fact, com- 
ing as it did from the incorrigible self-analyst who had so much to 
say to his intimate friends about his doubts and beliefs as to the prog- 
ress of his music. He never hesitated to tell, for example, when he was 
composing from the urge to compose and when he was forcing him- 
self to do it; when he was writing "to order," and when he was not. 

Usually the opinion of the composer has coincided with that of 
posterity. The Fifth Symphony is probably the most notable exception. 



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Of the Fourth Symphony and the Sixth he was always proud. The 
"Manfred" Symphony he "hated," and considered destroying all but 
the opening movement. The two of his operas which he always de- 
fended have proved to be the principal survivors — "Eugen One gin" 
and "Pique Dame." The former he staunchly believed in, despite its 
early failures. But the "1812" Overture was an occasional piece for 
which he always felt it necessary to apologize, and his Ballet "Nut- 
cracker" never had a warm word from its composer. He always looked 
upon it as an uncongenial subject, an annoying commission. 

As for the Fifth Symphony, Tchaikovsky seems to have been skeptical 
about it from the start. "To speak frankly," he wrote to Modeste in 
May, "I feel as yet no impulse for creative work. What does this mean? 
Have I written myself out?* No ideas, no inclination! Still I am 
hoping to collect, little by little, material for a symphony." To Mme. 
von Meek, a month later — "Have I told you that I intend to write a 
symphony? The beginning was difficult; but now inspiration seems to 
have come. However, we shall see." In August, with the symphony 



* Apparently Tchaikovsky had not forgotten the remark to this effect made by a critic in 
Moscow six years earlier, about his violin concerto. The composer must have been unpleas- 
antly aware that since that time he had written no work in a large form, which had had 
more than a "succes d'estime." The operas "Mazeppa" and "The Enchantress" had fallen 
far short of his expectations. In the programme symphony, "Manfred," he had never fully 
believed. Of the orchestral suites, only the third had had a pronounced success. 



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"half orchestrated," the listless mood still prevailed: "When I am old 
and past composing, I shall spend the whole of my time in growing 
flowers. My age — although I am not very old [he was forty-eight] — 
begins to tell on me. I become very tired, and I can no longer play 
the pianoforte or read at night as I used to do."* Three weeks later he 
reports briefly that he has "finished the Symphony." 

The first performances, which he conducted in St. Petersburg on 
November 17 and 24, 1888, were a popular success, but Tchaikovsky 
wrote to his patroness that he considered his Symphony "a failure." 
He still found in it "something repellent, something superfluous, patchy, 
and insincere, which the public instinctively recognizes." He did not 
accept their applause as proof of enthusiasm; they were only being 
polite. "Am I really played out, as they say? Can I merely repeat and 
ring the changes on my earlier idiom? Last night I looked through our 
Symphony [the Fourth]. What a difference! How immeasurably su- 

* Tchaikovsky's remarks in his last years about the coming of old age were a fear that his 
creative powers would fail. His doubts about the Fifth Symphony were connected with this 
fear. 



(reprint from 1901 Symphony Program) 



TM . . . 1901 



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perior it is! It is very, very sad!" But the musicians plainly like his 
Fifth Symphony, both in St. Petersburg and Prague. When its success 
in Hamburg was outstanding, he wrote to Davidov: "The Fifth Sym- 
phony was magnificently played, and I like it far better now, after 
having held a bad opinion of it for some time." This was. written on 
the crest of its immediate success. Later, his misgivings returned. 

The fact that Germany became a field of conquest by the Fifth 
Symphony must have had a great deal to do with Tchaikovsky's 
change of heart about the piece. Central Europe had been slow to 
awake to his existence and then had been reluctant to accept him as a 
composer of true importance. As a visitor, he had been befriended by 
individual musicians. Von Biilow had taken up his cause with charac- 
teristic zeal. Bilse had conducted his "Francesca da Rimini" in Berlin, 
and, fighting against a general disapproval, had repeated the work. 
"These ear-splitting effects," wrote a critic, "seem to us too much 
even for hell itself." The conservative ones had been offended by the 
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all the classical proprieties. Year by year this disapproval was worn 
down. To their surprise, they found his Trio and Second Quartet to 
be reasonable and listenable music. Audiences were impressed by the 
Fourth Symphony, and when the Piano Concerto began to make its 
way, the critics who had condemned it outright were compelled to 
revise their first impressions 

Ernest Newman writes: 

"It is a curious fact that whereas the sixth symphony, admittedly 
based on a programme, leaves us here and there with a sense that we 
are missing the connecting thread, the fifth symphony, though to the 
casual eye not at all programmistic, bears the strongest internal evi- 
dences of having been written to a programme. The feeling that this 
is so is mainly due to the recurrence, in each movement, of the 
theme with which the symphony begins. This produces a feeling of 
unity that irresistibly suggests one central controlling purpose. The 
theme in question is peculiarly sombre and fateful. It recurs twice 
in the following andante, and again at the end of the waltz that con- 
stitutes the third movement. In the finale, the treatment of it is 
especially remarkable. It serves, transposed into the major, to com- 
mence this movement; it makes more than one reappearance after- 
wards. But this is not all the thematic filiation this symphony reveals. 
One of the themes of the second movement — the andante — also recurs 



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in the finale, while the opening subject proper of the finale (following 
the introduction) is plainly based on the opening subject of the whole 
symphony. Lastly, the first subject of the allegro of the first movement 
reappears in the major, on the last page but two of the score, to the 
same accompaniment as in the allegro. So that — to sum the matter up 
concisely — the fourth movement contains two themes from the first 
and one from the second; the third and second movements each con- 
tain one theme from the first — a scheme that is certainly without 
a parallel in the history of the symphony. No one, I think, will venture 
to assert that so elaborate a system of thematic repetition as this is due 
to mere caprice; nor is it easy to see why Tchaikovsky should have in- 
dulged in it at all if his object had been merely to write a 'symphony 
in four movements.' Nothing can be clearer than that the work em- 
bodies an emotional sequence of some kind. It is a great pity that we 
have no definite clew to this; but even on the face of the matter as it 
now stands the general purport of the symphony is quite plain.* 



* Since these words were written, the tentative sketch of a programme was found in the 
notebooks of Tchaikovsky which are now preserved in the Museum at Klin. Nicolas Slonim- 
sky, examining these notebooks, came across the following notation for the Fifth Symphony : 
"Program of the First Movement of the Symphony : Introduction. Complete resignation before 
Fate, or, which is the same, before the inscrutable predestination of Providence. Allegro (I) 
Murmurs, doubts, plaints, reproaches against XXX [three crosses in the original]. (II) 
Shall I throw myself in the embraces of Faith? ? ? [three question marks in the original]. 
[On the corner of the leaf] a wonderful programme, if I could only carry it out." 







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"The gloomy, mysterious opening theme suggests the leaden, delib- 
erate tread of fate. The allegro, after experimenting in many moods, 
ends mournfully and almost wearily. The beauty of the andante is 
twice broken in upon by the first sombre theme. The third movement 
— the waltz — is never really gay; there is always the suggestion of 
impending fate in it; while at times the scale passages for the strings 
give it an eerie, ghostly character. At the end of this also there comes 
the heavy, muffled tread of the veiled figure that is suggested by the 
opening theme. Finally, the last movement shows us, as it were, the 
emotional transformation of this theme, evidently in harmony with 
a change in the part it now plays in the curious drama. It is in the 
major instead of in the minor; it is no longer a symbol of weariness 
and foreboding, but bold, vigorous, emphatic, self-confident. What 
may be the precise significance of the beautiful theme from the second 
movement that reappears in the finale it is impossible to say; but it 
is quite clear that the transmutation which the first subject of the 
allegro undergoes, just before the close of the symphony, is of the 
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THE ENCOUNTERS OF TCHAIKOVSKY AND BRAHMS 

r_ pcHAiKovsKY met Brahms twice on his visits to Germany in 1888 — 
at Leipzig, where he conducted his First Suite, and in Hamburg, 
to which he brought his then new Fifth Symphony. The two made sin- 
cere attempts to reach a friendly basis, but there are no indications 
that they succeeded. A veil of temperamental incompatibility hung 
between the two composers — the childlike, direct, impulsive Slav and 
the North German, shy and reticent in the display of his ardors. As 
artists the two dwelt in different worlds. Creative artists who are 
more alike, although in a sense closer rivals, have always been more 
friendly than those whose points of view have been antipathetic. 
The very assertiveness and conviction of the music of the opponent 
must in each case have given the ego of the other composer a sense 
of denial and an implication of insecurity. 

The sensitive Tchaikovsky, who could never forget a harsh review 
and who memorized and carried it about with him, long continued 
to feel himself under a shadow of hostility in Central Europe, even 
after that hostility had largely evaporated. When he conducted in 
Leipzig in January, 1888, some months before the Fifth Symphony 
was first heard in Hamburg, the cordiality of the Gewandhaus Or- 
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musicians who sought him out to befriend him, and attended with 
misgivings a reception given him by the Liszt Verein.* The cordiality 
of Brahms only made him uneasy, probably because Tchaikovsky felt 
hypocritical, having privately thought and written unkind things about 
the music of this composer. Brahms seems to have been less cordial 
at Hamburg, where he attended one of the rehearsals of the new Fifth 
Symphony. Apparently he spoke of it in his usual blunt way. Ac- 
cording to Kashkin he let it be known that he "did not like the 
Symphony at all." Modeste Tchaikovsky had a milder report of 
Brahms' opinion: "The Symphony pleased him on the whole, with 
the exception of the Finale." 

It is somehow not surprising that Brahms did not take readily to 
this Finale. It would have been as impossible for Brahms to have 
accepted the flooding Tchaikovsky of this movement as it would 
have been impossible for Tchaikovsky to attune himself to the sober 
earnestness of the first movement of Brahms' C minor Symphony. 

^Tchaikovsky had long been shy of Liszt's friendliness. He had written to Mme. von 
Meek in 1877 from Vienna of the "big guns of music," and of his disinclination to call 
on them, music in hand. "If you only knew how offensively they tried to patronize the 
Russian composers ! One can read in their eyes, 'Though you are a Russian, I am kind 
and indulgent enough to honor you with my attention.' God be with them. Last year 
against my will I had to pay Liszt a visit. He was polite to the point of nausea, but the 
smile on his lips said the above words plainly enough." 




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Indeed Tchaikovsky had written of this Symphony to Mme. von 
Meek eleven years before: "I have looked into a new symphony of 
Brahms. He has no charms for me. I find him cold and obscure, full 
of pretensions but without any real depths." It should be remembered 
that Tchaikovsky's hard words about Brahms as they have come down 
to us were mostly addressed to Mme. von Meek, who went a great 
deal further than he in her condemnation of Brahms. Discounting 
these passages as the common view of two Russians comforting each 
other in their dislike of an alien style, there is still no room for doubt 
that Tchaikovsky had very little use indeed for the music of Brahms. 
Prying into his diary, we find this: "It irritates me that this self- 
conscious mediocrity should be recognized as a genius. In comparison 
with him, Raff was a giant, not to speak of Rubinstein, who was a 
much greater man." Tchaikovsky went less far afield from the truth 
when, in one of his self-searching moments he wrote to Mme. von 
Meek: "I must simply confess that, independent of any definite ac- 
cusation, Brahms as a musical personality is unsympathetic to me. I 
cannot abide him. Whatever he does — I remain unmoved and cold. 
It is a purely instinctive feeling." 

Brahms, always less disposed than his adherents to take up musical 
party cudgels, was evidently on his best behavior in Tchaikovsky's 

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[295] 



company at Leipzig. Tchaikovsky was impressed by the bearded figure 
and wrote in his "Diary of My Tour in 1888": 

"Brahms is rather a short man, suggests a sort of amplitude, and pos- 
sesses a very sympathetic appearance. His fine head — almost that of 
an old man -recalls the type of a handsome, benign, elderly Russian 
priest. His features are certainly not characteristic of German good 
looks, and I cannot conceive why some learned ethnographer (Brahms 
himself told me this after I had spoken of the impression his appear- 
ance made upon me) chose to reproduce his head on the first page of 
his books as being highly characteristic of German features. A certain 
softness of outline, pleasing curves, rather long and slightly grizzled 
hair, kind gray eyes, and a thick beard, freely sprinkled with white - 
all this recalled at once the type of pure-bred Great Russian so fre- 
quently met with among our clergy. Brahms' manner is very simple, 
free from vanity, his humour jovial, and the few hours spent in his 
society left me with a very agreeable recollection." 

This was going pretty far, but when he met Grieg at the same time, 
it was another matter. "Brahms," he wrote to his publisher, "is very 
pleasant — but it is Grieg who has altogether won my heart." 

Probably Tchaikovsky felt a lurking disapproval among Brahms' 
cronies. This point of view was voiced by Max Kalbeck, who in his 
voluminous biography of Brahms* waxed plainly hot under the collar 

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at what the upstart Muscovite composer had said about the master. He 
disposed of Tchaikovsky with a sentence: "A restless talent, forever 
wavering between the extremes of an effete European culture and 
an Asiatic barbarism, could not deserve his respect." 



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Leschetizky. The family settled in Paris, where after the World War 
Brailowsky made his public debut. He made his American debut in 
New York in 1924. He has repeatedly given concert tours of Europe, 
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CONCERTO FOR PIANOFORTE No. 1, in B-flat minor, Op. 23 

By Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky 

Born at Votkinsk in the government of Viatka, Russia, May 7, 1840; 
died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893 



Tchaikovsky composed his first piano concerto in November and December, 1874, 
and completed the orchestration in the following February. The first public per- 
formance was in Music Hall, Boston, October 25, 1875, when Hans von Billow was 
the soloist and B. J. Lang the conductor. The concerto had its first European per- 
formance at St. Petersburg, November 13, 1875, at the concerts of the Russian 
Musical Society, when Kross was the soloist. The first performance in Moscow was 
on December 3, when Serge Taneiev, the young pupil of Nicholas Rubinstein and 
of Tchaikovsky, was the pianist. The first performance of the concerto at the con- 
certs of the Boston Symphony Orchestra was on February 20, 1885, when B. J. Lang 
was the soloist. The concerto has been performed at the Friday and Saturday con- 
certs of this orchestra with the following soloists: Helen Hopekirk (1891); Martinus 
Sieveking (1896); Rafael Joseffy (1898); Josef Slivinski (1901); Harold Randolph 
(1902); Harold Bauer (1903); Olga Samaroff (1907); Ossip Gabrilowitsch (190S); 
Teresa Carrefio (1909) ; Katharine Goodson (1912) ; Ruth Deyo (1915); Alexander 
Borovsky (1924) ; Josef Lhevinne (1926) ; Vladimir Horowitz (1931); Joseph Lhevinne 
(1934 — Tchaikovsky Festival); Alexander Borovsky, January 2, 1942. 

The score was published by the firm of Jiirgenson in 1874; the parts, in 1876. 
Rahter brought out a revised edition (the present one) in 1889. 

The accompaniment is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bas- 






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soons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, timpani, and strings. The score 
is dedicated to Hans von Biilow. 

The letter has been many times quoted where Tchaikovsky wrote 
to his friend Mme. Nadejda Filaretovna von Meek his account 
of how he submitted the unfinished sketches of his first piano con- 
certo to be looked over by his colleague, Nicholas Rubinstein, for 
whom he had written it. The friends at Moscow carried the manuscript 
to an empty classroom of the Conservatory (then closed for the vaca- 
tion period) on Christmas Eve of 1874, as they were on their way to a 
party. Their friend Nicolai Albertovitch Hubert, a teacher at the 



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Conservatory, was with them, and, according to his own account, 
Nicholas Dmitrievitch Kashkin. The ferocity of the criticism of 
Nicholas has an authentic ring, as if literally reported; yet it should 
be remembered that Tchaikovsky was at this time in a supersensitive 
and unnerved condition. Earlier in this same month he wrote to his 
brother Modeste that his struggles over the piano part were wearing 
upon his nerves. It should also be remembered that the long letter, 
with its vivid detail, was written more than three years after the event 
to his new friend, whom then he had not known and who, as the 
most passionately sympathetic admirer of his music, invited the pour- 
ing forth of his injured feelings. The letter is here quoted at length: 

San Remo 
February 2, 1878 

"In December, 1874, I had written a pianoforte concerto. As I am 
not a pianist, I thought it necessary to ask a virtuoso what was 
technically unplayable in the work, thankless, or ineffective. I needed 
the advice of a severe critic who at the same time was friendly dis- 
posed toward me. Without going too much into detail, I must frankly 
say that an interior voice protested against the choice of Nicholas 
Rubinstein as a judge over the mechanical side of my work. But he 
was the best pianist in Moscow, and also a most excellent musician; 
I was told that he would take it ill from me if he should learn that 




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I had passed him by and shown the concerto to another; so I de- 
termined to ask him to hear it and criticize the pianoforte part. 

"On Christmas Eve, 1874, we were all invited to Albrecht's and 
Nicholas asked me, before we should go there, to play the concerto 
in a classroom of the Conservatory. We agreed to it. I took my 
manuscript, and Nicholas and Hubert came. Hubert is a mighty 
good and shrewd fellow, but he is not a bit independent; he is gar- 
rulous and verbose; he must always make a long preface to 'yes' or 
'no'; he is not capable of expressing an opinion in decisive, un- 
mistakable form; and he is always on the side of the stronger, who- 
ever he may chance to be. I must add that this does not come from 
cowardice, but only from natural instability. 

"I played through the first movement. Not a criticism, not a word. 
You know how foolish you feel, if you invite one to partake of a 
meal provided by your own hands, and the friend eats and — is 
silent! 'At least say something, scold me good-naturedly, but for 
God's sake speak, only speak, whatever you may say!' Rubinstein 
said nothing. He was preparing his thunder-bolt; and Hubert was 
waiting to see how things would go before he should jump to one 
side or the other. I did not need any judgment on the artistic form 
of my work: there was question only about mechanical details. This 
silence of Rubinstein said much. It said to me at once: 'Dear friend, 
how can I talk about details when I dislike your composition as a 
whole?' But I kept my temper and played the concerto through. 
Again silence. 



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" 'Well?" I said, and stood up. Then burst forth from Rubinstein's 
mouth a mighty torrent of words. He spoke quietly at first; then he 
waxed hot, and at last he resembled Zeus hurling thunderbolts. It 
appeared that my concerto was utterly worthless, absolutely un- 
playable; passages were so commonplace and awkward that they could 
not be improved; the piece as a whole was bad, trivial, vulgar. I had 
stolen this from that one and that from this one; so only two or 
three pages were good for anything, while the others should be 
wiped out or radically rewritten. Tor instance, that! What is it, 
anyhow?' (And then he caricatured the passage on the pianoforte.) 
'And this? Is it possible?' and so on, and so on. I cannot reproduce 
for you the main thing: the tone in which he said all this. An im- 
partial bystander would necessarily have believed that I was a stupid, 
ignorant conceited note-scratcher, who was so impudent as to show 
his scribble to a celebrated man. 

"Hubert was staggered by my silence, and he probably wondered 
how a man who had already written so many works and was a 
teacher of composition at the Moscow Conservatory could keep still 
during such a moral lecture or refrain from contradiction, — a moral 
lecture that no one should have delivered to a student without first 
examining carefully his work. And then Hubert began to annotate 
Rubinstein; that is, he incorporated Rubinstein's opinions, but sought 
to clothe in milder words what Nicholas had harshly said. I was not 
only astonished by this behavior. I felt myself wronged and offended. 
I needed friendly advice and criticism, and I shall always need it; 
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ing up, that sorely wounded me. I left the room silently and went 
upstairs. I was so excited and angry that I could not speak. Rubinstein 
soon came up, and called me into a remote room, for he noticed 
that I was heavily cast down. There he repeated that my concerto 
was impossible, pointed out many passages which needed thorough 
revision, and added that he would play the concerto in public if these 
changes were ready at a certain time. 'I shall not change a single note,' 
I answered, 'and I shall publish the concerto exactly as it now is.' And 
this, indeed, I did. 

"This is the incident that caused Rubinstein to look on me as a 
frondeur, a secret enemy. He has grown colder toward me since then, 
though it has not prevented him from repeating on all occasions that 
he is terribly fond of me and ready to do anything for me." 

The interesting opinion is expressed by Lucien Price that the ex- 
plosion of Nicholas Rubinstein was "a case of furious jealousy" 
toward the upstart who "had presumed to write a better concerto 
than the Fourth in D minor of Nicholas' brother Anton." "The open- 
ing bars," so Mr. Price points out, "distinctly recall the Concerto of 
Rubinstein in its flamboyant octaves." Kashkin, who must have been 
a silent spectator, since Tchaikovsky does not even mention his pres- 
ence, gave forth as his reason that "Nicholas Rubinstein, it appeared, 
was disagreeably surprised that Tchaikovsky, not being a pianist, had 
not asked his advice about the piano part, and therefore he showed 




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prejudice and hostility as regards this work." Kashkin carried away 
the impression that it was "Rubinstein's harsh judgment which irri- 
tated him." But this was not so; it was not the criticism as such, 
but what seemed to Tchaikovsky the coldly hostile tone of his friend 
which sent him in a storm of wounded feelings into the darkness of the 
empty building. His letter flamingly betrays this, and later corre- 
spondence puts it beyond dispute: he felt, far more than the anger of 
an outraged artist, the tone of hard dislike from one he deeply loved. 

Rubinstein had from the beginning acted as benefactor and propa- 
gandist to Tchaikovsky, fathering him and playing his music. He 
took advantage of his position to dominate his pliant and unassertive 
friend. Not in the least understanding Tchaikovsky's obsessions and 
panics, he scolded him bluntly, with the result that he wounded him 
to the quick. Sometimes it was possible to treat Tchaikovsky like a 
child. When it came to his music, which in spite of his expressed 
doubts was sure and strong, the possessive Nicholas occasionally 
went too far. Rubinstein did his best to make amends at the Paris 
Exhibition of 1878. He played the Concerto with splendid effect, it was 
said, making it the outstanding event of the Russian concerts. But 
these amends were necessarily brief. By 1881, Nicholas Rubinstein 
was dead. 

Tchaikovsky, on breaking with Nicholas, struck his name from the 



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score, and inscribed in its place that of Hans von Biilow, whom 
he had not yet met but who, according to their mutual friend Klind- 
worth, had been enthusiastically making known his piano pieces. 
Biilow warmly embraced this opportunity to play the Concerto as a 
new gospel from Russia, and wrote to Tchaikovsky, in acknowledg- 
ment of the dedication, phrases which stand in grotesque contrast to 
the reported phrases of Rubinstein: "The ideas are so original, so 
noble, so powerful; the details are so interesting, and though there 
are many of them they do not impair the clarity and the unity of 
the work. The form is so mature, ripe, distinguished in style, inten- 
tion and labor being everywhere concealed. I would weary you if I 
were to enumerate all the characteristics of your work, characteristics 
which compel me to congratulate equally the composer and those who 
are destined to enjoy it." 

The programme of the concert in Music Hall, Boston, carried this 
announcement: 

"The above grand composition of Tchaikovsky, the most eminent 
Russian maestro of the present day, completed last April and dedi- 
cated by its author to Hans von Biilow, has never been performed, 
the composer himself never having enjoyed an audition of his master- 
piece. To Boston is reserved the honor of its initial representation and 
the opportunity to impress the first verdict on a work of surpassing 
musical interest." 



Biilow telegraphed Tchaikovsky the news of the Concerto's brilliant 
success in Boston, and Tchaikovsky spent his last ready cash answer- 
ing the message. The performance was repeated and on this occasion 
the Finale was encored. Biilow wrote of this, sending press clippings, 
which Tchaikovsky quoted in a letter to Rimsky-Korsakov in which 






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he said: "Think of the healthy appetite these Americans must have: 
each time Biilow was obliged to repeat the whole Finale of my con- 
certo! Nothing like this happens in our country!" 

Biilow wrote from New York of an even greater success in that city 
under Leopold Damrosch. "In fact," he told Klindworth, "Tchaikovsky 
has become popular in New York, and if Jiirgenson were not such a 
damned jackass, but would send over a reasonable quantity of 
Tchaikovsky's music, he could do a lot of business. Yesterday a woman 
actually bought, the score of Tchaikovsky's symphony Op. 23 at 
Schuberth's, simply because there was nothing else of his to buy."* 

Biilow then took the Concerto across Europe, London, Berlin, Wies- 
baden, for example, receiving pianist and concerto with real fervor. 
Outstanding performances are recorded as given by Sapellnikov in 
London, Tchaikovsky conducting, by Siloti in Prague, Sauer in 
Dresden, Rummel in Brussels. Nicholas Rubinstein graciously ad- 
mitted his mistake (having indeed no alternative), and patched a 
strained friendship. Meanwhile the glory which had gone to others 
continued with others. 

The concerto opens with an introduction of 106 measures, dis- 
closing an extended melodic theme which is not to reappear. The 
principal body of the first movement has as its first theme a striking 
rhythmical melody and a second theme which is introduced by the 
winds in A-flat major, poco meno mosso. Both themes are extensively 
developed. The first of these themes is a tune which Tchaikovsky 
heard sung by a blind beggar at Kamenko. "It is curious," he wrote 
to Mme. Von Meek, May 21, 1879, "that in Little Russia every blind 
beggar sings exactly the same tune with the same refrain. I have used 
part of this refrain in my Pianoforte Concerto." The second move- 
ment, in D-flat major, brings forth another unforgettable tune and 
makes the most of it. There is a second theme, and after the recur- 
rence of the first a prestissimo in F major, a waltz-like episode upon 
a theme which Tchaikovsky acknowledged as not his own. Modeste 
has pointed out that this was a French chansonnette , "II faut s'amiiser, 
danser, et rire," which the twins were accustomed to sing "in re- 
membrance of a certain charming singer." This would surely have 
been Desiree Artot, the operatic soprano with whom Tchaikovsky 
was once deeply infatuated. There is a reprise of the first portion. The 
Finale, returning to B-flat minor, is based upon a rapid tune of folk- 
dance character with a contrasting second subject. 

Tchaikovsky's statement to Nicholas Rubinstein that he would not 
alter a single note of his Concerto was made in the heat of the moment 
and was not in accord with his original intentions. Not being a 
pianist, he had evidently expected from his friend suggestions about 

* This may have been the Second Symphony, Op. 17. The Third Symphony, Op. 29, had 
just appeared from the Russian press. 

[312 ] 



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[3!3] 



the playability of the piano part. But the Concerto was first published 
probably as written. When Edward Dannreuther was about to perform 
it at Crystal Palace, London, under August Manns on March 12, 1876, 
Tchaikovsky sent him a copy of the printed edition and Dannreuther 
sent him this copy with pasted emendations in the soloist's passage 
work. Tchaikovsky answered in a letter from Moscow dated March 
30, 1876, thanking him for his efforts in behalf of "my difficult and 
fatiguing work." He wrote, "I thank you for your wise and practical 
suggestions and assure you that I will follow them if there should be 
another edition of my Concerto." When the Concerto was published 
in a revised edition in 1889 by Rahter, these changes were, for the 
most part, adhered to. The alterations are mostly confined to the 
first movement and do not affect the musical texture or the orchestral 
score. Whether Bulow had had a hand in this there is no way of 
telling. Even in his first performance, which was from the manuscript, 
he may of course have modified passages to his convenience. The 
Concerto had plentiful trial by concert performance by more than one 
pianist under Tchaikovsky's eye before the edition of 1889. The first 
edition is now almost nonexistent and not available for comparison. 
The eminent playability and exceeding brilliance of the Concerto as a 
vehicle of virtuosity in the revision, the form which we now know, 
indicates that considerable improvement may have been made. 



01 



10 







0>©(3A(L 







10 



[SHI 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 



[Sixty-third Season, 1943-1944] 
SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. 


ELCUS, G. 


LAUGA, N. KRIPS, A. 




RESNIKOFF, V. 


Concert-master tapley, r. 

THEODOROWICZ, T 


KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P 


LEIBOVICI, J. 


HANSEN, E. 


j' 

DICKSON, H. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 




ZAZOFSKY, G. 


EISLER, D. 


PINFIELD, C. 


BEALE, M. 




DUBBS, H. 


KNUDSON, C. 


ZUNG, M. 


LEVEEN, P. 




CORODETZKY, L. 


MAYER, P. 


DIAMOND, S. 


DEL SORDO, R. 




HILLYER, R. 


BRYANT, M. 


STONESTREET, L. 


MESSINA, S. 




TRAMPLER, W. 


MURRAY, J. 


ERKELENS, H. 


seiniger, s. 
Violas 




SAUVLET, H. 


LEFRANC, J. 


FOUREL, G. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, 


c. 


GROVER, H. 


CAUHAPE, J. 


ARTIERES, L. 


BERNARD, A. 




WERNER, H. 




LEHNER, E. 


KORNSAND, 


E. 




CERHARDT, S. 


HUMPHREY 


, G. 






Violoncellos 






BEDETTI, J. 


LANGENDOEN, J. DROEGHMANS, H. ZEISE, K. 




FABRIZIO, E. 


ZIGHERA, A. 


ZIMBLER, J. NIELAND, 


M. 


" MARJOLLET, L. 






Basses 






MOLEUX, C. 


JUHT, L. GREENBERG, H. GIRARD, H 




BARWICKI, J. 


DUFRESNE, G. 


FRANKEL, I. PORTNOI, H. PROSE, P. 






Flutes 


Oboes 


Clarinets 




Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 


GILLET, F. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 




ALLARD, R. 


PAPPOUTSAKIS, 


J. DEVERGIE, J. 


VALERIO, M. 




PANENKA, E. 


KAPLAN, P. 


LUKATSKY, J. 


CARDILLO, P. 




LAUS, A. 


Piccolo 


English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 




Contra-Bassoon 


MADSEN, G. 


SPEYER, L. 


MAZZEO, R. 




PILLER, B. 


Horns 


Horns 


Trumpets 




Trombones 


VALKENIER, W. 


lannoye, m. 


MAGER, G. 




RAICHMAN, J. 


MACDONALD, W. SHAPIRO, H. 


LAFOSSE, M. 




HANSOTTE, L. 


MEEK, H. 


GEBHARDT, W. 


VOISIN, R. L. 




COFFEY, J. 


KEANEY, P. 




VOISIN, r. 




OROSZ, J. 


Tuba 


Harps 


Timpani 




Percussion 


ADAM, E. 


ZIGHERA, B. 


SZULC, R. 




sternburg, s. 




CAUCHEY, E. 


polster, m. 

Librarian 
rogers, l. j. 




SMITH, C. 
ARCIERI, e. 



[315] 



VICTOR RED SEAL RECORDS 

by the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Also Sprach Zarathustra Strauss 

Battle of Kershenetz Rimsky-Korsakov 

Bolero Ravel 

Capriccio (Jesus Maria Sanroma, Soloist) Stravinsky 

Classical Symphony Prokofieff 

Concerto for Orchestra in D major K. P. E. Bach 

Concerto Grosso in D minor Vivaldi 

Concerto in D major (Jascha Heifetz, Soloist) Brahms 

Concerto No. 2 (Jascha Heifetz, Soloist) Prokofieff 

Concerto No. 12 — Larghetto Handel 

Damnation of Faust : Minuet — Waltz — Rakoczy March Berlioz 

Danse Debussy-Ravel 

Daphnis et Chloe — Suite No. 2 Ravel 

filegie ( Violoncello solo : Jean Bedetti ) Faur6 

"Enchanted Lake" Liadov 

Fair Harvard Arr. by Koussevitzky 

Friihlingsstimmen — Waltzes (Voices of Spring) Strauss 

Gymnopedie No. 1 Erik Satie-Debussy 

"Khovanstchina" Prelude Moussorgsky 

La Valse Ravel 

"La Mer" ("The Sea") Debussy 

Last Spring Grieg 

"Lieutenant Kije" Suite Prokofieff 

Love for Three Oranges — Scherzo and March Prokofieff 

Ma Mere L'Oye (Mother Goose) Ravel 

Mefisto Waltz Liszt 

Missa Solemnis Beethoven 

Passion According to Saint Matthew (Three Albums) Bach 

"Peter and the Wolf Prokofieff 

Pictures at an Exhibition Moussorgsky-Ravel 

Pohjola's Daughter Sibelius 

"Romeo and Juliet," Overture-Fantasia Tchaikovsky 

Rosamunde — Ballet Music Schubert 

Sal6n Mexico, El Aaron Copland 

San Juan Capistrano — 2 Nocturnes Harl McDonald 

Sarabande Debussy-Ravel 

Song of Volga Boatmen Arr. by Stravinsky 

"Swanwhite" ( "The Maiden with Roses" ) Sibelius 

Symphony No. 1 in B-flat major ("Spring") Schumann 

Symphony No. 2 in D major Beethoven 

Symphony Vo. 2 in D major Sibelius 

Symphony No. 3 Harris 

Symphony No. 4 in A major ("Italian") '. Mendelssohn 

Symphony No. 4 in E minor Brahms 

Symphony No. 4 in F minor Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major Sibelius 

Symphony No. 6 in B minor ( "PathStique" ) .* Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 8 in F major Beethoven 

Symphony No. 8 in B minor ("Unfinished") Schubert 

Symphony No. 29 in A major Mozart 

Symphony No. 34 in C major Mozart 

Symphony No. 94 in G major ( "Surprise" ) Haydn 

Symphony No. 102 in B-flat major ., Haydn 

Tapiola ( Symphonic Poem ) Sibelius 

Waltz (from String Serenade) Tchaikovsky 

Wiener Blut — Waltzes (Vienna Blood) Strauss 

[316] 



*Ja the SifsftfJi&tuf, AudU&nc&L: 




his Programme, 
unique among symphony programmes in the 
adequacy of its notes, is made possible through the 
co-operation of advertisers who believe that the 
Concert Bulletin is a good advertising medium: that 
money spent on space in its pages gives adequate 
returns. 

• Because, in many cases, checking on such re- 
turns is difficult, readers of this programme are asked 
to mention the Concert Bulletin in purchasing from 
the firms whose advertisements appear in it — either 
personally or through a note when a bill is paid. 

• In this way each member of the audience will 
make a direct contribution toward maintaining the 
high standard of this publication — by justifying the 
advertisers' faith in this medium. 




[317] 



AK 



Aaron Richmond Events: 



TICKETS AT SYMPHONY HAIX BOX-OFFICE NOW 

Due to Unprecedented Demand: TWO PERFORMANCES 

SAT. EVE. & SUN. MAT. NOV. 20-21 



COSSACKS 




DON COSSACK 

RUSSIAN CHORUS 

& DANCERS 

Sat, Eve, program includes 

two groups of Cossack 

dances 




TUE. EVE. NOV. 30 
Symphony Hall 

JOHN CHARLES 
THOMAS 

The distinguished baritone 

on a program of his favorite 

songs 

TICKETS AT JORDAN HALL 10:»0 A.M. to 5:30 P.M. 

THIS SUN. AFT. at 3:30 Songs of the Americas 

NORMA FARBER 

GEORGE REEVES at the piano 
Auspices: Pan-American Society of Mass. 

SUN. AFT., NOV. 14 Jordan Hall 

CURTIS QUARTET and 
BORIS GOLDOVSKY 

Haydn Quartet, Op. 77 No. i 

Debussy Quartet 
Brahms Piano Quartet, Op. 25 



TUE. EVE. NOV. 16 
Boston Debut of 

SARI 
BIRO 

Hungarian Pianist 

(Steinway) 




[318] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Sixth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 12, at 2:30 o'clock 



SATURDAY EVENING, November 13, at 8:15 o'clock 



William Schuman Symphony for Strings 

I. Molto agitato ed energico 
II. Larghissimo 
III. Presto leggiero 

(First performance) 

Shostakovitch Symphony No. 1, Op. 10 

I. Allegretto — allegro non troppo 

II. Allegro 

III. Lento 

IV. Allegro molto 

INTERMISSION 

Shostakovitch Symphony No. 5, Op. 47 

I. Moderato 

II. Allegretto 

III. Largo 

IV. Allegro non troppo 

BALDWIN PIANO 

This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon 
10:15 o'clock on Saturday Evening 

The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[319] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 



403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



Kenmore 1287 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 
Faculty-member, Boiton University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
256 Huntington Avenue 



Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




jf Tjp — 1{" 




1 320] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 
Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, IflC. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip. R. Allen N. Penrose Hallowell 

John Nicholas Brown M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

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[ 322 ] 



SYMPHONIANA 

American and Soviet Music 

Some Reflections on Plagiarism 

Youth Concert Series 

Exhibit 

AMERICAN AND SOVIET MUSIC 

The National Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship was formed to cele- 
brate the tenth anniversary of the 
establishment of diplomatic relations be- 
tween the United States and Soviet 
Russia. The actual date fell on Novem- 
ber 7, when a special concert was 
given in New York City. There will be 




DMITRI SHOSTAKOVITCH 

a meeting under the same auspices in 
Symphony Hall on November 14. 

Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, in his capac- 
ity as Chairman of the Musicians' 
Committee of the National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship, has re- 
ceived the following radiogram from 
Moscow : 

Dear Serge Alexandrovitch : 

I have been told that the commit- 
tee which you are heading is going 
to popularize Russian music. This 
is a big and important thing. I want 
to express my best wishes to you on 



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[323 J 



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this venture. At the present time, 
when our people are waging sacred 
war against the Nazi hordes, our 
music continues to flourish and de- 
velop. In the course of the war our 
composers have written many suc- 
cessful works connected in this or 
that way with the present-day feel- 
ings of our people. I wish you health 
and the best of luck. 

Dmitri Shostakovitch. 

This radiogram has the following post- 
script: 

"I want to thank you for the per- 
formance of my Seventh Symphony. I 
recently completed my Eighth, which 
will have its first playing on Novem- 
ber 4 in Moscow under the direction 
of Eugene Mravinsky." 

Dmitri Shostakovitch. 

The Symphony is described as con- 
sisting of five movements: "Adagio, 
three marches, and a pastoral. The 
first two marches are cheerful and 
optimistic, while the third — which is 
the fourth movement — expresses sor- 
row. The pastoral is again optimistic." 
(N. Y. Times, October 10, 1943). 



SOME REFLECTIONS ON 
PLAGIARISM 

By Warren Storey Smith 

{Boston Post, October 31, 1943) 

After the second Friday afternoon 
Symphony Concert one of our younger 
critics (who does not ply his trade in 
Boston) was all for raising the cry of 
"Stop thief!" at Strauss because, for- 
sooth, he had discovered in "Till Eulen- 
spiegel" a quotation from Wagner's 
"Siegfried Idyll." His elder colleague 
was frankly skeptical but wisely re- 
frained from placing a small bet since, 
on examination of the score, the sharp- 
eared scribe triumphantly pointed to his 
find. Explicitly, it was the five notes 
that make the first violin part in the 
sixth measure and first three-quarters 
of the seventh of the Epilogue. They 
are indeed identical, except for the 
rhythm, with the first five notes of the 
World-Inheritance motive, prominent 



[ 324 ] 



in the Idyll, and that in the music drama 
itself accompanies Bruennhilde's words, 
"0 Siegfried, H err lie her! Hort der 
Welt!" 

This is not "Till's" only indebtedness 
to Richard the First. Four notes of the 
opening theme are the same as the 
corresponding tones of the Love's Tran- 
quillity motive in "Tristan," but the 
different rhythm, key and mood make 
this resemblance much plainer to the 
eye than to the ear. As appropriated by 
Heinz Provost for the now-popular 
melody "Intermezzo," harmony and all, 
they become one of the more obvious 
of the many musical "steals." 

"After all," Sir Arthur Sullivan re- 
plied when accused of plagiarism, "Mr. 

and I had only seven notes to work 

with." Very numerous are the potential 
combinations of the notes of the scale, 
and if you throw in the five remaining 
ones that complete the chromatic scale 
the possible permutations are as good 
as limitless. And yet, particularly in 
tonal music, the same patterns are likely 
to be repeated over and over again. 
Take, for example, the notes that form 
the "How Dry I Am" sequence — sol, 
do, re, me — used by nearly every im- 
portant composer from Handel to Sho- 
stakovich. Moreover, when you put 
them in the minor or invert them, you 
enormously increase both their useful- 
ness and the frequency of their occur- 
rence. 

The point is, of course, that the order 
of the notes is but one aspect of melody, 
or to put it differently, the mere notes 
do not constitute a tune. In his "Studies ! 
in Musical Analysis" the wise Sir 
Donald Tovey tells the story of a 1 
minister who, wishing to discourage the 
growing prevalence of a certain frivo- , 
lous headgear, preached on the text 
"Top-knot, come down!" Matt, xxivrj 
17 (Let him which is on the housetop [ 
not come down). "The top-knot school 
of exegesis," says Tovey, "still flourishes 
in music." 

And yet the temptation to indulge 
in this theme-spotting is strong, par- 
ticularly in the case of new works, I 




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[325] 



presents 

Music d la Carte 

KOUSSEVITZKY 
RECORDINGS 



The music you love . . when and 
how you want it . . as played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

ALBUMS 

685 — Stravinsky — Capriccio $2.63 

566— Prokofieff— Peter and the 



Wolf 

294 — Mendelssohn — Italian 



$3.68 

Symphony #4 $3.68 

319— Schubert— Symphony #8 

in B Minor $3.68 

327 — Tschaikowsky — Sym- 
phony #4 in F Minor $5.78 

730 — Brahms — Symphony #4 

in E Minor $5.25 

795— Mozart— Symphony #29 $5.25 
870— Liszt— Mefisto Waltz $2.63 

352— Ravel — Bolero $2.63 

347 — Tschaikowsky — Romeo 

and Juliet $3.68 

RECORDS 

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Symphony $1.05 

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Chloe, #1 and 2 $1.05 

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where any familiar sequence of tones 
sticks out like the proverbial sore 
thumb. The better you know the piece 
the less you think about it. Also, in 
the case of symphonic or polyphonic 
music it is not so much the figure it- 
self as the treatment of it that matters, 
which is Tovey's point. This reviewer, 
who deplores this procedure in prin- 
ciple, but occasionally yields to it in 
practice, was only the other day noting 
some unwitting and, in this case, un- 
identified reminiscences in the Fourth 
Symphony of Berezowsky. 

For the most part composers copy 
each other unknowingly, but they are 
sometimes well aware of what they 
have done and feel that it does not 
matter. In one of his sketchbooks Bee- 
thoven makes the observation that the 
Scherzo of his Fifth Symphony and 
the finale of Mozart's G Minor begin 
the same way. He had already em- 
ployed these six notes, merely a broken 
chord, as the initial figure of the open- 
ing theme of his First Piano Sonata. 
Here, as is not the case with the 
Scherzo, even the rhythm is the same. 
The not especially original Brahms has 
quite a few brief but striking borrow- 
ings to his credit. However, when re- 
minded that his A major Violin Sonata 
and the Prize Song from "Die Meister- 
singer" had, melodically, their first 
measures in common, he made the cut- 
ting response: "Any fool can see that." 



YOUTH CONCERT SERIES 

The sixth season of Youth Concerts 
by members of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra under the direction of 
Wheeler Beckett will begin on the 
afternoon of Wednesday, December 1, 
in Symphony Hall. The remaining con- 
certs will be given January 12, Feb- 
ruary 2, March 22, April 12 and 26, 
1944 (Wednesdays at 3:30 p.m.)^ These 
concerts are given for students in the 
schools of Greater Boston, their teach- 
ers and escorts. 

Mr. Beckett announces the following 
program for the opening concert: 



[326] 



Oberon Overture Weber 

Unfinished Symphony Schubert 

Slavonic Dance in C major . Dvorak 

Afternoon of a Faun Debussy 

Espana Chabrier 

Marche Slave Tchaikovsky 

Season tickets are available at the Box 

Office. 

• * * 

EXHIBIT 

In the First Balcony Gallery there 
are on exhibit paintings by five local 
artists : 

George Kelley has studied art in his 
native Boston, as well as in East 
Gloucester and Provincetown. He is 
kept busy most of the time in teaching 
and in painting for Boston publishers, 
but managed to take time off this sum- 
mer to paint fifteen water colors of 
Truro and Provincetown. His meticulous 
rendering has a spontaneous quality 
which captures the atmosphere familiar 
only to the Cape. 

Roland M. Newhall was born in 
Lynn, Mass. After graduating from the 
Classical High School he entered the 
Massachusetts School of Art where he 
studied under Ernest L. Major and 
Vesper George. The first world war 
interrupted his studies and after serv- 
ice overseas in camouflage work with 
the 301st artillery, he returned to school 
and graduated. Primarily interested in 
architectual subjects, Mr. Newhall's 
carefully rendered pictures show a some- 
what nostalgic feeling for a bygone era. 
He has exhibited at the Fitzwilliam 
Art Association, and The Jordan Marsh 
New England Show. 
Forrest W. Orr was born in Harpswell, 
Maine, and was cartoonist for the Port- 
land Press-Herald while still a high 
school student. He studied at the Art 
Students' League in New York City 
under Frank Vincent DuMond, George 
Bridgeman and Harvey Dunn. He has 
been an active member of and exhibitor 
at the Providence Art Club and Water 
Color Club. He has illustrated various 
magazine stories and books. 

F. Wenderoth Saunders is a native 
of Philadelphia. He studied painting 
at Harvard and the Massachusetts Art 
School, and under Allan Philbrick of 
Chicago. In 1925 he spent a year in 
Europe working and studying inde- 
pendently. For four years while paint- 
ing in Cuba he was a member of the 
Society of Painters and Sculptors of 
Cuba. Many of his prints have been 
reproduced in the Christian Science 
Monitor. He has also headed for some 
years a summer association of artists 
at Wiscasset, Maine. 



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[328] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Sixth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 12, at 2:30 o'clock 



SATURDAY EVENING, November 13, at 8:15 o'clock 



William Schuman Symphony for Strings 

I. Molto agitato ed energico 
II. Larghissimo 
III. Presto leggiero 

(First performance) 

Shostakovitch Symphony No. 1, Op. 10 

I. Allegretto — allegro non troppo 
II. Allegro 

III. ( Lento 

IV. ( Mlegro molto 



INTERMISSION 



Shostakovitch 

1. Moderato 

II. Allegretto 

III. Largo 

IV. Allegro non troppo 



Symphony No. 5, Op. 47 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon 
10:15 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



[ 329 ] 



JORDAN MARSH COMPANY 




[33°] 



SYMPHONY FOR STRINGS 
By William Howard Schuman 

Born in New York City, August 4, 1910 



Schuman's Symphony for Strings is the fifth which he has composed. It was 
written for the Koussevitzky Music Foundation, the foundation made as a memorial 
to Mme. Natalie Koussevitzky. The present performances are the first. 

The first movement, Molto agitato ed energico, opens with a bril- 
liant and incisive theme set forth by the violins in unison on the 
G strings, fortissimo. The theme, together with a second one of less 
prominence, is developed in a variety of harmonic and rhythmic 
patterns, while the vigor of the movement is maintained to the end. 
The second movement, Larghissimo, begins with broad chords, but in 
these and the melody which follows, the strings are muted. As this 
melody is brought to a climax with an accompanying figuration in 
sixteenths, the mutes are momentarily removed. The close reverts 
to the first part and subsides to pianissimo. The third movement is a 
Presto leggiero. The form is in the manner of a rondo, with the theme 
varied at each appearance. It first develops with short or pizzicato 
notes, but in its course becomes sustained and melodic, rising at last 
to brilliance, while the tempo is not relaxed. 

The composer attended public school in New York and graduated 
from Columbia University. He attended the Juilliard School of Music 



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and also was the pupil of Max Persin in harmony, of Charles Haubiel 
in counterpoint, and studied composition in a more general sense with 
Roy Harris. He attended the Mozarteum Academy in Salzburg, Aus- 
tria. He is a member of the arts faculty of Sarah Lawrence College 
in Bronxville, New York, and since 1937 has been the conductor of 
its chorus. He held a Guggenheim Fellowship 1939-40 and 1940-41. 

William Schuman's Second Symphony was first performed at the 
Boston Symphony concerts, February 17, 1939. His American Festival 
Overture, composed in the summer of 1939 for special concerts of 
American music by this orchestra, was first performed at one of these 
concerts in Symphony Hall on October 6, 1939. Since then his music 
has been played by a number of our orchestras. His Third Symphony, 
dedicated to Serge Koussevitzky, had its first performance at these 
concerts, October 17, 1941. It has since been performed elsewhere and 
was awarded the first prize for an American composition in the sea- 
son past by the Music Critics' Circle of New York City. William 
Schuman's Fourth Symphony, composed in the summer of 1941, has 
been performed in Cleveland, Philadelphia and New York. 

William Schuman wrote to the editor of the Philadelphia Orches- 
tra programmes: "Please note that the first two symphonies and the 
piano concerto are withdrawn until further notice. They will be re- 
leased again if I ever find time to revise them. I am counting on run- 



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[ 332 ] 



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[333] 



ning out of ideas at some point in the next fifty-odd years, and then I 
I'll have a chance to take another look at these first major works. 
At present I am about to start on a piano concerto with chamber I 
orchestra." Since writing these words, Mr. Schuman has completed the I 
piano concerto. The number of other works which he has composed I 
indicates a long postponement of the revisions above mentioned. They 
include an orchestral Prelude and Fugue (1937), "Newsreel" for ;! 
symphonic band (1941), and "Prayer — 1943" (completed at the be- jl 
ginning of this year and first performed by the Pittsburgh Orchestra 1 
under Fritz Reiner, February 25). 

The list of works shows also a leaning toward choral music. The I 
Secular Cantata No. 1 is entitled "This Is Our Time." There are 
also "Four Choral Canons" (1932), a "Choral Etude" (1937), "Prel- | 
ude for Voices" (1939), "Holiday Song" (1942), "Requiescat" (1942), I 
and "Pioneers," another setting from Walt Whitman. His Cantata, \ 
"A Free Song," after a text of Walt Whitman, was performed at the t 
Boston Symphony concerts of the season past (March 26-27). This 
piece was awarded the Pulitzer musical Prize for this year. Chamber 
music includes three string quartets and a few smaller pieces. 



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[334] 






The Permanent Charity Fund 

and 
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Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
either by will or in your lifetime, with the request 
that the income be paid to the Boston Symphony 
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[335] 







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[336] 



SYMPHONY NO. 1, Op. 10 

By Dmitri Shostakovitch 

Born September 25, 1906, at St. Petersburg 



Completed in the year 1925, the First Symphony of Shostakovitch was first per- 
formed at Leningrad, May 12, 1926, under the leadership of Nicolai Malko. Bruno 
Walter performed it in Berlin, November, 1927. Leopold Stokowski first made it 
known to America at a concert of the Philadelphia Orchestra, November 2, 1928. 
Frederick Stock performed it in Chicago, December 26, 1930; Arturo Toscanini at a 
concert of the New York Philharmonic Symphony Society, April 8, 1931; Artur 
Rodzinski at Cleveland, November 15, 1934. The first performance in Boston was 
at a Boston Symphony concert of November 8, 1935, Richard Burgin conducting. 
There was a second performance at these concerts under Nicolai Malko, January 
19, 1940. 

The Symphony is scored for wood winds in twos (with piccolo), four horns, three 
trumpets, three trombones and tuba, timpani, triangle, snare drum, bass drum, 
cymbals, piano and strings. 

although it bears the Opus Number 10, this symphony stands with 
il the "Three Fantastic Dances for Piano," Op. 5, as one of the 
composer's two first published works.* It was his first large and con- 

* Shostakovitch has given opus numbers to many compositions which have remained in 
manuscript and which at this time he is unwilling to acknowledge. If only his published 
music bore opus numbers, his First Symphony would be Op. 2 ; his Seventh would go into 
publication not as Op. 59, but as Op. 18. 



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C 337 3 



sidered creative venture. The symphony, completed when its com- 
poser was twenty, a graduate from the piano class and then graduat- 
ing in composition at the Leningrad Conservatory, brings to its fullest 
expression the boyish, exuberant, and entirely remarkable talent of 
the composer-prodigy. The Shostakovitch of that time is familiar by 
a photograph commonly circulated: frail and slight of stature, wear- 
ing horn-rimmed glasses. He was much admired at the Conservatory 
for his brilliance as a pianist and for the little pieces of his own 
which he often played. Glazounov, as head of the Conservatory, had 
a more than benevolent eye upon the youthful composer — he had 
put him under the tutelage of Maximilian Steinberg. 

"Mitya," as he was known to his friends, was forever composing, 
improvising at the piano, or playing some piece he had written or 
still carried in his head. There was much music in the Shostakovitch 
lodgings. His Aunt Nadejda (Mrs. Galli-Shohat), who knew him until 
1923, when she came to America, was astonished, on hearing his 
First Symphony here, to recognize snatches from the music of his 
boyhood which she had often heard him play. One of these pieces 
was "The Grasshopper and the Ant," Op. 4; another, an orchestral 
scherzo; and a third, music he had composed to describe Hans Ander- 
sen's pathetic story of "The Little Mermaid," a fairy tale which had 




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appealed to him as a child. Mrs. Shohat has explained the familiar 
passages which she recognized in the First Symphony and is thus re- 
ported by Seroff in his recent book on Shostakovitch, a book based 
principally on her memories of the composer and his family*: 

"The melodies reminded her of those in 'The Dragon-Fly [Grass- 
hopper] and the Ant,' which Mitya had composed in 1922 and which 
he used to play to his family. According to Nadejda, the themes from 
this composition as well as his early Scherzo were used in his First 
Symphony. In the first movement, she says, one hears the recitative 
of the flighty, irresponsible dragon-fly and the mutterings of the 
laboring ant. Then comes a march of all the insects, with the fireflies 
leading the way; they range themselves in a semicircle in the amphi- 
theater and the dragon-fly performs a dance on the stage. The Scherzo 
is inserted in full. In the last movement, the second theme for violin 
and 'cello is taken from an unfinished piece that Mitya was compos- 
ing at the time of 'The Dragon-Fly and the Ant'; he was writing it 
around Andersen's story of the Mermaid, an idea that had been sug- 
gested to him by his mother. With the last movement of the symphony, 
Nadejda remembers how Mitya described to his family the Mermaid 
swimming up through the waters of the lake to the brightly lit castle 
where the Prince is holding a festival." 



* "Dmitri Shostakovitch," hy Victor Ilyich Seroff, in collaboration with Nadejda Galli-Shohat, 
Alfred Knopf, 1943. 







jUtd, #Hj?//fata fy (^aMus ^^^ >w f**" 



[340I 







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I 341 3 



The symphony recalled to the aunt of its composer the boy whom 
she remembered who "liked fairy tales, and often asked me to tell 
them to him."* She writes of her nephew as having been "a very 
serious and sensitive child, often very meditative, very modest about 
his music, and rather shy. . . . His favorite composer at the very 
beginning was Liszt. He liked to read, and his favorite author was 
the great Russian novelist Gogol. His first opera, 'The Nose,' was 
based on Gogol's story." His immediate musical gods were Moussorg- 
sky and Rimsky-Korsakov (his first experience of opera had been 
"The Fairy Tale of Czar Saltan," and he had surprised his family by 
playing stretches of it from memory) . 

This was the composer of the First Symphony in 1925, still in his 
assimilative stages of development, but brimming with musical 
fantasy of his own, which, for all its "resemblances" could be called 
something new, bright, and engaging, and inescapably "Shostakovitch." 
Earmarks of the later Shostakovitch are clearly discernible in it, even 
though the drive and tension of the Fifth or Seventh Symphonies, and 
the avowed "mass appeal" of these later works are not yet to be found. 
This light-hearted, lyrical music, warming to frank sentiment, might 



* "Dmitri Shostakovitch," by Victor Ilyich Seroff, in collaboration with Nadejda Galli-Shohat. 




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well have been taken for the natural exuberance of a lad gifted, ad- 
mired, loved, to whom the troubles of life were unknown. 

The account of the fortunes of his family and the circumstances of 
his childhood, first publicly revealed in the book mentioned above, and 
derived from the experience of his aunt, gives a different, and sur- 
prisingly dark picture — one which will modify the Western concep- 
tion, until now, of the early development of Shostakovitch. The years 
1924 and 1925, the years in which the composer began and completed 
his symphony, were years of bitter want for the Shostakovitch family 
in their cramped quarters on Nikolayevskaya Street in Leningrad. 
Dmitri's family consisted, in 1924, of his mother, Sophia (Sonya, nee 
Kokaoulin), his sisters Marusia (Maria) and Zoya, the first older, the 
second younger than himself. The mother appears as a woman of 
great stamina and boundless resource in the education and healthful 
development of her children. She had not been accustomed to want. 
Her family had been affluent in the pre-revolutionary days when, as 
students in Moscow, she and her sisters and their friends had been 
drawn into the underground activities toward a free Russia. The 



(reprint from 1904 Symphony Program) 



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[344] 



fiance of her sister, Yanovitzky, had been arrested for implication in 
a fracas with the police, and had stood trial for months, under the 
shadow of the hangman's noose. The sister had married him in prison 
that she might go with him into exile if need be. The family tradition 
was that of the pre-Bolshevik intelligentsia, in which intellectual en- 
lightenment, political liberalism, a cultivation of the arts, all had their 
place. Music was zealously pursued, in an amateur way. 

Sony a, the mother of Shostakovitch, brought up children who were 
clear-thinking, intelligent, and talented in various ways (the written 
statements of Shostakovitch on his artistic creed, etc., show this clarity 
of thought and expression). She was the first piano teacher of both 
Dmitri and his sister Marusia, both of whom became accomplished 
pianists. She saw to it that they were at least equipped to make their 
own livelihood in a country where in the early twenties the means of 
keeping housed, fed, clothed, and warm continued to be a drastic 
problem — a problem which the application of intelligence could not 
solve. 

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[345] 



that problem became still more acute. Young Dmitri (familiarly 
"Mitya") and his sister Marusia were both students at the Leningrad 
Conservatory. They were sixteen and nineteen respectively, and were 
already giving two-piano recitals. Mitya was already composing pieces 
of his own, which he performed on every occasion, and at the friendly 
musical evenings which were the rule rather than the exception at the 
Shostakovitch lodgings. Zoya, the younger sister, was then fourteen. 

Now, the ingenuity of Sonya was called upon to find healthy growth 
for each of her children. The ravages of undernourishment had made 
their mark upon them. Marusia, and Mitya too, showed tubercular 
tendencies. He developed an alarming gland in his neck, and doctors 
said he must be sent south, to a sanitarium in the Crimea. If the 
fare and a month's board could be managed, the money for a second 
month remained an impossibility. Sonya found routine employment 
from time to time; Marusia taught music in a dancing school. But 
the returns were not enough: to find food, a winter coat or a house- 
hold article must be sacrificed. To pay the rent, the mother was forced 
to swallow her pride and accept from friends. Mitya's Aunt Nadejda 
knows of these circumstances, for she was often with the family. When 
she left Russia in 1923, to pursue her calling in this country as a 
professor of mathematics, she continued to help them, and to hear 



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from them. It is evident that Sonya realized her son's remarkable 
creative talent, and applied the full energy of her determined char- 
acter to make possible its safe development. The boy often gave piano 
recitals at the Conservatory — for most of them there was no fee. There 
were minor tragedies. Before an important concert he broke his glasses 
and, unable to read his music, was without money to replace them. 
Later the piano at Nikolayevskaya Street went for debt, and the musical 
evenings ceased perforce. At the Conservatory, the phrase "bourgeois 
origin" was used against them. Professional jealousy seized upon this 
stigma to deprive Shostakovitch of any honors and teaching privileges. 
These harassments assailed the family in 1924 and 1925, as Shostako- 
vitch was working upon his Symphony. During this time, too, he was 
compelled to earn in some way, and did it by improvising accompani- 
ments to the silent screen on an upright piano in a small and draughty 
moving-picture theatre — three times a day. Shostakovitch completed 
his Symphony, his first ambitious score, in time to submit it as his 
graduation composition at the Conservatory. The cost of having parts 
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servatory undertook this expense and Nikolai Malko conducted the 
first performance at the Conservatory on May 12, 1926. The Sym- 
phony made something of a sensation. It found its way to other Rus- 
sian cities. Bruno Walter visited Leningrad and carried it to Berlin 
and Vienna. Soon, America applauded it and learned to pronounce 
the name of the twenty-year-old Soviet composer. Publication and 
recognition did not at once bring wealth to Shostakovitch — his 
country is not so constituted. It brought him the overdue privilege 
of pursuing his art with the living necessities assured. 

That the boy Shostakovitch with his artist's nature at once sensitive, 
warm and delicately fantastic, should have survived these adversities 
must be due in part to his mother; but certainly no less to an inner 
life of the imagination which degrading circumstances — even the 
sharp inroads of want — could not touch. 

Lawrence Gilman wrote the following description of the First Sym- 
phony: 

"The chief theme, which is in two sections, is heard in the Intro- 
duction to the first movement (Allegretto, 4-4). The first section of the 
theme, a brief motive of three notes, is stated by a solo trumpet, p 
and con sordino. A bassoon follows immediately with the second mem- 
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[353] 



ing subject in the development of the movement. A clarinet delivers 
fragments of the theme above a pizzicato figure in the 'cellos. There 
is a pause, and the first section of the subject is given over to the 
strings. The main body of the movement begins (Allegro non troppo) 
in a tonality which, after the vagueness ot the introductory pages, 
proves to be F minor, and the different members of the chief theme 
are now set forth. The second theme, in C minor, is introduced by 
the flute over pizzicati of the strings, the clarinet takes it up under 
a trill on E-flat for a solo violin, and it is soon heard in the basses. 
The mood becomes more and more impassioned, and the motive with 
the descending chromatics is heard fortissimo from the unison violins, 
with one of its related sections in the trumpets. Then, for a time, the 
gentler second theme dominates the musical scene. But the more 
passionate phrase recurs — in the basses, in the trumpets, and fortis- 
simo, on the four unison horns. But the close is quiet, with the clarinet 
and 'cellos pianissimo, recalling the introductory bars. 

"The second movement is the Scherzo of the symphony. It begins 
with foreshadowings in the string basses and clarinet {Allegro, 4-4— 
5-4) of the chief theme, which is heard in A minor at the fourteenth 
measure from the violins with pizzicato accompaniment. A piano, 
which is added to the orchestra in this movement, takes the theme, 
to an accompaniment of cymbals, horns, and basses. A Trio follows, 
in E minor, 3-4 time, meno mosso, with a subject for two flutes under 
an inverted pedal E of the second violins, which is sustained for half 
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The bassoon, pp, brings us back to the main theme of the Scherzo. 
There is a notable climax, with the subject of the Trio given to the 
brass, fortissimo (in common time) against the main theme in the 
strings, wood wind, and piano. The close is quiet, morendo. 

"An oboe solo accompanied by string tremolos begins the expressive 
song of the slow movement (Lento, D-flat major, 4-4). The chief theme 
is tinged with a sorrowful chromaticism, and so also is the theme of 
the Largo at which the music shortly arrives — a passage of deep 
melancholy, scored at first, pianissimo, for strings alone (with an 
octave phrase in the bass). An oboe solo adds its voice, in a subject 
that is soon enunciated forte by the brass in a swiftly reached climax. 
A clarinet solo, pp, brings us back to the theme of the opening, now 
recalled by a solo violin. We hear this theme in the string basses, with 
a solo trumpet, muted, repeating softly the earlier oboe melody. The 
end is reached in a pianissimo passage for divided strings. A drum- 
roll, crescendo, leads to the Finale. 

"This Finale, a dramatic and vivid movement, full of abrupt alterna- 
tions of mood and tempo, begins forte, with a single measure Allegro 
molto (basses, bassoons, cymbals, tam-tam, muted horns, and muted 
string tremolos), followed by twenty-nine Lento measures of introduc- 
tion. The movement proper starts off as an Allegro molto, 3-4, in 
F minor. The exuberant chief theme is delivered by the clarinet, with 
self accompaniment of strings and cymbals. Bass strings and piano 
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to A major introduces a new theme, exposed fortissimo by strings and 
wood wind, but this soon declines to a diminuendo, and leaves the 
second subject to the soft utterance of a solo violin (meno mosso), 
then to a solo horn. The Allegro molto returns, there is a fortissimo 
climax, and a pause. Adagio: the kettledrum has a solo, with curious 
alternations of /// and ppp, and a solo 'cello, muted, broods upon the 
second subject (Largo). 

"The climax of the movement is now approached. The basses repeat 
the chief subject, under a counter melody for the other strings. This 
leads to a proclamation of the second theme, in augmentation, by the 
strings and wood, while the trombones oppose to it the chief subject. 
A Presto leads to a sonorous close in F major." 



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[359] 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, Op. 47 
By Dmitri Shostakovitch 

Born September 25, 1906, at St. Petersburg 



Shostakovitch composed his Fifth Symphony for performance in celebration of 
the twentieth anniversary of the Republic of Soviet Russia. The first of a series of 
performances was given at Leningrad, November 21, 1937. The first performance at 
Moscow was on the 29th of January following. The Symphony had its first American 
hearing at a broadcast concert of the National Broadcasting Company, in New 
York, April 9, 1938, Artur Rodzinski conducting. The Symphony was performed 
by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, January 20, 1939, Richard Burgin conducting, 
and under the direction of Serge Koussevitzky, October 18, 1940, January 3, 1941, 
December 26, 1941, and April 30, 1943. 

The Symphony is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, clarinets in A, 
B-flat, and E-flat, two bassoons and contra-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, 
three trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambour militaire, 
tam-tam, xylophone, bells, celesta, piano, two harps and strings. 

Shostakovitch completed his First Symphony in 1925 — his Fifth in 
1937. Each had an immediate success in Russia and in the West — a 
success which did not come to the three symphonies intervening. The 
First and Fifth, placed side by side, give a striking account of the de- 
velopment of the artist — the difference between the student of nineteen 



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and the young man of thirty-one. Shostakovitch went through much in 
those twelve years. He composed with varying success, reached a new 
peak of fame with his opera "Lady Macbeth of the Mzensk District" in 
1935, and suffered the disapproval of his government through its un- 
official cultural spokesmen. The Opera, which had been praised, was 
generally and volubly condemned. 

His Second Symphony (1927) and his Third (May Day) Symphony, 
with chorus (1930), both had Revolutionary subjects, but did not 
repeat the success of the First. The Fourth Symphony, which Shosta- 
kovitch wrote in 1936, when he was no longer in good standing, was 
scheduled for performance by the Leningrad Philharmonic, but was 
withdrawn before performance by its composer, as if he were not 
satisfied that he had met the requirements of the new esthetic align- 
ment. This symphony was never published. Its character has remained 
a mystery until Victor Ilyich Seroff divulged, in his recent book on 
Shostakovitch, that "it was a long work, lasting fifty minutes, gloomy 
and introspective." It had reached its tenth rehearsal under Fritz 
Stiedry when the composer, mindful that the new symphony would 
become, so to speak, his apologia, decided that "there was no point in 
pouring oil on the fire" (Seroff). Whether or not the Fourth Symphony 
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ing its publication and performance, it appears that Shostakovitch had 
at least learned the wisdom of caution. When the Fifth Symphony was 
composed and performed before another year had passed, it was at 
once evident that he had toed the line. All seats for the first and for 
succeeding performances were taken far in advance. There were 
ovations and enthusiastic reviews on every hand. 

The spectacle of disfavor and restitution for a composer is puzzling 
to those of the West who have known nothing approaching such a 
relation between an individual artist and the state. The environment 




[363] 



of Shostakovitch, the only one he has known from childhood, has been 
a communal state which has made the works of its artists its direct 
concern. Shostakovitch has apparently taken it quite as a matter of 
course that his music must be integral with the thoughts and needs, 
the cultural ideology of Soviet Russia. With "Lady Macbeth of the 
District of Mzensk" he had been concerned simply with elemental and 
dramatic conflict between human beings and with music which would 
heighten his drama. The element of the grotesque took precedence 
in his compositions of this time. The composer in his exuberance 
used satire which was purely musical in its impulse, and which in- 
stead of exposing bourgeois ideals, merely reflected them. His fantasy 
became personal idiosyncrasy which neglected to fall in with class- 
conscious expectations. Shostakovitch, although he continued to hold 
his position as teacher at the Leningrad Conservatory, faced, it would 
seem, definite extinction by the simple expedient of the withdrawal 
of his music from performance and circulation. 

It is hard to understand the about-face of general esthetic judgment 
on the appearance of the Fifth Symphony, a reversal as sudden and 
complete as the earlier condemnation had been. Here is a sample of 
the critical restoration to grace of Shostakovitch by virtue of his Fifth 



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Symphony. The review is by Andrei Budyakovsky in the Moscow Daily 
News: 

"The composer while retaining the originality of his art in this new 
composition has to a great extent overcome the ostentatiousness, de- 
liberate musical affectation and misuse of the grotesque which had left 
a pernicious print on many of his former compositions," he wrote. 
"Shostakovich's 'Fifth Symphony' is a work of great depth, with emo- 
tional wealth and content, and is of great importance as a milestone 
in the composer's development.* 

"The fetters of musical formalism which held the composer captive 
so long, and prevented him from creating works profound in con- 
ception, have been torn off. He must follow up this new trend in his 
work. He must turn more boldly toward Soviet reality. He must 
understand it more profoundly and find in it a new stimulus for 
his work." 

It is hard to find anything consistent in the critics who congratu- 
lated the composer for having freed himself of "formalism" at the very 
moment when their supposedly chastised and penitent artist had 
settled into an abstract symphony, based squarely upon time-honored 
structural form and harmonic principles. Heeding admonitions, years 
before, that music should have an expressive connection with the life 

* It is interesting to note that on its performance in Paris in June, 1939, the Symphony was 
summarily dismissed by several critics. 



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of the Russian people, he had written his Second ("October") Sym- 
phony with political implications, and his Third ("May Day") 
Symphony with an explicit programme and a verbal message. These 
works did not seem to call forth his best powers. Shostakovitch in- 
stinctively partook in the general return of composers to the abstract 
forms. That an inner, instinctive voice has at length conditioned the 
style of Shostakovitch, and, in turn, brought his critics into line, would 
seem a restoration of just values. 

Whether the composer's move toward simplification in the Fifth 
Symphony has been made by the prompting of his own instincts or by 
pressure c [ outward necessity remains the secret of Shostakovitch. Our 
Western experience offers us no criterion for a situation where a great 
nation, even in non-musical circles, can be vitally interested as a 
single artist matures. We find it strange that many people in various 
walks of life will speak with a single voice for a new symphony or 
against a stage piece in their genuine search for an art for the many, 
acting without a basic motive (if so it be) of self-interest, personal 
malice, or narrow factionalism. To look at the other side of the 
picture and behold an important composer heeding, in all seriousness, 
this peculiar apparition of concerted advice, is at least as strange. 
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posers whose musical inclinations have been at odds with the desires 
of those who have held the purse strings, or with the listening public 
at large. Some among us have written inferior music for gain; some have 
imposed their will upon the world, arousing the clash of controversy; 
some have quietly persisted in going their own way, paying the penalty 
of temporary obscurity and neglect. Experience points that new and 
important music, having usually put forth unaccustomed and chal- 
lenging ideas, has run into conflict with a general inertia of musical 
habit. It has prevailed through the dogged adherence of its maker to 
his own convictions, through his fine disregard of the debasements of 
standardization. A society which rejects the tradition of an alien past, 
which, trying to build afresh, seeks a certain modernism, may present a 
somewhat different case. But when that society sets up hew and arbi- 
trary dogmas, there must be the need once more for a good infusion of 
healthy individual rebellion. Instead, there is the apparition of the 
composer who simply has no existence unless he conforms, and who 
looks upon nonconformity as in the order of things an artistic error 
on his part. 

The Fifth Symphony is conceived, developed and scored for the most 
part with great simplicity. The themes are usually melodic and long- 
breathed in character. The manipulation of voices is plastic, but never 
elaborate. The composer tends to present his material in the pure 
medium of the string choirs, notably in the opening and slow move- 
ments, where wind color and sonority are gradually built up. The first 
movement and the last gain also in intensity as they unfold by a 
gradual increase of tempo throughout, effected by continual metro- 
nomic indications. 

The first movement opens with an intervallic theme, stated anti 
phonally between the low and high strings. From it there grows a 
theme (violins) in extensive, songful periods. The development is in 
the nature of melodic exfoliation. The first theme returns in horns 
and trumpets, and subsides to the gentle voice of the violins, over a 
characteristic triple rhythmic figure. As the tempo quickens, the 
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sounding from the brass choir, becomes exultant in animation. The 
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theme is repeated by the orchestra in unison, largamente. The for- 
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as the wood-wind voices, here first fully exploited, bring the move- 
ment to a close. 

The second movement is in the historical scherzo form with clear 
traces in the course of the music of the traditional repeats, trio section 
and da capo. The themes are in the triple time of the Austrian 
Landler, from which, in the past, scherzos have sprung. The slow 
movement, like the first, is one of gradual melodic growth, from string 
beginnings. The theme, too, is reminiscent of the first theme in the 
opening movement. The individual voices of the wood wind enter, 
and the tension increases as the strings give a tremolo accompaniment, 
and sing once more, muted and in the high register. The movement 
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[ 373 ] 



In 1939, Shostakovitch composed his Sixth Symphony. Produced at a 
Moscow Festival of November-December of that year, it did not bring 
marked acclaim.* The Seventh Symphony, written under the shadow 
of German invasion, and first performed at Kuibyshev March 1, 1942, 
brought superlatives from every quarter in Russia. A similar reception 
is reported from Moscow for the Eighth Symphony, which had its 
first performance there on November 4. 

The present position of Shostakovitch as a national hero adds a 
sort of nightmarish unreality to that prodigious storm which rocked 
all of musical Russia in 1936, over his "mistaken tendencies." That 
topsy-turvy episode does not acquire sense when viewed in the per- 
spective of the popularity Shostakovitch once held and has since 
regained. One has the plausible impression that the composer has 
simply continued to develop according to his own nature as musician, 
while it was Russian opinion in general which lost itself and found 
itself again. 

The record of that storm becomes a chapter in the history of the 
birth pangs of a popular culture. The thunderbolt itself, the attack on 

* The Sixth Symphony has been performed at the Friday-Saturday concerts of this Orchestra : 
March 20, 1942; March 27, 1942; January 1, 1943. 



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[374] 



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[375] 



"Lady Macbeth of the District of Mzensk," becomes an unexampled 
curiosity, and the unanimous falling into line of musical Russia from 
top to bottom, as reviewed by Seroff, is stranger still. 

"Confusion instead of Music" ran the heading over the attack in 
the Government organ Pravda of January 28, 1936. The unnamed 
writer was shocked by the "deliberate dissonances" in the opera, the 
vague beginnings of musical phrases which "disappear in the grinding 
and squealing roar." It was "musical chaos"— "music deliberately 
turned inside out" so that it was no longer a "simple and popular 
language accessible to all." The "masses" were sacrificed in this "petty- 
bourgeois, 'formalist' attempt to create originality through cheap 
clowning. It is a game of clever ingenuity that may end very badly." 

The article was long, otherwise unsparing in epithets, and not with- 
out threats. When it appeared it caused a good deal more "confusion" 
than the opera it attacked. The "masses" who were supposedly be- 
wildered by "Lady Macbeth" had been crowding to performances of 
it for two years, enjoying and applauding it as a contemporary master- 
piece of dramatic realism. The composer had decidedly known what 
he was doing. He had planned it with great care, and had published 
with the libretto a long and lucid exposition of the opera, its purposes, 
its characterizations. But suddenly critics who had praised it to the 
skies found "Lady Macbeth" an excruciating monstrosity, or a deadly 
bore. Conductors dropped his music, musicians of probity, like 
Maximilian Steinberg, his former teacher, shrugged away. Writers like 
Sollertinsky, once his friend and champion, sidestepped and showed 
their colors by an extra dig at the pilloried young man. Former col- 
leagues avoided him. There were discussions and debates, but not a 
single voice was raised unequivocally in his behalf. Shostakovitch 
stood alone, an untouchable. 

Behind the obscuring barrage of accusations— "leftist," "bourgeois," 
"formalist," "cynical," etc.— Seroff perceives a political motive which, 
at least, was consistent. Soviet Russia was constructing a national 
solidarity. The institutions of marriage and the family, once dis- 
regarded with disastrous results, were now built up by propaganda 
extolling a peasant and civic life busy, happy, and fruitful. The 
keyno'te of all this propaganda was optimism. One remembers the 
Russian exhibit at the New York World's Fair in 1939, with its bright 
pictures in pinks and greens of an invariably joyous populace. An 
opera about the base passions of sordid characters in rural Russia had 
no place among these rosy pictures, even though they belonged to an 
earlier Russia, nor did a ballet depicting Kuban Cossacks as wooden 
and stylized figures.* And behind this was the encroaching shadow of 



* Shostakovich's ballet "The Limpid Stream" was the object of a second attack by Pravda. 
[376] 



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[377] 



war, which made a potent reason for a solid national front. "The Soviet 
Government knew that war was inevitable, and the opening gun in 
the campaign on the home front was the 'banning' of 'Lady Macbeth.' 
Pravda's editorials, blasting the opera, coincided neatly, with only a 
few weeks to spare, with the Nazi march into the Rhineland— the first 
blow of the Wehrmacht against the Treaty of Versailles." 

Impressive as the results of Russian solidarity have proved to be, 
the Western mind persists in cherishing the privilege of deviations, as 
found in "Lady Macbeth," from the norm of character type and musi- 
cal style. A margin of variation in the arts is a contribution to national 
unity because it is indispensable to the cultural growth of any people. 
That margin could well have been allowed in Shostakovitch, whose 
loyalty and talent were never questioned, and who could well have 
been trusted to work out his own esthetic salvation. 



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[378] 



LIST OF WORKS BY SHOSTAKOVITCH 

(Compiled by Nicolas Slonimsky for his article in the Musical Quarterly, 

Oct -Dec, 1942 

Works marked with asterisks have been repudiated by the composer as unrepre- 
sentative of his present ideals in music. 

Opus 

1. Scherzo in F-sharp minor for orchestra (1919). *MS. 

2. Eight Preludes for piano (1919-20) . *MS. 

3. Theme with Variations for orchestra (1920-2). *MS. 

4. (1) The Grasshopper and the Ant; (2) The Jackass and the Nightingale, for 
voice and orchestra, text by Krylov (1922). *MS. 

5. Three Fantastic Dances for piano (1922). Published by the Music Section of 
the State Publishing House, 1926. 

6. Suite for Two Pianos (1922). *MS. 

7. Scherzo in E-flat major for orchestra (1923). *MS. 

8. Trio for piano, violin, and cello (1923). *MS. 

9. (1) Fantasy; (2) Prelude; (3) Scherzo for cello and piano (1923-4). *MS. 

10. Symphony No. 1 in F minor (1924-5). Published by the Music Section of the 
State Publishing House, 1926. First performance, Leningrad, May 12, 1926. 

11. Two pieces for string octet (1925): (1) Prelude; (2) Scherzo. Published by the 
Music Section of the State Publishing House, 1927. 

12. Sonata for piano (1926). Published by the Music Section of the State Publishing 
House, 1927. 

13. Aphorisms (ten pieces for piano). Published by Triton, Leningrad, 1928. 

14. Symphony No. 2, Dedication to October (1927). Published by the Music Section 
of the State Publishing House, 1927. First performance, Leningrad, November 
6, 1927 

15. The Nose, opera in three acts after Gogol (1927-8). Lithographed. First per- 
formance, Leningrad, January 13, 1930. 

16. Tahiti-Trot (orchestral transcription, 1928) . MS. lost. 

17. Two Pieces by Scarlatti for a wood-wind ensemble (orchestral transcription, 
1928) . MS. lost. 

18. Music for the film The New Babylon (1928-9). MS. 

19. Incidental music to Mayakovsky's comedy The Bedbug (1929) . MS. 

20. Symphony No. 3, May First. Published by the Music Section of the State 
Publishing House, 1932. First performance, Leningrad, November 6, 1930. 

2i. Six Songs to words by Japanese poets, for voice and orchestra. (1) Love; (2) 
Before the Suicide; (3) Immodest Glance; (4) For the First and Last Time; 
(5) Love; (6) Death. *MS. 

22. The Golden Age, ballet in three acts (1929-30). A suite from this ballet was 
published by the Music Section of the State Publishing House in 1934. First 
performance, Leningrad, October 27, 1930. 

23. Two pieces for orchestra (1929): (1) Entr'acte; (2) Finale. *MS. 

24. Music to Bezimensky's comedy The Shot (1929). MS. 

25. Music to the drama by Gorbenko and Lvov The Virgin Soil (1930). MS. 

26. Music to the film Alone (1930) . MS. 

27. Bolt, ballet in three acts (1930-1). First performance, Leningrad, April 8, 
1931. MS. 

28. Music to Piotrovsky's play Rule Britannia (1931). MS. 

[379] 



29- Lady Macbeth of the District of Mzetisk, opera in four acts (1930-2). Piano score 
published by the Music Section of the State Publishing House, 1935. First per- 
formance, Leningrad, January 22, 1934. 

30. Music to the film Golden Mountains. A suite from this music published by the 
Music Section of the State Publishing House, 1935. 

31. Music to the play Conditionally Killed, by Voevodin and Riss (1931) . MS. 

32. Music to Hamlet (1931-2). MS. 

33. Music to the film Passer-by (1932). MS. 

34. Twenty-four Preludes for piano (1932-3). Published by the Music Section of 
the State Publishing House, 1933. 

35. Concerto for piano and orchestra (1933) • Published by the Music Section of the 
State Publishing House, 1934. First performance, with composer at the piano, 
Leningrad, October 15, 1933. 

36. Music to the film Tale of a Priest and his Dumb Hired-Man (1934). MS. 

37. Music to The Human Comedy, after Balzac (1943-4) . MS. 

38. Suite for jazz orchestra (1934): (1) Waltz; (2) Polka; (3) Blues. First perform- 
ance, Leningrad, November 28, 1938. MS. 

39. Ballet, The Sparkling Brook, in three acts (1934). First performance, Lenin- 
grad, June 4, 1935. MS. 

40. Sonata for 'cello and piano (1934). Published by Triton, Leningrad, 1935. 

41. Music to the film Girl Companions (1934). MS. 

42. Five Fragments for orchestra (1935) . *MS. 

43. Symphony No. 4 (1935-6). Put in rehearsal by the Leningrad Philharmonic in 
December 1936, but withdrawn by the composer. *MS. 

44. Music to Afinogenov's play Salute to Spain (1936). MS. 

45. Music to the film Maxim's Return (1936-7) . MS. 

46. Four Songs to Pushkin's texts (1936). MS. 

47. Symphony No. 5 (1937). Published by the Music Section of the State Publish- 
ing House, 1939. First performance, Leningrad, November 21, 1937. 

48. Music to the film The Days of Volotchaevo (1936-7). MS. 

49. String Quartet (1938). Published by the Leningrad Music Section of the State 
Publishing House, 1940. First performance, Leningrad, October 10, 1938. 

50. Music to the film Vyborg District (1938). MS. 

51. Music to the film Friends (1938) . MS. 

52. Music to the film A Great Citizen, first series (1938). MS. 

53. Music to the film The Man ivith a Gun (1938). MS. 

54. Symphony No. 6 (1939) . Published by the Music Section of the State Publish- 
ing House, 1941. First performance, Moscow, December 3, 1939. 

55. Musjc to the film A Great Citizen, second series (1939). MS. 

56. Music to the film Silly Little Mouse (1939). MS. 

57. Quintet for piano and string quartet (1940). Published by the Union of Soviet 
Composers, 1941. First performance, Moscow, November 23, 1940. 

58. Orchestration of Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov (1940). MS. 

59. Symphony No. 7 (1941-2). First performance, Kuibishev, March 1, 1942. First 
American performance, NBC orchestra, Arturo Toscanini conducting, July 19, 
1942. MS. 

Subsequent works include Six Songs to words of Shakespeare/Burns, and Raleigh; 
Song, "The Return of the Hero" ("When Johnny Comes Marching Home"), the 
Second Piano Sonata, and the Eighth Symphony. 

[380] 



The Youth Concerts Association announces 

THE SIXTH SEASON 
of 

BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA, INC. 

YOUTH CONCERTS 

WHEELER BECKETT, Conductor 



Six Concerts of Symphony Music 

for students in the schools of Greater Boston, 
their teachers and escorts 

Dec. 1, 1943, Jan. 12, Feb. 2, March 22, April 12, 

April 26, 1944 

in 

Symphony Hall at 3:30 P. M. 

PROGRAM OPENING CONCERT— DECEMBER 1st 

OBERON OVERTURE WEBER 

UNFINISHED SYMPHONY SCHUBERT 

SLAVONIC DANCE IN C MAJOR..; DVORAK 

INTERMISSION 

AFTERNOON OF A FAUN DEBUSSY 

ESP ANA CHABRIER 

MARCHE SLAVE TCHAIKOVSKY 

Season Tickets to All Six Concerts $330 

TICKETS AT BOX OFFICE, SYMPHONY HALL 

COMmonwealth 1492 



[381] 



AK 



Aaron Richmond Events: 



TICKETS AT SYMPHONY HALL BOX-OFFICE NOW 

Dae to Unprecedented Demand: TWO PERFORMANCES 
SAT. EVE. & SUN. MAT. NOV. 20-21 

DON COSSACK 

RUSSIAN CHORUS 

& DANCERS 

Sat* Eve* program includes 

two groups of Cossack 

dances 




TUE* EVE* NOV* 30 
Symphony Hall 

JOHN CHARLES 
THOMAS 

The distinguished baritone 

in a program of his favorite 

songs 




TICKETS AT JORDAN HALL 
10:30 A. M. to 5:30 P. M, 

THIS SUN* AFT** NOV* 14 Jordan Hall 

CURTIS QUARTET and 
BORIS GOLDOVSKY 

Haydn Quartet, Op. 77 No. j 

Debussy Quartet (Baldwin 

Brahms Piano Quartet, Op. 25 Piano) 



TUE* EVE. NOV* 16 
Boston Debut of 

SARI 
BIRO 

Hungarian Pianist 

(Stein way) 

N. Y. Times: "Among the foremost women 
exponents of the keyboard." N. Y. Times. 




SUN. AFT. NOV. 28 Jordan Hall 

VRONSKY & RARIN 

Famous Two-Piano Recitalists 

(Steinway Pianos) N. Y. Her aid -Tribune: "Sheer perfection." 



[382] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 

Next week the Orchestra will give concerts in Hartford, New Haven, New York 

and Brooklyn. The next regular pair of concerts will take place on 

November 26 and November 27 



Seventh Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 26, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, November 27, at 8:15 o'clock 



RICHARD BURGIN, Conducting 

Bach Prelude and Fugue in E-flat for Organ 

(arranged for Orchestra by Arnold Schonberg) 

Beethoven Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 36 

I. Adagio molto; allegro con brio 

II. Larghetto 

III. Scherzo 

IV. Allegro molto 

INTERMISSION 

Gardner Read Symphony No. 2, Op. 45 

I. Presto assai e molto feroce 
II. Adagio 
III. Largamente; Allegro frenetico; Largamente 

(First performance; conducted by the composer) 

Gershwin. "Porgy and Bess," A Symphonic Picture for 

Orchestra by Robert Russell Bennett 

(First performance at these concerts) 



BALDWIN PIANO 



The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[383] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 
Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 

256 Huntington Avenue 
Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




[384] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen N. Penrose Hallowell 

John Nicholas Brown M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

Bentley W. Warren 

r - E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[385] 




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[ 386 ] 



SYMPHONIANA 

Mahler's "The Song of the Earth" 

On Behalf of Gustav Mahler 

The Orchestra on Tour 

MAHLER'S "THE SONG OF 
THE EARTH" 

After a performance of Gustav 
Mahler's "Das Lied von der Erde" in 
New York, a reviewer (whose name is 
not available) wrote: 

"This work, consisting of six highly 
elaborated pieces for tenor or contralto 
solo in alternation, with orchestral ac- 
companiment, the texts being taken 
from six Chinese poems, is certainly one 
of Mahler's surest claims to immortal- 
ity as a composer. . . . 

"It is as if in this work Mahler had 
unlocked his heart, had confessed the 
tragedy that is the price of human 
existence, had sought no answer to the 
unanswerable, had accepted life and 
death, and gone his way. It is intimate 
music, personal music, and it is tender. 
There is none of that seeking after a 
solution in an infinite commonality that 
marks and mars certain 'big' symphonies 
of Mahler. It is never for a moment 
swollen, pompous, banal. The spirit that 
speaks is the sentient, suffering spirit 
of the man. 

"And at the same time there is an un- 
mistakably pagan character to this 
music — its tempered gayety, the quality 
of its resignation. There is no deliberate 
imitation of Chinese music, and yet, 
using the stuff of European music, this 
music is curiously un-European. In the 
tenor song entitled 'Of Youth' the mir- 
roring of the verses, so delicately exact, 
as if deftly done on porcelain, is almost 
startling in its correspondence; it is a 
tonal evocation of the little pool and 
its enisled pavilion fashioned in green 
and white, the bridge of jade arching 
'like the back of a tiger' to the land, 
the party of friends in their silken rai- 
ment drinking, chatting, writing verses, 




[387] 



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"The very end of the work, 'Ever . . . 
ever . . .,' deserting key and cadence, 
merges with silence even as life dies 
into eternity. Surely into this music 
must have gone what was finest and 
most sensitive in the nature and the 
talent of Gustav Mahler." 



ON BEHALF OF GUSTAV 

MAHLER 

by Benjamin Britten 

(Quoted from "Tempo") 

Most young American and English 
musicians have been encouraged, I think, 
to disregard Mahler. At least I myself 
was. Always coupled with Bruckner, he 
was supposed to be a purely local com- 
poser. For Germans, I was told, he had a 
certain sentimental attraction, though 
even on the Rhine and the Danube, the 
academicians preferred Brahms, the gla- 
mour-seekers Strauss, and the modern- 
ists Schonberg and Berg. He was long- 
winded and formless — the bright intel- 
lectuals cited him as an example of a 
romantic self-indulgent, who was so 
infatuated with his ideas that he could 
never stop. Either he couldn't score at 
all, or he could only score like Wagner, 
using enormous orchestras with so much 
going on that you couldn't hear any- 
thing clearly. Above all, he was not 
original. In other words, nothing for a 
young student! 

And so, when I was at a concert soon 
after leaving school, specially to hear an 
exciting new piano concerto, and saw 
from the programme that I had first to 
hear a symphony by Mahler, I naturally 
groaned in anticipation of forty-five 
minutes of boredom. 

But what I heard was not what I had 
expected to hear. First of all, in spite of 
a slack, under-rehearsed and rather apol- 
ogetic performance, the scoring startled 
me. It was mainly "soloistic" and en- 
tirely clean and transparent. The color- 



[388] 



ing seemed calculated to the smallest 
shade, and the result was wonderfully 
resonant. I wasn't bored for one of its 
forty-five minutes, whereas I was for 
every one of the fashionable new con- 
certo's twenty-three. The form was so 
cunningly contrived ; every development 
surprised one and yet sounded inevitable. 
Above all, the material was remarkable, 
and the melodic shapes highly original, 
with such rhythmic and harmonic ten- 
sion from beginning to end. After that 
concert, I made every effort to hear 
Mahler's music, in England and on the 
continent, on the radio and on the 
gramophone, and in my enthusiasm, I 
began a great crusade among my friends 
on behalf of my new god — I must 
admit with only average success. 

For one thing, owing to the size of the 
orchestra required, performances were 
few and far between. And then, of 
course, no complete Mahler symphony 
lasts less than three-quarters of an hour, 
and many of them a great deal more. 
Now these two difficulties, of size and 
length, are bound to limit the number of 
orchestras that play Mahler and of audi- 
ences that hear him. And this is most 
regrettable. Once people have learned to 
take Mahler, as they did, for instance, in 
Holland, they have also learned to love 
him, and his music has drawn full 
houses. His influence on contemporary 
writing, too, could only be beneficial. 
His style is free from excessive per- 
sonal mannerisms, and his scores are 
models of how the modern virtuoso or- 
chestra should be used, nothing being 
left to chance and every note sounding. ] 
Besides, how wonderful it would be for 
all those over-worked nineteenth-cen- 
tury symphonic masterpieces to have 
a rest now and then. 




THE ORCHESTRA ON TOUR 

Making its first tour of the season last 
week, the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
visited Hartford, New Haven, New 
York and Brooklyn. 



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[39° 3 



Richard Burgin conducted the concert 
in Hartford. Carl E. Lindstrom wrote in 
the Hartford Times: 

"The orchestra delivers for Burgin. 
Through countless rehearsals they have 
made smooth the rough spots together 
and they speak the same language. There 
is no question of authority. His will, to 
the last detail of tempo, nuance, expres- 
sion, was made to seem implicit in the 
music. He kept the orchestral stream 
clear and unsullied with good manipula- 
tion of color effects and considerable 
surface brilliance." 

Dr. Koussevitzky presented two pro- 
grammes of Russian music in New York 
City. 

THURSDAY, November 18 
Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 5 in E minor 

Stravinsky Ode for Orchestra 

(First performance in New York) 
Moussorgsky- Ravel 

"Pictures at an Exhibition" 

SATURDAY, November 20 

Prokofieff "Classical" Symphony 

Khatchatourian Piano Concerto 

SOLOIST 
WILLIAM KAPELL 

Shostakovitch Symphony No. 5 

Olin Downes wrote of the first: 

"This program served to display the 
orchestra at the very height of its per- 
fection. The audience had reason to 
marvel again at the suppleness, sensi- 
tivity and precision of an exquisitely 
tempered instrument, for the Boston 
Symphony is that — a single instrument 
of numerous component elements fused 
in a matchless ensemble, and potent to 
interpret a leader's proudest dream." 

In the New York Post, John Briggs 
wrote : 

"Before an eager audience Serge 
Koussevitzky and the Boston Symphony 
played their first concert of the season 
in Carnegie Hall last evening and dem- 
onstrated that the Boston brand of or- 
chestral virtuosity ,is as dazzling as ever. 
The Boston Symphony is not unique in 
owning a rich, sonorous quality of tone, 



but it is one of the few orchestras whose 
tone never loses clarity and transpar- 
ency. Possibly this phenomenon is 
occasioned by nothing more earth- 
shaking than ninety-odd musicians play- 
ing strictly in tune. At all events, Mr. 
Koussevitzky seems to have excfusive 
rights to the process." 

Robert Bagar, in the New York 
World-Telegram : 

"The Boston Symphony Orchestra is 
really a great organization, probably the 
greatest in the world today. It sounds 
great even when its conductor, Serge 
Koussevitzky, chooses to give a very 
personalized reading of a symphony, as 
he did the Tschaikowsky Fifth in Car- 
negie Hall last evening. But the band 
made wonderful sounds. It even made 
interesting noises — when the score called 
for fortissimos. 

"Mr. Koussevitzky has complete con- 
trol of his men, a control that is so 
perfect it is almost a psychic arrange- 
ment. What he wants them to do they 
generally do, to the hilt. All of which 
comes about through (a) a mutual re- 
spect, and (b) a long comradeship in 
the service of music." 

Paul Bowles had this to say about the 
second concert (New York Herald- 
Tribune) : 

"Yesterday afternoon Dr. Kousse- 
vitzky presented us with his second all- 
Russian program of the week, and the 
orchestra as usual sounded like the 
perfect instrument that it is. . . . 

"Only the Boston Symphony could 
have created the wonderful sense of 
hollow magnitude which emerged yes- 
terday from the largo, with its cobwebs 
of string sounds and its diaphanous close. 
Dr. Koussevitzky made the tempo re- 
markably slow, and precisely because of 
that managed to sustain the mood of this 
peculiarly elongated movement to its 
last breath. This is excellent Shostako- 
vich." 




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SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Seventh ^Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 26, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, November 27, at 8:15 o'clock 



RICHARD BURG1N, Conducting 
The order of the Programme will be as follows : 

Beethoven Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 36 

I. Adagio molto; allegro con brio 

II. Larghetto 

III. Scherzo 

IV. Allegro molto 

Bach Prelude and Fugue in E-flat for Organ 

(arranged for Orchestra by Arnold Schonberg) 

INTERMISSION 

Gardner Read Symphony No. 2, Op. 45 

I. Presto assai e molto feroce 
II. Adagio, e molto mesto 
III. Largamente; Allegro frenetico; Largamente 

(First performance; conducted by the composer) 

Gershwin. "Porgy and Bess," A Symphonic Picture for 

Orchestra by Robert Russell Bennett 

(First performance at these concerts) 



BALDWIN IMANO 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Seventh ^Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, November 26, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, November 27, at 8:15 o'clock 



RICHARD BURGIN, Conducting 



Bach Prelude and Fugue in E-flat for Organ 

(arranged for Orchestra by Arnold Schonberg) 

Beethoven Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 36 

I. Adagio molto; allegro con brio 

II. Larghetto 

III. Scherzo 

IV. Allegro molto 

INTERMISSION 

Gardner Read Symphony No. 2, Op. 45 

I. Presto assai e molto feroce 
II. Adagio, e molto mesto 
III. Largamente; Allegro frenetico; Largamente 

(First performance; conducted by the composer) 

Gershwin "Porgy and Bess," A Symphonic Picture for 

Orchestra by Robert Russell Bennett 

(First performance at these concerts) 



BALDWIN PIANO 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 

[ 393 1 



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PRELUDE AND FUGUE IN E-FLAT MAJOR FOR ORGAN 

By Johann Sebastian Bach 
Born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died at Leipzig, July 28, 1750 

Arranged for Orchestra by Arnold Schonberg 
Born at Vienna, September 13, 1874 

Schonberg made his orchestration of this Prelude and Fugue in 1929. 

There have been performances by the Boston Symphony Orchestra February 28 
and March 28, 1930; December 19, 1930; January 12, 1934; and March 5, 1937. 

The orchestration calls for the following instruments: two flutes, two piccolos, 
two oboes, two English horns, two clarinets, two E-flat clarinets, two bass clarinets, 
two bassoons, two double bassoons, Pur horns, four trumpets, four trombones, 
tuba, timpani, triangle, cymbals, glockenspiel, xylophone, bass drum, harp, celesta 
and strings. 

The Prelude for organ in E-flat and the Fugue in the same key 
occur as the opening and the closing numbers in the third book of 
Bach's ClavieriXbung. Intervening are twenty-one movements, mostly 
in the form of chorales treated for organ. Bach began publishing the 
collection known as the Clavierubung in 1726. The third part, pub- 
lished in 1739, puts the date of this Prelude and Fugue in the final, 
the Leipzig period of his life. Whether Bach performed the Prelude 
and Fugue together is a matter for conjecture. They are so joined in 
the edition of his works by Griepenkerl and Roitsch. Griepenkerl took 
his authority from the word of Forkel, who in turn got it by word of 
mouth from the sons of Bach. 

The Fugue has acquired the title "St. Anne's Fugue" from the simi- 



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parity of its subject to the opening phrase of the church tune called 
"St. Anne's" which was popular in Bach's time or before at St. Anne's 
Church in Soho, London. 

In the opinion of Sir Charles Hubert Parry, "The prelude is indeed 
massive and dignified, but unusually harmonic and melodious in style, 
and the details of the texture are by no means so characteristic as is 
usual in Bach's organ works. It was certainly written under Italian 
influences and contains many traces of the Italian concerto type in 
passages which suggest alternations of tutti and soli. The Fugue is 
certainly one of the most perfect and finished of Bach's works of the 
kind. It has the peculiarity of being in three definite portions — all 
centralizing on the same subject, though presenting different treatment 
of it, and at the same time manifesting a gradual growth of complexity 
and vivacity up to the majestic and imposing close." 

Dr. Albert Schweitzer gives this interpretation of its three-fold 
aspect: "The triple fugue is a symbol of the Trinity. The same theme 
recurs in three connected fugues, but each time with another per- 
sonality. The first fugue is calm and majestic, with an absolutely uni- 
form movement throughout; in the second the theme seems to be 
disguised and is only occasionally recognizable in its true shape, as if 
to suggest the divine assumption of an earthly form; in the third it 
is transformed into rushing sixteenth notes, as if the Pentecostal wind 
were coming roaring from Heaven." 



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Arnold Schonberg's transcription was first performed in Vienna in 
the season of 1929-30, under the conductorship of Anton Webern. At 
that time, Erwin Stein described it as "an idealization of the organ's 
tone," pointing out that its colors suggest the registers of the organ. 

"It goes much further than registering can go. The whole structure 
and the functions therein of thematic materials are brought out by 
the scoring; and thus both main lines and details are clearly and plas- 
tically exposed. For instance, each one of the three themes of the triple 
fugue is given out by a definite instrumental group, contrasting with 
the other two — the solemn first theme by the wood winds, the stormy 
second theme by the strings, and the third theme, pompously, by the 
heavy brass. Thus the exposition of the fugue stands out in monu- 
mental grandeur. 

"As regards details, the course of the thematic working-out is made 
remarkably clear by continuous changes of tone-colors. It often occurs 
that each segment of a theme is given out by separate instruments; 
but the same instruments take charge of a long stretch. There is no 
trace of arbitrariness in Schonberg's procedure; everything is founded 
on Bach's music — on Bach's music heard by a musician whose ear is 
modern and who understands and loves this music. It is incredible 
how thoroughly intact the severe grandeur of the work remains despite 
the versicolor scoring. Not one timbre, not even the percussion, is 
mere ornament: they are, one and all, formal values, increasing or 
decreasing, associating or going different ways, according to require- 
ments of substance and form." 



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The Permanent Charity Fund 

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Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
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I 4°° 1 



SYMPHONY NO. 2, IN D MAJOR, Op. 36 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born at Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The Second Symphony, composed in 1802, was first performed April 5, 1803, at 
the Theater-an-der-Wien in Vienna. 

Dedicated to Prince Carl Lichnowsky, the symphony is scored for two flutes, two 
oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani and strings. 

The last performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra was October 9, 1942. 

Looking down from the Kahlenberg "towards Vienna in the bright, 
j sweet springtime," Thayer found the countryside where Beethoven 
worked out so much of his greatest music indescribably lovely. "Con- 
spicuous are the villages, Dobling, hard by the city Nussdorfer line, 
and Heiligenstadt, divided from Dobling by a ridge of higher land in 
a deep gorge." Among these landmarks of Beethoven, now probably 
obliterated by population and habitation, there stood forth most no- 
tably the once idyllic Heiligenstadt, Beethoven's favorite haunt when 
music was in process of birth. 

There in the year 1802, "Dr. Schmidt having enjoined upon Bee- 
thoven to spare his hearing as much as possible, he removed for the 
summer. There is much and good reason to believe that his rooms 
were in a large peasant house still standing, on the elevated plain 

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beyond the village on the road to Nussdorf, now with many neat 
cottages near, but then quite solitary. In those years, there was from 
his windows an unbroken view across fields, the Danube and the 
Marchfeld, to the Carpathian Mountains that line the horizon. A few 
minutes' walk citywards brought him to the baths of Heiligenstadt; 
or, in the opposite direction, to the secluded valley in which, at an- 
other period, he composed the 'Pastoral' Symphony." 

At Heiligenstadt in 1802, almost simultaneously Beethoven ex- 
pressed himself in two startlingly different ways. In October he wrote 
the famous "Heiligenstadt testament," pouring out his grief at the full 
realization that his deafness was incurable, into a document carefully 
sealed and labelled "to be read and executed after my death." Before 
this and after, working intensively, making long drafts and redrafts, 
he composed the serene and joyous Second Symphony. 

Writers have constantly wondered at the coincidence of the agonized 
"testament" and the carefree Symphony in D major. Perhaps it must 
be the expectation of perennial romanticism that a "secret sorrow" 
must at once find its voice in music. Beethoven at thirty-two had not 
yet reached the point of directly turning a misfortune to musical ac- 
count — if he ever reached such a point. He was then not quite ready 
to shake off the tradition of Haydn and Mozart, who had their own 
moments of misery, but to whom it would never have remotely oc- 




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curred to allow depressed spirits to darken the bright surfaces of their 
symphonies. Beethoven found a way, soon after, to strike notes of 
poignant grief or of earth-shaking power such as music had never 
known. He found the way through the mighty conception of an imagi- 
nary hero — not through the degrading circumstance that the sweet 
strains of music were for him to be displaced by a painful humming 
and roaring, the humiliating thought that he was to be an object of 
ridicule before the world — a deaf musician. That terrible prospect 
might reasonably be expected to have driven him to take glad refuge 
in his powers of creation, to exult in the joyous freedom of a rampant 
imagination, seizing upon those very delights of his art from which 
the domain of the senses was gradually shutting him out. 

And indeed it was so. Writing sadly to Dr. Wegeler of his infirmity, 
he added: "I live only in my music, and I have scarcely begun one 
thing when I start another. As I am now working, I am often engaged 
on three or four things at the same time." He composed with un- 
flagging industry in the summer of 1802. And while he made music of 
unruffled beauty, Beethoven maintained the even tenor of his outward 
life. Ferdinand Ries, who was very close to Beethoven at this time, has 
told the following touching incident: 




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"The beginning of his hard hearing was a matter upon which he 
was so sensitive that one had to be careful not to make him feel his 
deficiency by loud speech. When he failed to understand a thing he 
generally attributed it to his absent-mindedness, to which, indeed, he 
was subject in a great degree. He lived much in the country, whither 
I went often to take a lesson from him. At times, at 8 o'clock in the 
morning after breakfast, he would say: 'Let us first take a short walk.' 
We went, and frequently did not return till 3 or 4 o'clock, after hav- 
ing made a meal in some village. On one of these wanderings Bee- 
thoven gave me the first striking proof of his loss of hearing, concern- 
ing which Stephan von Breuning had already spoken to me. I called 
his attention to a shepherd who was piping very agreeably in the 
woods on a flute made of a twig of elder. For half an hour Beethoven 
could hear nothing, and though I assured him that it was the same 
with me (which was not the case), he became extremely quiet and 
morose. When occasionally he seemed to be merry it was generally to 
the extreme of boisterousness; but this happened seldom." 

It may have been this pathetic episode of the shepherd's pipe which 
brought before Beethoven with a sudden vivid force the terrible dep- 
rivation of his dearest faculty. It may have precipitated the Heiligen- 
stadt paper, for in it he wrote: "What a humiliation when one stood 
beside me and heard a flute in the distance and / heard nothing, or 



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someone heard the shepherd singing and again I heard nothing; such 
incidents brought me to the verge of despair. A little more, and 1 
would have put an end to my life — only art it was that withheld me. 
Ah, it seemed impossible to leave the world until I had produced all 
1 felt called upon to produce." 

To his more casual friends there could have been no suspicion of 
the crisis, the thoughts of suicide which were upon him at this time. 
He dined with them as usual, made music and joked with them, wrote 
peppery letters to his publishers, composed constantly. His serious 
attentions to Giulietta Guicciardi were then brought to an abrupt end, 
it is true, but it was known that this was not his first affair of the 
heart. Only after his death did the publication of the "Heiligenstadt 
Testament" make known the hopeless and anguished mood of Bee- 
thoven in 1802. 

This remarkable document was signed on October 6, and must have 
been written at the end of his summer's sojourn in the then idyllic 
district of Heiligenstadt. The Symphony in D major had been sketched 
in part by the spring of that year (Nottebohm, studying the teeming 



(reprint from 1903 Symphony Program) 



THEN. ..1903 



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[408] 




sketchbooks of the time, found extended and repeated drafts for the 
Finale, and the theme of the Larghetto — first written for horns). The 
symphony must have been developed in large part during the summer. 
It was certainly completed by the end of the year in Beethoven's 
winter quarters. It hardly appears that Beethoven spent this period in 
futile brooding. The three Violin Sonatas, Op. 30, were of this year; 
also the first two Pianoforte Sonatas of Op. 31, the Bagatelles, Op. 33, 
the two sets of variations, Op. 34 and Op. 35, and other works, includ- 
ing, possibly, the Oratorio "Christ on the Mount of Olives," and the 
Pianoforte Concerto in C minor, the date of whose completion is 
uncertain. 

"T)e profundis clamavit!" added Thayer, quoting the Heiligenstadt 
will, and others have looked upon it as a poignant and intimate con- 
fession, made under the safety of a seal by one who had in conversation 
kept a sensitive silence on this subject. Sceptics have looked rather 
askance at the "testament" on account of its extravagance of language, 
its evident romantic self-dramatization, its almost too frequent apos- 
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whose lover's sighs had lately produced something as enduring as the 
"Moonlight" Sonata. The sorrow of the "testament," however ex- 
pressed, was surely real enough to Beethoven. He was brought face to 
face at least with the necessity of openly admitting to the world what 
had long been only too apparent to all who knew him, although he 
had mentioned it only to his most intimate friends. 

The knowledge of his deafness was not new to him. In the summer 
of 1800 (or as Thayer conjectures, 1801), he wrote to Carl Amenda, 
"Only think that the noblest part of me, my sense of hearing, has 
become very weak," and spoke freely of his fears. In the same month 
(June) he wrote at length to his old friend Dr. Wegeler at Bonn: "I 
may truly say that my life is a wretched one. For the last two years 
I have avoided all society, for it is impossible for me to say to people 
'I am deaf.' Were my profession any other, it would not so much 
matter, but in my profession it is a terrible thing; and my enemies, 
of whom there are not a few, what would they say to this?" 

The Beethoven of thirty-two was not the unruly Beethoven of later 
years. The composer, as he sat for his portrait about this time, wore 
a neat neckcloth and foppish coat, only the hair was somewhat dis- 
ordered. Similarly, he had not yet subjected the forms to the impas- 



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[411] 



sioned utterance, nor parted ways with the pleasant and emotionally 
continent formulas of Mozart and Haydn. In the second of the two 
"Fantasia" sonatas of 1801, his love for Giulietta Guicciardi had found 
by turns tender and stormy expression; but he had given no intima- 
tion of the sweeping audacities of the "Eroica" Symphony. Conserva- 
tive listeners were hugely disturbed by Beethoven's Second Symphony. 
What bothered them most were his whimsical indulgence in sudden 
contrasts of dynamics, and his untrammeled modulations, particularly 
in the Scherzo and the Finale. It is necessary to read the words of dis- 
pleasure which were pronounced upon the piece to realize to what 
extent the upstart Beethoven upset the constituted proprieties with 
his wanton ways. It was generally taken as a daring score in its time. 

The first performance was on April 5, 1803, at Vienna. Beethoven 
had been engaged by Schikaneder to write an opera for production at 
his theatre, and the favored composer very likely thereby obtained the 
use of the Theater-an-der-Wien for a concert. The advertisements fea- 
tured "the new oratorio, Christus am Olberg." It is evidence of the 
public curiosity and general regard in which Beethoven was held in 
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[412] 



chamber dimensions except the ballet "Prometheus" and the First 
Symphony, that he doubled the prices and more, reaping 1800 florins 
from the concert. 

Besides the oratorio, the First and Second symphonies were played, 
and a "new" pianoforte concerto — the Third, in C minor. The final 
rehearsal was held on the morning of the day of the performance, 
Tuesday, April 5. Ries was summoned by Beethoven about five o'clock 
in the morning. "I found him in bed," Ries relates, "writing on sepa- 
rate sheets of paper. To my question what it was, he answered, 'Trom- 
bones.' At the concert the trombones were played from these sheets." 
Ries afterwards regretted his carelessness in not investigating the 
reason for these hurried trombone parts, and their identity. Thayer 
conjectured that Beethoven "had probably found the aria 'Erzittre, 
Erde' [in the "Christus"] to fail of its intended effect, and added the 
trombone on the morning of the final rehearsal, to be retained or not, 
as should prove advisable on trial." Of the rehearsal, Ries says: "It 
began at 8 o'clock in the morning. It was a terrible rehearsal, and at 
half after 2 everybody was exhausted and more or less dissatisfied. 
Prince Karl Lichnowsky, who attended the rehearsal from the begin- 
ning, had sent for bread and butter, cold meat and wine in large 
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[415] 



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[417] 



with both hands, the result being that good nature was restored again. 
Then the Prince requested that the oratorio be rehearsed once more 
from the beginning, so that it might go well in the evening and 
Beethoven's first work in this genre be worthily presented. And so the 
rehearsal began again." 

At the performance Beethoven, who took the piano part in the con- 
certo, asked Seyfried to turn the pages for him, whereupon Seyfried 
was dismayed to find upon the piano sheets of illegible scrawls, with 
yawning gaps. Beethoven gave him his cues to turn with a secret nod, 
and treated the episode afterwards as a huge joke. The oratorio seems 
not to have won general approval, and the Second Symphony, in its 
early hearings, came in for some drastic criticism. Spazier, after the 
first Leipzig performance, compared the offending Finale to "a repul- 
sive monster, a wounded, tail-lashing serpent, dealing wild and furious 
blows as it stiffens into its death agony at the end." 

The Second Symphony is considerably more suave, more fulsome 
than the First. The success of the First had given Beethoven assur- 
ance, but, more important, the experience of the First had given him 
resource. The orchestral colors are more delicately varied, making the 
music clear and luminous from beginning to end, giving the first 
movement its effect of brilliant sunshine, the Larghetto its special sub- 
dued glow, emphasizing the flashing changes of the scherzo and the 

(Continued on page 433) 




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[418] 



Boston, November 22, 1943. 

To the Patrons and Friends of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra: 

I submit herewith a statement of the income and expenditure 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc., for the Season 1942-1943 
ending August 31, 1943, together with a statement of the Endow- 
ment Fund and Reserve Fund Assets as at that date. 

The operating deficit for the Season was $141,448.46. To off- 
set this, gifts and income on the Endowment Fund of $155,387.99 
were received, leaving a net surplus for the Season of $13,939.53. 
The following legacies were received: 

Estate Mary E. Hersey (For the Endowment Fund) $5,000 
Estate Samuel Sigilman (Unrestricted) 7,408 

Estate Arthur E. Davis, Jr. (Unrestricted) 10,000 

Total $22,408 

As of August 31, 1943 there was a deficit carried over from 
previous seasons of $24,253.85. The trustees voted to apply against 
this deficit the surplus of $13,939.53 and $10,314.32 of the un- 
restricted legacies with the result that the Orchestra started the 
present season with a clean slate. 

The trustees also voted to establish the Reserve Fund of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc., the principal to be in- 
vested and applied to such of the general purposes of the corpora- 
tion as the trustees may from time to time direct, the income to 
be used for current operating expenses. The balance of the above 
unrestricted legacies was placed in the Reserve Fund. It is hoped 
that further unrestricted legacies will be left the Orchestra by 
generous testators so that the Reserve Fund may attain sub- 
stantial proportions. 

The estimated operating deficit for the present season is 
$121,500. In view of the gratifying response of the Friends of the 
Orchestra last season, it is confidently expected that this sum will 
be found. 

The accounts of the Orchestra for the Season ended August 
31, 1943, have been audited by Messrs. Patterson, Teele and 
Dennis, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry B. Cabot 

Treasurer. 

You will receive due notice of the annual meeting of the Friends of 
the Orchestra which this year will be held sometime in February. 

[419] 






Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. 

STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 

for the Season Ended August 31, 194.3 

INCOME 

Ticket sales regular concerts: 

In Boston £265,065.97 

Elsewhere 170,506.56 £435,572.53 

Ticket and refreshment sales Pop Concerts (12 weeks) . . 153,345.67 

Coin collections and chair rentals Esplanade concerts . . . 14,282.65 

Ticket sales Chamber Concerts 8,561.50 

Rentals of Symphony Hall 23,027.73 

Record royalties 75,850.55 

Broadcasting ........ 50,000.00 

Programme advertising and other income 32,606.96 

Miscellaneous Income 4,505.30 

Total Income £797,752.89 

EXPENDITURE 

Salaries — Musicians and conductor £594,370.72 

Guest conductors and soloists 11,450.00 

Music 6,532.71 

Other concert costs — travel, rent of halls, Pops refresh- 
ments, etc 13 1,520.45 

Programme printing and expense 31,510.76 

Symphony Hall — labor, light, heat, insurance, supplies 66,044.33 

Symphony Hall — taxes 20,500.00 

Salaries — Administrative and clerical 39,223.76 

Sundry administrative expense 21,517.21 

Pensions and Pension Fund contribution 6,625.19 

Tanglewood maintenance 5,131.41 

Insurance 2,789.3 1 

Services of fiscal agent 500.00 

Accounts charged off 1,050.22 

Miscellaneous expense 435.28 

Total Expenditure £939,201.35 

Operating deficit $141,448.46 

Deduct : 

Gifts including "Friends of the B.S.O." . . . £136,937.10 

Income from Endowment Fund 18,450.89 155,387.99 

Net Surplus for Season 1942-1943 £ 13,939.53 



Deficit from previous seasons £ 24,253.85 

Deduct Surplus Season 1942-1943 13,939.53 

From unristricted legacies 10,314.32 £ 24,253.85 

Deficit, September 1, 1943 0. 



[420] 






Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. 

ENDOWMENT FUND 

August 31, 194.3 

Endowment Fund assets: 

Cash in banks $ 5,383.09 

Investments (approximate market value 

$391,122.61) 398,945.94 

Land and building — Symphony Hall 

equity— (net book value) 321,330.31 $725,659.34 

The Adele Wentworth Jones Fund assets: 

Cash in banks $ 963.32 

Investments (approximate market value 

$11,665.05) 11,497.55 12,460.87 

Total Assets $738,120.21 

Reserve Fund Assets: 

Cash in banks $5,027.01 

Mortgage note 2,066.67 $7,093.68 

To the Trustees of 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Symphony Hall, Boston 

I ask to be enrolled as a member of the 

Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

for the year 1943-1944 and I pledge the sum of $ 

for the current support of the Orchestra, covered by cheque 
herewith or payable on 

Name 

Address 

Cheques are payable to Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. 
Gifts to the Orchestra are deductible donations under the Federal Income Tax Law 

L421] 



dynamic contrasts of the finale. The symphony can be called the con- 
summation of the classical concept where smoothly rounded forms are 
clothed in transparent, sensuous beauty of tone. This was the kind of 
music which Beethoven had long been writing in his sonatas, and 
which he had lately transferred, with superb mastery, to stringed in- 
struments in his first set of quartets. Opus 18, like his pieces for wind 
groups, was as a preparation for the Symphony in D major, which be- 
came the most striking, tonally opulent, and entirely remarkable 
achievement of the "pupil of Haydn." This manner of music could go 
no further — no further at least in the restless and questing hands of 
Beethoven. Indeed, beneath its constructive conformity, its directly 
appealing melody and its engaging cheerfulness, the Symphony was 
full of daring episodes threatening to disrupt the amiable course of 
orchestral custom. It seems incredible that this music, so gay and 
innocuous to us, could have puzzled and annoyed its first critics. But 
their words were unequivocal, one finding the Finale an unspeakable 
monstrosity. This was the movement which shocked people most, al- 
though, strangely enough, the Larghetto was not always favored. 
Berlioz has told us that at a Concert Spirituel in Paris in 1821 the 
Allegretto from the Seventh was substituted for this movement — with 
the result that only the Allegretto was applauded. The first movement 
always commanded respect and admiration; in fact, one critic referred 
to it as "colossal" and "grand," adjectives made strange to us by what 
has followed. Probably the sinewy first theme, suddenly following the 
long and meandering introduction, elastic and vital in its manipula- 

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[423] 



tions, was found startling, and the second theme, which Rolland has 
called a revolutionary summons to arms, surely stirred the blood of 
Vienna in 1803. There were also the rushing intermediate passages 
and the thundering chords in the coda. Certainly Beethoven had never 
used his ingenuity to greater effect. But it is the melodic abundance 
of the Larghetto in A major which first comes to mind when the Sym- 
phony is mentioned. This movement reaches lengths not by any in^ 
volved ornamental development, but by the treatment of its full- 
length phrases and episodes in sonata form. Never had a movement 
generated such an unending flow of fresh, melodic thoughts. Even the 
bridge passages contribute to make the songfulness unbroken. As Bee- 
thoven for the first time turned the orchestral forces on the swift 
course of one of his characteristic scherzos, with its humorous accents, 
the effect was more startling than it had been in chamber combina- 
tions. The trio in particular plunges the hearer unceremoniously into 
F-sharp, whereupon, as suddenly returning to D, it beguiles him with 
a bucolic tune. In the finale, Beethoven's high spirits moved him to 
greater boldness. Sudden bursts of chords, capricious modulations, 
these were regarded as exhibitions of poor taste. The explosive open- 
ing, coming instead of the expected purling rondo tune, must have 
had the effect of a sudden loud and rude remark at a polite gathering. 
Success, they would have said, had gone to the young man's head. A 
critic in Leipzig after the first performance of the Symphony there, 
compared the finale to "a gross enormity, an immense wounded snake, 
unwilling to die, but writhing in its last agonies, and bleeding to 
Heath." 




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[425] 



SYMPHONY NO. 2, Op. 45 

By Gardner Read 

Born January 2, 1913, at Evanston, 111. 



Gardner Read began his Second Symphony in the spring of 1937 and completed 
it in August, 1942. The Symphony was awarded the Paderewski Prize of $1,000 last 
March. The present performances are the first. 

The Symphony is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes and English horn, 
two clarinets and bass clarinet, two bassoons and contra-bassoon, four horns, three 
trumpets, three trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, suspended cymbal, 
gong, harp and strings. 

A description of the new Symphony has been kindly furnished by 
Dr. Hans Rosenwald, Dean of the Chicago Musical College. Dr. 
Rosenwald finds a new phase of Gardner Read's technique of develop- 
ment in this Symphony, a style which is based more upon "dynamics 
and sonorities than the pursuit of conventional melodic formulae." 
The composer has evolved, according to this writer, "through his 
studies in polyphony a harmonic idiom of his own, and this idiom is 
the most significant contribution of his new Symphony." 

"The Symphony, in E-flat minor, begins with a Presto assai e molto 
feroce, with a descending chromatic line in 'cellos and bassoons com- 




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[427] 



bined with timpani. A fortissimo figure ascending and descending sets 
the motto for the turbulent movement, in which the timpani solo 
provides a vehemently pulsating background, and later in a more 
elaborate fashion a dominating ostinato. The continuity is established 
by the recurrence of the principal motive regularly alternating with 
chord-like interjections, which in turn resolve into a counter-theme 
from the brass section. In the development, imitation involves a 
polyphonic fabric. After a full climax a bassoon solo carries the prin- 
cipal thought further in the manner of a free variation. The movement 
concludes with a powerful confluence of the characteristic rhythms and 
figures. 

"The somber and releasing atmosphere of the second movement, 
Adagio, e molto mesto, is at once established by a tenuto of muted brass 
and lower strings. The 'celli soon develop an expressive theme. Another 
subject is given forth by flutes and violins, first calmly but gradually 
intensifying to a tremendous allargando and a unison of winds, harp 
and strings. This is answered by the horns soli over the full orchestra. 
Suddenly both the somber mood and tempo of the beginning of the 
movement are reestablished and the music dies away in the strings 
pianissimo. 

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[429] 



bizarre theme, which gains momentum through a stringendo technique. 
The body of the movement is an Allegro frenetico, with its chief melody 
heard fortissimo from the horns, bass clarinet and bassoons. In the 
Meno mosso which is introduced by the harp a counter- theme is first 
given out by the oboe and taken up by other winds. There is a 
tranquillo section with a horn and a clarinet solo. Increasing rhythmic 
stress brings an Allegro risoluto which restores the tempo and dynamic 
style of the first allegro. A short coda restores the dramatic mood of 
the introduction. 

The first musical activity of Gardner Read was as choir boy at the \ 
Church of St. Luke, in Evanston. He began systematic training in 
theory, composition and organ in his fifteenth year. In 1932 he was 
awarded a scholarship to the National Music Camp at Interlochen, 
Mich., where he studied conducting with Vladimir Bakaleinikoff, As- 
sociate Conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, and harp 
as well. In the same year he was awarded a scholarship at the Eastman 
School of Music in Rochester, where he studied piano with Jerome 
Diamond, counterpoint with Edward Royce, conducting with Paul 
White, composition with Howard Hanson and Bernard Rogers/After 
graduation he served as a student conductor of the orchestra at the 
Eastman School for three years. He completed his First Symphony 



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[430] 




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[ 431 ] 



when in the summer of 1936 he was awarded a fellowship to the 
MacDowell Colony at Peterboro, N.H. 

A traveling fellowship award enabled him to study abroad, notably 
with Ildebrando Pizzetti at Rome. In 1941 he studied with Aaron 
Copland at the Berkshire Music Center, Tanglewood. In the same year 
he joined the faculty at the St. Louis Institute of Music. This autumn 
he became head of the composition and theory department of the 
Kansas City Conservatory of Music. 

Gardner Read's Suite for String Orchestra, Op. 33A, was performed 
by the Boston Symphony Orchestra December 30-31, 1938. His First 
Symphony, Op. 30, was awarded first prize in a competition offered 
by the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Society in 1936. Mr. Read's 
other orchestral works include a Symphonic Poem, "The Lotus-Eaters," 
Op. 19 (1932); "Sketches of the City," Op. 26 (1933); Fantasy for 
Viola and Orchestra, Op. 38 (1935); Prelude and Toccata, Op. 43 
(1937). All these works have been performed. There is also the 
Symphonic Suite "The Painted Desert," Op. 22 (1933), and "Pan e 
Dafni," Op. 53 (1940). He has made an orchestral transcription of 
Bach's Prelude and Fugue in B minor, and a transcription for string 
orchestra of Padre Martini's Seventh Sonata. 

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[432] 



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tralto and thirty instruments, Op. 23 (1934); "From a Lute of Jade," 
for soprano and thirty-eight instruments, Op. 36 (1936); "The Golden 
Journey to Samarkand," for Chorus and Orchestra, Op. 41 (1939), and 
"Songs for a Rainy Night," for Baritone and Orchestra, Op. 48 (1940). 
There is a Passacaglia and Fugue for Organ (Op. 34), and several 
pieces in chamber combinations: a "Scherzino" for Wood Wind 
Quintet, Op. 24, a Suite for Harp (Op. 21), Sonata in A minor (Op. 
27), and "Mountain Sketches" (Op. 11), both for piano solo, and the 
Suite for String Quartet, Op. 33, which is the original form of the 
String Suite (Op. 33A). 



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'PORGY AND BESS," A Symphonic Picture, 

Arranged for Orchestra 

By Robert Russell Bennett 

(Born in Kansas City, June 15, 1894) 

From the Opera "Porgy and Bess" 

By George Gershwin 

(Born in Brooklyn, N. Y., September 26, 1898; died in Hollywood, California, 

July 12, 1937) 



The play "Porgyj" by Du Bose and Dorothy Heyward, was produced by the 
New York Theatre Guild in the season 1927-1928 (in Boston, April 9). The opera 
"Porgy and Bess" by George Gershwin, based on this play and utilizing its text, 
was produced also by the New York Theatre Guild in Boston, September 30, 1935, 
and in New York on October 10 following. In the summer of 1941 "Porgy and 
Bess" was revived in a summer theatre in Maplewood, N.J., and taken to New 
York, Boston and other cities. Alexander Smallens, who had conducted the original 
"Porgy and Bess," also conducted its revival, lightening the orchestration and 
eliminating the recitative passages. 

Robert Russell Bennett's "Symphonic Picture" from "Porgy and Bess" was writ- 
ten for Dr. Fritz Reiner, who first presented it as conductor of the Pittsburgh 
Symphony Orchestra in Pittsburgh, February 5, 1943. The "Symphonic Picture" has 
been performed by Dr. Reiner with the New York Philharmonic March 31, 1943, 
and in the present season has been broadcast by the Cleveland Orchestra under 
Erich Leinsdorf. 




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The score for the "Symphonic Picture" calls for three flutes, one piccolo, two 
oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, four horns, three 
trumpets, three trombones, tuba, percussion (including xylophone), two harps, 
celeste, three saxophones (two altos and one tenor), banjo and strings. 

Robert Russell Bennett, as an expert in orchestration and as a 
friend of the late George Gershwin, was commissioned by Dr. 
Fritz Reiner to make a symphonic version of "Porgy and Bess." "Dr. 
Reiner," so Mr. Bennett explains, "selected the portions of the opera 
that he wanted to play and also set the sequence of the excerpts." The 
sequence is as follows: 

Scene in Catfish Row (with peddlers' calls) 

Opening, Act III 

Opening, Act I 

"Summertime" 

"I Got Plenty o' NutthV " 

Storm Music 

"Bess, You Is My Woman Now" 

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BOUND VOLUMES of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Concert Bulletins 

Containing 
analytical and descriptive notes by Mr. 
John N. Burk, on all works performed 
during the season. 

"A Musical Education in One Volume" 
"Boston's Remarkable Book of Knowl- 
edge" 

Lawrence Gilman in the 
N. Y. Herald and Tribune 

Price $6.oo per volume 

Address, SYMPHONY HALL, 

BOSTON, MASS. 



[438] 



"There's A Steamboat That's Leavin' Soon for New York" 

"It Ain't Necessarily So" 

Finale ("Oh, Lawd, I'm On My Way") 

Mr. Bennett explains that Dr. Reiner "expressed his ideas as to in- 
strumentation, wishing to make generous use of saxophones and banjo, 
and to dispense with Gershwin's pet instrument, the piano. 

"I proceeded not only to follow Dr. Reiner's ideas faithfully, but 
also to remain completely loyal to George's harmonic and orchestral 
intentions. In other words, although carrying out Dr. Reiner's ap- 
proach, I have been careful to do what I knew — after many years of 
association with Gershwin — Gershwin would like as a symphonic ver- 
sion of his music." 

When "Porgy and Bess" was revived, Virgil Thomson made the fol- 
lowing remarks in the New York Herald-Tribune: " Torgy and Bess' 
is a strange case. It has more faults than any work I have ever known 
by a reputable composer. There are faults of taste, faults of technique 
and grave miscalculatiors about theatrical effect. It remains, none the 



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[439] 



less, a beautiful piece of music and a deeply moving play for the lyric 
theater. Its melodic invention is abundant and utterly distinguished. 
Its expressive power is impeded by no conscious stylization of the 
musical means. Gershwin's lack of any intellectual orientation, even 
the most elementary, toward musical style and his positive ignorance 
about everything that makes opera opera seem only to have thrown 
the more into relief his ability to write beautiful and expressive 
melody and his childlike sincerity. When one considers one by one the 
new works that the world's greatest opera houses have produced with 
ballyhoos and hallelujahs in the past forty years and the almost un- 
varying pattern of their failure, one is inclined to be more than proud 
of our little Georgie. He didn't know much about musical esthetics and 
he couldn't orchestrate for shucks; but his strength was as the strength 
of ten because his musical heart was really pure." 

The composer Frederick Jacobi made an evaluation of Gershwin's 
music for Modern Music (November-December 1937) when he wrote 
in part: "For, though a master within his own small forms, Gershwin 
was completely beyond his depth in a phrase more than sixteen or 
thirty-two bars long, in one not regularly constructed on the last on 
which all such phrases are constructed. If Rachmaninoff had only come 
to his help in bringing 'around the curve' the illustrious Second Theme 




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in the 'Rhapsody in Blue'! If he had only been able to extricate himself 
from the meshes of his own creation in the over-sweet and ill-formed 
'Bess, You Is My Woman Now'! These are but fundamentals of phrase 
structure. For the longer intellectual effort required to sustain a sym- 
phonic movement Gershwin was wholly inadequate; nor is there any in- 
dication that he realized his shortcomings as an architect. And with his 
failing craftsmanship so also vanished his sense of style. How otherwise 
explain the laborious and old-fashioned recitatives in 'Porgy and Bess' 
and the indiscriminate and ill-fused mixture which constitutes so large 
a part of the idiom of that work? Gershwin who, at his best, not only 
has his own individual style but who also possesses that supreme thing 
called: style! The effectiveness of those parts of 'Porgy and Bess' which 
are effective is for the most part based on well-known theatrical and 
musical cliches ... 'It Ain't Necessarily So'! How that small piece, lean 
and wiry, stands out in its place, like a black diamond in the fog! Here 
Gershwin is himself again with no lapses into the vulgar, no departures 
from his usual good taste. How strange that Gershwin should, in his 
larger and more pretentious works, lack precisely those qualities which 
are otherwise so much his own: style, shape and that indefinable thing 
called authenticity, that sense of something freshly felt rather than of 
something heavily reconstructed! 




[442] 



"But in each of Gershwin's works there is some genius. Who has not 
been rocketed aloft into some jazzy sky on the wings of the opening 
phrase of the 'Rhapsody'? Whose feet have not twitched to the initial 
strains of the 'American in Paris': each of us a Bill Robinson in his 
own mind and floating down an imaginary Champs Elysees to the 
sound of celestial taxicabs? What is this and who are you, George, to 
have done this thing to us: to have changed our world, to have made 
our ordinary comings and goings to become things unreal, light and 
sweet, and ourselves disembodied and carefree as a kite in air? ..." 

Robert Russell Bennett's "Sights and Sounds, an Orchestral Enter- 
tainment" was performed at the Boston Symphony concerts January 
22, 1943, Richard Burgin conducting. This composer has furnished the 
following autobiography in miniature: 

"My father was a violinist in the Kansas City Philharmonic Orches- 
tra and one of the city's very top trumpeters. My mother was a pianist 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

^Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERQE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Monday Evening, November 29/ at 8:15 
Tuesday Afternoon, November 30 f at 3 

Second Concerts of this Series 

Programme 

RICHARD BURGIN Conducting 

Brahms Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 

Beethoven Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 36 

Schonberg "Verklarte Nacht" ("Transfigured Night"), 

String Sextet, Op. 4, Arranged for String 
Orchestra 

Gershwin "Porgy and Bess," A Symphonic Picture for 

Orchestra by Robert Russell Bennett 

Tickets at Box Office 



U43] 



and teacher, and my parents were my only teachers on the various in- 
struments I have played. My family moved to a farm in Missouri when 
I was very young, and I learned to plow corn, milk cows, pitch hay and 
catch behind the bat. I forgot to say that my father was also star pitcher 
of the local team, and had I not been slightly crippled by infantile 
paralysis, I should certainly have been a big league ball player instead 
of a musician. When I was sixteen I returned to Kansas City and 
studied harmony and counterpoint with Carl Busch. Five years later 
I went to New York and proceeded to earn a living arranging music 
while I spent my evenings leaning on the fence behind the bass drum 
at the Metropolitan Opera House (standing room only) or in a com- 
parable cranny of Carnegie Hall, admiring Walter Damrosch or Karl 
Muck. The war furnished me with a fair-sized career peeling potatoes, 
and when I returned to New York in 1919, I was married to Louise 
Merrill. We have one daughter. In 1926 we all sailed for Paris, where 
I worked at composing under Mile. Nadia Boulanger. This was the first 
time that I had really devoted to serious composition, as I had been 
more enthusiastic about conducting before. The winning of a Gug- 
genheim Fellowship and several fairly large prizes in composition con- 
vinced me that I might have something to add eventually to the music 
of our times. I mention as works worth considering in that light: 'Abra- 
ham Lincoln,' 'Sights and Sounds,' and 'Adagio Eroica,' a three-act 
romance-opera, 'Maria Malibran,' an introduction and scherzo en- 
titled 'Hollywood' and the 'Eight Etudes for Symphony Orchestra.' ' 



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The Youth Concerts Association announces 

THE SIXTH SEASON 
of 

BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA, INC. 

YOUTH CONCERTS 

WHEELER BECKETT, Conductor 



Six Concerts of Symphony Music 

for students in the schools of Greater Boston, 
their teachers and escorts 

Dec. 1, 1943, Jan. 12, Feb. 2, March 22, April 12, 

April 26, 1944 

in 

Symphony Hall at 3:30 P. M. 

PROGRAM OPENING CONCERT— DECEMBER 1st 

OBERON OVERTURE WEBER 

UNFINISHED SYMPHONY SCHUBERT 

SLAVONIC DANCE IN C MAJOR DVORAK 

INTERMISSION 

AFTERNOON OF A FAUN DEBUSSY 

ESP ANA CHABRIER 

MARCHE SLAVE TCHAIKOVSKY 

Season Tickets to All Six Concerts $330 

TICKETS AT BOX OFFICE, SYMPHONY HALL 

COMmonwealth 1492 



[445] 



AK 




Aaron Richmond Events: 



THIS TUE. EVE. 8:15 



Symphony Hall 

JOHN CHARLES 
THOMAS 

Distinguished baritone in a 

program of his favorite arias 

and songs 

Remaining Tickets at Symphony Hall Now: $1.10 to $2.75 

SUN. AFT. DEC. 12 — SYMPHONY HALL 



JAN 
PEERCE 



Popular Tenor Star of the 

Metropolitan Opera, Concert 

and Radio 




Jordan Hall — Tickets 10:30 A.M. to 5:30 at Jordan Hall 



SUN. AFT. DEC. 5 
MON. EVE. DEC. 6 




TRAPP 
FAMILY 

Ancient Instruments — Xmas Carols 
Madrigals — Folk-songs 



THUR. EVE. DEC. 8- 

CLEORA 
WOOH 

Soprano — and 

ARIEL 
HALL 

Harpist 

Songs 

with Harp accompaniment 

Harp solos 

Original works for voice and 
harp by Ariel Hall 



[446] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Eighth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, December 3, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, December 4, at 8:15 o'clock 



Mahler "Das Lied von der Erde" ("The Song of the Earth") 

for Tenor, Contralto, and Orchestra 

I. Das Trinklied vom Jammer der Erde 

(I he Drinking-Song of Earth's Sorrow) 
Tenor 
II. Der Einsame im Herbst (The Lonely One In Autumn) 

Contralto 

III. Von der Jugend (Of Youth) 

Tenor 

IV. Von der Schonheit (Of Beauty) 

Contralto 
V. Der Trunkene im Friihling (The Drunken One in Springtime) 

Tenor 
VI. Der Abschied (The Farewell) 

Contralto 

JENNIE TOUREL and HANS J. HEINZ 

INTERMISSION 

Hanson Symphony No. 4, Op. 34 

I. Andante inquieto 

II. Elegy: Largo 

III. Presto 

IV. Largo pastorale 

(First public performance; conducted by the composer) 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:25 on Friday Afternoon 
10:10 o'clock on Saturday Evening 

The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 



[447] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 

Faculty-member, Botton University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
256 Huntington Avenue 

Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




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[448] 



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SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, IflC. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 

Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen N. Penrose Hallo well 

John Nicholas Brown M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[449] 







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WNAC — Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays at 7:45 p.m. 



[45°3 






SYMPHONIANA 

When Block Met Mahler 

Folk Music, Haydn, and Beethoven 

Exhibit 

WHEN BLOCH MET MAHLER 
Olin Downes, in the New York Times 
of last Sunday (November 28), just 
publishes an interesting account, con- 
tributed by Ernest Bloch (who is now 
in Oregon) of his encounter with 
Gustav Mahler in 1903, when the Swiss 
composer was quite unknown, and the 
Austrian one was still far short of 
recognition as a creative artist. . Mr. 
Bloch writes that he and Mahler were 
"revolutionaries together when, in Basle 
in 1903, Mahler conducted "what was, 
I think, the 'Urauffuehrung' of the Sec- 
ond symphony, I conducted myself, 
two movements of my C sharp minor 
symphony, which was terribly ill re- 
ceived by the critics. I do not think 
that he fared better * * * There was 
such a prejudice, even a hate, against 
him * * * The fad, at that time, was 
the 'Symphonic Poem' * * * I had 
attended all the very numerous re- 
hearsals, about fifteen of them, if I 
remember, and I had been tremendously 
impressed, shaken, by the man, as a 
conductor, and by his work. I felt so 
lonely, walking alone in the streets, not 
mixing with any of the musicians, the 
virtuosi and professors, who despised 
me and even insulted me * * * and he, 
too, was alone and not mixing with 
them, also walking alone, with his young 
wife, with his huge uncovered head, in 
the streets. I had an immense impulse 
to go to him * * * He was the only 
one who could understand me, I thought, 
and nobody could have been moved by 
his work as I was * * * But, I re- 
frained. I was too shy and perplexed 
* * * I had heard so many (false) 
stories about his dismissing people who 
came to him with a brutal 'unsym- 
patisch' * * * And I have regretted all 
my life that I had not followed my im- 




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pulse. We would have understood each 
other * * * and my destiny might have 
been quite different. 

"I bought the score, studied it, raved 
about it and, the next fall, in Paris, I 
showed it to several conductors. But all 
of them were lukewarm or even hostile ; 
'vous aimer ca!' I then decided to write 
an article about this work, but, first of 
all, I wanted to know whether it was 
agreeable to Mahler, whether he, also, 
was not despising me. I wrote him a 
letter, and I received a marvelous, warm 
answer, which I preserve and still cher- 
ish today. I had great difficulty in 
placing my article — it was refused 
everywhere — finally it appeared in the 
Courrier Musical, apparently some 
months later, judging from a card of 
thanks from Mahler dated August, 1904, 
from his Villa am Woertersee. He an- 
nounced the Erstauffuehrung of his 
Fifth Symphony, in Koeln in October. 
And I ought to have gone there. But 
circumstances prevented, and I never 
met Mahler again." 

The simplicity and poignancy of 
Mahler's reply, in a letter which has 
not been published till today, bears its 
own witness to the nature of the man, 
and his attitude toward a fellow-artist, 
and — hostile critics! 

"My dear Mr. Bloch: 

"Your letter afforded me deep, heart- 
felt joy. Don't believe that I am indif- 
ferent to such warm, complete approval, 
expressed in such a noble way. 

"I live in the world like a stranger. 
It is seldom that the voice of a fellow- 
spirit reaches my ear. Why should not 
such an understanding and unreserved 
comprehension move me? If you believe 
that it is good and useful to state pub- 
licly (or publish) your opinion about me 
and my work, I can only agree. For I 
cannot understand why only those, who 
do not understand me and who know 
nothing about me, should have the right 
to write about me in the newspapers. 

"Accept once more my heartfelt 
thanks and many .greetings. 

Gustav Mahler." 



[45 2 ] 



FOLK MUSIC, HAYDN, AND 
BEETHOVEN 

By Bela Bartok 

From the article "The Relation of 
Folk Song to . . . Art Music . . .*' from 
"The Sackbut" for June 1921. 

Peasant music, in the strict sense of 
the word, must be regarded as a natural 
phenomenon. It is just as much a nat- 
ural phenomenon, for instance, as the 
various manifestations of Nature in 
fauna and flora. Correspondingly it has, 
in its individual parts, an absolute 
artistic perfection — a perfection in mini- 
ature forms which, one might almost 
say, is equal to the perfection of a 
musical masterpiece of the largest pro- 
portions. It is the classical model of 
how to express an idea musically in the 
most concise form, with the greatest 
simplicity of means, with freshness and 
life, briefly yet completely and properly 
proportioned. 

When I speak of the influence of 
peasant music, I do not mean a mere 
whitewash of it, as it were, or the mere 
adaptation of peasant melodies or 
snatches of melodies and their piece- 
meal incorporation in musical words, 
but rather the expression of the real 
spirit of the music of any particular 
people which is so hard to render in 
words. The manner in which the spirit 
is interpreted in the compositions is 
closely dependent upon the personality 
and musical talent of the particular 
composer, so that it is of little use for a 
blockhead or a man with no musical 
talent to run to "the people" in order 
to get inspiration for his thin ideas. 

The practice of employing peasant 
music in the attempt to put life into 
works of art music is not entirely new. 
In fact, many symphonic themes (es- 
pecially in last movements) of the 
Viennese classics — Haydn, Mozart, and 
Beethoven — suggest peasant music; in . 



I 



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[453] 



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presents 

Music a la Carte 

KOUSSEVITZKY 
RECORDINGS 



The music you love . . when and 
how you want it . . as played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra 



ALBUMS 

685 — S tr a vin sky — Capriccio 

566 — Prokofieff— Peter and the 
Wolf 

294 — Mendelssohn — Italian 
Symphony #4 

319— Schubert— Symphony #8 
in B Minor 



327 — Tschaikowsky — Sym- 
phony #4 in F Minor 

730 — Brahms — Symphony 
in B Minor 



#4 



795 — Mozart — Symphony #29 
870— Liszt— Mefisto Waltz 

352— Ravel— Bolero 

347 — Tschaikowsky — Romeo 
and Juliet 

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7197— Prokofieff— Classical 
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7143 — Ravel — Daphnis et 
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14415 — Moussorgosky- 
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re their cases it would seem to be a matter 
fof Slavonic peasant instrumental music. 
8 [The writer quotes peasant tunes — a 
t Croatian folk melody as identical with 
the theme of the finale of Haydn's D 
major Symphony (No. 104), and two 
others as the origin of the opening 
theme of Beethoven's "Pastoral" 
Symphony.] 

The theory that this was Beethoven's 
own theme and that it penetrated to the 
Croatian peasantry with the populariza- 
tion of the symphony is quite untenable. 
The peasantry is capable of taking up 
only such melodies as it hears repeated 
to the point of satiety at village dances 
or other meetings. Nobody can imagine 
that Beethoven's symphonies achieved 
such widespread popularity in the vil- 
lages of eastern Europe. One has only 
to consider that in the country districts 
of eastern Europe the very name of 
Beethoven is unknown even to the gen- 
try — that these circles indeed lack the 
slightest acquaintance with the higher 
music of any period. It is much nearer 
the truth to say that Beethoven heard 
his melody from a bagpipe played in 
western Hungary, where Croats also are 
settlers and where he often stayed. Be- 
fore strangers, peasants play on an 
instrument much more naturally than 
they sing melodies from a text. The 
tune appealed to Beethoven, and as it 
seemed to give a picture of rural life 
he used it in his symphony without 
acknowledgment — as was usual at the 
time. Bars 16 to 25, which constantly 
repeat the selfsame one-bar motif, are 
in fact a very faithful imitation of the 
bagpipe interlude-passages as they can 
still be heard in our day. Thus, for in- 
stance, the interlude occurs as the eight- 
or tenfold repetition of the motif in a 
melody which I heard played on the 
bagpipes of a Hungarian peasant. My 
theory is strengthened by the bagpipe- 
like accompaniment of the theme. 



[454] 



EXHIBIT 

In the First Balcony Gallery are to 
be seen five portraits by Boris Chaliapin, 
forming the Magnavox series of great 
contemporary musicians, lent for this 
showing by the Magnavox Company of 
Fort Wayne, Indiana. 

Boris Chaliapin is the son of Feodor 
Chaliapin, renowned Russian basso. The 
following portraits are on exhibit: 

Artur Toscanini 

Lilly Pons and Andre Kostelanetz 

Vladimir Horowitz 

Fritz Kreisler 

Eugene Ormandy 

Also on exhibit are two other por- 
traits by the same artist: one of Dr. 
Koussevitzky, painted last summer at 
Lenox, and one of Serge Rachmaninoff, 
painted in 1940 at Huntington, Long 
Island. 

Continuing is an exhibit of water 
colors by three Boston artists: George 
Kelley, Roland M. Newhall, and Forrest 
Orr. 



When subscribers for the Friday after- 
noon and Saturday evening concerts are 
unable to use their tickets, some officers 
of the armed forces will be delighted to 
use them. Please telephone Army and 
Navy Officers' Club, 12 Arlington Street 
— Com. 3727. 



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[456] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEE N HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 

Eighth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, December 3, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, December 4, af 8:15 o'clock 



RICHARD BURGIN Conducting 

Mahler "Das Lied von der Erde" ("The Song of the Earth") 

for Tenor, Contralto, and Orchestra 

I. Das Trinklied vom Jammer der Erde 

(The Drinking-Song of Earth's Sorrow) 
Tenor 
II. Der Einsame im Herbst (The Lonely One In Autumn) 

Contralto 

III. Von der Jugend (Of Youth) 

Tenor 

IV. Von der Schonheit (Of Beauty) 

Contralto 
V. Der Trunkene im Friihling (The Drunken One in Springtime) 

Tenor 
VI. Der Abschied (The Farewell) 

Contralto 

JENNIE TOUREL and HANS J. HEINZ 

INTERMISSION 

Hanson Symphony No. 4, Op. 34 

I. Kyrie 

Andante inquieto; piu mosso 
II. Requiescat 
Largo 

III. Dies Irae 

Presto 

IV. Lux Aeterna 

Largo pastorale; piu animato ed agitato; molto espressivo, tranquillo 

(First public performance; conducted by the composer) 

Brahms Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:35 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:20 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



C457 3 



JORDAN MARSH COMPANY 




*t 



[458] 



'DAS LIED VON DER ERDE" ("THE SONG OF THE EARTH"), 

Symphony for Tenor, Contralto, and Orchestra 

By Gustav Mahler 
Born at Kalischt in Bohemia on July 7, i860; died at Vienna on May 18, 1911 



"Das Lied von der Erde" was composed in the summer of 1908. It was first per- 
formed in Munich November 10, 1911 (about six months after Mahler's death) 
by Bruno Walter. The first performance of "The Song of the Earth" in America 
was under Leopold Stokowski, in Philadelphia, December 15, 1916. Serge Kous- 
sevitzky introduced the work in Boston at the symphony concerts December 7, 
1928, when Mme. Charles Cahier and George Meader were the soloists. Again 
it was performed at these concerts December 26, 1930, when the soloists were 
Margaret Matzenauer and Richard Crooks, and November 6, 1936, with Maria 
Ranzow and Paul Althouse. 

The orchestration calls for four flutes, three oboes, five clarinets, three bassoons, 
four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, two harps, mandolin, celesta, 
timpani, percussion and strings. 

r"T« he song cycles of Mahler * are usually far more than songs; they 

■*■ attain symphonic proportions. His symphonies, on the other 

hand, are free in form, four of the nine having vocal parts. "Das 

Lied von der Erde" has qualities both of a symphony and a cycle. Its 

* "Des Knaben Wunderhom," "Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen," " Kindertotenlieder." 



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After necessary introductory material on intervals and scales, the book 
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[459] 



composer called it a "symphony for tenor and alto (or baritone) soli and 
orchestra." He refrained from calling it his "Ninth" Symphony from 
superstition, it has been said, that no man might live to outnumber 
the nine of Beethoven. This work is in many ways symphonic. Its six 
movements do not give unvarying emphasis to the lyric utterance, and 
although the poetic idea is always uppermost, it is often set forth 
through the fuller eloquence of the orchestra. 

Mahler took his text from "Die Chinesische Flote" ("The Chinese 
Flute") of Hans Bethge, the German poet having paraphrased Chinese 
verses of the eighth century. The strain of world weariness and with- 
drawal from life appealed to the composer, who changed and adapted 
them to make this emphasis. "A splendid, delicate, yet earth-born per- 
fume of melancholy rises from these pages," Paul Stefan has written. 
"It is as though one had entered into a kingdom of hopelessness, whose 
benumbing atmosphere one cannot escape. Mahler was so impressed 
by the book, that he chose seven of these poems and translated them 
into his language. He not only clothed them with music; he also re- 
modelled Bethge's words, as he felt and needed them." 



The Chinese sources of the poems are as follows: 



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[46" ] 



I. Das Trinklied vom Jammer der Erde 

(The Drinking Song of Earthly Woe) 
Poem of Li-Tai-Po (702-763) 

II. Der Einsame im Herbst (Autumn Solitude) 
Poem of Tschang-Tsi (800) 

III. Von der Jugend (Of Youth) 

Poem of Li-Tai-Po (702-763) 

IV. Von der Schonheit (Of Beauty) 

Poem of Li-Tai-Po (702-763) 
V. Der Trunkene im Fruhling 

(The Drunkard in Spring-time) 
Poem of Li-Tai-Po (702-763) 

VI. (a) In Erwartung des Freundes 
(Awaiting a Friend) 

Poem of Mong-Kao-Jen (Eighth Century) 
(b) Der Abschied des Freundes 
(The Farewell of a Friend) 
Poem of Wang- Wei 

(The two poems in the last movement are combined by Mahler under the single 
title "Der Abschied," an orchestral interlude separating them). 



In elation at having completed in 1906 the work which came to be 
called the "Symphony of a Thousand," Mahler wrote to his friend, 
Willem Mengelberg: "I have just finished my Eighth! It is the greatest 
thing I have as yet done. And so individual in content and form that 
I cannot describe it in words. Imagine that the whole universe begins 




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[462] 



The Permanent Charity Fund 

and 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
either by will or in your lifetime, with the request 
that the income be paid to the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. The gifts so made will be held perpetually 
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1464] 



to sound in tone. The result is not merely human voices singing, but 
a vision of planets and suns coursing about." 

But after that mystic and Heaven-scaling work, the composer's mood 
changed. He remained the philosopher, the poet of nature, but his 
thoughts turned upon the transitory state of things earthly, and the 
end of life. His mood was one of peaceful resignation, quite free from 
bitterness or morbid fear. It was induced partly, no doubt, by outward 
circumstances. Within a year his small daughter had died — a loss 
which weighed upon him until the end. His heart had developed a 
weakness — a serious matter for a conductor of constant and strenuous 
activity, and there are those who believe that the awareness of im- 
pending death was upon him as he wrote his last works. They were 
"Das Lied von der Erde," with its message of autumn and farewell; 
the Ninth Symphony, a second and more complete severance with the 
joys of the world, and the Tenth Symphony of even darker cast, which 
remained a fragment. 

In October, 1907, Mahler reluctantly brought to an end his career 
as conductor at the Opera House in Vienna. He wanted nothing more 
than to earn enough to retire and compose undisturbed — a good for- 
tune this indefatigable conductor had never enjoyed. With this end 
in view, he accepted the post of conductor of the New York Philhar- 
monic Society for three seasons. These duties proved in every way 



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[465] 



exhausting — probably hastened his end, and, as before in his life, left 
him only the summertime for composition. 

In the summer of 1908 he returned to Austria, and in his retreat at 
Toblach, once a peasant's dwelling, he composed "Das Lied von der 
Erde." In the same summer he was told by physicians that unless he 
abstained from the violent exertions of conducting, he had not long 
to live. He wrote sorrowfully to Bruno Walter from Toblach in that 
summer: "I have accustomed myself for many years to steady, ener- 
getic activity — to wander about in the mountains and woods and carry 
away with me, like captured booty, the sketches I had made by the 
way. I went to my desk only as the farmer to the barn — to prepare 
what I had already gathered. Spiritual indisposition was a mere cloud 
to be dispelled by a brisk march up the mountainside. And now they 
tell me I must avoid every exertion. I must take stock of my condition 
constantly — walk but little. At the same time in this solitude my 
thoughts naturally become more subjective, and the sadness of my 
condition seems intensified." 

In the following summer, after another New York season, he wrote 
his Ninth Symphony and began a Tenth. It was in the autumn of 
1910, in Munich, that Mahler had the joy of conducting the first per- 
formance of his Eighth Symphony. Those that had followed were not 
performed while he lived. 




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Bruno Walter, who was often with Mahler during his last years, has 
written in his book on the composer his impression on first being 
shown the score of "Das Lied von der Erde": 



"It is hardly the same man, or the same composer. Up to that time, 
all his works had been born out of the emotions of life. In the knowl- 
edge, however, of the serious affection of his heart he had begun, like 
the wounded Prince Andrei in Tolstoi's 'War and Peace/ to dissociate 
himself spiritually from the sphere of life — a loosening of all former 
connexions had changed the entire aspect of his feelings — and 'Das 
Lied von der Erde' was, as I have pointed out once before by alluding 
to one of Spinoza's expressions, a creation sub specie mortis. Earth 
is about to vanish from his sight, another air is wafted in, another 
light shines overhead, and thus it turns out to be an entirely new 
work of Mahler's: It has a new style of composition, a new kind of in- 
vention, of instrumentation, and of movement technique. It is a work 
more characteristic of his own self than any one ever written by him, 
not excluding even his First. That work had been marked by a con- 
sciousness of self, natural in a young and passionate man to whom 
his personal experience signifies the world. Now, however, while the 
world seems to vanish beneath him, the ego itself is turned into ex- 
periences, and a force of emotions which knows no limitations is seen 
to develop in him who is about to depart. Every note he writes speaks 
only of himself, every word he sets to music, though it may have been 




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[468] 



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[469] 



written thousands of years ago, expresses but himself. 'Das Lied von 
der Erde' is the most personal utterance in Mahler's creative work 
and perhaps in music. Invention, too, which, beginning with the 
Sixth, was occasionally of less importance in itself to the great sym- 
phonic artist than as mere material for his creative forming, regains 
its highly personal character and, in that sense, it is quite in order 
to call 'Das Lied von der Erde' the most 'Mahleresque' of his works." 



"It is not the earth that sings, and the poems deal less with the 
aspects of nature than with the philosophy of human existence. The 
first poem is epicurean, a drinking song — the world is full of woe, the 
skies are eternal, earth will long endure, but man's life is but a span; 
look down, an ape sits grimacing on the graves of the dead. Hither 
my lute and wine, ho! Empty the cup to the dregs. 'Dark is life and 
dark is death.' The second poem describes nature in the pall of 
autumnal mists — cold winds bend the stalks, scatter the blossoms, and 
send the withered blooms of the lotus scudding across the lake. The 
lamp of life burns low, the poet's heart is filled with gloom, for it 
despairs of ever again seeing that sun of love which might, perchance, 
dry his tears — and he longs for rest. No. 3 is the song of youth, and 
its imagery is authentically Chinese — the picture of a bridge across a 
pond, a gay pavilion, people making merry, and all reflected upside 
down in the watery mirror. No. 4 describes a scene of lovers wandering 
through an enchanted landscape, picking flowers and bestowing lan- 
guishing looks upon one another. 




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[470 



"Thus far we have moods and scenes which lend themselves to sym- 
phonic treatment in the conventional sense, and the composer gives 
us a roystering first movement, an exquisite pastoral, and a veritable 
scherzo, with even a touch of Chinese color in melody and orchestra- 
tion. But the pessimistic mood returns: (No. 5) All life is a dream, 
full of woe; so, therefore, wine again: let us sleep the sleep of drunken- 
ness. Finally (in No. 6), two poems are united: the poet sees the world 
in a drunken sleep, longs for his friend that he may say farewell, re- 
solves no more to seek happiness away from home, and awaits the end 
while Spring wakens the world anew." * 

The English translation here used was made by Steuart Wilson, and 
is here reprinted by permission of the publisher, Boosey and Hawkes 
Inc., together with an admirable analysis of each movement by Alfred 
H. Meyer: 



* The above characterization is quoted in the programmes of the New York Philharmonic 
Symphony Society, the writer unnamed. 



(reprint from 1904 Symphony Program) 



THEL.1904 



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[472] 



I. 

{Tenor Solo) 



DAS TRINKLIED VON JAMMER 
DER ERDE 

Schon winkt der Wein im gold'nen 

Pokale, 
Doch trinkt noch nicht, erst sing' ich 

euch ein Lied! 
Das Lied vom Rummer soil auflachend 

in die Seele euch klingen. 

Wenn der Kummer naht, 
Liegen wiist die Garten der Seele. 
Welkt hin und stirbt die Freude, der 

Gesang. 
Dunkel ist das Leben, ist der Tod. 



1. THE DRINKING SONG OF 
EARTH'S SORROW 

See how it gleams, with golden entice- 
ment, 
But drink not yet, I'll sing you my song! 
I sing of sorrow, but laughter 
Within your heart must give answer. 

When such sorrow comes, 

Dry is the soul, its gardens are withered, 

Fading and dead the pleasure of our 

song. 
Life is only twilight, so is death. 



Herr dieses Hauses! Dein Keller birgt 
die Fulle des goldenen Weins! 



Host, I salute you, 

Your cellar hides a treasure of gold in 
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Hier diese Laute nenn' ich mein! 
Die Laute schlagen und die Glaser 

leeren, 
Das sind die Dinge, die zusammen 

passen. 
Ein voller Becher Weins zur rechten- 

Zeit 
1st mehr wert als alle Reiche dieser 

Erde! 
Dunkel ist das Leben, ist der Todl 

Das Firmament blaut ewig, und die 

Erde 
Wird lange fest steh'n und aufbliih'n 

im Lenz. 
Du, aber, Mensch, wie lang lebst 

denn du? 
Nicht hundert Jahre darfst du dich 

ergotzen 
An all dem morschen Tande dieser 

Erde! 

Seht dort hinab! Im Mondschein auf 

den Grabern 
Hockt eine wild — gespenstische Ge- 

stalt. 
Ein AfF ist's! Hort ihr, wie sein 

Heulen 
Hinausgellt in den siissen Duft des 

Lebens! 



But I have a treasure of my own. 

To strike the lute and to drink the wine- 
cup, 

These are the things that best consort 
together. 

A brimming cup of wine, when hearts 
beat faint, 

Is better than all the kingdoms of the 
earth. 

Life is only twilight, so is death. 

The blue of heaven is unchanging, 
And unchanging the earth rolls onward 
And blossoms in spring. 
But thou, O man, how long livest thou? 
Why not one hundred years canst thou 

take pleasure 
In all the rotten fruit of life's long 

vanity. 



See there! over there! 

In the moonlight, in the churchyard, 

Gibbers a ghost with evil in its shape. 

It is a monkey! Hear him, 

How his howling sounds strident 

In our life's sweet scented morning. 



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Jetzt nehmt den Wein! Jetzt ist es 

Zeit genossen! 
Leert eure gold'nen Becher zu Grund! 
Dunkel ist das Leben, ist der Tod! 



So raise your cups, the time has come, 

companions, 
Empty your golden cups to the heel! 
Lite is only twilight, so is death. 



Mahler has chosen the key of A minor for his symphony. He employs a motto of 
three notes variously treated in all six pieces: a descending A-G-E. For this first 
number he assembles a full orchestra, with a piccolo joined to the three flutes, and 
an E-flat clarinet and a bass clarinet added to the usual three clarinets. The tenor 
voice has this poem. The horns proclaim an incisive motif. Immediately upon its 
conclusion full violins and violas answer with the motto of the symphony. These 
two motifs are developed, answer each other back and forth throughout the move- 
ment. The refrain-line "Life is only twilight, so is death" has its own sombre figure, 
repeated wherever the line occurs. Each time it is heard it is a half-step higher, giv- 
ing in the course of the movement a remarkable intensification of emotional effect. 
First it is heard in G minor, then in A-flat minor, lastly in the key of the movement, 
A minor. Mahler's harmonic planning of the movement as a whole is nothing less 
than superb. The orchestra begins each verse with the same dual motif noted at 
the beginning. There are moments of flaming passion. There are darkening colors, 
there is the poignancy of overwhelming grief. There is the ironic mockery of the 
poem. 









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[476] 




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II. 

(Contralto Solo) 



DER EINSAME IM HERBST 

Herbstnebel wallen blaulich .uberm 

See; 
Vom Reif bezogen stehen alle Graser; 
Man meint, ein Kiinstler habe Staub 

von Jade 
Uber die feinen Bliiten ausgestreut. 
Der stisse Duft der Blumen ist ver- 

flogen; 
Ein kalter Wind beugt ihre Stengel 

nieder. 
Bald werden die verwelkten, gold'nen 

Blatter 
Der Lotusbliiten auf dem Wasser 

zieh'n. 



THE LONELY ONE IN AUTUMN 

Grey autumn mists are drifting off the 

sea 
And, touched with frost, the grass stands 

stiff and brittle 
As if some artist hand had scattered 

powder, 
Dusting on every leaf the finest jade. 

The scent of summer flowers is forgotten, 

A chilly wind blows crackling stalks to- 
gether. 

Soon will the leaves of fading lotus- 
blossoms 

Display upon the pond their golden 
span. 



Mein Herz ist mude. Meine kleine 

Lampe 
Erlosch mit Knistern, es gemahnt mich 

an den Schlaf. 
Ich komm' zu dir, traute Ruhestatte! 
Ja, gib mir Ruh, ich nab' Erquickung 

Not! 



I, too, feel weary. See my flick'ring light 
Burns low and lower, it is time to go to 

sleep. 
I come to you, truest house of quiet, 
O give me sleep, for I have need of rest. 




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I 478] 




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[4793 



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Ich weine viel in meinen Einsamkeiten. 
Der Herbst in meinem Herzen wahrt 

zu lange. 
Sonne der Liebe, willst du nie mehr 

scheinen, 
Urn meine bittern Tranen mild aufzu- 

trocknen? 



My tears flow on in lonely desolation. 
The autumn seems in my heart to be 

eternal. 
O love's warm sunshine, have you gone 

for ever 
And will my burning tears be never 

dried? 



The alto is here the singer. The orchestra consists of three flutes, two oboes, 
two clarinets and a bass clarinet, three bassoons, four horns, two harps and strings. 
The key is D minor. Muted first violins begin a slow accompaniment figure. Above 
them a solitary, plaintive oboe sings a melody "molto espressivo" that is made up 
almost entirely of the notes of the motto of the whole work. The chamber-music 
ideal pervades the whole. Growing out of the melody of the oboe and eventually 
surrounding it, are other melodies of like plaintive character. Nowhere does Mahler 
indulge in Western "Orientalisms," but a subtle spirit, at once archaic and sad, 
of the land of the fragile porcelains and entrancing perfumes, breathes from this 
sparse web of gentle tones. The solo voice sings— or recites— mostly in long ascending 
and descending scale-passages, far-ranging, reflective, introspective. Frequently Mah- 
ler directs, "without expression," quite as though he were a twentieth-century 
Hindemith. But "with tender expression" he writes over the line about the wilting 
lotus leaves; and "passionately" over the line "the autumn seems in my heart to 
be eternal." Preceding the line "my tears," there is a return to the music of the 
beginning. A music of tender melancholy, occasionally warmed by rich and re- 
freshing major harmonies. 



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[482] 



III. 

(Tenor Solo) 



VON DER JUGEND 

Mitten in dem kleinen Teiche 
Steht ein Pavilion aus grunem 
Und aus weissem Porzellan. 

Wie der Rucken eines Tigers 
Wolbt die Brucke sich aus Jade 
Zu dem Pavilion hintiber. 

In dem Hauschen sitzen Freunde, 
Schon gekleidet, trinken, plaudern, 
Manche schreiben Verse nieder. 



OF YOUTH 

In the water, on a little island 
All of green and egg-shell china, 
Stands a dainty summer-house. 

Like the tiger's back a-curving 
Springs the arch of jade to cross it, 
To this summer-house of dreamland. 

In the parlour friends are sitting, 
Clad in silk, and drinking, chatting, 
Writing endless little verses 




[483] 



Ihre seidnen Armel gleiten 
Riickwarts, ihre seidnen Miitzen 
Hocken lustig tief im Nacken. 

Auf des kleinen Teiches stiller 
Wasserflache zeigt sich alles 
Wunderlich im Spiegelbilde. 

Alles auf dem Kopfe stehend 
In dem Pavilion aus grunem 
Und aus weissem Porzellan; 

Wie ein Halbmond steht die Briicke, 
Umgekehrt der Bogen. Freunde, 
Schon gekleidet, trinken, plaudern. 



How their silken sleeves are slipping. 
How their silken caps sit perching 
On those jolly heads a-wagging! 

In the tiny, tiny pattern's 
Quiet, quiet pool of water 
See the world reflected lies 
In mirror marvellous. 

All those friends are topsy-turvy 
In that world of egg-shell china, 
In that dainty summer-house. 

Like a sickle moon the bridge is, 
Upside down its arches; while the friends 
In silk and satin 
Drink and chatter. 



The orchestra is slightly smaller than in the preceding, but includes two piccolos, 
a trumpet and a triangle. The mood is frankly cheerful, with dance-like rhythms. 
The triangle and a single horn sound two long introductory notes. A flute and an 
oboe at once deliver a bright but gentle ascending phrase. The technician will 
discover in the first three notes an inversion of the motto of the whole work; none 
other will ever suspect its presence. A piccolo "doubles" the part of the tenor, 
while violins give dancing accompaniment. Oboes and bassoons repeat the song of 
the tenor. The third verse brings an ingratiating change of key and an expressive 
melody. A violin solo repeats it after the fourth verse. The fifth verse brings eerie, 
nebulous quality and leads to the repetition of the music of the beginning in the 
last two verses. The nature of the text has not tempted the composer to inversion 
of the music: "Let the world be topsy-turvy," the music seems to say, "what matters 
it all to me?" The ending is rarefied delicacy. 



IV. 

(Contralto Solo) 



VON DER SCHON HEIT 
Junge Madchen pflucken Blumen, 
Pfliicken Lotosblumen an dem Ufer- 

rande. 
Zwischen Buschen und Blattern sitzen 

sie, 
Sammeln Bluten in den Schoss und 

rufen 
Sich einander Neckereien zu. 
Gold'ne Sonne webt urn die Gestalten, 
Spiegelt sich im blanken Wasser wider, 
Sonne spiegelt ihre schlanken Glieder, 
Ihre siissen Augen wider, 
Und der Zephir hebt mit Schmeichel- 

kosen das Gewebe 
Ihrer Arm^l auf, fiihrt den Zauber 
Ihrer Wohlgeriiche durch die Luft. 
O sieh, was tummeln sich fur schone 

Knaben 
Dort an dem Uferrand auf mut'gen 

Rossen? 
Weit hin glanzend wie die Sonnen- 

strahlen; 
Schon zwischen dem Geast der grunen 

Weiden 
Trabt das jungfrische Volk einher! 
Das Ross des einen wiehert frfthlich 

auf 

[484] 



OF BEAUTY 

See the maidens picking flowers, 
Picking lotus flowers by the grassy river 

banks. 
In the bushes and leaves they hide 

themselves, 
Gathering flowers, 
Gather flowers in their laps 
And calling one to the other in teasing 

fun. 

See the sunshine weaves a web around 

them, 
Mirrors all their laughing grace in water. 
Sunshine mirrors all their slender 

beauty, 
Mirrors their sweet eyes in water, 
And the winds of spring with soft 

caresses 
Waft on high their flowing silken sleeves, 
Bear the magic of their pleasing odour 

through the air. 

O, see, a company of lovely lads 

Comes riding along the bank on pranc- 
ing horses, 

Shining far off like the sun at noonday; 

See, through the leafy lanes of silvery 
willows 

Trots that gallant young company! 



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Und scheut und saust dahin, 

Ober Blumen, Graser, wanken hin die 

Hufe, 
Sie zerstampfen jah im Sturm die hin- 

gesunk'nen Bliiten. 
Hei! Wie flattern im Taumel seine 

Mahnen, 
Dampfen heiss die Niistern! 

Gold'ne Sonne webt um die Gestalten, 
Spiegelt sie im blanken Wasser wider. 
Und die schonste von den Jungfrau'n 

sendet 
Lange Blicke ihm der, Sehnucht nach. 
Ihre stolze Haltung ist nur Verstel- 

lung. 
In dem Funkeln ihrer grossen Augen, 
In dem Dunkel ihres heissen Blicks 
Schwingt klagend noch die Erregung 

ihres Herzens nach. 

To the full orchestra is added a mandolin, a tambourine, a glockenspiel and 
other full percussion. Again, the discovery of the motto is for the analyst in his 
study rather than for the hearer in a concert room. Again, the cheerful dance- 
mood. The alto sings a melody of genuine charm. Often it recalls old German 
Minnelieder. There are entrancing harmonic changes. The middle section, where 
the poem turns to masculinity, is a stirring march in C major. More and more 
excited it becomes, greater and greater grows the tension. Here is no talk of "with- 
out expression." Full passion rules. With the line "See, the sunshine weaves" there 
is return to the gentler music of the beginning. More and more the music recedes 
to another quiet ending of harmonics for violoncello and harp together with 
three flutes. 



The horse of one of them delighted 
Wheels and neighs, curvetting round; 
Over all the flowers trample heavy hoof- 
beats, 
As they bruise in sudden storm 
The tender hidden blossoms. 
How their manes toss in tangled riot, 
Breathing fire from steaming nostrils. 

See, the sunshine weaves a web around 

them, 
Mirrors all their laughing grace in water. 
And the fairest of those lovely maidens 
Sends a parting glance of longing love 
(For her proud demeanour is all pre- 
tending). 
In the sparkle of her lustrous glances, 
In the darkness of her flushing cheeks, 
That stabbing pain of love's awakening 
vibrate still. 




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[4861 




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[487] 



V. 

(Tenor Solo) 



DER TRUNKENE IM 
FRUHLING 



Wenn nur ein Traum das Leben ist, 
Warum denn Muh' und Plag'? 
Ich trinke, bis ich nicht mehr kann, 
Den ganzen, lieben Tag! 

Und wenn ich nicht mehr trinken 

kann, 
Weil Kehl' und Seele voll, 
So tauml' ich bis zu meiner Tiir 
Und schlafe wundervoll! 

Was hor' ich beim Erwachen? Horch! 
Ein Vogel singt im Baum. 
Ich frag' ihn, ob schon Fruhling sei, 
Mir ist als wie im Traum. 

Der Vogel zwitschert: Ja! 

Der Lenz ist da, sei kommen iiber 

Nacht! 
Aus tiefstem Schauen lauscht' ich auf, 
Der Vogel singt und lachtt 



THE DRUNKEN ONE IN 
SPRINGTIME 



Since life is nothing but a dream 
Why toil and sweat away? 
I drink until my belly's full 
And laugh the livelong day! 

And when there's no more room inside, 
I've drunk so hard and deep, 
I roll along to home and bed 
And sleep a lovely sleep! 



What's that I hear that wakes me? Hark! 
A bird sings in the blue. 
I'll ask him if the spring has come. 
(My dream, has it come true?) 

The twitters answer "Yes, it's here!" 
The spring is here as fresh as anything! 
I look and look and listen hard, 
The birds all laugh and sing. 




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[488] 



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[489] 



Ich fiille mir den Becher neu 
Und leer' ihn bis zum Grund 
Und singe, bis der Mond erglanzt 
Am schwarzen Firmament! 

Und wenn ich nicht mehr singen kann, 
So schlaf' ich wieder ein. 
Was geht mich denn der Friihling an? 
Lasst mich betrunken seinf 



I fill myself another glass 
And drink with deep content, 
And sing until the moon lights up 
The darkling firmament. 

When I'm too tired to sing my songs 
I'll sleep, forgetting pain, 
For what's the silly spring to me? 
Let me get drunk again! 



An orchestra full except for the trombones. The mood is even higher than in 
the preceding. There is much ornamentation. The motto is heard both in the 
ornament that precedes the first full notes of the wood wind and simultaneously 
in another transformation in the first notes of the horns. A trifle heavily the tenor 
sings his first line. The same brilliant and dashing introduction precedes each 
of the first four verses. The singer uses the same opening phrase for the first, 
second and sixth verses. The second parts of the first two verses bring colorful, 
if somewhat more sombre contrasts. One even suspects Mahler of deliberately 
introducing a slightly swaying motion into the orchestral line. Realism? With the 
third and fourth verses, the episode of the bird, our hero becomes more meditative, 
the music breathes the seductiveness of spring. But in the fifth verse the singer 
begins with the swaying motif of the first verse. There are no fixed interludes, 
though the voice goes back to the first phrase with the beginning of the last verse. 
From the beginning of the fifth the orchestra becomes more and more orgiastic, 
ending finally not far short of actual riot. 




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[490] 



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[49 1 3 



VI. 

(Contralto Solo) 



DER ABSCHIED 



Die Sonne scheidet hinter dem Gebirge. 
In alle Thaler steigt der Abend nieder 
Mit seinen Schatten, die voll Kuhlung 

sind. 
O sieh! Wie eine Silberbarke schwebt 
Der Mond am blauen Himmelssee 

herauf. 
Ich spure eines feinen Windes Weh'n 
Hinter den dunklen Fichten! 
Der Bach singt voller Wohllaut durch 

das Dunkel. 
Die Blumen blassen im Dammerschein. 
Die Erde atmet voll von Ruh' und 

Schlaf 
Alle Sehnsucht will nun traumen, 
Die muden Menschen geh'n heim- 

warts, 
Um im Schlaf vergess'nes Gltick 
Und Jugend neu zu lernen! 
Die Vogel hocken still in ihren 

Zweigen. 

Die Welt schlaft ein! 
Es wehet kuhl im Schatten meiner 
Fichten. 

Ich stehe hier und harre meines 

Freundes; 
Ich harre sein zum letzten Lebewohl, 
Ich sehne mich, O Freund, an deiner 

Seite 
Die Schonheit dieses Abends zu ge- 

niessen. 



FAREWELL 

The sun is setting out beyond the moun- 
tains 

And evening peace comes down in every 
valley 

And shadows lengthen, bringing cool 
relief. 

see, like some tall ship of silver sails 
The moon upon her course, through 

heaven's blue sea. 

1 feel the stirring of some soft south- 

wind 
Behind the darkling pine-wood 
The stream sings as it wanders through 

the twilight, 
As evening waxes the flowers grow pale. 
The earth breathes gently, full of peace 

and sleep, 
All our longings sleep at last. 
Mankind, grown weary, turns homeward, 
That in sleep, forgotten joy and youth 

it may recapture. 

The birds with open eye roost in the 

branches. 
The world now sleeps. 

The air is cool within the pine-wood's 

shadow 
Here will I stand and tarry for my friend. 
I wait for him to bid the last farewell. 
O how I long, my friend, once more to 

see thee, 
To share the heavenly beauty of this 

evening. 



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[492] 




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[493] 



Wo bleibst du? Du lasst mich lang 

allein! 
Ich wandle auf und nieder mit meiner 

Laute 
Auf Wegen, die von weichem Grase 

schwellen. 
O Schonheit! O ewigen Liebens— 

Lebens— trunk'ne Welt! 

[Orchestral 

Er stieg vom Pferd und reichte ihm 

den Trunk 
Des Abschieds dar. Er fragte ihn, 

wohin 
Er fuhre und auch warura es musste 

sein. 
Er sprach, seine Stimme war umflort. 

Du, mein Freund, 
Mir war auf dieser Welt das Gluck 

nicht hold! 
Wohin ich geh? Ich geh\ ich Avand're 

in die Berge. 
Ich suche Ruhe fur mein einsam Herz. 
Ich wandle nach der Heimat, meiner 
Statte. 



Where art thou? I have been long alone. 
I wander up and down and make my 

music 
O'er pathways that are paved with 

tender grasses. 
O Beauty, O life of endless loving. 
Wild delirious world. 



Interlude'] 

He lighted down and proffered him the 

cup, 
The parting cup. 

He asked him whither he was faring 
And questioned why, why it must needs 

be so. 
He spoke, and his voice was veiled: 

my friend, while I was in this world 
My lot was hard. 

Where do I go? I go, I wander in the 
mountains, 

1 seek but rest, rest for my lonely heart. 
I journey to my homeland, to my haven. 



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[494] 




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U95 J 



Ich werde niemals in die Feme 

schweifen. 
Still ist mein Herz und harret seiner 

Stunde! 
Die liebe Erde alluberall bliiht auf im 

Lenz und grunt 
Aufs neu! Alliiberall und ewig blauen 

Licht die Fernen! 
Ewig . . . ewig. . . . 



I shall no longer seek the far horizon. 
My heart is still and waits for its de- 
liverance. 
The lovely earth, all, everywhere, 
Revives in spring and blooms anew, 
All, everywhere and ever, ever, 
Shines the blue horizon, 
Ever . . . ever . . . 



In this case as always with Mahler, the last movement is the largest and most 
significant. He builds so that his last movement shall be a true climax, summing 
up and amplifying all that has gone before, making it a goal in every sense of 
the word. The other five movements, text and music, have been preparatory, and 
must be viewed in the light of what is to come. Youth, beauty, spring, three glances 
backward, have brought with them a somewhat franker, older musical style than 
that of the first two movements Now the mood— and the style— of the present are 
to be reminiscent of the beginning. A new figure of three notes is woven out of 
the motto, expressive of the depths of grief. The interlude lengthens to a con- 
siderable orchestral development of marchlike funereal import. The voice begins, 
in its unexpressive, narrative style. The key changes to C major and "The Song 
of the Earth" ends on a note of ineffable peace, which recalls nothing so much 
as the calm and serenity in some of the last Sonatas of Beethoven. 

It has been said that Mahler was writing "old man's music," just as Beethoven 
did in the final years, but that Mahler at forty-eight was too young for such 
music. It must be retorted that Beethoven was only in his early or middle fifties 
when he did the same thing. Rather Mahler's is the music of a spirit that has 
attained peace; that has overcome the vanities of passion; that has worked out its 
own philosophy of life and is at rest. Beautifully, Mahler summons this mood, 
the crowning glory of his life as it had been of that of Beethoven before it. Not 
many b?ve attained it with death waiting behind the door. 

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ENTR'ACTE 
WORDS AND MUSICAL FORM 

By Theodore Chanler 
(Reprinted from Modern Music, May-June, 1943) 



Ir is a commonly held fallacy that instrumental music is of a higher 
kind than vocal music in that, relying on a system of logic wholly 
inherent to it, it calls for no division of attention either on the com- 
poser's part or on the listener's. Division of attention for composer and 
listener alike arises inevitably with the introduction of words — es- 
pecially in the lied, whose aim is to strike a balance between text and 
music, neither predominating in importance over the other. Instru- 
mental music, by virtue of its singleness of aim, which is simply to be 
itself, is hence regarded as a freer, more autonomous and altogether 
nobler form of expression. 

Yet is this in fact the case? Are the problems of form, balance, sym- 
metry, in a word, coherence, that attend the writing of instrumental 
music truly inherent to music itself, or are they not in large measure 
external necessities imposed upon the composer by the extreme fluidity 
of his material? So far as undivided attention goes it may even be 



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questioned whether instrumental music really commands it to the 
extent that is commonly supposed. A work like the Art of the Fugue, 
for example, may be heard in two quite different ways. One listener 
may derive immense satisfaction from it without noting any of the 
feats of contrapuntal skill. Another may recognize all the contrapuntal 
feats and yet derive none of the soul-feeding satisfaction enjoyed by his 
less learned fellow. This dichotomy had its origin in Bach's mind. He 
had quite evidently a dual purpose in composing the work; the one 
"absolute," the other schematic and functional. The ease with which the 
"absolute" side of his music absorbs and prevails over the most complex 
contrapuntal devices makes it dangerous to try to establish any ratio 
between the two. For one might conclude that the more exacting the 
external discipline the finer will be the "absolute" result. Such a con- 
clusion would certainly not be welcome to composers of our own day. 
For rather than accept unquestioningly a given system of formal de- 
vices such as Bach found in the fugue and Mozart in the sonata form, 
we aspire, at least ideally, to write music that will be independent of 
them all. 

Yet candor must compel the composer to acknowledge that in the 
actual practice of composing instrumental music he is often governed by 




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external considerations. Who has not had the experience of finding 
himself meandering along in the development of an idea without any 
notion of where it might be leading? All at once his conscience, or re- 
spect for conventions, or whatever it may be, pricks him, reminding 
him that he cannot let his fancy roam indefinitely. He must begin to 
think about negotiating a return to his point of departure. Then, if he 
is skillful, he will devise a purely functional passage that will be just 
that, even though it may have no bare-boned appearance of it. The 
aimless meandering that preceded will merge imperceptibly into pur- 
poseful logic and assume, retrospectively, a speciously logical air. Con- 
versely, the transitional passage will retain a specious air of continu- 
ing aimlessness. That is the sort of stunt everyone admires. Mozart 
time and again does it in a way that is absolutely dazzling. But to claim 
that all is inherent to the musical idea, that all is on an "absolute" 
plane, that no conscience was invoked because there was never any 
danger of going wrong — in short, that it was no stunt at all but 



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inspiration pure and free, would be not merely an idle boast but the 
height of disingenuousness. 

For a composer to show a certain reticence in discussing the "stunt" 
side of his work is altogether another matter. He knows well that if his 
music has genuine value it is due to something other than the mere 
skillful handling of devices. If someone points these out to him with the 
air of having discovered an important secret, he may answer with a 
certain impatience, "Yes, I did use that device — but what of it?" The 
fact remains that whether concealed or apparent, whether noted by 
the wise or ignored by the innocent, devices of one kind or another 
are unavoidable, and the candid composer must acknowledge the 
duality of purpose that they imply. 

The presence of a text introduces division of a different kind, but one 
may question if it be really of a lower order than the other. For indeed, 
if the absence of a text imposes upon the composer a need for formal 
devices in order to attain coherence, its presence in large measure re- 
lieves him of that necessity. The coherence is there, in the text — the 
formal problem is to adhere to that. Once this submission has been 
made, his music, if not completely unfettered, may yet be held together 
by a far more flexible and less exacting logic than that which governed 
it when it subsisted independently. As the humble are exalted, so it 
will gain rather than lose in freedom. This is abundantly illustrated 
in the case of Faure. His songs are incomparable; Diane, Selene, for 
example, will stand comparison with any music of the past. But his 
instrumental music is on the contrary marred by a too evident pre- 
occupation with form. It abounds in the formalism of endless sequences. 
There are secondary themes that are obviously just secondary themes, 
put there to fulfil a purely contingent need for contrast, rather than 
for their own sake. Against the common assumption that so-called 
"pure" forms make for greater freedom of musical expression, the 
evidence of Faure's case shows that on the contrary restraints imposed 
by a text may leave the music in fact freer. 

Coherence, and all that makes for it, is a necessary condition, rather 
than the ultimate aim of music. Whether this coherence was to be at- 
tained by the use of contrapuntal devices, or by a quasi-architectural 
balance and symmetry, or through serving a text, or by drawing 
simultaneously on two or more of these resources, mattered little to 
the great masters of the past. Are not the Cantatas and Passions of 
Bach on as high a musical plane as his organ fugues? Is not the music 
of Mozart's operas every bit as "pure" as that of his piano concertos? 
These are inescapable facts and they could be multiplied indefinitely. 
It would indeed be rash in the face of such evidence to persist in the 
belief in a musical hierarchy based on the presence or absence of words. 



[50s 1 



SYMPHONY NO. 4, Op. 34 

By Howard Hanson 

Born in Wahoo, Nebraska, October 28, 1896 



Howard Hanson's Fourth Symphony, recently completed, is having its first public 
performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra (the score has had an informal 
reading by the orchestra of the Eastman School of Music at Rochester). 

The orchestration calls for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets and 
bass clarinet, two bassoons and contra-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three 
trombones and tuba, timpani and strings. A xylophone and snare drum are used 
in the third movement. 

ir T i his elegiac symphony is inscribed by its composer: "In memory of 
-*• my beloved father." The four movements take their Latin sub- 
titles from the Requiem Mass: Kyrie, Requiescat, Dies lrae, and Lux 
Aeterna. The familiar ritual words are suggested and thematically 
treated in the entirely instrumental score. 

The following analysis has been prepared by the composer, William 
Bergsma: 

The work, a highly personal and emotional expression, is concise 
and highly elided, taking barely twenty minutes to perform. The four 
movements can be characterized briefly; the first is a turbulent and 
varied movement, a Kyrie theme alternating with dance and song-like 
sections, and a chorale statement preceding a stormy coda. The second 
is a simple and tender treatment of a scale-like theme in eighth-notes, 
given a first statement in a solo bassoon. The third is a furious and 
bitter "scherzo." The last, a pastorale with stormy interpolations, has 
a simple 2-4 ending, dying off on the second inversion of a major triad. 

Formally, the work is extremely intricate and tightly bound together. 
There are four characteristic motives: A, an octave leap upward; B, a 
short scale line, usually ascending and often in the dorian mode; C, the 
melodic interval of a minor third downward. These pervade the 
symphony. The fourth, D, an interval of the augmented fifth (or its 
inversion, the diminished fourth) moving upward with or without 
passing-tones is foreshadowed in the middle movements, but does not 
become prominent until the finale. In addition to these "germ-motives" 



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the first theme (Kyrie) stated by four horns over throbbing triplets 
early in the first movement, undergoes changes of augmentation and 
diminution to become principal themes in other movements, and the 
chorale in the first movement appears occasionally in harmonic 
backgrounds. 

The first movement {Andante inquieto, 12-8) opens with a troubled 
introduction made of A and B, building up to the first theme {Kyrie) 
intoned in four horns and repeated a little later in full orchestra. The 
time changes to 6-8 in a poco meno mosso, the 'cellos having a swaying, 
lamenting diminution of the Kyrie. This merges into an extended 
scherzo-like section; legato duplets in the strings build to a broad 
appassionato scale theme, under which a chorale is stated. The Kyrie 
theme in singing triplets comes through this in the 'cellos; a brief quasi- 
recapitulation of A (ornamented), B, and the Kyrie, ends with a 
forceful iteration of the descending minor third over the strong triplet 
syncopation; a soft octave skip in the bassoon ends the movement. 

The second movement {Largo, 4-4) treats a scale pattern (B?) in a 
tender bassoon melody, repeated through the choirs of the orchestra 
with slight variations. No other thematic material is used; the chorale 
appears unobtrusively in trombones, and the movement closes quietly 
with the characteristic bassoon octave, after a threatening and enig- 
matic phrase in the upper strings (D) which will make itself felt better. 

The Presto begins with a flare in brass, followed by a rhythmic 
iteration in strings. The Kyrie theme in extreme diminutions is alter- 
nated with C ornamented with wind double-tonguings, to which the 



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SYMPHONY HALL 
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octave makes its ubiquitous entry. A furious climax dies away on 
minor thirds and the octave leap. 

In the last movement (Largo pastorale) the characteristic octave leap 
is filled in with the fifth in a quiet theme echoed and re-echoed over a 
flowing background. There are brass interjections; the stormy triplets 
return from the first movement; the enigmatic D theme (in its 
diminished-fourth form) flares in the trombones against octave leaps 
in horns. The minor third asserts itself melodically, a polytonal chord 
hits against it in the trombones, D in diminution recalls the scherzo 
section of the first movement. The chorale is stated, largamente, in 
full brass, strings and solo winds sing out the triplet treatment of the 
Kyrie theme (marked "Requiescat"), three times a low E breaks a 
pause, and divisi strings die away in a long-held major triad. 



Howard Hanson was born of Swedish parents, Hans and Hilma 
Hanson, at Wahoo, Nebraska. First taught by his mother, he continued 
his studies in Luther College and the University School of Music of his 
native State. He studied composition at the Institute of Musical Art 
in New York with Percy Goetschius, and later at the Northwestern 
University School of Music at Evanston, under C. Lutkin and Arne 
Oldberg. Taking his degree in 1916, he taught at the "College of the 
Pacific" in San Jose, California. In 1921 he was elected to a three-year 
fellowship in composition at the American Academy in Rome. Return- 
ing to America in 1924, he was appointed director of the Eastman 
School of Music at Rochester, New York, the position which he now 
holds. 

His First ("Nordic") Symphony was performed at the concerts of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, April 5, 1929, the composer conduct- 
ing. The Second ("Romantic") Symphony, composed for the fiftieth 
anniversary year of this orchestra, was first performed in that season 
(November 28, 1930), Serge Koussevitsky conducting. The Third 
Symphony had its first concert performance November 3, 1939, by 
this orchestra, the composer conducting. 

In addition to the three symphonies, Dr. Hanson's orchestral works 
include the symphonic poems "North and West" (1923), "Lux Aeterna" 
(1923), and "Pan and the Priest" (1926). There is an Organ Concerto 
(1926), and a suite from "Merrimount." "Merrimount," a three-act 
opera to a libretto of Richard Stokes, was produced by the Metro- 
politan Opera Company in New York in 1932. Choral works include 
"The Lament of Beowulf" (1925); "Heroic Elegy" (1927); Songs from 
"Drum Taps," after Walt Whitman (1935); and a transcription for 
chorus and orchestra of Palestrina, "Pope Marcellus Mass" (1937). 
Chamber works include a piano quintet, a piano quartet, and a string 
quartet. 

[507] 



ACADEMIC FESTIVAL OVERTURE, Op. 80 

By Johannes Brahms 

Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897 



The overture was composed in 1880; first performed January 4, 1881, at the 
University of Breslau. 

The most recent performance of this series was April 9, 1937. 

The orchestration: two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons 
and contra-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, bass drum, 
timpani, cymbals, triangle and strings. 

Brahms' two Overtures, the " ( Akademische Fest-Ouverture" and the 
"Tragische Ouverture" were composed in one summer — in 1880 
at Bad Ischl. It was his first summer in this particular resort, and al- 
though he was somewhat discouraged by an abundance of rainy 
weather, its charms drew him again in later years (1889-96). "I must 
give high praise to Ischl," he wrote to Billroth in June, 1880, "and 
although I am threatened only with one thing — the fact that half 
Vienna is here — I can be quiet here — and on the whole I do not 
dislike it." Which is to say that Ischl had already become the gather- 
ing point of a constant round of cronies from Vienna. Brahms' friends 
of course would scrupulously respect the solitudes of the master's 
mornings — the creative hours spent, partly in country walks, partly 



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in his study. Later in the day he would welcome the relaxation of 
companionship — of conversation to an accompaniment of black cigars 
and coffee, of mountaineering (Brahms was a sturdy walker), or of 
music-making together. 

When the University at Breslau conferred upon Brahms, in the 
spring of 1879, the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, the composer re- 
sponded in kind, and made the institution the handsome present of 
an overture on student airs. Presents of this sort are not to be unduly 
hastened when artistic good faith and the heritage of the musical 
world are considered. Brahms composed and destroyed another 
"Academic" overture before this one, if Heuberger is not mistaken. 
The performance came the following January, when Brahms con- 
ducted it at Breslau, while the Herr Rektor and members of the 
philosophical faculty sat in serried ranks, presumably gowned, in 
the front rows. 

It goes without saying that both Brahms and his overture were 
quite innocent of such "academic" formality. It is about a tavern 
table, the faculty forgotten, that music enters spontaneously into 
German college life. Although Brahms never attended a university he 
had tasted something of this life at Gottingen when, as a younger man, 
he visited with Joachim, who was studying at the University. Brahms 
did not forget the melody that filled the Kneipe, inspired by good 
company and good beer. Student songs, with their Volkslied flavor, 
inevitably interested him. He found use for four of them. "Wir hatten 
gebauet ein stdttliches Haus" is first given out by the trumpets. "Der 
Landesvater" ("Hort, ich sing' das Lied der Lieder") is used rhyth- 
mically, delightfully developed. The "Fuchslied" or Freshman's Song 
("Was kommt dort von der Hdh' ") is the choice of the unbuttoned 
Brahms, and leaves all educational solemnities behind. The air is in- 
troduced by two bassoons. When Brahms wrote Kalbeck that he had 
composed "a very jolly potpourri on students' songs a la Suppe" Kal- 
beck inquired jokingly whether he had used the "Fox song." "Oh, 
yes," said Brahms complacently. Kalbeck, taken aback, protested that 
he could not imagine any such tune used in homage to the "leathery 
Herr Rektor," and Brahms answered: "That is wholly unnecessary." 
Brahmsian horseplay does not get quite out of hand, and the dignities 
are saved beyond doubt when the full orchestra finally intones the 
hearty college hymn, "Gaudeamus Igitur." 



C5°9 3 



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Original works for voice and 
harp by Ariel Hall 

Coming: KAPEIX, Pianist 




[510] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 

Next week the Orchestra will give concerts in Cleveland, Ann Arbor, Toledo, 

Akron, Pittsburgh, Buffalo and Rochester. The next regular pair of concerts 

will take place on December 17 and December 18. 



Ninth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, December 17, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, December 18, at 8:15 o'clock 



Haydn Symphony in G major, No. 94 ("Surprise") 

I. Adagio cantabile e vivace assai 

II. Andante 

III. Menuetto 

IV. Allegro di molto 

Mozart Symphony in E-flat major (Koechel No. 543) 

I. Adagio; Allegro 

II. Andante 

III. Menuetto; Trio 

IV. Finale: Allegro 

INTERMISSION 

Beethoven Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. 92 

I. Poco sostenuto; Vivace 

II. Allegretto 

III. Presto; Assai meno presto; Tempo primo 

IV. Allegro con brio 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:25 on Friday Afternoon 
10:10 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[511] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 



403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 

Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
256 Huntington Avenue 

Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




U'2] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, ItlC. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 
Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

John Nicholas Brown Jacob J. Kaplan 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

N. Penrose Hallo well Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[5^] 




Estate Analysis 

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[514] 



SYMPHONIANA 

The Symphony Broadcasts 
Koussevitzky Wins Acclaim at Concerts 



THE SYMPHONY BROADCASTS 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra wel- 
comes a new association — the sponsor- 
ship of its broadcasts by the Allis- 
Chalmers Manufacturing Company of 
Milwaukee — the world's largest pro- 
ducers of industrial equipment. The 
broadcasts will include the first part of 
the Saturday night concert each week. 
They will be given over 170 stations of 
the Blue Network and will include the 
concerts of the regular season and the 
Pops. 

Speaking for his company, Walter 
Geist, President of the Allis-Chalmers 
Co., made it clear that what they want 
to accomplish through their sponsorship 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra is 
to bring the nation's listeners a weekly 
program of the world's great music. 

"We are fortunate in becoming asso- 
ciated with the nation's finest symphony 
orchestra. We intend that our contribu- 
tion shall be that of bringing music into 
the American home. That, we feel, will 
be service enough, and we do not intend 
to burden the listeners with philosophies 
and ideologies of our own. We look for- 
ward with pleasure to our association 
with the Boston Symphony Orchestra." 



When subscribers for the Friday after- 
noon and Saturday evening concerts are 
unable to use their tickets, some officers 
of the armed forces will be delighted to 
use them. Please telephone Army and 
Navy Officers' Club, 12 Arlington Street 
— Com. 3727. 




[515] 



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KOUSSEVITZKY WINS ACCLAIM 
AT CONCERTS 

(From the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 
December 13, 1943) 

Concerts by the Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra, conducted by Dr. Serge Kous- 

sevitzky, Saturday and yesterday at 

Syria Mosque, under the auspices of the 

Pittsburgh Orchestra Association. 

SATURDAY'S PROGRAM 
Symphony No. 2 in D major. . . Brahms 

Two Nocturnes Debussy 

Pictures at an Exhibition. . Moussorgsky 

(Arranged by Maurice Ravel) 

SUNDAY'S PROGRAM 

"Classical" Symphony Prokofieff 

Symphony No. 1 Shostakovitch 

Symphony No. 5 in E minor 

Tchaikovsky 

By Donald Steinfirst 

That incomparable orchestral body, 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, made 
its annual Pittsburgh appearances over 
the week-end under dramatic circum- 
stances. Dr. Koussevitzky was rejoin- 
ing his orchestra for the first time on 
this tour after an illness and the con- 
certs were the first staged since the 
death of May Beegle, founder and man- 
ager of the Pittsburgh Orchestra As- 
sociation, under whose auspices the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra has ap- 
peared in Pittsburgh for twenty-odd 
vears. 

Dr. Koussevitzky, in one of his rare 
speeches, told Saturday's audience of 
his personal loss and that of the music 
community and dedicated the playing 
of the Debussy Nocturnes to Miss 
Beegle's memory. 

Results Displayed 

One would not have known that this 
was the beginning of Dr. Koussevitzky's 
twentieth year as conductor of the 



[516] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra, so per- 
sonal and so attentive was his leader- 
ship. One would not have known, that 
is, if one had failed to consider the 
result of twenty years as revealed in 
this pair of concerts. Such sounds are 
not created in less time. 

There is a definite golden patina 
about the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
that is not heard elsewhere. It is warm ; 
it is absorbing; it is glowing. Every 
player is a virtuoso, or would appear 
so, judging from these two concerts. 




In the "Pictures," which represented 
the high spot of Saturday's performance 
to at least one listener, there was the 
continuous line from Hartmann, the 
painter, to Moussorgsky, the composer, 
who caught the very essence of these 
assorted paintings, to Ravel, the mas- 
ter orchestrator and colorist, to Kous- 
sevitzky, the understanding interpreter 
and to his men, and finally to the 
audience who reveled in these minia- 
ture tone descriptions. 

Players Recognized 
There were "Gnomes" bursting with 
malevolence, the constant clatter of 



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KOUSSEVITZKY 
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566 — Prokofieff— Peter and the 
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[518] 



the "Tuileries," the lumbering cart of 
"Bydlo," the amusing "Ballet of the 
Chicks" and the massive "Gate at Kiev." 
To point out some of the players is to 
deny all their just due, yet one must 
acclaim the precision of the percussion, 
the magnificent oboe, the perfect horn 
and the beautiful trumpet. These were 
masters. 

The Debussy Nocturnes are very par- 
ticular jewels in the crown of this or- 
chestra. The orchestra and its conduc- 
tor never fail to capture the elusive 
and subtle feeling of "Nuages" or the 
faint, even restrained, gaiety of "Fetes*' 
Such was the case on Saturday, the brass 
and winds again shining. 

The Brahms Symphony was again 
a fine performance, but in interpreta- 
tion, Brahms is hardly ever a Kous- 
sevitzky tour-de-force. 

Ovation Given 

We liked especially the dialogue 
between the strings and the winds in 
the Allegretto section, so delicate and 
precise, and the majestic intensity in the 
final movement, at the close of which 
Dr. Koussevitzky and the orchestra re- 
ceived a tremendous ovation. 

Yesterday's all-Russian program drew 
one of the largest audiences of the sea- 
son, one that was moved from one cli- 
max to another as the music unfolded. 
Prokofieff's delightful Symphony in 
miniature still retains its fresh non- 
academic appearance. The opening 
Allegro was in the daintiest of con- 
ceptions, the Largo was stated with 
broad string strokes, and most astound- 
ing of all was the virile Finale, with 
Dr. Koussevitzky adopting a headlong, 
pulsating tempo that few conductors 
would dare attempt with any orchestra. 



Undoubtedly Shostakovitch has never 
since reached the heights of his First 
Symphony. In it, he is completely new 
and unfettered. It is the music of a 
composer with something new to say 
and new media in which to express 
himself. 

Conducting Excellent 

Yesterday's performance was electric 
in its split-second timing, devastating 
in its over-all tonal effects. The mar- 
velous muted trumpets and French 
horn were again heard to advantage and 
the conductor who so evidently relishes 
this music of his native Russia was al- 
ways the complete master of the music. 

Dr. Koussevitzky's version of the 
thrice familiar Tschaikovsky Symphony 
is highly personalised. There will be 
those pedants who cannot agree with his 
tempo, since he does not hestitate to 
add retards and diminuendos that clas- 
sicists avoid and his time for the con- 
cluding movement is again daringly 
fast. But the sum total of the Sym- 
phony is one of tonal opulence welling 
out over the lights in overwhelm- 
ing quantity. The orchestral ensemble 
is so convincingly right, the indi- 
dividual sections so completely virtuoso, 
the details of structure so clearly set 
forth, one could easily forego any cap- 
tious criticism of tempos. At the end, 
Dr. Koussevitzky and his men received 
another tremendous ovation. 



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SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Ninth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, December 17, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, December 18, at 8:15 o'clock 



Haydn Symphony in G major, No. 88 

I. Adagio; allegro 

II. Largo 

III. Menuetto; Trio 

IV. Finale: Allegro con spirito 

Mozart Symphony in E-flat major (Koechel No. 543) 

I. Adagio; Allegro 

II. Andante 

III. Menuetto; Trio 

IV. Finale: Allegro 

INTERMISSION 

Beethoven Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. 92 

I. Poco sostenuto; Vivace 

II. Allegretto 

III. Presto; Assai meno presto; Tempo primo 

IV. Allegro con brio 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:25 on Friday Afternoon 
10:10 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



[52O 



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[ 522 ] , 



SYMPHONY IN G MAJOR, No. 88 
By Joseph Haydn 

Born at Rohrau, Lower Austria, March 31, 1732; died at Vienna, May 31, 1809 



This symphony was composed for performance in Paris in the year 1787. It is 
scored for one flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani 
and strings. 

It was first performed at concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, November 
8, 1889. The symphony was last performed in the Friday and Saturday series on 
October 25, 1940. 

The name of Haydn first became eminent in Paris when his Stab at 
Mater was performed there at a Concert Spirituel, in 1781. Purely 
instrumental music then took a subordinate place in the general esti- 
mation as compared with opera or choral music. Yet symphonies of 
Haydn, performed at the Concert Spirituel, and published in the 
French capital, were enthusiastically received. Haydn was approached 
at Esterhazy in 1784 by the Concert de la Loge Olympique, a rival 
organization, for a brace of symphonies. These were duly forthcom- 
ing, in two sets of five each, and the Symphony in G major, labelled 
in the London Philharmonic Society catalogue as letter "V," and later 
numbered by Eusebius Mandyczewski in his chronological listing for 
Breitkopf and Hartel as 88, was the first of the second set. 













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The Concert de la Loge Olympique was a highly fashionable and 
decidedly exclusive institution. It was affiliated with freemasonry, and 
its subscribers, admitted only after solemn examination and ritual, 
gained admission to the concerts by paying two louis d'or a year, and 
wearing as badge of admission the device of a silver lyre on a sky- 
blue ground. The concerts succeeded those of the Concert des Ama- 
teurs, which, founded in 1769, ceased in 1781. The performances ol 
the Concert de la Loge Olympique were given from 1786 in the 
Salle des Gardes of the Palace of the Tuileries. 

In the personnel amateurs were mingled with professionals, but it 
is probable that the amateur players were more rigorously selected 
than the players of the Concert des Amateurs, which had as many as 
sixty string players in its ranks. At the concerts of the Loge Olympique, 
Giovanni Battista Viotti, the eminent violinist and accompanist to 
the Queen of France, stepped in as leader. The orchestra was placed 
on an especially erected stage in the Salle des Gardes, and the audience 
took its place in surrounding tiers of seats. Queen Marie Antoinette, 
and the Lords and Ladies of her court, attended in numbers. 
Toilettes of the utmost elaboration were formally required, and the 
musicians wore brocaded coats, full lace ruffles, swords at their sides, 
and plumed hats which they were allowed to place beside them on 
the benches while they played. When the drums of the French Revo- 
lution sounded in Paris in 1789, the Concert de la Loge Olympique 
came to a sudden end. 



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[ 524 1 ' 



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[525] 



The Adagio introduction, with its short but full-sounding chords, 
brings in complete contrast the sprightly opening subject, stated softly 
by the strings. The second subject, chromatic and suave, duly comes 
in in the dominant D major. The composer begins his development 
with light play upon a rippling string figure which has accompanied 
the first statement for full orchestra of the main subject. This figure, 
leaping about from key to key, sometimes in the minor, appearing 
in each part of the orchestra, gracefully setting off the theme itself, 
becomes the principal fabric of the development. The Largo, in D 
major, develops from a graceful and songful theme which brings three 
times an impassioned fortissimo outburst by the full orchestra. This 
Largo gives more than one premonition of the early slow movements 
of Beethoven. The Minuet, with little ornamental flourishes, is more 
courtly than some of Haydn's symphonic minuets. But in the Trio 
true peasant Gemiltlichkeit is suggested by the droning bass in open 
fifths under the flowing theme. As soon as the delightful subject of the 
finale has made its first appearance, one knows that a strict rondo is in 
order, so that it may make as many "happy returns" as possible. It does 
so duly, sometimes enhanced by suspensive preparation (again a hint 
for Beethoven's later uses). One's lingering impression of the symphony 
is an abundance of little felicities in dynamic contrast, color variety 
and modulation, an inexhaustible store of adroitness masquerading as 
naivete. 




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[526] 



The Permanent Charity Fund 

and 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
either by will or in your lifetime, with the request 
that the income be paid to the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. The gifts so made will be held perpetually 
in trust by this Company as Trustee and the income 
will be paid to the Orchestra as long as the need exists. 
Thereafter the income will be used for some other 
worthy purpose of your choice; or failing that, one 

selected by the Committee 
which annually distributes 
the income of the Fund. 

We cordially invite you to 
make a thorough investiga- 
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Full information may be 
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SYMPHONY IN E-FLAT MAJOR (K. 543) 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791 



The symphony was composed in 1788. 

The most recent performances at this series of concerts was on October 18, 1940. 
The orchestration: one flute, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, 
timpani and strings. 

Tihe careful catalogue which Mozart kept of his works shows, for 
the summer of 1788, an industrious crop of pot-boilers — arias, 
terzets, piano sonatas "for beginners," a march — various pieces written 
by order of a patron, or to favor some singer or player. Between these 
there are also listed: 

June 26 — Symphony in E-flat major 
July 25 — Symphony in G minor 
August 10 — Symphony in C major 

How clearly Mozart realized that within about six weeks he had 
three times touched the highest point of his instrumental writing, 
three times fixed within the formal symphonic periods the precious 



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distillation of his inmost heart — this we cannot know, for he did not 
so much as mention them in any record that has come down to us. 
They were intended, ostensibly, for some concerts which never came 
to pass; but one likes to believe that the composer's true intent was 
mingled with musical phantasy far past all thought of commissions or 
creditors. The greatest music must, by its nature, be oblivious of 
time and occasion, have its full spread of wing, and take its flight 
entirely by the personal prompting of its maker. 

Mozart must have appeared to his acquaintances in the summer of 
1788 a figure quite incongruous to any such sublimities — "a small, 
homely, nervous man," writes Marcia Davenport with inescapable de- 
duction, "worrying about his debts in a shabby, suburban garden." 
And comparing this picture with his music — the very apex of his 
genius - the writer can well wonder at "the workings of the infinite." 
Musical Vienna in 1788 (and long afterwards) was probably un- 
conscious of incongruities. The three great symphonies (destined to 
be his last) were closed secrets to the public who beheld a famous but 
impecunious young man of thirty-two adding three more to the forty- 
odd symphonies he had been turning out with entire facility from the 
age of eight. 

Some have conjectured that Mozart was spurred to this triumphant 
assertion of his powers by the excitement attendant upon the produc- 




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[ 531 1 



tion of "Don Giovanni" in Vienna in May, 1788, following its more 
highly successful production at Prague in the previous October. Others 
have found in the more clouded brightness of the G minor Symphony 
the despondency of a family man harassed by debts, pursued by his 
landlord. Mozart was indeed in bad financial straits that summer. 
Celebrated for his operas, much sought as a virtuoso, as an orchestral 
conductor, as a composer for every kind of occasion, yet for all these ac- 
tivities he was scantily rewarded, and the incoming florins were far 
from enough to keep him in a fine coat and proper coach for his 
evenings with the high-born, and still provide adequate lodgings for 
him and his ailing Constanze. 

Unfortunately for the theory that Mozart wrote his G minor* Sym- 
phony when dominated by his financial distress, he finished his en- 
tirely gay E-flat symphony on the very eve of writing the second of his 
"begging" letters to Herr Michael Puchberg, friend, fellow Mason, 
amateur musician, and merchant. The first letter asked for the loan 
of 2,000 florins: "At all events, I beg you to lend me a couple of hun- 
dred gulden, because my landlord in the Landstrasse was so pressing 

* Koechel lists only one other symphony by Mozart in a minor key — the early symphony 
in G minor, No. 183 (1773). 







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[ 532 1 



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[533] 



that 1 was obliged to pay him on the spot (in order to avoid anything 
unpleasant) which caused me great embarrassment." Puchberg sent 
the two hundred, and Mozart, answering on June 27, and asking for 
more money, is careful to impress his creditor with his industrious in- 
tentions: "I have worked more during the ten days I have lived here 
than in two months in my former apartment; and if dismal thoughts 
did not so often intrude (which I strive forcibly to dismiss), I should 
be very well off here, for I live agreeably, comfortably, and above all, 
cheaply." Mozart was telling the strict truth about his ten busy days: 
listed under the date June 22 is a Terzet, and under June 26 a march, 
piano sonata, and adagio with fugue, for strings, together with a piece 
of more doubtful bread-winning powers (from which the "dismal 
thoughts" are quite absent) — the Symphony in E-flat. 

Mozart had recently acquired his position as "Chamber Composer" 
to the Emperor Joseph II. But the post, which had been held by 
the Chevalier Gluck until his death the year before, was as unre- 
munerative as it was high-sounding. Mozart's emperor was glad to 
pare the salary of two thousand florins he had paid to Gluck to less 
than half — the equivalent of two hundred dollars — in Mozart's case. 
He expected little in return — no exquisite symphonies or operas to set 
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each imperial masked ball in the winter season was quite sufficient. 
Hence the oft-quoted line which Mozart is supposed to have sent back 
with one of the imperial receipts: "Too much for what I do — not 
enough for what I can do." 

Mozart uses no oboes in his E-flat symphony, only one flute, and 
clarinets, bassoons, horns, and trumpets in twos. Jahn finds the blend- 
ing of clarinets with horns and bassoons productive of " a full, mellow 
tone" requisite for his special purpose, while "the addition of the flutes 
[flute] gives it clearness and light, and trumpets endow it with bril- 
liancy and freshness." The delicate exploitation of the clarinets is in 
many parts evident, particularly in the trio of the minuet, where the 
first carries the melody and the second complements it with arpeggios 
in the deeper register. 



(reprint from a 1902 Symphony program) 



THEN 



1 




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[536] 



ENTR'ACTE 
MOZART AND THE CLARINET 



The Symphony in E-flat is described by Donald Francis Tovey as 
"eminently the symphony with clarinets" — and with reason. This 
was the only symphony in which Mozart used clarinets and not oboes. 
It was as if he wished for once to dwell upon and exploit the special 
color and charm of an instrument then still new. Although Vienna 
could by that time produce players of some subtlety, clarinets were 
by no means standard in a symphony. Mozart had been wary about 
lifting clarinets to the symphonic level. He had first tried the experi- 
ment at Paris when visiting that capital at the age of twenty-two. He 
had found good clarinet players at hand and made all haste to com- 
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in any of his symphonies save the famous one in E-fiat and two others 
to which clarinet parts were added as an afterthought: the "Haffner" 
Symphony of 1782 and the G minor Symphony of 1788, both presum- 
ably intended for performance in Vienna. 

This does not signify that Mozart was in any way reluctant to make 
the most of an innovation in orchestral coloring. Haydn adopted the 
clarinet with even less alacrity and did not bring it into full use until 
his "London" Symphonies, written after Mozart's death. The truth 
of the matter was, in the case of both Mozart and Haydn, that the 
instrument was still in process of development, and satisfactory players 
upon it all too scarce. Haydn had no clarinets at Esterhaz — Mozart 
had none at Salzburg, and each of them composed perforce without 
benefit of this instrument when music was in hand for home uses. 
There is verbal proof of Mozart's early enthusiasm for the clarinet, 
proof well abetted by his discerning use of the instrument when oc- 
casion offered. It was at Mannheim, which possessed probably the most 
finished orchestra in Europe at the time, that Mozart made his first 
acquaintance with the true subtlety of the instrument. The young 
man of twenty-one hastened to write home to his father: "Ah! If we 
only had clarinets also! You could never imagine what a wonderful 



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effect a symphony with flutes, oboes and clarinets makes."* Christian 
Cannabich, the Kapellmeister, and successor to Stamitz, had long since 
written symphonies with clarinet parts. If Mozart, waiting about hope- 
fully for a job from the Elector at Mannheim, Carl Theodor, had been 
asked to write a symphony, we may be very sure that he would have 
made the most of the clarinet players. He was not asked to do so. The 
Elector permitted Mozart to give lessons to his daughter, but made 
no further promises — perhaps he did not consider the young Austrian 
provincial as equipped to take a place in his Court, which was the 
last word in French culture (he corresponded with Voltaire). But the 
young Salzburger had eyes and ears open. He adapted himself directly 
to the style of Mannheim. When he composed a concert aria for 
Aloysia Weber, his flame of the moment and the sister of his destined 
wife, he duly wrote in clarinet parts. He went on to Paris, and, finding 
good clarinet players in the orchestra of the Concert Spirituel, he used 
both clarinets and oboes in his "Paris" Symphony, no doubt taking 
advantage of his observations at Mannheim. 

Before that time (1778) we find Mozart using clarinets when he 

* Mozart is here stressing the point that the Mannheim Orchestra did not have to resort to 
oboe players, but possessed special players for the clarinet, so that a score could contain parts 
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wrote Serenades for Milan, which must have possessed adequate 
players. Later he included clarinets in pieces of this type which he 
wrote for Vienna. The larger opera companies, and consequently the 
operas by Mozart beginning with "Idomeneo" (Munich, 1780) made 
consistent use of clarinets. At that time clarinets were used in the 
Royal Orchestra at Berlin and, according to Forkel, in the orchestras 
of Coblenz, Mayence, Pressburg, Regensburg and Ansbach. 

In the last three years of his life Mozart wrote his Clarinet Quintet 
and his Clarinet Concerto for his close friend Anton Stadler, who, 
like his brother, was an accomplished clarinetist (the Stadler brothers 
were wind players to the Emperor). Mozart as a small boy in London 
wrote a clarinet part into a symphony, as Johann Christian Bach had 
done, but Mozart's score is now considered to be a copy of one by 
Carl Friedrich Abel. Clarinets were so novel and so rare at this earlier 
time that players were imported from the continent for special 
operatic performances in London. 

The clarinet is descended from the shawm or chalumeau. The 
modern instrument in its essentials was invented by Johann Christian 
Denner at Niirnberg at the end of the seventeenth century. The word 
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" Musicalisches Lexicon," 1732. Walther wrote: "From a distance it 
sounds rather like a trumpet," which strongly indicates that its tone 
quality, like its name (for a long while it was also called "clarionet"), 
came from the "clarino" or high trumpet, which provided shrill and 
piercing top notes for military bands. "The clarinet," writes Kurt 
Sachs ("The History of Musical Instruments"), "must have been shrill 
up to the beginning of the nineteenth century; methods of clarinet 
playing published before 1 850 emphasized the 'now fuller, much softer 
and more agreeable' tone of recent instruments." 

The fact that Mozart was far readier to use clarinets in an out-of- 
door divertimento than in a symphony would indicate that until his 
last years instruments and available players were of the squealing 
variety. The clarinet parts in such late works as the E-flat Symphony, 
the Clarinet Quintet and the Concerto, make it indisputable either 
that the instruments had been much improved or that such players 
as the Stadler brothers had overcome the resistance of inept instru- 
ments by sheer virtuosity. Perhaps the delicacy implied in these scores 
existed rather in Mozart's hopeful imagination than in any perform- 
ance he could have heard.* 



* Rosario Mazzeo, of the Boston Synjphony Orchestra, substantiates this opinion : "I subscribe 
to the belief that Mozart never heard the clarinet as he wrote for it — not, that is, if we 
accept tempi and nuances with anything like present-day standards. The clarinet existed 
for Mozart in a practical way only as a general physical parallel to his idea of it." 

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The mechanics of the clarinet were much improved shortly after 
his death, for it was just before the end of the century that Ivan 
Muller first produced the modern instrument with its thirteen keys. 
As we know today, and sometimes to our sorrow, the best instrument 
can revert when in the wrong hands to its ancestral barnyard level.* 
Perhaps it was Haydn and Beethoven who were first privileged to hear 
the finely shaded and velvet-toned playing of the true clarinet. But 
it was Mozart who first clearly perceived and prescribed the clarinet's 
subtler graces. 



* Philip Hale once wrote on the subject of "quacking beginners" : "Berlioz tells an amusing 
story of an amateur who wished to play in public his own clarinet concerto {'Un Concerto 
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[547 3 



ENTR'ACTE 

SOME REFLECTIONS ON MUSIC CRITICISM 

By Ralph Hill 

(Reprinted from the Musical Quarterly, April, 1943) 



IT HAS often been said that music criticism has never produced a 
critic of the caliber of Coleridge, Carlyle, Matthew Arnold, or 
Ruskin. This is not true. So far as critical acumen and knowledge 
of their own subject are concerned there are plenty of music critics 
who can meet on terms of equality the greatest names in literary 
criticism, but where the latter score is on the value of their writing 
qua writing. It must not be forgotten that the critical writings of a 
Coleridge or Carlyle are read today not because of the accuracy 
and importance of the judgments expressed (although these, of 
course, have a certain historical and autobiographical interest), but 
because of their artistic value as prose. Nevertheless, I can imagine 
an anthology of music criticism selected from the work of Sir Donald 
Tovey, George Bernard Shaw, Lawrence Gilman, James G. Huneker, 
Edwin Evans, Ernest Newman, and A. H. Fox Strangways that would 
be difficult to surpass from a purely literary point of view. Jean Mar- 
nold, for years, contributed music criticism to Le Mercure de France 
that was on a par with the general literary standards of the magazine. 
That Romain Rolland's music criticism would be beautifully written 
goes without saying. Saint-Saens and Debussy, when they took to 

writing criticism, produced polished prose, however personal their 
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Music, at one and the same time the Queen and the Cinderella of 
the arts, is the most difficult of all subjects to write about intelligently 
and to real purpose. The successful critic has to steer a safe course 
along a narrow channel bounded on one side by the barren and jagged 
rocks of pedantry and empty technical jargon, and on the other* by 
the dangerous quicksands of "poetic" interpretation and sentimental 
moonshine. The hide-bound critic who estimates the value of a work 
in exact proportion to its adherence to academic formulas is a notable 
character throughout the history of music, and his mistakes have 
become legion. But despite his unimaginative laborings he is in- 
finitely superior and preferable to the new school of "literary" music 
criticism, which considers technical ignorance a virtue and a pen full 
of purple ink and an aptitude to react emotionally to music the only 
necessary equipment. 

The purpose of all criticism, whether it be of art or of life, is to 
assess the values (or lack of values) of a given object, concrete or 
abstract. This valuation includes censure as well as praise, a fact that 
many people are apt to overlook when condemning to perdition "those 
cut-throat bandits in the paths of fame." Any expression of opinion, 
however humble it may be, is critical in essence: from the usual com- 
monplace observations concerning the prospects of the weather to a 
discussion on the equity of nationalizing the railways or on the mean- 
ing of surrealism. 

All efforts to formulate principles that would place art criticism on 
a firm scientific basis have more or less failed. The reason is not far to 
seek. A work of art is not made up entirely of objective values: it con- 
sists of both facts and fancies, and the latter can no more be measured 
objectively than green can be proved to be a more beautiful color than 
red. Beauty, like Truth, is relative and possesses only subjective values. 
While a picture or a novel has for its subject-matter concrete things 
and ideas of every-day experience and remains complete for the critic 
to contemplate in part or in whole, a piece of music (excluding opera 
and other vocal music), with no other subject matter than the stuff it is 
made of, has no obvious relationship to the incidents of life, except in 
the fact that it is never stable and therefore is always changing from 
moment to moment. Our whole conception of its material and form 
is largely an imaginative process. Music's only point of contact with 
literature is the printed score, which in realization resembles the 
printed word. But music imagined in tranquillity is a weak substitute 
for the actual sound of it, however experienced and highly trained 
the reader may be. To read music silently and accurately— here I refer 
more especially to complicated orchestral scores— requires great imag- 
ination, technical knowledge, and experience. Even those compara- 

[549] 



tively few musicians who can read the score of a big work with ease 
and understanding will invariably modify their opinion of the tech- 
nical and esthetic values of a new work after hearing a performance 
of it. No better example tould be cited than the music of Dejius, 
which is one ihiir> on oaper and another in performance. 

Sir Henry Hadow has aptly defined the true critic as "the most 
enlightened listener; not standing aloof with a manual of arrogant 
imperatives, but taking his place among us to stimulate our attention 
where it falters, and to supplement our knowledge where it is de- 
ficient." But Ernest Newman will have none of this. He asks: 

Whose "enlightenment" is to be the standard? It is becoming in- 
creasingly evident that there is not one type of musical imagination 
and musical apprehension but many types, and the various types have 
some difficulty in understanding one another. Most of us prize our 
Beethoven because of the philosophic connotations of his music. On 
the other hand Stravinsky, as he once told a friend of mine, does not 
care for Beethoven because he is "too philosophical." On what com- 
mon ground, then, can we and Stravinsky meet to consider Beethoven? 

Now I venture to suggest that most of us do not prize our Bee- 
thoven for the philosophic implications of his music. We prize him 
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pher. The fact that Beethoven was a thoughtful man and sometimes 
indulged in philosophic speculation no more entitles him to be called 
a philosopher than a bus-driver who listens occasionally to a radio pro- 
gram of Beethoven's music is entitled to be called a musician. Even if 
it could be proved that Beethoven intended his music to express cer- 
tain philosophic concepts, it would make not the slightest difference to 
the value of the music qua music, because music can no more express 
such things than a poem can express the first movement of Beethoven's 
C minor Symphony. 

In 1809, E. T. A. Hoffmann, the German poet and novelist, wrote 
an article in which he interpreted Beethoven's C minor Symphony 
as a supreme expression of Romanticism. Mr. Newman asks how 
we can reconcile this view with the precisely opposite one of Romain 
Rolland, and in turn Rolland's with Wagner's and Wagner's with 
J. W. N. Sullivan's, and so on. 

We talk fluently about Beethoven; but is there such a composer? 
Manifestly the Beethoven of Mr. Sullivan is not the Beethoven of 
Wagner, while neither is the Beethoven of Brahms nor the Beethoven 
of Hoffmann. All that we finally have is Hoffmann, Wagner, Mr. Sul- 
livan, M. Rolland and all the rest of them talking each about himself 
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[553 1 



in him by certain streams of notes that bear the signature of an ancient 
composer named Ludwig van Beethoven. 

I fail to see why we should bother to attempt to reconcile these 
divergent views on the significance of Beethoven's music. The fact 
remains that all agree that Beethoven's music is supremely great, 
and therefore criticism has accomplished its purpose. Mr. Sullivan's 
reactions to Beethoven's music are different from those of Wagner for 
precisely the same reason that Weingartner's reading of the Ninth 
Symphony is different from Koussevitzky's, that Dean Inge's theology 
is different from Cardinal Wolsey's, and Bernard Shaw's socialism 
from that of H. G. Wells. To say, as Mr. Newman does, that there 
is a flaw in the criticism and esthetic of music because of variance 
of opinion and approach to a certain composer's work, is tantamount 
to saying that there is a flaw in every other form of criticism from 
that of biology to pastry-making. Of course there is a flaw, but it hap- 
pens to be what is usually called the human equation; and not even 
Mr. Newman can alter that. . . . 

Mr. Newman cannot bear the idea of the personal equation in 
criticism. To be objective and see everything as it really exists is Mr. 
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by his own shadow, for his criticism is itself full of those very same 
subjective qualities with which he is so dissatisfied in others and which 
make his writings so eminently readable. It is difficult to believe that 
Mr. Newman is serious when he tells us that "it is time the alleged 
'critic' retired into the obscurity for which his narrowness of view 
qualifies him, and gave way to the historian and the philosopher. 
If I am to read a history of the American War of Independence, I do 
not want to be regaled with the writer's individual reactions to the 
personalities of King George III, Washington, Johnny Burgoyne, the 
Boston Mohawks and the rest of them. I want an objective setting 
forth of the complex economic and other forces that led England and 
the American colonies into the position in which they found them- 
selves towards the end of the 18th century." And where, pray, can we 
find such a perfect specimen of objective history? In the writings of 
Hilaire Belloc, who is a Catholic? In H. G. Wells, who is a rationalist 
and a socialist? When Mr. Wells's "History of the World" was first pub- 
lished, did not Mr. Belloc object? And did not both of them write 
pamphlets on their objections to each other's interpretations of his- 
tory? Froude points out the truth that there is nothing that can be 
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be found," he says, "in Shakespeare's historical plays." Listen to Lytton 
Strachey on history as a science: 

That the question has ever been, not only asked, but seriously de- 
bated, whether history was an art, is certainly one of the curiosities 
of human ineptitude. What else can it possibly be? It is obvious that 
History is not an accumulation of facts, but the relation of them. . . . 
Facts relating to the past, if they are collected without art, are com- 
pilations, and compilations, no doubt, may be useful, but they are no 
more History than butter, eggs, salt and herbs are an omelette. 

And, I would add, omelettes vary in taste and texture according to 
the cook, as history varies according to the mental cooking of the 
historian. When Mr. Newman tells us that the public is tired of "all 
this dogmatic confrontation of one purely personal opinion by 
another" and that it will "give up reading musical criticism as a pure 
farce that, so to speak, cannot be taken seriously," we can only reply 
that this being the case the public will give up reading altogether 
when it realizes that, from Plato to Shaw and Wells and from St. 
Augustine to Anatole France and Sir James Jeans, criticism has never 
been anything else but a continual "dogmatic confrontation of one 
purely personal opinion by another!" 

{To be continued) 



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[559] 



SYMPHONY NO. 7 IN A MAJOR, Op. 92 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born at Bonn, December 16 (?), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The Seventh Symphony, finished in the summer of 1812, was first performed on 
December 8, 1813, in the hall of the University of Vienna, Beethoven conducting. 

It is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two 
trumpets, timpani and strings. The dedication is to Moritz Count Imperial von 
Fries. 

The most recent performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in this series 
was on March 6, 1942. 

Beethoven was long in the habit of wintering in Vienna proper, and 
summering in one or another outlying district, where woods and 
meadows were close at hand. Here the creation of music would closely 
occupy him, and the Seventh Symphony is no exception. It was in the 
summer of 1812 that the work was completed.* Four years had elapsed 
since the Pastoral Symphony, but they were not unproductive years. 
And the Eighth followed close upon the Seventh, having been com- 



-" ; then follows the 



* The manuscript score was dated by the composer "1812; Slten — 

vertical stroke of the name of the month, the rest of which a careless binder trimmed off, 

leaving posterity peilpetually in doubt whether it was May or July. 



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pleted in October, 1812. Beethoven at that time had not yet undertaken 
the devastating cares of a guardianship, or the lawsuits which were 
soon to harass him. His deafness, although he still attempted to 
conduct, allowed him to hear only the louder tones of an orchestra. 
He was not without friends. His fame was fast growing, and his 
income was not inconsiderable, although it showed for little in the 
haphazard domestic arrangements of a restless bachelor. 

The sketches for the Seventh Symphony are in large part indeter- 
minate as to date, although the theme of the Allegretto is clearly 
indicated in a sketchbook of 1809. Grove is inclined to attribute the 
real inception of the work to the early autumn of 1811, when 
Beethoven was staying at Teplitz, the fashionable watering place near 
Prague where he later met Goethe and where, in 1811, he seems to 
have enjoyed himself in a congenial gathering of intellectuals and 
musical friends. 

But under just what circumstances Beethoven composed this 
symphony — or any of his major works, for that matter — must remain 
conjectural. Beethoven met at Teplitz Amalie Sebald, toward whom 
then and a year later there is evidence that he cherished tender feelings. 
It was in the summer of 1812 that he wrote his impassioned letter to 
the "Immortal Beloved" — and thereupon, in a sudden access of that 



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[562] 



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divine energy he alone could command, he began and completed the 
Eighth Symphony. 

It would require more than a technical yardstick to measure the true 
proportions of this symphony — the sense of immensity which it 
conveys. Beethoven seems to have built up this impression by wilfully 
driving a single rhythmic figure through each movement, until the 
music attains (particularly in the body of the first movement, and in 
the Finale) a swift propulsion, an effect of cumulative growth which 
is akin to extraordinary size. 

The long introduction (Beethoven had not used one since his 
Fourth Symphony) unfolds two vistas, the first extending into a 
succession of rising scales, which someone has called "gigantic stairs," 
the second dwelling upon a melodious phrase in F major which, 
together with its accompaniment, dissolves into fragments and evapo- 
rates upon a point of suspense until the rhythm of the Vivace, which 
is indeed the substance of the entire movement, springs gently to life 
(the allegro rhythm of the Fourth Symphony was born similarly but 
less mysteriously from its dissolving introduction). The rhythm of 
the main body of the movement, once released, holds its swift course 
almost without cessation until the end. There is no contrasting theme. 
When the dominant tonality comes in the rhythm persists as in the 
opening movement of the Fifth Symphony, which this one resembles 



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and outdoes in its pervading rhythmic ostinato, the "cellule" as 
d'Indy would have called it. The movement generates many subjects 
within its pattern, which again was something quite new in music. 
Even the Fifth Symphony, with its violent, dynamic contrasts, gave 
the antithesis of sustained, expansive motion. Schubert's great 
Symphony in C major, very different of course from Beethoven's 
Seventh, makes a similar effect of size by similar means in its Finale. 
Beethoven's rhythmic imagination is more virile. Starting from three 
notes it multiplies upon itself until it looms, leaping through every 
part of the orchestra, touching a new secret of beauty at every turn. 
Wagner called the symphony "the Dance in its highest condition; the 
happiest realization of the movements of the body in an ideal form." 
If any other composer could impel an inexorable rhythm, many times 
repeated, into a vast music — it was Wagner. 

In the Allegretto Beethoven withholds his headlong, capricious 
mood. But the sense of motion continues in this, the most agile of his 
symphonic slow movements (excepting the entirely different Allegretto 
of the Eighth). It is in A minor, and subdued by comparison, but 
pivots no less upon its rhythmic motto, and when the music changes to 
A major, the clarinets and bassoons setting their melody against triplets 
in the violins, the bases maintain the incessant rhythm. The form 
is more unvarying, more challenging to monotony than that of the 
first movement, the scheme consisting of a melody in three phrases, the 
third a repetition of the second, the whole repeated many times 



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[566] 



without development other than slight ornamentation and varied 
instrumentation. Even through two interludes and the fugato, the 
rhythm is never broken. The variety of the movement and its replen- 
ishing interest are astounding. No other composer could have held 
the attention of an audience for more than a minute with so rigid a 
plan. Beethoven had his first audience spellbound with his harmonic 
accompaniment, even before he had repeated it with his melody, 
woven through by the violas and 'cellos. The movement was encored 
at once, and quickly became the public favorite, so much so that 
sometimes at concerts it was substituted for the slow movements of 
the Second and Eighth Symphonies. Beethoven was inclined, in his 
last years, to disapprove of the lively tempo often used, and spoke of 
changing the indication to Andante quasi allegretto. 

The third movement is marked simply "presto" although it is a 
scherzo in effect. The whimsical Beethoven of the first movement is 
still in evidence, with sudden outbursts, and alternations of fortissimo 
and piano. The trio, which occurs twice in the course of the move- 
ment, is entirely different in character from the light and graceful 
presto, although it grows directly from a simple alternation of two 
notes half a tone apart in the main body of the movement. Thayer 
reports the refrain, on the authority of the Abbe Stadler, to have 
derived from a pilgrims' hymn familiar in Lower Austria. 

The Finale has been called typical of the "unbuttoned" (aufge- 
knopft) Beethoven. Grove finds in it, for the first time in his music, 
"a vein of rough, hard, personal boisterousness, the same feeling which 
inspired the strange jests, puns and nicknames which abound in his 
letters. Schumann calls it "hitting all around" ("schlagen um sich"). 
"The force that reigns throughout this movement is literally prodi- 



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[567J 



gious, and reminds one of Carlyle's hero Ram Dass, who had 'fire 
enough in his belly to burn up the entire world.' ' ; Years ago the 
resemblance was noted between the first subject of the Finale and 
Beethoven's accompaniment to the Irish air "Nora Creina," which he 
was working upon at this time for George Thomson of Edinburgh.* 

It is doubtful whether a single hearer at the first performance of the 
Seventh Symphony on December 8, 1813, was fully aware of the 
importance of that date as marking the emergence of a masterpiece 
into the world. Indeed, the new symphony seems to have been looked 
upon as incidental to the general plans. The affair was a charity concert 
for war victims. f Johann Nepomuk Malzel's new invention, the 
"mechanical trumpeter," was announced to play marches "with full 
orchestral accompaniment," but the greatest attraction of all was 



* In an interesting article, "Celtic Elements in Beethoven's Seventh Symphony" (Musical 
Quarterly, July, 1935), James Travis goes so far as to claim: "It is demonstrable that the 
themes, not of one, but of all four movements of the Seventh Symphony owe rhythmic and 
melodic and even occasional harmonic elements to Beethoven's Celtic studies." 

However plausibly Mr. Travis builds his case, basing his proofs upon careful notation, 
it is well to remember that others these many years have dived deep into this symphony in 
pursuit of special connotations, always with doubtful results. D'Indy, who called it a "pastoral" 
symphony, and Berlioz, who found the scherzo a ''ronde des paysansS' are among them. The 
industrious seekers extend back to Dr. Carl Iken, who described in the work a revolution, 
fully hatched, and brought from the composer a sharp rebuke. Never did he evolve a more 
purely musical scheme. 

f The proceeds were devoted to the "Austrians and Bavarians wounded at Hanau" in 
defense of their country against Napoleon (once revered by Beethoven). 



NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL HALL 
Sunday Evening, December 19, at 8:30 

EDCAR CURTIS STRING ORCHESTRA 

Conductor, Edgar Curtis 

Program: Mozart — Prokofieff — Edgar Curtis 
Tickets, $1.10, now at Box Office, COM. 7262 




[568] 



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[569] 



Beethoven's new battle piece, "Wellington's Victory, or the Battle of 
Vittoria," which Beethoven had designed for Malzel's "Pan-harmoni- 
can" but at the inventor's suggestion rewritten for performance by a 
live orchestra. This symphony was borne on the crest of the wave of 
popular fervor over the defeat of the army of Napoleon. When 
"Wellington's Victory" was performed, with its drums and fanfares and 
"God Save the King" in fugue, it resulted in the most sensational 
popular success Beethoven had until then enjoyed. The Seventh 
Symphony, opening the programme, was well received, and the 
Allegretto was encored. The new symphony was soon forgotten when 
the English legions routed once more in tone the cohorts of Napoleon's 
brother in Spain. 

Although the Seventh Symphony received a generous amount of 
applause, it is very plain from all the printed comments of the time 
that on many in the audience the battle symphony made more of an 
impression than would have all of the seven symphonies put together. 
The doubting ones were now ready to accede that Beethoven was a 
great composer after all. Even the discriminating Beethoven enthusi- 
asts were impressed. When the "Battle of Vittoria" was repeated, the 
applause, so wrote the singer Franz Wild, "reached the highest ecstasy," 






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and Schindler says: "The enthusiasm, heightened by the patriotic 
feeling of those memorable days, was overwhelming." This music 
brought the composer directly and indirectly more money than 
anything that he had written or was to write. 

The initial performance of the Symphony, according to Spohr, was 
"quite masterly," a remark, however, which must be taken strictly 
according to the indifferent standards of his time, rather than our own. 
The open letter which the gratified Beethoven wrote to the Wiener 
Zeitung thanked his honored colleagues "for their zeal in contributing 
to so exalted a result." The letter was never published, and Thayer 
conjectures that the reason for its withdrawal was Beethoven's sudden 
quarrel with Malzel, whom he had singled out in this letter with 
particular thanks for giving him the opportunity "to lay a work of 
magnitude upon the altar of the Fatherland." 

The concert was repeated on Sunday, December 12, again with full 
attendance, the net receipts of the two performances amounting to 
4,000 florins, which were duly turned over to the beneficiaries. 
Schindler proudly calls this "one of the most important movements in 
the life of the master, in which all the hitherto divergent voices save 
those of the professional musicians united in proclaiming him worthy 
of the laurel. A work like the Battle Symphony had to come in order 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

^Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERQE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Monday Evening, December 27, at 8:15 
Tuesday Afternoon, December 28, at 3 

Third Concerts of this Series 

Programme 

William Schuman Symphony for Strings 

Shostakovitch Symphony No. 1 

Schumann 'Cello Concerto 

Berlioz Three Excerpts from "The Damnation of Faust" 

SOLOIST 

Gregor Piatigorsky 
Tickets at Box Office 

[571] 



that divergent opinions might be united and the mouths of all op- 
ponents, of whatever kind, be silenced." Tomaschek was distressed that 
a composer with so lofty a mission should have stooped to the "rude 
materialism" of such a piece. "I was told, it is true, that he himself 
declared the work to be folly, and that he liked it only because with 
it he had thoroughly thrashed the Viennese." Thayer assumes that 
Beethoven's musical colleagues who aided in the performance of the 
work "viewed it as a stupendous musical joke, and engaged in it con 
amove as in a gigantic professional frolic." 

The Seventh Symphony had a third performance on the second of 
January, and on February 27, 1814, it was performed again, together 
with the Eighth Symphony. Performances elsewhere show a somewhat 
less hearty reception for the Seventh Symphony, although the Alle- 
gretto was usually immediately liked and was often encored. 
Friedrich Wieck, the father of Clara Schumann, was present at the 
first performance in Leipzig, and recollected that musicians, critics, 
connoisseurs and people quite ignorant of music, each and all were 
unanimously of the opinion that the Symphony — especially the first 
and last movements — could have been composed only in an unfor- 
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[572] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Sixty-third Season, 1943-1944] 
SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 

Violins 



BURGIN, R. ELCUS, G. 

Concert-master tapley, r. 

THEODOROWICZ, J. 


LAUGA, N. KRIPS, A. 
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RISNIKOFF, V. 
Ll.IBOVICI, J. 


HANSEN, E. 
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DICKSON, H. 
PINFIELD, C. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 
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ZAZOFSKY, G. 
DUBBS, H. 


KNUDSON, C. 
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ZUNG, M. 
DIAMOND, S. 


LEVEEN, P. 
DEL SORDO, R. 




GORODETZKY, L. 
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LEFRANC, J. 
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c. 


GROVER, H. 
WERNER, H. 




LEHNER, E. 
GERHARDT, S. 


KORNSAND, 
HUMPHREY 


E. 
, G. 






Violoncellos 






BEDETTI, J. 
ZIGHERA, A. 


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Flutes 


Oboes 


Clarinets 




Bassoons 


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GILLET, F. 
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VALERIO, m. 
cardillo, P. 




ALLARD, R. 
PANENKA, E. 
LAUS, A. 


Piccolo 


English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 




Contra-Bassoon 


MADSEN, G. 


SPEYER, L. 


MAZZEO, R. 




PILLER, B. 


Horns 


Horns 


Trumpets 




Trombones 


VALKENIER, W. 
MACDONALD, W 
MEEK, H. 
KEANEY, P. 


LANNOYE, M. 
SHAPIRO, H. 
GEBHARDT, w. 


MAGER, G. 
LAFOSSE, M. 
VOISIN, R. L. 
VOISIN, R. 




RAICHMAN, J. 
HANSOTTE, l. 
COFFEY, J. 
OROSZ, J. 


Tuba 


Harps 


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Percussion 


ADAM, E. 


ZIGHERA, B. 
CAUGHEY, E. 


SZULC, R. 

tolster, m. 

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rogers, l. j. 




STERNBURG, S. 
SMITH, C. 
ARCIERI, E. 



[573] 



Aaron Richmond presents 
MARGUERITE NAMARA 

SOPRANO in JORDAN HALL 
FRIDAY EVENING, JANUARY 7 

(No Boston Symphony concert on this date) 
(N. Y. Town Hall, Mon. Eve., Jan 23) 

"Her songs are not just numbers on a program — each is a separate 
experience. Such a personality rises above mere vocal gift, but when you 
add to it flawless technique and a great voice you — well you have 
Marguerite Namara." San Francisco Herald 



WILLIAM KAPELL 

who achieved a notable triumph as soloist with the Boston 

Symphony Orchestra recently, returns to Boston 

for his first local recital 

JORDAN HALL— SAT. AFT. t JAN. 29 

TICKETS $2.20, $1.65, $1.10 GO ON SALE FRI. DEC. 17 

Boston Herald 

"It is not often a 21 -year old pianist literally 'stops' a concert of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, but one did yesterday, and he will most 
certainly do so again tonight. His name is William Kapell, he's a native 
born New Yorker, and he seems to possess as formidable a technical 
and musical equipment as any newcomer (or oldcomer, for that matter) 
who ever appeared with the orchestra." 



* 



OMIBM . OPERA HOUSE 

Ukll A DEC. 26 THRU JAN. 2 
' ■■ '^ ^^ 11 Performances only 

SAN CARLO OPERA COMPANY 

FORTUNE GALLO, Managing Director 

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Orchestra, 1st 16 rows . . . $2.20 Balcony, 1st 5 rows 1.65 

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Box Seats 3.30 2nd Balcony, 8 rows 85 

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BOX OFFICE SALE THIS MON. AT WILBUR THEATRE 

[574] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Tenth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, December 24, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, December 25, at 8:30 o'clock 



Handel . . . .Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra in B minor, No. 12 
Largo — Allegro — Larghetto — Largo — Allegro 

Sibelius Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 82 

I. ( Tempo molto moderato 
II. ( Allegro moderato, ma poco a poco stretto 

III. Andante mosso, quasi allegretto 

IV. Allegro molto 

INTERMISSION 

Schumann Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra 

in A minor, Op. 129 
Nicht zu schnell — Langsam — Sehr lebhaft 

Berlioz Excerpts from "The Damnation of Faust," Op. 24 

I. Minuet of the Will-o'-the- Wisps 
II. Dance of the Sylphs 
III. Hungarian March (Rakoczy) 



SOLOIST 

GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 
BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon 
10:30 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[575] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 
Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
256 Huntington Avenue 

Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

readier (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




[ 576 ] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 
Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 
Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

John Nicholas Brown Jacob J. Kaplan 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

N. Penrose Hallo well Bentley W. Warren 

G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[577] 




Financial Secretary 

THROUGH an Agency Account 
with this bank you obtain, in effect, 
the services of an efficient financial 
secretary experienced in handling all 
investment details. You are relieved of 
time-consuming details, at low cost. 

TRUST DEPARTMENT 

The Rational 

Shawm lit Bank 

Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 

Listen to John Barry with "Frontline Headlines" 
WNAC— Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays at 7:45 p.m. 



[ 57» J ' 



SYMPHONIANA 

Lyre and Laurel 
Exhibit 



LYRE AND LAUREL 

(Editorial by Lucien Price, in the 
Boston Globe, December 16, 1943) 
Somewhere in Finland, whether in 
his country home at Jarvenpaa or in 
Helsinki or wherever (for we in 
America have no way of knowing) is 
a great master whom the ill fortunes of 
war do not cause us to venerate one 
whit the less. In a land beleaguered 
for the second time in his life-span, 
Jean Sibelius is just entering his 79th 
year. 

"If you see a great master," said 
Goethe to Eckermann, "you will always 
find that he used what was good in his 
predecessors, and that it was this made 
him great. Men like Raphael do not 
spring out of the ground. They took 
root in the antique and the best which 
had been done before them." Sibelius 
is not only our greatest living com- 
poser — "our" because he belongs not 
alone to Finland, but to the world — 
he is also the one composer in this 
20th century who is unquestionably in 
the direct lineal succession from Bach, 
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Brahms, 
and the only one who, since the death 
of Brahms in 1897, has carried forward 
the art of the symphony into regions 
never penetrated by his predecessors. 
This took some doing. A doctor's son, 
he had his own way to make in the 
world; and as a young musician, he 
was towered over menacingly by two 
German colossi, one real, the other less 
real than he seemed then, but both of 
them formidable enough. They were 
Richard I and Richard II; Richard 
Wagner, the old master, who in the 
1880's and 1890's was a wicked ogre 
whose dominating influence on music 
devoured young composers like little 
children and threw their bones under 
the table; and the brilliant young mas- 
ter was Richard Strauss, the incredible 
orchestral virtuosity of whose sym- 
phonic tone-poems seemed to pale the 
music of other men to ineffectual fires. 
What could Sibelius do? Go home to 
Finland, dig in, stick to his guns, write 
uncompromisingly the best that was in 
him throughout three decades, and abide 
the verdict. 

The verdict was slow in coming. 
While other composers were writing 
symphonic poems with coloristic or- 




[579] 



Under the New 
Slim Silhouette 




Warner's LeGant Royale 
Sta-Up-Top 

The smartest girdle in the best qual- 
ity that can be obtained under war-time 
restrictions. 

The fine workmanship and detail of 
these superb foundations is in keeping 
with our pifrpose, in War or Peace, of 
offering only the best at whatever price 
your budget dictates. 

GIRDLES - BRAS - LINGERIE 
SWEATERS - SKIRTS - HOSIERY 
DRESSES - HATS - SPORTSWEAR 

50 TEMPLE PLACE 



chestration to literary program notes, 
Sibelius, between 1901 and 1923, wrote 
seven symphonies and in a style in- 
creasingly austere. His first two are not 
so hard to understand, but half way 
through his Third the landscape begins 
to look unfamiliar, then in his Fourth 
(1908) we are in a totally strange though 
piercingly beautiful country where music 
never had ventured before; and this ex- 
ploration is continued into regions always 
beautiful but ever more strange and new 
in his Fifth, Sixth and Seventh. He had 
to resign himself to a wait of from ten to 
twenty years for his each new work to 
be understood even by the most ad- 
vanced musical public. 

What has Sibelius done that had never 
been done before? If it is not too soon 
to say, and if it is not presumptuous 
of a layman to speak of it at all, the 
simplest way of putting it seems to be 
that, in his music, the themes are de- 
veloped from within themselves like 
the gradual unfolding of the petals of 
a rose — in contrast to much of the 
thematic development in the works of 
older symphonists which, at its weak- 
est, often suggested that the composer 
was doing his daily dozen. "Voces In- 
timae" (Inner Voices) is the title which 
Sibelius has given his one string quartet, 
and the distinguishing characteristic of 
his music is the peculiar depth, imagina- 
tive as well as structural, of its voices. 

There is in the man Sibelius a form 
of strength peculiarly rare in our time. 
"Renown," said Goethe to Eckermann, 
again in that volume of "Conversations" 
which Dr. Sibelius knows almost by 
heart, "renown is not to be sought, and 
all pursuit of it is vain. A person may 
indeed by skillful conduct and various 
artificial means make a sort of name for 
himself. But if the inner jewel is want- 
ing, all is vanity and will not last a day." 
Wherever in Finland Dr. Sibelius may 
be, and however sad his heart, his music 

"... and its foundations are 
"Laid beneath the tides of war," 

and it goes on sounding above the battle. 



EXHIBIT 

In the First Balcony Gallery are to be 
seen fifteen paintings from the now 
famous Capehart Collection. 

This collection is significant, for it 
represents a meeting of music and paint- 
ing. Each painting interprets a great 
musical composition, providing a visual 
approach to the appreciation of some of 
the world's most loved music. 



[580] 



Within the past ten years Americans — 
through such pioneering as the motion 
picture "Fantasia" — have become in- 
creasingly conscious of the close har- 
mony between sight and sound. To this 
growing awareness the Capehart Collec- 
tion has contributed materially. 

The Collection is exhibited here 
through the courtesy of the Capehart 
Division of the Farnsworth Television 
and Radio Corporation, and is a part of 
its program to extend the knowledge and 
appreciation of good music. 

The paintings comprising the present 
exhibit are: 

"Symphony No. 7" 
Dmitri Shostakovitch 
Interpreted by William Gropper 

"The Magic Flute" 
Wolfgang Mozart 
Interpreted by Julian Levi 

"From the New World Symphony" 
Antonin Dvorak 
Interpreted by Peter Hurd 

"Lac des Cygnes (Swan Lake)" 
Peter II j itch Tschaikowsky 
Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"Finlandia" 
Jan Sibelius 
Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"Fire Bird Suite" 

Igor Stravinsky 

Interpreted by Pavel Tchelitchew 

"Toccata and Fugue in D Minor" 
Johann Sebastian Bach 
Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"The Raindrop Prelude" 

Frederick Chopin 

Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"Symphony No. 5" 
Ludwig van Beethoven 
Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"Cathedrale Engloutie" 
Claude Achille Debussy 
Interpreted by Raymond Breinin 

"Scheherazade" 

Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakow 

Interpreted by Sergei Soudeikine 

"Symphony No. 1" 
Johannes Brahms 
Interpreted by Lewis Daniel 

"Hallelujah Chorus" from "Messiah" 
Georg Friedrich Handel 
Interpreted by Franklin Watkins 
"Symphony in D Minor" 
Cesar Franck 

Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 
"Wedding Day at Troldhaugen" 
Edvard Hagerup Grieg 
Interpreted by B. J. O. Nordfeldt 



I 



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nt.*ry C^<\&>*f> 
1W we Alert' vrasi 

with a gift from our 
gift balcony . . . cos- 
tume jewelry . . . 
gloves . . . bags . . . 
or exotic perfumes 
... in our sports 
shop myriad colors 
in knitted novelties 
...and blouses 
•"'•'I whether "grande" or 

"petite" . . . you'll 
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ture . . . 







[ 5 8i] 



presents 

Music a la Carte 

KOUSSEVITZKY 
RECORDINGS 



The music you love . . when and 
how you want it . . as played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

ALBUMS 

685 — Stravinsky — Capriccio $2.63 

566 — Prokofieff — Peter and the 
Wolf $3.68 

294 — Mendelssohn — Italian 
Symphony #4 $3.68 

319— Schubert — Symphony #8 

in B Minor $3.68 

327 — Tschaikowsky — Sym- 
phony #4 in F Minor $5.78 

730 — Brahms — Symphony #4 

in E Minor $5.25 

795— Mozart— Symphony #29 $5.25 
870— Liszt— Mefisto Waltz $2.63 

352— Ravel— Bolero $2.63 



347 — Tschaikowsky — Romeo 

and Juliet $3.68 

RECORDS 

7196— Prokofieff— Classical 
Symphony $1.05 

7197— Prokofieff— Classical 
Symphony ■ $1.05 

7143 — Ravel — Daphnis et 

Chlo6, #1 and 2 $1.05 

7144— Ravel— #3 and 4 $1.05 

14078 — Liadow — Enchanted 

Lake $1.05 

14415 — Moussorgosky — Intro- 
duction $1.05 

Mail Your Order 

or Call Hubbard 9400 

Fourth Floor 

[582] 



WILLIAM GROPPER, in six one- 
man shows from 1936 to 1941, proved 
himself a forceful commentator on 
national life, a master of design, a 
mature artist. A few years ago he com- 
pleted a series of lithographic studies of 
life and manners as demonstrated in the 
United States Senate and, with paintings 
and prints of the Loyalist fighters in 
Spain, of air bombings during the new 
European war, of workers and street 
characters, they were shown in 1941. 
Because he has twice been to Russia and 
has a strong affinity with the Soviet 
spirit, it was inevitable that he was 
commissioned to interpret Shostako- 
vich's Seventh Symphony. 

JULIAN LEVI studied at the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts, where 
he received a Cresson Traveling Scholar- 
ship in 1920. He visited Italy in the 
summer of 1920 and then left for France. 
There he exhibited in the Salon 
d'Automne and, after more than four 
years in that country, returned to 
America. He is a "modern" artist — one 
of the first to interpret Cezanne to 
Americans. Levi was elected a member 
of The American Group in 1933. 

PETER HURD was born in 1904 in 
New Mexico, where he spent his boy- 
hood. After two years at West Point, 
where he went down in mathematics but 
sold his first painting, Hurd left to be- 
come a painter. He studied with the 
famous illustrator N. C. Wyeth and con- 
cluded his studies at the Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts. He rapidly 
achieved success in the art world, win- 
ning important prizes as a printmaker as 
well as a painter. He has exhibited nu- 
merous times in New York and has been 
included in most of the major museum 
exhibitions in the country. Again a resi- 
dent in his native New Mexico, Hurd is 
known particularly for his brilliant can- 
vases of life in the Southwest, all of 
them alive with the sparkling clarity of 
the atmosphere so characteristic of that 
region. 

PAVEL TCHELITCHEW was born 
in Russia near the turn of the century. 
He early turned to art, and after a 
period of painting still-lifes, devoted 
himself to designs for the theater and 
the ballet. He worked in Berlin and 
Paris, and while in the latter city be- 
came associated with the Neo-Romantic 
painters, a group he soon headed. An 
extraordinarily gifted draftsman with an 
untrammeled imagination, he won inter- 
national fame as an avant-garde painter. 
He has painted exquisite, and sometimes 
fantastic, portraits of subjects famous in 



the arts. His work has been shown inter- 
nationally, and in 1942 he was accorded 
a full-dress exhibition by the Museum of 
Modern Art in New York. 

BERNARD LAMOTTE was born in 
Paris in 1903. His art study under Lucian 
Simon at the Ecole des Beaux Arts was 
followed by two years of painting in 
Tahiti and Martinique. Two months after 
his arrival in New York, in 1935, he 
was accorded a one-man exhibition by 
the famous Wildenstein Galleries. Since 
then he has executed numerous com- 
missions, among them sketching in war- 
shrouded Paris for Fortune Magazine. 
He has brilliantly illustrated several 
books, notably "Flight to Arras," written 
by his friend, Antoine de St. Exupery. 
Canvases by Lamotte are housed in 
many famous museums, including the 
Luxemburg in Paris. His work has 
appeared in important publications, and 
his musical interpretations for the Cape- 
hart Collection have added measurably 
to his stature as a sensitive, gifted 
painter. 

RAYMOND BREININ was born in 
Vitebsk, Russia, in 1909, and began his 
art studies at any early age in the studio 
of Uri Penn. Later he enrolled in the 
Vitebsk Academy of Art. The artist 
was brought to the United States by his 
family. Here, after settling in Chicago, 
Breinin attended public school, but was 
soon obliged to earn his own way in the 
world. This he did by a succession of 
jobs, among which were commercial 
lithography, theater poster painting and 
running a hotel elevator. All the while, 
however, Breinin continued his studies, 
attending Saturday classes at the Art 
Institute of Chicago and evening sessions 
at the Chicago Academy of Art. He was 
later employed by the WPA Art Pro- 
gram, and, once he was permitted to 
devote his full time to art, made rapid 
progress. Breinin executed public mural 
commissions and was a featured one-man 
exhibitor at the Downtown Gallery, New 
York, in 1939. National recognition came 
to him and today his canvases are in- 
cluded in the permanent collections of 
such important museums as the Metro- 
politan, the Brooklyn, the San Francisco, 
the Fogg Museum at Harvard, and the 
Museum of Modern Art. 

SERGEI SOUDEIKINE, born in 
Smolensk, spent his youth in Moscow, 
where at fourteen he entered the Mos- 
cow School of Painting, Sculpture and 
Architecture. He was seventeen when 
he executed his first commission 
for the stage, and twenty-one when 
he created the setting for Maeterlinck's 
{Continued on page 634) 



the 

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130 Newbury Street 
Boston, Massachusetts 

SHOWING A COLLECTION 

of daytime and dinner 

clothes by 

America's foremost 

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[583] 



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T. Jefferson Coolidge 
Chairman 



Channing H. Cox 
President 




Investment and Management 
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Custodian 

Trustee * Guardian 

Executor 



Allied with The First National Bank ^Boston 



[584 J 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Tenth ^Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, December 24, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, December 25, at 8:30 o'clock 



Handel .... Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra in B minor, No. 1 2 
Largo — Allegro; Larghetto; Largo — Allegro 

Sibelius Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 82 

I. ( Tempo molto moderato 

II. ( Allegro moderato, ma poco a poco stretto 

III. Andante mosso, quasi allegretto 

IV. Allegro molto 

INTERMISSION 

Schumann Concerto for Violoncello and Orchestra 

in A minor, Op. 129 
Nicht zu schnell — Langsam — Sehr lebhaft 

Berlioz Excerpts from "The Damnation of Faust," Op. 24 

I. Minuet of the Will-o'-the-Wisps 
II. Dance of the Sylphs 

III. Hungarian March (Rakoczy) 



SOLOIST 

GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon 
10:30 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



[585] 



/okdcrtK /vCah4i>^ 




COSTUME 



AND JEWELRY BY 



t^cetZu L^Ct 



FROM JORDAN'S 
EXCLUSIVE COLLECTION 
OF ORIGINALS BY THIS 
WORLD-FAMED DESIGNER 



HATTIE CARNEGIE SHOP — SECOND FLOOR]— JORDAN'S MAIN STORE 

[586] 



CONCERTO GROSSO, Op. 6, No. 12, in B minor 

By Georg Frideric Handel 

Born at Halle, February 23, 1685; died at London, April 14, 1759 



Handel composed his set of twelve concerti grossi for strings between September 
29 and October 30, 1739. A notice in the London Daily Post on October 29 reads: 
"This day are published proposals for printing by subscription with His Majesty's 
royal license and protection, Twelve Grand Concertos in seven parts, for four violins, 
a tenor, a violoncello, with a thorough-bass for the harpsichord. Composed by 
Mr. Handel. Price to subscribers two guineas. Ready to be delivered by April next. 
Subscriptions are taken by the author at his house in Brook Street, Hanover 
Square." The Concertos were published in the following April, and performed 
at the Theater Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

The most recent performances of this concerto at the Friday and Saturday con- 
certs of this orchestra were on February 6 and 7, 1942. 

In 1739, twenty years after Bach composed his Brandenburg concer- 
tos, Handel in London wrote these concerti grossi. Both composers 
based their style upon Italian models, whence instrumental music all 
derived at that time. Both knew their Corelli and Vivaldi: Handel had 
consorted with the former at Rome, and Bach had carefully copied the 
works of the latter. Yet it takes no dissertation to show how very differ- 



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THE ABC 
OF 
KEYBOARD HARMONY 



By THOMAS TAPPER, Litt. D. 

(Schmidt's Educational Series No. 448) Price $1.25 net 



Keyboard harmony is of the utmost practical value to students in any 
branch of music study — instrumental, vocal or theoretical. 

After necessary introductory material on intervals and scales, the book 
proceeds as soon as possible to the use of chords in free rhythmic forms. 



THE ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT CO., 120 Boylston St., Boston 



[587] 



ent are the orchestral concertos of the Capellmeister at Cothen, and the 
magnificent musician then so familiar in London's theatres, who may 
almost be said to have composed before his public. Purists have praised 
the carefully wrought three movement form of Bach to the detriment of 
Handel's in four or six movements, "oscillating between the suite and 
the sonata, with a glance toward the symphonic overture. It is this 
for which the theorists blame him," writes Romain Rolland,* one of 
Handel's most persuasive champions, "and it is this for which I praise 
him. For he does not seek to impose a uniform cast on his thoughts, 
but leaves it open to himself to fashion the form as he requires, and the 
framework varies accordingly, following his inclinations from day to 
day. The spontaneity of his thought, which has already been shown by 
the extreme rapidity with which the Concerti were composed — each in 
a single day at a single sitting, and several in a week — constitutes the 
great charm of these works. They are, in the words of Kretzschmar, 
grand impression pictures, translated into a form, at the same time 
precise and supple, in which the least change of emotion can make 
itself easily felt. Truly they are not all of equal value. Their conception 
itself, which depended in a way on mere momentary inspiration, is the 
explanation of this extreme inequality." 



"Handel" by Romain Rolland, translated by A. Eaglefield Hull. 



For Victory 

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[588] 



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[589] 



Indeed Handel turned out his concertos with great fluency. Besides 
the twelve concerti grossi there were six with wind instruments, haut- 
boy concertos they were called, and three sets of six with organ, mostly 
composed in this period which was profuse in operas and oratorios 
("Saul," "Israel in Egypt," and his setting of Dryden's "Ode for St. 
Cecilia's Day" were of 1739). Concertos were looked for and applauded 
between the parts of the oratorios, Handel presiding at the organ, or 
clavicembalo. Other musicians lost no opportunity to make use of them 
at their performances, and Charles Burney said of Handel's organ 
concertos: "public players on keyed instruments, as well as private, 
totally subsisted on these concertos for nearly thirty years." The com- 
poser published the concerti grossi by subscription in the following 
year — "at two guineas the twelve," wrote Burney. 

How the musicians were placed at a typical Handelian performance 
may be reconstructed from old prints and descriptions. Handel pre- 
sided at the harpsichord, establishing the tempi with his thorough-bass. 
Grouped about him, and directly under his eye, were the soloists, called 
the Concertino, consisting in the concerti grossi of two violins and 
'cello, who in turn must control the body of the orchestra, the ripieno 
or concerto grosso, for these players were directly behind the seated 
Handel. Romain Rolland (with Volbach) saw a possible advantage in 




Let us plan with you to keep your home glowing with 
warmth and hospitality. Fill your rooms with color and 
charm to better endure the remaining days of war 
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We will make over your good old pieces with in- 
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Order now for 1944 
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KEN. 8881 and 8882 



[59°] 



The Permanent Charity Fund 

and 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
either by will or in your lifetime, with the request 
that the income be paid to the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. The gifts so made will be held perpetually 
in trust by this Company as Trustee and the income 
will be paid to the Orchestra as long as the need exists. 
Thereafter the income will be used for some other 
worthy purpose of your choice; or failing that, one 

selected by the Committee 
which annually distributes 
the income of the Fund. 

We cordially invite you to 
make a thorough investiga- 
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Full information may be 
obtained by consulting our 
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[591] 




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[592] 



this arrangement. "In place of the quasi-military discipline of modern 
orchestras, controlled under the baton of a chief conductor, the differ- 
ent bodies of the Handelian orchestra governed one another with 
elasticity, and it was the incisive rhythm of the little Cembalo which 
put the whole mass into motion. Such a method avoided the mechan- 
ical stiffness of our performances. The danger was rather a certain 
wobbling without the powerful and infectious will-power of a chief 
such as Handel, and without the close sympathy of thought which was 
established between him and his capable sub-conductors of the Con- 
certino and of the Grosso. 

"It is this elasticity which should be aimed at in the instrumental 
works of Handel when they are executed nowadays." 



it U an a note ofi Uian enlhuMaisn that we pA&ient 

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[593] 



SYMPHONY, E-FLAT MAJOR, NO. 5, Op. 82 

By Jean Sibelius 

Born at Tavastehus, Finland, December 8, 1865; living at Jaxvenpaa 



The Fifth Symphony was composed in the last months of 1914, and first per- 
formed at Helsingfors, December 8, 1915. Sibelius revised the Symphony late in 
1916, and the revision was performed December 14 of that year. There was a 
second revision which brought the score into its final form in the autumn of 1919. 
In this form it was performed at Helsingfors, November 24, 1919, and repeated 
November 27 and 29. The first English performance was on February 12, 1921, 
the composer conducting. The first American performance was by the Philadelphia 
Orchestra, October 21, 1921. The first performance in Boston was by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, April 7, 1922. 

The most recent performance at these concerts was March 26, 1943. 

It is scored for two flutes, two clarinets, two oboes, two bassoons, four horns, 
three trumpets, three trombones, timpani and strings. 

after writing his Fourth Symphony in 1911, Sibelius returned to 
Ax. his programme music, and composed "The Dryad" in 1911, the 
"Scenes Historiques" in 1912, "The Bard" and "Luonnotar" in 1913, 
"Oceanides" in the spring of 1914. In May and June there came the 
distraction of his visit to America. Back in Finland in July, he aban- 




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doned an idea for another tone poem "King Fjalar," rejected pro- 
posals for an opera and a ballet. His musical thoughts were taking a 
symphonic trend once more, fixing his purpose upon what was to 
become the Fifth Symphony. 

"I cannot become a prolific writer," so he expressed himself in a 
letter at this time, when he was pressed for a ballet (which was the 
composer's best chance at that moment for immediate gain and fame). 
"It would mean killing all my reputation and my art. 1 have made 
my name in the world by straightforward means. I must go on in the 
same way. Perhaps I am too much of a hypochondriac. But to waste 
on a few pas a motif that would be excellently suited to symphonic 
composition!" 

The above quotation is taken from the book of Karl Ekman on 
Sibelius, an invaluable record of the course of the composer's thought 
and work, with remarks drawn from his diary and letters, or noted 
down in a series of conversations. Mr. Ekman shows how Sibelius 
composed his Fifth Symphony in response to an inner compulsion, 
and in spite of discouraging outward circumstances. 

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from his publishers in Germany, and from the royalties which should 
have come to him from performances. Sixteen "minor compositions," 
written between August and November, became to him a source of 
needed income, and a refuge from the dark period they marked. The 
Fifth Symphony, according to Mr. Ekman, was a reaction from these 
events. The composer, who had increasingly developed a personal ex- 
pression, independent of current musical tendencies, now withdrew 
quite definitely from the distraught external world into those inner 
symphonic springs which had always been the true source of his crea- 
tive growth. There seems to have been a resurgence of radiant and 
vital qualities in his art, a kind of symphonic affirmation which had 
been dormant since the Second Symphony of 1902, the more restrained 
but bright-voiced Third of 1908. In the Fifth Symphony, this mood 
found a new awakening, a new expansion. As the Fifth Symphony was 
taking shape, Sibelius wrote of "this life that I love so infinitely, a 
feeling that must stamp everything I compose." And the following 
lines are taken from his diary, at the end of September: "In a deep 
dell again. But I begin already dimly to see the mountain that I shall 
certainly ascend. . . .God opens his door for a moment and his or- 
chestra plays the fifth symphony." 

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usual disinclination to discuss his works. "I do not wish to give a 
reasoned exposition of the essence of symphony. I have expressed my 
opinion in my works. I should like, however, to emphasize a point 
that I consider essential: the directly symphonic is the compelling vein 
that goes through the whole. This in contrast to the depicting." 

The Fifth Symphony did indeed intensify the cleavage between the 
vividly descriptive music which was the invariable order of the day, 
and the thoughts of the lone symphonist, following some urge in no 
way connected with the public demand or general expectation of 
1915. It is only in recent years that music steeped in exotic legend has 
become quite outmoded, and the symphony unadorned once again 
eminently desirable. 

The new symphony was first performed on the occasion of the fif- 
tieth birthday of Sibelius, at a concert in Helsingfors, December 18, 
1915, Kajanus conducting. The composer was much feted. Through 
October and November, 1916, he took up the work again, rewrote it 



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in a more concentrated form. The revision was performed on Decem- 
ber 14, 1916, at Helsingfors, Sibelius conducting. In the summer of 
1917, Sibelius had thoughts of a new symphony, his first important 
work of the war period other than the Fifth Symphony. At the same 
time he contemplated a "new and final revision" of the Fifth. By the 
new year of 1918 the fever of social disruption had spread into Fin- 
land, and the composer, much harassed by troublous times, put his 
music regretfully aside. In the spring of 1918, peace restored, he re- 
turned to his scores with renewed energy. Soon the Sixth and Seventh 
Symphonies were both projected, and the serious work of complete 
revision of the Fifth embarked upon. He noted his progress in an 
interesting letter of May 20, 1918, which givos evidence of a revision 
drastic indeed: 

"My new works — partly sketched and planned. 

"The V Symphony in a new form, practically composed anew, I 



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work at daily. Movement I entirely new, movement II reminiscent of 
the old, movement III reminiscent of the end of the I movement of 
the old. Movement IV the old motifs, but stronger in revision. The 
whole, if I may say so, a vital climax to the end. Triumphal." And 
after characterizing the two new symphonies, he adds — "it looks as if 
I were to come out with all these three symphonies at the same time." 

But this was not to be. Time and careful revision were to go into 
each work before its maker was ready to relinquish it to his publisher. 
The final revision of the Fifth was not completed until the autumn 
of 1919. The Sixth was finished in 1923, the Seventh in 1924. Thus 
did the last three symphonies undergo a slow and laborious process 
of crystallization. "The final form of one's work," so Sibelius told his 
biographer, "is indeed dependent on powers that are stronger than 
one's self. Later on one can substantiate this or that, but on the whole, 
one is merely a tool. This wonderful logic — let us call it God — that 
governs a work of art is the forcing power." 

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orchestrations, lush chromatizations, Sibelius gave a symphony ele- 
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instrumentation. The themes at first hearing are so simple as to 
be quite featureless; the succession of movements makes no break 
with the past. However, any stigma of retrogression or academic 
severity is at once swept aside by the music itself. It goes without 
saying that Sibelius set himself exactly those means which the matter 
in hand required, and using them with consummate effectiveness 
created a sound structure of force, variety and grandeur which no 
richer approach could have bettered. Once embarked upon a move- 
ment, even from apparently insignificant beginnings, this unaccount- 
able spinner of tones becomes as if possessed with a rhythmic fragment 
or a simple melodic phrase. When his imagination is alight, vistas 
unroll; the unpredictable comes to pass. There was in Beethoven a 
very similar magic; and yet Sibelius could never be called an imitator. 
It is as if an enkinding spark passed in some strange way across a 
century. 

The thematic basis of the first movement is the opening phrase, set forth by the 
French horn. The whole exposition of this theme is confined to the winds, with 
drums. The second subject enters in woodwind octaves. The strings simultaneously 
enter with a characteristic background of rising tremolo figures, and in the back- 
ground, through the first part of the movement, they remain. A poignant melody foi 
the bassoon, again set off by the strings, brings a greater intensification (in develop- 



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ment) of the second subject. The climax is reached as the trumpets proclaim the 
motto of the initial theme, and the first movement progresses abruptly, but without 
break into the second, which in character is an unmistakable scherzo. The broad 
12-8 rhythm of the first movement naturally divides into short bars of triple rhythm 
(3-4) as a dance-like figure is at once established and maintained for the duration 
of the movement. The initial subject of the first movement is not long absent, and 
brings the concluding measures.* 

The slow movement consists of a tranquil and unvarying allegretto, for this 
symphony discloses no dark or agonized pages. The movement develops as if in 
variations a single theme of great simplicity and charm, which changes constantly 
in melodic contour, but keeps constant rhythmic iteration until the end. The 
theme sometimes divides from quarter notes into an elaboration of eighths, after 
the classic pattern. There are tonal clashes of seconds, which, however, are no more 
than piquant. The little five-bar coda in the wood winds is worthy of Beethoven 
or Schubert. 

Characteristic of the final movement (and of Sibelius in general) is its opening 
— a prolonged, whirring figure which at first gathers in the strings, and as it accu- 



* Cecil Gray has discussed at length whether these two continuous movements should 
be considered as one, and decided in favor of this point of view, for although they differ 
in character, he found them sufficiently integrated by the recurrence of the first theme in 
the second movement. Sibelius in his score left no clue, for he did not number the movements. 
The composer's intentions are subsequently revealed in his letter (quoted on page 601), 
where he clearly mentions the four movements by number. Mr. Gray is exonerated in that 
he considers the point really academic, and far less significant than the tendency in the 
jointure of the two toward the complete integration of the Seventh. 




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mulates momentum draws in the wind instruments. This introduces an even succes- 
sion of half-notes (first heard from the horns) which, of elemental simplicity in 
itself, is to dominate the movement. Another important subject is given to the wood 
winds and 'cellos against chords of the other strings and the horns. An episode in 
G-flat major (misterioso) for strings, muted and divided, leads to the triumphant 
coda of heroic proportions, and the repeated chords at the end, with tense pauses 
between. "The Finale," as Lawrence Gilman has written, "is the crown of the 
work, and is in many ways the most nobly imagined and nobly eloquent page that 
Sibelius has given us." 



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[611] 



CONCERTO FOR VIOLONCELLO AND ORCHESTRA, 

IN A MINOR, Op. 129 

By Robert Schumann 

Born at Zwickau in Saxony, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, near Bonn, 

July 29, 1856 



Schumann composed his Violoncello Concerto in October, 1850. It was probably 
not performed in his lifetime. The first recorded performance was one given at the 
Leipzig Conservatory to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of his birth. The date 
was June 9, i860, and the soloist, Ludwig Ebert. 

The following performances by the Boston Symphony Orchestra are listed: 
February 3, 1888 (Soloist, Fritz Giese); March 6, 1896 (Leo Schulz); October 7, 1910 
(Alwin Schroeder); January 30, 1920 (Jean Bedetti); April 17, 1931 (Gregor 
Piatigorsky) ; January 18, 1937, Monday Concert (Gaspar Cassado); January 23, 1942 
(Emanuel Feuermann) . 

The orchestration calls for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
two horns, two trumpets, timpani, and strings. 

It was in new surroundings, which might not have been considered 
favorable for composition, that Schumann wrote his Concerto for 
Violoncello. About two months before, he had installed himself at 
Diisseldorf. He had accepted the post of orchestral and choral leader, 
not without some hesitation, for Mendelssohn, who had conducted 
there, spoke not too well of the quality of the musicians. But the 
duties were light enough not to tax his strength or to intrude seriously 
upon the realm of the creative imagination. 

The Schumanns, taking their farewell of Dresden, accordingly 
moved to the Rhine city on September 2, 1850. Clara was distressed at 
the noisy lodgings they were at first compelled to take, because her 
husband's failing health required a peaceful environment. But the 
local musicians gave the pair a heartening welcome, with a serenade, 
a combined concert, supper and ball on September 7. Choral and or- 
chestral rehearsals began and promised well. This promise was not to 
be fulfilled; Schumann, unequal to the requirements of the position, 
later encountered friction which resulted in his forced resignation. 
But in October, 1850, Schumann was still optimistic over his new 
situation. Neither the necessity of adjustment to new routine, nor the 
strain of making new acquaintances prevented him from composing 
industriously. A visit to Cologne and the Cathedral there on Sep- 
tember 29 made its impress upon the "Rhenish" Symphony, which 
he composed in November. 

Before this he composed his concerto for violoncello and orchestra. 
The work was sketched between October 10 and 16; the full score 
completed by October 24. Clara Schumann entered in her diary, No- 

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vember 16: "Robert is now at work on something. I do not know 
what, for he has said nothing to me about it [this was the Symphony 
in E-flat]. Last month he composed a concerto for violoncello that 
pleased me very much. It seems to me to be written in true violon- 
cello style." There is another reference to the concerto the following 
year. "I have played Robert's violoncello concerto again," Mme. Schu- 
mann wrote, October 11, 1851, "and thus gave to myself a truly musi- 
cal and happy hour. The romantic quality, the vivacity, the freshness 
and the humor, and also the highly interesting interweaving of violon- 
cello and orchestra are indeed wholly ravishing, and what euphony 
and deep feeling there are in all the melodic passages!" 

Schumann himself does not seem to have been entirely satisfied. He 
contemplated a performance at one of the Diisseldorf concerts two 
years later (May, 1852), but apparently withdrew the work. He did 
not give it to a publisher until 1854, and corrected the proofs early 
in that year, shortly before the sorrowful event which made restraint 
necessary — his attempt at suicide by throwing himself into the river 
Rhine. 

The three movements of the concerto are played without a break. 
In the first, which is in A minor, nicht zn schnell, the two themes are 
first presented by the solo instrument — the first after a few measures 




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of orchestral introduction, the second after an intervening tutti. The 
slow movement, langsam, is in F major. It is based principally upon 
the expressive subject which the violoncello first discloses. An accel- 
erando passage for the solo 'cello leads into the finale (sehr lebhaft, 
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[617] 



GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 

Gregor Piatigorsky was born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia, in 1903. As 
a child he studied the violin with his father, but it was the 
violoncello which he mastered and made his instrument. Migrating 
to Berlin after the war, he became first violoncellist of the Berlin 
Philharmonic Orchestra under Wilhelm Furtwangler. Soon he found 
his field as a virtuoso. He first visited the United States in 1929, 
and on April 17, 1931, he played with the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra Schumann's Violoncello Concerto. On April 1, 1932, he played at 
the Haydn Memorial Concert of this orchestra, that composer's 
Violoncello Concerto in D major. On March 24, 1933, he played 
in Gaspar Cassado's transcription of Mozart's Horn Concerto, and 
in the same concert took the solo part in Strauss' "Don Quixote." 
On February 22, 1935, ne a g a *n appeared in Strauss' score, and also 
in the first performance of Berezowski's Concerto Lirico for Violon- 
cello and Orchestra. On December 24, 1936, he played the concerto of 
Dvorak. On January 27, 1939, he played in the First Concerto of 
Saint-Saens, and in Bloeh's "Schelomo." On March 8, 1940, he played 
in "Don Quixote," and in Prokofieff's Violoncello Concerto. On Feb- 
ruary 7, 1941 he played in the first performance of Hindemith's 
Violoncello Concerto. His most recent appearance was on December 
18, 1942, in Haydn's Concerto. 



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[619] 



ENTR'ACTE 

SOME REFLECTIONS ON MUSIC CRITICISM 

By Ralph Hill 

(Reprinted from the Musical Quarterly, April, 1943) 
{Concluded — first part in Bulletin No. 9.) 



In the first of four articles that appeared in The Sunday Times 
under the title pi "A Physiology of Musical Criticism," Mr. Newman 
discussed the problem of different readings of one work. He takes as 
his text the occasion when Casals conducted the London Symphony 
Orchestra in a performance of Schubert's C major Symphony. Casals 
is alleged to have taken the Andante con moto movement at a speed 
characteristically described by Mr. Newman as "all con moto and no 
andante." He suggested that the tempo would have been more cor- 
rectly marked in this instance as Allegro molto, and asked: 

Who is to say that Casals was wrong? If we tell him that our feeling 
of the music is against such a tempo he would reply that that is how he 
feels it, and his feeling is as good as ours. If we want to prove him 
wrong we must have recourse not merely to feelings, but to matters 
that are capable of proof. I believe it possible by careful analysis, 
to establish in each composer's work a physiology of style that is the 
basis of his psychology. I have suggested the title "finger-prints" for 
the elements in a composer's style that are purely personal to him. 



Mr. Newman claims that there is only one way that a composer's 
music can be interpreted and that is according to the composer's 
own conception. Any other conception is, to use Mr. Newman's word, 
"hanky-panky." Now apart from the fact that a composer's concep- 
tion of his own music is not necessarily the best one, many of the 
great composers of the past have for various reasons given only the 
smallest indication of what they really wanted. To imply, as Mr. 
Newman does, that his conception is at one with the composer's, 
and all who differ from him are wrong, is, as in the case of Mr. Turner, 
to claim omniscience. 

All tkis confusion of thought is largely due to attempting to inter- 
pret music in terms of emotion and psychological or spiritual values. 
Is not great music perfect enough in itself? Edwin Evans rightly says 
that "the composer receives an impression of the beautiful, or may 
be for that matter the grotesque, which to him appears translatable 
into sounds to be selected for their esthetic effect!" Quite so: the 
esthetic effect on us is all we are concerned with, not with the im- 
pressions—emotional, psychological, or spiritual— that may have in- 
spired the writing of the music. 

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[621] 



It is interesting to note that Constant Lambert in his book "Music 
Ho!" contradicts this view of the romantic conception of music: 
"Actually, the subjective spirit in which Wagner sat down to write 
an opera is a far more common attitude in the history of music than 
the objective spirit in which Bach sat down to write a concerto. 
Emotional and romantic expression in music is not a late and decadent 
excrescence, but a natural tradition that only became temporarily 
eclipsed in a few minor eighteenth-century works. Music, far from 
being an abstract art, is naturally emotional as painting is naturally 
representational/' This I believe to be erroneous for the simple reason 
that music cannot possibly be in itself emotional any more than 
whiskey can, but both music and whiskey under certain circum- 
stances can act upon the nerves in such a way that emotion is gen- 
erated. It is not uncommon to see a whiskey-sodden man in a state 
of emotional ecstasy, but no rational person would assert that the 
reason for the man's irrational behavior was because the whiskey 
he had drunk was imbued with emotion! Carroll C. Pratt, Professor of 
Psychology and Tutor of Philosophy at Harvard College, writes in 
"The Meaning of Music," a study in psychological esthetics: 

Music may very well be the food of love, it may be fit for treasons, 
stratagems and spoils, and be possessed of affections dark as Erebus; 
but these facts, if such they be, have little or no bearing upon the 



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[623] 



proper nature of music itself, except in so far as one may wish to 
enumerate them as among the things which music can do— as con- 
trasted with what music is. Music will also make some people tap 
their feet, but that fact bears about the same relation to music as the 
hole in the ground made by the falling stick of a skyrocket does to 
the gorgeous display which preceded it. And yet so badly mixed up 
in the minds of some people have these two relatively independent 
aspects of music become, that all too frequently the sole and great 
aim of music is said to be the arousal of the emotions— according to 
which standard the sphere-descended maid assumes a position very 
considerably inferior to the game of poker. 

What Mr. Lambert, Mr. Newman, and others who value music from 
an emotional point of view are doing (substitute "spiritual" for 
"emotional" if you like) is to read into such music a quality that has 
been falsely transferred from the subjective to the objective. 

It is a common occurrence that although a piece of music is in- 
tended to express a certain emotion or series of emotions listeners 
vary considerably in their response. Thus, as Frank Howes puts it in 
"The Borderland of Music and Psychology": ". . . the andante of a 
string quartet may suggest to one the tranquillity of the sea at Mar- 
gate on a summer morning, to another the tranquillity of religious 
resignation, to a third the quiet satisfaction of a piece of work well 
done; while the composer if pressed for the impulse which begot 



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the work, may say that it was some charming idyll which he read 
in a book of short stories." This is but another variation of Mr. New- 
man's problem concerning the varied views on the significance of 
Beethoven. Mr. Howes explains it by applying Ribot's theory of emo- 
tional memory "which claims that emotional states divested of all their 
accompanying circumstances can leave behind them a memory of 
themselves." If, then, we agree that music is able to arouse abstract 
emotions it is obvious that each listener will color such emotions with 
"his own particular images and ideas which have once formed the 
settings of such emotional states in each individual's experience." 
This to my mind is an entirely satisfactory explanation, but I am 
afraid I part company with Mr. Howes when he insists that music is 
divided into two distinct kinds— "pure" music and "program" music. 
Because Liszt tells us that his "Faust" Symphony is meant to express 
certain emotional characteristics of Faust, Gretchen, and Mephisto- 
pheles, does it make the music itself any more emotional in effect 
than if we knew nothing of its literary program? If the answer is in 
the affirmative, it is evident that the listener with the composer's 
connivance is adding to the music something extraneous, which, 
however apt from the point of view of symbolism, can neither add to 
nor detract from the value of the music as muic. The result is nothing 
more than a fine piece of music used as a literary code. But if the 



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[626] 



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answer is in the negative, then it is patent that the composer's pro- 
gram is entirely superfluous. 

To conclude these reflections, I will quote Sir Donald Tovey on 
the subject of "pure" or "absolute" music. 

Neither the humble lover nor the master of pure musical form need 
entertain any tolerance for theories that deny the supremacy of abso- 
lute music. But all history and experience go to prove that the abso- 
luteness of music is a result; that this result remains independent of 
circumstances that may happen to make music illustrative; and, more- 
over, that it is a result very imperfectly attained, if at all attainable, 
by methods that have not early familiarised the musician with the 
musical treatment of words. It is no mere accident that three of the 
four greatest masters of absolute music, Bach, Mozart and Brahms, 
spent more than half their time in setting words to music, and 
that the fourth, Beethoven, took enormous pains in the later part 
of his career to recover the art which he had almost neglected since 
he wrote exercises in Italian musical declamation for Salieri. On 
the other hand, the loudest propagandists of "programme-music," 
such as Berlioz, are often almost angrily inattentive to what they 
call the subjects of their works. The titles of Berlioz's "King Lear" 
Overture and "Harold" Symphony are mere instances of shameless 
mendacity; and if these compositions have obscurities as absolute 
music the titles do nothing to illuminate them. A quartet of Bee- 



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[629] 



thoven is obviously absolute music, and all attempts to illustrate it by 
Beethoven's biography or the French Revolution are merely senti- 
mental excuses for inattention. On the other hand, the "Pastoral 
Symphony" is just as absolute music; and the superior person who 
thinks it the worse for the fact that Beethoven not only enjoyed 
thunderstorms and cuckoos and nightingales, but made them recog- 
nizable in this music, is just as liable to the charge of petulantly 
ruminating on second-hand theories of art as the opposite type of 
listener is liable to the charge of extemporising sentimental romances 
instead of listening to the music. 

So far as I see it, Mr. Newman's "new criticism" is nothing more nor 
less than a development of Ruskinism, which praised or condemned a 
work on the interpretation of values that had nothing to do with 
the work at all. A picture was considered bad because it depicted a 
hideous face which expressed evil instead of goodness and therefore 
stimulated amoral thoughts. Wagner was condemned on the im- 
moral influences of his music. Sir George Macfarren, for instance, 
was of the opinion that Wagner's music was "working a great evil" 
and likened it to the "poison" and "vileness" sold at a gin-shop. 
On the other hand a work was praised and interpreted in such 
fanciful terms as the following, which is a description of the slow 
movement of Beethoven's Symphony No. 2 in D: 



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[630] 



We find ourselves transferred into the alluring realms of love. Un- 
able to resist the charm which envelops our existence, we are carried 
along the blissful stream of sweetest forgetfulness. Soft, plaintive 
notes are coming from youthful lover's heart (entering of the prin- 
cipal theme in the minor key), light, misty, clouds pass over the 
smiling, azure sky. Suddenly (with the bright chord of F major) the 
sun breaks through the mist once more (change to C major two bars 
later) the hero rouses himself from his love-dreams, he will flee from 
the sirens. 

And so on and so on. Certainly Mr. Newman dispenses with moral 
values and pretty little fancies, but substitutes instead a kind of 
pseudo-philosophical interpretation of the meaning of the music, which 
is essentially subjective in origin. For instance, Mr. Newman recently 
said that into the fifty-four measures of the Adagio of Beethoven's 
Quartet in F, Op. 135, "is compressed almost everything of which 
artists and saints have dreamed in their most ecstatically mystic 
moments." 

It seems an extraordinary thing that so many people are unable to 
"listen to the music." Surely the purely musical beauties of a fine work 
are sufficient in themselves and call for no explanations in terms of 
other experience. To ask or demand the meaning of a Beethoven 
quartet is to ask the meaning of a beautiful landscape. And the 

answer is: 

Beauty itself doth of itself persuade 
The eyes of men without an orator. 



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[6 3 l] 



THREE EXCERPTS from the "DAMNATION OF FAUST," 

Dramatic Legend, Op. 24 

("Minuet of the Will-of-the-Wisps," "Ballet of the Sylphs," and 

"Rakoczy March") 

By Hector Berlioz 
Born at La Cote Saint-Andre, December 11, 1803; died at Paris, March 9, 1869 



Berlioz composed his Dramatic Legend in 1845 and 1846. The first performance 
was at the Opera-Comique in Paris, December 6, 1846. The Cantata was first per- 
formed in America February 12, 1880, when Dr. Leopold Damrosch introduced it 
in New York. Mr. B. J. Lang conducted the first Boston performance on May 14 
of the same year. There were three performances by Mr. Lang in that year, and 
in the last two of them Georg Henschel and Lillian Bailey were soloists. The 
Cantata as a whole was performed at the concerts of the Boston Symphany Or- 
chestra on November 30, 1934, the Cecilia Society chorus assisting. 

The three excerpts were last performed in this series October 20, 1939. 

Berlioz based his text upon Gerard de Nerval's translation of Goethe's "Faust." 

The "Minuet of the Will-of-the-Wisps" is scored for two flutes and two piccolos, 
two oboes, two clarinets and bass clarinet, four bassoons, four horns, two trumpets 
and two cornets, three trombones, tympani (two players), triangle, cymbals and 
strings. 

The "Ballet of the Sylphs" is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two clarinets, two 
tympani, two harps and strings. 

The "March" is scored for two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, four 
bassoons, four horns, two trumpets and two cornets, three trombones and tuba, 
tympani, bass drum, cymbals, snare drum, triangle and strings. 

The "Minuet des Follets" and the "Ballet des Sylphes," instrumental 
interludes in Berlioz's cantata, "La Damnation de Faust" were both 
concerned with the conjurations of Mephistopheles. The minuet oc- 
curs in the score as the Evil One calls up the will-o'-the-wisps, "spirits 
of flickering flame," to bewilder Marguerite and beguile her heart, 
that she may succumb to Faust, whom she is to see for the first time. 



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[632] 



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[633] 



The fragile dance measures of the sylphs are used by Mephistopheles 
to fill the brain of the sleeping Faust with fair dreams of Marguerite, 
whom he is about to meet. There is a preparatory chorus wherein 
sylphs and gnomes, with Mephistopheles, soothe Faust to sleep, and 
then the "dance of the sylphs," with this direction: "The spirits of the 
air hover awhile around the slumbering Faust, then gradually dis- 
appear." 

The minuet in its first section is confined to the wind sections of 
the orchestra. The strings enter, and there is a long and free develop- 
ment. In a trio-like middle section, a new melodious theme is sung 
by the strings, the D major changed to D minor. This portion ends 
with tremolo chords increasing from piano to fortissimo, a fragmentary 
da capo, and a closing episode, swift and light, the piccolo uppermost. 
This presto is a witty reminder of the serenade of Mephistopheles. 
Just before the end, brief phrases from the minuet itself are swept 
away by the rushing and brilliant close. 

The "Ballet des Sylphes" is in an ethereal pianissimo throughout, 
with an elfin waltz melody sung by the violins over an unvarying 
pedal in the 'cellos and basses, and delicate accompaniment in the 
harps, wood winds and other strings. As the spirits of the air, having 
accomplished their purpose, gradually disappear, the already slight 
substance of the music evaporates into nothingness. 



{Concluded from page 5S3) 



La Soeur Beatrice. In the period follow- 
ing, at Moscow and Petrograd, he de- 
signed the settings for numerous operas, 
ballets and plays. Finally came the 
famous Chauve-Souris. When, in 1922, 
Balieff brought that brilliant production 
to America, he brought with him his al- 
ready renowned scenic artist, Soudeikine. 
Since Chauve-Souris days, the artist's 
name has been identified with the Metro- 
politan Opera Company. 

LEWIS DANIEL is a native of New 
York City. A student of Harry Wickey, 
Daniel was awarded three McDowell 
Colony Fellowship awards. He has been, 
for about five years, a member of the 
Society of American Etchers. His work 
is represented in many permanent col- 
lections, including the Whitney Museum 
of American Arts, Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy, Cooper Union, La Bibliotheque 
Nationale, New York Public Library, 
and the Library of Congress. 

FRANKLIN WATKINS was born in 
New York in 1894. He studied at the 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and 
also abroad. He is the only American 
painter, with the exception of Peter 
Blume, to win the first prize at Carnegie 
International Exhibition. This was in 

[634] 



1931. Seven years later he won first prize 
at the Corcoran Exhibition in Washing- 
ton. Paintings by Watkins hang in the 
National Gallery in London, Pannsyl- 
vania Museum, Academy of Fine Arts, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
Corcoran Galleries, and Carnegie Inter- 
national. 

B. J. O. NORDFELDT, a recognized 
figure on the American art scene, was 
born in Sweden in 1878. His training was 
varied, including, besides study at the 
Art Institute of Chicago, additional 
training under the guidance of painters 
in New York, Paris and in England. 
Nordfeldt is a regular solo exhibitor in 
New York and is seen in most major 
museum exhibitions in this country. He is 
known as a forceful colorist who handles 
his medium with individuality, simplicity 
and strength. An etcher and engraver as 
well as a painter, Nordfeldt has won 
prizes in many countries, and his work 
is today found in museums in Australia, 
France, Norway and Canada, in addition 
to museums in most parts of the United 
States. 

For information regarding reproduc- 
tions of the paintings in this exhibition 
see page 611. 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 



"Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERQE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Monday Evening, December 27, at 8:15 
Tuesday Afternoon, December 28, at 3 



Third Concerts of this Series 



Programme 

William Schuman Symphony for Strings 

Shostakovitch Symphony No. i 

INTERMISSION 

Schumann 'Cello Concerto 

Berlioz Three Excerpts from "The Damnation of Faust" 

SOLOIST 

GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 



Tickets at Box Office 



[635] 



Berlioz tells in his Memoirs how he wrote the "March" in Vienna, 
in one night, upon the Hungarian air "Rakoczy," which he had 
recently heard: "The extraordinary effect it produced at Pesth made 
me resolve to introduce it into Faust, by taking the liberty of placing 
my hero in Hungary at the opening of the act, and making him 
present at the march of a Hungarian army across the plain. A German 
critic considered it most extraordinary in me to have made Faust 
travel in such a place. I do not see why, and I should not have 
hesitated in the least to bring him in in any other direction if it would 
have benefited the piece. I had not bound myself to follow Goethe's 
plot, and the most eccentric travels may be attributed to such a per- 
sonage as Faust, without transgressing the bounds of possibility. 
Other German critics took up the same thesis, and attacked me with 
even greater violence about my modifications of Goethe's text and 
plot, just as though there were no other Faust but Goethe's, and as 
if it were possible to set the whole of such a poem to music without 
altering its arrangement. I was stupid enough to answer them in the 
preface to the 'Damnation of Faust.' I have often wondered why 
I was never reproached about the book of 'Romeo and Juliet,' which 
is not very like the immortal tragedy. No doubt because Shakespeare 
was not a German. Patriotism! Fetishism! Cretinism!" 



£Be ^t&cUwiineiliita - Drink 
America's Unexcelled Whiskey 



«m 



BLENDED STRAIGHT 
RYE WHISKIES 

90 proof ^ — *•**"" \^C^ 



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The straight whiskies 
in this product are 6 
years Or more old. 



Ax« 



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urt 



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ffrUsl; 1%<UU&/'<V(' 



/?&■ 



Established 1885 - Baltimore, Maryland 



[636] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Sixty-third Season, 1943-1944] 
SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 



Violins 



BURGIN, R. ELCUS, G. 

Concert-master tapley, r. 

THEODOROWICZ, J. 


LAUGA, N. KRIPS, A. 
KASSMAN, N. CHERKASSKY, P 


RISNIKOFF, V. 
Ll.IBOVICI, J. 


HANSEN, E. 
EISLER, D. 


DICKSON, H. 
PINFIELD, C. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 
BEALE, M. 




ZAZOFSKY, g. 
DUBBS, H. 


KNUDSON, C. 
MAYER, P. 


ZUNG, M. 
DIAMOND, S. 


LEVEEN, P. 
DEL SORDO, R. 




GORODETZKY, L. 
HILLYER, R. 


BRYANT, M. 
MURRAY, J. 


STONESTREET, L. 
ERKELENS, H. 


messina, s. 
seiniger, s. 

Violas 




TRAMPLER, W. 
SAUVLET, H. 


LEFRANC, J. 
CAUHAPE, J. 


FOUREL, G. 
ARTIERES, L. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, 
BERNARD, A. 


C. 


GROVER, H. 
WERNER, H. 




LEHNER, E. 
GERHARDT, S. 


KORNSAND, 
HUMPHREY 


E. 
, G. 






Violoncellos 






BEDETTI, J. 
ZIGHERA, A. 


LANGENDOEN, J. DROEGHMANS, H. ZEISE, K. 
ZIMBLER, J. NIELAND, 


M. 


FABRIZIO, E. 
MARJOLLET, L. 






Basses 






MOLEUX, G. 
DUFRESNE, G. 


JUHT, L. GREENBERG, H. GIRARD, H, 
FRANKEL, I. PORTNOI, H. PROSE, P. 




BARWICKI, J. 


Flutes 


Oboes 


Clarinets 




Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 
PAPPOUTSAKIS, 
KAPLAN, P. 


GILLET, F. 
J. DEVERGIE, J. 
LUKATSKY, J. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 
VALERIO, M. 
CARDILLO, P. 




ALLARD, R. 
PANENKA, e. 
LAUS, A. 


Piccolo 


English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 




Contra-Bassoon 


MADSEN, G. 


SPEYER, L. 


MAZZEO, R. 




PILLER, B. 


Horns 


Horns 


Trumpets 




Trombones 


VALKENIER, W. 
MACDONALD, W 
MEEK, H. 
KEANEY, P. 


LANNOYE, M. 
SHAPIRO, H. 
GEBHARDT, w. 


MAGER, G. 
LAFOSSE, M. 
VOISIN, R. L. 
VOISIN, R. 




RAICHMAN, J. 
HANSOTTE, l. 
COFFEY, J. 
OROSZ, J. 


Tuba 


Harps 


Timpani 




Percussion 


ADAM, E. 


ZIGHERA, B. 
CAUGHEY, E. 


SZULC, R. 

polster, m. 

Librarian 
rogers, l. j. 




STERNBURG, S. 
SMITH, C. 
ARCIERI, E. 



[637] 



Aaron Richmond presents 

MARGUERITE NAMARA 

SOPRANO in JORDAN HALL 
FRIDAY EVENING, JANUARY 7 

(No Boston Symphony concert on this date) 
(N. Y. Town Hall, Mon. Eve., Jan 23) 

"Her songs are not just numbers on a program — each is a separate 
experience. Such a personality rises above mere vocal gift, but when you 
add to it flawless technique and a great voice you — well you have 
Marguerite Namara." San Francisco Herald 



WILLIAM KAPELL 

who achieved a notable triumph as soloist with the Boston 

Symphony Orchestra recently, returns to Boston 

for his first local recital 

JORDAN HALL— SAT. AFT., JAN. 29 

TICKETS $2.20, $1.65, $1.10 GO ON SALE FRI. DEC. 17 

Boston Herald 

"It is not often a 21 -year old pianist literally * stops* a concert of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, but one did yesterday , and he will most 
certainly do so again tonight* His name is William Kapell, he's a native 
born New Yorker, and he seems to possess as formidable a technical 
and musical equipment as any newcomer (or oldcomev, for that matter) 
who ever appeared with the orchestra" 



OM wm n* m OPERA HOUSE 

P E n A DEC 26 THRU JAN - 2 
' ■■ '^ ^^ 11 Performances only 

SAN CARLO OPERA COMPANY 

FORTUNE GALLO, Managing Director 

Sun. Mat., Dec. 26 TRAVIATA 

Sun. Eve., Dec. 26 RIGOLETTO 

Mon. Eve., Dec. 27 BOHEME 

Tues. Eve., Dec. 28 AIDA 

Wed. Eve., Dec. 29 CARMEN 

Thur. Eve., Dec. 30 BARBER OF SEVILLE 

Fri. Eve., Dec. 31 CAVALLERIA AND PAGLIACCI 

Sat. Mat., Jan. 1 FAUST 

Sat. * Eve., Jan. 1 TRAVIATA 

Sun. Mat., Jan. 2 TOSCA 

Sun. Eve., Jan. 2 TROVATORE 

POPULAR PRICES $2.20 to 55c 

Orchestra, 1st 16 rows . . . $2.20 Balcony, 1st 5 rows 1.65 

Orchestra, balance 1.65 Balcony, balance 1.10 

Orchestra Circle, Entire . . 1.65 2nd Balcony, 1st 5 rows . . 1.10 

Box Seats 3.30 2nd Balcony, 8 rows 85 

2nd Balcony, balance .55 

BOX OFFICE SALE THIS MON. AT WILBUR THEATRE 

[638] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Eleventh Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, December 31, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, January 1, 1944, at 8:30 o'clock 



C. P. E. Bach Concerto in D major for Stringed Instruments 

(Arranged for Orchestra by Maximilian Steinberg) 

I. Allegro moderato 
II. Andante lento molto 
III. Allegro 

Martinu Concerto for Violin and Orchestra 

I. Andante — poco allegro — andante 
II. Moderato 
III. Poco allegro — allegro 

(First performance) 

INTERMISSION 

Brahms Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo 

II. Adagio non troppo 

III. Adagietto grazioso, quasi andantino 

IV. Allegro con spirito 

SOLOIST 

MISCHA ELMAN 

BALDWIN PIANO 

This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon; 
10:30 o'clock on Saturday Evening 

The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[639] 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 

Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
256 Huntington Avenue 

Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




I^S^Z 'S22555 "?255Kj*i(iisi?SiP -I 







mm yn mu 




[640] 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 
Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1943, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Jerome D. Greene 
Henry B. Sawyer 
Henry B. Cabot 
Philip R. Allen 
John Nicholas Brown 
Reginald C. Foster 
Alvan T. Fuller 
N. Penrose Hallo well 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 
M. A. De Wolfe Howe 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Roger I. Lee 
Richard C. Paine 
Bentley W. Warren 



G. E. Judd, Manager 



C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 



[ 64 1 1 




Your Will 

IS your will up-to-date? Does 
it take into consideration pres- 
ent tax laws ? To learn where 
you stand, we suggest that you 
have us prepare a Shawmut 
Estate Analysis for you. 

TRUST DEPARTMENT 

The Rational 

Shawmut Bank 

Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 

Listen to John Barry with "Frontline Headlines" 
WNAC — Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays at 7:45 p.m. 

^©#@@@@©@®©@@©@®#####©##@©@@#@©©©^' 
[642] 



SYMPHONIANA 

Exhibit 



EXHIBIT 

In the First Balcony Gallery are to be 
seen fifteen paintings from the now 
famous Capehart Collection. 

This collection is significant, for it 
represents a meeting of music and paint- 
ing. Each painting interprets a great 
musical composition, providing a visual 
approach to the appreciation of some of 
the world's most loved music. 

Within the past ten years Americans — 
through such pioneering as the motion 
picture "Fantasia" — have become in- 
creasingly conscious of the close har- 
mony between sight and sound. To this 
growing awareness the Capehart Collec- 
tion has contributed materially. 

The Collection is exhibited here 
through the courtesy of the Capehart 
Division of the Farnsworth Television 
and Radio Corporation, and is a part of 
its program to extend the knowledge and 
appreciation of good music. 

The paintings comprising the present 
exhibit are: 

"Symphony No. 7" 
Dmitri Shostakovitch 
Interpreted by William Gropper 

"The Magic Flute" 
Wolfgang Mozart 
Interpreted by Julian Levi 

"From the New World Symphony" 
Antonin Dvorak 
Interpreted by Peter Hurd 

"Lac des Cygnes (Swan Lake)" 

Peter II j itch Tschaikowsky 

Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"Finlandia" 

Jan Sibelius 

Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"Fire Bird Suite" 

Igor Stravinsky 

Interpreted by Pavel Tchelitchew 

"Toccata and Fugue in D Minor" 

Johann Sebastian Bach 

Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"The Raindrop Prelude" 

Frederick Chopin 

Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 




A Junior 
Dandy 

Suit of rayon faille with cutout 
neckline and bracelet length 
sleeves. A fine lingerie jabot is 
sewn fiat to a dickey, and tucked 
lingerie rims the sleeves. Brown, 
navy, black 39.90 

Sizes 9 to 17 
SECOND FLOOR 



h 






L6 43 ] 



Under the New 
Slim Silhouette 




Warner's LeGant Roy ale 
Sta-Up-Top 

The smartest girdle in the best qual- 
ity that can be obtained under war-time 
restrictions. 

The fine workmanship and detail of 
these superb foundations is in keeping 
with our purpose, in War or Peace, of 
offering only the best at whatever price 
your budget dictates. 

GIRDLES - BRAS - LINGERIE 
SWEATERS - SKIRTS - HOSIERY 
DRESSES - HATS - SPORTSWEAR 

50 TEMPLE PLACE 



"Symphony No. 5" 
Ludwig van Beethoven 
Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"Cathedrale Engloutie" 
Claude Achille Debussy 
Interpreted by Raymond Breinin 

"Scheherazade" 

Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakow 

Interpreted by Sergei Soudeikine 

"Symphony No. 1" 

Johannes Brahms 

Interpreted by Lewis Daniel 

"Hallelujah Chorus" from "Messiah" 
Georg Friedrich Handel 
Interpreted by Franklin Watkins 

"Symphony in D Minor" 

Cesar Franck 

Interpreted by Bernard Lamotte 

"Wedding Day at Troldhaugen" 
Edvard Hagerup Grieg 
Interpreted by B. J. O. Nordfeldt 

WILLIAM GROPPER, in six one- 
man shows from 1936 to 1941, proved 
himself a forceful commentator on 
national life, a master of design, a 
mature artist. A few years ago he com- 
pleted a series of lithographic studies of 
life and manners as demonstrated in the 
United States Senate and, with paintings 
and prints of the Loyalist fighters in 
Spain, of air bombings during the new 
European war, of workers and street 
characters, they were shown in 1941. 
Because he has twice been to Russia and 
has a strong affinity with the Soviet 
spirit, it was inevitable that he was 
commissioned to interpret Shostako- 
vich's Seventh Symphony. 

JULIAN LEVI studied at the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts, where 
he received a Cresson Traveling Scholar- 
ship in 1920. He visited Italy in the 
summer of 1920 and then left for France. 
There he exhibited in the Salon 
d'Automne and, after more than four 
years in that country, returned to 
America. He is a "modern" artist — one 
of the first to interpret Cezanne to 
Americans. Levi was elected a member 
of The American Group in 1933. 

PETER HURD was born in 1904 in 
New Mexico, where he spent his boy- 
hood. After two years at West Point, 



[644] 






where he went down in mathematics but 
sold his first painting, Hurd left to be- 
come a painter. He studied with the 
famous illustrator N. C. Wyeth and con- 
cluded his studies at the Pennsylvania 
Academy of the Fine Arts. He rapidly 
achieved success in the art world, win- 
ning important prizes as a printmaker as 
well as a painter. He has exhibited nu- 
merous times in New York and has been 
included in most of the major museum 
exhibitions in the country. Again a resi- 
dent in his native New Mexico, Hurd is 
known particularly for his brilliant can- 
vases of life in the Southwest, all of 
them alive with the sparkling clarity of 
the atmosphere so characteristic of that 
region. 

PAVEL TCHELITCHEW was born 
in Russia near the turn of the century. 
He early turned to art, and after a 
period of painting still-lifes, devoted 
himself to designs for the theater and 
the ballet. He worked in Berlin and 
Paris, and while in the latter city be- 
came associated with the Neo-Romantic 
painters, a group he soon headed. An 
extraordinarily gifted draftsman with an 
untrammeled imagination, he won inter- 
national fame as an avant-garde painter. 
He has painted exquisite, and sometimes 
fantastic, portraits of subjects famous in 
the arts. His work has been shown inter- 
nationally, and in 1942 he was accorded 
a full-dress exhibition by the Museum of 
Modern Art in New York. 

BERNARD LAMOTTE was born in 
Paris in 1903. His art study under Lucian 
Simon at the Ecole des Beaux Arts was 
followed by two years of painting in 
Tahiti and Martinique. Two months after 
his arrival in New York, in 1935, he 
was accorded a one-man exhibition by 
the famous Wildenstein Galleries. Since 
then he has executed numerous com- 
missions, among them sketching in war- 
shrouded Paris for Fortune Magazine. 
He has brilliantly illustrated several 
books, notably "Flight to Arras," written 
by his friend, Antoine de St. Exupery. 
Canvases by Lamotte are housed in 
many famous museums, including the 




not everyone is flying 
south this year . . . 

but a good many people are 
travelling to sunnier spheres this 
winter for a number of good rea- 
sons . . . there are the service 
wives and mothers who want to 
be with their loved ones ... 
there are people whose business 
takes them south every year . . . 
and there are those who have 
earned a rest and a chance to 
bask in the sun for a while . . . 

for all of you, Fredleys has as- 
sembled an outstanding collec- 
tion of southern wear clothes 
. . . from gay play togs to fine 
ensembles ... in short, we will 
clad you for all but your sleep- 
ing hours . . . 

do come in and let us show 
you . . . 







[645] 



presents 

Music a la Carte 

KOUSSEVITZKY 
RECORDINGS 



The music you love . . when and 
how you want it . . as played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

ALBUMS 

685 — Stravinsky — Capriccio $2.63 

566— Prokofieff — Peter and the 
Wolf $3.68 

294 — Mendelssohn — Italian 
Symphony #4 $3.68 

319 — Schubert — Symphony #8 

in B Minor $3.68 



327 — Tschaikowsky — Sym- 
phony #4 in F Minor 



$5.78 



730 — Brahms — Symphony #4 

in E Minor $5.25 

795— Mozart— Symphony #29 $5.25 

870— Liszt— Mefisto Waltz $2.63 

352— Ravel — Bolero $2.63 

347 — Tschaikowsky — Romeo 

and Juliet $3.68 

RECORDS 

7196 — Prokofieff — Classical 
Symphony $1.05 

7197 — Prokofieff — Classical 
Symphony $1.05 

7143 — Ravel — Daphnis et 

Chloe, #1 and 2 $1.05 

7144— Ravel— #3 and 4 $1.05 

14078 — Liadow — Enchanted 

Lake $1.05 

14415 — Moussorgosky — Intro- 
duction 

Mail Your Order 

or Call Hubbard 9400 

Fourth Floor 

[646] 



$1.05 



Luxemburg in Paris. His work has 
appeared in important publications, and 
his musical interpretations for the Cape- 
hart Collection have added measurably 

to his stature as a sensitive, gifted 
painter. 

RAYMOND BREININ was born in 
Vitebsk, Russia, in 1909, and began his 
art studies at any early age in the studio 
of Uri Penn. Later he enrolled in the 
Vitebsk Academy of Art. The artist 
was brought to the United States by his 
family. Here, after settling in Chicago, 
Breinin attended public school, but was 
soon obliged to earn his own way in the 
world. This he did by a succession of 
jobs, among which were commercial 
lithography, theater poster painting and 
running a hotel elevator. All the while, 
however, Breinin continued his studies, 
attending Saturday classes at the Art 
Institute of Chicago and evening sessions 
at the Chicago Academy of Art. He was 
later employed by the WPA Art Pro- 
gram, and, once he was permitted to 
devote his full time to art, made rapid 
progress. Breinin executed public mural 
commissions and was a featured one-man 
exhibitor at the Downtown Gallery, New 
York, in 1939. National recognition came 
to him and today his canvases are in- 
cluded in the permanent collections of 
such important museums as the Metro- 
politan, the Brooklyn, the San Francisco, 
the Fogg Museum at Harvard, and the 
Museum of Modern Art. 

SERGEI SOUDEIKINE, born in 
Smolensk, spent his youth in Moscow, 
where at fourteen he entered the Mos- 
cow School of Painting, Sculpture and 
Architecture. He was seventeen when 
he executed his first commission 
for the stage, and twenty-one when 
he created the setting for Maeterlinck's 
La Soeur Beatrice. In the period follow- 
ing, at Moscow and Petrograd, he de- 
signed the settings for numerous operas, 
ballets and plays. Finally came the 
famous Chauve-Souris. When, in 1922, 
Balieff brought that brilliant production 
to America, he brought with him his al- 
ready renowned scenic artist, Soudeikine. 



Since Chauve-Souris days, the artist's 
name has been identified with the Metro- 
politan Opera Company. 

LEWIS DANIEL is a native of New 
York City. A student of Harry Wickey, 
Daniel was awarded three McDowell 
Colony Fellowship awards. He has been, 
for about five years, a member of the 
Society of American Etchers. His work 
is represented in many permanent col- 
lections, including the Whitney Museum 
of American Arts, Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy, Cooper Union, La Bibliotheque 
Nationale, New York Public Library, 
and the Library of Congress. 

FRANKLIN WATKINS was born in 
New York in 1894. He studied at the 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and 
also abroad. He is the only American 
painter, with the exception of Peter 
Blume, to win the first prize at Carnegie 
International Exhibition. This was in 
1931. Seven years later he won first prize 
at the Corcoran Exhibition in Washing- 
ton. Paintings by Watkins hang in the 
National Gallery in London, Pennsyl- 
vania Museum, Academy of Fine Arts, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, 
Corcoran Galleries, and Carnegie Inter- 
national. 

B. J. O. NORDFELDT, a recognized 
figure on the American art scene, was 
born in Sweden in 1878. His training was 
varied, including, besides study at the 
Art Institute of Chicago, additional 
training under the guidance of painters 
in New York, Paris and in England. 
Nordfeldt is a regular solo exhibitor in 
New York and is seen in most major 
museum exhibitions in this country. He is 
known as a forceful colorist who handles 
his medium with individuality, simplicity 
and strength. An etcher and engraver as 
well as a painter, Nordfeldt has won 
prizes in many countries, and his work 
is today found in museums in Australia, 
France, Norway and Canada, in addition 
to museums in most parts of the United 
States. 

For information regarding reproduc- 
tions of the paintings in this exhibition 
see page 675. 



the 

house of tweed 

130 Newbury Street 
Boston, Massachusetts 

SHOWING A COLLECTION 

of daytime and dinner 

clothes by 

America's foremost 

Designers 



^fntkonu tl5lotta 
Prattle L^c 
r\ose vDawack 

B.J4.W, 



ameaie 



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raaae 



In our Custom Tailored 

Salon 

Suits - Coats 

of the finest 

Imported Woolens 

[647] 



Old Colony 

Trust Company 

ONE FEDERAL STREET, BOSTON 

T. Jefferson Coolidge Channing H. Cox 

Chairman President 




Investment and Management 
of Property 



Custodian 

Trustee * Guardian 

Executor 



<iAllied with The First National Bank a/Boston 



[6 4 8] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Eleventh Programme 



C. P. E. Bach Concerto in D major for Stringed Instruments 

(Arranged for Orchestra by Maximilian Steinberg) 

I. Allegro moderato 
II. Andante lento molto 
III. Allegro 

Mar tinu Concerto for Violin and Orchestra 

I. Andante — poco allegro — andante 
II. Moderato 

III. Poco allegro — allegro 

(First performance) 

INTERMISSION 

Brahms Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo 

II. Adagio non troppo 

III. Adagietto grazioso, quasi andantino 

IV. Allegro con spirito 



SOLOIST 

MISCHA ELMAN 



BALDWIN PIANO 



This programme will end about 4:30 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:30 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



[ 649 1 



/c^dt^/fL^ts^ 




COSTUME 

AND JEWELRY BY 



txctXXie ^cthyyvc^lc 



FROM JORDAN'S 



EXCLUSIVE COLLECTION 



OF ORIGINALS BY THIS 



WORLD-FAMED DESIGNER 



HATTIE CARNEGIE SHOP — SECOND FLOOR - JORDAN'S MAIN STORE 

[6 5 o] 



CONCERTO IN D MAJOR FOR STRINGS 
By Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach 

Born at Weimar, March 8, 1714; died at Hamburg, December 14, 1788 

Arranged for orchestra by Maximilian Steinberg 
Born at Vilna, July 4, 1883 



Emanuel Bach composed this concerto for viols (with a concertino of quinton, 
viola d'amore, viola da gamba and basse da viole). The date of composition is not 
ascertainable. The concerto was arranged by Maximilian Steinberg in 1909 for flute, 
two oboes (the second replaced in the slow movement by the English horn, 
labelled "oboe alto" in the score), bassoon, horn and strings. This arrangement 
was first performed in St. Petersburg October 23, 1909, under the direction of 
Alexander Siloti. It was first performed in this country at a concert of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, October 24, 1925. The piece was again performed December 
12, 1926, March 15, 1929, March 11, 1932, February 22, 1935, and December 24, 
1937. The following paragraph is printed in the score: "The manuscript of this 
concerto bears no indication which could fix the date of its composition. It is 
written in four parts for viols, concertante. The manuscript is in the collection of 
Charles Guillon at Bourg-en-Bresse, France. 

Dr. Koussevitzky became acquainted with this concerto as per- 
formed by the Society of Ancient Instruments in Paris, a set of 



• • • • for a better understanding 
of music 

MUSIC: AN ART AND A LANGUAGE 

(AUGMENTED AND REVISED EDITION) 

by WALTER R. SPALDING 

The author, for many years lecturer on Appreciation of Music 
at Harvard and Radcliffe, believes that the listener who will 
exert himself to quicken his sense of hearing, broaden his 
imagination, and strengthen his memory will greatly increase 
his musical enjoyment. 

The volume treats of musical form and structure, composers and their 
characteristics, includes detailed analysis of outstanding works, yet remains 
an interesting, readable, often witty book, which does not forget the spirit 
of a composition in discussing its form. 

Price $2.50 net 

THE ARTHUR P. SCHMIDT CO., 120 Boylston Street 

[651] 



viols then being used. It was at his suggestion that Maximilian Stein- 
berg made the present orchestral arrangement. 

Steinberg is known as Director of the Conservatory at Leningrad, 
in which position he succeeded Glazounov on the retirement of that 
musician. Steinberg received his musical education in this conserva- 
tory and studied under both Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazounov. He 
has composed a considerable amount of music, orchestral, vocal, 
chamber and for the stage. He married in 1908 the daughter of 
Rimsky-Korsakov, and it was for this occasion that Stravinsky, then 
a student at the Conservatory, composed his "Fireworks." 



Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, second son of Maria Barbara, was 
prepared for a legal career and attended the Universities at Leipzig 
and at Frankfort-on-the-Oder. But a Bach was not easily weaned from 
the traditional profession of his kind. Though his father did not see 
fit to put this one among his numerous sons through an intensive 
musical preparation, the boy attended the Thomasschule at Leipzig 
and no doubt learned still more at home, where his receptive facul- 
ties were alert to the much music-making that went on there. Being 
left-handed, he could not have played a bowed instrument, but from 
childhood acquitted himself admirably upon the clavier or organ. 



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It is told that at eleven he could glance over his father's shoulder and 
forthwith play the music he had seen. He composed profusely, even 
at this age. Completing his musical studies at Frankfort, he played 
for Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia as well as the Markgraf Friedrich 
Wilhelm, and had the reigning monarch been more musically inclined 
would probably have been installed as court musician. When the 
younger Friedrich succeeded his father in 1740 this musical enthusiast 
soon made the twenty-four-year-old Bach cembalist of the royal chapel. 
Emanuel Bach was never very contented with his position. Frederick 
the Great, being conservative in taste, favored the compositions of 
the brothers Graun in his court, and of Johann Joachim Quantz, his 
flute master, over the more daring and provocative concertos and 
sonatas of the Bach who was nevertheless by his wide repute a dis- 
tinct ornament to the royal retinue. Bach likewise found the endless 
necessity of accompanying his monarch's performances upon the flute 
burdensome. If Frederick, who was inclined to take liberties with 
tempo, imposed his kingly word upon questions of musical taste, Bach 
would stand staunchly for his rights. Karl Friedrich Fasch, his assistant, 
reported Bach's remark that "the King might be the autocrat of his 
kingdom, but enjoyed no prescriptive pre-eminence in the realm of 
art." 




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[654] 



The Permanent Charity Fund 

and 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
either by will or in your lifetime, with the request 
that the income be paid to the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. The gifts so made will be held perpetually 
in trust by this Company as Trustee and the income 
will be paid to the Orchestra as long as the need exists. 
Thereafter the income will be used for some other 
worthy purpose of your choice; or failing that, one 

selected by the Committee 
which annually distributes 
the income of the Fund. 

We cordially invite you to 
make a thorough investiga- 
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methods of the Permanent 
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obtained by consulting our 
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Bach sought release from his position, to which as a Prussian sub- 
ject (by marriage) he was bound. In 1767, he was at last given his 
freedom, and was promptly appointed by the Princess Amalia, the 
King's sister-in-law at Hamburg, as her Kapellmeister. For twenty-one 
years, until his death at the age of seventy-five, Emanuel Bach played 
the clavier and the organ, composed voluminously, and went down 
into history as "the Hamburg Bach." 

Thither Dr. Charles Burney made a pilgrimage in 1773, drawn by 
an ardent admiration for such of the music of this member of the 
Bach family as he had been able to hear or examine. Bach received 
him amiably, took him to his house where he entertained him, talked 
and played to him. The particulars are recounted interestingly and at 
length in the historian's "The Present State of Music in Germany": 

"M. Bach accompanied me to St. Catherine's Church, where I heard 
some very good music of his composition, very ill performed, and to 
a congregation wholly inattentive. This man was certainly born to 
write for great performers, and for a refined audience; but he now 
seems to be out of his element. There is a fluctuation in the arts of 
every city and country where they are cultivated, and this is not a 
bright period for music at Hamburg. 

"At church, and on the way home, we had a conversation, which 



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[657] 



was extremely interesting to me: he told me, that if he was in a place, 
where his compositions could be well executed, and well heard, he 
should certainly kill himself, by exertions to please. 'But adieu music! 
now,' he said, 'these are good people for society, and I enjoy more 
tranquillity and independence here, than at a court; after I was fifty, 
I gave the thing up, and said, let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we 
die! and I am now reconciled to my situation; except, indeed, when 
I meet with men of taste and discernment, who deserve better music 
than we can give them here; then, I blush for myself, and for my 
good friends, the Hamburghers.' 

"When I went to his house, I found with him three or four rational 
and well bred persons, his friends, besides his own family, consisting 
of Mrs. Bach, his eldest son, who practises the law, and his daughter.* 
The instant I entered, he conducted me up stairs into a large and 
elegant music room, furnished with pictures, drawings, and prints of 
more than a hundred and fifty eminent musicians; among whom, there 
are many Englishmen, and original portraits in oil of his father and 
grandfather. After I had looked at these, M. Bach was so obliging as 
to sit down to his Silbermann clavichord, and favorite instrument, 



*He has two sons, the youngest of whom studies painting at the academies of Leipzig and 
Dresden. — C. B. 




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upon which he played three or four of his choicest and most difficult 
compositions, with the delicacy, precision, and spirit, for which he is 
so justly celebrated among his countrymen. In the pathetic and slow 
movements, whenever he had a long note to express, he absolutely 
contrived to produce from his instrument a cry of sorrow and com- 
plaint such as can only be effected upon the clavichord, and perhaps 
by himself. 

"After dinner, which was elegantly served and cheerfully eaten, I 
prevailed upon him to sit down again to a clavichord, and he played, 
with little intermission, till nearly eleven o'clock at night. During 
this time, he grew so animated and possessed, that he not only played, 
but looked like one inspired. His eyes were fixed, his underlip fell, 
and drops of effervescence distilled from his countenance. He said if 
he were to be set to work frequently in this manner he should grow 
young again. He is now fifty-nine, rather short in stature, with black 
hair and eyes, and brown complexion, has a very animated counte- 
nance, and is of a cheerful and lively disposition. 

"His performance today convinced me of what I had suggested 
before from his works; that he is not only one of the greatest com- 
posers that ever existed, for keyed instruments, but the best player 




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[66l] 



in point of expression; for others, perhaps, have had as rapid execu- 
tion; however, he possesses every style; though he chiefly confines 
himself to the expressive. He is learned, I think, even beyond his 
father, whenever he pleases, and is far before him in variety of 
modulation; his fugues are always upon new and curious subjects, 
and treated with great art as well as genius. 

"He played to me, among many other things, his last six concertos, 
lately published by subscription, in which he has studied to be easy, 
frequently I think at the expense of his usual originality; however, 
the great musician appears in every movement, and these productions 
will probably be the better received, for resembling the music of this 
world more than his former pieces, which seem made for another 
region, or at least another century, when what is now thought difficult 
and far-fetched, will, perhaps, be familiar and natural. 

"There are several traits in the characters of the younger Scarlatti 
and Emanuel Bach, which bear a strong resemblance. Both were sons 
of great and popular composers, regarded as standards of perfection 
by all their contemporaries, except their own children, who dared to 
explore new ways to fame. Domenico Scarlatti, half a century ago, 
hazarded notes of taste and effect, at which other musicians have but 




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just arrived, and to which the public ear is but lately reconciled; 
Emanuel Bach, in like manner, seems to have outstript his age." 

As a matter of fact, Burney, an astute musician, a painstaking in- 
vestigator and recorder of tendencies, was no more than stating the 
universal point of view of his day when he found the music of Emanuel 
Bach in Hamburg and Christian Bach in London far more interest- 
ing, vital, and important than what their father had left. Old Bach 
seems to have been looked upon in the late eighteenth century as a 
phenomenal organist, a sort of musical sage who left some organ 
works no one could play and some church music in a florid, poly- 
phonic style once admired but long since outmoded. 

Sebastian Bach's organ music, in Burney's opinion, courted "what 
was new and difficult, without the least attention to nature and 
facility." His vocal writing was "dry and labored," as compared to 
the "taste" his son displayed. The writer highly praised one of 
Emanuel's twenty-two settings of the "Passion," being apparently not 



(Reprint from 1900 Symphony Program) 



THEL.1900 



DRAPE RIES AT PAINE'S. 

We are taking orders this month for the 
drapery work in a score of different houses 
which are to be ready for occupancy in the 
spring. 

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can be ordered now, the fabrics all selected, and the 
work done in midwinter under our January scale of 
prices. This saves you quite a percentage in the cost 
of labor. 

LACE CURTAINS. 

We are selling pretty, modest curtains for 
#5 and from this to $50. We have a great 
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lace. Large, showy patterns are not much 
called for. 

PORTIERE STUFFS, 

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but we show rich red Persian velvet at $3 a yard for colonial halls, and a beautiful tapes- 
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[664] 



even aware that the elder Bach had himself done something note- 
worthy in that line. Nor had he anything to say for the chamber 
music of the father, giving all his attention to the son's "more elegant 
and expressive compositions." 

Burney fully appreciated the importance of Emanuel Bach's in- 
novations. "If Haydn even looked up to any great master as a model, 
it seems to have been C. P. Em. Bach: the bold modulation, rests, 
pauses, free use of semitones, and unexpected flights of Haydn re- 
mind us frequently of Bach's early works more than of any other 
composer. . . . Em. Bach used to be censured for his extraneous 
modulation, crudities, and difficulties; but, like the hard words of 
Dr. Johnson, to which the public by degrees became reconciled, every 
German composer takes the same liberties now as Bach, and every 
English writer uses Johnson's language with impunity." 

Emanuel Bach's plain leadership in the establishing of the sonata 
form is the more impressive when one notes the veneration in which 



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[665] 



he was held by his successors. Hadyn deliberately devoted himself to 
the assimilation of his form, and Mozart acknowledged in the strong- 
est terms the value to posterity of his book, "Search Toward the 
True Method of Clavier Playing." There is no denying that he gave 
a great initial impulsion toward a fluent and rounded style of in- 
strumental manipulation and thematic development. He was one 
of those musicians who come at a moment when a new vista in 
music is due to be opened up; lacking perhaps greatness in the full 
sense, he yet possessed enough daring and adventure to reach intui- 
tively toward the new way which is in any case on the verge of dis- 
closure. Such a composer has shaken off the shackles of outworn tra- 
dition, but he has not the stature to create a new world for that he 
has rejected. He dreams and gropes, has recourse to the intuitive art 
of improvisation — that trancelike state of mind upon which com- 
posers once relied, but which is now lost to the world. Reichardt, 
who visited Emanuel Bach at Hamburg in 1774, observed him in the 
very act of improvisation: "Bach would become lost for hours in new 
ideas and a sea of fresh modulations. . . . His soul seemed absent 
from the earth. His eyes swam as though in some delicious dream. 
His lower lip drooped over his chin, his face and form bowed ap- 
parently lifeless over the keyboard." 



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[666] 




The method of weaving in the Orient has changed 
little in the last thousand years. The manner in 
which the pile is tied to the warp threads accounts 
for the durability of an Oriental rug — that and the 
quality of the materials used and the dye with which 
it is colored. In the finer rugs the knots are so close 
that only by careful examination can they be seen. 



A 



skilful weaver can tie from twelve to four- 
teen knots a minute or from seven to eight 
thousand knots a day. This equals from fourteen 
square inches to three square feet, depending on the fineness of the 
rug. 



The loom consists merely of four poles joined together by ropes. 
On these poles the warp threads are strung, being kept at the right 
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(to be continued) 
(No. 4 in a series of advertisements) 



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[ 667 ] 



CONCERTO FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA 

By Bohuslav Martinu 

Born December 18, 1890, at Policka, Czechoslovakia 



Martinu 's Violin Concerto, completed last April, is here having its first per- 
formances. 

The orchestration calls for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four 
horns, three trumpets, three trombones and tuba, timpani, percussion, and strings. 

The composer has kindly written for this programme the following 
notes about his new work and the problems with which he was 
confronted while writing it: 

"Last season when the Boston Symphony Orchestra visited New 
York, Mischa Elman heard my First Symphony. The next day he asked 
me to write for him a Violin Concerto. At first I was puzzled and not 
at all certain about undertaking it, because I had only just finished 
another Violin Concerto (Chamber Concerto, Edgartown, Massachu- 
setts) and also another work for violin, a 'Suite Concertante' for 
Samuel Dushkin, a piece which I had begun in Europe, in Paris. I 




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was also entertaining the plan of writing a Concerto for Two Pianos 
for Luboshutz and Nemenoff, whom I had met at the Berkshire Sym- 
phonic Festival. But since the form of a Violin Concerto had been in 
my mind for a long while, I already had certain musical ideas on the 
subject, which became much more definite when I listened to Mischa 
Elman in his studio. Then I accepted the proposition, and towards 
the end of February, hardly a day after I had finished the Two-Piano 
Concerto, I began the Violin Concerto. I completed it on the 26th of 
April and presented it to Mischa Elman. At his suggestion I added 
the cadenza at the end of the first part. 

"The idea for this concerto presented itself to me with the following 
order — Andante, a broad lyric song of great intensity which leads to 
an Allegro exploiting the technique and the virtuosity of the instru- 
ment, and has the aspect of a single-movement composition. The 
definitive form complies with concerto structure. I have preserved its 
grave character, lyric in the first part; and even in the middle Allegro 
the Andante theme returns to end the movement. The second part is a 
sort of point of rest, a bridge progressing towards the Allegro finale. 
It is an Intermezzo moderato, almost bucolic, accompanied by only 




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a part of the orchestra and progressing attacca into the finale, which 
is Allegro. This favors the technique of the violin, which is interrupted 
by broad and massive 'tutti' passages. The concerto ends with a sort of 
'stretto/ Allegro vivo. 

"I should like to add a few points which came to me as I composed 
it and which might throw a little light on that most difficult problem 
— writing a violin concerto. As with all compositions for solo instru- 
ment, the solo violin requires a quite special 'state of mind.' A piano 
solo allows us to preserve the image of the musical thought in its full 
scope, that is to say, almost complete with harmony, polyphony, color 
and the dynamics of orchestral structure. For the violin solo, all which 
we wish to express must be contained in a single line, which must also 
imply the rest. To put it differently, the single part of the violin solo 
must in itself already contain the whole musical scheme, the whole 
concerto. We have in musical literature certain types of violin con- 
certos which I could define as concertos which exploit beauty of tone 
against an orchestral background (as in Mozart), or a concerto which 
exploits the sonority of the solo instrument together with the orchestra; 
there are also those where the violin is exploited from a professional 
point of view without much originality of composition. Finally, there 
are those concertos in which one exploits the orchestra and adds a 
violin solo, without paying too much attention to its inherent tonal 



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THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

under the direction of 

You will be delighted when you see the long list of 
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beauties. It is at this point that the problem becomes confused. In 
working with the orchestra we have lost the capacity of 'thinking solo.' 
We become accustomed to having at our disposal the variegated pos- 
sibilities of the orchestra, which more often than not become an in- 
ducement to 'express something'; that is to say, the emotional ele- 
ments, inevitably tending toward intensity of accent and dynamics, 
result in a confusion as these elements serve to intensify not the real 
musical content but the dynamics of tone, sound and power. This we 
can do with an orchestra, but we cannot do it so easily with a solo in- 
strument, least of all with a violin solo. A melody whose structure 
fulfills the function of a string orchestra is not necessarily a melody 
which will be adequate for the violin solo. The dynamics, nuances, 
and the difference between p-mf-f of the violin solo are limited and 
in no way comparable to the dynamic power of the string orchestra. 
In short, we confound a single violin with a group of violins, with a 
resulting conflict between desire and ability. It is just here that a 
composition requires a different state of mind for its whole structure 
and for the content of the musical idea. Here the motivation of the 
actual music — dynamic, romantic — cannot help us much. We find 
ourselves before an old problem of music as music, 'absolute music,' 

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[674] 



REPRODUCTIONS OF PAINTINGS 
IN THE CAPEHART COLLECTION 



To extend the knowledge that music has the power to create new moods 
— famous artists have been commissioned to interpret a number of the 
world's most enchanting musical compositions. 

FIFTEEN OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTINGS ARE 
NOW ON EXHIBIT IN THE FIRST BALCONY GALLERY 

Reproductions of some of these paintings are now available in Coatroom 
C on the first balcony. Printed in four colors, with three dimensional 
inks, on pure white, heavy stock, these reproductions are remarkably 
faithful to the original paintings. Over-all size 814 inches by 12% 
inches. Average picture size, approximately 7 inches by 8 inches. The 
contents of each portfolio are: 

Portfolio "A" 

Subjects: "Scheherazade" 

"Finlandia" "La Vie de Boheme" 

"The Magic Flute" "The Raindrop Prelude" 

"Hallelujah Chorus" "Symphony No. 5"— Beethoven 

"Toccata and Fugue in D Minor" "From the New World Symphony" 

Portfolio "B" 

Subjects: "Wedding Day at Troldhaugen" 

"Lac des Cygnes (Swan Lake)" "Symphony in D Minor"— Franck 

"Cath£drale Engloutie" "Fire-Bird Suite" 

Price $1.00 per Portfolio 



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[675] 



as against expressive music (in the literary sense of expressing 'some- 
thing'). But this is a problem where misunderstanding so often arises 
from the confusion of 'words.' My only wish has been to touch upon 
one of the questions which is bound to occupy a composer when he 
undertakes a violin concerto, and it is not to be assumed from what 
I have said that I have solved this problem in my composition. I am 
far from making any such pretension. My wish was to draw attention 
to this question which has filled my thoughts, and the thoughts of 
many others, during composition." 



Martinu's Symphony No. 1 had its first performance by this or- 
chestra, November 13, 1942. Martinu is also remembered by his Con- 
certo Grosso for chamber orchestra, composed in 1938, first performed 
at these concerts November 14, 1941, and repeated January 2, 1942. 
The composer's "Piece for String Quartet with Orchestra" was played 
December 22, 1932. "La Bagarre" ("The Tumult") also had its first 
performance by this orchestra, November 18, 1927. This piece com- 
memorated the first flight of Charles Lindbergh across the Atlantic 



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[677J 



Ocean. "La Symphonie" (another first performance) was played De- 
cember 14, 1928. 

Other orchestral works of Martinu include "Three Ricercari" 
(1938); his "Double Concerto" for two string orchestras, piano and 
timpani (1938); "Serenade" for chamber orchestra (1930); and his 
"Partita" for strings (1934). There are two Concertos and a Con- 
certino for piano; a Concerto for Violin with string orchestra, piano 
and timpani, and a "Suite Concertante" for violin; "Duo Concertante" 
for two violins and orchestra; a Concerto for 'Cello and Orchestra, 
Concertos for harpsichord and chamber orchestra, for flute, violin and 
orchestra, and for piano trio with strings; Concerto da Camera, for 
violin; Concerto for two pianos with orchestra; a "Sinfonia" for piano 
solo and small orchestra. Other works recently composed, and per- 
formed elsewhere in the present season, are the Symphony No. 2 and 
the "Memorial to Lidice." 

Operas include "Le Soldat et la Dancing Girl" (1928); "Les Larmes 

du Couteau" (1929); "The Miracle of Our Lady" (1936); "Julietta" 

(1938); "The Suburban Theater," and "The Day of Kindness." Two 

short operas, "The Voice of the Forest" and "Comedy on a Bridge," 

were written for radio performance. There are several ballets: "Istar"; 




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"Who is the Most Powerful in the World"; "Storm"; "Spalicek"; 
"Checkmating the King"; and "The Kitchen Revue." 

The chamber music includes five String Quartets; String Quintet 
and Piano Quintet; String Sextet (Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge award); 
String Trio; Piano Trio; Sonata da camera for Violoncello and small 
orchestra, and Sonatas for several combinations; Wind Ensembles; 
and pieces for piano solo. 

For chorus he has written "La Messe aux Champs d'Honneur," 
Madrigals (unaccompanied), and "Bouquet of Flowers" for chorus, 
solo voices and orchestra. 

His most recent composition is "Madrigal Stanzas," five pieces for 
violin and piano, written for Albert Enstein, and dedicated to him. 



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[ 681 ] 



MISCHA ELMAN 

Mischa Elman was born in Stalnoje, Russia, January 20, 1891. As a 
small child he studied violin in Odessa with Alexander Fiede- 
mann and made his first public appearance at the age of seven at a 
school concert. In 1901 he was taken to St. Petersburg to study with Leo- 
pold Auer at the Conservatory there. An appearance in Berlin in 1904 
marked the beginning of his long public career. Mr. Elman had a 
considerable reputation in Europe when he came to this country in 
1908, making his debut with the Russian Symphony Orchestra in New 
York on December 10. He has made many tours of this country and 
other parts of the world. His first appearance with the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra was on January 1, 1909 (Tchaikovsky's Concerto). 
He has since appeared at these concerts April 4, 1909 (Pension Fund 
Concert, Beethoven's Concerto and Saint-Saens' Introduction and 
Rondo Capriccioso); January 7, 1910 (Dvorak's Concerto), and Jan- 
uary 6, 1911 (Lalo's Symphonie Espagnole). 




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[683] 



ENTR'ACTE 
JUSTICE TO COMPOSERS 

By Serge Koussevitzky 

(The following open letter, written last summer, presents a plan for the support 
of the composer.) 



Ir is hardly necessary to stress the preeminent place that music holds 
in our world today — not alone in the world of culture, not alone 
in the art history of mankind, but also in the daily life of the average 
man. 

The development of music as an art and as a profession is indeed 
phenomenal. Innumerable music organizations, conservatories, or- 
chestras and federations have been established and are constantly 
growing. Conductors, singers and virtuoso artists, great and less great, 
come to light, to glory, to wealth. Orchestras and institutions rise to 
historic foreground and fame. Radio, phonograph and publishing 
corporations prosper. Music federations expand and enlist hundreds 
of thousands of members. 

To be sure, music — a free and living art — needs the bard, the 



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minstrel, the performer. It needs the ever-widening realm and new 
vistas opened up by interpretative art. To be sure, the performing 
musician deserves the protection which his profession affords him; 
the artist-interpreter deserves recognition of the services he renders 
to the art of his election. 

Composer's Reward 

But what is the reward of the creative musician — the one who gave 
birth to musical art, whose work and genius are responsible for this 
extraordinary prosperity and flowering of musical life — and who has 
brought the beauty and joy of music to the world? What has been 
the fate of the composer of the past? What is being done for the 
composer of our day? . . . Centuries-long injustice has been permitted 
and is sustained throughout the world. 

We deplore the tragic instances of the great composers of the past 
who were destined to live and die in privation, poverty and obscurity. 
And too often poverty remained the lot of those who were recog- 
nized as masters and accepted as men of light and leading. Those 
Titans, who today are the pillars upholding the towering structure 
of musical art, were ignored by their contemporaries and allowed to 
die of heartbreak and misery. The monuments built in their honor, 



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[687] 



the deepening recognition of their immortality, will not erase the 
injustice allowed in their day. 

Repaying a Debt 

With the turn of centuries, how much has been done for the crea- 
tive artist to whom millions of past and present musicians owe their 
true place in life, their happiness and their welfare? Very little — by 
far not enough. If the present-day composer is not dying of heart- 
break and hunger, he has, nevertheless, to struggle along and to earn 
his living through other ways and sources than his God-given gift: as 
a composer he cannot make a living. He is forced to go out and teach, 
lecture, and crowd his days with trifling obligations which kill his 
time, his energies, his creative art. If his present-day life is less tragic, 
it is none the less hard, unfair and maladjusted. 

It is time to wake up to our responsibility toward the composer 
and to repay the debt long standing we owe him. It is high time to 
shake off the passive acceptance of former mistakes of our forebears 
for which we now blush. Today we have no use for half measures, 
for timid scattered efforts; determination and unity are the only 
means to win in a cause which must be won by us, so that the coming 
generations will not in turn blush for our failure. 



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After the Concert . • • 
Enjoy a refreshing Bacardi and Sod 





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It is significant that an imperative move demanding a readjustment 
of cultural life and values comes in the midst of the greatest world 
upheaval and outward destruction. Indeed, in less than half of the 
twentieth century we have learned a greater living lesson than vol- 
umes of the past history could ever teach us. 

Russia's Role 

To the rescue of the culture of the Old World come young, vigor- 
ous, fighting countries. Russia, for one, sensed the importance of art 
in this era of basic life reconstruction and offers every means of pro- 
tection to her creative artists. 

America, the leading country of the Western Hemisphere, is hold- 
ing high the torch of future hopes and ideals. The war of destruc- 
tion is not affecting her pioneering tradition bequeathed by the daring 
spirit of her forefathers. On the contrary, America is fully conscious 
of the mission to restore the rights of men, to protect the intellectual, 
creative and cultural forces from the deadly grip of Teutonic strangu- 
lation. 

An appeal on behalf of the composer is in line with deep-rooted 
American tradition. It manifests the true cultural standing and 
crystallizes the spirit of the nation: for only a country of surging 



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aspirations can at a time of world cataclysm proclaim ideals of en- 
lightenment and justice. This is a challenge to the war of destruction. 

The appeal for the composer must embrace the whole musical 
world, reach the musician in every field, the music lover and sponsor, 
far and wide. It will be a timely and major step forward. It calls for 
the invaluable support of great music federations; for the joint co- 
operation of organizations and institutions vitally active in musical 
life; for the widespread response of all those who derive enjoyment 
and inspiration from music. 

It calls for unity of action as it calls for vision of justice. We musi- 
cians must be first to stand by the composer because we owe him most. 
We have ripened to this consciousness. Therefore I say — the time is 
ripe to act. 

Musicians Must Aid 

In this great country alone there are many thousands of performing 
musicians. A small annual donation of $1 each will bring in a sub- 
stantial permanent income and, with the joint co-operation and con- 
tributions of other groups and organizations, will go a long way 
toward establishing a composers' fund. A far-reaching and wise plan 



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[6 93 ] 



must be worked out for a proper distribution of the fund, covering 
the essential and immediate needs of the living composer. A careful 
study and preparation of the plan must take place at a special con- 
ference to be called in the near future and attended by the leading 
representatives of the musical world. For that purpose an organizing 
committee must be formed without delay. 

Whatever action we take now will lay the groundwork for the 
impelling and just cause of the composer. Embracing that cause, we 
shall ascend to new heights; we shall gain in confidence, in self-esteem 
and in fortitude. 

Serge Koussevitzky. 



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[694] 



SYMPHONY NO. 2, IN D MAJOR, Op. 73 
By Johannes Brahms 

Born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897 



The Second Symphony was composed in 1877, an d mst performed in Vienna on 
December 30 of the same year. A performance followed at Leipzig on January 10, 
1878, Brahms conducting. Joachim conducted it at the Rhine Festival in Diisseldorf, 
and the composer led the symphony in his native Hamburg, in the same year. 
France first heard it at a popular concert in Paris, November 21, 1880. The first 
American performance was given by Theodore Thomas in New York, October 3, 
1878. The Harvard Musical Association introduced it to Boston on January 9, 1879. 
It was then that John S. D wight committed himself to the much quoted opinion 
that "Sterndale Bennett could have written a better symphony." Sir George Henschel 
included this symphony in this orchestra's first season (February 24, 1882). 

The last performance by this orchestra was on December 18, 1942. 

The orchestration: two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, 
two trumpets, three trombones, tuba, timpani, strings. 

after withholding the uncompleted manuscript of his First Sym- 
/x phony for fourteen years, Brahms followed it with another in 
short order. The First he gave to Carlsruhe for performance Novem- 
ber 4, 1876. Almost exactly a year later Brahms entrusted his Second 
to the more important Vienna Philharmonic, through which, on 
December 30, 1877, Hans Richter first disclosed it to the world. 

Brahms, who in his obscure twenties had been proclaimed by 
Schumann as the destined custodian of the symphonic tradition, bore 
his responsibility with unease. Knowing full well that the Weimarites 
were awaiting his first attempt at a symphony with poised and sharp- 
ened pens, he approached the form with laborious care, revising and 
reconsidering, doubly testing the orchestral medium. But when that 
assertion of sheer mastery, the first Symphony, had come to pass, the 
composer, despite acrid remarks in some quarters, had every reason 
for self-confidence. The Second came forth with apparent effortlessness 
and dispatch. Brahms sought no advice this time, but surprised his 
friends with a full-rounded manuscript. 

Since Brahms did most of his composing in the summer season 
when he was free from the distraction of concerts, we may assume that 
the summer of 1877, which he spent at Portschach, gave birth to his 
most sunny, open, and mellifluous score. When he discovered this 
lovely spot on the Worther See in Carinthia, he wrote: "Portschach 
is most exquisitely situated, and I have found a lovely, and apparently, 
pleasant abode in the Schloss! You may tell everybody just simply this; 
it will impress them. But I may add in parenthesis that I have just 
two little rooms in the housekeeper's quarters; my piano could not be 
got up the stairs, it would have burst the walls." When visitors became 

[695] 



so frequent as to impede his work, he was forced to retire to a more 
secluded dwelling on the lake shore. He spent two more summers at 
Portschach, and there poured forth, besides the symphony, the Violin 
Concerto, the first Violin Sonata, and the two Rhapsodies for piano, 
Op. 79. Returning there from his Italian journey of 1878, he made his 
first sketches for the Pianoforte Concerto in B-flat. It was with reason 
that he wrote to Hanslick from this spot: "So many melodies fly 
about, one must be careful not to tread on them." 

The uneffusive Brahms, who neither spoke nor tolerated high and 
solemn words on subjects near his heart, had a way of alluding to a 
new score in a joking and misleading way, or producing the manu- 
script unexpectedly at a friend's house, and with an assumed casual 
air. In September of 1877, as the Second Symphony progressed, he 
wrote to Dr. Billroth: "I do not know whether I have a pretty sym- 
phony; I must inquire of skilled persons." 

When his devoted friend and admirer, Elisabeth von Herzogenberg, 
was consumed with impatience to see the new work, Brahms took de- 
light in playfully misrepresenting its character. He wrote (November 
22, 1877): "It is really no symphony, but merely a Sinfonie,* and I 
shall have no need to play it to you beforehand. You merely sit down 



She had teasingly upbraided him for spelling "symphony" with an "f." 



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[696] 



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[697] 



at the piano, put your little feet on the two pedals in turn, and strike 
the chord of F minor several times in succession, then in the bass ff 
and pp and you will gradually gain a vivid impression of my latest." 
And on the day before the first performance he wrote: "The orchestra 
here play my new symphony with crepe bands on their sleeves, because 
of its dirge-like effect. It is to be printed with a black edge, too." 

On the 19th of September he had informed Mme. Clara Schumann, 
always his nearest musical confidante, that the first movement was 
completed; in early October he played it to her, together with part 
of the finale. In December, in advance of the first performance, Brahms 
and Ignatz Brull played a piano duet arrangement (by the composer) 
at the house of Ehrbar in Vienna, to a group of friends (a custom 
which they had started when the First Symphony was about to be 
played, and which they were to repeat before the Third and Fourth). 
Following the premiere, which took place late in December (probably 
the 30th), Hans Richter conducting the Vienna Philharmonic, Brahms 
himself led the second performance which was given at the Liepzig 
Gewandhaus, on January 10 . 

It remains to be recorded that at the first two performances, in 
Vienna and in Leipzig, opinion was divided. One might suppose that 
the critics, who have so often missed the point when a masterpiece is 
first heard, might for once have risen as one to this relatively simple 
and straightforward score, with its long sustained flood of instru- 
mental song. Vienna, it is true, which had been decidedly reserved 
about the First Symphony, took the new one to its heart. It was of a 
"more attractive character," "more understandable," and its composer 
was commended for refraining this time from "entering the lists with 
Beethoven." A true "Vienna Symphony," wrote one ecstatic critic. 
Leipzig, on the other hand, was no more than stiffly courteous in its 
applause, and not one critic had much to say for it. "The Viennese," 
wrote Dorffel, "are much more easily satisfied than we. We make quite 
different demands on Brahms, and require from him music which is 
more than 'pretty,' and Very pretty' when he comes before us as a 
symphonist." 

Eduard Hanslick, pontifical spokesman of Brahms in Vienna, wrote 
a review which showed a very considerable penetration of the new 
score. Any helpful effect upon the general understanding of his readers, 
however, must have been almost completely discounted by the follow- 
ing prefatory paragraph, a prime example of jaundiced Beck- 
messerism:— 

"It is well known that Wagner and his followers go so far as not 
only to deny the possibility of anything new in the symphonic form 
— i.e., new after Beethoven — but they reject the very right of absolute 

[698] 



VICTOR RED SEAL RECORDS 

by the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 

Also Sprach Zarathustra Strauss 

Battle of Kershenetz Rimsky-Korsakov 

Bolero Ravel 

Capriccio (Jesus Maria Sanroma, Soloist) Stravinsky 

Classical Symphony Prokofieff 

Concerto for Orchestra in D major K. P. E. Bach 

Concerto Grosso in D minor Vivaldi 

Concerto in D major ( Jascha Heifetz, Soloist) Brahms 

Concerto No. 2 (Jascha Heifetz, Soloist) Prokofieff 

Concerto No. 12 — Larghetto Handel 

Damnation of Faust : Minuet — Waltz — Rakoczy March Berlioz 

Daphnis et Chloe — Suite No. 2 Ravel 

Dubinushka Rimsky-Korsakoff 

"Enchanted Lake" Liadov 

Friihlingsstimmen — Waltzes (Voices of Spring) Strauss 

Gymnopedie No. 1 Erik Satie-Debussy 

"Khovanstchina" Prelude Moussorgsky 

"La Mer" ("The Sea") Debussy 

Last Spring Grieg 

"Lieutenant Kije" Suite Prokofieff 

Love for Three Oranges — Scherzo and March Prokofieff 

Maiden with the Roses Sibelius 

Ma Mere L'Oye (Mother Goose) Ravel 

Mefisto Waltz Liszt 

Missa Solemnis Beethoven 

Pelleas et Melisande Faure" 

"Peter and the Wolf Prokofieff 

Pictures at an Exhibition Moussorgsky -Ravel 

Pohjola's Daughter Sibelius 

"Romeo and Juliet," Overture- Fantasia Tchaikovsky 

Rosamunde — Ballet Music Schubert 

Sal6n Mexico, El Aaron Copland 

Sarabande Debussy-Ravel 

Song of Volga Boatmen Arr. by Stravinsky 

"Swanwhite" ( "The Maiden with Roses" ) Sibelius 

Symphony No. 1 in B-flat major ("Spring") Schumann 

Symphony No. 2 in D major Beethoven 

Symphony Vo. 2 in D major Sibelius 

Symphony No. 3 Harris 

Symphony No. 4 in A major ("Italian") Mendelssohn 

Symphony No. 4 in E minor Brahms 

Symphony No. 4 in F minor Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 5 in E-flat major Sibelius 

Symphony No. 6 in B minor ( "PathGtique" ) .* Tchaikovsky 

Symphony No. 8 in F major Beethoven 

Symphony No. 8 in B minor ("Unfinished") Schubert 

Symphony No. 29 in A major Mozart 

Symphony No. 34 in C major Mozart 

Symphony No. 94 in G major ("Surprise") (Second movement) Haydn 

Symphony No. 102 in B-flat major Haydn 

Tapiola ( Symphonic Poem) Sibelius 

Voices of Spring Strauss 

Waltz (from String Serenade) Tchaikovsky 

Wiener Blut — Waltzes (Vienna Blood) Strauss 

[699] 



instrumental music to exist. The symphony, they say, is now super- 
fluous since Wagner has transplanted it into the opera: only Liszt's 
symphonic poems in one movement and with a determined practical 
programme have, in the contemplation of the modern musical world, 
any vitality. Now if such absurd theories, which are framed solely for 
Wagner-Liszt household use, again need refutation, there can be no 
more complete and brilliant refutation than the lon^ row of Brahms' 
instrumental works, and especially this Second Symphony." 

In this way did the critics industriously increase the obscuring smoke 
of partisan controversy. 



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[700] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

[Sixty-third Season, 1943-1944] 
SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 



Personnel 







Violins 






BURGIN, R. ELCUS, G. 

Concert-master tapley, r. 

THEODOROWICZ, J. 


Lauga, n. krips, a. 
kassman, n. cherkassky, p 


RISNIKOFF, v. 

li.ibovici, J. 


HANSEN, E. 
EISLER, D. 


DICKSON, H. 
PINFIELD, C. 


FEDOROVSKY, P. 
BE ALE, M. 




ZAZOFSKY, g. 
DUBBS, H. 


KNUDSON, C. 
MAYER, P. 


ZUNG, M. 
DIAMOND, S. 


LEVEEN, P. 
DEL SORDO, R. 




GORODETZKY, l. 
HILLYER, R. 


BRYANT, M. 
MURRAY, J. 


STONESTREET, L. 
ERKELENS, H. 


messina, s. 
seiniger, s. 

Violas 




TRAMPLER, W. 
SAUVLET, II . 


LEFRANC, J. 
CAUHAPE, J. 


FOUREL, G. 
ARTIERES, L. 


VAN WYNBERGEN, 
BERNARD, A. 


c. 


GROVER, H. 
WERNER, H. 




LEHNER, E. 
GERHARDT, S. 


KORNSAND, 
HUMPHREY 


E, 
, G. 






Violoncellos 






BEDETTI, J. 
ZIGHERA, A. 


LANGENDOEN, J. DROEGHMANS, H. ZEISE, K. 
ZIMBLER, J. NIELAND, 


M. 


FABRIZIO, E. 
MARJOLLET, L. 






Basses 






MOLEUX, G. 
DUFRESNE, G. 


JUHT, L. GREENBERG, H. GIRARD, H. 
FRANKEL, I. PORTNOI, H. PROSE, P. 




BARWICKI, J. 


Flutes 


Oboes 


Clarinets 




Bassoons 


LAURENT, G. 
PAPPOUTSAKIS, 
KAPLAN, P. 


GILLET, F. 
J. DEVERGIE, J. 
LUKATSKY, J. 


POLATSCHEK, V. 
VALERIO, M. 
CARDILLO, P. 




ALLARD, R. 
PANENKA, e. 
LAUS, A. 


Piccolo 


English Horn 


Bass Clarinet 




Contra-Bassoon 


MADSEN, G. 


SPEYER, L. 


MAZZEO, R. 




PILLER, B. 


Horns 


Horns 


Trumpets 




Trombones 


VALKENIER, W. LANNOYE, M. 
MACDONALD, W. SHAPIRO, H. 
MEEK, H. GEBHARDT, W. 
KEANEY, P. 


MAGER, G. 
LAFOSSE, M. 
VOISIN, r. l. 
VOISIN, R. 




raichman, j. 
hansotte, l. 

COFFEY, J. 
OROSZ, J. 


Tuba 


Harps 


Timpani 




Percussion 


ADAM, E. 


ZIGHERA, B. 
CAUGHEY, E. 


SZULC, R. 

polster, m. 

Librarian 
rogers, l. j. 




sternburg, s. 

SMITH, C. 
ARCIERI, E. 



[701] 



AK 



AARON RICHMOND 



presents 
IN SYMPHONY HALL TICKETS NOW 

Marian ANDERSON ^^ 

Jan* y 

(Steinway Piano) 

LILY PONS »**£• 

(Baldwin Piano) 

RUDOLF SERKIN 

(steinway Piano) Program includes 

Beethoven "Appassionata" sonata 

SUN. AFT. JAN. 16 

"Equalled by no other pianist and by no other interpretative 
musician excepting Arturo Toscanini". — Herald-Tribune 

The N. Y. press described the famous pianist's N. Y. triumph Nov. 23: 
"One of those experiences to be treasured thru a lifetime." — Herald- 
Tribune. 

"I found his playing of the Beethoven sensational, so much so that I am 
tempted to forego the usual superlatives.** — Post. 



TICKETS at JORDAN HALL ^t^^p.m" 1 ' FGI * 
NEXT FRL EVE., JAN. 7 Song Recital 

MARGUERITE XAMARA soprano 



NEXT SAT. MAT., JAN. 8 Famous Guitarist 

ANDRES SEGOVIA 



TUE. EVE., JAN. 11 Song Recital 

ROBERT HALL COLLINS Baritone 



MON. EVE., JAN. 17 (Tickets at 208 Pierce Bldg., Copley Sq.) 

KATHERINE DUNHAM 

and Negro Dancers and Musicians 



SAT. AFT., JAN. 29 1st Boston Recital 

WILLIAM KAPELL Pianist 



SUN. AFT., JAN. 30 

RUTH POSSELT Violinist 



[ 7° 2 1 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Next week the Orchestra will give concerts in Springfield, Hartford, New York 

and Brooklyn. The next regular pair of concerts will take place on 

January 14 and January 15. 



Twelfth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, January 14, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, January 15, at 8:30 o'clock 



IGOR STRAVINSKY Conducting 

Stravinsky Suite from the Ballet "Pulcinella" 

for Small Orchestra (after Pergolesi) 

Stravinsky Four Norwegian Moods 

(First performance) 

Stravinsky Circus Polka 

(First performance at these concerts) 

Stravinsky "J eu de Cartes" (Card Game, Ballet in Three Deals) 

INTERMISSION 

Stravinsky Symphony in C major 

I. Moderato alia breve 

II. Larghetto concertante 

III. Allegretto 

IV. Adagio — Tempo giusto 

BALDWIN PIANO 

This programme will end about 4:20 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:20 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



The works to be played at these concerts may be seen in the Allen A. 
Brown Music Collection of the Boston Public Library one week before 
the concert. A lecture on this programme will be given on Wednesday 
at 4:45 o'clock, in the Lecture Hall. 

[7°3l 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



FELIX FOX 

has resumed teaching 

403 MARLBOROUGH STREET 



Tel. Ken. 0716 



MISS MARION FOX 

PIANOFORTE INSTRUCTION 

Former member of Faculty of the Felix Fox School of Pianoforte Playing 

403 Marlborough Street 
Tel. Algonquin 3078 

MARY SHAW SWAIN 



PIANOFORTE TEACHER 
ACCOMPANIST AND COACH 



10 MUSEUM ROAD 



HIGHLANDS 9419 



JULES WOLFFERS 

Pianist — Teacher — Coach 

Faculty-member, Boston University College of Music 

Private Pupils Accepted 
856 Huntington Avenue 
Kenmore 1287 Kenmore 3030 



FRANK E. DOYLE 

14 STEINERT HALL 

SINGING 

Teacher (in Boston) of Polyna Stoska 
Teacher of John Smallman 




[7°4 1 



SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 

HUNTINGTON AND MASSACHUSETTS AVENUES 

Telephone, Commonwealth 1492 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON, 1943-1944 
CONCERT BULLETIN of the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 

COPYRIGHT, 1944, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, J IK. 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

Jerome D. Greene . President 
Henry B. Sawyer . Vice-President 

Henry B. Cabot . Treasurer 

Philip R. Allen M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

)ohn Nicholas Brown Jacob J. Kaplan 

Reginald C. Foster Roger I. Lee 

Alvan T. Fuller Richard C. Paine 

N. Penrose Hallowell Bentley W. Warren 



G. E. Judd, Manager C. W. Spalding, Assistant Manager 

[705] 



■@ @ "@ ® "@ @ # tt tt @ 

^TC ▼■▼ t*^ ▼«▼ ▼¥▼ *W^ ▼*▼ ▼W T ▼*▼ ~»~ 



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Estate Analysis 

iiOW have wartime changes 
affected your estate plans? A 
Shawmut Estate Analysis will 
help you determine whether 
changes are necessary or desir- 
able. We invite your inquiry. 

TRUST DEPARTMENT 

The ZHational 

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Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 

Listen to John Barry with "Frontline Headlines" 
WNAC — Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays at 7:45 p. m. 



[706] 



SYMPHONIANA 

Golschmann, Guest Conductor 

The Orchestra in New York 

The Visit to Hartford 

In Springfield 

GOLSCHMANN, GUEST 

CONDUCTOR 

Vladimir Golschmann is to make his 
first appearances in Boston as guest 
conductor of the Boston Symphony con- 
certs of next week and the week follow- 
ing. Mr. Golschmann has been the con- 
ductor of the St. Louis Symphony Or- 
chestra since 1931. He has appeared as 




guest with the principal orchestras oi 
our East and West. 

He was born in Paris, of Russian 
parents, on December 16, 1893. His 
father, Leon Golschmann, was a noted 
writer and a mathematician. Vladimir 
Golschmann received his musical edu- 
cation in Paris. After playing violin in 
a small orchestra there, conducted by 
Rabani, he began his career as conduc- 
tor when the Concerts Golschmann were 
organized in 1919. These concerts were 
continued for five seasons. Mr. Gols^h- 
m<*nn also conducted in Paris the Or- 
chestre Symphonique, the Concerts Pas- 
deloup, and the Cercle Musicale Uni> 




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versitaire at the Sorbonne. In subse- 
quent years he has conducted in Belgium, 
Norway, Portugal and Spain, directing 
for four seasons the Orquesta Sinjonica 
of Bilbao. He conducted the Ballet 
Russe of Diaghileff and the dance com- 
panies of Lois Fuller, Pavlova, the 
Swedish Ballet of Rolf de Mare, and 
the Italian Futurists Ballet. For three 
seasons (1928-30) he was conductor of 
the Scottish Orchestra in Glasgow and 
Edinburgh. 

He visited this country to be guest 
conductor of the New York Symphony 
Orchestra in 1924-25. Again he came 
here in 1930 and conducted the St. Louis 
Orchestra as guest. He was thenceforth 
engaged by this orchestra. 



THE ORCHESTRA IN 

NEW YORK 

(The New York Times, January 9, 1944) 

By Olin Downes 

When the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra, Dr. Serge Koussevitzky conductor, 
gave its second concert of the week 
yesterday afternoon in Carnegie Hall, 
the impression deepened of the entirely 
unique quality of the orchestra and the 
continually growing art of the conduc- 
tor. 

Of the Martinu violin concerto as 
such, which Mr. Elman as soloist re- 
peated on this occasion, much was said 
in these columns, following the New 
York premiere of two nights previous. 
The writer believes this work to be a 
valuable addition to the very small 
number of violin concertos which are 
significant to modern audiences. 

This impression was emphasized by 
Mr. Elman's repeated performance, so 
masterly in point not only of per- 
formance but of musicianship and 
weight that one wonders how such a 
difficult and individual score will fare 
with lesser interpreters of the future. 
But this question has another aspect 
which brings us back to the principal 
matter of the present report — back to 
the orchestra and the conductor. 

For the adequate presentation of the 
work an orchestral performance must 
follow closely if it does not equal the 
one provided by Dr. Koussevitzky. This 
element of the performance was in 
itself a monument to the musician's 
art. At the same time it so unified all 



[7^8 1 



participating agencies that the soloist, 
the conductor and every member of the 
orchestra in thought and deed were one. 

And this was only congruous with 
the prevailing character of both the 
memorable concerts Dr. Koussevitzky 
and the orchestra he has molded have 
given within a week in this city. One 
had thought that the orchestra had not 
very much room for improvement. Well, 
either the fresh impression of its sonor- 
ity has unduly altered the perspective, 
or it is in fact an orchestra yet finer 
this season than last. Meanwhile what 
impresses us as the unceasing develop- 
ment of the conductor — unpredictable 
as we often find him to be, always 
changeable and unreckonable and never 
static — grows at least upon one reporter. 

This reference is particularly to Dr. 
Koussevitzky's final performance yester- 
day of the Brahms Second symphony 
— an achievement only possible to a man 
born with genius in the culminating 
years of a most industrious and artis- 
tically intense lifetime. 

The slow movement of the symphony, 
for example, had a loftiness of mood, a 
greatness of line and a sheer beauty and 
depth of thought that were transporting. 
The whole conception, indeed, took the 
listener into another sphere. It would 
be an indulgence to discuss it movement 
by movement, but for a reader who was 
not there this would be excessive and 
for those who heard it in some degree 
superfluous. But there was the sense, 
for those present, of the summation of 
long centuries of human experience and 
dauntless effort which at last had pro- 
duced that symphony, and the wonder 
of a beauty so evolved and alembicated, 
the whole revealed by a high priest who 
reverently and comprehendingly ad- 
ministered his office. 



THE VISIT TO HARTFORD 

{Hartford Courant, January 6, 1944) 

By T. H. Parker 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra, con- 
ducted by Dr. Serge Koussevitzky, was 
heard in the Bushnell Symphonic Series 
at the Memorial Auditorium Wednesday 
evening. 

It was a great night at the Bushnell 
Memorial last evening. Dr. Koussevit- 
zky and the Boston Symphony were in 
their rarest form. The urge to make 
music was vehemently upon them. The 
conductor's face was wreathed with in- 



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i "too ... . . 

[7°9l 



presents 

M^sie a la Carte 

KOUSSEVITZKY 
RECORDINGS 



The music you love . . when and 
how you want it . . as played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

ALBUMS 

685 — Stravinsky — Capriccio $2.63 

566— Prokofieff— Peter and the 
Wolf $3.68 

294 — Mendelssohn — Italian 
Symphony #4 $3.68 

319— Schubert— Symphony #8 

in B Minor $3.68 

327 — Tschaikowsky — Sym- 
phony #4 in F Minor $5.78 

730 — Brahms — Symphony #4 

in E Minor $5.25 

795— Mozart— Symphony #29 $5.25 

870— Liszt— Mefisto Waltz $2.63 

352— Ravel— Bolero $2.63 

347 — Tschaikowsky — Romeo 

and Juliet $3.68 

RECORDS 

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7197— Prokofieff— Classical 
Symphony $1.05 

7143— Ravel— Daphnis et 

Chloe, #1 and 2 $1.05 

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[710] 



spiration, shone with beatitude in the 
Handel, with imperiousness in the Sho- 
stakovich and with triumph in the 
Brahms. All night long he sang his 
songs, the composers' songs to his men, 
ministered to them player by player, 
beamed at their responses, moulded the 
music bar by bar with his hands. And 
when at the end of the concert, fol- 
lowing a soaring and burning perform- 
ance of the Second Symphony, he turned 
to the audience, he faced them like a 
Caesar and received an imperial trib- 
ute. 

It had been a superlative program 
in the first place, for Dr. Koussevitzky 
is the master exponent of the three 
composers whom he had selected. His 
Handel is unmatched, being mad? of 
living music and not empty architec- 
ture, elegant without pomposity and 
impressive without the "East Lynne" 
touches which feature the readings or 
transcriptions so many conductors are 
whipping up these days for both Handel 
and Bach. 

The ecstatic panorama which Dr. 
Koussevitzky and the Boston disclosed 
in the Larghetto section of the Handel 
last night was like little on this earth. 
Giving his exclusive attention to the 
first strings for bars at a time, he shaped 
every measure on the air, placed every 
note, marked the level of every voice. 
The spell which was upon Dr. Kous- 
sevitzky in those moments, and which 
he in turn put upon his men, was little 
short of remarkable. Yet although it 
riveted the attention, curiously enough 
it heightened rather than obtruded upon 
the effect of the music. It was an ex- 
perience of being doubly in two superb 
presences, that of the composer and that 
of a superlative re-creator. It was im- 
possible not to feel the seizing and up- 
lifting genius of Dr. Koussevitzky in 
those moments. 



EXHIBIT 

In the First Balcony Gallery is to 
be seen a collection of "Gelatone" 
Facsimiles of American paintings, on 
loan from the Associated American 
Artists, of New York. 

The sixteen paintings in the exhibi- 
tion represent a specially selected cross- 
section of American art. Included are 
one painting each by Grant Wood, who 
is represented with "Woman With 
Plants" from the collection of the Cedar 
Rapids Art Association ; Maurice Sterne, 
with a painting "Inez" from the Sam 
A. Lewisohn collection; Thomas Benton, 



Adolf Dehn, Lucile Blanch, Robert 
Brackman, John Costigan, Georges 
Schreiber, Ernest Fiene, Peter Hurd 
and Nicolai Cikovsky. The paintings in- 
clude water colors, pastels, oils and 
gouaches. The "Gelatone" process is a 
newly developed method of reproduction 
created in American laboratories and 
sponsored by the Associated American 
Artists. Facsimiles which it makes pos- 
sible can scarcely be distinguished from 
originals. 

These sixteen works, the first to uti- 
lize "Gelatone," already have been ac- 
quired by leading museums and uni- 
versities for their permanent collections. 
Among these are the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum 
of American Art, the Carnegie Founda- 
tion, the United States Government 
Office of Education and many others. 

Also included in this exhibition is a 
collection of twenty-five signed, original 
etchings and lithographs created by 
Thomas Benton, John Steuart Curry 
and other noted American artists. The 
exhibition is a loan collection from the 
Associated American Artists Galleries 
of New York. It includes many prize- 
winning works and others selected for 
national print exhibitions and museum 
collections. 

The artists represented in the collec- 
tion on exhibition are among the best 
known in American painting. Many of 
them hold top awards in national art 
competitions. John Steuart Curry of Wis- 
consin, whp holds the $1,500 prize in the 
Artists For Victory exhibition at the 
Metropolitan Museum ; Aaron Bohrod, 
Carnegie prize winner and holder of 
five major awards from the Chicago 
Art Institute; Adolf Dehn, who holds 
two Guggenheim Fellowships for paint- 
ing, and many others are represented. 
Other artists represented in the collec- 
tion include Ernest Fiene, Luigi Lucioni, 
Peggy Bacon, Thomas Nason, John de 
Martelly, Doris Lee, Miguel Covar- 
rubias, Robert Philipp, Georges Schrei- 
ber, David Stone Martin, John Costigan, 
Marion Greenwood, William Gropper 
and Joseph Margulies. 

Among the museums in which works 
from this program are now permanently 
owned, are the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, Whitney Museum of American 
Art, Art Institute of Chicago, Honolulu 
Academy of Arts, Seattle Art Museum, 
United States Library of Congress, 
Dallas Museum, Kansas City Art Insti- 
tute, Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego 
and many other museum, university and 
college collections. 



the 

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Showing the 
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In colored and 
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Gabardine Suits 

with pastel crepe 

blouses 

also 

Suits and Coats 

of 

striped flannels 

tweeds 

black and white checks 

Hats - Blouses - Bags 



Old Colony 

Trust Company 

ONE FEDERAL STREET, BOSTON 



T. Jefferson Coolidge 
Chairman 



Channing H. Cox 
President 




Investment and Management 
of Property 



Custodian 

Trustee * Guardian 

Executor 



Allied with The First National Bank <?/Boston 



[?12] 



SIXTY-THIRD SEASON . NINETEEN HUNDRED FORTY-THREE AND FORTY-FOUR 



Twelfth Programme 



FRIDAY AFTERNOON, January 14, at 2:30 o'clock 

SATURDAY EVENING, January 15, at 8:30 o'clock 



IGOR STRAVINSKY Conducting 

Stravinsky Symphony in C major 

I. Moderato alia breve 

II. Larghetto concertante 

III. Allegretto 

IV. Adagio — Tempo giusto 

Stravinsky Four Norwegian Moods 

Intrada 

Song 

Wedding Dance 

Cortege 

(First performances) 

Stravinsky Circus Polka 

(First concert performances) 
INTERMISSION 

Stravinsky Suite from the Ballet "Pulcinella" 

for Small Orchestra (after Pergolesi) 
Sinfonia (Ouverture) : Allegro moderato 
Serenata: Larghetto 
Tarantella — Toccata 
Gavotte with Two Variations 
Vivo 
Minuetto — Finale 

Stravinsky "J eu de Cartes" (Card Game, Ballet in Three Deals) 



BALDWIN PIANO 



Mr. Stravinsky will conduct his own arrangement of 
"The Star-spangled Banner" 



This programme will end about 4:20 on Friday Afternoon, 
10:20 o'clock on Saturday Evening 



Symphony Hall is organized for your protection in case of a blackout. 

The auditorium and the corridors will remain lighted. 

You are requested to keep your seats. Above all, keep calm. 



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Suite, for a Small Orchestra, from "Pulcinella," a Ballet 
with Song (after Pergolesi) 

By Igor Stravinsky 

(Stravinsky, born at Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, on June 17, 1882; Giovanni 
Battista Pergolesi, born at Jesi, Italy, January 1, 1710; died at Pozzuoli, near Naples, 

March 16, 1736) 



Stravinsky composed this Ballet for Serge de Diaghileff in 1920. It was first per- 
formed at the Opera in Paris by Diaghileff's Ballet Russe, on May 15, 1920. The 
choreography was arranged by Leonide Massine; the scenery and costumes were de- 
signed by Pablo Picasso. Pulcinella was danced by Massine; Pimpinella by Thamar 
Karsavina; Prudenza, Lubov Tchernicheva. Ernest Ansermet conducted. 

The first performance in the United States of the Suite from the Ballet was by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Pierre Monteux, conductor, December 22, 1922. 
Serge Koussevitzky performed it on March 11, 1932. (It was performed by members 
of this orchestra July 25-26, 1943, Bernard Zighera conducting, in the series of 
chamber concerts last summer.) 

The orchestration requires two flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two bassoons, two 
horns, trumpet, trombone, solo quintet of strings, and string orchestra. 

The following paragraph appears in the score: 

"The subject of 'Pulcinella' is taken from a manuscript found at 
Naples in 1700, containing a great number of comedies which put on 



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of music . . . . 

MUSIC: AN ART AND A LANGUAGE 

(AUGMENTED AND REVISED EDITION) 
by WALTER R. SPALDING 

The author, for many years lecturer on Appreciation of Music 
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exert himself to quicken his sense of hearing, broaden his 
imagination, and strengthen his memory will greatly increase 
his musical enjoyment. 

The volume treats of musical form and structure, composers and their 
characteristics, includes detailed analysis of outstanding works, yet remains 
an interesting, readable, often witty book, which does not forget the spirit 
of a composition in discussing its form. 

Price $2.50 net 

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the stage the traditional personage of the Neapolitan folk-theatre. 
The episode chosen for the libretto of this ballet is entitled: 'Four 
Similar Pulchinellas.' " 

When the Suite was last performed, the programme gave the fol- 
lowing account of the plot: 

All the young girls of the country are in love with Pulcinella; the 
young fellows, pricked with jealousy, try to kill him. At the moment 
when they think they have accomplished their purpose, they borrow 
Pulcinella's costume to present themselves to their sweethearts. But 
the malicious Pulcinella has had his intimate friend take his place, 
and this substitute pretends to die from the hands of the assassins. 
Pulcinella himself takes the dress of a sorcerer and brings his double 
to life. At the moment when the young swains think they are re- 
lieved of him and go to visit their loved ones, the true Pulcinella 
appears and arranges all the marriages. He weds Pimpinella, blessed 
by his double, Fourbo, who in his turn appears as the mage. 

After the first performance of "Pulcinella" in London, at Covent 
Garden, June 10, 1920, the reviewer of the Times described the Ballet 
as "primarily a means of showing us what vitality and charm there 
is in music which most of us had forgotten. But Stravinsky puts on the 
magician's cloak to resuscitate Pergolesi, just as Pulcinella on the stage 
puts on the magician's cloak (we did not quite make out why) to 
resuscitate other Pulcinellas. Stravinsky's work on the music is very 



BANKING CONNECTIONS 

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business of the right kind, it is never our intention 
to disturb satisfactory relations elsewhere. If, how- 
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is contemplated, we would like very much to be kept 
in mind. We welcome opportunities to discuss 
banking or trust matters at any time. 

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cleverly carried out. A good deal of it is simply re-scoring, and in 
this single instruments, from the trumpet to the double-bass, are 
used to get the utmost effect from the simplest means, which is the 
very essence of good technique. But sometimes Stravinsky cannot 
hold himself in any longer, and, kicking Pergolesi out of his light, 
defeats the primary purpose by interpolating a moment or two of 
sheer Stravinsky." 

Philip Hale has written interestingly of Pulcinella as a popular 
character in Naples: 

There is a dispute over the origin of the Neapolitan Pulcinella: 
whether he is descended from Maccus, the grotesque fool of Atellan 
farce, or from Pulcinella dalle Carceri, a queer patriot of the thir- 
teenth century. This is certain, that in more modern times he made 
his appearance in the sixteenth century, ''in the white shirt and 
breeches of a countryman of Acerra, his black mask, long nose, hump, 
dagger, and truncheon being later additions. Time, alas! has given 
him a foolish wife and made him a mere puppet, though little more 
than a century ago, in Cerlone's clever hand he mirrored a people and 
an age." He has also been described as a tall fellow, obstreperous, 
alert, sensual, with a long hooked nose, a black half-mask, a gray and 
pyramidal cap, white shirt without ruffles, white trousers creased and 
girdled with a cord from which a little bell was sometimes suspended. 
He with Scaramuccia was Neapolitan as Cassandrino was Roman, 




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We will make over your good old pieces with in- 
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[718] 



The Permanent Charity Fund 

and 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 



Gifts may be made to the Permanent Charity Fund, 
either by will or in your lifetime, with the request 
that the income be paid to the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. The gifts so made will be held perpetually 
in trust by this Company as Trustee and the income 
will be paid to the Orchestra as long as the need exists. 
Thereafter the income will be used for some other 
worthy purpose of your choice; or failing that, one 

selected by the Committee 
which annually distributes 
the income of the Fund. 

We cordially invite you to 
make a thorough investiga- 
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methods of the Permanent 
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Full information may be 
obtained by consulting our 
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and Trust Company 




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QMt Arch and Devonshire Streets 



[719] 



Girolamo of Naples, Gianduja of Turin. For a description of these 
popular heroes in Italian "Improvised Comedy" and marionette shows, 
see Magnin's "Histoire des Marionettes en Europe" (Paris, 1852); 
the article "Pulcinella" in Pougin's "Dictionnaire du Theatre" (Paris, 
1885); Celler's "Les Types populaires au Theatre" (Paris, 1870), and 
Chapter III in Chatfield-Taylor's "Goldoni" (New York, 1913). 

The fact that Pergolesi died at the age of twenty-six in the high tide 
of his activity as composer has been the cause of many romantic 
legends, which always spring up in such cases. It has been said that he 
hastened his death by high living, but tuberculosis was certainly the 
basic cause. He finished his "Stabat Mater" within a few days of his 
death at Pozzuoli, a resort near Naples, where he had gone on account 
of his health. Inevitably, comparisons have been made with the case of 
Mozart, who died in his youth while working upon his Requiem. 
Louis Biancolli, who has written interestingly of Pergolesi for the 
programmes of the New York Philharmonic-Symphony Society, further 
develops this analogy: "Both died penniless and young. Both went to 
unmarked pauper's graves. Both had overtaxed their physical resources 
in uninterrupted work." It was long whispered about Pergolesi, as it 
was to be about Mozart, that he had been poisoned by enemies. 
Needless to say, there is no justification for either rumor. 



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The special melodic genius of Pergolesi has lived for succeeding 
generations by virtue of his "Stabat Mater" and by his comic Inter- 
mezzo "La Serva Padrona," which, in 1752, made a sensation in Paris 
and bolstered the. Italian Buffonistes. The "Stabat Mater" enjoyed 
what E. J. Dent has called "an exaggerated veneration" in Italy, but 
both Paisiello and Padre Martini went on record as saying that it was 
more in the style of comic opera than religious music. 

Pergolesi lived his short life in Naples and composed industriously 
in the manner of the time. His works are about evenly divided between 
operas and church music. It is said that when his ambitious efforts to 
succeed in opera were not well received, he would turn to church music, 
in time returning once more to music of the theatre. He also did well 
by the chamber and instrumental forms, composing in 1732 thirty 
sonatas for two violins and bass. For performance between the acts 
of an opera seria, he would contrive little one-act intermezzi, and "La 
Serva Padrona" is one of these.* Pergolesi's opera "L'Olympiade," one 
of his last works, has been much admired. E. J. Dent summed up his 
music in Grove's Dictionary: "The chief merit of the 'Stabat Mater' 
is the sentimental charm of its melodies. Sentimental charm is indeed 



♦Another comic intermezzo, "II Maestro di Musica," was performed in Boston, in June, 1936, 
under the direction of Giovanni Ampeo. 







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the chief merit of all Pergolesi's work, sacred or secular." Professor 
Dent points out "interesting types of popular Neapolitan songs" in 
"L'Olympiade." "On the whole, Pergolesi is inferior to Leo and 
Logroscino in comic opera, and indeed could only be considered a 
great composer in any department by critics who were entirely 
ignorant of the work of his predecessors and contemporaries." 



g^)Gij) 







[724] 



STE1NWAY 



The Instrument of the Immortals 




RUDOLF 
SERKIN 

who plays in Symphony Hall 

THIS SUN. AFT. 

says of the 
Steinway Piano 

"To play on a Steinway 
is a joy and inspiration." 



RUDOLF SERKIN, like most of today's great artists, 
uses the Steinway piano exclusively. 

For all its preeminence as a concert piano, the Steinway 
is an instrument for the home, and for the home of modest 
income. 

The skilled hands of Steinway craftsmen are now fashion- 
ing materiel for our Armed Forces. But for a short time 
longer you can still purchase a new Steinway. 

In Massachusetts and New Hampshire new Steinways are sold only by 

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JEROME F. MURPHY, President 
Branches in Worcester and Springfield 



[725] 



FOUR NORWEGIAN MOODS 
By Igor Stravinsky 

Born at Oranienbaum, Russia, near St. Petersburg, June 17, 1882 



These four short pieces, which are having their first performance, were com- 
posed in Hollywood in 1942. 

The orchestration consists of two flutes and piccolo, two oboes and English horn, 
two clarinets, two bassoons, two trumpets, four horns, two trombones and tuba, tim- 
pani and strings. 

In a communication about his "Four Norwegian Moods," the com- 
poser states that "although based on Norwegian folk tunes, the title 
'Moods' must not be interpreted as 'impression' or 'frame of mind.' 
It is purely a mode, a form or manner of style without any assumption 
of ethnological authenticity."* He writes that he has "no more than 
followed the tradition of folklore treatment used by Joseph Haydn in 
his time." The composer further states that he "approaches the given 
problems in formal order to reach the solution, using the folklore 
thematic only as a rhythmic and melodic basis." 

The "Intrada" consists of an introduction, in which the wood winds 



* Mr. Stravinsky evidently uses the title "Moods" in a certain generic sense of the word 
which survives as a term in grammar. Webster's dictionary thus gives "mood," as in grammar, 
"distinction of form in a verb to express the manner in which the action or state it denotes 
is conceived." 




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and horns are prominent, and a Scherzando grazioso. There is a trio 
for clarinets and bassoons and a brief conclusion. In the "Song" the 
melody is carried in greater part by the wood wind voices — the English 
horn at first, then the oboe and bassoon, the flutes, and at the end the 
English horn again. The "Wedding Dance" is scored for the full 
instrumentation. It is in a lively 2-4 rhythm, with peasant suggestion 
in its principal theme. The "Cortege" is in appropriate march rhythm 
and brings the "Norwegian Moods" to a quiet close. 

CIRCUS POLKA 
By Igor Stravinsky 

Born at Oranienbaum, Russia, near St. Petersburg, June 17, 1882 



Stravinsky composed this Polka for the Circus of Ringling Bros, and Barnum 
and Bailey, by whom it was performed in the season of 1942. The trained elephants 
of this circus were the performers. At the premiere in the Madison Square Garden, 
New York City, where the circus opened its season, the dancer Zorina led the ballet 
in the center ring. George Balanchine was the choreographer. 

Stravinsky scored the Polka for orchestral performance. The manuscript is dated 
October 5, 1942. It calls for flute and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, 
four horns, two trumpets, three trombones and tuba, timpani, snare drum, bass 
drum, cymbals and strings. 

The present performances are the first in this version. 



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"JEU DE CARTES, Ballet en trois donnes" 
B2 Igor Stravinsky 

Born at Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, on June 17, 1882 



Stravinsky composed his ballet "The Card Game" between the summer of 1936 
and the end of the year. The piece was performed by the American Ballet (for 
which it was composed) on April 27 of 1937, at the Metropolitan Opera House in 
New York. George Balanchine was in charge of the choreography. Mr. Stravinsky 
conducted. The ballet as a concert piece (which uses the score unaltered) was 



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Drawings slightly enlarged, 

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presented by the Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy conducting, January 
14, 1938, and by the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, Otto Klemperer con- 
ducting, February 17, 1938. It was first heard in Boston when Stravinsky conducted 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra, December 1, 1939. 

The orchestration of the suite is as follows: two flutes and piccolo, two oboes 
and English horn, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three 
trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, and strings. 

When Stravinsky was asked by Mr. Warburg for a new piece to 
be presented by the American Ballet, he had already contem- 
plated a ballet with an interplay of numerical combinations, with 
"Chiffres dansants" not unlike Schumann's "Lettres dansantes" The 
action was to be implicit in the music. One of the characters would 
be a malignant force whose ultimate defeat would impart a moral 
conclusion to the whole. 

The ballet, as it was at last worked out, presented an enormous 
card table, the cards of the pack represented by individual dancers. 



(reprint from a 1901 Symphony program) 



THEN... 1901 



SMALL RUGS. 

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in small sizes. These are the accumulated 
selections from several fine lots recently 
landed at London docks. 

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to do this we have placed very low figures on 
these small Orientals, knowing how many 
and varied are the uses to which such rugs 
can be put. 

They are all marked on the basis of act- 
ual cost, and early buyers can pick many 
real gems at less than import price. We classify them in four lots. They are 
all three to four feet wide, and five to seven feet long. Prices, $25 to $90. 

1 . Extra fine Carabaghs. 

2. The best lot of Shirvans we ever had for the money. 

3. Thick, heavy Kazaks with years of wear in them. 

4. 100 extra fine Persians (Sennas, Irans, Kermanshahs, and Old Tabriz). 




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The shuffling and dealing made a ceremonial introduction to each of 
the three deals. According to the mis-en-scene, at the end of each play, 
giant fingers, which might have been those of invisible croupiers, re- 
moved the cards. 

The following summary is that of the composer: 

"The characters in this ballet are the cards in a game of poker, dis- 
puted between several players on the green baize table of a gaming 
house. At each deal the situation is complicated by the endless guiles 
of the perfidious Joker, who believes himself invincible because of his 
ability to become any desired card. 

"During the first deal, one of the players is beaten, but the other 
two remain with even 'straights,' although one of them holds the 
Joker. 

"In the second deal, the hand which holds the Joker is victorious, 
thanks to four Aces who easily beat four Queens. 

"Now comes the third deal. The action grows more and more acute. 



I0W... 1944 



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WxTW" Kazak shown, 125.00 



[73* ] 



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THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

under the direction of 

SPehae 3{<mb&emfe&u 

You will be delighted when you see the long list of 
Victor Red Seal recordings by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra under the direction of Serge Koussevitzky. 
They include over fifty great masterpieces, ranging 
from Handel and Haydn to Moussorgsky and Prokofieff. 
Consult the new Victor catalog. 




To help us make new Victor Records for you, sell your old ones to your dealer! 



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most celebrated works, in superb performances by 
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This time it is a struggle between three 'Flushes.' Although at first 
victorious over one adversary, the Joker, strutting at the head of a 
sequence of Spades, is beaten by a 'Royal Flush' in Hearts. This puts 
an end to his malice and knavery. As La Fontaine once said: 

'One should ever struggle against wrongdoers. 
Peace, I grant, is perfect in its way, 
But what purpose does it serve 
With enemies who do not keep faith? ' " 



First Deal 

Introduction 
Pas d'action 
Dance of the Joker 
Little Waltz 



Second Deal 

Introduction 

March 

Variations of the four Queens 

Variation of the Jack of Hearts and Coda 

March, and Ensemble 



Third Deal 
Introduction 
Waltz-Minuet 

Presto (Combat between Spades and Hearts) 
Final Dance (Triumph of the Hearts) 



The music is played without interruption. 

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[734] 



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C 735 1 



ENTR'ACTE 

STRAVINSKY AND THE ELEPHANTS 

By George Brinton Beal 



(Mr. Beal's book, "Through the Back Door of the Circus," is the result of a life 
study of the circus. He has traveled many hundreds of miles on the circus trains 
as a guest of the circus folk, collecting material, .and from it has made a sub- 
stantial gift to the Theatre Collection at Harvard University. 

The following article describes the "Circus Polka" from the point of view of the 
elephants through those most closely connected with their act — the bandmaster 
and the superintendent of "bulls") 

TV yr usic by Stravinsky for a ballet of circus elephants, introduced 
■Ly*- into the programme of the Ringling Bros. — Barnum $c Bailey 
Circus for the season of 1942, caused the elephants considerably more 
surprise than it did the musical public. 

Now, circus elephants ("bulls" to the world of the circus, although 
almost without exception females of the species) are a long-suffering 
lot. Their association with the whims of human beings has made them 
so. But they had never heard anything like Stravinsky. The first time 
Merle Evans, veteran bandmaster of the Big Show, put the music up 



iMPOf'Jplte 




We are sorry that during the Christmas season just 
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look forward to the day when we shall again be able 
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JUmdori cna/rrmL Gompam 

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[736] 



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that made it so. 



Headquarters for Collins & Fairbanks Hats, 
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for men. Also on the Fifth Floor of the 
Women's Store, Collins & Fairbanks coats 
for women and misses. 



[737] 



on his rack and started tooting away on his cornet, he knew there 
was trouble ahead. So did Walter McLain, superintendent of ele- 
phants, whose task it was to train the ballet of pachyderm dancers, 
under the noted ballet director George Balanchine. 

Captain McLain* took a firmer grip on his bull-hook and warned 
his corps of "bull men" to watch out. Polite, as elephants always are, 
the big performers listened to the circus band, as it played their work- 
ing music through. They listened, but with growing distate and un- 
easiness, according to both the bandmaster and the superintendent 
of bulls. 

"Not their kind of music," was Merle Evans's comment, in speak- 
ing of the number later in the season. As to Captain McLain's opinion, 
he refused to be quoted. Quite evidently, however, he was on the side 
of the elephants. Through a total of 425 performances, the elephants 
of the circus ballet, good performers that they are, went through their 
act. While the big ballet was on, Bandmaster Evans never took his 
eyes from the mammoth dancers, whirling solemnly around in their 
dainty ballet skirts. Not an elephant man turned away from his 
charges for a split second. Elephants can stand just about so much of 

* Captain Walter McLain met a tragic death near the season's end. He was crushed under 
one of the big red wagons. 




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[738] 




FTROM one to six, or even 
-*- more weavers work on a rug 
at the same time— sitting cross- 
legged either on the floor, or on 
a raised frame so that their work 
is at knee-level. Before them is a 
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number of knots to be tied in 
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head weaver sings these symbols 
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Beginning at the bottom and 
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wool yarn is looped around the 
warp thread with the aid of blunl 
pointed needles and then tied so 
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with the proper colors; after each 
row of knots one or more weft 
threads are passed through be- 
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comb. The pile is then trimmed 
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(No. 5 in a series of advertisements) 



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[739] 



anything. Then things begin to happen. If Stravinsky's ballet music 
should prove too much lor their endurance, as it evidently threatened 
to do, Evans was ready to switch the band into a Sousa march — 
guaranteed to quell a riot anytime, anywhere. 

The idea of a circus ballet was not new to the circus. Many of them 
have been staged during the long history of the circus in America. 
But never did one have such a set of distinguished names to make 
it salable. 

The circus programme proclaimed the act as follows: 

Display No. 18— "THE BALLET OF THE ELEPHANTS" 

Fifty Elephants and Fifty Beautiful Girls in an Original 
Choreographic Tour de Force 

Featuring Modoc, premiere ballerina, the Corps de Ballet 
and Corps des Elephants 

Directed by George Balanchine Staged by John Murray Anderson 

Music by Igor Stravinsky Elephants trained by Walter McLain 

Costumes designed by Norman Bel Geddes 

To those familiar with circus ways, this sounds a good deal more 
like a Broadway musical production. And so it was. Only the ele- 
phants and Captain McLain were 100 per cent circus. 



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[741 ] 



On the opening night of the circus season (a three-way charity 
performance at Madison Square Garden in New York), Old Modoc 
shared honors with the distinguished ballet star, Zorina. For once, the 
queenly bull had a partner worthy of her own great talent. It was one 
of the most beautiful performances ever seen in a circus ring. Old 
Modoc, forgetting her musical prejudice, gave herself completely and 
gorgeously to the ballet. It was a memorable performance. 

Stravinsky's "Elephant Ballet" was introduced to the circus in the 
final season of the five-year reign of the North brothers — John Ringling 
North and Henry Ringling North. Under their direction the circus 
turned more and more toward Broadway for its talent and its pattern. 
Now it is restored to Ringling management and control, with Robert 
Ringling (once an esteemed operatic baritone) at its head. 

Old Modoc was as much a motive for the staging of the elephant 
ballet as the advertising value of the other names involved. She is 
the best loved and most widely known elephant now before the public, 
and her solo dancing has long been featured by the Big Show. 

Aside from the dancing of Old Modoc, in center ring, the circus 
place of honor, "Display No. 18" was not a pretty act. The ballet 
skirts made the bulls appear ridiculous. The music didn't suit them. 
In spite of some of the stunts which they are made to perform, ele- 



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[ 742 ] 




PARIS 



11 




f mtd tmiefc at 




phants are dignified animals. They respond instantly to waltz tunes 
and soft, dreamy music, even to some military numbers of a particular 
circusy tempo. The involved music of Stravinsky's "Elephant Ballet" 
was both confusing and frightening to them. It robbed them of their 
feeling of security and confidence in the world about them — so alien 
to their native condition of life. It would have taken very little at 
any time during the many performances of the ballet music to cause 
a stampede. 

Incidentally, Old Modoc's dance, which she usually does solo down 
the big arena track, is the only unattended elephant act in the world 
today. It is circus legend that she taught herself, listening to the 
music of the circus band, while waiting in the Back Yard for her en- 
trance cue. Watching her, the late George Denman, a famous circus 
elephant trainer, decided to let her do her dance one night for once 
inside the tent, before the audience. He arranged to have Merle Evans 
play the same music Old Modoc had been practicing to. The act was 
an immediate success. Stravinsky didn't write the music. 



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[744] 



After the concert . . . remember 






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SYMPHONY IN C MAJOR 
By Igor Stravinsky 

Born at Oranienbaum, Russia, near St. Petersburg, June 17, 1882 






This Symphony, completed in August, 1940, in California, was first performed by 
the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under the composer's direction in a programme of 
his own music November 7, 9, and 12, 1940. Mr. Stravinsky, conducting a Boston 
Symphony concert January 17, 1941, made the Symphony known in Boston. The 
title-page of the score bears the following dedication: "This symphony, composed 
to the Glory of God, is dedicated to the Chicago Symphony Orchestra on the occasion 
of the Fiftieth Anniversary of its existence." The symphony bears this inscription 
in the composer's hand on its last page — "Igor Stravinsky, Beverly Hills, August 
19, 1940." 

The orchestration calls for three flutes and piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, 
two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones, tuba, timpani, and strings. 

In the years 1905-07, Stravinsky, studying with Rimsky-Korsakov, 
and under the special momentary influence of Glazounov, com- 
posed a symphony in E-flat major and dedicated it "to my dear 
teacher Nicolai Andreievitch Rimsky-Korsakov." It was first per- 
formed at St. Petersburg on January 22, 1908, and published in 1914 



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[746] 



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[747] 



as his Opus 1.* Writing another symphony these many years later, 
the composer has not given it a number. The course of his artistic 
career through the thirty-three years between the symphony o£ his 
student days and his latest work never led him into the symphonic 
form. 

A description of the "Symphony in C major" by Sol Babitz in the 
January, 1941, issue of the Musical Quarterly is derived from a 
study of the score previous to its performance — a study in which the 
writer was aided by the composer explaining his music at the piano: 

"The death rattle of the sonata form having been audible for 
some years, and official obituaries printed, it is rather awkward at 
this time to have to acknowledge the existence of a master of that 
form. Having carefully examined the score and listened to it on the 
piano, one cannot mistake the true proportions of this work, pos- 
sibly the most serious of the composer's career. 

"The impeccable unity of his more picturesque scores in the past 
may have been prophetic, for in this work 'he has an inexhaustible 
faculty for presenting his ideas in fresh aspects, yet always logically 
connected with one another, each growing naturally out of the preced- 
ing, and leading as naturally into what follows.'! 

"In reading the score, the form unfolds before the eye as clearly 

* Stravinsky conducted his youthful symphony in Chicago, January 22, 1935. 
fEbenezer Prout's appraisal of Beethoven's powers of symphonic development. — S. B. 







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[748] 



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[749] 



as that of a classical work. Yet the page as a whole reveals a visual 
difference portentous of the new sounds contained. The manuscript 
is quite white, perhaps whiter than any of Stravinsky's scores; an 
unforgivable sin in the eyes of the pedants who have been held spell- 
bound by the increasing blackness of symphonic scores during the 
last one hundred years. There is none of the conventional doubling, 
no outward attempts at tonal balance. One may detect elegance but 
never affectation. The economy and simultaneous richness of the 
opening movement are evident. Throughout there is a certain breath- 
lessness which adds life to the already busy music. 

"The second subject, in F, is introduced by a grandiose statement 
of oboe and bassoon, echoed by the strings, and consists in the main 
part of a quiet staccatissimo section, rhythmically alive, which even- 
tually serves as a base for an amiable horn solo (subsidiary subject). 
(This theme, as well as others, may be reminiscent of Tchaikovsky 
or Italian opera. Time will prove it reminiscent of Stravinsky alone.) 
A trill-like note with which the violins have accompanied this sec- 
tion suddenly achieves an identity of its own in a rompish dance 
which is subdued, after only three bars, by more important subject 
matter. 




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After the Concert . • • 
Enjoy a refreshing Bacardi and Sod 





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"There follows a restrained development which increases in vigor. 
Meanwhile phrases from the first subject are becoming noticeable 
here and there. The exchange continues, sometimes one, and some- 
times the other, gaining the upper hand. The volume of sound in- 
creases until interrupted by a quiet counterpoint of the wood winds 
which leads into an exact repetition of the first subject. But before 
the second subject can return, the vigorous chords, which in the 
Exposition originally followed it, appear. With the now inevitable 
appearance of the second subject it suddenly becomes apparent that the 
Recapitulation is a mirror-like reflection of the Exposition; and one 
is not astonished when the first subject appears to round out the 
movement. As the tones die away, a series of strong chords brings it 
to a happy close. 

"Second Movement. This tender movement may be called an aria. 
The composer has designated it Larghetto concertante and describes 
it as 'simple, clear, and tranquil.' It opens with a soft, expressive 
dialogue between the oboe and violins, accompanied occasionally by 
the 'cellos and violas, pizzicato. Later, the flute and clarinet join this 
group. All instruments take turns, singly and in groups, in carrying 
the sweetly ornamented melodies. The appearance of thirty-second 
notes in the Doppio movimento fails to disrupt the stately lyricism 
of this music. Even a trumpet solo fits into the enchanted scene. The 



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Boston Symphony Orchestra 

recordings can be purchased 

at these record stores: 

BOSTON MUSIC GO. 

116 Boylston Street 

CHAS. W. HOMEYER & CO., INC. 

498 Boylston Street 

J. McKENNA 

19 Brattle Street, Cambridge 
1416 Beacon Street, Brookline 

MOSHER MUSIC CO. 

181 Tremont Street 

M. STEINERT & SONS CO. 

162 Boylston Street 



[ 753 J 



main burden of the movement falls to the strings who carry it to the 
end, the oboe and bassoon playing on for two more bars. 

''Third Movement. This movement consists of a minuet, passepied 
and fugue. In the dances we have a taste of the rhythmic com- 
plexity to which the composer has accustomed us in the past. It is an 
extremely subtle movement, ending on the dominant. The little 
passepied which follows is a gem of shadowy rhythms. This section 
the composer describes as 'white music' 

"After a moment's silence the audacious fugue in G begins. 
Discounting the fact that the bars are of unequal length, one can 
say that the chief entrances are: Trombone on the first bar; horn on 
the sixth bar; bass instruments on the eleventh bar; oboe and trumpet 
on the fifteenth bar. From the very start the fugue is richly accom- 
panied by rhythmic and melodic counterpoint in the strings and 
wood winds, the material being derived from earlier parts of the 
movement. As the voices enter, the fugue unfolds in a splendor difficult 
to describe. Here are inversions, augmentations and diminutions as 
integrated as those of Bach. Later the parts thin out, some of the 
voices are concentrated into rhythmic figures. Then, after a beat of 
silence, a freely developed variant of the fugue begins. Henceforth 
the strings merely accompany, while the winds march on in a contra- 
puntal union of economy and complexity until a gradual broaden- 
ing is felt, which finally gives way to the concluding chord in G, 



0, 



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We are one minute from Symphony Hall 

Protect your car and for your convenience 
park at Westland Avenue Garage 

41 Westland Avenue 



[754] 



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5010 KENmore 5010 



[755] 



which maintains its equilibrium in spite of the presence of an A. 
A figure from the minuet, played by the flutes, accompanies this chord. 
"Fourth Movement. The last movement begins with the sustained 
measures of an Adagio, played by the bassoon and brass. This dis- 
tantly recalls a sketch of the first theme. Then begins the Allegro, 
with the violas playing in unison a sporting energetic theme in the 
Concerto Grosso style. This leads to an altered version of the first 
subject of the symphony, and a somewhat lyrical atmosphere pervades 
it momentarily. The same breathlessness observed in the first move- 
ment is found nere, but in a more determined form. The introductory 
Adagio returns for a few bars and a scale run leads into a fughetta 
for violoncellos and violas on the original theme. The ornamented 
passages which follow lead again to the Adagio, which this time is 
destined to end the symphony. Its long mediaeval chords give, at first, 
an impression of inertness; but with each new chord one hears a 
barely perceptible change. The cumulative effect of these successive 
chords becomes a conflict between movement and immobility. One 
becomes conscious of an irresistible procession. The last four chords 
represent in a concentrated form the harmony of the symphony." 



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[756] 



Ak 



William 
KAPELL 

Pianist 

SAT. AFT. 

JAN. 29 

JORDAN 
HALL 

Tickets: $1.10 
$1.65, $2.20 



(Steinway Piano) 



AARON RICHMOND 

presents 




Kapell photographed with Dr. Koussevttzky following his sen- 
sationally successful performance of the Khatchatourian Concerto. 



SUN. AFT., JAN. 30 Jordan Hall 

RUTH POSSELT 

"One of the greatest violinists of our time.'* Koussevttzky* 
Program includes Grieg Sonata; Vitali Chaconne (with E. Power Biggs 
at the organ); Bach Sonata for Violin and Piano in A; pieces by Bennett, 
Shostakovich, and Oscar Levant, 

LUKAS FOSS at the piano 

(Baldwin Piano) 

MON. EVE., JAN. 17 
BOSTON OPERA HOUSE 

KATHERINE 
DUNHAM 

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[7571 



AK 



AARON RICHMOND 
presents 
IN S