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Full text of "Boston Symphony Orchestra concert programs, Season 87, 1967-1968, Subscription"

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r BOSTON 1 
SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 






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FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Exquisite 
Sound 




From the palaces 
of ancient Egypt 
to the concert halls 
of our modern 
cities, the wondrous 
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compelled attention 
from all peoples and all 
countries. Through this 
passage of time many 
changes have been made 
in the original design. The 
early instruments shown in 
drawings on the tomb of 
Rameses II (1292-1225 B.C.) 
were richly decorated but 
lacked the fore-pillar. Later 
the "Kinner" developed by the 
Hebrews took the form as we 
know it today. The pedal harp 
was invented about 1720 by a 
Bavarian named Hochbrucker and 
through this ingenious device it be- 
came possible to play in eight major 
and five minor scales complete. Today 
the harp is an important and familiar 
instrument providing the "Exquisite 
Sound" and special effects so important 
to modern orchestration and arrange- 
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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

FRANCIS W. HATCH MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 

ANDREW HEISKELL SIDNEY R. RABB 

HAROLD D. HODGKINSON RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 



TWO MAGNIFICENT RECORDING ACHIEVEMENTS 
THE BOSTON SYMPHONY UNDER ERICH LEINSDO 



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The Fund for the Boston Symphony 



The Coal $5.5 million 

4.0 million— to match the Ford Foundation 
challenge grant of $2 million. 

1.5 million — to refurbish Symphony Hall and 
Tanglewood. 

Why? Last year Symphony income was $3,123,185. 
In the same period expense was $3,417,283. 

Result — a deficit for the year of $294,098. 

When? Now. The Fund has raised nearly $2.5 million 
in gifts and pledges already. The objective is an 
additional $3 million pledged by Christmas. 

A word from Henry B. Cabot 

A Symphony Orchestra simply cannot be a "paying" proposition. 
There is always a gap between income and expense, a gap which 
must be met by gifts from loyal friends of the Orchestra, be they 
individuals, corporations, or foundations. The problem is that the 
gap between income and expense has in recent years been growing 
wider, and so now, with the help and challenge of the Ford Founda- 
tion, the Orchestra proposes to increase its financial support. 

To cover this widening gap between income and expense, the 
Orchestra seeks additional funds for investment and increased annual 
support. For both, we must turn to you and all in this community 
who value music. I do not say orchestral music, for although this is 
a great orchestra, it is also a group of fine musicians who form the 
heart and core of the musical life of this city. 

Our goals are to maintain annual giving of at least $325,000 through 
the season 1970-71, and to raise in addition to our present perma- 
nent income producing funds of $3.5 million a further $4 million in 
which case the Ford Foundation will give us $100,000 per season for 
expenses and $2 million for investment. We also seek an additional 
$1.5 million for various purposes, principally renovations at Sym- 
phony Hall and Tanglewood. 

If we accomplish these purposes, we will add $6 million to income 
producing funds, $1.5 million for construction and renovation, and 
will have established a wide base for annual contributions. The 
Trustees of the Orchestra have set a target of $1 million as their 
share of the Fund. Attainment of the total goal depends upon the 
thoughtful giving of all who love fine music. 



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JOHN N. BURK 

We report with great sadness the death on 
6 September of John Naglee Burk, who re- 
tired at the end of the 1965-66 season after 
forty-eight years of service with the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. During thirty-two of 
those years he was the Orchestra's official 
historian and program annotator. 

John Burk was born in San Jose, California in 
1891. His father, a gifted amateur, had been 
a pupil of Franz Liszt, and passed on to his 
son his great love of music. John Burk was 
educated for a time in Switzerland, where he 
learned to speak fluent French, and went on 
to Harvard and majored in English. He 

founded The Harvard Musical Review with Roger Sessions, the distinguished 

composer, and was graduated in 1916. 

After two years as assistant to H. T. Parker on The Boston Transcript, he 
came to Symphony Hall as publicity director. On the death of Philip Hale 
in 1934, he became program annotator and editor, and during the years he 
wrote for the Orchestra, his notes became known throughout the world for 
their scholarship and lucidity. Michael Steinberg wrote in The Boston Sunday 
Globe in October last year: "By his writing, John Burk has earned the 
gratitude, not just of the Boston Symphony, but of that orchestra's large 
public. We have, all of us, been the beneficiaries of his conscientious 
scholarship and his fastidious style. . . . He is a man sensitive to words, to 
their precise meanings, and to their most subtly elusive flavors as well. 
Proceeding from a clear and disciplined intellect, his essays are shapely and 
forceful." 

Mr Burk wrote several books: Clara Schumann, The Life and Works of 
Beethoven, Mozart and his Music, Letters of Richard Wagner — the Burrell 
Collection; and edited Philip Hale's Boston Symphony Programme Notes. He 
also extended M. A. De Wolfe Howe's Boston Symphony Orchestra for the 
period between 1914 and 1931. He received an honorary degree of Doctor 
of Music from the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia in 1950, and three years 
later was named a member of the Harvard Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. 

John Burk was a man of extraordinary gentleness and modesty, and was 
known to his friends for his occasional and charming absent-mindedness. He 
lived during the last years of his life in Boston and at his country home in 
Rockport. Francis W. Hatch has paid a tribute in which Mr Burk's colleagues 
at Symphony Hall and the Orchestra's subscribers will surely wish to join: 
"The program notes prepared by John Burk will rank as classics in the field 
of musical history. For over thirty years, his weekly program feature has 
added to the enjoyment of musical scholars. The passing of John Burk is 
indeed the end of an era." 




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Contents 

Program for 28 and 29 September 1967 

Future programs 

The soloists 

The members of the Orchestra 

John N. Burk — an obituary 

Program notes by Conrad L. Osborne 
Der fliegende Hollander — Overture 
Die Meistersinger — excerpts from Act III 
Die Walkure — Act I 

The ring of the Nibelungs — a synopsis 

Records of Die Walkure 

Your Symphony Hall 

Tanglewood 1967 



1 1 

57 
38 
41 

7 

12 
16 
20 

32 
36 
46 
50 



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10 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



First Program 

Friday afternoon September 29 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening September 30 at 8.30 

WAGNER 

Der fliegende Hollander - Overture 

Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg - from Act III 

Introduction - Dance of the apprentices - 
Procession of the mastersingers 

INTERMISSION 

Die Walkure - Act I 

CLAIRE WATSON Sieglinde 
JESS THOMAS Siegmund 

KENNETH SMITH Hunding 



These concerts are given in 
memory of John N. Burk 



The concerts will end at about 4.10 on Friday 
and at 10.40 on Saturday 



BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



11 









Program Notes 

&j Conrad L. Osborne 

RICHARD WAGNER 

Der fliegende Hollander (The Flying Dutchman) - Overture 

Wagner was born in Leipzig on 22 May 1813, and died in Venice on 13 February 
1883. The Overture was first played by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on 4 April 
1890 with Arthur Nikisch conducting. The most recent performances in this series 
were conducted by Pierre Monteux on 26 and 27 January 1951. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and english horn, 2 clarinets, 
2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, harp, timpani and strings. 

There are excellent grounds for the assertion that Der fliegende Hol- 
lander marked Wagner's emergence as an artist. He himself felt it: 
"From here begins my career as a poet," he remarks, "and my farewell 
to the mere concocter of operatic texts." 

The dramatic nature of this step can be appreciated by a consideration 
of Rienzi, which preceded Flying Dutchman by only a year. Rienzi 
has passages of beauty and grandeur, but it is indeed a "concoction" — 
a putting-together of certain historical-drama elements with an entirely 
conventional love story, cast in a framework of grand opera which 
would find a comfortable spot in the Spontini-to-Meyerbeer line. The 
essence of Der fliegende Hollander is poetic: the composer, seized by 
the expressive possibilities of a subject — its atmosphere, its central 




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statement — seeks to cast it in the most direct way, rejecting as irrele- 
vant anything which does not contribute to that atmosphere and 
statement. If he is yet some distance from the goal, the decisive step 
has been taken — it is leagues from the five incident-packed acts of 
Rienzi to the single act (though usually not performed as such) and 
single essential action of Der fiiegende Hollander. 

Wagner saw his Dutchman as a folk-derived blend of Ulysses and The 
Wandering Jew, and he saw this tortured, restless figure's potential 
salvation in the unquestioning love of a quintessential woman. It is 
Wagner's first expression of the notion of redemption through the 
intuitive feminine spirit — a notion to which he returns, with increas- 
ingly mature and subtle perceptions, throughout the remainder of 
his career. 

Though Wagner had been interested in the subject as early as 1838, 
he actually wrote the opera, in a very short time, in 1841. It received 
its premiere on 2 January 1843 at Dresden, with the composer con- 
ducting. The famous overture is almost a precis of the opera itself, 
expressing in alternate and combined thematic development the tor- 
ment and obsession of the Dutchman, the redeeming commitment of 
Senta, and the pervading presence of the northern seas and the men 
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15 



Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg - from Act III 
(The Mastersingers of Nuremberg) 

Introduction - Dance of the apprentices - 
Procession of the mastersingers 

George Henschel conducted the Orchestra's first performance of these pieces on 
10 February 1882. The most recent performances in this series were conducted by 
Charles Munch on 4 and 5 March i960. 
The instrumentation: 2 flutes, piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, glockenspiel, triangle, cymbals, harp 
and strings. 

Most artists feel impelled, at some point, to meditate aloud on the 
subject of art itself — its reasons for existence, its uses, its place in men's 
lives. It could not fail to be so with Wagner, that most indefatigable 
deliverer of opinions, and in fact he went to the extreme of composing 
what may be the greatest of all operatic comedies in order to explain 
himself on the matter. In doing so, he returned, for the only time in 
his mature career, to an historical basis — a very real city of Nurnberg, 
a very real set of traditions, and even a cast of characters drawn, at 
least in name, from among the people who had actually walked the 
streets of that city and contributed to those traditions. Chief of these, 
of course, is the shoemaker-poet Hans Sachs. What Wagner (and 
Sachs) have to say on the question of art is (to state it crudely) this: 
1) People need art, particularly in its celebrative aspect; 2) Art needs 
tradition, a set of groundrules; 3) Genius, by its very nature, must 



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violate that tradition; and 4) Genius and tradition must then come to 
some sort of positive accommodation, whereby each strengthens and 
refreshes the other, so that in the end a new art emerges, an art which 
is at once contemporary and free, yet part of an ancient and well- 
founded continuity. That all of this is put forth in a work of immense 
tenderness, high humor, witty observation, infinite sadness, and, finally, 
unbounded exhilaration is in itself Richard Wagner's final comment on 
art and life. 

The excerpts which we shall hear today are quickly identified. The 
Prelude to Act III brings us the mood of profound meditation, 
skeptical yet hopeful, which Sachs will soon explore in his famous 
Wahnmonolog; the Dance of the apprentices is, unsurprisingly, a 
dance of the apprentices, which is played while representatives of the 
various guilds gather on the festival meadow for the mastersinging 
contest; and the Procession of the mastersingers accompanies the 
climactic entrance of the contestants, their fellow guild members, and, 
at last, Sachs himself. 

It is, of course, Genius which takes the day — but Genius molded and 
formed by what is valid in the tradition, and, in the end, subject to the 
judgment of the assembled people, for whom art exists. 



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19 








Die Walkiire- 

The Orchestra has played Act I of Die Walkure in its entirety on two previous 
occasions: first in this series on 29 and 30 December 1933, with Serge Koussevitzky 
conducting and with Elsa Alsen, Paul Althouse and Fred Patton as soloists; and at 
the Berkshire Festival on 21 July 1956, when Charles Munch conducted with soloists 
Margaret Harshaw, Albert Da Costa and James Pease. 

Wagner's specifications for the instrumentation of Act I of Die Walkure: 16 first 
violins, 16 second violins, 12 violas, 12 cellos, 8 double basses, 3 flutes, 1 piccolo 
(third flute sometimes doubles second piccolo), 3 oboes, english horn (doubling 
fourth oboe), 3 clarinets, bass clarinet, 3 bassoons, 8 horns (4 doubling Wagner 
tubas), tuba, 3 trumpets and bass trumpet, 3 tenor trombones, bass trombone 
(alternating with contrabass trombone), 2 pairs of timpani, triangle, cymbals, side 
drum, glockenspiel, tam tam, 2 harps. 

A letter to August Rockel, dated 23 August 1856, affords us one of 
Richard Wagner's most self-perceptive prose passages. "The strange 
thing is," he comments (in the Ellis translation), "that in all my 
intellectual ideas on life ... I was working in direct opposition to the 
intuitive ideas expressed in my works. While, as an artist, I felt with 
such convincing certainty that all my creations took their coloring 



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from my feelings, as a philosopher I sought to discover a totally opposed 
interpretation of the world ... I made my most remarkable discovery 
in this respect with my Nibelungen drama." 

The Nibelungen drama was, indeed, Wagner's means of some impor- 
tant self-discoveries; as Hollander had marked out his basic direction, 
so the Ring marked his conscious assumption of a new set of dramatic 
and compositorial goals. And it was at the very time of the composition 
of Die Walkilre (the second half of 1854) that he arrived at some 
important clarifications concerning himself, his artistic outlook, and 
the material he had concerned himself with. He had sketched his 
Nibelungen drama — in a form reasonably close to its final one — as 
early as 1848, and had completed the poem by 1852. Yet, although his 
journey backward, which led from the original conception of a single 
drama based on the figure of the mature Siegfried to a trilogy-with- 
prologue combining the Siegfried and Ring legends, indicates his 
gradually tightening grip on the true subject matter of his drama, he 
still felt that he was not entirely in control of his own materials. 

It was at this time (he had just completed the first act of Die Walkilre, 
and had busied himself in making a fair copy of the already-completed 
Das Rheingold) that he discovered Schopenhauer's Die Welt als Wille 
und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Idea). He sensed almost 
immediately that he had found the philosophical means by which he 
might unite his "intellectual" and "intuitive" perceptions; it was as if 
his own work had been explained to him. "Now at last," he states in 




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23 



his autobiography, "I could understand my Wotan." The extent to 
which this unresolved conflict within himself was also, in a deep sense, 
the central conflict of his trilogy (and of its key character) had been 
borne in on him. Almost simultaneously, the subject of Tristan und 
Isolde came under serious consideration for the first time. 

The completion of the Walkilre vocal score went rapidly, but the 
orchestration occupied Wagner for well over a year, and it was not 
until the spring of 1856 that he had in hand a completed score. And 
more than fourteen years were to go by before the piece was produced. 
The Bayreuth Festival owes its existence, in roughly equal parts, to 
the difficulties Wagner invariably met in securing productions for his 
works and to his extreme dissatisfaction with the result whenever they 
were produced; it was his intention to withhold each section of the 
Ring cycle until the whole could be produced under conditions ap- 
proaching his requirements. With respect to Das Rheingold and 
Die Walkilre, however, his hand was forced by his protector, King 
Ludwig of Bavaria (who was, as it were, the original "Wagner fan"), 
who insisted on having these first two evenings of the cycle presented 
at Munich. Accordingly, Das Rheingold was mounted in 1869, and 
Die Walkilre a year later, without the composer's approval or partici- 



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pation. The Walkiire production was apparently what might fairly be 
described as a ''good try," and met with a qualified but real success. 
In 1876 the opera was finally given as a part of the complete cycle, the 
occasion being the first Bayreuth Festival. 

Act I of Die Walkiire has often been performed, 111 concert and on 
records, as a self-sufficient entity. The reason lies not only in the 
extraordinary beauty and power of the writing, but in the dramatic 
completeness of the act, which points toward one significant action — 
the union of Siegmund and Sieglinde — and carries it out. To be sure, 
many important matters are left unresolved; but the relationship which 
is the act's subject is thoroughly explored, explained, and fulfilled. 

This is the only act of the cycle peopled entirely by characters whose 
lives begin and end, for us, in a single evening. It is also the only act 
until the beginning of Gotterdammerung in which Wotan does not 
appear, except by reference. This seeming coincidence has interesting 



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implications. Wotan is absent from the scene by choice; he wishes it to 
appear that developments are proceeding without his interference, 
since it is only through the advent of a hero free of his influence that 
the disastrous chain of events initiated in Das Rheingold can be 
halted. 

And so it is that representatives of the human race hold the stage for 
the first time in the Ring. But, although they display admirable char- 
acteristics and exert a strong pull on our feelings, they soon disappear — 
neither they nor the world into which they have come is ready for 
their ascendancy. And most particularly is Wotan not ready for it, 
for his absence is a calculated one, a sham. Though he pretends to 
let events take their course, he has in fact exerted control over the 
situation. He has fathered the Wdlsung twins; he has supervised the 
upbringing of Siegmund; he has implanted in the ash-tree's stem the 
invincible sword for his hero-son to find. And though he makes no 
appearance on the stage, he is in fact present in Act I, both in text and 
music — he is the Walse apostrophized by Siegmund, the Greis in 
grauem Gewand (the old man in grey garb) remembered and described 
by Sieglinde. 

It is this fact that dooms the lover-twins, for the lesson that Wotan 
must learn is that he must truly forego the vainglory of rule, the 
attempt to control — that he must lose his life to gain it. It is only 
through this renunciation that the truly freed spirit (Siegfried) will 
appear, and that Wotan's true will (Briinnhilde, his "wish-maiden") 
will at last emerge. 

Thus, the three characters who compel our attention in this act have 
no lives of their own, but only such life as is granted them in Wotan's 
fast disintegrating scheme. Siegmund will live his pursued existence 
only long enough to plant the seed of the hero Siegfried, his sister long 
enough to bear the infant. Hunding will vanish the moment he has 
carried out the task marked for him by Fricka, Wotan's consort: the 
killing of Siegmund. The very brevity and hopelessness of their lives 
lends them extra poignancy. For the duration of this glorious act, they 




23 



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will command our sympathies as only a few characters of the lyric 
stage can, for in the excitement of their mutual discoveries they illu- 
minate, briefly but powerfully, the far-off goal: the attainment of full 
humanity. 

Program notes © Conrad L. Osborne 

Conrad L. Osborne, born in 1934, decided on a performing career, and 
forsook college for a professional acting company. He has since been 
a professional actor, singer and opera director. He began work in 
musical journalism in 1959 and became chief vocal critic for High 
Fidelity magazine. Since then he has contributed to many musical 
publications and has been New York music critic for The Financial 
Times of London since 1962. In addition he is today a Contributing 
Editor for High Fidelity/Musical America and a Senior Editor for 
Maco Publications in New York. 



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The Ring of the Nibelungs — A Synopsis 

Rheingold, the first opera of Wagner's tetralogy, tells the story of the 
theft of the magic gold which belongs to the three Maidens of the River 
Rhine. Whoever shall make a ring from it shall be master of the 
world, if he also forswears love. Alberich, a dwarf from the under- 
world, first steals it, but loses it to Wotan, King of the Gods. Wotan 
has to pay the giants of the earth, Fafner and Fasolt, for having built 
Valhalla, the new home of the Gods; their price is Freia, the Goddess 
of Youth. But if Wotan gives Freia up, the gods will grow old; so he 
persuades the giants to take the golden ring instead. Alberich puts a 
curse of death on the ring as he gives it up, and immediately it begins 
to work as Fafner kills Fasolt. The opera ends as the gods move to 
Valhalla, their new home. 

The Valkyrie, wild riders of the sky, are the nine daughters of Wotan 
and Erda, goddess of the earth. The gods will perish unless Wotan 
regains the ring, which Fafner, now transformed into a dragon, guards 
on earth. Hoping that a son born on earth may be able to take the 
ring, Wotan has fathered sons by a woman of earth. The curse of the 
gold visits itself on these children, one of whom is Siegmund. Now a 
man, he is fleeing from his enemies in a thunderstorm as the first act of 
Die Walkiire begins. He finds refuge in the hut of Hunding, husband 
of Sieglinde. Not knowing that they are brother and sister, Siegmund 



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and Sieglinde fall In love, and she puts a sleeping potion into 
Hunding's drink. There is a sword embedded in the tree that serves 
as the hut's roof, put there on the day of Sieglinde's wedding by a 
stranger, who was in fact Wotan. The man who can draw it out shall 
have it. Till now all who have tried have failed, but Siegmund 
succeeds. Sieglinde is now certain of their destiny; the two rush out 
into the night, as the first act ends. 

As the story continues, Siegmund is killed by the pursuing Hunding, 
and Wotan, grieving at his son Siegmund's death, strikes Hunding 
dead. Brunnhilde, one of the Valkyries, rescues Sieglinde, tells her she 
will become the mother of a hero, and warns her to escape from 
Wotan's fury. Wotan, angry with Brunnhilde, punishes her: no longer 
shall she be a goddess. She shall fall into a deep sleep, and whatever 
man shall find her first shall waken her and take her to wife. 

Sieglinde dies giving birth to her son Siegfried. The dwarf Mime finds 
the child and brings him up. The gold, which Mime now covets, can 
only be won by killing its present guardian, Fafner, with a sword made 
from the pieces of Siegmund's shattered weapon. Siegfried forges it, 
kills Fafner, and tasting by accident the blood of the dragon, under- 
stands that Mime plots his death. So he kills Mime. A woodbird tells 
him that he shall rescue Brunnhilde, and he goes in search of her. 
Wotan meanwhile realizes that the gods cannot survive, and that 
Siegfried and Brunnhilde shall be the rulers of the future. He breaks 




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his spear, the symbol oi his power. Siegfried awakes the sleeping 
Brunnhilde, and puts the magic ring on her finger, as the opera 
Siegfried ends. 

Siegfried rides away on Briinnhilde's horse, Grane, to prove his love 
by deeds of valor. But Hagen, son of the dwarf Alberich, plots with his 
half-brother Gunther to steal the ring by giving Siegfried a potion, 
which will make him forget Brunnhilde and love Gunther's sister. 
Gunther shall then have Brunnhilde and the ring. Siegfried drinks the 
potion, and he and Gunther go in search of Brunnhilde. 

Wearing a magic helmet to make him look like Gunther, Siegfried 
finds Brunnhilde and brings her to Gunther. Restored to his own form 
and wearing the ring he took from Brunnhilde, he weds Gutrune, 
while Briinnhilde's love turns to hate. She plans to murder him while 
he is hunting. 

In the last act of Gotterdammerung, the Rhine Maidens ask Siegfried 
for the ring, but he will not give it up. They warn him that the curse 
will work on him. Hagen gives Siegfried a potion to bring back his 
memory, then stabs him as they are hunting together. Siegfried calls 
on Brunnhilde as he dies. 

Hagen now demands the ring from Gunther, and when he refuses to 
give it up, kills him. He tries to take the ring, but Brunnhilde prevents 
him. She has a funeral pyre built, bids farewell to Siegfried, and rides 
into the flames on Grane. The waters of the Rhine extinguish the fire, 
and the Rhine Maidens take back the ring. Hagen drowns in a final 
attempt to steal it, and Valhalla collapses, consumed by fire. 

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Records of Die Walkure 

There are several complete recordings available of Die Walkure. Mr 
Leinsdorf conducts the London Symphony Orchestra with Birgit 
Nilsson, Gre Brouwenstijn, Rita Gorr, Jon Vickers and George London 
in the leading roles, for RCA Victor. Georg Solti conducts the Vienna 
Philharmonic with Birgit Nilsson, Regine Crespin, Christa Ludwig, 
James King, Hans Hotter and Gottlob Frick for London; Herbert von 
Karajan conducts the Berlin Philharmonic with Regine Crespin, 
Gundula Janowitz, Josephine Veasey, Jon Vickers, James Stewart and 
Martti Talvela for DGG. There is an older complete recording on 
Seraphim with Wilhelm Furtwangler and the Vienna Philharmonic, 
and a complete version of Act I, recorded in 1935, by Lotte Lehmann, 
Lauritz Melchior and Emanuel List, with the Vienna Philharmonic 
under Bruno Walter on Angel. 



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The soloists 

In 1951 CLAIRE WATSON was studying 
with Elisabeth Schumann in New York, and 
sang one day for Otto Klemperer, who was 
so excited that he invited her to Europe to 
coach with him. She went, and during her 
stay in Vienna she sang for the guests at a 
party given in her honor. Emanuel List 
was there, and suggested she go immediately 
to Graz to audition. The result was a con- 
tract to open the fall season at the Graz 
Opera as Desdemona in Verdi's Oteilo. It 
was her first appearance on stage and was a great success. 

But her children kept her away from her career for four years, when 
she returned to Europe and was engaged by the Frankfurt Opera. In 
1958 she moved to the Bavarian State Opera Company in Munich, 
where she still sings regularly, and made her debut at the Royal Opera 
House, Covent Garden. Claire Watson is also a member of the Vienna 
State Opera, has appeared at the Salzburg Festival, and is a guest of 
the Berlin Opera. 

Last fall she made her American operatic debut with the San Francisco 
Opera Company, and later appeared with the Lyric Opera of Chicago. 
Claire Watson makes her first appearance with the Orchestra this week. 




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The appearance of JESS THOMAS, his 
first with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
is the start for him of a busy season of 
Wagner. Later he will sing in Tristan and 
Isolde and Rheingold in San Francisco; 
Tannhaiiser in Philadelphia and Parsifal in 
New York and Washington. 
Born in Hot Springs, South Dakota, he 
graduated from the University of Nebraska 
and then worked for four years as a high 
school counselor. In 1953, he enrolled at 
Stanford University in California to prepare for his doctor's degree. 
The school's vocal instructor, Otto Schulmann, recognized his potential, 
and persuaded him to study voice. Eventually he abandoned psy- 
chology for music, and his singing career began at the San Francisco 
Opera. From there he moved to Karlsruhe in Germany, and in i960 
made his debut at the Munich Festival. The next year he appeared at 
Bayreuth as Parsifal, in Berlin as Radames and in Munich as Don 
Carlo. In 1962 he sang for the first time at the Metropolitan Opera in 
New York as Walther von Stolzing. 

From that time Jess Thomas has been in demand in many of the 
world's finest opera houses, and at many music festivals. At the cele- 
brations commemorating Wagner's 150th birthday, Bayreuth honored 
him with a gold medal. Not only an opera singer, he sings many 
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KENNETH SMITH appeared last with 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra two sea- 
sons ago, when he sang in a performance 
of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. He was 
born in England, but came to the United 
States at the age of four and grew up in 
Stamford, Connecticut. He studied at the 
Manhattan School of Music and the New 
York College of Music, and during the 
Second World War served with the Air 
Force. After the war he made his profes- 
sional debut, and sang with many opera companies and orchestras. 

In 1957 he had a great success as Wotan in Die Walkiire at Denver, 
and in the autumn of the following year he was engaged by the New 
York City Opera. He has sung since throughout the United States and 
in Europe, and has appeared many times in opera productions on 
television. Most recently he has appeared with the orchestras in 
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Washington, Los Angeles, Cincinnati, 
Buffalo and in other cities. Kenneth Smith now lives in Kansas, where 
he is Professor of Music at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. 




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The Members of the Orchestra 

As a regular feature of the program book, space will be given to short 
biographical sketches of the members of the Orchestra and the chamber 
groups to which they belong. We start this week with players of the 
Boston Sinfonietta, formerly the Zimbler Sinfonietta, which is one of 
the new Ensembles of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 
The Boston Sinfonietta was founded in 1947 by the late Josef Zimbler, 
cellist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and was one of the first 
string groups to perform without a conductor. From the start it 
enjoyed a success which was much enhanced by an annual series of 
concerts presented at Jordan Hall, and by its numerous recordings. 
In 1957, the U. S. Department of State sponsored a successful tour to 
South America. Three years later Josef Zimbler died, and the Sin- 
fonietta was reorganized with George Zazofsky as its permanent Music 
Director. The Boston Sinfonietta will give its first concert under the 
new name in Jordan Hall on 9 October, when music by Corelli, 
Barber, Tansman and Vivaldi will be performed. Later in the season 
the Ensemble will perform at the Academy of Music in Philadelphia 
at the invitation of the Chamber Orchestra Society of that city. 



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GEORGE ZAZOFSKY, Concertmaster and 
Musical Director of the Boston Sinfonietta, 
who will play solo violin in Vivaldi's The 
Seasons in the Ensemble's concert in Jordan 
Hall on 9 October, was born in Boston. 
He studied at the Curtis Institute in Phila- 
delphia, where he was the orchestra's con- 
certmaster under Fritz Reiner. He joined 
Leopold Stokowski's All-American Youth 
Orchestra for two tours, and became a mem- 
ber of the Boston Symphony in 1941. He 
has been Concertmaster of the Boston Opera Group since its founda- 
tion, and is on the faculty of the Berkshire Music Center and the New 
England Conservatory. He played the solo part of Berg's Violin 
Concerto with the Orchestra under Mr Leinsdorf's direction both in 
Boston and on tour. George Zazofsky is also Chairman of the Inter- 
national Conference of Symphony Orchestras and Opera Musicians, he 
is the guiding spirit behind the symphony orchestra members' exchange 
scheme under the auspices of the Department of State, now in its 
second year with the exchange of players between the Boston Symphony 
and Japan Philharmonic, and has been Chairman of the Orchestra 
Players' Committee since 1961. He was recently invited to take part in 
a panel on Labor and the Performing Arts by the Rockefeller Brothers 
Fund. In his spare moments George Zazofsky enjoys ice skating, at 
which he is expert, deep sea fishing, skiing and golf. 




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HENRY PORTNOI, newly appointed 
Principal Bass of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, also plays in the Boston Sym- 
phony Chamber Players, and the Boston 
Sinfonietta. A native of Boston, he first 
studied violin with Nicholas Kassman, a 
former member of the Orchestra, and bass 
with Max Kunze, a former holder of his 
present chair. Later he was at the Berkshire 
Music Center at Tanglewood and at the 
MUr/ f Curtis Institute in Philadelphia. He played 

in the orchestras of Indianapolis and Pittsburgh, and toured South 
America as a member of Leopold Stokowski's All American Orchestra. 
Henry Portnoi joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1943 and 
teaches at Boston University. He is at present working on a method 
book on the double-bass for beginners, which will be finished next year. 
He met his wife, who was a member of the Radcliffe Choral Society, 
at a rehearsal of Bach's B minor Mass in Symphony Hall in the spring 
of 1944, and they were married on the last day of the same year. They 
have two children, one of whom, Rebecca, was a guide at Tanglewood 
this summer. 

Radio Broadcasts 

The Friday afternoon concerts at 2 p.m. are broadcast in stereo each 
week by WGBH-FM and its educational affiliates, WFCR in Amherst 
and WAMC in Albany, New York. 

The Saturday evening conceits at 8.30 p.m. are broadcast by WCRB- 
AM and its affiliate WCRX in Springfield, by WGBH-FM, and in 
stereo by WCRB-FM and its affiliate WCRQ-FM in Providence. 
WCRB also broadcasts delayed transcriptions of the Orchestra's con- 
certs on Thursdays at 9 p.m. 

Some Tuesday evening concerts will be broadcast in stereo by WGBH- 
FM, WFCR in Amherst and WAMC in Albany. 



QUALITY 
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Beneath the impressive beauty of Cadillac for 1968 is the most significant 
lew engine in Cadillac's fifty-three years of V-8 leadership. With greater size, 
orque, smoothness and quiet than any of its contemporaries, Cadillac's new 
1-72 V-8 supplies markedly improved passing and highway performance, 
ind ample reserve to operate Cadillac's many power conveniences. And the 
1-72 V-8 is only the beginning of Cadillac's 1968 newness. New front disc 
)rakes are available on all models, and now standard on Eldorado. A new 
Dadded instrument panel . . . concealed windshield wipers . . . and other sig- 
nificant improvements make all of Cadillac's eleven models the most elegant 
md exciting in luxury motoring. For the complete "inside story" of Cadillac 
or 1968, see your dealer for a truly revealing test drive. 





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Your Symphony Hail 

If you take a moment to look around, you will probably notice some 
subtle changes in the decor of the auditorium. The statues are whiter 
than they were, the brass chandeliers are gleaming. What you see is in 
fact a restoration of the Hall to its original look of 1900. 

The work began immediately after the Pops season closed, and was 
completed in time for Boston University's Summer School Commence- 
ment exercises on August 19. The Edward K. Perry Company, who 
painted the Hall sixty-seven years ago, was contracted for the opera- 
tion, under the supervision of Lewis F. Perry, grandson of Edward, 
and now President of the Company. The colors match exactly the 
originals, seven in all, and were checked against samples held in the 
files of McKim, Mead and White, the Hall's architects. 

Scaffolding was built up to the ceiling, which was stripped, made good, 
and redecorated with paint of a chemical formula similar to the 
original. Every precaution was taken to make sure that no change 
could occur in Symphony Hall's unique acoustics. At the same time 
the surface of the sixteen plaster statues was renewed to give them 
again the look of marble. 

Painting the walls was easy in comparison, as was the repair, cleaning 
and polishing of the chandeliers. The organ pipes, the proscenium 
arch and the balcony railings, all covered with gold leaf, were washed 
and a new protective coat of gelatin was put on. 



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46 



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The leather doors to the Hall will gradually be recovered by the 
Symphony Hall House Crew, who were busy throughout the summer 
working on the interior of the auditorium under the supervision of 
Edward Charron, House Superintendent, Frank Smith, Maintenance 
Carpenter, and Douglas Hume, Chief Electrician. 

This redecoration is the first stage of the plans to refurbish Symphony 
Hall: public elevators will be installed later, and a new entrance and 
foyer will be constructed. 

This is the first expenditure from the one and a half million dollars 
which is being raised as part of the five and a half million dollar Fund 
for the Boston Symphony, to make your Hall more comfortable and 
attractive. 



Seminars in Symphony Analysis 

The Friends of The New England Conservatory announce that Mrs 
Mac Morgan will hold a seminar in Symphony Analysis each Friday 
when the Boston Symphony Orchestra is playing a concert. The time: 
1 1 o'clock to midday; the place: Harrison Keller Room. Mrs Morgan 
will discuss selections chosen from the Orchestra's program of the day 
with emphasis on new works. Student performers may occasionally 
provide illustrations. For further details, please telephone the New 
England Conservatory (536-8660) and ask for the Friends' Office. 




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49 



Tanglewood 1967 

The Berkshire Festival this year presented twenty-four concerts in the 
Shed at Tanglewood, eight open rehearsals, two benefit concerts and 
six programs of chamber music. In addition there were twenty-four 
performances by members of the Berkshire Music Center, including the 
six concerts of the fourth Festival of Contemporary American Music. 

This works out to be an average of more than one concert a day during 
the eight-week season. There was a constant stream of visiting soloists 
and conductors, some of whom were also able to give master classes to 
members of the Berkshire Music Center, or meet them more informally. 
Highlights of the season were performances of Bach's B minor Mass, 
Verdi's Requiem, and the premiere in America of Beethoven's original 
version of Fidelio, which Mr Leinsdorf presented in concert form. 
Most of the singers were American born, but Hanne-Lore Kuhse, who 
sang the title role, comes from Germany, where she is leading soprano 
of the Berlin State Opera, and Tom Krause, Finnish by birth, who 
sang Pizarro, is a member of the Hamburg State Opera. From the 
Orchestra itself Joseph Silverstein played concertos by Bach and 
Brahms, and in the Vivaldi program conducted by the Italian Antonio 
Janigro, Doriot Anthony Dwyer, Lois Schaefer, Ralph Gomberg and 
Sherman Walt each played a concerto. 

The benefit concert for the Berkshire Music Center, which was broad- 
cast live from coast to coast by NBC, included a performance by the 
combined Boston Symphony and Berkshire Music Center Orchestras 
of the 1812 Overture of Tchaikovsky. The Overture ended with an 
accompaniment of cannon shots and an impressive display of fireworks. 
In 1936 audiences totaling 15,000 attended the first three concerts at 
Tanglewood. This year, despite the rainy weather, attendance for the 
twenty-four concerts given in the Shed by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra was over 170,000. 



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51 



BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LELNSDORF Music Director 
CONCERT SCHEDULE 1967-1968 



SEPTEMBER 

28 Boston 

29-30 Boston 

OCTOBER 

3 Boston 

5 Providence 

6-7 Boston 

10 Boston 

12 Boston 

13-14 Boston 

17 Boston 

18 New York 

19 Brooklyn 

20 New York 

2 1 Newark 
24 Boston 
26 Boston 

27-28 Boston 

31 Boston 

NOVEMBER 

2 Providence 

3-4 Boston 

7 Boston 

9 Boston 

10-11 Boston 

14 Boston 

16 Boston 

17-18 Boston 

21 Boston 

24-25 Boston 

28 Boston 

29 New York 

30 New Brunswick 

DECEMBER 

1 New York 

2 Carnegie Hall 
5 Boston 

7 Providence 

8-9 Boston 

12 Boston 

14 Boston 

15-16 Boston 

28 Boston 

29-30 Boston 

JANUARY 

2 Boston 

5-6 Boston 

9 Boston 

1 1 Providence 

12-13 Boston 

16 Boston 

18 Boston 

19-20 Boston 



Rehearsal i 
Fri-Sat I 



Tuesday Ai 

1 

Fri-Sat II 

Tuesday Bi 

Rehearsal 2 

Fri-Sat III 

Cambridge 1 

1 

1 

1 

Tuesday A2 
Thursday Ai 
Fri-Sat IV 
Tuesday B2 



Fri-Sat V 
Tuesday A3 
Thursday Bi 
Fri-Sat VI 
Cambridge 2 
Thursday A2 
Fri-Sat VII 
Tuesday B3 
Fri-Sat VIII 
Tuesday A4 



Cambridge 3 

3 

Fri-Sat IX 
Tuesday A5 
Thursday A3 
Fri-Sat X 
Rehearsal 3 
Fri-Sat XI 



Tuesday A6 
Fri-Sat XII 
Tuesday B4 

4 

Fri-Sat XIII 
Cambridge 4 
Rehearsal 4 
Fri-Sat XIV 



JANUARY (continued) 

23 Boston 

25 Boston 
26-27 Boston 

29 Hartford 

30 Philadelphia 

31 New York 

FEBRUARY 

1 Brooklyn 

2 New York 

3 Carnegie Hall 
6 Boston 

8 Boston 

9-10 Boston 

15 Boston 

16-17 Boston 

20 Boston 
22 Boston 

23-24 Boston 

26 Washington 

27 Washington 

28 New York 

29 Carnegie Hall 

MARCH 

1 New York 

2 Carnegie Hall 
8-9 Boston 

12 Boston 

14 Providence 

15-16 Boston 

19 Boston 

2 1 Boston 
22-23 Boston 

27 St Louis 

28 Chicago 

29 Cincinnati 



Tuesday A7 
Thursday B2 
Fri-Sat XV 



2 

2 

Tuesday A8 
Thursday A4 
Fri-Sat XVI 
Rehearsal 5 
Fri-Sat XVII 
Tuesday B5 
Thursday A5 
Fri-Sat XVIII 



4 

3 

Fri-Sat XIX 

Tuesday A9 

5 

Fri-Sat XX 
Cambridge 5 
Thursday B3 
Fri-Sat XXI 



APRIL 

1 Boston 

2 New Haven 

3 New York 

4 Brooklyn 

5 New York 

6 Carnegie Hall 
9 Boston 

1 1 Boston 

12-13 Boston 

16 Boston 

18 Boston 

19-20 Boston 

23 Boston 

25 Boston 

26-27 Boston 



American College 
of Physicians 

5 
3 
5 
4 

Cambridge 6 
Rehearsal 6 
Fri-Sat XXII 
Tuesday B6 
Thursday A6 
Fri-Sat XXIII 
Tuesday A 10 
Rehearsal 7 
Fri-Sat XXIV 



52 



For information about space 
and rates in 

THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY 

PROGRAM 

Call Advertising Department 
Symphony Hall 

• 

CO 6-1492 
Donald T. Gammons 




"The Man Who 
Cares, Prepares 

SHARON MEMORIAL PARK 

SHARON. MASSACHUSETTS 
Telephone Boston Areo 364-2855 



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MUHTiNOTOM Avewue comudou 



53 



The Boston Symphony Orchestra would like to call to 

your attention the four concerts to be given in Symphony Hall 

this season by visiting orchestras 

VIENNA PHILHARMONIC 
Karl Boehm conductor 
Monday evening October 9 

L'ORCHESTRE NATIONAL FRANCAIS 
Maurice Le Roux conductor 
Friday evening October 27 

CINCINNATI SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
Max Rudolf conductor 
Sunday afternoon January 2 1 

CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA 

George Szell conductor 
Wednesday evening February 7 



Further information on the above series of concerts may be 
obtained from the offices of the Boston University 
Celebrity Series, 535 Boylston Street 
KEnmore 6-6037 



Mrs. Aaron Richmond and Walter Pierce 
present in the 1967-68 Boston University 

CELEBRITY SERIES 



Symphony Hall • Jordan Hall • Back Bay Theatre 

SELECT YOUR OWN SERIES FROM THE WORLD'S FOREMOST ATTRACTIONS 
Subscribe Now and Save! 

535 BOYLSTON ST. "gBrS^?" Tel. KE 6-6037 
NOTE: Series subscriptions are limited. To avoid disappointment, mail your order now. 

7-EVENT SELECTIVE SERIES: $31.50 -$24.50 -$21.00 

Check any 7 of the 17 events listed below: 

*□ GUARNERI STRING QUARTET ("One of the best"— N. Y. Times) Sun. Aft, Oct. 15 

D L'ORCHESTRE NATIONAL FRANCAIS, Maurice Le Roux, Music Director Fri. Eve., Oct. 27 

□ MUSIC FROM MARLBORO I (Artists include violinist Pina Carmirelli) Sun. Aft, Oct. 29 

Program: Boccherini Two Cello Quintet? 

Dvorak and Brahms string textets 

□ SABICAS, Outstanding Flamenco Guitarist Sat. Eve., Nov. 4 

*□ ALICIA DE LARROCHA, Acclaimed Spanish Pianist Sun. Aft, Nov. 5 

] REGIMENTAL BAND of the WELSH GUARDS and PIPES, DRUMS, 

HIGHLAND DANCERS of the SCOTS GUARDS Fri. Eve., Nov. 24 

□ VLADIMIR ASHKENAZY, Brilliant Soviet Pianist Sun. Aft, Nov. 26 

□ I SOLISTI Dl ZAGREB, Widely-hailed Yugoslavian Chamber Orchestra Sun. Aft, Dec. 3 

□ RUDOLF SERKIN, Internationally Famous Pianist ...Sun. Aft, Dec. 10 

□ MUSIC FROM MARLBORO II (Artists include singers Benita Valente, 

Jon Humphrey) Fri. Eve., Jan. 19 

Program: Beethoven, G Major Variations; 

Haydn, G Major Trio? 

Shostakovich, Songs on Hebrew Folk Themes 

□ CINCINNATI SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Max Rudolf, Conductor; 

Lili Kraus, Piano Soloist ...Sun. Aft, Jan. 21 

□ ALVIN AILEY AMERICAN DANCE THEATRE Sat. Mat, Jan. 27 

("Theatrical Sensation of the International Dance World."— N. Y. Times) 

□ JUDITH RASKIN, Leading Metropolitan Opera Soprano Sun. Aft, Jan. 28 

] ANTONIO and the BALLETS DE MADRID, The Supreme 

Spanish Dancer and his Brilliant Company Wed. Eve., Feb. 21 

□ BACH ARIA GROUP, All-Star Ensemble of Vocalists and Instrumentalists 

includes Maureen Forrester and Lois Marshall Fri. Eve., Feb. 23 

□ ANDRES SEGOVIA, World-Famous Guitarist Sun. Aft, Mar. 3 

G MUSIC FROM MARLBORO III (Artists include Leslie Parnas, cello? 

Murray Perahia, piano) Sun. Aft, Apr. 28 

Program: Beethoven, B flat major Trio; 

Chopin, G minor Sonata; 

Hindemith, Quartet for Clarinet, Violin, Cello and Piano 

* Tickers for these events are limited. If selected, please list alternate choice. 

EXTRA EVENTS 

NOT included in Series. Available ONLY to subscribers if 
ordered NOW with Series subscription at the following prices: 

CLEVELAND ORCHESTRA, George Szell, Conductor Wed. Eve., Feb. 7 

($6.50, $5.50, $4.50, $3.50) 

ARTUR RUBINSTEIN, Distinguished Pianist Sun. Aft, Feb. 25 

($6.00, $5.00, $4.00, $3.50) 

55 



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■ 






Future Programs 
Second Program 

Friday afternoon October 6 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening October 7 at 8.30 

CHARLES WILSON Guest Conductor 

BRAHMS Academic Festival Overture 

HENZE Symphony No. 1 

RIMSKY-KORSAKOV Sheherazade 

Next week marks the official debut of Charles Wilson, assistant con- 
ductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Mr Wilson conducted the 
Orchestra last season in Brooklyn at an hour's notice when Mr Leins- 
dorf was unwell, and took part of an open rehearsal at Tanglewood 
during the summer. He trained the Tanglewood Choir and the Berk- 
shire Chorus for performances of Bach's B minor Mass, Beethoven's 
original version of Fidelio and Verdi's Requiem, for which he received 
extraordinary critical acclaim. Mr Leinsdorf himself, in an interview 
with The New York Times, conducted incidentally by transatlantic 
telephone between London and New York on the day after the Festival 
closed, praised Mr Wilson, "who managed to get such a good chorus. 
Up until this season we always had to import a chorus — we never had 
a resident chorus of such excellence." 

The performance of Henze's Symphony No. 1 is the first by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra not only of this piece, but of any work by the 
gifted German composer. Hans Werner Henze, now in his early forties, 
is best known for his operas Boulevard Solitude, King Stag and Elegy 
for Young Lovers. An article about his life will appear in next week's 
program. Rimsky-Korsakov's Sheherazade was last performed in this 
series by the Orchestra in 1946, with Serge Koussevitzky conducting. 
That the work has not been given for twenty-one years will probably 
come as a surprise to many subscribers. 

The concert next Friday will end at about 4 o'clock, on Saturday at 
about 10.30. 



Third Program 



Friday afternoon October 13 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening October 14 at 8.30 

BEETHOVEN Excerpts from the ballet Prometheus 

SCHOENBERG Piano Concerto 

RITA BOUBOULIDI 

SCHUMANN Symphony No. 2 in C major 

programs subject to change 



57 



WGBH-FM goes 

STEREO 

with 

"Live" Boston Symphony Orchestra Concerts 
► Morning Pro Musica 



CONTRIBUTED BY 

GEO. H. ELLIS PRINTING COMPANY 



YOUTH CONCERTS AT SYMPHONY HALL, INC, 

Members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

HARRY ELLIS DICKSON 

Conductor 

Ninth Season • 1907-1968 

Two series of concerts will be presented in Symphony 
Hall on Saturday mornings, from 11:00 to 12:00 o'clock, 
as follows : 



FIRST SERIES: Nov. 4 • Jan. 13 • 

SECOND SERIES: Nov. 11 • Jan. 20 • 

(Repeating the programs of First Series) 



Mar. 9 
Mar. 16 



Tickets are sold by series only. All seats are reserved 
at a total cost of $5.00 (tax exempt) for either series of 
three concerts. 

These concerts are planned for young people from 
Grade V through Junior High and High School. 

Ticket order, accompanied by check and stamped, 
addressed envelope, should be mailed to: 
TICKET COMMITTEE 
YOUTH CONCERTS AT 

SYMPHONY HALL, INC. 

251 Huntington Avenue • Boston, Mass. 02115 



58 



~%4^3£~&^J<6^fi}^J&l^*j4^&~&^J&2*^- 



1928 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

FORTIETH SEASON 



1968 



Boston ^Morning ^JMusicales 

for benefit of 

TUFTS UNIVERSITY 

BOSTON SCHOOL OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 



STATLER HILTON BALLROOM 

Wednesday mornings at eleven o'clock 



1967-1968 

SUSAN STARR . 
GOLD & FIZDALE . 
GIUSEPPE CAMPORA 
CHRISTIAN FERRAS . 
SHIRLEY VERRETT . 
TERESA STICH-RANDALL 



November 1 

November 29 

December 13 

.January 10 

February 7 

. March 6 



Executive Committee 
Mrs John W. Myers Chairman 
Mrs Richard A. Winslow V ice-Chairman 
Mrs William Emerson Barrett 
Mrs John A. Greene 
Mrs Arthur John Lockhart 
Mrs Carl A. Weyerhaeuser 
Mrs Theodore T. Whitney 



TUFTS UNIVERSITY BOSTON SCHOOL 
OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 

136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 

Telephone: 426-1978 



59 



BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 

Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 
E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 

Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 
William Gibson 
Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Tirnpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



WILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



*members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



60 



A selection of recordings by the 




SwiHIiLi * 


BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 






under the direction of 






ERICH LEINSDORF 






BEETHOVEN 






Symphony no. 3 (Eroica) 


LM/LSC 2644 




Symphony no. 7 


LM/LSC 2969 




Overture Leonore no. 3 


LM/LSC 2701 




with Schumann Symphony no. 4 






Piano Concerto no. 3 (Rubinstein) 


LM/LSC 2947 




Piano Concerto no. 4 (Rubinstein) 


LM/LSC 2848 




Piano Concerto no. 5 (Rubinstein) 


LM/LSC 2733 




BRAHMS 






Symphony no. 1 


LM/LSC 2711 




Symphony no. 2 


LM/LSC 2809 




Symphony no. 3 


LM/LSC 2936 




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62 



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present in the 1967-68 Boston University 

CELEBRITY SERIES 



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Beethoven, Symphony No. 6 "Pastoral"; Schubert, Symphony No. 7 in C Major 
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M 



• • 



DIE WALKURE ACT I 



THE LIBRETTO 



English translation by 
Peggie Cochrane and G. M. Holland 



SEPTEMBER 1967 



ACT ONE 



SCENE ONE 

The interior of Hunding's dwelling. In the middle 

of the room is a great ash tree, whose branches grow through the roof. 

It is evening; a thunderstorm is just subsiding. 



SIEGMUND SIEGMUND 

[entering hastily and sinking wearily down beside the fire] 



Wess' Herd dies auch sei, 
hier muss ich rasten. 

SIEGLINDE 



Whose hearth this may be, 
here I must rest. 

SIEGLINDE 



[in the doorway of an inner room] 



Ein fremder Mann ! 

Ihn muss ich fragen. 

Wer kam in's Haus 

und liegt dort am Herd? 

Miide liegt er 

von Weges Miih'n: 

schwanden die Sinne ihm? 

ware er siech? 



A stranger! 
I must question him. 
Who is it that came in 
and is lying by the hearth? 
He lies there weary 
and travel-worn— 
is he unconscious, 
is he ill? 



[iooking more closely at Siegmund] 



Noch schwillt ihm der Atem; 

das Auge nur schloss er; 

mutig diinkt mich der Mann, 

sank er mud' auch hin. 

SIEGMUND 

Ein Quell ! ein Quell ! 

SIEGLINDE 

Erquickung schaff' ich. 



He is still breathing; 

he has fallen asleep. 

He looks to me a brave man, 

though he is now so exhausted. 

SIEGMUND 

Drink! Drink! 

SIEGLINDE 

I'll bring you refreshment. 



[She fetches a horn filled with water.] 



Labung biet' ich 

dem lechzenden Gaumen: 

Wasser, wie du gewollt. 



Here is something 

for your parched mouth- 

the water you called for. 



[Siegmund drinks, and as he gives her back the horn, 
he fixes his eyes on Sieglinde with growing interest.] 



SIEGMUND 

Kiihlende Labung 

gab mir der Quell, 

des Miiden Last 

machte er leicht; 

Erfrischt ist der Mut, 

das Aug' erfreut 

des Sehens selige Lust: 

wer ist's, der so mir es labt? 

SIEGLINDE 

Dies Haus und dies Weib 



SIEGMUND 

The draught has given me 

cooling relief, 

the burden of my weariness 

is lightened; 

my courage revives, 

my eyes enjoy 

the pleasure of sight: 

who is it that has so restored me? 

SIEGLINDE 

This house and this woman 



sind Hundings Eigen; 

gastlich gonn' er dir Rast: 

harre bis heim er kehrt ! 

SIEGMUND 

Waffenlos bin ich: 

dem wunden Gast 

wird dein Gatte nicht wehren. 

SIEGLINDE 

Die Wunden weise mir schnell! 

SIEGMUND 

Gering sind sie, 

der Rede nicht wert; 

noch fiigen des Leibes 

Glieder sich fest. 

Hatten halb so stark wie mein Arm 

Schild und Speer mir gehalten, 

nimmer floh' ich dem Feind; 

doch zerschellten mir Speer und Schild. 

Der Feinde Meute 

hetzte mich mild', 

Gewitter-Brunst 

brach meinen Leib; 

doch schneller als ich der Meute, 

schwand die Miidigkeit mir: 

sank auf die Lider mir Nacht, 

die Sonne lacht mir nun neu. 

SIEGLINDE 

Des seimigen Metes 

siissen Trank 

mog'st du mir nicht verschmah'n. 

SIEGMUND 

Schmecktest du mir ihn zu? 



belong to Hunding; 

as a guest he will grant you rest: 

wait until he comes home. 

SIEGMUND 

I am unarmed: 

your husband will not rebuff 

a wounded guest. 

SIEGLINDE 

Quick, show me your wounds ! 

SIEGMUND 

They are but slight, 

not worth speaking of; 

my limbs are 

in good trim. 

Had shield and spear but held out 

half as well as my arm, 

I should never have fled from the foe; 

but spear and shield were shattered. 

The enemy's horde 

harried me to exhaustion, 

the force of the storm 

wore me out; 

but quicker than I fled from the foe, 

my weariness has fled from me: 

night closed on my eyelids, 

now the sun smiles on me anew. 

SIEGLINDE 

Perhaps you will not refuse 
a sweet draught 
of honeyed mead? 

SIEGMUND 

Will you taste it first? 



[After Sieglinde has sipped the drink, Siegmund 
takes a long draught.] 






Einen Unseligen labtest du— 

Unheil wende 

der Wunsch von dir! 

Gerastet hab' ich 

und suss geruht: 

weiter wend' ich den Schritt. 

SIEGLINDE 

Wer verfolgt dich, dass du schon fliehst? 

SIEGMUND 

Misswende folgt mir 

wohin ich fliehe; 

Misswende naht mir 

wo ich mich neige: 

dir Frau doch bleibe sie fern! 

Fort wend' ich Fuss und Blick. 

SIEGLINDE 

So bleibe hier! 

Nicht bringst du Unheil dahin, 

wo Unheil im Hause wohnt! 



You have restored an unfortunate man- 

I would avert 

misfortune from you ! 

I have enjoyed 

a good rest, 

now I must wend my way farther. 

SIEGLINDE 

Who pursues you, that you must flee? 

SIEGMUND 

Ill-luck follows me 

wherever I fly; 

ill-luck draws near 

wherever I stop: 

may it stay far from you ! 

I will turn aside both step and glance. 

SIEGLINDE 

No, stay here! 

You cannot bring misfortune 

where misfortune dwells already ! 

























SIEGMUND 


SIEGMUND 












Wehwalt hiess ich 


mich selbst: 


Wehwalt [Woeful] was 


what I 


named 


my 


self: 


Hunding will i 


~h erwarten. 


I will await Hunding. 
















SCENE TWO 












[Siegl 


nde 


hearing the 


sound of a horse's hoofs, 












opens 


the 


door to Hunding, who is armed with 












spear 


and 


shield. Hundi 


rig enters and pauses at the 













threshold on perceiving Siegmund. He turns to Sieg- 
iinde with a look of stern inquiry.] 



SIEGLINDE 

Miid' am Herd 

fand ich den Mann: 

Not fiihrt ihn in's Haus. 

HUNDING 

Du labtest ihn? 

SIEGLINDE 

Den Gaumen letzt' ich ihm, 
gastlich sorgt' ich sein. 

SIEGMUND 

Dach und Trank 

dank ich ihr: 

willst du dein Weib drum schelten? 

HUNDING 

Heilig ist mein Herd: 
heilig sei dir mein Haus ! 



SIEGLINDE 

I found this man 

worn out, by the fire: 

need brought him into the house. 

HUNDING 

You have given him refreshment? 

SIEGLINDE 

I gave him to drink, 
I tended him as a guest. 

SIEGMUND 

For the shelter and the drink 

I give thanks: 

would you rebuke your wife therefore? 

HUNDING 

My hearth is sacred: 

let my house be sacred for you ! 



[to Siegiinde] 

Rust' uns Mannern das Mahl ! Prepare a meal for us men ! 

[As Siegiinde hangs Hunding's weapons on the ash 

tree and brings food and drink, Hunding iooks from 

her face to Siegmund's.] 



Wie gleicht er dem Weibe ! 

Der gleissende Wurm 

glanzt auch ihm aus dem Auge. 



How like the woman he is ! 
The same serpent's glance 
glitters in his eye. 



[to Siegmund] 



Weit her, traun ! 

kamst du des Weg's; 

ein Ross nicht ritt, 

der Rast hier fand: 

welch' schlimme Pfade 

schufen dir Pein? 

SIEGMUND 

Durch Wald und Wiese, 

Haide und Hain, 

jagte mich Sturm 

und starke Not: 

nicht kenn' ich den Weg, den ich kam. 

Wohin ich irrte 

weiss ich noch minder: 

Kunde gewann' ich dess' gem. 



You must have 

come a long way; 

the man who found rest here 

was not on horseback: 

what rough paths 

wore you out? 

SIEGMUND 

Through forest and field, 

heath and woodland, 

I was driven 

by storm and need: 

I do not know the way I came. 

Whither I have wandered 

still less do I know: 

I would gladly be told. 



HUNDING 

Dess' Dach dich deckt, 

dess' Haus dich hegl, 

Hunding heisst der Wirt; 

wendest von hier du 

nach West den Schritt, 

in Hofen reich 

hausen dort Sippen, 

die Hundings Ehre behiiten. 

Gonnt mir Ehre mein Gast, 

wird sein Name nun mir genannt . . . 

Trag'st du Sorge, 

mir zu vertrau'n, 

der Frau hier gib doch Kunde: 

sieh', wie gierig sie dich fragt! 

SIEGLINDE 

Gast, wer du bist 
wiisst' ich gem. 



HUNDING 

The roof that covers you, 

the house that shelters you, 

are owned by Hunding; 

if from here you turn 

your steps to the west, 

you will find rich estates 

where dwell kinsmen 

who guard Hunding's honor. 

My guest would honor me 

by letting me know his name . . . 

If you are uneasy 

about trusting me, 

tell it to my wife here— 

see, how eagerly she questions you! 

SIEGLINDE 

Guest, I would gladly know 
who you are. 



[Siegmund, gazing into her eyes, begins gravely.] 



SIEGMUND 

Friedmund darf ich nicht heissen, 

Frohwalt mocht' ich wohl sein: 

doch Wehwalt muss ich mich nennen. 

Wolfe, der war mein Vater; 

zu zwei kam ich zur Welt, 

eine Zwillingsschwester und ich. 

Fruh schwanden mir 

Mutter und Maid; 

die mich gebar, 

und die mit mir sie barg, 

kaum hab' ich je sie gekannt. 

Wehrlich und stark war Wolfe; 

der Feinde wuchsen ihm viel. 

Zum Jagen zog 

mit dem Jungen der Alte. 

Von Hetze und Harst 

einst kehrten wir heim: 

da lag das Wolfsnest leer; 

zu Schutt gebrannt 

der prangende Saal, 

zum Stumpf der Eiche 

bliihender Stamm; 

erschlagen der Mutter 

mutiger Leib, 

verschwunden in Gluten 

der Schwester Spur: 

uns schuf die herbe Not 

der Neidinge harte Schar. 

Geachtet floh 

der Alte mit mir; 

lange Jahre 

lebte der Junge 

mit Wolfe im wilden Wald: 

manche Jagd 

ward auf sie gemacht; 

doch mutig wehrte 

das Wolfspaar sich. 



SIEGMUND 

Friedmund [Peaceful] I may not call myself, 

Frohwalt [Joyful] fain would I be, 

but I must name myself Wehwalt [Woeful] 

Wolfe was my father; 

two of us were born together, 

a twin-sister and I. 

Soon my mother 

and the girl disappeared; 

she who bore me 

and she who was born with me 

I hardly knew. 

Warlike and strong was Wolfe; 

and he found many enemies. 

The old man used to go 

hunting with the boy. 

From the chase 

we came home one day 

and found the Wolf-lair empty; 

burned to ashes 

was the stately hall, 

only a stump remained 

of the oak tree's sturdy trunk; 

my courageous mother 

had been slain, 

all trace of my sister 

lost in the fire. 

The cruel host of the Neidings 

had brought this bitter grief upon us. 

The old man fled 

into exile with me; 

for long years 

the boy lived 

with Wolfe deep in the forest: 

often they were hunted 

by their foes; 

but the Wolf-pair 

defended themselves stoutly. 



Ein Wolfing kiindet dir das, 
den als Wolfing mancher wohl kennt. 

HUNDING 

Wunder und wilde Mare 

kundest du, kiihner Gast, 

Wehwalt— der Wolfing! 

Mich diinkt, von dem wehrlichen Paar 

vernahm ich dunkle Sage, 

kannt' ich auch Wolfe 

und Wolfing nicht. 

SIEGLINDE 

Doch weiter kiinde, Fremder: 
wo weilt dein Vater jetzt? 

SIEGMUND 

Ein starkes Jagen auf uns 

stellten die Neidinge an: 

der Jager viele 

fielen den Wolfen, 

in Flucht durch den Wald 

trieb sie das Wild: 

wie Spreu zerstob uns der Feind. 

Doch ward ich vom Vater versprengt: 

seine Spur verlor ich, 

je langer ich forschte; 

eines Wolfes Fell 

nur traf ich im Forst: 

leer lag das vor mir, 

den Vater fand ich nicht. 

Aus dem Wald trieb es mich fort; 

mich drangt' es zu Mannern und Frauen: 

wie viel ich traf, 

wo ich sie fand, 

ob ich um Freund, 

um Frauen warb, 

immer doch war ich geachtet, 

Unheil lag auf mir. 

Was rechtes je ich riet, 

andern diinkte es arg; 

was schlimm immer mir schien, 

andern gaben ihm Gunst. 

In Fehde fiel ich 

wo ich mich fand; 

Zorn traf mich 

wohin ich zog; 

gehrt' ich nach Wonne, 

weckt' ich nur Weh': 

drum musst' ich mich Wehwalt nennen; 

des Wehes waltet ich nur. 

HUNDING 

Die so leidig Los dir beschied, 

nicht liebte dich die Norn: 

froh nicht griisst dich der Mann, 

dem fremd als Gast du nahst. 

SIEGLINDE 

Feige nur fiirchten den 
der waffenlos einsam fahrt ! 



This story is told you by a Wolf-cub, 
whom as Wolfing many know well. 

HUNDING 

Marvels and strange tales 

do you relate, bold guest, 

Wehwalt-the Wolfing! 

Methinks, I have heard dark rumors 

of this warlike pair, 

but I never knew 

Wolfe nor Wolfing. 

SIEGLINDE 

Tell us further, stranger: 
where dwells your father now? 

SIEGMUND 

The Neidings began 

a fierce onslaught on us: 

many of the hunters 

fell to the Wolves, 

the quarry chased the hunters 

in flight through the forest: 

the enemy were scattered like chaff. 

But I became separated from my father, 

and lost all trace of him 

though long I searched; 

a wolfskin 

was all I found in the wood, 

lying there empty. 

I did not find my father. 

Something urged me to leave the forest; 

I was drawn to men and women. 

However many I met, 

wherever I found them, 

if I sought to win 

a friend or a wife, 

I was always an outlaw, 

ill fate hung over me. 

Whatever I thought right, 

to others seemed wrong, 

what I held to be bad, 

others approved of. 

I fell into feuds 

wherever I was; 

I encountered anger 

wherever I went; 

when I sought for joy 

I aroused only woe. 

Therefore I had to call myself Wehwalt, 

for woe alone did I command. 

HUNDING 

She who allotted you so wretched a fate, 

the Norn, did not love you; 

no man welcomes you gladly 

to whom you come as a stranger-guest. 

SIEGLINDE 

Only cowards fear 

an unarmed, solitary man! 



Kunde noch, Gast, 

wie du im Kampf 

zuletzt die Waffe verlor'st. 

SIEGMUND 

Ein trauriges Kind 

rief mich zum Trutz: 

vermahlen wollte 

der Magen Sippe 

dem Mann ohne Minne die Maid. 

Wider den Zwang 

zog ich zum Schutz; 

der Dranger Tross 

traf ich im Kampf: 

dem Sieger sank der Feind. 

Erschlagen lagen die Briider: 

die Leichen umschlang da die Maid; 

den Grimm verjagt' ihr der Gram. 

Mit wilder Tranen Flut 

betroff sie weinend die Wal: 

um des Mordes der eig'nen Briider 

klagte die unsel'ge Braut. 

Der Erschlag'nen Sippen 

stiirmten daher; 

iibermachtig 

achzten nach Rache sie, 

rings um die Statte 

ragten mir Feinde. 

Doch von der Wal 

wich nicht die Maid: 

mit Schild und Speer 

schirmt' ich sie lang', 

bis Speer und Schild 

im Harst mir zerhau'n. 

Wund und waffenlos stand ich— 

sterben sah ich die Maid: 

mich hetzte das wiitende Heer— 

auf den Leichen lag sie tot. 



Tell us then, guest, 

how in the fight 

you finally lost your weapons. 

SIEGMUND 

An unhappy maiden 

called me to her aid: 

her kinsfolk wanted 

to marry the maid 

to a man she did not love. 

Against this coercion 

I went to her defence; 

in battle I met 

the heartless horde: 

the enemy fell before me. 

Dead lay her brothers: 

the maid embraced their bodies, 

her anger banished by her grief. 

In a wild flood of tears, 

the unhappy bride 

haunted the battlefield, 

bewailing the death of her brothers. 

The kinsmen of the slain men 

charged down upon me; 

in overwhelming numbers 

they cried for vengeance, 

on all sides 

the enemy rose against me, 

yet the maid did not 

leave the field. 

With shield and spear 

I long protected her, 

till spear and shield 

were hewn to pieces. 

Wounded and weaponless there I stood- 

I saw the girl die: 

the raging host put me to flight— 

upon the bodies she lay dead. 






[to Sieglinde, with a look of sorrowful ardor] 



Nun weisst du, fragende Frau, 
warum ich Friedmund nicht heisse ! 



Now you know, questioning woman, 
why I am not called Friedmund! 



HUNDING 



HUNDING 



[rising gloomily] 



Ich weiss ein wildes Geschlecht, 

nicht heilig ist ihm 

was andern hehr: 

verhasst ist es Allen und mir. 

Zur Rache ward ich gerufen, 

Siihne zu nehmen 

fur Sippen-Blut: 

zu spat kam ich, 

und kehrte nun heim 

des fliicht'gen Frevlers Spur 

im eig'nen Haus zu erspah'n. 

Mein Haus hiitet, 

Wolfing, dich heut', 



I know a savage race, 

for whom the things that others revere 

are not sacred: 

it is hated by all and by me. 

I was summoned for vengeance, 

to seek atonement 

for my kinsmen's blood: 

I arrived too late, 

and now am come home to find 

the track of the fleeing criminal 

in my own house. 

My house harbors you 

this day, Wolfing. 



fur die Nacht nahm ich dich auf : 

mit starker Waffe 

doch wehre dich morgen; 

zum Kampfe kies' ich den Tag: 

fur Tote zahlst du mir Zoll. 



I will give you shelter over night: 

but with stout weapons 

you must defend yourself tomorrow. 

I choose the day for the fight; 

for the murdered I will take toll. 



to Sieglinde] 



Fort aus dem Saal ! 

Saume hier nicht ! 

Den Nachttrunk riiste mir drin, 

und harre mein' zur Ruh'. 



Out of the room ! 
Do not linger here ! 
Prepare me a night draught, 
and wait for me within. 



[Sieglinde stands for a while undecided and 
thoughtful. Slowly and with hesitating steps she 
goes towards the storeroom. Then, with quiet reso- 
lution, she opens the cupboard, fills a drinking-horn 
and shakes some spices into it from a box. She 
turns again to Siegmund whose eyes have never 
left her. But, perceiving that Hunding is watching 
her, she moves towards the bed-chamber. On the 
steps she once more turns around, looks yearningly 
at Siegmund, and with her eyes indicates, explicitly 
and urgently, a particular spot in the great ash tree 
that occupies the centre of the hall. Hunding starts 
and drives her off with a violent gesture. With a 
last look at Siegmund she goes into the inner room.] 

HUNDING HUNDING 

[taking his weapons down from the tree] 



Mit Waffen wehrt sich der Mann. 

Dich Wolfing treffe ich morgen: 

mein Wort hortest du — 

hute dich wohl! 



With weapons a man is on guard. 
Tomorrow, Wolfing, we shall meet. 
You have heard my word- 
beware ! 



[He goes into the inner room, leaving Siegmund 

alone by the dim light of the fire. Siegmund sinks 

on to the couch and broods silently for some time, 

in great agitation.] 



SCENE THREE 



SIEGMUND 

Ein Schwert verhiess mir der Vater, 

ich fand' es in hochster Not. 

Waffenlos fiel ich 

in Feindes Haus: 

seiner Rache Pfand 

raste ich hier: 

ein Weib sah ich, 

wonnig und hehr; 

entziickend Bangen 

zehrt mein Herz: 

zu der mich nun Sehnsucht zieht, 



SIEGMUND 

My father promised me a sword, 

which I should find when in dire need. 

Unarmed I have stumbled 

into the enemy's house; 

as a pledge of his revenge 

do I lie here. 

I have seen a woman, 

winsome and pure, 

rapturous fear 

consumes my heart. 

She whom I long for, 



die mit siissem Zauber mich sehrt, 

im Zwange halt sie der Mann, 

der mich wehrlosen hohnt. 

Walse! Walse! 

Wo ist dein Schwert? 

Das starke Schwert, 

das im Sturm ich schwange, 

bricht mir hervor aus der Brust 

was wiitend das Herz noch hegt? 



she who wounds me with sweet enchantment 

is held in thrall by the man 

who mocks me, unarmed as I am. 

Walse, Walse, 

where is your sword— 

the strong sword 

that I may wield in strife, 

when from my breast breaks forth 

the fury harbored in my heart? 



[A flicker of flame from the fire lights up a 
sword-hilt in the tree.] 



Was gleisst dort hell 

im Glimmerschein? 

Welch' ein Strahl bricht 

aus der Esche Stamm? 

Des Blinden Auge 

leuchtet ein Blitz: 

lustig lacht da der Blick. 

Wie der Schein so hehr 

das Herz mir sengt! 

Ist es der Blick 

der bliihenden Frau, 

den dort haftend 

sie hinter sich Hess, 

als aus dem Saal sie schied? 

Nachtiges Dunkel 

deckte mein Aug'; 

ihres Blickes Strahl 

streifte mich da: 

Warme gewann ich und Tag. 

Selig schien mir 

der Sonne Licht, 

den Scheitel umgliss mir 

ihr wonniger Glanz — 

bis hinter Bergen sie sank. 

Noch einmal, da sie schied, 

traf mich Abends ihr Schein, 

selbst der alten Esche Stamm 

erglanzte in gold'ner Glut: 

da bleicht die Bliite — 

das Licht verlischt — 

nachtiges Dunkel 

deckt mir das Auge: 

tief in des Busens Berge 

glimmt nur noch lichtlose Glut ! 



What is glinting brightly 

there in the gloom? 

What ray of light 

shines from the ash tree's trunk? 

A lightning flash 

strikes the blind man's eye: 

the gleam sparkles merrily. 

How the glorious light 

scorches my heart! 

Is it the look 

that the beautiful woman 

left behind her, 

clinging there, 

when she went out of the room? 

The gloom of night 

covered my eyes; 

but then her bright glance 

touched me, 

giving me warmth and daylight. 

Blessed to me 

seemed the light of the sun; 

its gladdening radiance 

encircled my head, 

till it sank behind the mountains. 

Once more, as it departed, 

its light fell on me in the evening; 

even the trunk of the old ash tree 

shone with a golden glow. 

Now the splendor fades, 

the light dies out, 

gloomy darkness 

covers my eyes: 

but deep in my breast 

still smoulders a flameless fire. 



! 



[The fire on the hearth dies down as > he muses. 
Finally it is extinguished entirely. In the darkness 
the door of the bed-chamber opens noiselessly. 
Sieglinde, in a white garment, comes out, moving 
softly but quickly towards the hearth.] 



SIEGLINDE 

Schlafst du, Gast? 

SIEGMUND 

Wer schleicht daher? 



SIEGLINDE 

Are you asleep, guest? 

SIEGMUND 

Who steals this way? 



SIEGLINDE 

Ich bin's: hore mich an! 

In tiefem Schlaf liegt Hunding; 

ich wiirzt' ihm betaubenden Trank. 

Niitze die Nacht dir zum Heil! 

SIEGMUND 

Heil macht mich dein Nah'n! 

SIEGLINDE 

Eine Waffe lass' mich dir weisen— 

O wenn du sie gewann'st! 

Den hehrsten Helden 

diirft' ich dich heissen; 

dem Starksten allein 

ward sie bestimmt. 

O merke wohl was ich dir melde! 

Der Manner Sippe 

sass hier im Saal, 

von Hunding zur Hochzeit geladen: 

er freite ein Weib, 

das ungefragt 

Schacher ihm schenkten zur Frau. 

Traurig sass ich 

wahrend sie tranken: 

ein Fremder trat da herein— 

ein Greis in grauem Gewand; 

tief hing ihm der Hut, 

der deckt' ihm der Augen eines; 

doch des andren Strahl, 

Angst schuf es alien, 

traf die Manner 

sein macht'ges Drau'n: 

mir allein 

weckte das Auge 

suss sehnenden Harm, 

Tranen und Trost zugleich. 

Auf mich blickt' er, 

und blitzte auf Jene, 

als ein Schwert in Handen er schwang; 

das stiess er nun 

in der Esche Stamm, 

bis zum Heft haftet' es drin: 

dem sollte der Stahl geziemen 

der aus dem Stamm es zog'. 

Der Manner Alle, 

so kiihn sie sich mtihten, 

die Wehr sich keiner gewann; 

Gaste kamen 

und Gaste gingen, 

die Starksten zogen am Stahl— 

keinen Zoll entwich er dem Stamm: 

dort haftet schweigend das Schwert. 

Da wusst' ich, wer der war, 

der mich Gramvolle gegriisst; 

ich weiss auch 

wem allein 

im Stamm das Schwert er bestimmt. 

O fand' ich ihn heut' 

und hier, den Freund; 



SIEGLINDE 

It is I; listen to me! 

Hunding is sleeping soundly; 

I gave him a drugged drink. 

Under cover of night, make your escape ! 

SIEGMUND 

Your presence gives me life ! 

SIEGLINDE 

Let me show you a weapon— 

Oh, if only you could make it your own! 

The noblest of heroes 

then might I call you; 

for the strongest alone 

was it decreed. 

Oh, heed well what I tell you! 

All the kinsmen 

sat here in the hall, 

invited by Hunding to his wedding: 

he took a woman 

whom, unasked, 

traders gave him to wife. 

Sadly I sat there 

while they drank: 

then a stranger came in— 

an old man garbed in grey; 

his hat hung down 

and hid one of his eyes; 

but the gleam of the other 

frightened all the men 

when they met 

its threatening look; 

yet in me 

his eye aroused only 

sweet, yearning sorrow, 

tears and consolation together. 

He gazed at me, 

and glared at the others; 

as he swung a sword in his hands; 

then he thrust it 

into the ash tree's trunk, 

buried it up to the hilt: 

the blade would fittingly go to the man 

who should draw it out of the tree. 

Of all the men, 

bravely though they strove, 

not one could gain the weapon; 

guests came 

and guests went, 

the strongest of them tugged at the sword, 

but it did not move an inch: 

there, in silence, it still stays. 

Then I knew who it was 

who had greeted me in my sorrow: 

I know, too, 

for whom alone 

he destined the sword in the tree. 

Oh, if today I might find 

the friend here, 



kam' er aus Fremden 

zur armsten Frau: 

was je ich gelitten 

in grimmigem Leid, 

was je mich geschmerzt 

in Schande und Schmach— 

siisseste Rache 

suhnte dann Alles! 

Erjagt hatt' ich 

was je ich verlor, 

was je ich beweint 

war' mir gewonnen— 

fand' ich den heiligen Freund, 

umfing' den Helden mein Arm! 

SIEGMUND 



if he came from a distant land 
to a most wretched woman: 
whatever I have suffered 
in bitter grief, 
however I have smarted 
under shame and disgrace- 
sweet revenge 
would atone for it all! 
I should have regained 
all I had lost, 
all I had wept for 
I should have won— 
if I found the blessed friend, 
if my arms embraced the hero ! 

SIEGMUND 



[embracing Sieglinde ardentJy] 



Dich selige Frau 

halt nun der Freund, 

dem Waffe und Weib bestimmt! 

Heiss in der Brust 

brennt mir der Eid, 

der mich dir Edlen vermahlt. 

Was je ich ersehnt, 

ersah ich in dir; 

in dir fand ich 

was je mir gefehlt. 

Littest du Schmach, 

und schmerzte mich Leid, 

war ich geachtet, 

und warst du entehrt, 

freudige Rache 

lacht nun den Frohen! 

Auf lach' ich 

in heiliger Lust, 

halt' ich dich Hehre umfangen, 

fiihl' ich dein schlagendes Herz! 

SIEGLINDE 



Now, happy woman, 

you are in the arms of the friend 

for whom weapon and wife were decreed! 

In my breast fiercely 

burns the oath 

that weds me in honor to you. 

Whatever I have longed for 

I see in you; 

in you I have found 

whatever was wanting. 

Though you suffered shame, 

and grief distressed me, 

though I was outlawed 

and you were dishonored, 

joyful revenge 

now greets us in our happiness ! 

I laugh aloud 

with heavenly joy, 

I hold you in your glory, 

I feel your heart beating. 



SIEGLINDE 

[starting back in alarm as the outer door flies open] 

Ha, wer ging? wer kam herein? Ha, who went out? Who entered here? 

[The door remains wide open. It is a glorious spring 
night, and moonlight streams into the room.] 






SIEGMUND 

Keiner ging— 

doch Einer kam: 

siehe, der Lenz 

lacht in den Saal! 



SIEGMUND 

No one went out— 
but one has come: 
see, Spring 
smiles in the hall! 



[Siegmund, with tender force, draws Sieglinde to 

him on the couch, so that she sits beside him. The 

moon shines more and more brightly.] 



Winterstiirme wichen 

dem Wonnemond, 

in mildem Lichte 



The storms of winter have yielded 
to the month of May, 
the gentle light 



leuchtet der Lenz; 

auf linden Liiften, 

leicht und lieblich, 

Wunder webend 

er sich wiegt; 

durch Wald und Auen 

weht sein Atem, 

weit geoffnet 

lacht sein Aug'. 

Aus sel'ger Voglein Sange 

siiss ertont, 

holde Dufte 

haucht er aus; 

seinem warmen Blut entbliihen 

wonnige Blumen. 

Keim und Spross 

entspringt seiner Kraft. 

Mit zarter Waffen Zier 

bezwingt er die Welt. 

Winter und Sturm wichen 

der starken Wehr: 

wohl musste den tapfern Streichen 

die strenge Tiire auch weichen, 

die trotzig und starr 

uns trennte von ihm. 

Zu seiner Schwester 

schwang er sich her; 

die Liebe lockte den Lenz; 

in uns'rem Busen 

barg sie sich tief : 

nun lacht sie selig dem Licht. 

Die brautliche Schwester 

befreite der Bruder; 

zertriimmert liegt 

was je sie getrennt; 

jauchzend griisst sich 

das junge Paar: 

vereint sind Liebe und Lenz! 



of Spring shines forth; 

on the soft breeze, 

light and lovely, 

Spring is wafted, 

working marvels; 

through wood and meadow 

blows his breath, 

his eyes are bright 

with laughter. 

In the merry song of birds 

his voice resounds, 

he breathes out 

sweet fragrance; 

from his warm blood 

flowers burst forth; 

buds and shoots 

spring up from his strength. 

Arrayed with fragile weapons 

he conquers the world. 

Winter and storm give way 

to his attack: 

his bold blows 

break down even the doors 

that harshly and stubbornly 

parted us from him. 

To his sister 

hither he flew; 

Spring was drawn to Love; 

deep in our bosoms 

Love lay hidden— 

now she smiles at the light. 

The sister-bride 

is freed by the brother; 

all that kept them apart 

now lies in ruins; 

the young couple 

utter joyful greetings: 

united are Love and Spring ! 



SIEGLINDE 

Du bist der Lenz, 

nach dem ich verlangte 

in frostigen Winters Frist; 

dich griisste mein Herz 

mit heiligem Grau'n, 

als dein Blick zuerst mir erbliihte. 

Fremdes nur sah ich von je, 

freundlos war mir das Nahe; 

als hatt' ich nie es gekannt 

war was immer mir kam. 

Doch dich kannt' ich 

deutlich und klar: 

als mein Auge dich sah, 

warst du mein Eigen: 

was im Busen ich barg, 

was ich bin, 

hell wie der Tag 

taucht' es mir auf, 

wie tonender Schall 



SIEGLINDE 

You are the Spring 

that long I have sighed for 

in the days of frosty Winter; 

my heart greeted you 

with holy dread 

when your look first lighted oiroie. 

All I had ever seen was strange, 

all around me was friendless; 

I did not seem to recognize 

anything that happened to me. 

Yet I knew you 

clearly and plainly: 

as soon as my eyes beheld you, 

you were mine. 

What I hid in my heart, 

what I am, 

came to light 

as clear as day, 

it rang in my ears 



schlug's an mein Ohr, 

als in frostig oder Fremde 

zuerst ich den Freund ersah. 



like the peal of a bell, 

when in this cold, desert place 

I first beheld my friend. 



[She ciings rapturously to Siegmund.] 



SIEGMUND 

O siisseste Wonne! 
Seligstes Weib! 

SIEGLINDE 

O lass in Nahe 

zu dir mich neigen, 

dass hell ich schaue 

den hehren Schein, 

der dir aus Aug' 

und Antlitz bricht, 

und so suss die Sinne mir zwingt ! 

SIEGMUND 

Im Lenzesmond 

leuchtest du hell; 

hehr umwebt dich 

das Wellenhaar; 

was mich beriickt 

errat' ich nun leicht— 

denn wonnig weidet mein Blick. 

SIEGLINDE 

Wie dir die Stirn 

so offen steht, 

der Adern Geast 

in den Schlafen sich schlingt! 

Mir zagt es vor der Wonne, 

die mich entztickt! 

Ein Wunder will mich gemahnen: 

den heut' zuerst ich erschaut, 

mein Auge sah dich schon! 

SIEGMUND 

Ein Minnetraum 

gemahnt auch mich: 

in heissem Sehnen 

sah ich dich schon! 

SIEGLINDE 

Im Bach erblickt' ich 

mein eigen Bild— 

und jetzt gewahr' ich es wieder: 

wie einst dem Teich es enttaucht, 

bietest mein Bild mir nun du ! 

SIEGMUND 

Du bist das Bild— 
das ich in mir barg. 

SIEGLINDE 

O still! lass mich 

der Stimme lauschen: 

mich dunkt, ihren Klang 

hort' ich als Kind — 

doch nein! ich horte sie neulich 



SIEGMUND 

Oh sweetest bliss ! 
Most blessed of women ! 

SIEGLINDE 

Oh let me press 

closer to you, 

that I may see clearly 

the glorious light 

that shines from your eyes 

and your face, 

and so sweetly rules my senses ! 

SIEGMUND 

In the spring moonlight 

your face shines brightly; 

framed by your wonderful 

waving hair; 

what bewitched me 

now I see clearly — 

and I feast my eyes in rapture. 

SIEGLINDE 

How broad and open 

is your brow, 

how the veins twist 

in your temples! 

I shiver with the ecstasy 

that fills me with rapture ! 

My memory is strangely stirred: 

you, whom I first saw today— 

my eyes have beheld you before ! 

SIEGMUND 

A dream of love 
reminds me, too: 
in fervent longing 
I have seen you before ! 

SIEGLINDE 

In the stream I looked 

at my own image— 

and now I perceive it again: 

as once it rose from the water, 

now you present my picture to me ! 

SIEGMUND 

You are the picture 

that I preserved within me. 

SIEGLINDE 

Hush! Let me 

listen to your voice: 

methinks I heard its sound 

as a child— 

but no ! I have heard it of late 



als meiner Stimme Schall 
mir wiederhallte der Wald. 

SIEGMUND 

O lieblichste Laute, 
denen ich lausche! 

SIEGLINDE 

Deines Auges Glut 
erglanzte mir schon: 
so blickte der Greis 
griissend auf mich 
als der Traurigen Trost er gab. 
An dem Blick 
erkannt' ihn sein Kind — 
schon wollt' ich beim Namen ihn nennen . . . 
Wehwalt heisst du fur wahr? 

SIEGMUND 

Nicht heiss' mich so 

seit du mich liebst: 

nun wait' ich der hehrsten Wonnen! 

SIEGLINDE 

Und Friedmund darfst du 
froh dich nicht nennen? 

SIEGMUND 

Nenne mich du, 

wie du liebst dass ich heisse: 

den Namen nehm' ich von dir! 

SIEGLINDE 

Doch nanntest du Wolfe den Vater? 

SIEGMUND 

Ein Wolf war er feigen Fiichsen! 

Doch dem so stolz 

strahlte das Auge 

wie, Herrliche, hehr dir es strahlt, 

der war — Walse genannt. 

SIEGLINDE 

War Walse dein Vater, 

und bist du ein Walsung, 

stiess er fur dich 

sein Schwert in den Stamm — 

so lass mich dich heissen 

wie ich dich liebe: 

Siegmund — 

so nenn' ich dich. 

SIEGMUND 



when my own voice 
echoed in the wood. 

SIEGMUND 

Oh, sweet are the sounds 
to which I listen! 

SIEGLINDE 

The glow of your eyes 

has shone on me before: 

thus did the old man 

look kindly at me 

when he consoled me in my grief. 

By that glance 

his child recognized him— 

I almost spoke his name . . . 

Are you truly called Wehwalt? 

SIEGMUND 

I am not called so 

since you love me: 

now I command the highest bliss ! 

SIEGLINDE 

And now you are happy, may you not 
call yourself Friedmund? 

SIEGMUND 

Call me 

what you want me to be called: 

I take my name from you ! 

SIEGLINDE 

But you named Wolfe as your father? 

SIEGMUND 

A wolf he was, to cowardly foxes ! 
But he whose eye 
shone as proudly 
as yours, fair one, now shines- 
he was named Walse. 

SIEGLINDE 

If Walse was your father, 
and you are a Volsung, 
it was for you he struck 
his sword into the tree- 
then let me call you 
as I love you: 
Siegmund— 
so do I name you. 

SIEGMUND 



[He springs towards the ash tree and seizes the hilt 
of the sword.] 



Siegmund heiss' ich, 

und Siegmund bin ich: 

bezeug' es dies Schwert, 

das zaglos ich halte! 

Walse verhiess mir, 

in hochster Not 



Siegmund I am called, 
and Siegmund I am: 
be witness this sword 
that I hold fearlessly ! 
Walse promised me 
that in my sorest need 



fand' ich es einst: 

ich fass' es nun! 

Heiligster Minne 

hochste Not, 

sehnender Liebe 

sehnende Not, 

brennt mir hell in der Brust, 

drangt zu Tat und Tod: 

Nothung! Nothung! 

so nenn' ich dich Schwert! 

Nothung! Nothung! 

neidlicher Stahl! 

Zeig' deiner Scharfe 

schneidenden Zahn: 

heraus aus der Scheide zu mir! 



I should find it one day: 

and now I grasp it! 

Holiest love's 

most mighty need, 

passionate longing's 

feverish need. 

now burns bright in my breast, 

urging me on to deeds and death: 

Nothung! Nothung! [Needful] 

Thus do I name thee, sword. 

Nothung ! Nothung ! 

Biting steel! 

Show the keen edge 

of thy blade: 

come forth from the scabbard to me! 



[With a mighty effort he draws the sword from the tree and 
shows it to the wondering and enraptured Sieglinde.] 



Siegmund den Walsung 

siehst du, Weib! 

Als Brautgabe 

bringt er dies Schwert: 

so freit er sich 

die seligste Frau; 

dem Feindeshaus 

entfiihrt er dich so. 

Fern von hier 

folge mir nun, 

fort in des Lenzes 

lachendes Haus: 

dort schiitzt dich Nothung das Schwert, 

wenn Siegmund dir liebend erlag! 

SIEGLINDE 

Bist du Siegmund 

den ich hier sehe — 

Sieglinde bin ich, 

die dich ersehnt: 

die eig'ne Schwester 

gewannst du zu eins mit dem Schwert! 

SIEGMUND 

Braut und Schwester 

bist du dem Bruder — 

so bliihe denn Walsungen-Blut! 



Siegmund the Volsung 

behold here* wife ! 

As a bridal gift 

he brings this sword: 

so he weds 

the happiest of women; 

from the enemy's house 

he carries you away. 

Far from here 

follow me now, 

forth to the 

laughing house of Spring: 

there Nothung the Sword will protect you 

when Siegmund is overcome by love of you 

SIEGLINDE 

Are you Siegmund 

whom I see before me — 

I am Sieglinde 

who yearned for you: 

your own sister 

you have won together with the sword ! 

SIEGMUND 

Bride and sister 

are you to your brother— 

so may the race of Volsungs flourish ! 



[He draws her to him with fervent passion. 
The curtain falls quickly.] 

Translation © the Decca Record Company Ltd, exclusive United States 
agents, London Records Inc., NY, NY. Reprinted by permission. 



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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 






Exquisite 
Sound 




From the palaces 
of ancient Egypt 
to the concert halls 
of our modern 
cities, the wondrous 
music of the harp has 
? compelled attention 
from all peoples and all 
countries. Through this 
passage of time many 
changes have been made 
in the original design. The 
early instruments shown in 
drawings on the tomb oh 
Rameses II (1292-1225 B.C.) 
were richly decorated but 
lacked the fore-pillar. Later 
the "Kinner" developed by the 
Hebrews took the form as we 
know it today. The pedal harp 
was invented about 1720 by a 
Bavarian named Hochbrucker and 
through this ingenious device it be- 
came possible to play in eight major 
and five minor scales complete. Today 
the harp is an important and familiar 
instrument providing the "Exquisite 
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to modern orchestration and arrange- 
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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

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Assistant to the Manager 

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Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 



67 





Erich Leinsdoi 

...an authority on Brahn 

Enjoy both of these recordings, as well as the Brahms Symphony No. 1, as i 
preted by the Boston Symphony under Leinsdorf , master of the Romantic Scr 




ttr&litttsJ Symphony No, 3/Tragk Overt i 



RCAVlCTOR 

(S)The most trusted name in sound ^L 1 



i 




TICKET RESALE AND RESERVATION PLAN 

The Ticket Resale and Reservation Plan which has been in practice 
for the past four seasons has been most successful. The Trustees are 
grateful to those subscribers who have complied with it, and again 
wish to bring this plan to the attention of the Orchestra's subscribers 
and Friends. 

Subscribers who wish to release their seats for a specific concert are 
urged to do so as soon as convenient. They need only call Symphony 
Hall, CO 6-1492, and give their name and ticket location to the 
switchboard operator. Subscribers releasing their seats for resale will 
continue to receive written acknowledgment for income tax purposes. 
Since the Management has learned by experience how many returned 
tickets it may expect for concerts, those who wish to make requests 
for tickets may do so by telephoning Symphony Hall and asking for 
"Reservations." Requests will be filled in the order received and 
no reservations will be made when the caller cannot be assured of 
a seat. Tickets ordered under this plan may be purchased and picked 
up from the Box Office on the day of the concert two hours prior to 
the start of the program. Tickets not claimed a half-hour before 
concert time will be released. 

Last season the successful operation of the Ticket Resale and Reserva- 
tion Plan aided in reducing the Boston Symphony Orchestra's deficit 
by more than $22,000. 

69 



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70 



BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

| SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 

I Michel Sasson 

J Samuel Diamond 

j Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 

| Ayrton Pinto 

I Amnon Levy 

| Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 

J John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 

i Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 
Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



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Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 

Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

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Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 
William Gibson 
Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



WILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



*members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



71 



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72 



Contents 

Program for 6 and 7 October 1967 

Future programs 

Program notes 

Brahms — Academic Festival Overture 
by John N. Burk 

Henze — Symphony no. 1 
by Peter G. Davis 

Rimsky-Korsakov — Sheherazade 
by James Lyons 

Hans Werner Henze by Peter Heyworth 

Recordings of today's program 

Today's conductor 

The members of the Orchestra 



75 
125 



82 

92 

106 
123 
122 
122 



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74 



II 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Second Program 

Friday afternoon 6 October at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 7 October at 8.30 



CHARLES WILSON conducting 



BRAHMS 

Academic Festival Overture op. 80 

HENZE 

Symphony no. 1 

Allegretto, con grazia 

Lento (Notturno) 

Allegro con moto — Tempo giusto — Piu mosso 

First performance in Boston 
INTERMISSION 

RIMSKY-KORSAKOV 

Sheherazade op. 35 



The Academic Festival Overture has been recorded 
by the Orchestra under Serge Koussevitzky 

The concerts will end at about 3.45 on Friday 
and at about 10.15 on Saturday 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



75 



Program Notes 

JOHANNES BRAHMS 

Academic Festival Overture op. 80 
by John N. Burk 

Brahms was born in Hamburg on 7 May 1833 and died in Vienna on 3 April 1897. 
The overture was composed in 1880; first performed 4 January 1881 at the Univer- 
sity of Breslau. George Henschel conducted the first performance by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra on 17 November 1882. The most recent performances in this 
series were on 25 and 26 September 1964. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and 
contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, bass drum, timpani, 
cymbals, triangle and strings. 

Brahms' two overtures, the Akademische Fest-Ouvertiire and the 
Tragische Ouverture were composed in one summer — in 1880 at Bad 
Ischl. It was his first summer in this particular resort, and although he 
was somewhat discouraged by an abundance of rainy weather, its 
charms drew him again in later years (1889-96). 'I must give high 
praise to Ischl/ he wrote to Billroth in June 1880, 'and although I am 
threatened only with one thing — the fact that half Vienna is here — 
I can be quiet here — and on the whole I do not dislike it.' Which is 
to say that Ischl had already become the gathering point of a constant 
round of cronies from Vienna. Brahms' friends of course would scru- 




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pulously respect the solitudes of the master's mornings — the creative 
hours spent, partly in country walks, partly in his study. Later in the 
day he would welcome the relaxation of companionship — of conver- 
sation to an accompaniment of black cigars and coffee, of mountaineer- 
ing (Brahms was a sturdy walker), or of music-making together. 

When the University at Breslau conferred upon Brahms, in the spring 
of 1879, the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, the composer responded in 
kind, and made the institution the handsome present of an overture on 
student airs. Presents of this sort are not to be unduly hastened when 
artistic good faith and the heritage of the musical world are considered. 
Brahms composed and destroyed another 'Academic' overture before 
this one, if Heuberger is not mistaken. The performance came the 
following January, when Brahms conducted it at Breslau, while the 
Herr Rektor and members of the philosophical faculty sat in serried 
ranks, presumably gowned, in the front rows. 

It goes without saying that both Brahms and his overture were quite 
innocent of such 'academic' formality. It is about a tavern table, the 
faculty forgotten, that music enters spontaneously into German college 
life. Although Brahms never attended a university he had tasted some- 
thing of this life at Gottingen when, as a younger man, he visited with 
Joachim, who was studying at the University. Brahms did not forget 
the melody that filled the Kneipe, inspired by good company and good 
beer. Student songs, with their Volkslied flavor, inevitably interested 
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Haus is first given out by the trumpets. Der Landesvater (Hort, ich 
sing' das Lied der Lie der) is used rhythmically, delightfully developed. 
The Fuchslied or Freshman's Song (Was kommt dort von der Hoh') is 
the choice of the unbuttoned Brahms, and leaves all educational 
solemnities behind. The air is introduced by two bassoons. When 
Brahms wrote Kalbeck that he had composed 'a very jolly potpourri 
on students' songs a la Suppe/ Kalbeck inquired jokingly whether he 
had used the 'Fox song.' 'Oh, yes,' said Brahms complacently. 
Kalbeck, taken aback, protested that he could not imagine any such 
tune used in homage to the 'leathery Herr Rektor,' and Brahms 
answered: 'That is wholly unnecessary.' Brahmsian horseplay does 
not get quite out of hand, and the dignities are saved beyond doubt 
when the full orchestra finally intones the hearty college hymn 
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81 



HANS WERNER HENZE 
Symphony no. 1 
by Peter G. Davis 

Henze was born in Giitersloh, Germany, on 1 July 1926. These are the first perform- 
ances in Boston of his Symphony no. 1. 

The instrumentation: flute alternating with piccolo, alto flute, oboe, english horn, 
clarinet, bass clarinet, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, celesta, piano and strings. 

Hans Werner Henze completed his First Symphony in 1947. Although 
only twenty-one at the time, the composer was taking an active part in 
post-war Germany's musical renaissance, and his compositions were 
already attracting a good deal of attention. His Chamber Concerto for 
Piano, Flute, and Strings had been prominently featured at the 1946 
International Summer Course of Modern Music at Darmstadt — the 
first annual gathering at a site that was shortly to become one of the 
avant-garde's most formidable strongholds — and during Darmstadt's 
1947 summer session Hermann Scherchen directed the second move- 
ment of the young composer's new Symphony no. 1. The first complete 
performance of the work took place one year later at the Bad Pyrmont 
Festival on 25 August, when the conductor was Wolfgang Fortner, 
Henze's teacher and a noted composer in his own right. 

The Symphony no. 1, as performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
today, however, is a different piece altogether: in 1963 Henze thor- 
oughly revised the score for small orchestra and subsequently withdrew 
the original version. Here we have the familiar case of a composer i 



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looking back at a youthful work, no doubt delighted with the origi- 
nality and freshness of its conception, but also somewhat appalled by 
what he now sees as unacceptable crudities in compositional technique. 
Henze has even proclaimed the score an 'utter failure,' and in the 
revision his object was to 'reorganize the material, attempting to 
reconstruct what I had originally intended: acting like a teacher help- 
fully correcting his pupil.' Interestingly enough, this was not the 
composer's only Jugendwerk to undergo drastic 'correction' at the 
time. The early 1960s saw Henze in the throes of a difficult stylistic 
reappraisal, a reordering of his musical language in the direction of 
simplicity, economy, and restraint. As a consequence, many of his 
earlier works now struck him as either impractical and extravagant 
(such as the gigantic four-hour opera Konig Hirsch) or, like the First 
Symphony, simply unsuccessful. This stock-taking resulted in a re- 
examination and recasting of at least ten major pre- 1958 compositions. 
Although the original score of the Symphony no. 1 is no longer avail- 
able for study, one has a fairly clear idea of the problems that must 



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have troubled Henze. Very nearly all his earliest works — even the 
most proficient and attractive of them — are extremely derivative. It 
was as if the composer had suddenly stumbled upon Stravinsky, 
Schoenberg, Bartok, and Hindemith, and his delight at discovering 
such potent twentieth-century creative minds occasioned a series of 
compositions that were little more than brilliantly talented copies. 
And such indeed was the case. During World War II, Germany had 
heard precious little in the way of progressive contemporary music, 
and young German composers had a lot of catching up to do. Henze 
proceeded to do just this by basing his music on the very best models: 
the Concertino for Piano and Wind Orchestra with Percussion (1947), 
for example, a lean-textured, neo-classic work that has Stravinsky's 
fingerprints on virtually every page; a Bartokian Violin Concerto 
(1947) literally bursting with passionate melodic fervor; or the Wind 
Quintet (1952), a cheerful exercise expertly cast in Schoenberg' s 
twelve-note technique. 

Gradually these widely divergent stylistic influences began to coalesce 
into a highly individualistic musical character as the composer became 
more selective in his choices and more adept at assimilating the ele- 
ments necessary to make his own musical points. When Henze took up 
residence in Italy after 1952, the change in environment infused his 
music with a new-found textural luxuriance and melodic sensuousness. 
The Italian sun seemed to be the catalyst he needed for a final syn- 
thesis—between 1952 and 1955 Henze wrote Konig Hirsch, which 




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marked a pivotal point in his career, a profusive unleashing of creative 
energies unmatched by any other composer of his generation. In the 
exhilarating wake of Konig Hirsch came NachtstiXcke und Arien, Five 
Neapolitan Songs, Sonata for Strings, Three Dithyrambs, the ballet 
Ondine — all reveling in a virtuosic security of technique and a natural 
ease of expression. Few composers have been quite so lavish with their 
talents as Henze during these years and eventually, perhaps inevitably, 
he had to check his generosity and take a long, cool look backwards. 
One direct result was the new version of the First Symphony. 

Clearly the Symphony in its new form reflects less of the twenty-one- 
year-old student than the mature composer of thirty-seven. While still 
not a work of startlingly individual profile, its musical antecedents 
have been thoroughly distilled into melodic and sonorous properties 
that Henze may justifiably claim as his own. Structurally the piece is 
immaculate — not one note seems superfluous or out of place. And 
when compared to the Second and Third Symphonies (1949 and 1950), 
one finds a far freer and more personal application of serial procedures. 
M elodically and harmonically the work is governed by related intervals 
of the second, seventh, and ninth as set forth in the opening measures 
of the first movement. The groundwork having been laid, the balance 



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of this movement consists of a gradual unfolding of a long-lined, 
disjunct melody based on these intervals — first played at maximum 
intensity by the upper strings, then continued in turn by the cellos, 
horns, solo flute, and finally strings once more, always lightly 
accompanied by delicate splashes of orchestral color from the other 
instruments. 

The second movement, subtitled Notturno, depends almost entirely on 
the major second for its harmonies (woodwind chords formed by com- 
bining C-minor and B-flat-major triads recur refrain-like throughout 
this section) as well as for its slow-moving, conjunct melodies. The 
final section of the Symphony contrasts markedly with the prevailing 
lyricism of the preceding material. Its restless moto perpetuo character 
and sharp brassy interjections actually disguise a highly altered picture 
of musical events already encountered in movements one and two. 

© Peter G. Davis 

Peter G. Davis, born in Concord, Massachusetts, grew up in Lincoln 
and Cambridge. He was graduated from Harvard College in 1958 with 
a B.A. major in music; then studied composition at the Stuttgart 
Hochschule filr Musik. He did graduate work at Columbia University, 
where his teachers were Jack Beeson and Otto Luening, and was 
awarded an M.A. degree in composition. He is now Music Editor of 
High Fidelity/Musical America, and New York music correspondent 
for The Times of London. 



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NIKOLAY ANDREYEVICH RIMSKY-KORSAKOV 

Sheherazade op. 35 
by James Lyons 

Rimsky-Korsakov was born at Tikhvin in the Government of Novgorod on 18 March 
1844, and died at St Petersburg on 21 June 1908. The composer conducted the first 
performance of Sheherazade at the Russian Symphony concerts in St Petersburg in 
the winter of 1888. Its first performance in Boston was on 17 April 1897 by the 
Orchestra under the direction of Emil Paur. The most recent performances in this 
series were conducted by Serge Koussevitzky on 29 and 30 November 1946. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and english horn, 2 clarinets, 
2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, side drum, bass 
drum, cymbals, tambourine, triangle, tam-tam, harp and strings. 

Hyperbole is not history, but a case can be made for the proposition 
that 'Russian music' as a concert-hall genre was born — and died — 
with Rimsky-Korsakov. Secular music came late to Russia. For cen- 
turies its performance in any fashion was literally forbidden, and only 
the monodic, unaccompanied znamenny chant and its variants were 
heard in the land. This is not to say that there were no furtive bards. 
There must have been some clandestine music-making even in medieval 
Muscovy; Slavic song is an ethnic treasure-trove, and such a heritage 
had to be a long time building. But music was indeed proscribed, and 
even the mighty Czar Alexis got into trouble when he imported a 
group of Western musicians in 1648. The then-mightier Orthodox 
Church simply issued a ukase commanding That all musical instru- 
ments were to be broken up and burnt.' Whereupon five wagonloads 
were destroyed, and the Czar went without music even as his humblest 
subjects did. 

His son had better luck. Ecclesiastical schisms served to strengthen 
Romanov power, and in 1703 Peter the Great was able to lay the 
foundation of his glittering new capital at the mouth of the Neva, a 
window through which his people might look into Europe, as someone 
once put it succinctly. Music was to be another long time coming, 
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poser, was still a hundred years away. When the violinist Louis Spohr 
went to St Petersburg in 1802, he was startled to find that the musical 
community was populated mostly by non-Russians. In keyboard 
pedagogy, for example, the scene was dominated by an Italian, Muzio 
Clementi, and an Irishman, John Field. Two decades later, when 
Glinka himself was a burgeoning pianist, what he performed were 
concerti by such as Hummel; and when he attended the Imperial 
Opera what he heard were works by such as Boieldieu, Cherubini, and 
Mehul. Later yet, the so-called Russian school of fiddling would be 
founded by the Hungarian emigre Leopold Auer. 

But by then (1868) the necessary cross-pollination was accomplished. 
The emergence of a truly Slavophilic climate of creativity had been 
signalized only the year before with a concert at Mily Balakirev's 
institute which prompted Vladimir Stasov to coin the collective 
sobriquet (initially pejorative, and as it turned out not at all prophetic) 
usually translated as 'The Mighty Five' — namely, Balakirev himself 
and four of his proteges: Borodin, Cui (both already in their thirties), 
Mussorgsky (born 1839), and Rimsky-Korsakov, at twenty-three by far 
the youngest member of Balakirev's inner circle. 

After nearly a century of perspective Mussorgsky remains an 'x' factor 
in music history. That he was a raw genius and that he was harmoni- 
cally and otherwise ahead of his time is beyond question. What is not 




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beyond question is the extent of his actual influence. He seems to 
have been less seminal than unique (like Tchaikovsky outside the 
'Five'). Balakirev had considerable influence on his students, but it 
ended there. Borodin had none, but he left behind some marvelous 
music. Cui had none, either; and for better or worse his music died 
with him. 

Rimsky-Korsakov was something else: he was heir to no codified 
national heritage; Glinka, for all his deification, had done little more 
than put peasant clothes on Italianate models. Rimsky hoisted a new 
standard; his art was of international quality, but its essence was 
passionately Russian. After his passing (in 1908), that standard went 
down with the way of life it had graced. Of his prize pupils, Stravinsky 
soon departed the homeland to pioneer other paths and later saw them 
paved as roads to neoclassicism. Prokofiev was sworled up in the vortex 
of Sovietism and turned his immense gifts to dialectical pamphleteer- 
ing. The proud nationalism which Rimsky had implanted in the 
musical firmament shone brightly but only briefly, then, before it fell 
victim to guilt by association with the Romanov dynasty. But its 
resplendent spirit and substance are still there, in the scores; and no 
latter-day Russian composer has escaped their influence. 

The extent of this influence may be inferred in the irony that for all 
his aristocratic background Rimsky is today billed in the Soviet Union 
as a hero of communist culture. He must have turned over in his grave 



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on the 18th of March 1944, when the Kremlin keepers of 'the people's 
music' installed him in their private Pantheon. That date marked the 
centennial of Rimsky's birth, and World War II did not deter the 
calendar-conscious commissariat from unveiling a statue in Leningrad, 
announcing a handsome edition of his complete works, and releasing 
a 'scientific but popular' film depicting his dedication to Marxism. 
This in memory of a man who had copiously set down his admiration 
for the United States — where he had spent seven months in the autumn 
through spring of 1863-4. ^ * s true enough that Rimsky had his trou- 
bles with the imperial household and its censor-happy functionaries. 
But one shudders, reading Rimsky's Chronicle of My Musical Life, to 
imagine the ignominies this nonconformist would have suffered at the 
hands of their doctrinaire successors. 

Parenthetically, anyone who scans the history of Russian music over 
the past century is bound to be struck by a further irony: government 
support of the creative arts has been a constant factor throughout, 
though in dramatically different ways. Balakirev sustained himself 
initially by working as a clerk in the imperial railway system. Mus- 
sorgsky was an employee of the department of forestry. Borodin was 
on the faculty of the imperial academy of medicine. Cui was an army 
engineer. Earlier, Dargomyzhsky had been with the department of 
justice. (And if Glinka had not been wealthy, nor Tchaikovsky pro- 
vided for by a rich widow, probably they too would have been public 
servants.) However modestly or indirectly, the house of Romanov pro- 
vided a measure of subsidy to aspiring composers long before the 
Revolution. Rimsky was perhaps the luckiest of them: he got to 'see 
the world' as a cadet, and later an officer, in the imperial navy. 

As the scion of an old seagoing family with a distinguished ancestry of 
braid and brass, Rimsky donned his uniform as a matter of course 
when he was seventeen. As with his French counterpart Albert Roussel, 
it was the song of the sirens and not the muse's smile that beckoned 
most compellingly. But from 1865 forward he drew shore duty in St 
Petersburg, and almost at once he gravitated to the musical group 



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therapy of the Balakirev salon. There he 'picked up all sorts of 
smatterings' and even produced, not without assistance, the symphonic 
poem Sadko (not to be confused with the opera of the same title, which 
came three decades later). 

Not until he was twenty-seven, however, did Rimsky get down to 
learning the musical craft systematically, and under circumstances 
without parallel in the history of the tonal art. The short of this 
fantastic story is as follows. In 1871 the St Petersburg Conservatory 
got a new director, one M. P. Azanchevsky. He had heard Sadko, and 
liked it. Sadko was, in fact, all he knew about Rimsky. But for him it 
was enough. One of his first executive acts was to seek out the young 
officer (Rimsky did not shed his uniform until 1873) and invite him to 
join the faculty as a full professor of composition. Evidently the 
director was quite unaware of Rimsky's technical incompetence, and 
the latter's embarrassed reluctance only made Azanchevsky more deter- 
mined to get him. 'Had I ever studied at all,' Rimsky recalled long 
years afterward, 'had I possessed a fraction more of knowledge than I 
actually did, it would have been obvious to me that I could not and 



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should not accept the proffered appointment. ... I was a dilettante and 
knew nothing. This I frankly confess and attest before the world.' 
But all of Rimsky 's friends urged him to take the job, even though it 
was to include conducting the school orchestra — and Rimsky had 
never stood before one in his life! 

Rimsky did accept the professorship, 'my own delusions, perhaps,' 
having prevailed. Whereupon, in darkest secrecy, he started studying. 
Somehow he made enough headway before the fall term opened to 
stand before his classes unafraid, and for the rest of that academic year 
he managed to keep at least a step ahead of the brightest students. 
The hoax was indefensible, but Rimsky carried it off brilliantly. He 
not only justified his self-confidence but also, in time, earned the 
highest esteem of his peers. He was to serve uninterruptedly at the St 
Petersburg Conservatory until his death thirty-seven years later — 
except for a few months in the ferment of 1905 when he was relieved 
of his duties for defending the academic rights of revolutionary stu- 
dents. (It is clear enough to any close reader of the Chronicle that he 
took his stand as a matter of principle, not politics; but the official 
Soviet perception of this episode is of course altogether different.) 




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Nor did Rimsky's assiduous pedagogical career detract from his steady 
creative growth, which continued to the very end. On the contrary, he 
started composing what is probably his greatest work, Coq d'or, only 
after completing his memoirs, on the last page of which he suggests 
(at the age of sixty-two) that it might be 'high time to write finis to 
my career. . . .' 

Like most of Rimsky's music the symphonic suite Sheherazade was 
turned out between semesters. In the spring of 1888 he had sketched 
two pieces. One would become the Russian Easter Overture; the other, 
not yet clearly in his mind, would be based on certain episodes from 
the 'Arabian Nights' collection. It took shape quickly once he was 
ensconced in his retreat for that summer, which was a friend's estate 
at Nezhgovitzy, on Lake Cherementz. The score seems to have been 
polished to perfection in less than a month; the movements are dated 
July 4th, 11th, 16th, and 26th, respectively. It was dedicated to Stasov. 



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103 



A surfeit of nonsense has been written about the supposed program- 
matic content of Sheherazade. All of it, to be charitable, may be traced 
to the following few lines, which appeared as a preface to the earliest 
published score: 

'The Sultan Shahriar, persuaded of the falseness and the faithlessness 
of women, has sworn to put to death each one of his wives after the 
first night. But the Sultana Sheherazade saved her life by interesting 
him in tales which she told him during one thousand and one nights. 
Pricked by curiosity, the Sultan put off his wife's execution from day 
to day, and at last gave up entirely his bloody plan. 

'Many marvels were told Shahriar by the Sultana Sheherazade. For her 
stories the Sultana borrowed from the poets their verses, from folk 
songs their words; and she strung together tales and adventures.' 

Similarly, lyrical annotators have 'strung together tales and adven- 
tures,' indeed few works in the standard orchestral repertoire have 
been so importuned. True, Rimsky remarked that he had been think- 
ing of such 'unconnected episodes' as 'the fantastic narrative of Prince 
Kalandar, the Prince and the Princess, the Baghdad festival, and the 
ship dashing against the rock with the bronze rider upon it.' He also 
spoke of the solo violin as 'delineating Sheherazade herself telling her 
wondrous tales to the stern Sultan.' But in his later years Rimsky was 
impelled to forswear any intentions of a specific program, and he even 



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went so far as to renounce the outline implicit in the movement 
designations: 

'In composing Sheherazade I meant these hints to direct but lightly 
the hearer's fancy on the path which my own fancy had traveled, and 
to leave more minute and particular conceptions to the will and mood 
of each listener. All I had desired was that the hearer, if he liked my 
piece as symphonic music, should carry away the impression that it is 
beyond doubt an Oriental narrative of some numerous and varied 
fairy-tale wonders. . . .' 

Rimsky's belated disclaimer did not stop the flow of foolish words 
about Sheherazade, which continues still. But at no time since the 
premiere has there ever been a shortage of listeners who 'like' the piece, 
either because of its 'story' or in spite of it. 

© James Lyons 

James Lyons, an alumnus of the New England Conservatory and a 
graduate of Boston University, was born in Peabody, Massachusetts. 
He wrote about music for The Boston Post and The Boston Globe, 
and contributed to The Christian Science Monitor. He was editor and 
critic for Musical America, and has been for ten years the editor of 
The American Record Guide. 




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HANS WERNER HENZE 

Germany's Wonder Composer 
by Peter Heyworth 

As a young soldier of eighteen stationed in Prague near the end of the 
war, Hans Werner Henze was spat on by a Czech woman to whom he 
had offered his seat in a tram. Less than a year later, he returned to 
Germany to find his country in a state of moral and physical disintegra- 
tion that has no parallel in modern times. Though he did not then 
know it, he was to become the leading composer of a postwar genera- 
tion that would have to live with the sins of their fathers, and not 
merely with the terrible acts they had committed on other peoples but 
with the irreparable damage they had inflicted on themselves. 

German energy, like German hatred of nonconformism, is motored by 
an almost pathological fear of disorder. Ordnung muss sein, and like 
beavers the Germans in 1945 set to work to clean up the mess. Out of 
the acres of devastation, stinking of charred flesh, there arose sleek 
modern opera houses and concert halls, replete with foyers full of well- 
upholstered matrons pushing their way to the cake counter before 
embarking on the traditional, one-direction-only promenade. Pub- 
lishers, periodicals, orchestras, official hierarchies, were all soon recon- 
stituted, and in next to no time the wheels of Germany's great music- 
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But the Nazis had, of course, done more than merely destroy the outer, 
physical manifestation of German musical life. They had done some- 
thing far more terrible: they had snapped its creative main-spring. 
In twelve years they had turned the country that had for over a cen- 
tury and a half been the hub of Western music into a creative desert. 
Schoenberg was living out his last impoverished years in California. 
Webern, gentle, guiltless Webern, had been shot by an American 
soldier, panic-stricken in the darkness of a strange Alpine village. 
Hindemith was in exile at Yale; Berg had died of a blood poisoning 
that ten years later a couple of shots of penicillin would have cured; 
Weill had succumbed to Broadway. 

All that remained were two aged representatives of late romanticism: 
Pfitzner, a sick and embittered old man, and Strauss, who in the 
Metamorphosen, written in the last days of the war, had mourned the 
destruction of the Germany of his prime and then removed himself to 
the calmer air of Switzerland. Insofar as there was a younger genera- 
tion, it was represented by the genuine, if slim, talent of Carl Orff and 
the rather spurious figure of Werner Egk. The Nazis had spent lavishly 
on the arts. But all the splendors of Bayreuth under the Fuhrer's 
personal patronage and a glittering series of premieres of Strauss's late 
operas had not been able to disguise the fact that, long before 1945, 
German music had come to a full stop. 



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It was in these conditions that in 1946 Henze went to Heidelberg to 
study with Wolfgang Fortner. To Fortner, Henze owes his thorough 
technical schooling. But the only outside influences that his teacher 
could offer in those months after the war, when occupied Germany still 
remained largely isolated from the outside world, were those of 
Hindemith and neoclassical Stravinsky. The latter Henze gobbled up 
greedily. But his essentially romantic temperament (the autumnal 
melancholy of Trakl, an Austrian expressionist poet, had at that time a 
special charm for him) yearned for richer soil. Schoenberg's music was 
still largely unknown in Germany, for the bulk of his school had been 
scattered over the four corners of the earth. But in 1947 Henze took 
his first hesitant steps in dodecaphonic technique. He has related how 
this gave him (as it probably still does) both a new-found feeling of 
freedom and yet a certain fear of its intellectual severity. In 1948 he 
temporarily resolved these doubts and went to study with Rene 
Leibowitz in Paris. Thus by the age of twenty-two he had already 
encountered the two main musical influences on his style: Schoen- 
bergian counterpoint and Stravinskyan neoclassicism. 



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On his return to Germany, Henze threw himself into the world of 
ballet and for a while worked in theatres in Constance and Wiesbaden. 
On the face of it, this was a curious leap for a freshly baked Schoen- 
bergian. But in fact it was altogether characteristic of Henze that, 
while other composers of his generation (one thinks of such men as 
Boulez, Nono, and Stockhausen) were busy drawing all sorts of radical 
conclusions from the dodecaphonic inheritance, he should have em- 
braced the least intellectual and most directly sensuous of the theatrical 
arts. The distance between the world of Schoenbergian dodecaphonism 
and the world of ballet marks the frontiers of the immense musical 
territory Henze had set out to colonize. 

During the late Forties and early Fifties, the very years when the post- 
Webernian school was working out the rigorous dogmas of total 
serialism, Henze wrote no less than ten ballet scores, and indeed the 
spirit of ballet penetrates most of his early music, the Symphony no. 3 
(1949) no less than his first opera Boulevard Solitude. Written at the 
age of only twenty-four, this retelling of Prevost's Manon Lescaut in 
terms of present-day Paris inevitably suffers from a certain youthful 
eclecticism. But it also reveals Henze's phenomenal ability to bend all 
sorts of music to his purpose as well as to communicate a strong sense 
of atmosphere and drama. By a cruel irony he achieved in this im- 
mature score a sense of dramatic timing that has eluded him in most 
of his later operas. 



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112 



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But Henze did not remain for long in Germany. As the Economic 
Miracle got under way, there came into existence a new complacent 
society, intent on covering the past under a heavy blanket of material 
prosperity. Henze himself is certainly no puritan in his style of living, 
but he could not bury the past. Born in Westphalia and the son of a 
schoolmaster, he had grown up under the Third Reich and had seen 
Nazism at close quarters. His loathing of what he experienced is 
undying. 

But even more than the new rich, Henze hated the cultural elite that 
had arisen out of the ashes of the Third Reich. As though to demon- 
strate a total break with the immediate past, and at the same time to 
reassert its place in Europe, the German musical intelligentsia threw 
itself with eclat into a new wave of Modernismus. Had not Germany 
led the field before 1933? Very well, she would do so again, and, 
bolstered by her unique resources for music making, she had by the 
early Fifties reasserted her position as the lynch-pin of the avant-garde. 
The money and the musicians were there, the will to use them was 
there, the avant-garde critics and publicists were there, the com- 
posers. . . . 

But before leaders of this avant-garde had realized what had happened, 
their brightest star had opted out and left for Italy. For German in- 
tellectuals 'das Land wo die Zitronen bliXhen' has traditionally exer- 
cised an intense and fruitful fascination. For Henze, Italy was more 
than a refuge from everything he most disliked in his own country; it 



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was the long sought anima to his German soul. His love affair with 
the country of his choice has been long, passionate and lasting. Some- 
times his love has taken almost touchingly naive forms, and an Italian's 
unkind description of his Five Neapolitan Songs as 'tourist post cards' 
contains a tiny element of truth. But for Henze, Italy has brought 
liberation and to this extent he is a characteristic expression of the 
Europeanized young Germans of today who have sought escape from 
an uncomfortable national heritage in wider loyalties. 

Above all, Italy meant melody in general and opera in particular, and 
Henze had hardly settled in Ischia when he embarked on what he at 
that time liked to refer to as 'my Italian opera.' Of course Konig 
Hirsch (II Re Cervo or King Stag) is no such thing. It does admittedly 
contain many of the outer forms of Italian opera: it has arias, 
cabalettas, duets, canzoni, and ensembles in abundance. But Henze was 
far more deeply immersed in and committed to the whole symphonic 
tradition of German music than he then realized. Some of the finest 
things in the score, such as the finale of the second act (which was later 
detached and emerged as his Fourth Symphony), are essentially sym- 
phonic in conception, while his attempt to find his way to the heart of 
Italian melody without aping its outer manners is rarely wholly success- 
ful. Equally, nothing could be less Italian than the metaphysical 
mystifications of Heinz von Cramer's text after Gozzi. Indeed, the very 
notion of an Italian opera that in its original form was almost as long 
as Die Meistersinger is not without its comic side. But with all its 
faults Konig Hirsch is a cornucopian score. Ideas are poured forth in 
spendthrift profusion. Not since young Strauss had any composer 
achieved quite this degree of riotous invention. It was a tremendous 
achievement for a man of only twenty-nine and it marks both the end 
of Henze's youth and the beginning of his maturity. 

Such a torrent of invention was possible only on a wide stylistic basis. 
Indeed the significance of Konig Hirsch lies less in its much talked of 
Italianate elements than in the fact that in it there emerged for the 
first time a composer who was the heir of both Schoenberg and Stravin- 
sky, who drew nourishment from two schools previously regarded as 
irreconcilable. It is this synthesis that has enabled Henze to operate on 
such a wide front; and to it all other influences — whether ballet, jazz, 
or Italian opera — are subordinate, although they of course play an 



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important part in individual works. Inevitably, the cry of 'eclecticism' 
went up, and nowhere more vehemently than in Germany, where the 
serialist avant-garde was by this time firmly in the saddle. 

Blissfully unaware that its leading exponent, Pierre Boulez, was quietly 
preparing to leave the ship and that his desertion would be only the 
first of many, avant-garde German critics and composers were busy 
pouring contempt on all who had not signed on the dotted line. 
(Today, of course, a comparable team of critics, publicists, and bureau- 
crats serve the aleatoric movement with similar dogmatic fidelity.) 
Henze was widely dismissed as ' positionslos' and 'schwankend/ and 
his admittedly somewhat culinary three-act ballet Ondine, written for 
Frederick Ashton and the Royal Ballet, was considered a final betrayal 
of the progressive cause. Henze, for his part, tartly reminded his critics 
that music was written not by groups but by individuals. But there 
can be no doubt that he felt his isolation keenly. Alienated from the 
avant-garde, he had not yet quite established himself as an independent 
figure of significance. 

Nonetheless he stuck to his guns, and his next big work was an opera 
based on Kleist's great play Der Prinz von Homburg. This subject, 
which had been suggested to him by Luchino Visconti, was Henze's 
first approach to a specifically German theme. Kleist's drama turns on 
the inner conflicts of a hero who is both a poetic dreamer and a 
Prussian general, and thus embodies both sides of an age-old conflict 
in the German breast. Unfortunately, Henze and his librettist, Ingeborg 
Bachmann, were so anxious to play down anything that savored of 
German nationalism that they reduced the Prince to a mere ninny and 
in doing so castrated the play of its inner tensions. This error is 
reflected in a score that is 'beautiful' (in particular, its textures have 
a translucent sensuality characteristic of much of Henze's later music) 
yet theatrically rather spineless. 

Fortunately, in his next stage work Henze found what had previously 
eluded him — a libretto with dramatic point and intellectual substance. 
As a direct result, Elegy for Young Lovers, a chamber opera on a text 



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117 



by W. H. Auden and Chester Kallman, is the most successful of his 
operas up to this stage of his career (1961). Here he was given no 
chance to indulge his dangerous gift for mood and atmosphere, but for 
the first time in his operatic career was obliged to come to grips with 
real characters and the dramatic conflicts that grow out of them. The 
opera is not without its faults. In particular the first act lacks pace and 
buffo spirit. But it is fascinating to observe how the demands of the 
text brought his melodic idiom into sharper focus than he had hitherto 
achieved. There were gains in other directions. Henze had long been 
a master of orchestration, but here he excelled himself, and in its rich 
range of color and texture as well as in its relaxed contrapuntal in- 
genuity the opera stands as the culmination of a long time of chamber 
works dating from the late Fifties and early Sixties. 

Elegy for Young Lovers established Henze as a composer of world-wide 
repute. It was performed at the Schwetzingen, Glyndebourne, and 
Munich festivals. It was seen in Berlin, Rome, and New York. For the 
first time since the prime of Richard Strauss, Germany had a productive 
and viable opera composer. Demands for new works poured in from 
all corners of the musical world. Leonard Bernstein commissioned a 
new symphony (no. 5) for New York, the London Philharmonic 
Society commissioned the big cantata Novae de Infinito Laudes, which 
is perhaps his most striking concert piece to date. Berlin commissioned 
an opera (Der junge Lord), and so did Salzburg. Nureyev asked for a 
ballet score for Vienna, Edinburgh a piece for Irmgard Seefried and 
her husband Wolfgang Schneiderhan (Ariosi). And all the while there 
was a steady stream of minor works, such as the intimate and lyrical 
Being Beauteous, a setting of Rimbaud for soprano and four cellos. 
Henze also started to be in demand as a conductor of his own music 



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and, enraged by the presumption of present-day producers, also began 
to produce (and even design) his operas. 

Success is often less damaging than the unsuccessful like to suppose, 
and Henze has probably gained from the confidence it has brought 
him. At all events, he is less preoccupied with his feud with the avant- 
garde. But in other ways success has put him into a dangerously 
exposed position. The lack of any comparable figure in his generation 
means that the demands on his creative energies are unrelenting. Any 
festival, opera house, or orchestra wanting a first performance that will 
attract the general public (as well as critics and others professionally 
concerned with contemporary music) almost inevitably turns to him 
with enticing terms. Henze has always been a fast worker, and when 
one considers the productivity of Mozart and Schubert, not to mention 
Rossini and Donizetti, one may be tempted to dismiss doubts raised by 
his huge output as just another reflection of the musical puritanism so 
characteristic of our times. 



YOUTH CONCERTS AT SYMPHONY HALL, INC. 

Members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

HARRY ELLIS DICKSON 

Conductor 

Ninth Season • 1967-1968 

Two series of concerts will be presented in Symphony 
Hall on Saturday mornings, from 11:00 to 12:00 o'clock, 
as follows : 



FIRST SERIES: Nov. 4 

SECOND SERIES: Nov. 11 

(Repeating the programs of First Series) 



• Jan. 13 • Mar. 9 

• Jan. 20 • Mar. 16 



Tickets are sold by series only. All seats are reserved 
at a total cost of $5.00 (tax exempt) for either series of 
three concerts. 

These concerts are planned for young people from 
Grade V through Junior High and High School. 

Ticket order, accompanied by check and stamped, 
addressed envelope, should be mailed to : 

TICKET COMMITTEE 
YOUTH CONCERTS AT 
SYMPHONY HALL, INC. 

251 Huntington Avenue • Boston, Mass. 02115 



119 



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Still, an impression persists that he writes too hastily and that this 
results in marked unevenness of quality. In addition to minor works, 
the last two years alone have yielded two large-scale operas, and 
between them these well illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of his 
recent music. Der junge Lord (1965), Henze's first comic opera, has 
been a more immediate success than any of his other stage works. 
Nonetheless, it seems to be his shallowest and least precise operatic 
score to date. 

Ingeborg Bachmann's libretto is intended as another swipe at the 
German bourgeoisie. The target is, God knows, large enough, but 
neither Henze nor his librettist has taken aim with sufficient precision, 
nor has either been scrupulous enough in the choice of an instrument 
of chastisement. As is so often the case where a composer has rested 
content with attitudes rather than pursuing his subject matter to its 
emotional and intellectual conclusions, the failure is directly reflected 
in the music. The score of Der junge Lord is skillful, fluent, and (up 
to a point) apt. But, like Der Prinz von Homburg, it cuts no dramatic 
ice, it reveals little insight into character that goes beyond parody, and, 
though it has its farcical moments, it is for a comic opera singularly 
lacking in comic spirit. Indeed, it appears that, with belated percep- 
tion, Henze has now himself declared the work not to be comic at all. 

Fortunately, The Bassarids, which was given its premiere in Salzburg 
in August 1966, shows the reverse side of Henze's qualities. Auden and 
Kallman have their quirks as librettists and their text is often gratu- 
itously obscure in language and allusion. But, unlike the libretto of 
Der junge Lord, it does represent a real Auseinandersetzung with its 
subject matter. They have taken The Bacchae of Euripides, rethought 
it in modern terms, and recast it in operatic form. The result is by far 
the most powerful and demanding libretto that Henze has as yet 
tackled, and, forced by its quality to come to grips with the subject 
matter instead of skating over it as in Der junge Lord, he has responded 
with the finest score he has yet written. 

The opera is conceived as a vast four-movement symphony played 
without interval for two and a half hours. It has its blank spots and 
its failures. For instance, the first movement is slow to fulfill its task 
of projecting the basic conflict between Dionysus and Pentheus, the 
rationalist king of Thebes. A comic intermezzo founders on Henze's 
inability to forge a real buffo style. But the score as a whole develops 
an emotional power and a dramatic impact far outstripping anything 
in the earlier operas. One of the sources of this new-found range is 
that, at the insistence of his librettists, Henze has in The Bassarids 
finally made his peace with Wagner, with the result that he here has at 
his command the resources of motivic technique. 

Like Der Prinz von Homburg and Der junge Lord, The Bassarids has 
direct relevance to Henze's experience of the Third Reich, for it is 
about a society that literally goes off its head. But he has at last come 
to terms with his full musical heritage, with Wagner and Strauss as 
well as Schoenberg and Berg, and the result is his most strongly sus- 
tained and deeply felt opera. In the face of it, those who have chosen 
to regard Henze as nothing but a skillful eclectic will have to think 
again. 



High Fidelity — Musical America. Reprinted by permission. 



121 




Today's Conductor 

This weekend marks the official debut of 
CHARLES WILSON, Assistant Conductor 
of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He 
came to Boston from New York City, '«»ji 

where for six years he was a conductor and 
on the musical staff of the New York City - * 

Opera Company, performing fourteen dif- 
ferent operas and operettas, including Don g|j 
Giovanni, Boris Godunov, The Merry 
Widow and Street Scene. In the fall of 1966 
he conducted the New York City Opera i 
Company's production of Menotti's The Consul both at Lincoln Center 
and in the Midwest. He is conducting four performances of Mozart's 
The Marriage of Figaro during the present season. 

Charles Wilson received a Bachelor of Science degree in Music in i960 
from the Marines College of Music where he studied organ with Dr 
Hugh Giles, and with Carl Bamberger, his only conducting teacher. 
For two years Mr Wilson served on the Mannes faculty as Director of 
the Mannes Chorus, and during the 1961-1963 seasons was chorus 
master for the Philadelphia Lyric Opera Company. 

Charles Wilson conducted the opening concert of the Berkshire Music 
Center Orchestra at Tanglewood this summer, and was in charge of 
the preparation of the Tanglewood Choir and the Berkshire Chorus 
for performances of Bach's Mass in B minor, Beethoven's Fidelio and 
Verdi's Requiem. 



The members of the Orchestra 

LOIS SCHAEFER joined the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra as piccolo player in the 
autumn of 1965. She studied at the New 
England Conservatory with Georges Lau- 
rent, for many years Principal Flute of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. Before return- 
ing to Boston, she was assistant first flute in 
the Chicago Symphony and first flute of the 
New York City Opera Company. She has 
played in the RCA Victor Orchestra, the 
orchestras of major broadcasting companies 
in the United States, and has been soloist with the Boston Pops, 
Chicago and Springfield Symphonies. She was also soloist this past 
summer at Tanglewood with the Orchestra in a piccolo concerto by 
Vivaldi. 

Lois Schaefer is a member of the New England Wind Quintet, 
one of the new Ensembles of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, which 
will make its debut at Jordan Hall on 23 October. She teaches at the 
New England Conservatory and played with the Boston Symphony 
Chamber Players on their recent international tour. For relaxation she 
enjoys hiking, swimming, tennis and photography. 




122 



Recordings of today's program 

Henze's First Symphony is included in a two-record DGG album of his 
symphonies 1 to 5, played by the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra under 
the composer's own direction. 

The Academic Festival Overture is currently available in 15 recorded 
versions. Performances led by two previous conductors of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra may be of interest: Serge Koussevitzky on RCA 
Victor in a recording dedicated to the Bicentennial Anniversary of 
Princeton University with the Boston Symphony Orchestra; and Pierre 
M onteux with the London Symphony Orchestra on Philips. 

There are 20 recordings of Sheherazade to choose from: Mr Leinsdorf 
leads the Concert Arts Symphony in a performance on Capitol; there 
is a Thase-4' recording by Leopold Stokowski and the London Sym- 
phony Orchestra on London; and among others are those by Fritz 
Reiner and the Chicago Symphony, Pierre Monteux and the London 
Symphony, both on RCA Victor, and Sir Thomas Beecham with the 
Royal Philharmonic on Angel. 




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123 



Announcing a new chamber music series 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra and the New England Conservatory 
present 

ENSEMBLES OF THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



TEN CONCERTS AT JORDAN HALL, BOSTON 



October 9 
October 23 
November 13 
December 4 
January 8 
February 5 
February 19 
March 4 

March 18 
April 22 



Boston Sinfonietta 

New England Wind Quintet 

Boston Symphony Chamber Players 

Boston Symphony String Trio 

Music Guild String Quartet 

Boston Symphony Chamber Players 

Stockbridge String Quartet 

Boston Trio 

Boston Symphony Chamber Players 

Boston Sinfonietta 



To encourage the performance of chamber music by members of the Orchestra, 
the Management has embarked on the presentation of concerts by various 
chamber groups from within the Boston Symphony Orchestra. It is hoped 
that this exciting venture will be supported by the Orchestra's regular sub- 
scribers and by all chamber music lovers. The first concert, to be given this 
coming Monday 9 October by the Boston Sinfonietta, will include music by 
Vivaldi, Corelli, Barber and Tansman; the second, on 23 October, will present 
music by Danzi, Nielsen, Hindemith and Etler. Season subscriptions at favor- 
able prices will remain available until the start of the concert next Monday. 

124 



FUTURE PROGRAMS 



Third Program 

Friday afternoon 13 October at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 14 October at 8.30 



BEETHOVEN 
SCHOENBERG 



Excerpts from the ballet Prometheus 
Piano Concerto op. 42 

RITA BOUBOULIDI 



SCHUMANN Symphony no. 2 in C 

There will be another Boston Symphony premiere next week: Schoen- 
berg's Piano Concerto op. 42. A strictly twelve-tone composition, it is 
so constructed that the effect on the ear is often 'tonal.' The solo part 
will be played by the gifted pianist Rita Bouboulidi, Greek by birth, 
who lives now in Paris. She has toured extensively in Europe, Africa 
and the Soviet Union, and has performed this concerto with several 
European orchestras during the last three years. 

Beethoven's music to the ballet Prometheus is full of charm, and the 
movement for solo cello and solo harp is especially attractive. The 
final movement foreshadows the very familiar theme from the last 
movement of the Eroica Symphony. 

The concerts next Friday will end at about 3.50 
on Saturday at about 10.20 



I ! 



Fourth Program 

Friday afternoon 20 October at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 21 October at 8.30 

JORGE MESTER Guest Conductor 

VERDI I Vepri Siciliani - Overture 

STRAUSS Don Quixote 

JULES ESKIN, BURTON FINE 

RAVEL Le tombeau de Couperin 

BARTOK Suite from The Miraculous Mandarin 

programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



125 



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PIANOFORTE STUDIO 

42 Symphony Chambers 

246 Huntington Avenue, Boston 

opp. Symphony Hall 

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KATE FRISKIN 

Pianist and Teacher 

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126 



Mrs. Aaron Richmond and Walter Pierce 
present in the 1967-68 Boston University 

CELEBRITY SERIES 



THIS MON. EVE., OCT. 9 at 8:30 • SYMPHONY HALL 

VIENNA PHILHARMONIC 

KARL BOEHM, Conductor 

Beethoven, Symphony No. 6 "Pastoral"; Schubert, Symphony No. 7 in C Major 

.50, $5.50, $4.50 



SEATS NOW: 



•50, 



THIS WED. EVE., OCT. 11 at 8:30 • SYMPHONY HALL 

The Hilarious Musical Spoof of the recently discovered works of 

P. D. Q. BACH (1807-1742)? 

with Prof. Peter Schickele 
and the Royal P.D.Q. Bach Festival Orchestra and Soloists 

SEATS NOW: $4.75, $3.75, $3.00, $2.50 

SUN. AFT., OCT. 15 at 3 • JORDAN HALL 

GUARNERI STRING QUARTET 

Haydn, Quartet in G major, Op. 76, No. 1; Berg, Quartet No. 3; 
Beethoven, Quartet in C minor, Op. 131 

REMAINING SEATS AT BOX-OFFICE 



FRI. EVE., OCT. 27 at 8:30 • SYMPHONY HALL 

L'ORCHESTRE NATIONAL FRANCAIS 

MAURICE LE ROUX, Conductor 

Brahms, Variations on a Theme by Haydn, Op. 56A; Berlioz, Romeo et Juliette 
(scene d'amour et mort des amants); Ravel, Tableau d'Expositions 

SEATS NOW: $6.50, $5.50, $4.50, $3.50 

SUN. AFT., OCT. 29 at 3 • JORDAN HALL 

MUSIC FROM MARLBORO 

Superb chamber music in the tradition of the Marlboro Music Festival 
Under the artistic direction of Rudolf Serkin 



Participating Artists: 

Pina Carmirelli, Violin 
Jon Toth, Violin 
Philipp Naegele, Viola 
Caroline Levine, Viola 
Fortunato Arico, Cello 
Dorothy Reichenberger, Cello 



The Program: 

Boccherini, String Quintet in F minor, 

Op. 42, No. i 
Dvorak, String Sextet in A Major, Op. 48 
Brahms, String Sextet in G Major, Op. 36 



Box-Office Opens Mon. Tickets: $4.75, $3.75, $3.00, $2.75 



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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Exquisite 
Sound 




From the palaces 
of ancient Egypt 
to the concert halls 
of our modern 
cities, the wondrous 
music of the harp has 
compelled attention 
from all peoples and all 
countries. Through this 
passage of time many 
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early instruments shown in 
drawings on the tomb of 
Rameses II (1292-1225 B.C.) 
were richly decorated but 
lacked the fore-pillar. Later 
the "Kinner" developed by the 
Hebrews took the form as we 
know it today. The pedal harp 
was invented about 1720 by a 
Bavarian named Hochbrucker and 
through this ingenious device it be- 
came possible to play in eight major 
and five minor scales complete. Today 
the harp is an important and familiar 
instrument providing the "Exquisite 
Sound" and special effects so important 
to modern orchestration and arrange- 
ment. The certainty of change makes 
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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

FRANCIS W. HATCH MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 

ANDREW HEISKELL SIDNEY R. RABB 

HAROLD D. HODGKINSON RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

131 



BEETHOVEN 
"EROICA SYMPHONY Ul 
BOSTON SYMPHONY OBCH. 
ERICH LEINSDORF 




Schumann /Symphony No. 4 mt 
Beethoven /Leonore Overture No. 3 
Boston Symphony /Leinsdorf 



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Boston Symphony Orchestra /Erich Leinsdorf 

Rimsky-Korsakoff /"LE COQ D'OR" SUITE 

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rca Victor 

TOfflThe most trusted name in sound 



The Boston Symphony 
under Leinsdorf 

Leinsdorf and the Boston Symphony give Beethoven's "Et 
one of the boldest performances you are likeiy to hear. N 
daring is their acute reading of Schumann 's Fourth Symp 
an exquisite fabric of sound. In their first recording of Rl 
ballet repertoire, the Boston ians produce a shimmering Fh 
and a glittering Le Cog d'Or. Recorded in D yna g roove s 






II 



THE FUND FOR THE BOSTON SYMPHONY 



I Linking a name with Symphony . . . 

Symphony Hall and Tanglewood, where Koussevitzky, Kreisler, 
Munch, Rachmaninoff, Rubinstein, Muck, Heifetz and many others 
have played with the Boston Symphony, are full of great musical and 
historical associations. 

As part of The Fund for the Boston Symphony, the Trustees of the 
Orchestra have established a program of Commemorative Gifts by 
'which donors may express a personal interest in the Symphony and 
may honor a family member, musician, or friend by linking their 
name with this historic past. 

Gift opportunities range from $1 million for The Koussevitzky Shed 
| at Tanglewood, through $500,000 for a named concert series or The 
Concert Master's Chair, to $2,500 to name a seat in Symphony Hall. 
They include individual concerts at Symphony Hall and Tanglewood, 
guest conductors and soloists, leaders of the sections in the orchestra, 
teaching positions at The Berkshire Music Center, and Fellowship 
funds. They also include facilities in Symphony Hall and at Tangle- 
wood — music studios, music library, Tanglewood seating, grounds 
and gardens. The list is broad, designed to appeal to the interests of 
all who love music and the Symphony. 

Three of these named gifts already have been established: 

The Charles Munch Fund of $1 million, for bringing outstanding 
conductors to Symphony Hall, with contributions totaling 
$540,000 from Henry B. Cabot, Edward A. Taft, Mrs H. Melvin 
Young . 

The principal Cellist's Chair will be named after Philip R. Allen, 
late Trustee of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, with contribu- 
tions of $100,000 from Philip K. Allen and other members of the 
Allen family. 

The Augustus P. Thorndike Fellowship Fund, for a student at the 
Berkshire Music Center, with contributions of $25,000 from 
John L. Thorndike and members of his family. 

(Gifts to The Fund are tax deductible, and may be deducted for in- 
jcome tax purposes up to 30 per cent. If a gift exceeds the 30 per cent 
jlimit in any one year, the excess may be carried forward for a period 
lof five years. Donors considering commemorative gifts are invited 
to discuss their wishes with any member of the Board of Trustees, or 
with the Fund Office in Symphony Hall. 



133 



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At the / 

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MALCOLM FRAGER 
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BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES 'WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 

Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 
Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 

Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 

Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 
Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



WILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



*members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



135 




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II 



Contents 

Program for 13 and 14 October 1967 

Future programs 

Program notes 

Beethoven — Suite from Prometheus 
by John N. Burk 

Schoenberg — Piano Concerto 
by Michael Steinberg 

Schumann — Symphony no. 2 

by Eric Sams 

Listening to Schoenberg - Part 1 
by Peter Heyworth 

Recordings of today's program 

The soloist 

The members of the Orchestra 



139 

189 

140 
148 
162 
170 

183 

182 
185 



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138 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Third Program 

Friday afternoon 13 October at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 14 October at 8.30 



BEETHOVEN 

Suite from the ballet Die Geschopfe des Prometheus op. 43 

Overture: Adagio — Allegro molto con brio 

Introduction to Act I 'La Tempesta': Allegro non troppo 

Adagio — Andante quasi allegretto 

BERNARD ZIGHERA harp JULES ESKIN cello 

DORIOT ANTHONY DWYER flute GINO CIOFEI clarinet 

SHERMAN WALT bassoon 

Finale: Allegretto — Allegro molto — Presto 

SCHOENBERG 

Concerto for Piano and Orchestra op. 42 

Andante 

Molto allegro 

Adagio 

Giocoso (moderato) 

RITA BOUBOULIDI 

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INTERMISSION 



SCHUMANN 

Symphony no. 2 in C major op. 61 

Sostenuto assai; Allegro ma non troppo 
Scherzo: Allegro vivace; Trio I; Trio II 
Adagio espressivo 
Allegro molto vivace 

At these performances Mme Bouboulidi is playing the Steinway Piano 

The concert will end at about 3.50 on Friday 
and at about 10.20 on Saturday 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 

139 



LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN 

Suite from the ballet Die Geschopfe des Prometheus op. 43 
(The creatures of Prometheus) 
by John N. Burk 

Beethoven was born in Bonn in December 1770 (probably the 16th), and died in 
Vienna on 26 March 1827. The ballet was composed in 1800 and was first performed 
in March 1801 at the Imperial Court Theatre in Vienna. The Orchestra has per- 
formed various movements from the ballet in the past, most recently in this series 
on 4 and 5 March i960 when Charles Munch conducted. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
timpani, harp and strings. 

Salvatore Vigano, Milanese dancer and designer of ballets in the late 
eighteenth century, decided in the year 1800 to pay a tribute to Maria 
Theresa and ordered Beethoven to provide music for a ballet Die 
Geschopfe des Prometheus. Beethoven had recently dedicated his 
septet to this consort of the Emperor Franz of Austria. And yet he 
was not an obvious choice for such a commission. At the age of thirty 
he had attracted considerable attention as a composer for piano and 
chamber combinations, but he had written nothing of orchestral 
proportions excepting two piano concertos and a single symphony. 

Certainly he had not proved himself an effective writer of music for 
the theater (Beethoven had made a youthful attempt at a ballet as a 
youth of twenty at Bonn, the Ritterballet, which could hardly have 
commended him in Vienna). 



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But Beethoven was ambitious to compose for the stage, and coveted 
recognition in high quarters. He may well have considered himself 
fortunate in being singled out by the celebrated Salvatore Vigano 
(1768-1821), a leader in his profession. Vigano had made his mark 
in Vienna when he came there in 1793 with his wife, the beautiful, 
much admired Spanish dancer, Maria Medina. Under this impulse 
the vogue of the ballet was reinstated in Vienna in the 1790's. There 
was another ballet master in the reign of Leopold II: Muzarelli, and a 
deadly rivalry developed between the two Italians. The public, which 
always delighted in such a warfare, took sides as sharply as in a modern 
political campaign. The slogan of Signor Vigano was the cultivation 
of natural beauty and significance as against the artificial posturing of 
which he accused his opponent. Perhaps his cause was enhanced by 
the undisputed attractiveness of his wife. 'Two or three pages of spicy 
matter might be compiled,' writes Alexander Wheelock Thayer, 'upon 
the beautiful Mme Vigano's lavish display of the Venus-like graces 
and charms of her exquisite form.' But the sober chronicler of 
Beethoven has refrained from such an excursion. 

In any case, there was no question of the Spanish dazzler when 
Beethoven undertook Die Geschopfe des Prometheus. Fraulein Cas- 
sentini had succeeded her as prima ballerina and duly took part in 
this ballet. The title has been variously translated as the 'creatures,' 
the 'creations,' and the 'men' of Prometheus, for want of any word 
which will adequately render 'Geschopfe.' The following description 
of the piece is all that has come down to us save for the sixteen musical 
numbers which Beethoven provided: 



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143 



'The foundation of this allegorical ballet is the fable of Prometheus. 
The philosophers of Greece allude to Prometheus as a lofty soul who 
drove the people of his time from ignorance, refined them by means 
of science and the arts, and gave them manners, customs, and morals. | 

As a result of that conception, two statues that have been brought 1 
to life are introduced in this ballet; and these, through the might 
of harmony, are made sensitive to all the passions of human life. 

Prometheus leads them to Parnassus, in order that Apollo, the god of 
the fine arts, may enlighten them. Apollo gives them as teachers 
Amphion, Arion, and Orpheus to instruct them in music, Melpomene 
to teach them tragedy, Thalia for comedy, Terpsichore and Pan for 
the shepherd's dance, and Bacchus for the heroic dance, of which he 
was the originator.' 

The ballet made a pronounced success and survived numerous per- 
formances — for reasons probably other than the delights of the music 
itself. The Overture has an introduction, adagio, and a lively main 
section, allego molto con brio. The swift string figure that runs 
through it was probably what caused William F. Apthorp to call it 
'a companion piece to Mozart's Overture to Figaro.' When the early 
biographers of Beethoven reproached him with having written an 
overture in a gay and transparent style on so serious a subject they 
surely took too little account of what was expected in this species of 
divertissement. There follows without pause the Introduction to Act I, 
which is subtitled 'La Tempesta.' 



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The Adagio here played is the fifth number, and opened Act II in 
the stage production (after a few bars andante). It begins with chords 
for the harp, a curiosity in that this instrument appears nowhere else 
in Beethoven's music. The winds have the introductory matter over a 
light string pedal. The solo cello brings in the Andante quasi alle- 
gretto with a cadenza, and returns several times as a connecting voice. 

The sixteenth and last movement is a series of short variations on the 
theme familiar in the finale of the Eroica Symphony. The theme is 
identical, but the variations different. The theme must have been a 
favorite one with Beethoven, for he used it four times in all; in a 
contradance, in the Variations and Fugue for piano solo op. 35 (1802) 
and in the Eroica (1804). Since the date of the contradance is not 
known, it is impossible to tell whether its use in Prometheus (composed 
in 1800) was the first. There is another theme (in G major) which like- 
wise appears as a contradance (no. 1 1 in the same set of 12, without opus 
number). Prometheus ends with a brilliant allegro molto and a presto. 



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147 



ARNOLD SCHOENBERG 



Concerto for Piano and Orchestra op. 42 
by Michael Steinberg 

Arnold Schoenberg was born in Vienna on 13 September 1874, and died in Brent- 
wood, California, on 13 July 1951. He began to sketch his Piano Concerto in July 
1942 and completed the score on 30 December of that year. The first performance 
was given 6 February 1944 by Edward Steuermann, Leopold Stokowski conducting 
the N.B.C. Symphony. The first Boston performance was given in Jordan Hall, 
20 October 1965, by Margaret Kitchin, Frederik Prausnitz conducting the New 
England Conservatory Symphony Orchestra. 

The instrumentation: flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons in pairs (second flute 
doubling piccolo), 4 horns, two trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, bells, gong, 
cymbal, xylophone, bass drum, snare drum, normal strings, and solo piano. The 
Concerto is dedicated to Henry Clay Shriver. 

In The Memoirs of an Amnesiac, his second book of reminiscences and 
what not, Oscar Levant recalls how, after achieving 'a certain fame and 
notoriety,' he asked Arnold Schoenberg, who had been his composition 
teacher for a while and with whom, in an edgy sort of way, he was on 



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rather friendly terms, to write him 'a slight piano piece.' Levant gave 
him a payment and reports that Schoenberg was delighted. 

His account continues: 'When I returned to New York there was 
correspondence and suddenly this small piano piece burned feverishly 
in Schoenberg's mind and he decided to write a piano concerto. He 
sent me some early sketches and it is possible that in the main row of 
tones my name or initials were involved. However, I wasn't prepared 
for a piano concerto and in the meantime Hans (sic) Eisler assumed 
the role of negotiator for Schoenberg. Among other things, the 
fee grew to a vast sum for which, as the dedicatee, I was promised 
immortality.' 

For personal, but not financial, reasons, Levant came to find the venture 
oppressive, and withdrew from it. There is, however, a postscript to 
his story: at a meeting with Schoenberg several years later, Levant 
'in a spasm of good will said, "I owe you some money." [Schoenberg] 
nodded in agreement and I gave him a check. He was very cheerful 
about the whole thing. I didn't really owe him any money — it was 
just an excuse to ameliorate the old situation.' 

1942, the year of the Piano Concerto and also of his setting of Byron's 
Ode to Napoleon, is late in Schoenberg's career. Verklaerte Nacht, 
which remains his most played piece, was written in 1899. The 
Chamber Symphony op. 9, the String Quartet no. 2, his Stefan George 
song cycle Das Buch der haengenden Gaerten, the Five Pieces for 
Orchestra, Erwartung, and Pierrot lunaire, all come from the period 
1906-13. The Serenade, the Wind Quintet, the Suite op. 29, the 
Variations for Orchestra, the comic opera Von Heute auf Morgen, were 
composed in the twenties. The thirties began with the two completed 
acts of Moses und Aron, and that was also the decade in which Schoen- 
berg wrote two other works of the greatest importance, the Violin 
Concerto and the String Quartet no. 4. The major works to follow the 
Piano Concerto are the String Trio, A Survivor from Warsaw, and 
the Phantasy for Violin. 




150 



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In his early years, Schoenberg lived in Vienna and Berlin. In 1933 he 
was, as a Jew, dismissed from his position at the Prussian Academy of 
the Arts, and on 25 October that year he came to Boston with his 
family. He taught at the now defunct Malkin Conservatory and lived 
at the Pelham Hall apartments, 1284 Beacon Street, Brookline. He con- 
ducted a performance of his symphonic poem Pelleas und Melisande, 
with the Boston Symphony, though illness kept him from the scheduled 
repeat performance. His health was never strong — he suffered from 
asthma all his life — and the climate here affected him particularly 
badly. Fear of further Northern winters led him to decline offers from 
Juilliard and the Chicago Musical College, and in 1935, he moved to 
Los Angeles, first teaching at the University of Southern California 
and privately, and then, until his mandatory retirement in 1944, at 
U.C.L.A. The Schoenbergs built a house in Brentwood Park in 1936 
and became United States citizens in 1941. Schoenberg never went 
back to Europe. He toyed with the idea of returning for his 75th 
birthday celebrations, but by then he was too ill. In the anniversary 
year, 1949, Vienna, whose smug and arch-conservative musical estab- 
lishment had hated and rejected his work, now that it was safe, 
bestowed the freedom of the city on him. 



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Like all of Schoenberg's main works from 1923 on, the Piano Concerto 
is composed with the 12-tone technique. Schoenberg himself, inci- 
dentally, is the author of the suggestion that the presence of this 
method is a criterion for determining whether a work is one of his 
main ones, obviously, though, referring only to the post- 192 3 pieces. 
The method, anticipated in parts of the Five Pieces for Piano op. 23, 
and the Serenade op. 24 (both completed 1923), then fully explored 
and consistently used in the Suite for Piano op. 25 (1923) and the 
Wind Quintet op. 26 (1924), involves referring all of a work's compo- 
sitional activity, at least as much of it as has to do with the choice of 
pitches, to a particular ordering of the twelve notes of the chromatic 
scale, such an ordering being generally called the row, or, more 
learnedly, the series or the set. Rows have properties or characteristics 
of their own, for instance the sequence of minor and major triads 
spelled out by the one in the Berg Violin Concerto, or the nice sym- 
metry of semitones and minor thirds in the one of Webern's Variations 
for Orchestra (to be heard later this season), and the composer wishes 
to exploit these properties — he needs them, if you will — for the 
working out of his composition. His choice of a particular ordering is 
personal, therefore, but not arbitrary. 

The row may, as well as being a matrix, be a theme in the quite 
familiar sense as well. It is in Schoenberg's Piano Concerto. The first 
thing you hear is the piano alone playing a lyric melody in a gentle 
waltz tempo. Like several hundred other melodies you will hear 
during the course of the season, it begins with a phrase of eight meas- 
ures, twice four. In the eighth measure, the orchestra inserts a soft, 



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three-note punctuation mark. The piano melody up to that point is a 
statement of the row: everything that happens thereafter is an out- 
growth of those pitches and the pattern of intervals they define. The 
row for the Piano Concerto is Eb — Bb — D— F — E — C — F# — Ab — 
Db— A — B — G, and, by the way, I find no trace of Oscar Levant's 
name in it. The Schoenberg circle did go for a certain amount of 
Schumannesque musical cryptography, but this Concerto appears not 
to be an example. 

But back to the music. The opening piano melody is expansive, and 
characteristically it is generated by self-variation; that is, its continuing 
phrases consist, each, of the same line as the first, but inverted (with 
each downward step of the original replaced by an upward one of the 
same size, and vice versa), in retrograde (think of Serutan), or in retro- 
grade inversion (subject to both operations at once). Characteristic, 
too, is the placement in that melody of the first orchestral punctuation 
mark referred to earlier. Examples of piano concertos that begin with 
the unaccompanied solo instrument are rare — no doubt because of the 
Beethoven Fourth — and the listener is likely to anticipate the first 
orchestral entrance with special attention. That entrance, as we have 
already seen, is strategically placed at a structurally vital point, the end 
of the explicit statement of the musical shape that will be the source 
for the entire work. As the piano melody expands, orchestral punctua- 
tions occur more frequently. They become a little less reticent, to the 




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point even that for four measures the clarinet plays the melody along 
with the piano; the sonorous delicacy, however, of the initial three-note 
punctuation — clarinet, violas, and cellos only — is typical of the 
orchestral texture throughout the Piano Concerto as, indeed, of 
Schoenberg's music generally. His ear was remarkably fastidious, and 
like Mahler, he treated the large orchestra as a pool that made diverse 
chamber combinations available in a continuing, kaleidoscopic varia- 
tion procedure. 

As for the further course of the first movement, Schoenberg outlined 
it in a handwritten note in the holograph near the end of the piano 
melody: 'repeated in orchestra, piano adds a countermelody, this 
countermelody is repeated in orchestra, piano adds a second counter- 
melody, all three together.' Apropos of Schoenberg's glosses, there is 
an amusing one, all but one word in English, at measure 117, about 
two-thirds through the first movement: '13 mal 9= 117!!! It costs 
two days to find out, what wrong. A great error in construction at 
measure 13x9= 117.' The Concerto altogether is laid out in four 
movements to be played without pause: the lyric first movement is 
followed by an energetic, even aggressive, scherzo; then comes a great 
Adagio, including both a cadenza for the piano and the one extended 
passage in the work for orchestra only; and finally there is a rondo 
whose central episode is a set of three variations on the theme of the 




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Adagio. In the form of an explanatory note evidently intended for 
Oscar Levant, Schoenberg paraphrased into English the events of his 
Piano Concerto in terms that perhaps seem a bit quaint, but which, in 
their concern with meaning, are not altogether surprising from a man 
who, in his own metaphor, was not as much concerned with the Chinese 
philosopher's speaking Chinese as with wanting to know what he says: 

Life was so easy 

Suddendly (sic) hatred broke out (Presto) 
A grave situation was created (Adagio). 
But life goes on (Rondo) 

Michael Steinberg, who has been Music Critic of The Boston Globe 
since January 1964, was born in Germany in 1928 and trained as a 
musicologist at Princeton and in Italy. He taught at Hunter College, 
Smith College and Brandeis University, and from 195J to 1964 was 
head of the music history department at the Manhattan School of 
Music. He has written for The New York Times, The Saturday Re- 
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ROBERT SCHUMANN 



Symphony no. 2 in C major op. 61 
by Eric Sams 

Schumann was born at Zwickau on 8 June 1810 and died at Endenich on 29 July 
1856. Felix Mendelssohn conducted the first performance at the Gewandhaus Con- 
certs in Leipzig on 5 November 1846. The first performances by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra were conducted by George Henschel on 30 and 31 December 
1881; the symphony was most recently played in this series on 17 and 18 December 
1965 with Erich Leinsdorf conducting. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones, timpani and strings. 

Schumann's genius, perhaps more directly than that of any other com- 
poser, transformed into sound-symbols his own personal knowledge of 
the life of feeling. Any medium or genre of music would have sufficed 
for this purpose; but as a young pianist-composer he naturally chose 
the medium that lay under his hand. And so for ten years he wrote 
lyric piano pieces. 

Most of them were the embodiment in music (including actual musical 
themes) of his love and longing for Clara Wieck. In 1840 he finally 
married Clara after bitter opposition from her father and the conse- 
quent nerve-racking delay. In that year a new voice was added to his 
music: he wrote only vocal works, mainly love-songs. In the year 
following his paean of praise and thanksgiving reached symphonic 
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symphony, already sketched in winter, which opens with the trumpet 
prophecying renaissance at a new level of experience and achievement. 
Then in the same ebullient vein came the Overture, Scherzo* and 
Finale, and most of what later became the Piano Concerto. There fol- 
lowed another symphony, of which Schumann had predicted that it 
would be called 'Clara,' and that in it he would depict his young wife; 
this was the D minor (not published until many years later) which is 
fashioned entire from the themes associated with Clara. By the end of 
the year this wave of orchestral music had spent itself in sketches for 
a C minor symphony, most of which was never heard of again. 

The next year was again devoted to one particular genre, this time 
chamber music; the three string quartets, the piano quintet and 
quartet, and material later used in a piano trio, were all composed in 
1842. With similar singlemindedness Schumann in 1843 concentrated 
on his oratorio Paradise and the Peri. 

But this continual process of change and development was a numbing 
strain. He became overtired, irritable, anxious. His temperament had 
always been chequered in bright and dark, either in creative frenzy or 
in silent despair; and now the dark side began to dominate. 



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So in 1844 his only medium of expression was silence. During a concert 
tour with his wife he broke down, with fits of weeping, giddy attacks, 
and other ominous signs. By August he was suffering from total ner- 
vous collapse. The depressed state lasted, with intermissions, until 
late in 1846. Some sketching and revision he found possible, but he 
wrote little new music of any consequence. 

Yet it was in this inauspicious period, towards the lowest point of the 
pendulum's downswing, that the idea of the C major symphony began 
to take shape. As it happens, we know just what this idea was, and 
when. In September 1845 we find Schumann writing to his admired 
friend Mendelssohn: Tor some days now there has been a mighty 
drumming and trumpeting in my mind (trumpets in C); I can't think 
what will come of it.' 

By the end of that year the whole symphony was complete in sketch 
form. But in Schumann's depressed state the orchestration (a quite 
separate process in his normal method of composing) took much longer. 
For him the abstract musical idea, not the actual sonority or timbre, 
was the vital thing; and in any event he had had very little training in 
the highly specialized techniques of instrumentation. For such reasons 
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day Erich Leinsdorf) have made a practice, for the sake of the music, 
of rescoring and retouching. Indeed it seems very likely that Men- 
delssohn, Schumann's very first conductor, had tactfully helped him 
in this way. 

It was Mendelssohn who gave the first performance of this symphony, 
in November 1846. It was coolly received. As if in extenuation, 
Schumann explained to a friend that the music had been written at a 
time when he was still very ill physically; he felt that the first move- 
ment in particular embodied and symbolized the spirit of resistance by 
which he sought to combat his condition. He later described the sym- 
phony to one interested music director as 'rather aggressive.' To 
another he commented 'I wrote it in December 1845 st iU na ^ iH» no 
doubt that can be heard from the music. Not until the last movement 
was written did I begin to feel better; and by the time the work was 
completed there was in fact real improvement. But otherwise it 
reminds me of dark days.' 

However, this highly personal impression of illness in the music is hard 
for listeners to substantiate. Schumann himself in more cheerful moods 
was not so displeased with his symphony; he confided to a friend that 
he thought it a success, indeed 'a veritable Jupiter,' referring no doubt 
not only to the key but also the scale of the symphony. In his moods 
of depression, Schumann was usually incapable of writing anything at 
all, let alone music so vital and memorable as this. Since no composer 
was ever more thrifty with his musical material, it seems possible that 
some of its ideas were taken over from the C minor symphony sketches 

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of 1841. Many of its themes are closely akin to those Schumann had 
used in the D minor symphony of that year to express his feelings of 
unworthiness and homage for one whose courage and devotion were 
to sustain him in even darker days. Here at the beginning of the 
C major symphony too the 'Clara' themes are all brooding tenderness. 
Over them the trumpets sound no note of triumph, but rather express 
a modest hope; not to fight back, nor even to turn at bay, but just to 
rally and stand — for the sake of wife and family not to yield to 
despair. From this dark opening the music slowly emerges blinking 
into the light. 

This is not to suggest that Schumann's work is program music in the 
ordinary sense. But it is true that by far the greater part of his output 
is associated with words, whether as texts, titles, or known ideas; and 
so we have some indication of the kinds of symbolic meaning he 
attached to various kinds of musical expression. Thus the jerky 
rhythms and climbing themes of the first movement suggest feelings of 
manly resolve, while the scherzo has rhythms and phrases associated 
with the ideas of children, games and springtime. The beautiful slow 
movement (unusually placed third instead of second, for greater con- 
trast) is the music of the angel in the house; a portrait drawn in 
adoring melodic lines, decorated by a Romantic imagery of violins 
soaring and trilling, and colored with somber undertones of regret, 
even remorse. The last movement has an air of triumph, yet at the 
same time of restraint. Again the trumpet-calls suggest not so much 



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victory as deliverance from tribulation, as if they were the signal for 
the release from bondage of another Florestan. In this movement too 
we hear a further reference to Beethoven, this time his song cycle 
An die feme Geliebte, one of Schumann's favorite melodic allusions 
to his love for Clara. And throughout the symphony we are subcon- 
sciously reminded of other composers: Schubert, Mendelssohn, Weber, 
Mozart, even Bach. 

Knowing Schumann, one would be rash to assume that these echoes, 
however vague, are insignificant or unintentional. They were all an 
integral part of his life, and therefore have their share in his expression 
of a beleaguered world in which Clara and music were his only ram- 
parts. In listening to this great symphony we may recall that in only 
ten more years even those ramparts were to fail him against the 
onslaught of renewed illness that took first his reason and then his life; 
but left his best music untouched. 

© Eric Sans 

Eric Sams, author of The Songs of Hugo Wolf, is engaged at present in 
a study of Schumann's songs. He has also written a fascinating pair 
of articles about Schumann's consuming interest in cipher and its close 
relation to his composition, which appeared in The Musical Times in 
August 1965 and May 1966. Subscribers who are interested in this 
side of Schumann's character are strongly recommended to read Mr 
Sams' articles. 




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Listening to Schoenberg -Part 1 

by Peter Heyworth 

Put aside 'the theological fury of theoretical disputes' 
begin with the atonal counterpoint of Pierrot Lunaire, 
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to compare the formidable amount of Stravinsky available on record 
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All sorts of reasons have been given for this failure of Schoenberg to 
break out to a wide audience. During his lifetime his paranoid per- 
sonality, which collected enemies and nursed feuds with terrifying 
pertinacity, certainly did little to help the cause of his music. The 
dodecaphonic method of composition, which he evolved in the years 
immediately after the first World War, met with such fanatical oppo- 
sition that for a long time reaction to Schoenberg's music itself was 
entirely obscured by the academic question of whether one were for or 
against serialism. And then the pre-dodecaphonic scores of the years 
before 1914 seemed to explore such a strange and terrifying under- 
world of the human psyche that they inevitably provoked a psycho- 
logical as well as musical resistance. 

No doubt all these matters played a part in blocking appreciation of 
Schoenberg's music, but I don't myself believe that any of them would 
have been able to do so had not the music itself been so complex. 
There is a tendency today to dismiss the difficulty most of us have in 
getting to grips with new music as nothing more than the difficulty of 
adjusting our ears to something new. That may be true so far as some 
composers are concerned; for instance, Luigi Nono's music sounds and 
is fiercely modern, but inasmuch as it is also often extremely simple, 
one need only get one's ear tuned to his wavelength to perceive what 
it is about. But this is not true of Schoenberg's music. He had a 



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uniquely complex and elaborate creative character; he had a rich 
imagination and a powerful and drastic intellect. As a result, his 
music is almost always both complicated and intense, and no useful 
purpose is served in pretending that it is really quite easy to under- 
stand. On the contrary, the true parallels lie with late Beethoven or 
with Bach's instrumental music, and no one pretends that full com- 
prehension of the C sharp minor Quartet or the Goldberg Variations 
can be had for the asking. 

But there is another reason why Schoenberg's music makes slow head- 
way. Bach and Beethoven inherited a musical language adequate to 
their purposes, or capable of being extended to accommodate their 
profoundest ideas. Schoenberg inherited a language (or at any rate a 
grammar) on the brink of disintegration. This has been said so often 
that we have perhaps forgotten what it involved. Imagine a writer who 
found that English would not bear the strain of what he had to say, and 
who as a result had to devise a new verbal grammar. Naturally, the 
difficulties in communication would be immense. So they have proved 
in Schoenberg's case. 




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But why did Schoenberg feel obliged to undertake the destruction of 
the musical grammar he inherited? Certainly it was not because he 
was a born revolutionary or a man who wanted to startle the world 
with some new wonder. On the contrary, a part of Schoenberg's com- 
plex character was throughout his life intensely conservative, he was 
scathing about much of the overclever Modernismus fashionable in the 
Twenties, and he was a fanatical admirer of his great predecessors, 
Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms and Wagner. No, Schoenberg's 
difficulties stemmed essentially from what his immensely powerful mind 
and imagination wanted to express. It is in the struggle for expression 
that language is forged, fashioned and extended. Since the language 
of chromaticism Schoenberg inherited had already been driven (by 
Wagner in Tristan) almost as far as it would go, there was insufficient 
elasticity left for the further push forward which his expressive needs 
required. Here, then, is the crux of why after so many years Schoenberg 
remains so difficult to understand: that elaborate and drastic creativity 
was virtually obliged to devise a new grammar to express what he had 
to say. The thought is complex, the language is new. 

The difficulties that sprang from all this, were, and are, by no means 
confined to the listener, however; for many years few musicians under- 
stood what Schoenberg was about well enough to be able to perform 
his music convincingly. Or if by any chance they could do so, then the 
odds were that there would be insufficient rehearsal time to get it right. 
As a result, the cause of Schoenberg's music has again and again been 
set back by performances that have, quite literally, been incompre- 
hensible. The blind cannot lead the blind. 

This is where the gramophone comes in. On the whole it is the musi- 
cians who understand and love Schoenberg's music who record it, and 




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177 



there are now a number of recordings available that can claim to be, 
if not necessarily authentic, at any rate lucid and grammatical and 
therefore comprehensible. Furthermore a record obviously provides 
the possibility of repeated hearings, and in my experience this is the 
only way to come to grips with Schoenberg's music. 

Wagner had been dead for only sixteen years when, in 1899, Schoenberg 
at the age of twenty-five produced his first major work. Superficially, 
Verkldrte Nacht is very much a child of a period when the immense 
influence of Wagner still exercised an almost hypnotic effect on the 
young. Indeed, one might go further and say that in the extreme 
chromaticism of the harmonic language of this erotic tone poem one 
finds a truer child of Tristan than one does in Richard Strauss's sym- 
phonic poems or Mahler's symphonies. But the odd thing about 
Verkldrte Nacht is that it was written for the singularly un-Wagnerian 
combination of a string sextet. Chamber music was vieux jeu in ad- 
vanced circles at the turn of the century. Excitement centered on the 
latest effects of Strauss's lavish orchestration, and string quartets 
belonged to the sedate square world of that arch-reactionary, Brahms, 
who seemed to young men such as Hugo Wolf at once but a weary 
remnant of the past and an impediment to the future. This same 
Brahms, was, however, much admired by Schoenberg, who saw in him 
the true preserver of the great Viennese classical tradition of Haydn, 
Mozart and Beethoven. In turning to chamber music Schoenberg was 
deliberately attempting to weld a classical sense of architecture and of 



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179 



thematic development to an expressive world stemming from Tristan. 
In a real sense he was striving for a synthesis of the heritages of 
Brahms and Wagner. 

Thus already in this very early work there is revealed the essential 
thing about Schoenberg: by the intensity of what he had to say he was 
pushed forward into the most extreme chromaticism, while at the 
same time he was forced by his equally intense sense of order and 
proportion to look backward for means of ordering the disruptive 
elements in that chromaticism. For as Schoenberg well realized, 
chromaticism was a waning asset. Heard against a firmly based tonality, 
a chromatic note (i.e., a note that does not belong to the key in which 
the music is written) had all the spice of an occasional four-letter word 
in polite society: it added tension and flavor. But naturally the more 
chromatic notes were used, the more their value, their ability to shock, 
declined. In Tristan, Wagner had used chromaticism consequentially, 
not just here and there but throughout the score, to produce music of 
unparalleled intensity and anguish. But composers who set about 
exploiting the new harmonic ground opened up in Tristan soon found 
it disappearing under their feet, for the simple reason that the excep- 
tional chromatic notes became so frequent as to undermine the tonal 
language which made them exceptions (and hence so effective) in the 
first place. 

This is the central crisis of modern music: around 1908 the resources 
of chromaticism had been exploited to a point where they had dis- 
rupted the whole grammar of tonality, on which the immense achieve- 
ments of European music since the seventeenth century had been 
based. Appalled by the abyss before them, many composers, such as 
Strauss, moved backwards, while others tried to take harmonic side 
paths such as the use of folk songs (Bartok, Vaughan Williams) or 
neoclassicism of one kind or another (Stravinsky and Hindemith). 

Only Schoenberg had the courage to push on, and his heroism was all 
the greater because he, more than any of his contemporaries, appre- 
ciated the immense achievements of tonality and the magnitude of the 
task of finding anything to put in its place. 




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180 



Indeed, at first he had nothing to offer in its stead except his own 
genius and somnambulist sense of direction. From the Gurrelieder — 
a huge and masterly essay in Wagnerian music drama which effectively 
disposes of the silly accusation that Schoenberg was a theoretician who 
devised a new system because he was incapable of using the old one — 
he pressed steadily forward in a series of works in which tonality grew 
steadily more tenuous. Finally, in 1908, with the Quartet no. 2 in F 
sharp minor, he wrote music that crossed the frontier and was without 
tonal ties. As I have said, Schoenberg was very well aware of the 
immensity of the implications of what he was doing. From henceforth 
he was on his own, there were no guiding ropes, no well-worn tracks, 
no precedents to help him when he faltered and the world jeered. For 
him there could now be only one rule: 'art comes of necessity'; and 
it was necessity of self-expression, of giving reality to the new sounds 
haunting his inner ear, that drove him forward on his solitary journey 
of exploration. 

The fruits of this journey are some of the most extraordinary and dis- 
turbing works of art ever created. Because he still had no principle of 
order to put in place of tonality the scores of this period are either 
short or are settings of words that themselves dictate some sense of 
shape. In the first category come the Five Pieces for Orchestra, in the 
second the monodrama Erwartung. Both were written in 1909, and 
both seem to explore a nightmare world of the subconscious. Indeed 
this could be said of almost all Schoenberg's music of this period, of 
Die glilckliche Hand (1913) and Pierrot Lunaire (1912). It is as 
though, having once cast off the conscious order of tonality, he found 
himself possessed of a new ability to explore the terrifying paths of the 
subconscious mind, which Freud at the same time was exploring by 
means of psychoanalysis. If the lurid expressionist frenzy of these 
works is not everyone's meat, there can be no question of their musical 
power and coherence. 

© High Fidelity-Musical America. Reprinted with permission. 

Mr Heyworth's article will be continued in the next program book. 
In the second part he suggests how best to listen to twelve-note music in 
order to enjoy it fully. Peter Heyworth succeeded Eric Blom as music 
critic of the London Observer, and is one of England's most distin- 
guished writers on music. 



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181 



The soloist 

RITA BOUBOULIDI began her studies in 
Greece, her native country. She made her 
debut with the State Orchestra in Athens 
before leaving, in 1947, for the Conserva- 
toire National in Paris with a scholarship 
from the French Government. Between 
1950 and 1954 she studied with Edwin 
Fischer and Marguerite Long, and made her 
debut in 1953. She has toured extensively 
since then in Europe, Africa and the Soviet 
Union, and has played at various festivals, 
including that in Salzburg. 

Rita Bouboulidi is a familiar radio artist in France, and has made 
recordings of music by Schumann and Brahms. 




YOUTH CONCERTS AT SYMPHONY HALL, INC, 

Members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

HARRY ELLIS DICKSON 

Conductor 

mnth Season • 1967-1968 

Two series of concerts will be presented in Symphony 
Hall on Saturday mornings, from 11:00 to 12:00 o'clock, 
as follows: 

FIRST SERIES: Nov. 4 • Jan. 13 • Mar. 9 

SECOND SERIES: Nov. 11 • Jan. 20 • Mar. 16 

(Repeating the programs of First Series) 



Tickets are sold by series only. All seats are reserved 
at a total cost of $5.00 (tax exempt) for either series of 
three concerts. 

These concerts are planned for young people from 
Grade V through Junior High and High School. 

Ticket order, accompanied by check and stamped, 
addressed envelope, should be mailed to: 

TICKET COMMITTEE 
YOUTH CONCERTS AT 
SYMPHONY HALL, INC. 

251 Huntington Avenue • Boston, Mass. 02115 



182 



Recordings of today's program 

The music to the ballet Prometheus has been recorded complete by the 
Utah Symphony conducted by Maurice Abravenel on Vanguard. The 
Suite performed today will appear on a recording for RCA by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, which will be released next year. 

Schoenberg's Piano Concerto is available in two versions: one by 
Alfred Brendel with the Southwest German Radio Symphony on Turn- 
about; the other by Claude Helffer with the Paris Radio Orchestra on 
Period. 

There are several records of Schumann's Second Symphony: European 
versions include performances by Ernest Ansermet on London and 
Rafael Kubelik on DGG. 



Radio Broadcasts 

The Friday afternoon concerts at 2 p.m. are broadcast in stereo each 
week by WGBH-FM and its educational affiliates, WFCR in Amherst 
and WAMC in Albany, New York. 

The Saturday evening concerts at 8.30 p.m. are broadcast by WCRB- 
AM and its affiliate WCRX in Springfield, by WGBH-FM, and in 
stereo by WCRB-FM and its affiliate WCRQ-FM in Providence. 
WCRB also broadcasts delayed transcriptions of the Orchestra's con- 
certs on Thursdays at 9 p.m. 

Some Tuesday evening concerts will be broadcast in stereo by WGBH- 
FM, WFCR in Amherst and WAMC in Albany. 



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183 




TICKET RESALE AND RESERVATION PLAN 

The Ticket Resale and Reservation Plan which has been in practice 
for the past four seasons has been most successful. The Trustees are 
grateful to those subscribers who have complied with it, and again 
wish to bring this plan to the attention of the Orchestra's subscribers 
and Friends. 



Subscribers who wish to release their seats for a specific concert are 
urged to do so as soon as convenient. They need only call Symphony 
Hall, CO 6-1492, and give their name and ticket location to the 
switchboard operator. Subscribers releasing their seats for resale will 
continue to receive written acknowledgment for income tax purposes. 
Since the Management has learned by experience how many returned 
tickets it may expect for concerts, those who wish to make requests 
for tickets may do so by telephoning Symphony Hall and asking for 
"Reservations." Requests will be filled in the order received and 
no reservations will be made when the caller cannot be assured of 
a seat. Tickets ordered under this plan may be purchased and picked 
up from the Box Office on the day of the concert two hours prior to 
the start of the program. Tickets not claimed a half-hour before 
concert time will be released. 

Last season the successful operation of the Ticket Resale and Reserva- 
tion Plan aided in reducing the Boston Symphony Orchestra's deficit 

by more than $22,000. 
184 



The members of the Orchestra 

Born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
HARRY ELLIS DICKSON graduated from 
Somerville High School, and from there 
went to the New England Conservatory. He 
won a scholarship to the Hochschule fur 
Musik in Berlin, Germany, where he 
studied violin and conducting. He joined 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1938, 
but was busy before, and has been since, as 
a conductor. Many Boston audiences have 
seen him on the podium at Pops and 

Esplanade concerts, and at the Symphony Hall Youth concerts, which 

he founded in 1959. 

Harry Dickson leads the second violin section of the Boston Sinfonietta, 
and has been a member of the Boston Conservatory String Quartet. 
He owns a fine violin, made in Milan in 1755 by Jean Baptiste 
Guadignini. He collects stories about other musicians, especially his 
conducting colleagues, and has a gift for retelling them with devastating 
mimicry. Two years ago he was created a Chevalier in the Ordre des 
Arts et des Lettres by the French government. 




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185 




JAMES PAPPOUTSAKIS was born in 
Cairo, Egypt, of Greek parents. He came to 
the United States as a boy, and was educated 
at the Boston Latin School and the New 
England Conservatory. He studied flute 
with Georges Laurent, former principal 
flute of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 
He joined the Boston Symphony in 1937 as 
assistant principal flute, and has also been 
principal flute of the Boston Pops since 
that time. He acted as principal when the 
Orchestra toured under Charles Munch to 
Japan and Australia, and was soloist with the Zimbler Sinfonietta on 
their tour to Central and South America. 

James Pappoutsakis is a member of the Berkshire Woodwind Ensemble 
and of the faculties of the New England Conservatory, Boston Univer- 
sity and the Longy School. During the last few years he has had eight 
Fulbright Scholarship winners among his students. His wife, a prize- 
winning graduate of the Paris Conservatory, was harpist with the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra under Serge Koussevitzky, and his brother 
is professor of music at the University of Vermont. His young daughter 
is at preparatory school and her current interests are art and drama. 



Boris and Milton 




186 



COUNCIL OF FRIENDS 

Tea in Concord 




! i 




Mr and Mrs William B. Moses 
Jr< opened the season for the 
Council of Friends of the Bos- 
ton Symphony Orchestra when 
they were hosts to the Friday 
afternoon Friends and sub- 
scribers from the Concord 
area. It was a delightful tea 
party, and in these beautiful 
surroundings Mrs Harris 
Fahnestock spoke of the Or- 
chestra's plans for the season, 
while Mrs James H. Perkins 
answered the many interesting 
questions. 

The Council is proud of the 
members in Concord, headed 
by Mrs Donald B. Sinclair and 
Mrs Howard W. Davis, and 
the many Friends. 



187 



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188 



FUTURE PROGRAMS 



Fourth Program 

Friday afternoon 27 October at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 28 October at 8.30 
JORGE MESTER guest conductor 
VERDI I vespri Siciliani - Overture 

STRAUSS Don Quixote 

JULES ESKIN, BURTON FINE 

RAVEL Le tombeau de Couperin 

BARTOK Suite from The Miraculous Mandarin 

Next week the Orchestra opens its season in Philharmonic Hall, New 
York, and gives concerts in Brooklyn and Newark. The next pair of 
concerts in this series will be on 27 and 28 October, not on the dates 
published in last week's program. 

The talented young conductor Jorge Mester made his debut with the 
Orchestra at the Berkshire Festival this summer in a Mozart program. 
His appearance in two weeks' time will be his first with the Orchestra 
in Boston. Jorge Mester is beginning his first season as Music Director 
of the Louisville Symphony Orchestra, and has earned widespread fame 
for his conducting of the works of the reluctantly rediscovered com- 
poser P.D.Q. Bach. 

Strauss' Don Quixote, which was last heard in this series four years ago, 
captures beautifully the elements of the bizarre and the eccentric, the 
fantasy and the reality of Cervantes' story, and portrays them in some 
of his most successful and attractive music. 

After the first performance of The Miraculous Mandarin in Prague in 
the twenties there was a fight between Bartok's admirers and critics 
which lasted for a quarter of an hour. Reactions in Symphony Hall 
next week will doubtless be more staid, but the story of violence which 
Bartok has set in this pantomime is one as relevant today as it was 
forty years ago. 

The concert will end at about 3.45 on Friday 
and at about 10.15 on Saturday 



Fifth Program 



Friday afternoon 3 November at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 4 November at 8.30 

MOZART Symphony no. 36 in C The Linz' 

KRAFT Concerto for percussion and orchestra 

TCHAIKOVSKY Violin concerto in D op. 35 

ITZHAK PERL MAN 

programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



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KATE FRISKIN 

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RUTH SHAPIRO 

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Telephone RE gent 4-3267 



190 



Mrs. Aaron Richmond and Walter Pierce 
present in the 1967-68 Boston University 

CELEBRITY SERIES 



THIS SUN. AFT., OCT. 15 at 3 • JORDAN HALL 

GUARNERI STRING QUARTET 

Haydn, Quartet in G major, Op. 76, No. 1; Berg, Quartet No. 3; 
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MAURICE LE ROUX, Conductor 

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Dorothy Reichenberger, Cello 

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Boccherini, String Quintet in F minor, 

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Dvorak, String Sextet in A Major, Op. 48 
Brahms, String Sextet in G Major, Op. 36 



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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

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TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
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THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 



195 



Strauss 
EIN HELDENLEBEN ■ 



BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
ERICH LEINSDORF 




The Boston Symphony 
Orchestra under Leinsdo 



The "glorious mellow roar" for which the Boston Symphony Or 
tra under Leinsdorf is famous has never been better displayec 
in their recording of Richard Strauss' tone poem, Ein Heldeni 
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Richard Strauss 

Salome: Dance of the Seven Veils 

Interlude and Final Scene 

The Egyptian Helen: Awakening Scene 

Boston Symphony Orch./Erich Leinsdorf 




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@The most trusted name in sound 




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THE FUND FOR THE BOSTON SYMPHONY 



For the good of us all . . . 

As part of the $5.5 million Fund for the Boston Symphony, the 
Orchestra Trustees seek the support of foundations and charitable 
trusts. A committee headed by General Robert Cutler and Thaddeus 
Beal already has raised more than $514,000 from these sources. For 
this achievement, the Trustees, musicians, and music lovers 
everywhere can only be admiring and grateful. The Committee is 
continuing its intensive activity in this area. 



! ! 



This effort is preparing the way for new and long-term support 
of the Orchestra. The plain truth is that a symphony orchestra 
simply cannot pay for itself. This is why the Orchestra launched 
The Fund for the Boston Symphony with its $5.5 million goal, of 
which $4 million will match two-for-one the Ford Foundation 
$2 million challenge, and an estimated $1.5 million will be 
used to refurbish Symphony Hall and Tanglewood. 

The Orchestra is also expanding other areas of financial support. 
Ticket prices have been raised consistent with other orchestras; the 
Friends, in response to the Ford Foundation challenge, have 
contributed a record $329,000; the tempo of giving has risen all 
along the line. 



The support of foundations and charitable trusts is an essential 
part of this rising tempo of giving to the entire range of cultural 
and educational activities of The Boston Symphony Orchestra. 
Foundation officers and trustees are invited to discuss gift 
possibilities with General Cutler or Mr Beal or with any 
member of The Board of Trustees by telephoning The Fund 
office at Symphony Hall (617-536-8940). 



197 







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BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 

Concertmaster 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 

Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 
Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 

BASSES 
Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 
James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 
John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 
Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 
Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 
Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 

Alfred Robison 



WILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 

*members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



199 




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I 



Contents 




Program for 27 and 28 October 1967 


203 


Future programs 


253 


Program notes 




Verdi — Les vepres siciliennes - Overture 
by James Lyons 


204 


Strauss — Don Quixote 
by John N. Burk 


210 


Ravel — Le tombeau de Couperin 
by James Lyons 


230 


Bartok — Suite from The Miraculous Mandarin 
by James Lyons 


233 


Listening to Schoenberg — Part 2 
by Peter Heyworth 


240 


Today's conductor 


250 


The soloists 


25 1 



! 1 




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THE FIRST & OLD COLONY 

The First National Bank of Boston and Old Colony Trust Company 



202 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Fourth Program 

Friday afternoon 27 October at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 28 October at 8.30 

JORGE MESTER guest conductor 



VERDI 

Les vepres siciliennes - Overture 

First performance at these concerts 

STRAUSS 

Don Quixote op. 35 

Introduction; Theme with variations; Finale 

JULES ESKIN cello 
BURTON FINE viola 

INTERMISSION 

RAVEL 

Le tombeau de Couperin 

Prelude 
Forlane 
Menuet 
Rigaudon 

BARTOK 

Suite from The Miraculous Mandarin op. 19 



The concert will end at about 345 on Friday 
and at about 10.15 on Saturday 



BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



203 



Program Notes 



GIUSEPPE VERDI 

Les vepres siciliennes - Overture 
by James Lyons 

Verdi was born at Le Roncole in the Duchy of Parma on 10 October 1813 and died 
in Milan on 27 January 1901. Les vepres siciliennes was first given in Paris on 
13 June 1855. 

The instrumentation: flute, piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, 2 cornets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals 
and strings. 

Most of Verdi's early works are unknown to the operaphile because 
they failed to hold the boards. It is more difficult to make excuses for 
Les vepres siciliennes because it was his twentieth opera. Its imme- 
diate predecessors were Rigoletto, II Trovatore, and La Traviata. Only 
seven more were to follow, each of them a masterpiece. What went 
wrong with Les vepres? 

The trouble is that it was composed expressly for the Paris Opera, 
which is to say that it had to be a sprawling five-act affair with plenty 
of padding and sizable chunks of 'time out' for balletic divertissements. 
The Overture is one of Verdi's best; but what follows is variable in the 
extreme, due in no small measure to the somewhat ridiculous and 
otherwise poor libretto (by Eugene Scribe and Charles Duveyrier). The 



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205 



opera nevertheless enjoyed a successful premiere (13 June 1855), and 
is still to be encountered in the repertoire of one or another Italian 
house — where, of course, it is given as / vespri siciliani. 

The title alludes to a specific event. The 'Sicilian Vespers' was a 
particularly bloody massacre that took place in Palermo on the Monday 
evening after Easter in the year 1282. Its chief target was the despotic 
Charles of Anjou, a French nobleman who had become King of Naples 
and Sicily with the connivance of several successive Popes. He was 
hated by his subjects because he had brought in French lords and 
ladies, French soldiers, and French tax agents. He was equally un- 
popular with the Emperor Michael of Byzantium, who assumed (cor- 
rectly) that Charles meant to conquer the Eastern Empire. Byzantium 
had no defenses, but it had money. Michael shrewdly offered an 
irresistible amount of it to the King of Aragon, whose prime minister 
had been exiled by Charles. The short of it is that the King of Aragon 
was grateful enough to offer the services of his prime minister, a former 



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206 




You 





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New England Regional Office, 40 Broad St., Boston, Mass. 



207 



Neapolitan physician named John of Procida. The vengeful emigre 
worked out an elaborate plan for an uprising, and everything went 
according to schedule — beginning with the murder of all the French- j 
men in Palermo. Soon afterward the Emperor Michael wrote in his 
diary: 'If I should claim I was God's instrument in bringing freedom 
to the Sicilians, I should only be stating the truth.' 

It remains to be noted that Scribe makes very little of all this in his 
libretto. For one reason, he had already done essentially the same 
libretto for Donizetti fifteen years before, writing it around the Spanish 
occupation of the Netherlands in 1573. Donizetti died before com- 
pleting his opera (7/ Duca d'Alba), and the evidence is that Scribe 
thereupon simply retrieved the libretto, changed the locale and the cast 
of characters, and sold the same goods all over again to Verdi! 

© James Lyons 




John Locke 



judgment 




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209 



RICHARD STRAUSS 

Don Quixote op. 35 
by John N. Burk 

Strauss was born in Munich on 11 June 1864 and died in Garmisch-Partenkirchen on 
8 September 1949. He completed the score of Don Quixote on 29 December 1897. 
He subtitled the work 'Fantastic variations on a theme of a chivalrous nature' and 
dedicated it to Joseph Dupont. Fritz Wullner conducted the first performance in 
Cologne on 8 March 1898. The orchestra played Don Quixote for the first time 
on 12 February 1904, when Wilhelm Gericke conducted and Rudolf Krasselt and 
Max Zach were soloists. The composer himself conducted a performance at the 
Pension Fund concert in April 1904. The orchestra played Don Quixote most 
recently in this series on 29 and 30 November 1963. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and english horn, 2 clarinets and 
bass clarinet, 3 bassoons and contra-bassoon, 6 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and 
tuba, tenor tuba, timpani, snare drum, bass drums, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, 
wind machine, glockenspiel, harp, and strings, with solo cello and viola. 

Don Quixote, more than any other subject which Richard Strauss fell 
upon in the triumphant progress of his tone poems, seemed to match 
his musical proclivities. The strain of the bizarre which runs through 
all his music, his richly apparelled melodic felicity, the transfiguring 
passion which sets the seal of enduring beauty upon each of his more 
important scores — these qualities were finely released and closely inte- 
grated by the tale of the lunatic knight, where also eccentricity becomes 
charm, where gross realism, at one moment ridiculous and pitiable, 



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211 



is suddenly touched with the dreams and visions of chivalry. The 
rounded picture which Cervantes drew, where such baser elements as 
farcical humor and incongruity contribute to the full portrait of a 
noble and lovable character, has found its just counterpart in Strauss's 
musical narrative. 

Strauss is said to have written and allowed to be inserted in the printed 
programs of early performances identification of each variation. An 
elaborate and detailed explanation by Arthur Hahn appeared in 
Schlesinger's Musikfiihrer. The composer has given no authorization 
of these. Certain notes were allowed in a published piano arrangement. 
In the full score, only two verbal clues appear: over the theme of 
Don Quixote is inscribed 'Don Quixote, the Knight of the sorrowful 
Countenance', and over the theme of the squire, which shortly follows, 
merely his name: 'Sancho Panza'. The variations are no more than 
numbered, save when there is an occasional adjective attached to the 
tempo indication. The introduction is marked 'Ritterlich und galant', 
the second variation 'Kriegerisch'. 



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212 



II 



Arose „ 
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INTRODUCTION 

Strauss's 'Variations' have no real resemblance to the classical form 
of that name. Instead of one theme, there are three, corresponding with 
the principal characters in the story almost as leading motives: Don 
Quixote, Dulcinea — the lady of his dreams, and Sancho Panza. Each 
appears constantly in relation to the succession of musical episodes. 
Indeed, the themes are not varied in the traditional sense of ornamen- 
tation or modification by development. They rather proceed on their 
way basically unchanged, encountering various adventures in a musical 
sense corresponding to the story, reflecting the circumstance of the 
moment as higher or baser aspirations collide with reality and are 
rebuffed. In the introduction, before the composer is ready even to 
make the explicit statements of his themes, he has foreshadowed the 
character of Don Quixote, and of Dulcinea who dominates Don 
Quixote's thoughts. He has developed a preliminary fragment of the 
theme with a rich cluster of episodes, and has set the tone of his story 
in masterly fashion, establishing a precise mood which is at once 
romance and eccentricity, which hovers always between noble dreaming 
and madness. The Knight is immediately disclosed, his bold chivalric 
outline subsides into tender musing, and the music of Dulcinea is heard 
from the solo oboe over a harp accompaniment. Thoughts of Dulcinea 
at once engender in the hero's mind thoughts of brave deeds to be 
undertaken in her defense. The Knight's theme, stated in heroic 
augmentation by the brass, leads to a climax as a harp glissando rises 
to a crashing chord. Here is the point, say the analysts, where Don 
Quixote goes mad, where, as the book has it, his wits are 'wholly 
extinguished'. 

The hero of Cervantes, according to the opening of the book, was an 
old-fashioned gentleman of a village in La Mancha, who lived sparsely 
upon his income. 

His pot consisted daily of somewhat more beef than mutton; a gallimawfry each 
night, collopes and eggs on Saturdayes, lentils on Fridayes, and a lean pigeon on 
Sundayes did consume three parts of his rents. [He had little to do to pass his time 
besides reading books on knight-errantry, and meditating upon an outmoded chivalry. 




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At last — ] through his little sleep and much reading, he dried up his brains in such 
sort, as he lost wholly his judgment. [He then — ] fell into one of the strangest 
conceits that madman ever stumbled on in this world, to wit, it seemed unto him very 
requisite and behooveful, as well for the augmentation of his honors, as also for the 
benefit of the commonwealth, that he himself should become a knight errant, and 
go throughout the world with his horse and armor to seek adventures, and practice 
in person all that he had read was used by knights of yoare, revenging of all kinds 
of injuries, and offering himself to occasions and dangers, which being once happily 
achieved, might gain him eternal renown.* 

Unearthing an ancestral suit of armor, which lacked a helmet, he 
devised the missing part from cardboard and, requiring a horse, he 
mounted the steed Rozinante, an animal which 'had more quarters 
than pence in a sixpence through leanness.' 

Upon a certain morning, somewhat before the day (being one of the warmest of 
July) he armed himself Cap a pie, mounted on Rozinante, laced on his ill-contrived 
helmet, imbraced his target, took his launce, and by a postern-door of his base-court 
issued out to the field, marvelous jocund and content to see with what facility he had 
commenced his good desires. 

THEME 

The theme already clearly indicated and developed is first stated in 

its rounded fulness by the cello solo. There follows immediately the 

theme of Sancho Panza. It emerges from the bass clarinet and tuba with 

* The quotations are from the first English translation, made hy James Shelton (Edition o£ 
1620). 



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an earthy peasant plainness and is taken up by the viola solo. For the 
remainder of the tone poem, the cello is to depict Don Quixote, and 
the viola his squire. Strauss is as apt in his delineation of Pancho Panza 
as of his master. 'He had a great belly, a short stature, and thick 
legges/ wrote Cervantes, 'and therefore I judge he was called Canca 
[thigh bones] or Panca [paunch], for both these names are written 
indifferently of him in the history.' He is stolid and loyal, eager for 
the material comforts and pleasures of life, but takes his medicine 
cheerfully enough when he gets from his master little but a dubious 
fare of hopes to an accompaniment of knocks from the world they 
encounter. Strauss's Sancho Panza, like the Spanish original, is a home- 
spun, good-natured fellow, jogging along stoutly beside his crack- 
brained master, and never quite losing his faith in him. 

VARIATION I 

The first variation ('Gemachlich') is unmistakably the adventure of 
the windmills. Don Quixote's theme (cello solo), and that of Sancho 
Panza (now bass clarinet) are stated jointly as if the two companions 
were trotting along together. One hears the ponderous sails of the 
windmills, the wind which stirs them, the onslaught of the Knight, his 
downfall (descending harp glissando and drum beats). The Knight is 
left with only his tender thoughts of Dulcinea unshaken. 







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VARIATION II 

This variation, which Strauss indicates as 'warlike', recalls the adven- 
ture of the flock of sheep. The bleating of the sheep is accomplished 
on the muted brass. Don Quixote finds his new imaginary enemy less 
obdurate, but gets another cracked head for his pains. 

'How?' quoth Don Quixote. 'Dost not thou heare the horses neigh, the trumpets 
sound, and the noyse of the drummes?' 'I hear nothing else,' said Sancho, 'but the 
great bleating of many sheepe.' 

And so it was indeed, for by this time, the two flocks did approach them very 
neere. . . . Don Quixote set spurres to Rozinante, and setting his lance in the rest, 
he flung downe from the hillock like a thunderbolt. Sancho cryed to him as loud 
as he could, saying 'Returne, good Sir Don Quixote, for I vow unto God, that all 
those which you go to charge, are but sheepe and muttons. Returne, I say — alas 
that ever I was borne, what madnesse is this? Look, for there is neither gyant, nor 
knight, nor cats, nor armes, nor shields, parted, nor whole, nor pure azures, nor 
divellish. What is it that you do, wretch that I am?' For all this, Don Quixote did 
not returne — but entered into the middest of the flocke of sheep, and began to lance 
them with such courage and fury, as if hee did in good earnest encounter his mortall 
enemies. 

The sheep-heards that came with the flock cried to him to leave off; but seeing 
their words took no effect, they unloosed their slings, and began to salute his pate 
with stones as great as one's fist. 

(Book III, Chapter 4) 

VARIATION III 

This variation consists of a musical dialogue suggestive of the many 
discourses which took place between the Knight and his squire. Don 
Quixote seems to speak of the virtues and rewards of chivalry. Sancho 




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Panza is dazzled by a glittering vision which his master holds out to him 
of an island of which he shall be Governor. But the Knight's specula- 
tions upon the ideal, his rapturous musings upon the Lady Dulcinea, 
the little serving man cannot follow. He is about to interrupt with his 
more prosaic thoughts when the master rebukes and silences him. 

VARIATION IV 

The two adventurers meet a company of pilgrims singing their hymns 
as they go. Don Quixote decides at once that they are desperadoes who 
are abducting a great lady. He rushes to the rescue. But the servants 
of God stoutly hold their ground, and the Knight falls again as his 
victors go on their way placidly resuming their singing. Sancho Panza 
hastens to the side of his prostrate master, thinking that he has been 
surely killed this time, but there are signs of life. 

VARIATION V 

This variation has been called the 'Vision of Dulcinea'. Don Quixote 
refuses to sleep at night while danger is at hand, and sits beside his 
slumbering servant. His thoughts turn again to Dulcinea, as her theme 
is tenderly woven with his own. The variation becomes a rapturous 
nocturne. 

VARIATION VI 

Blunt reality follows hard upon the visionary variation. The two pass 

on the road a blowsy country wench whom Sancho points out jokingly 




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as Dulcinea. It is not she, but it might as well be. The music breaks 
in upon romantic illusion, with coarse and boisterous dance measures. 
Don Quixote decides that some insidious magic power has worked this 
transformation, and he swears vengeance. 

VARIATION VII 

'The Ride Through the Air'. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza are 
seated blindfolded upon a wooden horse, and are led by their imagi- 
nation to believe that they are galloping through the air. Rushing 
chromatic passages, supported by a wind machine off stage, create a 
sense of motion. The pedal in D on drums and basses has been pointed 
out as signifying that the pair have never left the ground. 

VARIATION VIII 

'The Voyage in the Magic Boat'. Don Quixote finds an empty boat 
on the shore of a stream, and believes that it has been miraculously 
placed at his disposal so that he may accomplish a rescue. The two 
push off from the shore as the Knight's theme is transformed into a 
barcarolle. But the boat capsizes and they barely manage to swim to 
land. Their disputation ends this time in a joint prayer of thanksgiving 
for their deliverance from drowning. 

VARIATION IX 

This variation is marked 'quickly and stormily'. Don Quixote pro- 
ceeds upon Rozinante still undaunted. Two mendicant friars appear 
upon the road ahead, plodding along peaceably upon their mules. The 
Knight sees in them a pair of malignant magicians, the very ones who 



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224 



have been playing so many tricks upon him. He interrupts their chant 
(two bassoons unaccompanied) by a sudden charge which effectually 
puts them to flight. 

VARIATION X 

A friend of Don Quixote's youth contrives a scheme to cure him of his 
mad delusions and suicidal exploits, which have by this time become 
a public nuisance. He masquerades in knightly armor and challenges 
the Don to combat, on the understanding that the vanquished must 
implicitly obey the victor's will. They engage furiously in battle. 

They both of them set spurres to their horses, and the Knight of the White Moone's 
being the swifter, met Don Quixote ere hee had ranne a quarter of his careere so 
forcibly (without touching him with his lance, for it seemed he carried it aloft on 
purpose) that he tumbled horse and man both to the ground, and Don Quixote had 
a terrible fall; so he got straight on the top of him; and, clapping his lance's point 
upon his visor, said, 'You are vanquished, Knight, and a dead man, if you confesse 
not, according to the conditions of our combate.' Don Quixote, all bruised and 
amazed, without heaving up his visor, as he had spoken out of a toombe, with a 
faint and weak voice, said, 'Duncinea del Toboso is the fairest woman in the world, 
and I the unfortunatest Knight on earth; and it is not fit that my weaknes defraud 
this truth; thrust your lance into me, Knight, and kill mee, since you have bereaved 
me of my honor.' 'Not so truly,' quoth he of the White Moone, 'let the fame of my 
Lady Dulcinea's beauty live in her entirenesse; I am only contented that the grand 
Don Quixote retire home for a yeere, or til such time as I please, as we agreed, 
before we began the battell.' . . . And Don Quixote answered that, so nothing were 
required of him in prejudice of his lady Dulcinea, hee would accomplish all the 
rest, like a true and punctuall knight. 

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Don Quixote realizes in anguish that now even his fair intentions and 
brave determination are of no avail. He resolves to adopt the simple 
life of the shepherd (as the pastoral theme from the sheep variation is 
heard). The illusions, the haunting shadows are at last swept away, 
and his mind clears. 

FINALE 

'The Death of Don Quixote'. The Knight has regained his sanity (his 
theme loses its eccentric guise) but his spirit is broken and his strength 
is ebbing away. His friends and the members of his household, gathered 
around him, are incredulous at first as he addresses them in words of 
sound sense. 

He had no sooner ended his discourse and signed and sealed his will and testament, 
but a swouning and faintness surprising him, he stretched himselfe the full length 
of his bed. All the company were much distracted and mooved thereat, and ranne 
presently to help him; and during the space of three days, that he lived after he 
had made his will, he did swoun and fall into trances almost every houre. All the 
house was in a confusion and uprore; all which notwithstanding the neece ceased 
not to feede very devoutly: the maid servant to drinke profoundly, and Sancho to 
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or at least moderate in the minde of the inheritor the remembrance or feeling of the 
sorrow and griefe which of reason he should have a feeling of the testator's death. 
To conclude, the last day of Don Quixote came, after he had received all the sacra- 
ments; and had by many and godly reasons made demonstration to abhorre all the 
books of errant chivalry. 

The notary was present at his death and reporteth how he had never read or 
found in any book of chivalry that any errant knight died in his bed so mildly, so 
quietly, and so Christianly as did Don Quixote. Amidst the wailefull plaints and 
blubbering teares of the bystanders, he yeelded up the ghost, that is to say, hee died. 

Strauss rises to the pathos of the last moment in the life of the ridicu- 
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MAURICE RAVEL 

Le tombeau de Couperin 
by James Lyons 

Ravel was born in Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees on 7 March 1875 and died in Paris 
on 28 December 1937. The suite in its orchestral form was first performed at a 
Pasdeloup concert in Paris under Rhene-Baton on 28 February 1920. It was intro- 
duced in this country by Pierre Monteux at these concerts on 19 November of the 
same year. The most recent performances in this series were on 28 and 29 April 1961 
under the direction of Charles Munch. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes and english horn, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 
2 horns, trumpet, harp and strings. 

Ostensibly this music represents neoclassic expression in its purest 
distillate. And it was, indeed, conceived as a pianistic idealization of 
the clavecin aesthetic exemplified by Francois Couperin le Grand. But 
that was in the fateful summer of 1914, and even Ravel's sleepy St 
Jean-de-Luz was traumatized by the news of Archduke Francis Ferdi- 
nand's assassination at Sarajevo. France mobilized overnight, and by 
August was at war. By then the sketches for Le tombeau de Couperin 
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When he returned to them three wretched years later the composer was 
a very different man, broken in health and shattered emotionally by 
the loss of his mother, who had died barely a week after his medical 
discharge. Thus it was that the six movements became as many 
'tombstones' (each one inscribed separately) for friends and regimental 
comrades who had been killed on the Western Front. 

As a work for solo piano — Ravel's last, incidentally — Le tombeau 
was not a notable success. Strictly speaking it could not have been 
because it marked a stylistic retrogression after the harmonic leaps 
forward in the Valse nobles et sentimentales and Gaspard de la nuit. 
But fortunately that was not the end of the matter. 

Two years later, by which time Ravel was much healthier in body and 
spirit, he was delighted to hear that Jean Borlin wanted to choreograph 
Le tombeau for Rolf de Mare's Swedish Ballet (actually the suggestion 
had come from Ravel's old Montmartre confrere, the conductor D. E. 
Inghelbrecht). Whereupon the composer himself scored four of the 
movements as a concert suite, omitting the Fugue and Toccata and 
also, significantly, omitting all of the dedications — as if to testify that 
in this orchestral guise Le tombeau was not a mere arrangement but 
a new work altogether, intended to have a life of its own. And so it 
has had, uninterruptedly, ever since its Paris premiere on 28 February 
1920. 



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231 



Ironically, the orchestral version of Le tombeau de Couperin probably 
has more neoclassic purity in its resplendence than the leaner-lined 
keyboard prototype; the modern orchestra, after all, was the instrument 
Ravel knew best. No matter, it is a masterpiece of its genre — whether 
or not one agrees with Edwin Evans that the composer incarnated 'the 
very spirit of the precise and ordered classicism of the eighteenth 
century.' 

The concert suite comprises a Prelude, Forlane, Menuet, and Rigaudon. 
The forlane is akin to the jig, but not to Bach's because, being Italian 
in origin, it is not contrapuntal. Admirers of Oliver Wendell Holmes 
will recall his use of 'rigadoon' as a synonym for 'sashy' in Elsie Venner; 
Rousseau had ascribed the form to a certain dancing master named 
Rigaud, but in fact no one can attest to its origins. Whatever the 
disparate natal circumstances involved, as importuned by Ravel these 
old dances become as one in their evocation — or simulation — of an 
unmistakably Gallic quintessence. 

© James Lyons 



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232 



BELA BARTOK 

Suite from The Miraculous Mandarin op. 19 
by James Lyons 

Bartok was born in Nagyszentmiklos, Hungary on 25 March 1881 and died in New 
York on 26 September 1945. The Miraculous Mandarin, a Pantomime in One Act 
by Melchior Lengyel, was composed between October 1918 and May 1919, according 
to a line in the score, and published in 1925. The first performance was in Cologne 
in 1926. The concert version of the ballet, which omits two episodes and the final 
pages of the score, had its 'first performance anywhere' by the Cincinnati Symphony 
Orchestra under the direction of Fritz Reiner on 1 April 1927. It was last performed 
by the Boston Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Richard Burgin on 4 and 
5 November i960. 

The instrumentation: 3 flutes and 2 piccolos, 3 oboes and english horn, 3 clarinets 
(second clarinet alternating B flat, D and E flat clarinets), bass clarinet, 3 bassoons 
and contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, snare drum, 
tenor drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tarn tam, xylophone, celesta, harp, piano 
and strings. 

To state it plainly, Bartok asked for every bit of the trouble and the 
neglect that accrued to his three works for the stage: the opera Blue- 
beard's Castle (191 1) and the two ballets, The Wooden Prince (1914-16) 
and The Miraculous Mandarin (1919). 

As to the opera and the earlier ballet, Bartok's difficulties were occa- 
sioned by the fact that his librettist/scenarist Bela Balazs was an 
avowed Communist, all of whose works were banned when he was 
exiled from Hungary with the collapse of the Kun regime shortly after 
World War I. (That no Marxist influence is discernible in either of 
his collaborations with Bartok, obviously was beside the point.) 



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233 



Quite another order of trouble, and consequent neglect, was invited b}j 
The Miraculous Mandarin. The book by Menyhert Lengyel is sc| 
sordid as to be anathema in the fantasy-world of tarlatan and tulle 
Mascagni-like and more recently Menotti-like verismo is taken fol 
granted in the lyric theater, but balletomanes still eschew the uglier 
aspects of 'reality* and most especially if the locale be here-and-now 
(murder and mayhem in ancient Greece are all right, though these 
tend to be the province of 'modern dance' in general and Martha 
Graham in particular — in a ballet such direct behavior is apt to be 
suffused with symbolism, spells, or some other supernatural apparatus). 

No wonder, then, that choreographers in droves were put off by the 
'Action' summarized in the Universal-Boosey & Hawkes score with 
merciful brevity as follows: 

'In a shabby room in the slums, three tramps, bent on robbery, force a 
girl to lure in prospective victims from the street. A down-at-heel 
cavalier and a timid youth, who succumb to her attractions, are found | 
to have thin wallets, and are thrown out. The third "guest" is the eerie 
Mandarin. His impassivity frightens the girl, who tries to unfreeze him 
by dancing — but when he feverishly embraces her, she runs from him 
in terror. After a wild chase he catches her, at which point the three 
tramps leap from their hiding-place, rob him of everything he has, and 
try to smother him under a pile of cushions. But he gets to his feet, 



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235 



his eyes fixed passionately on the girl. They run him through with a 
sword; he is shaken, but his desire is stronger than his wounds, and he 
hurls himself on her. They hang him up; but it is impossible for him 
to die. Only when they cut him down, and the girl takes him into her 
arms, do his wounds begin to bleed, and he dies.' 

The foregoing has been said to delineate 'the unconquerable power of 
human aspiration — even beyond death itself.' But to stage this lurid, 
macabre, rather repulsive business effectively within the outer limits of 
decorum poses a challenge that few companies have chosen to face. 

The premiere production, with choreography by Hans Strohbach, came 
seven years after Bartok had completed the score; it was banned after 
the opening night (Cologne: 27 November 1926). In 1931 Budapest 
planned to mount the work in honor of the composer's fiftieth birth- 
day, but all plans were canceled after the dress rehearsal; Budapest 
never did see a production until Bartok was dead. It has been pre- 
sented since then with choreography by, among others, Todd Bolender 
(New York City Ballet, 1951), Jack Carter (Bavarian State Opera, 1955), 
and Alfred Rodrigues (Sadler's Wells, 1956); but none of these produc- 
tions has survived. 

Bartok's music is another matter altogether, long since attested by its 
sovereign autonomy as an orchestral tour de force. The concert version 
is by no means a precis of the whole. It comprises the first two-thirds 
of the complete score virtually intact; only two cuts are indicated, and 
they are tiny. Specifically, the Suite follows the scenario straight 
through to the climactic moment of the Mandarin's 'wild' pursuit of 

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the girl. (This work seems to have been given its 'first performance 
anywhere' by the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra under Fritz Reiner 
on 1 April 1927. But there is some confusion about this; according to 
other reliable sources Reiner offered 'two scenes' from the ballet and 
the Suite proper was introduced by the Budapest Philharmonic under 
Erno Dohnanyi on 15 October 1928.) 

The music proceeds without interruption, although its unfoldment 
encompasses several discrete sections. Listeners following the story line 
need only keep in mind that each successive 'Seduction Call' (there are 
three) is signalized by a floridly obtrusive clarinet solo. 

Finally, it is incomprehensible that the composer really could have 
expected a typical 'pickup' pit ensemble to cope with the ferocious 
demands of this score. Bartok calls for an enormous and maximally 
virtuosic orchestra. At times the sheer sonority is overwhelming, not 
to speak of the unremitting intensity and the massive kinetic energy 
that piles up with merciless ostinati in the apocalyptic peroration. 
There is no other music quite like this, by Bela Bartok or anyone else. 

© James Lyons 

James Lyons, an alumnus of the New England Conservatory and a 
graduate of Boston University, was born in Peabody, Massachusetts. 
He wrote about music for The Boston Post and The Boston Globe, 
and contributed to The Christian Science Monitor. He was editor and 
critic for Musical America, and has been for ten years the editor of 
The American Record Guide. 



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Listening to Schoenberg - Part 2 

by Peter Heyworth 

In the first part of his article, which appeared in the program book 
two weeks ago, Mr Heyworth traced the disintegration of the tradi- 
tional nineteenth century musical grammar, and pointed out the chief 
difficulty of understanding Schoenberg 's music: not only is his thought 
complex but his language in the pieces written after 1908 is also new. 
He pointed out that even in the first pieces which Schoenberg wrote 
in the twelve-note style the composer already attained a remarkable 
musical coherence. 

How did Schoenberg arrive at this coherence? To that question there 
can be no answer: the subconscious mind has laws of its own and they 
certainly stood Schoenberg in good stead. But in Pierrot Lunaire sig- 
nificant developments already point the way to the future. This song 
cycle is written for a voice using the rather questionable device of 
'Sprechgesang' (or singing speech) and a handful of solo instruments 
deployed with an extraordinarily prophetic sense of color and texture. 

These are side issues, however; the most important thing in Pierrot 
Lunaire is the reappearance of pre-classical contrapuntal devices, fugue, 
canon, passacaglia, all extremely rare in the music of the time. It is 
no coincidence that they should loom large in a chamber work, for the 
spirit of chamber music, in which the saturated harmonic texture of a 
big orchestra cannot be achieved, usually presupposes a degree of 
counterpoint — music conceived or heard horizontally rather than 
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Of course, even at the apogee of romanticism, counterpoint had never 
disappeared: a score like Die Meistersinger is full of it. But the point 
is that romantic counterpoint was largely subservient to harmonic 
order. Schoenberg arrived on the scene just as the foundations of that 
order were collapsing, and as it was growing steadily less able to 
impose its will on the movement of contrapuntal lines, which were in 
turn just starting to grow bolder and more independent. The impor- 
tance of this in the development of Schoenberg's style cannot be over- 
emphasized. 

Pierrot Lunaire was one of the composer's last scores written before 
1914. During the First World War he worked on a huge uncompleted 
oratorio, Die Jakobsleiter. But the music did not go well, and unbe- 
known to the outside world he set about a profound reexamination of 
his art. For over eight years, from 1915 to 1923, he published nothing. 
Then in 1923 he surfaced with two new works, Piano Pieces op. 23 and 
the Serenade op. 24, both of which for the first time made use of 
dodecaphonic methods. In the following year he wrote two further 
works, the Suite for Piano op. 25 and the Wind Quartet op. 26, in both 
of which he systematically exploited the new technique. 

Millions of words have been written about the technique of 'composing 
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243 



more. It has been claimed again and again that the system is an intel- 
lectual construction. To a certain point, of course it is. But why 
should this cause so much ado in a world that has accepted The Art of 
Fugue? The tempered scale, in which all music since Bach has been 
written, is itself an intellectual construction, and so is sonata form, 
the da capo aria, rondo form, and so on. The whole conception of art 
presupposes intellectual construction. While it cannot of itself pro- 
duce art, it provides a basis that renders art possible. And so it is with 
twelve-note serialism. It has given rise to thousands of valueless con- 
trivances without a spark of creativity, just as sonata form has done. 

It has also given rise to a few masterpieces. The important thing for 
the listener is to steer clear of the theological fury of the theoretical 
disputes which have clouded the whole question, and to concentrate 
on the music itself. 

How then does one listen to twelve-note music? I am tempted to 
answer that one listens to it much as one listens to any other music. 
Yet this is true only up to a point, for the fact that tonality is not only 
absent but often deliberately banished at first gives the listener the 
uncomfortable feeling of there being nothing to hang on to, nothing 
to relate the notes to. In this sense it is a new world in which the laws 
of tonal gravity no longer apply. But the fact that the notes are not 
related to a key note does not mean that they are not related at all. 

On the contrary, they are all interrelated one to another, only some 
relations do not dominate others as they do in tonal music. To find 
one's way about in this new world of harmonic relativity is largely a 
knack. Just as in learning to swim there comes a moment when you 
take your toe off the bottom without sinking, so in dodecaphonic music 
there comes a moment when you no longer seek to relate everything to 
a key note but begin to perceive how a sequence of events can make 
sense without it. 

There is, however, one way in which the listener can help himself. 
Pierrot Lunaire, as I have already mentioned, is both atonal and highly, 
contrapuntal. In fact, Schoenberg was here already well on the way to 




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II 



twelve-note music. Because tone rows are much more readily grasped 
as rows — that is, as themes, motives, or melodies — than as chords, it is 
a good idea to start by listening to dodecaphonic music as atonal 
counterpoint, in other words just as one would listen to Pierrot Lunaire. 
This is not to say that the vertical, harmonic element does not matter — 
but to start by seeking harmonic order almost invariably tempts the ear 
to try to account for events by a tonal order which no longer exists. 

Certainly, atonal counterpoint is not, at first, easy to grasp. When we 
listen to Bach, the harmonic order in the music helps us to relate the 
simultaneous melodic lines that make up the counterpoint. Because 
in Schoenberg the harmony seems to offer little help, dodecaphonic 
counterpoint at first sounds confused and complex, and today I blush 
to think of the works that I once had the temerity to describe as over- 
stuffed or overelaborate. But the ear is a wonderfully elastic instru- 
ment, and once it is given the chance to acclimatize itself, and to train 
itself to listen to melodic lines with no tonal relationship, it soon does 
so without difficulty, though I will not pretend that Schoenberg's 
music — total, atonal, or dodecaphonic — is ever really simple. 

Viewed from this angle it becomes clear that Schoenberg arrived at 
serialism, not as an abrupt change of front, but rather as a systemization 
of what he was already practicing in works like Pierrot Lunaire. In 
fact the first proper dodecaphonic piece of music is the Theme and 
Variations from the Serenade; this movement fits so effortlessly and 
without change of style into the remainder of the work that anyone 
not given prior notice would have to study the score itself to say which 
is the serial movement. 

But if serialism is in itself stylistically neutral, the practice of it natu- 
rally had an effect on Schoenberg's development as a composer. In his 
prewar atonal music his difficulty had lain in finding some means of 
order to enable him to sustain length. Serialism provided that prin- 
ciple, and once he had mastered it fully in works like the Wind Quintet 
op. 26 (which accordingly preserves something of the feeling of a 
prolonged and strenuous exercise) his problem lay in applying it to a 
full orchestral work. It is not hard to see why this presented a special 
difficulty, for the big romantic orchestra had been developed to its 
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245 



Once music turned with serialism in the direction of counterpoint, the 
whole existence and relevance of the big orchestra was called into 
question, for the rich textures that so well match rich harmony are not 
only unnecessary to counterpoint but an encumbrance to its audibility. 

When in 1928 Schoenberg's first orchestral dodecaphonic score, the 
Variations for Orchestra op. 31, was performed, it became clear that 
he had met this problem by using his instrumental resources with the 
utmost restraint. Indeed, many of the variations are written for 
chamber orchestra and the full body is employed relatively rarely. 
Even so, young postwar composers have criticized Schoenberg for 
applying a new technique to materials inappropriate to it. 

To dismiss the work on such grounds would be needlessly destructive: 
it is, after all, a major work by a major composer. But the Variations 
is certainly a score looking backwards as well as forwards, and it is 
paradoxical that once Schoenberg had evolved his method, his music 
takes on a distinctly classical feeling quite absent from his pre-1914 
works. In a sense he remained all his life profoundly envious of his 
great Viennese predecessors, who had inherited a viable language in 
which to express themselves. Indeed the titanic disruptive activities of 
his younger days should perhaps be viewed as demolition preliminary 
to forging such an instrument for himself, and once he felt that with 
serialism he had done so, he in some sense set about re-creating the past. 



ARTHUR FIEDLER CONDUCTS THE 
YOMIURI NIPPON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
AT SYMPHONY HALL ON 3 NOVEMBER 

The first orchestra from Tokyo ever to play in Symphony Hall will 
give a concert here on Friday evening 3 November at 8.30. Arthur 
Fiedler, who is leading the Yomiuri Nippon Symphony Orchestra on 
a tour of the United States, will conduct. The soloist will be Hiro 
Imamura, an American pianist whose family was originally from Japan. 
She will play Chopin's Piano Concerto no. 2. 

The program will be 

ROSSINI Semiramide - Overture 

CHOPIN Piano Concerto no. 2 in F minor 

PROKOFIEV Classical Symphony in D 

BERNSTEIN Suite from 'West Side Story* 

OFFENBACH Suite from 'Gaite Parisienne' 

Tickets are available from the Box Office at Symphony Hall at 

$3> $4> $5' $6. 



246 



Thus his early dodecaphonic works — pieces such as the Wind Quintet, 
:he Variations for Orchestra, the Suite op. 29, the Third Quartet — not 
Dnly bear classical titles but are more truly neoclassical in spirit than 
nost of the wrong-note pastiches which irresponsibly assumed that 
designation in the interwar period. It is indeed a fascinating thought 
:hat the careers of Stravinsky and Schoenberg, so profoundly different 
n almost every way, did for years pursue remote but parallel paths. 

But Schoenberg was much more of an operatic composer than he is 
usually given credit for, and it was perhaps the dramatic demands of 
two utterly different stage works that provided the motive force for his 
evolution from this classical phase. The one-act Von Heute auf Morgen 
s not exactly a comic riot, and it is dogged by a vulgar and inept 
ibretto. But wry humor the music has in abundance and in the 
insembles there is a delicate filigree which, improbable though it may 
iound, looks back to Cost fan tutte, while the idiom as a whole has a 
luidity and ease earlier absent from Schoenberg's dodecaphonic music. 
Here at last he appears as total master of his new method. 

The other opera is, of course, Moses und Aron. Even in its unfinished 
state it stands as a sort of summa of Schoenberg's achievement, a work 
of a remarkable grandeur of conception, profundity, and expressive 
~ange. Precisely why, in well-nigh twenty years, he never brought 
himself to finish this masterpiece remains a mystery. But the fact that 
in its unfinished state the opera seems so complete suggests that uncon- 
sciously the moment of Moses' total defeat and despair had a deeper 
import for Schoenberg than the triumph and justification planned for 
ithe final act. 

'The second act of Moses und Aron was the last thing that Schoenberg 
completed before the Nazis forced him to leave Germany and to seek 
refuge in the United States. There is a deep irony in the fact that the 
Nazis could see only decadence and distortion in the music of the man 
who, as he alighted on the dodecaphonic method, wrote to a friend, 
'I have discovered something that will ensure the dominance of German 
music for a thousand years.' That would just have lasted out Hitler's 
thousand-year Reich. The idea of Schoenberg as a rootless cosmo- 
politan is a grotesque perversion of the truth. On the contrary, his 
aesthetic horizons rarely reached far beyond his native Mitteleuropa. 




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247 




TICKET RESALE AND RESERVATION PLAN 

The Ticket Resale and Reservation Plan which has been in practice 
for the past four seasons has been most successful. The Trustees are 
grateful to those subscribers who have complied with it, and again 
wish to bring this plan to the attention of the Orchestra's subscribers 
and Friends. 



Subscribers who wish to release their seats for a specific concert are 
urged to do so as soon as convenient. They need only call Symphony 
Hall, CO 6-1492, and give their name and ticket location to the 
switchboard operator. Subscribers releasing their seats for resale will 
continue to receive written acknowledgment for income tax purposes. 
Since the Management has learned by experience how many returned 
tickets it may expect for concerts, those who wish to make requests 
for tickets may do so by telephoning Symphony Hall and asking for 
"Reservations." Requests will be filled in the order received and 
no reservations will be made when the caller cannot be assured of 
a seat. Tickets ordered under this plan may be purchased and picked 
up from the Box Office on the day of the concert two hours prior to 
the start of the program. Tickets not claimed a half-hour before 
concert time will be released. 

Last season the successful operation of the Ticket Resale and Reserva- 
tion Plan aided in reducing the Boston Symphony Orchestra's deficit 

by more than $22,000. 
248 



ife in America was not altogether easy for so quintessential a central 
[European as Schoenberg. His unique blend of paranoia and incor- 
ruptibility did not make his path smoother, and there seems little doubt 
that the struggle for existence and later for health to some extent 
lessened his output. But two of his greatest works belong to this last 
period of his life. Behind the classical shape of the Violin Concerto 
(1936) there is little of the self-conscious neoclassicism of the Twenties. 

In this work form and expressive content go hand in hand. More 
remarkable yet is the String Trio of 1946, for in this score, which 
Schoenberg completed in a few weeks after an illness that nearly proved 
fatal and from which he never fully recovered, there is an elliptical 
brevity and concentration, a paring away of all extraneous detail, that 
looks directly across to the world of Beethoven's last quartets. The 
intensity of expression and the intellectual complexity which some- 
times cause Schoenberg's music to sound overelaborate are here carried 
on to the Olympian level of the greatest masters. The absence of this 
work is the most serious single gap in the catalogue of Schoenberg 
recordings. 

High Fidelity-Musical America. Reprinted with permission. 

Peter Heyworth succeeded Eric Blom as music critic of the London 
Observer, and is one of England's most distinguished writers on music. 




249 




Today's conductor 

JORGE MESTER, who starts his duties as 
Music Director and Conductor of the Louis- 
ville Symphony this fall, was born in Mexico 
City in 1935 of Hungarian parents. His 
musical career in the United States began 
when he was awarded a violin scholarship 
at the Berkshire Music Center. His interest 
in conducting developed while he was a 
student at the Juilliard School of Music, 
where he became later the youngest faculty 
member in the school's history. He has also 
won international fame for his conducting and recording of the works 
of the shamelessly revived neo-Baroque composer P.D.Q. Bach. Since 
his concert with the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood this 
summer Jorge Mester has conducted the opening concert of the Mozart 
Festival at Lincoln Center and has spent a month guest conducting in 
Europe. He makes his first appearance with the Orchestra in Boston 
this weekend. 



Exhibition 

The exhibition on view in the gallery is loaned by the Adelson Gal- 
leries, 154 Newbury Street, Boston, which specializes in nineteenth and 
twentieth century paintings and represents particularly American 
Impressionists and artists of the Hudson River School. 



Youth Concerts 

The ninth season of Youth Concerts opens at Symphony Hall on Sat- 
urday 4 November, when Harry Ellis Dickson conducts members of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra in a program called 'What's in a name?' 
The pieces to be played were all written for special occasions and 
include The Academic Festival Overture of Brahms, Stravinsky's Fire- 
works, and works by Handel, Beethoven, Vivaldi, Kornsand and Sousa. 

Further concerts in the first series will be on 13 January and 9 March; 
the concerts of the second series will be on 11 November, 20 January 
and 16 March. Each starts at 11 a.m. and lasts for approximately an 
hour. They are designed for young people from Grade V through 
Junior High and High School. The Wayland Jazz Quartet will join 
the orchestra in the second program, which is called 'Can jazz be 
classical?' And the final program of the series will feature winners of 
the Greater Boston High School soloists' competition. The orchestra 
will also be joined by the Greater Boston Youth Symphony Orchestra 
in a performance of the Prelude to Die Meistersinger by Wagner. 

All seats are reserved and cost $5 each for a series of concerts. Ticket 
orders, accompanied by check and stamped addressed envelope, and 
inquiries should be addressed to Ticket Committee, Youth Concerts at 
Symphony Hall, 251 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115. 



250 



'The soloists 

JULES ESKIN, Principal cello of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, came to Boston in 
1964 from the Cleveland Orchestra, where 
he held the same chair. He was born in 
Philadelphia and studied at the Curtis Insti- 
tute with Leonard Rose. His other teachers 
were Gregor Piatigorsky and Janos Starker. 
He won the Naumberg Foundation award 
in 1954 and made his debut at Town Hall, 
New York, the same year under the Foun- 
dation's auspices. He played with the 
Dallas Symphony and was first cellist of the New York City Opera and 
Ballet Orchestra. He made a recital tour of Europe in 1961 and has 
also given many recitals in the United States. He used to play each 
year with Pablo Casals in Puerto Rico. 

Jules Eskin is on the faculty of the Berkshire Music Center and is a 
member of the Boston Symphony Chamber Players, with whom he 
went on their international tour earlier this year. He has played 
several concertos with the Orchestra, most recently the Schumann 
concerto last season. 




BURTON FINE joined the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra as a member of the second 
violin section in 1963 and was appointed 
Principal of the viola section a year later. 
For the preceding nine years he was a re- 
search chemist with the National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration in Cleveland. 
A native of Philadelphia, he studied at the 
Settlement Music School with Ivan Gala- 
mian, then continued at the Curtis Insti- 
tute. From there he moved to the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania where he received his degree in chemistry. He 
holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from the Illinois Institute of Technology. 
During his time with the Space Agency he was active in Cleveland's 
leading chamber groups. 

Burton Fine is a member of the faculty of the New England Conserva- 
tory and of the Berkshire Music Center, where he also studied in 1950. 
He is a member of the Boston Symphony Chamber Players and toured 
with them to England, Germany and the Soviet Union earlier this 
year. Last season he was soloist with the Orchestra in performances of 
Der Schwanendreher by Hindemith. 




251 



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252 



FUTURE PROGRAMS 

Fifth Program 

Friday afternoon 3 November at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 4 November at 8.30 



MOZART 
KRAFT 



DVORAK 



Symphony no. 36 in C major K. 425 'The Linz' 
Concerto for Percussion and Orchestra 



EVERETT FIRTH 
HAROLD THOMPSON 
THOMAS GAUGER 



CHARLES SMITH 
ARTHUR PRESS 



Romance for violin and orchestra op. 1 1 



TCHAIKOVSKY Violin Concerto in D op. 35 

ITZHAK PERLMAN 

The performance next week of Kraft's Concerto for Percussion and 
Orchestra will be a Boston premiere. William Kraft, timpanist and 
principal of the percussion section of the Los Angeles Philharmonic 
Orchestra, composed the concerto in 1964. He has adapted it specially 
for the five players of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, working in 
close cooperation with Everett Firth. 

Another premiere by the Orchestra will be Dvorak's Romance, a 
charming piece based on the second movement of the F minor Quartet. 
The soloist will be the talented young violinist Itzhak Perlman, whom 
subscribers will remember for his exciting performance of Prokofiev's 
Second Violin Concerto last season. He will also play the Tchaikovsky 
Concerto next week. For many members of the audience the perform- 
ance will probably be the first that they have heard of the concerto 
completely without cuts, exactly as the composer originally wrote it. 

The concert will end at about 4.05 on Friday 
and at about 10.35 on Saturday 



Sixth Program 



Friday afternoon 10 November at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 11 November at 8.30 

HAYDN Symphony no. 79 in F major 

WEBERN Variations op. 30 

SCRIABIN Symphony no. 3 'The Divine Poem' 

programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



253 



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MINNIE WOLK 

PIANOFORTE STUDIO 

42 Symphony Chambers 

246 Huntington Avenue, Boston 

opp. Symphony Hall 

Residence 395-6126 

KATE FRISKIN 

Pianist and Teacher 

8 CHAUNCY STREET 
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

ELiot 4-3891 



RUTH SHAPIRO 

PIANIST • TEACHER 

1728 Beacon Street 

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Telephone RE gent 4-3267 



254 



Mrs. Aaron Richmond and Walter Pierce 
present in the 1967-68 Boston University 

CELEBRITY SERIES 



THIS SUN. AFT., OCT 29 at 3 



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MUSIC FROM MARLBORO 

Superb chamber music in the tradition of the Marlboro Music Festival 
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Participating Artists: 

Pina Carmirelli, Violin 
Jon Toth, Violin 
Philipp Naegele, Viola 
Caroline Levine, Viola 
Fortunato Arico, Cello 
Dorothy Reichenberger, Cello 



The Program: 

Boccherini, Siring Quintet in F minor, 

Op. 42, No. 1 
Dvorak, String Sextet in A Major, Op. 48 
Brahms, String Sextet in G Major, Op. 36 



NEXT SAT. EVE., NOV. 4 at 8:30 



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Couperin, Les Roseaux; Mozart, B flat major Sonata, K. 333; 

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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Exquisite 
Sound 




From the palaces 
of ancient Egypt 
to the concert halls 
of our modern 
cities, the wondrous 
music of the harp has 
f compelled attention 
from all peoples and all 
countries. Through this 
passage of time many 
changes have been made 
in the original design. The 
early instruments shown in 
drawings on the tomb of 
Rameses II (1292-1225 B.C.) 
were richly decorated but 
lacked the fore-pillar. Later 
the "Kinner" developed by the 
Hebrews took the form as we 
know it today. The pedal harp 
was invented about 1720 by a 
Bavarian named Hochbrucker and 
through this ingenious device it be- 
came possible to play in eight major 
and five minor scales complete. Today 
the harp is an important and familiar 
instrument providing the "Exquisite 
Sound" and special effects so important 
to modern orchestration and arrange- 
ment. The certainty of change makes 
necessary a continuous review of your 
insurance protection. We welcome the 
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We respectfully invite your inquiry 

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ii 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

FRANCIS W. HATCH MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 

ANDREW HEISKELL SIDNEY R. RABB 

HAROLD D. HODGKINSON RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

259 



debut 



Itzhak Perlman with the Boston Sympho 
Orchestra under the direction of Leinsdc 



". . . his arrival on the scene may just be the happiest 

event in fiddling since the generation that produced Heifetz, 

Oistrakh and Milstein." (Chicago Daily News) 



When Itzhak Perlman and the Bos- 
tonians performed these works in 
December, critics pulled out all the 
superlatives. "Undisputed master of the 
Sibelius Concerto." "Perlman brought 
to the Prokofieff G Minor Concerto an 
assured and easy virtuoso technique." 
". . . called forth from Leinsdorf some 
of his most eloquent work," wrote the 
Boston Globe. The New Yorker has 
called Perlman "brilliant." Time Mag- 
azine declared, "The U.S. and the world 
will be hearing a lot more about Itzhak 
Perlman in the very near future." Lis- 
ten to this new RCA Victor Red Seal 
recording — and see if you don't agree 
with The New York Times: "Perlman 
carries the mantle of the great virtuosi 
of the past." 




@ The most trusted name in sound ^U- 




I 



ENSEMBLES 

OF THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

presented by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
and the New England Conservatory of Music 

MONDAY EVENINGS AT JORDAN HALL 

AUTUMN PROGRAMS 

13 November at 8.30 

BOSTON SYMPHONY CHAMBER PLAYERS 

HAYDN 



BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



^"^> 



VARESE 

JMARTINU 

BRAHMS 



Trio no. 2 in G for flute, violin 
and cello op. 100 

Octandre (1924) 

Nonet 

Piano Quartet in G minor op. 25 



S December at 8.30 

BOSTON SYMPHONY STRING TRIO 
[vith RICHARD GOODE piano 

MOZART Piano Quartet in E flat K. 493 

MARTINU Two madrigals for violin and viola 

BRAHMS Piano Trio in B major op. 8 

Vlembers of the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and 
fiends of the New England Conservatory may secure a free ticket 
or a guest to accompany them. Friends of the Boston Symphony 
)rchestra should telephone Mrs Whittall at Symphony Hall (CO 
5-1492 ) for details. Friends of the New England Conservatory 
jhould get in touch with Miss Virginia Clay at the Jordan Hall Box 
Office (536-2412). 

ingle tickets for each concert are available from the 
Jordan Hall Box Office, 30 Gainsborough Street, 
loston 02115 (telephone 536-2412) 
'rices: $1.50, $2, $2.50, $3, $4, $5 



261 







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262 



«At the 
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JOHN BROWNING | 

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MALCOLM FRAGER 
GARY GRAFFMAN 
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BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 

Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Rf Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



i; 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 
John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 
Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 
Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



ILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



"members of the Japan 
a one season exchange 



Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



263 







Wm 



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264 



Contents 

Program for 3 and 4 November 1967 267 

Future programs 317 

Program notes 

Kraft - Percussion Concerto 268 

Mozart - Symphony no. 36 274 

by John N. Burk 

Dvorak - Romance for Violin and Orchestra 282 

by Andrew Raeburn 

Tchaikovsky - Violin Concerto 286 

by John N. Burk 

The B.S.O. and the Talking Machine - Part 1 296 

by Martin Bookspan 

The soloists 306 



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265 



This is an executrix. Should you have one? 




They're not hard to come by. 

Do you have a sensible wife? A capable daughter? A smart sister? 

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266 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Fifth Program 

Friday afternoon 3 November at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 4 November at 8.30 



KRAFT 

Concerto for Percussion and Orchestra 

Recitativo quasi senza misura 
Allegro con brio 
Cadenza e variazioni 

EVERETT FIRTH 
HAROLD THOMPSON 
THOMAS GAUGER 

First performance in this version 



CHARLES SMITH 
ARTHUR PRESS 



MOZART 

Symphony no. 36 in C major K. 425 'The Linz' 

Adagio; Allegro spiritoso 
Poco adagio 
Menuetto 
Presto 

INTERMISSION 

DVORAK 

Romance for violin and orchestra op. 11 
ITZHAK PERLMAN 

First performance in Boston 

TCHAIKOVSKY 

Concerto for violin and orchestra in D major op. 35 

Allegro moderato 
Canzonetta: Andante 
Finale: Allegro vivacissimo 

ITZHAK PERLMAN 

Henryk Szeryng has recorded the Violin Concerto of Tchaikovsky 
with the Orchestra under the direction of Charles Munch 

The concert on Friday will end at about 4.05 
and at about 10.35 on Saturday 



BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



267 



Program Notes 



WILLIAM KRAFT 

Concerto for Percussion and Orchestra 

William Kraft was born in Chicago on 6 September 1923. The concerto was written 
in 1964 and entitled 'Concerto for four percussion soloists and orchestra'. It was 
first performed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin 
Mehta in Los Angeles in March 1967. Mr Kraft has specially adapted the concerto 
for the five percussion players of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 

The instrumentation: the solo percussion group plays 4 timpani, 5 graduated wood 
drums (3 wood blocks and 2 temple blocks which are played with hard vibraphone 
mallets with rattan stems), tambourine, 5 graduated membranic drums (high bongo, 
low bongo, snare drum, field drum, tenor drum, which are played with snare drum 
sticks), 6 suspended antique cymbals, chimes, glockenspiel, vibraphone, xylophone, 
small bell with clapper, 5 graduated metals (2 triangles and 3 cymbals), bass drum, 
snare drum, triangle, song bells. The orchestra consists of 2 flutes and piccolo, 
2 oboes, 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
2 trombones, tuba, harp, piano, celesta and strings. 

William Kraft writes: 

'Whatever thoughts I have about composition are somewhat classic in 
nature and of necessity somewhat generalized. I believe that music is 
an aesthetic function and that whatever disciplines and skills are 
employed — as well as matters of balance or symmetry (or imbalance 
and asymmetry) — are tools for, and subordinate to, concepts of beauty 
and expression. Ugliness and any sort of dramatics, of course, can fall 
into the generalized description. There is always the relationship of 



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instinct and technique and, in this, one should attain personality and 
style. While composers do find general agreement at certain times I do 
not think that music must "mirror its age" especially one as techno- 
logical as this one. But, at the same time, it is just as valid to mirror 
an age's aspirations rather than its practices. 

'As to the Percussion Concerto in particular, it was written in 1964 
while I was on a fellowship at the Huntington Hartford Foundation. 
I took it as a challenge to have the percussion instruments compete 
with the traditional concerto instruments on their own terms and laid 
the work out in three movements with internal designs meant to show 
the percussion instruments in their favorable light. The first movement 
opens with a glockenspiel (orchestra bells) solo, the material of which 
undergoes some evolution and some commentary by timpani, vibra- 
phone and five graduated drums. The second movement is founded on 
a jazz-like ostinato. Most of the material was written first for the 
percussion instruments to make certain it was idiomatic but is played 
first by the winds with brass punctuations. One could — if so dis- 
posed — compare the movement to a Japanese fan that folds out 
gradually, shows its full design and then folds back on itself. The 
third movement is the largest and most pretentious. It opens with a 
timpani cadenza on which all subsequent sections or rather variations, 
are based. The variations alternate between the orchestra and the 
percussion wherein the latter comment on the former, but as the move- 
ment progresses, the separation breaks down until all competition is 
within the one final variation'. 



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270 





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271 



William Kraft's major work in composition was done at Columbia 
University in New York, where he studied with Otto Luening. He 
was a member of the Berkshire Music Center in 1948, 1950 and 1951 
where he studied with Irving Fine. He is timpanist and head of the 
percussion section of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra; he also 
does a considerable amount of conducting, mostly of contemporary 
chamber works for the well known Monday evening concerts in Los 
Angeles. He is on the faculty of the University of Southern California. 
He will be in Europe for a considerable period next year on a Guggen- 
heim Fellowship, and expects to spend some time with Pierre Boulez. 

During the last five years William Kraft's major works have included 
the Concerto Grosso (1962) which has been performed several times 
and recorded by the Louisville Orchestra; a song cycle Silent Boughs 
(1963), written for Marilyn Home and performed by her throughout 
Europe on a tour of the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra conducted by 
Henry Lewis. Configurations (1966) is a concerto for four percussion 
soloists and jazz orchestra, commissioned by Dick Schory and the 
Ludwig Drum Company; the Double Trio (1966) for piano, tuba and 
percussion versus prepared piano, electric guitar and prepared percus- 
sion was performed at Tanglewood during the Festival of Contempo- 
rary American Music in August this year. Momentum (1966) is a piece 
for eight percussion players, and Contextures was written this year for 
Zubin Mehta and the Los Angeles Philharmonic. It will be first 
performed in April 1968. 



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WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART 
Symphony no. 36 in C major K. 425 'The Linz' 
Program note by John N. Burk 

Mozart was born in Salzburg on 27 January 1756, and died in Vienna on 5 Decem- 
ber 1791. He composed this symphony at Linz in October and November 1763, and 
the first performance was given at Count Thun's palace on 4 November. The first 
performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra was on 17 November 1882, and the 
symphony was most recently performed in this series on 28 and 29 March 1958, with 
Charles Munch conducting. 

The instrumentation: 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings. 

In Vienna, where Mozart spent the last ten years of his life, composing 
according to needs, his genius found its full fruition in a quantity of 
great works. They embrace his finest string quartets and quintets and 
his piano concertos in numbers; also his five great operas in the buffo 
style. It must be a reflection on Viennese taste, or lack of musical per- 
ception, that he seems never to have been asked to compose a symphony ■; 
in Vienna. Of the three great symphonies of 1788 there is no record j 
either of commission or performance. Prague, enraptured over Figaro, 
asked in 1786 for the Symphony which bears its name. Three years 
earlier, while returning from a visit to Salzburg with Constanze a year 
after their marriage, he stopped in Linz to visit his friend Count Thun, 
and there hastily composed a symphony. 



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When it is possible to ascertain the circumstances under which Mozart 
wrote his truly surpassing scores, one is invariably astonished that a 
triumph of his art, a rare efflorescence of the spirit quite unequalled in 
kind, could have come into being apparently with entire casualness. 

Mozart had been assured of a welcome at Linz from Count Thun, 
father of his pupil in Vienna. 'When we arrived at the gate of Linz/ 
wrote the composer to his father, 'we were met by a servant sent to 
conduct us to the residence of the old Count Thun. I cannot say 
enough of the politeness with which we were overwhelmed. On 
Tuesday 4 November I shall give a concert in the theatre here, and as 
I have not a single symphony with me, I am writing one for dear life 
to be ready in time.' Mozart was as good as his word — within the 
five days that remained from his arrival to the hour of the concert a 
new symphony was written, the parts copied, the piece (presumably) 
rehearsed. It is small wonder that the experts have found it hard to 
believe that Mozart at a moment's notice, in a strange house, and in 
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symphony, replete with innovation, daring and provocative in detail 
of treatment; the obvious product of one who has taken new thought 
and gathered new power. As the years pass, the students of Mozart 
have learned to accept what they will never account for — sudden and 
incredible manifestations in his development. 

Jahn discerned the influence of Joseph Haydn in this symphony, 
particularly the 'pathetic somewhat lengthy adagio' which ushers in 
the allegro spiritoso. Mozart had until that time never used an intro- 
duction to a symphony. But it should also be noted that introductions 
in the symphonies of Haydn were decidedly the exception until about 
this year, after which both composers were inclined towards them. The 
interrelation of the symphonically developing Mozart and Haydn is 
always a subject for circumspect opinion. Jahn also points out as 
Haydnesque the 'lively, rapid, and brilliant character of the whole, 
the effort to please and amuse by turns, and unexpected contrasts of 
every kind in the harmonies, in the alternations of forte and piano, and 
in the instrumental effects.' Saint-Foix rejects this thesis on its face 
value. To begin with, the Mozart who wrote the Linz Symphony had 
reached an ebullient and self-reliant point in his growth — he was in 
no mood for imitation. 'The small number of symphonies written by 
Joseph Haydn in the years 1 780^-1783, which might have had some 
connection with the Linz Symphony, actually show none. It might be 
more reasonable to suppose a definite effect of this symphony upon the 
subsequent ones of Haydn.' 

Against this Mozart authority is the opinion of another, Alfred Ein- 
stein, who quotes this symphony as showing 'how greatly Mozart had 
come under Haydn's influence, not only as a quartet composer, but as 
a creator of symphonies'. Mr Einstein instances the 6-8 meter in the 
slow movement as a Haydn trait, but he is forced to admit that the 
slow introduction to the symphony itself, wherein Mozart was sup- 
posedly yielding to a Haydn precedent, had indeed no precedent in 
Haydn, 'with its heroic beginning, and the play of light and shade that 
follows, leading from the most tender longing to the most intense 




278 



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279 



agitation'. Mr Einstein further discerns signs of hasty writing in this 
symphony. If any demonstrable connection is to be traced, it is a 
curious one between Mozart and Haydn's brother Michael, for whom 
recently, at Salzburg, Mozart had composed two duos for violin and 
viola, the second of which contains a thematic premonition of the 
symphony. 

To Mozart alone, in the words of M. de Saint-Foix, could be attrib- 
uted 'the allegro spirit aso, dreamy and at the same time militant, for 
a march crosses it, or rather surges up at moments and disappears. The 
noble and serene inspiration of the poco adagio, where clouds gather 
to dim the unforgettable rhythm of the Sicilienne, the minuet so 
dancing, ardent, and tender, with the counterpoint in the trio which 
never leaves the tone of C; finally the presto, where joy at once becomes 
frenetic, these features comprise what one is constrained to call the first 
great classical vista which Mozart designed in the symphonic genre.' 

The absence of flutes and clarinets in the instrumentation would 
suggest that Mozart was adapting himself to the limitations of the 
ducal orchestra at Linz. It is also worthy of remark that the composer 
makes use of the trumpets and drums in the slow movement, although 
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281 



ANTONIN DVORAK 

Romance for violin and orchestra op. 11 

Dvorak was born in Nelahozeves (Miihlhausen), Bohemia on S September 1841, and 
died in Prague on 1 Mav 1904. He composed the Romance at some time between 
1S73 and the Near of its first performance, 1S77. Josef Markus was the soloist at the 
premiere with the National Theatre Orchestra of Prague, conducted bv Adolf C.ech 
on 9 December. 

The instrumentation: -2 flutes. 2 oboes. 2 clarinets. 2 bassoons. 2 horns and strings. 

Dvorak was married in November 1873 to Anna Cermakova, the daugh- 
ter of a goldsmith. He was thirty-two years old and had lived in Prague 
for exactly half his life. Durinsr those second sixteen years his life had 
been hard. He was the eldest son of a family of eight and his father 
had become bankrupt after leaving his home village in the hope of 
making a better living by running an inn in a town where he was a 
stranger. Only by his own determination and the belief of some of his 
relations and teachers in his talent had Dvorak been able to pursue his 
bent for music. 

He composed energetically during the early years in Prague, and from 
what remains of the music, it is clear that his models were Mozart, 
Beethoyen. Schubert and Mendelssohn, and later Wagner. But he was 
also his own most discerning and severe critic, and burnt many of his 







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early manuscripts. He said himself that when he first went to Prague 
he always had enough paper to make a fire. The ideas he thought good, 
though, he would remember, and from several of his unsuccessful pieces 
he would reuse material that he approved; much from the Symphony 
No. 1 (The Bells of Zlonice), for instance, composed in 1865, but not 
discovered until 1923, reappeared in the Silhouettes for piano of 1879. 
The same is true of the Romance: it is based on the andantino move- 
ment of the F minor Quartet, composed in 1873, which the leading 
chamber musicians of Prague originally rejected for performance. 

Dvorak did not earn much money during that period; he had studied 
violin and viola as well as organ and piano, and for several years had 
worked playing the viola in an orchestra which was popular in the 
restaurants of Prague, and which formed the nucleus of the pit orches- 
tra of the Czech National Theatre. But in the early seventies his com- 
positions began to be recognized, he himself was forming a style which 
no longer owed so obvious a debt to his models, and shortly after his 
marriage, he resigned from the orchestra and obtained the post of 
organist at the Church of St Adalbert in Prague. His evenings were 
free, his life less arduous and he devoted more time to composition. 

The F minor Quartet is autobiographical in a way similar to Smetana's 
Quartet 'From my life', and the second movement is reminiscent of a 
Mendelssohnian 'Song without words'. Dvorak based the Romance on 
this movement, and it is a piece of simple and gentle charm. 

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PETER ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY 

Concerto for violin and orchestra in D major op. 35 
Program note by John N. Burk 

Tchaikovsky was born in Votkinsk, Russia, on 7 May 1840, and died in St Petersburg 
on 6 November 1893. He composed the Violin Concerto in 1878, and it was first 
performed by Adolph Brodsky and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra on 4 Decem- 
ber 1881. The first Boston performance of the Concerto was by Adolph Brodsky 
with the Symphony Orchestra of New York, conducted by Walter Damrosch in the 
Tremont Theatre on 13 January 1893. The first complete performance of the 
Concerto in this series was by Alexandre Petschnikov on 27 January 1900, and the 
most recent by Henryk Szeryng on 6 and 7 February 1959. 

The instrumentation: 
timpani and strings. 



2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, i 



Violinists have often advised, sometimes aided, composers in the writing 
of the solo part in concertos for their instrument; sometimes, too, one 
of them has carried a concerto composed under his judicious eye to per- 
formance and fame. Tchaikovsky was unfortunate in his soloist when 
he wrote his best-known piano concerto, and the same may be said even 
more emphatically about his Violin Concerto. Joseph Kotek, who 
inspired the work, shied away from it; Leopold Auer, to whom the com- 
poser dedicated it, openly repudiated it; and it fell to a third violinist, 
Adolph Brodsky, to perform and champion the now popular score. 




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Clarens on the shore of Lake Geneva, in the early spring of 1878. 
Tchaikovsky was in the mood for music. He wrote Mme von Meek 
on 27 March with enthusiasm about Lalo's Symphonic Espagnole, in 
which he found 'freshness, piquant rhythms, beautifully harmonized 
melodies'. Lalo, said Tchaikovsky, was like his favorites Delibes and 
Bizet in that he 'studiously avoids all commonplace routine, seeks new 
forms without wishing to appear profound, and, unlike the Germans, 
cares more for musical beauty than for mere respect for the old tradi- 
tions'. It would seem that Lalo's persuasive concerto had directed 
Tchaikovsky's creative ambitions to that form, for when Kotek took 
out his violin and Tchaikovsky sat at the piano, the principal manu- 
script in hand turned out to be the sketch for his new violin concerto. 
He had put all other plans aside to complete this one, and he wrote to 
his publisher Jurgenson on 20 April: 'The violin concerto is hurrying 
toward its end. I fell by accident on the idea of composing one, but 
I started the work and was seduced by it, and now the sketches are 
almost completed.' He did complete his sketch the next day, ran 
through it with Kotek, who was still there, but before beginning on 
the scoring, he wrote an entirely new slow movement. 

Tchaikovsky sent a copy of the Concerto to Mme von Meek before its 
publication. With the canzonetta she was 'delighted beyond descrip- 
tion,' but evidently the first movement did not entirely satisfy her, for 
Tchaikovsky wrote on 22 June: 'Your frank judgment on my violin 

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concerto pleased me very much. It would have been very disagreeable 
to me, if you, from any fear of wounding the petty pride of a composer, 
had kept back your opinion. However, I must defend a little the first 
movement of the concerto. Of course it houses, as does every piece 
that serves virtuoso purposes, much that appeals chiefly to the mind; 
nevertheless, the themes are not painfully evolved: the plan of this 
movement sprang suddenly in my head, and quickly ran into its 
mould. I shall not give up hope that in time the piece will give you 
greater pleasure.' 

Tchaikovsky dedicated the new concerto to his friend Leopold Auer, 
head of the violin department at the St Petersburg Conservatory, hop- 
ing of course that Auer would introduce it in Russia. Auer, however, 
shook his head over the score, pronounced it unreasonably difficult. 

Nearly four years passed without a performance. At length, another 
violinist, Adolph Brodsky, saw the music and took it in hand. He 
obtained the assent of Hans Richter to giwe the music a hearing at the 
concerts of the Philharmonic Orchestra in Vienna. After this perform- 
ance (4 December 1881) there were loud hisses, evidently directed 
against the music, which subsided only when Brodsky, to increased 
applause, returned three times to bow. Eight of the ten reviews 
were what the translator of Modeste Tchaikovsky's life of his brother 
has called 'extremely slashing'. The phrase is surely not too strong 
for the vicious condemnation by Eduard Hanslick. His review has gone 
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Tor a while the concerto has proportion, is musical and is not without 
genius, but soon savagery gains the upper hand and lords it to the end 
of the first movement. The violin is no longer played; it is yanked 
about, it is torn asunder, it is beaten black and blue. I do not know 
whether it is possible for anyone to conquer these hair-raising diffi- 
culties, but I do know that Mr Brodsky martyrized his hearers as well 
as himself. The Adagio, with its tender national melody, almost con- 
cilates, almost wins us; but it breaks off abruptly to make way for a 
finale that puts us in the midst of the brutal and wretched jollity of 
a Russian kermess. We see wild and vulgar faces, we hear curses, we 
smell bad brandy. Friedrich Vischer once asserted in reference to 
lascivious paintings that there are pictures that "stink in the eye". 
Tchaikovsky's violin concerto brings us for the first time to the horrid 
idea that there may be music that stinks in the ear.' 




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The composer, particularly sensitive at that time to public criticism, 
was deeply hurt by the vicious attack which he remembered word for 
word for the rest of his life. One wonders whether the objections, 
spoken and written, to music of such obvious popular appeal could 
have been mostly due to its novelty, to the certain freedom with which 
Tchaikovsky treated the sacrosanct form. The greater likelihood is that 
the performance by the orchestra failed to convey a clear or favorable 
impression of the piece. Despite its admitted (too freely admitted!) 
difficulties, Richter allowed only a single rehearsal in which most of 
the time was spent in straightening out numerous errors in the parts. 
The players' coolness towards the concerto was not lessened by this 
circumstance, nor by the difficulties in the string parts, and their per- 
formance was accordingly dull routine. Richter wished to make cuts, 
but the youthful champion of Tchaikovsky held his own. 

In fact Brodsky, writing to the composer shortly after the first perform- 
ance, gives evidence that it could hardly have been intelligible: 

'I had the wish to play the Concerto in public ever since I first looked 
it through. That was two years ago. I often took it up and often put 
it down, because my laziness was stronger than my wish to reach the 
goal. You have, indeed, crammed too many difficulties into it. I played 



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it last year in Paris to Laroche, but so badly that he could gain no true 
idea of the work; nevertheless, he was pleased with it. That journey to 
Paris which turned out unluckily for me — I had to bear many rude 
things from Colonne and Pasdeloup — fired my energy (misfortune 
always does this to me, but when I am fortunate then am I weak) so 
that, back in Russia, I took up the concerto with burning zeal. It is 
wonderfully beautiful! One can play it again and again and never be 
bored; and this is a most important circumstance for the conquering of 
its difficulties. When I felt myself sure of it, I determined to try my 
luck in Vienna. Now I come to the point where I must say to you that 
you should not thank me: I should thank you; for it was only the wish 
to know the new concerto that induced Hans Richter and later the 
Philharmonic Orchestra to hear me play and grant my participation in 
one of these concerts. The concerto was not liked at the rehearsal of 
the new piece, although I came out successfully on its shoulders. It 
would have been most unthankful on my part, had I not strained every 
nerve to pull my benefactor through behind me. Finally, we were 
admitted to the Philharmonic concert. I had to be satisfied with one 
rehearsal, and much time was lost there in the correction of the parts, 
that swarmed with errors. The players determined to accompany every- 
thing pianissimo, not to go to smash; naturally, the work, which de- 
mands many nuances, even in the accompaniment, suffered accordingly.' 




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In gratitude to his soloist-champion, Tchaikovsky wrote to Jurgenson 
(27 December 1881): 'My dear, I saw lately in a cafe a number of the 
Nene Freie Presse in which Hanslick speaks so curiously about my 
violin concerto that I beg you to read it. Besides other reproaches he 
censures Brodsky for having chosen it. If you know Brodsky's address, 
please write to him that I am moved deeply by the courage shown 
by him in playing so difficult and ungrateful a piece before a most 
prejudiced audience. If Kotek, my best friend, were so cowardly and 
pusillanimous as to change his intention of acquainting the St Peters- 
burg public with this concerto, although it was his pressing duty to 
play it, for he is responsible in the matter of ease of execution of the 
piece; if Auer, to whom the work is dedicated, intrigued against me, so 
am I doubly thankful to dear Brodsky, in that for my sake he must 
stand the curses of the Viennese journals.' 

In spite of its poor start, and in spite of the ill will of Hanslick (Philip 
Hale wrote that he 'was born hating program music and the Russian 
school'), the concerto prospered. Other violinists (notably Carl Halir) 
soon discovered that there lay in it a prime vehicle for their talents. 
This, too, in spite of the continuing censure of Leopold Auer. Tchai- 
kovsky wrote in the Diary of his tour of 1888: 'I do not know whether 
my dedication was nattering to Mr Auer, but in spite of his genuine 
friendship he never tried to conquer the difficulties of this concerto. 
He pronounced it impossible to play, and this verdict, coming from 
such an authority as the Leningrad virtuoso, had the effect of casting 
this unfortunate child of my imagination for many years to come into 
the limbo of hopelessly forgotten things.' 

At today's performance, Mr Perlman and the Orchestra will play the 
concerto as Tchaikovsky originally wrote it, without the traditional 
cuts. 



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295 



The B.S.O. and the Talking Machine -Part 1 

by Martin Bookspan 

The entire Eastern seaboard of the United States was sweltering in the 
grip of a brutal Indian Summer heat wave on the first day of October 
1917. In a hundred homes in Boston, bags were being packed and 
their owners preparing to take the 7.30 p.m. train bound for Phila- 
delphia. Embarking on a trip was nothing new to these men: they 
were the hundred members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and 
half-a-dozen times each season they went 'on the road' for a week or 
more at a time. As a matter of fact, it was barely two years since they 
had collected their gear for what had been the most extensive tour in 
the orchestra's history — a cross-country trip which had taken them to 
San Francisco for a triumphant series of thirteen concerts at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition. 




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But there was something different about the preparations this time. 
For one thing, the orchestra had not yet officially begun its 1917-18 
season on the familiar stage of Symphony Hall — that was still ten days 
off, on 12 and 13 October — yet here the men already were preparing 
for an expedition. For another, there was the oppressive, debilitating 
heat. String players wondered how they would ever be able to keep 
their instruments in tune. And what about the sensitive timpani skins, 
how would they survive the twin ordeals of weather and transportation? 
And then there was the most important difference of all: the orchestra 
was going on tour, to be sure, but not for the familiar purpose of 
playing a series of concerts in a string of cities before enthusiastic 
audiences. No, the only visible audience the Boston Symphony 
musicians would have for their impending performances were to be 
sound technicians and a couple of enormous acoustical recording horns. 

Probably nobody in the official party that day fully realized the signifi- 
cance of the occasion, but the Boston Symphony Orchestra was headed 
for the Camden, New Jersey, laboratory of the Victor Talking Machine 
Company, there to become the first symphony orchestra in the United 
States ever to make a phonograph record. 

Actually, the Victor Company was late in entering the field of orchestral 
recording. The first large-scale symphony orchestra recording, a per- 
formance of Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite by the London Palace 
Orchestra under Hermann Finck, was released in April 1909, by the 
English branch of the German Odeon Company. During the next 




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two years the Gramophone Company in England was releasing record- 
ings, by Landon Ronald and the New Symphony Orchestra, of such 
works as the scherzo from Mendelssohn's A Midsummer Night's Dream, 
the Overture to The Marriage of Figaro, and Sibelius' Finlandia (a 
score composed only a dozen years before!). Similarly, in Germany 
locally made symphony orchestra recordings had been available since 
1911, and Odeon in 1913 produced the first complete symphonies ever 
issued — Beethoven's Fifth and Sixth. 

It was with some excitement, despite the weather, that the early birds 
among the members of the Orchestra began to arrive at South Station. 
By six in the evening enough of them had gathered so that throughout 
the waiting room there were small groups of men playing cards, 
checkers, or chess. Shortly before seven Dr Karl Muck, their conductor, 
arrived on the scene. He had come directly from his summer home in 
Maine; he was wearing knickers, and his face was beaded with per- 
spiration. By 7.15 Manager Charles A. Ellis and Assistant Manager 
William Brennan had checked in the last members, and at exactly 7.30 
the train slowly began to pull out. 

The overnight train ride to Philadelphia in that pre-air-conditioned 
era was miserable. Sleep was virtually impossible and many players 
spent the night wandering through the cars chatting with their 
colleagues. In the conductor's stateroom Muck and Leslie Rogers, the 



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Librarian, conferred about the repertory to be recorded. Only the 
finale from Tchaikovsky's Fourth Symphony was definitely on the 
schedule, with the remaining pieces yet to be selected. Muck wanted 
to do movements from other symphonies, Rogers strongly favored 
shorter, lighter works (and, unknown to Muck, had packed the scores 
and parts of several such selections, among them the Prelude to the 
Third Act of Lohengrin, the Marche miniature from Tchaikovsky's 
First Suite and the Rakoczy March from The Damnation of Faust). 

Philadelphia's Broad Street Station was like a steam bath when the 
train arrived early on the morning of Tuesday, 2 October. The 
sleeping cars had to be vacated at 7 a.m. and so, in the semidarkness 
that precedes the rising of the sun, the hundred weary musicians 
staggered out of the train and onto the buses which were to take them 
across the river to Camden. 

When they finally arrived at their destination, tempers were strained 
and nobody was in the least enthusiastic about the work at hand — 
10 a.m. and 2 p.m. recording sessions in the laboratory each day from 
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One of those who greeted the orchestra was Victor Herbert, who three 
years earlier had formed ASCAP and now was vitally interested in 
being present at the sessions. After the preliminary introductions were 
concluded, the entire orchestra was ushered into the 'studio' where 
the recordings were to be made. 

The sight that greeted the musicians' eyes must have looked like some- 
thing out of a Rube Goldberg cartoon: 'The studio was formerly a 
church, I believe. Inside it were set up two large wooden igloo-type 
structures, each with a sort of doorlike opening. We were told that 
all the strings were to sit in one of these hovels, the rest of the orchestra 
in the other. Outside and in front of these igloos there was set up a 
stool and a music stand for the conductor, who would have to peek 
into the openings. It seems to me that there was a horn that came out 
of these openings and converged on a needle which made the impres- 
sion upon the wax in front of the conductor.' The words are those of 
Arthur Fiedler, for the past thirty-seven seasons the conductor of the 
Boston Pops Orchestra and in October 1917 a member of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, playing violin and viola. 

Seeing the physical conditions under which they would have to work, 
the musicians must have been appalled. However, though slowly and 
glumly, one hundred instrument cases were opened, and the orchestra's 
solo oboe player, the renowned Georges Longy, sounded his A. One 



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hundred times the sound was reechoed as there followed that dynamic, 
cacophonous bedlam produced when an orchestra tunes up. They 
steamed and they fumed, but they were all — in spite of themselves — 
beginning to be infected with the challenge and excitement soon to be 
felt everywhere in the room. 

© High Fidelity-Musical America. Reprinted by permission. 

In the second part of his article Martin Bookspan continues with the 
story of the first recording session of the Orchestra, and the subsequent 
impact of the finished records on the public. 

Martin Bookspan was born in Boston, studied at Harvard, and started 
professionally as director of serious music programs with various radio 
stations in Boston. He worked for the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
from 1954 to 1956 as radio, television and recordings co-ordinator. 
Since that time he has been based in New York. He is currently Pro- 
gram Consultant to WQXR, the radio station of The New York Times; 
host and commentator on the WQXR broadcasts of concerts by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra; member of the Music Advisory Panel of 
the USIA; music critic for Channel 7 News in New York; and con- 
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305 



The soloists 




At the recording of the Violin Concerto by Sibelius 



ITZHAK PERLMAN, who last appeared with the Orchestra at Tanglewood 
this summer at a Berkshire Festival concert and at the Berkshire Music 
Center gala, was born in Tel- Aviv in 1945. He was always determined to 
play the violin, and even after having polio at the age of four, he refused 
to give up. Since his illness he has had to play sitting down. 

His first studies were at the Tel-Aviv Academy of Music, and by the time he 
was ten his concerts and broadcasts had made his name well known in his 
own country. In 1958 Ed Sullivan was in Israel looking for talented young 
performers for his television show, and brought Perlman back to New York 
with other young Israeli artists. After two television appearances, Itzhak 
Perlman decided to stay in the United States, and went to the Juilliard 
School where his teachers were Ivan Galamian and Dorothy DeLay. Five 
years later he gave his first concert at Carnegie Hall, and in the following 
year he won the Leventritt Award. 

Two seasons ago he made an extended tour of the United States and he is 
now well known on both sides of the Atlantic. His recording with Mr 
Leinsdorf and the Orchestra of concertos by Sibelius and Prokofiev was 
recently released by RCA Victor. The critic of Hi Fi Stereo Review said of 
his performance of the Prokofiev Concerto no. 2 in G minor, that he cap- 
tures with sweet yet penetrating tone the work's lyricism and brilliance . 
Leinsdorf's excellent orchestral accompaniments are recorded with more 
wealth of detail that I have ever heard before in either the Prokofiev 01 
Sibelius concertos — the percussion in the Prokofiev is a striking instance in 
point. From a sonic standpoint, all other recordings seem thin and pale 
alongside this one.' 



306 




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30" 




EVERETT FIRTH was born in Winchester, 
Massachusetts though his family was from 
Maine. He studied with Saul Goodman, 
timpanist of the New York Philharmonic 
Symphony, at the Juilliard School, and with 
Roman Szulc, timpanist of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra, at the New England Con- 
servatory. He was graduated from the 
Conservatory with high honors and joined 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1952. 
On Szulc's retirement three years later Firth 

became at the age of 25 the Orchestra's youngest principal in 70 years. 

He was also a pupil at the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood. 

Everett Firth is a member of the Boston Symphony Chamber Players 
and is on the faculty of the Berkshire Music Center and the New Eng- 
land Conservatory. He has composed music for percussion ensembles 
and has written articles and books about the performance of percussion 
instruments. He imports instruments from Europe, and supplies not 
only his colleagues, but many schools and colleges in North and South 
America. He also manufactures sticks. In his spare time Everett Firth 
skis, fishes and hunts. His farthest adventures have taken him to Brazil 
to hunt jaguar, and to Alaska to hunt elk, moose and bear. An expert 
in antiques, he is about to open an art gallery in Dover which will 
specialize in primitive and early American art and in American clocks. 



WGBH-FM goes 

STEREO 

with 

"Live" Boston Symphony Orchestra Concerts 
► Morning Pro Musica 



CONTRIBUTED BY 

GEO. H. ELLIS PRINTING COMPANY 



308 




CHARLES SMITH has not missed a re- 
hearsal or concert in the 25 years of his 
membership of the Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra. A native of Newark, New Jersey, 
he studied at the Juilliard School, and was 
taught by Alfred Frisce, Gene Krupa, Wil- 
liam Dorn and Edward Rubsam. Before 
coming to Boston he played 600 perform- 
ances of Porgy and Bess in an orchestra 
conducted by Alexander Smallens. 

Charles Smith is on the faculty of Boston 
Jniversity, and has had many students who are now successful profes- 
ional musicians. He has done considerable research into the history 
>f percussion instruments and is keenly interested in contemporary 
nusic and jazz. At his home he has a soundproof room which contains 
m unusual collection of rare percussion instruments. 

lis other interests include literature, the theatre, Italian history and 
anguage and cartoons on percussion. His wife is a former professional 
nusician and his three daughters all play instruments. One is pres- 
:ntly at Boston University, another at the University of Michigan and 
he youngest is in Junior High School. The eldest, Joanne, appeared 
hree times as a child soloist with the Orchestra during the Esplanade 
eason. Charles Smith is a charter member of the Maugus Hill Lodge 
)f Masons in Wellesley Hills. 



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309 




HAROLD THOMPSON, born in Akron, 
Ohio, had a fascinatingly varied career be- 
fore he joined the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra in 1952. After his studies at the Cincin- 
nati Conservatory, where his teachers were 
George Carey and Fred Noak, his career 
began on a Mississippi River steamboat in a 
four piece Dixie band. He wrote a number 
for the famous dancer Mme LaZonga, which 
ended with the finale of the 18 12 Overture; 
became familiar with the music of the Mid- 
west Medicine Shows, whose pitchmen and their 'spiels' are legendary 
American folklore; and played in the bands of circuses and Wild West 
shows and in traveling dance orchestras at hotels, cabarets and amuse- 
ment parks. He then moved to theatre orchestras, and did a consider- 
able amount of radio work before the days of television. Sir Eugene 
Goossens gave him the opportunity to enter the symphonic field and 
he played in opera and ballet orchestras before joining the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. 

Harold Thompson is at present compiling an instruction book on per- 
cussion, and working on an article designating a special counting system 
for percussion players. He is one of the world's leading experts on 
cymbals and coaches professionals in his own special field; he chooses 
cymbals for his colleagues in orchestras all over the world. He is inter- 
ested in the graphic and visual arts, and he enjoys golf and skindiving. 
His other main hobby is salmon fishing, at which he is expert. 



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310 




ARTHUR PRESS joined the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra in 1956 at the age of 26. 
Before coming to Boston he played with the 
Little Orchestra Society of New York under 
Thomas Scherman and was solo percussion- 
ist at New York's Radio City Music Hall. 

Born in Brooklyn, he studied at the Juil- 
liard School on a full scholarship. His 
teachers there were Morris Goldenberg and 
Saul Goodman. While he was at Juilliard 
he used to play in Latin and jazz bands at 
night clubs, and in contrast used to perform avant-garde chamber 
music with John Cage and other contemporary composers. 

Recently appointed head of the percussion department at the Boston 
Conservatory, Arthur Press is also a member of the Boston Symphony 
Percussion Ensemble and still keeps alive his interest in jazz and Latin- 
american and African folk drumming. Later this season he and Everett 
Firth will perform the Sonata for two pianos and percussion by Bartok 
at Wellesley College. He lives in Newton Centre with his wife Beverly 
and their children Michele and Stuart. His wife is a painter, Stuart is 
studying violin by the Suzuki method, and Michele is learning the 
piano. Arthur Press enjoys teaching, reads a great deal, plays tennis, 
and in the summer spends time fishing and boating with his family on 
the Stockbridge Bowl. 




"The Man Who 
Cares, Prepares" 

SHARON MEMORIAL PARK 

SHARON. MASSACHUSETTS 
Telephone Boston Area 364-2855 



For information about space 
and rates in 

THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY 

PROGRAM 

Call Advertising Department 
Symphony Hall 

• 

CO 6-1492 
Donald T. Gammons 



311 




TICKET RESALE AND RESERVATION PLAN 

The Ticket Resale and Reservation Plan which has been in practice 
for the past four seasons has been most successful. The Trustees are 
grateful to those subscribers who have complied with it, and again 
wish to bring this plan to the attention of the Orchestra's subscribers 
and Friends. 

Subscribers who wish to release their seats for a specific concert are 
urged to do so as soon as convenient. They need only call Symphony 
Hall, CO 6-1492, and give their name and ticket location to the 
switchboard operator. Subscribers releasing their seats for resale will 
continue to receive written acknowledgment for income tax purposes. 
Since the Management has learned by experience how many returned 
tickets it may expect for concerts, those who wish to make requests 
for tickets may do so by telephoning Symphony Hall and asking for 
"Reservations." Requests will be filled in the order received and 
no reservations will be made when the caller cannot be assured of 
a seat. Tickets ordered under this plan may be purchased and picked 
up from the Box Office on the day of the concert two hours prior to 
the start of the program. Tickets not claimed a half-hour before 
concert time will be released. 



Last season the successful operation of the Ticket Resale and Reserva- 
tion Plan aided in reducing the Boston Symphony Orchestra's deficit 
by more than $22,000. 



312 




THOMAS GAUGER's interest in music 
started when he began learning the french 
horn as a child. But before he went to high 
school in Wheaton, Illinois, he changed to 
the snare drum, and when he moved to the 
University of Illinois he studied applied 
music with Paul Price and Jack McKenzie. 
He played there in the orchestra, the concert 
band, the wind and percussion ensembles 
and the football band. He won a scholar- 
ship to the Berkshire Music Center, and 
studied there with Everett Firth. 

While still at school, Thomas Gauger went to New York to make a 
recording of percussion ensemble music, and after graduation was 
assistant percussion instructor at his own university. After his first 
professional engagement in Canada at the Saskatoon Festival he went 
to Oklahoma City as the Symphony's principal percussionist, and while 
he was there also recorded for movies, played in pit orchestras and in 
night clubs, as well as teaching at the local universities. He joined the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1963, and is now a member of the 
Boston Symphony Percussion Ensemble, and teaches and conducts the 
percussion ensemble at Boston University. He has written several com- 
positions, one of which has been published; another was performed 
last year at Boston University. Secretary of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra Players' Committee, he is also a member of the Wind and 
Percussion Committee. 

There are two pairs of twins in Thomas Gauger's family of five 
children, and apart from the time he gives them, he experiments in 
improvements to percussion instruments and sticks. He invents chil- 
dren's games and toys, and gadgets for the household. He enjoys work- 
ing with wood and has recently become interested in oil painting. His 
sports include tennis and bowling. 




DISTILLED AND BOTTLED IN SCOTLAND BLENDED 06 PROOF „. . 
THE BUCttlNOHAM CORPORATION. IMPORTERS; NEW YORK, N. V. 



313 



Exhibition 

The exhibition on view in the gallery is loaned by the Adelson Gal- 
leries, 154 Newbury Street, Boston, which specializes in nineteenth and 
twentieth century paintings and represents particularly American 
Impressionists and artists of the Hudson River School. 




FUNERAL 
SERVICE 




SINCE 
1832 



J* S. Waterman $ Sons, Inc. 

BOSTON WELLESLEY WAYLAND 



314 



A selection of recordings by the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

under the direction of 
ERICH LEINSDORF 



FAURE 

Elegy for cello and orchestra (Mayes) 
with Prokofiev Symphony-Concerto 



LM/LSC 2703 



MENDELSSOHN 

A midsummer night's dream (Saunders, LM/LSC 2673 

Vanni, Swenson, New England Conservatory Chorus) 



MOZART 

Symphony no. 41 — Eine kleine Nachtmusik 

Requiem Mass (Kennedy Memorial Service) 



LM/LSC 2694 
LM/LSC 7030 



PROKOFIEV 

Symphony no. 5 

Symphony no. 6 

Symphony-Concerto (Mayes) 
with Faure Elegy 

Piano Concertos 1 and 2 (Browning) 
Piano Concerto no. 5 (Hollander) with 
Violin Concerto no. 1 (Friedman) 
Violin Concerto no. 2 (Perlman) 
with Sibelius Violin Concerto 



LM/LSC 2707 
LM/LSC 2834 
LM/LSC 2703 

LM/LSC 2897 
LM/LSC 2732 

LM/LSC 2962 



RIMSKY-KORSAKOV 

Le Coq d'Or Suite 
with Stravinsky The Firebird Suite 



LM/LSC 2725 



SCHUMANN 

Symphony no. 4 

with Beethoven Overture Leonore no. 3 



LM/LSC 2701 



Monaural records are prefixed LM; stereophonic LSC. 



The Boston Symphony Orchestra 
records exclusively for 




@ The most trusted name in sound 



315 



ARE YOU PUTTING 
YOUR FINANCIAL AFFAIRS 
IN THE BEST POSSIBLE HANK 

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316 



FUTURE PROGRAMS 



Sixth Program 

Friday afternoon 10 November at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 1 1 November at 8.30 



MOZART 
WEBERN 
BRUCKNER 



Divertimento in D major K. 205 
Variations op. 30 
Symphony no. 7 in E major 



Next week the Orchestra will play three contrasting works by Austrian 
composers. The Mozart Divertimento is a delightful piece, with four 
light, gay movements surrounding one of the composer's most beautiful 
slow movements. 

The works of the classic Viennese school of twelve-note composers are 
an essential background to the understanding of the contemporary 
musical scene, and the Variations of Webern is the second of these 
pieces to be performed this season. The Variations, written in 1940, are 
simple and direct and full of beautiful orchestral effects. 

Bruckner's Seventh Symphony is the best known of his orchestral works. 
The theme of the slow movement is one of the most exquisite in the 
whole of the musical literature of the nineteenth century. 

The concert on Friday will end at about 4.05 
and at about 10.35 on Saturday 



! 



Seventh Program 

Friday afternoon 17 November at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening 18 November at 8.30 



HAYDN 



Symphony no. 79 in F major 



PROKOFIEV Piano Concerto no. 3 in C major 

JOHN BROWNING 

DVORAK Symphony no. 6 in D major 



programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



317 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 







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RUTH POLLEN GLASS 

Teacher of Speech 

• in Industry • in Education 

• in Therapy • in Theatre 
Near Harvard Square KI 7-8817 

HARRY GOODMAN 

Teacher of Piano 

143 LONGWOOD AVENUE 

BROOKLINE • MASS. 

ASpinwall 7-1259 — 734-2933 



MINNIE WOLK 

PIANOFORTE STUDIO 

42 Symphony Chambers 

246 Huntington Avenue, Boston 

opp. Symphony Hall 

Residence 395-6126 

KATE FRISKIN 

Pianist and Teacher 

8 CHAUNCY STREET 
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

ELiot 4-3891 



RUTH SHAPIRO 

PIANIST • TEACHER 

1728 Beacon Street 

Brookline, Massachusetts 

Telephone RE gent 4-3267 



318 



Mrs. Aaron Richmond and Walter Pierce 
present in the 1967-68 Boston University 

CELEBRITY SERIES 



THIS SUN. AFT., NOV. 5 at 3 



JORDAN HALL 



ALICIA DELARROCHA 

The celebrated Spanish pianist 

Couperin, Les Roseaux; Mozart, B flat major Sonata, K. 333; 
Mendelssohn, Variations Serieuses, Op. 54; Selections from 
Granados', "Goyescas" and Albeniz's, "Iberia"; Navarra. 



STEINWAY PIANO 



FRI. & SAT. EVES., NOV. 24, 25 at 8:15 • BOSTON GARDEN 

A Royal Spectacle from Great Britain 
The Massed Bands, Drums, Pipes and Dancers of the 

WELSH GUARDS AND SCOTS GUARDS 

Featuring for the First Time in America — "The Ceremony of the 
Keys" as performed in the Tower of London. 

And . . . Prince of Wales Company Squad in drills as executed 
at Buckingham Palace. 

Tickets Now: $5, $4, $3, $2 at Boston Garden 
Mail Orders with self-addressed stamped envelope to 
Boston Garden, North Station, Boston 02114. 



1 



SUN. AFT., NOV. 26 at 3 • SYMPHONY HALL 

VLADIMIR ASHKENAZY 

Brilliant Soviet Pianist 

Schubert, Sonata No. 3 in B flat Major (Posthumous); Chopin, Twelve Etudes, 
Op. 10; ProkofiefF, Sonata No. 7, Op. 83. 

Tickets on sale beginning Monday 

$5.00, $4.00, $3.00, $2.75 

STEINWAY PIANO 



SUN. DEC. 3 at 3 • SYMPHONY HALL 

World-Renowned Yugoslavian Chamber Orchestra 

I SOLISTI Dl ZAGREB 

Antonio Janigro, Conductor and Cello Soloist 

Pergolesi, Concertino No. 2 in G; Boccherini, Concerto in B flat for 

Violoncello and Strings; Hartmann, Concerto Funebre for Violin and 

Strings; Kelemen, Surprise; Handel, Concerto Grosso in D, Op. 6, No. 5 

Tickets on sale November 13 



"The Baldwin is the ideal piano 
for solo and orchestral work and 
particularly for chamber music. 
Its wide range of tonal color 
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— Erich Leinsdorf 




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FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



1 



Exquisite 
Sound 




From the palaces 
of ancient Egypt 
to the concert halls 
of our modern 
cities, the wondrous 
music of the harp has 
compelled attention 
from all peoples and all 
countries. Through this 
passage of time many 
changes have been made 
in the original design. The 
early instruments shown in 
drawings on the tomb of 
Rameses II (1292-1225 B.C.) 
were richly decorated but 
lacked the fore-pillar. Later 
the "Kinner" developed by the 
Hebrews took the form as we 
know it today. The pedal harp 
was invented about 1720 by a 
Bavarian named Hochbrucker and 
through this ingenious device it be- 
came possible to play in eight major 
and five minor scales complete. Today 
the harp is an important and familiar 
instrument providing the "Exquisite 
Sound" and special effects so important 
to modern orchestration and arrange- 
ment. The certainty of change makes 
necessary a continuous review of your 
insurance protection. We welcome the 
opportunity of providing this service for 
your business or personal needs. 

We respectfully invite your inquiry 

CHARLES H. WATKINS 6b CO. 

Richard P. Nyquist — Charles G. Carleton 

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Telephone 542-1250 



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Insurance of Every Description 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

FRANCIS W. HATCH MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 

ANDREW HEISKELL SIDNEY R. RABB 

HAROLD D. HODGKINSON RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

323 



Hear the brighter side of Bruckner 
performed by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra under Leinsdorf. 

This is the Boston Symphony's first recording of Bruckner. 
And the Fourth Symphony (the "Romantic") is an ideal 
introduction to this 19th-century composer's genius. 
This composition is happy . . . charming . . . and more spirited 
than you might expect Bruckner to be. Hear it soon, 
performed by the Bostonians under Leinsdorf. 
In brilliant Dynagroove sound. 



Bruckner/ Symphony No. 4 in E-Flat("/?omanfic") 
Boston Symphony Orchestra/Erich Leinsdorf 

7ki dutttxxat Ojf (hoUOiat 




BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 

Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 
Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 

Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 

Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



WILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



*members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



325 



§)X(afianna%c. 




Simple Splendor 

So right for this new season — our 
paisley wool kaftan outlined with 
gold braid. Petite, Small, Medium, 
Large. $135.00 



416 BOYLSTON STREET 
BOSTON 02116 
KEnmore 6-6238 



54 CENTRAL STREET 
WELLESLEY 
CEdar 5-3430 



At the / 

Boston Symphony 
Concerts / 
this year, 




these Pianists . . 

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THE FUND FOR THE BOSTON SYMPHONY 

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Contents 



Program for November loand 11 1967 

Future programs 

Program notes 

Mozart - Divertimento in D major K. 205 
by James Lyons 

Webern - Variations op. 30 
by James Lyons 

Bruckner - Symphony no. 7 in E major 

by John N. Burk 

The Conservatory's role in music education - Part 1 

by Gunther Schuller 

A member of the orchestra 



331 

381 

332 

344 

354 

368 

375 



329 



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330 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 






Sixth Program 

Friday afternoon November 10 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening November 1 1 at 8.30 



ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

MOZART Divertimento in D major K. 205 

Large - Allegro 
Menuetto 
Adagio 
Menuetto 
Finale: Presto 

First performance at these concerts 

WEBERN Variations op. 30 

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INTERMISSION 



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BRUCKNER Symphony no. 7 in E major 

Allegro moderato 

Adagio: Sehr feierlich und sehr langsam 
Scherzo: Sehr schnell - Trio: Etwas langsamer 
Finale: Bewegt, doch nicht schnell 



The concert will end at about 4 o'clock on Friday 
and at about 10.30 on Saturday 



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331 



Program Notes 

WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART 
Divertimento in D major K. 205 
Program note by James Lyons 

James Lyons, an alumnus of the New England Conservatory and a 
graduate of Boston University, was born in Peabody, Massachusetts. 
He wrote about music for The Boston Post and The Boston Globe, 
and contributed to The Christian Science Monitor. He was editor and 
critic for Musical America, and has been for ten years the editor of 
The American Record Guide. 

Mozart was born in Salzburg on January 27 1756, and died in Vienna on December 5 

The Divertimento has been performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra under 
the direction of Erich Leinsdorf at Tanglewood on July 5 1963, and July 9 1967. 
The instrumentation: strings, 2 horns and bassoon. 

To a certain peregrinating Dr Browne, whose travel diary is dated 1684, 
it was among the exotic delights of Vienna that 'not an evening passed 
without one's hearing a Nachtmusik under our windows'. The good 
doctor's astonishment is easily understandable, his journeys having long 
antedated Baedeker's invention of the guidebook. From the corrobora- 
tion of various contemporary sources, however, it would appear that 
this sort of thing was even then a well-established Viennese custom. I 
More to the point, who got serenaded apparently was not a consequence 
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daughter no less than a rich widow could expect to hear her charms 
extolled in song from the other side of the casement. On the other 
hand, this harmless minimum of democracy hardly could upset the 
ecology of a sophisticated capital that had been a seat of empire since 
Marcus Aurelius. 

Matters were rather different in the provincial archbishopric of Salz- 
burg, one hundred and sixty miles to the west and south — and 
especially so as of 1772, when the nominally spiritual but in fact all- 
pervasive autonomy over this jurisdiction was assumed by the repre- 
hensible Hieronymus Joseph Franz von Paula, Bishop of Gurk and 
Count of Colloredo ('to the general surprise and grief of the populace', 
as one euphemistic account has it). There was plenty of music in the 
air on festive occasions, but traditionally it belonged to the upper 
classes and to the incumbent ecclesiastical princeling. The smithy and 
the egg-chandler, unless they happened to be troubadours on the side, 
did their wooing without benefit of song. 

The young Mozart — being Mozart — more than once lavished his 
genius on works prepared solely for the pleasure of not-so-affluent 
neighbors. But most of his divertimenti, serenades, partitas, notturni, 
cassations, and otherwise designated 'occasional' pieces were composed 
on commission; and ordering music always has been a perquisite of 
wealth (once that of individuals, and nowadays more often that of 
foundations). So that the 'occasions' involved did include a proletariat 
wedding, for instance; but sumptuous banquets or noble name-day 
galas predominated. 



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Whatever the event, music was expected merely to add adornment. 
Certainly it was not expected to divert attention from the more tangible 
delectations of the table. To be sure, few performances of such servizio 
di tavola ever could be heard to advantage above the chatter of guests 
and the clatter of their refreshment rites; and that was the idea, for 
this music was ordained not to complement social graces but to 'cover' 
them. The rapt attentiveness that is a concomitant of modern concert 
ritual did not become standard until relatively late in the evolution of 
manners. Only with the dawning of the nineteenth century, and the 
emergence of Beethoven, would the genus composer shed his livery and 
take a seat 'above the salt' — in any prandial place of the nobility a 
symbolic line of demarcation between the lower orders and the prop- 
erly born. (And long after Mozart, too, came the impresarios who per- 
ceived that mass chic was more predictable than aristocratic patronage; 
to borrow a phrase from the argot of investment brokerage, music 
would not 'go public' for many decades.) 

In this perspective it is endlessly fascinating to observe the ease with 
which Mozart geared his creativity to the imperatives of supply and 
demand. On the external evidence not many of his acknowledged 
masterworks sprang from innermost impulses. Excepting the piano 
concertos and little else until his last years, he composed either C.O.D. 
or in calculated anticipation of a sale. And yet the meanest of motiva- 
tions did not diminish his artistry. Many of his commissioned pieces 



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are as worthy of their author as the most profoundly personal of his 
utterances. Surely that compliment is deserved by several of the 
'occasional' works; Alfred Einstein singles out the K. 205 as a 'fore- 
runner of this chamber music of the finest type. . . .' 

How many times Mozart bent to his genius this loosely-defined genre 
(part symphony, part suite, part Muzak), no one can say with assurance. 
Some three dozen examples survive, the profusion of titles amounting 
to a distinction without much difference. Only the divertimenti tend 
to be set slightly apart by their relative uniformity of instrumentation: 
each asks for horns and a proportionately augmentable string quartet 
(with bassoon doubling the cello line in the K. 205). 

All of these works are subsumed under the marvelously German rubric j 
of U nter haltungsmusik, which might be translated as the eighteenth- 
century equivalent of what one gets now from an innocuous supper- 
club ensemble. In other words, the music is part of the total atmos- 
phere and therefore not expendable; but at the same time it cannot be 
heard above the din and is therefore not meant for careful listening. 
'Background music' would be a somewhat less equivocal statement of 
the original raison d'etre, but the term as it is presently understood 
does not begin to delineate the plethora of felicities in this writing. 
Mozart was truly the personification of a 'buyer's market' — his cus- 
tomers invariably got more than they paid for, and their bargains got 
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modest investments are still paying interest not to heirs and assigns 
but to the whole world. The foregoing may not conform to classical 
economics, but it does describe how uniquely sure a thing was any 
transaction in which the producer was Mozart and the commodity was! 
music. The consumer never lost. 

Mozart was seventeen when he composed the K. 205. The exact date 
is unknown, but the consensus places it in the summer of 1773. Much 
has been made of a 'romantic crisis' in the young composer's life earlier 
that year, while he was sojourning for the third and last time in his 
beloved Italy. But this is conjecture. One defensible inference is that 
what Einstein perceives as the 'great change' in Mozart's symphonic 
style as of 1773 may be attributed to the pangs of adolescence. And it is 
tempting to suggest a causal correlation between Mozart's leap forward 
artistically and whatever may have happened in Italy that winter. 
Still, no one can say what the latter might have been. 

Nor is it fair to look for evidences of the symphonic 'great change' in 
this Divertimento, which was cut from different cloth. Progress, yes, 
and more mastery than we have any right to expect of a teen-ager even 
if he is a Mozart. But a symphony represents quite another realm of 
expression. The K. 205 is music for entertainment; if it holds any 
secrets they have by now reverted to the composer by default. Einstein 
tries to imagine its first performance 'in a candle-lit arbor. Here there | 
could be no probing of depths; art must remain inconspicuous and I 
must clothe itself in charm.' A candle-lit arbor, perhaps; but where? 
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hoped to talk the Empress Maria Theresa into a court appointment 
for his son. In one of his letters from Vienna that August the elder 
Mozart mentions a garden party at the Landstrasse home of Dr Anton 
Mesmer, the celebrated hypnotist. That would have been a logical 
setting for the premiere of this music, no matter where it had been 
composed. 

In addition, there is the fact that Vienna was just then enjoying a 
heyday of street serenades. We learn from the Theater Almanac that 
these 'do not, however, consist as in Italy or Spain of the simple accom- 
paniment of a vocal part by a guitar or mandolin but of trios and 
quartets (most frequently from operas) of several vocal parts, of wind 
instruments, frequently of an entire orchestra, and the most ambitious 
symphonies are performed. . . . No matter how late at night they take 
place, one soon discovers people at their open windows and within a 
few minutes the musicians are surrounded by a crowd of listeners who 
rarely depart until the serenade has come to an end.' 

One fancies that the K. 205 would have drawn a pretty sizable audience 
under these circumstances. Italophiles would have reveled in its deli- 
cious simulation of opera buffa. Both of its Minuets would have 
elicited cheers, the first for the canonic richness of its Trio and the 
second for its delightfully mock-pompous horn parts. And the whole 
work might have told its listeners, had they known what we know, that 
Mozart was just about to take leave of la galanterie — that special 
amalgam of glister and gold he compounded so well — and thenceforth, 
beginning with the G minor Symphony of later that year, to work more 
and more intensely with those powerful new elements which were his 
alone to mingle. Georges de Saint-Foix asks the question for which 
there is no adequate answer: 'whence do all these arise if not from 
the very depths of Mozart's soul?' 

© James Lyons 




342 



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ANTON (VON) WEBERN 

Variations for Orchestra op. 30 
Program note by James Lyons 

Webern was born in Vienna on December 3 1883, and died in Mittersill, Austria on 
September 15 1945. 

The instrumentation: flute, oboe, clarinet in B flat, bass clarinet, horn, trumpet, 
trombone, tuba, timpani, celesta, harp and strings. 

Igor Stravinsky has not been noted for cordiality (nor even courtesy) in 
his evaluation of co-professionals. But of at least one contemporary 
composer Stravinsky has never spoken a splenetic word: to the con- 
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'dazzling diamonds' is his estimate. 

The analogy is all too accurate. Whatever the multum in this music it 
is very much in parvo. Except for some youthful 'pre- Webern Webern' 
and a handful of arrangements, his catalogue comprises thirty-one 
entries. They average less than six minutes in length, and in the aggre- 
gate their performance would involve an elapsed time of something 
under three hours. Ironically, this extraordinary succinctness has not 
facilitated public popularity for any of these works. But tastes change, 
and today a whole generation of young musicians is lending its advo- 
cacy to the belated recognition of this tragic genius — this 'threshold' 
of modernism, as Pierre Boulez has described him, whose destiny was 
to react against all inherited rhetoric 'in order to rehabilitate the 
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But for his premature death, apparently at the hands of a trigger-happy 
American soldier of occupation who mistook him for a black-marketeer 
(Hans Moldenhauer has devoted a whole book to this episode), 
Webern's life had been undramatic. A native of Vienna, scion of a 
noble old Tyrolean landowning family, he had started out to be a 
musicologist; and indeed his dissertation was a study of Heinrich 
Isaac's Ch oralis Constantinus. But even then he had passed the crucial 
turning point; as early as 1904 he had begun to study privately with 
Arnold Schoenberg (having first applied to, and been rejected by, the 
reactionary Hans Pfitzner!), and no guru ever had a more unwavering 
disciple. 

Whatever his private creative path, Webern subsequently made a 
modest mark as a conductor and teacher. But the Nazi annexation of 
Austria dealt a quietus to his career; under the 'new order' his God-in- 
nature, devoutly Roman Catholic mysticism was anathema. There 
was to be no more conducting, no more teaching. To escape the slave 
labor camps Webern was reduced to the ignominy of being a proof- 
reader for his former publisher. And his music was declared to be 
'inimical to the State' — which is to say that it was banned. 

These were the conditions under which Webern composed, in 1940, 
his Variations for Orchestra. He heard the music only once, in 1943, 
when he somehow secured permission to attend a performance under 
Hermann Scherchen in the Swiss industrial city of Winterthur, near 
Zurich. It was the first time he had heard a note of his music at a 'live' 
concert for some five years. It was also the last time. 



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Toward the end of World War II the composer fled Vienna and sought 
refuge in the home of his daughter and son-in-law at Mittersill, a 
picturesque town in the Pinzgau, southwest of Salzburg. And there, 
one fateful evening five months after peace had returned to Europe, 
Webern stepped outside to smoke before retiring. A few minutes later 
he was dead. 

In approaching the op. 30 it is obligatory to cite from a detailed letter 
about it written by the composer on May 3 1941 to his friend Willi 
Reich. The standard English translation of this document, by Leo 
Black, is appended to the Theodore Presser edition of Webern's lec- 
tures. The following passages are relevant: 'I should like very briefly 
to tell you a little about the work, so that you have an effective counter 
to possible objections and can throw at least a certain amount of 
light. . . . 

'Won't the reaction when they first see the score be "Why, there's 
'nothing there' "!!! Because those concerned will miss the many, many 
notes they're used to seeing, in R. Strauss, etc. Correct! But that in 
fact touches on the most important point: it would be vital to say that 
here (in my score) there is indeed a different style. Yes, but what sort? 
It doesn't look like a score from before Wagner either — Beethoven, 
for instance, nor does it look like Bach. Is one to go back still further? 
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'But it should still be possible to find a certain similarity with the type 
of presentation that occurs in the Netherlanders. So, something 
"archaistic"? Like Josquin orchestrated? The answer would have to 
be an energetic "no"! 

'. . . What kind of style, then? I believe, again, a new one. Exactly 
following natural law in its material, as the earlier, preceding forms 
followed tonality; that's to say, building a tonality, but one that uses 
the possibilities offered by the nature of sound in a different way, 
namely on the basis of a system that does "relate only to each other" 
(as Arnold [Schoenberg] has put it) the 12 different notes customary in 
Western music up to now, but doesn't on that account . . . ignore the I 
rules of order provided by the nature of sound — namely the relation- 
ship of the overtones to a fundamental. . . .' 

The composer then explicates the serial structure of his op. 30, which 
is based on the following tone row: A, B flat, D flat, C / B, D, E flat, 
G flat / F, E, G, A flat. It may be helpful for the listener to know that 
these subdivided segments are introduced respectively by the double 
bass, oboe, and muted trombone. 

Webern's letter continues: 'The "theme" of the Variations extends to 
the first double bar; it is conceived as a period, but is "introductory" in 
character. Six variations follow (each one to the next double bar). The 
first bringing the first subject (so to speak) of the overture (andante- 



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form), which unfolds in full; the second the bridge-passage, the third 
the second subject, the fourth the recapitulation of the first subject — 
for it's an andante form!— but in a developing manner, the fifth, 
repeating the manner of the introduction and bridge-passage, leads to 
the Coda; sixth variation. 

'Now everything that occurs in the piece is based on the two ideas 
given in the first and second bars (double bass and oboe!). But it's 
reduced still more, since the second shape (oboe) is itself retrograde; 
the second two notes are the cancrizan [Latin for retrograde, denoting 
the backward reading of a melody; literally, crablike motion] of the 
first two, but rhythmically augmented. They are followed, on the 
trombone, by a repetition of the first shape (double bass), but in 
diminution! And in cancrizan as to motives and intervals. That's how 
my row is constructed — it's contained in these thrice four notes. 

'But the succession of motives takes part in this cancrizan, though with 
the use of augmentation and diminution! These two kinds of variation 
now lead almost exclusively to the various variation ideas; that's to 
say motivic variation happens, if at all, only within these limits. But 
through all possible displacements of the centre of gravity within the 
two shapes there's forever something new in the way of time-signature, 
character, etc. Simply compare the first repetition of the first shape 
with its first form (trombone or double bass!). And that's how it goes 
on throughout the whole piece, whose twelve notes, that's to say the 
row, contain its entire content in embryo! . . .' 

© James Lyons 



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353 






ANTON BRUCKNER 
Symphony no. 7 in E major 

Program note by John N. Burk 

Bruckner was born in Ansfelden in Upper Austria on September 4 1824, and died 
in Vienna on October 1 1 1896. 

He composed the Seventh Symphony in the years 1882 and 1883. The first perform- 
ance was at the Stadttheater in Leipzig with Arthur Nikisch conducting, on Decem- 
ber 30 1884. It was introduced in Vienna by Hans Richter on March 21 1886. 

The first performance in the United States was in Chicago by the orchestra of 
Theodore Thomas on July 29 1886. The first performance in Boston was at a Boston 
Symphony concert led by Wilhelm Gericke on January 5 1887. The most recent 
performances in their series were on January 10 and 11 1964, with Erich Leinsdorf 
conducting. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trombones, 
4 Wagner tubas, bass tuba, timpani, cymbals, triangle and strings. 
The score is dedicated to King Ludwig II of Bavaria. 

The Seventh Symphony was the direct means of Bruckner's general 
(and tardy) recognition. For years he had dwelt and taught in Vienna 
under the shadow of virtual rejection from its concert halls. In this 
stronghold of anti-Wagnerism there could have been no greater offense 
than the presence of a symphonist who accepted the tenets of the 
'music of the future' with immense adoration. Bruckner, with his 
characteristic zeal to which nothing could give pause, composed sym- 
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On December 29 1884, Hugo Wolf, the intrepid Wagnerian, asked 
the rhetorical question: 'Bruckner? Bruckner? Who is he? Where 
does he live? What does he do? Such questions are asked by people 
who regularly attend the concerts in Vienna.' 

The answer came from Leipzig, where, on the next day, a young 
enthusiast and ex-pupil of the sixty-year-old Bruckner gave the Seventh 
Symphony its first performance. The place was the Stadttheater; the 
conductor Arthur Nikisch. It was one of his flaming readings — an 
unmistakable act of revelation which the audience applauded for 
fifteen minutes. As Bruckner took his bows, obviously touched by the 
demonstration, one of the critics was moved to sentiment: 'One could 
see from the trembling of his lips and the sparkling moisture in his 
eyes how difficult it was for the old gentleman to suppress his deep 
emotion. His homely but honest countenance beamed with a warm 
inner happiness such as can appear only on the face of one who is too 
good-hearted to succumb to bitterness even under the pressure of most 
disheartening circumstances. Having heard his work and now seeing 
him in person, we asked ourselves in amazement, "How is it possible 
that he could remain so long unknown to us?" ' 

The symphony of the hitherto almost unknown Bruckner made a 
quick and triumphant progress. Hermann Levi gave it in Munich 
(March 10 1885) and made the remark that this was 'the most signifi- 
cant symphonic work since 1827/ An obvious dig at Brahms, who had 
lately made some stir in the world with three symphonies. Karl Muck, 
another youthful admirer of Bruckner, was the first to carry the sym- 
phony into Austria, conducting it at Graz. Even Vienna came to it 
(a Philharmonic concert led by Richter, March 21 1886). Bruckner 
tried to prevent the performance by an injunction, fearing further 
insults, but the success of the work drowned out the recalcitrant minor- 
ity. Even Dr Hanslick was compelled to admit that the composer was 



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'called to the stage four or five times after each section of the sym- 
phony/ but he held out against the music with the stubbornness of a 
Beckmesser, finding it 'merely bombastic, sickly, and destructive.' 

When the Seventh Symphony was introduced to Vienna, it had become 
a sort of obligation upon the composer's adopted city. Sensational 
reports of some of the performances elsewhere reminded Vienna that 
the composer they had hardly noticed through the years was being 
discovered as a symphonist to be reckoned with. Thus Bruckner was 
for the first time included in the subscription programs of the Vienna 
Philharmonic Orchestra. Circumstances were otherwise unfavorable, 
for the Wagner haters were necessarily Bruckner haters, and a success 
such as the new Symphony had had in Leipzig, Munich and Graz could 
not be countenanced. 

The concert began at 12.30 (What was lunchtime in Vienna?) and 
traversed an overture by Mehul and a piano concerto of Beethoven 
before the audience was subjected to the difficult new work. It was 
evident when the first movement had ended that the audience had 
passed judgment in advance and that that judgment was not undivided. 
There were demonstrations of applause, but also many departures. 
After the long adagio and after the scherzo both the applause and the 
exodus increased. At the end Bruckner was called out four or five 
times. He beamed with joy and made short and awkward bows, mur- 
muring 'Kuss d'Hand, Kuss d'Hand.' A laurel wreath was presented 
by the Wagner- Verein. At a Fest-Bankett given in the Spatenkeller by 



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that Society, Hans Richter admitted in a congratulatory speech that he 
had approached the new Symphony with mistrust which was replaced 
by glowing enthusiasm, a feeling snared by every player from the con- 
certmaster to the timpanist as they had given the best they knew in the 
performance. Bruckner shed tears when he was presented with a bust 
of his god, Richard Wagner. A telegram from Johann Strauss Jr was 
read: 'Am much moved — it was the greatest impression of my life.' 

Bruckner's Christmas was more blissful than his New Year's holiday. 
On December 30, the enemy descended. Dr Hanslick led the pack. 
His review in the Neue Freie Presse was short and to the point. His 
tactic was to minimize the applause and exaggerate the hostile demon- 
stration. He referred to the Symphony as the 'piece de resistance' of 
the concert, dragging in this un-Germanic phrase in order to add: 
'The audience snowed very little resistance indeed, for many made 
their escape after the second movement of this symphonic monster- 
snake (Riesenschlange'); a mob departed after the third, so that at 
the end only a small proportion of the listeners were left in a group. 
This courageous Bruckner legion applauded and cheered, but with 
the weight of a thousand. It has never happened that a composer has 
been called out four or five times after each movement. Bruckner is 
the newest idol of the Wagnerians. One cannot rightly say that he has 
become the fashion, for the public would never accept such a fashion — 
But Bruckner has become a stronghold, and the "second Beethoven," an 
article of faith of the Wagner-Gemeinde. I frankly admit that I can 
scarcely give a right judgment on Bruckner's Symphony, so unnatural, 
overblown, wretched and corrupt does it appear to me. As every 



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greater work of Bruckner has inspired spots, interesting and even 
beautiful places — between these flashes are stretches of impenetrable 
darkness, leaden boredom and feverish agitation. One of the most 
unregenerate [most anti-Wagnerian?] musicians of Germany writes me 
in a letter, saying that Bruckner's Symphony is like the bewildered 
dream of a player who has just survived twenty Tristan rehearsals. 
That I would call valid and to the point.' 

Max Kalbeck and Gustav Dompke fell in line, as was to be expected, 
and tried to out-Beckmesser their master. Dompke waited until March 
30 to deliver his piece of what Max Auer calls 'journalistic rascality' 
i^Lausbuberei') in the Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung. Unlike Hanslick, 
who had protected himself by admitting that the Symphony had a few 
acceptable moments, Dompke tore it apart bit by bit. One phrase 
summed it up: 'Bruckner composes like a drunkard.' Kalbeck leveled 
his lance higher, against Bruckner's artistic integrity, this on April 3, 
and at even greater length. A tone of ironic humor did not sit grace- 
fully upon the destined ponderous biographer of Brahms. 

There were favorable reviews. Dr Hans Pachstein, Dr Theodor Helm, 
and even Dr Robert Hirschfeld, who was pledged to Brahms, raised an 
opposing voice in the newspapers, demonstrating that the Pope-Critic 
Hanslick was not infallible after all. 



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In the general Gemiltlichkeit of the post-concert banquet Hans Richter 
vouched for the eagerness of the Wiener Philharmoniker to be the first 
to perform each further new symphony of Bruckner. They did indeed 
introduce the Eighth, in 1892, and again under Richter, but did not 
repeat it until sixteen years later. The Seventh did not have a second 
performance at the Philharmonic concerts while the composer lived, 
nor did the Ninth get performed there until Muck brought it out in 
1906, ten years after the composer's death. The venerable orchestra and 
its city have since made the best possible amends for their neglect. 

On Wagner's death, February 13 1883, the Adagio was at once asso- 
ciated with his memory, although this movement had been completed 
in October 1882. The biographers refer to this as the Adagio of 
'premonition,' and indeed Bruckner welcomed the connection between 
this poignant movement and the memory of the 'great Master.' He 
wrote to Felix Mottl about a coming performance in Karlsruhe, in 
1885, mentioning in connection with the Adagio: 'Funeral music for 
tubas and horns' and 'Please take a very slow and solemn tempo. At 
the close in the dirge (in memory of the death of the Master), think of 
our Ideal! — Kindly do not forget the /// at the end of the Dirge.' 

The first movement opens with a solemn theme from the cellos and 
horns, rising in its opening phrase through a chord of two octaves. 
Accompanying the theme is a continuous tremolo by the violins, a 
device which is to pervade the first and last movements and which, 
derived from Wagner, aroused considerable scorn on the part of the 
composer's pure-minded opponents (this was what Hanslick called 
'fieberhafte Uberreizung'). The second principal theme is quiet and 
more flowing, with a characteristic gruppetto. In the considerable 
development both themes are inverted, with the fortunate result that 
each sounds quite natural in its new shape. The ascending nature of 
the opening becomes more placid in its descending form. 

The long adagio has been associated with the memory of Richard 
Wagner, the master whose death on February 13 1883 occurred just 
three months after the completion of the first draft. The whole score 



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was completed before the year had ended. This movement was con- 
nected in the composer's mind with his own religious music. Thematic 
quotations from his Te Deum and from his Mass in D minor have been 
pointed out. Bruckner was also influenced by the slow movement of 
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, for the general form is similar. Two 
alternating sections, the first very slow and the second with more 
motion. The first section, somber and deeply felt, is followed by a 
moderato which is a flowing cantilena in triple time. The first part 
recurs, and then briefly the alternate moderato theme. The first section 
is finally repeated and brought to a new sense of urgency with an accom- 
paniment of rising string figures to a climax in triple forte. The 
coda which follows recedes to pianissimo but reaches an ultimate point 
of expression. Bruckner uses a supplementary quartet of Wagnerian 
tubas in this Symphony for the first time, in the 'Sehr feierlich und 
sehr langsam' portions and in the grandeur of the final movement. 

The scherzo is based on an incessant rhythmic figure which is relieved 
by a trio in slower tempo and melodic rather than rhythmic in charac- 
ter. The da capo is literal. 

The finale again uses the full brass choir and carries the Symphony 
to its greatest point of sonority. The opening theme has a resemblance 
to the opening of the first movement, rising arpeggios with a new 
rhythmic accent which gives it a new character of propulsion. The 
movement has an extended development with new thematic episodes, 
and builds to a fortissimo close. 

The considerable controversy in the quest of the 'original Bruckner' 
has been applied to the Seventh, if in lesser degree than to the Eighth 
and Ninth Symphonies. The prolonged argumentation need hardly 
bother the general listener, for it is mostly concerned with passing mat- 
ters of orchestration, particulars which would never be noticed except 
by a conductor who had studied the score or a trained musician follow- 
ing the score with a careful eye. Bruckner went over his Seventh with 
young zealots like Nikisch or Schalk in a piano reduction or in rehear- 
sal; he respected their practical experience and was inclined to benefit 
by it. Their suggestions did not disturb the composer's fundamental 
conception of the music; about details or orchestration he was always 
open to suggestion. In this situation the 'authentic' could only mean 
the 'original' version, which the composer was often quite ready to alter. 

At today's performance Erich Leinsdorf uses the edition of Leopold 
Nowak, which is based on the original manuscript in the Music Col- 
lection of the Austrian National Library. The distinction between 
what Bruckner originally wrote and what he changed after the first 
performance is clear, and Professor Nowak generally prefers the second 
version of the composer's manuscript, which carries several additions 
in hands other than Bruckner's. But various letters, particularly those 
of Josef Schalk to his brother Franz and of the composer himself to 
Arthur Nikisch, show that they were made at Bruckner's verbal instruc- 
tions. Composers have often made changes in their original scores after 
the first performance — indeed part of the first recording of Vaughan 
Williams' Sixth Symphony was withdrawn for the composer's revisions 
to be incorporated in a second version. 



366 



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The Conservatory's role in music education - Part 1 
by Gunther Schuller 

Next Thursday Gunther Schuller will be 
inaugurated as the ninth president of the 
New England Conservatory of Music, and 
to salute him and the Conservatory itself, 
which has many members of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra on the faculty, we re- 
print this week and next a slightly abridged 
version of the address Gunther Schuller 
delivered at the Conservatory's Centennial 
Dinner earlier this year. 

The Orchestra has performed Schuller's Diptych and Seven studies on 
themes of Paul Klee (which it has also recorded for RCA), and mem- 
bers of the Berkshire Music Center, where he is Head of Contemporary 
Music activities, have performed many of his other works at Tangle- 
wood. One of the leading composers in the United States, Gunther 
Schuller has recently had great success in San Francisco with his first 
opera The Visitation, which he conducted himself. He is also a distin- 
guished french horn player and has written books and articles about 
horn technique, jazz and 'third stream music', a term he himself origi- 
nated in reference to music combining the 'contemporary classical' 
and avant-garde jazz idioms. 

The Conservatory is a very special kind of musical institution in our 
society, a society which moreover is undergoing far-reaching cultural 
and esthetic changes. The Conservatory has — or was intended to 
have — a very special function in the musical community. Its very 
name — conservatory — indicating a place where something is to be 
conserved, presents the educator with a major problem; namely, how 
to reconcile the conservatory's basically conservative, tradition-perpet- 
uating function with its other obligation to constantly re-evaluate those 
traditions lest the conservatory become merely a museum. Conserva- 




368 



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tories have always had to grapple with containing these essentially 
opposite attitudes, but perhaps never has it been so difficult to strike a 
rational balance in these respects as in the 20th century, when more 
things have happened at a faster rate than ever before, and when vast 
social, economic and cultural changes have precipitated an esthetic 
tug of war which shows no signs of abating. 

Whereas in earlier days conservatories were institutions with a well- 
defined function in a relatively stable cultural society, today after a 
half a century of (literally speaking) earth-shaking scientific advances 
and cultural explosions of one kind or another, we have arrived at a 
situation which in the mildest terms must be described as being in a 
state of flux. As a result the conservatory's role has become less-defined, 
and indeed, many would have us believe that its position has become 
very precarious. 

Conservatories are threatened in two ways today. One is largely eco- 
nomic, in that it is becoming increasingly difficult, given the infla- 
tionary tendencies of our times, to be an independent operation — just 
as it is increasingly difficult to be or remain a small businessman. We 
all know what the pressures of big business on small business can be 
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The second reason conservatories are threatened is that in the wildly 
fluctuating sociological and cultural patterns of our day, the conser- 
vatory's traditional function has been questioned. In the days when it 
was thought of as the unique supplier of talent for symphony orchestras 



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371 



and faculties for other conservatories, this problem did not exist. 
There was a certain very specific demand, for which the conservatories 
produced a very specific supply, and in the process, certain — again — 
well-defined traditions were perpetuated and handed down from gen- 
eration to generation. 

But today, the universities compete with us conservatories in this same 
area on a scale that could not have been imagined fifty years ago. 

Moreover, institutions like the symphony orchestra are themselves 
undergoing changes, and some people go so far as to say that the 
symphony orchestra's survival in our changing world is also a precarious 
one. There are those who feel that the future of the symphony orches- 
tra depends on whether it can adjust to the demands made upon it by 
a radically changing musical repertoire. There are others who feel that 
the symphony orchestra and the opera house should ignore all that and 
become museum-like repositories for preserving the old traditions. 
This is, for example, Mr Rudolph Bing's point of view. Another leader 
of the musical community, Leonard Bernstein, says flatly that symphony 
orchestras can no longer cope with contemporary music, since compo- 
sitional styles and conceptions have become so complex as to place the 
orchestra in a squeeze-play between (on the one hand) the extra 
rehearsal time needed to produce a reasonable performance and (on 
the other hand) the lack of economic funds to provide those extra 
rehearsals. This position if carried to its ultimate consequence also 
leads us right back to the orchestra-as-a-museum theory. Mr Bernstein's 
position, although in my view somewhat overstated and unnecessarily 
defeatist in attitude, is not without foundation in fact. To counter- 
balance this somewhat pessimistic view, there is a growing awareness 
on the part of foundations and other subsidy programs that there is a 
real problem here which is beyond the control or the means of the 
orchestras themselves. 

There is a whole body of works and of conceptions in whose develop- 
ment the orchestra cannot figure, because these compositions are con- 
ceived for performing media other than the symphony orchestra; for 
example, the vast body of chamber ensemble music or — even more 
removed — the various electronic media. The Symphony orchestra 
cannot participate in the dissemination of this music. Whether we 
approve or not, these media are here to stay, and the orchestra (to put 
it in the most charitable terms) has lost its primary position in the 
performing hierarchy of contemporary music. 

In any case, these shifts — I could offer further examples — in the 
sociological structure of music have had a profound effect on the role 
of the conservatory, although there seems to be some question as to 
exactly in what way. The dilemma of the conservatory is that it is to 
perform an essentially conservative function in a constantly changing 
and forward-moving frame of reference. To pinpoint this problem 
more specifically, we have only to imagine a hypothetical situation in 
which a progressive forward-looking conservatory might prepare its 
students in a repertoire with which the symphony orchestras are no 
longer involved. I have purposely cited an extreme case, in order to 
show what could happen; and I do not consider this hypothetical case 
inconceivable; in fact, we find ourselves close to such a situation 

372 




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already today. It boils down to the fundamental question: Shall the 
conservatory take the lead in the musical community; or does it pas- 
sively supply a demand determined by performing organizations; or as 
a third alternative, does it defer the whole problem to the experimental 
centers at the universities, and let them worry about it? 

I wish there were simple answers to these difficult questions. In my 
view, no single, all-embracing satisfying answer appears. But it is clear 
to me that conservatories must approach the future with a degree of 
flexibility unknown heretofore. They must — as the expression goes in 
the fight game — roll with the punches. In fact, the conservatory must 
if possible perform a multiplicity of functions, at the same time supply- 
ing the demand in specific training areas and in helping to create a 
general musical climate. The conservatory cannot sit back and rigidly 
hold to an image of itself which was valid years ago but which is no 
longer applicable today, at least not in its entirety. 

Nor does this mean that we must throw out all the old tenets and 
replace them by totally new ones, breaking completely with older tra- 
ditions. In this regard, I can best sum up my own personal philosophy 
by quoting Mark Twain, who said: 'Retain of the past only that which 
you may need in the future.' 

My philosophy in such questions is never one of having to do with 
replacing but rather with expanding or adding to. We don't throw out 
the old; we add to that which is still valid in the old that which we 
feel is equally valid in the new. And this 'old' and that 'new' must be 
constantly re-evaluated on their own merits and in relationship to each 
other, as they act upon each other. These are, I believe, the principles 
by which a society can survive in a changing world, and a conservatory 
is but a small organism in a larger social structure, in a larger society. 

If this sounds like expansion to you, you have heard me correctly. But 
I do not mean expansion physically, in the sense of new buildings or 
in the sense of numerical expansion of Faculty and Student Body — 
although I do not rule these out as possibilities in the distant future. 
No, I am talking about a different kind of expansion — an expansion 
of our thinking, of our concepts of teaching, and of our methods of 
training young people. But expansion without deepening at the same 
time is of little value. No matter how much we broaden our conceptual 
horizon, we must never do it at the expense of deepening and sharpen- 
ing those conceptions. Here, too, I can sum up my views in a bit of 
home-spun philosophy: The higher the tree grows, and the wider its 
crown spreads, the deeper its roots must be anchored, lest the tree 
fall over. 

In other words, in my view the conservatory must be an institution 
where the young musician can go to expand the range and depth of his 
musical perception, to sharpen and focus his instrumental capacities, 
and to broaden his general intellectual horizon — in short to make the 
best, most complete kind of professional. And I should like to make 
this conservatory, this particular New England Conservatory, the kind 
of place young students will feel they must attend in order to achieve 
that kind of professionalism. 



374 



I think that there is one idea which is central to the over-all educational 
conception to which I am alluding here; and that is something I would 
call the total musician, the complete musician. We have very few total 
musicians today. We have something called total serialization in music, 
and we even have a breakfast food called 'Total' cereal, but we don't 
have total musicians, and this is something we need. 

We have instead specialists — or worse than that, we have musicians 
who think they are specialists, who though they are not particularly 
special in their chosen area, are at the same time totally oblivious of 
any other area. The music world seems to be divided into two camps, 
each camp espousing totally opposite theories. One theory holds that 
you must concentrate all your efforts on one specialized area, such as 
learning perfectly the half-dozen piano concertos with which you can 
make a career, or allow yourself to be indoctrinated by one particular 
successful style or conception — this is particularly true of composers — 
and then by dint of hard practice and clogged perseverance you succeed 
in becoming successful. The other theory encompasses a much broader 
educational view. It is a view in which you try to absorb as much music 
across the board and in depth as possible and try to integrate all of 
these ideas into a single personal conception. Mind you, I'm not after 
a 'smattering of ignorance,' as Oscar Levant once put it so well, but 
after a form of musical enrichment up to the maximum intellectual 
and emotional capacity of the individual involved. A conservatory 
must be able to provide that quality of enrichment at the highest level 
of intellectual and emotional stimulus. 

© Gunther Schuller 




A member of the orchestra 

VICTOR MANUSEVITCH was born in St 
Petersburg, Russia, and was graduated from 
the Conservatory of Music there. He moved 
to Germany, where he was assistant pro- 
fessor at the Berlin Conservatory and a 
member of the Boris Kroyt Quartet. 

Before joining the Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra in 1944 he served in the U. S. Army, 
and founded the Army Air Force Sym- 
phonetta of which he became the first con- 
ductor. So successful was this group that the 
War Department commissioned a series of recordings which won first 
prize as the finest recordings ever made by an orchestral group of the 
armed forces. 

Victor Manusevitch was director of the Cecilia Choral Society for two 
years from 1947. In 1957 he moved to Cambridge, where he conceived 
the idea of the Cambridge Civic Symphony Orchestra, which he 
founded and of which he has been music director ever since. The first 
concert of the Cambridge Civic Symphony's season will take place in 
Sanders Theatre on Sunday November 19 at 8.30, when Victor Manuse- 
vitch will conduct music by Marcello, Vivaldi, Copland and Men- 
delssohn. Apart from playing the violin and conducting, he is working 
for a doctoral degree at Harvard University. 

375 



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377 



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378 



ENSEMBLES 

OF THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

presented by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
and the New England Conservatory of Music 

MONDAY EVENINGS AT JORDAN HALL 

AUTUMN PROGRAMS 

13 November at 8.30 

BOSTON SYMPHONY CHAMBER PLAYERS 

HAYDN 




! I 

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VARESE 

MARTINU 

BRAHMS 



Trio no. 2 in G for flute, violin 
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Octandre (1924) 

Nonet 

Piano Quartet in G minor op. 25 



4 December at 8.30 

BOSTON SYMPHONY STRING TRIO 
with RICHARD GOODE piano 

MOZART Piano Quartet in E flat K. 493 

MARTINU Two madrigals for violin and viola 

BRAHMS Piano Trio in B major op. 8 

Members of the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and 
Friends of the New England Conservatory may secure a free ticket 
for a guest to accompany them. Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra should telephone Mrs Whittall at Symphony Hall (CO 
6-1492) for details. Friends of the New England Conservatory 
should get in touch with Miss Virginia Clay at the Jordan Hall Box 
Office (536-2412). 

Single tickets for each concert are available from the 
Jordan Hall Box Office, 30 Gainsborough Street. 
Boston 02115 (telephone 536-2412) 
Prices: $1.50, $2, $2.50, $3, $4, $5 



379 



I 



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380 



FUTURE PROGRAMS 

Seventh Program 

Friday afternoon November 17 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening November 18 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

HAYDN Symphony no. 79 in F major 

PROKOFIEV Piano concerto no. 3 in C major 

JOHN BROWNING 

DVORAK Symphony no. 6 in D major 

There is no record of Haydn's Symphony no. 79 having ever been per- 
formed in Boston, and next week's performance may possibly be a 
premiere in the United States. Haydn, like Handel, is a composer to 
whom extravagant lip service is paid, but only a small number of his 
compositions is generally performed. Later in the season Mr Leinsdorf 
will present two of Haydn's other less known symphonies. 

John Browning, one of the most talented pianists of his generation, 
returns to Symphony Hall to play Prokofiev's most popular piano 
concerto. A recording will be made soon afterwards by RCA Victor in 
continuation of the successful series of Prokofiev records by Erich 
Leinsdorf and the Orchestra. 

Dvorak wrote his Sixth Symphony, which used to be known as the 
First, at the time when his genius had been recognized and when the 
material conditions of his life were greatly improved. His happiness 
and serenity are reflected in this masterpiece, strangely less often played 
than others of his major works. 

The concert will end at about 4 o'clock on Friday 
and at about 10.30 on Saturday 



! I 

I ! I 



Eighth Program 

Friday afternoon November 24 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening November 25 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

BEETHOVEN Fidelio - Overture 

Violin concerto in D major 

JOSEPH SILVERSTEIN 

Symphony no. 5 in C minor 
programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



381 






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382 



Mrs. Aaron Richmond and Walter Pierce 
present in the 1967-68 Boston University 

CELEBRITY SERIES 



FRI. & SAT. EVES., NOV. 24, 25 at 8:15 



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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

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ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

387 




\. 



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Browning 

"Golden Boy in a Golden Age of Pianists" 

Life 

In this, the latest Red Seal album in a growinj 
series of Prokofieff recordings by the 
Boston Symphony under Leinsdorf, John 
Browning performs two very different works 
These concertos were both composed over 
fifty years ago, but are still very modern and 
distinctly from each other— one simple and 
melodic, the other intricate and fiendishly difi 
to play. This album is a thoroughly exciting ; 
example of Browning's art. In Dynagroove sod 



PROKOFIEFF ■*» 
PIANO CONCERTOS N0S.1 AND 2 

JOHN BROWNING 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
_ ERICH LEINSDORF 




RCAVlCTOR 

©The most trusted name in sound 




BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 

Oij Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 
Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 



FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 
Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 

Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 
Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



i ! I 



WILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



*members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



389 



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390 



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The Fund for the Boston Symphony now stands at just over $3 mil- 
lion in its campaign for $5.5 million. The table shows what has been 
accomplished, and what must still be done: 



Gifts needed 


Range 


Gifts received 


1 


$500,000-1,000,000 





1 


300,000 - 499,999 





7 


150,000-249,999 


3 


15 


50,000-149,999 


6 


64 


10,000-49,999 


43 


200 


1,000-9,999 


278 


1,750 


100-999 


210 


2,500 


Under $100 


779 



Every major orchestra in the country is campaigning for funds to 
match its own Ford Foundation challenge grant. Several individuals 
have already made extraordinarily generous donations, which show 
how highly they regard their own orchestra. 



an anonymous gift of $1 million, two gifts of 
$500,000 each and ten gifts between $100,000 
and $500,000 opened their campaign. 

a single $2,000,000 gift to guarantee the success 
of their effort. 

a gift of $1.34 million to help build an outdoor 
center for summer concerts. 

a $1 million gift to launch its Ford campaign. 

a single donation of $250,000 in 'the hope . . . 
that this gift . . . will stimulate other significant 
gifts to the Endowment Fund'. 

a gift of $1.75 million and land for the construc- 
tion of an amphitheatre. 

Minneapolis a $500,000 gift to name the concertmaster's chair. 

If others can do it/ says Philip K. Allen, general chairman of the 
Fund for the Boston Symphony, 'we surely can too — and we will. 
Warmest thanks to those who have already given. I ask those who 
have yet to give, or who feel that they can increase their contribu- 
tion, to let their gift be thoughtful and generous, and a measure of 
the regard in which they hold this magnificent musical organization/ 



New York 

Indianapolis 

Cleveland 

St Louis 
Denver 

Washington 



391 




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392 




Contents 



Program for November 17 and 18 1967 
Future programs 

Program notes by James Lyons 
Haydn - Symphony no. 79 
Prokofiev - Piano concerto no. 4 
Dvorak - Symphony no. 6 

The Conservatory's role in music education - Part 2 
by Gunther Schuller 

The soloist 

A member of the orchestra 



395 
445 

406 
418 

434 

443 
443 



393 



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In fact, he's no lawyer at all. But that didn't stop him from writing 
his own Will. (Why not save the legal fees? thought he.) 

The cost will be enormous. 

For example, when he dies, his estate will dwindle under taxes 
that a well-drawn Will can avoid. 

Worse — a good part of what's left after taxes, claims and settle- 
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See your lawyer about your Will. Keep it up to date. Maybe there 
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THE FIRST & OLD COLONY 

The First National Bank of Boston and Old Colony Trust Company 



394 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Seventh Program 

Friday afternoon November 17 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening November 18 at 8.30 



HAYDN 



Symphony no. 79 in F major 

Allegro con spirito 

Adagio cantabile — un poco allegro 

Menuetto: allegretto 

Finale: vivace 



First performance in Boston 



i 1 



PROKOFIEV Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 4 in 
B flat major op. 53 for the left hand 

Vivace 
Andante 
Moderato 
Vivace 

JOHN BROWNING 

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INTERMISSION 

DVORAK Symphony no. 6 in D major op. 60 

Allegro non tanto 

Adagio 

Scherzo (Furiant) : presto — Trio 

Finale: allegro con spirito 



Mr Browning plays the Steinway Piano 

The concert will end at about 4 o'clock on Friday 
and at about 10.30 on Saturday 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



395 



Program Notes 

by James Lyons 

James Lyons, an alumnus of the New England Conservatory and a 
graduate of Boston University, was born in Peabody, Massachusetts. 
He wrote about music for The Boston Post and The Boston Globe, 
and contributed to The Christian Science Monitor. He was editor and 
critic for Musical America, and has been for ten years the editor of 
The American Record Guide. 

FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN 
Symphony no. 79 in F major 

Haydn was born in Rohrau on March 31 1732, and died in Vienna on May 31 1809. 
The instrumentation: flute, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns and strings. 

Perhaps fortunately, we cannot as yet quantify the growth of artistic 
genius, nor meaningfully correlate it with any other variable. The bell- 
shaped curve and all the other apparatus of social science have no 
predictive value with this highly select population; there are no 
parameters, no standard deviations. Above all, there is no calculating 
the interaction effects of a creative impulse and its environment (the 
effects of heredity per se being something else again — if a Schubert 
could die at thirty-one, what can the actuaries make of a Verdi, whose 
greatness was not manifest until the threshold of his eighties?). 




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396 



The profound effects of Haydn upon Mozart and vice versa were re- 
peatedly acknowledged by both, but the numbers involved can be 
misleading in the extreme. It is true enough, for example, that Haydn 
had composed seventy symphonies as of his first encounter with Mozart 
(1781), whereas the latter, half his age, had composed half as many 
symphonies. But it is only a little more relevant, and hardly 'signifi- 
cant' in the statistical sense, that Haydn was twenty-five or thereabouts 
when he wrote his no. 1, whereas Mozart was eight! Obviously each 
responded to a very different homeostasis. And obviously we might 
never have heard of Haydn if death had come to him at thirty-five, as 
it would to Mozart. 

In short, everyone knows that the emergence of a creative genius will 
proceed more or less inexorably at its own pace in each unique instance, 
life expectancy notwithstanding. That is the genetic imperative. What 
is infinitely more arresting in the case of Haydn vis-a-vis Mozart — 
viewed as you prefer from the perspective of aesthetics, probability 
theory, Zeitgeist, or psychology — is that each was literally ready for 
and incredibly responsive to the diametric influence of the other. 

This phenomenon has not gone unnoticed, although its ramifications 
have received rather short shrift. Delimited for annotative purposes, 
no one has put it in sharper focus than the unavoidable Tovey: 'The 
mutual influence of Haydn and Mozart is one of the best-known won- 
ders of musical history [and one of the least-explored, he might have 
added]; and the paradox of it is that while its effect on Mozart was to 



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399 



concentrate his style and strengthen his symmetry, the effect on Haydn 
was to set him free. . . .' Otherwise stated, Mozart in his mid-twenties 
needed to discipline his inexhaustible resource and Haydn was his 
model; Haydn at fifty had developed an absolutely total mastery of the 
orchestra and was now ready to 'let go' expressively. 

As to Haydn it is not difficult to document this proposition on the 
internal evidence. But scores are only mute evidence. The problem is 
'world enough and time', for the very vastness of his output militates 
against real familiarity. Even with the advent of long-playing records 
it is a rare listener who can claim acquaintance with more than, say, 
two dozen of his one hundred and four authenticated symphonies. 
Tovey's estimate that some forty 'splendid' examples of this genre are 
'wholly inaccessible except to researchers' is now somewhat modifi- 
able — but not much. It could be said today, as he said decades ago, 
that the many middle and late-middle Haydn symphonies not known 
to us constitute 'the biggest lacunae that yet remain in our public 
representation of the main stream of music'. 

The Symphony no. 79, dating from either 1783 or 1784, provides a case 
in point. It is not recorded, apparently never has been; and the present 
performances seem to be the first in the United States. But the esti- 
mable Karl Geiringer has noted long since that its opening movement 
'deserves special attention' for its resumption of development even in 
the recapitulation — a Haydnesque unorthodoxy of the sort that may 
be encountered in any number of his symphonies. 



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Alfred Einstein once remarked that the 'chief characteristics of thi 
middle symphonies of Haydn are found in their incredible originalit 
of invention. This does not imply any criticism of the later so-callec 
Paris and London symphonies. . . . But the middle period symphonies 
written in the seclusion of Eisenstadt and Estoras [Ester haza], breath< 
a quite different freshness and independence. This is easy to explain 
Haydn was free to write what he wished; every experiment was per 
mitted to him; he had to please but one listener. . .' 

That 'one listener' was initially Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy o 
Galanta, namesake of the legendary figure of a century earlier who hac 
insured Hungary's fealty to the Hapsburg dynasty. A ruler as humane 
as he was powerful, Paul was also an accomplished musician and ah 
perceptive talent scout; and he had been vastly impressed by Haydn's-' 
Symphony no. 1 on the occasion of a state visit at the home of Count 
Ferdinand Maximilian Morzin in Lucavec. A few months after this 
Count Morzin ran into financial troubles and, among other economies, 
disbanded his private orchestra. When word of Haydn's availability 
reached Prince Paul he let it be known at once that the composer would 
be welcome at Eisenstadt Castle. Shortly thereafter, in May of 1761, 
Haydn joined the staff. He was to serve the Esterhazy family without 
interruption until his pensioning three decades later. 



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Prince Paul, however, died less than a year after Haydn's appointment. 
It was the composer's good fortune, and ours, that his patron had been 
childless. For the brother who thereupon succeeded him was the 
Maecenas-like Prince Nicolaus, not without reason known as Nicolaus 
der Prachtige — 'the Magnificent'. It was he who cleared the south end 
of the Neusiedler See, near Siittor, and erected there the fantastic estate 
of neo- Versailles splendor known thenceforth as Esterhaza. At the 
going rate in florins, Esterhaza cost something over five million dollars 
to build. When it was finished, Nicolaus removed his entire household 
to this untold luxury. That was in 1766, the same year in which the 
Wiener Diarium described Haydn as 'der Liebling unserer Nation' 
('our national darling', or at least 'favorite'). For the next quarter- 
century, Haydn was to preside over the most elaborate musical estab- 
lishment in all of Europe. 

Professionally, those Esterhaza years added up to a triumph without 
parallel. Haydn was a servant, yes; but in serving up his music to a 
master who knew its worth he became himself the master of a far wider,i 
more enduring domain. 

© James Lyons 



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SERGEY SERGEYEVICH PROKOFIEV 

Concerto for piano and orchestra no. 4 in B flat major op. 53 
for the left hand 

Prokofiev was born in Sontsovka, Russia on April 23 1891, and died near Moscow on 
March 4 1953. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, trumpet, 
trombone, bass drum and strings. 

By definition the creator's art is less ephemeral than the interpreter's, 
and over the past half-century the music of Prokofiev has substantially 
insured him to posterity as a composer. But it is perhaps significant 
and certainly not untoward to note that, like several of the most hal- 
lowed figures in ages past, Prokofiev was the salesman par excellence 
of his own piano concerti. 

Notwithstanding the lofty heights to which he attained as a symphonist, 
moreover, Prokofiev's innermost sentiments may be said to repose in 
the music he wrote for his own instrument — and originally for his own 
execution. In much the same fashion as Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, 
Chopin, and other such tandem geniuses, Prokofiev's aesthetic unques- 
tionably found its expressive way at the keyboard. It was to be a 
meandering way, but in retrospect it can be traced throughout its halt- 
ing growth in a long list of piano works beginning, appropriately, with 
the sonata catalogued as op. 1 (1907-09), and ending with the revised 
version of no. 5 (sometimes called the 'Tenth Sonata'), which dates from 
the year of the composer's death. 



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In a study of the complete sonatas (nos. 3 and 4 came just prior to the 
Concerto op. 26; no. 5 followed it by two years), the present writer 
once concluded of the earlier ones that they represent 'the formative, 
reluctantly romantic Prokofiev ... a kind of would-be Schubert in 
whose music the typical extremes of yearning and exuberance were as 
omnipresent, thinly disguised, as the malicious irony that bound them. 
Any political inferences as to the latter would be risky. Stylistic trade- 
marks tend to be personal rather than proletarian, [no matter] the 
internal struggles of Russia during this seminal decade ... all of these 
works cry out: Epater le bourgeois! But the voice is unmistakably 
Prokofiev's own.' 

After some years of reflection the foregoing appraisal still seems to have 
a measure of validity, and it is cited with a view to putting into per- 
spective as neatly as possible the crowded background of the first three 
concerti. (By extension it is relevant also to the later ones — although 
the Fourth, a special case, was not to follow for another decade.) 

After graduating from the St Petersburg Conservatory at eighteen, and 
already recognized as an enfant terrible of heroic pianistic talent if not 
yet as a composer worth taking seriously, Prokofiev had spent five post- 
graduate years in advanced study with the celebrated Annette Essipova, 
pedagogical heiress to Leschetizky, meantime completing further 
courses at the Conservatory and composing constantly. This inter- 
regnum ended in 1914, ominously coincident with the outbreak of 
World War I. (The ripples from Sarajevo soon enough reached Russia, 
but as the only son of a widow the composer was exempt from military 
service.) By this time Prokofiev had made a mark on musical St Peters- 
burg; he was not accepted, exactly, but he was certainly not ignored. 
His every appearance touched off further controversy. 

Controversy escalated to scandale in 1913, when Prokofiev leaped to 
international notoriety with the introduction of his Second Piano 
Concerto at Pavlovsk (a suburb of St Petersburg — the latter, inci- 
dentally, was to become known as Petrograd a year later; it has been 
Leningrad since 1924). 




408 




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409 



With one notable exception, the critics were aghast. The Peter- 
burgskaya Gazeta described the new work as 'a cacophony of sounds 
having nothing whatever in common with genuine music'. But the 
reviewer of Rech got the message. With extraordinary prescience, 
Vyacheslav Karatygin reported the premiere in these prophetic words: 
'The public hissed. This means nothing. Ten years from now it will 
atone for last night's catcalls by unanimously applauding a new com- 
poser with a European reputation.' 

Of course Karatygin was wrong about the time this would take. By 
1915 the Rech critic was vindicated. In the interim Prokofiev had won 
the powerful advocacy of Serge Koussevitzky, of Alexander Siloti, of 
the impresario Diaghilev. 'Only three years ago', Rech commented, 
'most of our music lovers saw in Prokofiev's compositions merely the 
excesses of a mischievous anarchism that threatened to upset the whole 
of Russian music. Now they won't let him leave the stage before he 
has played innumerable encores.' Even the arch-conservative Russian 
Musical Society performed the Second Concerto. No one hissed. By 
then Prokofiev was a force not to be denied, and his fame increased 
apace — until the Revolution of 1917 marked a turning point in his 
career as it did in the history of the world. 

The Third Piano Concerto was sketched that fateful winter. Because 
the overthrow of Czarism and its immediate consequences marked a 
definite change in the direction of Prokofiev's development, it behooves 
us to look (perforce superficially) at the influences to which he was 
subject between 1917 and 1921, when he completed this score. To 
state it bluntly, the 'change' was a sea change, and the influences were 
geographic. 

Prokofiev was anything but a Marxist in those years. 'Immersed as I 
was in art', he wrote later, 'I did not have a clear idea of the scope and 
significance of the October Revolution. . . .' What he did know was 
that Russia had become an unhealthy place for composers. He wanted 
out. And the country that appealed to him above all was America. 



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When the People's Commissar of Education attended the premiere of 
the Classical Symphony (Petrograd, April 21 1918) and sought out 
Prokofiev to express his admiration, the composer saw his opportunity 
and expressed in the strongest appropriate language his desire to make 
an extended trip abroad. Under the circumstances there was no grace- 
ful alternative for the Commissar but to consent, and within days it 
was announced that the government had decided to send Prokofiev 
across the Pacific in connection with 'matters pertaining to art'. He 
departed via Vladivostok in May for Yokohama, whence he proceeded 
by slow boat and several stopovers to New York, arriving there in 
September and making his first Manhattan appearance a fortnight 
after Armistice Day. Every last seat in old Aeolian Hall was filled, and 
the debut (a solo recital) launched Prokofiev's American career in 
sensational fashion. Even the critics who felt constrained to inveigh 
against him as an ambassador of Bolshevism concurred in the unani- 
mous verdict on his pianistic ability; the consensus was an enthusiastic 
welcome for a veritable titan of the keyboard. 

For the next few seasons Prokofiev concertized heavily, and no major 
work was forthcoming except The Love for Three Oranges. In the 
nature of artistic creation, however, it is inconceivable that the Third 
Piano Concerto sat untouched in the composer's luggage until the 
summer of 1921, when he is said to have completed the score during a 
sojourn at St Brevin, on the coast of Brittany. This was in the wake of 
Prokofiev's second transcontinental tour of the United States. To what 
extent his experiences in the New World are reflected in the op. 26 we 



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have no way of knowing, and the answer could be not at all. But there 
is no gainsaying the fact that this music gestated during long, lonesome 
days of staring out train windows. Possibly this is rather too fanciful. 
What is not, by all accounts, is that the Third Concerto was a success 
from the beginning. The composer himself took part in the premiere,' 
which was given not in his homeland but in Chicago, Illinois, on D J 
cember 16 1921. Americans did not take the piece to their hearts atl 
once, as Europe did, but it was cordially received at the very least | 
(Prokofiev remarked that we 'did not quite understand' the work at 
the time), and its place in the standard repertoire has grown more 
secure with each passing season. 

During the composer's lifetime no one took the Fourth Concerto to his 
heart because no one ever had the opportunity. It was not performed. 
The explanation is that Prokofiev himself -no doubt motivated by 
deference, but unaccountably on artistic grounds — withheld the work 
on the basis of a negative judgment by the artist for whom it had been 
written. 

This op. 53 dates from 1931, eight years after Prokofiev had settled in 
Paris and just one year before he returned more or less permanently to 
the Soviet Union. The period separating his Third Concerto and his 
Fourth was again spent largely on the international concert circuit, 
but in this decade he nevertheless produced several major works! 




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Among these were another opera, The Flaming Angel; the Second, 
Third, and Fourth Symphonies; the First String Quartet; and two 
stunning ballet scores, Pas d'acier and The Prodigal Son. (The latter 
represented George Balanchine's, and Prokofiev's, last collaboration 
with Diaghilev; a re-creation of the original production has adorned 
the New York City Ballet repertoire since 1950.) 

The Fourth Concerto was composed for Paul Wittgenstein, a concert 
pianist who had lost his right arm in World War I. Determined to 
pursue his career, Wittgenstein commissioned works from ten com- 
posers. Most of the resulting scores were merely curiosities, or worse; 
but one of them was a masterpiece — the Ravel Left-Hand Concerto. 
Of the others, only Prokofiev's is comparable in quality. For whatever 
peculiar reason, however, Wittgenstein deemed it unsatisfactory and 
declined to play it. Perhaps he was expecting a big, richly romantic 
vehicle like the Third Concerto. But the Prokofiev of 1931 was not; 
unaffected by Stravinsky and the French Six; what he wrote for Witt- 
genstein was exquisitely neoclassic, with a virtuosic but ingeniously 
graceful solo part and an accompaniment of the utmost transparency. 
But the pianist complained that he could 'not understand a single note 
of it', and with that the composer chose to regard the matter as closed. 

It was not until three years after Prokofiev's death and a quarter- 
century after its composition, that the Fourth Concerto finally received 
its premiere. The young German pianist Siegfried Rapp — he, too, 
lost his right arm in combat — had run across a reference to the work 
while searching for repertoire. He wrote to the composer's widow, and 
Mme Prokofieva immediately sent the score. The belated first per- 
formance was given in September of 1956, with Rapp as soloist, in the 
concert hall of the Conservatory in West Berlin. To the Time critic 
this music 'no longer seemed aggressively modern, as it had to Witt- 
genstein, but more like an old friend. The whole piece is sprayed with 
crotchety harmonies, but it always makes the kind of leeway toward a 
safe harmonic port that is part of Prokofiev's charm.' That says it all. 

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ANTONIN DVORAK 

Symphony no. 6 (old no. 1) in D major op. 60 

Dvorak was born in Nelahozeves (Miihlhausen), Bohemia on September 8 1841, and 
died in Prague on May 1 1904. The Boston Symphony Orchestra first performed the 
Symphony on October 26 1883, when Georg Henschel conducted. The most recent 
performances at these concerts were on November 15 and 16 1963, with Erich 
Leinsdorf conducting. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones and tuba, timpani and strings. 

Quite aside from the fact that he was a 'late bloomer' creatively, the 
down-to-earth Dvorak was temperamentally less akin to Hamlet than 
any other figure of consequence in all of music history. And yet the 
composer, too, could have complained that time was out of joint. In 
the century before he was born the Czech nobility had been on the 
lookout for local talent, and it was not forthcoming. Now, ironically, 
its first flowering — in the person of a butcher's delivery boy — enjoyed 
easy access to the fabulous Lobkowitz castle, or at least to its laby- 
rinthine kitchens. But long gone by then were Ferdinand Philip, who 
had paid off so many of Gluck's debts, and Josef Franz Maximilian, 
who had been among Beethoven's staunchest supporters. The incum- 
bent Lobkowitz was not at all musically minded. Neither were the 
family's fortunes what they had been in a grander epoch. Dvorak had 
come too late by about fifty years to taste the fruits of princely patron- 
age, and too early by a lifetime to benefit from the largess of founda- 
tions. The only way left open to him was the hard way. Perhaps as a 
result, however, he was thoroughly prepared for the 'lucky break' that 
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The most celebrated of Slavonic musicians was born in a village just 
north of Prague, on the banks of the Vltava, where his father operated 
a meat market and a tavern in the shadow of the Lobkowitz palace. As 
the eldest of nine children, little Antonin was kept busy between the 
two establishments. His introduction to music seems to have come 
with his apprenticeship at the inn, where itinerant minstrels fore- 
gathered nightly. A report dated c. 1850 is revealing: 'He watched the 
violinists and trumpeters as in a trance; his cheeks flushed and his eyes 
sparkled as he followed the music. The country bands played only 
music of a primitive nature; nevertheless the polkas and marches of his 
native Bohemia were powerful enough to set his pulse throbbing.' 

(Parenthetically, one recalls what George Bernard Shaw was to say 
many years later about Dvorak's use of indigenous rhythms and inter- 
vals: that these 'give the analytical programmist an opportunity of 
writing about "national traits", and save the composer the trouble of 
developing his individual traits'. Dvorak was never that chauvinistic.) 

Dvorak pere, for all his assiduous attention to business, was kindly 
disposed toward his son's aptitude for higher things. Antonin was given 
lessons in violin and voice, with mixed results. On one occasion he 
demonstrated his proficiency in both at a church fair; he seems to have 
played the fiddle to everyone's satisfaction, and then to have broken 
down completely while trying to sing. The lyric muse lost an adherent 
then and there. When he was fourteen Dvorak was packed off to a 
relative in Zlonice, twenty miles west of his native Nelahozeves (Miihl- 
hausen), where he was introduced to the organ and given some ground- 
ing in piano and viola. Here, again, his musical career almost ground 
to a stop. His teacher, Antonin Liehmann, turned out a steady stream 
of repertoire for the town orchestra; and one of Dvorak's duties was to 
copy out the parts. Without telling Liehmann, Dvorak orchestrated a 



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polka of his own and then made so bold as to distribute the parts. 
Imagine his mortification when the first run-through elicited a horrible 
cacophony! It was quickly ascertained that he had been careless in his 
transposition clefs, so that the errors were put right without much 
delay; but it was a narrow escape for the yet-unborn reputation of the 
fledgling composer. 

Dvorak went on to Bohmisch-Kamnitz, near the Saxon border, pri- 
marily to master the German language that was obligatory throughout 
Bohemia and Moravia in those days. Then, at sixteen, he matriculated 
at the Organ School in Prague — the very institution of which he was 
himself to assume the directorship long years afterward (by then it 
would be merged with the Prague Conservatory). Things were not 
going so well back home, with more and more mouths to feed, and so 
Dvorak's tuition was covered by his doting Zlonice uncle. But the boy 
managed to pay for his other expenses by fiddling in various restaurants. 
He could hardly afford the luxury of a piano in his modest quarters, 
but this was a blessing in disguise to the extent that it forced him to 
'hear' many of the standard masterworks by studying them in the 
silence of his bedroom. Dvorak completed the statutory two years, and 
then joined the viola section of a well-known Prague band that played 
thrice weekly in the better eating places. Gradually he built a clientele 
of private students by day, and by night he continued to play for his 
dinner. It was a period of rather ignominious plodding, but Dvorak 
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By 1873 he must have felt that he was beginning to be ready. By nature 
cautious, he nevertheless made two decisive moves that year (his thirty- 
second). For one, he gave up the comfortable security of his violist's 
chair in the Czech National Theater to accept an organ job that would 
give him more time to compose. For another, he married. And the 
match apparently was a good one. It is fascinating to note that, like 
Mozart, Dvorak took as his bride a sister of the girl who had spurned 
his love. (But unlike Mozart, Dvorak never was to doubt the wisdom 
of his decision.) Moreover, as the slightly unscrupulous publisher 
Fritz Simrock was soon to discover, here was one composing husband 
who was determined to be the breadwinner of an expanding household 
and to maintain his artistic integrity despite any economic pressures. 
He would achieve this enviable status simply by holding to a ratio of 
prudence and productivity which he had arrived at as a young man 
and from which he never wavered. 

To be sure, there was to come that 'big chance' around which so many 
success stories turn; but Dvorak had to be ready for it and he was. The 
proof of this is that Dvorak's good fortune came to him by way of two 
men who knew him only through his music. But both were perceptive 
enough to recognize mastery when they saw it, and 'saw' is literally 
correct in this instance. For it was in the course of wading through 
stacks of manuscripts submitted by 'young, poor . . . musicians in the 
Austrian half of the [Hapsburg] Empire' that the State Prize judges for 
1875 were won over completely by the writing of this totally unknown 
entrant from Prague (Bohemia was still under the Viennese monarchy 



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in those days). And as fate would have it those judges were two of the 
most influential musicians in all of Europe — Eduard Hanslick, power- 
ful critic of the Neue freie Presse; and Johannes Brahms. Their enthu- 
siasm was unstinting, and it would be ridiculous to suggest that 
Dvorak's career was not to be affected enormously by this belated 
'discovery' of his talents. But just as surely he would not have won 
their advocacy unless he had the goods. 

As it happens, the first of Dvorak's two symphonies in D minor was 
among the works that won the State Prize — which, incidentally, Dvorak 
was to win for several years running. But it was pursuant to the 1875 
award that he developed sufficient self-confidence to compose the first 
of his numbered symphonies, attesting to a measure of triumph over 
the unrest and insecurity that had slowed his progress in this most 
formidable of forms. The latter work subsequently came to be known 
as the Third, however, because it was overhauled altogether after two 
subsequent symphonies had intervened; and more recently it has 
become known as no. 5! To forestall further confusion it might be 
helpful to interpolate the complete chronology, which was as follows: 

1. 1865 Symphony in C minor op. 3 
('The Bells of Zlonice') 

2. 1865 Symphony in B flat op. 4 (revised in 1887) 

3. 1873 Symphony in E flat (originally op. 10; that designation was 
later removed by the composer) 

4. 1874 Symphony in D minor (originally op. 13; as with the 
foregoing, this designation has 'stuck') 

5. 1875 Symphony in F op. 76 ('old no. 3') 
(originally op. 24; revised in 1887) 

6. 1880 Symphony in D op. 60 ('old no. 1') 

7. 1885 Symphony in D minor op. 70 ('old no. 2') 

8. 1889 Symphony in G op. 88 ('old no. 4') 

9. 1893 Symphony in E minor op. 95 ('old no. 5') 
('From the New World') 

For reasons already intimated, it should not be surprising that the D 
major Symphony represented an enormous step forward. (And one 
hastens to put that appraisal in more accurate perspective: none less 
than Sir Donald Francis Tovey says unequivocally that 'Dvorak's [Sixth] 
Symphony shows him at the height of his power'.) But more specific 
reasons can be adduced. Two of them date from 1877. One of these 
was a magnanimous letter sent by Brahms to Simrock. It read in part: 
'I have for several years now been rejoicing over the works by Anton 
Dvorak of Prague. This year he sends me amongst others a book of ten 
duets for two sopranos [an error; he should have said soprano and 
contralto] with pianoforte, which seem to me to be very pretty and 
practical for publication. ... I induced him to send the songs to you. 
When you play them through you will be as pleased as I am. . . . 
Dvorak has written every possible thing. ... he is a very talented man.' 
The second event of importance in 1877 was Dvorak's decision to give 
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sition, come what may. 



426 




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427 






I! 



Much of Dvorak's time in the years immediately following were to be 
wasted on opera, a medium for which his ambition far exceeded his 
aptitude. In a sense, too, the weeks he invested in the 1878 series of 
Slavonic Dances were misspent because he accrued only an infinitesimal 
percentage of the profits they rolled up. But this experience taught 
Dvorak how to drive a bargain with entrepreneurs, and never again did 
he have to wonder whether or not he could get anything published. 

The genesis of the D major Symphony traces to the evening of Novem- 
ber 16 1879: after conducting the triumphant Vienna premiere of 
Dvorak's Slavonic Rhapsody in A flat, Hans Richter embraced the 
composer and then (either at that moment or immediately thereafter) 
asked him to write a symphony for the Vienna Philharmonic. This 
was to be the op. 60. It was sketched out at Prague between August 27 
and September 20 1880, and the score was finished by October 15. 
Dvorak delivered the manuscript personally that November. He 
reported to his friend Alois Gobi on playing the work at the piano for 
Richter; the conductor was so delighted with the work, it seems, that 
he kissed Dvorak after every movement! 

Richter's continuing enthusiasm was documented in a series of letters, 
but after the premiere had been twice postponed that season Dvorak 
began to suspect that the conductor's recital of excuses (his wife's 
illness, his mother's death, and the like) was not the whole story. As 
usual, Dvorak's peasant instincts had been unerring. With a little 



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discreet detective work he ascertained that certain important members 
of the Vienna Philharmonic objected to performing music by a Czech 
composer in two successive seasons. The upshot was that Dvorak grate- 
fully inscribed the op. 60 to Richter but entrusted its premiere to 
Adolf Cech, who conducted the first performance at Prague on March 
25 1881. Richter was deeply honored by the dedication and his affec- 
tion for the score never faltered, but as it turned out the piece was 
introduced to Vienna by Wilhelm Gericke and the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde on February 18 1883. 

Students should know that Professor Tovey has performed a 
painstaking dissection of the op. 60 (although it is unaccountably 
identified as 'op. 63' in Volume II of his Essays in Musical Analysis). 
Other listeners will not feel the need for any such explication of this 
expressively straightforward music. Lest one's competence be called 
into question one must, presumably, mention the apparent influence 
of Brahms in general and the latter 's own D major Symphony of 1877 
in particular. But those who smell plagiarism, and who are sure that 
their ears do not deceive them, are commended to the fascinating essay 
by Julius Harrison in the Dvorak anthology edited by Viktor Fischl. 
Harrison makes this telling point: 

'Brahms takes a D major triad as a kind of thesis in triplicate, from 
which, by means of the melodies resulting from that triad, he proceeds 
step by step to a logical conclusion. Dvorak takes an odd bit of sound, 



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a mere dominant-tonic progression (perhaps the commonest thing in 
music), something that could go anywhere or nowhere, something of a 
character more terminal than initial, and then, to our great delight 
fashions it into a movement structurally classical, yet thematically hav- 
ing the nature of an improvisation.' These are words worth pondering. 

It remains only to provide a few words of description. The opening 
Allegro non tanto is all lyricism and robustness, mingling heather-fresh 
woodwinds with marvelous brass sonorities and building to a majestic 
coda. The Adagio is an exquisite idyll; there are astonishing points of 
resemblance to the slow movement of Beethoven's Ninth (in the same 
key of B flat), but only on paper. The most unorthodox feature of 
Dvorak's layout is the substitution of an echt-Czech dance — the 
strongly cross-accented Furiant — for the more traditional Scherzo. The 
closing Allegro con spirito most conspicuously suggests a tug from the 
Brahmsian orbit, but again this is more illusory than not. Tovey calls 
this finale 'a magnificent crown to this noble work', and Tovey did not 
use superlatives lightly. Nor, to be fair, did he often resort to such 
cliches. And yet there is something almost irritatingly positive and 
ultimately persuasive in this sunny affirmation of the major — a mode 
from which Dvorak rarely departed for long, in his music or in his life. 

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J _ J 



The Conservatory's role in music education - Part 2 
by Gunther Schuller 

In the first part of this article, which appeared in last week's program, 
Gunther Schuller discussed the problems which face the conservatory 
in our changing musical world. He proposed a wider and more general 
program, so that the student, without sacrificing the basic specialized 
requirements of his art, may find at the conservatory the means to 
expand the range and depth of his musical perception. 

From these remarks you can gather that I lean towards the concept of 
the total musician and away from the specialist, the non-musician 
virtuoso, although I recognize that there are frequently exceptional 
cases whose special musical endowments require a more specialized 
treatment. Please do not misunderstand me. When I talk about the 
total musician, I am not talking about some monstrous, perfected 
genius, some kind of human computer. I'm talking about something 
very simple. I'm talking about giving the young musicians the tools 
by which they can live a life in music which is rich, meaningful and 
rewarding — and not only monetarily rewarding — and not mere 
drudgery, as is so often the case. I can perhaps put it best by telling 
you of an experience I had when a few weeks ago, I had occasion to be 
present at several full days of instrumental auditions. I heard in that 
time well over fifty young musicians, all of them either young profes- 
sionals or graduates or postgraduates. Of that number I am sorry to 
report no more than perhaps 5 per cent seemed to have any idea of 
why they were playing music, what a musical phrase meant — indeed 
what constituted a musical phrase — and what the expressive and 
intellectual range of music can really be. For 95 per cent of them it 
was merely a matter of pushing down certain keys at certain times, 
moving arms or adjusting embouchures or whatever was involved in 
their instrument, to perform what appeared to be a purely mechanical 
operation. The whole sense of the joy of music, of the beauty of music, 
of the ability to communicate through music, was absent. If the com- 
puter ever takes over the world of music, it will not be because this or 



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that composer wished it so and inflicted it on an unwilling public, but 
it will be rather because the passivity and utter boredom of the player 
will have reached such a point that he might as well be replaced by the 
computer, for at least the computer is efficient. 

When I hear that kind of audition — and this was not atypical — I 
become very sad. But it also inspires me to try and do something to 
prevent that kind of complete emotional, intellectual disassociation 
and sterility. For it is not necessary that such a thing should happen. 
I know from personal experience that it need not be so, that even under 
the most trying professional circumstances, if those roots, emotional 
and intellectual roots, that I spoke about earlier have grown deep 
enough, one need never lose one's curiosity, one's love, one's identifi- 
cation with music and its rewards. 

And those rewards are richer today, I believe, than ever before. In 
addition to the 19th century repertoire, we have acquired in recent 
decades through improved research methods a pre- 18th century reper- 
tory which along with the continual additions in contemporary music 
provide a total musical feast to whet the most jaded appetite. At the 
same time, the development of a wide variety of new communications 
media provides an outlet for this expanded repertoire which would 
have made an 18th century musician envious. The field of music and 
its peripherally related areas provide a range of outlets, and a potential 
source of income beyond the wildest dreams of our forefathers. But to 
operate efficiently and effectively in this expanded field, the musician 
has to be equipped properly — he has to be the total or complete 
musician. 

I am always saddened when I meet musicians who plod along in their 
everyday existence having no understanding or love of the music they 
play. They are tolerant, for example, of a few 19th century composers 
(which they usually choose on the basis of how well those composers 
wrote for their chosen instrument), and they are usually disdainful of 
all contemporary music or even of earlier composers, like Bach for 
instance, in whose music the intellectual quotient dares to be fairly 
high, and are generally speaking pretty ignorant about the incredible 
variety, breadth and depth of musical languages. Many of them are 
not even very humble about their ignorance, and of course many of 
them are teachers who thus perpetuate in their pupils the same kinds 
of ignorance and prejudice, though in the meantime they may indeed 
be playing a pretty respectable oboe or cello or snare drum or whatever. 

I maintain that that type of musician — he is the spiritual mentor of 
the young auditioners I described earlier — is not only a dangerous 
cancer in the music profession, but is depriving himself of the joys and 
pleasures oi music. And I say that conservatories must be actively 
involved in preventing that kind of musician from happening. For 
that kind of musician is not a complete musician — if he is a musician 
at all; he really seems more like a musical mechanic or automaton. I 
maintain further that that kind of musician cannot survive in music 
today, or at least he cannot survive as well as the musician who brings 
a more sophisticated background and point of view to his profession. 
It reminds me of the old business axiom: there is always room at the 
top. But the top today signifies not just a digital dexterity, but an 

436 




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intellectual sophistication, an intellectual curiosity, and a depth of 
perception. The reason for this is simple: competition. The music 
field has become an extremely competitive field. Today when a major 
orchestra has an opening for tuba, let us say, there are 40 to 50 appli- 
cants for the audition. The implication must be obvious: play your 
horn well, but have something else besides; have an extra dimension 
which will enable you to fill that room at the top. 

But beyond the audition level, once the musician is safely ensconced 
in his job, he will be much the better for it if this job continues to have 
a meaning for him, a means of expressing himself, a means of reflecting 
the impact of the music upon himself, in short the exchange of ideas 
and feelings between the composer and the performer, between the 
creative and the recreative, and these ideas transmitted then via the 
performer to the listener. 

Very often in discussions or arguments about the validity of contem- 
porary music with musicians (who sometimes are more rigid in their 
thinking than lay people), I tend to point out a very simple fact. This 
is a hypothetical example involving three musicians in connection with 
three composers. Musician 'A' likes and understands only composer 
'X', a representative of the romantic school; musician 'B' likes and 
understands composer 'Y' in addition to 'X' ('Y' is a Baroque or pre- 
19th century composer); musician 'C likes and understands 'X', 'Y', 
and 'Z' — 'Z' representing the much feared contemporary music. Is 
there any question as to who, purely statistically, has the greater enjoy- 
ment in music; and is there any question as to whose life is more 
intellectually enriched by music? Can there be any question that the 
musician who appreciates and understands the structural perfection of 
the Eroica Symphony, who savors while he is performing the hundreds 
of harmonic, rhythmic or orchestrational details that contribute to 
make that piece one of the masterpieces of our musical heritage, 
receives a kind of psychic income from performing music that the 
musician who is unaware of such compositional relationships can 
simply never enjoy. 

We forget today that the musician of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries 
was rarely just a composer or just an instrumentalist. If he was an 
oboist, he was also a composer and perhaps a pianist; if he was a com- 
poser he was also perhaps a flutist or an organist. The creative and 
recreative aspects of music were an integral balance in such a musician's 
musical constitution, and the one fructified the other. In more recent 
times, this was an ideal embodied and revived by a composer like Paul 
Hindemith, himself 'the compleat musician', and one can see this con- 
cept still perpetuated at the Yale School of Music where Hindemith 
taught and created a music school that in many respects is more like 
the ideal conservatory than many conservatories. 

This is a crucial point, and it will have a lot to do with the kind of 
music our children will be listening to ten or twenty years from now. 
How do we produce this complete musician? Very simply, by the com- 
plete conservatory. And that is a conservatory which manifests the 
same kind of breadth and depth in quality and conception that I have 
been speaking about. It is a conservatory where the many subsidiary 
disciplines, whether applied or theoretical, whether vocal or instru- 
438 



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439 



mental, whether individual or collective are all integrated, aware of 
each other, enlightened by each other. In that way the student who 
goes to such a conservatory will learn to understand — and more 
important — absorb intuitively how all these theories and methods 
relate to music, which — I must remind you — we call an art in our 
society. The student will gradually acquire a vision of that art in 
which pushing down keys at a certain moment to produce a certain 
acoustic result will not be an end in itself or a means of merely gaining 
a livelihood, but will in addition be a vehicle for expressing feelings, 
thoughts, ideas — those of the composer he is performing, and even (if 
he has earned the privilege) those of himself. 

There is one other problem I would like to touch upon, because it 
relates directly to my ideas of the complete musician, and the role that 
the conservatory must play to create that kind of musician. We are 
going through a period in American education involved with an 
extremely exaggerated 'degree-consciousness'. We have made a fetish 
of the degree, a pedigree, a kind of automatic approval which cannot 
be questioned, and we are about to do the same in music with the 
doctorate. We evaluate people's ability too much on whether they have 
a degree or not, and what kind of degree they have. Literally thousands 
of teaching jobs are not available unless the applicant has a degree, 
regardless of his unique intrinsic ability. Worse than that, our univer- 
sities are full of very worthy teachers who are prevented from becoming, 
for example, full professors and receiving the better salaries that are 
attached to full professorships, because they do not have a doctorate, 
while some less gifted person who has a doctorate moves ahead into 
the upper echelons. / think we must stop this madness! We must stop 
it because we are indulging here in an abstracted educational process 
which puts the emphasis on the number of study hours completed 
rather than what has really been comprehended in those study hours. 
We push thousands upon thousands of students through a sort of 
assembly-line educational process, which remains a process rather than 
becoming a really full complete education. 

Forgive me for becoming autobiographical for a moment, but I do it 
only to make a point. I am one of the original dropouts. I do not 
have any degrees, and I do not have even a high school diploma. Now 
I am not advocating this necessarily as a road to higher education, and 
I am aware of the fact that times have changed tremendously in the 
twenty-four years since I left high school. But I have the feeling I 
would not have been a very good music student in, for example, the 
rigid programs which allow for almost no electives, which some of our 
schools demand. What I am trying to say is that we must develop 
a new flexibility in our music education, in our programs, in our 
curriculi, to make room for the tremendous range in student and 
faculty types. We seem to be in the process of doing the opposite. 

For the universities, mammoth institutions with mammoth organ- 
izational problems, perhaps this factory-type of method is the only 
possible and inevitable result. But I believe that the conservatory, 
a small independent music school, can show a different approach and 
a different result, and this in some cautious way I would like to inves- 
tigate and try to do. Institutions just like people must remain flexible, 
or else they will atrophy. 



440 




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I realize very well that it is one thing to design an abstract blueprint 
such as the one I have just offered. It is quite another thing to infuse 
this abstract with life, to make it a consistently productive force. There 
is only one way in which that life can be instilled in such a blueprint: 
and the key to that is quality — quality of faculty, quality of student. 
And here there is no room for compromise. Idealism does not thrive 
on compromise, nor does quality. And to the extent that it is possible 
for me to achieve this quality in a humane way, with your help and 
support, be it spiritual, financial, ideational or moral, I will pursue 
that goal. I trust that we will someday all be proud of the results of 
this joint effort. 

© Gunther Schuller 



Award for 'An afternoon at Tanglewood' 

'An afternoon at Tanglewood', the program telecast on the NBC-TV 
network on August 14 1966, has been chosen the winner of the Single 
Program Television Award of Sigma Alpha Iota, the internationally 
incorporated professional music fraternity for women. 

Erich Leinsdorf led the Orchestra in performances of music by Wagner, 
Brahms and Gunther Schuller, and the two concertos were played by 
winners of the 1966 Moscow Competition: Prokofiev's Second Violin 
Concerto by Masuko Ushioda and Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto 
by Misha Dichter. 

Edwin Newman was the NBC commentator, and 'An afternoon at 
Tanglewood' was directed by Ted Nathanson, written by June Reig 
and produced by George Heinemann. Jordan M. Whitelaw was pro- 
ducer for the Boston Symphony. 

Sigma Alpha Iota television awards are designed to honor established 
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JOHN BROWNING, who gave the world 
premiere of Samuel Barber's Piano Concerto 
with Erich Leinsdorf and the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra in 1962, has appeared with 
the Orchestra several times since in Boston, 
Tanglewood and New York. One of Amer- 
ica's foremost young pianists, he was born 
in Denver, Colorado, where he made his 
orchestral debut with Mozart's Coronation 
Concerto at the age of 10. His family moved 
to Los Angeles where he studied with Lee 
Pattison, and later he went to New York after winning a scholarship to 
the Juilliard School, where he studied with Rosina Lhevinne. 

In 1954 he won the Steinway Centennial Award and two years later the 
Leventritt Award, which led to his successful debut with the New York 
Philharmonic. In 1956 he also won the Gold Medal at the competition 
in Brussels, founded by Queen Elisabeth of Belgium. From that time 
his career was assured. His tours have taken him all over Europe, the 
Soviet Union, the Near East, Mexico, and throughout the United 
States, where he has played with every major orchestra. During this 
past summer he was on the faculty of the Berkshire Music Center at 
Tanglewood where he gave a series of master classes. 

John Browning's recordings for RCA Victor of the First and Second 
concertos of Prokofiev with Erich Leinsdorf and the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra have been enthusiastically received, and he will shortly 
record the Third and Fourth concertos in continuation of the Orches- 
tra's successful Prokofiev cycle. 



I- 1 



A member of the orchestra 

AMNON LEVY, who was born in Tel- Aviv, 
Israel, was graduated from the Jerusalem 
Conservatory of Music in 1950. Jascha 
Heifetz encouraged him to come to the 
United States for more intensive study, and 
in 1952 he crossed the Atlantic and won a 
scholarship to the Curtis Institute, where he 
studied for three years with Ivan Galamian. 
Before leaving his native country, he enter- 
tained troops of the Israeli army on the 
front line. 

Amnon Levy joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1964 after 
haying spent several years with the Minneapolis Symphony and giving 
recitals and playing concertos with symphony orchestras throughout 
the United States. Last season he played the Boston premiere of Sir 
William Walton's Violin Concerto with the Boston Civic Symphony, 
a performance which won him high critical praise, and later 
played Mozart's Fourth Violin Concerto with the Reading Symphony 
Orchestra. 




443 



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444 



FUTURE PROGRAMS 



Eighth Program 

Friday afternoon November 24 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening November 25 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

BEETHOVEN Fidelio - Overture 

Violin concerto in D major 

JOSEPH SILVERSTEIN 

Symphony no. 5 in C minor 

There is probably no other orchestra in the world that can boast so 
many virtuoso players among its members, and certainly Joseph Silver- 
stein takes his place among the outstanding violinists of his generation. 
During past seasons he has performed with the Orchestra concertos by 
Bartok and Stravinsky (which he has also recorded for RCA Victor), 
and by Bach, Schoenberg and Sibelius. Earlier this year he played the 
Brahms Concerto with Erich Leinsdorf and the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra in Boston and at Tanglewood, and with Leopold Stokowski 
and the American Symphony Orchestra in New York. 

The Orchestra last played the Fifth Symphony in this series five years 
ago during Erich Leinsdorf's first season as Music Director. RCA 
Victor will record the work as part of the Beethoven cycle by the 
Orchestra, which is due to be completed in 1970, in time for the bicen- 
tennial celebrations of Beethoven's birth. 

The concert will end at about 4 o'clock on Friday 
and at about 10.30 on Saturday 



!- I 



Ninth Program 

Friday afternoon December 8 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 9 at 8.30 

STANISLAW SKROWACZEWSKI guest conductor 

BERLIOZ Corsaire - Overture 

LUTOSLAWSKI Concerto for orchestra 

BRAHMS Symphony no. 2 in D major 

programs subject to change 



BALDWIN PIANO 

RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



445 



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446 



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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

FRANCIS W. HATCH MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 

ANDREW HEISKELL SIDNEY R. RABB 

HAROLD D. HODGKINSON RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

451 






BARTOK: Violin Concerto No. 2 

STRAVINSKY: Violin Concerto 

Joseph Silverstein 

Boston Symphony Orchestra/Erich Leinsdorf 

Qj/if ©/ri4t<wratif$it/it)tm 



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Beethoven /Leonore Overture No. 3 

Boston Symphony /Leinsdorf 



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The Boston Symphony 
under Leinsdorf 

In a recording of remarkable sonic excellence, conce 
Joseph Silverstein and the Boston Symphony under L 
capture the atmospheric sorcery of two of the most it 
violin works of this century: Bartbk's Concerto No. 2 i 
vinsky's Concerto in D . If ever a composer could I 
a "musical poet" it is Schumann and— in a beautiful 
performance of his Fourth Symphony — Leinsdorf 
Boston ians movingly portray its simple eloquence, 
melancholy slow-moving opening to the dramatic 
scales that herald one of the most exciting codas, 
phonic literature. Both albums in Dynagrqoye sounc 



rca Victor 

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BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 
Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
i Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 

Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 
Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 
Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 

Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



WILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



*members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



453 



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454 



At the / 

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A centenary - Margaret Ruthven Lang 

On November 27 one of the Boston Symphony Orchestra's most 
faithful Friday subscribers, Margaret Ruthven Lang, celebrates her 
hundredth birthday. To salute their friend on this happy occasion 
Mr Leinsdorf and members of the Orchestra play at the concert on 
November 24 the Old Hundredth chorale, and the movement 'Sheep 
may safely graze' from J. S. Bach's Cantata no. 208, written to celebrate 
another birthday some 250 years ago. 

Miss Lang is one of the five women whose music has been played by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra; Arthur Nikisch conducted perform- 
ances of her Dramatic Overture in 1893, and Gertrude Franklin sang 
her concert aria Armida with Emil Paur conducting in 1896. Philip 
Hale reported in his review that 'the Overture was applauded and 
there was a vain attempt to call the composer forward'. Margo Miller 
of The Boston Globe wrote in an article published earlier this year 
that Miss Lang well remembers the incident: 'I crept up to the balcony 
and hid.' 

Margaret Ruthven Lang's father was the distinguished and enterprising 
Boston musician Benjamin Johnson Lang, conductor, teacher and com- 
poser. He conducted the world premiere in Boston of Tchaikovsky's 
First Piano Concerto with Hans von Biilow as soloist, and the first 
American concert performance of Parsifal. Miss Lang spent some of 
her early years in Munich, Germany, and met many of the famous 
musicians of the time; she knew the Wagner family well. 

Talking to Miss Lang today one cannot believe that she grew up before 
Symphony Hall was built. She has a vivacity and alertness that would 
put many people half her age to shame. The Trustees, Mr Leinsdorf, 
the Orchestra and all who work at Symphony Hall wish Margaret 
Ruthven Lang a happy birthday. 



455 




FONDUE A LA DANSK 

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456 




Contents 



Program for November 24 1967 458 

Program for November 25 1967 459 

Future programs 509 

Program notes 

'The Old Hundredth' 462 

Bach - 'Schafe konnen sicher weiden' 

from Cantata no. 208 462 

Beethoven - Fidelio - Overture 464 

by Andrew Raeburn 

Concerto for violin and orchestra 

in D major 470 

by John N. Burk 

Symphony no. 5 in C minor 482 

by John N. Burk 

A centenary - Margaret Ruthven Lang 455 

The BSO and the Talking Machine - Part 2 494 

by Martin Bookspan 

Program editor 502 

The soloists 504 



457 



■E 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Eighth Program 

Friday afternoon November 24 at 2 o'clock 
ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 



Traditional 
BACH 



'The Old Hundredth' 

'Schafe konnen sicher weiden' 
from Cantata no. 208 



CHLOE OWEN soprano 
In honor of Margaret Ruthven Lang 

BEETHOVEN Concerto for violin and orchestra 

in D major op. 61 

Allegro ma non troppo 

Larghetto 

Rondo 

JOSEPH SILVERSTEIN 

INTERMISSION 



BEETHOVEN Symphony no. 5 in C minor op. 67 

Allegro con brio 
Andante con moto 
Allegro — Allegro 



The concert will end at about 4 o'clock 



BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 

458 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Eighth Program 

Saturday evening November 25 at 8.30 
ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

BEETHOVEN Fidelio - Overture 



BEETHOVEN Concerto for violin and orchestra 

in D major op. 61 

Allegro ma non troppo 

Larghetto 

Rondo 

JOSEPH SILVERSTEIN 



INTERMISSION 



BEETHOVEN Symphony no. 5 in C minor op. 67 

Allegro con brio 
Andante con moto 
Allegro — Allegro 



The concert will end at about 10.30 



BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



459 



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THE FIRST & OLD COLONY 

The First National Bank of Boston and Old Colony Trust Company 



460 



THE FUND FOR THE BOSTON SYMPHONY 

Margaret Ruthven Lang 

Margaret Ruthven Lang and The Fund for The Boston Symphony 
have much in common. As a link between Symphony past and Sym- 
phony future, she is important to Symphony present. She speaks to 
us across the years about the Orchestra's struggle for greatness and 
the international renown that it now enjoys. And so by her very 
presence at the concerts she tells us of the need for continuing that 
excellence. 



Within The Fund for The Boston Symphony is a Commemorative 
Gifts program, by which a donor may express a personal interest in 
the Orchestra, or may honor a friend, teacher, or musician. As part 
of this program and to show the esteem which the trustees hold 
for Miss Lang, Henry B. Cabot has given a personal contribution of 
$2,500 to The Fund to name a seat in Miss Lang's honor. 

A plaque will be fixed to the regular seat, first balcony, right, B-1, 
occupied by Miss Lang and members of her family almost since 
the building opened in 1900. Through all the years to come it will 
be known officially as the Margaret Ruthven Lang seat at Symphony. 

Congratulations, Miss Lang, on your 100th birthday. 



461 




Program Notes 



<The Old Hundredth' 

The melody known as 'The Old Hundredth' appears for the first time 
in a copy of the Genevan Psalter of 1554, and was adapted to a version 
of Psalm 134, probably by the Psalter's musical editor, Louis Bourgeois. 
In 1561 the tune was again adapted, this time for the Anglo-Genevan 
Psalter to the familiar paraphrase of Psalm 100 'All people that on 
earth do dwell'. At this performance the four part version has been 
scored for brass quintet. 

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

'Schafe konnen sicher weiden' from Cantata no. 208 

Bach was born in Eisenach on March 21 1685, and died in Leipzig on July 28 1750. 
The aria is scored for solo soprano, two flutes and continuo. 

Bach was in the service of Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Weimar in 1716, 
and early in the year accompanied his employer on a visit to Prince 
Christian of Sachsen-Weissenfels. February 23 was their host's birth- 
day, and in his honor Bach composed and directed a performance of 
the secular cantata 'Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd' ('The 
merry hunt is all my pleasure'). The protagonists in this entertainment 
are Diana, goddess of the chase; Endymion, the beautiful youth con- 
demned by Jupiter to perpetual sleep; Pan, the god of shepherds; 
and Pales, goddess of shepherds and cattle, who sings the aria 'Schafe 
konnen sicher weiden'. The following is a literal translation: 
'Sheep may safely graze where a good shepherd watches over them. In 
a country where the Prince rules well the people find peace and tran- 
quillity and all that makes them happy.' 

A.H.R. 



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462 



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463 



LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN 
Fidelio - Overture 

Beethoven was born in Bonn in December 1770 (probably the 16th) and died in 
Vienna on March 26 1827. He composed the overture for the final version of his 
opera in 1814, though it was not completed in time for the first performance. The 
last performance in this series was on November 4 and 5 1955 when the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra played the Overture to celebrate the reopening of the restored 
Staatsoper in Vienna on November 5. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
2 trombones, timpani and strings. 

On November 13 1805 French troops marched into Vienna. Seven days 
later the first performance of Beethoven's only opera Fidelio was given 
at the Theater-an-der-W ien 'before stalls full of French officers'. Many 
of the regular patrons had deserted the city, the novelty of the piece 
did not appeal to the French military, and after two further perform- 
ances on November 21 and 22, Beethoven withdrew the opera. It was 
hardly an auspicious time for the premiere of a difficult new piece. 
The casting was also unfortunate, since none of the principal singers 
was more than mediocre. 

The critic of the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung of Leipzig was 
unenthusiastic: 'The oddest among the odd products of last month 
was surely Beethoven's opera Fidelio, which we had been eagerly await- 
ing. The piece was given for the first time on November 20, but was 
received very coldly. . . . The performance itself was not of the first 



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rank. Mile Milder has neither sufficient emotional strength nor live- 
liness for the role of Fidelio, despite her beautiful voice, and Demmer 
[Florestan] sang almost consistently flat. All this, together with the gen- 
eral situation, will explain why the opera was given only three times.' 

Beethoven was unhappy with the original performances which he con- 
ducted himself. Following the advice of well-intentioned friends, he 
made revisions (consisting mostly of cuts), and the second version was 
presented at the same theatre on March 29 1806, running for four 
performances. Beethoven was still not happy. In a letter to Sebastian 
Meier, his brother-in-law, who sang the role of Pizarro, he wrote on 
April 10, the day of the last of the four performances: 

'I beg you ask Herr von Seyfried to conduct my opera today. I should 
like to look at and hear it from a distance. At least my patience will 
not be so sorely tried as if I have to hear my music botched from 
nearby! I cannot help believing it is done on purpose. I shall not say 
anything about the wind instruments; but every pianissimo, every 
crescendo, decrescendo, every forte, every fortissimo has been elimi- 
nated from my opera; at any rate they are disregarded. One really loses 
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For more than seven years Beethoven left Fideiio. But early in 1814 
an opportunity for a revival presented itself. Georg Friedrich Triet- 
schke, the stage manager and poet of the Karnthnerthor-T heater, re- 
vised the libretto, and Beethoven set to work on the score. The first 
performance of the opera as it is best known today was given at the 
theatre on May 23. It was triumphantly successful. 

For the first production in 1805 Beethoven wrote the overture which 
is now known as 'Leonore no. 2'. The following year the revised 
version began with 'Leonore no. 3', a piece even more elaborately 
constructed than its precursor. For the 1814 version of the opera, 
Beethoven realized that so long and formal a piece was out of place 
before the first act, and wrote the overture now called Tidelio', which 
is simpler and more effective theatrically. At its end one is ready for 
the curtain to go up on the first scene, during which Marcelline, 
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LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN 

Concerto for violin and orchestra in D major op. 61 

Program note by John N. Burk 

Ludwig van Beethoven composed the concerto in 1806, and it was first played 
by Franz Clement at the Theater-an-der-Wien in Vienna on December 23 that year. 
Many famous violinists have performed the concerto with the Orchestra, Sarasate, 
Kreisler, Flesch, Heifetz, Szigeti, Francescatti and Menuhin among them. The 
concerto was most recently performed at these concerts by Isaac Stern on January 15 
and 16 1965. It has been recorded by Jascha Heifetz and the Orchestra under the 
direction of Charles Munch for RCA Victor. 

The instrumentation: flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
timpani and strings. The cadenza which Joseph Silverstein plays in the first move- 
ment is by Fritz Kreisler; those in the second and third movements he has composed 
himself. 

The Violin Concerto belongs to the prodigiously abundant year of the 
Fourth Symphony, the Rasumovsky Quartets, the first revision of 
Tidelio', the Piano Sonata in F minor, the Thirty-two Variations in 
G minor, and if Thayer's theory is accepted, the Fourth Piano Con- 
certo. Among these the Violin Concerto was the last completed. De- 
signed for Franz Clement, celebrated virtuoso of the day, it was per- 
formed by him in Vienna, on December 23 1806. Beethoven completed 
the score at the last moment. The solo part reached the hands of 
Clement too late for the final rehearsal, according to the evidence 
which Dr Bertolini gave to Otto Jahn in support of his claim that 



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'Beethoven never finished commissioned works until the last minute'. 
According to another witness, cited by Thayer, Clement played the 
concerto 'at sight'. 

Beethoven has left no record of his true musical regard for Franz 
Clement. However, in 1794, when the violinist was a prodigy of four- 
teen, Beethoven wrote him the following enthusiastic letter: 

'Dear Clement 

Proceed along the path which you have hitherto trodden so splen- 
didly and so gloriously. Nature and art vie in making you one of the 
greatest artists. Follow both, and you need not fear that you will fail 
to reach the great — the greatest goal on earth to which the artist can 
attain. Be happy, my dear young friend, and come back soon, so that 
I may hear again your delightful, splendid playing. 

Wholly your friend 
L. v. Beethoven' 

Paul David reports contemporary opinion to the effect that 'his style 
was not vigorous, nor his tone very powerful; gracefulness and ten- 
derness of expression were its main characteristics. His technical skill 
appears to have been extraordinary. His intonation was perfect in 
the most hazardous passages, and his bowing of the greatest dexterity'. 
On the other hand, there are evidences of the meretricious in Clement, 
who was exploited as a boy wonder from the age of nine, and who 
liked to exhibit such feats as playing long stretches of an oratorio 



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473 



from memory, note for note, upon the piano, after hearing it two or 
three times. At the concert where he played Beethoven's Concerto, 
he edified the audience with a fantasia of his own, in which he held 
his instrument upside down. In any case, Beethoven must have re- 
spected the position of Clement as a prominent conductor in Vienna, 
to whom fell the direction of his first two symphonies, his 'Mount 
of Olives', and other works. Nor could Beethoven have forgotten 
that he was leader of the violins at the theater which had lately pro- 
duced Fidelio and from which further favors might be expected. 
It should be noted, nevertheless, that not Clement, but Beethoven's 
friend Stephan von Breuning, received the dedication of the piece on 
its publication in 1809, Beethoven's transcription of it into a con- 
certo for pianoforte and orchestra bore the dedication to Madame 
von Breuning. He had made this artistically doubtful arrangement 
at the order of Muzio Clementi. 

The autograph score of the Concerto is inscribed with a playful mix- 
ture of languages, and a dubious pun on the virtue of clemency: 
'Concerto par Clemenza pour Clement, Primo Violino e Direttore al 
Teatro a Vienne, dal L. V. Bthvn., 1806'. The pun also brings to 
mind that other personage connected with the early fortunes of the 
Concerto — Clementi, the musician turned publisher — although the 
virtue in question hardly appears in this particular transaction. 
Clementi, passing through Vienna in April 1807, called upon Bee- 



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thoven with a view to obtaining the English rights to some of his 
latest works. He wrote of his crafty approach and his success to his 
partner, Collard, in London: 

Dear Collard — By a little management and without committing 
myself, I have at last made a complete conquest of the haughty beauty, 
Beethoven, who first began at public places to grin and coquet with 
me, which of course I took care not to discourage; then slid into 
familiar chat, till meeting him by chance one day in the street — 
'Where do you lodge?' says he: 'I have not seen you this long while!' 
— upon which I gave him my address. Two days after I found on my 
table his card brought by himself, from the maid's description of his 
lovely form. This will do, thought I. Three days after that he calls 
again, and finds me at home. Conceive then the mutual ecstasy of 
such a meeting! I took pretty good care to improve it to our house's 
advantage, therefore, as soon as decency would allow, after praising 
very handsomely some of his compositions: 'Are you engaged with any 
publisher in London?' — 'No' says he. 'Suppose, then, that you prefer 
met — 'With all my heart'. 'Done. What have you ready?' — 'I'll bring 
you a list.' In short I agree with him to take in MSS. three quartets, 
a symphony, an overture and a concerto for the violin, which is beau- 
tiful, and which, at my request he will adapt for the pianoforte with 
and without additional keys; and a concerto for the pianoforte, for 
all which we are to pay him two hundred pounds sterling. 

The symphony which Clementi had thus secured was the Fourth, the 
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477 







a rare combination of business and musical acumen, considered both 
'wonderfully fine'. The conversion of the violin concerto into a more 
saleable pianoforte work he duly arranged for and received, with an 
additional cadenza for this instrument, and a passage connecting the 
slow movement and finale. He wanted the quartets and symphonic 
scores in arrangements for the pianoforte, but probably thought it the 
better part of caution not to propose arrangements which might raise 
the price, or worse still might anger the composer and jeopardize the 
whole deal. He suggested to his partner: 'The quartets, etc., you may 
get Cramer or some other clever fellow to adapt for the pianoforte'. 
He added: 'I think I have made a very good bargain. What do you 
think?' 

Beethoven, on his side, rubbed his hands over his own sharpness as 
a man of affairs. He figured to sell this parcel of scores simultaneously 
to publishers in three countries. He wrote in high spirits to his friend, 
Count Franz von Brunsvik: 'I have come to a right satisfactory arrange- 
ment with Clementi. I shall receive 200 pounds Sterling — and besides 
I am privileged to sell the works in Germany and France'. 

The five introductory taps on the drum become the basic pattern of 
the opening movement. The rhythm, squarely measuring off the bar, 
becomes omnipresent and gives the whole context a downright, on- 
the-beat character. The rhythm is inherent in two phrases of the main 



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theme and the last phrase of the second theme. It is echoed between 
phrases in the accompaniment. It is double-quickened, used in transi- 
tional passages. The movement is one of those in which some early 
hearers failed to distinguish between reiteration and repetitiousness. 
The themes, profusely set forth, are similar in character, but endlessly 
variegated in the placid, untroubled course of the whole. 

The Larghetto is subdued by mutes upon the strings; and only three 
pairs of instruments to match them — clarinets, bassoons and horns. 
The voice of the solo instrument continues in graceful lines of orna- 
mental tracery in a musing half light. Only for a few measures in the 
middle section does it carry the melody. The Rondo theme is tossed 
from the middle to the high range of the instrument and then picked 
up by the orchestra. The horns have a theme which peculiarly belongs 
to them. As the development progresses the brilliance drops away to 
dreaming again as fragments are murmured and the delicate colorings 
of the horns, or bassoon, or oboes have their passing enchantments. 
In short, a concerto without dazzling qualities, with a solo part which 
asks taste, discernment in expression, and warm response. The con- 
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481 






LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN 
Symphony no. 5 in C minor op. 67 
Program note by John N. Burk 

Beethoven finished the Fifth Symphony near the end of 1807 and himself directed 
the first performance at the Theater-an-der-Wien on December 22 1808. The dedi- 
cation is to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky. The orchestra last played 
the symphony in this series on November 23 and 24 1962 with Erich Leinsdorf 
conducting. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and 
contrabassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings (the piccolo, 
trombones and contrabassoon, here making their first appearance in a symphony of 
Beethoven, are used only in the Finale). 

Something in the direct impelling drive of the first movement of the 
C minor symphony commanded general attention when it was new, 
challenged the skeptical, and soon forced its acceptance. Goethe 
heard it with grumbling disapproval, according to Mendelssohn, but 
was astonished and impressed in spite of himself. Lesueur, hidebound 
professor at the Conservatoire, was talked by Berlioz into breaking his 
vow never to listen to another note of Beethoven, and found his prej- 
udices and resistances quite swept away. A less plausible tale reports 
Maria Malibran as having been thrown into convulsions by this sym- 
phony. The instances could be multiplied. There was no gainsaying 
that forthright, sweeping storminess. 

Even if the opening movement could have been denied, the tender 
melodic sentiment of the Andante was more than enough to offset 
conservative objections to 'waywardness' in the development, and 
the lilting measures of the scherzo proper were more than enough to 
compensate the 'rough' and puzzling Trio. The joyous, marchlike 



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482 




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theme of the finale carried the symphony on its crest to popular 
success, silencing at length the objections of those meticulous musi- 
cians who found that movement 'commonplace' and noisy. Certain 
of the purists, such as Louis Spohr, were outraged at hearing the 
disreputable tones of trombones and piccolo in a symphony. But 
Spohr could not resist Beethoven's uncanny touch in introducing a 
reminiscence of the scherzo before the final coda. Even Berlioz, who 
was usually with Beethoven heart and soul, felt called upon to make 
a half-apology for the elementary finale theme. It seemed to him that 
the repetitiousness of the finale inevitably lessened the interest. After 
the magnificent first entrance of the theme, the major tonality so 
miraculously prepared for in the long transitional passage, all that 
could follow seemed to him lessened by comparison, and he was forced 
to take refuge in the simile of a row of even columns, of which the 
nearest looms largest. 

It has required the weathering of time to show the Beethoven of the 
Fifth Symphony to be in no need of apologies, to be greater than his 
best champions suspected. Some of its most enthusiastic conductors 
in the century past seem to have no more than dimly perceived its 
broader lines, misplaced its accents, under or over shot the mark when 
they attempted those passages which rely upon the understanding and 
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hurried over the impressive, held E flat in the second bar, who sus- 
tained it no longer than the 'usual duration of a forte bow stroke'. 
Many years later, Arthur Nikisch was taken to task for over-prolonging 
those particular holds. Felix Weingartner, in 1906, in his 'On the 
Performance of the Symphonies of Beethoven', felt obliged to warn 
conductors against what would now be considered unbelievable liber- 
ties, such as adding horns in the opening measures of the symphony. 
He also told them to take the opening eighth notes in tempo, and 
showed how the flowing contours of the movement must not be 
obscured by false accentuation. 

Those — and there is no end of them — who have attempted to describe 
the first movement have looked upon the initial four-note figure with 
its segregating hold, and have assumed that Beethoven used this frag- 
ment, which is nothing more than a rhythm and an interval, in place 
of a theme proper, relying upon the slender and little used 'second 
theme' for such matters as melodic continuity. Weingartner and others 
after him have exposed this fallacy, and what might be called the 
enlightened interpretation of this movement probably began with the 
realization that Beethoven never devised a first movement more con- 
spicuous for graceful symmetry and even, melodic flow. An isolated 
tile cannot explain a mosaic, and the smaller the tile unit, the more 
smooth and delicate of line will be the complete picture. Just so does 
Beethoven's briefer 'motto' build upon itself to produce long and 
regular melodic periods. Even in its first bare statement, the 'motto' 
belongs conceptually to an eight-measure period; indeed Erich Leins- 
dorf feels that it was Beethoven's specific intention that each of the 



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holds should last for five beats: so that there are exactly sixteen beats 
from the start to the sixth measure, the equivalent of eight whole 
measures. The upper line of the example shows Beethoven's opening 
in its orginal form; the lower Mr Leinsdorf s resolution of the problem. 
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This is, says Mr Leinsdorf, not only important for determining the 
length of the holds, but also has bearing on the fact that in the first 
movement there are two distinct beats to each bar: it is not a 'one in 
a bar' movement. 

The movement is regular in its sections, conservative in its tonalities. 
The composer remained, for the most part, within formal boundaries. 
The orchestra was still the orchestra of Haydn, until, to swell the 
jubilant outburst of the finale, Beethoven resorted to his trombones. 

The innovation, then, was in the character of the musical thought. 
The artist worked in materials entirely familiar, but what he had to 
say was astonishingly different from anything that had been said before. 
As Sir George Grove has put it, he 'introduced a new physiognomy 
into the world of music'. No music, not even the 'Eroica', had had 
nearly the drive and impact of this First Movement. 

The Andante con moto (in A flat major) is the most irregular of the 
four movements. It is not so much a theme with variations as free 
thoughts upon segments of a theme with certain earmarks and recur- 
rences of the variation form hovering in the background. The first 
setting forth of the melody cries heresy by requiring 48 bars. The first 
strain begins regularly enough, but, instead of closing on the tonic 
A flat, hangs suspended. The woodwinds echo this last phrase and 
carry it to a cadence which is pointedly formal as the strings echo it 




488 



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at the nineteenth bar. Formal but not legitimate. A close at the eighth 
bar would have been regular, and this is not a movement of regular 
phrase lengths. Regularity is not established until the end of the 
movement when this phrase closes upon its eighth bar at last! The 
whole andante is one of the delayed cadences. The second strain of 
the melody pauses upon the dominant and proceeds with an outburst 
into C major, repeats in this key to pause at the same place and dream 
away at leisure into E flat. The two sections of melody recur regularly 
with varying ornamental accompaniment in the strings, but again the 
questioning pauses bring in enchanting whispered vagaries, such as 
a fugato for flutes, oboes and clarinets, or a pianissimo dalliance by 
the violins upon a strand of accompaniment. The movement finds 
a sudden fortissimo close. 

The third movement (allegro, with outward appearance of a scherzo) 
begins pianissimo with a phrase the rhythm of which crystallizes into 
the principal element, in fortissimo. The movement restores the 
C minor of the first and some of its rhythmic drive. But here the 
power of impulsion is light and springy. In the first section of the 
Trio in C major (the only part of the movement which is literally 
repeated) the basses thunder a theme which is briefly developed, 
fugally and otherwise. The composer begins what sounds until its 
tenth bar like a da capo. But this is in no sense a return, as the hearer 
soon realizes. The movement has changed its character, lost its steely 
vigor and taken on a light, skimming, mysterious quality. It evens off 
into a pianissimo where the suspense of soft drum beats prepares a 



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new disclosure, lightly establishing (although one does not realize this 
until the disclosure comes) the quadruple beat. The bridge of mystery 
leads, with a sudden tension, into the tremendous outburst of the 
Finale, chords proclaiming C major with all of the power an orchestra 
of 1807 could muster — which means that trombones, piccolo and 
contrabassoon appeared for the first time in a symphony. The Finale 
follows the formal line of custom, with a second section in the 
dominant, the prescribed development section, and a fairly close 
recapitulation. But as completely as the first movement (which like- 
wise outwardly conforms), it gives a new function to a symphony — 
a new and different character to music itself. Traditional preconcep- 
tions are swept away in floods of sound, joyous and triumphant. At 
the end of the development the riotous chords cease and in the sudden 
silence the scherzo, in what is to be a bridge passage, is recalled. Again 
measures of wonderment fall into the sense of a coda as the oboe brings 
the theme to a gentle resolution. This interruption was a stroke of 
genius which none could deny, even the early malcontents who 
denounced the movement as vulgar and blatant — merely because they 
had settled back for a rondo and found something else instead. The 
Symphony which in all parts overrode disputation did so nowhere 
more unanswerably than in the final coda with its tumultuous C major. 



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The BSO and the Talking Machine - Part 2 
by Martin Books pan 

In the first part of his article Martin Bookspan described the Orches- 
tra's journey to the Victor Talking Machine Company's studios at 
Camden, New Jersey, during a sweltering heat wave in October 1917, 
and the extraordinary igloo-type structures in which they were to play. 

Shortly before ten o'clock the men were marched into their little 
'igloos' and Dr Muck took his position outside. They began to work 
on the Tchaikovsky. Retake after retake was made, sometimes because 
the engineers weren't satisfied, sometimes because fatigue and the 
brutal heat caused mistakes. 

The late Boaz Piller, who played bassoon and contrabassoon in the 
orchestra from 1916 until his retirement in 1952, was another who 
remembered the sessions. 'There was trouble getting the different 
instruments to register,' Piller recalled. 'There was a very amusing 
incident in the transition section of the Tchaikovsky finale. No matter 
how hard he tried, Longy was unable to make his oboe solo register. 
So he was asked to come out of the little hut and sit right in front of 
the large horn. Still that was not satisfactory. They finally had him 
put his instrument right inside the recording horn — and this time it 
did register. Dr Muck, with his usual sarcasm and dry sense of humor, 
got a real kick out of it and the orchestra got a good laugh! 

On the sessions went, the rest of Tuesday, all day Wednesday, the same 
on Thursday, and again on Friday. When the Tchaikovsky finale was 
satisfactorily engraved, it was decided to go ahead and record the 
shorter pieces that Librarian Rogers had brought along. No tour that 
the orchestra had ever undertaken was more strenuous than this, but 
by the end of the last session, on Friday afternoon, everyone shared the 
exhilaration of having participated in a great event. Even Dr Muck, 
who had at first resented having to leave his comfortable Maine home 
a week early, was pleased with the results. 

How pleased can best be judged from an anecdote told in the Novem- 
ber 1926 issue of The Phonograph Monthly Review, one of the earliest 
periodicals in the United States devoted exclusively to news, informa- 
tion, and reviews of records. Dr Muck, Victor Herbert, and some of 
the recording men were a little late arriving at one of the final sessions. 
As they approached the door of the studio, they heard coming from 
inside the sounds of the Tchaikovsky finale. 'What are they rehearsing 

Martin Bookspan was born in Boston, studied at Harvard, and started 
professionally as director of serious music programs with various radio 
stations in Boston. He worked for the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
from 1954 to 1956 as radio, television and recordings co-ordinator. 
Since that time he has been based in New York. He is currently Pro- 
gram Consultant to WQXR, the radio station of The New York Times; 
host and commentator on the WQXR broadcasts of concerts by the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra; member of the Music Advisory Panel of 
the USIA; music critic for Channel 7 News in New York; and con- 
tributing editor of HiFi/Stereo Review. He is also writing two books 
on musical subjects for Doubleday. 



494 



jfowcome all 
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the Tchaikovsky again for?' someone exclaimed. 'That's all finished 
and recorded; they should be rehearsing the Lohengrin Prelude.' 
When the door opened, it was discovered that what they had been 
hearing was a playback of the record which had been made the day 
before! 

It was late Friday afternoon, 4 October, when the exhausted musicians 
filed slowly out of the Victor laboratory and onto the buses waiting to 
take them back to Philadelphia. They spent the early evening in the 
City of Brotherly Love, but they were all too tired for anything but 
boarding the train back to Boston. At 10.45 P- m - tne Y were on their 
way home. In contrast to the trip out, this time there were no card 
games, no groups keeping each other awake all night. They remained 
in their own cars and slept as though they had been drugged. 

A week later the orchestra's season officially began with the traditional 
Friday afternoon concert in Symphony Hall. By the time December 
arrived, the events of the first week of October seemed like a dream. 
But the arrival of the December bulletin of the Victor Talking Machine 
Company served to bring them vividly back to memory. 

A triumph — first records by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, ran the 
proud announcement on the center-page spread. Three discs consti- 
tuted that first release of December 1917 — exactly fifty years ago in 
a week's time. The finale of the Tchaikovsky Fourth Symphony 
occupied two single-faced twelve-inch discs (74553/4), each selling for 
$1.50; the Prelude to the Third Act of Lohengrin (64744) was on a 
single-faced ten-inch disc which sold for $1.00. 



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Dec. 10, 1967: The Christmas Story in Medieval Music 
Jan. 28, 1968: Court and Chapel Music of the early Venetian Baroque 
Mar. 17, 1968: Netherlands Renaissance Music 

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From the response of both critics and public it is clear that no orches- 
tral recordings produced anywhere until that time compared in impact 
with these first Boston Symphony Orchestra recordings. When he 
heard the finished discs, Victor Herbert exclaimed: 'At last it is 
possible to present the performances of a symphony orchestra! Now, 
everything is possible!' One of the most enthusiastic reviews of the 
discs when they were first released came from America's pioneer record 
critic, R. D. Darrell, who later edited the invaluable Gramophone Shop 
catalogues of recorded music and whose reviews of tapes and discs 
enliven the pages of High Fidelity-Musical America to this very day. 
Darrell wrote: 'The tone of the wood winds is so exquisite that one 
can only marvel. Precision, phrasing, and tone are equaled only by the 
balance and clarity. It is hard to avoid superlatives when describing 
these records. . . . There was never anything like them before, there 
can never be anything quite like them again.' And the announcement 
in the Victor bulletin concludes with these words: 'After years of 
research and experimentation, we feel that this, our latest achievement, 
is worthy of our best traditions, for it makes available a whole province 
of music which so far has remained untouched, and offers the music 
lover the first of a series of symphony orchestra records which far 
surpass any orchestral records obtainable anywhere in the world.' If 
this sounds strangely like current pronouncements from this or that 
record company about its most recent developments in ultra-fidelity or 
stereophony, it proves only that the advertising copy writer of 1967 
bears a remarkable likeness to his 1917 counterpart. 



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The ultimate in hi-fidelity reproduction will probably remain forever 
unattainable, but whatever victories have been won in the past fifty 
years were signalled by the cymbal crash with which the finale of 
Tchaikovsky's Fourth Symphony begins, and which the engineers in 
Camden attempted so heroically to reproduce in 1917. 

One final footnote remains to be added. It was the intent of the Victor 
Talking Machine Company to launch the heaviest advertising 
campaign in its history in the promotion of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra recordings. Included in the plans was a double-page spread 
in the Saturday Evening Post. A few weeks after the discs were 
released, however, there began a whispering campaign against Dr Muck 
and his alleged pro-German sympathies. America had joined the Allies 
in April 1917, and in the era of incendiary emotions which followed 
anybody with German ties was suspect; Muck, the most prominent 
German conductor of the time and a favorite of the Kaiser's, was 
especially vulnerable. He was jailed in March 1918, and then deported. 
This unpleasantness brought with it a cancellation by the Victor Talk- 
ing Machine Company of all its plans for the promotion of the records 
and for a time they even stopped pressing the discs. During the next 
ten years the Boston Symphony Orchestra remained conspicuously 
absent from the recording studios. 

It was not until 13 November 1928, in Serge Koussevitzky's fifth season 
as Music Director, that it again made records. A decade of silence is a 
long period in phonographic history, but the contribution of those 
first hundred musicians who made the grimy trek to Camden assuredly 
cannot be measured by quantity alone. 

This article, which originally appeared in the pages of High Fidelity, 
has been revised, and is reprinted by kind permission of High Fidelity- 
Musical America. 

© High Fidelity - Musical America. 



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Program Editor 

Newly appointed editor of the program book is Andrew Raeburn, who 
has been for the last three years assistant to the Music Director. Born 
in London, he was educated first at Charterhouse, where he edited the 
school magazine and studied classics and music. After service in the 
British army, he went on a scholarship to King's College, Cambridge, 
and sang in the choir there under Boris Ord and David Willcocks. He 
was awarded his degree in history, but devoted much of his time to 
music as conductor of two of Cambridge's chamber choirs, one of 
which he took on a successful tour to Germany. 

For a year he was assistant manager of Philomusica of London, directed 
at that time by Thurston Dart, and then became Music Director of 
Argo Records. He planned and produced many recordings of choral 
and chamber music during his five years there, and the musicians with 
whom he worked included Benjamin Britten, Julian Bream, the 
Amadeus Quartet, Peter Pears and Mstislav Rostropovich. His record- 
ing of Haydn's Nelson Mass won an Edison award. In addition to 
editing the programs Andrew Raeburn continues as the Orchestra's 
recording co-ordinator. 



Exhibition 

The pictures hanging in the gallery are by the New England Artists' 
Group, which Roger Curtis founded in 1962 with the aim of showing 
the work of American artists as widely as possible through exhibitions. 
The group has presented shows throughout New England in schools, 
colleges and industrial organizations. The exhibition at Symphony 
Hall features oil paintings by members of the group. 

The wood carvings now on exhibition for the first time in Boston, are 
the work of Chetley Rittall of Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Working with 
wood has fascinated him since he was a boy, and before he had his own 
tools he often borrowed his mother's sharpest knives, unknown to her. 
Born on the Kennebec River in Maine in 1931, his schooling was all in 
Massachusetts. From 1952 to 1954 he was with the Army and travelled 
widely in the Orient observing Oriental wood carving. 




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The soloists 

CHLOE OWEN received her early musical 
training from her parents in Chattanooga, 
Tennessee. After post graduate work at 
Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore, Mary- 
land, she went to New York and toured for 
Community Concerts. For the last several 
years she has been in Europe where, after 
study with Hans Hotter, Germaine Lubin 
and Giuseppe Pais, she has been singing 
opera, oratorio and solo recitals. She sang 
at the Bern Stadttheater for three years and 
has since performed in Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Austria, includ- 
ing the Salzburg Festival and the Festival of Two Worlds at Spoleto. 

Chloe Owen's large repertoire includes 25 operas from Handel and 
Mozart to Hindemith, and many oratorios. She is now on the faculty 
of Boston University. 



JOSEPH SILVERSTEIN, concertmaster of 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra since 1962, 
joined the Orchestra seven years earlier at 
the age of twenty-three, the youngest mem- 
ber at that time. Born in Detroit, he studied 
at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia, 
and later with Joseph Gingold and Mischa 
Mischakoff. He was a prize winner in the 
1959 Queen Elisabeth of Belgium Inter- 
national Competition, and a year later won 
the Naumberg Foundation Award. Before 

coming to Boston he played in the orchestras of Houston, Denver and 

Philadelphia. 

Joseph Silverstein takes his place among the outstanding violinists of 
his generation, and has established an international reputation as 
soloist and as first violin of the Boston Symphony Chamber Players, 
whose recent tour to the Soviet Union, Germany and England he led. 
During past seasons he has performed with the Orchestra concertos by 
Bartok and Stravinsky (which he has recorded for RCA Victor), and 
by Bach, Schoenberg and Sibelius. Earlier this year he played the 
Brahms Concerto with Erich Leinsdorf and the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra in Boston and at Tanglewood, and with Leopold Stokowski 
and the American Symphony Orchestra in New York. 

A man of extraordinary energy, Joseph Silverstein is also the violinist 
of the Boston Symphony String Trio, organizer of the Boston Sym- 
phony Chamber Players, a faculty member of the New England Con- 
servatory and Chairman of the Faculty of the Berkshire Music Center. 
He finds time occasionally to play a game of squash, a round of golf 
and a hand of bridge. 



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MUTUAL FUND 

The Johnston Mutual Fund Inc. 

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Boston • The Boston Consulting Group 
Milan • Gennaro Boston Associati, S.p.A. 
Barcelona • RASA Sociedad Internacional 
Tokyo • Adams-Boston Company, Limited 



THE BOSTON COMPANY, INC. 

100 FRANKLIN STREET • BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 02106 
Telephone (617) 542-0450 



508 



tik 



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FUTURE PROGRAMS 



Ninth Program 

Friday afternoon December 8 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 9 at 8.30 

STANISLAW SKROWACZEWSKI guest conductor 

BERLIOZ Le Corsaire - Overture 

LUTOSLAWSKI Concerto for orchestra 

BRAHMS Symphony no. 2 in D major 

The next concerts, which take place in two weeks' time after the 
Orchestra's second tour to New York, will be directed by Stanislaw 
Skrowaczewski, conductor of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. 
He first appeared with the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood 
in 1966 and now makes his debut as guest conductor in Boston. Com- 
poser as well as conductor, he is well known on both sides of the 
Atlantic. 

The performance of Witold Lutoslawski's Concerto for Orchestra will 
be the first at these concerts. Lutoslawski is one of Poland's leading 
contemporary composers; the Concerto, which he finished in 1954, in 
the words of one critic 'at once suggested an affinity with Bartok, tem- 
pered by characteristically cool yet colorful instrumental writing'. 

The concert will end at about 3.45 on Friday 
and at about 10.15 on Saturday 



Tenth Program 

Friday afternoon December 15 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 16 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 



WAGNER 

ELGAR 

MOZART 

DVORAK 

STRAUSS 



Tristan und Isolde - Prelude 
Falstaff op. 68 

Three German dances K. 605 
Three Slavonic dances from op. 72 
Suite from 'Der Rosenkavalier' 



programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



509 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



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Telephone RE gent 4-3267 



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Mrs. Aaron Richmond and Walter Pierce 
present in the 1967-68 Boston University 

CELEBRITY SERIES 



THIS SUN. AFT, NOV. 26 at 3 • SYMPHONY HALL 

VLADIMIR ASHKENAZY 

Brilliant Soviet Pianist 

Schubert, Sonata No. 3 in B flat Major (Posthumous); Chopin, Twelve Etudes, 



Op. 10; Prokofieff, Sonata No. 7, Op. 83. 



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SUN., DEC. 3 at 3 • SYMPHONY HALL 

World-Renowned Yugoslavian Chamber Orchestra 

I SOLISTI Dl ZAGREB 

Igor Kuljeric, Conductor 
Jelka Stanic, Violin Soloist 

Boyce, Symphony No. 1 in B flat; Telemann, Concerto in A minor 
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came possible to play in eight major 
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IGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M, BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

FRANCIS W. HATCH MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 

ANDREW HEISKELL SIDNEY R. RABB 

HAROLD D. HODGKINSON RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

515 





Erich Leinsdo 

...an authority on Bran 

Enjoy both of these recordings, as well as the Brahms Symphony No. 1, as 
preted by the Boston Symphony under Leinsdorf, master of the Romantic Sc 





rcavictor& 

(©)The most trusted name in sound tIL. ■ 







BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
C oncer tmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 
Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Yizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 

Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 

Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 
William Gibson 
Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



WILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



*members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



517 



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'Nothing, nothing yesterday meant — and will forever mean 
to me — as much as this blessed surprise!' So wrote Margaret 
Ruthven Lang to Henry B. Cabot, President of the Symphony 
Trustees, after Mr Cabot, in behalf of the Symphony Family, 
recently named the seat in the first balcony, right, B-1 in Miss 
Lang's honor and as a 100th birthday gift. 

Mr Cabot made the gift as part of the Commemorative Gifts 
Program of The Fund for The Boston Symphony. With the 
announcement, others have expressed interest in making simi- 
lar gifts. 

The process is simplicity itself. Provided no one has requested 
the particular seat location, for a contribution to the fund of 
$2,500, any seat in Symphony Hall may be named in honor of 
a family member, friend, teacher, or musician. Or a donor may 
well choose to signalize his personal affection for the Sym- 
phony by attaching his own name to a seat location. Those who 
have already contributed to The Fund for The Boston Sym- 
phony may wish to make an additional contribution in order 
to name a seat at Symphony. 

All are invited to discuss this Commemorative Gift Program 
with The Fund office at Symphony Hall, with a Symphony 
Trustee, or with a Fund volunteer. 



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Contents 






Program for December 8 and 9 1967 


523 


1 


Future programs 


573 




Program notes 




■ 


Berlioz - Overture 'Le Corsaire' 


524 


- 


by John N. Burk 






Lutoslawski - Concerto for orchestra 


532 




by Leonard Marcus 






Brahms - Symphony no. 2 in D major 


538 




by John N. Burk 






Erich Leinsdorf announces his resignation 


552 




Today's conductor 


560 




The members of the Orchestra 


562 




Recent recordings by the Orchestra 


568 


52! 


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522 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Ninth Program 

Friday afternoon December 8 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 9 at 8.30 

STANISLAW SKROWACZEWSKI guest conductor 



BERLIOZ 



Overture 'Le Corsaire' 



LUTOSLAWSKI Concerto for orchestra 

Intrada 

Capriccio notturno e arioso 
Passacaglia, toccata e corale 

First performance in this series 



INTERMISSION 



BRAHMS 



Symphony no. 2 in D major op. 73 

Allegro non troppo 

Adagio non troppo 

Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino 

Allegro con spirito 



The concert will end at about 3.45 on Friday 
and at about 10.15 on Saturday 



BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



523 




Program Notes 

HECTOR BERLIOZ 
Overture Te Corsaire' op. 21 
Program note by John N. Burk 

Berlioz was born in Cote-Saint- Andre on December n 1803, and died in Paris on 
March 8 1869. He composed the Overture probably in February 1831, and revised 
it in 1844. It was first performed in Paris on January 19 1845 at the Champs 
Elys^es, when Berlioz conducted from the manuscript. There was a second perform- 
ance April 1 1855, at a concert of the St Cecilia Society in Paris. The score was 
again revised and first published in this year. The first performance in Boston was 
by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on January 10 1896. The most recent perform- 
ances in this series were conducted by Richard Burgin on November 1 and 2 1963. 
The score is dedicated 'to my friend, Davison' [James Davison (1813-1885), who was 
for many years editor of The Musical World and music critic of The Times of 
London]. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 4 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
2 cornets, 3 trombones, ophicleide (or bass tuba), timpani and strings. 

Hans von Biilow, after conducting The Corsair Overture at Mein- 
ingen, wrote that it 'went like a shot from a pistol', plainly alluding 
to the sharp staccato chords for the full orchestra that punctuate light 
lyrical passages. It is a dashing and debonair overture, enlivened by 
the wit of brilliant string writing. 

The title incites one to find in this overture the musical embodiment 
of the reckless adventurer of Byron's poem. Unfortunately for those 
who take such titles as reliable guides to the composer's intention, 




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Berlioz called this Overture at its first performance La Tour de Nice. 
Only later did he change the name to Le Corsaire Rouge, and finally, 
Le Corsaire. A close examination of titles in general as bestowed by Is 
the Romantics often reveals them as afterthoughts, a last minute dress- 
ing-up of a piece of music with a colorful name for its readier consump- 
tion. And yet, Byron's Corsair, the sea-roving outlaw with his fine 
contempt of all men, his complete ruthlessness matched by a complete 
gallantry toward women, must have well fitted the composer's mood 
when he sketched the Overture on his journey to Rome in 1831 — if so 
he did. 



h 



Berlioz makes no mention of this Overture in his memoirs, but the 
Signale on the occasion of a performance at Weimar in 1856 made the 
statement, presumably extracted from Berlioz, that it was composed in 
three days 'during a voyage protracted by a storm'. This would have 
been the voyage which Berlioz made from Marseilles to Livorno in 
February 1831, as part of his journey to Rome as a Prix de Rome 
winner. It was also during his Prix de Rome months that he composed 
the Overtures to Rob Roy and King Lear, his Lelio, and his revision 
of the Symphonie Fantastique. In his memoirs, Berlioz reveals that the 
poetry of Byron held him in captivation at this time. He carried his 
Byron into St Peter's Cathedral. 'Never did I see St Peter's without 
a thrill. It is so grand, so noble, so beautiful, so majestically calm! 
During the fierce summer heat I used to spend whole days there, com- 
fortably established in a confessional, with Byron as my companion. 



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I sat enjoying the coolness and stillness, unbroken by any sound save 
the splashing of the fountains in the square outside, which was wafted 
up to me by an occasional breeze; and there, at my leisure, I sat drink- 
ing in that burning poetry. I followed the Corsair in his desperate 
adventures; I adored that inexorable yet tender nature — pitiless, yet 
generous — a strange combination of apparently contradictory feelings: 
love of woman, hatred of his kind. 

'Laying down my book to meditate, I would cast my eyes around, and, 
attracted by the light, they would be raised to Michelangelo's sublime 
cupola. What a sudden transition of ideas! From the cries and bar- 
barous orgies of fierce pirates I passed in a second to the concerts of 
the seraphim, the peace of God, the infinite quietude of heaven; . . . 
then, falling to earth again, I sought on the pavement for traces of the 
noble poet's footsteps. . . .' 



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Berlioz had sailed from Marseilles in a Scandinavian brig, and so had 
had his first experience of the sea. One of his travelling companions, a 
Venetian, 'an underbred fellow, who spoke abominable French, claimed 
that he had commanded Lord Byron's corvette during the poet's adven- 
turous excursions in the Adriatic and the Grecian Archipelago. He 
gave us a minute description of the brilliant uniform Lord Byron had 
insisted on wearing, and the orgies in which they indulged'. The craft 
carrying Berlioz was becalmed in the bay off Nice for three days, and 
then proceeded under a gale which nearly wrecked them. The quality 
of invention in the tales of his fellow traveler was surely more important 
to the eager listener than their veracity. In May, Berlioz set out from 
Rome by carriage for home at the devastating news that his beloved 
Camille Moke had married Pleyel. He reached Nice, recovered from 
his rage, which included avowed intentions of murder and suicide, 
and basked in that fair spot for three weeks before returning to Rome. 
It was a sort of mental convalescence. He records that these days were 
the 'happiest' in his life. There he drafted his Roi Lear Overture. 
When a police officer, looking upon him as a suspicious character, asked 
him what he was doing there, he answered: 'Recovering from a pain- 
less illness, I compose and dream and thank God for the sunshine, the 
beautiful sea, and the green hills'. 

Memories of that earlier and more sanguine period must have returned 
to Berlioz when, in August 1844, he went once more to Nice (for 
convalescence from jaundice) and then revised his Byronic overture, 
naming it La Tour de Nice. The Bellanda tower, last relic of a chateau 
long vanished, must have stood conspicuously before his vision on a 
promontory of that fair coast as his boat lay at anchor offshore fourteen 
years before. 

But the listener to Berlioz's Overture, like the police officer, would do 
well not to inquire too specifically into the nature of the dreams which 
may have produced the musical images — dreams compounded of Shake- 
speare, Byron, thwarted love, a host of fresh impressions gathered in 
Italy, and the immediate spell of a gleaming Mediterranean spring. 



i 



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531 



WITOLD LUTOSLAWSKI 

Concerto for orchestra 

Program note by Leonard Marcus 

Witold Lutoslawski was born in Warsaw on January 25 1913. The Concerto for 
orchestra received its premiere in Warsaw on November 26 1954, under the direction 
of Witold Rowicki. 

The instrumentation: 3 flutes, 2 piccolos, 3 oboes and english horn, 3 clarinets and 
bass clarinet, 3 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 4 trombones and 
tuba, timpani, snare drum, 3 small drums (soprano, alto, tenor), military drum, 
bass drum, cymbals, tarn tarn, tambourine, xylophone, glockenspiel, celesta, 2 harps, 
piano and strings. 

When scores to Lutoslawski's Funeral Music began to filter into this 
country around 1958, they caused quite a sensation among those for- 
tunate enough to see them. After a dozen years of 'socialist realism' in 
the Eastern European countries, Poland's major composer had written 
a twelve-tone work. For musicians, this was a further indication of the 
thirst the Poles must have had for the liberalization of life in their 
country that occurred in 1956 (just prior to the similar and tragic 
attempt in Hungary). Lutoslawski, as a matter of fact, had experi- 
mented with twelve-tone techniques during the German occupation in 
some short, polyphonic brass pieces. After the war, in 1945, another 
element stimulated Lutoslawski's style when the government's pub- 
lishing house asked the composer to arrange some Polish folk melodies 
for piano, for school use. The result was a combination that Luto- 
slawski was subsequently to use in his larger works: simple folk tunes 
with atonal, or pseudo-atonal, harmonies. His preoccupation with folk 
materials found their way into two of his even simpler, though orches- 
tral, works, the Little Suite of 1950 and the Silesian Triptych (with 
soprano) of 1951, which are folkish in both melody and harmony. 

It was also in 1950 that Lutoslawski began the Concerto for orchestra, 
which he finished four years later. The work synthesized all his musical 
tendencies up to that time. Poland was still isolated musically from 
the West, and Lutoslawski's personal involvement with contemporary 
music remained influenced primarily by such relative old-timers as 
Stravinsky, Bartok, and Hindemith. On the other side of the ledger, 
the Concerto for orchestra is filled with material of a folk origin. 

The first and last movements are in F sharp, the middle movement in 
B flat minor. Over a pedal F sharp in the basses, bassoons, and harp 
at the beginning of the Intrada, cellos give out with the main theme 
which, like much folk and Lutoslawski music, revolves around the 
repetition of a limited number of notes. The entire movement, Allegro 
maestoso, is the 9/8, with little rhythmic adventure, but with an inter- 
play of instrumental timbres and a feeling of musical solidity that sets 



Leonard Marcus, an alumnus of the Berkshire Music Center and an 
honors graduate of Harvard, is a conductor, composer, violinist, scholar, 
writer, and is currently Managing Editor of High Fidelity Magazine. 
During his varied career he has served in the U.S. Army as conductor- 
arranger-cymbal player and writer of musical shows, has been assistant 
to Antal Dorati in Minneapolis, and has also been program annotator 
for the American Symphony Orchestra. 

532 



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533 



the stage for the subsequent movements. Near the end the pedal 
F sharp reappears, now as a high harmonic in, first, a few violins. I 
The pedal lasts some fifty measures before it evolves into a final F sharp 
major chord. 

The second movement, Capriccio notturno e arioso, serves as a scherzo. 
A skittering capriccio, mainly in the strings and winds, with odd beats 
thrown in among its basic 3/4 vivace, sandwiches the brassy arioso; 
this, acting as a trio, is decidedly slower in movement, while keeping 
the same 'beat'. As a matter of fact, all three movements are basically 
three beats to a measure, and basically fast. 

The finale, however, begins Andante con moto, with divided basses and 
harp exposing a passacaglia theme canonicly. Figures in the other 
instruments, led by the piano and followed by a horn, pile up on each 
other as the tempo imperceptively increases throughout this part of 
the movement, with an interruption. After the sudden fall back to the 
original tempo, the speed again increases up to — another fall. The 
passacaglia is over, but its theme becomes a vigorous toccata, Allegro 
giusto, still 'in three'. The various instruments are shown in solo 
passages and in combinations. Again the tempo increases, this time by 
several stages, and the brass superimpose a chorale on the whole. It 
concludes like a powerhouse. 

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Lutoslawski studied at the Warsaw Conservatory with Jerzy Lefeld and 
Witold Maliszewski, a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazunov. After 
World War II he became active in the cause of international music, 
and in 1959 was elected to the Committee of the International Society 
for Contemporary Music. His own style changed drastically just before 
he visited the United States in the summer of 1962 to teach in the 
composition department of the Berkshire Music Center. In an inter- 
view with Alan Rich at that time, he spoke of the changes in Polish 
music over the last decade: 'The major impetus for this turn to the 
avant-garde came during the years 1956-59, when the influence of such 
composers as Boulez, Stockhausen and your own John Cage became 
noticeable in Poland. But that stage is already over, because now our 
composers are beginning to develop their own personalities along 
these lines. 

'How is the public taking to all this?' asked Mr Rich. 'Surprisingly 
well', was the reply. 'Naturally, there is the Beethoven-Tchaikovsky 
public, but many of them at least accept the new music. I said "accept", 
of course, not "support". 

'But our own audience is growing. Some years ago I organized a series 
of "tape seances" in Warsaw, where new trends in electronic music 
were explored. We had a large young audience, not only musicians but 
also people from other arts, and their only complaint was that we had 
too few meetings. I asked one of them once if he also went to the Phil- 
harmonic concerts. "No", he replied. "Why?" "Because Beethoven 
bores me." 

'The point is that we are developing a public that is exclusively inter- 
ested in the new. Perhaps this is a bad thing; I don't know. But at 
least it is preferable to having no public at all.' 

Mr Lutoslawski, according to Alan Rich, 'then let his glance wander 
over the spacious Tanglewood grounds. "This is an extraordinary 
place, and an extraordinary tribute to the vision of its founder, Serge 
Koussevitzky. My summer here has inspired me to return to Poland 
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JOHANNES BRAHMS 

Symphony no. 2 in D major op. 73 
Program note by John N. Burk 

Brahms was born in Hamburg, Germany, on May 7 1833 and died in Vienna on 
April 3 1897. He composed the Second Symphony in 1877, and the first performance 
took place in Vienna on December 30 of that year. Theodore Thomas gave the first 
American performance in New York on October 3 1878. The Harvard Musical 
Association introduced it to Boston on January 9 1879, and after the concert here 
John S. Dwight wrote his much quoted criticism that 'Sterndale Bennett could have 
written a better symphony'. Georg Henschel conducted the symphony during the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra's first season, on February 24 1882. The most recent 
performances in this series were led by Erich Leinsdorf on December 11 and 12 1964. 
The Orchestra's recording under Erich Leinsdorf's direction has been released by 
RCA Victor. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones, tuba, timpani and strings. 

Looking back over the ninety years which have passed since Brahms' 
Second Symphony was performed for the first time, one finds good 
support for the proposition that music found disturbingly 'modern' 
today can become universally popular tomorrow. This symphony, 
surely the most consistently melodious, the most thoroughly engaging 
of the four, was once rejected by its hearers as a disagreeable concoction 
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In Leipzig, when the Second Symphony was introduced in 1880, even 
Dorffel, the most pro-Brahms of the critics there, put it down as 'not 
distinguished by inventive power'! It was a time of considerable anti- 
Brahms agitation in Central Europe, not unconnected with the Brahms- j 
versus-Wagner feud. There were also repercussions in America. When 
in the first season of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (February 24 
1882) Georg Henschel conducted the Second Symphony, the critics fell 
upon it to a man. They respected Mr Henschel's authority in the 
matter because he was an intimate friend of Brahms. For Brahms they 
showed no respect at all. The Transcript called it 'wearisome', 
'turgid'; the Traveler, 'evil-sounding', 'artificial', lacking 'a sense of 
the beautiful', an 'unmitigated bore'. The Post called it 'as cold- 
blooded a composition, so to speak, as was ever created'. The critic of 
the Traveler made the only remark one can promptly agree with: 'If 
Brahms really had anything to say in it, we have not the faintest idea 
what it is.' This appalling blindness to beauty should not be held 
against Boston in particular, for although a good part of the audience 
made a bewildered departure after the second movement, the coura- 
geous believers in Mr Henschel's good intentions remained to the end, 
and from these there was soon to develop a devout and determined type 
who stoutly defended Brahms. New York was no more enlightened, 
to judge by this astonishing suggestion in the Post of that city (in 
November 188*7): 'The greater part of the Symphony was antiquated 
before it was written. Why not play instead Rubinstein's Dramatic 
Symphony, which is shamefully neglected here and any one movement 
of which contains more evidence of genius than all of Brahms' sym- 
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Many years had to pass before people would exactly reverse their 
opinion and look upon Brahms' Second for what it is — bright-hued 
throughout, every theme singing smoothly and easily, every develop- 
ment both deftly integrated and effortless, a masterpiece of delicate 
tonal poetry in beautiful articulation. To these qualities the world at 
large long remained strangely impervious, and another legend grew up: 
Brahms' music was 'obscure', 'intellectual', to be apprehended only by 
the chosen few. 

What the early revilers of Brahms failed to understand was that the 
'obscurity' they so often attributed to him really lay in their own non- 
comprehending selves. Their jaws would have dropped could they 
have known that these 'obscure' symphonies would one day become 
(next to Beethoven's) the most generally beloved — the most enduringly 
popular of all. 

Brahms' mystifications and occasional heavy pleasantries in his letters 
to his friends about an uncompleted or unperformed score show more 
than the natural reticence and uncommunicativeness of the composer. 
A symphony still being worked out was a sensitive subject, for its 
maker was still weighing and doubting. It was to be, of course, an 
intimate emotional revelation which when heard would certainly 
become the object of hostile scrutiny by the opposing factions. Brahms' 
closest friends dared not probe the privacy of his creative progress upon 
anything so important as a new symphony. They were grateful for 
what he might show them, and usually had to be content with hints, 
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Brahms almost gave away the secret of his Second Symphony when, in 
1877, he wrote to Hanslick from Portschach on the Worthersee, where 
he was summering and, of course, composing. He mentioned that 
he had in hand a 'cheerful and likable' ['heiter and lieblich'] sym- 
phony. 'It is no work of art, you will say — Brahms is a sly one. The 
Worthersee is virgin soil where so many melodies are flying about 
that it's hard not to step on them.' And he wrote to the more in- 
quisitive Dr Billroth in September: 'I don't know whether I have a 
pretty symphony or not — I must inquire of skilled persons' (another 
jab at the academic critics). When Brahms visited Clara Schumann in 
her pleasant summer quarters in Lichtenthal near Baden-Baden on 
September 17 1877, Clara found him 'in a good mood' and 'delighted 
with this summer resort'. He had 'in his head at least', so she reported 
in a letter to their friend Hermann Levi, 'a new symphony in D major 
— the first movement is written down'. On October 3, he played to 
her the first movement and part of the last. In her diary she expressed 
her delight and wrote that the first movement was more skillfully 
contrived [in der Erfindung bedeutender] than the opening move- 
ment of the First, and prophesied: 'He will have an even more strik- 
ing public success than with the First, much as we musicians admire 
the genius and wonderful workmanship' of that score. When Frau 
Schumann and her children were driven from Lichtenthal by the 
autumn chill, Brahms remained to complete his manuscript. 






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For the first performance (which was in Vienna, December 30 1877), 
the Symphony was given the usual ritual of being read from a none-too- 
legible four-hand arrangement by Brahms. He and Ignaz Brull played 
it in the piano warerooms of Friedrich Ehrbar. C. F. Pohl attended 
the rehearsals of the Vienna Philharmonic and reported to the pub- 
lisher, Simrock (December 27): 'On Monday Brahms' new Symphony 
had its first rehearsal; today is the second. The work is splendid and 
will have a quick success. A da capo [an encore] for the third move- 
ment is in the bag [in der Tasche].' And three days later: 'Thursday's 
rehearsal was the second, yesterday's was the final rehearsal. Richter 
has taken great pains in preparing it and today he conducts. It is a 
magnificent work that Brahms is giving to the world and making acces- 
sible to all. Each movement is gold, and the four together comprise a 
notable whole. It brims with life and strength, deep feeling and charm. 
Such things are made only in the country, in the midst of nature. I 
shall add a word about the result of the performance which takes place 
in half an hour. 

'It has happened! Model execution, warmest reception. 3rd move- 
ment (Allegretto) da capo, encore demanded. The duration of the 
movements 19, 11, 5, 8 minutes.' [This shows the first two movements 
slower than present-day practice. A recent timing of a Boston perform- 
ance under Erich Leinsdorf is as follows: 1414, 9, 5V2> 9- The timing 
of the first movement is misleading, however, since Richter probably 
repeated the exposition of the first movement, which conductors today 
rarely do.] 'Only the Adagio did not convey its expressive content, 
and remains nevertheless the most treasurable movement.' 



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546 



If Brahms as a symphonist had conquered Vienna, as the press reports 
plainly showed, his standing in Leipzig was not appreciably raised by 
the second performance which took place at the Gewandhaus on 
June 10. Brahms had yet to win conservative Leipzig which had 
praised his First Symphony, but which had sat before his D Minor 
Piano Concerto in frigid silence. Florence May, Brahms' pupil and 
biographer, reports of the Leipzig concert that 'the audience main- 
tained an attitude of polite cordiality throughout the performance of 
the Symphony, courteously applauding between the movements and 
recalling the master at the end'. But courteous applause and polite 
recalls were surely an insufficient answer to the challenge of such 
a music! 'The most favorable of the press notices', continues Miss 
May, 'damned the work with faint praise', and even Dorffel, the most 
Brahmsian of them wrote: 'The Viennese are much more easily 
satisfied than we. We make different demands on Brahms and require 
from his music something which is more than pretty and "very pretty" 
when he comes before us as a symphonist.' This music, he decided, 
was not 'distinguished by inventive power', it did not live up to the 
writer's 'expectations' of Brahms. Dorffel, like Hanslick, had praised 
Brahms' First Symphony for following worthily in Beethoven's foot- 
steps, while others derided him for daring to do so. Now Dorffel was 
disappointed to miss the Beethovenian drive. This was the sort of talk 
Brahms may have had in mind when he wrote to Billroth that the 
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Considering the immediate success of the Second Symphony in other 
German cities, it is hard to believe that Leipzig and Herr Dorffel could 
have been so completely obtuse to what was more than 'prettiness' in 
the Symphony, to its 'inventive power', now so apparent to all, had the 
performance been adequate. But Brahms, who conducted at Leipzig, 
was not Richter, and the Orchestra plainly did not give him its best. 
Frau Herzogenberg who was present wrote in distress to her friend, 
Bertha Farber, in Vienna that the trombones were painfully at odds in 
the first movement, the horns in the second until Brahms somehow 
brought them together. Brahms, she said, did not trouble himself to 
court the favor of the Leipzig public. He offered neither the smooth- 
ness of a Hiller nor the 'interesting' personality of an Anton Rubin- 
stein. Every schoolgirl, to the indignation of this gentle lady, felt 
privileged to criticize him right and left. 

All of which prompts the reflection that many a masterpiece has been 
clouded and obscured by a poor first performance, the more so in the 
early days when conducting had not developed into a profession and 
an excellent orchestra was a true rarity. When music unknown is also 
disturbingly novel, when delicacy of detail and full-rounded beauty of 
line and design are not apprehended by the performers, struggling 
with manuscript parts, when the Stimmung is missed by all concerned, 
including in some cases the conductor himself, then it is more often 
than not the composer who is found wanting. 





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Erich Leinsdorf announces his resignation 

Erich Leinsdorf, Music Director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
announced on Wednesday December 6 that he has advised the Trustees 
of the Orchestra that he will relinquish his post at the end of the 
Tanglewood season of 1969. He has done so in accordance with his 
contract, which stipulates a minimum period of twenty months for 
giving notice. He has agreed at the same time, if the Trustees have not 
found his successor by a year from now, to help by remaining as Music 
Director until the end of the 1970 Tanglewood season, but under a 
guaranteed severe reduction of conducting duties. 

His reason for this decision is the heavy work load of concerts, rehear- 
sals, recordings and musical planning which is connected with the 
regular winter season and Tanglewood. 

In announcing his decision, Mr Leinsdorf said, 'My giving notice now 
goes back to the end of my first year as Music Director of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra. I first broached the subject of overwork to 
Henry B. Cabot, President of the Trustees, four years ago, having 
learned by then that conducting between eighty and one hundred 
concerts during the winter season of seven months, plus recordings 
and, of course, rehearsals, was too much. The duty of the Music 
Director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra is further complicated 
through planning the entire Berkshire Festival season, conducting 
seventeen or eighteen different programs each summer, and the active 
directorship of the Berkshire Music Center, which was particularly 
asked of me by Mr Cabot. Also, I am a person — and that may be a 
very personal trait of mine — who views the music directorship as much 
more than merely choosing programs and conducting them. To me 
there is complete interdependence of all artistic and administrative 
decisions, each musical decision affecting finance and administration, 
and each administrative decision affecting music. This, to me, is 
especially true now when vast changes are taking place in the structure 
of the orchestral world. 

'In asking for a reduction of conducting duties, I followed at that time 
the advice of my physician. The subject has come up regularly since, 
and came to a head last June, when I actually mentioned the word 
"resignation" to the President of the Trustees. And so, I have now 
taken the ultimate step, notwithstanding my warm personal friendship 
with Mr Cabot who, indeed, tried to meet me as much as possible in 
my repeated requests for a reduction in conducting duties. 

'It might be pointed out that the post of Music Director of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra provides several yearly vacation periods which in 
my case, however, were taken up by the necessity to search for new or 
rarely heard works, for studying scores and for a minimum of guest 
conducting abroad, an activity which I believe to be essential for any 
conductor who wishes to broaden his musical horizons and keep abreast 
of musical trends elsewhere. I might add that during the first three 
years of my contract I did not attempt any guest conducting engage- 
ments in an endeavor to reconcile my energies with the duties and 
schedules of my post. 

552 



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553 




'An immense joy has been the audiences of Boston, Tanglewood, New 
York and the cities on the regular East Coast tours of the Orchestra 
who have enthusiastically endorsed our work, whether in the repertoire 
of established classics, forgotten works, or new compositions of the 
very modern school. The public attendance and reaction are all the 
more gratifying since it is the policy of the Boston Symphony to engage 
fewer guest soloists than most of the other major orchestras and to rely 
more heavily upon the orchestra and its conductor. 

'I also find the members of the Orchestra to be particularly fine human 
calibre and I much enjoyed getting to know them and their personal- 
ities in a series of informal gatherings in small groups. These days, 
when one reads so frequently about strife and strikes, it is important 
to realize that these players (who, I know, are not dissimilar to their 
colleagues elsewhere) are thoughtful human beings, beset by problems 
and vexed by the puzzles of the world. I feel fortunate in my warm 
feeling for them.' 

In commenting on the news of Mr Leinsdorf's resignation, Mr Cabot 
said, 'In bowing to Mr Leinsdorf's request, the Trustees and I reluct- 
antly accept his resignation as Music Director and thank him for a 
great deal — for many memorable hours of music making; for his 
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554 




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555 




educational work of the Orchestra at the Berkshire Music Center in 
Tanglewood, and for the fact that during his tenure our subscriptions 
have steadily increased. Mr Leinsdorf s offer to serve as Music Director 
for an additional season while we may still be looking for his successor 
is both gratifying and helpful, and we are grateful to him. It is also a 
pleasure that he has agreed to come to us as a guest conductor for a 
period of at least five years upon the termination of his contract, and 
we hope and expect that in addition he will guest conduct for us many 
additional years in the future. Mr Leinsdorf has our warmest wishes 
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STANISLAW SKROWACZEWSKI was ap- 
pointed music director of the Minneapolis 
Symphony Orchestra in i960. He was for- 
mer director of the National Philharmonic 
of Poland and has conducted in Poland, 
France, Italy, England, Austria, Belgium, 
Holland, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hun- 
gary, Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, South 
America, Mexico, Israel and the United 
States. 

Born in Lwow, Poland, he received his early 
musical training in the Conservatory of the Lwow Music Society as a 
student of piano and violin. He received his diploma from the Lwow 
Academy of Music in 1945 and went on to study composition with 
Roman Palaster and conducting with Walerian Bierdiajew at the 
State Higher School of Music in Krakow. While at Krakow, he served 
as assistant in the division of conducting. From there he went to Paris 
with a fellowship from the Ministry of Culture and Art where he 
became a pupil of Nadia Boulanger in composition and of Paul Kletzki 
in conducting. 

In Paris, he won international recognition as a composer with his 
'Prelude and Fugue' in 1947. The same year he won first prize in the 
Karol Szymanowski Competition with his 'Concert Overture'. His 
other works include four symphonies, four string quartets (one a 
winner at the International Concours of Compositions in Belgium, 
1953), an opera, a ballet, several vocal works and music for stage and 
screen. 

In the season 1947-48, Skrowaczewski was conductor of the Wroclow 
(Breslau) Philharmonic Orchestra, and in 1948 was appointed music 
director and conductor of the National Philharmonic Katowice, a post 
he held until 1954. During this period, he also toured Europe as con- 
ductor and composer. In 1955, he became conductor of the Krakow 
Philharmonic. From 1957 to x 959» ne conducted the Warsaw Philhar- 
monic Orchestra. 

It was in Warsaw in 1957 that Mr Skrowaczewksi was noticed by George 
Szell. Szell invited Skrowaczewski to America, and the latter made his 
widely acclaimed debut with the Cleveland Orchestra in 1958. He 
returned to Cleveland the following year, and also conducted the 
Pittsburgh and Cincinnati Symphony Orchestras. 

Stanislaw Skrowaczewski conducted the Boston Symphony Orchestra at 
the 1966 Berkshire Festival, and makes his debut with the Orchestra in 
Boston this weekend. 



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The members of the orchestra 

MICHEL SASSON, who was born in Alex- 
andria, Egypt, of French descent, studied 
at the Paris Conservatoire National. His 
teachers there, among others, were Nadia 
Boulanger and Marcel Regnal. A unani- 
mous jury, which included Henryk Szeryng, 
gave him the first prize in violin when he 
graduated, and he came to Boston with a 
full scholarship from the New England Con- 
servatory. He was the Conservatory Orches- 
tra's concertmaster in 1958-59. He has since 
performed many recitals and has made solo appearances with the 
Boston Pops and other orchestras. Two seasons ago he was one of the 
soloists in Vivaldi's Concerto in B minor for four violins with Mr 
Leinsdorf and the Orchestra. 

In January 1967 Michel Sasson founded the Newton Symphony, of 
which he has since been conductor and music director. Numbering 92 
members, the orchestra is probably the largest amateur symphony in 
Massachusetts. Harvard professors, psychiatrists, plumbers, architects 
and surgeons make up its membership, as well as the wives, sons and 
daughters of players in the Boston Symphony Orchestra. There are 
three programs planned for this season, of which the first takes place 
this coming Sunday December 10. The soloist at the first concert will 
be Leslie Parnas; Joseph Silverstein will appear on March 3 next year 
and Earl Wild on May 10. There will also be two concerts for children, 
for which the Newton Symphony has received a grant from the Record- 
ing Industries Fund. 

When he has time to relax Michel Sasson plays ping pong and is a fan 
of the Boston Celtics basketball team. 



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563 




MARTIN HOHERMAN was five years old 
when he began his musical training at the 
Warsaw Conservatory under the violinist 
Eli Kochanski. He gave his first concert as 
cello soloist with the Warsaw Philharmonic, 
of which he was principal cello, and also 
conducted the orchestra at that time. When 
the 1 939 war broke out he joined the British 
Army and later the Army entertainment 
group, which took him to Egypt, India and 
Ceylon, and later to England. 

At the end of the war Martin Hoherman gave recitals in London's 
Wigmore Hall and throughout England. He returned to Ceylon as 
controller of western music for the Colombo radio station, and taught 
several young and very promising Ceylonese cellists, for whom he 
arranged further studies in London. After Ceylon he went to Canada 
and then came to Boston; he joined the Orchestra in 1953. Martin 
Hoherman enjoys composing and has written several songs for children 
which were performed by choirs he trained for Radio Ceylon. His 
Symphonietta for strings was played in London. He has also written 
two string quartets and is working on a cello concerto. He is the first 
cello of the Boston Pops and associate first cello of the Boston Sym- 
phony. He was a member of the Bel Arte Trio for several years, and is 

(continued on page 566) 



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BOSTON 
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.ORCHESTRA, 



CONCERT POSTPONEMENTS 

I 

There have been very few occasions in the history of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra when it has been necessary to postpone 
a concert because of inclement weather or a mishap like the 
power failure in November 1965. Today most of the Orches- 
tra's many subscribers and the players themselves live some 
distance from Symphony Hall, and travel many miles, usually 
by automobile, to the concerts. When there is a winter storm 
and the traveling becomes difficult, the switchboard at Sym- 
phony Hall is swamped with calls about the possibility of a 
postponement. 

To make it easier to discover what plans the Orchestra has 
made, several radio stations in the Boston area have kindly 
offered to broadcast any notice of a change in the concert 
schedule. 

If you are in any doubt about a concert's taking place, please 
tune to one of the following radio stations rather than call 
Symphony Hall. These stations will announce the Orchestra's 
plans as soon as a decision has been made. 

WBZ 1030 kc AM 

WCRB 1330 kc AM and 102.5 mc FM 

WEEI 590 kc AM and 103.3 mc FM 

WEZE 1260 kc AM 

WHDH 850 kc AM and 94.5 mc FM 

WRKO 680 kc AM and 98.5 mc FM 



565 




principal cello of the Opera Group of Boston. Apart from teaching 
and playing the cello Martin Hoherman also plays the tenor saxophone 
and the mandolin, both of which he has played with the Orchestra, as 
well as celesta, clarinet, banjo, piano, accordion and double bass. In 
his spare time he enjoys oil painting, watchmaking, photography and 
making movies. 



JOSEPH HEARNE, now in his sixth season 
with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, is 25 
years old. At the time of his appointment 
he was the youngest member. Raised in 
Portland, Oregon, he studied at the Juil- 
liard School under Stuart Sankey. He then 
played in the Portland Symphony and the 
Aspen Festival Orchestra, before coming to 
Boston. He holds a private pilot license for 
the operation of light aircraft and has flown 
a total of 125 hours. 

Joseph Hearne has recently bought eleven acres of hilly and wooded 
land near Boston. He plans to build a house and stables there and 
stock the pond with trout. He has a daughter who recently celebrated 
her first birthday. 





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567 



Recent recordings by the Orchestra 

Many subscribers like to make gifts of recordings by the Orchestra to 
their friends and relatives, especially at this time of year. The follow- 
ing is a list of the most recently issued records which should prove 
useful to people who are worried lest they duplicate records already 
in their friends' collections: Beethoven - Symphony no. 7; Mahler - 
Symphony no. 3 with Shirley Verrett and the New England Conserva- 
tory Chorus; Violin Concertos by Sibelius and Prokofiev with Itzhak 
Perlman; Tchaikovsky - Piano Concerto no. 1 with Misha Dichter; 
Brahms - Symphony no. 3. 

Other records which have been most popular include the last three 
piano concertos of Beethoven with Artur Rubinstein; the Bartok Con- 
certo for Orchestra; the Violin Concertos by Bartok and Stravinsky 
with Joseph Silverstein; the Fifth Symphony of Mahler; the Fifth and 
Sixth Symphonies of Prokofiev; and, for subscribers with a taste for the 
contemporary, music of Irving Fine; and the Seven Studies on Themes 
of Paul Klee by Gunther Schuller, coupled with Stravinsky's Agon. 

Music in Boston 

There will be a concert of medieval Christmas music at King's Chapel 
this Sunday December 10 at 5 p.m. The program will include fifteenth 
century English carols, music from the opening scene of The Play of 
Herod and the Tournai Mass, a work written in about 1325. Daniel 
Pinkham will conduct soloists, the Choir of King's Chapel and mem- 
bers of the Boston Renaissance Ensemble. Among the early instruments 
which will be played are psaltery, lute, crumhorn, recorders, bell 
carillon, vielle and rauschpfeife. The public is invited and no tickets 
are necessary. 



Boston Center for Adult Education 

The Center announces a course entitled 'This week at Symphony' with 
George Zilzer of the instrumental staff at Brandeis University. The 
course will begin on January 5, and one-hour sessions will take place 
at 10.30 a.m. each Friday on which the Orchestra plays a concert. 
George Zilzer will examine each week's program and answer such 
questions as 'How does this piece convey this mood?' and 'What makes 
that piece a work of art?' All inquiries should be addressed to the 
Center at 5 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston (telephone 267-4430). 



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569 







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570 







ENSEMBLES 

OF THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

presented by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
and the New England Conservatory of Music 

MONDAY EVENINGS AT JORDAN HALL 
FUTURE PROGRAMS 




January 8 at 8.30 

MUSIC GUILD STRING QUARTET 

MOZART Quartet in A major K. 464 

BARTOK Quartet no. 3 

BEETHOVEN Quartet no. 9 in C op. 59 no. 3 

February 5 at 8.30 

BOSTON SYMPHONY CHAMBER PLAYERS 

BALAKIREV Octet 

WEBERN Concerto op. 24 

DAHL Duo Concertante for flute and percussion 

MOZART Divertimento in E flat K. 563 

Members of the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and 
Friends of the New England Conservatory may secure a free ticket 
for a guest to accompany them. Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra should telephone Mrs Whittall at Symphony Hall (CO 
6-1492) for details. Friends of the New England Conservatory 
should get in touch with Miss Virginia Clay at the Jordan Hall Box 
Office (536-2412). 

Single tickets for each concert are available from the 
Jordan Hall Box Office, 30 Gainsborough Street. 
Boston 02115 (telephone 536-2412) 
Prices: $1.50, $2, $2.50, $3, $4, $5 



571 



1 



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572 




FUTURE PROGRAMS 



Tenth Program 

Friday afternoon December 15 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 16 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 



WAGNER 

ELGAR 

MOZART 

DVORAK 

STRAUSS 



Tristan und Isolde - Prelude 
Falstaff op. 68 

Three German dances K. 605 
Three Slavonic dances from op. 72 
Suite from 'Der Rosenkavalier' 



The main work in next week's program will be Sir Edward Elgar's 
symphonic study Falstaff, which the Orchestra will play for the first 
time. The music pictures the fat old knight of Shakespeare's Henry IV, 
his disreputable doings at the Boar's Head, his pranks with Prince Hal, 
his final rejection by the young Henry V and his death. Elgar injects 
into a typically late romantic score an extraordinary flavor of the first 
Elizabethan era. After intermission the Orchestra will celebrate 
Christmas at Symphony with Mozart's 'The Sleigh Ride', complete with 
posthorns and bells. Dvorak's Slavonic Dances will keep the holiday 
atmosphere alive and the concert will finish with some of the most 
charming and happy music that Richard Strauss wrote. 

The concert will end at about 3.50 on Friday 
and at about 10.20 on Saturday 



Eleventh Program 

Friday afternoon December 29 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 30 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 



TELEMANN 

HANDEL 
BACH 



Concerto in A major for flute and violin 

JAMES PAPPOUTSAKIS, ALFRED KRIPS 

A suite from 'The Water Music' 

Cantata no. 35 'Geist und Seele wird verwirret' 

BEVERLY WOLFF 



programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 

RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Exquisite 
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was invented about 1720 by a 
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through this ingenious device it be- 
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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 

HENRY B. CABOT President 

TALCOTT M. BANKS Vice-President 

JOHN L. THORNDIKE Treasurer 

PHILIP K. ALLEN E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 

ABRAM BERKOWITZ HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 

THEODORE P. FERRIS EDWARD G. MURRAY 

ROBERT H. GARDINER JOHN T. NOONAN 

FRANCIS W. HATCH MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 

ANDREW HEISKELL SIDNEY R. RABB 

HAROLD D. HODGKINSON RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

579 



TWO MAGNIFICENT RECORDING ACHIEVEMENT I 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY UNDER ERICH LEINSDM 

i 




The first absolutely complete 
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BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 

Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 

Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Rorman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 
Surton Fine 
Reuben Green 
£ugen Lehner 
erome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
\kio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
/incent Mauricci 
iarl Hedberg 
oseph Pietropaolo 
lobert Barnes 
'izhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 



FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 

Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 

Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



VILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



581 







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582 



:J 



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THE FUND FOR THE BOSTON SYMPHONY 

To carry on our heritage .... 

The final crescendo — the lights come up and ap- 
plause fills the hall — but more than applause is 
needed to carry on The Boston Symphony Orchestra's 
musical heritage. 

The Orchestra needs continuing financial support 
which in its early years came from Henry Lee Higgin- 
son and a small group of wealthy men. But now it 
looks for support from music lovers in all walks of life. 

Today, thoughtful friends can insure their continued 
participation in carrying on our musical heritage as 
proudly as before by including The Symphony in their 
estate plans. 

The Fund for The Boston Symphony has initiated a 
deferred gifts program under the leadership of Harold 
Hodgkinson, a member of The Board of Trustees, and 
Hugh K. Foster. They invite your inquiry. 



583 



M 







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584 




Contents 



Program for December 15 and 16 1967 

Future programs 

Program notes 

Wagner - Tristan und Isolde - Prelude 
by John N. Burk 

Elgar - Falstaff 

Mozart - Three German dances 

Dvorak - Three Slavonic dances 

Strauss - Suite from 'Der Rosenkavalier' 
by James Lyons 

Notes from the Music Director 

Recent recordings by the Orchestra 



587 
637 

588 

594 
614 

620 

622 

630 
635 



585 



■ v'-y 



I 



mMmo m 



■J 



"Gerald and I were discussing my money, Daddy, 
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benefit from this sort of professional attention. If so, send 'em round! 

THE FIRST & OLD COLONY 

The First National Bank of Boston and Old Colony Trust Company 



586 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Tenth Program 

Friday afternoon December 15 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 16 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 
WAGNER Tristan und Isolde - Prelude 

ELGAR Falstaff - symphonic study for orchestra op. 68 

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

INTERMISSION 

MOZART Three German dances K. 605 

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 



DVORAK Slavonic dances from op. 72 

no. 2 Allegretto grazioso 

no. 6 Moderato, quasi menuetto 

no. 8 Grazioso e lento, ma non troppo, 
quasi tempo di valse 



STRAUSS Suite from 'Der Rosenkavalier' 



The concert will end at about 3.50 on Friday 
and at about 10.20 on Saturday 



BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



587 



Program Notes 



RICHARD WAGNER 

Tristan und Isolde - Prelude 
Program note by John N. Burk 

Wagner was born in Leipzig on May 22 1813 and died in Venice on February 13 
1883. He wrote the poem of Tristan und Isolde in Zurich in the summer of 1857. 
He began to compose the music just before the end of the year, completed the 
second act in Venice in March 1859, and the third act in Lucerne in August 1859. 
The first performance was at the Hoftheater in Munich on June 10 1865. The first 
performance in America took place at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York 
on December 1 1886; the first Boston performance at the Boston Theatre on 
April 1 1895. 

The instrumentation: 3 flutes, 2 oboes and english horn, 2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 
3 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, harp and strings. 

Wagner's subjects usually lay long in his mind before he was ready to 
work out his text. And he usually visualized the opera in hand as a 
simpler and more expeditious task than it turned out to be. He first 
thought of Siegfried as light-hearted' and popular, as suitable for the 
small theater in Weimar, for which its successor, Die Gotterdammerung, 
was plainly impossible. But Siegfried as it developed grew into a very 
considerable part of a very formidable scheme, quite beyond the scope 
of any theater then existing. When Siegfried was something more than 




588 



I 




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r.. ■'.■$: 



half completed, its creator turned to Tristan und Isolde for a piece 
marketable, assimilable, and performable. It is true that Tristan was 
composed in less than two years. But the fateful tale of the lovers 
carried their creator far beyond his expressed musical intentions. 
Tristan und Isolde waited six years for performance. During two of 
them Wagner was still an exile and barred from the personal super- 
vision which would have been indispensable for any production. After 
a partial pardon he negotiated with Carlsbad, without result, and made 
protracted and intensive efforts to prepare a production at the Vienna 
Opera, which collapsed for want of a tenor who could meet the exac- 
tions of the third act. When Wagner heard Ludwig Schnorr von 
Carolsfeld that problem was solved and the opera accordingly produced 
in Munich six years after its completion. 

The Prelude, or Liebestod,* as its composer called it, is built with great 
cumulative skill in a long crescendo which has its emotional counter- 
part in the growing intensity of passion, and the dark sense of tragedy 
in which it is cast. The sighing phrase given by the cellos in the open- 
ing bars has been called 'Love's Longing' and the ascending chromatic 
phrase for the oboes which is linked to it, 'Desire'. The fervent second 
motive for the cellos is known as 'The Love Glance', in that it is to 
occupy the center of attention in the moment of suspense when the 



* The finale, now known as the 'Love-Death', was named by Wagner 'Transfiguration' 
('Verkldrung'). 




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591 



pair, having taken the love potion, stand and gaze into each other's 
eyes. Seven distinct motives may be found in the Prelude, all of them 
connected with this moment of the first realization of their passion by 
Tristan and Isolde, towards the close of the first act. In the Prelude 
they are not perceived separately, but as a continuous part of the 
voluptuous line of melody, so subtle and integrated is their unfolding. 
The apex of tension comes in the motive of 'Deliverance by Death', its! 
accents thrown into relief by ascending scales from the strings. And 
then there is the gradual decrescendo, the subsidence to the tender 
motive of longing. 'One thing only remains', to quote Wagner's own 
explanation — 'longing, insatiable longing, forever springing up anew, 
pining and thirsting. Death, which means passing away, perishing, 
never awakening, their only deliverance.' 



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593 



Program notes by James Lyons 

SIR EDWARD ELGAR 

Falstaff - symphonic study for orchestra op. 68 

Elgar was born at Broadheath, near Worcester, England on June 2 1857, and died at 
Worcester on February 23 1934. Falstaff was composed in 1913 and first performed 
at the Leeds Festival on October 2 of that year under the composer's direction. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and english horn, 2 clarinets 
and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, 
tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, snare drum, tambourine, triangle, tabor (snare 
drum without snares), 2 harps and strings. 

In the Worcester Papers of 1852, five years before Elgar was born, his 
father delivered himself of an almost wistfully patriotic commentary — 
in part prophetic, in retrospect poignant — on the state of music in the 
early-middle Victorian epoch: 

'I consider that the English stand rather in the background as far as 
regards Musical affairs. . . . Comparatively speaking how very few 
English composers are there when we look at the superior number of 
foreign [ones]. ... I hope the time is not very far distant when England 
in all her glory will stand pre-eminent, at least in Musical Affairs.' 

Little did the senior Elgar suspect that the sun was even then beginning 
to set on his beloved Empire. (Indeed, within a century the eclipse 
would be so nearly total that performers would puzzle over passages 
marked nobilmente — a term not explicated in such otherwise compre- 
hensive modern sources as the Harvard Dictionary of Music!) 

But even less could William Elgar have suspected that a future member 
of his own household would lend credence and realistic hope to his 
proud fantasy of national preeminence — that his own youngest child 
would bring more musical glory to England than she had known in 
the two hundred years since the tragically short-lived Henry Purcell 
had flashed across the firmament like some vagrant meteor. 

The irony of this is that for all the impressiveness of his latter-day title 
in its sonorous entirety, Sir Edward Elgar Bart, OM, KCVO, was of far 
from noble birth. His father was in fact a piano tuner by trade. With 
his brother he operated a modest music store in Worcester. He was also 
a church organist who did itinerant fiddling and other odd jobs to make 
ends meet. Like the emigre Handel, then, Elgar rose to the exalted 
office of Master of the King's Musick from the humblest of origins. 
But unlike Handel, who had known the thoroughgoing regimen of a 
Gymnasium and then a year at Halle University, Elgar seems never to 
have enjoyed a day's formal education beyond his ensconcement in a 
provincial academy for 'young gentlemen' from which he emerged at 
the age of fifteen. Whatever else he learned thereafter was on his own 



James Lyons, an alumnus of the New England Conservatory and a 
graduate of Boston University, was born in Peabody, Massachusetts. 
He wrote about music for The Boston Post and The Boston Globe, 
and contributed to The Christian Science Monitor. He was editor and 
critic for Musical America, and has been for ten years the editor of 
The American Record Guide. 

594 



THE BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA IS THE 
JOHN HANCOCK-INSURED 
GROUP WE MOST ENJOY 
HEARING FROM. 




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595 




HI 



initiative. The strength of his motivation to learn about music was 
something to marvel at — he would one day be adjudged the 'greatest 
of all orchestral technicians' by George Bernard Shaw, who was not 
given to kindliness. 

To be sure, Elgar had the advantage of a bookish, poetry-writing mother 
who tutored him in literature especially. He had been entrusted to 
local teachers for instruction in piano and violin, but no doubt his 
lessons were much abetted at home. His father taught him the organ, 
along with a smattering of harmony and counterpoint. For the rest, 
however, he had to fend for himself. At sixteen, the composer-to-be 
was playing violin in the community orchestra. A little later, invited 
to join a wind quintet, he met and mastered the bassoon. Then he 
developed a similar proficiency on the cello. Frequently he 'filled in' 
at the Elgar shop, between customers practicing on this or that instru- 
ment and variously satisfying an insatiable curiosity about what was 
already, it would seem, his chosen way of life. (His father had wanted 
him to study law, but that plan evaporated after a few months of 
apprenticeship in the office of a Worcester attorney. But the time was 
not wasted; typically, Elgar found the job invaluable because it forced 
him to perfect his penmanship!) 

Such assiduity could not go unrecognized, nor unrewarded; but by this 
time the autodidactic Elgar must have learned (perhaps to his sorrow, 
though ultimately to his profit) that for him each step forward involved 
breaking new ground altogether. Having no alternative he had opted 
for the hard way, and his determination seems to have been as bound- 
less as his versatility. Conducting the Worcester Glee Club, for exam- I 1 
pie, he found to his horror that the available personnel as often as 
not did not approximate the complement specified. The inevitable 
consequence was that scheduled works had to be tailored to fit those 
forces at his disposal — hardly an easy task for the best-trained con- 
servatory graduate and something more than that for a 'self-taught' 
musician. But the ambitious Elgar was not to be deterred. 




596 



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597 






His intrepidity was put to an extraordinary test in his twenty-first year, 
when he accepted a challenge that remains unique in music history. 
To wit, he then became bandmaster (and 'Composer in Ordinary', as 
he later recalled with tongue in cheek) at the county mental hospital 
in Powick — in those days less euphemistically known as the Pauper 
Lunatic Asylum. 

In the same year (1877) Elgar was named 'Leader and Instructor' of 
the Worcester Amateur Instrumental Society. Actually this was the 
more important position because, among other perquisites, it enabled 
him for the first time to hear his own music under conditions closely 
approaching those of professional performance. But it was the Powick 
post that more fully engaged his adaptive talents. There he presided 
over a weirdly nonstandard and subject-to-change ensemble generally 
comprising piccolo, flute, clarinet, two cornets, euphonium, six or 
seven violins, apparently only sometimes one or another of the lower 
strings, and piano! And conducting this 'orchestra' was less than half 
of the job; Elgar was expected to produce new repertoire, too. Only a 
perspicacious sort could have handled this assignment with equanimity 
for some five years, learning all the while as he turned out countless 
polkas, quadrilles, and other trifles, original and arranged, solely for 
the delectation of an audience made up of disturbed public charges 
and their keepers. (Elgar's instrumentalists were drawn only from the 
latter group; more's the pity, clinicians had not yet recognized the 
therapeutic efficacy of involving patients as performers.) 



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If one adds to the foregoing a summary of Elgar's activities on other 
musical fronts — the steadily increasing demand for his services as a 
concertmaster, as a church organist (he was a devout Roman Catholic), 
as a teacher, as a guest conductor — one understands why Elgar did not 
begin to make his mark as a serious composer until he reached his 
forties. But one understands also that this cannot be the whole story. 
No matter the burden of Elgar's responsibilities, it would be inferring 
too much to say that he was obliged to forego composing. Surely he 
could have dropped this or that job without risking starvation, and 
many a masterwork has been written in the presence of more threaten- 
ing adversities than Elgar ever faced. Whatever the facts, here again is 
evidence that the gestation of genius conforms to no calendar, that 
artistic maturation proceeds without reference to any preordained 
developmental stages. 

No matter what impelled Elgar to conserve his creativity, he was mag- 
nificently self-prepared when the time came. It came in 1889, when 
he married the daughter of Major General Sir Henry Roberts and 
removed to London. Mrs Elgar knew her husband's measure, and from 
their wedding day forward she urged him to concentrate on compo- 
sition. Musical England may not have been ready to recognize a home- 
grown master, but Elgar for his part was ready to assume the role. He 
took his bride's advice. A decade later, when the Enigma Variations 
caused a sensation in St James Hall, the world knew that she had been 
right. And those who still had doubts were silenced once and for all in 
1902, when Richard Strauss lavished praise on The Dream of Gerontius. 
If the topmost eminence in German music could accept Elgar as a 
composer of worth, could England be far behind? 



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It was in 1902 also that Elgar started sketching out Falstaff, subse- 
quently subtitled 'Symphonic study for orchestra, in C minor, with two 
Interludes in A minor'. But it was eleven fruitful years later before he 
returned to the score (having composed in the meantime several other 
major works, among them the first two Symphonies and the glorious 
Violin Concerto). He finished it in the spring and summer of 1913. 

It would be a pleasure to report that Falstaff has been a concert 
favorite ever since. Inexplicably, such is not the case. Perhaps, after 
a half-century, its time is nigh. Certainly it ought to be, for by any 
criteria this work is the composer's most nearly perfect creation. Those 
who admire the writing of Sir Donald Francis Tovey know that it was 
not his style to bow before the ineffable, but he very nearly did in his 
estimate of this music: 'I have never found in a perishable work any- 
thing like the signs of greatness and vitality that abound in Elgar's 
Falstaff. How its musical values can ever diminish I cannot see. To 
prove the greatness of a work of art is a task as hopeless as it would be 
tedious; but, like the candidate who failed in geometry, I think I can 
make the greatness of this one highly probable.' He did, at that — and 
without having seen the composer's own detailed analysis. So that 
Tovey's essay may be read as written (in Volume IV of the Oxford 
series), complete with some two dozen corrective footnotes as to the 
programmatic implications of the many, many themes. And it is 
decidedly worth reading, mistakes and all, for the insight it offers into 
the Shakespeare-Elgar psychology. 



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The composer's own 'Analytical Essay', which appeared in the Sep- 
tember 1913 issue of The Musical Times, was written in anticipation 
of the Leeds Festival premiere that October. It ran to something over 
a dozen pages and included a profusion of musical examples. Students 
are warmly commended to this tour de force of analysis, but they are 
forewarned to familiarize themselves with the appropriate Shakes- 
pearean contexts; there is no music more unremittingly programmatic 
than this. 

In lieu of any such musico-dramatic concordance, which could hardly 
be accommodated in this space, the following items of information 
should be helpful. To start with, the Elgarian conception of Falstaff 
bears no relation to the fat fool in The Merry Wives of Windsor. 
Rather, this is the Falstaff who appears in Henry IV (Parts I and II) 
and who is alluded to in Henry V. (If you know the latter play only 
in the film version, you may be excused for thinking that Falstaff 
is part of the dramatis personae because he does indeed appear on the 
screen; however defensible this liberty may be in cinematic terms there 
is no sign of Falstaff in any stage production faithful to the text — his 
death scene is described, but not seen.) In the end, Shakespeareans will 
remember, 'Prince Hal' (now Henry V) sternly seals the fate of his old 
friend Falstaff and thus fulfills the prophecy of Warwick, that 'he will 
cast off his followers, and their memory shall a pattern or a measure 
live'. Simply (perhaps too simply) stated, that is what Shakespeare's 
plays and Elgar's music are about. 





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The composer's postscript to the Warwick prophecy is further revealing 
and, moreover, provocative: 'Their memory does live, and the mar- 
vellous "pattern and measure". Sir John Falstaff with his companions 
might well have said, as we may well say now, "We play fools with the 
time, and the spirits of the Wise sit in the clouds and mock us." 

As to the 'real' Falstaff, in contrast to the simplistic stereotype encoun- 
tered in The Merry Wives, the respected Shakespearean scholar Edward 
Dowden insisted that 'Sir John Falstaff is a conception hardly less 
complex, hardly less wonderful, than that of Hamlet'. Moreover, Elgar 
was at pains to cite the celebrated 1777 essay on Falstaff by Maurice 
Morgann: 

'He is a character made up . . . wholly of incongruities; — a man at 
once young and old, enterprizing and fat, a dupe and a wit, harmless 
and wicked, weak in principle and resolute by constitution, cowardly 
in appearance and brave in reality; a knave without malice, a lyar 
without conceit; and a knight, a gentleman and a soldier, without 
either dignity, decency, or honour.' 

Elgar makes it clear that he is above all interested in Falstaff as a 
knight, a gentleman, and a soldier — which assuredly Falstaff was, or at 
least had been. But even at the very outset of Elgar's 'Symphonic study' 
the most important of several Falstaff themes introduces us to the 
hero 'in a green old age, mellow, frank, gay, easy, corpulent, loose, 
unprincipled, and luxurious' (Morgann). And from then forward he 
becomes if anything progressively less lovable. With his every word 
and deed, as reflected in Elgar's choice of textual references, he loses 
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Of course it was not. The present writer claims no expertise as to 
Shakespeare's intentions, but it is clear enough what Elgar was up to. 
Tovey puts it all in one short sentence: 'He is giving us Falstaff entirely 
from FalstafFs own point of view.' The more he studied this work, 
Tovey remarked, 'the clearer does it appear that the composer is 
achieving something lofty, severe, consistent, and far out of the depth 
of opera or even of drama'. Yes. 

Musically, it would be convenient but not quite accurate to say that 
Falstaff is akin to the Lisztian model. True, it is laid out in one grand, j 
continuous movement. But its themes do not germinate from a single 
cell. Somewhat more accurately, the work can be said to unfold in 
cohesive movements that are also dramatically explicit, the whole being 
a sum of its parts in every way. Elgar himself said that the piece 'is 
practically in one movement . . . [but] falls naturally into four prin- 
cipal divisions which run on without break'. Because these divisions 
are not indicated in the score, it might be useful to reproduce the 
composer's outline: 

1. Falstaff and Prince Henry; 

2. Eastcheap — Gadshill — The Boar's Head, revelry and sleep; 

3. FalstafFs March — The return through Gloucestershire — 
The new King — The hurried ride to London; 

4. King Henry V's progress — The repudiation of Falstaff, and 
his death. 

The opening scene is 'mainly a conversation', devoted largely to the 
presentation of thematic motifs. Whatever the subject of FalstafFs talk 
with 'Prince Hal' it is the old boy who has his way, for the section ends 
with an impetuous reassertion of the initial Falstaff theme. Then the 
Prince escapes from his father's court 'to the teeming vitality of the 
London streets and the Tavern where Falstaff is monarch. There, 
among ostlers and carriers, and drawers, and merchants, and pilgrims, 
and loud robustious women, he at least has freedom and frolic' (Dow- 
den). Thence to the midnight gambol at Gadshill, and afterward back 
to The Boar's Head at Eastcheap, where FalstafFs falling asleep is 
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At this juncture we get the exquisite 'Dream Interlude' in which the 
mendacious old boor suddenly gives way to sweet memories of the 
clean-cut lad who was just beginning his career as a page in the service 
of the Duke of Norfolk. In these few minutes the 'real' Falstaff — his 
perception of himself — is discernible for perhaps the first time. 

The third section is plainly a military adventure, or rather misadven- 
ture, with 'a dozen captains . . . knocking at the taverns and asking 
everyone for Sir John Falstaff' and then a motley march to battle with 
a 'scarecrow army'. The unspecified engagement is soon concluded, 
apparently in Falstaff 's favor — for off he rides to visit Master Robert 
Shallow, Esquire. Elgar does not miss this opportunity to limn the 
beautiful English countryside; and then we are in Shallow's orchard, 
listening to 'some sadly-merry pipe and tabor music'. This bucolic 
episode is interrupted by Pistol, who bursts on the scene to inform 
Falstaff that 'Thy tender lambkin [Prince Hal] now is King — Harry 
the Fifth's the man'. Falstaff is exultant ('I am fortune's steward'), but 
he is in for a rude jolt. 'I know the young King is sick for me', he 
exclaims in a moment of supreme self-delusion; 'we'll ride all night'. 
And back to London they go. 

In the finale we are witness to the coronation; near Westminster Abbey 
'There roar'd the sea, and trumpet-clangor sounds'. Falstaff forces his 
way to the newly-crowned monarch — his erstwhile boon companion — 
and begins to make light with him as once they had done together. 
But the boy is now a man. 'How ill white hairs become a fool and 
jester', Henry says icily; 'I banish thee on pain of death'. And with 
that the King moves on, having looked upon his childhood friend for 
the last time. Falstaff 'is so shaked that it is most lamentable to 
behold'. And suddenly we hear the poignant voice of the solo cello; 
it is as if the pathetic Don Quixote had found himself on a London 
street, surrounded by hostile foreigners. 



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The composer's own description of his final pages is incomparable: 
'True as ever to human life, Shakespeare makes [Falstaff] cry out even 
at this moment not only of God but of sack, and of women; so the 
terrible, nightmare version of the women's theme [first heard in the 
trilling violins and violas during the Eastcheap episode] darkens (or 
lightens, who shall say?) the last dim moments. Softly, as intelligence 
fades, we hear the complete theme of the gracious Prince Hal [presented 
in the opening section by lower winds, horns, and cellos], and then the 
nerveless final struggle and collapse; the brass holds pianissimo a full 
chord of C major, and Falstaff is dead. In the distance we hear the 
veiled sound of a military drum; the King's stern theme is curtly 
thrown across the picture, the shrill drum roll again asserts itself 
momentarily, and with one pizzicato chord the work ends; the man of 
stern reality has triumphed.' 

Or has he? Elgar's tone is almost mocking in its righteous affirmation 
of the way things are. Was he implying some doubt about reality 
itself? The answer to that question is not in the plays. Perhaps it is 
not in the music. But Falstaff is a portrait, after all, and not a photo- 
graph. The more clearly one sees the subject as Shakespeare did, per- 
haps, the more clearly one will hear him as Elgar did. Or vice versa. 

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WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART 

Three German dances K. 605 

Mozart was born in Salzburg on January 27 1756, and died in Vienna on December 5 
1791. The score is inscribed 'Vienna, February 12 1791'. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 posthorns, 
2 trumpets, timpani and strings. There are also 3 parts for sleighbells, the first in 
A and F, the second in E and F, the third in G. 

All of Central Europe once danced the Deutscher, whose gemutlich 
glide was to bridge the transition from the peasant Landler to the 
sophisticated lilt of the waltz. In 1787, on the eve of his accession as 
Hammermusikus to the dance-drunk Emperor Joseph II, Mozart wrote 
from Prague: 'At six o'clock I went with the Count Canal to the 
so-called Breiten, a rustic ball. ... I saw with wholehearted pleasure 
how these people jumped around with such sincere enjoyment to the 
music of my Figaro, which had been turned into all kinds of contres 
and Teutsche.' Later that year, the composer found that his imperial 
duties consisted almost entirely of supplying new music for the masked 
balls which were staged regularly in the Redoutensaale , a wing of the 
H of burg on Vienna's Josephplatz. Much of his production were 
Deutsche (or Teutsche), and the celebrants took to them in turn despite 
Mozart's self-abnegating appraisal; he remarked that his modest salary 
was 'too high for what he did'. 





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Of course he was wrong, but that is not the point. The point is that 
Carnival-time in Vienna, even on the grounds of the palace, meant a 
mingling of the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy — although it is true 
enough that this unfettered social contact took place behind the pro- 
tection of classless costumes and masks. So that in the 'German Dances' 
of Mozart, more so than in any of his grander works, we may perceive 
the interrelation between high art and popular taste which is too often 
overlooked. 

What is more usually stressed (the perspective is almost the same, give 
or take a few degrees) is that the evolution of dance forms was crucial 
to the development of 'serious' music. As early as 1670 there was cur- 
rent a tune entitled Ach du lieber Augustin, with a Landler-like refrain 
in which is immortalized a merry Austrian musician of elbow-bending 
propensities whose alcoholic content allegedly immunizes him against 
a plague while thousands of more temperate citizens are done in. And 
even in this seventeenth-century item we can discern the outline of all 
the waltzes to come: a quite rhythmic three-four pattern, with accentu- 
ation on the bass note of the first beat and a limpid, almost limping 
quality in the two remaining quarters. Shortly before the Commenda- 
tore arrives for supper in Act II of Don Giovanni, written more than a 
hundred years later, we hear a waltz melody borrowed from Vicente 
Martin y Soler's opera Una cosa rara. And in this little piece, even 
more specifically, we can hear the same constituents to be found in the 




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best-loved waltzes of Lanner and the Strausses: an eight-measure 
melodic period with minor subdivisions and phrases of four bars, and 
sometimes even further subdivisions into two-bar motives. 

In 1790 Joseph II died, but Leopold II kept Mozart just as busily 
grinding out music for Carnival-time. The set of three dances that 
make up K. 605 probably dates from January and February of 1791, 
along with six or seven other groupings listed immediately before and 
after this one in the Kochel catalogue. Before that year's end Mozart 
would be dead, but there is nothing premonitory about these 'fun' 
miniatures. They even include a sleigh-ride, with posthorns and the 
jingle of bells contributing to seasonal verisimilitude. 

Hermann Abert, who revised the classic Jahn biography of Mozart, ran 
on about the 'inexhaustible inventiveness' of the composer's German 
Dances despite the circumscribed expressive limitations of the genre. 
Mozart himself may not have esteemed them highly, but the listener 
cannot but believe that the Hammermusikus really enjoyed his job. 
We know from Michael Kelly that Mozart was 'an enthusiast in danc- 
ing', and Mrs Mozart put this in very much stronger language; she 
stated flatly that her husband's 'taste lay in that art [dance] rather than 
in music'! If this fantastic revelation were to be taken as literally 
true — and who is to say it nay? — then the musicologists ought to give 
more attention than they ever have to such 'trifles' as the K. 605. 

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ANTONIN DVORAK 

Three Slavonic dances from op. 72 

Dvorak was born in Nelahozeves (Miihlhausen), Bohemia on September 8 1841, and 
died in Prague on May 1 1904. The Orchestra last performed these dances on 
November 16 and 17 1888 under the direction of Wilhelm Gericke. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani, triangle, glockenspiel and strings. 

It says something about Dvorak's rapid rise to popularity that his 
second set of Slavonic Dances (1886) brought him literally ten times the 
fee he had received for the first set (1878). Ten times not much is still 
not much, however; and in truth the thousand-per-cent leap says more 
about the acumen of publisher Fritz Simrock. He paid the equivalent 
of $75 for the op. 46, and made a fortune; he paid the equivalent of 
$750 for the op. 72, and made another fortune. On the other hand, 
Dvorak agreed to write the latter eight Slavonic Dances only if Simrock 
would agree to publish the D minor Symphony. All things considered, 
the composer made a pretty good deal. 

Besides, Dvorak knew (as doubtless Simrock did) that the huge success 
of the op. 46 series had brought about his initial invitation to tour 
England — whither he had returned four times by 1886 — and, indeed, 
that these short pieces had provided just the 'thin edge of the wedge' 
necessary with which to establish his reputation securely. If the canny 
Simrock wanted eight more of them, the canny Dvorak could be 
persuaded. 

Unlike the Brahms Hungarian Dances, Dvorak's mostly do not allude 
to indigenous tunes; of the melodies nearly all are his own. Nor are 
these works exclusively Czech in character. In keeping with their 
broad collective rubric, a third of them are expressly based on rhythms 
from Slavonic lands to the east, south, and north. One is from the 
Ukraine, two are from Serbia, and two others (included in the present 
grouping) are from Poland. Numbers 2, 6, and 8 (or 10, 14, and 16 in 
the combined sequence) are respectively a mazurka, a polonaise, and a 
sousedka — one of the popular Czech waltz forms, akin to the handler. 

Dvorak was not given to overstatement, but he knew when he had a 
good thing and false modesty was not his way. When he had finished 
the op. 72 he told Simrock: 'They will bring the house down.' What 
music that must have been to a publisher's ears! 

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RICHARD STRAUSS 

Suite from 'Der Rosenkavalier' 

Strauss was born in Munich on June 11 1864, and died in Garmisch on September 8 
1949. The opera was first performed at the Dresden Court Opera on January 26 
1911. Ernst von Schuch conducted. 

This is the first performance of this particular suite from 'Der Rosenkavalier'. The 
suite includes the prelude to the first act, the music to the entrance of the 
Marschallin's black serving boy with morning chocolate and the 'Breakfast Waltz' 
from Act I. This leads to the familiar waltz from the second act, which is followed 
by the prelude to Act III. The 'Riot Waltz', the music for the final exit of the 
Marschallin, the duet between Sophie and Octavian, and the last bars of the opera 
end the suite. 

The instrumentation: 3 flutes and piccolo, 3 oboes and english horn, clarinets in A, 
B flat, D and E flat, bass clarinet and basset horn, 3 bassoons and contrabassoon, 
4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, tambourine, glockenspiel, snare 
drum, triangle, cymbals, bass drum, ratchet, 2 harps, celesta and strings. 

Those concertgoers who are operaphobes might take umbrage at the 
proposition that Strauss was first and last a theater man. And yet it is 
possible to argue that all his important works — certainly not excepting 
the tone poems — are essentially musico-dramatic productions. 

As with Wagner, moreover, Strauss's mastery of orchestral resources 
was such that an extraordinarily high percentage of his operatic writing 
'travels' readily. That is to say, it is heard as often out of context as 
it is in the purlieu for which it was conceived. And one surmises that 
both of these composers would have been annoyed by the cavil at 
'bleeding chunks' of excerpts if it had meant less circulation for their 
music; neither of them ever harkened to puristic prattle when the law 
of supply and demand was operating in their favor. Wagner obligingly 
provided 'concert endings' for various of his preludes; and Strauss went 
much further than that, of which more directly. 



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'Next time I shall write a Mozart opera', Strauss is reported to have 
said after the premiere of Salome (1905) and again after the premiere 
of Elektra (1909). No doubt he meant it the first time, but not until 
the second time had he found a librettist with whom he could do the 
job. By the end of the following year he and Hugo von Hofmannsthal 
had done it: Der Rosenkavalier, the fifth and in many respects the 
finest of this composer's notable contributions to the lyric stage. 

It has been suggested that Der Rosenkavalier is only 'rouged and lip- 
sticked' Mozart, that the latter's 'small genuine diamonds' were 
synthesized by Strauss into 'large rhinestones'. But the truth is there 
can be no reasonable comparison at this level of discourse. Mozart's 
librettist, Lorenzo da Ponte, simply did not have the literary where- 
withal to strew his texts with infinite subtle ironies. By contrast, 
Hofmannsthal was a genius every bit the equal of Strauss; so that their 
collaboration was unique in its parity and, happily, in its integration 
of their respective abilities. In consequence, Der Rosenkavalier shows 
a singleness of artistic purpose without parallel among masterworks of 
tandem authorship — which category of course includes virtually all 
opera. 

As to genre, Der Rosenkavalier might be described as the apotheosis 
of musical comedy, subsuming high and low varieties. Its music can be 
apprehended and its delights made manifest without a precis of the 
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The lovely Marschallin von Werdenberg, an 'over-twenty-nine' beauty 
in the court of Maria Theresa, is the central figure. She faces middle 
age without hysteria, but not without nostalgia. Octavian, a handsome 
young man, falls in love with her (or so he thinks). She returns his 
affection temperately, as if aware of the inevitable outcome but 
reluctant to dispel the flattering fantasy. 

Contrapuntally, as it were, the dramatic line limns the darkening twi- 
light of the Baron Ochs, a rake who is older than he knows. This 
archetypal has-been is engaged to the willowy Sophie von Faninal, but 
when he calls upon the Marschallin to arrange for the appointment of 
a Knight of the Rose — the Rosenkavalier, whose honorary function it is 
to carry the symbolic silver flower to a fiancee — the aging swain is not 
above making a play for her maid. 

What he does not know is that the maid is not the maid at all, but 
Octavian in disguise. Skillfully, but not without difficulty, 'she' eludes 
him. Chosen to make the fated presentation, Octavian (now as 
Octavian again) himself proceeds to fall in love with Sophie. The wise 
Marschallin understands, and if she suffers she is careful to hide her 
hurt from Octavian. For his part, he decides to reassume the role of 
the maid with a view to showing up Ochs. He succeeds easily, and 
Sophie's father is glad to approve the transfer of his daughter's hand 
to Octavian. 



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Then the focus is once more upon the Marschallin, whose smile is not 
entirely happy as she relinquishes her last claims on Octavian. In the 
final scene she leaves them in a tender embrace. After this, all with- 
draw, the lights dim, the music subsides, and a servant tiptoes in to 
pick up Sophie's handkerchief as the curtain falls. 

This kind of summary does not, could not, convey more than a super- 
ficial sense of Der Rosenkavalier. Aside from the complex Gestalt of 
the time and place (Vienna, c. 1745), there is the timeless — one might 
say Mozartian? — psychological perfection of the principals. Octavian 
may be only seventeen, but he is by no means a cardboard character. 
Ochs is much, much more than a dirty old man. And the Marschallin 
comes close to representing the quintessence of womankind. But these 
are generalities that each listener must bring into meaningful focus 
for himself. Suffice it to say that Hofmannsthal's libretto is itself a 
masterpiece. 

Musically, Der Rosenkavalier is busy beyond description. Alfred 
Schattmann's collation of the themes discloses no fewer than one hun- 
dred and eighteen! This notwithstanding, the score has demonstrated 
an incredible resilience over the years. Thanks to the composer's 
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from the day it was published. Strauss was a musical genius, yes; but 
in his relentless pursuit of profits he would have embarrassed many a 
free-wheeling partisan of private enterprise. At one time, for example, 
the house of Chappell offered forty-four separate listings of this or that 
tidbit from Der Rosenkavalier arranged for solo piano, piano four- 
hands, two pianos, violin unaccompanied and with piano, mandolin, 
two mandolins (!), salon orchestra, brass band, and just about every 
other conceivable combination of instruments. Strauss even recorded 
an egregious medley (not even of his own devising) on a pianola roll. 
In the middle 1920s he allowed Otto Singer and Karl Alwyn to over- 
haul the score willy-nilly for a film version. In the spring of 1926 he 
recorded excerpts from their arrangement! And so it went. 

Only in 1944, finally, did the composer get around to preparing his 
own concert abridgment of Der Rosenkavalier. And it is not irrelevant 
to the present performances to note that the London Philharmonic 
premiere of the official Erste Walzerfolge ('First Waltz Sequence') was 
entrusted to a young conductor named Erich Leinsdorf. 

© James Lyons 



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Notes from the Music Director - Erich Leinsdorf 

In some sketches for an unfinished essay on the artist, Goethe wrote a 
sentence which is a favorite of mine, because it hits the mark so 
accurately: 'Artists, especially actors and musicians, live by the 
applause of the crowd.' And indeed it gives color to our work, that 
applause. It may carry us only for a few hours, or into the next day; 
we have to hear it again to believe it, to get it into our blood stream, 
into our nervous system. Do not get the idea that we professionals 
greet the reception that you give us with jaded ears, with indifference; 
anyone who pretends indifference to the warmth and attachment of the 
public is just not being honest. 

Two of the problems which face the musician today hardly troubled 
his predecessor of fifty years ago: he often has to perform in this elec- 
tronic age with no audience present; and he has to know an incredibly 
varied amount of music, written in many different styles. 

Symphony Hall will be closed to the public next week, curtains will be 
draped round the auditorium, cables will wind out from the Ancient 
Instrument Room to the stage, and microphones will tower rather like 
ugly metal trees over the orchestra. For six days we shall be making 
records, some of music from the regular orchestral repertoire, some of 
concertos with our friends Artur Rubinstein and Itzhak Perlman. 

Already this season we have spent several days recording, generally on 
the Monday of weeks when we can begin our regular rehearsals a day 
late. One of our chief difficulties here is that our audience consists of 
microphones, a situation Goethe could not foresee. It is of course 
harder to perform without you our audience. 



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631 



Obviously for our concert audiences we have played a great quantity 
of music in these past three months, and this problem of quantity is 
one that concerns and, I am sure, troubles many people in our world, 
particularly those responsible for quality and standards. One of my 
first endeavors when I map out the season's programs is to vary the 
menu sufficiently to avoid the kind of mental fatigue that sets in if we 
repeat the same piece too often. Turkey may be delicious two or three 
times a year, but you would tire of it quickly enough if you had to eat 
it more often. So we do not play the extremely rich and taxing Great C 
major Symphony of Schubert more than a few times. The same applies 
to the Pathetique of Tchaikovsky. In general I try to avoid the too 
frequent appearance of pieces we might call the classical 'Hit Parade'. 
They must not be stale for us or for you, or none of us can come to 
them with the freshness of approach essential for fine readings and 
genuine enjoyment of the familiar masterpieces. It is not that famili- 
arity breeds contempt in this instance, but that overfamiliarity can 
breed overconfidence. 

'We played it three times last week', we may say to ourselves, 'four 
times the week before; now we can play it in our sleep'. Dangerous 
thinking, for it is so easy to lose the excitement, the emotional fresh- 
ness which must always be there. So we must make the familiar rare 
for all our sakes. I call it 'the spacing of the Hit Parade' because the 
small number of masterpieces which we all love so dearly is not becom- 
ing any larger. Indeed — and this may strike you as strange — we dis- 
cover that some of the 'immortal' pieces of yesterday do pass away. 
One picks up one of the old favorites sometimes, and discovers that its 
day is gone. Of course, works like Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, 
Schumann's Second and Tchaikovsky's Fifth have a lot of life yet. But 
look back at the Hit Parade of twenty-five or thirty years ago; look at 
your old programs and you will find that pieces which were as often 
played as the Tchaikovsky and Brahms masterpieces show a curious 
decline in appearance; some indeed have disappeared. There is no 
enormous significance in this: nobody is going to announce 'the posi- 
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retiring actress. But I could list a goodly number of masterpieces whose 
musical joints are starting to creak. They are usually works with a 
'period quality', and when our own feeling and awareness for the 
period has disappeared, the work itself dies. Just think, by the way, of 
the more dramatically fluctuating tastes in the world of the plastic arts. 

There are not so very many scores that we can say with any confidence 
really supersede fashion and period: a B minor Mass or an Eroica 
Symphony do not happen in every generation. Furthermore, we have 
to contend with the great cultural divide, which dates back roughly to 
the end of the first World War, a divide whose magnitude even today 
is not yet appreciated. It is most striking that the public still finds it 
very hard fully to accept any music written since that time. This is an 
emotional rejection, and while critics and cognoscenti may assure you 
that there are many significant and important scores written since 1918, 
their importance and significance is not often reflected in the applause 
which the artist needs. The gulf grows wider between the contempo- 
rary composer and the large musical public, about which there is much 
to say. 

But I shall leave this vexing problem, about which I think a great deal, 
until the New Year. Meanwhile I hope that you will enjoy today's 
program with its lighthearted second half, and I wish you all, on behalf 
of the whole Orchestra, a Merry Christmas. 




634 



I 



Exhibition 

The pictures currently on view in Symphony Hall are loaned from the 
Shore Galleries, which were founded in 1946 in Provincetown. Six 
years later the Galleries were moved to Boston. As well as specializing 
in American work of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the 
Shore Galleries act as agents for several contemporary artists in the 
New England area. 

Recent recordings by the Orchestra 

Many subscribers like to make gifts of recordings by the Orchestra to 
their friends and relatives, especially at this time of year. The follow- 
ing is a list of the most recently issued records which should prove 
useful to people who are worried lest they duplicate records already 
in their friends' collections: Beethoven - Symphony no. 7; Mahler - 
Symphony no. 3 with Shirley Verrett and the New England Conserva- 
tory Chorus; Violin Concertos by Sibelius and Prokofiev with Itzhak 
Perlman; Tchaikovsky - Piano Concerto no. 1 with Misha Dichter; 
Brahms - Symphony no. 3. 

Other records which have been most popular include the last three 
piano concertos of Beethoven with Artur Rubinstein; the Bartok Con- 
certo for Orchestra; the Violin Concertos by Bartok and Stravinsky 
with Joseph Silverstein; the Fifth Symphony of Mahler; the Fifth and 
Sixth Symphonies of Prokofiev; and, for subscribers with a taste for the 
contemporary, music of Irving Fine; and the Seven Studies on Themes 
of Paul Klee by Gunther Schuller, coupled with Stravinsky's Agon. 



Subscribers' Exhibition 



The annual exhibition of paintings by Friends, subscribers 
and members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra will take 
place from January 12 to January 27. 

Paintings must be brought to Symphony Hall on Monday 
January 8 and Tuesday January 9. Application blanks 
may be obtained at the Friends' Office, or at the Box Office 
on the evenings of concerts. It is essential that applica- 
tions be submitted during the week before January 8. 



635 



THE BOSTON COMPANY, INC. 



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and management services for private capital. 

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New York • Douglas T. Johnston & Co., Inc. 

San Francisco • Henderson-Boston Company, Inc. 

Seattle • Loomis & Kennedy, Inc. 

INVESTMENT TECHNOLOGY 
AND RESEARCH 

The Boston Company, Inc. 

ECONOMIC COUNSELING 

Rinfret-Boston Associates, Inc., New York 

OIL AND GAS INVESTMENT COUNSELING 

The Boston Company of Texas, Houston 

REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT COUNSELING 

The Boston Company of California, Los Angeles 

MUTUAL FUND 

The Johnston Mutual Fund Inc. 

MANAGEMENT CONSULTING 

Boston • The Boston Consulting Group 
Milan • Gennaro Boston Associati, S.p.A. 
Barcelona • RASA Sociedad Internacional 
Tokyo • Adams-Boston Company, Limited 



THE BOSTON COMPANY, INC. 

100 FRANKLIN STREET • ROSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 02106 
Telephone (617) 542-9450 



636 



FUTURE PROGRAMS 



Eleventh Program 

Friday afternoon December 29 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 30 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

TELEMANN 



BACH 



HANDEL 



Concerto in A major for flute and violin 
JAMES PAPPOUTSAKIS, ALFRED KRIPS 

Cantata no. 35 'Geist und Seele wird verwirret' 
BEVERLY WOLFF 

Suite from 'The Water Music' 



The Orchestra will be recording for RCA Victor during the coming 
week, so that the next concerts in this series will be in two weeks' time. 
The program is devoted entirely to music of the Baroque period. 
Although recordings of Baroque music have appeared in great pro- 
fusion in recent years (indeed Telemann is almost as well represented 
in the catalogues as Tchaikovsky), live performances are much rarer. 
Telemann was one of the most prolific composers of all time (he wrote 
forty-four settings of the Passion alone, with an output of other forms 
of music to match), and his concerto for flute and violin is a charming 
piece. 'It is a great pleasure to me', says Erich Leinsdorf, 'to present 
great artists like James Pappoutsakis and Alfred Krips as soloists from 
among our talented associate principals.' 

Beverly Wolff, one of America's very talented young singers, who has 
sung on many occasions with the Orchestra, will be soloist in the Bach 
Cantata. The movements from Handel's Water Music are taken from 
the first two of the three original suites, and will be performed exactly 
as Handel wrote them rather than in the more familiar arrangements. 

The concert will end at about 3.50 on Friday 
and at about 10.20 on Saturday 

Twelfth Program 

Friday afternoon January 5 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening January 6 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

HAYDN Symphony no. 24 in D major 

PETRASSI Partita for orchestra 

MENDELSSOHN Symphony no. 3 in A minor 'Scottish' 



programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



637 



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MINNIE WOLK 

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opp. Symphony Hall 

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KATE FRISKIN 

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638 




ENSEMBLES 

OF THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

presented by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
and the New England Conservatory of Music 

MONDAY EVENINGS AT JORDAN HALL 
FUTURE PROGRAMS 



January 8 at 8.30 

MUSIC GUILD STRING QUARTET 

MOZART Quartet in A major K. 464 

BARTOK Quartet no. 3 

BEETHOVEN Quartet no. 9 in C op. 59 no. 3 

February 5 at 8.30 

BOSTON SYMPHONY CHAMBER PLAYERS 

BALAKIREV Octet 

WEBERN Concerto op. 24 

DAHL Duo Concertante for flute and percussion 

MOZART Divertimento in E flat K. 563 

Members of the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and 
Friends of the New England Conservatory may secure a free ticket 
for a guest to accompany them. Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra should telephone Mrs Whittall at Symphony Hall (CO 
6-1492) for details. Friends of the New England Conservatory 
should get in touch with Miss Virginia Clay at the Jordan Hall Box 
Office (536-2412). 

Single tickets for each concert are available from the 
Jordan Hall Box Office, 30 Gainsborough Street. 
Boston 02115 (telephone 536-2412) 
Prices: $1.50, $2, $2.50, $3, $4, $5 



"The Baldwin is the ideal piano 
for solo and orchestral work and 
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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 



HENRY B. CABOT 
TALCOTT M. BANKS 
JOHN L. THORNDIKE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



PHILIP K. ALLEN 
ABRAM BERKOWITZ 
THEODORE P. FERRIS 
ROBERT H. GARDINER 
FRANCIS W. HATCH 
ANDREW HEISKELL 
HAROLD D. HODGKINSON 



E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 
EDWARD M. KENNEDY 
HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 
EDWARD G. MURRAY 
JOHN T. NOONAN 
MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 
SIDNEY R. RABB 



RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assistant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1967 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

643 




Hear the brighter side of Bruckner | 
performed by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra under Leinsdorf. 

This is the Boston Symphony's first recording of Bruckner. 
And the Fourth Symphony (the "Romantic") is an ideal 
introduction to this 19th-century composer's genius. 
This composition is happy . . . charming . . . and more spirited 
than you might expect Bruckner to be. Hear it soon, 
performed by the Bostonians under Leinsdorf. 
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Boston Symphony Orchestra/Erich Leinsdorf 

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BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 

Concert-master 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 
Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
John Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 
Burton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Akio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
Earl Hedberg 
Joseph Pietropaolo 
Robert Barnes 
Vizhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 



FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 
Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 

Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 

Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 

Alfred Robison 



if 



ILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



rmembers of the Japan 
<\ a one season exchange 



Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



645 










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The Boston Symphony Orchestra depends upon the 
care and concern of every generation. From its found- 
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oever-widening circle of supporters. Each generation 
in turn has aided the Orchestra's steady advance to 
ts present peak of artistic excellence. 



Today it is our turn to be identified by our gifts with 
the support of this great orchestra. 

The Symphony depends upon the gifts of all whose 
ives are affected by its music. It particularly depends 
jpon those who are able to make gifts of $5,000 or 
nore. 

Those, who after thoughtful consideration pledge to 
ncrease their present gift so as to realize a commem- 
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648 




■ 




Contents 

Program for December 29 and 30 1967 651 

Future programs 701 

Program notes by Stanley Sadie 

Telemann - Concerto in A for flute and violin 652 

Bach - Cantata no. 35 656 

Handel - The Water Music 666 

The chamber organ 674 
by Fritz Noack 

A new Trustee - Edward M. Kennedy 682 

The soloists 684 

The members of the Orchestra 690 



649 



"Gerald and I were discussing my money, Daddy, 
and he has some really neat ideas . . . ." 




Fortunately, Lucy's father consented to give Gerald only her hand 
in marriage — not the tidy sum Aunt Agatha left her. That's safely 
tucked away in an investment management account at Old Colony. 

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for Lucy's money. Makes the day-to-day investment decisions, clips 
the coupons, exercises the options, keeps the records and supplies 
the necessary data at tax time. 

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the full-time care of a team of investment specialists whose expertise 
he knows from personal experience. 

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benefit from this sort of professional attention. If so, send 'em round! 

THE FIRST & OLD COLONY 

The First National Bank of Boston and Old Colony Trust Company 



650 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Eleventh Program 

Friday afternoon December 29 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening December 30 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

TELEMANN Concerto in A major for flute and violin 

Largo 
Allegro 
Gratioso 
Allegro 

JAMES PAPPOUTSAKIS flute 
ALFRED KRIPS violin 

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

BACH Cantata no. 35 'Geist und Seele wird 

verwirret' for contralto and orchestra 
with organ obbligato 

BEVERLY WOLFF contralto 

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 



INTERMISSION 



HANDEL 



Suite from 'The Water Music' 
Ouverture [Largo-Allegro] 
Adagio e staccato 
[Allegro] — Andante — [Allegro] 
Air 

Menuet 
Bourree 
Hornpipe 
[Allegro] 
[Allegro] 
Alia hornpipe 



CHARLES WILSON organ and harpsichord 
NEWTON WAYLAND harpsichord 
MARTIN HOHERMAN cello 
HENRY PORTNOI double bass 

The concert will end at about 3.50 on Friday 
and at about 10.20 on Saturday 

BALDWIN PIANO 

RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



651 




Program Notes 

by Stanley Sadie 

GEORG PHILIPP TELEMANN 
Concerto in A major for flute and violin 

Telemann was born at Magdeburg, Germany on March 14 1681, and died at Ham- 
burg on June 25 1767. The Concerto was published in 1733. 
The instrumentation: strings with harpsichord continuo. 



Georg Philipp Telemann, whose bicentenary fell in June 1967, was a 
close contemporary of Bach and Handel. He was also the most famous 
German composer of his day: his reputation far eclipsed Bach's, and 
at least in his native country surpassed Handel's. Born at Magdeburg, 
he studied science and languages at Leipzig University and obtained 
his first musical appointment as organist in Leipzig. After various other 
appointments he settled in Hamburg as the city's director of music and 
organist of the five main churches there. 

Few composers have equalled his output, either for sheer mass or for 
variety. He wrote many operas, a vast amount of sacred music, and no 
less prodigious a quantity of instrumental works. It scarcely needs to 
be remarked that a composer of such enormous output had an ex- 
tremely fluent, even facile, technique. Handel is said to have com- 
mented that Telemann could write an eight-part fugue as easily as most 
people could write a letter. Critics have been inclined to take Tele- 
mann to task for the lack of profundity in his music. But Telemann 
was a true child of his time: he saw the composer's function as that of 
a craftsman as well as an artist, whose duty was to produce well finished 
and agreeable music to satisfy the musical appetites of his employers 
and of contemporary audiences. In this he triumphantly succeeded, as 
Bach and Handel frequently did not; and if we realize that Bach and 
Handel were the greater men, whose music has more to say to us today, 
we must at least remember that none of the three wrote with an eye to 
posterity, and that Telemann is not to be blamed for succeeding in 
what he, and most other composers, attempted to do. 

Today's concerto comes from Set I of his Musique de Table (or 
Tafelmusik), one of his major instrumental works, published in 1733. 
Like Handel's Water Music or Mozart's divertimentos, it was intended 
as a background to other activities (not necessarily involving eating, as 
the title implies). The whole of the Musique de Table at a single 
sitting would be as indigestible as the meal it could accompany, for its 
three sets (or Productions) each comprise about one-and-a-half hours 
of music, each arranged along the same plan: overture and dance 
suite; quartet; concerto; trio; solo sonata; conclusion. The plan of the 

Stanley Sadie is a leading figure among London's music critics. Editor 
of The Musical Times, he is on the music staff of The Times and the 
reviewing panel of The Gramophone, and is a frequent broadcaster 
for the British Broadcasting Corporation. His books include critical 
studies of Mozart and Handel, a volume on Beethoven for children, 
and (with Arthur Jacobs) 'Great Operas in Synopsis'. 

652 



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o\°< 



s \v\9 




653 



mm 



mm 



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work enabled him to use a variety of musical styles — tuneful and pic- 
torial French dances in the suites, a highly-wrought chamber music 
language in the trios and especially the quartets, a more Italianate 
manner in the concertos. 

Telemann was particularly skilled at writing in different styles; but 
he also had a strong enough personality of his own to be easily recog- 
nizable whatever stylistic clothes he chose to wear. The flute and violin 
concerto could scarcely be mistaken for the work of an Italian con- 
temporary like Vivaldi or Locatelli or Manfredini: it has four move- 
ments, starting with a slow one, a pattern long considered outmoded 
by the 1730s in Italy; and it lacks true Italian rhythmic momentum, 
though in compensation is richer in texture and more elaborately 
developed. 

The opening Largo is particularly fully worked, with an important 
solo cello part carrying the solo material into the heart of the musical 
texture. There is plenty of rhythmic bustle, and a characteristic 
garrulity about the gay Allegro which follows; it is in three-part (or 
da capo) form, with a middle section in dialogue for the soloists with 
a light pizzicato accompaniment. In the main part of the movement 
there is again a prominent cello part, and in the Gratioso, a movement 
in the style of a siciliano, the three soloists have about equal impor- 
tance. The sturdy finale, like the second movement, is in da capo 
form, the minor-key middle section led off by the cello. 

© Stanley Sadie 



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655 



JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH 

Cantata no. 35 'Geist und Seele wird verwirret' (Spirit and 
soul are put in turmoil) 

Bach was born at Eisenach on March 21 1685, and died in Leipzig on July 28 1750. 
He composed the Cantata in 1726, and it was first performed on September 8 of 
that year. 

The instrumentation: 2 oboes and english horn, bassoon, strings, harpsichord con- 
tinuo and organ obbligato. 

Until the last decade, the dating of Bach's cantatas has been largely a 
matter of intelligent guesswork. But it has now been shown that 
most of the guesswork wasn't quite intelligent enough. Two German 
scholars, Alfred Durr and Georg von Dadelsen, have examined afresh 
the manuscripts and early copies: using evidence like the watermarks 
on the paper, the handwriting of Bach's original copyists, even the 
positioning of the stitch-holes from the original bindings, they have 
produced a new and definitive dating. It had long been assumed that, 
apart from the handful of church cantatas Bach composed in his early 
days at Miilhausen (1707-8) and particularly Weimar (1708-17), the 
rest were written over a period of many years while he was Cantor at 
St Thomas's in Leipzig (1723 to his death in 1750). What is now proved 
shows a totally different picture: nearly all the cantatas were written 
during a frenziedly busy spell in Bach's first few years at Leipzig. One 
complete cycle for the church year was composed in 1723-4, another 
in 1724-5 (most of Bach's cantatas built around chorales belong to that 
second cycle). In the 1725-6 year he at first performed at the Thomas- 
kirche a lot of cantatas by his cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach, so his 




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own third cycle is incomplete. Two more cycles followed in the next 
two years. Thereafter, with an ample reservoir of cantatas on which 
to draw in the execution of his routine duties, Bach was able virtually 
to abandon cantata composition. 

No. 35 belongs to the third cycle. It was written for the 12th Sunday 
after Trinity, and had its first performance on September 8 1726. 
Several cantatas in this cycle are for solo voice — Nos 52 and 84 for 
soprano, 35, 169, and 170 for alto, 55 for tenor, 56 and 82 for bass. 
The other unusual feature of No. 35 is its solo organ part: normalb 
the organ was used only in a supporting continuo role. Orgai 
obbligati appear in other cantata movements of the third cycle, foi 
example Nos 49 and 169. 

But none of these was composed in the first place as a cantata move- 
ment. The movements in Nos 49 and 169 are more familiar in then 
other versions in the E major harpsichord concerto; most likely they 
were written originally as part of a violin concerto. Much the same 
goes for the two sinfonias of No. 35. Probably these two were originally 
the first and last movements of a violin concerto, and later of a 
harpsichord concerto. The first aria, 'Geist und Seele', must have 
formed the second movement (analogy with No. 169 implies as much): 
Bach added the vocal line — you will hear that it is thematically almost 
unrelated to the instrumental parts — and may have made other minor 
changes, possibly extending it. We cannot be certain about the exist- 

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ence of a violin version, but we can about the harpsichord one, for at 
the foot of the manuscript of the G minor harpsichord concerto are 
to be found its first nine measures; the rest of the work has not survived. 
There have been attempts to reconstruct earlier versions — a violin one 
by G. Frotscher was given at Halle, east Germany, in 1951, a harpsi- 
chord one by Karl Geiringer and graduate students of the University 
of California, Santa Barbara, at the English Bach Festival, Oxford, 
in 1965. 

The Gospel text for the 12th Sunday after Trinity is Mark vii. 3-37 — 
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deaf, and healing him: in the text, the author of which is unknown, 
there is reference to deafness and dumbness before the wonders of God, 
to the performance of miracles, and in more general terms to the hands 
of Christ removing the miseries of man. The cantata divides into two 
sections: Sinfonia - Aria - Recitative - Aria; Sinfonia - Recitative - 
Aria. The first aria (mentioned above) is characterized by its extremely 
florid organ part with which the expressive, more sustained vocal line 
is contrasted. In the second the might and justice of God is praised, 
and this demands the more confident mood which is implied by the 
use of a major key and by the vigorous scale and arpeggio figuration in 
the organ. The cheerful C major triplets in the final aria likewise 
portray confidence in divine mercy. 

© Stanley Sadie 




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661 



PART ONE 
SINFONIA 

ARIA 

Geist und Seele wird verwirret, 
wenn sie dich, mein Gott, betracht; 
Denn die Wunder, so sie kennet 
und das Volk mit Jauchzen nennet, 
hat sie taub und stumm gemacht. 

Spirit and soul are put in turmoil when they look upon you, my God. 
The soul recognizes your miracles, which the people acclaim with 
jubilation, and it becomes deaf and dumb. 

RECITATIVE 

Ich wundre mich, denn Alles, was man sieht, muss uns Verwund'rung 
geben. Betracht' ich dich, du theurer Gottessohn, so flieht Vernunft, 
und auch Verstand davon. Du machst es eben, dass sonst ein Wunder- 
werk vor dir was Schlechtes ist. Du bist dem Namen, Thun und Amte 
nach erst wunderreich, dir ist kein Wunderding auf dieser Erde gleich. 
Den Tauben giebst du das Gehor, den Stummen ihre Sprache wieder; 
ja, was noch mehr, du off nest auf ein Wort die blinden Augenlieder. 
Dies, dies sind Wunderwerke, und ihre Starke ist auch der Engel Chor 
nicht machtig auszusprechen. 

/ am full of amazement, for everything that Man looks on must astonish 
us. I look upon you, dear Son of God, and reason and understanding 
flee away: you work in such a way that a miracle of your making seems 
to be a thing of evil. You only are full of miracles in name, in deed and 
in office; in comparison to you there is no miraculous thing on the 
earth. To the deaf you restore hearing and to the dumb speech. And 
further, with one word you open the eyes of the blind. These, these 
are miracles, and the choir of the angels has not strength enough to 
proclaim their power. 

ARIA 

Gott hat Alles wohl gemacht! 

seine Liebe, seine Treu' wird uns alle Tage neu. 

Wenn uns Angst und Kummer drucket, 

hat er reichen Trost geschicket; 

weil er taglich fur uns wacht: 

Gott hat Alles wohl gemacht! 

God has created all things well. His love for us renews itself each day. 
If fear and trouble oppress us, he has sent ample consolation; for every 
day he guards over us. God has created all things well. 



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PART TWO 

SINFONIA 

RECITATIVE 

Ach, starker Gott, lass mich doch dieses stets bedenken, so kann ich 
dich vergniigt in meine Seele senken. Lass mir dein susses Hephata 
das ganz verstockte Herz erweichen; ach! lege nur den Gnadenfinger 
in die Ohren, sonst bin ich gleich verloren. Ruhr' auch das Zungen- 
band mit deiner starken Hand, damit ich diese Wunderzeichen in 
heil'ger Andacht preise, und mich als Kind und Erb' erweise. 

Oh mighty God, let me always think on this; so can I embrace you to 
my soul. Let your sweet breath soften my stubborn heart; place your 
finger of grace in my ears, otherwise I am immediately lost. Break the 
bonds which hold my tongue with your strong hand, so that I may 
praise your miracles by holy devotions and prove myself your child 
and heir. 

ARIA 

Ich wiinsche mir bei Gott zu leben, 

ach! ware doch die Zeit schon da, 

ein frohliches Halleluja 

mit alien Engeln anzuheben. 

Mein liebster Jesu, lose doch 

das jammerreiche Schmerzensjoch, 

und lass mich bald in deinen Handen 

mein martervolles Leben enden. 

Would that I might live with God. If only the time were already come 
to raise a jubilant Halleluja with all the angels. My dearest Jesus, 
relieve the troublesome yoke of my pain, let my life of misery soon be 
ended, and let me be received into your hands. 






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665 



GEORG FRIEDRICH HANDEL 

Suite from 'The Water Music' 

Handel was born in Halle on February 23 1685, and died in London on April 14 

*759- 

Handel's original instrumentation: 2 oboes, bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, harpsi- 
chord continuo and strings. 

The dust of two-and-a-half centuries has obscured, probably forever, 
the true facts of the origins of Handel's Water Music. The most 
popular story is the earliest one, coming from the Reverend John Main- 
waring, Handel's first biographer, writing in 1760: it tells that the 
work was first performed on the River Thames in 1715, and that King 
George I, finding himself serenaded from a neighbouring barge, 
promptly forgave Handel his truancy (it will be remembered that 
Handel had been court composer at Hanover, where George I was 
Elector, and had long overstayed his leave of absence). Like most 
Handelian anecdotes, this one is doubtful, at best. For one thing, there 
is another almost equally plausible story about the reconciliation: that 
it was brought about by the famous violinist and composer Francesco 
Geminiani who, when asked to play to George I, refused unless Handel 
could accompany him, as no-one else could follow his temperamental 
playing. 

More to the point, perhaps, is that probably no reconciliation was 
needed anyway. Before the water-party could have happened, George I 






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had heard Handel's music at the opera house and in the Chapel Royal; 
there is not a shred of real evidence that ill-will ever existed. Still, it 
remains possible that the Water Music, or at least some of it, was heard 
at a royal river party on August 22 1715, when the King and his party 
sailed from Whitehall to Limehouse, and were regaled with music on 
the return journey; versions of a few of the movements existed by then. 
What is certainly true is that it was heard on such an occasion two 
years later. The event was reported as follows in the Daily Courant 
of July 19 1717: 

On Wednesday [July 17] Evening, at about 8, the King took Water 
at Whitehall in an open Barge, wherein were also the Dutchess of 
Bolton, the Dutchess of Newcastle, the Countess of Godolphin, 
Madam Kilmanseck, and the Earl of Orkney. And went up the 
River towards Chelsea. Many other Barges with Persons of Quality 
attended, and so great a Number of Boats, that the whole River in 
a manner was cover'd; a City Company's Barge was employ'd for the 
Musick, wherein were 50 Instruments of all sorts, who play'd all the 
Way from Lambeth (while the Barges drove with the Tide without 
Rowing, as far as Chelsea) the finest Symphonies, compos'd express 
for this Occasion, by Mr Hendel; which his Majesty liked so well, 
that he caus'd it to be plaid over three times in going and returning. 
At Eleven his Majesty went a-shore at Chelsea, where a Supper was 
prepar'd, and then there was another very fine Consort of Musick, 
which lasted till 2; after which his Majesty came again into his 
Barge, and return'd the same Way, the Musick continuing to play 
till he landed. 

This information is supplemented by a report of the event from the 
Prussian Resident in London, Frederic Bonet, who mentions that 
. . . Next to the King's barge was that of the musicians, about 50 in 
number, who played on all kinds of instruments, to wit trumpets, 
horns, hautboys, bassoons, German [i.e. transverse] flutes, French 
flutes [i.e. recorders], violins and basses; but there were no singers. 
The music had been composed specially by the famous Handel, a 
native of Halle, and His Majesty's principal Court Composer. 






















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The river party was arranged by Baron Kielmansegge, an important 
court official who had known Handel since before he left Italy, and 
whose wife (one of the king's mistresses — the Duchess of Bolton was 
another) organized the supper and was present on the royal barge. 

It is unlikely ever to be known which pieces were played on this occa- 
sion, or indeed any other (there was a royal river party in 1736, for 
which Handel may also have composed music). Handel's own manu- I 
script scores do not survive, and the Water Music was not published 
in anything like complete form until the 1730s: at that time various 
versions appeared in print, giving different selections of movements; 
some were in keyboard arrangements, and some also included move- [ 
ments of doubtful authenticity. One point emerges clearly from a I 
study of this material and the two manuscript scores in the writing of I 
Handel's amanuensis: that the pieces fall into three distinct groups, I 
each of them unified both by key (always a significant factor in music I 
of this period) and by instrumentation. The Suite in F is the longest, I 
and includes horns as well as woodwind and strings; that in G is the I 
shortest and the lightest in texture, with its use of flutes and recorders; I 
and the one in D, with trumpets, is probably the most splendid — it I 
has points of resemblance to the kind of suite written by French com- I 
posers to entertain their king during his festivities at Versailles. It I 
might not be too fanciful to suggest that the Suite in G, having the f 
qualities more of indoor than outdoor music, was intended primarily 
to amuse George I over his supper, while those in F and D were 
designed for the journey upstream to Chelsea and downstream back to 
Westminster respectively — though how Thameside residents may have 
reacted to trumpets at three in the morning we can only conjecture. 






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The Suite in F, scored for oboes, bassoon, horns and strings (a continuo 
harpsichord may also have been present on the barge), begins with 
a French overture. After a recitative-like oboe solo, which Erich 
Leinsdorf has especially realized for this performance, there comes a 
fanfare-like movement whose horn writing must have sounded par- 
ticularly fine across the water; this movement has a slower middle 
section in D minor incorporating dialogues between woodwind and 
strings. The Suite continues with a vigorous fast movement in triple 
time, omitted in today's performance. Then comes the famous air. The 
sturdy minuet which follows is led off by the horns; its minor-key trio 
is unusually scored, with two melodies of equal importance — one in 
the first violins, the other in the middle strings and bassoon. The suite 
ends with a bourree and hornpipe, each directed to be played three 
times over with varying instrumentation. 

The next movement is in D minor; its proper place in the Water Music 
is hard to determine, either from its position in the early versions 
(which varies) or from its key, which qualifies it equally to stand with 
the movements in F or those in D. It is a concerto-style movement, 
led off by the woodwind, and has a lot of dialogue between wind and 
strings. Then on to the more pompous D major movements: first a 
fanfare-like piece with trumpets (particularly popular in eighteenth- 
century London — there was a keyboard version published and many 
times reprinted as 'Mr Handel's Water Piece'!); then a noble Alia 
Hornpipe, the movement used by Sir Hamilton Harty to end his 
famous, but orchestrally prettified, Water Music Suite. 

© Stanley Sadie 



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673 



The chamber organ 
by Fritz Noack 

In these performances of J. S. Bach's Cantata no. 35 the thorough bass 
will be realized not only by a harpsichord but also by a small organ, 
which also in this particular work has an independent obbligato part. 
While we have in recent years become accustomed to the presence of 
a harpsichord where Baroque music is being performed, such a small 
organ placed amidst the other instruments is still a much less common 
sight. This Tositiv Organ' — or we might use the less correct but more 
amiable term 'Chamber Organ' — used however to be a regular member 
of the group of instruments playing the thorough bass in the music of 
the seventeenth and eighteenth century. While it probably was used 
more in sacred music, it was certainly not limited to that. Monteverdi 
calls for one in his opera orchestra, and — just to quote another sample 
of secular usage — King Christian IV of Denmark entertained his guests 
to the sounds of what until this day remains the fanciest chamber organ 
ever built. 

I have been asked about the history and background of the chamber 
organ used here. Anticipating the future, I would like to open by 
saying that this is its last appearance in its present form. Not that I 
want to change its sound; I shall simply rebuild it completely to make 
it much more compact. 

I remember arguments that I had some short fifteen years ago with my 
unusually competent high school music teacher, who then still made us 
play our Telemann and Vivaldi to the perfectly unsuitable accom- 
paniment of a piano. Obviously a harpsichord was required not just 
for the sake of authenticity but simply to make this music sound 
digestible to alert ears. 

It was during my training as an organ builder in Hamburg (Germany) 
that I was first involved in providing small organs for performances 
that supposedly were historically correct. Such groups as the 'Nord- 
deutscher Singkreis' certainly did very fine work (some for the Archive 
Production of the Deutsche Grammophon Company), but their style 
— very much in the wake of the Singbewegung — aimed for a lightness 
and clarity most likely exceeding that wanted by the old masters. And 
so did the little organs we made. I personally became aware of these 
exaggerations first during that time by getting acquainted with some 
of the organs built by the great Arp Schnitger. 



Fritz Noack, who made the chamber organ which is being used at 
today's performance, was born in Greisswald, Germany. At the age of 
ten he moved to Munchen-Gladbach in the Rhineland. At high school 
there he studied violin and organized his own string group. Performing 
in church, he became interested in organ building and started profes- 
sionally in 1953 with Rudolf v. Beckerath in Hamburg. After a short 
time with Klaus Becker, he moved to Boston where he worked with 
Charles Fisk. A year later he founded his own company and since then 
has built instruments for many universities and churches, Brandeis, 
the Unitarian Church in St Paul, Minnesota, and All Saints Episcopal 
Church in New York among them. 

674 



I would like to say something here about Schnitger's relationship to 
Bach. We all know that Bach studied briefly but intensely with 
Dietrich Buxtehude in Liibeck. What we easily overlook is the fact 
that Buxtehude was an almost fanatic Schnitger fan. We know too 
that the one job Bach wanted so much and never got (because he 
failed to bribe the church's officers) was at the church in Hamburg 
where Schnitger's largest organ was — which, by the way, still stands; 
and that Bach never had a new organ installed in any of the churches 
he served, with one small but very significant exception: when he was 
in Leipzig he had a separate keyboard attached to the so-called Positiv 
division of the organ, which was located in a separate case close to the 
musicians. Thus he had, in fact, a chamber organ which he also could 
play while directing. In his cantatas he not only assigns much of the 
continuo to it but often also an obbligato part. Knowing his im- 
patience with the poor quality of his instrumentalists it is anyone's 
guess how often he actually substituted other obbligato parts during 
the weekly cantata performances. 




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It was not until I came to Boston that I had the opportunity to get 
thoroughly acquainted with one of the instruments built by Handel's 
preferred organ builder John Snetzler. Snetzler — like Handel him- 
self — was not trained in England, but had become very much of an 
Englishman. Musically his work bears no trace of anything outside the 
tradition of his adopted home country. Handel possessed several of his 
instruments. They were all quite small, and must have been of a 
refined, singing, but not very brilliant or powerful sound. There is no 
doubt that these organs were in his mind when he composed his organ 
concerti, even though we sometimes wonder if he would not have 
preferred a larger instrument for this music. 

When Daniel Pinkham commissioned Charles Fisk and myself in i960 
to build him a chamber organ we tried to keep Snetzler's sound in mind 
as much as Schnitger's — but also made sure that the instrument was 
small enough to be moved easily. This instrument is still serving its 
intended purposes well, but when it was used at Tanglewood a few 
years ago, it became quite clear that a somewhat larger organ was 
needed there. A larger organ intended for a rather small church was 
used another summer in Tanglewood. While the timbre of sound was 



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679 



just right, it was simply not loud enough and needed some amplifica- 
tion (which among serious musicians is still considered permissible 
only in the case of absolute necessity). And then there was the problem 
that the player could see the conductor only through a mirror while 
sitting at the instrument. 

At that time Mr Leinsdorf suggested the present arrangement with 
the player seated behind the instrument, facing the conductor. This 
resulting instrument has been heard with the Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra in a number of performances at Symphony Hall, Tanglewood, 
Rutgers University and New York's Carnegie Hall. I shall hope that 
this instrument — especially after the modifications have been made — 
will help to bring some of the great music of the past back to life in a 
way historically correct yet full of life and meaning today. 




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... a front-row-center study by the 
music critic of The New York Times. 
The great conductors. 

From Bach to Beethoven to Bernstein. And all 
the greats in between. 

Through this remarkable study, Harold 
Schonberg (music critic of The New York 
Times) shows us Beethoven inviting fluctua- 
tions of tempo that would madden today's 
purists; Gluck, a perfectionist so cruel to his 
musicians in Vienna that the Emperor had to 
intercede; the subtle techniques of Mendelssohn; 
the free interpretations of Wagner. 

He fully analyzes and evaluates, with a 
remarkable sense of realism, the great con- 
ductors of the past to the present, including 
today's rising stars. 

More than 100 illustrations. $7.50. 

Other works by Harold Schonberg: 

The Great Pianists 

$6.95 cloth, $2.45 paper. 

The Great Singers 
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681 



A new Trustee - Edward M. Kennedy 

Henry B. Cabot announced on December 19 the election of Edward M. 
Kennedy, senior United States Senator from Massachusetts, to the 
Orchestra's Board of Trustees. Senator Kennedy becomes the eighteenth 
member of the present Board and assumes his duties immediately. 

In recent years Senator Kennedy has shown an active interest in the 
Orchestra and its affairs. Through his efforts as President of the 
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr Foundation, he arranged for the Orchestra's 
participation at a special Symphony Hall program in April 1966 for 
the presentation of the Foundation's International Awards. Taking the 
role of performer, Senator Kennedy twice appeared with the Orchestra 
as narrator in Aaron Copland's Lincoln Portrait. The first occasion 
was a benefit for the Orchestra's Berkshire Music Center at Tangle- 
wood, and the second, a year ago in Symphony Hall, was at the annual 
Boston Symphony Orchestra Pension Fund concert. 

Senator Kennedy is a native of Brookline, a graduate of Milton Acad- 
emy, Harvard College, and the University of Virginia Law School. He 
served in the United States Army from 1951 to 1953. In 1961 he was 
Chairman of the American Cancer Crusade in Massachusetts. Presently 
he is a member of the Boston University's Board of Trustees, the ad- 
visory board of Emmanuel College, and continues as President of the 
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr Foundation. Senator Kennedy was elected to 
the Senate in 1962 to fill the unexpired term of his brother, the late 
President John F. Kennedy. 




Give your regards 
from Broadway. 

Say it with words and music. The words and music of 
The American Musical Theater. Available for the first time 
in this unique two-record and book package. The records 
contain 28 original cast selections from the CBS archives. 
The book is by Lehman Engel. The complete package is 
selling for $11.88. (The book itself normally lists for $12.50.) 



The American Musical Theater 

(two records and book) ... $11.88 

Open Wednesday evenings 'til 9. 



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682 




it'll sound 

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And flameless electric heat is quiet. The quietest you can get. So 
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683 




The soloists 

BEVERLY WOLFF, who has appeared regu- 
larly with the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
in recent seasons in Boston, New York, and 
at Tanglewood, began her musical career as 
first trumpet in the Atlanta Symphony. But 
it was not long before her vocal talents were 
discovered and she progressed successfully 
through the Berkshire Music Center and the 
Academy of Vocal Arts in Philadelphia. At 
Tanglewood she took part in the first per- 
formance of Leonard Bernstein's Trouble 
in Tahiti, and later sang the same role in the television premiere with 
the NBC Television Opera Company and made several appearances 
with the Philadelphia Orchestra. After a short period during which 
she devoted herself to her family, she resumed her singing career, and 
has appeared with all the major orchestras in the United States. In the 
autumn of 1963 she made her debut with the New York City Opera as 
Cherubino in Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro, and has sung regularly 
with that company ever since. One of the highlights of her appearances 
with the company has been Carmen, a role which she sang during the 
1965-66 season. Beverly Wolff's performances of music of the Baroque 
period are as distinguished as her singing of Mahler and Barber, and 
she is now recognized as one of the most talented singers of her 
generation. 

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684 




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JAMES PAPPOUTSAKIS was born in 

Cairo, Egypt, of Greek parents. He came to 

the United States as a boy, and was educated 

at the Boston Latin School and the New 

England Conservatory. He studied flute 

with Georges Laurent, former principal 

flute of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 

He joined the Boston Symphony in 1937 as 

assistant principal flute, and has also been 

principal flute of the Boston Pops since 

that time. He acted as principal when the 

Orchestra toured under Charles Munch to 

Japan and Australia, and was soloist with the Zimbler Sinfonietta on 

their tour to Central and South America. He played a Bach Concerto 

with the Orchestra at the Berkshire Festival in i960, and has played 

several concertos with the Boston Pops. 

James Pappoutsakis is a member of the Berkshire Woodwind Ensemble ! 
and of the faculties of the New England Conservatory, Boston Univer- | 
sity and the Longy School. During the last few years he has had eight 
Fulbright Scholarship winners among his students. His wife, a prize- 
winning graduate of the Paris Conservatory, was harpist with the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra under Serge Koussevitzky, and his brother 
is professor of music at the University of Vermont. His young daughter 
is at preparatory school and her current interests are art and drama. 



KEnmore 6-1952 




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cordially invites you to the charming Colony Room 
restaurant for pre-Symphony luncheon or a gracious 
after-Symphony dinner. 

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686 



dowcome all 
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****** 








ALFRED KRIPS, who was born in Berlin, 
Germany, studied the violin with Willy 
Hess, Concertmaster of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra from 1904 to 1907, and 
began his career as a member of the Berlin 
State Opera Orchestra where he played 
under many famous conductors, Bruno 
Walter, Wilhelm Furtwangler, Otto Klem- 
perer and Richard Strauss among them. 
During his years in Berlin he toured Europe 
as soloist with a chamber orchestra, and 
played chamber music with the distinguished pianist Edwin Fischer. 
In 1934 he came to the United States, auditioned for Serge Koussevitzky 
and was immediately appointed a member of the Boston Symphony. 
Twelve years later he became Assistant Concertmaster of the Boston 
Symphony and Concertmaster of the Boston Pops. As well as playing 
many solos with Pops, he has performed concertos by Mozart and Bach 
with the Boston Symphony under Charles Munch and Erich Leinsdorf. 

A man completely devoted to his art, Alfred Krips is one of Boston's 
most sought after teachers, and is on the faculties of the New England 
Conservatory and the Berkshire Music Center. He plays a violin made 
by G. B. Guadagnini at Parma in 1760. 



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689 




The members of the Orchestra 

JULIUS SCHULMAN will give a recital at 
the Kennedy Junior High School in Wal- 
tham on Friday evening January 12, as part 
of the Waltham Art Festival, when he will 
play a program of music by Paganini, 
Wieniawski, Bazzini and Sarasate. A New 
Yorker by birth, he started his violin studies 
with Jacques Malkin at the age of six. He 
attended the Curtis Institute, where his 
teacher was Efrem Zimbalist. After four 
years as a member of the Philadelphia Or- 
chestra he became assistant concertmaster of the Pittsburgh Symphony, 
and two years later concertmaster of the Symphony Orchestra of the 
Mutual Radio Network. While he held that position he played not 
only many concertos, but was active in the Network's sonata and 
chamber music series. In 1954 he moved to New Orleans as concert- 
master of the Orchestra there, returning two years later to New York 
to become concertmaster of the Little Orchestra Society under Thomas 
Scherman. He stayed in New York until he came to the Boston Sym- 
phony in i960. Two years ago he played one of the solo parts in the 
Vivaldi Concerto for Four Violins with Erich Leinsdorf and the 
Orchestra. 

Julius Schulman is an expert photographer and has a large collection 
of his own motion pictures and slides of the countries where he has 
travelled during his career, including India, Ceylon, Thailand, Japan 
and the Soviet Union. He does his own developing and enlarging. 
He owns a large trailer fitted with kitchen, shower and beds, and 
greatly enjoys trips to the mountains or the seacoast. 



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691 



'-i 



JOHN SANT AMBROGIO was born in 

Glen Ridge, New Jersey, and studied at 
Lebanon Valley College, Pennsylvania and 
at Ohio University. His cello teachers were 
Leonard Rose and Diran Alexanian, and he 
studied conducting with Arthur Christman. 
In 1952 he won the Piatigorsky Award at 
Tanglewood, where he was a member of the 
Berkshire Music Center. His orchestral 
career began when he joined the Harrisburg 
Symphony. From there he went to the 
Seventh Army Symphony where he was principal cello and soloist in 
France and Germany. He joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 

*959- 

John Sant Ambrogio plays with the Boston Sinfonietta and is a member 
of the Boston Trio. He has given many solo recitals, including one in 
the Carnegie Recital Hall in 1965. He has made solo appearances with 
the Boston Pops, the New Jersey Fine Arts Orchestra and several 
orchestras in the New England area. He teaches in Boston and is co- 
director of the Red Fox Music Camp in New Marlboro, Massachusetts. 




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692 






Exhibition 

The pictures currently on view in Symphony Hall are loaned from the 
Shore Galleries, which were founded in 1946 in Provincetown. Six 
years later the Galleries were moved to Boston. As well as specializing 
in American work of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the 
Shore Galleries act as agents for several contemporary artists in the 
New England area. 



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glass and accessories — displayed for 
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WGBH-FM goes 

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CONTRIBUTED BY 

GEO. H. ELLIS PRINTING COMPANY 







RV0T0 

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693 




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CONCERT POSTPONEMENTS 

There have been very few occasions in the history of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra when it has been necessary to postpone 
a concert because of inclement weather or a mishap like the 
power failure in November 1965. Today most of the Orches- 
tra's many subscribers and the players themselves live some 
distance from Symphony Hall, and travel many miles, usually 
by automobile, to the concerts. When there is a winter storm 
and the traveling becomes difficult, the switchboard at Sym- 
phony Hall is swamped with calls about the possibility of a 
postponement. 

To make it easier to discover what plans the Orchestra has 
made, several radio stations in the Boston area have kindly 
offered to broadcast any notice of a change in the concert 
schedule. 

If you are in any doubt about a concert's taking place, please 
tune to one of the following radio stations rather than call 
Symphony Hall. These stations will announce the Orchestra's 
plans as soon as a decision has been made. 

WBZ 1030 kc AM 

WCRB 1330 kc AM and 102.5 mc FM 

WEEI 590 kc AM and 103.3 mc FM 

WEZE 1260 kc AM 

WHDH 850 kc AM and 94.5 mc FM 

WRKO 680 kc AM and 98.5 mc FM 



694 



I 



®"COLUMBIA,fflMARCAS REG. PRINTED IN U.S.A. 




COLUMBIA RECORDSH 
PRESENTS THE FIRST 
DELUXE SET OF 
THE NINE MAHLER 
\SYMPHONIES 
BRILLIANTLY 
CONDUCTED BY 
LEONARD BERNSTEIN. 



Leonard Bernstein, the leading Mahler 
interpreter of our time, conducts 
The Nine Symphonies of Gustav Mahler 
in this elegant 14-LP limited edition. 
Included in the set are a fascinating 36-page 
book and a special bonus 12"record, 
"Gustav Mahler Remembered, " containing 
reminiscences of the composer by his 
daughter, Anna, and by colleagues. 




(A 14-record set in stereo only) 



695 



A selection of recordings by the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

under the direction of 
ERICH LEINSDORF 

MOZART 

Requiem Mass (Kennedy Memorial Service) LM/LSC 7030 

SCHOENBERG 

Gurre-Lieder excerpt (Chookasian) LM/LSC 2785 

with Menotti The Death of the Bishop of Brindisi 



SIBELIUS 

Violin Concerto (Perlman) 

with Prokofiev Violin Concerto no. 2 



LM/LSC 2962 



STRAUSS 

Ein Heldenleben 

Salome and The Egyptian Helen 

excerpts (Price) 



LM/LSC 2641 
LM/LSC 2849 



STRAVINSKY 

Agon 

with Schuller Klee Studies 

The Firebird Suite 

with Rimsky-Korsakov Le Coq d'Or Suite 

Violin Concerto (Silverstein) 
with Bartok Violin Concerto 



LM/LSC 2879 
LM/LSC 2725 
LM/LSC 2852 



TCHAIKOVSKY 

Piano Concerto no. 1 (Rubinstein) 

Piano Concerto no. 1 (Dichter) 



LM/LSC 2681 
LM/LSC 2954 



VERDI 

Requiem (Nillson, Chookasian, Bergonzi, 
Flagello, Chorus pro Musica) 



LM/LSC 7040 



WAGNER 

Lohengrin (Konya, Amara, Gorr, Dooley, 
Hines, Marsh, Chorus pro Musica) 



LM/LSC 6710 



Monaural records are prefixed LM; stereophonic LSC. 



The Boston Symphony Orchestra 
records exclusively for 

rca Victor & 

@ The most trusted name in sound ^li^ 



696 




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For information about space 
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THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY 

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Call Advertising Department 
Symphony Hall 

• 

CO 6-1492 
Donald T. Gammons 




"The Man Who 
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SHARON MEMORIAL PARK 

SHARON. MASSACHUSETTS 
Telephone Boston Area 364-2855 



697 



Subscribers' Exhibition 



The annual exhibition of paintings by Friends, subscribers 
and members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra will take 
place from January 12 to January 27. 

Paintings must be brought to Symphony Hall on Monday 
January 8 and Tuesday January 9. Application blanks 
may be obtained at the Friends' Office, or at the Box Office 
on the evenings of concerts. It is essential that applica- 
tions be submitted during the week before January 8. 




DISTILLED AND OOTTLEb IN SCOTLAND BLENDED 06 PROOF , , 
THE BUCKINGHAM CORPORATION. IMPORTERS; NEW YORK, N. V. 



698 



ENSEMBLES 

OF THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

presented by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
and the New England Conservatory of Music 

MONDAY EVENINGS AT JORDAN HALL 
FUTURE PROGRAMS 




January 8 at 8.30 

MUSIC GUILD STRING QUARTET 

MOZART Quartet in A major K. 464 

BARTOK Quartet no. 3 

BEETHOVEN Quartet no. 9 in C op. 59 no. 3 

February 5 at 8.30 

BOSTON SYMPHONY CHAMBER PLAYERS 

BALAKIREV Octet 

WEBERN Concerto op. 24 

DAHL Duo Concertante for flute and percussion 

MOZART Divertimento in E flat K. 563 



Members of the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and 
Friends of the New England Conservatory may secure a free ticket 
for a guest to accompany them. Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra should telephone Mrs Whittall at Symphony Hall (CO 
6-1492) for details. Friends of the New England Conservatory 
should get in touch with Miss Virginia Clay at the Jordan Hall Box 
Office (536-2412). 

Single tickets for each concert are available from the 
Jordan Hall Box Office, 30 Gainsborough Street. 
Boston 02115 (telephone 536-2412) 
Prices: $1.50, $2, $2.50, $3, $4, $5 



699 



THE BOSTON COMPANY, INC. 




The "Financial Cabinet" specializing in advisory 
and management services for private capital. 

INVESTMENT, TRUST AND 
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Boston Safe Deposit and Trust Company 

INVESTMENT COUNSELING 

Houston • The Boston Company of Texas 

Los Angeles • Bailey and Rhodes 

New York • Douglas T. Johnston & Co., Inc. 

San Francisco • Henderson-Boston Company, Inc. 

Seattle • Loomis & Kennedy, Inc. 

INVESTMENT TECHNOLOGY 
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The Boston Company, Inc. 

ECONOMIC COUNSELING 

Rinfret-Boston Associates, Inc., New York 

OIL AND GAS INVESTMENT COUNSELING 

The Boston Company of Texas, Houston 

REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT COUNSELING 

The Boston Company of California, Los Angeles 

MUTUAL FUND 

The Johnston Mutual Fund Inc. 

MANAGEMENT CONSULTING 

Boston • The Boston Consulting Group 
Milan • Gennaro Boston Associati, S.p.A. 
Barcelona • RASA Sociedad Internacional 
Tokyo • Adams-Boston Company, Limited 



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700 



FUTURE PROGRAMS 



Twelfth Program 

Friday afternoon January 5 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening January 6 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 

HAYDN Symphony no. 24 in D major 

PETRASSI Partita for orchestra 

MENDELSSOHN Symphony no. 3 in A minor 'Scottish' 

Two of the pieces to be played in next week's program will be given by 
the Orchestra for the first time. Haydn's Symphony no. 24 was com- 
posed in 1764, three years after he was engaged by the wealthy Prince 
Paul Anton Esterhazy. The slow movement is particularly beautiful, 
scored for solo flute and orchestra. The other work is Petrassi's Partita 
for orchestra, composed fairly early (1932) in this distinguished Italian 
composer's career. He was composer-in-residence to the Berkshire 
Music Center at Tanglewood in 1956, and his Fifth Concerto for 
orchestra was composed for the 75th anniversary of the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra, and first performed on December 2 1955- The final 
work on the program will be Mendelssohn's 'Scottish' Symphony, less 
familiar perhaps than the 'Italian', but equally beautiful. The com- 
poser dedicated it, incidentally, to Queen Victoria, whom he visited 
several times on his visits to London. 

The concert will end at about 3.45 on Friday 
and at about 10.15 on Saturday 



Thirteenth Program 

Friday afternoon January 12 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening January 13 at 8.30 

LEOPOLD STOKOWSKI guest conductor 
MOZART Overture - Don Giovanni 

BEETHOVEN Symphony no. 7 in A major 

TCHAIKOVSKY Hamlet - Fantasy Overture 
MUSSORGSKY Boris Godunov - orchestral excerpts 

programs subject to change 

BALDWIN PIANO 
RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



701 



MUSICAL INSTRUCTION 



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Teacher of Piano 

143 LONGWOOD AVENUE 

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ASpinwall 7-1259 — 734-2933 



MINNIE WOLK 

PIANOFORTE STUDIO 

42 Symphony Chambers 

246 Huntington Avenue, Boston 
opp. Symphony Hall 
Residence 395-6126 

KATE FRISKIN 

Pianist and Teacher 

8 CHAUNCY STREET 
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

ELiot 4-3891 



RUTH SHAPIRO 

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Telephone RE gent 4-3267 



702 




TICKET RESALE AND RESERVATION PLAN 

The Ticket Resale and Reservation Plan which has been in practice 
for the past four seasons has been most successful. The Trustees are 
grateful to those subscribers who have complied with it, and again 
wish to bring this plan to the attention of the Orchestra's subscribers 
and Friends. 

Subscribers who wish to release their seats for a specific concert are 
urged to do so as soon as convenient. They need only call Symphony 
Hall, CO 6-1492, and give their name and ticket location to the 
switchboard operator. Subscribers releasing their seats for resale will 
continue to receive written acknowledgment for income tax purposes. 
Since the Management has learned by experience how many returned 
tickets it may expect for concerts, those who wish to make requests 
for tickets may do so by telephoning Symphony Hall and asking for 
"Reservations." Requests will be filled in the order received and 
no reservations will be made when the caller cannot be assured of 
a seat. Tickets ordered under this plan may be purchased and picked 
up from the Box Office on the day of the concert two hours prior to 
the start of the program. Tickets not claimed a half-hour before 
concert time will be released. 

Last season the successful operation of the Ticket Resale and Reserva- 
tion Plan aided in reducing the Boston Symphony Orchestra's deficit 
by more than $22,000. 



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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Exquisite 
Sound 




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music of the harp has 
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Rameses II (1292-1225 B.C.) 
were richly decorated but 
lacked the fore-pillar. Later 
the "Kinner" developed by the 
Hebrews took the form as we 
know it today. The pedal harp 
was invented about 1720 by a 
Bavarian named Hochbrucker and 
through this ingenious device it be- 
came possible to play in eight major 
and five minor scales complete. Today 
the harp is an important and familiar 
instrument providing the "Exquisite 
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to modern orchestration and arrange- 
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EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 
CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA INC. 



HENRY B. CABOT 
TALCOTT M. BANKS 
JOHN L. THORNDIKE 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 



PHILIP K. ALLEN 
ABRAM BERKOWITZ 
THEODORE P. FERRIS 
ROBERT H. GARDINER 
FRANCIS W. HATCH 
ANDREW HEISKELL 
HAROLD D. HODGKINSON 



E. MORTON JENNINGS JR 
EDWARD M. KENNEDY 
HENRY A. LAUGHLIN 
EDWARD G. MURRAY 
JOHN T. NOONAN 
MRS JAMES H. PERKINS 
SIDNEY R. RABB 



RAYMOND S. WILKINS 

TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
PALFREY PERKINS LEWIS PERRY EDWARD A. TAFT 



THOMAS D. PERRY JR Manager 



NORMAN S. SHIRK 

Assistant Manager 

SANFORD R. SISTARE 

Press and Publicity 

ANDREW RAEBURN 

Program Editor 



JAMES J. BROSNAHAN 

Business Administrator 

HARRY J. KRAUT 

Assist ant to the Manager 

MARY H. SMITH 

Executive Assistant 



Copyright 1968 by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 



MASSACHUSETTS 

707 



The Boston Symphony 
under Leinsdorf 

The complexities of Mozart's" Jupiter" Sym- 
phony impose severe demands on both 
conductor and orchestra. Leinsdorf and the 
Boston Symphony respond with a virtuoso 
performance marked by discipline and 
polish. Recorded with it, the delightful "Eine 
Kleine Nachtmusik." Equally impressive, in 
the Romantic idiom, is their recording of 
Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto with 
Artur Rubinstein. Enjoy these fine perform- 
ances on RCA Victor Red Seal albums. 



Mozart ^ 

"Jupiter" Symphony " C * V,CI 
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik 
Boston Symphony Orchestrs 
Erich Leinsdorf 




rca Victor 

(«s>)The most trusted name in sound 





BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director 

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor 



FIRST VIOLINS 

Joseph Silverstein 
Concertmaster 

Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Roger Shermont 
Max Winder 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Leo Panasevich 
Noah Bielski 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Alfred Schneider 
Julius Schulman 
Gerald Gelbloom 
Raymond Sird 

SECOND VIOLINS 
Clarence Knudson 
William Marshall 
Michel Sasson 
Samuel Diamond 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Ayrton Pinto 
Amnon Levy 
Laszlo Nagy 
Michael Vitale 
Victor Manusevitch 
Toshiyuki Kikkawa* 
Max Hobart 
fohn Korman 
Christopher Kimber 
Spencer Larrison 

VIOLAS 

3urton Fine 
Reuben Green 
Eugen Lehner 
ferome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
\kio Akaboshi* 
Bernard Kadinoff 

incent Mauricci 
larl Hedberg 

oseph Pietropaolo 
lobert Barnes 
t'izhak Schotten 



CELLOS 

Jules Eskin 
Martin Hoherman 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Robert Ripley 
John Sant Ambrogio 
Luis Leguia 
Stephen Geber 
Carol Procter 
Jerome Patterson 
Ronald Feldman 



BASSES 

Henry Portnoi 
William Rhein 
Joseph Hearne 
Bela Wurtzler 
Leslie Martin 
John Salkowski 
John Barwicki 
Buell Neidlinger 
Robert Olson 

FLUTES 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

PICCOLO 

Lois Schaefer 

OBOES 

Ralph Gomberg 

John Holmes 
Hugh Matheny 

ENGLISH HORN 

Laurence Thorstenberg 

CLARINETS 

Gino Cioffi 

Pasquale Cardillo 
Peter Hadcock 

E\) Clarinet 

BASS CLARINET 
Felix Viscuglia 



BASSOONS 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Matthew Ruggiero 

CONTRA BASSOON 

Richard Plaster 

HORNS 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Thomas Newell 
Paul Keaney 
Ralph Pottle 

TRUMPETS 

Armando Ghitalla 
Roger Voisin 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

TROMBONES 

William Gibson 

Josef Orosz 
Kauko Kahila 

TUBA 

Chester Schmitz 

TIMPANI 
Everett Firth 

PERCUSSION 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Assistant Timpanist 
Thomas Gauger 

HARPS 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

LIBRARIANS 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 

STAGE MANAGER 
Alfred Robison 



VILLIAM MOYER Personnel Manager 



members of the Japan 
a one season exchange 



Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in 
with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen 



709 



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710 



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At the / 

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Concerts / 
this year, 




these Pianists . . 

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RITA BOUBOUUDI 
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THE FUND FOR THE BOSTON SYMPHONY 

Protect your financial future and Symphony's . . , 

There are four principal ways to protect your financial 
future through making a 'deferred gift' to the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra — bequest, life income agree- 
ment, annuity, and life insurance. 

Depending on individual circumstance, each repre- 
sents real advantages in present and future retained 
income, or reduced taxes, and the donor has the satis- 
faction of personally guaranteeing a specific gift to 
Symphony. 

In a bequest, the donor provides for Symphony in his 
will, either for a specific amount or a remainder inter- 
est. In a life income agreement, a donor gives capital 
to Symphony and in return receives income for life. 
In an annuity, the donor gives capital, and Symphony 
guarantees to the donor a fixed annual income for 
life. Life insurance also may be given, and if the donor 
continues to pay premiums, these also constitute 
charitable deductions for the donor. 

We suggest that donors discuss these alternate 
methods of giving with their lawyer or tax adviser. 
Any questions can be referred to Mr Harold D. 
Hodgkinson, chairman of Symphony's Deferred Giv- 
ing Program, or any member of the Board of Trustees. 



711 




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712 




Contents 



Program for January 5 and 6 1968 

Future programs 

Program notes 

Haydn - Symphony no. 96 in D major 
by John N. Burk 

Petrassi - Partita per orchestra 
by Andrew Raeburn 

Mendelssohn - Symphony no. 3 in A minor 

'Scottish' 

by John N. Burk 

Mendelssohn today 
by John N. Burk 

The members of the Orchestra 

A new record by the Orchestra 



715 

7 6 5 

716 

728 

742 

75& 
760 



713 



This is an executrix. Should you have one? 




They're not hard to come by. 

Do you have a sensible wife? A capable daughter? A smart sister? 

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and good grades in math to settle an estate properly. And when some- 
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getting along with relatives.) 

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individual. 

And we'll just bet that your sensible wife would be the first to agree. 

THE FIRST & OLD COLONY 

The First National Bank of Boston and Old Colony Trust Company 



714 



Twelfth Program 

Friday afternoon January 5 at 2 o'clock 
Saturday evening January 6 at 8.30 

ERICH LEINSDORF conductor 



HAYDN 



EIGHTY-SEVENTH SEASON 1967-1968 



Symphony no. 96 in D major 
'The Miracle' 

Adagio — allegro 

Andante 

Menuet and Trio: allegretto 

Vivace assai 



PETRASSI 



Partita per orchestra (1932) 

Gagliarda 

Ciaccona 

Giga 

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
NTERMISSION 



MENDELSSOHN Symphony no. 3 in A minor 'Scottish* 

op. 56 

Andante con moto — allegro un poco agitato 

Vivace non troppo 

Adagio 

Allegro vivacissimo — allegro maestoso assai 



The concert will end at about 3.50 on Friday 
ind at about 10.20 on Saturday 



JALDWIN PIANO 
HlCA VICTOR RECORDS 



715 



Program Notes 

FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN 

Symphony no. 96 in D major 'The Miracle' 
Program note by John N. Burk 

Haydn was born in Rohrau, Austria, on March 31 1732, and died in Vienna on 
May 31 1809. He composed the symphony in 1792, and the first performance took 
place at the Hanover Square Rooms, London, on March 11 1791. What may have 
been the first performance in Boston was given by the Harvard Musical Association 
orchestra, Carl Zerrahn conductor, on January 21 1869. Erich Leinsdorf conducted 
the first performances by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on November 16 and 17 
1962, the last occasion on which it was heard in this series. 

The number 96 would imply that this was the fourth of the London symphonies, 
the twelve which rounded out the total of 104. According to the assembled evidence 
of H. C. Robbins Landon, no. 96 was actually the first. The current and now 
generally accepted numbering of Haydn's symphonies is not always chronological, 
but is being carefully preserved in order that there may be no relapse into the state 
of confusion which existed for years, when they were variously numbered — and 
lettered — by various editors. Any chronology of the symphonies must depend upon 
the dates of first performances, since dates of composition are in many cases 
unobtainable. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani 
and strings. 

Twelve subscription concerts were given by Johann Peter Salomon in 
the Hanover Square Rooms on successive Fridays, from March 11 1791 
through June 3. Haydn, whom Salomon had brought to London at the 
beginning of the year, was the special guest and the main attraction. 
A 'new' symphony was announced and performed at each evening, 
always opening the second part which was the place of honor in the 
program. Haydn presided at the harpsichord* while Salomon, as 
'leader', was the concertmaster. Salomon had announced a new sym- 
phony by Haydn for each concert, having contracted for six. The 
assignment was met to the public's satisfaction, although only two 
actually new symphonies were then composed (nos. 96 and 95 in C 
minor). The 'new' symphonies presented each Friday were actually 
either new to London, or a repetition 'by particular desire' of one 
which had been played in the week before. The ninety-sixth was per- 
formed at four of the concerts, if not more. It was announced in the 
ninth week as 'the favorite overture'. Which symphonies were per- 
formed cannot always be known, since the printed announcements 
merely said: 'New Overture' or 'New Grand Overture', omitting any 
identification. No. 95 was performed at least twice. 

Haydn, having contracted with Salomon to visit London and appear 
in the performances of six symphonies, an opera, and numerous cham- 
ber pieces, arrived on New Year's Day of 1791. He had dreaded the 
crossing of strange waters to a strange land. On arriving he found that 
he was already a famous figure in London. His quartets, printed in 
Amsterdam, had long since been published by Brenner of London, and 
other works, most of them pirated, had become familiar. Salomon had 
done his part in planting anticipatory paragraphs in the papers. Haydn 
wrote to his tenderly regarded friend, Marianna von Genzinger in 
Vienna on January 8 1791: 

* This obsolescent custom was probably retained so that the public might behold the composer 
playing his own music. The scores of the later symphonies have no continuo part. 

716 



n y 




'. . . I did not feel the fatigue of the journey till I arrived in London 
but it took two days before I could recover from it. But now I am quiti 
fresh and well, and occupied in looking at this mighty and vast towi 
of London, its various beauties and marvels causing me the most pro 
found astonishment. . . . My arrival caused a great sensation througl 
the whole city, and I was sent the rounds of all the newspapers for threi 
successive days. Everyone seems anxious to know me. I have alread 1 
dined out six times, and could be invited every day if I chose; but | 
must in the first place consider my health, and in the next my work 
Except the nobility, I admit no visitors till two o'clock in the after 
noon, and at four o'clock I dine at home with Salomon. I have a neat 
comfortable lodging, but very dear. ... I was yesterday invited to i 
grand amateur concert, but as I arrived late, when I gave my ticket 
they would not let me in, but took me to an ante-room, where I wai 
obliged to remain till the piece which was then being given was over 
Then they opened the door, and I was conducted, leaning on the arrr 
of the director, up the center of the room to the front of the orchestn 
amid universal clapping of hands, stared at by everyone, and greetec 
by a number of English compliments. I was assured that such honour; 
had not been conferred on anyone for fifty years. . . . All this, my deai 
lady, was very flattering to me; still I wish I could fly for a time tc 
Vienna, to have more peace to work, for the noise in the streets, anc 
the cries of the common people selling their wares, is intolerable. I air 
still working at the symphonies, as the libretto of the opera is not yei 
decided on, but in order to be more quiet, I intend to engage an apart 
ment some little way out of town. . . My address is, Mr Haydn, i£ 
Great Pulteney Street, London.' 




M 71 '£ furniture 



BOSTON • NATICK • PEABODY . SPRINGFIELD • HARTFORD 




718 




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719 



Haydn had taken rooms on Great Pulteney Street to be conveniently 
close to his colleague and impressario Salomon, who dwelt in the same 
building. He found that Salomon's Friday concerts were to be vigor- 
ously opposed by a rival series in the same rooms on Monday — The 
Professional Concerts. Haydn was not too disturbed but rather put on 
his mettle when he encountered this not unusual London pastime of 
musical warfare. Ignaz Pleyel, the young pianist who was to be the 
rival star, was actually his pupil and friend. Haydn amiably agreed to 
appear at Pleyel's concerts and direct his own music. 

The opening of the Salomon concerts was several times postponed, the 
principal reason being that opera subscribers might be displeased if 
the newly arrived tenor, Giacomo David, should be heard in concert 
before the opening of the opera season. 

David duly sang at the first concert on March 11, and so did other 
singers (including Nancy Storace, who had sung Susanna for Mozart in 
Vienna), and numerous instrumental soloists. There was a furor over 
the Symphony, and the Andante was encored. The Morning Chronicle 
reported: 

'The First Concert under the auspices of HAYDN was last night, 
and never, perhaps, was there a richer musical treat. 

'It is not wonderful that to souls capable of being touched to music, 
HAYDN should be an object of homage, and even of idolatry; for like 
our own SHAKESPEARE, he moves and governs the passions at 
his will. 




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721 









'His New Grand Overture was pronounced by every scientific ear to 
be a most wonderful composition; but the first movement in particular 
rises in grandeur of subject, and in the rich variety of air and passion, 
beyond any even of his own productions. The Overture has four move- 
ments — An Allegro — Andante — Minuet — and Rondo — They are all 
beautiful, but the first is pre-eminent in every charm, and the Band 
performed it with admirable correctness. 

'We were happy to see the Concert so well attended the first Night; 
for we cannot suppress our very anxious hopes, that the first musical 
genius of the age may be induced, by our liberal welcome, to take up 
his residence in England.' 

The title 'Miracle' has been attached to this symphony, with no justi- 
fication unless a convenient tag may be an excuse. The legend was 
started by the Morning Chronicle, which, describing a much later con- 
cert on February 2 1795, reported: 'The last movement was encored, 
and notwithstanding an interruption by the accidental fall of one of 
the chandeliers, it was performed with no less effect.' 

A. K. Dies in his Biographische Nachrichten iiber Haydn (1810) elabo- 
rates on this: 



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722 



THE BOSTON SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA IS THE 
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723 



'When Haydn appeared in the orchestra and seated himself at the 
Pianoforte, to conduct a symphony personally, the curious audience in 
the parterre left their seats and pressed forward towards the orchestra, 
with a view to seeing Haydn better at close range. The seats in the 
middle of the parterre were therefore empty, and no sooner were they 
empty but a great chandelier plunged down, smashed, and threw the 
numerous company into great confusion. As soon as the first moment 
of shock was over, and those who had pressed forward realized the 
danger which they had so luckily escaped, and could find words to 
express the same, many persons showed their state of mind by shouting 
loudly: 'miracle! miracle!' Haydn himself was much moved, and 
thanked merciful Providence who had allowed it to happen that he 
[Haydn] could, to a certain extent, be the reason, or the machine, by 
which at least thirty persons' lives were saved. Only a few of the audi- 
ence received minor bruises.' 

The trouble with this story is that the Symphony which opened the 
concert on that date and caused the audience to 'press forward' was 
not no. 96, which was played in the second part, but the Symphony 
no. 102. Haydn, asked by Dies, remembered nothing of the incident. 
Perhaps the main interest in the story is the behavior of the audience, 
who crowded about the composer to stare at him while he was attempt- 
ing to conduct from the pianoforte. 



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The Adagio of this symphony, an introduction of sixteen measures, 
has a special grace of phrasing in the first violin part, which is to become 
characteristic of the whole symphony, exploiting the alternation of 
expressive dotted and slurred notes. The Allegro has a main subject 
extended in presentation and treated with adroit modulation, as a 
subsidiary subject grows from it. The Andante is in a 6/8 grazioso 
manner, with a violin subject elaborated by grace notes. The move- 
ment gains animation by the use of six triplets to a bar, two violin solos 
set against ripieno parts. There are light suspensive woodwind trills 
before the final cadence. There is a rather ceremonial Minuet and a 
light and contrasting trio with oboe solo. The final Vivace, again favor- 
ing the violins, has a supple, purling sort of theme like a perpetuum 
mobile, sparkling with much chromatic manipulation. There is a 
minor section that casts no shadow. The key transitions are Haydn's 
adroit fantasy at its best. He seldom spoke specifically about his music, 
but when he sent his first two London Symphonies to Frau von Gen- 
zinger in Vienna to be delivered to the Ritter Bernhard von Kees, in 
order that this wealthy patron might have them performed and add 
them to his collection, he urged special care for the Finale of this one, 
realizing that it would be ruined by heavy-handed treatment: 'Please 
tell Herr von Kees that I ask him respectfully to have a rehearsal of 
both these symphonies because they are very delicate, especially the last 
movement of that in D major, for which I recommend the swiftest 
piano and a very quick tempo.' 



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GOFFREDO PETRASSI 

Partita per orchestra 

Petrassi was born in Zagarola near Rome on July 16 1904. He composed the Partita 
in 1932, and the first performance took place in Rome on June 2 1933, with 
Bernardino Molinari conducting the Augusteo Orchestra. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and english horn, 2 clarinets 
and bass clarinet, soprano saxophone in B flat, contralto saxophone in E flat, 
2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, piano and strings. 

Goffredo Petrassi was born in the same year as his fellow countryman 
Luigi Dallapiccola; both men began composing rather late, both 
became known internationally at about the same time, and both have 
taught at the Berkshire Music Center. But there the parallels end. 
In a country which resisted the Viennese School until the end of the 
second World War, Dallapiccola was the pioneer of twelve tone com- 
position. Petrassi's music on the other hand has evolved from the 
diatonic basis of his early work through chromaticism, and only quite 
late to modified serial techniques. 

As a boy Petrassi was a chorister at the old school of San Salvatore in 
Lauro and in some of the churches in Rome, where he sang the music 
of the great polyphonic masters. During his adolescent years he worked 
as assistant in a music shop, but did not begin formal musical training 
until he was twenty-one, when he took lessons in harmony from 
di Donato. Soon afterwards he enrolled at the Conservatory of Santa 
Cecilia in Rome. He studied composition there with Bustini, and 
organ with Renzi and Germani. He completed his courses in 1932. 
Seven years later he became professor of composition at the Conserva- 
tory. He was president of the International Society of Contemporary 
Music for many years, for three years the artistic director of the 
Accademia Filarmonica Romana, and for some time superintendent of 
the Teatro La Fenice in Venice. 



728 




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The Boston Symphony commissioned Petrassi to write his Fifth Con- 
certo for Orchestra in celebration of the Orchestra's seventy-fifth 
anniversary, and the first performances were given in Symphony Hall 
on December 2 and 3 1955 with Charles Munch conducting. The 
following summer, when he returned to the United States as guest 
instructor of composition at the Berkshire Music Center, the Fifth 
Concerto was repeated, he himself conducted his Sonata da Camera, 
and there were also performances of Coro di Morti and part of his 
opera Morte Dell' Aria. 

Petrassi composes slowly — he has never undertaken more than one 
commission a year because he dislikes writing under pressure — but his 
published works include operas, ballet, orchestral music as well as 
chamber music, songs and solo pieces. 

The Partita, his earliest major work, won first prize in the competition 
organized by the Sindacato Nazionale dei Musicisti, and in the inter- 
national contest of the Federation Internationale des concerts in Paris. 
Guido Gatti has written: 'The work is a notable achievement on the 
part of a composer of twenty-seven: the unity of its style, the balance 
of its parts, the firmness of its structure and the assurance of its 
orchestral writing show a composer of exceptional gifts.' The three 
movements are written in the form of a traditional partita (or suite). 
All are in triple time, first the Gagliarda, marked 'mosso e energico'. 
There follows the slower Ciaccona, and the Partita ends with a lively 
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731 



FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY 

Symphony no. 3 in A minor 'Scottish' op. 56 
Program note by John N. Burk 

Mendelssohn was born in Berlin on February 3 1809, and died in Leipzig on 
November 4 1847. He finished the symphony on January 20 1842, and himself 
conducted the first performance at the Gewandhaus concerts in Leipzig on March 3 
of the same year. The first performance in this country was by the Philharmonic 
Society in New York, with George Loder conducting, on November 22 1845. 
G. J. Webb conducted the first performance in Boston at the Melodeon on 
November 14 1846, and the first performance in this series was on January 19 1883, 
with Georg Henschel conducting. Erich Leinsdorf conducted the most recent per- 
formances on October 2 and 3 1964. 

The score is inscribed as 'composed for and dedicated to Her Majesty Queen Victoria 
of England.' It was published in 1843. 

The instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
timpani and strings. 

In the spring of 1829, Felix Mendelssohn, promising pianist and 
composer of twenty, visited England, played with the Philharmonic 
Orchestra in London and conducted it, was entertained by delightful 
people, and enjoyed himself thoroughly. In July he undertook a tour 
of Scotland with his friend Carl Klingemann. The people and the 
landscape interested him. He wrote of the Highlanders with their 
'long, red beards, tartan plaids, bonnets and feathers, naked knees, and 
their bagpipes in their hands'. The moorlands intrigued him too, and 
when fogs and rains permitted, the insatiable tourist brought out his 
sketchbook and put it to good use. 



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He wrote home of the Hebrides and the Cave of Fingal — also of the 
Palace of Holyrood, then a picturesque ruin, in which Mary of Scotland 
had dwelt. 'In the evening twilight we went today to the palace where 
Queen Mary lived and loved; a little room is shown there with a wind- 
ing staircase leading up to the door; up this way they came and found 
Rizzio in that little room, pulled him out, and three rooms off there is 
a dark corner, where they murdered him. The chapel close to it is now 
roofless, grass and ivy grow there, and at that broken altar Mary was 
crowned Queen of Scotland. Everything around is broken and mould- 
ering, and the bright sky shines in. I believe I found today in that old 
chapel the beginning of my Scottish Symphony.' There follow sixteen 
measures which were to open the introduction of the first movement. 
These measures have also been attributed to the incident that, returning 
to the inn at Edinburgh, Mendelssohn there listened to a plaintive 
Scottish air sung by the landlord's daughter. 

In this way Mendelssohn carried out of Scotland two scraps of melody 
that were to be put to good use — this one and the opening measures of 
the TingaFs Cave' Overture. Smaller works for piano, and for voice, 
were also suggested by Scotland. 

It would be a mistake, of course, to look for anything like definite 
description in this score, or for that matter in any symphony of 
Mendelssohn. He did not even publish it with a specific title, although 
he so referred to it in his letters. There have been attempts to prove 




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the symphony Scottish in character. George Hogarth, who was beside! 
Mendelssohn as he attended the 'competition of Pipers' at Edinburgh, 
testified that 'he was greatly interested by the war tunes of the different 
clans, and the other specimens of the music of the country. ... In thisi 
symphony, though composed long afterwards, he embodied some of' 
his reminiscences of a period to which he always looked back with 1 , 
pleasure. The delightful manner in which he has reproduced some of; 
the most characteristic features of the national music — solemn, pathetic, 
gay, warlike — is familiar to every amateur.' 

The trouble with Mr Hogarth's statement is that most hearers, cer- 
tainly the German ones, have not followed him so far. An enthusiastic 
Britisher would tend to make much of such thematic resemblances; but, 
after all, a folkish tune in the British Isles or Germany can have much 
in common, and by the time Mendelssohn has in his own way developed 
through a dozen measures the quasi jig-like 6-8 of the first movement 
or the theme of the scherzo in which one can possibly discern 'national 
character', any truly Scottish jauntiness seems to have departed. Ger- 
man writers, in a day given to imaginative flights, went far afield from 
the Scottish scene. Ambrose was reminded by the 'violent conflicts' 
in the Finale (which someone else likened to the gathering of clans) of 
'a roaring lion with which we might fancy a young Paladin in knightly 
combat. . . . And then the airy, elfish gambols of the Scherzo — we 
cannot help it, we invent a whole fairy tale of our own to fit it, a tale 
of the genuine old German stamp, something like the Sleeping Beauty 
of the Woods, or Cinderella, or Schneewittchen.' 




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It is probably nearer the truth that the thoughts of the young German 
were swarming with musical images in the summer of 1829, images 
which took on a passing shape, a superficial trait or two from what he 
heard in a strange land. An indefatigable sight-seer, he must have found 
the raucous drones produced by brawny males in skirts less a matter 
for musical inspiration or suggestion than an exotic curiosity. It took 
an islander such as Chorley to find and stress characteristic Scottish 
intervals in the Scherzo of the Symphony. Mendelssohn, who took 
pleasure in affixing a picturesque name to a symphony, particularly in 
the light chatter of his letters, probably had no serious descriptive 
intentions. He hated 'to explain' his music, so it is reported, and 
would turn off the elaborate word pictures of others with a joke. When 
Schubring went into a transport of fantasy over the 'Meeresstille' 
Overture, its composer answered that his own mental picture was an 
old man sitting in the stern of the boat and helping matters by blowing 
into the sail. 'Notes', wrote Mendelssohn in a letter from Italy, 'have 
as definite a meaning as words, perhaps even a more definite one.' But 
that meaning, precluding words, would also preclude anything so 
concrete as a particular landscape or nation. 

In the winter of 1830^31, while he was enjoying himself in Rome 
and Naples, themes which had occurred to him on the earlier journey 
had grown into rounded and extended form. The Fingal's Cave Over- 
ture then occupied him, and two symphonies 'which', he wrote, 'are 
rattling around in my head.' But the Italian Symphony took prece- 
dence over the other, and even when that was in a fairly perfected 





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condition, the Scottish Symphony seemed to elude him. He had good 
intentions of presently 'taking hold' of it, but the Italian sunshine 
scattered his thoughts. 'Who can wonder that I find it difficult to 
return to my misty Scotch mood?' The 'schottische Nebelstimmung' 
was to bear fruit in the by no means uncheerful minor cast of the music. 
Another score, the Reformation Symphony, also in an unfinished 
state, was in his portmanteau at this time. This, with his earlier C 
minor Symphony and the later 'Lobgesang', were to be his principal 
works in this form. 

He carried the Italian, Scottish, and Reformation symphonies about 
with him for years, endlessly reconsidering, polishing, touching up, 
before he was ready to take the irrevocable step of publication. Had 
the symphonies been numbered in the order of their composition, they 
would have been as follows: first, the C minor (1824), second the 
Reformation (1830-32), third the Italian (1833), fourth the Song of 
Praise (1840), and last the Scottish (1842). But the Italian and Refor- 
mation symphonies were withheld from publication until after his 
death, and thus attained the numbering Fourth and Fifth. By this 
circumstance the 'Lobgesang' was published second in order, the 
Scottish third, and they were so numbered. 



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Mendelssohn today 
by John N. Burk 

If the denial of Mendelssohn's music by the late German Reich made 
no sense, the vaunting of him since as a vindication of Jewish culture 
is hardly more applicable, except in the light of a natural reaction. 
When Heinrich Edward Jacob* in a recent book dwells on that 
momentary aberration of a German regime that was, we remain con- 
fident that Mendelssohn's music will continue to enchant when the 
racial pros and cons which some have tried to connect with it are quite 
forgotten. So with Wagner and his unfortunate polemics. Tristan and 
Die Meistersinger will surely continue to enchant multitudes when 
Judaism in Music will have been long since forgotten. Those who have 
read that piece of warped theory wish that he had not written it. Let 
us not, like Mr Jacob, advise a bonfire. 

If Mendelssohn's music is racial at all it is broadly so as an efflores- 
cence of German culture in the last century — the culture of Goethe 
and Schiller. After reading Schiller's Wilhelm Tell in Switzerland in 
1831, Mendelssohn wrote to his family: 'There is surely no art like 
our German one! Heaven knows why it is so.' And to Goethe, on his 
birthday, five days later: 'I want to tell you how much I have appre- 
ciated, on this particular day, living in these times, and being born a 
German.' 

Mendelssohn gives the impression of having lived a life of delightful 
experiences in that 'calm sea and prosperous voyage' which was his 
well-protected life. The music which came from him seldom bore any 
close resemblance to its supposed origins. When he encountered sights 
and sounds, poets and literature, peoples at worship, he was stimulated 
to compose, but the music was his own, a fortunate result of tonal stim- 
ulation, not an adoption of basic character in his subject. He enjoyed 
Scotland and Italy, he loved Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream 
and Goethe's Faust, the drama of ancient Greece, but his scores were 
always Mendelssohn bearing external labels. Music of the church drew 
his sympathetic response, but not as an act of faith. He listened avidly 
to the Roman services at St Peter's, he studied Lutheran chorales and 
set many of them, moved by his never ceasing admiration for the music 
of Bach. He never composed in the idiom of the synagogue, no doubt 
because the music as music had not sufficient appeal for him. He loved 
all cultures, Christian, Jewish, Classicist, a love he inherited from his 
family, his sisters and brother, his parents, his grandfather Moses, all 
of whom were broadly intellectual and unorthodox. He never ques- 
tioned or bothered to mention the fact that his father Abraham had 
had him baptized as a small boy. He could absorb himself as keenly 
in the New Testament as the Old, in the story of Paul of Tarsus, the 
Christian convert, as in the story of the Hebrew prophet Elijah — both 
as material for musical treatment rather than as spiritual leaders to 
be taken deeply to heart. 



* Felix Mendelssohn and His Time, translated by Richard and Clara Winston (Barrie and 
Rockliff, London). A still more recent book is Mendelssohn, A New Image of the Composer 
and his Age, by Eric Werner (Macmillan, London). It is by far the most informative book 
on this composer in the English language. 

742 



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If Mendelssohn ever openly discussed the problem of Anti-Semitism, 
which was a real issue in Germany in his time, the record fails to show 
it. To dwell upon a distressing subject would have been a lapse from 
the undeviating cultivation of beautiful thoughts, the persistent 
warmth and cheer of his letters. Perhaps his calm obliviousness was 
the part of wisdom, an example for that day when, as Schiller foretold, 
'Alle Menschen werden Bruder' , when ignorant prejudice and defen- 
sive racial consciousness are alike forgotten. 

Mendelssohn's magnanimity toward all religious sects, his open accept- 
ance of all enlightened thought were quite at one with the keen 
intelligence of his whole family. The family was as congenial and as 
free from occasional inner friction as could be expected among such 
strong wills and close consanguinity. Their character bore the stamp 
of the example of Moses Mendelssohn, Felix's grandfather, who died 
twenty-three years before Felix was born, but who lived on as an 
undimmed memory, a model of intelligence. Moses was always poor. 
He was deformed, a hunchback. His writings bespeak a brilliant 
thinker, but, more important, a humanist of universal understanding. 
He was a pupil of Leibnitz and still closer to Lessing, who made him 
the central subject of his play, Nathan the Wise. A single anecdote 
will point the place of Moses in the practical philosophy of his descend- 
ants. It is related by Sebastian Hensel, the son of Fanny Mendelssohn's 
painter-husband. 



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