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Full text of "Boston Symphony Orchestra concert programs, Season 79, 1959-1960, Trip"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Symphony Orchestra, National Endowment for the Humanities 



http://archive.org/details/bostonsymphonytr5960bost 



New York Programs 





BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959-1960 
Carnegie Hall, New York 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardilla 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 

Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burk at Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 



Next Saturday at 8:30 over WQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
memorable performance. And every day, 
early morning to late at night, treat 
yourself to wonderful listening from 
America's Number One Good Music 
Station, WQXR, 1560 AM, 96.3 FM, the 
radio station of The New York Times. 




[2] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 

Seventy-Fourth Season in New York 

First Evening Concert 

WEDNESDAY, November 18, at 8:30 o'clock 



Program 

Amirov Kyurdi-Ovshari Mugami 

Bohuslav Martinu "The Parables" 

(December 8, 1890 — August 28, 1959) 

I. The Parable of a Sculpture 
II. The Parable of a Garden 
III. The Parable of a Labyrinth 

INTERMISSION 

Kabalevsky Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Op. 49 

I. Allegro 

II. Largo: Molto espressivo 
III. Allegretto 

(Conducted by the composer) 

Khrennikov Symphony No. 1, Op. 4 

I. Allegro non troppo 
II. Adagio 
III. Allegro molto 



SOLOIST 

SAMUEL MAYES 



BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[3] 



RUSSIAN GUESTS 



The Boston Symphony Orchestra wel- 
comes at its concerts six visitors from 
Soviet Russia. They have been present 
at the concerts of three other orchestras 
in the United States as part of the Inter- 
national Education Exchange Service. 
The visit is the result of the United 
States-Soviet Exchange agreement of 
January 27, 1958. The visit is reciprocal 
and follows the journey last season to 
Russia of the four American composers, 
Roger Sessions, Ulysses Kay, Roy Harris 
and Peter Mennin. 

The schedule has included concerts 
by the Soviet delegation in which their 
music was played by the National Sym- 
phony of Washington (October 24), the 
Louisville Orchestra (November 4) and 
the Philadelphia Orchestra (November 



6-7). When the Boston Symphony Or- 
chestra opens its New York season on 
November 18, their same music will be 
performed. 

Although the music of Kabalevsky is 
familiar to Boston audiences, music by 
Khrennikov and Amirov is being heard 
for the first time. Dmitri Shostakovich, 
who is in the group, and whose music 
was played in the other cities, is remem- 
bered in Boston by performances of six 
of his eleven symphonies. Konstantin 
Dankevich, a native of the Ukraine, is 
particularly esteemed by his own coun- 
trymen for his orchestral works and his 
operas. Boris Yarustovsky is a professor 
at the Moscow State Conservatory and a 
writer on musical subjects. 



KYURDI-OVSHARI MUGAMI 

By FlKRET DZHAMIL AMIROV 
Born in Gandja (now Kirovabad), Azerbaidjan, November 22, 1922 



Composed in 1948, Kyurdi-Ovshari had its first American performance in Houston, 
Texas, by the Houston Symphony Society on March 16, 1955. 

This music is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 2 clarinets 
and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, 
military drum, triangle, tambourine, cymbals, bass drum, bells and strings. 

>TpHis composer, who has devoted himself intensively to the musical 
-*- folklore of his people, has written two suites under the title 
Mugami. One is called Shoor and the other Kyurdi-Ovshari, now to be 
performed. Mugam signifies a dance or song, current among Amirov's 
people (the plural is mugami or mugamat). Kyurdi means Kurdish 
and Ovshari refers to the Kurdish tribe. 

The suite is a succession of short dances or orchestrated melodies, 
played without break, all of them strongly rhythmic, some of them 
varied in development. The solo voices are usually the clarinet or the 
oboe; the orchestration is brilliant and often pointed by the piccolo. 
A rhythmic accompaniment in the quieter parts tends to utilize the 
timpani or the plucked strings. The writer of the program notes for 
the Houston Symphony Society consulted fellow countrymen of Amirov 
then in Texas and reported about the movements named in the score: 
Tesnif probably means a song. Shakhanaz may mean comedian. The 

[4] 



melody which is heard at the beginning of the last piece in the suite, 
Mani, was recognized by a native of the region now living in Houston 
as a song of that name he had known in his youth. 

Azerbaidjan, S.S.R., so the program annotator of the Houston Sym- 
phony Society has pointed out, "is a province on the southwestern 
shore of the Caspian Sea, facing Daghestan and Georgia on the north, 
Armenia on the west, and Iranian Azerbaidjan on the south. The 
people of the region have, until recently, been nomadic; and while 
their language, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica, is basically 
Turkish, it is well mixed with Persian and Armenian as well as other 
Middle Eastern tongues and dialects. The province itself was one of 
the first Soviet States. Since about 1930, the official language has been 
Russian and native terms and names of places have been transliterated 
in the Russian alphabet." 

[copyrighted] 



-Q^ 



The New England Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

James Aliferis, President 



BACHELOR AND MASTER OF MUSIC 

In All Fields 

ARTIST'S DIPLOMA 

In Applied Music 



Performing Organizations 

SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA • CHAMBER ORCHESTRA 

SYMPHONIC WIND ENSEMBLE • OPERA 

ORATORIO CHORUS • A CAPPELLA CHOIR 

CHAMBER SINGERS 



Member, New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 

Charter Member, National Association of Schools of Music 

For information regarding admission and scholarships, write to the Dean. 

290 HUNTINGTON AVENUE BOSTON 15, MASSACHUSETTS 



[5] 



AMIROV AND THE CAUCASUS 



The following description of Amirov's national origins and of the suite performed 
at these concerts is quoted from the recording of the music under the label of 
Urania and is signed "C. E. C." 

T~Mkret Amirov is an heir to one of the richest and most unusually 
-*■ wrought musical traditions in the world. His native land, Azerbaid- 
jan, forms an historic link between European conventions and the great, 
fluctuating modes of Central Asia. It has long been famous for its 
singers and musicians, the Ashugs and Sazandars. Since the sixteenth 
century these minstrels have preserved the epics of Azerbaidjan folklore 
with wondrous skill, despite the lack of written means. In contact with 
the West, their music has been ripened for scholastic treatment, the 
results of which are visible in the works of Amirov and his fellow 
composers. 

This step required immense preparation, and for reference we must 
go back a generation to the work of a most neglected musical figure, 
Uzeir Gadzhibekov. Born in 1885 among the foothills of the Caucasus, 
Gadzhibekov had little training through which to become the "father 
of Azerbaidjan music." His early years were spent traveling through 
the forests and deserts of his country, noting every variety of folk 
melody he could find. The idea of composing a large piece using 
these "mugams" inspired him, and by 1907 he had amassed enough in 
European notation to begin an opera based on the notorious saga of 
"Leili and Medzhnun — Leili and the Madman." Here Gadzhibekov 
encountered an extremely difficult and baffling aspect of the Azerbaid- 
jan oral tradition — the aversion of its musicians to perform simultane- 
ously, thus to create any kind of ensemble. More than any Oriental, 
these players understood music as a purely individual exhibition of 
talent. To overcome this, Gadzhibekov started by allowing the soloist 
to improvise on whatever mugam he selected as most appropriate for 
the dramatic moment. For accompaniment he provided a kemancha, 
a sort of vertical violin, also improvising, and a tambourine for rhythmic 
effect. Working all the while from two meagre textbooks that he had 
found in 1905, Gadzhibekov staged this remarkable drama, with unison 
chorus added, in Baku during 1908. With great success the first 
Azerbaidjan opera was born. 

When his country was annexed to the U.S.S.R., Gadzhibekov had 
already enlisted the most prominent musicians to its capital for train- 
ing. Through the formality of being confirmed director of the Baku 
School of Music in 1922, the year of Amirov's birth, he was able to 
organize a section for the study of national music. His pupils were 
instructed in the Russo-European manner, and soon possessed a splen- 

[6] 



did written repertoire. The Baku State Conservatory, of which Gadz- 
hibekov was president and founder, acquired more than a thousand 
students by 1939. Meanwhile the composer was enabled to pursue 
extensive research — on the Origins of Azerbaidjan Music, and for 
several books on the complicated "mugamat" (pi.) tradition — pioneer- 
ing work that was ended by his death in 1948, at the age of sixty-three. 

Critics have rightly said that the history of Gadzhibekov's artistic life 
is essentially the history of Azerbaidjan music. The rich inspiration of 
that life is attested by the music of his younger countryman found in 
this work. Such a symphonic style might yet have been years in coming 
were it not for his monumental research and guidance. In Amirov's 
music, on the other hand, we can still detect the freshness of the 
unwritten forms so recently transcended. The masterly and exotic 
orchestration of these mugams does not fully conceal their original, 
untamed character. When Gerald Abraham observes that "folk-song 
is a complete entity, not a mere cell; nor, without vandalism, can it 
[be] decomposed into constituent parts, w 7 ith these treated as germ cells" 
— he points to a problem w r hich, specifically in the mugam, confronts 
Amirov, especially since every factor but development is here beauti- 
fully finished and articulate. 

The mugam acquires its name from the Islamic "maqam" meaning 
originally a stage upon which the caliph's entertainers performed. 
This ancient term is related to the Indian "raga": a pattern of melody 
based on one of the modal scales. In Azerbaidjan, the mugam has also 
acquired the meaning of a "tone," though like the Greek "mode" it has 
come to signify not only the scale using this note as its tonic, but also 
dance or aria forms improvised upon that scale. Like the familiar 
modes, the mugams are assigned names according to the pitch where 
they begin. For what it's worth, they are: 1. Rast; 2. Seiga; 3. Shoor; 
4. Tchargya; 5. Bayat-Isphagan; 6. Shooshtar; 7. Hodmayun; 8. 
Za'abil — eight in all, reminiscent of the eight variable diatonic scales 
of the octave. "Rast," for example, is built on a major tetrachord, and 



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[7] 



is. found in other nations of Central Asia, even in the older Islamic 
maqam by the same title. "Shoor" includes a minor tetrachord, and 
"Siega" a diminished second; the greater part of Azerbaidjan songs are 
built on these two mugams. They are described by Rena Moisenko as 
"veritable rhapsodies, astounding the listener not only by their wealth 
of melodic material and striking tonality, but also by their most metic- 
ulous rhythmic development. Taken collectively, the mugamat are 
musical . . . cycles, held together by a common poetic thought." 

In the Caucasian Dances [Kyurdi-Ovshari] we find this idea of 
unity within latitude of ideas clearly exemplified. Amirov's music is 
basically a series of variations on a theme; but as the theme or mugam 
is difficult to vary, it must often be replaced before its possibilities are 
used up to maintain a high level of episodic contrast. The opening 
theme is stated by the clarinet over an unobtrusively rhythmic back- 
ground of muted trumpets. As it is passed over to the violins, we 
cannot help noting that Amirov prefers a nineteenth-century harmonic 
structure to anything modern. Orchestral tutti punctuate this opening 
section, which closes with a modal finale, brief but full, on the main 
subject. A transition passage by the flute characterizes generally the 
excellent use of wood winds by Amirov. A number of brief scalewise 
motivs, following variations on a new theme in the violins and timpani, 
introduce an unexpected entry of the piano reminiscent of Khacha- 
turian in its heavy, chordal effects. The variations now become more 
dancelike and exotic, with magnificent orchestration in every part. 
The final coda begins, marchlike, over a drumbeat, and is crowned 
by a fortissimo of the principal mugam in the trombones against a 
breathtakingly high trill of strings and snare drum — altogether one 
of the most exciting finishes to be found in symphonic music. 

[copyrighted] 



TOWN HALL, NEW YORK 

TWILIGHT HOUR RECITAL 

Sunday, November 22, at 5:30 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer and Jesus Maria Sanroma 

Flute Piano 

Program (works for flute and piano): Hindemith, Sonata (1936); 
Schubert, Variations on Ihr Bliimlein alle, Op. 160; Bach, Sonata 
in E minor; Prokofteff, Sonata, Op. 94. 



[8] 



THE PARABLES 
By Bohuslav Martinu 

Born in Policka, East Bohemia, December 8, 1890; 
died in Liestal, Switzerland, August 28, 1959 



The score, according to a notation on the manuscript, was completed at Schonen- 
berg Pratteln, February 9, 1958. The first movement bears the date, Rome, July 1, 
1957; and the second movement, Rome, July 21, 1957. The work had its first per- 
formance by this Orchestra February 13, 1959. 

The following orchestra is required: 3 flutes, 3 clarinets, 3 oboes, 3 bassoons and 
contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum and 
cymbals, triangle, small drum, military and snare drums, tam-tam, xylophone, harp, 
and strings. 

The Parables are dedicated to Charles Munch. 

The "Parables" consist of a paragraph at the head of each movement, 
evidently intended as a sort of motto. The first two are taken 
from the posthumous work by Antoine de Saint-Exupery, Citadelle: 
the parable of a sculpture and the parable of a garden. The third is 
the parable of a labyrinth, and is taken from Le Voyage de Thesee 
by Georges Neveux (Neveux is the French playwright from whose 
play, Juliette, Martinu found the text for his opera of that name). 

The Parable of a Sculpture 

And the sculptor fixed the likeness of a face in clay. And you walked by and 
passed before his work and you glanced at the face and then walked on your way. 
And then it happened that you were not quite the same. Slightly changed, but 
changed, turned and inclined in a new direction, only for a while perhaps, but still 
for a while. 

A man thus experienced an indefinable impulse: he lightly fingered the clay. 
He placed it in your path. And you were caught with this same indefinable impulse. 
And it would not be otherwise if a hundred thousand years had intervened between 
his gesture and your passing. 

The Parable of a Garden 

And when I am in the garden, which with its fragrance is my own domain, I sit 
on a bench. I contemplate. The leaves are falling and the flowers fading. I sense 
both death and new life. But no oppression. I am all vigilance, as on the high sea. 
Not patience, for there is no question of an end but the pleasure of change. We go, 
my garden and I, from the flower to the fruit. But then on to the seed. And from 
the seed toward the flowering of the year to follow. 

The Parable of a Labyrinth 
Theseus: Who are you? 

The Man: The town crier. It is I who announce marriages and deaths. You are 
already in the labyrinth. 
Theseus: Who are you? 
Young Girl: I am called Ariadne. What are you called? 



Behold Theseus, the man who had to vanquish the Minotaur. Behold him van- 
quished by a woman. 

[copyrighted] 

[91 



THE "COSMOPOLITAN" MARTINU 



Martinu has often been called a "cosmopolitan" artist. Certainly 
circumstances have tended to make him one. Born in a small 
rural community near the borders of historical Moravia, he went to 
Prague to complete his musical studies at the Conservatory. There he 
came into contact with the music of the world at large. Debussyan 
impressionism in particular drew him to Paris, which he made his 
home from 1923. When the War descended, he found his way, under 
difficulty, to America, where he has lived until his recent return to 
Europe. He has therefore made his home and established close asso- 
ciations in three parts of the world. 

If the considerable amount of music he has written in each country 
were a direct reflection of his surroundings (this, of course, never 
happens), he would indeed be a cosmopolitan artist. Czech writers 
have recognized his music as fundamentally in their racial tradition; 
Parisians have pointed out his distinctly French taste; critics here have 
looked for a sense of "liberation" in his music in America since 1941. 
If there is at least a small amount of truth in each claim, it is certainly 
true that his growth was cumulative rather than transitional. His early 
ballets, such as Spalicek, and his songs as recently as 1943, are thoroughly 
in the style of Czech musical folklore. His sense of form and color, the 
immaculate detail which is basic in his music, have helped him to find 
congenial companionship in France, and remained a part of his style 
when, in the United States, he was induced to diversify his art and to 
expand into the larger orchestral forms. Meanwhile he always kept 
his fondness for chamber combinations, particularly the combination 
of a small orchestra with a solo part or a concertante group. He never 
forfeited his earlier loves, his passion for every aspect of the stage, 
expressed in many ballets and operas, and if he has not set English 
opera texts to match his Czech and French ones, the reason has been 
partly circumstance, partly his only recent familiarity with the English 
language. 

When a Central European critic, Andreas Liess, labelled him as "a 
neo-classicist of the purest water" he failed to make a point, partly 
because a neo-classicist of "reinste Wasser" does not really exist, but 
mostly because Martinu would have been one of the last to be pinned 
with such a tag. His explorations in formal structure, harmonic color, 
counterpoint, free fantasy, were too diverse, too individual and too 
much a part of his own musical nature to be tied up with any past. 
His study of the music of former periods, the early contrapuntists in 
particular, became, like the "influence" of Debussy or Stravinsky, a 
natural part of his musical growth. He once described the principal 
functions of the composer at work as "selection" and "organization," 
[10] 



and although he may have intended "selection" in the more personal 
and self-sufficient sense of actual composition, it still applies to any 
composer's awareness of the music (new and old) which surrounds him 
and becomes, even for an "original," his point of departure. Since 
selection means personal taste, it applies to the absorption involved 
in a congenial style as well as to its personal application. Martinu, 
in justifying his first large scale orchestral work, the First Symphony, 
asserted his "deepest convictions" in "the essential nobility of thoughts 
and things which are quite simple and which, not explained in high- 
sounding words and abstruse phrases, still hold an ethical and human 
significance." He could not "espouse sentiments of grandeur and 
tragedy" which were the legitimate expression of such a day as that 
of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, but which in our time would mean 
"falsification." This is the statement of a modest man and a moderate 
artist — an artist, too, of genuine self-realization. Selection and organi- 
zation were his guides in putting upon paper music which was a deep 
and unfailing impulse of his nature. 

Martinu has never been an imitator. He began making music even 
as a boy, before he had learned how. He learned by dwelling in tones 
and not by listening to rules, nor did schooling much help him. Com- 
posing was through his adult years a continuous necessity. He wrote 
a large number of works not because commissions came reachly while 
he was being pressed for a bare livelihood, but because he could not be 
content in a state of musical inanition. When for almost a year he was 
a fugitive in unoccupied France, homeless and more often than not 
penniless, he still wrote a succession of scores, through every discomfort. 

It is usually footless to probe into the wherefores of a composer, yet 
Ernest Ansermet caught something of the essential Martinu when he 
wrote in the program notes of his Orchestre de la Suisse Romande 
(November 22, 1943): 

"His music is less than most enveloped by esthetic preventions in 
that it is based on spirit and truth. What is striking with Martinu is 
the fact that it is impossible to characterize in one word, as it may be 
in the case of other composers, his melody, which does not represent 
anything out of the ordinary, his harmony, whose tonal conduct is 
courageous and complicated but which follows the consecrated path, 
or his procedure of style. There is, however, one factor which imposes 
itself, namely the expressive character of his work, which thus is in 
agreement with the most constant tradition of our art and which 
Martinu attains through media of his very own. There are only a 
few composers who have realized their 'mot d'ordre' as return to pure 
music, in so fortunate a manner as his, namely that his composition 
is fully contained in the musical substance in which he is working 
and in which he finds a medium enabling him to give his music an 
ardent life of sentiment without resorting to the rhetoric brought 
about by romanticism, which can become fatally conventional." 



CONCERTO FOR VIOLONCELLO AND ORCHESTRA, Op. 49 

By Dmitri Kabalevsky 
Born in St. Petersburg, December 30, 1904 



This concerto was composed in 1948. The first performance in this country was 
by the Hartford Symphony Orchestra, Fritz Mahler, conductor, October 28, 1953, 
when Samuel Mayes was the soloist. Mr. Mayes was likewise the soloist when the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra introduced this concerto in Boston on October 30, 1953, 
and repeated it in Providence, Newark, New York, Washington, Cambridge and 
Philadelphia. 

The accompaniment is scored for flute, oboe, 2 clarinets, bassoon, 2 horns, trumpet, 
trombone, timpani, side drum, bass drum, cymbals, and strings. 

The concerto is dedicated "To Soviet Youth." 

npHE first movement is based upon a solo melody first played over 
■** the strings pizzicato. This section in 6/8 is followed by another, 
also melodic, in 9/8. The thematic material of the first section returns 
twice, finally closing the movement. The slow movement is based upon 
a duet between the cello and the bassoon over syncopated string chords, 
other wind instruments entering. There is a cadenza before the close. 
The final allegretto is a dance-like movement with a second melodic 
theme. The treatment achieves considerable brilliance and is inter- 
rupted before the close by a short cadenza. I. Ryzhkin, in an article 
entitled "Dedicated to Soviet Youth" in Sovietskaya Musica (July, 
1949), which Nicolas Slonimsky has translated for these notes, says the 
cello concerto is the second of a planned cycle of three "which will 
represent a manifold revelation of the ideas of our Soviet youth. The 
violin concerto corresponds to the first part of this cycle, like a sym- 
phonic allegro." The writer considers the violin concerto appropriate 
to this purpose on account of its prevailing fast tempi and optimistic 
mood. "The second part of the cycle, w r hich corresponds to a symphonic 
andante, is represented by the Cello Concerto. The third part, a piano 
concerto, will be the finale. 

"The Cello Concerto reflects a mood of meditation, passing into sad- 
ness. These emotions are revealed particularly in the middle movement, 
in slow tempo, w T hich is the emotional and formative core of the entire 
work. It may be performed separately as music of mourning." 

Kabalevsky is a professor at the Moscow Conservatory and heads 
the music section of the Institute of the History of Arts in the Soviet 
Academy of Sciences. He is also Secretary of the Union of Soviet 
Composers. The texts which he has set are almost exclusively on 
patriotic subjects. He made a visit to the Western world when he gave 
concerts in England in 1949. 

According to a communication from the Society for Cultural Rela- 
tions in the U.S.S.R.: 

[12] 



"The most profound influences to which Kabalevsky was subjected 
and which determined his artistic formation were those of Mussorgsky, 
Borodin, Tchaikovsky and, partly, Scriabin. A close relation to folk- 
song already manifested itself in his early works — the string Quartet 
and the first Concerto for pianoforte — where he developed themes of 
popular songs recorded by himself. In the ballet 'The Golden Spikes' 
the affinity with national Belorussian folklore is clearly discernible, 
while the suite 'People's Avengers,' written at the south-western front, 
shows the influence of Ukrainian popular music." 



Dmitri Kabalevsky comes of a family of working intelligentsia. In 
1919 he entered a music school in Moscow known as the Alexander 
Scriabin State College of Music, in which he studied with Georgi 
Catoire and came under the temporary influence of Scriabin's style. 
He entered the Moscow Conservatory in 1925 and there studied com- 
position with Nicolai Miaskovsky and piano with Alexander Golden- 
weiser, graduating in 1930. 

The following information about his compositions is quoted from 
a biography published in Soviet Composers, Laureates of the Stalin 
Prize (Moscow, 1952): 

" Kabalevsky 's works include the following: three symphonies, of 
which the Third, written in 1933, is subtitled Requiem, in Lenin's 
memory, with a choral part to the words of Aseev; The Poem of 
Struggle for symphony orchestra with chorus to the text by Zharov 
(1930); cantata Great Fatherland (1942), reflecting the stormy events of 
the Great National War; Suite, People's Avengers, dedicated to the 
glorious partisans, and scored for chorus and symphony orchestra, to 
the words of Dolmatovsky (1942); two piano concertos (1929, 1935); 
violin concerto (1948), dedicated to Soviet youth, wmich w T as awarded 
the second Stalin Prize in 1949; cello concerto, also dedicated to Soviet 
youth (1948); two string quartets, of which the second received the 
First Stalin Prize in 1946; three piano sonatas (1927, 1945, 1946); 24 
preludes for piano on the themes of Russian folk songs (1944), Impro- 
visation for violin (1934). Kabalevsky has made many fruitful contri- 
butions to the pedagogic repertory for piano and to the song literature 



&eoltan=i£>ktmter (^rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[*Sl 



for children. Among many scores of film music by Kabalevsky, the 
following are notable: St. Petersburg Night (1933); Aerograd (1935); 
Shchors,* glorifying the Ukrainian partisan of the Russian Civil War 
of 1918-1920, written in 1939; Anton Ivanovitch Is Angry (1941); First 
Grade Girl Student (1948); Moussorgsky (1950)." 

Of his operas, the best known is Colas Breugnon, or Master of 
Clamecy, written in 1937 and based upon the novel of Romain Rolland, 
Colas Breugnon. (The overture to this opera, often performed in the 
Western world, was introduced to Boston Symphony concerts by Andre 
Kostelanetz on March 24, 1944.) 

In 1942 Kabalevsky composed an opera In the Fire (or At the 
Approaches to Moscow), an epic of the last war. Another opera on a 
similar subject is The Family of Taras, after the short story, The 
Unconquered, by Gorbatov (revised, 1949). Another opera is Nikita 
Vershinin after Vsevolod Ivanov's novel Armored Train. He has com- 
posed a number of choral works. 

In addition to the Overture to Colas Breugnon, the Second Sym- 
phony was performed at the Boston Symphony concerts March 8, 1946, 
under the direction of Serge Koussevitzky. The Second Piano Con- 
certo has been performed at the Pops concerts on May 6, 1945, when 
Bernhard Weiser was the soloist. Arthur Fiedler, who conducted, like- 
wise introduced at the Pops the Violin Concerto on June 25, 1953, 
when Ervin Mautner was the soloist. 



* Gerald Abraham in Eight Soviet Composers refers to a fourth symphony (1939) with the 
title Shchors which he hazards may be a symphonic score derived from this film music. In 
the listing of symphonies, the Second (1934) antedates the Third (1933), probably because 
the so-called Third Symphony may at first have been considered simply a choral work. 

[copyrighted] 



SAMUEL MAYES 

Samuel Mayes joined this Orchestra as Principal Cello in 1948. 
Born in St. Louis, Mr. Mayes is the grandson of a Cherokee Indian. 
At the age of four, he studied cello with Max Steindel of the St. Louis 
Orchestra and appeared as soloist with that Orchestra at the age of 
eight. Entering the Curtis Institute at twelve, he studied with Felix 
Salmond. At eighteen, he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra and 
shared its first desk three years later. 



[14] 



SYMPHONY No. i, Op. 4 

By Tikhon Khrennikov 
Born in Elets, Russia, June 10, 1913 



Khrennikov composed his first symphony between 1933 and 1935. It was first 
performed on October 10, 1935, in the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatory, 
George Sebastian conducting. The first American performance was at a concert of the 
Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski conducting, on November 20, 1936. The 
symphony was subsequently performed in New York, St. Louis, Cleveland, and other 
cities. 

The orchestration: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, 
triangle, celesta, and strings. 

The score is dedicated to Dmitri Shostakovitch. 

npiKHON Khrennikov began composing at an early age and wrote his 
*- first symphony, together with other scores, when he was still a 
student. He was then twenty-two years old. 

There is no scherzo in this three-movement symphony, but the finale, 
as George H. L. Smith pointed out in his analysis of the Symphony in 
the programs of the Cleveland Orchestra, "combines the elements of 
scherzo and finale into a single movement. 

"I. Allegro non troppo, B-flat minor, 4/4. The principal subject is 
announced by a solo bassoon, and repeated by oboe and clarinet in 
octaves. Transitional material leads to a more lyric theme, first sung 
by clarinet, then by violins in octaves. The graceful third theme is 
announced in D major by the violins and repeated in that key by 
piccolo and clarinet in octaves. These themes are developed artfully. 
There is an astonishing climax. The recapitulation is abbreviated to 
little more than a reminiscence of the opening of the movement. 

"II. Adagio, E minor, 2/2. The slow movement is based on the 
melancholy song sung by the violins at the outset, and the long- 
breathed melody of the clarinet, heard shortly after. The brass instru- 
ments take up the clarinet melody and it is developed to a climax of 
throbbing intensity, which gradually dies away to a whispered close. 

"III. Allegro molto, B-flat minor, 6/8. The vivacious chief theme is 
announced by the clarinet and developed by the strings. The clarinet 
also brings forward a quiet contrasting theme over an ostinato of lower 
strings and the tremolo of the timpani. The mood of the movement 
gradually changes, the lilting 6/8 rhythm shifting to a sober 4/4, and 
the serious themes of strings and wood wind are developed at length. 
There is a return to the 6/8 rhythm, and now it is the turn of the 
opening themes to generate a climax with the full clamor of brass and 
percussion." 

[»5l 



When this symphony was introduced to New York, Eugene Ormandy 
conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra, little contemporary Russian 
music was known beyond that of Shostakovitch. W. J. Henderson, a 
critic perceptive of new trends, was still living and listened to this 
music with special interest. He wrote in the New York Sun, February 
17, 1937, that this was "without question the most promising work 
which has come out of Russia in recent years. A youth who already 
has so much to say that is good to hear, and who knows so much about 
how to say it, is to be w T atched." 

Although it is not customary to introduce criticism as such into 
program notes whose main purpose is information, Mr. Henderson's 
further remarks may now be read almost in an historical sense: "This 
composition is in three movements — an allegro, adagio and finale. 
The thematic material of the opening and closing sections of the finale 
assumes the guise of the absent scherzo, though the movement as a 
whole will not answer such a classification. The basic first theme of 
the first movement reveals to us at once Khrennikov's trends in the 
direction of vivacious utterance. He knows the language of the 
advanced school, but speaks it naturally and strongly. The announce- 
ment of the theme by a bassoon discloses itself as one of those melodic 
broken lines which the modernists have made a feature of their music. 

"The second principal theme is a finely sustained cantilena, devel- 
oped along with several skillfully employed subsidiary motives. But 
in spite of a really masterly handling of poly tonality, which is only 
occasional and never obtrusive, and of a persistent ranging through 
mazes of atonality, the impression surviving after the close of the 
movement is one of power to conceive genuinely musical subjects, and 
within them to rear a structure which combines architectural symmetry 
with strength, and which possesses that somewhat intangible quality 
we call 'atmosphere.' . . . 

"The slow movement of a symphony is the bottomless pit of many 
composers, but not for this young, ardent and confident Russian. He 
sings a broad and clearly lined melody which has the illusion of clinging 
closely to the harmonic foundations of the fathers. It has an elegiac 
movement, intensely melancholy and rich in the vocal utterance of the 
strings. But with the development of the second subject the composer 
rises above mere melancholy to a grand orchestral climax w r hich 
expresses genuine agony of the spirit and which finally sobs itself out 
in a tremulous mutter of strings and timpani. 

"The finale begins with a lilting theme in the solo clarinet and 
afterwards in the strings, which, as already noted, hints at the struggle 
of a suppressed scherzo for liberation. But what w T ould correspond to 
the trio of a scherzo is the more important section of the movement, 
a long-flowing and most melodious cantilena, using several themes and 

[16] 



reaching a powerful climax of sonority in an orchestral tutti of instru- 
mental splendor. The conclusion of the movement is one of those big 
fortes with which composers so often leave an audience in a state of 
excitement." 

Elets, where Khrennikov was born, is close to Moscow and could be 
considered a suburb. According to information supplied in an article 
by Lev Kaltat, "He was the tenth, and the youngest child in the family 
of Nikolai Khrennikov, who was employed as salesman in a tobacco 
shop. The family, consisting of his father, his mother, Varvara, six 
sons and four daughters, lived in peaceful accord. Though not well- 
to-do, they suffered no particular need. The parents did their best to 
give their children a good education and all the brothers and sisters 
did well at school, practically all of them receiving a college education." 
He was a precocious child, even in studies besides music. A piano etude, 
written at the age of 13, was the first of a fairly continuous succession 
of works. Khrennikov came to the attention of Mikhail Gnessin (1883- 
1957), the composer who, a pupil of Rirnsky-Korsakoff and Liadoff, 
was an outstanding teacher. In 1929 Khrennikov left his native town 
to enter the school of Gnessin in Moscow 7 . There he studied counter- 
point under Litinsky and piano under E. Gelman. Graduating in 1932, 
Khrennikov entered the composition department of the Moscow Con- 
servatory and the composition class of Vissarion Shebalin. It was during 
his conservatory years that Khrennikov composed his piano concerto 
(1933), his suite of incidental music for Shakespeare's Much Ado About 
Nothing, and his First Symphony. Graduating in 1936, Khrennikov 
added to the list of his works music in the different forms, especially 
songs, and operas which were produced with success. The first opera, 
In the Storm, was completed in 1939. The second, Frol Skobeyev, is 
characterized as a musical comedy in the Russian national style and 
was produced in 1950. In 1957 another opera, Mother, based on Maxim 
Gorky, was performed in several Russian cities. He began his Second 
Symphony in 1940 and completed it in 1942 while his country was 
at war. 

[copyrighted] 



Q^> 



[»7l 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining concerts in the Wednesday evening series in 
Carnegie Hall will be as follows: 

December 16 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
ANIA DORFMANN, Piano 

January 20 WILLIAM STEINBERG, Conductor 

February 17 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
RUGGIERO RICCI, Violin 

March 23 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 



The remaining concerts in the Saturday afternoon series will be 
as follows: 

December 19 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

January 23 WILLIAM STEINBERG, Conductor 

February 20 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
GREGOR PIATIGORSKY, Cello 

March 26 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

GARY GRAFFMAN, Piano 



Tickets at the Carnegie Hall Box Office. 



The concerts by this Orchestra in Symphony Hall, Boston, on 
Saturday nights at 8:30 are broadcast complete by Station 
WQXR, New York. 



CARNEGIE HALL • NEW YORK 

[18] 



Seventy-Fourth Season in New York 

First Afternoon Concert 

Saturday, November 21, at 2:30 

REVISED PROGRAM 

AMIROV Kyurdi-Ovshari Mugarai 

COPLAND Orchestral Suite from the Opera, 

"The Tender Land" 

I. Introduction and Love Music 
II. (Party Scene 
III.\Finale: The Promise of Living 

(First concert performance in New York; 
conducted by the composer) 

INTERMISSION 

KABALEVSKY. .Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, 

Op. 49 

I. Allegro 
II. Largo: Molto espressivo 
III. Allegretto 

(Conducted by the composer) 

KHRENNIKOV Symphony No . 1 , Op . 4 

I. Allegro non troppo 
II. Adagio 
III. Allegro molto 

Soloist 

SAMUEL MAYES 



Baldwin Piano RCA Victor Records 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 

Seventy-Fourth Season in New York 

First Afternoon Concert 

SATURDAY, November 21, at 2:30 o'clock 



Program 

Mozart. . Symphony No. 38, in D major, "Prague," K. 504 

I. Adagio; Allegro 
II. Andante 
III. Finale: Presto 

Copland Orchestral Suite from the Opera, "The Tender Land" 

I. Introduction and Love Music 
II. (Party Scene 
III. 1 Finale: The Promise of Living 

(First concert performance in New York; conducted by the composer) 

INTERMISSION 



Beethoven * Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I. Allegro con brio 

II. Andante con moto 

III. (Allegro; Trio 

IV. I Allegro 



Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[19] 



SYMPHONY IN D MAJOR (K. No. 504) 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This symphony had its first performance at Prague, January 19, 1787. 
It is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and 
strings. The trumpets and drums are not used in the slow movement. 

The last symphony which Mozart composed before his famous final 
three of 1788 (the E-flat, G minor, and "Jupiter" symphonies) was 
the Symphony in D major, called the "Prague" Symphony, which had 
its first performance in that city early in 1787. Mozart may not have 
composed it especially for Prague, but when he went there from 
Vienna on a sudden invitation, the new score was ready in his port- 
folio for the first of two performances in the Bohemian capital. 

"Prague is indeed a very beautiful and agreeable place," wrote 
Mozart on his arrival there. And he had good cause to be gratified 
with the more than friendly reception which he found awaiting him. 
Figaro, produced there in the previous season, had been an immense 
success, and its tunes were sung and whistled on all sides. A bid was 
to come for another opera, and Don Giovanni was to be written and 
produced there within a year, and to cause another furore of enthu- 
siasm. The composer of Figaro, as might be expected, was applauded 
loud and long at the two concerts of his visit in 1787, and after the 
D major symphony at the first of them, he could not appease the 
audience until he had improvised upon the piano for half an hour. 
At length a voice shouted the word Figaro! and Mozart, interrupting 
the phrase he had begun to play, captured all hearts by improvising 
variations from the air "Non piu andrai." 

Writing on January 15 to his friend Gottfried von Jacquin, Mozart 
related how a round of entertainment mostly connected with music- 
making was awaiting him. On the evening of his arrival, he went with 
Count Canal to the "Breitfeld Ball, where the flower of the Prague 
beauties assemble. You ought to have been there, my dear friend; I 
think I see you running, or rather limping, after all those pretty 
creatures, married and single. I neither danced nor flirted with any 
of them — the former because I was too tired, and the latter from my 
natural bashfulness. I saw, however, with the greatest pleasure, all 
these people flying about with such delight to the music of my Figaro, 
transformed into quadrilles and waltzes; for here nothing is talked of 
but Figaro, nothing played but Figaro, nothing whistled or sung but 
Figaro, no opera so crowded as Figaro, nothing but Figaro — very 
flattering to me, certainly." 

Franz Niemetschek, a Bohemian who wrote a biography of Mozart 

[20] 



VIENNA PHILHAR- 
MONIC FESTIVAL, 
Herbert von Karajan con- 
ducting. A gala 4-LP al- 
bum specially recorded by 
the celebrated orchestra to 
mark its triumphant 1959 
world tour. 

Record I: Mozart Sym- 
phony in g, K550; Haydn 
Symphony in D, No. 10U. 
Record II : Beethoven 
Symphony No. 7. 
Record III: Brahms 
Symphony No. 1. 
Record IV: The Vienna 
of Johann Strauss. 



The gift-type album in- 
cludes a 28-page book, 
gravure- printed in Italy, 
containing full-color plates 
of famous paintings, 70 
photographs, history of the 
orchestra and conductor, 
and six delightful essays 
by Joseph Wechsberg. 

The complete album is 
$21.98 on regular LP, 
$25.98 in Living Stereo. 
The four LP's are also sold 
singly: $4.98 on regular 
LP, $5.98 in Living Stereo. 
( Manufacturer's nationally 
advertised prices.) 





in 1798, said of the concert of January 19: "The symphonies which 
he chose for this occasion are true masterpieces of instrumental com- 
position, full of surprising transitions. They have a swift and fiery 
bearing, so that they at once tune the soul to the expectation of some- 
thing superior. This is especially true of the great symphony in D 
major, which is still a favorite of the Prague public, although it has 
been heard here nearly a hundred times." 

The Symphony in D major is noteworthy by the absence of a minuet 
(in his earlier symphonies, Mozart was often content with three move- 
ments). Still more unusual is the slow introduction to the first move- 
ment. Haydn, and Beethoven after him, were inclined to such intro- 
ductions, but Mozart usually preferred to begin at once with his lively 
first theme. The exceptions, which occurred in succession through 
Mozart's last years, were the "Linz" Symphony in C major (K. 425), 
the introduction to Michael Haydn's Symphony in G major (K. 444), 
the "Prague" Symphony, and the famous E-flat Symphony (K. 543) 
which followed. 

Remembering that this Symphony was composed between Figaro 
and Don Giovanni, commentators have noted a likeness in the chief 
theme of the allegro to the first theme of the Overture to Don Gio- 
vanni. Erich Blom goes even further in associating the Symphony 
with the opera that followed: "The portentous and extended slow 
introduction of the 'Prague' Symphony is charged with the graver 
aspects of Don Giovanni; the half-close leading to the allegro is 
practically identical with that at a similar juncture in the great sextet 
of the opera, and an ominous figure in the finale almost makes one 
think of the stone guest appearing among a riot of mirth, though the 
grace and the laughter of Susanna are there too. The slow movement 
makes us dream of the idyllic summer-night stillness in Count Alma- 
viva's invitingly artificial garden. The wonder of the Symphony is, 
however, that in spite of the variety of the visions it may suggest 
to the hearer, it is a perfect whole. Every structural part and every 
thematic feature is exquisitely proportioned. No separate incident is 
allowed to engage attention independently of the scheme in which it 
is assigned its function, even where it is as incredibly beautiful as the 
second subject of the first movement, which is surreptitiously intro- 
duced by a passage that is apparently merely transitional, or as engag- 
ingly spritely as the second subject of the finale with its bubbling 
bassoon accompaniment." 

[copyrighted] 



[22] 



SUITE FROM "THE TENDER LAND' 

By Aaron Copland 

Born in Brooklyn, N.Y., November 14, 1900 



The opera The Tender Land was commissioned by Richard Rodgers and Oscar 
Hammerstein II on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the League of Composers, 
and composed between 1952 and 1954. The text is by Horace Everett. The opera 
had its first performance by the New York City Opera Company under the direction 
of Thomas Schippers at the New York City Center, April 1, 1954. It was performed 
by the opera department of the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood on August 
2 and 3, 1954 and (revised from a two- into a three-act opera) by the Oberlin Con- 
servatory on May 20 and 21, 1955. Two choruses from The Tender Land were 
performed at the benefit concert, "Tanglewood on Parade," on August 8, 1957, the 
composer conducting. The Suite was performed at the Boston concerts April 10-11, 
1959. Choral portions were presented at Brandeis University, again under the com- 
poser's direction, on June 8, 1957. 

The suite requires 3 flutes and piccolo, oboe and English horn, 2 clarinets and 
bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, harp, 
piano, and strings. 

(The orchestral suite was arranged for a larger orchestra than that used in the 
opera by the addition of piccolo, 2 horns, 2 trombones and tuba.) 

A n interview by Howard Taubman in the New York Times (March 
<**• 28, 1954) anticipates the first performance with an explanation by 
the composer of how he came to write the opera. "I've been wanting 
to do an opera ever since The Second Hurricane, but couldn't get a 
libretto." Mr. Copland revealed that he had long since jotted down 
possible themes in a notebook even before he had found a likely 
libretto. At length he had come across a book, Let Us Now Praise 
Famous Men, by James Agee and Walker Evans. The book consisted 
of photographs taken in a rural area of Alabama. A picture of an old 
woman with a young one made a special impression upon Mr. Cop- 
land. "There was something so full of living and understanding in 
the face of the older woman," he said, "and something so open and 
eager in the face of the younger one, that I began to think that here 
was the basis of an idea." It was therefore at his suggestion and under 
his advice that Horace Everett worked out his libretto. 

The plot was related to the New York Herald Tribune by Mr. Cop- 
land in advance of the first performance. 

"The opera takes place in the mid '30s, in June, spring harvest time. 
It's about a farm family — a mother, a daughter who's just about to 
graduate from high school, a younger sister of ten, and a grandfather. 
There's big doings in the works — no-one in the family has ever 
graduated before, and a whopping party is planned for the occasion. 

"Then two drifters come along asking for odd jobs. The grand- 
father is reluctant to give them any, and the mother is alarmed because 

[23] 



she's heard reports of two young men molesting the young girls of the 
neighborhood. Nevertheless, the fellows are told they can sleep in the 
shed for the night. 

"The graduation party itself begins at the opening of the second 
act. The heroine, who by a genuine coincidence has the same name 
— Laurie — as the gal in Rodgers & Hammerstein's Oklahoma!, has, 
naturally, fallen in love with one of the drifters. And they prove it 
by singing a twelve-minute love duet. That, I can tell you, is revolu- 
tionary. After all, love duets are a sort of rarity in modern opera, and 
twelve minutes is a long time. 

"But about their budding love affair there is something of a com- 
plication. You see, she associates him with freedom, with getting away 
from home, and he associates her with settling down. Martin (that's 
the hero's name) asks Laurie to run away with him, and she, of course, 
accepts. But in the middle of the night, after a long discussion with 
his fellow hobo, Top, he decides that his kind of roving life is not for 
Laurie, so he silently steals off. 

"When Laurie discovers that she's been jilted, she decides to leave 
home, anyway, and at the conclusion of the opera the mother sings a 
song — a song of acceptance that is the key to the opera. In it she looks 
to her younger daughter as the continuation of the family cycle that is 
the whole reason for their existence." 

The first movement of the Suite begins with the music from the 
Introduction to Act III and is followed by an almost complete version 
of the Love Duet from Act II. 

The Party Scene is, as indicated, music from the Act II graduation 
party, especially the square dance material from that act. 

The Finale is an exact transcription for orchestra of the vocal 
quintet that concludes Act I of the opera. 

Horace Everett's text of the Quintet ("The Promise of Living") is 
as follows: 

The promise of living 
With hope and thanksgiving 
Is born of our loving 
Our friends and our labor. 

The promise of growing 
With faith and with knowing 
Is born of our sharing 
Our love with our neighbor 

The promise of living 
The promise of growing 
Is born of our singing 
In joy and thanksgiving. 

(Copyright by Boosey and Hawkes) 
[copyrighted] 

[24] 



ENTR'ACTE 

WORDS ABOUT MUSIC 



"What any music / like expresses for me is not thoughts too indefinite 
to clothe in words, but too definite. If you asked me what I thought on 
the occasion in question, I answer — the song itself precisely as it stands." 

— Felix Mendelssohn 

After being lifted by the current of a first-rate piece of music, one 
can be quite at a loss when asked "What was it like?" If it resem- 
bles certain other, more familiar works, it is to that extent unoriginal; 
to describe it in technical terms is to give no more than the bare bones 
of notation. The actual life in the piece, that quality which sets it 
apart from any other, simply eludes verbal description. The point of 
course is that music is the language of sensuous tones with no other 
than sensuous appeal, a language quite self-sufficient and impervious 
to any verbal encroachment. Mendelssohn was more clear-sighted than 
some other composers in realizing that his art, the most precise of all 
in its own terms, is the most elusive in any other terms. This plain 
truth about music has not in the least deterred a host of writers and 
expounders. 

If music is a language, it is a language contrived quite within its 
own domain, and apart from all other human experience. It has had 
two natural origins only — the human pulse and the human voice. 
It is pulse refined into exact rhythm and varied from that point; voice 
focused into a pitch and given a scale. From these two rudimentary 
properties of our physiology artists have built the whole complex of 
music, further elaborating the vocal line by transferring it to instru- 
ments to give it more variety in range, color, intensity, tempo. Physi- 
cally speaking, then, music is nothing else than a succession of sensuous 
tones in exact placement. It is a language of pure artifice, constructed 
on elements contrived within its own isolated world. Unlike any other 
art, it has no demonstrable correspondence with everyday life (the 
chance sounds of nature have been of little use to the composer). 
It is an abstraction which simply cannot depict life as do the 
descriptive or delineative arts. 

This bit of physical logic would leave us in the absurd position of 
considering such a score as Beethoven's Fifth Symphony as nothing 
more than a succession of agreeable sounds, cleverly put togethei. 
We know that that Symphony gives us infinitely more than this by 
conveying in a peculiarly deep and complete way the character, the 
personality, what for want of any adequate phrase may be called the 
visionary spirit of a great artist. How this miracle takes place solely 
through an agglomeration of tones no prudent man will attempt to 
explain. 

[25] 



We naturally assume that emotional experience underlies emotional 
expression. We read of Beethoven's love affairs and think of his early 
slow movements, we connect his tragic deafness with poignant pages 
in his late works. We observe how he conquered his deafness in the 
inner world of his musical imagination, and think of his triumphant 
finales. No doubt these are basic indications. But any further attempt 
to particularize, to associate a work of art with the immediate circum- 
stances of a great artist's life is never convincing. An artist's whole 
nature is involved in the process of his creative imagination. We 
cannot look directly into his heart, but we can perceive the reflected 
image which is the music in hand, and we know that this music is 
more comprehensive than any momentary trouble or pleasure. 

Nothing could be more mistaken than to assume that Mozart com- 
posed the tragic slow movement of his G minor Quintet in distress 
because his infant child was dying, or that Beethoven composed the 
Adagio of his Hammerklavier Sonata in agony over his nephew, or 
that Tchaikovsky wrote his last symphony in a pessimistic mood. 
Personal tragic experience is painful and a depressant — great tragic 
music is an assertion of confident mastery. It is genuinely felt, but it 
is fiction, like any art. These composers, functioning at the top of 
their bent, must have felt elation, and our reaction when we exclaim 
over the beauty of the music, must be a paler reflection of that elation. 
Each of these composers knew tragedy; the sense of tragedy became a 
part of his emotional nature as artist, and so enriched the scope of 
his art. Undoubtedly his musical function, strong and sure, lifted him 
above his immediate troubles and proved him an enviable man, happy 
in his art. Beethoven's music throughout his life is an assertion of 
confidant power, particularly in his final movements which in his 
middle years sound like a triumphant resolution of conflicting moods; 
in his final works there is often a quieter serenity. The late J. W. N. 
Sullivan,* who has come as close as anyone to elucidating the true 
nature of the composing Beethoven, has stressed his musical "person- 
ality" as "a slowly developed synthetic whole." Elsewhere he writes: 
"One of the most significant facts for the understanding of Beethoven 
is that his work shows an organic development up till the very end. 
The older Beethoven lived, the more and more profound was what he 
had to say. The greatest music Beethoven ever wrote is to be found 
in the last string quartets, and the music of every decade before the 
final period has greater music than its predecessor. Such sustained 
development, in the case of an artist who reaches years of maturity, 
is a rare and important phenomenon. Bach, for instance, who may be 
likened to Beethoven for the seriousness and maturity of his mind, 
lost himself at the end in the arid labyrinths of pure technique. 

* "Beethoven: His Spiritual Development" (1936). 
[26] 



Wagner, as the fever in his blood grew less, had nothing to express 
at the end but exhaustion and ineffectual longing. Beethoven's music 
continually developed because it was the expression of an attitude 
towards life that had within it the possibility of indefinite growth." 

Great music can be more than a synthesis of the composer's emo- 
tional experience — his imagination can carry him into the unknown. 
The unearthly "Ewig" with which Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde 
dies away, Brahms' Alto Rhapsody, with its entirely different contralto 
color and orchestral color — there are no end of instances where a 
unique mood is attained. Many places in the later Beethoven belong 
to the world of music and nothing outside of it. 

When Beethoven wrote "appassionato" into a score, or Wagner 
"ausdrucksvoll" each composer was merely giving the performer a 
go-ahead sign. He knew that more than the single word would do 
absolutely nothing to convey the music as he felt it. He could only 
hope that the performer would search his own musical soul and so 
respond to the composer's expressive intent. 

If a writer tries to tell us with his best literary skill what Beethoven 
really felt and eloquently expressed in tones, he of course gets nowhere. 
If, having sat before that succession of sounds which is called Beetho- 
ven's Fifth Symphony, he tells us that the four movements are in turn 
"forceful," "affecting," "propulsive," "exultant," the adjectives seem 
lame and vaguely approximate. They fall short because this particular 
art of directed sensation can be far more vivid than any other. The 
words are really alien because the emotional experience of tones is 
not quite like any other experience in our emotional life. We have 
been in a sound world which has no counterpart, a narrative art which 
narrates in sound and sound only. What is called "joyfulness" in 
music is not like the household variety of felicity, but is apt to be 
closely related to the swift pulse of the dance (music's only blood 
sister in the arts). Musical "pathos" has only a distant connection with 
actual grief. A falling half-tone or a minor third affects us as pathetic 
by pure musical association. The magic of the minor mode is not only 
untranslatable, but unaccountable. A scherzo is unlike any other piece 
of wit. 

The very fact that music has no proper descriptive vocabulary of 
its own, that we are forced to borrow from terms in the other arts, 
is proof of its apartness. One speaks of the "color" of instruments, 
harmonies are "dark" or "luminous," the "texture" of a score is 
"thick" or "transparent," tone quality is "hard" or "velvety," form is 
"architecture," grace notes are "ornaments." A composer works from 
an orchestral "palette" upon an orchestral "canvas." 

If borrowed words are ineffectual, figures of speech are downright 
misleading. When we read what E. T. A. Hoffman wrote about 

[27] 



Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, we have the impression of a virtuoso 
of literary fantasy highly enjoying himself; when we read what Berlioz 
wrote, we have the impression of a musican who has been genuinely 
transported by the music, but who, undertaking to tell us how 
Beethoven felt, succeeds only in imparting his own personal raptures. 
Over the held E-flat at the opening of the Fifth Symphony, Beethoven 
gives us one sign — the "eyebrow" and dot of a simple fermata. But 
Wagner writes of this note: "The life-blood of the note must be 
squeezed out of it to the last drop, with force enough to arrest the 
waves of the sea, and lay bare the ground of the ocean; to stop the 
clouds in their courses, dispel the mists, and reveal the pure blue sky, 
and the burning face of the sun himself." If he were not Wagner he 
could merely have said: "Lean on it." The laconic Beethoven has 
proved wiser than the hyperbolic Wagner, for every conductor since 
has rightly consulted his own dramatic sense in this particular passage. 
Sir George Grove, usually a sober-minded musician, hardly helps our 
understanding of the music when he calls the second theme in E-flat 
(for the horns) "the sweet protest of a woman against the fury of her 
oppressor" (this "fury" was the opening subject). We hardly need to 
be told by him that the oboe solo before the coda is "a beautiful 
blossom, springing out as it were from the bud of the pause which 
occurred at bar twenty-one of the first section, and like a flower of 
gentian spreading its petals on the edge of the glacier." 

Czerny, who accompanied Beethoven in his walks, may or may not 
have been reporting faithfully when he attributed the opening motto 
rhythm to the call of a yellowhammer (called the song sparrow in this 
country). Schindler has quoted Beethoven as remarking about the 
same rhythm: "Thus fate knocks at the door." If this bit of philo- 
sophic fantasy did not spring full-grown from the imagination of 
Beethoven's self-appointed Boswell, it was probably a conversational 
afterthought on the composer's part, certainly not intended to be 
eternally handed down as a pronouncement. Beethoven well knew 
the danger of attaching such images to music. When he composed 
what may be considered the first important piece of "program music," 
the Pastoral Symphony, he warned posterity against making too much 
of musical "painting," when it was feeling (' Empfindung") that 
counted. When he brought in the storm, the bird calls, or the peasant 
allusions, he was merely resorting to a current convention in musical 
imitation. He probably realized that musical imitation of other 
sounds was a lame device at best. He obviously feared that the first 
audiences would fasten upon these episodes and largely miss what we 
now clearly perceive — a mood emanating from wonder in nature, 
miraculously transformed into tones. 

J. N. B. 

[28] 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, IN C MINOR, Op. 67 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 
Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The Fifth Symphony was completed near the end of the year 1807, and first 
performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, December 22, 1808, Beethoven 
conducting. The parts were published in April, 1809, and the score in March, 1826. 
The dedication is to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky. 

The Symphony is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons 
and double-bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings (the 
piccolo, trombones and double-bassoon, here making their first appearance in a 
symphony of Beethoven, are used only in the Finale). 

Something in the direct, impelling drive of the first movement of the 
C minor symphony commanded the general attention when it was 
new, challenged the skeptical, and soon forced its acceptance. Goethe 
heard it with grumbling disapproval, according to Mendelssohn, but 
was astonished and impressed in spite of himself. Lesueur, hidebound 
professor at the Conservatoire, was talked by Berlioz into breaking his 
vow never to listen to another note of Beethoven, and found his prej- 
udices and resistances quite swept away. A less plausible tale reports 
Maria Malibran as having been thrown into convulsions by this sym- 
phony. The instances could be multiplied. There was no gainsaying 
that forthright, sweeping storminess. 

Even if the opening movement could have been denied, the tender 
melodic sentiment of the Andante was more than enough to offset 
conservative objections to "waywardness" in the development, and 
the lilting measures of the scherzo proper were more than enough to 
compensate the "rough" and puzzling Trio. The joyous, marchlike 
theme of the finale carried the symphony on its crest to popular 
success, silencing at length the objections of those meticulous musi- 
cians who found that movement "commonplace" and noisy. Certain 
of the purists, such as Louis Spohr, were outraged at hearing the 
disreputable tones of trombones and piccolo in a symphony. But 
Spohr could not resist Beethoven's uncanny touch in introducing a 
reminiscence of the scherzo before the final coda. Even Berlioz, who 
was usually with Beethoven heart and soul, felt called upon to make 
a half-apology for the elementary finale theme. It seemed to him that 
the repetitiousness of the finale inevitably lessened the interest. After 
the magnificent first entrance of the theme, the major tonality so 
miraculously prepared for in the long transitional passage, all that 
could follow seemed to him lessened by comparison, and he was forced 
to take refuge in the simile of a row of even columns, of which the 
nearest looms largest. 

[29] 



It has required the weathering of time to show the Beethoven of 
the Fifth Symphony to be in no need of apologies, to be greater than 
his best champions suspected. Some of his most enthusiastic conduc- 
tors in the century past seem to have no more than dimly perceived 
its broader lines, misplaced its accents, under or over shot the mark 
when they attempted those passages which rely upon the understand- 
ing and dramatic response of the interpreter. Wagner castigated those 
who hurried over the impressive, held E-flat in the second bar, who 
sustained it no longer than the "usual duration of a forte bow stroke." 
Even many years later, Arthur Nikisch was taken to task for over- 
prolonging those particular holds. Felix Weingartner, as recently as 
1906, in his "On the Performance of the Symphonies of Beethoven," 
felt obliged to warn conductors against what would now be considered 
unbelievable liberties, such as adding horns in the opening measures 
of the symphony. He also told them to take the opening eighth notes 
in tempo, and showed how the flowing contours of the movement must 
not be obscured by false accentuation. 

Those — and there is no end of them — who have attempted to 
describe the first movement have looked upon the initial four-note 
figure with its segregating hold, and have assumed that Beethoven used 
this fragment, which is nothing more than a rhythm and an interval, 
in place of a theme proper, relying upon the slender and little used 
"second theme" for such matters as melodic continuity. Weingartner 
and others after him have exposed this fallacy, and what might be 
called the enlightened interpretation of this movement probably began 
with the realization that Beethoven never devised a first movement 
more conspicuous for graceful symmetry and even, melodic flow. An 
isolated tile cannot explain a mosaic, and the smaller the tile unit, 
the more smooth and delicate of line will be the complete picture. 
Just so does Beethoven's briefer "motto" build upon itself to produce 
long and regular melodic periods. Even in its first bare statement, the 
"motto" belongs conceptually to an eight-measure period, broken for 
the moment as the second fermata is held through an additional bar. 
The movement is regular in its sections, conservative in its tonalities. 
The composer remained, for the most part, within formal boundaries. 
The orchestra was still the orchestra of Haydn, until, to swell the 
jubilant outburst of the finale, Beethoven resorted to his trombones. 

The innovation, then, was in the character of the musical thought. 
The artist worked in materials entirely familiar, but what he had to 
say was astonishingly different from anything that had been said before. 
As Sir George Grove has put it, he "introduced a new physiognomy 
into the world of music." No music, not even the "Eroica," had had 
nearly the drive and impact of this First Movement. 

The Andante con mo to (in A-flat major) is the most irregular of 

[30] 



the four movements. It is not so much a theme with variations as free 
thoughts upon segments of a theme with certain earmarks and recur- 
rences of the variation form hovering in the background. The first 
setting forth of the melody cries heresy by requiring 48 bars. The first 
strain begins regularly enough, but, instead of closing on the tonic 
A-flat, hangs suspended. The wood winds echo this last phrase and 
carry it to a cadence which is pointedly formal as the strings echo it 
at the nineteenth bar. Formal but not legitimate. A close at the eighth 
bar would have been regular, and this is not a movement of regular 
phrase lengths. Regularity is not established until the end of the 
movement when this phrase closes upon its eighth bar at last! The 
whole andante is one of the delayed cadences. The second strain of 
the melody pauses upon the dominant and proceeds with an outburst 
into C major, repeats in this key to pause at the same place and dream 
away at leisure into E-flat. The two sections of melody recur regularly 
with varying ornamental accompaniment in the strings, but again the 
questioning pauses bring in enchanting whispered vagaries, such as 
a fugato for flutes, oboes and clarinets, or a pianissimo dalliance by 
the violins upon a strand of accompaniment. The movement finds 
a sudden fortissimo close. 

The third movement (allegro, with outward appearance of a scherzo) 
begins pianissimo with a phrase the rhythm of which crystallizes into 
the principal element, in fortissimo. The movement restores the 
C minor of the first and some of its rhythmic drive. But here the 
power of impulsion is light and springy. In the first section of the 
Trio in C major (the only part of the movement which is literally 
repeated) the basses thunder a theme which is briefly developed, 
fugally and otherwise. The composer begins what sounds until its 
tenth bar like a da capo. But this is in no sense a return, as the hearer 
soon realizes. The movement has changed its character, lost its steely 
vigor and taken on a light, skimming, mysterious quality. It evens off 




COTY . . . THE ESSENCE OF BEAUTY THAT IS FRANCE 



[31] 



into a pianissimo where the suspense of soft drum beats prepares a 
new disclosure, lightly establishing (although one does not realize this 
until the disclosure comes) the quadruple beat. The bridge of mystery 
leads, with a sudden tension, into the tremendous outburst of the 
Finale, chords proclaiming C major with all of the power an orchestra 
of 1807 could muster — which means that trombones, piccolo and 
contra-bassoon appeared for the first time in a symphony. The Finale 
follows the formal line of custom, with a second section in the 
dominant, the prescribed development section, and a fairly close 
recapitulation. But as completely as the first movement (which like- 
wise outwardly conforms), it gives a new function to a symphony — 
a new and different character to music itself. Traditional preconcep- 
tions are swept away in floods of sound, joyous and triumphant. At 
the end of the development the riotous chords cease and in the sudden 
silence the scherzo, in what is to be a bridge passage, is recalled. Again 
measures of wonderment fall into the sense of a coda as the oboe brings 
the theme to a gentle resolution. This interruption was a stroke of 
genius which none could deny, even the early malcontents who 
denounced the movement as vulgar and blatant — merely because they 
had settled back for a rondo and found something else instead. The 
Symphony which in all parts overrode disputation did so nowhere 
more unanswerably than in the final coda with its tumultuous C major. 

[copyrighted] 



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The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
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[32] 



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Winter Season, 1959 -I960 



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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 





SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 
Carnegie Hall, New York 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 
Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 
Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 

E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 
Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 

Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
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TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallowell Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



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[2] 



seventy-ninth season • nineteen hundred fifty-nine-sixty 

Seventy-Fourth Season in New York 

Second Evening Concert 

WEDNESDAY, December 16, at 8:30 o'clock 



Program 

Faure Overture to "Penelope" 

Dutilleux Symphony No. 2, for Large Orchestra 

and Chamber Orchestra 
I. Animato, ma misterioso 
II. Andantino sostenuto 
III. Allegro fuocoso — calmato 

(First performance in New York) 

INTERMISSION 

Mozart Piano Concerto in E-flat, K. 271 

(''jeunehomme Concerto") 
I. Allegro 
II. Andantino 
III. Rondeau: Presto 

Ravel *"Daphnis et Chloe," Ballet, Suite No. 2 

Lever du jour — Pantomime — Danse generale 



SOLOIST 

ANIA DORFMANN 

Miss Dorfm ann uses the Steinway Piano 



Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 



BALDWIN PIANO 



*RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[si 



PRELUDE TO "P£N£LOPE" 

By Gabriel Faure 

Born in Pamiers (Ariege), France, May 13, 1845; died in Passy, November 4, 1924 



Penelope, Drame Lyrique in three acts to a text of Rene Fauchois was composed 
in 1913 and first performed at Monte Carlo on March 4 of that year. The first 
performance in Paris was at the Theatre des Champs £lysees, May 10, 1913. The 
opera was performed in concert form under the auspices of the Department of Music 
at Harvard University at Sanders Theatre, November 29, 1945, as part of a festival 
in honor of the 100th anniversary of Faure's birth. Nadia Boulanger conducted. 

The Prelude was performed at the concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
March 28, 1919 (Henri Rabaud conducting); December 5, 1924, shortly after the 
composer's death (Serge Koussevitzky conducting), and March 9-10, 1951, under the 
direction of Charles Munch. 

The Prelude calls for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 2 clarinets 
and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, 
harp and strings. 

XT^aure seems to have had an affinity for classical subjects, for his 
*■ earlier opera, composed in 1900, was Promethee. It is told that 
Rene Fauchois met Faure in about the year 1908 when his suggestion 
of a libretto on Ulysses and Penelope was enthusiastically received and 
accordingly acted upon. 

The plot except for a few details is derived from Homer's Iliad. 
The first act opens with the spinning scene and the importunate suitors 
who wish the Queen to believe that her husband is lost. Ulysses enters, 
disguised as a beggar, and is recognized by no one except his old nurse 
(not, as in the Iliad, by his dog). The second act shows Penelope on 
the crest of a hill overlooking the sea. She prays to the gods for the 
return of her husband. Ulysses appears, but does not reveal himself. 
The third act shows the great hall of Ulysses' palace. Penelope, pressed 
to accept a husband and successor to the throne, concedes that he who 
can bend the bow of Ulysses shall be the man. After none of the suitors 
can do this, the disguised Ulysses steps forward, bends the bow and 
slays the pretender, Eurymaque. With the help of the populace, the 
other suitors are put to death. The opera ends with a hymn to Zeus 
in praise of freedom and conjugal fidelity. 

The Prelude is based upon two themes, first that of Penelope, a 
melody developed at once in the strings, and the second, plainly 
descriptive of Ulysses, entering suddenly fortissimo in the horns. The 
theme of Penelope brings the Prelude to a close. Charles Koechlin 
remarks of the Prelude that it shows "the heroism of noble expectancy, 
the sublime fidelity of the wife with her invincible hope: the music is 
just this. At the peak of the exaltation of Penelope there appears at 
first from afar the motive of Ulysses — of a Doric simplicity which 
certain themes from Promethee have almost foretold, almost outlined. 

[4] 



And the development grows entirely from these two themes." Koechlin 
has been careful to point out that the music is Greek in feeling 
(interieurement Grec) and not scientifically or modally so. Its "modern" 
harmony and melody are "fused into a complete unity of conception 
and of style." 

The Opera on its first performance was generally applauded and 
praised. But one critic, discussing its probable popularity, remarked: 
"It is no Madame Butterfly." 

[copyrighted] 

ENTR'ACTE 

PENELOPE 

By Arthur Honegger 

(Quoted from "Incantation aux Fossiles" (Editions d'Ouchy) 



Of all contemporary musico-dramatic works, Penelope is perhaps the 
most moving. Is it the extreme simplicity of the means, the particularly 
just accent of certain lines, the abstention from all exterior effects or 
dramatic facility? I cannot say, and I can only add that the miracle 
which results in this emotion is at least as alive today as it was at the 
first hearing. I know that many countries which know and cultivate 
music are still unaware of the art of Faure! Belonging to one of these 
countries, I can take a fairly objective account of this kind of indif- 
ference, the more so because I must confess having taken rather a long 
time to penetrate the mystery of this subtle language. As with many 
others, the admirable restraint of his discourse once seemed to me a 
lack of forcefulness, the elegant nonchalance of certain lines led me to 
assume a certain facility, a harmonic ambiguity unacceptable to the 
Beethovenian intransigence on which my musical feeling is based. But 
since then I have evolved, and been illumined by all the magic virtues 
of this music. 

No other music is so resistant to literary explanation. Besides Mozart 
and Schubert I know no one whose music is more purely and exclu- 
sively music. Since Faure has written many songs, he is widely 
considered as a "distinguished melodist." On the other hand — I 
believe A. Hoere was one of the first proponents of this theory — it is 



&eoltan=g>fetmter <2£rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

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THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[5] 



preeminently the harmonic contribution of Faure which has made him 
an innovator, an innovator without exterior show, who has found only 
what touches the very heart of the musical material. These melodic 
lines are simple, they often consist of nothing more than scales or parts 
of scales variously rhythmed (Elegie, Theme et Variations for piano, 
second theme of the finale of the Quartet in C, etc.). But the remark- 
able richness of the harmonization gives them a character and a per- 
sonality which many have tried in vain to imitate. 

Two chords which could be called "Tristesse de Penelope" open the 
Prelude and throughout the work their marked color is to create the 
atmosphere which pervades the whole. It is not that this chord succes- 
sion is exceptional in itself, it could be found elsewhere, but here it 
expresses so justly the heavy sigh of a heart tormented by separation 
that one cannot imagine anything else in its place. There are many 
such examples which could be found throughout the score: the har- 
monies which accompany the entrance of Ulysses, the motive of the 
bow, and the sequence which so splendidly closes the first act. 

The fine performances at the Opera have brought forward all these 
qualities, and the public has seemed to sense and perceive them more 
deeply than before. Perhaps they have understood them as character- 
istic of their race, and very specifically French. 



SYMPHONY NO. 2, for large Orchestra and Chamber Orchestra 

By Henri Dutilleux 
Born in Angers, January 22, 1916 



The Deuxieme Symphonie, pour Grand Orchestre et Concert de Chambre has 
been composed by joint commission of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on its 75th 
anniversary and by the Koussevitzky Music Foundation and is dedicated to the 
memory of Serge and Natalie Koussevitzky. 

The large orchestra consists of 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 
2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
2 trombones and tuba, harp and strings. The chamber orchestra consists of a single 
oboe, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, trombone, harpsichord, celesta, timpani, 2 violins, 
viola and cello. 

HpHE music of Henri Dutilleux was first heard by this Orchestra 
-*■ when his First Symphony was introduced to the United States on 
January 8, 1954. 

The composer, writing about his new score, has kindly provided an 
explanation of his intentions in departing from the classical procedure 
of a symphony. He states that he has long been interested in composing 

[6] 



a work for two orchestras. Already in his First Symphony he showed 
certain tendencies of this sort, as in the course of the score a small 
group would often detach itself from the general ensemble. 

The plan here is nevertheless quite different; for the orchestra is 
definitely divided into two groups, of equal importance, to be sure, 
but having each a life of its own. To the large orchestra, which is 
normally constituted, there is opposed a real chamber orchestra of 
twelve musicians who are placed in a semicircle between the conductor 
and the main orchestra. This placement will inevitably suggest the 
tradition of the concerto grosso, although the composer has not sought 
to draw in any way upon this form, nor to rely upon a "prefabricated 
architecture" which he finds hardly compatible with the expressive 
purposes of a musician of today. 

If the arrangement which he has undertaken enables him to pass 
from the confidential character of chamber music to full symphonic 
development, the composer does not make this procedure a general 
rule. "Very often the two instrumental forms are fused or superim- 
posed (thus permitting incursions into polyrhythm and polytonality). 
Elsewhere they are opposed in two distinct groups, for it is not the 
twelve individual musicians but the chamber group as a whole which 
has the function of soloist. 

"In other places there are problems of timbre as well as form which 
have determined the choice of method. In this epoch when one hears 
much about stereophonic sound, a musician can be tempted to create 
by natural means a sort of sonorous relief by the spatial placement of 
instruments in something else than the logical order of the classical 
orchestra. Thus a certain character of sound ['touches sonores'] emitted 
by the full orchestra will find its equivalent in the chamber orchestra 
in the nature of a reflection, or again one of the two orchestras will 
yield suddenly and give place to the vibrations of the other." 

These preoccupations with experimental placement are not always 
primarily in the thoughts of the composer. Having voluntarily sub- 
mitted to the discipline of writing which implicates a certain formula, 
he has had to "play the game" ("jouer le jeu") to conform to this 
situation but not to be its prisoner. Formally, as well as in tempera- 
ment, the composer attaches a greater importance to his "interior 
creative impulse than to the intellectual speculations which often entice 
a composer of our time as he is tempted by the constantly renewed 
sonorous possibilities due to scientific discoveries." 

For this very reason he has not wished to use in his present work 
any unaccustomed instrument. "The percussion itself is reduced to a 
modest role, and if it is unusual to encounter a harpsichord in a 
modern orchestra this particularity really betrays a certain nostalgia 
for eighteenth-century practice." 

[71 



"The chamber orchestra is composed of the principal representatives 
of each instrumental family in the large orchestra of which it is, in a 
sense, a reduction. The full orchestra brings in the other elements, 
winds in twos, percussion, harp and string quintet. 

"The general structure of the work presents nothing exceptional. 
Let us say merely that it resolutely avoids the sonata form but that, 
on the other hand, it tends strongly toward the principle of variation. 
A preference for the monothematic characterizes each of the three 
movements, and the title 'symphony' must be taken in the broadest 
sense." 

Dutilleux studied at the Conservatoire with Biisser, the brothers 
Gallon (Jean and Noel), and Philippe Gaubert. He took the Premier 
Grand Prix de Rome in 1938. In 1944 he became the Chef des Illu- 
strations musicales of the French Radio, and later the assistant secretary 
to the French section of the International Society for Contemporary 
Music. 

His principal works are as follows: 

1941 — Sarabande for Orchestra 

1942 — Danse Fantastique, for orchestra 

1942 — Quatre Melodies, for voice and piano, with orchestra 

1943 — Sonatine, for flute and piano 

1944 — La Geole, for voice and orchestra 

1947 —Sonate, for oboe and piano 

1948 — Sonate, for piano 

1952-1953 — Concertino pour 38 instruments 

1 953~- Le Lou P 

1954 — Symphony No. 1 

1959 — Symphony No. 2 

Also two ballets, incidental music for the stage and radio. 

[copyrighted] 



A 



ANIA DORFMANN 

nia Dorfmann was born in Odessa, Russia. She appeared there 
^ as a prodigy at the age of eleven and was then sent to the 
Conservatoire in Paris, where she studied for two years with Isidor 
Philipp. She returned to Russia, and there, still a young girl, she 
lived through the deprivations of the Russian Revolution. After 
appearances in western Europe, she came to the United States in 1936. 
She was soloist with the Boston Symphony Orchestra October 25-26, 
1943, and December 19, 1950. Her present appearances are her first 

in this series. 



[8] 



PIANO CONCERTO in E-flat, K. 271 ("Jeunehomme Concerto") 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This concerto was composed in Salzburg in January, 1777. It was performed at 
the concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on April 9, 1943, when Emma Boynet 
was soloist, and on February 29, 1952, Leonard Bernstein, conductor and soloist. 

The orchestration calls for 2 oboes, 2 horns and strings. 

nr^His concerto is sometimes called the "Jeunehomme" Concerto. 
-** Mozart wrote it for Mile. Jeunehomme, a distinguished Parisian 
pianist who evidently visited Salzburg in the course of a tour in the 
year 1777. The composer encountered the pianist again when he went 
to Paris in 1778. Mozart wrote her name in letters to his father — 
once as "Mile. Jeunehomme" and once as "Madame Jenome." The 
name also appears as "Jenomi," evidently an Italianization. 

When Mozart composed this concerto he was just twenty-one and 
little known outside of Salzburg. He was soon to make his journey 
with his mother to Mannheim and Paris. His great operas, symphonies 
and quartets were still to be written. This, the ninth of the twenty- 
eight numbered concertos, was the third original piano concerto. Its 
probing range and emotional depth make it, at so early a point in his 
career, one of his most extraordinary achievements. We cannot know 
whether or not he was moved by the skill of the visiting pianist to 
extraordinary effort, but the music itself shows a considerable advance 
over anything he had done in any form. He had already solved the 
basic problem of the concerto combination, but here it acquired its 
full stature. He struck out boldly, molded his materials at will in 
untried ways. The orchestra imposed upon him still consisted of oboes 
and horns, which for the most part must be supported by string 
doubling. Within these limitations the orchestra becomes newly 
eloquent, closely fused with the piano to the advantage of both. 
Einstein compared this "monumental" concerto with Beethoven's 
"Eroica" Symphony for its "originality and boldness." He could have 



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carried the comparison further. It is in the same key and reaches the 
unprecedented length of thirty-five minutes. It was the case of a young 
man who took hold of a polite form and poured into it a flood from 
an astonishingly abundant imagination in such a way that its profu- 
sion throughout is compact with fresh beauty. Like the "Eroica," too, 
the first movement is built on a complex of themes which merge into 
a continuous melodic current in development; the slow movement is 
a deep lament, the finale an outpouring of ebullient strength. It 
establishes a custom which was to make Mozart the supreme master 
of the piano concerto — a cluster of six themes in the opening tutti, 
to be heard from later in varied sequence and manipulation, usually 
shared with the piano, which introduces subjects of its own. 

At the very beginning the composer breaks precedent as the orchestra 
gives out a phrase and the pianist, who should be quietly waiting for 
his proper entrance much later, completes it. This was a happy 
trouvaille which Mozart did not have occasion ever to repeat. The 
first part of the principal subject is an orchestral proclamation, its 
melodic cadence is pianistic, whereby holy matrimony is declared at 
the outset. As in any ideal union, there is later a congenial interchange 
of thoughts. The thematic material of the first movement according 
to current custom could have furnished three. The Andantino is in 
C minor — the first of Mozart's concerto movements in the minor 
tonality. Its plaint in the low strings is strongly suggestive of the slow 
movement of the Sinfonia concertante for Violin and Viola (K. 364) 
to be composed more than two years later. There is even a suggestion 
of duet in its first statement. The feeling becomes more intense as the 
orchestra introduces the soloist with a cadential phrase like a singer's 
recitative, as if emotion were striving for words.* The passage recurs 
and softly closes the movement, but not before a suspensive pause on 
the dominant (instead of the usual tonic six-four chord) introduces a 
cadenza which carries the whole magic, veiled discourse to its true 
summit. The rondo (presto) is based on an extended theme for the 
pianist, proposed and carried through with swift brilliance. In place 
pf the third section, Mozart unexpectedly introduces and develops the 
theme of a slow minuet. This is a long movement, for the young com- 
poser had much in his heart. There is a cadenza which becomes a 
crucial part of the development and brings back the recitative passage 
as a soft reminiscence before the close. The bridge to the return of 
tfie Presto is quite indescribable. It has trappings of elegant grace, 
but with a new and personal meaning. This is a concerto of daring, 
as if the usually compliant Mozart were suddenly possessed. Every bar 
supersedes formal gallantry. 

* One is reminded that Beethoven, whose music this concerto foretells, sometimes used quasi- 
recitative passages in his sonatas. The Piano Concerto in D of 1772, by C. P. E. Bach, which 
Mozart may have known, breaks into a long instrumental recitative, which, however, lacks 
tension and dissipates its effect. 

[copyrighted] 
[10] 



ENTR'ACTE 
ANOTHER BOOK ON MOZART 



The following review of "Mozart and His Times" by Erich Schenk 
is intended to establish a custom in these pages of drawing attention 
to any new book on a musical subject which seems to be of special 
interest or importance * 

Any new book on the thoroughly covered subject of Mozart faces 
one question: "Why?" Mr. Schenk anticipates this in his 
Foreword: "This book is a reply to the prevailing opinion that our 
knowledge of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's life is complete and that 
to this chronicle nothing new can be added." The author, who holds 
the chair of musicology at the University of Vienna, has supported his 
answer with a full-length biography which actually adds something 
"new." This, like every biography of Mozart, is based on the letters. 
Strangely enough, writers have taken the letters pretty much on their 
face value while applying their scholarship to the music itself in books 
from one to six volumes. It is true that Mozart in his letters has 
unwittingly told his own story in a direct and intimate way that makes 
any literary virtuosity rather superfluous. The fact remains that there 
are gaps in the letters, particularly in the later ones, and that there 

• Mozart and His Times by Erich Schenk was published by Alfred A. Knopf on October 26 
in an English translation by Richard and Clara Winston. The book has 452 pages, with good 
illustrations. 



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Charter Member, National Association of Schools of Music 

For information regarding admission and scholarships, write to the Dean. 

290 HUNTINGTON AVENUE BOSTON 15, MASSACHUSETTS 



[»] 



are numberless references to people and happenings which, familiar 
to the recipient, remain strange to the present-day reader. Mr. Schenk 
has obviously delved into every archive in Vienna and has similarly 
penetrated Salzburg, Paris, and Prague, and come up with information 
to enliven some well-trodden paths. The record and identity of 
Mozart's friends, colleagues or patrons are amplified in many cases. 
An example is the "mysterious" stranger referred to by Jahn as "a 
tall, thin, grave-looking man, dressed from head to toe in grey" who 
brought Mozart the anonymous commission for the Requiem. He has 
been referred to repeatedly since as the "steward" of Count Walsegg. 
Mr. Schenk identifies the man as "Anton Leitgeb, son of the mayor 
of Vienna, Andreas Leitgeb, and owner of a gypsum factory at 
Schottwien near Count Walsegg's estate. The Count may often have 
turned to him for help in legal matters. Leitgeb is known to have 
been an active music-lover who played several instruments and partic- 
ipated in the Count's musicales. As long as he lived he refused to say 
anything about his mission to Mozart. Leitgeb's portrait which has 
been recently discovered . . . shows a grave countenance, cold, calcu- 
lating eyes, thin lips pursed haughtily." Count Giuseppe Affligio, the 
Viennese impresario who refused to produce La finta semplice by the 
thirteen-year-old Mozart, later suffered bankruptcy, was found running 
a gambling table in Milan, made his way to Barcelona and a new for- 
tune in the theatre. In 1779 he was convicted of forgery in Florence 
and condemned to life servitude in the galleys. These are among many 
instances where the story is filled out with background. 

Mozart's "Times" in the title refers to his social surroundings in 
Salzburg, Paris or Vienna and, wisely, does not treat such world events 
as wars and revolutions. Mozart's exclusively musical life was scarcely 
touched by these except for an occasional momentary inconvenience. 
Schenk digs up some interesting points. He attributes the first plan 
for The Marriage of Figaro not to Mozart but to Schikaneder, who 
had offered to the newly established National Theatre in Vienna his 
own translation of Beaumarchais's play. "The work was rehearsed, 
but at the last moment was cancelled on direct orders from the 
Emperor." He corrects other statements that have been repeated from 
book to book. Anecdotes, also much repeated, which are traceable to 
a single unreliable source can, of course, do no more than come up 
for speculative judgment. He accepts the tale that Mozart composed 
the overture to Don Giovanni on the night before the first performance. 
As for the rumor that Mozart "was offered an appointment by the 
King of Prussia and refused it only out of consideration for Vienna 
and the Emperor Joseph," he concludes that it "is based on no evidence 
whatsoever." He believes that the estrangement between father and 
son through the Vienna decade has been much exaggerated. He has 
consulted modern medical opinion on several points, and believes 
that Mozart in his last months suffered from "uremic irritation of 
the brain." 

Emily Anderson's three-volume translation of the letters has good 
but inadequate footnotes. Schenk's book has few footnotes, for it is 
in effect a prodigious annotation of the letters. A reader of the 
letters would be in clover with Schenk at his right hand. 

j. N. B. 

["] 



MOZART'S PIANO CONCERTOS 



TT could almost be said that Mozart created the piano concerto as a 
-■■ form — it is certainly true that he developed it from almost negli- 
gible beginnings to great ends. His first direct model was Christian 
Bach, and this Bach owed much to his older and more exploratory 
brother, Carl Philip Emanuel. Emanuel Bach's gropings toward the 
sonata form were still heavily overlaid with the tradition of the con- 
certo grosso — a chamber ensemble in which the keyboard was a sup- 
porting continuo instrument. Only exceptionally, as in the father 
Bach's splendid specimens, had it become a prominent part of the 
counterpoint, assuming an occasional solo function, not yet an inde- 
pendent, thematic function. 

Mozart, the virtuoso perpetually on show, had a lifelong inducement 
to develop both factors in a concerto. No phase of his art was pressed 
upon him so persistently as this, and the result was prodigious both in 
quantity and quality. He achieved the spectacular metamorphosis 
quite alone and unaided, not even by the example of Haydn. Haydn's 
concertos were unprogressive — he readily filled in at the clavier but 
never cultivated it as a conspicuous solo performer. 

The concerto as Mozart found it was little more than a harpsichord 
sonata with a backing of string players. He left it a full orchestral 
form, an organization even more complex than the symphony, in 
which the two elements of solo and orchestra each blended or alter- 
nated with the other in a perfect integration. Any one of the later 
concertos is fully symphonic — often richer in color, variety and indi- 
vidual expression than a symphony. 

Beethoven, on whom the mantle of successor was to fall, assumed it 
with uneasiness, for he had a deep admiration for Mozart's concertos. 
With a strengthened piano and orchestral sonority at his command 
and a new impulse of dramatic intensity, he could have made the 
concerto a mere vehicle for virtuosos. He did not because he was 
Beethoven, and because unlike pianistic lions of a still later day to 
whom the concerto was to be thrown, he had a healthy respect for 
Mozart's ideal — the balancing of both elements for one expressive 
purpose. Beethoven's hesitancy to commit his first two concertos to 
publication must have come from a sense that in magnification a 
certain peak of perfection would be destroyed. The light Mozartean 
orchestra, the light-toned piano, made a transparent ensemble in which 
every detail was luminously clear, the voices of the individual and the 
group wonderfully matched. It was indeed a state of felicity doomed 
to succumb to new ways. The sacrifice was organizational too. Mozart 
had developed as a personal skill the ordering and reordering of mani- 
as] 



fold themes, their changing applicability, their fusion into a fluent 
whole. This complex had to go, for new needs called for new 
construction. 

To appreciate what Mozart did for the piano concerto it is not 
enough to compare the first and last — one must compare his very 
first efforts with the models about him at the time. As a small boy in 
London he encountered concertos by Wagenseil and other composers 
now forgotten, but particularly the concertos as well as the symphonies 
of Johann Christian Bach. This youngest Bach frankly purveyed 
to fashionable audiences with gracefully ornamented melodies and 
elementary accompaniments calculated not to disturb. His earlier 
concertos were composed for harpsichord and strings, with sometimes 
a light reinforcement of oboes and horns. The later ones were pub- 
lished for "harpsichord or forte-piano," but the string group was still 
constricted by the fainter instrument. A typical concerto at the time 
(there were of course exceptions) began with a principal subject by the 
string tutti, this later repeated in a series of ritornelli, each followed 
by a display of passage work from the soloist, to which the orchestra 
would add a gingerly bass or an occasional short interjection. The 
result was wooden alternation and thematic repetitiousness, which, 
when one principal theme was relied upon, became a squirrel cage. 
The orchestra was the servant to the soloist, bowing him in and out 
and standing ready with discreet pizzicati or obsequious bass notes 
where required. The following movements the soloist had even more 
to himself, carrying in the rondo an almost continuous pattern of run- 
ning sixteenths. In old Sebastian Bach's concerti grossi, the clavier had 
been pushed forward from its function of figured bass, and while 
promoted from its solo duty of providing chord accompaniment, was 
still a voice in the general texture. The result was beautiful and 
exciting until counterpoint went out of fashion. As a melodic instru- 
ment in the newer regime of Bach's sons, the harpsichord became in 
concertos a weakling ruler incapable of sustaining any position of 
tonal eminence. 

Mozart thought and worked from the beginning in terms of the 
sturdier pianoforte. He began at once to treat the orchestra as a 
respected partner and to break up the sectional block procedure. His 
first original piano concerto (K. 175), written in Salzburg late in 1773, 
at once leaves all previous concertos far behind. The scheme of those 
to follow is already laid out and needs only to be amplified, eased, 
subtilized. The piano and orchestra proceed like good dancing part- 
ners instead of an ill-assorted and stilted pair, each afraid of stepping 
on the toes of the other. Since the true valuation of any of Mozart's 
concertos lies in its inner impulse, its buoyancy and invention rather 
than its anatomy, it need only be said that the very first brought the 

[Hi 



piano concerto to life as a new apparition in music, and those to follow 
would range variously according to the adventuring imagination of 
the growing artist. 

A cynical view of the concertos stresses the point that Mozart as a 
child was initiated in an atmosphere of galanterie at its most superficial. 
Concertos were necessarily made to entertain light-minded audiences. 
As he grew up he continued to appear before such audiences, to impress 
them as a remarkable pianist, and was expected to furnish new scores 
for this plain purpose. It could be said that he was catering to con- 
tingencies all along, the limitations of available performers even more 
than the limitations of his audiences. The more perceptive view is that 
he brushed aside such annoyances as insufficiency around him and 
dilettantism before him, and poured into the music, beneath the 
unruffled surface of the accustomed graceful style, the utmost of his 
musical nature. The concertos contain something of Mozart's every 
aspect — the chamber, the symphonic, the operatic composer. We have 
all of his moods from light playfulness, sheer joyousness, to the sombre, 
the violent. The slow movements are unexcelled elsewhere. The 
finales in the aggregate are unequaled. They repeat favorite rhythms 
but treat them in as many fresh ways as there are concertos. Most 
astonishing of all is the variety of treatment. No concerto is reminis- 
cent of any other either in large plan or small detail. There is even 
constant variety in patterns of figuration, and this includes the piano 
parts. Any composer other than Mozart, in the position of perpetually 
having to dazzle his audiences, could not have avoided, even if he had 
wished to, the displacement of musical interest in his concertos by 
sterile bravura. Mozart continued to dazzle, but while doing so, his 
scales, arpeggios, trills, became at one with the long melodic line, 
integral to the ensemble. 

There are no really weak links in the chain of twenty-seven.* There 
is no other group of works in the orchestral repertory by any composer 
where there are so many truly great ones that no conductor or soloist 
can get around to performing them all. Even an ardent Mozartean is 
necessarily guilty of important omissions, J. N. b, 



* Only twenty-three are original, 



[15] 



DAPHNIS ET CHLOt- Ballet in One Act- 

Orchestral Fragments 

Second Series: "Daybreak," "Pantomime," "General Dance" 

By Maurice Ravel 
Born in Ciboure, Basses-Pyren£es, March 7, 1875; died in Paris, December 28, 1937 



The ballet Daphnis et Chloe was completed in 1911, and first produced June 8, 
1912 by Diaghileff's Ballet Russe, at the Chdtelet in Paris, Pierre Monteux conduct- 
ing. Of the two orchestral suites drawn from the ballet, the second had its first 
performance at the concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, December 14, 1917 
(Dr. Karl Muck conducting). The complete music, with chorus, was performed at 
these concerts January 21-22, 1955. 

The Second Suite is scored for 2 flutes, bass flute and piccolo, 2 oboes and English 
horn, 2 clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-flat and bass clarinet, 3 bassoons and contra- 
bassoon, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, 2 side 
drums, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, castanets, celesta, glockenspiel, 2 harps and 
strings. A wordless mixed chorus is written in the score, but is optional and can be 
replaced by instruments. 

tn his autobiographical sketch of 1928, Ravel described his Daphnis 
-* et Chloe as "a choreographic symphony in three parts, commissioned 
from me by the director of the company of the Ballet Russe: M. Serge 
de Diaghileff. The plot was by Michel Fokine, at that time choreog- 
rapher of the celebrated troupe. My intention in writing it was to 
compose a vast musical fresco, less scrupulous as to archaism than 
faithful to the Greece of my dreams, which inclined readily enough 
to what French artists of the late eighteenth century have imagined 
and depicted. 

"The work is constructed symphonically according to a strict tonal 
plan by the method of a few motifs, the development of which achieves 
a symphonic homogeneity of style. 

"Sketched in 1907, Daphnis was several times subjected to revision 
— notably the finale." 

There were late revisions. If Ravel's date of 1907* is indeed correct, 
"Daphnis et Chloe" was five years in the making and must indeed have 
many times been "remis sur le metier" as Ravel expressed it, before the 
perfectionist was sufficiently content with his handiwork to release it 
for dancing and for printing. 

Diaghileff, deflecting the principal creative musicians of the day 
(Stravinsky, Strauss, Debussy) to his purposes, could not quite make 
ballet composers out of them, and the same may be said of Ravel. 
Nijinsky and Karsavina danced the title parts in the original produc- 
tion. The scenario was by .Fokine; the designer of scenery and costumes 

* The date is surprising. Diaghileff's Ballet had its first Paris season in 1909 ; 1909, and 
sometimes 1910, are given as that in which Ravel began "Daphnis et Chloe"." Roland-Manuel 
thinks that Ravel made a "mistake of two years" in naming 1907, which again is surprising, 
since Roland-Manuel originally wrote the autobiographical sketch at Ravel's dictation. In 1907 
Diaghileff was in Paris and probably had met Ravel, but there was no plan as yet for a ballet 
season in Paris. It is, of course, possible that Ravel's first sketches for "Daphnis et Chlo6" 
were purely symphonic in intent, a fact he might not have been quick to admit after the 
vicissitudes of the piece in the theatre. 

[16] 



was Leon Bakst. An indifferent success was reported, attributable in 
part to a gathering storm of dissension between Fokine and Diaghileff. 
There was considerable dissension within the Ballet Russe at the time. 
Disagreement seems to have centered on the problem of a danced 
presentation of subjects from Ancient Greece. Nijinsky, even while 
miming the character of Daphnis, was executing, according to novel 
ideas of his own, "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune." It can be well imagined 
that, in the presentation of "Daphnis et Chloe," Nijinsky and Fokine 
found it hard to work together. One can further surmise, from Ravel's 
later allusion to "the Greece of his dreams," a "late eighteenth century" 
Greece would not have contributed toward single-mindedness in the 
rehearsals of "Daphnis." Those rehearsals were many and extended to 
the very morning of the first performance. They took place, according 
to Serge Lifar, "under a storm cloud. The corps de ballet ran afoul of 
the 5-4 rhythm in the finale, and counted it out by repeating the sylla- 
bles 'Ser-ge-Dia-ghi-leff,' 'Ser-ge-Dia-ghi-leff.' " When the season ended, 
there duly followed the break between Fokine and Diaghileff. As for 
the music itself, it has found fitful usefulness in the theatre, but enjoys 
a lusty survival in the concert hall. 

The story comes from a document of ancient Greece, and is attrib- 
uted to a sophist, Longus, who lived in the second or third century 
a.d. It is the oldest of countless tales of the love, tribulation and final 
union of a shepherd and shepherdess. The first version of Daphnis 
and Chloe to appear in print was a French translation by Amyot, 
which was printed in 1559. The first English translation was made by 
Angell Dave, printed in 1587. A translation by George Thornley (1657) 
is in current print. Thornley in a preface "to the criticall reader," 
commends the author as "a most sweet and pleasant writer," and calls 
the tale "a Perpetual Oblation to Love; An Everlasting Anathema, 
Sacred to Pan, and the Nymphs; and, A Delightful Possession even 
for all." 

In the third part of the ballet (which is the second suite) the scene is 
that of the beginning. It is night. Daphnis, mourning Chloe, is still 
prostrate. As the light of dawn gradually fills the scene, shepherds enter, 
seeking Daphnis and Chloe. They find Daphnis and wake him; Chloe 
enters and tne lovers embrace. Chloe, beloved of the gods, has been 
saved by the intervention of Pan. Daphnis and Chloe reenact the story 
of Pan and Syrinx, the nymph who, according to the legend, successfully 
evaded the god's pursuit, whereupon he broke off reeds from the thicket 
into which she had disappeared and fashioned what was to become the 
traditional ancestor to the flute. The others join in the dance, which 
becomes wild and bacchanalian. Chloe falls into the arms of Daphnis. 
The ballet ends in a joyous tumult. 

[copyrighted] 

[17] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining concerts in the Wednesday evening series in 
Carnegie Hall will be as follows: 

January 20 WILLIAM STEINBERG, Conductor 

February 17 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
RUGGIERO RICCI, Violin 

March 23 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 



The remaining concerts in the Saturday afternoon series will be 
as follows: 

January 23 WILLIAM STEINBERG, Conductor 

February 20 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
GREGOR PIATIGORSKY, Cello 

March 26 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

GARY GRAFFMAN, Piano 



Tickets at the Carnegie Hall Box Office. 



The concerts by this Orchestra in Symphony Hall, Boston, on 
Saturday nights at 8:30 are broadcast complete by Station 
WQXR, New York. 



CARNEGIE HALL • NEW YORK 

[18] 



seventy-ninth season • nineteen hundred fifty-nine -sixty 
Seventy-Fourth Season in New York 

Second Afternoon Concert 

SATURDAY, December 19, at 2:30 o'clock 



Program 



Mahler Adagio from the Tenth Symphony (Posthumous) 

Mozart Piano Concerto No. 24, in C minor, K. 491 

I. (Allegro) 

II. Larghetto 

III. Allegretto 

INTERMISSION 

Mendelssohn Symphony No. 3, in A minor, "Scottish," Op. 56 

I. Andante con moto; Allegro un poco agitato 

II. Vivace non troppo 

III. Adagio 

IV. Allegro vivacissimo; Allegro maestoso assai 

(Played without pause) 



SOLOIST 

CLAUDE FRANK 
Mr. Frank uses the Steinway Piano 



Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[19] 



ADAGIO FROM THE TENTH SYMPHONY (Posthumous) 

By Gustav Mahler 
Born in Kalischt, Bohemia, July 7, i860; died in Vienna, May 18, 1911 



Mahler left at his death sketches, partly realized in full score, of a Tenth Sym- 
phony. In 1924, thirteen years later, his widow, then Mrs. Alma Maria Mahler, had 
these sketches published complete in facsimile. Two movements, the first (Adagio) 
and the third (Purgatorio) were prepared for performance by Ernst Krenek and first 
performed in Vienna October 12, 1924 under Franz Schalk.* These two movements 
as published by the Associated Music Publishers were introduced in this country on 
December 6, 1949 by the Erie Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Fritz 
Mahler, the composer's nephew. The Adagio was introduced to the Boston Sym- 
phony concerts by Richard Burgin, December 11-12, 1953. 

The orchestra required consists of 3 flutes and piccolo, 3 oboes, 3 clarinets, 
3 bassoons, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, cymbals, gong, 
harp and strings. 

>t*he movement opens andante, pianissimo, in what is to be the 
-■■ prevailing key — F-sharp major. There is a fifteen-measure melody 
for the violas alone. The mood is at once established as gentle, 
meditative, but intensely felt. There follows a section slightly slower 
(adagio), but with the inner animation of multi-voices. The first 
violins, accompanied by divided strings and winds, sing another long 
melody of similar character. The movement is to become an alterna- 
tion of these adagio and andante sections, an alternation, too, of a 
full-voiced style and a single-voiced, the unaccompanied violas return- 
ing twice. The movement keeps its character and rhythm throughout, 
and takes the form of a continuously unfolding melodic line, the self- 
perpetuating themes maintaining a change in contour, finding varia- 
tion in a rich complex of voice weaving and in a succession of orches- 
tral colorings wherein Mahler's familiar mastery is unabated. There is 
an undercurrent of dark bass and places where the voice leading and 
harmony develop a sort of anguish of discord. The general sombre 
quality of the music is relieved occasionally by trills in the wood-winds 
or high strings, or pizzicatos to sharpen the persistent rhythm of the 
accompaniment. After tumultuous arpeggios from the harp and strings, 
dissonant chordst bring the peak of tension and then cease, leaving an 

• An earlier performance mentioned in Hull's Dictionary in Prague under Zemlinski apparently 
did not take place and a statement in Baker's Dictionary that Franz Mikorey "completed from 
Mahler's sketches that composer's Tenth Symphony, produced as 'Symphonia Engiadina,' " in 
1913, is surely apocryphal. Mr. Krenek's account of his part in the restoration is quoted on 
page 25 of this Bulletin. 

t The climactic chord is also the ultimate reach of Mahler's harmonic ventures. Nicolas 
Slonimsky, asked to analyze it, obliges with the following report: "The harmonic climax of 
the first movement is a tremendous chord (C sharp, G sharp, B, D, F, A, C, E, G), which 
may be described as the ultra-tonal chord of the diminished 19th. It is ultra-tonal because it 
goes beyond the bounds of a single tonality ; its formation, in thirds, encompasses the interval 
of a diminished 19th, or a diminished fifth and two octaves. (It is interesting to note that in 
preserving this tertian formation, Mahler still adheres to the tenets of traditional chord- 
building.) In medieval theory, the tritone (which is enharmonically synonymous with either 
a diminished fifth or an augmented fourth) was called Diabolus in Musica, and one may 
speculate whether Mahler consciously selected a climactic chord derived from a tritone, seeing 
that he was preoccupied with the Devil during the composition of his last unfinished sym- 
phony. Strauss, in his symphonic poem, Also Sprach Zarathustra, uses a similar extended 
tritone between the extremes of the low and high registers for the ending." 

[«o] 



yVUvkclx/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rca Victor records exclusively 



THE NWTH SYMPHONY 
Of BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular LP.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



®RCAViCTOR@ 



unearthly high note from the flutes, violins and trumpet. There fol- 
lows a gentle subsidence, the orchestra now becoming light and lumi- 
nous, the melody spare, tenuous and lingering, as if this were a farewell 
to life, a true sequel to the Finale of Das Lied von der Erde and of the 
Ninth Symphony. It is barely possible that Mahler may have first 
intended this movement as the closing one. In his manuscript as repro- 
duced in facsimile, there was at first no number at the head. The 
sketches for the other movements, of which there are four, show a 
different order than the final one, which is indicated by a later correc- 
tion in blue pencil, the five movements thus finally indicated in Roman 
numerals. Over the word "Adagio," Mahler has blue penciled "I." 

The facsimile is an interesting revelation* of Mahler in the very 
process of musical creation. His first draft of each movement is in 
sketch form, written usually on four or five staves with the instru- 
mentation sometimes indicated, sometimes not, where the composer 
may have been either still unclear in his intentions or clear enough not 
to need a later self-reminder. The Adagio, after being sketched at full 
length, is rewritten in full score (with some change, particularly in the 
order of sections). The second movement and the opening of the 
third (Purgatorio) are the only other portions in open score. The plan 
of the symphony was finally as follows: the Adagio, a first Scherzo, the 
Purgatorio as a sort of interlude, a second Scherzo, and a Finale, the 
order of the two Scherzos ultimately reversed, according to the evidence 
of the composer's blue pencil. 

The two Scherzos, so-called, have little of the meaning of the word 
except in their tempi; the shadow of death haunts each movement. 
At the head of the second, he has written, "The Devil dances it with 
me. Madness seizes me, accursed that I am — annihilates me, so that 
I cease to exist, so that I forget to be. . . ." The manuscript shows 
signs of having been written in great haste and excitement. Words 
scribbled in at other points are a further sign of Mahler's frenetic state 
of mind — words it would seem that were never intended for the public 
eye. Yet the completed Adagio is a score accomplished in full detail 
and definition by the controlling hand of the master. We may reason- 
ably suppose that the remainder of the symphony, had the composer 
lived to work it out and complete the parts still "under construction,' 
would have been as well shaped and ordered. 

Mahler's widow tells us in a foreword to the published facsimile that 
she kept these sketches for a long while as her "precious right to protect 
as my own the treasure of the Tenth Symphony." She may well have 
felt a personal privacy in this score for at the end the composer has 
addressed words to her: "Almschi!—fur dich lebenl—fiXr dich sterben!' 

* Adolf Weissmann, describing the facsimile on the occasion of the first performance in 
Vienna, used a different word: "self-denudation" ( Selbstentblossung ) . He reminds us that 
there was no finality in Mahler the orchestrator. 

[22] 



and at the end of the fourth movement: "Du allein weissest was es 
bedeutet. Ach! Ach! Lebwohl mein Saitenspiel!" She continues, "But 
now I feel it my duty to make known to the world the last thoughts 
of the master.* The great structure of these symphonic movements 
arises now for all to see. There are unfinished walls; scaffolding con- 
ceals the architecture, although the whole, the plain, is plainly recog- 
nizable; the orchestra [Kapelle] of the Adagio gleams forth in wonder- 
ful clarity and beside it the slender tower of the Purgatorio-Scherzo. 
Many will read these pages as a book of magic; others will stand before 
the magic signs lacking the key; no one w T ill be able to draw from them 
or comprehend their full strength. The basic sentiment of the Tenth 
Symphony is the certainty of death, the suffering of death, the con- 
tempt of death. I was a witness to an experience which became a source 
of one of these movements [this would be the Purgatorio, which ends 
with a harp glissando and the beat of a muffled gong]. One winter 
day in 1907, Gustav Mahler and I stood at the window of our hotel in 
New York. Far below us there was a funeral service. A fireman who 
had lost his life w T hile performing his duty of rescue w T as being carried 
to the grave. A great crowd of people accompanied the hero. There 
was a distant murmur and then there was quiet. A speaker stepped 
out from the crowd. We could not hear him but there was music 
playing, and suddenly we heard the short, hollow beat of a drum. In 
alarm I looked at Gustav Mahler. There were tears in his eyes — his 
face was distorted by emotion." 



* Adolf Weissmann has stated that Mahler did not wish his "Unfinished Symphony" to be 
made known ; Egon Wellesz has stated (in Grove's Supplement) that he wished the sketches 
to be destroyed. 

[copyrighted] 



ENTR'ACTE 
MAHLER AND BOSTON 



Gustav Mahler, in his first season in America (1907-08), visited 
Boston and privately expressed his opinion of Boston's orchestra. 
According to his widow, Alma Mahler Werfel, in her "Gustav Mahler, 
Memories and Letters" (Viking Press, 1946), Mahler visited Boston in 
the spring of that season as conductor of the Metropolitan Opera 
Company. "Boston itself was dull and sedate," writes Frau Werfel, 
"compared with other American towns. Here too we lived in isolation 
for the few days we were there. We had only one invitation. Mrs. 
Gardner (the great collector of Italian works of art) asked us to a 
luncheon party at her house, and we were eager to pay a visit to her 

[23] 



palatial museum. Unfortunately we failed to find the entrance. The 
building resembled a gigantic cistern without windows or doors. We 
got out of our automobile and made the complete circuit of the house, 
but found neither door nor bell. So we left it at that and drove back 
to our hotel, glad to be alone and to do as we pleased. Alone or in 
company we were always in any case enclosed within a vacuum." 

If Mahler, like his wife, was unimpressed with Boston, his impression 
of Boston's orchestra was very different. The following letter was 
published in "Letters of Composers" (Alfred Knopf, 1946): 

To Willem Mengelberg New York, February 1908 

"Dear old Friend: 

"Very shortly you will receive (I hope) a proposal from Boston invit- 
ing you to assume the direction of the (magnificent) orchestra as suc- 
cessor to Muck. . . . Yesterday I talked to Schelling about this and he 
told me you were not much inclined to accept the position. Since I 
can easily imagine your reasons, perhaps it would not be amiss for me 
to give you a few details so that when you make your decision you 
won't be too prejudiced and will have a clearer idea of the situation. 

"The position in Boston is the finest conceivable for a musician. 
The first and foremost of the entire continent. An orchestra of the 
first rank, unlimited authority, a social position that the musician in 
Europe can never achieve. A public so appreciative and eager to learn 
that Europeans can't even conceive of it. After your experiences in 
New York you are in no position to form any opinions on this subject. 
Here in New York the theatre is the main attraction and the concert 
is the affair of only a small minority. 

"In addition you should also seriously consider the salary. If they 
approach you, ask for $20,000 (around 50,000 gulden or even a little 
more). You can manage quite beautifully on S6,ooo to $8,000 and put 
the rest aside. I would accept the position unconditionally in your 
place because the most important thing for the artist is the instrument 
he has and the echo his art awakens. Please let me know immediately 
what you think about this and whether I should pursue the matter 
further for you. I'm going to see Higgins [sic ] around the end of 
March (up to now I've only been corresponding with him) and at that 
time I could arrange everything for you, which is difficult to do in 
writing. It would be glorious for me to have you close by. Indeed I, 
too, will also spend next year in America. I am quite enraptured with 
the country, though the artistic satisfactions of the Metropolitan are 
only rather so-so. I am in a great hurry and want this to reach you 
soon. Please answer immediately, even if in brief. 

"Greetings to your dear wife and our friends in Amsterdam and 
best regards from your old friend, 

Gustav Mahler." 



1*4] 



KRENEK AND MAHLER'S TENTH 



Ernst Krenek has kindly written about his part in the realization 
of Mahler's Tenth Symphony in 1924. On examining the sketches, 
he decided that only two movements would permit this without "free 
paraphrasing upon the ideas of a departed master." The Adagio, in 
his opinion, "was as good as completely finished by his own hand. 
As I remember it there w r ere just expression marks missing now and 
then, slurs, ties, and other such accessories. Franz Schalk who was 
startled by the thinness of the orchestration disagreed w T ith me on this 
point. He tried to point out that the fact that all measures in which 
some instruments did not have any notes were empty (not containing 
any rests) proved that Mahler wanted those instruments to play some- 
thing, or else he would have put rests there, according to his proverbial 
careful penmanship. (This, by way, implied a typical Schalkian dig 
at "us moderns," who were not used any longer to be so careful. . . .) 
My answer to this was that since Mahler had listed on each page of his 
score all instruments (not only those which were actually engaged at 
any given time — such as we poor "moderns" nowadays do to save 
precious paper) Schalk's theory would mean that Mahler wanted all 
instruments to play all the time from beginning to end of the piece, 
which was obviously silly. Furthermore I argued that the thinness of 
the orchestration was an entirely logical consequence of the stylistic 
tendencies of the Ninth Symphony. To me it seemed to prove the 
vitality of Mahler's genius that, after having manipulated the gigantic 
masses of the Eighth Symphony, he should embark upon experimenta- 
tion with the new trend toward subtle, chamber-music-like features. 
He certainly was not unaware of Schoenberg's turn in that direction. 
Needless to say that I failed to convince Mr. Schalk who was just 
skeptical of the whole thing, much as he seemed to be of everything 
since his world had come to an end in 1918. In the few contacts I had 
with him he always exhibited a sort of Mephistophelian frame of mind 
and seemed to be really pleased only when everything went wrong. 
HLs was a typically Austrian cynicism, lovable and exasperating at the 
same time. This, at least, is my picture of the man. 

The "Purgatorio." Of this I found a complete sketch, in a sort of 
piano particell, and an orchestral score, about two-thirds finished. I felt 
that the orchestration of the last third could relatively easily be com- 
pleted, since the section mainly consisted of previous material. 



[25] 



PIANO CONCERTO NO. 24, in C minor, K. 491 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This Concerto was composed in March, 1786. 

The orchestration consists of flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani and strings. 

Of Mozart's twenty-seven concertos for piano there are two in the 
minor tonality: this one and the Concerto in D minor, K. 466 
(numbered 20, and composed in the year previous). The minor mode 
was often for Mozart a signal for serious, even tragic matters. 

Einstein wrote that Mozart here "evidently needed to indulge in an 
explosion of dark, tragic, passionate emotion." The composer's motive 
is of course pure conjecture. The plain and astonishing fact is that 
Mozart, tied up with many duties, absorbed in the preparations for 
Figaro (this was the Figaro year), turned out not a casual piece in the 
entertainment pattern, but what is generally considered his most 
independent and challenging, his most prodigious work in this form. 
It is his ultimate venture, his furthest exploration of the piano con- 
certo; for the three which were to follow were to be a further refine- 
ment on what he had done. If Mozart could be said ever to have 
ignored his public in a concerto and followed completely his own 
inner promptings, it was here. The first audience must have been 
dismayed when instead of the usual diatonic opening subject they were 
presented with a tortuous, chromatic succession of phrases with upward 
skips of diminished sevenths. This was a new and strange tonal world, 
and not a gracious one. Their dismay would not have been lessened 
when the whole orchestra proclaimed the theme with dire emphasis. 
A soft theme introduced by the woodwinds gives only momentary 
relief, for the first theme sweeps it away. The piano enters with a new 
theme, still in C minor, but is drawn into the ubiquitous theme, adding 
an octave to the wide interval. The theme dominates the movement, 
the soloist (as in the D minor Concerto) adding to the excitement with 
agitating scale passages. It is a less stormy opening movement than 
that of the D minor Concerto, but it is more vivid, more subtle, and 
more deeply felt. Although the cadenza brings a long coda, ending 
pianissimo, there is no assuagement, and the serenity of a major mode 
is imperative. Nothing could be more serene than the melody of the 
Larghetto. The three elements — piano, strings and winds — are com- 
bined each way with wondrous results. In treating the wind choir, 
the composer obviously gloried in having a full quota, clarinets and 
oboes included, and he made the most of them (the trumpets and 

[26] 



drums had no place here but are mustered in the other movements). 
The final Allegretto brings no happy ending as the finale of the 
D minor does. It begins and ends in C minor, traversing many keys. 
It is a series of variations on two subjects, the second of which opens 
the way for astonishing chromatic development — a chromaticism 
which serves for thematic individualization, modulation and transition 
equal in skill to the manipulations in the G minor Symphony which 
would come two years later. These variations defy description — they 
are surely one of Mozart's highest achievements in the form. 

This concerto combines range, intensive direction and extraordinary 
adventurousness. It speaks to the nineteenth century, and was a 
favorite with Beethoven. Under the immediate spell of a performance, 
one is strongly moved to give it some sort of crown — the crown, let us 
say, for the ultimate point, as Mozart through his life sought to bring 
the orchestra and his own instrument into ever closer communion. 

[copyrighted] 

CLAUDE FRANK 



Claude Frank was born in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1925, and has 
made the United States his home, having lived here since 1941. He 
was a student in the conducting department of the Berkshire Music 
Center in the summer of 1947 under the direction of Serge Kousse- 
vitzky. In the following year he joined the faculty at Bennington 
College in Vermont. He has served as assistant conductor of the 
Dessoff Choir. However, through the years his attention was increas- 
ingly taken by his development as pianist. He studied with Artur 
Schnabel for ten years and later joined the faculty of Rudolf Serkin's 
school at Marlboro, Vermont, taking part in the Marlboro Music 
Festival. It was under the advice of both Schnabel and Serkin that he 
devoted himself principally to the piano. He has toured Europe as 
well as America in recitals and appearances with orchestra. 




QQTY, ..THE ESSENCE OF BEAUTY THAT IS FRANCE 



[27] 



SYMPHONY NO. 3 IN A MINOR, "SCOTTISH," Op. 56 

By Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 

Born in Berlin, February 3, 1809; died in Leipzig, November 4, 1847 



This symphony was finished January 20, 1842, and first performed at the Gewand- 
haus concerts in Leipzig on March 3 following, the composer conducting. The first 
performance in this country was by the Philharmonic Society in New York, George 
Loder conducting, November 22, 1845. The first performance in Boston was by the 
Academy of Music at the Melodeon, November 14, 1846, G. J. Webb conducting. 

The instrumentation includes 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. 

The score is inscribed as "composed for and dedicated to Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria of England." It was published in 1843. 

IN the spring of 1829, Felix Mendelssohn, promising pianist and 
composer of twenty, visited England, played with the Philharmonic 
Orchestra in London and conducted it, was entertained by delightful 
people, and enjoyed himself thoroughly. In July he undertook a tour 
of Scotland with his friend Carl Klingemann. The people and the 
landscape interested him. He wrote of the Highlanders with their 
"long, red beards, tartan plaids, bonnets and feathers, naked knees, and 
their bagpipes in their hands." The moorlands intrigued him too, and 
when fogs and rains permitted, the sketchbook was brought out and put 
to good use. Mendelssohn was an insatiable tourist, and if the camera 
had been invented would surely have otherwise committed landscapes 
to memory. 

He wrote home of the Hebrides and the Cave of Fingal — also of the 
Palace of Holyrood, then a picturesque ruin, in which Mary of Scotland 
had dwelt. "In the evening twilight we went today to the palace where 
Queen Mary lived and loved; a little room is shown there with a wind- 
ing staircase leading up to the door; up this way they came and found 
Rizzio in that little room, pulled him out, and three rooms off there is 
a dark corner, where they murdered him. The chapel close to it is now 
roofless, grass and ivy grow there, and at that broken altar Mary was 
crowned Queen of Scotland. Everything around is broken and mould- 
ering, and the bright sky shines in. I believe I found today in that old 
chapel the beginning of my Scottish Symphony." There follow sixteen 
measures which were to open the introduction of the first movement. 
These measures have also been attributed to the incident that, returning 
to the inn at Edinburgh, Mendelssohn there listened to a plaintive 
Scotch air sung by the landlord's daughter. 

In this way Mendelssohn carried out of Scotland two scraps of melody 
that were to be put to good use — this one and the opening measures of 
the "Fingal's Cave" Overture. Smaller works for piano, and for voice, 
were also suggested by Scotland. 

It would be a mistake, of course, to look for anything like definite 
description in this score, or for that matter in any symphony of 
Mendelssohn. He did not even publish it with a specific title, although 

[28] 



he so referred to it in his letters. There have been attempts to prove 
the symphony Scottish in character. George Hogarth, who was beside 
Mendelssohn as he attended the "competition of Pipers" at Edinburgh, 
testified that "he was greatly interested by the war tunes of the different 
clans, and the other specimens of the music of the country. ... In this 
symphony, though composed long afterwards, he embodied some of 
his reminiscences of a period to which he always looked back with 
pleasure. The delightful manner in which he has reproduced some of 
the most characteristic features of the national music — solemn, pathetic, 
gay, warlike — is familiar to every amateur." 

The trouble with Mr. Hogarth's statement is that most hearers, cer- 
tainly the German ones, have not followed him so far. An enthusiastic 
Britisher would tend to make much of such thematic resemblances; but, 
after all, a folkish tune in the British Isles or Germany can have much 
in common, and by the time Mendelssohn has in his own way developed 
through a dozen measures the quasi jig-like 6-8 of the first movement 
or the theme of the scherzo in which one can possibly discern "national 
character," any truly Scottish jauntiness seems to have departed. Ger- 
man writers, in a day given to imaginative flights, went far afield from 
the Scottish scene. Ambrose was reminded by the "violent conflicts" 
in the Finale (which someone else likened to the gathering of clans) of 
"a roaring lion with which we might fancy a young Paladin in knightly 
combat. . . . And then the airy, elfish gambols of the Scherzo — we 
cannot help it, we invent a whole fairy tale of our own to fit it, a tale 
of the genuine old German stamp, something like the Sleeping Beauty 
of the Woods, or Cinderella, or Schneewittchen." 

It is probably nearer the truth that the thoughts of the young German 
were swarming with musical images in the summer of 1829, images 
which took on a passing shape, a superficial trait or two from what he 
heard in a strange land. An indefatigable sight-seer, he must have found 
the raucous drones produced by brawny males in skirts less a matter 
for musical inspiration or suggestion than an exotic curiosity. It took 
an islander such as Chorley to find and stress characteristic Scottish 
intervals in the Scherzo of the symphony. Mendelssohn, who took 
pleasure in affixing a picturesque name to a symphony, particularly in 
the light chatter of his letters, probably had no serious descriptive 
intentions. He hated "to explain" his music, so it is reported, and 
would turn off the elaborate word pictures of others with a joke. When 
Schubring went into a transport of fantasy over the "Meeresstille" 
Overture, its composer answered that his own mental picture was an 
old man sitting in the stern of the boat and helping matters by blowing 
into the sail. "Notes," wrote Mendelssohn in a letter from Italy, "have 
as definite a meaning as words, perhaps even a more definite one." But 
that meaning, precluding words, would also preclude anything so 
concrete as a particular landscape or nation. 

[29] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) 

Medea's Dance of Vengeance 

Adagio for Strings 

Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 

Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 

Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 

Symphony No. 9 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

"L'Enfance du Christ" 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 

"Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 

Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 

Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) 

"The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 
"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 
The Anprentice Sorceror 
Introduction and Allegro 
Symphony No. 1 in D minor 
"Escales" (Ports of Call) 
Symphony on a Mountain Air 
( Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 



Bach 
Barber 

Beethoven 



Berlioz 

Bloch 
Brahms 

Debussy 



Dukas 
Elgar 
Franck 
Ibert 

D'lNDY 



Martinu 
Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 



Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 



Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



Wagner 
Walton 



LM-2182, 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 

LM- 

LM- 

LM- 
LM- 



"Fantaisies Symphoniques" 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 

(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) LM- 

Symphony No. 6 LM- 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts LM 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) LM- 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) LM 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" LM 

"Mother Goose" Suite LM 

Piano Concerto (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) LM 

"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" LM- 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) LM 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures LM 

Symphony No. 4 LM 

Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) LM 

Serenade for Strings LM 

Excerpts (Eileen Farrell) LM- 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) LM 



2198* 

2197 

2105 

2015 

2233* 

1997 

6066* 

1992* 

6053 

2228* 

2109 

2097 
1959 
2274* 

2030 

2111* 

1984* 

2282* 

■2292* 

•2105* 

■2131* 

2111* 

■2271* 

■1760 

■2083 

2221* 
■2314* 

2073 

2083 

2110 
2197 
2314* 

2237* 

1984* 
2292* 
2271* 

-1760 
2292* 

■2344 

2043 
■1953 
-2239* 
-2105* 

2255* 

-2109 



* Also a stereophonic recording. 



[SO] 



in the winter of 1830-31, while he was enjoying himself in Rome 
and Naples, themes which had occurred to him on the earlier journey 
had grown into rounded and extended form. The Fingal's Cave Over- 
ture then occupied him, and two symphonies "which," he wrote, "are 
rattling around in my head." But the Italian Symphony took prece- 
dence over the other, and even when that was in a fairly perfected 
condition, the Scottish Symphony seemed to elude him. He had good 
intentions of presently "taking hold" of it, but the Italian sunshine 
scattered his thoughts. "Who can wonder that I find it difficult to 
return to my misty Scotch mood?" The "schottische Nebelstimmung" 
was to bear fruit in the by no means uncheerful minor cast of the music. 
Another score, the Reformation Symphony, also in an unfinished 
state, was in his portmanteau at this time. This, with his earlier C 
minor Symphony and the later "Lobgesang," were to comprise all of 
his works in this form. 

He carried the Italian, Scottish, and Reformation symphonies about 
with him for years, endlessly reconsidering, polishing, touching up, 
before he was ready to take the irrevocable step of publication. Had 
the symphonies been numbered in the order of their composition, they 
would have been as follows: first, the C minor (1824), second the 
Reformation (1830-32), third the Italian (1833), fourth the Song of 
Praise (1840), and last the Scottish (1842). But the Italian and Refor- 
mation symphonies were withheld from publication until after his 
death, and thus attained the numbering Fourth and Fifth. By this 
circumstance the "Lobgesang" was published second in order, the 
Scottish third, and they were so numbered. 

Mendelssohn at last dated the manuscript of his Scottish Symphony 
as completed January 20, 1842, and on March 3 made it publicly 
known, conducting it at a Leipzig Gewandhaus concert. It was several 
times repeated there, and played in Berlin, where Mendelssohn then 
dwelt in the service of Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia. In June, 
Mendelssohn visited England again and conducted the work at a 
Philharmonic Concert (June 13), when it was much applauded. The 
audience at this time was not informed of any connection between the 
"new symphony" and Scotland. Mendelssohn, summoned to an audi- 
ence with Queen Victoria, played to her and the Prince Consort, and 
asked her to sing in return. Compliments were interchanged — in all 
sincerity, for the royal couple were delighted with their German visitor, 
and he, in his turn, wrote that she had sung "really quite faultlessly, 
and with agreeable feeling and expression." Mendelssohn asked the 
permission of the British Sovereign to dedicate his symphony to her, 
"for the English name would suit the Scottish piece charmingly." 

• • 

"The several movements of this symphony," according to instructions 

[31] 



printed in the original edition, "must follow each other immediately 
and not be separated by the usual pauses" (each movement, however, 
closes upon its tonic chord). 

The main body of the first movement, like the slow introduction, is 
in A minor, a lively 6-8 rhythm opening with its first theme given to 
the strings and oboes pianissimo. A transitional passage assai animato 
introduces the second theme in E minor, played by the clarinet while 
the first violins combine the first theme with the new one. There is the 
usual procedure of development, restatement and coda, and, to close, 
a repetition of a few measures from the introduction. 

The second movement, vivace non troppo, in F major 2-4, is in effect 
a scherzo and was so named in the earlier edition, although, like each 
movement in this symphony, it follows the sonata form. The second 
subject is but briefly developed. 

The third movement, adagio, in A major 2-4, discloses its first theme 
in the tenth measure as the first violins play cantabile. A march-like 
passage introduced by the wood winds intervenes before the second 
theme in E major is introduced by the first violins with pizzicato 
accompaniment. 

The Finale, allegro vivacissimo 2-2, restores the tonality of A minor. 
The first theme is at once introduced by the violins over violas, bassoons 
and horns, and the second (in E minor) by oboes and clarinets after a 
transitional episode for the full orchestra. The movement is developed 
at length and closes with a sonorous allegro maestoso assai, A major 6-8. 
This Finale was once compared to "a gathering of the clans," perhaps 
on account of the tempo indication allegro guerriero which stood on 
the earlier edition but which was later changed. 

[copyrighted] 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
FOR OUR RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio audience has prompted 
a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
I960 is $4.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 
Hall. 



[32] 



BROADCASTS by the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Winter Season, 1959-1960 



The Saturday evening concerts of the Winter Season 
be broadcast live on the following stations: 



will 



WGBH-FM 89.7 mc 

♦WCRB-AM 1330 kc 

*WCRB-FM 102.5 mc 

**WXHR-FM 96.9 mc 

**WTAG-FM 96.1 mc 

**WNHC-FM 99.1 mc 

**WQXR-AM 1560 kc 

**WQXR-FM 96.3 mc 

**WFIL-FM 102.1 mc 

**WFMZ-FM 100.7 mc 

**WFLY-FM 92.3 mc 

**WITH-FM 104.3 mc 

**WNBF-FM 98.1 mc 

**WGR-FM 96.9 mc 

**WRRA-FM 103.7 mc 

**WJTN-FM 93.3 mc 

**WHDL-FM 95.7 mc 

**WROC-FM 97.9 mc 

**WSYR-FM 94.5 mc 

**WRUN-FM 105.7 mc 

**WSNJ-FM 98.9 mc 



Boston 
Boston 
Boston 
Boston 
Worcester 
New Haven 
New York 
New York 
Philadelphia 
Allentown, Pa. 
Troy, N. Y. 
Baltimore 
Binghamton, N. Y. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jamestown, N. Y. 
Olean, N. Y. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Utica, N. Y. 
Bridgeton, N. J. 



The Friday afternoon concerts of the Winter Season will 

be broadcast live on the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WXHR-FM 96.9 mc Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 
by transcription at 8 P.M. on the Monday evening following 
the performances on the following stations: 



♦WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


*WBCN-FM 


104.1 mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


♦WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 



The Concerts of the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 
be broadcast by the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WGBH-TV Channel 2 Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

WENH-TV Channel 11 Durham, N. H. 

The Sunday afternoon and Tuesday evening concerts at 
Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 
FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 



I 



* - Stereophonic Broadcast 



** - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



She teaches science 

- at the piano 




In all the current concern over educa- 
tion, one great rock of strength has been 
overlooked. It is the contribution that 
America's 300,000 piano instructors 
have made to the total teaching strength 
and cultural advance of our nation. 

For millions of children, the first ex- 
posure to pure intellectual discipline has 
come through piano study. According 
to a New York Times article, children 
who enjoy music rate higher scholasti- 
cally, have a more active imagination 



CINCINNATI, OHIO 



and greater qualities of leadership. 

New teaching methods make piano 
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Staftmin 



BALDWIN GRAND PIANOS • ACROSONIC VERTICAL PIANOS • HOWARD SPINET PIANOS « 
HAMILTON STUDIO PIANOS • BALDWIN ELECTRONIC ORGANS • ORGA-SONIC SPINET ORGANS • 



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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 



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A' 



flJ/lllllHi 



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^ 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959- 1 960 
Carnegie Hall, New York 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



PERSONNEL 

Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 
Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Business Administrator 

Rosario Mazzeo 



Assistant Manager 
Leonard Burkat 



Music Administrator 



Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 



Next Saturday at 8:30 over WQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
memorable performance. And every day, 
early morning to late at night, treat 
yourself to wonderful listening from 
America's Number One Good Music 
Station, WQXR, 1560AM, 96.3 FM, the 
radio station of The New York Times. 




[2] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



Seventy-Fourth Season in New York 



Third Evening Concert 



WEDNESDAY, January 20, at 8:30 o'clock 



Program 

WILLIAM STEINBERG, Guest Conductor 

Haydn Symphony in E-flat, No. 99 

I. Adagio: Vivace assai 

II. Adagio 

III. Minuetto (Allegretto) 

IV. Vivace 

Strauss "Tod und Verklarung," Tone Poem, Op. 24 

INTERMISSION 

Mahuer Symphony in D major, No. 1 

I. Langsam. Schleppend wie ein Naturlaut 

II. Kraftig bewegt, doch nicht zu schnell 

III. Feierlich und gemessen, ohne zu schleppen 

IV. Stiirmisch bewegt 



Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 



BALDWIN PIANO 



RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[3] 



WILLIAM STEINBERG 



William Steinberg, who is making bis 
first appearances here as guest conduc- 
tor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
has been the Music Director of the 
Pittsburgh Symphony Society since 1952. 

Born in Cologne, Germany, August 1, 
1899, he showed an interest and talent 
for music as a boy, studying violin, 
piano, and also composing. He also 
became a violinist in the Cologne Munic- 
ipal Orchestra under Hermann Aben- 
droth, who gave him his first instruction 
in conducting. Graduating from the Con- 
servatory of Cologne in 1920, he won the 
Wiillner Prize of the City of Cologne, 
became the assistant to Otto Klemperer 
at the Cologne Opera and in 1924 be- 
came the first conductor. In the follow- 
ing year he conducted the Opera at 
Prague and was soon made its director. 
In 1929 he went to Frankfurt and be- 
came the general music director of the 



Opera there and the Museums-Kon- 
zerte, and at the same time guest con- 
ductor of the State Opera in Berlin. In 
1933 the Nazi government deprived him 
of his position. 

In 1936 he became the founder-con- 
ductor of the Palestine Symphony Or- 
chestra, now the Israel Philharmonic 
Orchestra. In 1938, he was invited by 
Toscanini to become Associate Conduc- 
tor and in the next year regular Con- 
ductor of the NBC Orchestra in New 
York. He also conducted numerous or- 
chestras in America as guest. He was 
appointed Music Director of the Buffalo 
Philharmonic in 1945 and in 1952 took 
his present position in Pittsburgh. In 
1958 he became Music Director of the 
London Philharmonic, a position which 
requires him to divide his time between 
this country and England. 



The New England Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

James Aliferis, President 



BACHELOR AND MASTER OF MUSIC 

In All Fields 

ARTIST'S DIPLOMA 

In Applied Music 



Performing Organizations 

SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA • CHAMBER ORCHESTRA 

SYMPHONIC WIND ENSEMBLE • OPERA 

ORATORIO CHORUS • A CAPPELLA CHOIR 

CHAMBER SINGERS 



Member, New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 

Charter Member, National Association of Schools of Music 

For information regarding admission and scholarships, write to the Dean. 

290 HUNTINGTON AVENUE BOSTON 15. MASSACHUSETTS 



[4] 



SYMPHONY in E-flat major, No. 99 

By Joseph Haydn 

Born in Rohrau, Lower Austria, March 31, 1732; died in Vienna, May 31, 1809 



This symphony began the second series of six each which Haydn composed for 
the Salomon concerts in London. It was conducted there February 10, 1794. 

The first performance in Boston was by the Harvard Musical Association on 
February 1, 1872, Carl Zerrahn conductor. The Symphony was performed at the 
Boston Symphony concerts on January 30, 1886, under Wilhelm Gericke, and by 
Dr. Koussevitzky, October 22, 1926, February 21, 1936 and December 3, 1937. Richard 
Burgin conducted it November 19-20, 1948. 

The symphony is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani and strings. 

tn Vienna, in 1793, Haydn composed this Symphony in preparation 
■*• for his second visit to London and added five more (Nos. 100-104) 
to be introduced at the second series of six concerts under the manage- 
ment of Johann Peter Salomon. This one was duly performed at the 
opening concert in the Hanover Square Rooms on February 10, 1794. 
The concert was announced as follows in the morning papers: 

Mr. Salomon most respectfully acquaints the Nobility and Gentry, that his 
FIRST CONCERT will be on MONDAY next, the 10th Instant. 

PART I. 

Grand Overture, Rosetti 

Aria, Mr. Florio, jun. 

(being his first Performance at these Concerts.) 

New Concerto, Piano Forte, Mr. Dussek. 

Scena, Madame Mara. 

PART II. 

New Grand Overture, Haydn. 

Aria, Madame Mara. 

New Concerto, Violin, Signor Viotti. 

Scena and Duetto, Madame Mara and Mr. Florio. 

Finale. 

Dr. Haydn will direct his Compositions at the Piano Forte. 

The reviews were ecstatic. The critic of the Morning Chronicle 
wrote: "This superb Concert was last night opened for the season, 
and with such an assemblage of talents as make it a rich treat to the 
amateur. The incomparable Haydn, produced an Overture of which 
it is impossible to speak in common terms. It is one of the grandest 
efforts of art that we ever witnessed. It abounds with ideas, as new in 
music as they are grand and impressive; it rouses and affects every 
emotion of the soul. — It was received with rapturous applause." 

The Sun reported on February 1 1 that "the grand instrumental trial 

[5] 



of last night was a New Overture by Haydn, a composition of the 
most exquisite kind, rich, fanciful, bold, and impressive." The "New 
Overture," which was the E-flat Symphony, was repeated a week later. 

This was the first of Haydn's symphonies in which he used clarinets 
(he also used them in Nos. 100, 101, 103 and 104). He had used 
clarinets in his lira concertos and notturni. Karl Geiringer writes: 
"How well the master understood the possibilities of this wind instru- 
ment is shown in the very first bars of the score. The sonorous chalu- 
meau register of the clarinet provides an effective bass for the stringed 
instruments. Daring modulations give this introduction a decidedly 
modern character. In the main section of the movement the second 
subject is of greater significance than the first, and a similar romantic 
preponderance of the subsidiary idea may be noted in the following 
adagio, which is one of the deepest and most stirrring pieces written 
by Haydn. As in the preceding symphony, the mood changes com- 
pletely with the beginning of the minuet. This scherzo-like movement 
and still more the finale employ all the devices of instrumentation and 
counterpoint to create pictures of uncontrollable gaiety." 

As almost without exception in his London symphonies, Haydn 
opens this one with a reflective and free adagio, no pompous or cere- 
monious portal, but tender and mysterious, foreshadowing Beethoven. 
The principal difference, in this case, is that instead of leading the 
hearer by a subtle transition into the main body of the movement, 
Haydn dismisses the introductory mood with not so much as a gesture, 
as he breaks into the sprightly theme of his vivace assai. The second 
theme is for violins and clarinet, an instrument which takes its place 
in these later symphonies. The development progresses through cha- 
meleon-like modulations with a wit and daring which almost equals 
the whimsical fancy and legerdemain of the finale. The adagio, in G 
major, opens with a theme for the first violins, cantabile, which is 
ornamented with passages in the woodwinds, the flutes predominating. 
The second theme is inseparable from the elaboration of sixteenth 
notes upon which its sustained songfulness subsists. This is a slow 
movement of lyric intensity with aspects of nineteenth-century roman- 
ticism, and there is a passage in stormy triplets which again almost 
makes one exclaim "Beethoven!" There is a lusty minuet, allegretto, 
based upon a simple descending chord of E-flat. In the trio the oboe, 
cantabile, is combined with the strings. The final rondo, vivace, brings 
a more independent and distinct use of the various woodwind voices. 
There is the characteristic pause of suspense upon the main theme, 
slowed to adagio and played by the first violins, before the coda. 

[COPYRIGHTED] 



[6] 



"TOD UND VERKLARUNG" ("DEATH AND 

TRANSFIGURATION"), Tone Poem, Op. 24 

By Richard Strauss 

Born in Munich, June 11, 1864; died in Garmisch, September 8, 1949 



Tod und Verkldrung was first performed from the manuscript, the composer 
conducting, at Eisenach, June 21, 1890, when his "Burleske" was also first heard. 
Anton Seidl gave the first American performance with the Philharmonic Society 
of New York, January 9, 1892. Emil Paur introduced it at the Boston Symphony 
concerts, February 6, 1897. 

The tone-poem is dedicated to Friedrich Rosen and scored for 3 flutes, 2 oboes, 
English horn, 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, double-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 
trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, 2 harps, gong, strings. 

When Death and Transfiguration first appeared, an unrhymed 
poem was printed in the score, giving a more explicit story than 
Strauss, always reticent about such matters, usually attached to his 
symphonic poems. The verses were unsigned but were soon discovered 
to be from the pen of none other than Alexander Ritter, the militant 
champion of Wagner and Liszt, who had recruited the youthful Strauss 
at Meiningen to the cause of "program music." The verses, it was 
found out, were actually written after the music had been composed, 
and were inserted in the score as it went to the printer. The analysts 
forthwith questioned the authenticity of the words as a direct guide 
to the music. But surely Strauss and Ritter must have been too inti- 
mately associated at this time not to have a clear understanding. 

It was Ritter who had goaded the brilliant young musician to set his 
back firmly upon symphonies and sonatas, and fly the banner of 
"Musik als Ausdruck." Assuming that the older man could hardly 
have done more than help the younger one to find himself, the fact 
remains that Strauss, embarking upon program music with the Aus 
Italien which he called a "symphonic fantasia," in 1886, made quick 
and triumphant progress with three symphonic poems: Macbeth, Don 
Juan, and Tod und Verkldrung, all within the space of four years.* 

* Strauss wrote of Ritter: "His influence was in the nature of the storm-wind. He urged 
me on to the development of the poetic, the expressive in music, as exemplified in the works 
of Liszt, Wagner and Berlioz. My symphonic fantasia, Aus Italien, is the connecting link 
between the old and the new methods." 



&eoltan=i£>fetmier <0rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for : 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 

[71 



The work divides naturally into four parts: 

1. In a dark room, silent except for the ticking of the clock, is a 
dying man. He has fallen asleep and is dreaming of childhood. 

2. The struggle between life and death begins anew. 

3. He sees his life over again. He remembers childhood, youth, and 
the strivings of manhood after ideals that are still unrealized. 

4. From heaven comes to him what he had vainly sought upon 
earth, "Welterlosung, Weltverklarung" ': "World-redemption, 
world-transfiguration/' 

The poem of Alexander Ritter has been paraphrased as follows: 

A sick man lies upon his mattress in a poor and squalid garret, lit by 
the flickering glare of a candle burnt almost to its stump. Exhausted 
by a desperate fight with death, he has sunk into sleep; no sound 
breaks the silence of approaching dissolution, save the low, monoto- 
nous ticking of a clock on the wall. A plaintive smile from time to 
time lights up the man's wan features; at life's last limit, dreams are 
telling him of childhood's golden days. 

But death will not long grant its victim sleep and dreams. Ominously 
it plucks at him, and once again begins the strife; desire of life against 
might of deathl A gruesome combatl Neither yet gains the victory; the 
dying man sinks back upon his couch, and silence reigns once more. 

Weary with struggling, bereft of sleep, in the delirium of fever he sees 
his life unrolled before him, stage by stage. First, the dawn of child- 
hood, radiant with pure innocence. Next, the youth who tests and 
practices his forces for manhood's fight. And then the man in battle 
for life's greatest prize: to realize a high ideal, and make it all the 
higher by his act — this is the proud aim that shapes his course. Cold 
and scornful, the world heaps obstacle after obstacle in his path: if he 
deems the goal at hand, a voice of thunder bids him halt — "Let each 
hindrance be thy ladder," he thinks. "Higher, ever higher mount!" 
And so he climbs, and so he pushes on, breathless, with holy zeal. All 
that his heart had ever longed for, he seeks still in death's last sweat 
— seeks, but never finds! Though now he sees it more and more 
plainly; though now it looms before him, he can not yet embrace it 
wholly, nor put the last touch to his endeavor. Then sounds the iron 
stroke of Death's chill hammer; breaks the earthly shell, enshrouds 
the vision with the pall of night. 

But now from on high come sounds of triumph; what here on 
earth he sought in vain, from heaven greets him: Deliverance, 
Transfiguration! 

[copyrighted] 



[8] 



ENTR'ACTE 

HAYDN'S ORCHESTRA IN LONDON 

(Quoted from "The Orchestra in England" by 

Reginald Netted — Jonathan Cape, London) 



ttthen Haydn arrived in London in 1791, he stepped out of an 
▼ * environment where he had been a superior kind of domestic 
servant into one where he was a "good commercial risk." All the 
familiar forces of competitive business were brought to bear by his 
employer Salomon on his potential value as a popular composer of 
the best type. He was advertised in the newspapers, overwhelmed with 
social introductions, and accepted into learned associations with honor. 
His personal reactions to this strange life have been related by numer- 
ous biographers; they show him to be a man of simple tastes and 
simple honesty, seeking to escape from the noise of London streets and 
the distractions of innumerable social functions to the seclusion neces- 
sary for his work of composition, but drawn back again constantly by 
his associates in order to satisfy the public demands for his appearance. 

It was not all unbiased, this honor paid to Haydn; Salomon had 
agreed to pay him £50 for each of twenty performances, and had to 
make a profit for himself after defraying all other expenses. In addi- 
tion, Haydn was to have the proceeds of two benefit concerts at each 
of which £200 was guaranteed to him. It was not to be expected that 
business rivals would make Salomon's task an easy one, yet the course 
of events shows that the fight was decided by a conflict of artistic and 
social forces rather than by purely financial interests. 

London's musical supporters were divided into two groups — the 
conservative and the progressive. The former centered round the 
Concert of Antient Music and the Italian opera, which had now been 
transferred to the Pantheon, after the destruction by fire of the King's 
Theatre in 1789; the progressive faction centered round the Profes- 



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[9] 



sional Concert, and Salomon. Gallini, who had tried to persuade 
Haydn to write an opera for a new opera house he was to open in the 
Haymarket, came into the fight as a business competitor of Salomon, 
involved willy-nilly in the social and artistic complications of the affair, 
but having to make the best bargain he could in his own financial 
interests. 

King George III was a staunch supporter of the Concert of Antient 
Music; the king, too, held the view that a second opera house was 
unnecessary, so the Lord Chamberlain refused Gallini a license. This 
in turn frustrated Salomon's plans, for he had engaged two of Gallini's 
vocalists, Cappelletti and David, for his first Haydn concert. Cappel- 
letti and David were under contract to Gallini not to sing in public 
before the opening of the new opera house, and Gallini held them at 
first to this contract. Salomon had therefore to postpone Haydn's first 
symphony concert until these singers should be available. Meanwhile 
Salomon's opponents made the most of the delay. The newspapers 
jibed at German musicians who came to this country with a great 
flourish of trumpets to "charm the money out of the pockets of John 
Bull." They did not hesitate to suggest that Haydn had met with 
little recognition in his own country, and would probably prove 
inferior to such players as Cramer and Clementi. Gallini, finding 
himself opposed by Salomon's enemies, made common cause with him; 
he applied for a licence for "entertainments of music and dancing" 
instead of opera, released David from his contract so that he could 
appear on March nth "whether the Opera House was open or not" 
and engaged Haydn, Salomon, and his orchestra to appear at concerts 
in his new premises. So, after much delay, Haydn was allowed to prove 
his worth to the public. 

Salomon's orchestra for the Haydn concerts was of good strength, 
varying in size from thirty-five to forty players, led by Salomon himself, 
with Haydn presiding at the keyboard. This orchestra, playing in the 
Hanover Square Rooms, which measured ninety-five feet by thirty-five 
feet, was the largest Haydn had ever had at his disposal.* The opening 
concert used an orchestra of 16 violins, 4 violas, 3 cellos, 4 basses, flutes, 
oboes, bassoons, trumpets, and drums, for the Symphony in D, No. 93, 
which was enthusiastically received, and the slow movement encored, 
greatly to Haydn's satisfaction, for such an honor was rarely given to 
an instrumental movement. 

There was good reason for the honor. Apart from the merit of the 
symphony, there was the quality of its performance, which Haydn had 
striven to bring up to the standard of his own orchestra at Esterhaz. 
Whether he did this or not will never be known, but Dies records in 
his Biographische Nachrichten von Joseph Haydn how the composer 

* Larger orchestras had played Haydn's symphonies, e.g. the "Oxford" Symphony was written 
for the Concert Spirituel (60 players), but Haydn did not conduct it in Paris. 

[lO] 



behaved at his first rehearsal with the Salomon orchestra. The first 
three notes were played much too loudly for Haydn, who promptly 
stopped the orchestra and called for less tone. Three times he did this 
without getting a satisfactory result. Then Haydn heard a German 
player whisper in his own language to his neighbor: "If the first three 
notes don't please him, how shall we get through all the rest?" Haydn 
gave up trying to explain in speech, borrowed a violin, and demon- 
strated the tone he wanted to be produced. After that he had no more 
trouble with the passage. . . 

The cost of maintaining a private orchestra and a composer able to 
produce up-to-date music on request was considerable. So long as 
Haydn and Mozart were experimenting with strings, harpsichord, two 
oboes and two horns, the resources at their disposal were ample, and 
Haydn was exceptionally fortunate under Prince Nicolaus Esterhazy, 
for he was able to add flutes, trumpets, and drums, bringing his orches- 
tra up to a total of twenty-six players. The time came, however, when 
the technique of orchestration reached maturity under these masters; 
the harpsichord was no longer necessary to hold together the harmonic 
structure of an orchestral composition, for the full choir of strings was 
balanced by a full choir of wood-wind and brass. . . . 

Haydn's contribution to symphonic progress lay in his flexibility of 
expression. The use of wood-wind instruments was at last freed from 
the conventional splitting up of forces into concertino and ripieno, 
as they had been in the concerti grossi. Now the instruments inter- 
mingled in ever-varying proportions, acting sometimes as soloists and 
the next moment blending with the others in the instrumental choir. 
The long singing style of Haydn's slow movements, ornamented in a 
style that relied on variation of solo tone-colors far more than on 
the flexibility of the players' digital technique, was the feature that 
attracted most the attention of the Londoners, but later admirers have 
thought more of Haydn's spirited rustic finales, his harmonic surprises 
and his transformation of the stately minuet into the jocular scherzo. 
The twelve Salomon symphonies are the foundation of the popular 
modern conception of a Haydn symphony: they, almost alone of his 
symphonies, are remembered.* Yet their superiority over his earlier 
works in this form is so marked that the decline of his apprentice and 
journeyman efforts before the splendor of his master works is no cause 
for surprise. In them and the last symphonies of Mozart the glory of 
the eighteenth century shone at its brightest. The urge for formal 
perfection had been satisfied, but in the moment of this satisfaction 
a new need had become evident. It had been there all the time, but 
the intellectual fashions of an "age of reason" had obscured the end 
to which their search for formal perfection was aimed. 

• And, of course, the "Oxford" Symphony. 



GUSTAV MAHLER AND HIS FIRST SYMPHONY 

By Bruno Walter 

(Reprinted from the program of the Philharmonic Orchestra of Los Angeles) 



Tt was in June, 1894, that a cry of indignation rose from the musical 
■*- press in Germany. Gustav Mahler's First Symphony had been per- 
formed at the Music-Festival in Weimar and had aroused a hurricane 
of excitement. I remember my passionate interest at reading those 
furious attacks against the violent work, particularly against the third 
movement, the grotesque funeral-march and the eruptive Finale. I 
instinctively felt that this kind of attack could have been caused only 
by a most important and original work. The reports fascinated me 
and there was nothing I desired more intensely than to hear the sym- 
phony, to know the man whose imagination had produced something 
so new as this funeral march. 

Destiny granted me the fulfillment of this wish. In September of the 
same year I stood — a young musician of eighteen years — in the office 
of the Hamburg Opera House where I had been engaged as a "coach" 
and there entered the room with hasty steps a strange personality: a 
man (hot tall) lean, with oblong ascetic face, the extremely high and 
steep forehead framed by waves of black hair, fiery deep eyes behind 
spectacles — the very image of the poet E. T. A. Hoffmann's demoniacal 
"Kapellmeister Kreisler" (musically immoralized by Schumann's 
"Kreisleriana"). 

His looks, his words, his gestures and behaviour corresponded per- 
fectly to the picture my imagination had formed of the author of such 
a fantastic Symphony. So I recognized Mahler — then first conductor 
of the Hamburg Opera — and I felt I finally had met genius alive: 
one of the great masters who until then had spoken to me only by 
their works had entered my life in person. 

In a minute my shyness disappeared before the very friendly way 
he addressed me and talked to me. The rather inaccessible, vehement, 
unpredictable man showed from the beginning only kindness and 
benevolence to me. He took interest in my talent, he introduced me 
gradually into his creative realm. I could take part in the glowing 
spiritual life of this great Faustian nature that was so eager to embrace 
whatever man had thought and felt, and so began a friendship between 
the great master and the young musician that lasted until Mahler's 
death in 1911. 

The majority of the people who came in touch with him felt embar- 
rassed in his strong and imposing presence, despite the kindness which 
belonged to the basic structural features of his being. The abrupt 
changes in his moods did not help to make them feel more comfortable. 
He was subject to inner disturbances which suddenly interrupted his 



tranquillity of mind and his talk. An expression of suffering which 
appeared on his face was so impressive that silence spread over the 
whole room. 

These drastic changes from serenity to gloom and the vehemence of 
his temperament had often an intimidating effect, even on persons 
near to him. The reason for these strange moods was that the under- 
current of creative activity, with its haunting visions and thoughts, 
was stronger within him than his participation in the actual happen- 
ings of the moment and further, that his character combined contrasts 
of friendliness and severity, naivete and wisdom, melancholy and 
humour, and so one always had to expect from him the unexpected. 

In later years, of course, the vehemence diminished and his mood 
was often as described in his song "Ich bin der Welt abhanden gekom- 
men" ("I am lost by the world"). Born romanticist and loving son of 
nature, he lived under the spell of her mysteries and more and more 
his life was dominated by one longing: he sought God. From his 
Second Symphony every work was an expression of his hopes, doubts, 
despair, visions, longing. But the First Symphony is not yet dictated 
by such feelings. In that confession of an exuberant youthful heart 
speaks the romanticist. 

The first movement originally was named "spring and no end," gay 
as the second with its Austrian-Moravian dance-motives. Between the 
second and third movements we have to imagine the shock of a tragic 
event, from which originates that spectral-grotesque funeral march, a 
unique sound of despair, the deep hopeless night which is made still 
darker by the lightnings of irony and scorn. 

Then he unleashes the tempest of the Finale, a wild eruption, a 
life-and-death-struggle leading to a triumphant conclusion. And I am 
sure that this final triumph after a long struggle will prove symbolic 
for the fate of Gustav Mahler's work in its totality. 



SYMPHONY NO. 1 in D major 
By Gustav Mahler 

Born in Kalischt in Bohemia, July 7,* i860; died in Vienna, May 18, 1911 



Completed probably in 1888, Mahler's First Symphony had its initial performance 
at Budapest, November 20, 1889. It was performed in Hamburg in the autumn of 
1892, and through the efforts of Richard Strauss at Weimar, in June, 1894. The sym- 
phony was heard in Berlin as part of a Mahler program, March, 1896. 

The first performance in the United States was at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society of New York, December 16, 1909, Mahler conducting. 

The orchestration requires 4 flutes (with 2 piccolos) , 4 oboes, English horn, 
3 clarinets, 2 clarinets in E-flat, bass clarinet, 3 bassoons, contra-bassoon, 7 horns, 

* The date of Mahler's birth, formerly in question, has been established by Nicolas Slonimsky 
from the birth certificate (Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Music). 

[»3l 



4 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tam-tam, 
harp, and strings. 

The symphony was published in 1898. The printed score showed considerable 
revision, and the entire omission of a second movement, "A Chapter of Flowers." 

When Mahler sketched out the vast proportions of his First Sym- 
phony, he was a youthful idealist of soaring artistic ambitions 
and little recognition. He had written much, but his music lay in 
manuscript, unperformed. He had lit his torch from Wagner and 
Bruckner, steeped himself in the romancers of Germany's past — her 
poets and philosophers. But while his head was in the clouds, his feet 
were planted before the conductor's desk of one provincial theater 
and another, where there fell to him the "second" choice of operas by 
Lortzing or Meyerbeer. When he had the opportunity to conduct 
Wagner and Mozart at Olmutz, he could not bring himself to "profane" 
their music with the sorry forces at his disposal. That Mahler profited 
by his conductorial apprenticeship is indicated by the detailed com- 
mand of orchestration shown in this symphony; also by his sudden 
success and popularity as conductor when the opportunity came to 
him in Leipzig in 1884. Mahler probably worked upon his First 
Symphony in the years 1883 and 1884, when he was second conductor 
at Cassel. The "Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen" ("The Songs of a 
Journeyman," voice and orchestra) were also written about this 
time, and one of them found its way into the symphony. 

His duties as conductor were far from inspiring. Where his heart 
lay is indicated by a pilgrimage to Bayreuth, where he was deeply 
moved by the disclosure of "Parsifal," and another to Wunsiedel, to 
sense the landscape of Jean Paul Richter. Having become a conductor 
of outstanding fame through engagements at Leipzig and at Prague, 
Mahler became Director of the Royal Opera at Pesth in 1888, and in 
1889 had the opportunity to perform his symphony at a Philharmonic 
concert (November 20) , before a public which had come to admire 
and respect his abilities in the highest degree. It must be reported 
that, with every good will towards their conductor, the Hungarian 
audience found the symphony perplexing. 

It was with later experience that Mahler learned to abhor "pro- 
grams" for his symphonies. This one was first heard with fanciful 
titles sanctioned by the composer. At the original Budapest per- 
formance, it was named as a "Symphonic Poem in two parts." Mahler, 
hoping perhaps to induce an understanding of his emotional approach, 
gave out a title for the subsequent performances in Hamburg and 
Weimar: "The Titan," referring to the novel of that name by Jean 
Paul, and these indications of the movements: 

"Part I. Days of Youth. Youth, flowers and thorns. 

1. Spring without end. The introduction represents the awakening of nature 
at early dawn. [In Hamburg, it was called 'Winter Sleep.'] 

[Hi 



2. A Chapter of Flowers. [This movement, an andante, was omitted altogether 
after the Weimar performance.] 

3. Full sail! (Scherzo.) 

Part II. Commedia umana. 

4. Stranded. A funeral march a la Callot. [At Weimar it was called 'The 
Hunter's Funeral Procession.'] The following remarks may serve as an 
explanation, if necessary. The author received the external incitement to 
this piece from a pictorial parody well known to all children in South 
Germany, 'The Hunter's Funeral Procession.' The forest animals accom- 
pany the dead forester's coffin to the grave. The hares carry flags; in front 
is a band of Gypsy musicians and music-making cats, frogs, crows, etc.; 
and deer, stags, foxes, and other four-footed and feathered denizens of the 
forest accompany the procession in comic postures. In the present piece the 
imagined expression is partly ironically gay, partly gloomily brooding, and is 
immediately followed by 

5. Dall' Inferno al Paradiso (allegro furioso), the sudden outbreak of a pro- 
foundly wounded heart." 

Mahler, composing, no doubt, in a spirit of romantic fantasy, prob- 
ably wrote down such word images as occurred to him, in something 
of the free and ranging mood of Jean Paul, who, describing the in- 
toxicating idealism and godlike virtue of his hero, could catch up a 
listener sufficiently attuned into a sympathetic transport. It was a state 
of mind in which Jean Paul, a Callot engraving, and a naive French 
canon could merge into a single musical episode without inconsistency. 
Mahler had cause to learn that the general understanding was not so 
fancy free and pliable. There are those who must have the full story, 
if there is any hint of one. If there is a funeral march they demand 
the full particulars — and ask, "Who is being buried?" 

Bruno Walter, a Mahler apostle early and late, thus describes the 
First Symphony in his sympathetic book on Gustav Mahler*: 

"I should like to call the First Symphony Mahler's Werther. In it 
he finds artistic relief from a heart-rending experience. He does not 
illustrate in sound that which he had experienced — that would be 
'program music/ But the mood of his soul, engendered by memory 
and present feeling, produces themes and influences the general 
direction of their development without, however, introducing itself 
forcibly into the musical issue. In that manner, a compact composition 
is born which, at the same time, is an avowal of the soul. It is not 
my intention to speak individually of the separate parts of the 
symphony. 

"The brilliant first movement, with its youthful fervor, and the 
vigorous scherzo, with the charming trio, need no explanatory words 
and, in fact, could not be benefited by them in view of their musical 
abundance. 

"The third movement, however, was, at the time, a new sound in 

• Gustav Mahler, by Bruno Walter, translated by James Galston. Greystone Press, N.Y.. 1941. 

[»5] 



music and its importance justifies a discussion. In the Funeral March 
in the Manner of Callot and the following finale the spiritual reaction 
to a tragic occurrence is transformed into music. In it the young 
composer relieves himself of his experience. In the vehemence of his 
emotions, Mahler was not conscious of his daring in expressing 
gloomily brooding despair and biting pain by this spectrally prowling 
canon, or by that music full of brazen derision and shrill laughter. 
The composition bears the imprint of ingenious inspiration, novelty, 
and unreserved veracity, and we need not be surprised at the fact 
that the first performance caused a great deal of perplexed wonder- 
ment. In the fourth movement, the raging vehemence of Mahler's 
nature breaks forth and, with relentless force, gains a triumphant 
victory over life. 

"Approximately in December, 1909 — that is, in the last year but 
one of his life — Mahler wrote me from America after a performance 
of the First: \ . . On the other hand, I was quite satisfied with this 
youthful sketch. How strangely I am affected by these works whenever 
I conduct them! A burning and painful sensation is crystallized. What 
a world this is that casts up such reflections of sounds and figures! 
Things like the funeral March, and the bursting of the storm which 
follows it, seem to me a flaming indictment of the Creator. . . .' 

"This shows how the elemental power of expression of this music 
was able deeply to affect the composer after an interval of a number 
of years during which he had not heard it. The symphony has the 
typically unique power which the youthful work of a genius is able 
to exert by means of its superabundance of emotions, by the un- 
conditional and unconscious courage to use new ways of expression, 
and by the wealth of invention. It is alive with musical ideas and 
with the pulse-beat of fervent passion." 

"Here is art," wrote Paul Stefan of the First Symphony in his 
"Gustav Mahler," "understandable in images, but still, at least in 
intention, severely symphonic. A 'program' is unnecessary. Apart 
from the digressions of the last movement, the work is not more diffi- 
cult for hearers than for players, and one which stimulates a genuine 
interest in Mahler. It arouses a desire to become acquainted with his 
other works. 

"How beautiful the introduction is, suggesting the melancholy of 
the Moravian plains over a long-sustained A, down to which the 
minor theme in oboe and bassoon dreamily sinks! Thereupon the 
upstriving fanfare of the clarinets; the fourth becomes a cuckoo-call 
in the wood wind, a lovely song in the horns; then, still over the 

[16] 



pedal A, a gradual rolling movement, first in the divided 'celli and 
basses, like the reawakening of the earth after a clear summer's night. 
The tempo quickens, the cuckoo's call becomes the first notes of the 
first Lied eines fahrenden Gesellen: 'Ging heuf morgen iibefs Feld' 
('O'er the fields I went at morn') . The whole melody, here in sym- 
phonic breath, is sung softly by the strings, turns into the dominant, 
mounts in speed and strength, sinks back pianissimo, and is repeated. 
An actual repeat-sign; save in the scherzo-form, there is only one 
other example of this in Mahler, in the Sixth Symphony. A kind of 
development-section follows, but it really rather confirms the theme. 
The leap of the fourth now becomes a fifth, developed melodically 
through major and minor; the 'awakening' is repeated, the harp tak- 
ing the tune; once again D major over the pedal A. A new tune in 
the horns; modulation, livelier play of the motives, with many an 
unrelated succession of ideas. Suddenly, in the wood wind, a theme of 
the last movement, immediately followed by a Brucknerish climax, 
on whose summit is heard the introductory fanfare, then abruptly 
the horn-theme and the fourths of the commencement. Then comes a 
kind of re prise } altered as Mahler nearly always does in later works 
(preferably shortened, not recommencing with the beginning!) . Mer- 
rier still, ever livelier until the end; always in the principal key. The 
Lied eines fahrenden Gesellen fixes the entire character; no secondary 
theme, scarcely a development. But the music, dewy fresh, strikes the 
goggles from the nose of the peering critic. There follows a merry, 
dancing scherzo, an Austrian Landler like those of Bruckner and 
Schubert, exquisitely harmonized and scored. A horn leads into the 
oldentime Trio. The fahrender Gesell has discovered a hidden village 
where people are happy as of yore. But precisely this merry-making 
recalls his own sad flight from love. After a long pause begins the 
third part with the rugged canon 'Frere Jacques.'* Muted drums beat 
out the 'fourth'; it sounds like the rhythm of a grotesque funeral a la 
Callot. A muted double-bass begins, a bassoon and 'cello follow, then 
bass tuba and a deep clarinet. An oboe bleats and squeaks thereto 
in the upper register. Four flutes with the canon drag the orchestra 
along with them; the shrill E-flat clarinet quacks; over a quiet counter- 
point in the trumpets the oboes are tootling a vulgar street-song; 
two E-flat clarinets, with bassoon and flutes, parodistically pipe 
wretched stuff, accompanied by an m-ta, in the percussion (cymbals 
attached to the big drum, so as to sound thoroughly vulgar) and in 
the strings (scratched with the sticks) . 

* French nursery songs have apparently formed no part of the erudition of the German 
musical scholars. Ludwig Scheidermair, in his analysis (1902), seems to regard the theme 
as original with Mahler, remarking that it "suggests Mozart." Locating the theme, com- 
mentators have failed to remark on the grotesque character Mahler has given the bright 
tune by casting it in the minor mode, and introducing it in the double-bass, at a solemn pace. 

[copyrighted] 

[17] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining concerts in the Wednesday evening series in 
Carnegie Hall will be as follows: 

February 17 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
RUGGIERO RICCI, Violin 

March 23 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 



The remaining concerts in the Saturday afternoon series will be 
as follows: 

February 20 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
GREGOR PIATIGORSKY, Cello 

March 26 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

GARY GRAFFMAN, Piano 



Tickets at the Carnegie Hall Box Office. 



The concerts by this Orchestra in Symphony Hall, Boston, on 
Saturday nights at 8:30 are broadcast complete by Station 
WQXR, New York. 



CARNEGIE HALL • NEW YORK 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

Pending the completion of the new Auditorium at Lincoln Center, the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra will give the usual series of five Wednesday 
Evening and five Saturday Afternoon Concerts through next season 
(1960-61) in the Assembly Hall of Hunter College. 

J18] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Seventy-Fourth Season in New York 



Third Afternoon Concert 



SATURDAY, January 23, at 2:30 o'clock 



Program 

WILLIAM STEINBERG, Guest Conductor 

Schubert ^Symphony No. 2, in B-flat major 

I. Largo; Allegro vivace 

II. Andante 

III. Minuetto: Allegro vivace 

IV. Presto vivace 

Wagner Overture to "Tannhauser" 

INTERMISSION 

Barber Souvenirs, Ballet Suite, Op. 28 

I. Tempo di walzer 

II. Schottische 

III. Pas de deux 

IV. Two-step 

V. Hesitation-Tango 
VI. Galop 

Stravinsky Suite from the Ballet, "L'Oiseau de feu" 

Introduction: Kastchei's Enchanted Garden and Dance of the Fire Bird 

Dance of the Princesses 

Infernal Dance of all the Subjects of Kastchei 

Berceuse 

Finale 

Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 

[19] 



SYMPHONY NO. 2 in B-flat major 

By Franz Schubert 

Born in Lichtenthal, near Vienna, January 31, 1797; 
died in Vienna, November 19, 1828 



Schubert wrote his Second Symphony between December, 1814, and March, 1815. 
Records do not reveal a public performance before it was played from the manu- 
script at the Crystal Palace Concerts in London on October 20, 1877 (a newspaper 
then stated that it was being "produced probably for the very first time since its 
birth"). The Symphony was performed in New York by the Philharmonic-Symphony 
Society under the direction of John Barbirolli, on November 22, 1936. 

The manuscript was published in 1884. The orchestration requires 2 flutes, 
2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. 

iithen this Symphony was performed by the New York Philhar- 
^ * monic-Symphony Society in 1936, Lawrence Gilman, conjecturing 
that this was probably the first performance in America, proposed a 
pointed question: 

"Granted that the two most frequently played of Schubert's sym- 
phonies are masterpieces; that the public loves and delights to hear 
them; that there is always a new generation to encounter them, a new 
crop of concert-goers to whom they are a novel experience; granting 
all this, the question persists: Why need the other symphonies of 
Schubert — those that show revealingly the progress and ripening of 
his art, that are in themselves full of delightful and surprising things 
— why need they be left unplayed, gathering unmerited dust on the 
shelves of orchestral librarians?" 

Boston is unfortunately not exempt from this reproach. The per- 
formance of Schubert's Second Symphony in 1944 was very likely the 
first in this city.* There have been reassuring, if belated, answers to the 
above question in performances of this symphony by other orchestras. 
The definitive answer, of course, lies in the music itself and what it may 
contain of youthful charm and traits prophetic of the two later and 
better-known symphonies of Schubert, the "Unfinished" and the great 
C major. 

The introductory Largo opens with broad chords, gradually subsid- 
ing to pianissimo. The vivace discloses the principal subject which 
is to dominate the movement without cessation — a smooth-running 
figure in the violins which gives the whole its brilliant quality, its 
marked string accentuation. The movement is swift, adroit, extended 
in sheer exuberant resource. The Andante (in E-flat) is more docile, 
making no attempt to unseat the accepted ways of a century past. The 



* Nor has the Boston Symphony Orchestra performed Schubert's First Symphony. His Third 
has been performed once under Igor Markevitch (February 22-23, 1957). The Fourth has 
been performed once since 1928 — by Charles Munch, April 27-28, 1951. The Sixth was last 
heard under Gericke in 1886. 

[20] 



nUvkeh/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rca Victor records exclusively 



sj living i stereo faE 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 

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theme could be called Haydnesque, naive. There are five variations 
and a Coda. The Minuet (in C minor) shows renewed vigor, with a 
contrasting quiet trio in the major, where the oboe has the melody and 
the clarinet takes it in imitation. The finale, a true presto vivace, rides 
its full course on a reiterated rhythm, at first subdued, gathering thrust 
and impact. Albert Roussel once wrote of this finale, "To my mind 
the final presto contains the most interesting passages of the whole 
symphony. The first bar of the opening theme of this presto afterward 
gives opportunity, towards the middle of the movement, for a develop- 
ment of rather Beethovenian character, but original and daring and 
evidently contemporaneous with the writing of the 'Erlkonig.' It is 
also noteworthy that the second theme of this movement, in E-flat, is 
repeated at the end of G minor. So we see that Schubert in his early 
works makes a habit of departing from classical traditions." 

Roussel's reference to the "Erlkonig' is a reminder that the Schubert 
who composed this symphony, even though still at the threshold of 
symphonic possibilities, was no novice in other forms. By the year 1815, 
the year of this symphony, Schubert, aged eighteen, had composed 182 
songs which have been published, and many more which have not. 
They include such little masterpieces as "Gretchen am Spinnrade" 
(October 19, 1814), and, in 1815, "Der Erlkonig," "Heidenr ostein" 
"Rastlose Liebe," "Sehnsucht" "An die Friihling" "Wanderers Nacht- 
lied." He was already very definitely a matured artist — to quote 
Gilman, "a lyric and musico-dramatic genius, by the grace of God." 
Schubert wrote his first six symphonies between 1813 and 1818, the 
"Unfinished" in 1822, and the great C major in 1828.* That the first 
six were closer to eighteenth-century symphonic patterns than the two 
famous posthumous ones, less free in their scope, cannot with any 
certainty be laid to limitations in the composer's imagination or skill 
at the time, which he demonstrated by a vast quantity of music in all 
forms. It should rather be laid to the very limited orchestras which 
were on hand to perform them. 

Sometimes Schubert composed purely for his own pleasure, without 
prospect of performance, sometimes for specific performance by players 
strictly amateur. Their limitations did not necessarily clip his wings. 
He could accommodate an occasion with a trivial march or galop, 
illuminate another with a chamber work of the purest beauty. The 
first of the symphonies, and probably the second, were written for the 
very amateurish student orchestra of the Konvikt, the state-subsidized 



* The First (in D major) was written in 1813, the Second (in B-flat) and Third (in D major) 
in 1815, the Fourth, "Tragic" (in C minor), in 1816, the Fifth (in B-flat, without trumpets 
and drums) in 1816, and the Sixth (in C major) in 1818. 

There was also, between the last two, the E major Symphony, which, left in sketch form, 
has been filled out and performed. The so-called "Gastein" symphony of 1825 remains 
apocryphal, and according to recent conjecture may have been an early sketch for the great 
C major. 

[22] 



school which Schubert attended as a choir boy of the Imperial Kapell. 
He had left the school when he wrote these symphonies, but he still 
played viola in the evening "practice" concerts at the Konvikt. It was 
about this time that the "Society of Amateurs" (Dilettanten Gesell- 
schaft) began to grow from a small gathering of friends into an assem- 
blage which could call itself an orchestra. It was a typical product of 
home music-making in Biedermeyer Vienna and sprang from the 
quartet parties at the Schubert house, where Schubert's father played 
the violoncello, his brothers the violins, while Franz sat in as viola and 
provided quartets where needed. Musical friends added their talents; 
a double quartet led them to attempt small symphonies, slightly edited. 
Wind players were no doubt found, as the orchestration of these early 
symphonies of Schubert would suggest. Indeed, the orchestra expanded 
until the meetings had to be transferred to the larger rooms of a more 
prosperous friend. At length, in 1818, it required, to hold them all, 
the new house "Am Gundelhof in Schottenhof, purchased by the 
retired player Otto Hatwig. Their programs were ambitious, their 
playing no doubt spotty. Symphonies of Mozart and Haydn and the 
first two of Beethoven were tried out, not to speak of various contem- 
poraries now forgotten. Schubert, ready to oblige at all times, wrote 
his two Overtures in the Italian Style for them and as many sym- 
phonies, probably, as they could get around to playing. This zealous 
musical activity, carried on privately for the enjoyment of the per- 
formers — an audience being quite inessential — was typical of the 
general appetite for music which abundantly surrounded Schubert 
and stimulated his musical growth. He sang in the Emperor's choir, 
he played leading violin in the Konvikt orchestra and kept up that 
connection after leaving. He was ready, as pianist, for any occasion, 
would take over the organ if need be, or take the viola in a case of 
shortage. He wrote cantatas which promptly found groups to perform 
them; masses and ritual music when his parish church at Lichtenthal 
had use for them, which was often. Poets were plentiful as buttercups 
in that florid era. Schubert made fast friends among them and was so 
provided with verses, which he set forthwith to music, together with 
the poetry of accepted fame. Small and great, every poem he could lay 
his hands on was at once transformed into music. Long ones became 
cantatas, interminable ballads became interminable scores. Notes went 
upon paper unceasingly in those years. The supply of paper might 
give out — his purse was always light — but the source of melody never. 
Any text would do. As Schumann once said, he could have set a 
"placard" to music. As in Mozart's case, Schubert could be inspired 
by a worthy text or he could lift a mediocre one to his own plane. 
When he would appear with a new group of songs under his arm, 
there was likely to be a singer at hand to try them out. If not, he would 

[*5] 



sing them himself. In the year 1815 he wrote several operas entire, 
without any immediate hope of performance. Meanwhile he submitted 
compositions to his teacher Salieri, the respected royal Kapellmeister, 
chafing at his imposed Italianisms and loving him still. In addition to 
all this, since it brought him no cash whatever, he taught the elemen- 
tary grade in his father's school. This was a heavy and tiresome task, 
for although most of the Schuberts subsisted by teaching, Franz never 
took kindly to the traditional profession of his family. How he 
managed between classes and the correction of scrawled exercises to 
compose such a vast quantity of quartet, piano, choral, orchestral, 
operatic music, and above all songs by the hundreds, was the subject 
of perpetual astonishment by his friends about him. 

None of this music brought him at this time a single penny in return. 
There was as yet no remote thought of publication. He was quite 
careless of his manuscripts once they had been tried out. Some of his 
friends were astute enough to make copies and keep them. Others 
saved original manuscripts, and it was by their care that the bulk of 
his music, for many years almost totally disregarded, was saved and 
survived in publication. Sir George Grove, whose crusading enthusiasm 
keeps him, these many years later, a foremost Schubertian, wrote: "The 
spectacle of so insatiable a desire to produce has never before been 
seen; of a genius thrown naked into the world and compelled to 
explore for himself all paths and channels in order to discover by 
exhaustion which was best — and then to die." 

[copyrighted] 



OVERTURE TO "TANNHAUSER" 
By Richard Wagner 

Born in Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died in Venice, February 13, 1883 



Wagner composed the Overture to "Tannhauser und der Sdngerkrieg auf 
Wartburg, Romantic Opera in three acts," in the spring of 1845. The Opera had its 
first production in Dresden on October 19 of that year under Wagner's direction. 
The Overture was first heard separately as a concert piece when Mendelssohn con- 
ducted it from the manuscript February 12, 1846, at a Pension Fund Concert by the 
Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig. 

The Overture is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 
4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, cymbals, triangle, tambourine 
and strings. 

T T Then Wagner was rehearsing the Orchestra at Zurich for a per- 
^ * formance of the Overture, he wrote at the request of the players 
a descriptive program which was published in the Neue Zeitschrift of 
January 14, 1853. 

[24] 



"At first the orchestra leads us into the Pilgrims' Chant; it comes 
nearer, swells into a mighty outpouring of sound and at last fades 
away. — Evening dusk: last echoes of the song. As night falls we 
behold magic shapes: a rosy mist arises, joyous outcries assail us; the 
motions of a voluptuous dance take shape. These are the seductive 
spells of the 'Venusberg,' which appear in the night to those who are 
susceptible to their charm. . . . Drawn by these enticements, we discern 
the shapely form of a man — Tannhauser, the Singer of Love. He 
addresses the voluptuous revelers with a love song of his own, and 
they respond wildly as the luminous mist envelops him. . . . Venus 
herself appears. The blood in his veins is enflamed with desire. . . . 
But the Pilgrims' Chant is heard again, and gradually intrudes upon 
the scene as the shadows are gradually subdued by the coming of day. 
... At length the sun rises in splendor, and the Pilgrims' Chant 
reaches the power of a joyous proclamation. Salvation is won for all 
that lives and moves upon the world. The strains of the Venusberg 
itself are redeemed from the curse of impiety. In the chorus of redemp- 
tion, the two elements, the soul and the senses, God and Nature, are 
reunited by the atoning kiss of holy Love." 

[copyrighted] 



ENTR'ACTE 

APROPOS "LE SACRE DU PRINTEMPS" 
By Igor Stravinsky 

(Quoted from the Saturday Review, December 26, 1959) 



>t*he idea of "Le Sacre du Printemps" came to me while I was still 
-■- composing "The Firebird." I had dreamed a scene of pagan ritual 
in which a chosen sacrificial virgin dances herself to death. This vision 
was not accompanied by concrete musical ideas, however, and as I was 
soon impregnated with another and purely musical conception that 
began quickly to develop into, as I thought, a Konzertstuck for piano 
and orchestra, the latter piece was the one I started to compose. I had 
already told Diaghilev about "Le Sacre" before a visit of his to me in 
Lausanne at the end of September 1910, but he did not know about 
"Petroushka" — which is what I called the Konzertstuck, thinking the 
style of the piano part suggested the Russian puppet. Though Diaghi- 
lev may have been disappointed not to hear music for "pagan rites," 
in his delight with "Petroushka," which he encouraged me to develop 
into a ballet before undertaking "Le Sacre du Printemps," he did not 
show it. 

I first became conscious of thematic ideas for "Le Sacre" in the 
summer of 1911. ("Petroushka" had been performed in June, 1911, in 
Oustiloug, our summer home in Volhynia.) The themes were those of 
"Les Augures Printanieres," the first dance I was to compose. Reaching 

[25] 



Switzerland in the fall, I rented a house in Clarens for my family and 
began to work. The entire "Sacre du Printemps" was written in a tiny 
room of this house, an eight-feet-by-eight closet, rather, whose only 
furniture was a small upright piano which I kept muted, a table, and 
two chairs. I began with the "Augures Printanieres," as I said, and 
composed from there to the end of the first part; the Prelude was 
written afterward. The dances of the second part were composed in 
the order in which they now appear, and composed very quickly, too, 
until the "Danse Sacrale," which I could play but did not, at first, 
know how to write. The composition of "Le Sacre" was completed by 
the beginning of 1912 and the instrumentation — a mechanical job, 
largely, since I always compose the instrumentation when I compose 
the music — took me four more months in the late spring. 

I had pushed myself to finish "Le Sacre," as I wanted Diaghilev to 
produce it in the 1912 season. At the end of January I went to Berlin, 
where the Ballet then was, to discuss the performance with him. I 
found him in a state of upset about Nijinsky's health. He would talk 
about Nijinsky by the hour, but all he ever said about "Le Sacre" was 
that he could not mount it in 1912. He saw my disappointment and 
tried to console me by inviting me to accompany the Ballet to Buda- 
pest, London, and Venice, its next stops. I did journey with him to 
those cities — all three were new to me then, and all three I have loved 
ever since — but the real reason I accepted the postponement of "Le 
Sacre" so easily was that I was already beginning to think about "Les 
Noces." Incidentally, at this Berlin meeting Diaghilev encouraged me 
to use a huge orchestra for "Le Sacre," promising that the size of our 
orchestra would be greatly increased in the following season. I am 
not sure my orchestra would have been as large otherwise. 

That the first performance of "Le Sacre du Printemps" was attended 
by a scandal must be known to everybody. I was unprepared for the 
explosion myself. The reactions of the musicians who came to the 
orchestra rehearsals betrayed no intimation of it. (Debussy, who might 
well have been upset by "Le Sacre," was, in fact, much more upset by 
the success of it a year later.) Nor did the stage spectacle seem likely 
to precipitate a riot. The dancers had been rehearsing for months; 
they knew what they were doing, at least, even though what they were 
doing often had nothing to do with the music. "I will count to forty 
while you play," Nijinsky would say to me, "and we will see where we 
come out." He could not understand that though we might at some 
point "come out" together, this did not mean we had been together on 
the way. The dancers followed Nijinsky's count, too, rather than the 
musical count; he spoke Russian of course, and as Russian numbers 
above ten are polysyllabic — eighteen, for example, is vosemnadsat — 
in the fast tempo movements neither he nor they could keep up. 

[26] 



At the performance, mild protests against the music could be heard 
from the beginning. Then, when the curtain opened on a group of 
knock-kneed and long-braided Lolitas jumping up and down ("Danses 
des Adolescents"), the storm broke. Cries of "ta gueule" came from 
behind me. I left the hall in a rage. (I was sitting on the right near 
the orchestra, and I remember slamming the door.) I have never again 
been that angry. The music was so familiar to me; I loved it, and I 
could not understand why people who had not yet heard it wanted to 
protest in advance. I arrived backstage in a fury. There I saw Diaghi- 
lev switching the house lights on and off in the hope that this might 
quiet the hall. For the rest of the performance I stood in the wings 
behind Nijinsky and holding the tails of his frac, while he stood on a 
chair shouting numbers to the dancers, like a coxswain. 

I remember with more pleasure the first concert performance of "Le 
Sacre" the following year, a triumph such as few composers can have 
known the like of. Whether the acclaim of the young people who 
filled the Casino de Paris was more than a mere reversal of the verdict 
of bad manners a year before is not for me to say, but it seemed to me 
much more. (Incidentally, Saint-Saens, a sharp little man — I had a 
good view of him — was present at this performance; I do not know 
who invented the story that he was present at, but soon walked out of, 
the premiere.) Monteux again conducted, and the musical realization 
was ideal. He had been doubtful about programming "Le Sacre," in 
view of the original scandal, but he had had a great success with a 
concert performance of "Petroushka," and was proud of his prestige 
with avant-garde musicians; I argued that "Le Sacre" was more sym- 
phonic, more of a concert piece, than "Petroushka." Let me say here 
that Monteux never cheapened "Le Sacre," or looked for his own glory 
in it, and he was always scrupulously faithful to the music. At the end 
of the "Danse Sacrale" the entire audience stood up and cheered. I 
came on stage and hugged Monteux, who was a river of perspiration — 
it was the saltiest hug of my life. A crowd swept backstage. I was 
hoisted to anonymous shoulders, carried out into the street this way, 
and up to the Place de la Trinite. A policeman pushed his way to my 
side, in an effort to protect me. It was this policeman Diaghilev later 
fixed upon in his accounts of the story: "Our little Igor now needs 
police escorts out of his concerts, like a prize fighter." (Diaghilev was 
verdantly envious of any success of mine outside of his Ballet.) 

I have seen only one stage version of "Le Sacre" since 1913, and that 
was Diaghilev's 1921 revival. Music and dancing were better coordi- 
nated this time than in 1913 — they could hardly have been otherwise 
— but the choreography (by Massine) was still too gymnastic and 
Dalcrozian to please me. I decided then that I prefer "Le Sacre" as a 
concert piece. 

[«7l 



I conducted "Le Sacre" myself for the first time in 1928, in a record- 
ing by English Columbia. My concert debut with it came the following 
year, in Amsterdam, with the Concertgebouw, and thereafter I con- 
ducted it frequently throughout Europe. One of the most memorable 
(to me) performances of these years was in the Salle Pleyel, an official 
occasion, with official speeches to me pronounced by the President of 
the Republic, M. Poincare, and by his First Minister, M. Herriot. I 
have conducted "Le Sacre" only once in the United States, however, 
and that was twenty years ago, in April, 1940. [It is programmed for 
the concert of January 3, i960, in Carnegie Hall.] 

In 1937 or 1938 I received a request from the Disney office in America 
for permission to use "Le Sacre" in a cartoon film. The request was 
accompanied by a gentle warning that if permission were withheld the 
music would be used anyway ("Le Sacre," being "Russian," was not 
copyrighted in the United States), but as the owners of the film wished 
to show it abroad (i.e., in Berne Copyright countries) they offered me 
$5,000, a sum I was obliged to accept (though, in fact, the "percentages" 
of a dozen crapulous intermediaries reduced it to $1,200). I saw the 
film with George Balanchine in a Hollywood studio at Christmas time, 
1939. I remember someone offering me a score, and, when I said I had 
my own, the someone saying "But it is all changed." It was indeed. 
The order of the pieces had been shuffled and the most difficult of them 
eliminated — though this didn't help the musical performance, which 
was execrable. I will say nothing about the visual complement (for I 
do not wish to criticize an unresisting imbecility), but the musical point 
of view of the film involved a dangerous misunderstanding. 

I have twice revised portions of "Le Sacre," first in 1921 for the 
Diaghilev performances, and again in 1943 (the "Danse Sacrale" only) 
for a performance (unrealized) by the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 
The differences between these revisions have been much discussed, 
though I think they are not well known or even often perceived. In at 
least two of the dances the bar lengths were longer in the 1913 original. 
At that time I tried to bar according to the phrasing, but my 1921 
experience had led me to prefer smaller divisions (a comparison of the 
"Evocation des Ancetres" in the two versions, although I think I possess 
the only copy of the original, should show the principle of subdivision 
applied in the later one). The smaller bars did prove more manageable 
for the conductor and clearer for the orchestra. I also felt that they 
clarified the scansion of the music. (I was thinking about a similar 
question yesterday while reading a quatrain from one of the "Sonnets 
to Orpheus"; did the poet write the lines at this length or, as I think, 
did he cut them in half?) My main purpose in revising the "Danse 
Sacrale" was to facilitate performance by means of an easier-to-read unit 
of beat. But the instrumentation has been changed, too — improved, 

[28] 



I think — in many ways. For example, the music of the second group 
of four horns has been considerably amended in the later version; I 
was never satisfied with the horn parts. The muted horn note follow- 
ing the five-note trombone solo has been given to the much stronger 
bass trumpet in this version, too, and the string parts have been to a 
great extent rewritten. Amateurs of the older versions have been dis- 
turbed by the fact that the last chord has been changed. I was never 
content with this chord, however; it was a noise before and is now an 
aggregation of distinct pitches. But I would go on revising my music 
forever, were I not too busy composing more of it, and I am still not 
content with everything in "Le Sacre." (The first violin part in the 
"Cortege du Sage," for example, is badly over-balanced.) 

I was guided by no system whatever in "Le Sacre du Printemps." 
When I think of the music of the other composers of that time who 
interest me — Berg's music, which is synthetic (in the best sense), and 
Webern's, which is analytic — how much more theoretical it seems than 
"Le Sacre." And these composers belonged to and were supported by 
a great tradition. Very little immediate tradition lies behind "Le 
Sacre du Printemps," however, and no theory. I had only my ear to 
help me; I heard and I wrote what I heard. I am the vessel through 
which "Le Sacre" passed. 



SOUVENIRS, BALLET SUITE, Op. 28 
By Samuel Barber 

Born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, March 9, 1910 



Composed in 1952, this Suite had its first performance in concert form by the 
Chicago Orchestra under Fritz Reiner, November 12, 1953. 

The orchestra consists of 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 2 clarinets, 
2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, 
cymbals, triangle, harp, and strings. 

Qamuel Barber wrote to his publisher, H. W. Heinsheimer, of G. 
^ Schirmer and Company, the following description of his Souvenirs: 
"In 1952, I was writing some duets for one piano, to play with a friend, 
and Lincoln Kirstein suggested that I orchestrate them for a ballet. 
Commissioned by the Ballet Society, and not yet performed, the Suite 
consists of a Waltz, Schottisch, Pas de Deux, Two-Step, Hesitation, 
Tango and Galop. One might imagine a divertissement in a setting 
reminiscent of the Palm Court of the Hotel Plaza in New York, the 
year about 1914; epoch of the first Tangos; Souvenirs remembered 
with affection, not in irony, or with the tongue in the cheek, but in 
amused tenderness." 

[copyrighted] 

[29] 



SUITE FROM THE DANCED STORY, "THE FIRE-BIRD" 

By Igor Fedorovitch Stravinsky 

Born in Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, on June 17, 1882 



In the summer of 1909 Diaghilev asked Stravinsky to write a ballet founded on 
the old Russian legend of the Fire-Bird. The score is dated May 18, 1910. It 
bears a dedication to Andrey Rimsky- Korsakoff (the son of the composer). The 
scenario was the work of Fokine. 

The first performance of L'Oiseau de Feu, a "Conte danse" in two scenes, was at 
the Paris Opera on June 25, 1910. The Fire-Bird was Tamara Karsavina; The Beau- 
tiful Tsarevna, Mme. Fokina; Ivan Tsarevitch, Fokine; Kastchei, Boulgakov. Gabriel 
Pierne conducted. The stage settings were by Golovine and Bakst. 

In the present performances Mr. Steinberg will use the revision made by the 
composer in 1919, which has a more modest orchestration. It was this form of the 
suite which Stravinsky, as guest conductor, included upon his program here, March 
15, 1935. This orchestration was used by Andre Kostelanetz as guest conductor, 
March 24, 1944. The orchestration of the version here performed calls for 2 flutes 
and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, xylo- 
phone, pianoforte, harp, and strings. 

Fokine's scenario may thus be described: After a short prelude, the 
curtain rises and the grounds of an old castle are seen. Ivan 
Tsarevitch, the hero of many tales, in the course of hunting at night, 
comes to the enchanted garden and sees a beautiful bird with flaming 
golden plumage. She attempts to pluck fruit of gold from a silver tree. 
He captures her, but, heeding her entreaties, frees her. In gratitude, 
she gives him one of her feathers which has magic properties. The 
dawn breaks. Thirteen enchanted princesses appear, coming from the 
castle. Ivan, hidden, watches them playing with golden apples, and 
dancing. Fascinated by them, he finally discloses himself. They tell 
him that the castle belongs to the terrible Kastchei', who turns de- 
coyed travelers into stone. The princesses warn Ivan of his fate, but 
he resolves to enter the castle. Opening the gate, he sees Kastchei' with 
his train of grotesque and deformed subjects marching towards him in 
pompous procession. Kastchei attempts to work his spell on Ivan, who 
is protected by the feather. Ivan summons the Fire-Bird, who causes 
Kastchei and his retinue to dance until they drop exhausted. The 
secret of Kastchei's immortality is disclosed to Ivan: the sorcerer keeps 
an egg in a casket; if this egg should be broken or even injured, he 
would die. Ivan swings the egg backwards and forwards. Kastchei and 
his crew sway with it. At last the egg is dashed to the ground; Kastchei 
dies; his palace vanishes; the petrified knights come to life; and Ivan 
receives, amid great rejoicing, the hand of the beautiful princess. 

• • 
How two Russian geniuses met and collaborated to their mutual 
glory in The Fire-Bird is interestingly told by Romola Nijinsky, 
in her life of her husband,* a book which is much concerned, naturally, 
with the amazing career of Diaghilev, and the Ballet Russe. 

•"Nijinsky," Romola Nijinsky (Simon and Schuster, 1934). 
[SO] 



Diaghilev and Nijinsky, in the days of their early fame, before 
breaking with the Imperial Ballet School, had the habit of wandering 
about St. Petersburg on free evenings, in search of ballet material. 

"One evening they went to a concert given by members of the com- 
position class at the Conservatory of Music. On the program was the 
first hearing of a short symphonic poem called 'Feu d'artifice.' Its 
author was a young man of twenty-six, the son of a celebrated singer 
at the Imperial Theatre — Feodor Stravinsky. After the performance 
Diaghilev called on the young Igor, whose father he had known and 
admired, and, to Stravinsky's utter amazement, commissioned him to 
write a ballet expressly for his company. 

"For a long time Fokine had had the idea of a distinctly Russian 
story for dancing, founded on native legends. Fokine told the story of 
the Fire-Bird to Benois, over innumerable glasses of tea, and with every 
glass he added another embellishment, and every time he repeated the 
tale he put in another incident. Benois was enthusiastic, and they went 
so far as to tell Diaghilev and asked who would be a good one to com- 
pose the music. Liadov's name was mentioned. 'What,' cried Fokine, 
'and wait ten years!' Nevertheless, the commission was awarded to 
Liadov and three months passed. Then Benois met him on the street 
and asked him how the ballet was progressing. 'Marvellously,' said 
Liadov. 'I've already bought my ruled paper.' Benois' face fell, and 
the musician, like a character out of Dostoievsky, added: 'You know 
I want to do it. But I'm so lazy, I can't promise.' 

"Diaghilev thought at once of Igor Stravinsky, and the conferences 
between him, Benois, and Fokine commenced. 

"Fokine heard Stravinsky's Feu d'artifice and saw flames in the 
music. The musicians made all manner of fun of what they considered 
his 'unnecessary' orchestration, and he was touched by, and grateful 
for, Fokine's congratulations. They worked very closely together, 
phrase by phrase. Stravinsky brought him a beautiful cantilena on the 
entrance of the Tsarevitch into the garden of the girls with the golden 



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apples. But Fokine disapproved. 'No, no,' he said. 'You bring him in 
like a tenor. Break the phrase where he merely shows his head on his 
first intrusion. Then make the curious swish of the garden's magic 
noises return. And then, when he shows his head again, bring in the 
full swing of the melody.' 

"Stravinsky threw himself whole-heartedly into the composition, 
and he had little enough time in which to complete it. He was ex- 
tremely eager, but, in spite of the awe he had for Diaghilev and the 
respect held for his elders like Benois and Bakst, he treated them all 
as his equals. He was already very decided and wilful in his opinions, 
and in many ways a difficult character. He not only wished his author- 
ity acknowledged in his own field of music, but he wanted similar 
prestige in all the domains of art. Stravinsky had an extremely strong 
personality, self-conscious and sure of his own worth. But Diaghilev 
was a wizard, and knew how to subdue this young man without his 
ever noticing it, and Stravinsky became one of his most ardent fol- 
lowers and defenders. He was extremely ambitious, and naturally 
understood the tremendous aid it would mean to him to be associated 
with Sergei Pavlovitch's artistic group. 

"Vaslav and Igor soon became friends. He had a limitless admira- 
tion for Stravinsky's gifts, and his boldness, his direct innovation of 
new harmonies, his courageous use of dissonance, found an echo in 

Vaslav's mind." 

[copyrighted] 



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The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
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The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
1960 is $3-00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 
Hall. 



[32] 



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SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 


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The Friday afternoon concerts 


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. on the Monday evening following 


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esday 


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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 
Carnegie Hall, New York 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayr ton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhap£ 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean deVergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andr6 Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
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Harold D. Hodgkinson 
CD. Jackson 
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Vice-President 

Treasurer 

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John T. Noonan 
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Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 

[«■] 



Next Saturday at 8:30 over WQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



Seventy-fourth Season in New York 



Fourth Evening Concert 



WEDNESDAY, February 17, at 8:30 o'clock 



Program 

Kirchner. Toccata for Strings, Solo Winds and Percussion 

(Conducted by the composer) 

Sibelius Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, in D minor, Op. 47 

I. Allegro moderate* 
II. Adagio di molto 
III. Allegro ma non tanto 

INTERMISSION 

Beethoven *Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I. Allegro con brio 

II. Andante con moto 

III. (Allegro; Trio 

IV. JAllegro 

SOLOIST 

RUGGIERO RICCI 



Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 

KALDW1N PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[Si 



TOCCATA FOR STRINGS, SOLO WINDS AND PERCUSSION 

By Leon Kirchner 
Born in Brooklyn, New York, January 24, 1919 



Composed in December, 1955, Kirchner's Toccata was first performed by the 
San Francisco Symphony Orchestra on February 16, 1956. 

The Toccata calls for a string orchestra with the following solo wind instruments: 
oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn, trumpet, trombone, and the following percussion: side 
drum, tenor drum, bass drum, celesta, xylophone, tambourine, tam-tam and cymbal. 

This work is eligible for the American International Music Fund recording project. 

T T Then his Toccata was performed in San Francisco, Mr. Kirchner 
* * provided the following statement about his score: "The word 
Toccata traditionally refers to a keyboard composition in so-called 
'free' idiomatic keyboard style. Chords, scale-like passages, contrasting 
tempi in quickly changing scenes characterize this form. An early 
precedent was established (c. 1600) in which the structural elements of 
the keyboard toccata were utilized in pieces for brass. The orchestral 
medium also offers ample opportunity for the presentation of these 
characteristics, and composers have often availed themselves of it. 

"The Toccata for Strings, Solo Winds and Percussion is a compara- 
tively short, one-movement work divided into four sections. The first 
section is an exposition, the second a development; a slow movement 
which follows is based on the theme stated by the wind instruments at 
the outset of the work. The fourth section provides a recapitulation 
and coda." 

The following description of this piece was contributed by Alexander 
L. Ringer in the Musical Quarterly for April, 1956: 

"The Toccata is also another instance of Kirchner's personal style 
which miraculously blends ingredients usually considered irreconcil- 
able because they hail from both Schonberg and Stravinsky. On the 
whole, though, perhaps owing to the nature of the original request, 
the considerable feeling of tonality that pervades large portions of the 
piece and the general metrical simplicity have little precedent in his 
total ceuvre. Kirchner likes to refer to Schonberg and Sessions as the 
men who most decisively influenced his musical orientation. The 
Toccata suggests that Beethoven may well be the man to complete the 
triad of mentors. Not only is the total effect of this relatively short 
composition direct and 'big' in the manner of the third Leonore 
Overture; more specifically, one is reminded of Beethoven by the 
imaginative treatment of melodic and rhythmic germ-cells including 
the proverbial 'victory' motif, no less than by the astonishing ideas 
springing from apparently quite insignificant, at any rate not very 
distinguished, thematic material. 

"The principal melodic idea is stated by the wood-winds at the very 

[4] 






outset. Its motivic essence consists of the note D followed by a motion 
from the lower to the upper neighboring tone. 




After an eerie sound produced by string harmonics with celesta sup- 
port, the strings briefly elaborate the initial material, whereupon an 
accelerando leads to the exposition of the basic rhythmic patterns. 
Dotted rhythm appears under various guises. Furthermore, charac- 
teristic offbeat accents, well known from other Kirchner pieces, impose 
themselves with increasing vigor. Eventually, part of this rhythmic 
equipment is combined with a chord that is to assume some coloristic 
significance later on. An emphatic gesture by the low strings in unison, 
topped off by a delicate celesta chord and a rhythmic reminiscence on 
the snare drum, concludes the exposition. 

"The development begins andante with an expressive trio of oboe, 
clarinet, and solo violin. Gradually the strings resume their rhythmic 
percussive function and the accelerando gets the rhythmic workout into 
full swing. The slower second half of the development, on the other 
hand, makes greater use of the initial melodic material. Again an 
accelerando — agogic fluctuations are an integral part of Kirchner's 
formal approach — leads to the varied recapitulation, which reverses 
the order of the exposition. As a result the motion is slowed down 
only shortly before the end, and the initial wood-wind idea now 
assumes the additional task of preparing the concise and rapid coda." 



Leon Kirchner's Sonata Concertante for Piano and Violin, composed 
in 1952, was performed at a concert of chamber music in the Berkshire 
Festival on July 29 last, when Alexander Schneider was the violinist 
and the composer the pianist. He joined Aaron Copland and Lukas 
Foss in the Composition Department of the Berkshire Music Center. 
The present Toccata was performed by the school orchestra. 

Leon Kirchner, born in Brooklyn (which was incidentally the birth- 
place of Aaron Copland and Roger Sessions), went with his family to 
California when he was nine years old and has lived in that State for 
the greater part of his life. He studied theory with Albert Elkus and 
Edward Strickland at the University of California in Berkeley, also 
taking lessons from Ernest Bloch. In 1942 he studied with Roger 
Sessions in New York. After serving with the armed forces, he returned 
to take his degree at the University of California, where he subse- 
quently taught. He has been Associate Professor at the University of 

[5] 



Southern California and is now Professor at Mills College in Oakland. 
His works, in addition to the Toccata and the Sonata Concertante 
mentioned above, include Letter and The Times are Nightfall, for 
soprano and piano (1943); Dawn, for chorus and organ (1946); Duo 
for violin and piano (1947); Piano Sonata (1948); String Quartet (1949); 
Of Obedience and The Runner, after Walt Whitman, for soprano and 
piano (1950); Sinfonia (N. Y. Philharmonic, Jan. 31, 1952); Piano Trio 
(1954); Piano Concerto (N. Y. Philharmonic, Feb. 23, 1956, the com- 
poser as soloist). 

As long ago as October, 1949 (in the Musical Quarterly), Richard 
Franko Goldman wrote prophetically of Leon Kirchner, largely on the 
basis of his Duo for Violin and Piano and his Piano Sonata. "It is not 
necessary to urge remembrance of his name; it will be heard often 
enough to impress itself. It is a joy not to have to write that Kirchner 
is talented or promising; one can write that of at least several dozen 
others, Kirchner is already the real thing; he is a composer whose 
music can stand being heard on programs with the music of anyone 
writing today. . . . Few composers can proportion music of rhapsodic 
glow so that it does not weary by excess of tone or of length. It is his 
sense of proportion, perhaps more than any of his other gifts, that 
stamps Kirchner as a composer who commands himself and his medium 
absolutely. This control is apparent in the absence of padding, of 
vulgarisms, of passages that sound labored, of noise designed to be 
shocking or merely to be soothing. . . . Kirchner's music recalls Bartok, 
the most elusive of 20th-century composers, who cannot be imitated 
and who can only rarely be evoked. Kirchner's music has something 
of the same darkness, the same poetry, the same disquieting hiddenness; 
but with Kirchner, as with Bartok, this is a product of temperament 
and not simply of mannerism. 

"The idiom is chromatic, violently dissonant, drivingly rhythmic; 
the design is clean, the elements succinct. There is every mark of high 
style, and no evidence of writing to a theory. . . . One could not name 
Kirchner's teachers by hearing his work, and that is the mark of the 
discovered individual and of the artist. . . . Kirchner profited from 
his studies with Schonberg not to be doctrinaire, but to think and work 
like a composer. . . . The Sonata is the work of a man of forceful, 
definite, and yet sensitively constituted personality; the music requires 
thoughtful assimilation by anyone who essays to play it, but it repays 
the thought and rewards study." 

Quoting the above for a recording of Kirchner's Trio and Sonata 
Concertante under the Epic label, Klaus G. Roy wrote: 

"The basic profile so perceptively drawn by Mr. Goldman has not 
changed in the seven years since this was written; but growth there 

[6] 



has surely been. What Kirchner himself has to say about the philos- 
ophy of his music-making reveals the distance, the disinterest — if not 
indeed the aversion — he seems to harbor for the so-called neo-classical 
movement, whose primary exponents (yet so vastly different) have been 
Stravinsky, Prokofiev, and Hindemith. Kirchner is an ardent roman- 
ticist, if such classification and labeling were ever fair; he is an expres- 
sionist of fierce conviction and personal intensity, a believer in art for 
art's sake: truly a disciple — though not at all an obedient pupil — of 
Bloch, Sessions, Schonberg, and Bartok. Yet it is strange that the man 
he quotes in the following statement, the 17th-century astronomer 
Johann Kepler, has recently inspired none other than Paul Hindemith 
to write an opera about him, called "The Harmony of the World." 
Here is the musical credo of Leon Kirchner: 

" 'I have attested it as true in my deepest soul and I contemplate its 
beauty with incredible and ravishing delight.' So Kepler greeted the 
harmonious system of the universe as portrayed by Copernicus. If, in 
this sense, the quasi-arithmeticians, the new aesthetic engineers of music, 
were to greet the creative act, what wonderful, aesthetic pleasure we 
could realize in the imaginative invention of their scores. Unfortu- 
nately this is not the case. It is my feeling that many of us, dominated 
by the fear of self-expression, seek the superficial security of current 
style and fad — worship and make a fetish of complexity, or with 
puerile grace denude simplicity; Idea, the precious ore of art, is lost 
in the jungle of graphs, prepared tapes, feedbacks and cold stylistic 
minutiae. 

"An artist must create a personal cosmos, a verdant world in con- 
tinuity with tradition, further fulfilling man's 'awareness,' his 'degree 
of consciousness,' and bringing new subtilization, vision and beauty to 
the elements of experience. It is in this way that Idea, powered by 
conviction and necessity, will create its own style and the singular, 
momentous structure capable of realizing its intent." 

[copyrighted] 



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[71 



CONCERTO IN D MINOR for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 47 

By Jean Sibelius 

Born in Tavastehus (Hameenlinna), Finland, December 8, 1865; 
died in Jarvenpaa, September 20, 1957 



The violin concerto was composed in 1903, subjected to a considerable revision, 
and in its later form first played on October 19, 1905, by Karl Halir in Berlin, when 
Richard Strauss conducted; it was printed in the same year. Maud Powell was the 
pioneer of the work in this country, playing it first at a New York Philharmonic 
concert, November 30, 1906, with Theodore Thomas in Chicago, January 25, 1907, 
and with the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Dr. Muck, April 20, 1907. Miss 
Powell again played the concerto on March 9, 1912. Since then Richard Burgin has 
been the soloist at performances under Dr. Koussevitzky on March 1, 1929, February 
28, 1930, and February 16, 1934. Jascha Heifetz was the soloist on November 23, 1934. 

The concerto is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings. 

It is dedicated to Franz von Vecsey. 

Sibelius, who in his youth studied the violin and played it on occa- 
sion in public before he devoted his efforts entirely to composition, 
turned once in his life to the concerto as a form. He first intended his 
Violin Concerto for the virtuoso Willy Burmester, who had been 
concert-master of the orchestra of Kajanus at Helsinki. Whatever the 
reason may have been, Burmester played the Concerto of Tchaikovsky 
instead, and Viktor Novacek played the new work in Helsinki on 
February 8, 1904, Sibelius conducting. Karl Teodor Flodin, a promi- 
nent critic who was for years the well-meaning mentor of Sibelius, 
objected that, having the choice between an orchestral work with an 
integral obbligato violin part and a traditional display piece, Sibelius 
had leaned toward the latter alternative. Sibelius, so Harold E. John- 
son tells us, accordingly revised his score in the direction of orchestral 
interest. The version performed by Karl Halir in Berlin, and so pub- 
lished, lies gratefully under the soloist's fingers and favors his musician- 
ship, but it is not the sort of music chosen by a violinist primarily 
concerned with exhibiting his technical prowess. 

The concerto, which followed closely upon the Second Symphony, 
has been called by Cecil Gray an example of the "cosmopolitan Swedish 
traditionalism" which was a recurring trait of the early Sibelius, .and 
which was distinct from the "romantic Finnish nationalism" which 
shaped his tone poems. If this Swedish "passivity" is in many ways a 
weakness, as compared to the "originality and sturdy independence" 
of the true Finn, whereof the composer gave plentiful expression else- 
where, nevertheless the assimilative Sibelius, accepting European tradi- 
tions, could be a "source of strength" by giving them "a fresh lease of 
life and energy." "Just as the primary quality of the magnificent Town 
Hall at Stockholm of Ragnar Ostberg consists in its eclecticism of style, 
its triumphant revivification and revitalization of southern European 
architectural motives, so in such works as the Violin Concerto, the 

[8] 



String Quartet, the 'In Memoriam' of Sibelius one finds a similar 
rejuvenation of languishing classical motives, an infusion of fresh life 
and vigor into effete traditions, which is primarily attributable to his 
strain of northern adaptability and Swedish eclecticism. 

"The form is simple and concise throughout, besides being distinctly 
original. The exposition in the first movement, for example, is tripar- 
tite instead of dual as usual, and the cadenza precedes the development 
section, which is at the same time a recapitulation; the slow second 
movement consists chiefly in the gradual unfolding, like a flower, of 
a long, sweet, cantabile melody first presented by the solo instrument 
and then by the orchestra; and the last movement is almost entirely 
made up of the alternation of two main themes. This variety, com- 
bined with simplicity and concision, of formal structure, constitutes 
one of the chief attractions of the work. 

"It might perhaps be added that the Concerto has occasionally a 
perceptibly national flavour. Some of the thematic material, indeed, 
notably the B-flat minor episode in the first movement and the second 
subject of the last, with the characteristic falling fourth in both, is 
strikingly akin in idiom to Finnish folk-songs of a certain type. Need- 
less to say, however, there is no suggestion here of any deliberate 
employment of local colour; the resemblance is no doubt entirely 
unconscious and unintentional." 



The New England Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

James Aliferis, President 



BACHELOR AND MASTER OF MUSIC 

In All Fields 

ARTIST'S DIPLOMA 

In Applied Music 



Performing Organizations 

SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA • CHAMBER ORCHESTRA 

SYMPHONIC WIND ENSEMBLE • OPERA 

ORATORIO CHORUS • A CAPPELLA CHOIR 

CHAMBER SINGERS 



Member, New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 

Charter Member, National Association of Schools of Music 

For information regarding admission and scholarships, write to the Dean. 

290 HUNTINGTON AVENUE BOSTON 15. MASSACHUSETTS 



[9] 



I. Allegro moderate*, D minor, various rhythms. This movement is 
somewhat in the nature of an improvisation. The traditional two 
themes are to be recognized clearly, but they are treated in a rhapsodic 
rather than formal manner. The first chief theme, given to the solo 
violin at the beginning, over an accompaniment of violins, divided and 
muted, is of a dark and mournful character. It is treated rhapsodically 
until an unaccompanied passage for the solo violin leads to a climax. 
A short orchestral tutti brings in the announcement by the solo instru- 
ment of the more tranquil second theme. After the development of 
this motive, there is a long tutti passage; then the solo violin, having 
had an unaccompanied cadenza, states again the dark first theme. The 
second one reappears, but in altered rhythm. The movement ends in 
a brilliant climax. The time taken by the solo violin in this movement 
to develop the themes without orchestral aid deserves attention. 

II. Adagio di molto, B-flat major, 4-4. A contemplative romanza, 
which includes a first section based on the melody sung by the solo 
violin after a short prelude, and a contrasting middle section. The 
latter begins, after an orchestral passage, with a motive given to the 
solo instrument. There is elaborate passage-work used as figuration 
against the melodious first theme, now for the orchestra. The solo 
violin has the close of this melody. There is a short conclusion section. 

III. Allegro, ma non tanto, D major, 3-4. The first theme of this 
aggressive rondo is given to the solo violin. The development leaps to 
a climax. The second theme — it is of a resolute nature — is given to 
the orchestra with the melody in violins and violoncellos. The move- 
ment is built chiefly on these two motives. A persistent and striking- 
rhythmic figure is coupled with equally persistent harmonic pedal- 
points. 

[copyrighted] 



RUGGIERO RICCI 



T* uggiero Ricci was born in San Francisco, July 24, 1920. He was 
-"■ first taught to play the violin by his father when he was five years 
old, and a year later became the pupil of Louis Persinger, his principal 
teacher. At eight he appeared in public, playing Mendelssohn's Violin 
Concerto, and in the next year gave concerts in New York. At twelve 
he made a tour of Europe. After serving with the Air Force during 
the war, he returned to civilian life as a constantly active virtuoso. 
He has played in the Middle and Far East as a good will envoy of the 
United States. He has played often in Europe and several times toured 
Latin America. 

Mr. Ricci plays an instrument made in 1734 by Joseph Guarnerius del 
Gesu of Cremona. It once belonged to the late Bronislav Huberman. 

[10] 



ENTR'ACTE 
THE DEFINITIVE SIBELIUS? 



Ernest Newman wrote in his foreword to Karl Ekman's Jean 
Sibelius: His Life and Personality (1936): "I am not contending 
that this book . . . will be the final biography of Sibelius fifty years 
hence." His point was that Ekman's book was in the class of an 
"authorized biography," since it was largely compiled from the com- 
poser's own account taken down in direct quotation in a series of all 
day sessions in the study at Jarvenpaa. As such, it is valuable as a 
direct personal revelation. But there is a lack of finality in such a book. 
Sibelius was then seventy; his last important work, Tapiola, was ten 
years behind him. His mood was pleasantly reminiscent. He spoke 
gratefully of his more friendly supporters through his career; it was 
a story told without pique by a courteous gentleman. Ekman wrote 
as a friend at his side, who could never refer to a negligible work w T ith 
an impolite adjective. There were significant extracts from letters of 
Sibelius to his friend and benefactor, Baron Axel Carpelan, describing 
the progress of the last three symphonies. They are fragmentary, and 
leave one w r ondering what else may have been said. 

Just half of Newman's mentioned period of "fifty years hence" has 
now passed, and the time has come for a cooler and juster appraisal of 
the whole Sibelius, his place in the world of music, the mystery of the 
thirty-two silent years between Tapiola and his death in 1957. Such 
a book, Jean Sibelius, by Harold E. Johnson has been published by 
Alfred A. Knopf. 

The two books are valuable, each in its way — the first an intimate, 
personal picture, which nevertheless makes an outsider — a non-Finn — 
sometimes a little uncomfortable. The second is an objective, a clarify- 
ing book rather than a portrait. Mr. Johnson went to Helsinki as a 
visitor on a Fulbright Research grant in 1956, when Sibelius, at ninety- 
one, was in virtual isolation from the world. Before he left Finland, 
in 1958, his subject had died. The investigator, who had been inter- 
viewing the few surviving contemporaries of Sibelius, examining pro- 



&eoltan=i§>ktmter (^rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 

[•■1 



grams and periodicals, now had freer communion with the family, and 
access to manuscripts. He could correct the chronological list of works 
and locate a few supposed to have been "lost." The eldest daughter 
stated flatly that there was no Eighth Symphony, nor any new unpub- 
lished score. 

The book is a careful compendium of the factual life record, an 
accounting of all the known works (without detailed analysis). Further 
than this, it is a summation of the fortunes of the composer's music in 
each part of the musical world. In his own country Sibelius became 
the national idol, the first citizen barring none. There he could do no 
wrong. In Germany and Austria he was at first taken up by conductors 
as a talented young Northerner of colorful tone poems. As a sym- 
phonist he was frowned upon in a land where symphonies had speci- 
fications fixed and inviolable — and was soon forgotten. In Italy he 
was scarcely noticed at all. In France he had passing and scant atten- 
tion, and in recent years no attention at all except for an occasional 
critical barb, a dismissal with a phrase. In England he was made much 
of, invited to conduct and given many opportunities. Such critics as 
Cecil Gray, Rosa Newmarch, Granville Bantock, Ernest Newman and 
Constant Lambert went into print to the effect that he was the greatest 
symphonist of the new century. In America he was eagerly taken up by 
the various conductors, Koussevitzky not least. Sibelius became a cause 
and brought the skeptical reactions inevitable in such cases. Through 
the years of silence at Jarvenpaa, the old man enjoyed his increasing 
idolization at home and his regional and less enduring successes abroad. 
He watched himself become a legend, and enjoyed the reviews (only 
the favorable ones were shown to him). 

Certainly the durability of the works of Sibelius in the musical 
cosmos is anything but decided. Johnson wisely attempts no final 
valuation, and is content with quoting various published opinions 
pro and con. His survey gives an interesting perspective on the growth 
of the composer from a hopeful student in Helsinki to "the great 
musical solitary." A dramatic moment, showing what genius owes to 
its environment, came in the year 1889, in Berlin. Sibelius, a music 
student of twenty-four, had crossed the borders of his own country for 
the first time and heard Richard Strauss, one year his senior, conduct 
an impeccable performance of his own Don Juan. Sibelius must have 
been a bit stunned and discouraged at this spectacle of brilliant creative 
and executive accomplishment, although he would not have admitted 
his dismay. The contrast could not have been more complete. The two 
men, even in their early twenties, were fundamentally un-alike, yet each 
had his own kind of brilliance, innate talent, sensitiveness to beauty, 
keen ambition. 

The real difference was in the background, the surroundings of each. 

[18] 



Strauss was saturated with music from boyhood; for professional musi- 
cianship was a tradition in his family, and musical activity permeated 
his country. He had thorough schooling, and orchestras at his disposal. 
If Strauss had been born and raised in rural Finland, he could never 
have achieved anything remotely comparable to Don Juan at that 
point. Sibelius had spent his boyhood in a provincial atmosphere of 
amateur household music-making. When he entered the school of 
Wegelius in Helsinki, he played the violin and also composed chamber 
music, not because he had any true inclination for that sort, but 
because no other sort came into his ken. Kajanus had organized an 
orchestral school in Helsinki in 1883 and established a small orchestra 
which was later to become the Helsinki Philharmonic; Sibelius could 
not profit by it, or even attend the concerts, because of a rivalry between 
the two schools and the loyalty of Sibelius to his master, Wegelius. 
If Ekman is correct, Sibelius did not even meet Kajanus until he went 
to Berlin, avid to hear and learn even the rudiments of writing for 
an orchestra, the medium which was to be his destiny. He picked up 
in Berlin what crumbs he could about orchestral ways. 

He heard Kajanus there conduct his own Aino Symphony, based on 
a Finnish legend, and was at once fired with a desire to put the folk- 
lore of his people into music. For a decade he composed tone poems 
or set texts from the Kalevala. These were to establish him speedily in 
his own country as a national figure. It can be said that a composer 
in a country where a strong racial character does not yet include a 
cultivated native music is at a certain advantage. He has the oppor- 
tunity of the pioneer to develop his own virgin territory; to find in his 
heart music which shall be of himself and of his people is an exciting 
prospect. But it is one beset with barriers. As with the case of Mous- 
sorgsky, he is surrounded by fumbling amateur effort, or by what is 
equally unhelpful, instruction from such another country as Germany, 
with its long established, alien tradition. Sibelius would hardly have 
profited by attending the conservatories of Berlin or Vienna. The 
music of Wagner, which impressed him in spite of himself, he could 
not freely acknowledge and accept — it was too strong, too foreign, too 
overwhelmingly competent. Sibelius could not have avoided being to 
some extent touched by prevalent German ways, and later by French 
impressionism. Throughout his composing years he nevertheless 
remained staunchly independent. Whether his style was Finnish or 
personal (a difficult question), it was impervious beyond a certain point 
to general trends elsewhere. 

The Lemminkdinen Suite (1895), Finlandia and the First Symphony 
(both of 1899) reveal a triple Sibelius. The first Sibelius will continue 
to make nationalistic settings and nationalistic tone poems through 
his active career; the second represents a deliberate attempt at obvious 

[*f] 



popular appeal; and the third starts upon what is to prove his most 
intensive and devoted effort — the self-realization of the symphonist. 
The smaller pieces, piano solo, piano and violin, songs, incidental 
music for the theatre, are prodigious in number, and mostly tenuous. 
They are addressed, in the years before his government granted him a 
regular income, toward supplying the publishers and meeting family 
expenses. Johnson is puzzled that Sibelius never could repeat the 
universal success of two pieces, Finlandia and the False triste, despite 
many attempts, as if there is some mysterious quirk in popular taste. 
"The False triste/' writes Johnson, "just happened to capture the 
public's fancy." To find the true reason one need only lay the one 
beside his other patriotic rousers, the other beside a succession of 
valses lyriques, valses romantiques and the like. The answer is charac- 
ter versus vacuity. 

The seven symphonies have aroused more controversy than any of 
his works. The first two are more in the nature of the tone poems, 
strong in color, full-toned, mood music which outside of Finland was 
connected with the Finnish landscape by enthusiasts who had never 
seen the Finnish landscape. The Third was spare and elementary by 
comparison and puzzled the romanticists. The Fourth was both spare 
and experimental. Its individual harmonies were found puzzling 
and discouraged some of his adherents. The Fifth again had heroic 
qualities, but without the earlier Tchaikovskian methods. Its special 
strength and finely controlled color dawned tardily upon the general 
consciousness. The Sixth, like the Third, was slight and unassertive. 
It was now clear that the composer had no intention of capturing 
popular acclaim by tonal assault. He was still respected in some parts, 
ignored in others. The Seventh Symphony, in one movement, was the 
shortest (Johnson considers its original title, Fantasia Sinfonica, as 
more appropriate). It is considered by some the finest of all in work- 
manship, economy, expressive simplicity. Johnson hazards that the 
composer of this Symphony and Tapiola could have been expected 
to produce another finely worked score in his Eighth Symphony, which 
at the time of their completion he actually promised, as if he had at 
least drafted it. His sudden silence and sensitive avoidance of the sub- 
ject would indicate that the inveterate reviser who had reworked his 
last three symphonies was too dissatisfied with his first sketches for this 

one to allow it to survive. x _. „ 

j. N. B. 



[*4j 



THOUGHTS ON THE FIFTH SYMPHONY 
By Klaus G. Roy 

(Quoted from the programs of the Cleveland Orchestra) 



tjeetho yen's Fifth Symphony is the most powerful work of musical 
-*~* rhetoric in orchestral literature. It does not beg you, the listener, 
to agree with its message; it does not cajole or attempt to persuade; 
it demands imperiously that you accept it. Few are skeptical enough 
to resist; most are convinced immediately that the composer means 
what he says, and submit to a will stronger than theirs. 

What is the "message" of the Fifth Symphony? It is the intrinsic 
quality of music, its central fact, that cannot be explained in words. 
Who was it who said that music begins where words stop? Yet it will 
call forth verbal associations, paint pictures for one hearer, build phil- 
osophic structures for another. As E. Robert Schmitz once wrote, 
"Music should not be accounted for solely in terms of tonal structure." 
That is certainly true even of "absolute" music. If pressed for the 
meaning of the Fifth Symphony in human terms, one might conceive 
it as an almost pagan challenge: "I am the master of my fate." The 
musical language itself, through its melodies and rhythms, stirs up 
feelings in us which we know from interior and personal experience: 
those of conquest, of overcoming, of triumph. But if we were to try 
to make a piece of literal program music out of the symphony, we 
should fail miserably in comprehending the overwhelming artistic 
structure of the work, and would merely succeed in diminishing the 
scope of its human drama. 

The composer is reported to have referred to his famous opening 
motive as "fate knocking at the door." Perhaps this is true. But it 
would be foolish to claim that he was talking about his fate — His 
growing deafness, his unhappy attachments, his inexorable loneliness. 
Beethoven's whole life is a history of surmounting obstacles; to do so 
in music was merely a parallel and a mirror of doing so in life. Apart 
from its purely musical function as a basic block of building material, 
the motive can be interpreted in many aspects of the idea of conquest 
and triumph. It is not inappropriate that during World War II this 
dot-dot-dot-dash signal of the Morse Code became the "V for Victory" 
symbol. Beethoven, one may think, would have been pleased. Unre- 
lated as this context was to his original intention, at least the over-all 
implication of the symphony had been understood. 

Those four notes, to be sure, are not a "theme" at all. Louis Spohr 
considered them "scrappy and undignified" for a symphonic first theme; 
in the light of tradition, perhaps they were. Nothing could have been 
further from Beethoven's mind than to create a feeling of unruffled 

h5l 



dignity a la Spohr. Instead, he offers us a potent one-celled organism, 
which could grow and multiply with enormous force and logic. Donald 
Tovey warns against the common notion "that the whole first move- 
ment is built up of the initial figure of four notes." Of course, that 
kind of structure would have been fatally dull. These notes, or rather 
that rhythmic and melodic idea, continue to course through the blood- 
stream of the developing musical body; we feel them as the veritable 
heartbeat of the movement. It is fascinating to discover, in studying 
the score, that the four classical sections of the first movement (exposi- 
tion, development, recapitulation and coda) are perfectly balanced 
with each other in length: each contains almost exactly 125 measures. 
There is no doubt that this astonishing symmetry (certainly not 
consciously planned that way by the composer) contributes to the 
listener's subconscious conviction of the music's absolute Tightness 
and inevitability. 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, IN C MINOR, Op. 67 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The Fifth Symphony was completed near the end of the year 1807, and first 
performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, December 22, 1808, Beethoven 
conducting. The parts were published in April, 1809, and the score in March, 1826. 
The dedication is to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky. 

The Symphony is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons 
and double-bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings (the 
piccolo, trombones and double-bassoon, here making their first appearance in a 
symphony of Beethoven, are used only in the Finale). 

something in the direct, impelling drive of the first movement of the 
^ C minor symphony commanded the general attention when it was 
new, challenged the skeptical, and soon forced its acceptance. Goethe 
heard it with grumbling disapproval, according to Mendelssohn, but 
was astonished and impressed in spite of himself. Lesueur, hidebound 
professor at the Conservatoire, was talked by Berlioz into breaking his 
vow never to listen to another note of Beethoven, and found his prej- 
udices and resistances quite swept away. A less plausible tale reports 
Maria Malibran as having been thrown into convulsions by this sym- 
phony. The instances could be multiplied. There was no gainsaying 
that forthright, sweeping storminess. 

Even if the opening movement could have been denied, the tender 
melodic sentiment of the Andante was more than enough to offset 
conservative objections to "waywardness" in the development, and 

[16] 



the lilting measures of the scherzo proper were more than enough to 
compensate the "rough" and puzzling Trio. The joyous, marchlike 
theme of the finale carried the symphony on its crest to popular 
success, silencing at length the objections of those meticulous musi- 
cians who found that movement "commonplace" and noisy. Certain 
of the purists, such as Louis Spohr, were outraged at hearing the 
disreputable tones of trombones and piccolo in a symphony. But 
Spohr could not resist Beethoven's uncanny touch in introducing a 
reminiscence of the scherzo before the final coda. Even Berlioz, who 
was usually with Beethoven heart and soul, felt called upon to make 
a half-apology for the elementary finale theme. It seemed to him that 
the repetitiousness of the finale inevitably lessened the interest. After 
the magnificent first entrance of the theme, the major tonality so 
miraculously prepared for in the long transitional passage, all that 
could follow seemed to him lessened by comparison, and he was forced 
to take refuge in the simile of a row of even columns, of which the 
nearest looms largest 

It has required the weathering of time to show the Beethoven of 
the Fifth Symphony to be in no need of apologies, to be greater than 
his best champions suspected. Some of his most enthusiastic conduc- 
tors in the century past seem to have no more than dimly perceived 
its broader lines, misplaced its accents, under or over shot the mark 
when they attempted those passages which rely upon the understand- 
ing and dramatic response of the interpreter. Wagner castigated those 
who hurried over the impressive, held E-flat in the second bar, who 
sustained it no longer than the "usual duration of a forte bow stroke." 
Even many years later, Arthur Nikisch was taken to task for over- 
prolonging those particular holds. Felix Weingartner, as recently as 
1906, in his "On the Performance of the Symphonies of Beethoven," 
felt obliged to warn conductors against what would now be considered 
unbelievable liberties, such as adding horns in the opening measures 
of the symphony. He also told them to take the opening eighth notes 
in tempo, and showed how the flowing contours of the movement must 
not be obscured by false accentuation. 

Those — and there is no end of them — who have attempted to 
describe the first movement have looked upon the initial four-note 
figure with its segregating hold, and have assumed that Beethoven used 
this fragment, which is nothing more than a rhythm and an interval, 
in place of a theme proper, relying upon the slender and little used 
"second theme" for such matters as melodic continuity. Weingartner 
and others after him have exposed this fallacy, and what might be 
called the enlightened interpretation of this movement probably began 
with the realization that Beethoven never devised a first movement 
more conspicuous for graceful symmetry and even, melodic flow. An 

[17] 



isolated tile cannot explain a mosaic, and the smaller the tile unit, 
the more smooth and delicate of line will be the complete picture. 
Just so does Beethoven's briefer "motto" build upon itself to produce 
long and regular melodic periods. Even in its first bare statement, the 
"motto" belongs conceptually to an eight-measure period, broken for 
the moment as the second fermata is held through an additional bar. 
The movement is regular in its sections, conservative in its tonalities. 
The composer remained, for the most part, within formal boundaries. 
The orchestra was still the orchestra of Haydn, until, to swell the 
jubilant outburst of the finale, Beethoven resorted to his trombones. 

The innovation, then, was in the character of the musical thought. 
The artist worked in materials entirely familiar, but what he had to 
say was astonishingly different from anything that had been said before. 
As Sir George Grove has put it, he "introduced a new physiognomy 
into the world of music." No music, not even the "Eroica," had had 
nearly the drive and impact of this First Movement. 

The Andante con moto (in A-flat major) is the most irregular of 
the four movements. It is not so much a theme with variations as free 
thoughts upon segments of a theme with certain earmarks and recur- 
rences of the variation form hovering in the background. The first 
setting forth of the melody cries heresy by requiring 48 bars. The first 
strain begins regularly enough, but, instead of closing on the tonic 
A-flat, hangs suspended. The wood winds echo this last phrase and 
carry it to a cadence which is pointedly formal as the strings echo it 
at the nineteenth bar. Formal but not legitimate. A close at the eighth 
bar would have been regular, and this is not a movement of regular 
phrase lengths. Regularity is not established until the end of the 
movement when this phrase closes upon its eighth bar at last! The 
whole andante is one of the delayed cadences. The second strain of 
the melody pauses upon the dominant and proceeds with an outburst 
into C major, repeats in this key to pause at the same place and dream 
away at leisure into E-flat. The two sections of melody recur regularly 
with varying ornamental accompaniment in the strings, but again the 
questioning pauses bring in enchanting whispered vagaries, such as 
a fugato for flutes, oboes and clarinets, or a pianissimo dalliance by 
the violins upon a strand of accompaniment. The movement finds 
a sudden fortissimo close. 

The third movement (allegro, with outward appearance of a scherzo) 
begins pianissimo with a phrase the rhythm of which crystallizes into 
the principal element, in fortissimo. The movement restores the 
C minor of the first and some of its rhythmic drive. But here the 
power of impulsion is light and springy. In the first section of the 
Trio in C major (the only part of the movement which is literally 
repeated) the basses thunder a theme which is briefly developed, 

[18] 



fugally and otherwise. The composer begins what sounds until its 
tenth bar like a da capo. But this is in no sense a return, as the hearer 
soon realizes. The movement has changed its character, lost its steely 
vigor and taken on a light, skimming, mysterious quality. It evens off 
into a pianissimo where the suspense of soft drum beats prepares a 
new disclosure, lightly establishing (although one does not realize this 
until the disclosure comes) the quadruple beat. The bridge of mystery 
leads, with a sudden tension, into the tremendous outburst of the 
Finale, chords proclaiming C major with all of the power an orchestra 
of 1807 could muster — w T hich means that trombones, piccolo and 
contra-bassoon appeared for the first time in a symphony. The Finale 
follows the formal line of custom, with a second section in the 
dominant, the prescribed development section, and a fairly close 
recapitulation. But as completely as the first movement (which like- 
wise outw r ardly conforms), it gives a new function to a symphony — 
a new and different character to music itself. Traditional preconcep- 
tions are swept away in floods of sound, joyous and triumphant. At 
the end of the development the riotous chords cease and in the sudden 
silence the scherzo, in what is to be a bridge passage, is recalled. Again 
measures of w T onderment fall into the sense of a coda as the oboe brings 
the theme to a gentle resolution. This interruption was a stroke of 
genius which none could deny, even the early malcontents who 
denounced the movement as vulgar and blatant — merely because they 
had settled back for a rondo and found something else instead. The 
Symphony which in all parts overrode disputation did so nowhere 
more unanswerably than in the final coda with its tumultuous C major. 

[copyrighted] 



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['91 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 



CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining concert in the Wednesday evening series in 
Carnegie Hall will be as follows: 

March 23 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 



The remaining concert in the Saturday afternoon series will be 
as follows: 

March 26 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

GARY GRAFFMAN, Piano 



Tickets at the Carnegie Hall Box Office. 



The concerts by this Orchestra in Symphony Hall, Boston, on 
Saturday nights at 8:30 are broadcast complete by Station 
WQXR, New York. 



CARNEGIE HALL 

[80] 



NEW YORK 



seventy-ninth season • nineteen hundred fifty-nine- sixty 
Seventy-fourth Season in New York 

Fourth Afternoon Concert 

SATURDAY, February 20, at 2:30 o'clock 



Program 

Mozart Symphony No. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 

I. Adagio; Allegro 

II. Andante 

III. Minuetto; Trio 

IV. Finale: Allegro 

Moevs "Attis," for Orchestra with Chorus and Tenor Solo 

(First performance in New York) 

INTERMISSION 

Dvorak Concerto for Cello, in B minor, Op. 104 

I. Allegro 

II. Adagio ma non troppo 
III. Finale: Allegro moderato 



CHORUS FROM THE 

HARVARD GLEE CLUB and RADCLIFFE CHORAL SOCIETY 

ELLIOT FORBES, Conductor 

ROBERT PRICE, Tenor 



SOLOIST 

GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 

Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[»*] 



SYMPHONY NO. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



The symphony was completed June 26, 1788. 

The orchestration includes: 1 flute, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
timpani and strings. 

Certain great works of art have come down to us surrounded with 
mystery as to the how and why of their being. Such are Mozart's 

last three symphonies, which he composed in a single summer — the 
lovely E-flat, the impassioned G minor, and the serene "Jupiter" 
(June 26, July 25 and August 10, 1788). We find no record that they 
were commissioned, at a time when Mozart was hard pressed for 
money, no mention of them by him, and no indication of a per- 
formance in the three years that remained of his life. What prompted 
the young Mozart, who, by the nature of his circumstances always 
composed with a fee or a performance in view, to take these three 
rarefied flights into a new beauty of technical mastery, a new develop- 
ment and splendor of the imagination, leaving far behind the thirty- 
eight (known) symphonies which preceded? 

Speculation on such mysteries are these, although likely to lead to 
irresponsible conclusions, is hard to resist. The pioneering arrogance 
of such later Romantics as Beethoven with his Eroica or last quartets, 
Wagner with his Ring or Tristan, Schubert with his great C major 
Symphony, was different. Custom then permitted a composer to 
pursue his musical thoughts to unheard-of ends, leaving the capacities 
of living performers and the comprehensions of living listeners far 
behind. In Mozart's time, this sort of thing was simply not done. 
Mozart was too pressed by the problems of livelihood to dwell upon 
musical dreamings with no other end than his own inner satisfaction. 
He had no other choice than to cut his musical cloth to occasion, and 
even in this outwardly quiet and routine, inwardly momentous sum- 
mer, he continued to write potboilers — arias, trios, piano sonatas 
"for beginners," a march — various pieces written by order of a patron, 
or to favor some singer or player. 

Perhaps what is most to be marvelled at in the composer Mozart 
— a marvel even exceeding the incredible exploits of a later, "Roman- 
tic" century — is his success in not being limited by the strait-jacket 
of petty commissions. From the operas where, in an elaborate pro- 
duction his name appeared in small type on the posters (if at all) 
to the serenades for private parties, he gave in return for his small fees 
music whose undying beauties his patrons did not remotely suspect. 



yVhvkGh/ 



HIS DEDICATION AND 
INTERPRETIVE POWERS ARE MOVINGLY 
REVEALED IN FINEST LIVING STEREO 

on rga Victor records exclusively 



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THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
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and regular LP.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 

®RCAViCTOR@ 

[23] 



Shortly after his death the three symphonies in question appeared in 
publication, and were performed, their extraordinary qualities re- 
ceived with amazement, disapproval in some quarters, and an en- 
thusiasm which increased from year to year. The three great sym- 
phonies (destined to be his last) were closed secrets to his friends who 
beheld the famous but impecunious young man of thirty-two adding 
three more to the thirty-odd symphonies he had been turning out 
with entire facility from the age of eight. 

Some have conjectured that Mozart was spurred to this triumphant 
assertion of his powers by the excitement attendant upon the produc- 
tion of Don Giovanni in Vienna in May, 1788, following its more 
highly successful production at Prague in the previous October. Others 
have found in the more clouded brightness of the G minor Symphony 
the despondency of a family man harassed by debts, pursued by his 
landlord. Mozart was indeed in bad financial straits that summer. His 
operas brought him nothing more than a small initial fee, and the 
demand for him as pianist had fallen off. His diminished activities 
were scantily rewarded, and the incoming florins were far from enough 
to keep him in a fine coat and proper coach for his evenings with the 
high-born, and still provide adequate lodgings for him and his ailing 
Constanze. 

Unfortunately for the theory that Mozart wrote his G minor* Sym- 
phony when dominated by his financial distress, he finished his en- 
tirely gay E-flat symphony-)- on the very eve of writing the second of his 
"begging" letters to Herr Michael Puchberg, friend, fellow Mason, 
amateur musician, and merchant. The first letter asked for the loan 
of 2,000 florins: "At all events, I beg you to lend me a couple of hun- 
dred gulden, because my landlord in the Landstrasse was so pressing 
that I was obliged to pay him on the spot (in order to avoid anything 
unpleasant) which caused me great embarrassment." Puchberg sent 
the two hundred, and Mozart, answering on June 27, and asking for 
more money, is careful to impress his creditor with his industrious in- 
tentions: "I have worked more during the ten days I have lived here 
than in two months in my former apartment; and if dismal thoughts 
did not so often intrude (which I strive forcibly to dismiss), I should 
be very well off here, for I live agreeably, comfortably, and above all, 
cheaply." Mozart was telling the strict truth about his ten busy days: 
listed under the date June 22 is a trio, and under June 26 a march, 
piano sonata, the adagio and fugue for strings, together with a piece 
of more doubtful bread-winning powers (from which the "dismal 
thoughts" are quite absent) — the Symphony in E-flat. 

Mozart had recently acquired his position as "Chamber Composer" 

* Koechel lists only one other symphony by Mozart in a minor key — the early symphony 
in G minor, No. 183 (1773). 

t Save four poignant dissonances at the climax of the introduction. 

[*4] 



to the Emperor Joseph II. But the post, which had been held by 
the Chevalier Gluck until his death the year before, was as unre- 
munerative as it was high-sounding. Mozart's emperor was glad to 
pare the salary of two thousand florins he had paid to Gluck to less 
than half — the equivalent of two hundred dollars - in Mozart's case. 
He expected little in return — no exquisite symphonies or operas to set 
Austria afire - a fresh set of minuets, waltzes, or country dances for 
each imperial masked ball in the winter season was quite sufficient. 
Hence the oft-quoted line which Mozart is supposed to have sent back 
with one of the imperial receipts: "Too much for what I do — not 
enough for what I can do." 

Mozart uses no oboes in his E-flat symphony, only one flute, and 
clarinets, bassoons, horns, and trumpets in twos. Jahn finds the blend- 
ing of clarinets with horns and bassoons productive of "a full, mellow 
tone" requisite for his special purpose, while "the addition of the flutes 
[flute] gives it clearness and light, and trumpets endow it with bril- 
liancy and freshness." The delicate exploitation of the clarinets is in 
many parts evident, particularly in the trio of the minuet, where the 
first carries the melody and the second complements it with arpeggios 
in the deeper register. 

[copyrighted] 



"ATTIS," for Orchestra with Chorus and Tenor Solo 

(after Catullus) 

By Robert W. Moevs 

Born in La Crosse, Wisconsin, December 2, 1921 



"Attis," based on the Carmen LXIII of Catullus, was composed, according to a 
notation on the manuscript score, between September 19, 1958, and February 14, 
1959. The piece was commissioned by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in the Ameri- 
can Music Center Commissioning Series under a grant from the Ford Foundation. 

This piece will be recorded and submitted for award to the American Interna- 
tional Music Fund. 

The following orchestra is called for: 3 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English 
horn, clarinet in E-flat. clarinet in B -flat and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra- 
bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets and bass trumpet in E-flat, 3 trombones and tuba, 
harp, celesta, piano, timpani, percussion and strings. The percussion instruments 
consist of a large and small snare drum, tenor drum, bass drum (laid flat), triangle, 
crotali (small cymbals), wood blocks, tambourine, bongos, gong, tam-tam, tom-tom, 
xylophone, marimba. 

TV /Tr. Moevs has provided the following information on the subject 
■L*-*- of his score: 

Attis is a Phrygian and Lydian divinity who occupies, in the cult 
and myth of the goddess Cybele, the same position as that of Adonis 

[25] 



in relation to the Syriac Aphrodite: the tragic fate of an adolescent 
who falls under the sway of an enamored goddess is common to both. 
Originally Attis was worshipped only in Phrygia, and the center of his 
cult remained there. Although he was known in Athens in the fourth 
century B.C., he remains essentially foreign to the Greek religion. 
Plutarch says (amator. 12): "From a place of barbaric superstition he 
was introduced by women and eunuchs to the Greeks and Romans." 
He appears in literature during the Alexandrian period. In Rome he 
was associated with the cult of the Magna Mater, and was officially 
recognized in imperial times. 

Frenzied exaltation was characteristic of Phrygian worship. Meeting 
places were the untouched summits of forest-covered mountains, where 
Cybele resided. Intoxicated with shouting, and the uproar of instru- 
ments, the auloi, tambourines, drums, cymbals, all sacred to Cybele, 
the worshippers, excited by their impetuous advance, breathless and 
panting, surrendered to the raptures of a sacred enthusiasm. Some of 
them, in a paroxysm of frenzy, sacrificed their virility to the goddess, 
as a sign of complete subjection and identity with their divinity. These 
men became priests of Cybele and were called Galli (in Catullus: 
Gallae). The Alexandrian Greeks in particular were fascinated, and 
repelled, by such barbaric frenzy, so foreign to the rational, highly 
civilized Greek mind. Attis became the example of the fate that could 
befall a sensitive and civilized young man who succumbs to the savage 
barbarism that surrounds him. Callimachus is presumed (by Wilamo- 
witz) to have been the author of the poem that served as the basis for 
that of Catullus. 

The Greeks devised a particular metric scheme, called, appro- 
priately, galliambic, for the portrayal of this subject, of a remarkable 
impetuosity: 



uu — u — u — — uu — UUUUjJ 

The constant appearance of the caesura at the end of a foot indicates 
that originally the two parts were individual lines. Catullus always 
observes this division. This rushing, impetuous line is the point of 
departure for the music of Attis; the first section of the work is the 
result of the rhythmic drive initiated by the first two lines: 

Super alta vectus Attis || celeri rate maria 
Phrygium ut nemus citato || cupid£ pede tetigit 

The joy and exultation of sailing a swift ship over tumultuous seas to 
a new land also is there. In Phrygia, Attis enters the mysterious forest 
sacred to Cybele, becomes totally subjected to her, and finally sacrifices 
his virility to her. Then begins the frenzied, orgiastic rush through 
the wood and up the mountain in search of Cybele herself. Attis, with 
a drum, incites his followers (Gallae) to abandon their reason and to 

[26] 



follow him, to the summit and to the final paroxysm. Certain of these 
lines, descriptive, are conveyed by the orchestra and are not sung. 
The rhythmic percussion construction (in part canonic: a canon a 3; 
a canon a 3 per augmentationem) is built up following the Greek 
method of combining different metric feet into larger rhythmic com- 
plexes, such as the tripodies and tetrapodies of the prosodiakoi; line 
26 of Attis in fact reads: 

"Quo nos decet citatis celerare tripudiis." 

Melodically, there are two fundamental ideas. The first is that of 
the glissando, or quasi-glissando; the second appears in the flute in 
measure 267, subsequent to the words "silvis redimita": 




*p0, LeecenissiMO 



The first twenty-six lines of Attis, which are those used for this 
music, follow (the italicized words are those actually sung): 

Super alta vectus Attis celeri rate maria 
Phrygium ut nemus citato cupide pede tetigit 
Adiitque opaca, silvis redimita, loca deae, 
Stimulatus ibi furenti rabie, vagus animi, 
Devolvit ilei acuto sibi pondera silice. 
Itaque ut relicta sensit sibi membra sine viro, 
Etiam recente terrae sola sanguine maculans 
Niveis citata cepit manibus leve typanum, 
Typanum tuom, Cybelle, tua, mater, initia, 
Quatiensque terga taurei teneris cava digitis 
Canere haec suis adortast tremebunda comitibus. 

"Agite ite ad alta, Gallae, Cybeles nemora simul, 
Simul ite, Dindymenae dominae vaga pecora, 
Aliena quae petentes velut exules loca 
Sectam meam executae duce me mihi comites 
Rapidum salum tulistis truculentaque pelage 
Et corpus evirastis Veneris nimio odio, 
Hilarate erae citatis erroribus animum. 
Mora tarda mente cedat: simul ite, sequimini 
Phrygiam ad domum Cybelles, Phrygia ad nemora deae, 
Ubi cymbalum sonat vox, ubi tympana reboant, 
Tibicen ubi canit Phryx curvo grave calamo, 
Ubi capita Maenades vi iaciunt hederigerae, 
Ubi sacra sancta acutis ululatibus agitant, 
Ubi suevit ilia divae volitare vaga cohoi.v 
Quo nos decet titatis celerare tripudiis." 

Catullus was born in Verona in 87 or S\ B.C., and died in 55 or 

[17] 



54 B.C., in his early thirties. He belonged to the movement of neoteroi, 
"new poets," who introduced into Latin literature the refinement and 
sensuality of Alexandrian poetry. Catullus is the best of these poets, 
and the most individual; even Attis, in this myth, shows the imprint 
of the strong, human personality of Catullus. 

Robert Moevs took an A.B. degree at Harvard in 1942. After service 
in the war as pilot in the Air Force, he studied with Nadia Boulanger 
from 1946 to 1951. He then returned to Harvard to take a Master's 
degree in music, studying with Walter Piston and Archibald T. Davi- 
son. He was a Fellow of the American Academy in Rome from 1952 
to 1955. In Rome he composed several works, including the Fourteen 
Variations. He is now on the music faculty at Harvard. 

This composer's Fourteen Variations for Orchestra were introduced 
at these concerts by Leonard Bernstein on April 6, 1956. His Sym- 
phony in Three Movements was commissioned for the Fortieth Anni- 
versary of the Cleveland Orchestra and performed in Cleveland April 
10, 1958. Other works include a Piano Sonata, a "Cantata Sacra," a 
String Quartet and a Sonata for Violin Unaccompanied. 

[copyrighted] 



ENTR'ACTE 
A ROMAN ORGY 



A ttis (or Atys) and Cybele were Phrygian deities, the youthful god 
^** and the matron goddess of fertility. Cybele was the earth-mother, 
Attis the personification of new birth. Sir James G. Frazer, in Adonis 
Attis Osiris (in The Golden Bough), compares the religions of the 
East and shows how each of the three youths was connected with the 
miracle of the awakening of life in the spring. Adonis was brought 
into Greece as beloved by Venus; Attis was beloved by Cybele and 
presumably worshipped in Rome when the image of Cybele was intro- 
duced there at a ceremony of blood sacrifice to ensure favorable crops. 
In these rites Attis is believed to have been represented in Rome in 
effigy. 

The legends about Attis are various. In one version Cybele and 
Attis were lovers, as were Venus and Adonis. It was said that, like 
Adonis, Attis was gored by a wild boar. Another version has it that 
he was her son, by a virgin birth. His death may or may not have been 
caused by castration, which may or may not have been self-inflicted. 
The legend had it that he was transformed into a pine tree. His 

[28] 



resurrection was a part of the principle of renewing life. His castration 
was associated with the castration of the priests of Cybele, a custom 
which was observed when the rites were imported to Rome in 204 B.C., 
and these rites must have inspired the 63rd of the Carmina by Catullus, 
the poet of Verona. 

The festival began at the vernal equinox. "A pine tree," writes 
Frazer, "was cut in the w r oods and brought into the sanctuary of Cybele, 
where it was treated as a great divinity. The duty of carrying the 
sacred tree was entrusted to a guild of tree-bearers. The trunk was 
swathed like a corpse with woolen bands and decked with wreaths of 
violets, for violets were said to have sprung from the blood of Attis, 
as roses and anemones from the blood of Adonis; and the effigy of the 
young man, doubtless Attis himself, was tied to the middle of the 
stem. . . . The third day, the twenty-fourth of March, was known as 
the Day of Blood: the Archigallus or High Priest drew blood from 
his arms and presented it as an offering. Nor was he alone in making 
his bloody sacrifice. 

"Stirred by the wild barbaric music of clashing cymbals, rumbling 
drums, droning horns, and screaming flutes, the inferior clergy whirled 
about in the dance with waggling heads and streaming hair, until, rapt 
into a frenzy of excitement and insensible to pain, they gashed their 
bodies with potsherds or slashed them with knives in order to bespatter 
the altar and the sacred tree with their flowing blood. The ghastly 
rite probably formed part of the mourning for Attis and may have 
been intended to strengthen him for the resurrection." Sir James 
further "conjectures," that "it was on the same Day of Blood and for 
the same purpose that the novices sacrificed their virility." 

j. N. B. 



CONCERTO IN B MINOR FOR CELLO, Op. 104 

By Anton Dvorak 

Born in Muhlhausen (Bohemia), September 8, 1841; died in Prague, May 1, 1904 



Dvorak's Concerto for Violoncello had its first performance at a Philharmonic 
concert in London, March 19, 1896, Leo Stern soloist. Mr. Stern subsequently played 
the concerto in American cities, including New York and Chicago. The first per- 
formance in Boston was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra December 19, 1896, when 
Alwin Schroeder was the soloist. There were further performances January 6, 1900 
(Alwin Schroeder); October 29, 1905 (Heinrich Warnke); November 30, 1912 (Otto 
Urack); March 30, 1917 (Joseph Malkin); December 24, 1936 (Gregor Piatigorsky); 
December 28, 1951 (Zara Nelsova); January 22, 1954 (Pierre Fournier); March 16, 
1956 (Leonard Rose). 

The orchestration is for woodwinds in twos, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones and 
tuba, timpani, triangle and strings. 

'TpHE works which Dvorak composed during his stay in America 
A (1892-95) added to his already considerable popularity. They 

[29] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 



Bach 
Barber 

Beethoven 



Berlioz 

Blackwood 

Bloch 

Brahms 



Debussy 



Dukas 

Elgar 

Franck 

Haieff 

Ibert 

d'Indy 

Khatchaturian 
Mahler 

Martinu 
Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 



Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 

Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



Wagner 
Walton 

* Also a stereophonic 



Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) LM-2182, 

Medea's Dance of Vengeance LM- 

Adagio for Strings LM- 

Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" LM- 

Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" LM- 

Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" LM- 

Symphony No. 9 LM- 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) LM- 

"L'Enfance du Christ" LM- 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) LM- 

Symphony No. 1 LM- 

"Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) LM- 

Symphony No. 1 LM- 

Symphony No. 2 ; "Tragic" Overture LM- 

Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) LM- 

"The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" LM- 

"La Mer" LM- 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" LM 

Three Images LM- 

The Apprentice Sorceror LM- 

Introduction and Allegro LM 

Symphony No. 1 in D minor LM 

Symphony No. 2 LM- 

"Escales" (Ports of Call) LM- 
Symphony on a Mountain Air 

(Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) LM- 
"Kindertotenlieder" and "Lieder eines fahrenden 

Gesellen" (Maureen Forrester) LM- 

"Fantaisies Symphoniques" LM 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies LM 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) LM- 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) LM- 

Symphony No. 6 LM- 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts LM 
Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) LM- 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) LM 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" LM- 

"Mother Goose" Suite LM- 

Piano Concerto (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) LM 

"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" LM- 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) LM- 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures LM 

Symphony No. 4 LM- 

Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) LM 

Serenade for Strings LM 

Violin Concerto (Szeryng) LM 

Excerpts (Eileen Farrell) LM 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) LM 

recording. 



2198* 

2197 

2105 

2015 

2233* 

1997 

6066* 

1992* 

■6053 

2228* 

2352* 

2109 

-2097 
■1959 
■2274* 

■2030 
2111* 
■1984* 
■2282* 

■2292* 
-2105* 
■2131* 
■2352* 
2111* 

■2271 
1760 

■2371* 

■2083 

■2221* 
■2314* 

■2073 

■2083 

•2110 
■2197 
■2314* 

-2237* 

■1984* 
■2292* 
■2271* 

-1760 
■2292* 

■2344 

-2043 
■1953 
-2239* 
-2105* 
2363* 
2255* 
2109 



included the Symphony in E minor "From the New World," of 1893, 
and the String Quartet in F major and String Quintet in E-flat written 
in the summer of that year at Spillville, Iowa; the Ten Biblical Songs 
(1894), and the Cello Concerto (1895) — also some lesser works (such 
as the Festival Cantata, "The American Flag"). Dr. Ottokar Sourek 
(in Grove's Dictionary) states that "his great yearning for his native 
land" inspired several of these works, and "permeates deeply" two of 
them: the set of Biblical Songs and the Cello Concerto. 

Cellists of the time seem to have taken a lively interest in the news 
that a notable addition was to be made to the very scant literature of 
concertos for their instrument. At least two of them felt an almost 
parental concern in the safe arrival of the new work. One of these was 
Alwin Schroeder, first cellist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Mr. 
Schroeder assisted the composer in writing in the passage work for the 
solo instrument. When Dvorak left New York and returned to Prague 
with his uncompleted score, he found an even more industrious helper 
in the Bohemian cellist, Hans Wihan, who, as some believe, originally 
persuaded the master to undertake such a work. 

From Dvorak's letters to his publisher Simrock in that year concern- 
ing the publication of the Concerto it becomes evident that Wihan 
had a great deal to do with the preparation of the score. Dvorak wrote 
that "the principal part with fingering and bowing indications has 
been made by Prof. Wihan himself." And later he wrote, "The con- 
certo I must dedicate to my friend Wihan," which obligation was duly 
carried out. The true composer even feared that his adviser might 
interfere in the matter of proof reading and felt called upon to warn 
the publisher. "My friend Wihan and I have differed as to certain 
things. Many of the passages do not please me, and I must insist that my 
work be printed as I have written it. In certain places the passages 
may, indeed, be printed in two versions — a comparatively easy and a 
more difficult one. Above all, I give you my work only if you will 

promise me that no one — not even my friend Wihan — shall make 
any alteration in it without my knowledge and permission — also no 

cadenza such as Wihan has made in the last movement — and that its 
form shall be as I have felt it and thought it out. The cadenza in the 
last movement is not to exist either in the orchestral or the piano 
score: I informed Wihan, when he showed it to me, that it is impos- 
sible so to insert one. The finale closes gradually diminuendo — like 
a breath — with reminiscences of the first and second movements; the 
solo dies away to a pianissimo, then there is a crescendo, and the last 
measures are taken up by the orchestra, ending stormily. That was my 
idea, and from it I cannot recede." Wihan never performed the con- 
certo in public. 

The first movement, allegro, in B minor, 4-4, follows in most respects 

[31 1 



the prescription of the sonata form. The second movement, adagio 
ma non troppo, is in G major, 3-4. The finale, allegro moderato, in 
B minor, 2-4, is a fully developed rondo on three themes. 

[COPYRIGHTED] 



GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 

Gregor Piatigorsky was born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia, in 1903. As 
a child he studied the violin with his father, but it was the 
violoncello which he mastered and made his instrument. He found 
his field as a virtuoso. He first visited the United States in 1929, and 
on April 17, 1931, he first played with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
in Schumann's Violoncello Concerto in A minor. 

Mr. Piatigorsky has performed with this orchestra concertos by 
Haydn, Mozart, Schumann, Saint-Saens, Dvorak, Bloch ("Schelomo"), 
and has played on three occasions in Strauss' "Don Quixote." He has 
participated in introducing concertos by Berezowsky ("Concerto 
Lirico"), Prokofieff, Hindemith, and Dukelsky. He played in the first 
performance of the Cello Concerto by William Walton, January 25, 
1957. He has for a number of seasons been on the chamber music 
faculty of the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood. 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
FOR OUR RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio audience has prompted 
a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
1960 is $3.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 
Hall. 



[32] 



BROADCASTS by the 


BOSTON 


SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 


Wint 

The Saturday eve 


er Season 


. 1959-1960 


sning concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the 


s following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


*WCRB-AM 


1330 


kc 


Boston 


*WCRB-FM 


102.5 


mc 


Boston 


**WXHR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


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**WTAG-FM 


96.1 


mc 


Worcester 


**WNHC-FM 


99.1 


mc 


New Haven 


**WQXR-AM 


1560 


kc 


New York 


**WQXR-FM 


96.3 


mc 


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**WFIL-FM 


102.1 


mc 


Philadelphia 


**WFMZ-FM 


100.7 


mc 


Allentown, Pa. 


**WFLY-FM 


92.3 


mc 


Troy, N. Y. 


**WITH-FM 


104.3 


mc 


Baltimore 


**WNBF-FM 


98.1 


mc 


Binghamton, N. Y. 


**WGR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


**WRRA-FM 


103.7 


mc 


Ithaca, N. Y. 


**WJTN-FM 


93.3 


mc 


Jamestown, N. Y. 


**WHDL-FM 


95.7 


mc 


Olean, N. Y. 


**WROC-FM 


97.9 


mc 


Rochester, N. Y. 


**WSYR-FM 


94.5 


mc 


Syracuse, N. Y. 


**WRUN-FM 


105.7 


mc 


Utica, N. Y. 


**WSNJ-FM 


98.9 


mc 


Bridgeton, N. J. 


The Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the 


following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


WXHR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 


by transcription at 8 p.m 


. on the Monday evening following 


the performances 


on the following stations: 


*WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


♦WBCN-FM 


104.1 


mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 


mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 


mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 


mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


♦WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 


be broadcast by the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


WGBH-TV 


Channel 2 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


WENH-TV 


Channel 11 


Durham, N. H. 


The Sunday afternoon 


and Tuesday evening concerts at 


Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 


FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 






* - Stereophonic Broadcast 




•* - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



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TON] 






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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959-1960 
Carnegie Hall, New York 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wil finger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silherman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel /nng 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



PERSONNEL 

Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Banvicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\f Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Roiario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 
James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andr£ Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 

Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[»1 



Next Saturday at 8:30 over WQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
memorable performance. And every day, 
early morning to late at night, treat 
yourself to wonderful listening from 
America's Number One Good Music 
Station, WQXR, 1560 AM, 96.3 FM, the 
radio station of The New York Times. 




M 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



Seventy-fourth Season in New York 



Fifth Evening Concert 



WEDNESDAY, March 23, at 8:30 o'clock 



Program 



Berlioz *Fantastic Symphony, Op. 14a 

I. Reveries, Passions 

Largo; Allegro agitato e appassionato assai 

II. A Ball 

Waltz: Allegro non troppo 

III. Scene in the Meadows 

Adagio 

IV. March to the Scaffold 

Allegretto non troppo 

V. Dreams of the Witches' Sabbath 
Larghetto; Allegro 

INTERMISSION 

Honegger *Symphony No. 2, for String Orchestra 

I. Molto moderato 

II. Adagio mesto 

III. Vivace, non troppo 

Roussel *"Bacchus et Ariane," Suite No. 2, Op. 43 



Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 

M,— ^ — — ^— ■— ui 



A REMINISCENT FAREWELL 

(From the Carnegie Hall programs) 



The last concerts by this Orchestra in Carnegie Hall prompt a 
glance back through the years. 

Among the eminent musical figures attending the dedication of 
Carnegie Hall on May 5, 1891, with Tchaikovsky as guest conductor, 
was Henry Lee Higginson. Had not this New England financier 
founded the Boston Symphony Orchestra almost exactly ten years 
before? His Orchestra had impressed New York from its first visit in 
1887, at Steinway Hall, under Wilhelm Gericke, and continuing there 
and at Chickering Hall under Arthur Nikisch in the seasons of 1889 
and 1890. 

It was on November 8, 1893 that the Bostonians first played in 
Carnegie Hall (which, by the way, was called Music Hall and Carnegie 
Music Hall). The World's review of the event was headlined: "The 
Musical Season Begins." According to the Tribune's critic, "It was a 
most appropriate and dignified opening. . . . The appearance of the 
new conductor, Mr. Emil Paur, served to heighten the interest in the 
concert, and an audience of fine appearance and evident refinement 
filled the large music room." 

Expansively, the World's critic wrote: 

"It is with deep satisfaction that the music-lovers of this city greet 
the transfer of this premier musical organization from its former 
cramped quarters (Chickering Hall) to the more spacious locale, which 
is destined to be the scene of its future musical achievements. Domi- 
ciled as it now is to be on the occasion of its monthly visits to New 
York in the superb building which wealth has erected for the glorifica- 
tion of musical art, its influence will be greater than before." 

High approval was bestowed on the soprano soloist, Emma Eames, 
by all the critics. One of them, in the Press, wrote that the "direct 
and honest beat of Emil Paur" gave the opportunity "to listen to the 
score itself without being perplexed by originalities of conception." 
Others thought him more academic than magnetic. Unanimous praise 
was expressed for the inherent quality of the Boston Orchestra. 

This was the program: 

Beethoven — Fifth Symphony; Massenet — Pleurez, Mes Yeux ("Le 
Cid"); Dvorak — Slavonic Rhapsody No. 2; Mozart — Dove Sono ("Le 
Nozze di Figaro"); Berlioz — Overture to "Benvenuto Cellini." 

Laning Humphrey 



[41 



FANTASTIC SYMPHONY (SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE). 

Op. 14A 

By Hector Berlioz 

Born at la C6te-Saint-Andre (Isere) , December 11, 1803; died in Paris, March 8, 1869 



Berlioz's title, "Episode in the Life of an Artist," Op. 14, includes two works: 
the Fantastic Symphony and Lelio; or, The Return to Life, a lyric monodrama. 

The Symphony, composed in 1830, had its first performance December 5 of that 
year at the Conservatoire in Paris, Habeneck conducting. 

The first performance in the United States was at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society of New York, Carl Bergmann conducting, January 27, 1866. The Symphony 
was first performed in Boston by the Harvard Musical Association, February 12, 
1880, and first performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, December 19, 1885. 

It is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets and E-flat 
clarinet, 4 bassoons, 2 cornets-d-pistons, 2 trumpets, 4 horns, 3 trombones, 2 tubas, 
timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, bells, 2 harps, piano, and strings. 

The score is dedicated to Nicholas I. of Russia. 

There have been many attempts to explain that extraordinary 
musical apparition of 1830, the Symphonie Fantastique. Berlioz 
himself was explicit, writing of the "Episode in the Life of an Artist" 
as "the history of my love for Miss Smithson, my anguish and my dis- 
tressing dreams." This in his Memoirs; but he also wrote there: "It 
was while I was still strongly under the influence of Goethe's poem 
[Faust] that I wrote my Symphonie Fantastique." 



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[51 



Yet the "Episode" cannot be put down simply as a sort of lover's 
confession in music, nor its first part as a "Faust" symphony. In 1830, 
Berlioz had never talked to Miss Smithson. He was what would now 
be called a "fan" of the famous Irish actress, for she scarcely knew of 
the existence of the obscure and perhaps crazy young French composer 
who did not even speak her language. Her image was blended in the 
thoughts of the entranced artist with the parts in which he beheld 
her on the boards — Ophelia or Juliet — as Berlioz shows in his excited 
letters to his friend Fernand at the time. Can that image be reconciled 
with the "courtesan" of the last movement, who turned to scorn all 
that was tender and noble in the beloved theme, the idee fixe? The 
Berlioz specialists have been at pains to explain the "aflreuses verites" 
with which Berlioz charged her in his letter to Fernand (April 30, 
1830). These truths, unexplained, may have been nothing more fright- 
ful than his realization that Miss Smithson was less a goddess than a 
flesh and blood human being who, also, was losing her vogue. The 
poet's "vengeance" makes no sense, except that illogic is the stuff of 
dreams. It would also be an over-simplification to say that Berlioz 
merely wanted to use a witches' sabbath in his score and altered his 
story accordingly. Berlioz did indeed decide at last to omit the story 
from his programs (for performances of the Symphony without the 
companion piece Lelio*) . He no doubt realized that the wild story 
made for distraction and prejudice, while the bare titles allowed the 
music to speak persuasively in its own medium. At first, when he 
drafted and re-drafted the story, he cannot be acquitted of having tried 
to draw the attention of Paris to his music, and it is equally plain that 
to put a well-known stage figure into his story would have helped 
his purpose. The sensational character of the music could also have 
been intended to capture public attention — which it did. But Berlioz 
has been too often hauled up for judgment for inconsistencies in what 
he wrote, said, and did. His critics (and Adolphe Boschot is the worst 
offender in this) have been too ready to charge him with insincerity 
or pose. His music often contradicts such charges, or makes them in- 
consequential. 

It would be absurd to deny that some kind of wild phantasmagoria 
involving the composer's experiences of love, literature, the stage, and 
much else must have had a good deal to do with the motivation of 
the Symphony. Jacques Barzunf brilliantly demonstrates that through 
Chateaubriand Berlioz well knew the affecting story of Paul and Vir- 
ginia, of the fates of Dido and of Phedre, of the execution of Chenier. 



• Lelio was intended to follow the Symphony. The "composer of music" speaks, in front of 
the stage, addressing "friends," "pupils," "brigands," and "spectres" behind it. He has 
recovered from his opium dreams and speculates on music and life in general, after the 
manner of Hamlet, which play he also discusses. 

t Berlioz and the Romantic Century, 1950. 
[6] 



E. T. A. Hoffmann's Tales filled him with the fascination of the super- 
natural and De Quincey's Confessions of an Opium Eater, in de 
Musset's translation, may well have contributed. But who in this age, 
so remote from the literary aesthetic of that one, will attempt to 
"understand" Berlioz in the light of all these influences, or reconcile 
them with a "love affair" which existed purely in his own imagination? 
The motivation of the simplest music is not to be penetrated — let 
alone this one. Enough that Berlioz directed his rampant images, 
visual, musical or literary, into what was not only a symphonic self- 
revelation, but a well-proportioned, dramatically unified symphony, a 
revolution in the whole concept of instrumental music comparable 
only to the Eroica itself.* 

For it should be borne in mind that symphonic music by the year 
1830 had never departed from strictly classical proprieties. The waltz 
had never risen above the ballroom level. Beethoven had been dead 
but a few years and the Pastoral Symphony and Leonore Overtures 
were still the last word in descriptive music. Even opera with its fond- 
ness for eery subjects had produced nothing more graphic than the 
Wolfs Glen scene from "Der Freischiitz" — musical cold shivers which 
Berlioz had heard at the Opera and absorbed with every fibre in his 
being. Wagner was still an unknown student of seventeen with all of 
his achievement still ahead of him. Liszt was not to invent the "sym- 
phonic poem" for nearly twenty years. That composer's cackling 
Mephistopheles, various paraphrases of the Dies Irae, Strauss's Till on 
the scaffold — these and a dozen other colorful high spots in music are 
direct descendants of the Fantastique. 

* There is plentiful evidence that this Symphony was no sudden convulsion of the imagination, 
but the result of a long and carefully considered germination — a masterfully assembled 
summation of the whole artist at the time. The persistent and pervading theme of the 
Fantastique grew from a melody which Berlioz composed as a song at the age of twelve, 
and which was connected with a mute childhood infatuation with a girl of eighteen whose 
"pink slippers" and whose name — Estelle — were magic to him. Ernest Newman considers it 
probable that the final witches' sabbath movement was first planned for a Walpurgisnacht 
ballet on Faust which Berlioz had intended for the Opera, and that the waltz and slow 
movement may have had similar beginnings. The sketches for an intended opera on Les 
Francs-Juges contained, according to Boschot, the first form of the march. After the first 
performances, Berlioz was to rewrite the slow movement and march. 



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[71 



Since the Fantastique an as the forerunner of a century of "program 
music," the blame for this now diminishing but dubious practice has 
been laid upon Berlioz. Barzun in defense of Berlioz has shown that 
"imitations of nature" in music long antedated him, and that Berlioz 
expressed himself clearly and judiciously on what he called the "genre 
instrument ale expressif" while composing in like good taste. Mr. 
Barzun makes a penetrating and illuminating study of program music 
in a long chapter which is recommended to those who may hope to 
reach an understanding of that vexed subject. This writer clears away 
the considerable underbrush from what he calls "the intellectual 
thickets" which have grown up about Berlioz's supposed program 
intentions and draws our attention to the fact that "if we could bv 
magic clear our minds of cant, all we should need as an introduction 
to the score would consist of a musical analysis such as Schumann 
wrote, or more recently T. S. Wotton."* 

The "Estelle" melody is the subject of the introduction (played 
after the opening chord, by the muted strings). The melody proper, 
the idee fixe, which opens the main body of the movement and which 
is to recur, transformed, in each succeeding movement, contains the 
"Estelle" phrase from its sixteenth bar, in mounting sequences of the 
lover's sighs: 






7 j a ' ■>" \ 1 



pp 



etc 



eftr'trci 



^z^r;^. / ^ r/ 



ft 









tU^^T./) e* * <*-/4**o 



't\L£~I±L 










The first movement, like the slow movement, which makes full use of 
the idee fixe, is characterized by its ample, long-lined melody, never in 
the least obscured, but rather set off in high relief by the harmonic 
color, the elaborate but exciting effect of the swift, running passages 
in the accompaniment. Even the rhapsodic interjections accentuate and 
dramatize the melodic voice of the "artist" declaring his passion. For 
all its freedom, there is a clear exposition with a second theme in the 
dominant, followed by a repeat sign, a development (unorthodox and 

♦Berlioz: Four Works (Musical Pilgrim Series) gives an admirable detailed analysis with 
notations. 

[8] 



richly resourceful) , a return to the original form of the theme with the 
added voice of the solo oboe (the happy inspiration of a re-working, 
praised by Schumann) and a pianissimo coda, "religiosamente" 

In the same line of thought, the "ball scene" is the waltz-scherzo. Its 
main theme, which is introduced simply by the violins after a sweep- 
ing introduction of harp chords and string tremolos, is sinuous and 
swaying in a way which must have revealed to audiences of 1830 new 
possibilities in the "valse" then still constrained by the stilted, hopping 
rotations of the German dance. But presently the idee fixe (sounding 
quite natural in the triple rhythm) is introduced by the flute and 
oboe. The waltz theme proper returns to complete the movement, 
except for a pianissimo interruption by the persistent motive (clarinet 
and horn) before the close. 

The Scene aux Champs opens with a gentle duet between the English 
horn and the oboe "in the distance," as of one shepherd answering 
another. At the close of the movement, the voice of the English horn 
returns, but the melancholy pipings have no response save the soft 
rumbling of distant thunder, as in the last remnants of a dying storm. 
This bucolic prelude and postlude have no relation to the main body 
of the movement by notation, musical precedent, or any plausible 
"program." Yet any sensitive musician submits willingly to the spell 
of what is probably the most intense and highly imaginative move- 
ment of the symphony, where the idee fixe, by now pretty thoroughly 
worked, appears in the fresh and entrancing guise of a sort of roman- 
tic exaltation. 

The march to the gallows rolls inexorably with resolute and un- 
relaxing rhythm to its thundering close, just before which the clarinet 
fills a sudden silence with a tender reminiscence of the idee fixe, heard 
only this once, until it is cut short with a mighty chord. This ironclad 
movement is in complete and violent contrast with all that has gone 
before. But the finale, the Songe d'une Nuit de Sabbat, is fearsome 
in another way — its many weird effects, then undreamt of in a sym- 
phony, must have been more than startling in the correct and musty 
concert world of its day. Only Berlioz could have summoned such 
new colors from the depths and heights of the orchestra. The first 
allegro again softly brings in the ubiquitous theme, but now its grace 
and ardor is gone, and presently the violins defile it with sharp accents 
and sardonic, mocking trills. The E-flat clarinet squeals it out and the 
whole orchestra becomes vertiginous with it. Then come the tolling 
bells and the chant of death. The theme which rocks along in a 6-8 
rhythm, foreshadowing a certain apprentice sorcerer, becomes the 
subject of a double fugue in the final section, entitled "Ronde du 
Sabbat," where it is ingeniously combined with the Dies Irae. 

[copyrighted] 

[9] 



ENTR'ACTE 

MUNCH AND MUSIC: HIS CURRENT VIEWS 
By Jay S. Harrison 

"New York Herald Tribune" March 6, i960 



(The characters: Charles Munch, conductor of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, and a reporter. The place: the dining room of a Park 
Avenue hotel. The time: last week.) 

MUNCH: Let me tell you before anything else that I think the 
music critic must have the most difficult job in the world. 

REPORTER: How so? 

M: To find in each new work — in one hearing — what is significant 
for the present and the future. That's the main thing, isn't it? That's 
the first responsibility of the music critic. 

R: In a way, yes. But he fills other functions, too. 

M: I hope you don't mean that his principal job is to say whether 
the horn player hit a wrong note or not. Anybody can do that — and 
a critic is not anybody. At least here in America criticism stands for 
something. . . . 

R: As opposed to Europe? 

M: I think so. Critics in this country admit that they need to hear 
a work more than once before they can penetrate into it. And they 
don't pre-judge. Many European writers come to a concert with a 
predetermined point of view, so that they don't actually hear the work. 
They hear only what they want to hear. But your colleagues accept 
new music on its own terms. That's as it should be. 

R: About new music — does it meet with much resistance in Boston? 

M: None at all. I play a new work every week and have complete 
freedom in doing so. The Boston audience always responds. In fact, 
you know, Boston audiences are better than the ones in New York. 

R: That's news to me. 

M: Oh, yes, definitely, yes. They are a warmer audience — more 
demonstrative. I suppose that's because you have so many concerts in 
New York that the listeners are a little jaded. Look — a few weeks ago 
you had five different major orchestras playing in Carnegie Hall in one 
week. We never have anything like that in Boston, though, for me, 
there are hundreds of other compensations. 

[10] 



R: Specifically — 

M: For one thing, the discipline and spirit of the Boston Symphony. 
Also the interest of my musicians in the music they are playing. They 
are always fighting, discussing, debating about the music they play. 
For me, as a Frenchman, this was a revelation, because I found that 
the musicians were actively curious about the value of what they were 
doing. They just don't play and go home. 

R: Is it the same with every one connected with the Boston Sym- 
phony organization? 

M: Absolutely, right down to the last secretary. The entire staff — 
the management, trustees, etc. — they are all deeply involved in every- 
thing the Boston Symphony is up to. I know every great orchestra in 
the world and nowhere is the conductor's job more rewarding. And 
every one makes it easy for me. 

R: But would you actually call the conductor's life an easy one? 

M: No, positively no. 

R: What is the most difficult part of it? 

M: To have a clear beat so that the musicians will know what you 
are doing. Or more precisely, to beat or not to beat. Often I tell the 
musicians I will not beat measures — their rhythmic feeling is enough. 
So I just let my men play. You see, an orchestra like the Boston or the 
Philadelphia feels immediately what you want, what you like. They 
almost sense in advance what you're going to ask for. 

R: You mentioned the Boston and Philadelphia orchestras in the 
same breath, and certainly they are the two finest orchestras in the 
world. How would you compare them — or can you? 

M: It is difficult. I think the Philadelphia is more brilliant, while 
the Boston is more sensitive. But you really can't say that one is better 
than the other. It may be that you have a better trumpet in one than 
the other, or that one timpanist is superior to another. Still, when you 
are dealing with two orchestras on such a high level the difference 
between them is very small. 

R: You've been eleven years in Boston. During that time what are 
some of the changes you've noticed on the American musical scene? 

M: Where can I begin? Certainly not only with the tremendous 
development in creativity, but also in the progress made by American 
instrumentalists. Not only soloists, understand. Ten years ago to find 
a perfect orchestral cellist or flutist was a problem. Now, when I hold 
an audition I am flooded — and everyone is good. I trace this directly 
to our teachers in the conservatories. You have first-desk men like 

[i»l 



Laurent and Gillet teaching flute and oboe in Boston, and Kincaid 
and Tabuteau doing the same in Philadelphia. Men like these have 
established great schools of players. And soloists! In what other country 
do you have a choice of young pianists like Graffman, Istomin, Fleisher, 
Janis? Tell me? Nowhere. 

R: And does your enthusiasm extend to the future for music in 
America? 

M: As far as I can see it will be unbelievable. In Boston all our 
concerts are now sold out, and every year the record business gets 
bigger and bigger. The whole growth of music here is a miracle; also 
it is unique. And I don't see any end in sight. There has been no 
similar growth like it anywhere in the world at any time. 

R: To change the subject — do you have any preferences among 
contemporary composers? 

M: To a degree. Honegger, for instance, is to me a very great man, 
and Piston, too. Everything Piston does is perfectly organized; nothing 
is left to chance. It is all logical, as music should be. And, of course, 
there is Stravinsky — a work like "Le Sacre" is a tremendous event. 
Also "Les Noces"; and the Canticum Sacrum moves me deeply. 

R: And among the younger composers? 

M: Well, I'm devoted to no single school. I try to do everything that 
I think is worth doing. My only principle is that I know that young 
composers have to be helped. But you can't help every one, so I must 
make the final choice. That's all there is to it. 

R: How about fellow conductors — who are your preferences in 
that direction? 

M: When I was an orchestral violinist I played under Monteux, 
Walter, Furtwangler, Toscanini —and for all of them I have enormous 
admiration. But Toscanini was my idol, my hero. We were not always 
in artistic agreement, but no orchestra ever sounded again the way it 
did under him. 

R: Finally, Mr. Munch, rumors filter through New York now and 
then that you're considering resigning from the Boston Symphony. 
Is there any truth to them? 

M: Not a word. Of course, it all depends on my health and strength. 
But as long as they hold out I will continue in Boston. Leave Boston? 
Not until they drag me away. 



[11] 



SYMPHONY FOR STRING ORCHESTRA 

By Arthur Honegger 

Born in Le Havre, March 10, 1892; died in Paris, November 27, 1955 



The Symphonie pour Orchestra a Cordes is dated 1941. It was published in 1942 
with a dedication to Paul Sacher* and has been performed by him in Zurich and 
other Swiss cities. The first American performance was by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, December 27, 1946, Charles Munch conducting as guest. Serge Kousse- 
vitzky conducted it in the Friday and Saturday series, October 31 and November 1, 
1947, and again on October 8, 1948. 

At the end of the printed score is written, "Paris, October, 1941." 
Willi Reich, writing from Basel for the Christian Science Monitor, 
May 19, 1945, remarked that the Symphony for Strings "embodies 
much of the mood of occupied Paris, to which the composer remained 
faithful under all difficulties." 

The first movement opens with an introductory Molto moderato, pp, 
with a viola figure and a premonition in the violins of things to come. 
The main Allegro brings full exposition and development. The intro- 
ductory tempo and material returns in the course of the movement for 
development on its own account and again briefly before the end. 

The slow movement begins with a gentle accompaniment over which 
the violins set forth the melody proper. The discourse is intensified to 
ff, and gradually subsides. 

The finale, 6/8, starts off with a lively, rondo-like theme in duple 
rhythm, which is presently replaced by another in the rhythmic signa- 
ture. The movement moves on a swift impulsion, passes through a 
tarantella phase, and attains a presto coda, wherein the composer 
introduces a chorale in an ad libitum trumpet part, doubling the first 
violins (a procedure unprecedented in a piece for string orchestra). 
The chorale theme is the composer's own. 

* Paul Sacher is the conductor of the orchestra of the Collegium Musicum Zurich, founded in 
1941. It was for him and his orchestra that many important works have been composed. 

[copyrighted] 



&eolian=i§>kimter ®rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 

['Si 



'BACCHUS ET ARIANE," Ballet, Second Suite, Op. 43 
By Albert Charles Roussel 

Born in Turcoing (Nord), France, April 5, 1869; 
died in Royan (near Bordeaux), France, August 23, 1937 



Roussel composed the Ballet Bacchus et Ariane between June and December, 1930, 
at Vasterival and Paris. It was first performed May 22, 1931, at the Thidtre de 
VOpira. Serge Lifar (Bacchus), Peretti (Thesee) and Spessiwtzewa (Ariane) were the 
principal dancers. Philippe Gaubert conducted. The choreography was planned by 
Abel Hermant, and executed by Lifar. The Second Suite, drawn from Act II, was 
published in 1932. It was performed by the SocUti Philharmonique de Paris 
November 26, 1936, Charles Munch conducting. Dr. Munch introduced the Suite 
to Boston, as guest, December 26-27, 1946. 

The required orchestra consists of 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 

2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 

3 trombones and tuba, timpani, celesta, 2 harps, cymbals, tambourine, bass drum, 
triangle, military drum and strings. The score is dedicated to Helene Tony-Jourdan. 

The legend of Ariadne on the Island of Naxos, once used by Richard 
Strauss, has furnished Roussel with a ballet in the Greek classical 
tradition. According to the plot of Abel Hermant, Theseus does not 
abandon Ariadne on Naxos, where he has taken her after she has 
rescued him from the Minotaur, but is chased from the Island by 
Bacchus. The God has first laid a spell of sleep upon Ariadne, whereby 
she partakes of his revels as in a dream, but does not know until she 
wakes that Theseus has gone. 

The following directions are printed in the score: Introduction 
(Andante). Awakening of Ariadne — She looks around her surprised 

— She rises, runs about looking for Theseus and his companions — She 
realizes that she has been abandoned — She climbs with difficulty to the 
top of the rock — She is about to throw herself into the stream — She 
falls in the arms of Bacchus, who has appeared from behind a boulder 

— Bacchus resumes with the awakened Ariadne the dance of her dream- 
ing — Bacchus dances alone (Allegro — Andante — Andantino) — The 
Dionysiac spell — A group marches past (Allegro deciso) — A faun and 
a Bacchante present to Ariadne the golden cup, into which a cluster of 
grapes has been pressed — Dance of Ariadne (Andante) — Dance of 
Ariadne and Bacchus (Moderato e pesante) — Bacchanale (Allegro 
brillante). 

According to the legend, Bacchus immortalizes her with a kiss, 
ravishes stars from the heavens and sets them as a crown upon her brow. 

[COPYRIGHTED] 



[Ml 



LIST OF WORKS 

Performed in the Evening Series 
DURING THE SEASON 1959-1960 



Amirov Kyurdi-Ovshari Mugami 

I November 18 

Beethoven Symphony No. 5, in C minor. Op. 67 

IV February 17 

Berlioz Fantastic Symphony, Op. 14a 

V March 23 

Dutilleux Symphony No. 2, for Large Orchestra 

and Chamber Orchestra 
(First performance in New York) n December 16 

Faure Overture to "Penelope" 

II December 16 

Haydn Symphony in E-flat, No. 99 

III January 20 

Honegger Symphony No. 2, for String Orchestra 

V March 23 

Kabalevsky Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Op. 49 

Soloist: SAMUEL MAYES 1 November 18 

(Conducted by the composer) 

Khrennikov Symphony No. 1, Op. 4 

I November 18 

Kirchner Toccata for Strings, Solo Winds and Percussion 

(Conducted by the composer) IV February 17 

Mahler Symphony in D major, No. 1 

III January 20 

Martinu "The Parables'* 

I November 18 

Mozart. .Piano Concerto in E-flat, K. 271 ("Jeunehomme Concerto") 

Soloist: ANIA DORFMANN u December 16 

Ravel "Daphnis et Chloe," Ballet, Suite No. 2 

II December 16 

Roussel "Bacchus et Ariane," Suite No. 2, Op. 43 

V March 23 

Sibelius Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, in D minor, Op. 47 

Soloist: RUGGIERO RICCI IV February 17 

Strauss "Tod und Verklarung," Tone Poem, Op. 24 

III January 20 
William Steinberg conducted the concert on January 20 

l'5l 



P "" Hp '"' i i B ii»»i ipi ""i iii ""ip"» fi i mi n" i ' i ni P || " || H !ff ||i "H iin' " | « nii ii» | » nB' |lll ' | 'i!P | ' l " | niP |1 ' i | ' ni P | ' ii »n n |lllll| n! P ' ' i ' || nT P |l< B lH|ll' »"l ^Hl l""l l^|| n^"' ll^^^ ^ ^^ iijnBn 



HUNTER COLLEGE AUDITORIUM 

SEASON OF 1960-1961 
Seventy-fifth Season in New York 

^Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



nnpn 



I 



Two Series of Five Concerts Each 



Five 
WEDNESDAY 

Evenings at 8:30 
november 30 

JANUARY 4 

FEBRUARY 15 

MARCH 8 

APRIL 5 



Five 
SATURDAY 

Afternoons at 2:30 
december 3 

JANUARY 7 

FEBRUARY 18 

MARCH 11 

APRIL 8 



nifP 



The above are the probable dates. A letter explaining 
the relocation of seats, together with a renewal card 
was mailed to subscribers on March 17. 



I All applications and communications should be addressed to i 
Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 

SYMPHONY HALL, BOSTON 15 
| 1I mllttimuHUllum'i^'i'""ilti'i"'»tiHni. .,tiUlit..,.itUlJii..ritUlii....rilttit.. ..itllb nmjinrirtflLHiirmUUiiiinUttllH .iuUtmiiiiUHl.ti..iiilIljti..tralbt,, .itUln,...itlHiit..rrtmjt...,qifl]i, ^rttgu,... J 



[16] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Seventy-fourth Season in New York 



Fifth Afternoon Concert 

SATURDAY, March 26, at 2:30 o'clock 



Program 



Beethoven *Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 

Chopin Piano Concerto in E minor, Op. 1 1 

I. Allegro maestoso 
II. Romanza; Larghetto 
III. Rondo: Vivace 

INTERMISSION 

Dello Joio Variations, Chaconne and Finale 

Wagner. . .Excerpts from Act III, "Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg" 

Introduction — Dance of the Apprentices — 
Procession of the Mastersingers 



SOLOIST 

GARY GRAFFMAN 

Mr. Graffm an uses the Steimvay Piano 



Music of these programs is available at the Music Library, 
58th Street Branch, the New York Public Library. 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



['7] 



OVERTURE TO "LEONORE" NO. 3, Op. 72 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 
Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The third "Leonore" Overture was composed in the year 1806 for the second 
production of "Fidelio" in Vienna. 

The overture is scored for 2 flutes, 2 clarinets, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, and strings. 

Within a few weeks of his death, Beethoven extracted from his 
confusion of papers the manuscript score of his opera Fidelio 
and presented it to Schindler with the words: "Of all my children, 
this is the one that cost me the worst birth-pangs, the one that brought 
me the most sorrow; and for that reason it is the one most dear to me." 
The composer spoke truly. Through about ten years of his life, from 
1803 or 1804, when he made the first sketches, until 1814 when he made 
the second complete revision for Vienna, he struggled intermittently 
with his only opera, worked out its every detail with intensive applica- 
tion. They were the years of the mightiest products of his genius. 
Between the Fidelio sketches are the workings out of the Fourth 
through the Eighth symphonies, the Coriolanus Overture and Egmont 
music, the Fourth and Fifth piano concertos, the Violin Concerto, the 
Razoumovsky Quartets. Into no one of these did he put more effort 
and painstaking care than he expended upon each portion of the opera, 
constructing it scene by scene in the order of the score, filling entire 
books with sketches. He was struggling first of all, of course, with his 
own inexperience of the theatre, the necessity of curbing his symphonic 
instincts and meeting the demands of that dramatic narrative which 
singers and "action" require. 

The record of Beethoven's revisions is largely the modification of 
his first conception to the ways and practicabilities of the stage. The 
record of the four complete overtures which he wrote for the opera 
shows a very similar tendency. For the first production of Fidelio in 
Vienna, November 20, 1805, Beethoven wrote the superb overture 
which later came to be known as Leonore No. 2.* When he rewrote 
the opera for its second production in the year following, he was urged 
to modify the overture, which had proved too difficult in parts for the 
wood wind players of the theatre orchestra. Beethoven did indeed 
rewrite the overture but, absorbed in his subject, he seems to have 
forgotten to make it simpler, either to play or to understand. He 

* Beethoven greatly preferred the title "Leonore," which was the title of the French text of 
Bouilly ("L4onore, ou V Amour Conjugal") from which Joseph Sonnleithner had written the 
German libretto for Beethoven as "Fidelio, order die eheliche Liebe." "Leonore" was con- 
sidered ill-advised in that Paer had produced a piece of the same name (pirated, as was 
Sonnleithner's text, from Bouilly), in Dresden, even while Beethoven was in full process of 
composition. He tried more than once in vain to have the title "Leonore" restored. 

[18] 



yVliAAich/ 



HIS DEDICATION AND 



interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rga Victor records exclusively 




A l/V/NG ' ST£«f O £ 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 






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80STOM SYMPHONY* MLMCM 



Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular LP.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 






retained its essential matter, but gave it different stress, a greater and 
more rounded symphonic development. The result was the so-called 
Leonore No. 3. When again the opera was thoroughly changed for 
the Vienna production of 1814, Beethoven realized that his fully 
developed overture was quite out of place at the head of his opera, 
and he accordingly wrote a typical theatre overture, soon permanently 
known as the Fidelio overture, since it was publicly accepted and 
became one with the opera. There remains to be accounted for the 
so-called Overture to Leonore No. 1. This was discovered and per- 
formed the year after Beethoven's death, and it was immediately 
assumed that it was an early attempt, rejected by Beethoven in favor 
of the one used at the initial performance. Erich Prieger accepted this 
belief, based upon his own researches in restoring the different versions 
of the opera, and upon the assertion of Schindler that Beethoven tried 
over an overture at Prince Lichnowsky's house in 1805, and put it aside 
as "too simple." However, Seyfried put forth the upsetting theory 
that this posthumous overture was the one which Beethoven wrote for 
an intended performance at Prague in 1808, a performance which 
never took place. Nottebohm, studying the sketches, agreed with him, 
and the judicious Thayer, supporting the two authorities, created a 
fortress of scholarship which prevailed for a long time. This of course 
would place the debated "No. 1" as actually the third in order, a point 
of view highly embarrassing to those who had set forth the evolution 
of the three overtures from this simpler posthumous one. Of more 
recent writers, Paul Bekker (1912) was inclined to believe that the 
"No. 1" is after all the early work it was originally supposed to be, 
and Romain Rolland (1928) took the same stand, citing as additional 
authority Josef Braunstein's "excellent work, Beethoven's Leonore- 
Ouvertiiren, eine historisch-stilkritische Untersuchung (1927), which 
enables us at last to correct the errors in which, following Seyfried and 
Nottebohm, criticism had become entangled." This is a convenient 
theory, supported by the character of the music itself, and dispelling 
the rather lame arguments that Beethoven could have shortly followed 
his magnificent "No. 3" with such a compromise, whether for the 
limitations of the Prague theatre orchestra, or for any other reason. 
The "Fidelio" Overture which he wrote in 1814 was no compromise, 
for it had no tragic pretensions. It was a serviceable theatre overture, 
preparing the hearer for the opening scene with its "Singspiel" dialogue 
between Marcelline at her ironing and her preposterous suitor. 

The Overture to "Leonore" No. 3 retains all of the essentials of its 
predecessor, Leonore No. 2. There is the introduction, grave and song- 
ful, based upon the air of Florestan: "In des Lebens Friihlingstagen," 
in which the prisoner sings sorrowfully of the darkness to which he is 
condemned, and dreams hopefully of the fair world outside. The main 

[ml 



body of the Overture, which begins with the same theme (allegro) in 
both cases, rises from a whispering pianissimo to a full proclamation. 
The section of working out, or dramatic struggle, attains its climax 
with the trumpet call (taken directly from the opera, where the signal 
heard off stage, and repeated, as if closer, makes known the approach 
of the governor, whereby the unjustly imprisoned Florestan will be 
saved from death). There follows a full reprise, a reversion to the 
dictates of symphonic structure which Beethoven had omitted in his 
second overture. Now he evidently felt the need of a full symphonic 
rounding out, delaying the entrance of the coda of jubilation which 
dramatic sequence would demand closely to follow the trumpet fanfare. 
Wagner reproached Beethoven for this undramatic reprise. But the 
subject had developed in Beethoven's imagination to a new and electri- 
fying potency. The fanfare, simplified and more effectively introduced 
than in the previous version, is now softly answered by the joyful theme 
of Florestan and Leonore, used at this point in the opera. The com- 
poser, with that ability to sustain a mood which is beyond analysis, 
keeps the feeling of suspense, of mounting joy, which allows the listener 
no "let-down" before the triumphant climax of the coda. The air of 
Florestan is worked in at the end of the reprise, but in tempo as the 
music moves without interruption to its greatly expanded and now 
overwhelming coda. The overture in this, its ultimate form, shows in 
general a symphonic "tightening" and an added forcefulness. The 
introduction eliminates a few measures as compared with the "No. 2," 
the development many measures, in which music of the greatest beauty 
is discarded. Beethoven, having thus shortened his development, evens 
the total length by adding the reprise and enlarging the coda. 

[copyrighted] 



CONCERTO IN E MINOR for Pianoforte and Orchestra, Op. 1 1 

By Frederic Chopin 

Born in Zelazowa-Wola, near Warsaw, February 22, 1810; 
died in Paris, October 17, 1849 



Composing his E minor Concerto in 1830, Chopin first performed it in Warsaw, 
October 11 of that year. 

The accompaniment requires 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 
2 trumpets, trombone, timpani, and strings. 

This Concerto is dedicated to Friedrich Kalkbrenner.* 



* The famous pedagogue whom Chopin met in Paris in 1831, and by whose playing he was 
much impressed. Kalkbrenner condescendingly offered to make a pianist of Chopin in three 
years, but his companions at the time, Mendelssohn and Liszt, whose enthusiasm over Chopin 
was as high as their opinion of Kalkbrenner was slight, talked him out of it. 



The Concerto has been played at these concerts with the following soloists: 
Madeline Schiller, December 22, 1882; Adele Aus Der Ohe, March 25, 1887; Teresa 
Carrefio, October 28, 1887; Etelka Utassi, October 26, 1888; Ernest Hutcheson, 
February 28, 1902; Antoinette Szumowska, November 16, 1906; Ossip Gabrilowitsch, 
October 29, 1915; Josef Hofmann, December 20, 1918; Moriz Rosenthal, April 11, 
1924. The following artists played the Concerto on tour only: Eugen D 'Albert, 
1892; Rafael Joseffy, 1898; Elizabeth Claire Forbes, 1914; Leon Vartanian, 1928. 
Moriz Rosenthal played the Concerto on tour in 1896, 1898, and 1924. 

Chopin wrote his two piano concertos within a year of each other, 
when he was twenty years old. The F minor Concerto was actually 
the first, although the second in order of publication (1836); the 
E minor Concerto was published in 1833. Although he had visited 
Berlin, Vienna, Prague and other centers, met celebrities and exhibited 
his talents in charity concerts, he had still much to learn of the world. 
His progress had been fondly nurtured in private performances at 
home. The three concerts he gave in 1830, for which he composed his 
two concertos, were his first opportunity in Warsaw to submit his 
talents as a pianist to the more impersonal scrutiny of the general 
public and the professional critics. 

As a sensitive and emotional artist, he was surprisingly developed 
for his age, for he had played the piano with skill and delicate taste 
from early childhood. He could improvise to the wonderment of 
numberless high-born ladies, not only in the parochial native warmth 
of the Warsaw mansions, but in other parts as well. Although his 
Opus 1, a rondo, had been published only five years before, he had 
been ministering to the adoring circle about him with affecting waltzes, 
mazurkas, and polonaises, even from the age of ten, or before. 

His letters of this time are abundant in ardor and effusive sentiment. 
He had reached that stage of youthful idealism which in his century 
could nourish secret infatuations, and confide them to one's most 
intimate friend. Youth's flaring passions at nineteen, sometimes 
regarded as inconsequential, had in this case a direct and tangible 
expression — the Larghetto of the Concerto in F minor. Chopin 
lavished his affection and his confidences at this time upon his friend 
Titus Voytsyekhovski, whom he addressed in his profuse and not 
unspirited letters as "My dearest life." Writing to Titus from Warsaw 
(October 3, 1829), he dismissed all thoughts of Leopoldine Blahetka, 
a fair pianist of twenty whom he had met in Vienna, and confessed a 
new and deeper infatuation. 

"I have — perhaps to my misfortune — already found my ideal, which 
I worship faithfully and sincerely. Six months have elapsed, and I 
have not yet exchanged a syllable with her of whom I dream every 
night. Whilst my thoughts were with her, I composed the adagio* of 
my concerto." The inspiration of the slow movement of this concerto 

* In his letters and on the programs of this time, the larghettos of each concerto are referred 
to by the generic title of "adagio." 

[22] 



was Constantia (Konstancjia) Gladkowska, a pupil of the Warsaw Con- 
servatory and an operatic aspirant, who was twenty, and three months 
younger than Chopin. Her voice and appearance alike captivated him. 
Wierzynski, Chopin's recent biographer, writes: "She had been study- 
ing voice at the Conservatory for four years and was considered to be 
one of Soliva's best pupils. She was also said to be one of the prettiest. 
Her regular, full face, framed in blond hair, was an epitome of youth, 
health and vigor, and her beauty was conspicuous in the Conservatory 
chorus, for all that it boasted numbers of beautiful women. The young 
lady, conscious of her charms, was distinguished by ambition and dili- 
gence in her studies. She dreamed of becoming an operatic singer, 
of receiving tributes and acclaim." She shortly made her stage debut 
in the leading part of Paer's Agnese di Fitz-Henry, not without success, 
and to Chopin's delight. He did not meet her until April, 1830, either 
from shyness, or preference for nursing a secret passion and pouring it 
forth in affecting melody. That the young man was in a state of emo- 
tional equilibrium, in spite of melancholy moments, is proved by the 
highly fortunate results. Not only the two Concertos but some of the 
£tudes to be published as Op. 10 and the lovely Andante spianato for 
piano were composed in this year. 

Chopin made no avowal to Constantia, but confessed to his friend 
that her very name held him in such awe that he could not even write 
it. "Con — No, I cannot complete the name, my hand is too unworthy. 
Ah! I could tear out my hair when I think that I could be forgotten 
by her!" At this point comes a saving touch of humor. He would still 
allow his whiskers to grow on the right side. "On the left side they are 
not needed at all, for one sits always with the right side turned to the 
public." He had perforce to turn his heart elsewhere, for Constantia 
gave her hand in 1832 to a Joseph Grabowski, a Warsaw merchant, 
"and left the stage," so wrote Karozowski, "to the great regret of all 
connoisseurs." Chopin seems to have survived this without too much 
difficulty. Love later blossomed between him and Maria Wodzinska, 
whom he had met as a child in Warsaw; later in Dresden he made an 
avowal when she was sixteen. This affair endured for a long while as 
a half engagement, and gently lapsed. In the salons of Paris there 
were many ladies to succumb to his music. James Huneker wrote of 
him: "a crumpled rose leaf was sufficient cause to induce frowns and 
capricious flights — decidedly a young man tres difficile" Perhaps his 
memory of Constantia and other beauties in Poland had grown some- 
what dim when, in 1836, he came to the point of dedicating the Con- 
certo in F minor. The honor fell to the Countess Delphine Potocka, 
a Pole of Parisianized charm, a lady of distinction and wealth, and a 
singer. Chopin's letters to Delphine, if they are not forgeries (their 
authenticity is discussed elsewhere in this bulletin), prove this Chopin's 

[»8l 



strongest and most enduring affection. Turgeniev has said that half 
a hundred countesses in Europe claimed to have held the dying Chopin 
in their arms. This one at least was present at his bedside and sang 
to him in his last illness. 

Chopin announced a public concert on his own account rather than 
under the patronage in the National Theatre of Warsaw for March 
17, 1830. He gave another on March 22, again to a full house, and 
at each performed his F minor Concerto, just completed. He was 
pressed for a third concert and gave it on October 11, having by this 
time completed his Concerto in E minor. As with the first Concerto, 
he played the Allegro after an introductory number, allowed a solo 
number to follow it, and ended the first part of the program with the 
slow movement and finale. During the last part of the program, the 
much adored Constantia came forth "dressed in white, with roses in 
her hair," so Chopin described her, and sang the cavatina from Ros- 
sini's La Donna del lago, with the significant text: "O quante lagrime 
per te versai." Chopin closed the evening with his Fantasy on Polish 
Airs. Chopin wrote Titus that after the close he was called out to 
acknowledge the applause. "No one hissed and I had to bow four 
times — but properly now, for Brandt has taught me how to do it." 
Soliva, the conductor, had taken Chopin's scores home for study, "and 
conducted them so that I couldn't rush as if to break my neck. But 
he managed so well to hold us back that, I assure you, I never succeeded 
in playing so comfortably with an orchestra. The piano, it seems, was 
much liked."* He ends: "I think now of nothing but packing; either 
on Saturday or next Wednesday I start, going via Krakov. . . ." 

This reference was to his pending departure for an ambitious visit 
to Vienna and Italy. He did not leave until Monday, November 1. 
On that day, according to Wierzynski, he drove by hansom cab "to pay 
his last calls, and everywhere he was late, everywhere he was detained 
beyond the allotted time. It was later reported by those who knew his 
secret that he met Konstancja in the Saxon Park in a quiet avenue 
about noon. The youngest Kolberg stood guard at the entrance to 
insure that no one should see them. They talked together only for a 
little while and exchanged rings. Frederic gave Konstancja an old- 
fashioned wedding ring with a diamond set in silver. They agreed 
that they would communicate through Jas Matuszynski. He pressed 
her hand for the last time. Kolberg escorted him to the cab." 

Diverted by the life he was henceforth to lead in other cities than 
Warsaw, it is to be feared that his raptures over Constantia were soon 
to become nothing more than a memory. 

* It was an instrument of Johann Andreas Streicher. The piano at the first concert had been 
criticized as much too faint, a recurring criticism of Chopin's playing in any case. 

• • 
[24] 





■„..."■'■ 



LENOX, MASSACHUSETTS 

TANGLEWOOD I960 

The 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The Berkshire Festival 

Twenty-third Season 
CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 



The Berkshire Music Center 

Eighteenth Season 
CHARLES MUNCH, Director 



To receive further announcements, write to 
Festival Office, Symphony Hall, Boston 



[25] 



Liszt's remarks on the concertos in his book on Chopin are interesting, 
and may be considered as among the "fine pages" which George Sand 
found to atone for its style "un peu exuberant." In the concertos and 
sonatas, Liszt considered the "ideal thoughts" of his colleague fettered 
by the "classical chains" of extended formal structure. He found them 
"beautiful indeed, but we may discern in them more effort than inspira- 
tion. His creative genius was imperious, fantastic and impulsive. His 
beauties were only manifested fully in entire freedom. We believe he 
offered violence to the character of his genius whenever he sought to 
subject it to rules, to classifications, to regulations not his own, and 
which he could not force into harmony with the exactions of his own 
mind. He was one of those original beings, whose graces are only fully 
displayed when they have cut themselves adrift from all bondage, and 
float on at their own wild will, swayed only by the ever undulating 
impulses of their own mobile natures. 

"He could not retain, within the square of an angular and rigid 
mould, that floating and indeterminate contour which so fascinates us 
in his graceful conceptions. He could not introduce in its unyielding 
lines that shadowy and sketchy indecision, which, disguising the skele- 
ton, the whole frame-work of form, drapes it in the mist of floating 
vapors, such as surround the white-bosomed maids of Ossian, when 
they permit mortals to catch some vague, yet lovely outline, from their 
home in the changing, drifting, blinding clouds." 

[copyrighted] 



GARY GRAFFMAN 



Gary Graffman was born in New York City, October 14, 1928. 
His father, a violinist, had been in Russia a pupil of Leopold 
Auer and in this country served as Concert-master of the Minneapolis 
Orchestra, later becoming Auer's assistant in New York. His son 
showed remarkable aptitude on the piano and at the age of seven, 
using a pedal extension, was accepted at the Curtis Institute of Music, 
where he studied with Mme. Isabelle Vengerova. He graduated in 
1946, having already made appearances in public with orchestra and 
in recital. He won the first Rachmaninoff Fund Piano Contest in 1947, 
the Rachmaninoff Fund Special Award in 1948, and the Leventritt 
Foundation Award in 1949. He played Prokofieff's Third Concerto 
with this Orchestra on April 1, 1955; Brahms' Piano Concerto No. 1, 
on November 8, 1957. He has made five European tours in recent years, 
and, in 1958 a tour around the world. 

[26] 



ENTR'ACTE 

THE CHOPIN-POTOCKA LETTERS 



It was once remarked by George Sand that Chopin was versatile in 
falling in and out of love. There was plenty of provocation in the 
salons of Paris, for, playing his Etudes or nocturnes with his delicate 
touch, he became a magnet for the sentimentally inclined. If the 
letters addressed by him to the Countess Delphine Potocka, and recently 
published in part, are genuine, he had one affair that lasted longer 
than that with George Sand herself. Chopin met this Countess in 
Dresden in 1830, and promptly sought her out when he first arrived 
in Paris in 1832. She was with him in his last illness. The letters are 
on an affectionate plane. They are mostly undated, but indicate that 
Delphine was often away from Paris, at Enghien in Belgium, on the 
Riviera, or elsewhere. There was a lapse when Chopin was taken under 
the wing of George Sand, but a renewal when, in 1840, that lady had 
become more the protectrice than the lover. 

These letters have been challenged and defended. Casimir Wier- 
zynski, in his biography of the composer (1949), has been their main 
advocate, for he there quotes freely from them and devotes a chapter 
to Delphine. 

When Chopin first beheld Delphine in Dresden she was twenty-five 
and was already a famous beauty. She had married a rich (and disso- 
lute) Count Mieczylslaw Potocki at eighteen, and had left him as 
impossible to live with. She inspired many poetic paragraphs, and in 
Paris was the subject of a charming sketch by Delaroche. Delacroix 
wrote in his journal: "She is truly beautiful when she raises her eyes 
at the piano. Then she looks like a Guido or a Rubens Magdalene." 
She was also eager for life, and inspired the phrase: "La plus grande 
des pecheresses." But she was spoiled by luxury and attention and 
soon reached a state of boredom. Chopin's friend, Soltan, wrote of 
her that she could act like a "pampered child, a badly brought-up girl, 
or a Don Juan in petticoats, who has experienced everything and now 
cries: 'Give me the moon! I want to find out whether it tastes like 
good marzipan, because there is nothing left on earth!' " 

The bond that drew Chopin was threefold. Delphine (or Findelka, 
his nickname for her) was not only fair; she was musical, and from 
the evidence of the letters, responsive to intelligent thought. She was 
accounted an excellent pianist and a soprano of considerable range. 
Chopin enjoyed accompanying her. 

The history of the "Chopin-Potocka Correspondence" has been set 
forth under that title by Jan Holcman in the Saturday Review (Febru- 
ary 27, i960). Mrs. Paulina Czernicka, a Potocki descendant, possessed 
the letters, and until 1947 allowed none of them to be revealed. Chopin 
had asked his "Findelka" to destroy them. They were free and inti- 
mate, in some places "ultra-Rabelaisian," so Holcman writes.* "Mrs. 
Czernicka was unable to produce originals of these letters, believed 
lost during World War II in Poland. She provided only typewritten 
copies. To confuse the episode into complete darkness, the key witness 

• Chopin makes physiological comparisons with the "conception" and "birth" of his eludes 
or ballades. 

[«7l 



committed suicide two years later." Various fragments have been pub- 
lished since, and there has been a sharp difference of opinion about 
the authenticity of the letters. Bronislas Sydow was responsible for 
the publication of some of them under the title: Frederic Chopin — 
1810-1849" but when he prepared three volumes of Chopin letters in 
French translation (two have so far been published) he excluded them 
and pronounced them spurious in a note which fills two pages of his 
index. This reversal was due to his dealings with Mrs. Czernicka, 
whose every statement invited suspicion. 

The latest advocate of the letters is Jan Holcman, whose article in 
the Saturday Review offers evidence that they are genuine. In doing 
so he attacks the case drawn by Arthur Hedley, who, in contributing 
the article on Chopin for the latest Grove's Dictionary, resents this 
imposture which "would reveal Chopin in the part of a violent and 
totally uninhibited lover." He finds them "a poorly disguised assem- 
blage of facts," at times "merely revolting." Mr. Hedley reaches the 
rather startling conclusion that this mysterious lady "poisoned herself 
on being pressed to produce evidence." 

The passages which have been published hardly bear out what seems 
to have been Mr. Hedley's parti pris. It is almost impossible to believe 
that any such doubtful character as Mrs. Czernicka could have so 
plausibly counterfeited Chopin's discursive style, his detailed musical 
discussions, his penetrating speculations. If, as is entirely possible, the 
questionable lady doctored the letters here and there with color of her 
own, there is no possible way of extracting the true metal. The letters, 
if genuine, are deeply revealing. 

j. N. B. 



THE DECLINE OF PROGRAM MUSIC 



A composer's title is his flag. Not too many years ago, anyone who 
wrote the single word "symphony" over a score was open to sus- 
picion as being a classical pedant. Now, symphonies being the rule, 
a composer who would dip into legend and quote a colorful passage 
from a poet on his title-page would be correspondingly under suspicion 
as a hopeless romantic. One can even observe the switch in point of 
view in those composers whose years have spanned the aesthetic trans- 
formation. Sibelius was one of the first to displace tone poems with 
symphonies; Stravinsky did not commit himself to a symphony which 
really was a symphony until his fifty-eighth year (1940). Vaughan 
Williams in his advancing years would hardly have turned back to 
sights and sounds of London, nor dwelt again upon sea or landscapes. 
When Honegger wrote his Fifth Symphony, any thoughts of putting 
locomotives or football teams into music were well behind him. 

One no longer hears heated argumentation over the comparative 
virtues of "program music" and "absolute music," for the tone poem 
is no longer a defensible method — it has become an historical fact. 
The great tone poems of the past are treasurable relics. They are 
looked upon by an up-to-date composer with a certain amount of 
condescension as something outside of his immediate ken. They are 

[28] 






enjoyed by audiences, but not on account of the pictorial images or 
inspiring thoughts they offer to evoke. The title is now taken as little 
more than an identifying tag, and the music survives in performances 
on its straight musical appeal. There is something not quite honest 
about some composers of the programmistic era. They are under sus- 
picion of having concocted a titular banner to attract attention, and 
in some cases the titles were conceived post musicam. Other com- 
posers, particularly the earlier great ones of the nineteenth century, 
acted quite naturally according to the temper of the time. They were 
simply a part of the general mid-century flowering of the imagination, 
the liberation of fantasy and stress upon sentiment through all the arts. 

The Pastoral Symphony seems to have afforded a conspicuous prece- 
dent. There had also been Rameau's neat trick of decorative titles, but 
where Rameau had been pleasantly piquant, the Romantics became 
deadly serious about the practice and pushed it to preposterous lengths. 
They became infatuated with new developments in colorful instru- 
ments, dynamics, rich chromatic harmonies, formal freedom. Berlioz, 
Liszt, Wagner, Strauss found ways to hypnotize the hearer, to soothe 
or excite the nerves, to build suspense, surprise, to make a tonal assault 
— all the elements of dramatic sensation with nothing more than a 
pretense of a dramatic plot. 

No one can say that this is anything but an enrichment of tonal 
means — when not abused. The most interesting thing about the 
march towards immensity is that it has been most successful when it 
has been least representational. In this way it can more effectively 
stimulate our imagination. Our sense of wonder is aroused, as when 
we see pictures in glowing embers or cloud formations. The composer 
can be the supreme hypnotist, and the results have been marvelous, so 
long as audiences were not distracted from direct tonal apprehension. 
When composers got into the way of attaching literary titles to their 
scores, they usually diverted their listeners from the music as such. 
This was always unfortunate. Some cases have been fairly harmless, 
such as the "heroic" overtures where one hero would really do quite 
as well as another. Berlioz went further and was too literary-minded 
for his own good; his titles attracted general attention, which they were 
no doubt intended to do, but they also stirred up prejudice, argumenta- 
tion, and a considerable amount of obfuscation. Liszt must be sus- 
pected of having climbed on the shoulders of Tasso or Lamartine in 
his efforts to reach a higher altitude. There is probably not a tone 
poem in existence where the hearer would have arrived at the com- 
poser's title without having been prompted. 

The point was reached where critics would pass judgment on a piece 
by the test of whether or not it lived up to its program. Strauss learned 
to regret his mistake of carrying the program idea to its extremity. 
People settled upon his titles as if they had been his starting points 
and berated him for attempting to make music out of family domes- 
ticity, Nietzschean philosophy, sheep, or adverse critics, when all he 
had done was to compose entirely self-sufficient scores, allowing his 
fantasy to condition his constructive plan, and to play quite inci- 
dentally on a passing quizzical simulation of this or that. He realized 
only too well that his detractors were approaching his tone poems 
from a false literary angle and, since they were of the conservative 

1*9] 



persuasion, confusing his programmistic with his purely musical daring. 

On the stage, and only on the stage, program music has a real 
raison d'etre, the support of the plot and the visual action. Yet the 
music in an opera never really depicts the story; it rather underlines 
it, or at its best enraptures us as vocal and orchestral music not inap- 
propriate to the occasion but still of primary importance as music. 
Strauss lifts us with his own kind of orchestral eloquence, whatever 
subject is in hand. The Straussian orchestra well suits the high tension 
of Greek tragedy or the mystic deification of Ariadne; it can meet 
momentarily the macabre episodes in Salome, or seduce us with waltz 
measures in The Cavalier of the Rose. It is still the Straussian plum 
pudding. 

Wagner was more successful at musical depiction, in fact the most 
successful of all, partly because he was more systematic about it, but 
mostly because he was Wagner. Apart from his often cumbrous texts, 
he could be called the supreme magician of musical suggestion, the 
composer who has come nearest to making the "program" legitimate. 
His characters are closely associated with their motives not simply 
because he contrived chromatic sinuousness for the semblance of pas- 
sion, undulating arpeggios for the Rhine, the lowest register for giants, 
a darting figure for Loge's flames, etc. Under another composer these 
imitations would have seemed crude and more than a little silly. 
Wagner succeeded by intensity of conviction, by immersing his affec- 
tions, his years of thought in his legendary subjects and by making 
them a deep part of his nature as artist. He went as far toward th( 
fusion of tones and a theatrical story as genius, confuting reasonable- 
ness, can go. j. N. b. 



VARIATIONS, CHACONNE AND FINALE 

By Norman Dello Joio 

Born in New York, January 24, 1913 



Composed in Wilton, Conn., during the summer of 1947, this work was first per- 
formed by the Pittsburgh Symphony Society, Fritz Reiner conducting, January 30, 
1948. Thor Johnson as guest conductor introduced it at the Boston Symphony con- 
certs of January 21-22, 1949. Dr. Munch conducted performances on October 8-9, 1954. 

The following orchestra is required: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English 
horn, 2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 
trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, percussion, xylophone, and strings. 

A liturgical theme is the basis of the work. This theme is derived 
*"*■ from the Kyrie in the Gregorian Missa de Angelis. The composer 
here quotes his theme as slightly altered, and in modern notation: 






It is not only varied in the first movement, but introduced in different 
form in the second and third. The composer points out that "the 
first movement comprises a set of six variations that follow a simph 

[So] 



harmonized statement of the tune in G major. The framework on 
which the second movement, the Chaconne, is built is a chromatic 
outline of the first four notes of the Gregorian theme. In the highly 
rhythmical Allegro vivo, which follows, the character of the Gregorian 
theme is transformed into the purely secular. The concluding pages 
resolve into a chorale that is set against the prevailing rhythmic tension 
of the last movement." 

The lineage of Norman Dello Joio is Italian, and also musical. His 
first teacher was his father, a composer and organist. He studied organ 
with Pietro Yon and entered the Institute of Musical Art, studying 
organ and piano w 7 ith Gaston Dethier, and later at the Juilliard 
Graduate School. He attended New York City College. He began a 
career as performer at the age of twelve: first as organist and choir- 
master in various churches, later extending his activities to conducting 
various groups from ballet to jazz. He conducted Eugene Loring's 
Dance Players from 1941 to 1943, for which organization he composed 
the ballets, Prairie and Duke of Sacramento. Another ballet, On 
Stage!, had its first presentation by the Ballet Theatre in Boston. He 
wrote a score for Martha Graham entitled Diversion of Angels. He has 
been much favored in recent years by awards and commissions. His 
Piano Trio won the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Composition Award, 
and in 1939 he studied with Bernard Wagenaar at the Juilliard School 
under a scholarship. He has won two Guggenheim fellowships (1944, 
1946) and a grant from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. 
He also won a Town Hall Composition Award. The Variations, 
Chaconne and Finale won the New York Critics Circle Award in 1948. 
In the summers of 1940 and 1941 at the Berkshire Music Center, and 
in the intervening winter at the Yale School of Music, he studied 
composition with Paul Hindemith. 

He has composed for Robert Shaw's Collegiate Chorale a Symphony 
for Voices and Orchestra after Stephen Vincent Benet's Western Star 
(1945), and has set for the same organization Walt Whitman's The 
Mystic Trumpeter. Orchestral works include: Magnificat, New York 
Profiles, To a Lone Sentry, Concert Music, Ricercari (piano and 
orchestra), and a symphony, The Triumph of St. Joan. There are also 
numerous works for chamber orchestra and smaller chamber groups. 

Mr. Dello Joio taught composition at Sarah Lawrence College in 
Bronxville, New York from 1945 to 1950. At present his time is given 
exclusively to composition. He has recently completed an opera The 
Ruby, based on a play of Lord Dunsany; and a dramatic cantata The 
Lamentation of Saul, based on a play of D. H. Lawrence, David. The 
latter was first performed at South Mountain, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 
during the summer of 1954 with Leonard Warren as soloist. 

[copyrighted] 

(30 



EXCERPTS FROM ACT III, "DIE MEISTERSINGER 

VON NORNBERG" 

By Richard Wagner 

Born in Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died in Venice, February 13, 1883 



"Die Meistersinger von Number g" was first sketched by Wagner as a possible opera 
subject at Dresden in 1845. He wrote the libretto in Paris in 1861, and completed 
the score in 1867. The first performance of the opera was at the Royal Court Theatre 
in Munich, June 21, 1868. 

The Introduction to the Third Act of "Die Meistersinger" is music 
of Hans Sachs in revery, for the composer is preparing his hearers 
to behold the master cobbler seated alone in his study musing over a 
book. The Introduction opens with a fine contemplative theme, first 
given to the cellos. Wagner himself has explained his purpose: "The 
opening theme for the cellos has already been heard in the third 
strophe of Sachs' cobbler-song in Act II. There is expressed the bitter 
cry of the man who has determined to renounce his personal happiness, 
yet who shows the world a cheerful, resolute exterior. That smothered 
cry was understood [in the Second Act] by Eva, and so deeply did it 
pierce her heart that she was moved to escape, if only to hear this 
cheerful-seeming song no longer. Now, in the Introduction to Act III, 
this motive is played alone by the cellos, and developed in the other 
strings till it dies away in resignation; but forthwith, and as from out 
the distance, the horns intone the solemn song wherewith Hans Sachs 
greeted Luther and the Reformation, which had won the poet such 
incomparable popularity. After the first strophe the strings again take 
single phrases of the cobbler's song, very softly and much slower, as 
though the man were turning his gaze from his handiwork heaven- 
wards, and lost in tender musings. Then, with increased sonority, the 
horns pursue the master's hymn, with which Hans Sachs, at the end of 
the Act, is greeted by the populace of Nuremberg. Next reappears the 
strings' first motive, with grandiose expression of the anguish of a 
deeply stirred soul; calmed and allayed, it attains the utmost serenity 
of a blest and peaceful resignation." 

The final scene depicts a meadow with the gaily decorated platform 
from which the judges will hear the contest. A lively Ldndler, danced 
in couples by the apprentices and their girls, is interrupted by the 
arrival and majestic entrance of the Mastersingers. 

[copyrighted] 



[32] 



LIST OF WORKS 

Performed in the Afternoon Series 
DURING THE SEASON 1959-1960 



Amirov Kyurdi-Ovshari Mugami 

I November 21 

Barber Souvenirs, Ballet Suite, Op. 28 

III January 23 

Beethoven Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 

V March 26 

Chopin Piano Concerto in E minor, Op. 1 1 

Soloist: GARY GRAFFMAN v March 26 

Copland Orchestral Suite from the Opera, "The Tender Land" 

(First concert performance in New I November 21 

York; conducted by the composer) 

Dello Joio Variations, Chaconne and Finale 

V March 26 

Dvorak Concerto for Cello, in B minor, Op. 104 

Soloist; GREGOR PIATIGORSKY IV February 20 

Kabalevsky Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Op. 49 

Soloist: SAMUEL MAYES l November 21 

(Conducted by the composer) 

Khrennikov ...... Symphony No. 1, Op. 4 

I November 2 1 

Lopatnikoff Music for Orchestra, Op. 39 

(First performance in Xew York) IV February 20 

Mahler Adagio from the Tenth Symphony (Posthumous) 

II December 19 

Mendelssohn Symphony No. 3, in A minor, "Scottish," Op. 56 

' II December 19 

Mozart Piano Concerto No. 24, in C minor, K. 491 

Soloist: CLAUDE FRANK II December 19 

Symphony No. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 
- IV February 20 

Schubert Symphony No. 2, in B-flat major 

III January 23 

Stravinsky Suite from the Ballet, "L'Oiseau de feu" 

III January 23 

Wagner * Overture to "Tannhauser" 

III January 23 

Excerpts from Act III, "Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg" 

V March 26 

William Steinberg conducted the concei t on January 23 




At the request of the BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
CHARLES MUNCH, Mu$ic Director 



CINCINNATI, OHIO 



faftroin 



BALDWIN GRAND PIANOS • ACROSONIC VERTICAL PIANOS • HOWARD SPINET PIANOS • 
HAMILTON STUDIO PIANOS • BALDWIN ELECTRONIC ORGANS • ORGA-SONIC SPINET ORGANS • 



Brooklyn Programs 









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r BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 



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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959-1960 

The Brooklyn Academy of Music 

Under the auspices of the BROOKLYN INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
and the PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY OF BROOKLYN 



1959- 60 
THE WOMEN'S COMMITTEE 

FOR 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra Concerts 

IN BROOKLYN 



Mrs. 



Andrew L. Gomory 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. Albert C. Magee, Chairman 

Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard, Jr. 

Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. H. Haughton B( 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. Abbott Lippmann, Secretary 
Mrs. John F. Thompson, Jr., Treasurer 
Mrs. Irving G. Idler Mrs. William T. Daily 

Chairman of Boxes Chairman of Membership 

Honorary Chairman, Mrs. Carroll J. Dickson 



Mn. Alexander Aldrich 
Mri. Elias J. Audi 
Mrs. C. Rankin Barnei 
Mrs. Bernard S. Ban- 
Mrs. John R. Bartels 
Mrs. Milton S. Berman 
Mrs. George M. Billings 
Mrs. John R. H. Blum 
Mrs. Robert E. Blum 
Mrs. Lawrence J. Bolvig 
Mrs. Walter Bruchhausen 
Mrs. Otis Swan Carroll 
Mrs. Francis T. Christy 
Miss Edith U. Conard 
Mrs. Benjamin J. Conroy 
Mrs. Donald M. Crawford 
Mrs. Russell V. Cruikshank 
Mrs. Frederick I. Daniels 
Miss Ruth G. Davis 
Mrs. Berton J. Delmhorst 
Mrs. Anthony Di Giovanna 
Mrs. James B. Donovan 
Mrs. Joseph J. Dreyer 
Mrs. Remick C Eckardt 
Mrs. Alfred H. Everson 
Mrs. James F. Fairman 
Mrs. John W. Faison 
Mrs. Merrill N. Foote 
Mrs. Lewis W. Francis 



Mrs. Laurance E. Frost 
Mrs. Edwin L. Garvin 
Mrs. Silas M. R. Giddings 
Mrs. R. Whitney Gosnell 
Mrs. Warren L. Hafely 
Mrs. Arthur C. Hallan 
Mrs. J. Victor Herd 
Mrs. William B. Hewson 
Mrs. James M. Hills 
Mrs. David S. Hunter 
Mrs. Raymond V. Ingersoll 
Mrs. Henry A. Ingraham 
Mrs. Darwin R. James, III 
Mrs. John W. James, III 
Mrs. Walter M. Jeffords, Jr. 
Mrs. Miles M. Kastendieck 
Mrs. James Vincent Keogh 
Mrs. William F. Kerby 
Mrs. John Bailey King 
Mrs. Everett J. Livesey 



Mrs. Harold Ostergren 
Mrs. William M. Parke 
Mrs. William B. Parker 
Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 
Mrs. Raymond King Pendletoi 
Mrs. Franklyn H. Peper 
Mrs. Edward T. Reilly 
Mrs. Allan G. Richtmyer 
Mrs. Abraham M. Sands 
Mrs. Irving J. Sands 
Mrs. Martin Segal 
Mrs. Eliot Sharp 
Mrs. Donald G. C. Sinclair 
Mrs. Ainsworth L. Smith 
Mrs. Sidney L. Solomon 
Mrs. Harry H. Spencer 
Mrs. Monroe D. Stern 
Mrs. Elmer A. Talcott 
Mrs. Jeanne Toomey Ternnoi 
Mrs. Hollis K. Thayer 



Mrs. J. Frederick Lohman, Jr. Mrs. Gilbert H. Thirkield 



Mrs. John J. Madden 
Mrs. Eugene R. Marzullo 
Mrs. Carleton D. Mason 
Mrs. Richard S. Maynard 
Miss Helen M. McWilliams 
Mrs. Alfred L. Megill 
Miss Emma Jessie Ogg 



Mrs. Theodore N. Trynin 
Mrs. Franklin B. Tuttle 
Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. Thomas K. Ware 
Mrs. Robert F. Warren 
Dr. Virginia T. Weeks 
Miss Elizabeth T. Wright 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT 


BULLETIN 


with 


historical and 


descriptive 


notes 


by 




John N. Burk 







The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 

Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
CD. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[1] 



Next Saturday at 8:30 overWQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
memorable performance. And every day, 
early morning to late at night, treat 
yourself to wonderful listening from 
America's Number One Good Music 
Station, WQXR, 1560 AM, 96.3 FM, the 
radio station of The New York Times. 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



First Program 



FRIDAY EVENING, November 20, at 8:30 o'clock 



Program 



Mozart Symphony No. 38, in D major, "Prague," K. 504 

I. Adagio; Allegro 
II. Andante 
III. Finale: Presto 

Copland Orchestral Suite from the Opera, "The Tender Land" 

I. Introduction and Love Music 
II. ( Party Scene 
III. 1 Finale: The Promise of Living 

(Conducted by the composer) 
INTERMISSION 

Beethoven * Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I. Allegro con brio 
II. Andante con moto 

III. (Allegro; Trio 

IV. ^Allegro 



BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[3] 



SYMPHONY IN D MAJOR (K. No. 504) 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This symphony had its first performance at Prague, January 19, 1787. 
It is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and 
strings. The trumpets and drums are not used in the slow movement. 

The last symphony which Mozart composed before his famous final 
three of 1788 (the E-flat, G minor, and "Jupiter" symphonies) was 
the Symphony in D major, called the "Prague" Symphony, which had 
its first performance in that city early in 1787. Mozart may not have 
composed it especially for Prague, but when he went there from 
Vienna on a sudden invitation, the new score was ready in his port- 
folio for the first of two performances in the Bohemian capital. 

"Prague is indeed a very beautiful and agreeable place," wrote 
Mozart on his arrival there. And he had good cause to be gratified 
with the more than friendly reception which he found awaiting him. 
Figaro, produced there in the previous season, had been an immense 
success, and its tunes were sung and whistled on all sides. A bid was 
to come for another opera, and Don Giovanni was to be written and 
produced there within a year, and to cause another furore of enthu- 
siasm. The composer of Figaro, as might be expected, was applauded 
loud and long at the two concerts of his visit in 1787, and after the 
D major symphony at the first of them, he could not appease the 
audience until he had improvised upon the piano for half an hour. 
At length a voice shouted the word Figaro! and Mozart, interrupting 
the phrase he had begun to play, captured all hearts by improvising 
variations from the air "Non piii andrai." 

Writing on January 15 to his friend Gottfried von Jacquin, Mozart 
related how a round of entertainment mostly connected with music- 
making was awaiting him. On the evening of his arrival, he went with 
Count Canal to the "Breitfeld Ball, where the flower of the Prague 
beauties assemble. You ought to have been there, my dear friend; I 
think I see you running, or rather limping, after all those pretty 
creatures, married and single. I neither danced nor flirted with any 
of them — the former because I was too tired, and the latter from my 
natural bashfulness. I saw, however, with the greatest pleasure, all 
these people flying about with such delight to the music of my Figaro, 
transformed into quadrilles and waltzes; for here nothing is talked of 
but Figaro, nothing played but Figaro, nothing whistled or sung but 
Figaro, no opera so crowded as Figaro, nothing but Figaro — very 
flattering to me, certainly." 

Franz Niemetschek, a Bohemian who wrote a biography of Mozart 
in 1798, said of the concert of January 19: "The symphonies which 
he chose for this occasion are true masterpieces of instrumental com- 

[4] 



position, full of surprising transitions. They have a swift and fiery 
bearing, so that they at once tune the soul to the expectation of some- 
thing superior. This is especially true of the great symphony in D 
major, which is still a favorite of the Prague public, although it has 
been heard here nearly a hundred times." 

The Symphony in D major is noteworthy by the absence of a minuet 
(in his earlier symphonies, Mozart was often content with three move- 
ments). Still more unusual is the slow introduction to the first move- 
ment. Haydn, and Beethoven after him, were inclined to such intro- 
ductions, but Mozart usually preferred to begin at once with his lively 
first theme. The exceptions, which occurred in succession through 
Mozart's last years, were the "Linz" Symphony in C major (K. 425), 
the introduction to Michael Haydn's Symphony in G major (K. 444), 
the "Prague" Symphony, and the famous E-flat Symphony (K. 543) 
which followed. 

Remembering that this Symphony was composed between Figaro 
and Don Giovanni, commentators have noted a likeness in the chief 
theme of the allegro to the first theme of the Overture to Don Gio- 
vanni. Erich Blom goes even further in associating the Symphony 
with the opera that followed: "The portentous and extended slow 
introduction of the 'Prague' Symphony is charged with the graver 
aspects of Don Giovanni; the half-close leading to the allegro is 
practically identical with that at a similar juncture in the great sextet 
of the opera, and an ominous figure in the finale almost makes one 
think of the stone guest appearing among a riot of mirth, though the 
grace and the laughter of Susanna are there too. The slow movement 
makes us dream of the idyllic summer-night stillness in Count Alma- 
viva's invitingly artificial garden. The wonder of the Symphony is, 
however, that in spite of the variety of the visions it may suggest 
to the hearer, it is a perfect whole. Every structural part and every 
thematic feature is exquisitely proportioned. No separate incident is 
allowed to engage attention independently of the scheme in which it 
is assigned its function, even where it is as incredibly beautiful as the 
second subject of the first movement, which is surreptitiously intro- 
duced by a passage that is apparently merely transitional, or as engag- 
ingly spritely as the second subject of the finale with its bubbling 
bassoon accompaniment." [copyrighted] 



&eoltan=i§>ktmter d^rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[5] 



SUITE FROM "THE TENDER LAND" 

By Aaron Copland 

Born in Brooklyn, N.Y., November 14, 1900 



The opera The Tender Land was commissioned by Richard Rodgers and Oscar 
Hammerstein II on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the League of Composers, 
and composed between 1952 and 1954. The text is by Horace Everett. The opera 
had its first performance by the New York City Opera Company under the direction 
of Thomas Schippers at the New York City Center, April 1, 1954. It was performed 
by the opera department of the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood on August 
2 and 3, 1954 and (revised from a two- into a three-act opera) by the Oberlin Con- 
servatory on May 20 and 21, 1955. Two choruses from The Tender Land were 
performed at the benefit concert, "Tanglewood on Parade," on August 8, 1957, the 
composer conducting. The Suite was performed at the Boston concerts April 10-11, 
1959. Choral portions were presented at Brandeis University, again under the com- 
poser's direction, on June 8, 1957. 

The suite requires 3 flutes and piccolo, oboe and English horn, 2 clarinets and 
bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, harp, 
piano, and strings. 

(The orchestral suite was arranged for a larger orchestra than that used in the 
opera by the addition of piccolo, 2 horns, 2 trombones and tuba.) 

An interview by Howard Taubman in the New York Times (March 
28, 1954) anticipates the first performance with an explanation by 
the composer of how he came to write the opera. "I've been wanting 
to do an opera ever since The Second Hurricane, but couldn't get a 
libretto." Mr. Copland revealed that he had long since jotted down 
possible themes in a notebook even before he had found a likely 
libretto. At length he had come across a book, Let Us Now Praise 
Famous Men, by James Agee and Walker Evans. The book consisted 
of photographs taken in a rural area of Alabama. A picture of an old 
woman with a young one made a special impression upon Mr. Cop- 
land. "There was something so full of living and understanding in 
the face of the older woman," he said, "and something so open and 
eager in the face of the younger one, that I began to think that here 
was the basis of an idea." It was therefore at his suggestion and under 
his advice that Horace Everett worked out his libretto. 

The plot was related to the New York Herald Tribune by Mr. Cop- 
land in advance of the first performance. 

"The opera takes place in the mid '30s, in June, spring harvest time. 
It's about a farm family — a mother, a daughter who's just about to 
graduate from high school, a younger sister of ten, and a grandfather. 
There's big doings in the works — no-one in the family has ever 
graduated before, and a whopping party is planned for the occasion. 

"Then two drifters come along asking for odd jobs. The grand- 
father is reluctant to give them any, and the mother is alarmed because 

[6] 



she's heard reports of two young men molesting the young girls of the 
neighborhood. Nevertheless, the fellows are told they can sleep in the 
shed for the night. 

"The graduation party itself begins at the opening of the second 
act. The heroine, who by a genuine coincidence has the same name 
— Laurie — as the gal in Rodgers & Hammerstein's Oklahoma!, has, 
naturally, fallen in love with one of the drifters. And they prove it 
by singing a twelve-minute love duet. That, I can tell you, is revolu- 
tionary. After all, love duets are a sort of rarity in modern opera, and 
twelve minutes is a long time. 

"But about their budding love affair there is something of a com- 
plication. You see, she associates him with freedom, with getting away 
from home, and he associates her with settling down. Martin (that's 
the hero's name) asks Laurie to run away with him, and she, of course, 
accepts. But in the middle of the night, after a long discussion with 
his fellow hobo, Top, he decides that his kind of roving life is not for 
Laurie, so he silently steals off. 

"When Laurie discovers that she's been jilted, she decides to leave 
home, anyway, and at the conclusion of the opera the mother sings a 
song — a song of acceptance that is the key to the opera. In it she looks 
to her younger daughter as the continuation of the family cycle that is 
the whole reason for their existence." 

The first movement of the Suite begins with the music from the 
Introduction to Act III and is followed by an almost complete version 
of the Love Duet from Act II. 

The Party Scene is, as indicated, music from the Act II graduation 
party, especially the square dance material from that act. 

The Finale is an exact transcription for orchestra of the vocal 
quintet that concludes Act I of the opera. 

Horace Everett's text of the Quintet ("The Promise of Living") is 
as follows: 

The promise of living 
With hope and thanksgiving 
Is born of our loving 
Our friends and our labor. 

The promise of growing 
With faith and with knowing 
Is born of our sharing 
Our love with our neighbor 

The promise of living 
The promise of growing 
Is born of our singing 
In joy and thanksgiving. 

(Copyright by Boosey and Hawkes) 
[copyrighted] 

[7] 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, IN C MINOR, Op. 67 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The Fifth Symphony was completed near the end of the year 1807, and first 
performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, December 22, 1808, Beethoven 
conducting. The parts were published in April, 1809, and the score in March, 1826. 
The dedication is to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky. 

The Symphony is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons 
and double-bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings (the 
piccolo, trombones and double-bassoon, here making their first appearance in a 
symphony of Beethoven, are used only in the Finale). 

Something in the direct, impelling drive of the first movement of the 
C minor symphony commanded the general attention when it was 
new, challenged the skeptical, and soon forced its acceptance. Goethe 
heard it with grumbling disapproval, according to Mendelssohn, but 
was astonished and impressed in spite of himself. Lesueur, hidebound 
professor at the Conservatoire, was talked by Berlioz into breaking his 
vow never to listen to another note of Beethoven, and found his prej- 
udices and resistances quite swept away. A less plausible tale reports 
Maria Malibran as having been thrown into convulsions by this sym- 
phony. The instances could be multiplied. There was no gainsaying 
that forthright, sweeping storminess. 

Even if the opening movement could have been denied, the tender 
melodic sentiment of the Andante was more than enough to offset 
conservative objections to "waywardness" in the development, and 
the lilting measures of the scherzo proper were more than enough to 
compensate the "rough" and puzzling Trio. The joyous, marchlike 
theme of the finale carried the symphony on its crest to popular 
success, silencing at length the objections of those meticulous musi- 
cians who found that movement "commonplace" and noisy. Certain 
of the purists, such as Louis Spohr, were outraged at hearing the 



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disreputable tones of trombones and piccolo in a symphony. But 
Spohr could not resist Beethoven's uncanny touch in introducing a 
reminiscence of the scherzo before the final coda. Even Berlioz, who 
was usually with Beethoven heart and soul, felt called upon to make 
a half-apology for the elementary finale theme. It seemed to him that 
the repetitiousness of the finale inevitably lessened the interest. After 
the magnificent first entrance of the theme, the major tonality so 
miraculously prepared for in the long transitional passage, all that 
could follow seemed to him lessened by comparison, and he was forced 
to take refuge in the simile of a row of even columns, of which the 
nearest looms largest. 

It has required the weathering of time to show the Beethoven of 
the Fifth Symphony to be in no need of apologies, to be greater than 
his best champions suspected. Some of his most enthusiastic conduc- 
tors in the century past seem to have no more than dimly perceived 
its broader lines, misplaced its accents, under or over shot the mark 
when they attempted those passages which rely upon the understand- 
ing and dramatic response of the interpreter. Wagner castigated those 
who hurried over the impressive, held E-flat in the second bar, who 
sustained it no longer than the "usual duration of a forte bow stroke." 
Even many years later, Arthur Nikisch was taken to task for over- 
prolonging those particular holds. Felix Weingartner, as recently as 
1906, in his "On the Performance of the Symphonies of Beethoven," 
felt obliged to warn conductors against what would now be considered 
unbelievable liberties, such as adding horns in the opening measures 
of the symphony. He also told them to take the opening eighth notes 
in tempo, and showed how the flowing contours of the movement must 
not be obscured by false accentuation. 

Those — and there is no end of them — who have attempted to 
describe the first movement have looked upon the initial four-note 
figure with its segregating hold, and have assumed that Beethoven used 



TOWN HALL, NEW YORK 

TWILIGHT HOUR RECITAL 

Sunday, November 22, at 5:30 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer and Jesus Maria Sanroma 

Flute Piano 

Program (works for flute and piano): Hindemith, Sonata (1936); 
Schubert, Variations on Ihr Blumlein alle, Op. 160; Bach, Sonata 
in E minor; Prokofieff, Sonata, Op. 94. 



[9] 



this fragment, which is nothing more than a rhythm and an interval, 
in place of a theme proper, relying upon the slender and little used 
"second theme" for such matters as melodic continuity. Weingartner 
and others after him have exposed this fallacy, and what might be 
called the enlightened interpretation of this movement probably began 
with the realization that Beethoven never devised a first movement 
more conspicuous for graceful symmetry and even, melodic flow. An 
isolated tile cannot explain a mosaic, and the smaller the tile unit, 
the more smooth and delicate of line will be the complete picture. 
Just so does Beethoven's briefer "motto" build upon itself to produce 
long and regular melodic periods. Even in its first bare statement, the 
"motto" belongs conceptually to an eight-measure period, broken for 
the moment as the second fermata is held through an additional bar. 
The movement is regular in its sections, conservative in its tonalities. 
The composer remained, for the most part, within formal boundaries. 
The orchestra was still the orchestra of Haydn, until, to swell the 
jubilant outburst of the finale, Beethoven resorted to his trombones. 
The innovation, then, was in the character of the musical thought. 
The artist worked in materials entirely familiar, but what he had to 
say was astonishingly different from anything that had been said before. 
As Sir George Grove has put it, he "introduced a new physiognomy 



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SYMPHONIC WIND ENSEMBLE • OPERA 

ORATORIO CHORUS • A CAPPELLA CHOIR 

CHAMBER SINGERS 



Member, New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 

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[10] 



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4 LIVING I STEREO fe j --■*?• I^ 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 

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into the world of music." No music, not even the "Eroica," had had 
nearly the drive and impact of this First Movement. 

The Andante con mo to (in A-flat major) is the most irregular of 
the four movements. It is not so much a theme with variations as free 
thoughts upon segments of a theme with certain earmarks and recur- 
rences of the variation form hovering in the background. The first 
setting forth of the melody cries heresy by requiring 48 bars. The first 
strain begins regularly enough, but, instead of closing on the tonic 
A-flat, hangs suspended. The wood winds echo this last phrase and 
carry it to a cadence which is pointedly formal as the strings echo it 
at the nineteenth bar. Formal but not legitimate. A close at the eighth 
bar would have been regular, and this is not a movement of regular 
phrase lengths. Regularity is not established until the end of the 
movement when this phrase closes upon its eighth bar at last! The 
whole andante is one of the delayed cadences. The second strain of 
the melody pauses upon the dominant and proceeds with an outburst 
into C major, repeats in this key to pause at the same place and dream 
away at leisure into E-flat. The two sections of melody recur regularly 
with varying ornamental accompaniment in the strings, but again the 
questioning pauses bring in enchanting whispered vagaries, such as 
a fugato for flutes, oboes and clarinets, or a pianissimo dalliance by 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
FOR OUR RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio audience has prompted 
a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
1960 is $5.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 
Hall. 



[12] 



BROADCASTS by the 


BOSTON 


SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 


JVint 

The Saturday eve 


er Season 


, 1959-1960 


;ning concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the 


\ following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


*WCRB-AM 


1330 


kc 


Boston 


*WCRB-FM 


102.5 


mc 


Boston 


**WXHR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Boston 


**WTAG-FM 


96.1 


mc 


Worcester 


**WNHC-FM 


99.1 


mc 


New Haven 


**WQXR-AM 


1560 


kc 


New York 


**WQXR-FM 


96.3 


mc 


New York 


**WFIL-FM 


102.1 


mc 


Philadelphia 


**WFMZ-FM 


100.7 


mc 


Allentown, Pa. 


**WFLY-FM 


92.3 


mc 


Troy, N. Y. 


**WITH-FM 


104.3 


mc 


Baltimore 


**WNBF-FM 


98.1 


mc 


Binghamton, N. Y. 


**WGR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


**WRRA-FM 


103.7 


mc 


Tthaca, N. Y. 


**WJTN-FM 


93.3 


mc 


Jamestown, N. Y. 


**WHDL-FM 


95.7 


mc 


Olean, N. Y. 


**WROC-FM 


97.9 


mc 


Rochester, N. Y. 


**WSYR-FM 


94.5 


mc 


Syracuse, N. Y. 


**WRUN-FM 


105.7 


mc 


Utica, N. Y. 


**WSNJ-FM 


98.9 


mc 


Bridgeton, N. J. 


The Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the 


following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


WXHR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Frid 


ay-Saturday series will be broadcast 


by transcription at 8 P.M 


. on the Monday evening following 


the performances 


on the 


following stations: 


*WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


*WBCN-FM 


104.1 


mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 


mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 


mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 


mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


*WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of 


the Tuesday 


Sanders Theatre series will 


be broadcast by the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


WGBH-TV 


Channel 2 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


WENH-TV 


Channel 11 


Durham, N. H. 


The Sunday afternoon 


and T 


uesday evening concerts at 


Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 


FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 






* - Stereophonic Broadcast 




** - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[13] 



the violins upon a strand of accompaniment. The movement finds 
a sudden fortissimo close. 

The third movement (allegro, with outward appearance of a scherzo) 
begins pianissimo with a phrase the rhythm of which crystallizes into 
the principal element, in fortissimo. The movement restores the 
C minor of the first and some of its rhythmic drive. But here the 
power of impulsion is light and springy. In the first section of the 
Trio in C major (the only part of the movement which is literally 
repeated) the basses thunder a theme which is briefly developed, 
fugally and otherwise. The composer begins what sounds until its 
tenth bar like a da capo. But this is in no sense a return, as the hearer 
soon realizes. The movement has changed its character, lost its steely 
vigor and taken on a light, skimming, mysterious quality. It evens off 
into a pianissimo where the suspense of soft drum beats prepares a 
new disclosure, lightly establishing (although one does not realize this 
until the disclosure comes) the quadruple beat. The bridge of mystery 
leads, with a sudden tension, into the tremendous outburst of the 
Finale, chords proclaiming C major with all of the power an orchestra 
of 1807 could muster — which means that trombones, piccolo and 
contra-bassoon appeared for the first time in a symphony. The Finale 
follows the formal line of custom, with a second section in the 
dominant, the prescribed development section, and a fairly close 
recapitulation. But as completely as the first movement (which like- 
wise outwardly conforms), it gives a new function to a symphony — 
a new and different character to music itself. Traditional preconcep- 
tions are swept away in floods of sound, joyous and triumphant. At 
the end of the development the riotous chords cease and in the sudden 
silence the scherzo, in what is to be a bridge passage, is recalled. Again 
measures of wonderment fall into the sense of a coda as the oboe brings 
the theme to a gentle resolution. This interruption was a stroke of 
genius which none could deny, even the early malcontents who 
denounced the movement as vulgar and blatant — merely because they 
had settled back for a rondo and found something else instead. The 
Symphony which in all parts overrode disputation did so nowhere 
more unanswerably than in the final coda with its tumultuous C major. 

[copyrighted] 



JSs. 



[14] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining Friday evening concerts in this series will 

be as follows: 



December 18 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

January 22 WILLIAM STEINBERG, Conductor 

February 19 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
GREGOR PIATIGORSKY, Cello 

March 25 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

GARY GRAFFMAN, Piano 

Single Tickets at Box Office 



The concerts by this Orchestra in Boston on Saturday evenings 
at 8:30 are broadcast complete by Station WQXR (AM and 
FM), New York. 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC • BROOKLYN 

[MS] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Bach Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) 

Barber Medea's Dance of Vengeance 

Adagio for Strings 

Beethoven Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 

Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 
Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 
Symphony No. 9 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Berlioz "L'Enfance du Christ" 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 

Bloch "Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 

Brahms Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 
Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) 

Debussy "The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 

"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 

Dukas The Apprentice Sorceror 

Elgar Introduction and Allegro 

Franck Symphony No. 1 in D minor 

Ibert "Escales" (Ports of Call) 

d'Indy Symphony on a Mountain Air 

( Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 

Martinu 

Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 

Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 

Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



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"Fantaisies Symphoniques" 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) 

Symphony No. 6 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" 
"Mother Goose" Suite 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) 
"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures 
Symphony No. 4 
Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) 
Serenade for Strings 

Excerpts, "Tannhauser," Tristan," 
"The Ring" (Eileen Farrell) 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) 



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LM-1992 

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LM-2097 
LM-1959 
LM-2274 

LM-2030 
LM-2111 
LM-1984 
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[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIX, Associate Conductor 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



PERSONNEL 

Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harrv Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Mover 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Yinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 

Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



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BOSTON 
SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HI 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959- i960 

The Brooklyn Academy of Music 

Under the auspices of the BROOKLYN INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
and the PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY OF BROOKLYN 



1959 - 6 <> 

THE WOMEN'S COMMITTEE I 

FOR 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra Concerts 

IN BROOKLYN 



Mrs. 



Andrew L. Gomory 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. Albert C. Magee, Chairman 

Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard, Jr. 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. H. Haughton Bell 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



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Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 



Next Saturday at 8:30 over WQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
memorable performance. And every day, 
early morning to late at night, treat 
yourself to wonderful listening from 
America's Number One Good Music 
Station, WQXR, 1560 AM, 96.3 FM, the 
radio station of The New York Times. 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Second Program 



FRIDAY EVENING, December 18, at 8:30 o'clock 



Mendelssohn Symphony No. 3, in A minor, "Scottish," Op. 56 

I. Andante con moto; Allegro un poco agitato 

II. Vivace non troppo 

III. Adagio 

IV. Allegro vivacissimo; Allegro maestoso assai 

(Played without pause) 



INTERM ISS IO N 



Mozart Piano Concerto No. 24, in C minor, K. 491 

I. (Allegro) 

II. Larghetto 

III. Allegretto 



Ravel *"Daphnis et Chloe," Ballet, Suite No. 2 

Lever du jour — Pantomime — Danse generate 



SOLOIST 

CLAUDE FRANK 
Mr. Frank uses the Steinway Piano 



BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[3] 



SYMPHONY NO. 3 IN A MINOR, "SCOTTISH," Op. 56 

By Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 

Born in Berlin, February 3, 1809; died in Leipzig, November 4, 1847 



This symphony was finished January 20, 1842, and first performed at the Gewand- 
haus concerts in Leipzig on March 3 following, the composer conducting. The first 
performance in this country was by the Philharmonic Society in New York, George 
Loder conducting, November 22, 1845. The first performance in Boston was by the 
Academy of Music at the Melodeon, November 14, 1846, G. J. Webb conducting. 

The instrumentation includes 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. 

The score is inscribed as "composed for and dedicated to Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria of England." It was published in 1843. 

IN the spring of 1829, Felix Mendelssohn, promising pianist and 
composer of twenty, visited England, played with the Philharmonic 
Orchestra in London and conducted it, was entertained by delightful 
people, and enjoyed himself thoroughly. In July he undertook a tour 
of Scotland with his friend Carl Klingemann. The people and the 
landscape interested him. He wrote of the Highlanders with their 
"long, red beards, tartan plaids, bonnets and feathers, naked knees, and 
their bagpipes in their hands." The moorlands intrigued him too, and 
when fogs and rains permitted, the sketchbook was brought out and put 
to good use. Mendelssohn was an insatiable tourist, and if the camera 
had been invented would surely have otherwise committed landscapes 
to memory. 

He wrote home of the Hebrides and the Cave of Fingal — also of the 
Palace of Holyrood, then a picturesque ruin, in which Mary of Scotland 
had dwelt. "In the evening twilight we went today to the palace where 
Queen Mary lived and loved; a little room is shown there with a wind- 
ing staircase leading up to the door; up this way they came and found 
Rizzio in that little room, pulled him out, and three rooms off there is 
a dark corner, where they murdered him. The chapel close to it is now 
roofless, grass and ivy grow there, and at that broken altar Mary was 
crowned Queen of Scotland. Everything around is broken and mould- 
ering, and the bright sky shines in. I believe I found today in that old 
chapel the beginning of my Scottish Symphony." There follow sixteen 
measures which were to open the introduction of the first movement. 
These measures have also been attributed to the incident that, returning 
to the inn at Edinburgh, Mendelssohn there listened to a plaintive 
Scotch air sung by the landlord's daughter. 

In this way Mendelssohn carried out of Scotland two scraps of melody 
that were to be put to good use — this one and the opening measures of 
the "Fingal's Cave" Overture. Smaller works for piano, and for voice, 
were also suggested by Scotland. 

It would be a mistake, of course, to look for anything like definite 
description in this score, or for that matter in any symphony of 
Mendelssohn. He did not even publish it with a specific title, although 

[4] 



he so referred to it in his letters. There have been attempts to prove 
the symphony Scottish in character. George Hogarth, who was beside 
Mendelssohn as he attended the "competition of Pipers" at Edinburgh, 
testified that "he was greatly interested by the war tunes of the different 
clans, and the other specimens of the music of the country. ... In this 
symphony, though composed long afterwards, he embodied some of 
his reminiscences of a period to which he always looked back with 
pleasure. The delightful manner in which he has reproduced some of 
the most characteristic features of the national music — solemn, pathetic, 
gay, warlike — is familiar to every amateur." 

The trouble with Mr. Hogarth's statement is that most hearers, cer- 
tainly the German ones, have not followed him so far. An enthusiastic 
Britisher would tend to make much of such thematic resemblances; but, 
after all, a folkish tune in the British Isles or Germany can have much 
in common, and by the time Mendelssohn has in his own way developed 
through a dozen measures the quasi jig-like 6-8 of the first movement 
or the theme of the scherzo in which one can possibly discern "national 
character," any truly Scottish jauntiness seems to have departed. Ger- 
man writers, in a day given to imaginative flights, went far afield from 
the Scottish scene. Ambrose was reminded by the "violent conflicts" 
in the Finale (which someone else likened to the gathering of clans) of 
"a roaring lion with which we might fancy a young Paladin in knightly 
combat. . . . And then the airy, elfish gambols of the Scherzo — we 
cannot help it, we invent a whole fairy tale of our own to fit it, a tale 
of the genuine old German stamp, something like the Sleeping Beauty 
of the Woods, or Cinderella, or Schneewittchen." 

It is probably nearer the truth that the thoughts of the young German 
were swarming with musical images in the summer of 1829, images 
which took on a passing shape, a superficial trait or two from what he 
heard in a strange land. An indefatigable sight-seer, he must have found 
the raucous drones produced by brawny males in skirts less a matter 
for musical inspiration or suggestion than an exotic curiosity. It took 
an islander such as Chorley to find and stress characteristic Scottish 
intervals in the Scherzo of the symphony. Mendelssohn, who took 
pleasure in affixing a picturesque name to a symphony, particularly in 
the light chatter of his letters, probably had no serious descriptive 
intentions. He hated "to explain" his music, so it is reported, and 



&eoltan=IS>ktmter <^rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[5] 



would turn off the elaborate word pictures of others with a joke. When 
Schubring went into a transport of fantasy over the "Meeresstille" 
Overture, its composer answered that his own mental picture was an 
old man sitting in the stern of the boat and helping matters by blowing 
into the sail. "Notes," wrote Mendelssohn in a letter from Italy, "have 
as definite a meaning as words, perhaps even a more definite one." But 
that meaning, precluding words, would also preclude anything so 
concrete as a particular landscape or nation. 

In the winter of 1830-31, while he was enjoying himself in Rome 
and Naples, themes which had occurred to him on the earlier journey 
had grown into rounded and extended form. The Fingal's Cave Over- 
ture then occupied him, and two symphonies "which," he wrote, "are 
rattling around in my head." But the Italian Symphony took prece- 
dence over the other, and even when that was in a fairly perfected 
condition, the Scottish Symphony seemed to elude him. He had good 
intentions of presently "taking hold" of it, but the Italian sunshine 
scattered his thoughts. "Who can wonder that I find it difficult to 
return to my misty Scotch mood?" The "schottische Nebelstimmung" 
was to bear fruit in the by no means uncheerful minor cast of the music. 
Another score, the Reformation Symphony, also in an unfinished 
state, was in his portmanteau at this time. This, with his earlier C 
minor Symphony and the later "Lobgesang," were to comprise all of 
his works in this form. 

He carried the Italian, Scottish, and Reformation symphonies about 
with him for years, endlessly reconsidering, polishing, touching up, 
before he was ready to take the irrevocable step of publication. Had 
the symphonies been numbered in the order of their composition, they 
would have been as follows: first, the C minor (1824), second the 
Reformation (1830-32), third the Italian (1833), fourth the Song of 
Praise (1840), and last the Scottish (1842). But the Italian and Refor- 
mation symphonies were withheld from publication until after his 
death, and thus attained the numbering Fourth and Fifth. By this 
circumstance the "Lobgesang" was published second in order, the 
Scottish third, and they were so numbered. 

Mendelssohn at last dated the manuscript of his Scottish Symphony 
as completed January 20, 1842, and on March 3 made it publicly 
known, conducting it at a Leipzig Gewandhaus concert. It was several 
times repeated there, and played in Berlin, where Mendelssohn then 
dwelt in the service of Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia. In June, 
Mendelssohn visited England again and conducted the work at a 
Philharmonic Concert (June 13), when it was much applauded. The 
audience at this time was not informed of any connection between the 
"new symphony" and Scotland. Mendelssohn, summoned to an audi- 
ence with Queen Victoria, played to her and the Prince Consort, and 

[6] 



asked her to sing in return. Compliments were interchanged — in all 
sincerity, for the royal couple were delighted with their German visitor, 
and he, in his turn, wrote that she had sung "really quite faultlessly, 
and with agreeable feeling and expression." Mendelssohn asked the 
permission of the British Sovereign to dedicate his symphony to her, 
"for the English name would suit the Scottish piece charmingly." 

"The several movements of this symphony," according to instructions 
printed in the original edition, "must follow each other immediately 
and not be separated by the usual pauses" (each movement, however, 
closes upon its tonic chord). 

The main body of the first movement, like the slow introduction, is 
in A minor, a lively 6-8 rhythm opening with its first theme given to 
the strings and oboes pianissimo. A transitional passage assai animato 
introduces the second theme in E minor, played by the clarinet while 
the first violins combine the first theme with the new one. There is the 
usual procedure of development, restatement and coda, and, to close, 
a repetition of a few measures from the introduction. 

The second movement, vivace non troppo, in F major 2-4, is in effect 
a scherzo and was so named in the earlier edition, although, like each 
movement in this symphony, it follows the sonata form. The second 
subject is but briefly developed. 

The third movement, adagio, in A major 2-4, discloses its first theme 
in the tenth measure as the first violins play cantabile. A march-like 
passage introduced by the wood winds intervenes before the second 
theme in E major is introduced by the first violins with pizzicato 
accompaniment. 

The Finale, allegro vivacissimo 2-2, restores the tonality of A minor. 
The first theme is at once introduced by the violins over violas, bassoons 
and horns, and the second (in E minor) by oboes and clarinets after a 
transitional episode for the full orchestra. The movement is developed 
at length and closes with a sonorous allegro maestoso assai, A major 6-8. 
This Finale was once compared to "a gathering of the clans," perhaps 
on account of the tempo indication allegro guerriero which stood on 
the earlier edition but which was later changed. 

[copyrighted] 



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[7] 



PIANO CONCERTO NO. 24, in C minor, K. 491 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This Concerto was composed in March, 1786. 

The orchestration consists of flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani and strings. 

Of Mozart's twenty-seven concertos for piano there are two in the 
minor tonality: this one and the Concerto in D minor, K. 466 
(numbered 20, and composed in the year previous). The minor mode 
was often for Mozart a signal for serious, even tragic matters. 

Einstein wrote that Mozart here "evidently needed to indulge in an 
explosion of dark, tragic, passionate emotion." The composer's motive 
is of course pure conjecture. The plain and astonishing fact is that 
Mozart, tied up with many duties, absorbed in the preparations for 
Figaro (this was the Figaro year), turned out not a casual piece in the 
entertainment pattern, but what is generally considered his most 
independent and challenging, his most prodigious work in this form. 
It is his ultimate venture, his furthest exploration of the piano con- 
certo; for the three which were to follow were to be a further refine- 
ment on what he had done. If Mozart could be said ever to have 
ignored his public in a concerto and followed completely his own 
inner promptings, it was here. The first audience must have been 
dismayed when instead of the usual diatonic opening subject they were 
presented with a tortuous, chromatic succession of phrases with upward 
skips of diminished sevenths. This was a new and strange tonal world, 
and not a gracious one. Their dismay would not have been lessened 
when the whole orchestra proclaimed the theme with dire emphasis. 
A soft theme introduced by the woodwinds gives only momentary 
relief, for the first theme sweeps it away. The piano enters with a new 
theme, still in C minor, but is drawn into the ubiquitous theme, adding 
an octave to the wide interval. The theme dominates the movement, 
the soloist (as in the D minor Concerto) adding to the excitement with 
agitating scale passages. It is a less stormy opening movement than 
that of the D minor Concerto, but it is more vivid, more subtle, and 
more deeply felt. Although the cadenza brings a long coda, ending 
pianissimo, there is no assuagement, and the serenity of a major mode 
is imperative. Nothing could be more serene than the melody of the 
Larghetto. The three elements — piano, strings and winds — are com- 
bined each way with wondrous results. In treating the wind choir, 
the composer obviously gloried in having a full quota, clarinets and 

[8] 



oboes included, and he made the most of them (the trumpets and 
drums had no place here but are mustered in the other movements). 
The final Allegretto brings no happy ending as the finale of the 
D minor does. It begins and ends in C minor, traversing many keys. 
It is a series of variations on two subjects, the second of which opens 
the way for astonishing chromatic development — a chromaticism 
which serves for thematic individualization, modulation and transition 
equal in skill to the manipulations in the G minor Symphony which 
would come two years later. These variations defy description — they 
are surely one of Mozart's highest achievements in the form. 

This concerto combines range, intensive direction and extraordinary 
adventurousness. It speaks to the nineteenth century, and was a 
favorite with Beethoven. Under the immediate spell of a performance, 
one is strongly moved to give it some sort of crown — the crown, let us 
say, for the ultimate point, as Mozart through his life sought to bring 
the orchestra and his own instrument into ever closer communion. 

[copyrighted] 



CLAUDE FRANK 



Claude Frank was born in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1925, and has 
made the United States his home, having lived here since 1941. He 
was a student in the conducting department of the Berkshire Music 
Center in the summer of 1947 under the direction of Serge Kousse- 
vitzky. In the following year he joined the faculty at Bennington 
College in Vermont. He has served as assistant conductor of the 
Dessoff Choir. However, through the years his attention was increas- 
ingly taken by his development as pianist. He studied with Artur 
Schnabel for ten years and later joined the faculty of Rudolf Serkin's 
school at Marlboro, Vermont, taking part in the Marlboro Music 
Festival. It was under the advice of both Schnabel and Serkin that he 
devoted himself principally to the piano. He has toured Europe as 
well as America in recitals and appearances with orchestra. 



[9] 



DAPHNIS ET CHLO£- Ballet in One Act- 

Orchestral Fragments 

Second Series: "Daybreak," "Pantomime," "General Dance" 

By Maurice Ravel 
Born in Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; died in Paris, December 28, 1937 



The ballet Daphnis et Chloe was completed in 1911, and first produced June 8, 
1912 by Diaghileff's Ballet Russe, at the Chdtelet in Paris, Pierre Monteux conduct- 
ing. Of the two orchestral suites drawn from the ballet, the second had its first 
performance at the concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, December 14, 1917 
(Dr. Karl Muck conducting). 

The Second Suite is scored for 2 flutes, bass flute and piccolo, 2 oboes and English 
horn, 2 clarinets in B-flat, clarinet in E-flat and bass clarinet, 3 bassoons and contra- 
bassoon, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, 2 side 
drums, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, castanets, celesta, glockenspiel, 2 harps and 
strings. A wordless mixed chorus is written in the score, but is optional and can be 
replaced by instruments. 

tn his autobiographical sketch of 1928, Ravel described his Daphnis 
-^ et Chloe as "a choreographic symphony in three parts, commissioned 
from me by the director of the company of the Ballet Russe: M. Serge 
de Diaghileff. The plot was by Michel Fokine, at that time choreog- 
rapher of the celebrated troupe. My intention in writing it was to 
compose a vast musical fresco, less scrupulous as to archaism than 
faithful to the Greece of my dreams, which inclined readily enough 



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James Aliferis, President 



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ORATORIO CHORUS • A CAPPELLA CHOIR 

CHAMBER SINGERS 



Member, New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 

Charter Member, National Association of Schools of Music 

For information regarding admission and scholarships, write to the Dean. 

290 HUNTINGTON AVENUE BOSTON 15, MASSACHUSETTS 



[10] 



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to what French artists of the late eighteenth century have imagined 
and depicted. 

"The work is constructed symphonically according to a strict tonal 
plan by the method of a few motifs, the development of which achieves 
a symphonic homogeneity of style. 

"Sketched in 1907, Daphnis was several times subjected to revision 
— notably the finale." 

There were late revisions. If Ravel's date of 1907* is indeed correct, 
"Daphnis et Chloe" was five years in the making and must indeed have 
many times been "remis sur le metier," as Ravel expressed it, before the 
perfectionist was sufficiently content with his handiwork to release it 
for dancing and for printing. 

Diaghileff, deflecting the principal creative musicians of the day 
(Stravinsky, Strauss, Debussy) to his purposes, could not quite make 
ballet composers out of them, and the same may be said of Ravel. 
Nijinsky and Karsavina danced the title parts in the original produc- 
tion. The scenario was by Fokine; the designer of scenery and costumes 



* The date is surprising. Diaghileff's Ballet had its first Paris season in 1909 ; 1909, and 
sometimes 1910, are given as that in which Ravel began "Daphnis et Chloi." Roland-Manuel 
thinks that Ravel made a "mistake of two years" in naming 1907, which again is surprising, 
since Roland-Manuel originally wrote the autobiographical sketch at Ravel's dictation. In 1907 
Diaghileff was in Paris and probably had met Ravel, but there was no plan as yet for a ballet 
season in Paris. It is, of course, possible that Ravel's first sketches for "Daphnis et Chloe"" 
were purely symphonic in intent, a fact he might not have been quick to admit after the 
vicissitudes of the piece in the theatre. 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
FOR OUR RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio audience has prompted 
a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance of the season 1959— 
I960 is $4.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 
Hall. 



[12] 



BROADCASTS by the 


BOSTON 


SYMPHOIVY ORCHESTRA 


Wint 

The Saturday eve 


er Season 


. 1959-1960 


sning concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


*WCRB-AM 


1330 kc 


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The Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


WXHR-FM 


96.9 mc 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 


by transcription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 


the performances 


on the following stations: 


*WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


*WBCN-FM 


104.1 mc 


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WXCN-FM 


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WMTW-FM 


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Mount Washington, N. H. 


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The Concerts of 


the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 


be broadcast by the following stations: 


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Boston 


WGBH-TV 


Channel 2 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


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WENH-TV 


Channel 11 


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The Sunday afternoon and T 


uesday evening concerts at 


Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 


FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 




* - Stereophonic Broadcast 


** - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[13] 



was L£on Bakst. An indifferent success was reported, attributable in 
part to a gathering storm of dissension between Fokine and Diaghileff. 
There was considerable dissension within the Ballet Russe at the time. 
Disagreement seems to have centered on the problem of a danced 
presentation of subjects from Ancient Greece. Nijinsky, even while 
miming the character of Daphnis, was executing, according to novel 
ideas of his own, "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune" It can be well imagined 
that, in the presentation of "Daphnis et Chloe/' Nijinsky and Fokine 
found it hard to work together. One can further surmise, from Ravel's 
later allusion to "the Greece of his dreams," a "late eighteenth century" 
Greece would not have contributed toward single-mindedness in the 
rehearsals of "Daphnis." Those rehearsals were many and extended to 
the very morning of the first performance. They took place, according 
to Serge Lifar, "under a storm cloud. The corps de ballet ran afoul of 
the 5-4 rhythm in the finale, and counted it out by repeating the sylla- 
bles 'Ser-ge-Dia-ghi-leff,' 'Ser-ge-Dia-ghi-leff.' " When the season ended, 
there duly followed the break between Fokine and Diaghileff. As for 
the music itself, it has found fitful usefulness in the theatre, but enjoys 
a lusty survival in the concert hall. 

The story comes from a document of ancient Greece, and is attrib- 
uted to a sophist, Longus, who lived in the second or third century 
a.d. It is the oldest of countless tales of the love, tribulation and final 
union of a shepherd and shepherdess. The first version of Daphnis 
and Chloe to appear in print was a French translation by Amyot, 
which was printed in 1559. The first English translation was made by 
Angell Dave, printed in 1587. A translation by George Thornley (1657) 
is in current print. Thornley in a preface "to the criticall reader," 
commends the author as "a most sweet and pleasant writer," and calls 
the tale "a Perpetual Oblation to Love; An Everlasting Anathema, 
Sacred to Pan, and the Nymphs; and, A Delightful Possession even 
for all." 

In the third part of the ballet (which is the second suite) the scene is 
that of the beginning. It is night. Daphnis, mourning Chloe, is still 
prostrate. As the light of dawn gradually fills the scene, shepherds enter, 
seeking Daphnis and Chloe. They find Daphnis and wake him; Chloe 
enters and tne lovers embrace. Chloe, beloved of the gods, has been 
saved by the intervention of Pan. Daphnis and Chloe reenact the story 
of Pan and Syrinx, the nymph who, according to the legend, successfully 
evaded the god's pursuit, whereupon he broke off reeds from the thicket 
into which she had disappeared and fashioned what was to become the 
traditional ancestor to the flute. The others join in the dance, which 
becomes wild and bacchanalian. Chloe falls into the arms of Daphnis. 
The ballet ends in a joyous tumult. 

[copyrighted] 

[14] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining Friday evening concerts in this series will 

be as follows: 



January 22 WILLIAM STEINBERG, Conductor 

February 19 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
GREGOR PIATIGORSKY, Cello 



March 25 



CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
GARY GRAFFMAN, Piano 

Single Tickets at Box Office 



The concerts by this Orchestra in Boston on Saturday evenings 
at 8:30 are broadcast complete by Station WQXR (AM and 
FM), New York. 



BALDWIN PIANO 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



BROOKLYN 
[15] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



Bach 
Barber 

Beethoven 



Berlioz 

Bloch 
Brahms 

Debussy 



Dukas 
Elgar 
Franck 
Ibert 

D'lNDY 

Khatchaturian 

Martinu 

Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 



Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 

Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



Wagner 
Walton 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) LM-2182, 

Medea's Dance of Vengeance LM- 

Adagio for Strings LM- 

Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" LM- 

Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" LM- 

Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" LM- 

Symphony No. 9 LM- 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) LM- 

"L'Enfance du Christ" LM- 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) LM- 

"Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) LM- 

Symphony No. 1 LM- 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture LM- 

Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) LM- 

"The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" LM- 

"La Mer" LM- 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" LM- 

Three Images LM- 

The Apprentice Sorceror LM- 

Introduction and Allegro LM- 

Symphony No. 1 in D minor LM- 

"Escales" (Ports of Call) LM- 
Symphony on a Mountain Air 

(Henriot- Schweitzer) LM- 

Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) LM- 

"Fantaisies Symphoniques" LM- 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies LM- 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) LM- 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) LM- 

Symphony No. 6 LM- 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts LM- 
Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot- Schweitzer) LM- 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) LM- 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) LM- 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" LM- 

"Mother Goose" Suite LM- 

Piano Concerto (Henriot- Schweitzer) LM^ 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) LM- 

"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" LM- 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) LM- 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures LM- 

Symphony No. 4 LM- 

Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) LM- 

Serenade for Strings LM- 

Excerpts (Eileen Farrell) LM- 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) LM 



2198* 

-2197 

■2105 

•2015 

■2233* 

-1997 

■6066* 

■1992* 

•6053 

•2228* 

•2109 

-2097 
■1959 
■2274* 

■2030 

■2111* 

■1984* 

■2282* 

-2292* 

-2105* 

-2131* 

-2111* 

-2271* 

-1760 

-2083 

-2221* 
-2314* 

■2073 

■2083 

■2110 
■2197 
■2314* 

-2237* 

-1984* 
■2292* 
■2271* 

-1760 
-2292* 

-2344 

-2043 
■1953 
-2239* 
-2105* 
■2255* 
2109 



* Also a stereophonic recording:. 

[16] 



. 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayr ton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 
Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Mover 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 

Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 






She teaches science 

- at the piano 




Id all the current concern over educa- 
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For millions of children, the first ex- 
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come through piano study. According 
to a New York Times article, children 
who enjoy music rate higher scholasti- 
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CINCINNATI, OHIO 



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iaftroiti 



BALDWIN GRAND PIANOS 
HAMILTON STUDIO PIANOS 



ACROSONIC VERTICAL PIANOS • HOWARD SPINET PIANOS 
BALDWIN ELECTRONIC ORGANS • ORGA-SONIC SPINET ORG 





r BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959-1960 

The Brooklyn Academy of Music 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 

and the PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY OF BROOKLYN 



1959 " 6o 

THE WOMEN'S COMMITTEE 
FOR 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra Concern 

IN BROOKLYN 



Mrs. Andrew L. Gomory 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. Albert C. Magee, Chairman 

Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard, Jr. 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. H. Haughton Bel 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. Abbott Lippmann, Secretary 

Mrs. John F. Thompson, Jr., Treasurer 

Mrs. Irving G. Idler Mrs. William T. Daily 

Chairman of Boxes Chairman of Membership 

Honorary Chairman, Mrs. Carroll J. Dickson 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Miss 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Miss 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 



Alexander Aldrich 
Elias J. Audi 
C. Rankin Barnes 
Bernard S. Ban 
John R. Bartels 
Milton S. Berman 
George M. Billings 
John R. H. Blum 
Robert £. Blum 
Lawrence J. Bolvig 
Walter Bruchhausen 
Otis Swan Carroll 
Francis T. Christy 
Edith U. Conard 
Benjamin J. Conroy 
Donald M. Crawford 
Russell V. Cruikshank 
Frederick I. Daniels 
Ruth G. Davis 
Berton J. Delmhorst 
Anthony Di Giovanna 
James B. Donovan 
Joseph J. Dreyer 
Remick C. Eckardt 
Alfred H. Everson 
James F. Fairman 
John W. Faison 
Merrill N. Foote 
Lewis W. Francis 



Mrs. Laurance E. Frost 
Mrs. Edwin L. Garvin 
Mrs. Silas M. R. Giddings 
Mrs. R. Whitney Gosnell 
Mrs. Warren L. Hafely 
Mrs. Arthur C. Hallan 
Mrs. J. Victor Herd 
Mrs. William B. Hewson 
Mrs. James M. Hills 
Mrs. David S. Hunter 
Mrs. Raymond V. Ingersoll 
Mrs. Henry A. Ingraham 
Mrs. Darwin R. James, III 
Mrs. John W. James, III 
Mrs. Walter M. Jeffords, Jr. 
Mrs. Miles M. Kastendieck 
Mrs. James Vincent Keogh 
Mrs. William F. Kerby 
Mrs. John Bailey King 
Mrs. Everett J. Livesey 



Mrs. Harold Ostergren 

Mrs. William M. Parke 

Mrs. William B. Parker 

Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 

Mrs. Raymond King Pendleton 

Mrs. Franklyn H. Peper 

Mrs. Edward T. Reilly 

Mrs. Allan G. Richtmyer 

Mrs. Abraham M. Sands 

Mrs. Irving J. Sands 

Mrs. Martin Segal 

Mrs. Eliot Sharp 

Mrs. Donald G. C. Sinclair 

Mrs. Ainsworth L. Smith 

Mrs. Sidney L. Solomon 

Mrs. Harry H. Spencer 

Mrs. Monroe D. Stein 

Mrs. Elmer A. Talcott 

Mrs. Jeanne Toomey Terranora 

Mrs. Hollis K. Thayer 



Mrs. J. Frederick Lohman, Jr. Mrs. Gilbert H. Thirkield 



Mrs. John J. Madden 
Mrs. Eugene R. Marzullo 
Mrs. Carleton D. Mason 
Mrs. Richard S. Maynard 
Miss Helen M. McWilliams 
Mrs. Alfred L. Megill 
Miss Emma Jessie Ogg 



Mrs. Theodore N. Trynin 
Mrs. Franklin B. Tuttle 
Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. Thomas K. Ware 
Mrs. Robert F. Warren 
Dr. Virginia T. Weeks 
Miss Elizabeth T. Wright 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
Philip R. Allen M. A. De Wolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallowell Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[1] 



Next Saturday at 8:30 overWQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
memorable performance. And every day, 
early morning to late at night, treat 
yourself to wonderful listening from 
America's Number One Good Music 
Station, WQXR, 1560 AM, 96.3 FM, the 
radio station of The New York Times. 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 



NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE- SIXTY 



Third Program 



FRIDAY EVENING, January 22, at 8:30 o'clock 



WILLIAM STEINBERG, Guest Conductor 

Schubert ^Symphony No. 2, in B-flat major 

I. Largo; Allegro vivace 

II. Andante 

III. Minuetto: Allegro vivace 

IV. Presto vivace 

Wagner Overture to "Tannhauser" 

INTERMISSION 

Barber . Souvenirs, Ballet Suite, Op. 28 

I. Tempo di walzer 

II. Schottische 

III. Pas de deux 

IV. Two-step 

V. Hesitation-Tango 
VI. Galop 

Stravinsky Suite from the Ballet, "L'Oiseau de feu" 

Introduction: Kastchei's Enchanted Garden and Dance of the Fire Bird 

Dance of the Princesses 

Infernal Dance of all the Subjects of Kastchei 

Berceuse 

Finale 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 

[5] 



WILLIAM 

William Steinberg, who is making bis 
first appearances here as guest conduc- 
tor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
has been the Music Director of the 
Pittsburgh Symphony Society since 1952. 

Born in Cologne, Germany, August 1, 
1899, he showed an interest and talent 
for music as a boy, studying violin, 
piano, and also composing. He also 
became a violinist in the Cologne Munic- 
ipal Orchestra under Hermann Aben- 
droth, who gave him his first instruction 
in conducting. Graduating from the Con- 
servatory of Cologne in 1920, he won the 
Wullner Prize of the City of Cologne, 
became the assistant to Otto Klemperer 
at the Cologne Opera and in 1924 be- 
came the first conductor. In the follow- 
ing year he conducted the Opera at 
Prague and was soon made its director. 
In 1929 he went to Frankfurt and be- 
came the general music director of the 



STEINBERG 

Opera there and the Museums-Ron- 
zerte, and at the same time guest con- 
ductor of the State Opera in Berlin. In 
1933 the Nazi government deprived him 
of his position. 

In 1936 he became the founder-con- 
ductor of the Palestine Symphony Or- 
chestra, now the Israel Philharmonic 
Orchestra. In 1938, he was invited by 
Toscanini to become Associate Conduc- 
tor and in the next year regular Con- 
ductor of the NBC Orchestra in New 
York. He also conducted numerous or- 
chestras in America as guest. He was 
appointed Music Director of the Buffalo 
Philharmonic in 1945 and in 1952 took 
his present position in Pittsburgh. In 
1958 he became Music Director of the 
London Philharmonic, a position which 
requires him to divide his time between 
this country and England. 



The New England Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

James Aliferis, President 



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ORATORIO CHORUS • A CAPPELLA CHOIR 

CHAMBER SINGERS 



Member, New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 

Charter Member, National Association of Schools of Music 

For information regarding admission and scholarships, write to the Dean. 

290 HUNTINGTON AVENUE BOSTON 15, MASSACHUSETTS 



[4] 



SYMPHONY NO. 2 in B-flat major 

By Franz Schubert 

Born in Lichtenthal, near Vienna, January 31, 1797; 
died in Vienna, November 19, 1828 



Schubert wrote his Second Symphony between December, 1814, and March, 1815. 
Records do not reveal a public performance before it was played from the manu- 
script at the Crystal Palace Concerts in London on October 20, 1877 (a newspaper 
then stated that it was being "produced probably for the very first time since its 
birth"). The Symphony was performed in New York by the Philharmonic-Symphony 
Society under the direction of John Barbirolli, on November 22, 1936. 

The manuscript was published in 1884. The orchestration requires 2 flutes, 
2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. 

When this Symphony was performed by the New York Philhar- 
monic-Symphony Society in 1936, Lawrence Gilman, conjecturing 
that this was probably the first performance in America, proposed a 
pointed question: 

"Granted that the two most frequently played of Schubert's sym- 
phonies are masterpieces; that the public loves and delights to hear 
them; that there is always a new generation to encounter them, a new 
crop of concert-goers to whom they are a novel experience; granting 
all this, the question persists: Why need the other symphonies of 
Schubert — those that show revealingly the progress and ripening of 
his art, that are in themselves full of delightful and surprising things 
— why need they be left unplayed, gathering unmerited dust on the 
shelves of orchestral librarians?" 

Boston is unfortunately not exempt from this reproach. The per- 
formance of Schubert's Second Symphony in 1944 was very likely the 
first in this city.* There have been reassuring, if belated, answers to the 
above question in performances of this symphony by other orchestras. 
The definitive answer, of course, lies in the music itself and what it may 
contain of youthful charm and traits prophetic of the two later and 
better-known symphonies of Schubert, the "Unfinished" and the great 
C major. 

The introductory Largo opens with broad chords, gradually subsid- 
ing to pianissimo. The vivace discloses the principal subject which 
is to dominate the movement without cessation — a smooth-running 
figure in the violins which gives the whole its brilliant quality, its 
marked string accentuation. The movement is swift, adroit, extended 
in sheer exuberant resource. The Andante (in E-flat) is more docile, 

• Nor has the Boston Symphony Orchestra performed Schubert's First Symphony. His Third 
has been performed once under Igor Markevitch (February 22-23, 1957). The Fourth has 
been performed once since 1928 — by Charles Munch, April 27-28, 1951. The Sixth was last 
heard under Gericke in 1886. 

[5l 



making no attempt to unseat the accepted ways of a century past. The 
theme could be called Haydnesque, naive. There are five variations 
and a Coda. The Minuet (in C minor) shows renewed vigor, with a 
contrasting quiet trio in the major, where the oboe has the melody and 
the clarinet takes it in imitation. The finale, a true presto vivace, rides 
its full course on a reiterated rhythm, at first subdued, gathering thrust 
and impact. Albert Roussel once wrote of this finale, "To my mind 
the final presto contains the most interesting passages of the whole 
symphony. The first bar of the opening theme of this presto afterward 
gives opportunity, towards the middle of the movement, for a develop- 
ment of rather Beethovenian character, but original and daring and 
evidently contemporaneous with the writing of the 'Erlkonig.* It is 
also noteworthy that the second theme of this movement, in E-flat, is 
repeated at the end of G minor. So we see that Schubert in his early 
works makes a habit of departing from classical traditions." 

Roussel's reference to the "Erlkonig" is a reminder that the Schubert 
who composed this symphony, even though still at the threshold of 
symphonic possibilities, was no novice in other forms. By the year 1815, 
the year of this symphony, Schubert, aged eighteen, had composed 182 
songs which have been published, and many more which have not. 
They include such little masterpieces as "Gretchen am Spinnrade" 
(October 19, 1814), and, in 1815, "Der Erlkonig," "Heidenroslein" 
"Rastlose Liebe" "Sehnsucht" "An die Fruhling" "Wanderers Nacht- 
lied." He was already very definitely a matured artist — to quote 
Gilman, "a lyric and musico-dramatic genius, by the grace of God." 
Schubert wrote his first six symphonies between 1813 and 1818, the 
"Unfinished" in 1822, and the great C major in 1828.* That the first 
six were closer to eighteenth-century symphonic patterns than the two 
famous posthumous ones, less free in their scope, cannot with any 
certainty be laid to limitations in the composer's imagination or skill 
at the time, which he demonstrated by a vast quantity of music in all 
forms. It should rather be laid to the very limited orchestras which 
were on hand to perform them. 

Sometimes Schubert composed purely for his own pleasure, without 
prospect of performance, sometimes for specific performance by players 
strictly amateur. Their limitations did not necessarily clip his wings. 
He could accommodate an occasion with a trivial march or galop, 
illuminate another with a chamber work of the purest beauty. The 

* The First (in D major) was written in 1813, the Second (in B-flat) and Third (in D major) 
in 1815, the Fourth, "Tragic" (in C minor), in 1816, the Fifth (in B-flat, without trumpet 
and drums) in 1816, and the Sixth (in C major) in 1818. 

There was also, between the last two, the E major Symphony, which, left in sketch form, 
has been filled out and performed. The so-called "Gastein" symphony of 1825 remains 
apocryphal, and according to recent conjecture may have been an early sketch for the great 
C major. 

[6] 



first of the symphonies, and probably the second, were written for the 
very amateurish student orchestra of the Konvikt, the state-subsidized 
school which Schubert attended as a choir boy of the Imperial Kapell. 
He had left the school when he wrote these symphonies, but he still 
played viola in the evening "practice" concerts at the Konvikt. It was 
about this time that the "Society of Amateurs" (Dilettanten Gesell- 
schaft) began to grow from a small gathering of friends into an assem- 
blage which could call itself an orchestra. It was a typical product of 
home music-making in Biedermeyer Vienna and sprang from the 
quartet parties at the Schubert house, where Schubert's father played 
the violoncello, his brothers the violins, while Franz sat in as viola and 
provided quartets where needed. Musical friends added their talents; 
a double quartet led them to attempt small symphonies, slightly edited. 
Wind players were no doubt found, as the orchestration of these early 
symphonies of Schubert would suggest. Indeed, the orchestra expanded 
until the meetings had to be transferred to the larger rooms of a more 
prosperous friend. At length, in 1818, it required, to hold them all, 
the new house "Am Gundelhof in Schottenhof, purchased by the 
retired player Otto Hatwig. Their programs were ambitious, their 
playing no doubt spotty. Symphonies of Mozart and Haydn and the 
first two of Beethoven were tried out, not to speak of various contem- 
poraries now forgotten. Schubert, ready to oblige at all times, wrote 
his two Overtures in the Italian Style for them and as many sym- 
phonies, probably, as they could get around to playing. This zealous 
musical activity, carried on privately for the enjoyment of the per- 
formers — an audience being quite inessential — was typical of the 
general appetite for music which abundantly surrounded Schubert 
and stimulated his musical growth. He sang in the Emperor's choir, 
he played leading violin in the Konvikt orchestra and kept up that 
connection after leaving. He Was ready, as pianist, for any occasion, 
would take over the organ if need be, or take the viola in a case of 
shortage. He wrote cantatas which promptly found groups to perform 
them; masses and ritual music w 7 hen his parish church at Lichtenthal 
had use for them, which was often. Poets were plentiful as buttercups 
in that florid era. Schubert made fast friends among them and was so 



&eoltan=IMumter <^tgan Company 

' Designers of the instruments for : 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 

[7] 



provided with verses, which he set forthwith to music, together with 
the poetry of accepted fame. Small and great, every poem he could lay 
his hands on was at once transformed into music. Long ones became 
cantatas, interminable ballads became interminable scores. Notes went 
upon paper unceasingly in those years. The supply of paper might 
give out — his purse was always light — but the source of melody never. 
Any text would do. As Schumann once said, he could have set a 
"placard" to music. As in Mozart's case, Schubert could be inspired 
by a worthy text or he could lift a mediocre one to his own plane. 

When he would appear with a new group of songs under his arm, 
there was likely to be a singer at hand to try them out. If not, he would 
sing them himself. In the year 1815 he wrote several operas entire, 
without any immediate hope of performance. Meanwhile he submitted 
compositions to his teacher Salieri, the respected royal Kapellmeister, 
chafing at his imposed Italianisms and loving him still. In addition to 
all this, since it brought him no cash whatever, he taught the elemen- 
tary grade in his father's school. This was a heavy and tiresome task, 
for although most of the Schuberts subsisted by teaching, Franz never 
took kindly to the traditional profession of his family. How he 
managed between classes and the correction of scrawled exercises to 
compose such a vast quantity of quartet, piano, choral, orchestral, 
operatic music, and above all songs by the hundreds, was the subject 
of perpetual astonishment by his friends about him. 

None of this music brought him at this time a single penny in return. 
There was as yet no remote thought of publication. He was quite 
careless of his manuscripts once they had been tried out. Some of his 
friends were astute enough to make copies and keep them. Others 
saved original manuscripts, and it was by their care that the bulk of 
his music, for many years almost totally disregarded, was saved and 
survived in publication. Sir George Grove, whose crusading enthusiasm 
keeps him, these many years later, a foremost Schubertian, wrote: "The 
spectacle of so insatiable a desire to produce has never before been 
seen; of a genius thrown naked into the world and compelled to 
explore for himself all paths and channels in order to discover by 
exhaustion which was best — and then to die." 

[copyrighted] 



i<^S) 



[8] 



OVERTURE TO "TANNHAUSER" 
By Richard Wagner 

Born in Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died in Venice, February 13, 1883 



Wagner composed the Overture to "Tannhauser und der Sangerkrieg auf 
Wartburg, Romantic Opera in three acts," in the spring of 1845. The Opera had its 
first production in Dresden on October 19 of that year under Wagner's direction. 
The Overture was first heard separately as a concert piece when Mendelssohn con 
ducted it from the manuscript February 12, 1846, at a Pension Fund Concert by the 
Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig. 

The Overture is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 
4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, cymbals, triangle, tambourine 
and strings. 

TTThen Wagner was rehearsing the Orchestra at Zurich for a per- 
* * formance of the Overture, he wrote at the request of the players 
a descriptive program which was published in the Neue Zeitschrift of 
January 14, 1853. 

"At first the orchestra leads us into the Pilgrims' Chant; it comes 
nearer, swells into a mighty outpouring of sound and at last fades 
away. — Evening dusk: last echoes of the song. As night falls we 
behold magic shapes: a rosy mist arises, joyous outcries assail us; the 
motions of a voluptuous dance take shape. These are the seductive 
spells of the 'Venusberg,' which appear in the night to those who are 
susceptible to their charm. . . . Drawn by these enticements, we discern 
the shapely form of a man — Tannhauser, the Singer of Love. He 
addresses the voluptuous revelers with a love song of his own, and 
they respond wildly as the luminous mist envelops him. . . . Venus 
herself appears. The blood in his veins is enflamed with desire. . . . 
But the Pilgrims' Chant is heard again, and gradually intrudes upon 
the scene as the shadows are gradually subdued by the coming of day. 
... At length the sun rises in splendor, and the Pilgrims' Chant 
reaches the power of a joyous proclamation. Salvation is won for all 
that lives and moves upon the world. The strains of the Venusberg 
itself are redeemed from the curse of impiety. In the chorus of redemp- 
tion, the two elements, the soul and the senses, God and Nature, are 
reunited by the atoning kiss of holy Love." 

[copyrighted] 



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[9] 



SOUVENIRS, BALLET SUITE, Op. 28 

By Samuel Barber 
Born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, March 9, 1910 



Composed in 1952, this Suite had its first performance in concert form by the 
Chicago Orchestra under Fritz Reiner, November 12, 1953. 

The orchestra consists of 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 2 clarinets, 
2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, 
cymbals, triangle, harp, and strings. 

Samuel Barber wrote to his publisher, H. W. Heinsheimer, of G. 
Schirmer and Company, the following description of his Souvenirs: 
"In 1952, 1 was writing some duets for one piano, to play with a friend, 
and Lincoln Kirstein suggested that I orchestrate them for a ballet. 
Commissioned by the Ballet Society, and not yet performed, the Suite 
consists of a Waltz, Schottisch, Pas de Deux, Two-Step, Hesitation, 
Tango and Galop. One might imagine a divertissement in a setting 
reminiscent of the Palm Court of the Hotel Plaza in New York, the 
year about 1914, epoch of the first Tangos; Souvenirs remembered 
with affection, not in irony, or with the tongue in the cheek, but in 
amused tenderness." 

[copyrighted] 



SUITE FROM THE DANCED STORY, "THE FIRE-BIRD" 

By Igor Fedorovitch Stravinsky 

Born in Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, on June 17, 1882 



In the summer of 1909 Diaghilev asked Stravinsky to write a ballet founded on 
the old Russian legend of the Fire-Bird. The score is dated May 18, 1910. It 
bears a dedication to Andrey Rimsky-Korsakoff (the son of the composer). The 
scenario was the work of Fokine. 

The first performance of L'Oiseau de Feu, a "Conte danse" in two scenes, was at 
the Paris Opera on June 25, 1910. The Fire-Bird was Tamara Karsavina; The Beau- 
tiful Tsarevna, Mme. Fokina; Ivan Tsarevitch, Fokine; Kastchei, Boulgakov. Gabriel 
Piern£ conducted. The stage settings were by Golovine and Bakst. 

In the present performances Mr. Steinberg will use the revision made by the 
composer in 1919, which has a more modest orchestration. It was this form of the 
suite which Stravinsky, as guest conductor, included upon his program here, March 
1 5> ! 935- This orchestration was used by Andre Kostelanetz as guest conductor, 
March 24, 1944. The orchestration of the version here performed calls for 2 flutes 
and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, xylo- 
phone, pianoforte, harp, and strings. 

Fokine's scenario may thus be described: After a short prelude, the 
curtain rises and the grounds of an old castle are seen. Ivan 
Tsarevitch, the hero of many tales, in the course of hunting at night, 
comes to the enchanted garden and sees a beautiful bird with flaming 
golden plumage. She attempts to pluck fruit of gold from a silver tree. 
He captures her, but, heeding her entreaties, frees her. In gratitude, 

[10] 



wLvkck/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rca Victor records exclusively 



q living stereo ^ 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 

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she gives him one of her feathers which has magic properties. The 
dawn breaks. Thirteen enchanted princesses appear, coming from the 
castle. Ivan, hidden, watches them playing with golden apples, and 
dancing. Fascinated by them, he finally discloses himself. They tell 
him that the castle belongs to the terrible Kastchei, who turns de- 
coyed travelers into stone. The princesses warn Ivan of his fate, but 
he resolves to enter the castle. Opening the gate, he sees Kastchei with 
his train of grotesque and deformed subjects marching towards him in 
pompous procession. Kastchei attempts to work his spell on Ivan, who 
is protected by the feather. Ivan summons the Fire-Bird, who causes 
Kastchei' and his retinue to dance until they drop exhausted. The 
secret of Kastchei's immortality is disclosed to Ivan: the sorcerer keeps 
an egg in a casket; if this egg should be broken or even injured, he 
would die. Ivan swings the egg backwards and forwards. Kastchei and 
his crew sway with it. At last the egg is dashed to the ground; Kastchei 
dies; his palace vanishes; the petrified knights come to life; and Ivan 
receives, amid great rejoicing, the hand of the beautiful princess. 

• • 

How two Russian geniuses met and collaborated to their mutual 
glory in The Fire-Bird is interestingly told by Romola Nijinsky, 
in her life of her husband,* a book which is much concerned, naturally, 
with the amazing career of Diaghilev, and the Ballet Russe. 

* "Nijinsky," Romola Nijinsky (Simon and Schuster, 1934). 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
FOR OUR RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio audience has prompted 
a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
1960 is $3.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 
Hall. 



[12] 



BROADCASTS by the 


BOSTON 


SYMPHO]\Y ORCHESTRA 


Wint 

The Saturday eve 


er Season 


, 1959-1960 


jning concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


*WCRB-AM 


1330 kc 


Boston 


*WCRB-FM 


102.5 mc 


Boston 


**WXHR-FM 


96.9 mc 


Boston 


**WTAG-FM 


96.1 mc 


Worcester 


**WNHC-FM 


99.1 mc 


New Haven 


**WQXR-AM 


1560 kc 


New York 


**WQXR-FM 


96.3 mc 


New York 


**WFIL-FM 


102.1 mc 


Philadelphia 


**WFMZ-FM 


100.7 mc 


Allentown, Pa. 


**WFLY-FM 


92.3 mc 


Troy, N. Y. 


**WITH-FM 


104.3 mc 


Baltimore 


**WNBF-FM 


98.1 mc 


Binghamton, N. Y. 


**WGR-FM 


96.9 mc 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


**WRRA-FM 


103.7 mc 


Tthaca, N. Y. 


**WJTN-FM 


93.3 mc 


Jamestown, N. Y. 


**WHDL-FM 


95.7 mc 


Olean, N. Y. 


**WROC-FM 


97.9 mc 


Rochester, N. Y. 


**WSYR-FM 


94.5 mc 


Syracuse, N. Y. 


**WRUN-FM 


105.7 mc 


Utica, N. Y. 


**WSNJ-FM 


98.9 mc 


Bridgeton, N. J. 


The Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


WXHR-FM 


96.9 mc 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 


by transcription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 


the performances 


on the following stations: 


*WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


♦WBCN-FM 


104.1 mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


♦WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of 


the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 


be broadcast by the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


WGBH-TV 


Channel 2 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 


WENH-TV 


Channel 11 


Durham, N. H. 


The Sunday afternoon and Tuesday evening concerts at 


Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 


FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 




* - Stereophonic Broadcast 


•• - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[>3] 



Diaghilev and Nijinsky, in the days of their early fame, before 
breaking with the Imperial Ballet School, had the habit of wandering 
about St. Petersburg on free evenings, in search of ballet material. 

"One evening they went to a concert given by members of the com- 
position class at the Conservatory of Music. On the program was the 
first hearing of a short symphonic poem called 'Feu d'artifice.* Its 
author was a young man of twenty-six, the son of a celebrated singer 
at the Imperial Theatre — Feodor Stravinsky. After the performance 
Diaghilev called on the young Igor, whose father he had known and 
admired, and, to Stravinsky's utter amazement, commissioned him to 
write a ballet expressly for his company. 

"For a long time Fokine had had the idea of a distinctly Russian 
story for dancing, founded on native legends. Fokine told the story of 
the Fire-Bird to Benois, over innumerable glasses of tea, and with every 
glass he added another embellishment, and every time he repeated the 
tale he put in another incident. Benois was enthusiastic, and they went 
so far as to tell Diaghilev and asked who would be a good one to com- 
pose the music. Liadov's name was mentioned. 'What/ cried Fokine, 
'and wait ten years!' Nevertheless, the commission was awarded to 
Liadov and three months passed. Then Benois met him on the street 
and asked him how the ballet was progressing. 'Marvellously/ said 
Liadov. 'I've already bought my ruled paper.' Benois' face fell, and 
the musician, like a character out of Dostoievsky, added: 'You know 
I want to do it. But I'm so lazy, I can't promise.' 

"Diaghilev thought at once of Igor Stravinsky, and the conferences 
between him, Benois, and Fokine commenced. 

"Fokine heard Stravinsky's Feu d'artifice and saw flames in the 
music. The musicians made all manner of fun of what they considered 
his 'unnecessary' orchestration, and he was touched by, and grateful 
for, Fokine's congratulations. They worked very closely together, 
phrase by phrase. Stravinsky brought him a beautiful cantilena on the 
entrance of the Tsarevitch into the garden of the girls with the golden 
apples. But Fokine disapproved. 'No, no/ he said. 'You bring him in 
like a tenor. Break the phrase where he merely shows his head on his 
first intrusion. Then make the curious swish of the garden's magic 
noises return. And then, when he shows his head again, bring in the 
full swing of the melody.' 

"Stravinsky threw himself whole-heartedly into the composition, 
and he had little enough time in which to complete it. He was ex- 
tremely eager, but, in spite of the awe he had for Diaghilev and the 
respect held for his elders like Benois and Bakst, he treated them all 
as his equals. He was already very decided and wilful in his opinions, 
and in many ways a difficult character. He not only wished his author- 
ity acknowledged in his own field of music, but he wanted similar 

hi] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE- SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining Friday evening concerts in this series will 

be as follows: 



February 19 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 
GREGOR PIATIGORSKY, Cello 



March 25 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

GARY GRAFFMAN, Piano 



Single Tickets at Box Office 



The concerts by this Orchestra in Boston on Saturday evenings 
at 8:30 are broadcast complete by Station WQXR (AM and 
FM), New York. 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC • BROOKLYN 

['5] 



prestige in all the domains of art. Stravinsky had an extremely strong 
personality, self-conscious and sure of his own worth. But Diaghilev 
was a wizard, and knew how to subdue this young man without his 
ever noticing it, and Stravinsky became one of his most ardent fol- 
lowers and defenders. He was extremely ambitious, and naturally 
understood the tremendous aid it would mean to him to be associated 
with Sergei Pavlovitch's artistic group. 

"Vaslav and Igor soon became friends. He had a limitless admira- 
tion for Stravinsky's gifts, and his boldness, his direct innovation of 
new harmonies, his courageous use of dissonance, found an echo in 
Vaslav's mind." 

• • 

Stravinsky tells in his memoirs how he was drawn into the circle of 
which Diaghilev was the center and dynamo. Diaghilev had sensed at 
once the promise of the composer of the Scherzo fantastique and the 
Feu d'artifice which he had heard at a Siloti concert in the winter of 

i9°9- 
In the process of forming a ballet company he ordered from the 

young man orchestrations of piano music by Chopin and Grieg. 

Stravinsky duly provided these and continued to work upon his opera 

Le Rossi gnol, which he had begun under the eye of his master, Rimsky- 

Korsakoff, who had died in June, 1908. It was at this point that 

Diaghilev handed to him the commission for L'Oiseau de feu, which 

Liadov had forfeited by inaction. Benois in his memoirs relates that 

Stravinsky surprised them in their discussions by his interest in the 

theatre, painting, architecture, sculpture. "Although he had had no 

grounding on these subjects, discussion with him was very valuable to 

us, for he 'reacted' to everything for which we lived. In those days he 

was a very willing and charming 'pupil.' He thirsted for enlightenment 

and longed to widen his knowledge." 

Stravinsky went to Paris for the first performance, where, he tells 
us in his memoirs, he made his first acquaintance with that city. His 
ballet which, needless to say, excited Paris as resplendently new music 
superbly produced, was an ideal introduction. 

"My stay in Paris enabled me to become acquainted with several 
personalities of the musical world, such as Debussy, Ravel, Florent 
Schmitt, and Manuel de Falla, who were in Paris at the time. I remem- 
ber that on the evening of the premiere, Debussy came to find me and 
complimented me on my score. It was the beginning of our friendship, 
which remained cordial for the remainder of his days." This recogni- 
tion, he admits, greatly encouraged him in future projects then in his 
mind, which turned out to be Petrouchka and Le Sacre du printemps. 

[copyrighted] 

■1*1 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Musk Director 

RICHARD BURGIX, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Radinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 

Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harrv Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla ^ 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Mover 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



She teaches science 

- at the piano 




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For millions of children, the first ex- 
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BALDWIN GRAND PIANOS • ACROSONIC VERTICAL PIANOS • HOWARD SPINET PIANOS « 
HAMILTON STUDIO PIANOS • BALDWIN ELECTRONIC ORGANS • ORGA-SONIC SPINET ORGANS « 




BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




ma 



*<A*t 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959-1960 

The Brooklyn Academy of Music 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 

and the PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY OF BROOKLYN 



1959 ~ 6 ° 

THE WOMEN'S COMMITTEE 
FOR 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra Concerts 

IN BROOKLYN 



Mrs. Andrew L. Gomory 
Vice-Chairman 



Mrs. Albert C. Magee, Chairman 
Mrs. Edwin P. Maynard, Jr. 



Mrs. H. Haughton Bell 
Vice -Chair man 



Mrs. 
Mn. 
Mrs. 

Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs 



V ice-Chairman 

Mrs. Abbott Lippmann, Secretary 

Mrs. John F. Thompson, Jr., Treasurer 

Mrs. Irving G. Idler Mrs. William T. Daily 

Chairman of Boxes Chairman of Membership 

Honorary Chairman, Mrs. Carroll J. Dickson 



Alexander Aldrich 
Elias J. Audi 
C. Rankin Barnes 
Bernard S. Ban- 
John R. Bartels 
Milton S. Berman 
George M. Billings 
John R. H. Blum 
Robert £. Blum 
Lawrence J. Bolvig 
Walter Bruchhausen 
Otis Swan Carroll 
Francis T. Christy 
Edith U. Conard 
Benjamin J. Conroy 
Donald M. Crawford 
Russell V. Cruikshank 
Frederick I. Daniels 
Ruth G. Davis 
Berton J. Delmhorst 
Anthony Di Giovanna 
James B. Donovan 
Joseph J. Dreyer 
Remick C. Eckardt 
Alfred H. Everson 
James F. Fairman 
John W. Faison 
Merrill N. Foote 
Lewis W. Francis 



Mrs. Laurance E. Frost 
Mrs. Edwin L. Garvin 
Mrs. Silas M. R. Giddings 
Mrs. R. Whitney Gosnell 
Mrs. Warren L. Hafely 
Mrs. Arthur C. Hallan 
Mrs. J. Victor Herd 
Mrs. William B. Hewson 
Mrs. James M. Hills 
Mrs. David S. Hunter 
Mrs. Raymond V. Ingersoll 
Mrs. Henry A. Ingraham 
Mrs. Darwin R. James, III 
Mrs. John W. James, III 
Mrs. Walter M. Jeffords, Jr. 
Mrs. Miles M. Kastendieck 
Mrs. James Vincent Keogh 
Mrs. William F. Kerby 
Mrs. John Bailey King 
Mrs. Everett J. Livesey 



Mrs. Harold Ostergren 

Mrs. William M. Parke 

Mrs. William B. Parker 

Mrs. Frank H. Parsons 

Mrs. Raymond King Pendleton 

Mrs. Franklyn H. Peper 

Mrs. Edward T. Reilly 

Mrs. Allan G. Richtmyer 

Mrs. Abraham M. Sands 

Mrs. Irving J. Sands 

Mrs. Martin Segal 

Mrs. Eliot Sharp 

Mrs. Donald G. C. Sinclair 

Mrs. Ainsworth L. Smith 

Mrs. Sidney L. Solomon 

Mrs. Harry H. Spencer 

Mrs. Monroe D. Stein 

Mrs. Elmer A. Talcott 

Mrs. Jeanne Toomey Terranova 

Mrs. Hollis K. Thayer 



Mrs. J. Frederick Lohman, Jr. Mrs. Gilbert H. Thirkield 



Mrs. John J. Madden 
Mrs. Eugene R. Marzullo 
Mrs. Carleton D. Mason 
Mrs. Richard S. Maynard 
Miss Helen M. McWilliams 
Mrs. Alfred L. Megill 
Miss Emma Jessie Ogg 



Mrs. Theodore N. Trynin 
Mrs. Franklin B. Tuttle 
Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. Thomas K. Ware 
Mrs. Robert F. Warren 
Dr. Virginia T. Weeks 
Miss Elizabeth T. Wright 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 

Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Business Administrator 



Assistant Manager 

Leonard Burk at 
Music Administrator 



Rosario Mazzeo 
Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 

Ml 



Next Saturday at 8:30 overWQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
memorable performance. And every day, 
early morning to late at night, treat 
yourself to wonderful listening from 
America's Number One Good Music 
Station, WQXR, 1560AM, 96.3 FM, the 
radio station of The New York Times. 




m 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Fourth Program 



FRIDAY EVENING, February 19, at 8:30 o'clock 



Mozart Symphony No. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 

I. Adagio; Allegro 
II. Andante 

III. Minuetto; Trio 

IV. Finale: Allegro 

Lopatnikoff Music for Orchestra, Op. 39 

Andante — Allegro molto — Allegro — Andante 

INTERMISSION 

Dvorak Concerto for Cello, in B minor, Op. 104 

I. Allegro 

II. Adagio ma non troppo 
III. Finale: Allegro moderato 

SOLOIST 

GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 



BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[Si 



SYMPHONY NO. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



The symphony was completed June 26, 1788. 

The orchestration includes: 1 flute, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
timpani and strings. 

Certain great works of art have come down to us surrounded with 
mystery as to the how and why of their being. Such are Mozart's 

last three symphonies, which he composed in a single summer — the 
lovely E-flat, the impassioned G minor, and the serene "Jupiter" 
(June 26, July 25 and August 10, 1788). We find no record that they 
were commissioned, at a time when Mozart was hard pressed for 
mone-y, no mention of them by him, and no indication of a per- 
formance in the three years that remained of his life. What prompted 
the young Mozart, who, by the nature of his circumstances always 
composed with a fee or a performance in view, to take these three 
rarefied flights into a new beauty of technical mastery, a new develop- 
ment and splendor of the imagination, leaving far behind the thirty- 
eight (known) symphonies which preceded? 

Speculation on such mysteries are these, although likely to lead to 
irresponsible conclusions, is hard to resist. The pioneering arrogance 
of such later Romantics as Beethoven with his Eroica or last quartets, 
Wagner with his Ring or Tristan, Schubert with his great C majoi 
Symphony, was different. Custom then permitted a composer to 
pursue his musical thoughts to unheard-of ends, leaving the capacities 
of living performers and the comprehensions of living listeners far 
behind. In Mozart's time, this sort of thing was simply not done. 
Mozart was too pressed by the problems of livelihood to dwell upon 
musical dreamings with no other end than his own inner satisfaction. 
He had no other choice than to cut his musical cloth to occasion, and 
even in this outwardly quiet and routine, inwardly momentous sum- 
mer, he continued to write potboilers — arias, trios, piano sonatas 
"for beginners," a march — various pieces written by order of a patron, 
or to favor some singer or player. 

Perhaps what is most to be marvelled at in the composer Mozart 
— a marvel even exceeding the incredible exploits of a later, "Roman- 
tic" century — is his success in not being limited by the strait-jacket 
of petty commissions. From the operas where, in an elaborate pro- 
duction his name appeared in small type on the posters (if at all) 
to the serenades for private parties, he gave in return for his small fees 
music whose undying beauties his patrons did not remotely suspect. 

[41 



Shortly after his death the three symphonies in question appeared in 
publication, and were performed, their extraordinary qualities re- 
ceived with amazement, disapproval in some quarters, and an en- 
thusiasm which increased from year to year. The three great sym- 
phonies (destined to be his last) were closed secrets to his friends who 
beheld the famous but impecunious young man of thirty-two adding 
three more to the thirty-odd symphonies he had been turning out 
with entire facility from the age of eight. 

Some have conjectured that Mozart was spurred to this triumphant 
assertion of his powers by the excitement attendant upon the produc- 
tion of Don Giovanni in Vienna in May, 1788, following its more 
highly successful production at Prague in the previous October. Others 
have found in the more clouded brightness of the G minor Symphony 
the despondency of a family man harassed by debts, pursued by his 
landlord. Mozart was indeed in bad financial straits that summer. His 
operas brought him nothing more than a small initial fee, and the 
demand for him as pianist had fallen off. His diminished activities 
were scantily rewarded, and the incoming florins were far from enough 
to keep him in a fine coat and proper coach for his evenings with the 
high-born, and still provide adequate lodgings for him and his ailing 
Constanze. 



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[5] 



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Unfortunately for the theory that Mozart wrote his G minor* Sym- 
phony when dominated by his financial distress, he finished his en- 
tirely gay E-flat symphony! on the very eve of writing the second of his 
"begging" letters to Herr Michael Puchberg, friend, fellow Mason, 
amateur musician, and merchant. The first letter asked for the loan 
of 2,000 florins: "At all events, I beg you to lend me a couple of hun 
dred gulden, because my landlord in the Landstrasse was so pressin 
that I was obliged to pay him on the spot (in order to avoid anything 
unpleasant) which caused me great embarrassment." Puchberg sent 
the two hundred, and Mozart, answering on June 27, and asking for 
more money, is careful to impress his creditor with his industrious in- 
tentions: "I have worked more during the ten days I have lived here 
than in two months in my former apartment; and if dismal though 
did not so often intrude (which I strive forcibly to dismiss), I should 
be very well off here, for I live agreeably, comfortably, and above all, 
cheaply." Mozart was telling the strict truth about his ten busy days: 
listed under the date June 22 is a trio, and under June 26 a march, 
piano sonata, the adagio and fugue for strings, together with a piec 
of more doubtful bread-winning powers (from which the "disma 
thoughts" are quite absent) — the Symphony in E-flat. 

Mozart had recently acquired his position as "Chamber Composer' 
to the Emperor Joseph II. But the post, which had been held b 
the Chevalier Gluck until his death the year before, was as unre 
munerative as it was high-sounding. Mozart's emperor was glad t 
pare the salary of two thousand florins he had paid to Gluck to lesi 
than half — the equivalent of two hundred dollars — in Mozart's case. 
He expected little in return — no exquisite symphonies or operas to set 
Austria afire — a fresh set of minuets, waltzes, or country dances for 
each imperial masked ball in the winter season was quite sufficient. 
Hence the oft-quoted line which Mozart is supposed to have sent back 
with one of the imperial receipts: "Too much for what I do — not 
enough for what I can do." 

Mozart uses no oboes in his E-flat symphony, only one flute, and 
clarinets, bassoons, horns, and trumpets in twos. Jahn finds the blend- 
ing of clarinets with horns and bassoons productive of "a full, mellow 
tone" requisite for his special purpose, while "the addition of the flutes 
[flute] gives it clearness and light, and trumpets endow it with bril- 
liancy and freshness." The delicate exploitation of the clarinets is in 
many parts evident, particularly in the trio of the minuet, where the 
first carries the melody and the second complements it with arpeggios 
in the deeper register. 

• Koechel lists only one other symphony by Mozart in a minor key — the early symphony 
in G minor. No. 18S (1778). 

t Save four poignant dissonances at the climax of the introduction. 

[copyrighted] 

[6] 



MUSIC FOR ORCHESTRA, Op. 39 
By Nikolai Lopatnikoff 

Born in Reval, Estonia, March 16, 1903 



Nikolai Lopatnikoff composed his Music for Orchestra during the summer of 1958 
at the MacDowell Colony in Peterboro, New Hampshire. The work was commis- 
sioned by the Louisville Orchestra and had its first performance in Louisville under 
the direction of Robert Whitney on January 14, 1959. 

The following instruments are used: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English 
horn, 2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones and 
tuba, timpani, harp, snare drum, wood block, glockenspiel, tambourine, triangle, 
suspended cymbal, and strings. 

>t*he composer furnished the following information about his Music 
-*■ for Orchestra when it was performed in Louisville: "The work is 
in one movement of approximately fourteen minutes' duration. It is 
symphonic in style, clearly divided into a slow Introduction, a fast core 
of the piece, and a Postlude reverting to the material used in the 
Introduction. 

"Against a background of muted violins and harp harmonics first 
the bass clarinet, then the bassoon and flute introduce the slow theme 
of the opening section, which in its rhythmic transformation is later 
to serve as the principal subject for the allegro molto. Cellos and basses 
enter to an accompanying triplet figure of the muted trumpet, empha- 
sizing the pensive mood of the Introduction. The ensuing allegro 
is full of contrasting material of a predominantly rhythmic nature. 
A quieter expressive middle part in which the strings dominate leads 
to a return to the opening expressive quality of the music which 
gradually fades out until a single pianissimo snare drum concludes 
the composition." 

Nikolai Lopatnikoff first studied at the Conservatory in St. Peters- 
burg, and after the Russian Revolution continued at the Conservatory 



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[7] 



in Helsinki. Later he went to Karlsruhe and Berlin, studying in the 
latter city with Ernst Toch and Hermann Grabner. He then went tc 
London and at the beginning of the World War in 1939 made his 
home in New York and ultimately became an American citizen. Ii 
1945 he was appointed Professor of Composition at the Carnegie Insti- 
tute of Technology in Pittsburgh. In the summer of 1946, he was 
guest composer in the composition department of the Berkshire Music 
Center at Tanglewood. 

The following works by Lopatnikoff have been performed by this 
Orchestra: 



Apr. 27, 1928 

Dec. 22, 1939 

Apr. 17, 1942 

Nov. 6, 1942 

Mar. 2, 1945 

Feb. 26, 1954 

Jan. 29, i960 



* Scherzo, Op. 10 
*Symphony No. 2, Op. 24 

* Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 26 (Soloist: Richard Burgin) 
Sinfonietta, Op. 27 

* Concertino for Orchestra, Op. 30 
Divertimento for Orchestra, Op. 34 
Music for Orchestra, Op. 39 



* First performance. 



[copyrighted] 



ENTR'ACTE 
A MEDITATION IN GRAND CENTRAL STATION 

The place of the arts in the business world is the general subject of a sermoi 
preached by the Reverend Theodore P. Ferris, Rector of Trinity Church, Bostoi 
on January ij, i960. It is here printed in part. 



About two weeks ago I was in the Grand Central Station in Nei 
York, waiting in line to get a ticket to Boston. Only two of the 
ticket-windows were open for business, and there were a good mani 
people ahead of me and most of them seemed to be travelling tc 
enormously distant points. I, therefore, had plenty of time to lool 
around, and for once I was not in a hurry. 

At the west end of the station in the gallery, at the level of Vandei 
bilt Avenue, I saw the Mutual Fund Information Center, proper!] 
illuminated and thoroughly designated so that anyone looking foi 
professional guidance of this kind would know where to find it. On 
the other side of the same gallery, I saw a Hi-Fi Demonstration Center. 
At the east end I saw on the ground level an Investment Information 
Center, and this one was crowned with the familiar Eastman Kodal 
picture, blown up to an unbelievable size, but which has been there 
for a great many years. When it was the only advertisement in the 
station, it was so beautifully done that not many people objected to it. 

[8] 



Then I looked around the walls and I saw illuminated advertise- 
ments of every description. There was a large one making an appeal 
for Marlboro cigarettes; another for Canada Dry ginger ale; another 
for Pepsicola, and one for Johnny Walker Red Label. Six Larks were 
perched over the ticket offices, tilted at a fascinating angle, so that you 
could see not only the sides of the car, but the tops of them as well; 
and there was, on the main floor, one full-sized automobile in perpetual 
motion on a turntable. Over the high entrance to the waiting room 
was an enormous clock, not for the purpose of telling time — the rather 
modest one on top of the Information Booth has done that satisfactorily 
for the last fifty years — but this clock was obviously there to advertise 
the Westclox, and no effort was made to make it beautiful in any way. 

Near the Information Booth, not far from where I was standing, 
there was a huge model of the new Grand Central Station, or at least 
the new building which will rise behind and above the present station. 
It will soar 830 feet into the air, cover 2,400,000 square feet of space, 
and the climax of the caption was: "The largest office building in the 
world!" I was told that on the lower level a model house was being 
built, but I did not go down to see for myself how far the building 
had progressed. 

I had not only time to look, but I had time to think, and even more 
time when I got on the train. And the first thing I thought was, How 
times have changed! As a little boy, brought up in a suburb outside 
of New York, there were two buildings in New York that excited me. 
One was the Grand Central Station and the other was the Cathedral 
of St. John the Divine, and I think if I had to admit the truth, I would 
say now that the Station interested me more than the Cathedral. For 
one thing, it was finished and the Cathedral was still in a very incom- 
plete state. And I suppose the vastness of the station was greatly 
magnified in the mind of a little boy, so that when I first went into it 
alone, I felt that I was in one of the great places of the world. Through 
the years, I have been in many other railroad stations, but there is none 
like it, and I never fail to look up at the canopy over the Grand Con- 
course with its constellations of the heavenly bodies, and I never cease 
to wonder at the dark, winding tunnels, and at its windows which are 
like walls of glass. 



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Designers of the instruments for : 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 

19] 



Perhaps I see it out of all proportion because of these early associa- 
tions, but for me there has always been a grandeur and a dignity about 
that building that not many buildings have, certainly not many rail- 
road stations. Now the building has become a shop, or you might say 
a shopping center and, from my point of view, a tawdry one. You can 
hardly see the beautiful proportions of the building for the advertise- 
ments that illuminate its walls. It is a vulgar display of goods to be 
consumed, and I could not help wonder to myself how long it would 
be before the same wave would reach noth Street, where the Cathedral 
is. It has happened before; it happened to the Temple in Jerusalem 
2,000 years ago, and it happened not so many hundred years ago in 
St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Even the most sacred places can be 
profaned when men lose their sense of direction, and are hard-pressed 
financially. . . 

One thing I must say on behalf of people like myself. We often 
forget, we who live on the fringe of the business world, that without 
the business world we would not live at all. So we preachers, artists, 
educators and idealists must always be careful when we begin to 
criticize the commercial world of which we have no first-hand knowl- 
edge and in which we play no immediate part whatsoever. We must 
always be careful; not cautious, but careful, sensitive. Broadsides from 
the pulpit against business are usually well-meant, but not always well- 
aimed, and often not well-informed. And that holds true for a few of 
them from this pulpit, by this preacher. 

Neither can we forget that there is always a conflict between beauty 
and business, between the ideal and the practical. This is where we 
begin to come close to our own lives, and I am now moving away from 
the immediate details suggested by the Grand Central Station and 
which were simply a springboard for our thought. We are all making 
compromises all the time between beauty and business, the practical 
and the ideal. 

Notwithstanding these moderating thoughts that went through my 
mind, there was a question that kept coming back again and again. 
I am sure it has been coming to yours too, at least to the more sensitive 
and imaginative ones in the congregation. The question is this: 
Where do you draw the line between beauty and business. Where do 
you draw the line, and when, between the ideal and the practical? 
Let us admit here that most of us, whether we are in business, or in 
the ministry, or in the supreme work of home-building, much of the 
time draw that line where business ceases to pay, where the ideal 
begins to cost too much. The railroad business has ceased to pay, so 
beauty suffers and is sacrificed to enterprise. On the other hand, the 
Seagram business is paying handsomely, so beauty flourishes at the 

[10] 



yVLvkck/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rga Victor records exclusively 



4 living stereo fe E 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular LP.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



© rcaYictor 



[»] 



corner of 52nd Street and Park Avenue in one of the most magnificent 
buildings in New York. 

This we grant, but we also know, sitting here quietly together, that 
there are things that have no utility value whatsoever, and yet which 
make claims upon us. My old friend, and the friend of many of you, 
Dean Sperry, wrote many years ago — and this you would not expect 
perhaps to come from a New Englander, and he was as much a New 
Englander as anyone I ever knew, reticent, withdrawn, not easily 
expressing himself about the deep, inner things of life except when 
he had a pen in his hand — this is what he wrote: "Here then is the 
Venus of Melos. What use is she? What lessons does she teach? 
Must," he asked, "we settle for the fact that she was of use only as a 
peddler of pencils and cosmetics?" And then he went on to say, "In the 
severity of her bare room in the Louvre she reigns in the solitude and 
sovereignty of her own right. . . . She means nothing apart from her- 
self. She points nowhere else and leads on to nothing farther, but only 
draws her votaries from the four corners of the world to stand and 
wonder. She cannot be used. She can only be enjoyed." 

There is a truth that must be fought for, whether it is expedient or 
not, whether you lose your job or not. There comes a time when there 
is an excellence which must be pursued, whether it pays dividends or 
not, whether you die of starvation or not. There is a goodness to be 
wooed, whether it brings happiness or sorrow. And human beings rise 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
FOR OUR RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio audience has prompted 
a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
1960 is $2.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 

Hall. 



[12] 



BROADCASTS by the 


BOSTON 


SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 


Wint 

The Saturday eve 


ev Season 


, 1959-1960 


ning concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


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The Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the following stations: 


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The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 


by transcription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 


the performances 


on the following stations: 


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The Sunday afte 


rnoon and T 


uesday evening concerts at 


Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 


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* - Stereophonic Broadcast 


••-Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



I'S] 



to their greatest heights when they recognize this, when they do this, 
when they say, Regardless of what happens to me, there is something 
that cannot be violated, and I would rather die than let it be prosti- 
tuted. This is the point at which human beings reach the maximum 
of their potentialities — pledging themselves unqualifiedly to the service 
of something that does not pay. 

Perhaps I am more optimistic at the moment than I have been 
sometimes this fall, but to correct some of the darker things that I 
have said before about the people in this country, I think there are 
more people willing to make such a pledge than we believe. I think 
there are more of them who are waiting to rally around some voice, 
some personality, some ideal which will make great demands upon 
them. I think there are more people than we dream of in this country 
who are willing to say, "We'll send aid to a nation that needs it, 
whether we need them or not." I think there are more people than 
you can imagine in this country who are willing to say, "We will have 
the best education we can, no matter what it costs us." But they are 
submerged, and my prayer is that there will be a voice which will rally 
these people and give them the courage to say and to do what they 
really believe. 

SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The last Friday evening concert in this series will be 

March 25 CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 

GARY GRAFFMAN, Piano 

Single Tickets at Box Office 



The concerts by this Orchestra in Boston on Saturday evenings 
at 8:30 are broadcast complete by Station WQXR (AM and 
FM), New York. 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



ACADEMY OF MUSIC • BROOKLYN 

h4l 



CONCERTO IN B MINOR FOR CELLO, Op. 104 

By Anton Dvorak 

Born in Miihlhausen (Bohemia), September 8, 1841; died in Prague, May 1, 1904 



Dvorak's Concerto for Violoncello had its first performance at a Philharmonic 
concert in London, March 19, 1896, Leo Stern soloist. Mr. Stern subsequently played 
the concerto in American cities, including New York and Chicago. The first per- 
formance in Boston was by the Boston Symphony Orchestra December 19, 1896, when 
Alwin Schroeder was the soloist. There were further performances January 6, 1900 
(Alwin Schroeder); October 29, 1905 (Heinrich Warnke); November 30, 1912 (Otto 
Urack); March 30, 1917 (Joseph Malkin); December 24, 1936 (Gregor Piatigorsky); 
December 28, 1951 (Zara Nelsova); January 22, 1954 (Pierre Fournier); March 16, 
1956 (Leonard Rose). 

The orchestration is for woodwinds in twos, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones and 
tuba, timpani, triangle and strings. 

The works which Dvorak composed during his stay in America 
(1892-95) added to his already considerable popularity. They 
included the Symphony in E minor "From the New World," of 1893, 
and the String Quartet in F major and String Quintet in E-flat written 
in the summer of that year at Spillville, Iowa; the Ten Biblical Songs 
(1894), and the Cello Concerto (1895) — also some lesser works (such 
as the Festival Cantata, "The American Flag"). Dr. Ottokar Sourek 
(in Grove's Dictionary) states that "his great yearning for his native 
land" inspired several of these works, and "permeates deeply" two of 
them: the set of Biblical Songs and the Cello Concerto. 

Cellists of the time seem to have taken a lively interest in the news 
that a notable addition was to be made to the very scant literature of 
concertos for their instrument. At least two of them felt an almost 
parental concern in the safe arrival of the new work. One of these was 
Alwin Schroeder, first cellist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Mr. 
Schroeder assisted the composer in writing in the passage work for the 
solo instrument. When Dvorak left New York and returned to Prague 
with his uncompleted score, he found an even more industrious helper 
in the Bohemian cellist, Hans Wihan, who, as some believe, originally 
persuaded the master to undertake such a work. 

From Dvorak's letters to his publisher Simrock in that year concern- 
ing the publication of the Concerto it becomes evident that Wihan 
had a great deal to do with the preparation of the score. Dvorak wrote 
that "the principal part with fingering and bowing indications has 
been made by Prof. Wihan himself." And later he wrote, "The con- 
certo I must dedicate to my friend Wihan," which obligation was duly 
carried out. The true composer even feared that his adviser might 
interfere in the matter of proof reading and felt called upon to warn 
the publisher. "My friend Wihan and I have differed as to certain 

[i5l 



things. Many of the passages do not please me, and I must insist that my 
work be printed as I have written it. In certain places the passages 
may, indeed, be printed in two versions — a comparatively easy and a 
more difficult one. Above all, I give you my work only if you will 
promise me that no one — not even my friend Wihan — shall make 
any alteration in it without my knowledge and permission — also no 
cadenza such as Wihan has made in the last movement — and that its 
form shall be as I have felt it and thought it out. The cadenza in the 
last movement is not to exist either in the orchestral or the piano 
score: I informed Wihan, when he showed it to me, that it is impos- 
sible so to insert one. The finale closes gradually diminuendo — like 
a breath — with reminiscences of the first and second movements; the 
solo dies away to a pianissimo, then there is a crescendo, and the last 
measures are taken up by the orchestra, ending stormily. That was my 
idea, and from it I cannot recede." Wihan never performed the con- 
certo in public. 

The first movement, allegro, in B minor, 4-4, follows in most respects 
the prescription of the sonata form. The second movement, adagio 
ma non troppo, is in G major, 3-4. The finale, allegro moderato, in 
B minor, 2-4, is a fully developed rondo on three themes. 

[copyrighted] 



GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 



Gregor Piatigorsky was born in Ekaterinoslav, Russia, in 1903. As 
a child he studied the violin with his father, but it was the 
violoncello which he mastered and made his instrument. He found 
his field as a virtuoso. He first visited the United States in 1929, and 
on April 17, 1931, he first played with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
in Schumann's Violoncello Concerto in A minor. 

Mr. Piatigorsky has performed with this orchestra concertos by 
Haydn, Mozart, Schumann, Saint-Saens, Dvorak, Bloch ("Schelomo"), 
and has played on three occasions in Strauss' "Don Quixote." He has 
participated in introducing concertos by Berezowsky ("Concerto 
Lirico"), Prokofieff, Hindemith, and Dukelsky. He played in the first 
performance of the Cello Concerto by William Walton, January 25, 
1957. He has for a number of seasons been on the chamber music 
faculty of the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood. 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 
Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 

William Gibson 

William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 






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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 



'Hljll 



iilllMI. 







^ 



H 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959-1960 

The Brooklyn Academy of Music 

Under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
and the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn 



1959 - 6o 

THE WOMEN'S COMMITTEE 
FOR 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra Concert 

IN BROOKLYN 



Mrs. Andrew L. Gomory 
Vice-Chairman 



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Vice-Chairman 



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Vice-Chairman 

Mrs. Abbott Lippmann, Secretary 

Mrs. John F. Thompson, Jr., Treasurer 

Mrs. Irving G. Idler Mrs. William T. Daily 

Chairman of Boxes Chairman of Membership 

Honorary Chairman, Mrs. Carroll J. Dickson 



Alexander Aldrich 
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Mrs. Theodore N. Trynin 
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Mrs. Adrian Van Sinderen 
Mrs. Thomas K. Ware 
Mrs. Robert F. Warren 
Dr. Virginia T. Weeks 
Miss Elizabeth T. Wright 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Blrgin, Associate Conductor 



C ON 


CERT 


BULLETIN 


zvith 


historical and 


descriptive 


notes 


by 






John N. Burk 







The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
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Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

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Business Administrator 



Assistant Manager 

Leonard Burk at 
Music Administrator 



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Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 



Next Saturday at 8:30 overWQXR, 

hear the Boston Symphony in another 
memorable performance. And every day, 
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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE- SIXTY 



Fifth Program 



FRIDAY EVENING, March 25, at 8:30 o'clock 



Beethoven # Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 

Chopin Piano Concerto in E minor, Op. 1 1 

I. Allegro maestoso 
II. Romanza; Larghetto 
III. Rondo: Vivace 

INTERMISSION 

Dello Joio Variations, Chaconne and Finale 

Wagner. . Excerpts from Act III, "Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg" 

Introduction — Dance of the Apprentices — 

Procession of the Mastersingers 



SOLOIST 

GARY GRAFFMAN 

Mr. Graffman uses the Steinway Piano 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[f] 



OVERTURE TO "LEONORE" NO. 3, Op. 72 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 
Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The third "Leonore" Overture was composed in the year 1806 for the second 
production of "Fidelio" in Vienna. 

The overture is scored for 2 flutes, 2 clarinets, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, and strings. 

Within a few weeks of his death, Beethoven extracted from his 
confusion of papers the manuscript score of his opera Fidelio 
and presented it to Schindler with the words: "Of all my children, 
this is the one that cost me the worst birth-pangs, the one that brought 
me the most sorrow; and for that reason it is the one most dear to me." 
The composer spoke truly. Through about ten years of his life, from 
1803 or 1804, when he made the first sketches, until 1814 when he made 
the second complete revision for Vienna, he struggled intermittently 
with his only opera, worked out its every detail with intensive applica- 
tion. They were the years of the mightiest products of his genius. 
Between the Fidelio sketches are the workings out of the Fourth 
through the Eighth symphonies, the Coriolanus Overture and Egmont 
music, the Fourth and Fifth piano concertos, the Violin Concerto, the 
Razoumovsky Quartets. Into no one of these did he put more effort 
and painstaking care than he expended upon each portion of the opera, 
constructing it scene by scene in the order of the score, filling entire 
books with sketches. He was struggling first of all, of course, with his 
own inexperience of the theatre, the necessity of curbing his symphonic 
instincts and meeting the demands of that dramatic narrative which 
singers and "action" require. 

The record of Beethoven's revisions is largely the modification of 
his first conception to the ways and practicabilities of the stage. The 
record of the four complete overtures which he wrote for the opera 
shows a very similar tendency. For the first production of Fidelio in 
Vienna, November 20, 1805, Beethoven wrote the superb overture 
which later came to be known as Leonore No. 2.* When he rewrote 
the opera for its second production in the year following, he was urged 
to modify the overture, which had proved too difficult in parts for the 
wood wind players of the theatre orchestra. Beethoven did indeed 
rewrite the overture but, absorbed in his subject, he seems to have 
forgotten to make it simpler, either to play or to understand. He 
retained its essential matter, but gave it different stress, a greater and 
more rounded symphonic development. The result was the so-called 

* Beethoven greatly preferred the title "Leonore," which was the title of the French text of 
Bouilly ("Ltonore, ou V Amour Conjugal") from which Joseph Sonnleithner had written the 
German libretto for Beethoven as "Fidelio, order die eheliche Liebe." "Leonore" was con- 
sidered ill-advised in that Paer had produced a piece of the same name (pirated, as was 
Sonnleithner's text, from Bouilly), in Dresden, even while Beethoven was in full process of 
composition. He tried more than once in vain to have the title "Leonore" restored. 

[4] 



Leonore No. 3. When again the opera was thoroughly changed for 
the Vienna production of 1814, Beethoven realized that his fully 
developed overture was quite out of place at the head of his opera, 
and he accordingly wrote a typical theatre overture, soon permanently 
known as the Fidelio overture, since it was publicly accepted and 
became one with the opera. There remains to be accounted for the 
so-called Overture to Leonore No. 1. This was discovered and per- 
formed the year after Beethoven's death, and it was immediately 
assumed that it was an early attempt, rejected by Beethoven in favor 
of the one used at the initial performance. Erich Prieger accepted this 
belief, based upon his own researches in restoring the different versions 
of the opera, and upon the assertion of Schindler that Beethoven tried 
over an overture at Prince Lichnowsky's house in 1805, and put it aside 
as "too simple." However, Seyfried put forth the upsetting theory 
that this posthumous overture was the one which Beethoven wrote for 
an intended performance at Prague in 1808, a performance which 
never took place. Nottebohm, studying the sketches, agreed with him, 
and the judicious Thayer, supporting the two authorities, created a 
fortress of scholarship which prevailed for a long time. This of course 
would place the debated "No. 1" as actually the third in order, a point 
of view highly embarrassing to those who had set forth the evolution 
of the three overtures from this simpler posthumous one. Of more 
recent writers, Paul Bekker (1912) was inclined to believe that the 
"No. 1" is after all the early work it was originally supposed to be, 
and Romain Rolland (1928) took the same stand, citing as additional 
authority Josef Braunstein's "excellent work, Beethoven's Leonore- 
OuvertiXren, eine historisch-stilkritische Untersuchung (1927), which 
enables us at last to correct the errors in which, following Seyfried and 
Nottebohm, criticism had become entangled." This is a convenient 
theory, supported by the character of the music itself, and dispelling 
the rather lame arguments that Beethoven could have shortly followed 
his magnificent "No. 3" with such a compromise, whether for the 



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limitations of the Prague theatre orchestra, or for any other reason. 
The "Fidelio" Overture which he wrote in 1814 was no compromise, 
for it had no tragic pretensions. It was a serviceable theatre overture, 
preparing the hearer for the opening scene with its "Singspiel" dialogue 
between Marcelline at her ironing and her preposterous suitor. 

The Overture to "Leonore" No. 3 retains all of the essentials of its 
predecessor, Leonore No. 2. There is the introduction, grave and song- 
ful, based upon the air of Florestan: "In des Lebens Friihlingstagen" 
in which the prisoner sings sorrowfully of the darkness to which he is 
condemned, and dreams hopefully of the fair world outside. The main 
body of the Overture, which begins with the same theme (allegro) in 
both cases, rises from a whispering pianissimo to a full proclamation. 
The section of working out, or dramatic struggle, attains its climax 
with the trumpet call (taken directly from the opera, where the signal 
heard off stage, and repeated, as if closer, makes known the approach 
of the governor, whereby the unjustly imprisoned Florestan will be 
saved from death). There follows a full reprise, a reversion to the 
dictates of symphonic structure which Beethoven had omitted in his 
second overture. Now he evidently felt the need of a full symphonic 
rounding out, delaying the entrance of the coda of jubilation which 
dramatic sequence would demand closely to follow the trumpet fanfare. 
Wagner reproached Beethoven for this undramatic reprise. But the 
subject had developed in Beethoven's imagination to a new and electri- 
fying potency. The fanfare, simplified and more effectively introduced 
than in the previous version, is now softly answered by the joyful theme 
of Florestan and Leonore, used at this point in the opera. The com- 
poser, with that ability to sustain a mood which is beyond analysis, 
keeps the feeling of suspense, of mounting joy, which allows the listener 
no "let-down" before the triumphant climax of the coda. The air of 
Florestan is worked in at the end of the reprise, but in tempo as the 
music moves without interruption to its greatly expanded and now 
overwhelming coda. The overture in this, its ultimate form, shows in 
general a symphonic "tightening" and an added forcefulness. The 
introduction eliminates a few measures as compared with the "No. 2," 
the development many measures, in which music of the greatest beauty 
is discarded. Beethoven, having thus shortened his development, evens 
the total length by adding the reprise and enlarging the coda. 

[copyrighted] 






$Heoltan=^>kmner ®tQan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[6] 






CONCERTO IN E MINOR for Pianoforte and Orchestra, Op. 11 

By Frederic Chopin 

Born in Zelazowa-Wola, near Warsaw, February 22, 1810; 
died in Paris, October 17, 1849 



Composing his E minor Concerto in 1830, Chopin first performed it in Warsaw, 
October 1 1 of that year. 

The accompaniment requires 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 
2 trumpets, trombone, timpani, and strings. 

This Concerto is dedicated to Friedrich Kalkbrenner.* 

The Concerto has been played at these concerts with the following soloists: 
Madeline Schiller, December 22, 1882; Adele Aus Der Ohe, March 25, 1887; Teresa 
Carreno, October 28, 1887; Etelka Utassi, October 26, 1888; Ernest Hutcheson, 
February 28, 1902; Antoinette Szumowska, November 16, 1906; Ossip Gabrilowitsch, 
October 29, 1915; Josef Hofmann, December 20, 1918; Moriz Rosenthal, April 11, 
1924. The following artists played the Concerto on tour only: Eugen D'Albert, 
1892; Rafael Joseffy, 1898; Elizabeth Claire Forbes, 1914; Leon Vartanian, 1928. 
Moriz Rosenthal played the Concerto on tour in 1896, 1898, and 1924. 

Chopin wrote his two piano concertos within a year of each other, 
when he was twenty years old. The F minor Concerto was actually 

• The famous pedagogue whom Chopin met in Paris in 1831, and by whose playing he was 
much impressed. Kalkbrenner condescendingly offered to make a pianist of Chopin in three 
years, but his companions at the time, Mendelssohn and Liszt, whose enthusiasm over Chopin 
was as high as their opinion of Kalkbrenner was slight, talked him out of it. 



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[7] 



the first, although the second in order of publication (1836); the 
E minor Concerto was published in 1833. Although he had visited 
Berlin, Vienna, Prague and other centers, met celebrities and exhibited 
his talents in charity concerts, he had still much to learn of the world. 
His progress had been fondly nurtured in private performances at 
home. The three concerts he gave in 1830, for which he composed his 
two concertos, were his first opportunity in Warsaw to submit his 
talents as a pianist to the more impersonal scrutiny of the general 
public and the professional critics. 

As a sensitive and emotional artist, he was surprisingly developed 
for his age, for he had played the piano with skill and delicate taste 
from early childhood. He could improvise to the wonderment of 
numberless high-born ladies, not only in the parochial native warmth 
of the Warsaw mansions, but in other parts as well. Although his 
Opus 1, a rondo, had been published only five years before, he had 
been ministering to the adoring circle about him with affecting waltzes, 
mazurkas, and polonaises, even from the age of ten, or before. 

His letters of this time are abundant in ardor and effusive sentiment. 
He had reached that stage of youthful idealism which in his century 
could nourish secret infatuations, and confide them to one's most 
intimate friend. Youth's flaring passions at nineteen, sometimes 
regarded as inconsequential, had in this case a direct and tangible 
expression — the Larghetto of the Concerto in F minor. Chopin 
lavished his affection and his confidences at this time upon his friend 
Titus Voytsyekhovski, whom he addressed in his profuse and not 
unspirited letters as "My dearest life." Writing to Titus from Warsaw 
(October 3, 1829), he dismissed all thoughts of Leopoldine Blahetka, 
a fair pianist of twenty whom he had met in Vienna, and confessed a 
new and deeper infatuation. 

"I have — perhaps to my misfortune — already found my ideal, which 
I worship faithfully and sincerely. Six months have elapsed, and I 
have not yet exchanged a syllable with her of whom I dream every 
night. Whilst my thoughts were with her, I composed the adagio* of 
my concerto." The inspiration of the slow movement of this concerto 
was Constantia (Konstancjia) Gladkowska, a pupil of the Warsaw Con- 
servatory and an operatic aspirant, who was twenty, and three months 
younger than Chopin. Her voice and appearance alike captivated him. 
Wierzynski, Chopin's recent biographer, writes: "She had been study- 
ing voice at the Conservatory for four years and was considered to be 
one of Soliva's best pupils. She was also said to be one of the prettiest. 
Her regular, full face, framed in blond hair, was an epitome of youth, 
health and vigor, and her beauty was conspicuous in the Conservatory 



* In his letters and on the programs of this time, the larghettos of each concerto are referred 
to by the generic title of "adagio." 

[8] 




LENOX, MASSACHUSETTS 

TANGLEWOOD I960 

The 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The Berkshire Festival 

Twenty-third Season 
CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 



The Berkshire Music Center 

Eighteenth Season 
CHARLES MUNCH, Director 



To receive further announcements, write to 
Festival Office, Symphony Hall, Boston 



[9] 



chorus, for all that it boasted numbers of beautiful women. The young 
lady, conscious of her charms, was distinguished by ambition and dili- 
gence in her studies. She dreamed of becoming an operatic singer, 
of receiving tributes and acclaim." She shortly made her stage debut 
in the leading part of Paer's Agnese di Fitz-Henry, not without success, 
and to Chopin's delight. He did not meet her until April, 1830, either 
from shyness, or preference for nursing a secret passion and pouring it 
forth in affecting melody. That the young man w T as in a state of emo- 
tional equilibrium, in spite of melancholy moments, is proved by the 
highly fortunate results. Not only the two Concertos but some of the 
£tudes to be published as Op. 10 and the lovely Andante spianato for 
piano were composed in this year. 

Chopin made no avowal to Constantia, but confessed to his friend 
that her very name held him in such awe that he could not even write 
it. "Con — No, I cannot complete the name, my hand is too unworthy. 
Ah! I could tear out my hair when I think that I could be forgotten 
by her!" At this point comes a saving touch of humor. He would still 
allow his whiskers to grow on the right side. "On the left side they are 
not needed at all, for one sits always with the right side turned to the 
public." He had perforce to turn his heart elsewhere, for Constantia 
gave her hand in 1832 to a Joseph Grabowski, a Warsaw merchant, 
"and left the stage," so wrote Karozowski, "to the great regret of all 
connoisseurs." Chopin seems to have survived this without too much 
difficulty. Love later blossomed between him and Maria Wodzinska, 
whom he had met as a child in Warsaw; later in Dresden he made an 
avowal when she was sixteen. This affair endured for a long while as 
a half engagement, and gently lapsed. In the salons of Paris there 
were many ladies to succumb to his music. James Huneker wrote of 
him: "a crumpled rose leaf was sufficient cause to induce frowns and 
capricious flights — decidedly a young man tres difficile." Perhaps his 
memory of Constantia and other beauties in Poland had grown some- 
what dim when, in 1836, he came to the point of dedicating the Con- 
certo in F minor. The honor fell to the Countess Delphine Potocka, 
a Pole of Parisianized charm, a lady of distinction and wealth, and a 
singer. Chopin's letters to Delphine, if they are not forgeries (their 
authenticity is discussed elsewhere in this bulletin), prove this Chopin's 
strongest and most enduring affection. Turgeniev has said that half 
a hundred countesses in Europe claimed to have held the dying Chopin 
in their arms. This one at least was present at his bedside and sang 
to him in his last illness. 

[copyrighted] 



[10] 



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Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
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GARY GRAFFMAN 



Gary Graffman was born in New York City, October 14, 1928. 
His father, a violinist, had been in Russia a pupil of Leopold 
Auer and in this country served as Concert-master of the Minneapolis 
Orchestra, later becoming Auer's assistant in New York. His son 
showed remarkable aptitude on the piano and at the age of seven, 
using a pedal extension, was accepted at the Curtis Institute of Music, 
where he studied with Mme. Isabelle Vengerova. He graduated in 
1946, having already made appearances in public with orchestra and 
in recital. He won the first Rachmaninoff Fund Piano Contest in 1947, 
the Rachmaninoff Fund Special Award in 1948, and the Leventritt 
Foundation Award in 1949. He played Prokofieff's Third Concerto 
with this Orchestra on April 1, 1955; Brahms' Piano Concerto No. 1, 
on November 8, 1957. He has made five European tours in recent years, 
and in 1958 a tour around the world. 



VARIATIONS, CHACONNE AND FINALE 
By Norman Dello Joio 

Born in New York, January 24, 1913 



Composed in Wilton, Conn., during the summer of 1947, this work was first per- 
formed by the Pittsburgh Symphony Society, Fritz Reiner conducting, January 30, 
1948. Thor Johnson as guest conductor introduced it at the Boston Symphony con- 
certs of January 21-22, 1949. Dr. Munch conducted performances on October 8-9, 1954. 

The following orchestra is required: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English 
horn, 2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 
trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, percussion, xylophone, and strings. 

a liturgical theme is the basis of the work. This theme is derived 
*** from the Kyrie in the Gregorian Missa de Angelis. The composer 
here quotes his theme as slightly altered, and in modern notation: 

It is not only varied in the first movement, but introduced in different 
form in the second and third. The composer points out that "the 
first movement comprises a set of six variations that follow a simply 
harmonized statement of the tune in G major. The framework on 
which the second movement, the Chaconne, is built is a chromatic 

[12] 



outline of the first four notes of the Gregorian theme. In the highly 
rhythmical Allegro vivo, which follows, the character of the Gregorian 
theme is transformed into the purely secular. The concluding pages 
resolve into a chorale that is set against the prevailing rhythmic tension 
of the last movement." 

The lineage of Norman Dello Joio is Italian, and also musical. His 
first teacher was his father, a composer and organist. He studied organ 
with Pietro Yon and entered the Institute of Musical Art, studying 
organ and piano with Gaston Dethier, and later at the Juilliard 
Graduate School. He attended New York City College. He began a 
career as performer at the age of twelve: first as organist and choir- 
master in various churches, later extending his activities to conducting 
various groups from ballet to jazz. He conducted Eugene Loring's 
Dance Players from 1941 to 1943, for which organization he composed 
the ballets, Prairie and Duke of Sacramento. Another ballet, On 
Stage!, had its first presentation by the Ballet Theatre in Boston. He 
wrote a score for Martha Graham entitled Diversion of Angels. He has 
been much favored in recent years by awards and commissions. His 
Piano Trio won the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Composition Award, 
and in 1939 he studied with Bernard Wagenaar at the Juilliard School 
under a scholarship. He has won two Guggenheim fellowships (1944, 
1946) and a grant from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. 
He also won a Town Hall Composition Award. The Variations, 
Chaconne and Finale won the New York Critics Circle Award in 1948. 
In the summers of 1940 and 1941 at the Berkshire Music Center, and 
in the intervening winter at the Yale School of Music, he studied 
composition with Paul Hindemith. 

He has composed for Robert Shaw's Collegiate Chorale a Symphony 
for Voices and Orchestra after Stephen Vincent Benet's Western Star 
(1945), and has set for the same organization Walt Whitman's The 
Mystic Trumpeter. Orchestral works include: Magnificat, New York 
Profiles, To a Lone Sentry, Concert Music, Ricercari (piano and 
orchestra), and a symphony, The Triumph of St. Joan. There are also 
numerous works for chamber orchestra and smaller chamber groups. 

Mr. Dello Joio taught composition at Sarah Lawrence College in 
Bronxville, New York from 1945 to 1950. At present his time is given 
exclusively to composition. He has recently completed an opera The 
Ruby, based on a play of Lord Dunsany; and a dramatic cantata The 
Lamentation of Saul, based on a play of D. H. Lawrence, David. The 
latter was first performed at South Mountain, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 
during the summer of 1954 with Leonard Warren as soloist. 

[copyrighted] 



[iS] 



EIGHTIETH SEASON 1960-1961 

(Seventy- third Season in Brooklyn) 



[I Boston Symphony Orchestra 



CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



FIVE CONCERTS IN THE 
BROOKLYN ACADEMY OF MUSIC 



FRIDAY EVENINGS at 8:30 

DECEMBER 2 

JANUARY 6 

FEBRUARY 17 

MARCH 10 

APRIL 7 

AUSPICES 

The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 
The Brooklyn Academy of Music 



[14] 



EXCERPTS FROM ACT III, "DIE MEISTERSINGER 

VON NURNBERG" 

By Richard Wagner 

Born in Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died in Venice, February 13, 1883 



"Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg" was first sketched by Wagner as a possible opera 
subject at Dresden in 1845. He wrote the libretto in Paris in 1861, and completed 
the score in 1867. The first performance of the opera was at the Royal Court Theatre 
in Munich, June 21, 1868. 

The Introduction to the Third Act of "Die Meistersinger" is music 
of Hans Sachs in revery, for the composer is preparing his hearers 
to behold the master cobbler seated alone in his study musing over a 
book. The Introduction opens with a fine contemplative theme, first 
given to the cellos. Wagner himself has explained his purpose: "The 
opening theme for the cellos has already been heard in the third 
strophe of Sachs* cobbler-song in Act II. There is expressed the bitter 
cry of the man who has determined to renounce his personal happiness, 
yet who shows the world a cheerful, resolute exterior. That smothered 
cry was understood [in the Second Act] by Eva, and so deeply did it 
pierce her heart that she was moved to escape, if only to hear this 
cheerful-seeming song no longer. Now, in the Introduction to Act III, 
this motive is played alone by the cellos, and developed in the other 
strings till it dies away in resignation; but forthwith, and as from out 
the distance, the horns intone the solemn song wherewith Hans Sachs 
greeted Luther and the Reformation, which had won the poet such 
incomparable popularity. After the first strophe the strings again take 
single phrases of the cobbler's song, very softly and much slower, as 
though the man were turning his gaze from his handiwork heaven- 
wards, and lost in tender musings. Then, with increased sonority, the 
horns pursue the master's hymn, with which Hans Sachs, at the end of 
the Act, is greeted by the populace of Nuremberg. Next reappears the 
strings' first motive, with grandiose expression of the anguish of a 
deeply stirred soul; calmed and allayed, it attains the utmost serenity 
of a blest and peaceful resignation." 

The final scene depicts a meadow with the gaily decorated platform 
from which the judges will hear the contest. A lively Landler, danced 
in couples by the apprentices and their girls, is interrupted by the 
arrival and majestic entrance of the Mastersingers. 

[copyrighted] 



[15] 



LIST OF WORKS 

Performed in the Brooklyn Series 
DURING THE SEASON 1959-1960 



Barber Souvenirs, Ballet Suite, Op. 28 

III January 22 

Beethoven Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I November 20 

Overture to "Leonore" No. 3, Op. 72 

V March 25 

Chopin Piano Concerto in E minor, Op. 1 1 

Soloist: GARY GRAFFMAN V March 25 

Copland . . Orchestral Suite from the Opera, "The Tender Land" 

(Conducted by the composer) l November 20 

Dello Joio Variations, Chaconne and Finale 

V March 25 

Dvorak Concerto for Cello, in B minor, Op. 104 

Soloist: GREGOR PIATIGORSKY 1V February 19 

Lopatnikoff Music for Orchestra, Op. 39 

IV February 19 

Mendelssohn Symphony No. 3, in A minor, "Scottish," Op. 56 

II December 18 

Mozart Symphony No. 38, in D major, "Prague," K. 504 

I November 20 

Piano Concerto No. 24, in C minor, K. 491 
Soloist: CLAUDE FRANK n December 18 

Symphony No. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 

IV February 19 

Ravel "Daphnis et Chloe\" Ballet, Suite No. 2 

II December 18 

Schubert Symphony No. 2, in B-flat major 

III January 22 

Stravinsky Suite from the Ballet, "L'Oiseau de feu" 

III January 22 

Wagner '.". . Overture to "Tannhauser" 

III January 22 

Excerpts from Act III, "Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg" 

V March 25 

William Steinberg conducted the concert on January 22 

[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 
Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 

William Gibson 

William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 




At the request of the BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
CHARLES MUNCH, Mimic Director 



CINCINNATI, OHIO 



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Providence Programs 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhap6 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 

E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andr£ Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 

William Gibson 

William Moyer 
Kauko Kabila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 

Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



The Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

List of Rhode Island Members for Season 1958-1959 



The Trustees of the Boston Symphony Orchestra take this opportunity to acknowl- 
edge with grateful thanks those in the Rhode Island area who, through their 
membership in the Friends of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, have helped to 
bridge the gap between what the Orchestra has been able to earn from all sources, 
and the cost of maintaining the Orchestra. 

Without the generosity of the Friends, it would not be possible to maintain the high 
level of performance of our Orchestra. 

It is our earnest hope that during this coming year, our past friends will again 
continue their membership, and that many more of you will become Friends for 
the first time this year. In so doing, you will help us continue to share with you the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. 



Miss Eleanor M. Addison 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Adler 

Brother Alban, F.S.C. 

Mr. and Mrs. David Aldrich 

Mrs. E. W. Allan 

Miss Ada F. Almy 

Mr. and Mrs. John A. Anderson 

Mr. B. A. Anderton 

Mrs. R. Edwards Annin 

Miss Marguerite Appleton 

Mr. Robert Aspden 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward R. Austin 

Mrs. R. S. Austin 



Miss Margaret L. Babcock 

Mrs. Harvey A. Baker 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman V. Ballou 

L. E. Beaman 

Mrs. Robert Jenks Beede 

Miss Charlotte R. Bellows 

Mr. and Mrs. Dana R. Bellows 

H. A. Bemis 

Mr. Harlan G. Bemis 

Dr. and Mrs. Emanuel W. Benjamin 

Mrs. Bruce M. Bigelow 

Mr. and Mrs. Zenas R. Bliss 

Miss Mildred G. Blumenthal 

Mrs. Eli Bohnen 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew E. Bond 

Mrs. Ralph Bourne 

Mrs. David A. Brayton 

Miss Harriet M. Briggs 

Mr. and Mrs. Curtis B. Brooks 



Mr. and Mrs. John Nicholas Brown 
Mrs. Pierre Brunschwig 
Mrs. Charles W. Bubier, Sr. 
Mrs. Buell N. Buckingham 
Miss R. Ethel Bugbee 

Mr. William H. Cady 

Miss Maria L. Camardo 

Mrs. Wallace Campbell 

Mrs. Harriet M. Cappon 

Miss Margaret Chace 

Dr. and Mrs. Francis H. Chafee 

Chaminade Club of Providence 

Miss Mabelle H. Chappell 

Mme. Avis Bliven Charbonnel 

Mr. Samuel N. Chase 

Mr. and Mrs. David Chernack 

Mr. and Mrs. Irwin Chernick 

Chopin Club of Providence 

Mrs. Albert W. Claflin 

Mr. and Mrs. Roger T. Clapp 

Miss Alice K. Clark 

Misses Elizabeth and 
Katherine F. Clark 

Miss Ruth M. Clark 

Mrs. Ruth D. Clarke 

Miss Sydney Clarke 

Mrs. Sidney Clifford 

Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin F. Collins 

Mrs. J. C. Collins 

Mrs. George E. Comery 

Miss Alice M. Comstock 

Mrs. G. Maurice Congdon 

Paul J. Conley, M.D. 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (Continued) 



Miss Elizabeth C. Conlon 

Mr. Scott Corbett 

Mr. Edward J. Corcoran 

Armeline Cote 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Donald Coulter 

Misses Clara R. and Mary L. Crosby 

Mrs. Gammell Cross 

Mrs. Joseph H. Cull 

Dr. and Mrs. Morgan Cutts 

Miss Mary Daboll 

Mr. John N. Dalton 

Mr. Murray S. Danforth, Jr. 

Mrs. Murray S. Danforth 

Miss Rosemarie DeLuise 

Mrs. Paul Churchill DeWolf 

Miss Myrtle T. Dexter 

Mr. Joseph S. Dibble 

Mr. and Mrs. John C. Dinsmoor 

Mrs. Robert B. Dresser 

Mrs. George I. Dubois 

Mrs. M. Dart Dunbar 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert M. Durfee 

Miss Margaret B. Dykes 

Miss Edith W. Edwards 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. Edwards 

Mrs. Lowell Emerson 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward S. Esty 

Mr. Edward M. Fay 

Mrs. R. Henry Field 

Miss Anna G. Fiore 

Miss Florence G. Fish 

Miss Louise M. Fish 

Mr. and Mrs. James A. Fletcher 

Mr. Raymond G. Franks 

Mr. Sidney Frauwirth 

Mrs. Clarke F. Freeman 

Mrs. Evert W. Freeman 

Mr. and Mrs. Hovey T. Freeman 

Mrs. E. W. French 

Dr. and Mrs. Lester Friedman 

Miss Margaret A. Fuller 

Mrs. William E. Fuller 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley S. Gairloch 
Mr. Stanton B. Garner 



Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. Gately 
Mr. and Mrs. Leo Gershman 
Mrs. Barney M. Goldberg 
Miss Charlotte M. Greene 
Mrs. Joseph Warren Greene, Jr. 
Greenhalgh Charitable Foundation 
Mrs. Morris Grossman 
Mr. and Mrs. W. Gunther-Stirn 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin O. Halpert 

Mrs. Roland Hammond 

Mrs. Albert Harkness 

Mr. and Mrs. Carroll Harrington 

Mr. Henry C. Hart 

Mrs. Jonathan H. Harwood 

Mrs. Donald Havens 

Mrs. Thomas Pierpont Hazard 

Mr. and Mrs. R. G. Henderson 

Miss Bessie Hepstonstall 

Mr. Paul Heymann 

Mrs. Leonard W. Hill 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry Valentine Himes 

Miss Mabel G. S. Hirst 

Mrs. Bernard J. Hogue 

Cantor and Mrs. Jacob Hohenemser 

Mr. and Mrs. James E. Hollis 

Mrs. Edith R. Hood 

Mrs. Edward B. Hough 

Mr. Paul B. Howland 

Mr. and Mrs. James W. Hull 

Mr. Blackmer Humphrey 

Mrs. Karl Humphrey 

Mrs. Harrison B. Huntoon 

Mrs. Donald E. Jackson 
Mrs. F. Ellis Jackson 
Mrs. Edward P. Jastram 

Mr. Frederick Lincoln Kateon 
Dr. and Mrs. Maurice N. Kay 
Mrs. A. Livingston Kelley 
Mr. Eugene A. Kingman 
Mrs. Webster Knight, II 
Mr. and Mrs. David Kotlen 

Mr. Paul R. Ladd 
Mr. Thorwald Larson 
Mrs. Peter H. Lea veil 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (Continued) 



Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Levy 

Mrs. Austin T. Levy 

Miss Dora H. Lindberg 

Mrs. John H. Lindsey 

Willoughby Little Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Livingston, Jr. 

Mr. Ronald S. Longley 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert M. Lord 

Mr. Frank Lornitzo 

Mr. and Mrs. George Y. Loveridge 

Miss Janet MacDougall 

Mrs. Kenneth B. MacLeod 

Mrs. Barbara R. Mandos 

Mrs. Albert E. Marshall 

Miss Margaret Marshall 

Mrs. Reune Martin 

Mr. Stanley H. Mason 

Miss Irene May 

Rev. and Mrs. Lynde E. May, IV 

Mrs. Bruce Merriman 

Mrs. Charles E. Merriman 

Mrs. Jesse H. Metcalf 

Miss Eva A. Mooar 

Mrs. David S. Moulton 

Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Mowry 

Mr. Norman S. McAuslan 

Mrs. Irving J. McCoid 

Miss Mary R. McGinn 

Mr. Nathan Newburger 

Mrs. John K. H. Nightingale, Jr. 

Miss Marian O'Brien 
B. J. O'Neill 
Miss Helen R. Ostby 
Mrs. E. Burnell Overlock 
The Misses Owens 

Mrs. Amy Palmer 

Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Perry, Jr. 

Mrs. Clarence H. Philbrick 

Mrs. George F. Phillips 

Miss Ruth Ann Pitts 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Post 

Dr. and Mrs. Alfred L. Potter 

Dr. Charles Potter 



Dr. Everett S. Radovsky 

Mrs. Albert E. Rand 

Mrs. Frederic B. Read 

Mrs. Ludwig Regensteiner 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph S. Richmond 

Mrs. Beverly S. Ridgely 

Miss Helen C. Robertson 

Lt. Col. and Mrs. Robert W. Rogers 

Mrs. L. Earle Rowe 



Mrs. Teviah Sachs 

Mrs. Meyer Sakiad 

Mrs. Lea Scheinziss 

Dr. and Mrs. Morris Schussheim 

Mrs. Henry D. Sharpe 

Dr. and Mrs. Caroll M. Silver 

Mr. and Mrs. Ben Sinel 

Mrs. Charles Peck Sisson 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter C. Slade 

Mrs. Byron N. H. Smith 

Miss Hope Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Kirk Smith 

Mrs. S. Newell Smith, Jr. 

Mrs. A. Chester Snow 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Speidel 

Mr. Edward S. Spicer 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold E. Staples 

Mrs. John R. Stevens 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanford S. Stevens 

Dr. and Mrs. Julius Stoll, Jr. 

Mr. John P. Sturges 

Mrs. Marcus A. Sutcliffe 

Miss Helen T. Sutherland 

Mrs. O. L. Swats 



Mrs. Royal C. Taft 

Mr. and Mrs. Roland P. Talbot 

Mrs. R. P. A. Taylor 

Miss Karoline L. Thayer 

Miss Margaret E. Todd 

Mrs. Irving Troob 

Mrs. Israel Uditsky 

Mrs. Richmond Viall 



FRIENDS OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (Concluded) 



Mrs. John Winthrop Wadleigh 

Mrs. H. Waterhouse Walker 

Mrs. Ashbel T. Wall 

Miss M. Beatrice Ward 

Mr. Edwin Z. Wattman 

Dr. and Mrs. Eric Waxberg 

Mr. Phillips R. Weatherbee 

Dr. and Mrs. Joseph B. Webber 

Mr. Mark Weisberg 

Mr. and Mrs. John H. Wells 

Mrs. J. Barbery Wells 



Mr. and Mrs. Peter J. Westervelt 

Miss Ruth A. Whipple 

Mrs. W. W. White 

Mrs. J. P. Whitters 

Mr. Clinton N. Williams 

Dr. and Mrs. Harold W. Williams 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Williamson 

Rev. William C. Wilson 

Mr. W. Chesley Worthington 

Mrs. Louis E. Young 



SEVENTY -NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallowell Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 

Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burk at Rosario Mazzeo 



Music Administrator 



Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 

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[2] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Three Hundred and Fifty-first Concert in Providence 



First Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, October 13, at 8:15 o'clock 



Mozart Symphony in D major, "Prague," No. 38 (K. 504) 

I. Adagio; Allegro 



II. Andante 
III. Finale: Presto 



Copland Party Scene and Finale from the Opera, 

"The Tender Land" 



INTERMISSION 

Beethoven * Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I. Allegro con brio 
II. Andante con moto 

III. (Allegro; Trio 

IV. J Allegro 



By order of the Chief of the Providence Fire Department, smoking is 
allowed only in the ticket lobby and the lower lobby of the auditorium. 

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[4] 



SYMPHONY IN D MAJOR (K. No. 504) 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This symphony had its first performance at Prague, January 19, 1787. 
It is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and 
strings. The trumpets and drums are not used in the slow movement. 

npHE last symphony which Mozart composed before his famous final 
•*■ three of 1788 (the E-flat, G minor, and "Jupiter" symphonies) was 
the Symphony in D major, called the "Prague" Symphony, which had 
its first performance in that city early in 1787. Mozart may not have 
composed it especially for Prague, but when he went there from 
Vienna on a sudden invitation, the new score was ready in his port- 
folio for the first of two performances in the Bohemian capital. 

"Prague is indeed a very beautiful and agreeable place," wrote 
Mozart on his arrival there. And he had good cause to be gratified 
with the more than friendly reception which he found awaiting him. 
Figaro, produced there in the previous season, had been an immense 
success, and its tunes were sung and whistled on all sides. A bid was 
to come for another opera, and Don Giovanni was to be written and 




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[5] 



produced there within a year, and to cause another furore of enthu- 
siasm. The composer of Figaro, as might be expected, was applauded 
loud and long at the two concerts of his visit in 1787, and after the 
D major symphony at the first of them, he could not appease the 
audience until he had improvised upon the piano for half an hour. 
At length a voice shouted the word Figaro! and Mozart, interrupting 
the phrase he had begun to play, captured all hearts by improvising 
variations from the air "Non piu andrai." 

Writing on January 15 to his friend Gottfried von Jacquin, Mozart 
related how a round of entertainment mostly connected with music- 
making was awaiting him. On the evening of his arrival, he went with 
Count Canal to the "Breitfeld Ball, where the flower of the Prague 
beauties assemble. You ought to have been there, my dear friend; I 
think I see you running, or rather limping, after all those pretty 
creatures, married and single. I neither danced nor flirted with any 
of them — the former because I was too tired, and the latter from my 
natural bashfulness. I saw, however, with the greatest pleasure, all 
these people flying about with such delight to the music of my Figaro, 
transformed into quadrilles and waltzes; for here nothing is talked of 
but Figaro, nothing played but Figaro, nothing whistled or sung but 
Figaro, no opera so crowded as Figaro, nothing but Figaro — very 
flattering to me, certainly." 



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THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

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[6] 



Franz Niemetschek, a Bohemian who wrote a biography of Mozart 
in 1798, said of the concert of January 19: "The symphonies which 
he chose for this occasion are true masterpieces of instrumental com- 
position, full of surprising transitions. They have a swift and fiery 
bearing, so that they at once tune the soul to the expectation of some- 
thing superior. This is especially true of the great symphony in D 
major, w 7 hich is still a favorite of the Prague public, although it has 
been heard here nearly a hundred times." 

The Symphony in D major is noteworthy by the absence of a minuet 
(in his earlier symphonies, Mozart was often content with three move- 
ments). Still more unusual is the slow introduction to the first move- 
ment. Haydn, and Beethoven after him, were inclined to such intro- 
ductions, but Mozart usually preferred to begin at once with his lively 
first theme. The exceptions, which occurred in succession through 
Mozart's last years, were the "Linz" Symphony in C major (K. 425), 
the introduction to Michael Haydn's Symphony in G major (K. 444), 
the "Prague" Symphony, and the famous E-flat Symphony (K. 543) 
which followed. 

Remembering that this Symphony was composed between Figaro 
and Don Giovanni, commentators have noted a likeness in the chief 
theme of the allegro to the first theme of the Overture to Don Gio- 




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vanni. Erich Blom goes even further in associating the Symphony 
with the opera that followed: "The portentous and extended slow 
introduction of the 'Prague' Symphony is charged with the graver 
aspects of Don Giovanni; the half-close leading to the allegro is 
practically identical with that at a similar juncture in the great sextet 
of the opera, and an ominous figure in the finale almost makes one 
think of the stone guest appearing among a riot of mirth, though the 
grace and the laughter of Susanna are there too. The slow movement 
makes us dream of the idyllic summer-night stillness in Count Alma- 
viva's invitingly artificial garden. The wonder of the Symphony is, 
however, that in spite of the variety of the visions it may suggest 
to the hearer, it is a perfect whole. Every structural part and every 
thematic feature is exquisitely proportioned. No separate incident is 
allowed to engage attention independently of the scheme in which it 
is assigned its function, even where it is as incredibly beautiful as the 
second subject of the first movement, which is surreptitiously intro- 
duced by a passage that is apparently merely transitional, or as engag- 
ingly spritely as the second subject of the finale with its bubbling 
bassoon accompaniment." 

[copyrighted] 



FIFTEENTH SEASON 

RHODE ISLAND 
PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA 

FRANCIS MADEIRA, Music Director 

FIVE WINTER SUBSCRIPTION CONCERTS 

First Concert 

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 10, at 8:30 p.m. 
Joseph Battista, Pianist 

Glinka Overture to Ruslan and Ludmilla 

Mozart Symphony No. 41 in C major ("Jupiter") 

Rachmaninoff Concerto No. 3 in D minor 



VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM 

Tickets for each concert available at 

PHILHARMONIC OFFICE, Room 638, 49 Westminster St., TEmple 1-3123 

AXELROD MUSIC INC. AVERY PIANO COMPANY 



[8] 



SUITE FROM "THE TENDER LAND" 
By Aaron Copland 

Born in Brooklyn, N.Y., November 14, 1900 



The opera The Tender Land was commissioned by Richard Rodgers and Oscar 
Hammerstein II on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the League of Composers, 
and composed between 1952 and 1954. The text is by Horace Everett. The opera 
had its first performance by the New York City Opera Company under the direction 
of Thomas Schippers at the New York City Center, April 1, 1954. It was performed 
bv the opera department of the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood on August 
2 and 3, 1954 and (revised from a two- into a three-act opera) by the Oberlin Con- 
servators on May 20 and 21, 1955. Two choruses from The Tender Land were 
performed at the benefit concert, "Tanglewood on Parade," on August 8, 1957, the 
composer conducting. Choral portions were presented at Brandeis University, again 
under the composer's direction, on June 8, 1957. 

The suite requires 3 flutes and piccolo, oboe and English horn, 2 clarinets and 
bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, harp, 
piano, and strings. 

(The orchestral suite was arranged for a larger orchestra than that used in the 
opera by the addition of piccolo, 2 horns, 2 trombones and tuba.) 

AN interview by Howard Taubman in the New York Times (March 
28, 1954) anticipates the first performance with an explanation by 
the composer of how he came to write the opera. "I've been wanting 
to do an opera ever since The Second Hurricane, but couldn't get a 
libretto." Mr. Copland revealed that he had long since jotted down 
possible themes in a notebook even before he had found a likely 
libretto. At length he had come across a book, Let Us Now Praise 
Famous Men, by James Agee and Walker Evans. The book consisted 
of photographs taken in a rural area of Alabama. A picture of an old 
woman with a young one made a special impression upon Mr. Cop- 



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land. "There was something so full of living and understanding in 
the face of the older woman," he said, "and something so open and 
eager in the face of the younger one, that I began to think that here 
was the basis of an idea." It was therefore at his suggestion and under 
his advice that Horace Everett worked out his libretto. 

The plot was related to the New York Herald Tribune by Mr. Cop- 
land in advance of the first performance. 

"The opera takes place in the mid '30s, in June, spring harvest time. 
It's about a farm family — a mother, a daughter who's just about to 
graduate from high school, a younger sister of ten, and a grandfather. 
There's big doings in the works — no-one in the family has ever 
graduated before, and a whopping party is planned for the occasion. 

"Then two drifters come along asking for odd jobs. The grand- 
father is reluctant to give them any, and the mother is alarmed because 
she's heard reports of two young men molesting the young girls of the 
neighborhood. Nevertheless, the fellows are told they can sleep in the 
shed for the night. 

"The graduation party itself begins at the opening of the second 
act. The heroine, who by a genuine coincidence has the same name 
— Laurie — as the gal in Rodgers & Hammerstein's Oklahoma!, has, 
naturally, fallen in love with one of the drifters. And they prove it 
by singing a twelve-minute love duet. That, I can tell you, is revolu- 



The New England 
Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 
James Aliferis, President 



Wed., Oct. 14, 8:30 p.m. 

Conservatory Symphony 
Orchestra 

James Dixon, Conductor 
Haydn — Bartok — Schumann 
Tickets required, no charge 



Thurs., Oct. 15, 8:30 p.m. 
Cornell University Trio 

Haydn — Beethoven — N. Skalkottas 
No tickets required 



Both Concerts in Jordan Hall 
290 Huntington Ave., Boston 15 

[10] 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 

FOR OUR 

RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio 
audience has prompted a plan where- 
by anyone interested may receive the 
program bulletin each week on the 
basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first 
class mail each Thursday preceding 
the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the season of 
24 concerts, 1959-1960 is $6.00. 
Address the Program Office, Sym- 
phony Hall. 



BROADCASTS by the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Winter Season, 1959-1960 



The Saturday evening concerts of the Winter Season will 
be broadcast live on the following stations: 



WGBH-FM 
♦WCRB-AM 
*WCRB-FM 
**WXHR-FM 
**WTAG-FM 
**WHYN-FM 
**WNHC-FM 
**WQXR-AM 
**WQXR-FM 
**WFIL-FM 
**WFMZ-FM 
**WFLY-FM 
**WITH-FM 
**WRRC-FM 
**WNBF-FM 
**WHLD-FM 
**WRRL-FM 
**WRRA-FM 
**WJTN-FM 
**WHDL-FM 
**WHFM-FM 
**WSYR-FM 
**WRRD-FM 
**WRUN-FM 
**WSNJ-AM 
**WSNJ-FM 



89.7 mc Boston 

1330 kc Boston 

102.5 mc Boston 

96.9 mc Boston 

96.1 mc Worcester 

93.1 mc Springfield 

99.1 mc New Haven 

1560 kc New York 

96.3 mc New York 

102.1 mc Philadelphia 

100.7 mc Alientown, Pa. 

92.3 mc Troy, N. Y. 

104.3 mc Baltimore 

101.9 mc Cherry Valley, N. Y. 

98.1 mc Binghamton, N. Y. 

98.5 mc Buffalo, N. Y. 

107.7 mc Wethersfield, N. Y. 

103.7 mc Ithaca, N. Y. 

93.3 mc Jamestown, N. Y. 

95.7 mc Olean, N. Y. 

98.9 mc Rochester, N. Y. 

94.5 mc Syracuse, N. Y. 

105.1 mc DeRuyter, N. Y. 

105.7 mc Utica, N. Y. 

1240 kc Bridgeton, N. J. 

98.9 mc Bridgeton, N. J. 



The Friday afternoon concerts of the Winter Season will 
be broadcast live on the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WXHR-FM 96.9 mc Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 
by transcription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 
the performances on the following stations: 



*WGBH-FM 

*WBCN-FM 

WXCN-FM 

WHCN-FM 

WMTW-FM 

*WAMC-FM 



89.7 mc Boston 

104.1 mc Boston 

101.5 mc Providence 

105.9 mc Hartford 

94.9 mc Mount Washington, N. H. 

90.7 mc Albany 



The Concerts of the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 
be broadcast bv the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WGBH-TV Channel 2 Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albanv 

WENH-TV Channel 11 Durham, N. H. 

The Sunday afternoon and Tuesday evening concerts at 
Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 
FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 



* - Stereophonic Broadcast 



**- Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[«] 



tionary. After all, love duets are a sort of rarity in modern opera, and 
twelve minutes is a long time. 

"But about their budding love affair there is something of a com- 
plication. You see, she associates him with freedom, with getting away 
from home, and he associates her with settling down. Martin (that's 
the hero's name) asks Laurie to run away with him, and she, of course, 
accepts. But in the middle of the night, after a long discussion with 
his fellow hobo, Top, he decides that his kind of roving life is not for 
Laurie, so he silently steals off. 

"When Laurie discovers that she's been jilted, she decides to leave 
home, anyway, and at the conclusion of the opera the mother sings a 
song — a song of acceptance that is the key to the opera. In it she looks 
to her younger daughter as the continuation of the family cycle that is 
the whole reason for their existence." 

The Party Scene is, as indicated, music from the Act II graduation 
party, especially the square dance material from that act. 

The Finale is an exact transcription for orchestra of the vocal 
quintet that concludes Act I of the opera. 

Horace Everett's text of the Quintet ("The Promise of Living") is 

as follows: 

The promise of living 
With hope and thanksgiving 
Is born of our loving 
Our friends and our labor. 

The promise of growing 
With faith and with knowing 
Is born of our sharing 
Our love with our neighbor 

The promise of living 
The promise of growing 
Is born of our singing 
In joy and thanksgiving. 

(Copyright by Boosey and Hawkes) 
[copyrighted] 



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[12] 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, IN C MINOR, Op. 67 
By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The Fifth Symphony was completed near the end of the year 1807, and first 
performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, December 22, 1808, Beethoven 
conducting. The parts were published in April, 1809, and the score in March, 1826. 
The dedication is to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky. 

The Symphony is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons 
and double-bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings (the 
piccolo, trombones and double-bassoon, here making their first appearance in a 
symphony of Beethoven, are used only in the Finale). 

Something in the direct, impelling drive of the first movement of the 
C minor symphony commanded the general attention when it was 
new, challenged the skeptical, and soon forced its acceptance. Goethe 
heard it with grumbling disapproval, according to Mendelssohn, but 
was astonished and impressed in spite of himself. Lesueur, hidebound 
professor at the Conservatoire, was talked by Berlioz into breaking his 
vow never to listen to another note of Beethoven, and found his prej- 
udices and resistances quite swept away. A less plausible tale reports 
Maria Malibran as having been thrown into convulsions by this sym- 
phony. The instances could be multiplied. There was no gainsaying 
that forthright, sweeping storminess. 

Even if the opening movement could have been denied, the tender 
melodic sentiment of the Andante was more than enough to offset 
conservative objections to "waywardness" in the development, and 
the lilting measures of the scherzo proper were more than enough to 
compensate the "rough" and puzzling Trio. The joyous, marchlike 
theme of the finale carried the symphony on its crest to popular 
success, silencing at length the objections of those meticulous musi- 



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cians who found that movement "commonplace" and noisy. Certain 
of the purists, such as Louis Spohr, were outraged at hearing the 
disreputable tones of trombones and piccolo in a symphony. But 
Spohr could not resist Beethoven's uncanny touch in introducing a 

reminiscence of the scherzo before the final coda. Even Berlioz, who 
was usually with Beethoven heart and soul, felt called upon to make 
a half-apology for the elementary finale theme. It seemed to him that 
the repetitiousness of the finale inevitably lessened the interest. After 
the magnificent first entrance of the theme, the major tonality so 
miraculously prepared for in the long transitional passage, all that 
could follow seemed to him lessened by comparison, and he was forced 
to take refuge in the simile of a row of even columns, of which the 
nearest looms largest. 

It has required the weathering of time to show the Beethoven of 
the Fifth Symphony to be in no need of apologies, to be greater than 
his best champions suspected. Some of his most enthusiastic conduc- 
tors in the century past seem to have no more than dimly perceived 
its broader lines, misplaced its accents, under or over shot the mark 
when they attempted those passages which rely upon the understand- 
ing and dramatic response of the interpreter. Wagner castigated those 
who hurried over the impressive, held E-flat in the second bar, who 
sustained it no longer than the "usual duration of a forte bow stroke." 
Even many years later, Arthur Nikisch was taken to task for over- 
prolonging those particular holds. Felix Weingartner, as recently as 
1906, in his "On the Performance of the Symphonies of Beethoven," 
felt obliged to warn conductors against what would now be considered 
unbelievable liberties, such as adding horns in the opening measures 
of the symphony. He also told them to take the opening eighth notes 
in tempo, and showed how the flowing contours of the movement must 
not be obscured by false accentuation. 

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[14] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



Remaining Tuesday evening concerts in Providence: 

NOVEMBER 24 
DECEMBER 29 
FEBRUARY 23 
APRIL 5 



Tickets are on sale at the Avery Piano Company, 
256 Weybosset Street, Providence 

The Friday afternoon concerts at 2:15 and Saturday 
evening concerts at 8:30 are broadcast direct from 
Symphony Hall by Station WGBH-FM, Boston. 

The Friday-Saturday concerts will be broadcast by tran- 
scription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 
the performances by Station WXCN-FM, Providence. 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM • PROVIDENCE 

[15] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 



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Studios: 16 Conrad Bldg., 349 Morris Avenue 

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[16] 



SEATS NOW AT RESPECTIVE BOX-OFFICES: 

AARON RICHMOND presents 
Thur. - Fri. Eves., Oct. 22-23 • SYMPHONY HALL 

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FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 

Veterans Memorial Auditorium, Providence 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 
Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 

E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andr£ Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 
Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 

Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



S E V E N T Y - N I N T H SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



Presiden t 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 

[1] 




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Open Mondays 



[«] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Three Hundred and Fifty-second Concert in Providence 



Second Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, November 24, at 8:15 o'clock 



Berlioz ^Fantastic Symphony, Op. 14a 

I. Reveries, Passions 

Largo: Allegro agitato e appassionato assai 

II. A Ball 

Waltz: Allegro non troppo 

III. Scene in the Meadows 

Adagio 

IV. March to the Scaffold 

Allegretto non troppo 

V. Dream of a Witches' Sabbath 
Larghetto: Allegro 



INTERMISSION 

Debussy *"La Mer," Three Orchestral Sketches 

I. De l'aube a midi sur la mer 
II. Jeux de vagues 
III. Dialogue du vent et de la mer 

Ravel *"Daphnis et Chloe," Ballet (Second Suite) 

Lever du jour — Pantomime — Danse g£nerale 



By order of the Chief of the Providence Fire Department, smoking is 
allowed only in the ticket lobby and the lower lobby of the auditorium. 

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THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
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Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



[4] 



FANTASTIC SYMPHONY (SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE). 

Op. 14A 

By Hector Berlioz 

Born at la Cote-Saint-Andre (Isere) , December 11, 1803; died in Paris, March 8, 1S69 



Berlioz's title, "Episode in the Life of an Artist," Op. 14, includes two works: 
The Fantastic Symphony and Lelio; or, The Return to Life, a lyric monodrama. 

The Symphony, composed in 1830, had its first performance December 5 of that 
year at the Conservatoire in Paris, Habeneck conducting. 

The first performance in the United States was at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society of New York, Carl Bergmann conducting, January 27, 1866. The Symphony 
was first performed in Boston by the Harvard Musical Association, February 12, 
1880. and first performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, December 19, 1885. 

It is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets and E-flat 
clarinet, 4 bassoons, 2 cornets-a-pistons, 2 trumpets, 4 horns, 3 trombones, 2 tubas, 
tirrpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, bells, 2 harps, piano, and strings. 

The score is dedicated to Nicholas I. of Russia. 

There have been many attempts to explain that extraordinary 
musical apparition of 1830, the Symphonie Fantastique. Berlioz 
himself was explicit, writing of the "Episode in the Life of an Artist" 
as "the history of my love for Miss Smithson, my anguish and my dis- 
tressing dreams." This in his Memoirs; but he also wrote there: "It 
was while I was still strongly under the influence of Goethe's poem 
[Faust] that I wrote my Symphonie Fantastique/' 

Yet the "Episode" cannot be put down simply as a sort of lover's 
confession in music, nor its first part as a "Faust" symphony. In 1830, 



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Berlioz had never talked to Miss Smithson. He was what would now 
be called a "fan" of the famous Irish actress, for she scarcely knew of 
the existence of the obscure and perhaps crazy young French composer 
who did not even speak her language. Her image was blended in the 
thoughts of the entranced artist with the parts in which he beheld 
her on the boards — Ophelia or Juliet — as Berlioz shows in his excited 
letters to his friend Fernand at the time. Can that image be reconciled 
with the "courtesan" of the last movement, who turned to scorn all 
that was tender and noble in the beloved theme, the idee fixe? The 
Berlioz specialists have been at pains to explain the "affreuses verites" 
with which Berlioz charged her in his letter to Fernand (April 30, 
1830). These truths, unexplained, may have been nothing more fright- 
ful than his realization that Miss Smithson was less a goddess than a 
flesh and blood human being who, also, was losing her vogue. The 
poet's "vengeance" makes no sense, except that illogic is the stuff of 
dreams. It would also be an over-simplification to say that Berlioz 
merely wanted to use a witches' sabbath in his score and altered his 
story accordingly. Berlioz did indeed decide at last to omit the story 
from his programs (for performances of the Symphony without the 
companion piece Lelio*) . He no doubt realized that the wild story 

* Lelio was intended to follow the Symphony. The "composer of music" speaks, in front of 
the stage, addressing "friends," "pupils," "brigands," and "spectres" behind it. He has 
recovered from his opium dreams and speculates on music and life in general, after the 
manner of Hamlet, which play he also discusses. 



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Designers of the instruments for : 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[6] 



made for distraction and prejudice, while the bare titles allowed the 
music to speak persuasively in its own medium. At first, when he 
drafted and re-drafted the story, he cannot be acquitted of having tried 
to draw the attention of Paris to his music, and it is equally plain that 
to put a well-known stage figure into his story would have helped 
his purpose. The sensational character of the music could also have 
been intended to capture public attention — which it did. But Berlioz 
has been too often hauled up for judgment for inconsistencies in what 
he wrote, said, and did. His critics (and Adolphe Boschot is the worst 
offender in this) have been too ready to charge him with insincerity 
or pose. His music often contradicts such charges, or makes them in- 
consequential. 

It would be absurd to deny that some kind of wild phantasmagoria 
involving the composer's experiences of love, literature, the stage, and 
much else must have had a good deal to do with the motivation of 
the Symphony. Jacques Barzunj brilliantly demonstrates that through 
Chateaubriand Berlioz well knew the affecting story of Paul and Vir- 
ginia, of the fates of Dido and of Phedre, of the execution of Chenier. 
E. T. A. Hoffmann's Tales filled him with the fascination of the super- 
natural and De Quincey's Confessions of an Opium Eater, in de 
Musset's translation, may well have contributed. But who in this age, 

t Berlioz and the Romantic Century, 1950. 




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so remote from the literary aesthetic of that one, will attempt to 
"understand" Berlioz in the light of all these influences, or reconcile 
them with a "love affair" which existed purely in his own imagination? 
The motivation of the simplest music is not to be penetrated — let 
alone this one. Enough that Berlioz directed his rampant images, 
visual, musical or literary, into what was not only a symphonic self- 
revelation, but a well-proportioned, dramatically unified symphony, a 
revolution in the whole concept of instrumental music comparable 
only to the Eroica itself. 

For it should be borne in mind that symphonic music by the year 
1830 had never departed from strictly classical proprieties. The waltz 
had never risen above the ballroom level. Beethoven had been dead 
but a few years and the Pastoral Symphony and Leonore Overtures 
were still the last word in descriptive music. Even opera with its fond- 
ness for eery subjects had produced nothing more graphic than the 
Wolf's Glen scene from "Der Freischiltz" — musical cold shivers which 
Berlioz had heard at the Opera and absorbed with every fibre in his 
being. Wagner was still an unknown student of seventeen with all of 
his achievement still ahead of him. Liszt was not to invent the "sym- 
phonic poem" for nearly twenty years. That composer's cackling 
Mephistopheles, various paraphrases of the Dies Irae, Till on the 
scaffold — these and a dozen other colorful high spots in music are 
direct descendants of the Fantastique. [copyrighted] 



FIFTEENTH SEASON 

RHODE ISLAND 
PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA 

FRANCIS MADEIRA, Music Director 

FIVE WINTER SUBSCRIPTION CONCERTS 

Second Concert 

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 8, at 8:30 p.m. 

JOSEPH HAWTHORNE, Guest Conductor 

GERARD KANTARJIAN, Violinist 

Beethoven Overture to Goethe's "Egmont" 

Lalo Symphonie Espagnole 

Haydn Symphony No. 104 ("London") 

Berger Three Pieces for String Orchestra 

Glazounov Autumn, from "The Seasons" 



VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM 

Tickets for each concert available at 

PHILHARMONIC OFFICE, Room 638, 49 Westminster St., TEmple 1-3123 

AXELROD MUSIC INC. AVERY PIANO COMPANY 



[8] 



"THE SEA" (Three Orchestral Sketches) 

By Claude Debussy 

Born at Saint-Germain (Seine-et-Oise), France, August 22, 1862; 

died at Paris, March 25, 1918 



It was in the years 1903-05 that Debussy composed "La Mer." It was first 
performed at the Concerts Lamoureux in Paris, October 15, 1905. 

"La Mer" is scored for piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets, 3 
bassoons, double bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 2 cornets-d-pistons, 3 trombones, 
tuba, cymbals, triangle, tam-tam, glockenspiel (or celesta), timpani, bass drum, 
2 harps, and strings. 

Debussy made a considerable revision of the score, which was published in 1909. 

T T then Debussy composed "La Mer: Trois esquisses symphoniques" 
* * he was secure in his fame, the most argued composer in France, 
and, to his annoyance, the most imitated. "L'Apres-midi d'un Faune" 
of 1894 and the Nocturnes of 1898 were almost classics, and the first 
performance of "Pelleas et Melisande" was a recent event (1902). 
Piano, chamber works, songs were to follow "La Mer" with some 
regularity; of larger works the three orchestral "Images" were to 
occupy him for the next six years. "Le Martyr de St. Sebastien" was 
written in 1911; "Jeux" in 1912. 

In a preliminary draft* of "La Mer" Debussy labeled the first move- 
ment "Mer belle aux lies Sanguinaires" ; he was attracted probably by 
the sound of the words, for he was not familiar with Corsican scenery. 
The title "Jeux de Vagues" he kept; the finale was originally headed 
"Le Vent fait danser la mer" 

There could be no denying Debussy's passion for the sea: he fre- 
quently visited the coast resorts, spoke and wrote with constant enthu- 
siasm about "my old friend the sea, always innumerable and beautiful." 
He often recalled his impressions of the Mediterranean at Cannes, 

* This draft, dated "Sunday, March 5 at six o'clock in the evening," is in present possession 
of the Eastman School of Music at Rochester. 



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[9] 



where he spent boyhood days. It is worth noting, however, that 
Debussy did not seek the seashore while at work upon his "La Mer." 
His score was with him at Dieppe, in 1904, but most of it was written 
in Paris, a milieu which he chose, if the report of a chance remark is 
trustworthy, "because the sight of the sea itself fascinated him to such 
a degree that it paralyzed his creative faculties." When he went to the 
country in the summer of 1903, two years before the completion of 
"La Mer," it was not the shore, but the hills of Burgundy, whence he 
wrote to his friend Andre Messager (September 12): "You may not 
know that I was destined for a sailor's life and that it was only quite 
by chance that fate led me in another direction. But I have always 
retained a passionate love for her [the sea]. You will say that the 
Ocean does not exactly wash the Burgundian hillsides — and my 
seascapes might be studio landscapes; but I have an endless store of 
memories, and to my mind they are worth more than the reality, 
whose beauty often deadens thought." 

Debussy's deliberate remoteness from reality, consistent with his 
cultivation of a set and conscious style, may have drawn him from salty 
actuality to the curling lines, the rich detail and balanced symmetry of 
Hokusai's "The Wave." In any case, he had the famous print repro- 
duced upon the cover of his score. His love for Japanese art tempted 
him to purchases which in his modest student days were a strain upon 
his purse. His piano piece, "Poissons d'or," of 1907, was named from 
a piece of lacquer in his possession. 

[copyrighted] 



The New England 
Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 
James Aliferis, President 



Wed., Dec. 2 • 8:30 p.m. 

CHAMBER SINGERS 

James Aliferis, Conductor 

Faculty Soloists: 

James Pappoutsakis, Flute 

Alfred Zighera, Viola da gamba 

Melville Smith, Harpsichord 

Sixteenth century English, German, 

French and Italian madrigals 

Odes of Horace by Randall Thompson 

Part-songs by Ralph Vaughan Williams 

J. S. Bach : Sonata No. 6 for flute and 

harpsichord and Sonata No. 2 for 

viola da gamba and harpsichord 

L. Couperin pieces for solo harpsichord 

Jordan Hall 



Tickets without charge at Box Office 

or writing to the Dean, enclosing 

self -addressed stamped envelope. 



290 Huntington Ave., Boston 15 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 

FOR OUR 

RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio 
audience has prompted a plan where- 
by anyone interested may receive the 
program bulletin each week on the 
basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first 
class mail each Thursday preceding 
the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance 
of the season 1959-1960 is $5.00. 
Address the Program Office, Sym- 
phony Hall. 



[10] 



BROADCASTS by the 


BOSTON 


SYMPHOXY ORCHESTRA 


Winter Season 


, 1959-1960 


The Saturday evening concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the 


; following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


*WCRB-AM 


1330 


kc 


Boston 


♦WCRB-FM 


102.5 


mc 


Boston 


"WXHR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Boston 


**WTAG-FM 


96.1 


mc 


Worcester 


**WNHC-FM 


99.1 


mc 


New Haven 


**WQXR-AM 


1560 


kc 


New York 


**WQXR-FM 


96.3 


mc 


New York 


**WFIL-FM 


102.1 


mc 


Philadelphia 


**WFMZ-FM 


100.7 


mc 


Allentown, Pa. 


**WFLY-FM 


92.3 


mc 


Troy, N. Y. 


**WITH-FM 


104.3 


mc 


Baltimore 


**WNBF-FM 


98.1 


mc 


Binghamton, N. Y. 


**WGR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


**WRRA-FM 


103.7 


mc 


Ithaca, N. Y. 


**WJTN-FM 


93.3 


mc 


Jamestown, N. Y. 


**WHDL-FM 


95.7 


mc 


Olean, N. Y. 


**WROC-FM 


97.9 


mc 


Rochester, N. Y. 


**WSYR-FM 


94.5 


mc 


Syracuse, N. Y. 


**WRUN-FM 


105.7 


mc 


Utica, N. Y. 


**WSNJ-FM 


98.9 


mc 


Bridgeton, N. J. 


The Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the 


following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


WXHR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 


by transcription at 8 P.M 


. on th< 


s Monday evening following 


the performances 


on the 


following stations : 


*WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


*WBCN-FM 


104.1 


mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 


mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 


mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 


mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


♦WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of 


the Tuesday 


Sanders Theatre series will 


be broadcast by the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


WGBH-TV 


Channel 2 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


WENH-TV 


Channel 11 


Durham, N. H. 


The Sunday afte 


rnoon 


and T 


uesday evening concerts at 


Symphony Hall will be 


broadcast live on Station WXHR- 


FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 






*- Stereophonic Broadcast 




** - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[11] 



DAPHNIS ET CHLOE - Ballet in One Act: Second Suite 

By Maurice Ravel 
Born in Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; died in Paris, December 28, 1937 



The ballet Daphnis et Chloe was completed in 1911,* and first produced June 8, 
1912 by Diaghileff's Ballet Russe, at the Chdtelet in Paris, Pierre Monteux conducting. 

The ballet calls for the following instruments: 2 flutes, alto flute and piccolo, 
2 oboes and English horn, 2 clarinets, E-flat clarinet and bass clarinet, 3 bassoons 
and contra-bassoons, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, 
2 side drums, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, tambour, castanets, celesta, glockenspiel, 
2 harps and strings. 

TN his autobiographical sketch of 1928, Ravel described his Daphnis 
■*■ et Chloe as "a choreographic symphony in three parts, commissioned 
from me by the director of the company of the Ballet Russe: M. Serge 
de Diaghileff. The plot was by Michel Fokine, at that time choreog- 
rapher of the celebrated troupe. My intention in writing it was to 
compose a vast musical fresco, less scrupulous as to archaism than 
faithful to the Greece of my dreams, which inclined readily enough 
to what French artists of the late eighteenth century have imagined 
and depicted. 

"The work is constructed symphonically according to a strict tonal 
plan by the method of a few motifs, the development of which achieves 
a symphonic homogeneity of style. 

"Sketched in 1907, Daphnis was several times subjected to revision 
— notably the finale." 

There were late revisions. If Ravel's date of 1907! is indeed correct, 

* This according to Serge Lifar, who was a dancer in the Ballet Russe at that time. — "La 
Revue Musicale," December, 1938. 

t The date is surprising. Diaghileff's Ballet had its first Paris season in 1909 ; 1909, and 
sometimes 1910, are given as that in which Ravel began "Daphnis et Chloe." Roland-Manuel 
thinks that Ravel made a "mistake of two years" in naming 1907, which again is surprising, 
since Roland-Manuel originally wrote the autobiographical sketch at Ravel's dictation. In 1907 
Diaghileff was in Paris and probably had met Ravel, but there was no plan as yet for a ballet 
season in Paris. It is, of course, possible that Ravel's first sketches for "Daphnis et Chloe" 
were purely symphonic in intent, a fact he might not have been quick to admit after the 
vicissitudes of the piece in the theatre. 




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"Daphnis et Chloe" was five years in the making and must indeed have 
many times been "remis sur le metier," as Ravel expressed it, before the 
perfectionist was sufficiently content with his handiwork to release it 
for dancing and for printing. 

The choreography is taken directly from the book of the same name 
by Longus, the writer of ancient Greece of unknown date. It is the 
oldest of countless tales of the love thwarted by circumstance, and the 
final union of a shepherd and shepherdess. The two suites familiar 
to concert audiences consist of the second and third parts of the ballet. 
Between them is an episode in which Chloe, a captive, her hands 
bound, tries to escape. 

In the third part of the ballet (which is the second suite) the scene is 
that of the beginning. It is night. Daphnis, mourning Chloe, is still 
prostrate. As the light of dawn gradually fills the scene, shepherds enter, 
seeking Daphnis and Chloe. They find Daphnis and wake him; Chloe 
enters and tne lovers embrace. Chloe, beloved of the gods, has been 
saved by the intervention of Pan. Daphnis and Chloe reenact the story 
of Pan and Syrinx, the nymph who, according to the legend, successfully 
evaded the god's pursuit, whereupon he broke off reeds from the thicket 
into which she had disappeared and fashioned what was to become the 
traditional ancestor to the flute. The others join in the dance, which 
becomes wild and bacchanalian. Chloe falls into the arms of Daphnis. 
The ballet ends in a joyous tumult. 



Diaghileff, deflecting the principal creative musicians of the day 
(Stravinsky, Strauss, Debussy) to his purposes, could not quite make 
ballet composers out of them, and the same may be said of Ravel. 
Nijinsky and Karsavina danced the title parts in the original produc- 
tion. The scenario was by Fokine; the designer of scenery and costumes 



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was Leon Bakst. An indifferent success was reported, attributable in 
part to a gathering storm of dissension between Fokine and Diaghileff. 
There was considerable dissension within the Ballet Russe at the time. 
Disagreement seems to have centered on the problem of a danced 
presentation of subjects from Ancient Greece. Nijinsky, even while 
miming the character of Daphnis, was executing, according to novel 
ideas of his own, "UApres-Midi d'un Faune." It can be well imagined 
that, in the presentation of ''Daphnis et Chloe," Nijinsky and Fokine 
found it hard to work together. One can further surmise, from Ravel's 
later allusion to "the Greece of his dreams," a "late eighteenth century" 
Greece would not have contributed toward single-mindedness in the 
rehearsals of "Daphnis." Those rehearsals were many and extended to 
the very morning of the first performance. They took place, according 
to Serge Lifar, "under a storm cloud. The corps de ballet ran afoul of 
the 5-4 rhythm in the finale, and counted it out by repeating the sylla- 
bles 'Ser-ge-Dia-ghi-leff,' 'Ser-ge-Dia-ghi-leff.' " When the season ended, 
there duly followed the break between Fokine and Diaghileff. As for 
the music itself, it has found fitful usefulness in the theatre, but enjoys 
a lusty survival in the concert hall. 

[copyrighted] 



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[14] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



Remaining Tuesday evening concerts in Providence: 

DECEMBER 29 
FEBRUARY 23 
APRIL 5 



Tickets are on sale at the Avery Piano Company, 
256 Weybosset Street, Providence 

The Friday afternoon concerts at 2:15 and Saturday 
evening concerts at 8:30 are broadcast direct from 
Symphony Hall by Station WGBH-FM, Boston. 

The Friday-Saturday concerts will be broadcast by tran- 
scription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 
the performances by Station WXCN-FM, Providence. 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM • PROVIDENCE 

[15] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 

AVIS BLIVEN CHARBONNEL 

CONCERT PIANIST 

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Phone: GA 1144 




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Phone: DE 1-5667 



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Beginners to Artist Pupils 
Pupils prepared for Public Performances 
434 BROOK ST., PROVIDENCE - GA 1-8781 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Bach Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) 

Barber Medea's Dance of Vengeance 

Adagio for Strings 

Beethoven Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 

Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 
Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 
Symphony No. 9 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Berlioz "L'Enfance du Christ" 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 

Bloch "Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 

Brahms Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 
Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffmax) 

Debussy "The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 

"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 

Dukas The Apprentice Sorceror 

Elgar Introduction and Allegro 

Franck Symphony No. 1 in D minor 

Ibert "Escales" (Ports of Call) 

d'Indy Symphony on a Mountain Air 

(Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 

Martinu 

Mendelssohn 



LM- 



Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 

Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 

Saint- Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



Wagner 



Walton 



"Fantaisies Symphoniques" 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) 

Symphony No. 6 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" 
"Mother Goose" Suite 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) 
"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures 
Symphony No. 4 
Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) 
Serenade for Strings 

Excerpts, "Tannhauser," Tristan," 
"The Ring" (Eileen Farrell) 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) 



2182, 
LM 
LM 

LM 
LM 

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LM- 
LM 

LM- 
LM- 

LM 

LM- 
LM 
LM 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 

LM- 

LM- 

LM- 
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LM- 

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LM- 
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LM- 

LM- 

LM- 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 

LM- 

LM- 
LM- 
LM 

LM- 

LM- 
LM- 



2198 
-2197 
-2105 

2015 

•2233 
-1997 
■6066 
■1992 

■6053 
-2228 

-2109 

■2097 
-1959 
-2274 

•2030 
-2111 

•1984 
•2282 

■2292 
•2105 
■2131 
■2111 

•2271 

■1760 

■2083 

-2221 
■2314 

■2073 

■2083 

•2110 
•2197 
2314 

2237 

1984 
2292 

1760 
2292 

2344 

2043 
1953 
2239 
2105 

2255 

2100 



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51 



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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 



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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 
Veterans Memorial Auditorium, Providence 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhap6 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\y Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administratoi 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Three Hundred and Fifty-third Concert in Providence 



Third Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, December 29, at 8:15 o'clock 



RICHARD BURGIN, Conductor 

Bruckner Symphony No. 5, in B-flat major 

I. Adagio; Allegro 
II. CAdagio 

III. 1 Scherzo: Molto vivace; Trio: Allegretto 

IV. Finale: Adagio; Allegro 

INTERMISSION 



Moussorgsky *"Pictures at an Exhibition," Piano Pieces 

(Arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel) 

Promenade — Gnomus — Promenade — II vecchio castello — Tuileries — 
Bydlo — Promenade — Ballet of Chicks in their Shells — Samuel 
Goldenburg and Schmuyle — Limoges: The Marketplace — Cata- 
combs (Con mortuis in lingua mortua)— The Hut on Fowls' Legs — 
The Great Gate of Kiev. 



By order of the Chief of the Providence Fire Department, smoking is 
allowed only in the ticket lobby and the lower lobby of the auditorium. 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



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THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular LP.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



[4] 



SYMPHONY NO. 5 in B-flat major 

By Anton Bruckner 

Born in Ansfelden, Austria, September 4, 1824; died in Vienna, October 11, 1896 



Bruckner began to compose his Fifth Symphony in 1875. According to notations 
on the manuscript, he wrote (or sketched) the Adagio and Scherzo in the first part 
of that year. He composed the first and last movements in the spring of 1876 and 
completed the score by January 4, 1878. The symphony, which had been revised in 
the course of sixteen years, was first performed under the direction of Franz Schalk 
at Graz, April 8, 1894. Ferdinand Lowe introduced the symphony to Vienna 
December 18, 1898, having performed it in Budapest and Munich. 

The only previous performance of this symphony by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra was given by Wilhelm Gericke on November 28, 1901, and this may have 
been the first performance of the work in the United States. 

The score from the "original" manuscript (without the later revisions) was pub- 
lished in 1936 by the Internationale Bruckner Gesellschaft, edited by Robert Haas 
and Alfred Orel in Vienna. 

The score of the revised edition, which is used in the present performances, 
requires 3 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, 
4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, cymbals, triangle, timpani and strings. 
A supplementary orchestra, used in the finale, consists of 3 trumpets, 3 trombones 
and tuba. 

T)ruckner's Fifth Symphony had a different fate from the others so 
-*-* far as the composer was concerned. Although it was music especially 
close to his heart, it was the only one (with the exception of the 
uncompleted Ninth) which he never heard performed by an orchestra. 
The three years' span in which he wrote it were lean years, years of 




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obscurity and poverty. Fame and recognition were to arrive later. 
He had come to Vienna from Linz in 1868. He obtained a teaching 
position at the Conservatory at a small salary, and an "expectant" 
appointment as ultimate successor to the post of Court Organist, a 
title without pay ("Titel ohne Mittel"). 

When he began to compose his Fifth Symphony, in the spring of 
1875, he was fifty-one, known as an organist who had been a choral 
conductor of high standing in Linz, an expert in the intricacies of 
counterpoint, but in appearance a school-teacher with awkward, obse- 
quious country ways. His ambition to become a composer of prodigious 
orchestral as well as choral music was little regarded if noticed at all. 
Individual discerning musicians perceived extraordinary talent in the 
huge, silent scores of the humble and ungainly Bruckner. Among them 
were three devoted young pupils who were later to become his con- 
ductorial and editorial apostles: Franz Schalk, Schalk's brother Joseph, 
and Ferdinand Lowe. There was also Joseph Herbeck, the Director of 
the Society of Friends of Music in Vienna, who brought out Bruckner's 
Mass in F minor in 1869; but his symphonies, of which he had com- 
posed and submitted four, were refused until the Second was performed 
by Herbeck in 1873. He had come to Vienna from Linz having written 
three masses, shorter choral works, and one symphony which he was 
willing to acknowledge. He could not have realized at first that reluc- 



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THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[6] 



tance to accept his music in Vienna was rooted in the anti-Wagner 
prejudice rampant at the time and the new ascendancy of the Brahms 
faction. To Bruckner Wagner was a god. He visited Bayreuth for 
the first Ring Cycle in 1876, and received the master's permission to 
dedicate his Third Symphony to him. The first performance of this 
Symphony took place in Vienna in December, 1877, when Bruckner 
conducted a performance by a reluctant orchestra before a hostile 
audience. A symphonist who attached himself to Wagner was too 
much. The audience walked out in numbers after each movement, and 
at last the composer found himself bowing to a dozen or so people, 
while standing on an empty stage. The effect of this fiasco upon the 
already discouraged composer may be imagined. As he picked up the 
despised score and was about to leave, a group of young admirers came 
up to him with words of praise. But he turned away, saying: "Lasst's 
mi aus, die Leut woll'n nix von mir wissen" The group included a 
seventeen-year-old student named Gustav Mahler, and an enthusiastic 
stranger who introduced himself as Theodor Raettig and who offered 
to publish the score. These warm approaches were of little help, for 
Bruckner became the open butt of anti-Wagner antipathy as Dr. 
Eduard Hanslick, the Wagner-hating critic, poured scathing derision 
upon his suffering head. He called the Third Symphony "Beethoven's 
Ninth invaded by Wagner's Valkyries and trampled under their 
horses' hoofs." 




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These unhappy events coincided with his work upon the Fifth 
Symphony (1875-1877). This Symphony was his most ambitious score 
until then.* Like most of his symphonies, it has three movements in 
slow or moderate tempo and one for the most part light and swift. 
The often somber mood is relieved by the Scherzo with its Ldndler 
rhythm and its shadowy pianissimo octaves. The dark moments are 
also dispelled by the Finale and the triumphant proclamation of the 
closing fugal chorale. 

Two characteristics in this Symphony strike the listener as an advance 
in integration upon those that preceded. The counterpoint is con- 
siderable — Bruckner's counterpoint (his skill was admitted even by his 
early opponents) is brought fluently into play in the combination of 
themes and counterthemes throughout, and is directed into much fugal 
manipulation in the Finale. Equally striking is the "cyclic" recurrence 
of thematic material, which, tentatively used by Bruckner in his 
earlier symphonies, and until then alien to all symphonic method, is 
here pervasive and binding.! The adagio which opens the first move- 

* August Goellerich, Bruckner's voluminous biographer, called it the "Tragic" Symphony. 
Walter Niemann called it the "Church" Symphony. Bruckner is quoted as referring to it 
as the "Fantastic" (perhaps in reference to the Scherzo), and also called it his "Kontra- 
punktisches Meister stuck." Others have identified it as the "Pizzicato" Symphony, for 
reasons obvious in the score. Surely the Symphony needs no title. 

t Assuming that the "symphonies" of Berlioz and Liszt are really program music, Schumann's 
D minor Symphony offers the only precedent. 



FIFTEENTH SEASON 

RHODE ISLAND 

PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA 

FRANCIS MADEIRA, Music Director 
FIVE WINTER SUBSCRIPTION CONCERTS 

Third Concert 

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 9, at 8:30 p.m. 

Khachaturian "Masquerade" Suite 

Weille Short Symphony 

Rimski-Korsakov Scheherezade 



VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM 

Tickets for each concert available at 

PHILHARMONIC OFFICE, Room 638, 49 Westminster St., TEmple 1-3123 

AXELROD MUSIC INC. AVERY PIANO COMPANY 



[8] 



ment is more than an introduction, for it is to recur several times as 
a bridge in the development, and is to appear again, little changed, 
at the beginning of the Finale. These opening measures consist of a 
pizzicato for the low strings in a mysterious pianissimo to which the 
legato voices of the upper strings are gradually added: 
Ada&io. 



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The slow movement likewise opens (and also closes) with pizzicati, 
thematically different. The slow movement and the Scherzo are closely 
related, as in the latter the themes are transformed to a different pur- 
pose. Again in the Finale the principal theme of the first movement 
is brought in to be fugally combined. 

The Adagio is based on two principal melodies, the first played by 
the oboes in 4/4 against the pizzicato accompaniment in 6/4.* The 
second is given to the strings: 
Sehr breit. 



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* "Karl Muck actually used to beat the 6/4 with the baton in his right hand and the 4/4 with 
his left hand. Nikisch, when I asked him how he mastered the difficulty, answered : 'I always 
help the group which needs me most.' " — Werner Wolff. 



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Each is developed in turn, variation-wise, until the first theme brings 
the climax in full statement. 

The Scherzo begins in the tempo and lilting character of an Austrian 
Landler: 



Molto vivace 



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This section is repeated with a literal da capo after a trio in contrasting 
2/4 rhythm. Max Auer called the Scherzo "an inspired persiflage of 
the Adagio." 

The Finale, after the introductory repetition from the first move- 
ment, exposes and develops separately the main theme from the first 
movement: 



iM^yw 



Horn. 



The tfew England 
Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

James Aliferis, President 

Wed., Jan. 6 • 8:30 p.m. 

RECITAL OF PIANO MUSIC 

BY CANDIDATES FOR 

THE ARTIST'S DIPLOMA 

DEBUSSY RAVEL 
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No tickets required 



Tues. and Wed., Jan. 12, 13 
8:30 P.M. 

Workshop Performances of 

"THE MARRIAGE OF FIGARO" 

By Mozart 

Staged, directed and accompanied by 

BORIS GOLDOVSKY 

No tickets required 



290 Huntington Ave., Boston 15 



[10] 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 

FOR OUR 

RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio 
audience has prompted a plan where- 
by anyone interested may receive the 
program bulletin each week on the 
basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first 
class mail each Thursday preceding 
the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance 
of the season 1959-1960 is $4.00 
Address the Program Office, Sym- 
phony Hall. 



BROADCASTS by the 


BOSTON 


SYMPHOIVY ORCHESTRA 


Wint 

The Saturday eve 


er Season 


, 1959-1960 


ning concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


*WCRB-AM 


1330 kc 


Boston 


*WCRB-FM 


102.5 mc 


Boston 


**WXHR-FM 


96.9 mc 


Boston 


**WTAG-FM 


96.1 mc 


Worcester 


**WNHC-FM 


99.1 mc 


New Haven 


**WQXR-AM 


1560 kc 


New York 


**WQXR-FM 


96.3 mc 


New York 


**WFIL-FM 


102.1 mc 


Philadelphia 


**WFMZ-FM 


100.7 mc 


Allentown, Pa. 


**WFLY-FM 


92.3 mc 


Troy, N. Y. 


**WITH-FM 


104.3 mc 


Baltimore 


**WNBF-FM 


98.1 mc 


Binghamton, N. Y. 


**WGR-FM 


96.9 mc 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


**WRRA-FM 


103.7 mc 


Ithaca, N. Y. 


**WJTN-FM 


93.3 mc 


Jamestown, N. Y. 


**WHDL-FM 


95.7 mc 


Olean, N. Y. 


**WROC-FM 


97.9 mc 


Rochester, N. Y. 


**WSYR-FM 


94.5 mc 


Syracuse, N. Y. 


**WRUN-FM 


105.7 mc 


Utica, N. Y. 


**WSNJ-FM 


98.9 mc 


Bridgeton, N. J. 


The Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


WXHR-FM 


96.9 mc 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 


by transcription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 


the performances 


on the following stations: 


*WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


*WBCN-FM 


104.1 mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


*WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 


be broadcast by the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


WGBH-TV 


Channel 2 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 


WENH-TV 


Channel 11 


Durham, N. H. 


The Sunday afte 


rnoon and Tuesday evening concerts at 


Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 


FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 




* - Stereophonic Broadcast 


** - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[11] 



There is the following fugal subject: 

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A second subject, a chorale theme, is associated with the wind choirs. 



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He then proceeds to combine them in a long fugato with a new 
episode of fluent interwoven scale passages.* At the last the sturdy 
chorale phrase is built up, with the addition of a separately placed 
brass group, to a great tonal climax. 

Binding elements in the two middle movements, and a still closer 
stylistic and thematic connection between the first and last, seem to 
give some significance to the fact that the inside movements first 
occupied the composer in the spring of 1875, the outside movements 
just a year later. 



* These smoothly worked-in scale passages suggest that Bruckner knew and loved the quintet 
in Die Meister singer. 

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"PICTURES AT AN EXHIBITION" 
(Pianoforte Pieces) 

By Modest Petrovitch Moussorgsky 

Born in Karevo, district of Toropeta, in the government of Pskov, March 21, 1839; 
died in St. Petersburg, March 28, 1881 

Arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel 
Born in Ciboure, Basses-Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; died in Paris, December 28, 1937 



Moussorgsky composed his suite of piano pieces in June, 1874. Maurice Ravel 
made his orchestral setting of them in 1923. The first performance of this orches- 
tration was at a "Koussevitzky Concert" in Paris, May 3, 1923. Dr. Koussevitzky 
first played the suite at the Boston Symphony concerts November 7, 1924. It was 
last performed February 22-23, 1 957' w hen Igor Markevitch was the guest conductor. 

The orchestration consists of 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English horn, 

2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, alto saxophone, 4 horns, 

3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, snare drum, triangle, 
tam-tam, whip, celesta, xylophone, glockenspiel, 2 harps, rattle, chime and strings. 

Promenade. As preface to the first "picture," and repeated as a link 
in passing from each to the next, in the early numbers, is a promenade. 
It is an admirable self-portrait of the composer, walking from picture 
to picture, pausing dreamily before one and another in fond memory 
of the artist. Moussorgsky said that his "own physiognomy peeps out 
through all the intermezzos," an absorbed and receptive face "nel modo 
russico." The theme, in a characteristically Russian 11-4 rhythm 
suggests, it must be said, a rather heavy tread.* 

Gnomus. There seems reason to dispute RiesmamYs description: 
"the drawing of a dwarf who waddles with awkward steps on his short, 
bandy legs; the grotesque jumps of the music, and the clumsy, crawling 
movements with which these are interspersed, are forcibly suggestive." 

Il Vecchio Castello. No such item occurs in the catalogue, but 
the Italian title suggests a group of architectural water colors which 

* One recalls the story of Bernard Shaw, reviewing an exhibition of Alpine landscapes in 
London, tramping through the galleries in hob-nailed boots. 



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[13] 



Hartmann made in Italy. "A mediaeval castle," says Stassov, "before 
which stands a singing troubadour." Moussorgsky seems to linger over 
this picture with a particular fascination. (Ravel used the saxophone 
to carry his nostalgic melody.) 

Tuileries. Children disputing after their play. An alley in the 
Tuileries gardens with a swarm of nurses and children. (The catalogue 
names this drawing merely as Jardin des Tuileries.) The composer, 
as likewise in his children's songs, seems to have caught a plaintive 
intonation in the children's voices, which Ravel scored for the high 
woodwinds. 

Bydlo. "Bydlo" is the Polish word for "cattle." A Polish wagon 
with enormous wheels comes lumbering along, to the tune of a "folk 
song in the Aeolian mode, evidently sung by the driver." 

Ballet of Chicks in Their Shells. Hartmann made sketches for 
the costumes and settings of the ballet "Trilbi," which, with choreog- 
raphy by M arius Petipa and music by Julius Gerber, was performed at 
the Bolshoi Theater in St. Petersburg in 1871. The sketches described 
in the exhibition catalogue show canaries "enclosed in eggs as in suits 
of armor. Instead of a head-dress, canary heads, put on like helmets, 
down to the neck." 



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[14] 



Samuel Goldenburg and Schmuyle. This depiction, like "Bydlo," 
is identified with sketches made at Sandomierz, a small town in Poland 
not far from Warsaw. Hartmann's wife was Polish. He spent a month 
at Sandomierz in 1868, sketching many figures in the Jewish district. 

Limoges. The Market-place. Market women dispute furiously. 

Catacombs. According to the catalogue: "Interior of Paris cata- 
combs with figures of Hartmann, the architect Kenel, and the guide 
holding a lamp." In the original manuscript, Moussorgsky had written 
above the Andante in D minor: "The creative spirit of the dead 
Hartmann leads me towards skulls, apostrophizes them — the skulls 
are illuminated gently from within." 

The Hut on Fowls' Legs. The drawing is listed as "Baba Yaga's 
hut on fowls' legs. Clock, Russian style of the 14th century. 

The Great Gate at Kiev. Six sketches for the projected gate at 
Kiev are listed in the catalogue and thus described: "Stone city-gates 
for Kiev, Russian style, with a small church inside; the city council had 
planned to build these in 1869, in place of the wooden gates, to com- 
memorate the event of April 4, 1886." 

[copyrighted] 

seventy-ninth season • nineteen hundred fifty-nine - sixty 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



Remaining Tuesday evening concerts in Providence: 
FEBRUARY 23 
APRIL 5 



Tickets are on sale at the Avery Piano Company, 
256 Weybosset Street, Providence 

The Friday afternoon concerts at 2:15 and Saturday 
evening concerts at 8:30 are broadcast direct from 
Symphony Hall by Station WGBH-FM, Boston. 

The Friday-Saturday concerts will be broadcast by tran- 
scription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 
the performances by Station WXCN-FM, Providence. 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



VETERANS MEMORIAE AUDITORIUM • PROVIDENCE 

[15] 



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Beginners to Artist Pupils 
Pupils prepared for Public Performances 
434 BROOK ST., PROVIDENCE - GA 1-8781 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



Bach 

Barber 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

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Medea's Dance of Vengeance 

Adagio for Strings 

Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 

Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 

Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 

Symphony No. 9 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

"L'Enfance du Christ" 
"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 
Symphony No. 1 
"Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 
Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 
Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) 

"The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 
"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 

The Apprentice Sorceror 
Introduction and Allegro 
Symphony No. 1 in D minor 
Symphony No. 2 
"Escales" (Ports of Call) 
Symphony on a Mountain Air 
(Henriot-Schweitzer) 
Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 



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Bloch 

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Ravel 



Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



Wagner 
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"Fantaisies Symphoniques" 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) 

Symphony No. 6 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" 

"Mother Goose" Suite 

Piano Concerto (Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) 
"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures 
Symphony No. 4 
Symphony No. 5 (MONTEUX) 
Serenade for Strings 
Excerpts (Eileen Farrell) 
Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) 



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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959- iq6o 
Veterans Memorial Auditorium, Providence 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 






Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhap6 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes v 

Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean deVergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kabila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



S E VE N T Y - N I N T H SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CON 


CERT 


BULLETIN 


with 


his 


torical and 


descriptive 


notes 


by 






John N. Burk 







The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administratoi 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



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[*} 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE -SIXTY 



Three Hundred and Fifty-fourth Concert in Providence 



Fourth Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, February 23, at 8:15 o'clock 



Schubert *Symphony in B minor, "Unfinished" 

I. Allegro moderato 
II. Andante con mo to 

Mahler Adagio from the Tenth Symphony (Posthumous) 

INTERMISSION 

Mendelssohn Symphony No. 3, in A minor, "Scottish," Op. 56 

I. Andante con moto; Allegro un poco agitato 

II. Vivace non troppo 

III. Adagio 

IV. Allegro vivacissimo; Allegro maestoso assai 

(Played without pause) 



By order of the Chief of the Providence Fire Department, smoking is 
allowed only in the ticket lobby and the lower lobby of the auditorium. 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS 

Each subscriber will receive about March 15 
a renewal card for the 1960-1961 Season. 



[3] 



yVLtfocb/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rca Victor records exclusively 



4 living stereo fe 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



© RCA\ICTOR 



[4] 



SYMPHONY IN B MINOR, "UNFINISHED' 

By Franz Schubert 

Born in Lichtenthal, near Vienna, January 31, 1797; 
died in Vienna, November 19, 1828 



This Symphony, sometimes listed as No. 8,* was composed in 1822 (it was begun 
October 30), and first performed thirty-seven years after the composer's death. It 
was conducted by Herbeck at a concert of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 
Vienna, December 17, 1865. 

The orchestration: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones, timpani and strings. 



"That incomparable song of sorrow which we wrong 
every time we call it 'Unfinished.* " — Alfred Einstein. 

>t*he bare facts of Schubert's "Unfinished" Symphony are soon told. 
"■• It was on April 10, 1823, some months after he had composed the 
two movements, that his friend Johann Baptist Jenger put up his 
name for honorary membership of the Styrian Music Society at Graz 
on the grounds that "although still young, he has already proved by 
his compositions that he will some day rank high as a composer." 

* This on the basis that it was the last to be found although it was composed before the great 
C major Symphony. The posthumous C major has been variously numbered 7, 8, 9, or 10 by 
those who have variously accepted or rejected the so-called "Gastein Symphony," which has 
been believed by some to be a lost symphony, and the fragmentary sections for a symphony 
in E (1821), which Felix Weingartner filled out into a full score. Fortunately the "Unfinished" 
Symphony, easily identified by its name and key, can be left numberless. 



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[5] 



Schubert gratefully accepted his election to the Styrian Music Society 
with the following communication: 

May it be the reward for my devotion to the art of music that I shall 
one day be fully worthy of this signal honor. In order that I may also 
express in musical terms my lively sense of gratitude, I shall take the 
liberty, at the earliest opportunity, of presenting your honorable 
Society with one of my symphonies in full score. 

Alfred Einstein in his invaluable book, Schubert, a Musical Portrait, 
has deduced that Schubert presented the already composed symphony 
to Anselm Hiittenbrenner, the director of the Society, in gratitude on 
receiving from him the diploma of membership, rather than to the 
Society itself. Mr. Einstein further believed "it is also quite unthink- 
able that Schubert with all his tact and discretion would ever have 
presented the Society with an unfinished fragment." From then on, 
as records indicate, Schubert neither spoke nor thought about it again. 
Anselm who, like his brother Joseph, had done much to promote a 
recognition of Schubert, and had attempted (unsuccessfully) to produce 
his friend's latest opera Alfonso and Estrella at Graz in this year, seems 
to have done nothing at all about the Symphony. It lay stuffed away 
and unregarded among his papers for many years, whence it might well 
have been lost and never known to the world. In 1865, in his old age, 



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THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[6] 



and thirty-seven years after Schubert's death, he delivered it to Johann 
Herbeck for performance by the "Friends of Music Society" in Vienna. 
The world, discovering some forty-three years post facto a "master- 
piece," which, for all its qualities, is but half a symphony, has indulged 
in much conjecture. Did Schubert break off after the second movement 
on account of sudden failure of inspiration, or because he was careless 
of the work (which he certainly seems to have been) and did not realize 
the degree of lyric rapture which he had captured in those two move- 
ments? Or perhaps it was because he realized after a listless attempt at 
a scherzo that what he had written was no typical symphonic opening 
movement and contrasting slow movement, calling for the relief of a 
lively close, but rather the rounding out of a particular mood into its 
full-moulded expression — a thing of beauty and completeness in itself. 
The Schubert who wrote the "Unfinished" Symphony was in no condi- 
tion of obedience to precept. He found his own law of balance by the 
inner need of his subject. There were indeed a few bars of a third 
movement. Professor Tovey found the theme for the projected scherzo 
"magnificent," but was distrustful of what the finale might have been, 
for Schubert's existing finales, with the possible exception of three, he 
considered entirely unworthy of such a premise. There are others who 
find little promise in the fragment of a scherzo before the manuscript 
breaks off and are doubtful whether any finale could have maintained 




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the level of the two great movements with their distinctive mood and 
superb craft. 

A theory was propounded by Dr. T. C. L. Pritchard in the English 
magazine, Music Review, of February, 1942, that the symphony was 
completed and that Anselm Huttenbrenner, in whose hands the manu- 
script lay for many years, may have lost the last pages and hesitated to 
let his carelessness be known to the world. Maurice Brown, in his 
admirable "Critical Biography" of Schubert (1958), disposes of this by 
noting that there are blank pages at the end of the manuscript. He 
further points out that the composer's sketches for the symphony in 
piano score, which went on Schubert's death, with many other manu- 
scripts, to his brother Ferdinand, consist, as does the full score, of two 
movements and the beginning of a scherzo. Huttenbrenner could not 
have seen this sketch. The double evidence of sketch and score cor- 
respondingly broken off seems to preclude a completed full score, nor 
would Schubert have been likely to set aside and so promptly forget 
a completed symphony at this time. His cavalier dismissal of the 
uncompleted score from his thoughts is astonishing enough. 

Why Schubert did not finish his symphony, writes Mr. Brown, must 
remain "one of the great enigmas of music." 

[copyrighted] 



FIFTEENTH SEASON 

RHODE ISLAND 
PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA 

FRANCIS MADEIRA, Music Director 
FIVE WINTER SUBSCRIPTION CONCERTS 

Fourth Concert 

SUNDAY, MARCH 6, at 8:30 p.m. 
CONCERT PERFORMANCE OF 

CARMEN 

By GEORGES BIZET 

Jean Madeira Robert Rounseville 

All Metropolitan Opera and New York City Opera cast. 

Brown-Pembroke Chorus and St. Dunstan Boy Choir. 

VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM 

Tickets for each concert available at 

PHILHARMONIC OFFICE, Room 638, 49 Westminster St., TEmple 1-3123 

AXELROD MUSIC INC. AVERY PIANO COMPANY 



[8] 



ADAGIO FROM THE TENTH SYMPHONY (Posthumous) 

liy Glsiav Mahler 
Born in Kalischt, Bohemia, July 7, i860; died in Vienna, May 18, 1911 



Mahler left at his death sketches, partly realized in full score, of a Tenth Sym- 
phony. In 1924, thirteen years later, his widow, then Mrs. Alma Maria Mahler, had 
these sketches published complete in facsimile. Two movements, the first (Adagio) 
and the third (Purgatorio) were prepared for performance by Ernst Krenek and first 
performed in Vienna October 12, 1924 under Franz Schalk.* These two movements 
as published by the Associated Music Publishers were introduced in this country on 
December 6, 1949 by the Erie Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Fritz 
Mahler, the composer's nephew. The Adagio was introduced to the Boston Sym- 
phony concerts by Richard Burgin, December 11-12, 1953. 

The orchestra required consists of 3 flutes and piccolo, 3 oboes, 3 clarinets, 
3 bassoons, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, cymbals, gong, 
harp and strings. 

>t*he movement opens andante pianissimo, in what is to be the 

-■■ prevailing key — F-sharp major. There is a fifteen-measure melody 

for the violas alone. The mood is at once established as gentle, 

* An earlier performance mentioned in Hull's Dictionary in Prague under Zemlinski apparently 
did not take place and a statement in Baker's Dictionary that Franz Mikorey "completed from 
Mahler's sketches that composer's Tenth Symphony, produced as 'Symphonia Engiadina,' " in 
1913, is surely apocryphal. 



Anita Davis-Chase Announces 



MYRA HESS 

Only Boston Concert 
SYMPHONY HALL SUNDAY AFT., MARCH 20 at 3 P.M. 

Check payable to Symphony Hall and self-addressed stamped envelope 
must accompany mail orders. 

Address envelope: Hess Concert, Symphony Hall Box Office, Boston. 

Tickets: $4.40, $3.85, $3.30, $2.75, $2.20, $1.65 (tax incl.) 

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[9] 



meditative, but intensely felt. There follows a section slightly slower 
(adagio), but with the inner animation of multi-voices. The first 
violins, accompanied by divided strings and winds, sing another long 
melody of similar character. The movement is to become an alterna- 
tion of these adagio and andante sections, an alternation, too, of a 
full-voiced style and a single-voiced, the unaccompanied violas return- 
ing twice. The movement keeps its character and rhythm throughout, 
and takes the form of a continuously unfolding melodic line, the self- 
perpetuating themes maintaining a change in contour, finding varia- 
tion in a rich complex of voice weaving and in a succession of orches- 
tral colorings wherein Mahler's familiar mastery is unabated. There is 
an undercurrent of dark bass and places where the voice leading and 
harmony develop a sort of anguish of discord. The general sombre 
quality of the music is relieved occasionally by trills in the wood-winds 
or high strings, or pizzicatos to sharpen the persistent rhythm of the 
accompaniment. After tumultuous arpeggios from the harp and strings, 
dissonant chords! bring the peak of tension and then cease, leaving an 
unearthly high note from the flutes, violins and trumpet. There fol- 
lows a gentle subsidence, the orchestra now becoming light and lumi- 
nous, the melody spare, tenuous and lingering, as if this were a farewell 
to life, a true sequel to the Finale of Das Lied von der Erde and of the 






The New England 
Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

James Aliferis, President 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 

FOR OUR 

RADIO LISTENERS 



Wednesday, Feb. 24 • 8:30 
SYMPHONIC WIND ENSEMBLE 

James Dixon, Conductor 

CONSERVATORY CHORUS 

Lorna Cooke de Varon, Conductor 

Hindemith, Symphony for Band 

Milhaud, Creation of the World 

Avshalomov, Inscriptions at the 
City of Brass 

Guest Conductor 
Jacob Avshalomov 

JORDAN HALL No Tickets required 



290 Huntington Ave., Boston 15 



The increasing size of our radio 
audience has prompted a plan where- 
by anyone interested may receive the 
program bulletin each week on the 
basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first 
class mail each Thursday preceding 
the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance 
of the season 1939-1960 is $2.00 
Address the Program Office, Sym- 
phony Hall. 



[10] 



BROADCASTS by the 

BOSTON SYMPHOIVY ORCHESTRA 

Winter Season, 1959-1960 



The Saturday evening concerts of the Winter Season will 
be broadcast live on the following stations: 



WGBH-FM 89.7 mc 

*WCRB-AM 1330 kc 

*WCRB-FM 102.5 mc 

**WXHR-FM 96.9 mc 

**WTAG-FM 96.1 mc 

**WNHC-FM 99.1 mc 

**WQXR-AM 1560 kc 

**WQXR-FM 96.3 mc 

**WFIL-FM 102.1 mc 

**WFMZ-FM 100.7 mc 

**WFLY-FM 92.3 mc 

**WITH-FM 104.3 mc 

**WNBF-FM 98.1 mc 

**WGR-FM 96.9 mc 

**WRRA-FM 103.7 mc 

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**WHDL-FM 95.7 mc 

**WROC-FM 97.9 mc 

**WSYR-FM 94.5 mc 

**WRUN-FM 105.7 mc 

**WSNJ-FM 98.9 mc 



Boston 
Boston 
Boston 
Boston 
Worcester 
New Haven 
New York 
New York 
Philadelphia 
Allentown, Pa. 
Troy, N. Y. 
Baltimore 
Binghamton, N. Y. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jamestown, N. Y. 
Olean, N. Y. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Utica, N. Y. 
Bridgeton, N. J. 



The Friday afternoon concerts of the Winter Season will 

be broadcast live on the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WXHR-FM 96.9 mc Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 
by transcription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 
the performances on the following stations: 



*WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


*WBCN-FM 


104.1 mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


*WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 



The Concerts of the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 
be broadcast by the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WGBH-TV Channel 2 Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

WENH-TV Channel 11 Durham, N. H. 

The Sunday afternoon and Tuesday evening concerts at 
Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 
FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 



* - Stereophonic Broadcast 



••-Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



["] 



Ninth Symphony. It is barely possible that Mahler may have first 
intended this movement as the closing one. In his manuscript as repro- 
duced in facsimile, there was at first no number at the head. The 
sketches for the other movements, of which there are four, show a 
different order than the final one, which is indicated by a later correc- 
tion in blue pencil, the five movements thus finally indicated in Roman 
numerals. Over the word "Adagio," Mahler has blue penciled "I." 

The facsimile is an interesting revelation* of Mahler in the very 
process of musical creation. His first draft of each movement is in 
sketch form, written usually on four or five staves with the instru- 
mentation sometimes indicated, sometimes not, where the composer 
may have been either still unclear in his intentions or clear enough not 
to need a later self-reminder. The Adagio, after being sketched at full 
length, is rewritten in full score (with some change, particularly in the 
order of sections). The second movement and the opening of the 
third (Purgatorio) are the only other portions in open score. The plan 
of the symphony was finally as follows: the Adagio, a first Scherzo, the 
Purgatorio as a sort of interlude, a second Scherzo, and a Finale, the 
order of the two Scherzos ultimately reversed, according to the evidence 
of the composer's blue pencil. 

t The climactic chord is also the ultimate reach of Mahler's harmonic ventures. Nicolas 
Slonimsky, asked to analyze it, obliges with the following report: "The harmonic climax of 
the first movement is a tremendous chord (C sharp, G sharp, B, D, F, A, C, E, G), which 
may be described as the ultra-tonal chord of the diminished 19th. It is ultra-tonal because it 
goes beyond the bounds of a single tonality ; its formation, in thirds, encompasses the interval 
of a diminished 19th, or a diminished fifth and two octaves. (It is interesting to note that in 
preserving this tertian formation, Mahler still adheres to the tenets of traditional chord- 
building.) In medieval theory, the tritone (which is enharmonically synonymous with either 
a diminished fifth or an augmented fourth) was called Diabolus in Musica, and one may 
speculate whether Mahler consciously selected a climactic chord derived from a tritone, seeing 
that he was preoccupied with the Devil during the composition of his last unfinished sym- 
phony. Strauss, in his symphonic poem, Also Sprach Zarathustra, uses a^similar extended 
tritone between the extremes of the low and high registers for the ending." 

* Adolf Weissmann, describing the facsimile on the occasion of the first performance in 
Vienna, used a different word: "self-denudation" (Selbstentblossung) . He reminds us that 
there was no finality in Mahler the orchestrator. 

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[12] 



SYMPHONY NO. 3 IN A MINOR, "SCOTTISH," Op. 56 

By Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 

Born in Berlin, February 3, 1809; died in Leipzig, November 4, 1847 



This symphony was finished January 20, 1842, and first performed at the Gewand- 
haus concerts in Leipzig on March 3 following, the composer conducting. The first 
performance in this country was by the Philharmonic Society in New York, George 
Loder conducting, November 22, 1845. The first performance in Boston was by the 
Academy of Music at the Melodeon, November 14, 1846, G. J. Webb conducting. 

The instrumentation includes 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. 

The score is inscribed as "composed for and dedicated to Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria of England." It was published in 1843. 

It would be a mistake, of course, to look for anything like definite 
description in this score, or for that matter in any symphony of 
Mendelssohn. He did not even publish it with a specific title, although 
he so referred to it in his letters. There have been attempts to prove 
the symphony Scottish in character. George Hogarth, who was beside 
Mendelssohn as he attended the "competition of Pipers" at Edinburgh, 
testified that "he was greatly interested by the war tunes of the different 
clans, and the other specimens of the music of the country. ... In this 
symphony, though composed long afterwards, he embodied some of 
his reminiscences of a period to which he always looked back with 
pleasure. The delightful manner in which he has reproduced some of 
the most characteristic features of the national music — solemn, pathetic, 
gay, warlike — is familiar to every amateur." 

It is probably nearer the truth that the thoughts of the young German 
were swarming with musical images in the summer of 1829, images 
which took on a passing shape, a superficial trait or two from what he 
heard in a strange land. An indefatigable sight-seer, he must have found 
the raucous drones produced by brawny males in skirts less a matter 
for musical inspiration or suggestion than an exotic curiosity. It took 
an islander such as Chorley to find and stress characteristic Scottish 
intervals in the Scherzo of the symphony. Mendelssohn, who took 



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pleasure in affixing a picturesque name to a symphony, particularly in 
the light chatter of his letters, probably had no serious descriptive 
intentions. He hated "to explain" his music, so it is reported, and 
would turn off the elaborate word pictures of others with a joke. When 
Schubring went into a transport of fantasy over the " Meeresstille" 
Overture, its composer answered that his own mental picture was an 
old man sitting in the stern of the boat and helping matters by blowing 
into the sail. "Notes," wrote Mendelssohn in a letter from Italy, "have 
as definite a meaning as words, perhaps even a more definite one." But 
that meaning, precluding words, would also preclude anything so 
concrete as a particular landscape or nation. 



"The several movements of this symphony," according to instructions 
printed in the original edition, "must follow each other immediately 
and not be separated by the usual pauses" (each movement, however, 
closes upon its tonic chord). 

The main body of the first movement, like the slow introduction, is 
in A minor, a lively 6-8 rhythm opening with its first theme given to 
the strings and oboes pianissimo. A transitional passage assai animato 
introduces the second theme in E minor, played by the clarinet while 
the first violins combine the first theme with the new one. There is the 



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usual procedure of development, restatement and coda, and, to close, 
a repetition of a few measures from the introduction. 

The second movement, vivace non troppo, in F major 2-4, is in effect 
a scherzo and was so named in the earlier edition, although, like each 
movement in this symphony, it follows the sonata form. The second 
subject is but briefly developed. 

The third movement, adagio, in A major 2-4, discloses its first theme 
in the tenth measure as the first violins play cantabile. A march-like 
passage introduced by the wood winds intervenes before the second 
theme in E major is introduced by the first violins with pizzicato 
accompaniment. 

The Finale, allegro vivacissimo 2-2, restores the tonality of A minor. 
The first theme is at once introduced by the violins over violas, bassoons 
and horns, and the second (in E minor) by oboes and clarinets after a 
transitional episode for the full orchestra. The movement is developed 
at length and closes with a sonorous allegro maestoso assai, A major 6-8. 
This Finale was once compared to "a gathering of the clans," perhaps 
on account of the tempo indication allegro guerriero which stood on 
the earlier edition but which was later changed. 

[copyrighted] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE -SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



Remaining Tuesday evening concert in Providence: 

APRIL 5 
Soloist: NICOLE HENRIOT-SCHWEITZER, Piano 



Tickets are on sale at the Avery Piano Company, 
256 Weybosset Street, Providence 

The Friday afternoon concerts at 2:15 and Saturday 
evening concerts at 8:30 are broadcast direct from 
Symphony Hall by Station WGBH-FM, Boston. 

The Friday-Saturday concerts will be broadcast by tran- 
scription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 
the performances by Station WXCN-FM, Providence. 

BALDWIN PIANO RGA VICTOR RECORDS 



VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM • PROVIDENCE 

[15] 



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AVIS BLIVEN CHARBONNEL 

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Beginners to Artist Pupils 
Pupils prepared for Public Performances 
434 BROOK ST., PROVDDENCE - GA 1-8781 



[.6] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



Bach 
Barber 

Beethoven 



Berlioz 

Blackwood 

Bloch 
Brahms 



Debussy 



Dukas 

Elgar 

Pranck 

Haieff 

Ibert 

d'Indy 

Khatchaturian 
Mahler 

Martinu 
Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 



Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 

Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) LM-2182, 

Medea's Dance of Vengeance LM 

Adagio for Strings LM 

Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" LM 



Wagner 
Walton 



Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" LM 

Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" LM 

Symphony No. 9 LM 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) LM 

"L'Enfance du Christ" LM 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) LM 

Symphony No. 1 LM- 

"Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) LM- 

Symphony No. 1 LM- 

Symphony No. 2 ; "Tragic" Overture LM- 

Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) LM- 

"The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" LM- 

"La Mer" LM- 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" LM 

Three Images LM- 

The Anprentice Sorceror LM 

Introduction and Allegro LM 

Symphony No. 1 in D minor LM 

Symphony No. 2 LM- 

"Escales" (Ports of Call) LM- 
Symphony on a Mountain Air 

(Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) LM- 
" Kinder totenlieder" and "Lieder eines fahrenden 

Gesellen" (Maureen Forrester) LM- 

"Fantaisies Symphoniques" LM- 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies LM- 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) LM- 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) LM- 

Symphony No. 6 LM- 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts LM- 
Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) LM- 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) LM- 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" LM- 

"Mother Goose" Suite LM- 

Piano Concerto (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) LM- 

"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" LM- 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) LM- 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures LM- 

Symphony No. 4 LM- 

Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) LM- 

Serenade for Strings LM- 

Violin Concerto (Szeryng) LM- 

Excerpts (Eileen Farrell) LM- 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) LM 



2198* 
-2197 
-2105 

-2015 

-2233* 

-1997 

-6066* 

-1992* 

-6053 

-2228* 

2352* 

2109 

2097 
1959 
2274* 

2030 

2111* 

■1984* 

2282* 

•2292* 

•2105* 

■2131* 

2352* 

2111* 



2271 
1760 

2371* 

2083 

2221* 
2314* 

2073 

2083 

2110 
2197 
2314* 

2237* 

1984* 
2292* 
2271* 

1760 
2292* 

2344 

2043 

1953 

2239* 

•2105* 

2363* 

2255* 

2109 



* Also a stereophonic recording. 



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TONE 




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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959-1960 
Veterans Memorial Auditorium, Providence 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhousc 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwycr 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean deVergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\, Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 

William Gibson 

William Mover 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



HAVE YOU JOINED 

THE PROVIDENCE FRIENDS 

OF THE 

BOSTON SYMPHONY? 

If you have, you may be sure that the Trustees and the 
members of the Orchestra are extremely grateful for 
your support. 

If you have not yet ''found time" to send in a contribu- 
tion, won't you give it your attention soon? 

Your gift, large or small, is much needed this year. 

The complete list of the Providence Friends of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra will be printed in the 
Bulletin of the opening concert in Providence next 
season. 

The Providence Committee: 
Mrs. Bruce M. Bigelow 
John Nicholas Brown 
Mrs. Stanley Livingston, Jr. 
Mrs. Stanford S. Stevens 
Kirk Smith, Chairman 



S E VEN T Y - N I N T H SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE -SIXTY 



Three Hundred and Fifty-fifth Concert in Providence 



Fifth Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, April 5, at 8:15 o'clock 



Handel \ Suite for Orchestra, from ''The Water Music" 

(Arranged by Sir Hamilton Harty) 
I. Allegro 
II. Air 

III. Bourree 

IV. Hornpipe 

V. Andante espressivo 
VI. Allegro deciso 

Ravel *Concerto for Piano and Orchestra 

I. Allegramente 
II. Adagio assai 
III. Presto 

INTERMISSION 

Brahms ^Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo 

II. Adagio non troppo 

III. Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino 

IV. Allegro con spirito 

SOLOIST 

NICOLE HENRIOT-SCHWEITZER 
Mme. Henriot-Schweitzer uses the Baldwin Piano 

By order of the Chief of the Providence Fire Department, smoking is 
allowed only in the ticket lobby and the lower lobby of the auditorium. 

BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 

[3] 



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UlAIJiJi..!!.).!*— I 

THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular LP.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



[4] 



SUITE FOR ORCHESTRA (from the WATER MUSIC) 

By George Frideric Handel 

Born in Halle, February 23, 1685; died in London, April 14, 1759 

Arranged by Sir Hamilton Harty* 



Handel's Water Music was probably composed and performed in parts in 1715 
and 1717. The original autograph has been lost. A suite from the music was 
published by John Walsh in 1720, and another version, differently arranged, in 
1740. The full suite of 20 movements was published in the Samuel Arnold edition 
(1785-1797), and appeared in the complete works as edited by Chrysander. 

A suite from the Chrysander edition was performed on a swan boat in the Public 
Garden, Richard Burgin conducting members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
as an event of the Boston Arts Festival on June 20, 1958, and again on June 21, 1959. 

Sir Hamilton Harty, arranging a suite of six movements in 1918, and then per- 
forming it at the Halle Concerts, has scored it for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 
clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings (published in 1922). 
The Suite was introduced at these concerts December 22, 1949, repeated April 17, 
1953, and March 7, 1958. Suites from the Water Music, derived from Chrysander, 
have been performed by this Orchestra December 11, 1885, October 21, 1887, Decem- 
ber 21, 1900, and March 18, 1927. 

In Handel's time, parties on the Thames were a favorite recreation 
of Londoners in the summer season. R. A. Streatfeild has described 
the custom in his Life of Handel (1909) : "The River Thames was 
then, far more than now, one of the main highways of London. It was 

* Born at Hillsboroueh, County Down, Ireland, December 4, 1879 ; died February 19, 1941. 



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still Spenser's 'silver Thames,' and on a summer's day it must have 
presented a picture of life and gaiety very different from its present 
melancholy and deserted aspect. It was peopled by an immense fleet 
of boats devoted solely to passenger traffic, which were signalled by 
passing wayfarers from numerous piers between Blackfriars and 
Putney, just as one now signals a hansom or taxicab. Besides the 
humble boats that plied for hire, there were plenty of private barges 
fitted up with no little luxury and manned by liveried servants. The 
manners and customs of the boatmen were peculiar, and their wit- 
combats, carried on in the rich and expressive vernacular of Billings- 
gate, were already proverbial . . . George I liked the River. When the 
Court was at Whitehall water parties to Richmond or Hampton Court 
were of frequent occurrence, and as often as not the royal barge was 
accompanied by an attendant boat laden with musicians."* 

Handel, serving as Kapellmeister to Georg Ludwig, Elector of Han- 
over, obtained leave of absence to visit England in 1712. He not only 

* Samuel Pepys, in his diary of an earlier date, reveals how transportation by water was 
common practice. He wrote (August 23, 1662) : "So we fairly walked it to White Hall, and 
through my Lord's lodgings we got into White Hall garden, and so to the Bowling-greene, and 
up to the top of the new Banqueting House there, over the Thames, which was a most pleas- 
ant place as any I could have got ; and all the show consisted chiefly in the number of boats 
and barges ; and two pageants, one of a King, and another of a Queen, with her Maydes of 
Honour sitting at her feet very prettily ; and they tell me the Queen is Sir Richard Ford's 
daughter. Anon come the King and Queen in a barge under a canopy, with 1000 barges and 
boats I know, for we could see no water for them, nor discern the King nor Queen. And so 
they landed at White Hall Bridge, and the great guns on the other side went off." 



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[6] 



overstayed his leave, but came under the open patronage of the reign- 
ing Queen Anne, between whom and Georg there was no love lost. 
Handel, while thus still bound to the House of Hanover, composed 
his Ode to Queen Anne, and his Te Deum and Jubilate for the hated 
Peace of Utrecht. When the Queen died in 1714, Georg was crowned 
George I of England and Handel's position became suddenly pre- 
carious. He was pointedly ignored by the new monarch and so deprived 
of his principal opportunities for social recognition and consequent 
income. But the continuing ostracism of the illustrious Handel would 
have been likewise a true deprivation to George himself, for he had 
brought with him from Germany a passion for music which was more 
enduring than his dislike of a dead queen. It was obviously a question 
of a propitious moment, and Handel had friends ready to do their 
tactful part when that moment should come. There are three legends 
circumstantially related at the time, each claiming the achievement of 
this act of grace. The Water Music is connected with two of them. 

One of Handel's true friends was Francesco Geminiani, violinist 
and composer for the violin, two years younger than himself. Geminiani, 
so the story goes, was asked to play one of his concertos at Court, and 
replying, admitted a rubato in his style so incorrigible that no one 
could be trusted to accompany him and not be thrown off but Handel 
himself. Handel was accordingly asked, and accordingly reinstated. 




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But Handel had other colleagues equally ready to claim the credit 
for the good deed of his restoration. One was the Baron von Kiel- 
mansegger, Royal Master of the Horse to King George, and his wife 
who was the natural daughter of the King's father by the Countess 
von Platen.* 

According to Mainwaring, Handel's first biographer, in 1760, the 
year after his death, Kielmansegger took advantage of a projected 
water party by the King and his retinue on the Thames from White- 
hall to Limehouse on August 22, 1715. He quietly arranged for Handel 
to compose and conduct music on a barge within convenient hearing 
distance, but out of sight. The King was so pleased that he inquired 
as to the composer of the delightful open air music drifting across the 
water, and accepted him on the spot. 

* This unprepossessing couple had made their way in the monarch's wake to England, and 
were there heartily disliked. The Baroness was "the King's principal favorite," in the circum- 
spect language of Felix Borowski (in the notes of the Chicago Orchestra), "whose code of 
morality did not rest on a higher plane than that of her husband." Others have spoken more 
freely about the relation to her half brother of this truly Hogarthian specimen of that lax 
era. Thackeray, in "The Four Georges," described her as "a large-sized noblewoman . . . 
denominated the Elephant," and Horace Walpole as a boy was terrified by her girth: "Two 
fierce black eyes, large and rolling beneath two lofty, arched eyebrows, two acres of cheeks 
spread with crimson, an ocean of neck that overflowed and was not distinguished from the 
lower part of her jaw, and no part restrained by stays — no wonder that a child dreaded 
Buch an ogress !" 

[COPYRIGHTED] 



FIFTEENTH SEASON 

RHODE ISLAND 
PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA 

FRANCIS MADEIRA, Music Director 

FIVE WINTER SUBSCRIPTION CONCERTS 

Fifth Concert 

THURSDAY, APRIL 21, at 8:30 p.m. 
Gary Graffman, Pianist 

Schuller Transformation 

Beethoven Concerto No. 5 in E-flat ("Emperor") 

Brahms Symphony No. 1 in C minor 



VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM 

Tickets for each concert available at 

PHILHARMONIC OFFICE, Room 638, 49 Westminster St., TEmple 1-3123 

AXELROD MUSIC INC. AVERY PIANO COMPANY 



[8] 



CONCERTO FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA 

By Maurice Ravel 

Born in Ciboure, Basses Pyrenees, March 7, 1875; died in Paris, December 28, 1937 



This concerto was first performed January 14, 1932, at a Lamoureux concert in 
Paris. Ravel conducted the work and Marguerite Long, to whom it was dedicated, 
was the soloist. It was first heard in America April 22, 1932, on which date the 
orchestra of Boston (Jesus Maria Sanroma, soloist) and Philadelphia (Sylvain Levin, 
soloist) each performed the work in its own city.* 

The orchestration consists of piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, clarinets in B-flat 
and E-flat, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, trumpet, trombone, timpani, triangle, side drum, 
bass drum, cymbals, tam-tam, wood block, whip, harp and strings. 



R 



avel, asked to compose music for performance in the fiftieth 
anniversary season of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (1930-31), 



* Under the heading "Temporal Arithmetic," H. T. Parker commented amusingly in the 
Boston Evening Transcript: 

"To begin with the idle splitting of a hair. This afternoon Dr. Koussevitzky and the 
Boston Orchestra, Mr. Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra, Mr. Sanroma in 
Boston, Mr. Levin in Philadelphia, are playing for the first times in America Ravel's new 
Piano Concerto. In Symphony Hall and in the Academy of Music it is second item on the 
program. The Bostonian conductor's first piece is a Concerto for Orchestra by Martelli, rela- 
tively brief; the Philadelphia conductor's Sibelius' Fourth Symphony, appreciably longer. 
Dr. Koussevitzky and Mr. Sanroma will sound the first measures of Ravel's Concerto ten or 
fifteen minutes before Messrs. Stokowski and Levin do likewise. They will sound the last 
while the Philadelphians are still dallying with the middle periods. Therefore in Boston 
Ravel's Concerto will be heard for the first time in America, Q. E. D. which is also "right 
and proper," since the piece was once intended for the jubilee year, 1930-1931, in Symphony 
Hall. In short, the Boston Orchestra has lost a dedication, but won — by a nose — a premiere I" 



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[9] 



spoke of a piano concerto. But the score was not forthcoming from 
the meticulous and painstaking composer. "Ravel worked at it con- 
tinuously for more than two years," so Henry Prunieres reported after 
the completion at the end of 1931, "cloistering himself in his home at 
Montfort l'Amaury, refusing all invitations, and working ten and 
twelve hours a day." Ravel told this writer that "he felt that in this 
composition he had expressed himself most completely, and that he 
had poured his thought into the exact mold he had dreamed." In 1931, 
while this score was still in process of composition, he accepted another 
commission — a commission which he succeeded in fulfilling. This was 
the Piano Concerto for the Left Hand, composed for the one-armed 
pianist, Paul Wittgenstein. The two concertos were Ravel's last works 
of orchestral proportions. 

"The concerto," wrote Henry Prunieres, "is divided into three parts, 
after the classical fashion. The first movement, allegramente, is con- 
structed on a gay, light theme, which recalls Ravel's early style. It 
appears first in the orchestra, while the piano supplies curious sonorous 
effects in a bitonal arpeggiated design. The development proceeds at 
a rapid pace with a surprising suppleness, vivacity, and grace. This 
leads to an andante a piacere where the piano again takes the exposi- 
tion of the theme, while the bassoons, flutes, clarinets, and oboes 
surround it one after another with brilliant scales and runs. Then 



The New England 
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A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

James Aliferis, President 



Thursday, April 21 
8:30 P.M. 

ROBERT BRINK, Violin 
ALLEN BARKER, Piano 



Wednesday, April 27 

8:30 P.M. 

ARTIST'S DIPLOMA DEBUT 

RECITAL by 

DAVID BEYER, Pianist 



Friday, April 29 

8:30 P.M. 

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LIST OF WORKS 

Performed in the Providence Series 
DURING THE SEASON 1959-1960 



Beethoven Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I October 13 

Berlioz Fantastic Symphony, Op. 14a 

II November 24 

Brahms Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

V April 5 

Bruckner Symphony No. 5, in B flat major 

III December 29 

Copland Party Scene and Finale from the Opera, 

"The Tender Land" 
I October 13 

Debussy "La Mer," Three Orchestral Sketches 

II November 24 

Handel Suite for Orchestra, from "The Water Music" 

(Arranged by Sir Hamilton Harty) 

V April 5 

Mahler Adagio from the Tenth Symphony (Posthumous) 

IV February 23 

Mendelssohn Symphony No. 3, in A minor, "Scottish," Op. 56 

IV February 23 

Moussorgsky "Pictures at an Exhibition," Piano Pieces 

(Arranged for Orchestra by Maurice Ravel) 

III December 29 

Mozart Symphony No. 38, in D major, "Prague," K. 504 

I October 13 

Ravel "Daphnis et Chloe," Ballet (Second Suite) 

II November 24 

Concerto for Piano and Orchestra 
Soloist: Nicole Henriot-Schweitzer V April 5 

Schubert Symphony in B minor, "Unfinished" 

IV February 23 

Richard Burgin conducted the concert December 29 

[»] 



begins a grand cadenza [of trills over arpeggios]. The orchestra enters 
again discreetly, at first marking the rhythm, and then taking up the 
development, leading to a brilliant conclusion. 

"The second movement, adagio assai, consists of one of those long 
cantilenas which Ravel knows so well how to write and which are not 
without analogy with certain arias of Bach. Evolving over an implaca- 
ble martellato bass, the melody is developed lengthily at the piano, 
then, little by little, the orchestra takes possession of it while the piano 
executes fine embroideries and subtle appoggiaturas. 

"The presto finale is a miracle of lightness and agile grace, and 
recalls certain scherzi and prestos of Mozart and Mendelssohn. The 
orchestra marks a syncopated rhythm while the piano leads the move- 
ment. The spirit of jazz animates this movement as it inspired the 
andante of the sonata for violin and piano, but with great discretion. 
Nothing could be more divorced from the spirit of the pasticcio. 
Nothing could be more French, more Ravel." 

Emile Vuillermoz, who was present at the first performance of the 
Concerto in Paris, recorded for the Christian Science Monitor his 
impressions of the new work: "It is written in the brilliant and trans- 
parent style of a Saint-Saens or a Mozart. The composer has wished to 
write a work exclusively intended to bring out the value of the piano. 
There is in it neither a search for thematic novelty nor introspective 
nor sentimental intentions. It is piano — gay, brilliant and witty piano. 
The first movement borrows, not from the technique, but from the 
ideal of jazz, some of its happiest effects. A communicative gayety 
reigns in this dazzling, imaginative page. The Adagio is conceived in 
the Bach ideal, with an intentionally scholastic accompaniment. It has 
admirable proportions and a length of phrase of singular solidity. And 
the Finale in the form of a rondo sparkles with wit and gayety in a 
dizzy tempo in which the piano indulges in the most amusing acro- 
batics. The work is very easy to understand and gives the impression 
of extreme youth. It is wonderful to see how this master has more 
freshness of inspiration than the young people of today who flog 
themselves uselessly in order to try to discover, in laborious comedy 
or caricature, a humor that is not in their temperament." 

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[12] 



SYMPHONY NO. 2, IN D MAJOR, Op. 73 

By Johannes Brahms 

Born in Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died in Vienna, April 3, 1897 



The Second Symphony was composed in 1877, and first performed in Vienna on 
December 30 of the same year. A performance followed at Leipzig on January io, 
1878, Brahms conducting. Joachim conducted it at the Rhine Festival in Diisseldorf, 
and the composer led the symphony in his native Hamburg, in the same year. 
France first heard it at a popular concert in Paris, November 21, 1880. The first 
American performance was given by Theodore Thomas in New York, October 3, 
1878. The Harvard Musical Association introduced it to Boston on January 9, 1879. 
It was then that John S. Dwight committed himself to the much quoted opinion 
that "Sterndale Bennett could have written a better symphony." Georg Henschel 
included this symphony in the orchestra's first season (February 24, 1882) . 

The orchestration: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones, tuba, timpani, strings. 

T ooking back over the eighty years which have passed since Brahms' 
-1— ' Second Symphony was performed for the first time, one finds good 
support for the proposition that music found disturbingly "modern" 
today can become universally popular tomorrow. This symphony, 
surely the most consistently melodious, the most thoroughly engaging 
of the four, was once rejected by its hearers as a disagreeable concoc- 
tion of the intellect, by all means to be avoided. 

In Leipzig, when the Second Symphony was introduced in 1880, even 
Dorffel, the most pro-Brahms of the critics there, put it down as "not 
distinguished by inventive power"! It was a time of considerable anti- 
Brahms agitation in Central Europe, not unconnected with the Brahms- 
versus-Wagner feud. There were also repercussions in America. When 
in the first season of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (February 24, 
1882) Georg Henschel conducted the Second Symphony, the critics fell 
upon it to a man. They respected Mr. Henschel's authority in the 
matter because he was an intimate friend of Brahms. For Brahms they 



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showed no respect at all. The Transcript called it "wearisome," 
"turgid"; the Traveler, "evil-sounding," "artificial," lacking "a sense of 
the beautiful," an "unmitigated bore." The Post called it "as cold- 
blooded a composition, so to speak, as was ever created." The critic of 
the Traveler made the only remark one can promptly agree with: "If 
Brahms really had anything to say in it, we have not the faintest idea 
what it is." This appalling blindness to beauty should not be held 
against Boston in particular, for although a good part of the audience 
made a bewildered departure after the second movement, the coura- 
geous believers in Mr. Henschel's good intentions remained to the end, 
and from these there was soon to develop a devout and determined type 
known as the "Boston Brahmin." New York was no more enlightened, 
to judge by this astonishing suggestion in the Post of that city (in 
November, 1887): "The greater part of the Symphony was antiquated 
before it was written. Why not play instead Rubinstein's Dramatic 
Symphony, which is shamefully neglected here and any one movement 
of which contains more evidence of genius than all of Brahms' sym- 
phonies put together?" 

Many years had to pass before people would exactly reverse their 
opinion and look upon Brahms' Second for what it is — bright-hued 
throughout, every theme singing smoothly and easily, every develop- 
ment both deftly integrated and effortless, a masterpiece of delicate 
tonal poetry in beautiful articulation. To these qualities the world at 
large long remained strangely impervious, and another legend grew up: 
Brahms' music was "obscure," "intellectual," to be apprehended only 
by the chosen few. 

What the early revilers of Brahms failed to understand was that the 
"obscurity" they so often attributed to him really lay in their own non- 
comprehending selves. Their jaws would have dropped could they 
have known that these "obscure" symphonies would one day become 
(next to Beethoven's) the most generally beloved — the most enduringly 
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[14] 



VETERANS MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM 

1960-1961 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 

FIVE 

TUESDAY EVENING CONCERTS 

AT 8:15 

NOVEMBER 22 

DECEMBER 13 

JANUARY 17 

FEBRUARY 21 

MARCH 28 



Have you returned your renewal card for next season? 
April 20th is the deadline for options. 

If you have any questions, please contact the 

SEASON TICKET OFFICE 

Symphony Hall 
Boston 15, Massachusetts 



[15] 



PROVIDENCE MUSIC TEACHERS DIRECTORY 

AVIS BLIVEN CHARBONNEL 

CONCERT PIANIST 
and 

TEACHER 

123 BENEVOLENT STREET 



ARTHUR EINSTEIN 

PIANIST - TEACHER 

Former Professor of Piano at the Odessa Conservatory 

Studios: 16 Conrad Bldg., 349 Morris Avenue 

Phone: GA 1144 



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168 Lloyd Avenue 
Phone: DE 1-5667 



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Edna Bradley Wood 

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Beginners to Artist Pupils 
Pupils prepared for Public Performances 
434 BROOK ST., PROVIDENCE - GA 1-8781 



[16] 



Berkshire Music Center 

CHARLES MUNCH, Director 
AARON COPLAND, Chairman RALPH BERKOWITZ, Dean 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra's 
Summer Music School at 

TANGLEWOOD 

JULY 3 — AUGUST 14 



DEPARTMENT OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC 

Eleazar de Carvalho 

Advisers: Pierre Monteux, Gregor Piatigorsky 

Leonard Bernstein 

Orchestral Playing and Chamber Music 

Richard Burgin, William Kroll 

23 Members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Ruth Posselt 

DEPARTMENT OF CHORAL MUSIC 
Hugh Ross 

Lorna Cooke DeVaron 
Alfred Nash Patterson 

OPERA DEPARTMENT 

Boris Goldovsky 

DEPARTMENT OF COMPOSITION 
Aaron Copland 
Luciano Berio, The Lenox Quartet 

DEPARTMENT OF LISTENING AND ANALYSIS 

G. Wallace Woodworth 

Florence Dunn 
Two to six week enrollments are accepted in this newly revised and 
expanded Department; members of the Department participate in 
listeners'- rehearsals, in the Festival Concerts and in the Festival Chorus 
with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. 



Information available at the Berkshire Music Center office in Symphony 
Hall or write to P. Bossler, Registrar, Symphony Hall, Boston 15. 




Nicole 

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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 

Sanders Theatre, Cambridge [Harvard University] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



ViOUNS 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 
Doriot Anthony Dwyer 
James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\> Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 
James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 

Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 

Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Blrgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
CD. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Lalghlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallowell Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 

Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 

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yVluMch/ 



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[2] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



First Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, November 3, at 8:30 o'clock 



Mozart Symphony No. 38, in D major, "Prague," K. 504 

I. Adagio; Allegro 



II. Andante 
III. Finale: Presto 



Copland Party Scene and Finale from the Opera, 

"The Tender Land" 



INTERMISSION 

Beethoven * Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I. Allegro con brio 
II. Andante con moto 

III. jAllegro; Trio 

IV. jAllegro 



BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[3] 



SYMPHONY IN D MAJOR (K. No. 504) 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This symphony had its first performance at Prague, January 19, 1787. 
It is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and 
strings. The trumpets and drums are not used in the slow movement. 

The last symphony which Mozart composed before his famous final 
three of 1788 (the E-fiat, G minor, and "Jupiter" symphonies) was 
the Symphony in D major, called the "Prague" Symphony, which had 
its first performance in that city early in 1787. Mozart may not have 
composed it especially for Prague, but when he went there from 
Vienna on a sudden invitation, the new score was ready in his port- 
folio for the first of two performances in the Bohemian capital. 

"Prague is indeed a very beautiful and agreeable place," wrote 
Mozart on his arrival there. And he had good cause to be gratified 
with the more than friendly reception which he found awaiting him. 
Figaro, produced there in the previous season, had been an immense 
success, and its tunes were sung and whistled on all sides. A bid was 
to come for another opera, and Don Giovanni was to be written and 
produced there within a year, and to cause another furore of enthu- 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
FOR OUR RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio audience has prompted 
a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the season of 24 concerts, 1959- 
1960 is $6.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 

Hall. 



[4] 



The Trustees of 

The Boston Symphony Orchestra, Inc. 

and 

Mr. Aaron Richmond 

announce 

The only New England appearance in 
their world tour of 

The Vienna Philharmonic 

conducted by 
HERBERT VON KARAJAN 

Wednesday Evening, November 18, 1959 
at 8:30 P. M. 

Symphony Hall, Boston 



. . . Program . . . 

MOZART: Eine kleine Nachtmusik 
BRUCKNER: Eighth Symphony 



TICKETS REMAINING AT $4, $6, $8 AND $10 
ARE NOW ON SALE AT THE BOX OFFICE 



[5] 



siasm. The composer of Figaro, as might be expected, was applauded 
loud and long at the two concerts of his visit in 1787, and after th£ 
D major symphony at the first of them, he could not appease the 
audience until he had improvised upon the piano for half an hour. 
At length a voice shouted the word Figaro! and Mozart, interrupting 
the phrase he had begun to play, captured all hearts by improvising 
variations from the air "Non piii andrai." 

Writing on January 15 to his friend Gottfried von Jacquin, Mozart 
related how a round of entertainment mostly connected with music- 
making was awaiting him. On the evening of his arrival, he went with 
Count Canal to the "Breitfeld Ball, where the flower of the Prague 
beauties assemble. You ought to have been there, my dear friend; 1 
think I see you running, or rather limping, after all those pretty 
creatures, married and single. I neither danced nor flirted with any 
of them — the former because I was too tired, and the latter from my 
natural bashfulness. I saw, however, with the greatest pleasure, all 
these people flying about with such delight to the music of my Figaro t 
transformed into quadrilles and waltzes; for here nothing is talked of 
but Figaro, nothing played but Figaro, nothing whistled or sung but 
Figaro, no opera so crowded as Figaro, nothing but Figaro — very 
flattering to me, certainly." 

Franz Niemetschek, a Bohemian who wrote a biography of Mozart 
in 1798, said of the concert of January 19: "The symphonies which 
he chose for this occasion are true masterpieces of instrumental com- 
position, full of surprising transitions. They have a swift and fiery 
bearing, so that they at once tune the soul to the expectation of some- 
thing superior. This is especially true of the great symphony in D 
major, which is still a favorite of the Prague public, although it has 
been heard here nearly a hundred times." \ 

The Symphony in D major is noteworthy by the absence of a minuet 
(in his earlier symphonies, Mozart was often content with three move- 
ments). Still more unusual is the slow introduction to the first move- 



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ment. Haydn, and Beethoven after him, were inclined to such intro- 
ductions, but Mozart usually preferred to begin at once with his lively 
first theme. The exceptions, which occurred in succession through 
Mozart's last years, were the "Linz" Symphony in C major (K. 425), 
the introduction to Michael Haydn's Symphony in G major (K. 444), 
the "Prague" Symphony, and the famous E-flat Symphony (K. 543) 
which followed. 

Remembering that this Symphony was composed between Figaro 
and Don Giovanni, commentators have noted a likeness in the chief 
theme of the allegro to the first theme of the Overture to Don Gio- 
vanni. Erich Blom goes even further in associating the Symphony 
with the opera that followed: "The portentous and extended slow 
introduction of the 'Prague' Symphony is charged with the graver 
aspects of Don Giovanni; the half-close leading to the allegro is 
practically identical with that at a similar juncture in the great sextet 
of the opera, and an ominous figure in the finale almost makes one 
think of the stone guest appearing among a riot of mirth, though the 
grace and the laughter of Susanna are there too. The slow movement 
makes us dream of the idyllic summer-night stillness in Count Alma- 
viva's invitingly artificial garden. The wonder of the Symphony is, 
however, that in spite of the variety of the visions it may suggest 
to the hearer, it is a perfect whole. Every structural part and every 
thematic feature is exquisitely proportioned. No separate incident is 
allowed to engage attention independently of the scheme in which it 
is assigned its function, even where it is as incredibly beautiful as the 
second subject of the first movement, which is surreptitiously intro- 
duced by a passage that is apparently merely transitional, or as engag- 
ingly spritely as the second subject of the finale with its bubbling 
bassoon accompaniment." 

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SUITE FROM "THE TENDER LAND" 

By Aaron Copland 

Born in Brooklyn, N.Y., November 14, 1900 



The opera The Tender Land was commissioned by Richard Rodgers and Oscar 
Hammerstein II on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the League of Composers, 
and composed between 1952 and 1954. The text is by Horace Everett. The opera 
had its first performance by the New York City Opera Company under the direction 
of Thomas Schippers at the New York City Center, April 1, 1954. It was performed 
by the opera department of the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood on August 
2 and 3, 1954 and (revised from a two- into a three-act opera) by the Oberlin Con- 
servatory on May 20 and 21, 1955. Two choruses from The Tender Land were 
performed at the benefit concert, "Tanglewood on Parade," on August 8, 1957, the 
composer conducting. Choral portions were presented at Brandeis University, again 
under the composer's direction, on June 8, 1957. 

The suite requires 3 flutes and piccolo, oboe and English horn, 2 clarinets and 
bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, harp, 
piano, and strings. 

(The orchestral suite was arranged for a larger orchestra than that used in the 
opera by the addition of piccolo, 2 horns, 2 trombones and tuba.) 

A n interview by Howard Taubman in the New York Times (March 
■**■ 28, 1954) anticipates the first performance with an explanation by 
the composer of how he came to write the opera. "I've been wanting 
to do an opera ever since The Second Hurricane, but couldn't get a 
libretto." Mr. Copland revealed that he had long since jotted down 
possible themes in a notebook even before he had found a likely 
libretto. At length he had come across a book, Let Us Now Praise 
Famous Men, by James Agee and Walker Evans. The book consisted 
of photographs taken in a rural area of Alabama. A picture of an old 
woman with a young one made a special impression upon Mr. Cop- 
land. "There was something so full of living and understanding in 
the face of the older woman," he said, "and something so open and 
eager in the face of the younger one, that I began to think that here 
was the basis of an idea." It was therefore at his suggestion and under 
his advice that Horace Everett worked out his libretto. 

The plot was related to the New York Herald Tribune by Mr. Cop- 
land in advance of the first performance. 

"The opera takes place in the mid '30s, in June, spring harvest time. 
It's about a farm family — a mother, a daughter who's just about to 
graduate from high school, a younger sister of ten, and a grandfather. 
There's big doings in the works — no-one in the family has ever 



&eoltan=^>feimter d^rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



graduated before, and a whopping party is planned for the occasion. 

"Then two drifters come along asking for odd jobs. The grand- 
father is reluctant to give them any, and the mother is alarmed because 
she's heard reports of two young men molesting the young girls of the 
neighborhood. Nevertheless, the fellows are told they can sleep in the 
shed for the night. 

"The graduation party itself begins at the opening of the second 
act. The heroine, who by a genuine coincidence has the same name 
— Laurie — as the gal in Rodgers & Hammers tein's Oklahoma!, has, 
naturally, fallen in love with one of the drifters. And they prove it 
by singing a twelve-minute love duet. That, I can tell you, is revolu- 
tionary. After all, love duets are a sort of rarity in modern opera, and 
twelve minutes is a long time. 

"But about their budding love affair there is something of a com- 
plication. You see, she associates him with freedom, with getting away 
from home, and he associates her with settling down. Martin (that's 
the hero's name) asks Laurie to run away with him, and she, of course, 
accepts. But in the middle of the night, after a long discussion with 
his fellow hobo, Top, he decides that his kind of roving life is not for 
Laurie, so he silently steals off. 

"When Laurie discovers that she's been jilted, she decides to leave 
home, anyway, and at the conclusion of the opera the mother sings a 



YOUTH CONCERTS 

at SYMPHONY HALL 

60 Members of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

HARRY ELLIS DICKSON 
Conductor 



2 Series of 3 Concerts each 
on Saturday mornings at 11 

The same three programs 
for each series 

Nov. 7 Jan. 9 Mar. 5 

Nov. 14 Jan. 16 Mar. 12 

Soloist: Isaac Stern (Nov. 7) 
Soloist: Joseph Silverstein (Nov. 14) 



SERIES TICKETS ONLY -Si 

On sale at the box office 



The New England 
Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 
James Aliferis, President 

Thurs., Nov. 12, 8:30 p.m. 

Conservatory 
Symphony Orchestra 

James Dixon, Conductor 
Soloist: Howard Goding, Pianist 

SCHUBERT — MOZART 
RICHARD HERVIG — ELGAR 



Tues., Nov. 24, 8:30 p.m. 

A Cappella Choir 

Richard Rosewall, Conductor 



j. c. BACH 

BRITTEN 



DVORAK 
FINE 



Both concerts, Jordan HaM. 
Tickets without charge at Box Office or 
by writing to the Dean, enclosing self- 
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290 Huntington Ave., Boston 15 



[9] 



song — a song of acceptance that is the key to the opera. In it she looks 
to her younger daughter as the continuation of the family cycle that is 
the whole reason for their existence." 

The Party Scene is, as indicated, music from the Act II graduation 
party, especially the square dance material from that act. 

The Finale is an exact transcription for orchestra of the vocal 
quintet that concludes Act I of the opera. 

Horace Everett's text of the Quintet ("The Promise of Living") is 
as follows: 

The promise of living 
With hope and thanksgiving 
Is born of our loving 
Our friends and our labor. 

The promise of growing 
With faith and with knowing 
Is born of our sharing 
Our love with our neighbor 

The promise of living 
The promise of growing 
Is born of our singing 
In joy and thanksgiving. 

(Copyright by Boosey and Hawkes) 

[copyrighted] 



ENTR'ACTE 

TO BOO OR NOT TO BOO, THAT IS THE QUESTION 

By Francis D. Perkins 



(In the seventh program of last season under the heading "Spon 
taneous Disapproval" the subject of applause was discussed by Harold 
Rutland, an English writer. The following article gives a similar 
American view. It is quoted from the New York Herald Tribune, 
August 23, 1959.) 

oth in this country and in England, disappointed concert and 
opera-goers usually express their opinions in a polite and negative 



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way. On hearing a sub-standard performance, they either do not 
applaud at all, or limit applause to a mere acknowledgment of the 
performer's efforts. Later, they may air their views with considerable 
warmth in private conversations; cancel their subscriptions, or write 
to the managements concerned, but they avoid the sibilant hiss, the 
strident boo or the type of cheer which is named after New York's 
northernmost borough. 

In England, booing is such a rare occurrence that a demonstration 
of that kind against a particular singer last winter at Covent Garden 
aroused an unusual flood of comment. London's "Opera" magazine, 
inviting its readers to discuss the subject, received a handsome response. 
Some of the writers censured such vocal criticism as impolite; some 
favored booing with certain reservations, arguing that there was too 
much placid acceptance of poor performances. 

In New York, this observer remembers only a handful of occasions 
when disaffected listeners hissed, and most of these were back in the 
1920's. Some hostile sounds greeted what then seemed cacophonous 
modern music in a Boston Symphony concert under Pierre Monteux 
and another by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski. 
There was also publicly expressed opposition at a concert of the Inter- 
national Composers' Guild and a little mild sibilance at the local 
premiere of the late George Antheil's "Ballet Mecanique." 

All this hissing was aroused by compositions rather than by sub- 
standard performances, and this suggests a possible distinction in our 
musical public's mind between the responsibility of the composer and 
the performer. A composer can hardly disclaim responsibility for what 
he writes and his listeners hear, unless the performance is so bad as to 
disguise it. As for the performer, according to this theory, the general 
impression seems to be that he is doing the best he can, and that even 
if that is hopelessly inadequate, his efforts should be acknowledged 
with some applause. There may be a subconscious belief that he is not 
solely responsible for his failure. 

Does the purchase of a ticket entitle its holder to register public 
vocal objections if he feels he has been sorely aggrieved or swindled? 
Mr. Stokowski once asked those who audibly disliked his modern 
offerings to withdraw and make room for broader-minded listeners, 
but bad performances are in a rather different category. Still, if a 
right to boo exists, is it advisable to exercise it? In concerts, negative 
disapproval is usually sufficient damnation. One can usually tell the 
difference between sincere plaudits from an audience at large and 
the sporadic, scattered manual encouragement of friends, teachers and 
managers who are valiantly trying to support a lost cause. 

Metropolitan Opera patrons, however, know that applause is not 
always a measure of merit; that a singer's group of enthusiastic sup- 



porters may resonantly clap and cheer whether his singing is up to 
standard or far below it. In the latter case, a dissenter might well feel 
inclined to boo. But booing also might become a weapon for groups 
who dislike a particular singer with equal lack of artistic discrimina- 
tion and add to the existing opera-interrupting din. In the letters 
received by "Opera," the general feeling was that vicious personal 
booing is utterly indefensible, but that indiscriminate applause is 
also pointless. 

One correspondent suggested that booing be applied to offending 
members of an audience — the rustlers of programs and candy wrappers, 
for instance. If we extend this to interrupting operatic applause, he 
has something. It might be interesting to see what would happen if 
those who wished to hear the music should shush the claqueurs who 
drown it out. It might, after a while, convince them that the right to 
hear all of an opera which one has paid to attend is superior to any 
individual right to a noisy public demonstration of enthusiasm. 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, IN C MINOR, Op. 67 
By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The Fifth Symphony was completed near the end of the year 1807, and first 
performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, December 22, 1808, Beethoven 
conducting. The parts were published in April, 1809, and the score in March, 1826. 
The dedication is to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky. 

The Symphony is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons 
and double-bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings (the 
piccolo, trombones and double-bassoon, here making their first appearance in a 
symphony of Beethoven, are used only in the Finale). 

Qomething in the direct, impelling drive of the first movement of the 
^ C minor symphony commanded the general attention when it was 
new, challenged the skeptical, and soon forced its acceptance. Goethe 
heard it with grumbling disapproval, according to Mendelssohn, but 
was astonished and impressed in spite of himself. Lesueur, hidebound 
professor at the Conservatoire, was talked by Berlioz into breaking his 



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vow never to listen to another note of Beethoven, and found his prej- 
udices and resistances quite swept away. A less plausible tale reports 
Maria Malibran as having been thrown into convulsions by this sym- 
phony. The instances could be multiplied. There was no gainsaying 
that forthright, sweeping storminess. 

Even if the opening movement could have been denied, the tender 
melodic sentiment of the Andante was more than enough to offset 
conservative objections to "waywardness" in the development, and 
the lilting measures of the scherzo proper were more than enough to 
compensate the "rough" and puzzling Trio. The joyous, marchlike 
theme of the finale carried the symphony on its crest to popular 
success, silencing at length the objections of those meticulous musi- 
cians who found that movement "commonplace" and noisy. Certain 
of the purists, such as Louis Spohr, were outraged at hearing the 
disreputable tones of trombones and piccolo in a symphony. But 
Spohr could not resist Beethoven's uncanny touch in introducing a 
reminiscence of the scherzo before the final coda. Even Berlioz, who 
was usually with Beethoven heart and soul, felt called upon to make 
a half-apology for the elementary finale theme. It seemed to him that 
the repetitiousness of the finale inevitably lessened the interest. After 
the magnificent first entrance of the theme, the major tonality so 
miraculously prepared for in the long transitional passage, all that 
could follow seemed to him lessened by comparison, and he was forced 
to take refuge in the simile of a row of even columns, of which the 
nearest looms largest. 

It has required the weathering of time to show the Beethoven of 
the Fifth Symphony to be in no need of apologies, to be greater than 
his best champions suspected. Some of his most enthusiastic conduc- 
tors in the century past seem to have no more than dimly perceived 
its broader lines, misplaced its accents, under or over shot the mark 
when they attempted those passages which rely upon the understand- 
ing and dramatic response of the interpreter. Wagner castigated those 
who hurried over the impressive, held E-flat in the second bar, who 
sustained it no longer than the "usual duration of a forte bow stroke." 
Even many years later, Arthur Nikisch was taken to task for over- 
prolonging those particular holds. Felix Weingartner, as recently as 



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1906, in his "On the Performance of the Symphonies of Beethoven," 
felt obliged to warn conductors against what would now be considered 
unbelievable liberties, such as adding horns in the opening measures 
of the symphony. He also told them to take the opening eighth notes 
in tempo, and showed how the flowing contours of the movement must 
not be obscured by false accentuation. 

Those — and there is no end of them — who have attempted to 
describe the first movement have looked upon the initial four-note 
figure with its segregating hold, and have assumed that Beethoven used 
this fragment, which is nothing more than a rhythm and an interval, 
in place of a theme proper, relying upon the slender and little used 
"second theme" for such matters as melodic continuity. Weingartner 
and others after him have exposed this fallacy, and what might be 
called the enlightened interpretation of this movement probably began 
with the realization that Beethoven never devised a first movement 
more conspicuous for graceful symmetry and even, melodic flow. An 
isolated tile cannot explain a mosaic, and the smaller the tile unit, 
the more smooth and delicate of line will be the complete picture. 
Just so does Beethoven's briefer "motto" build upon itself to produce 
long and regular melodic periods. Even in its first bare statement, the 
"motto" belongs conceptually to an eight-measure period, broken for 
the moment as the second fermata is held through an additional bar. 
The movement is regular in its sections, conservative in its tonalities. 
The composer remained, for the most part, within formal boundaries. 
The orchestra was still the orchestra of Haydn, until, to swell the 
jubilant outburst of the finale, Beethoven resorted to his trombones. 

The innovation, then, was in the character of the musical thought. 
The artist worked in materials entirely familiar, but what he had to 
say was astonishingly different from anything that had been said before. 
As Sir George Grove has put it, he "introduced a new physiognomy 
into the world of music." No music, not even the "Eroica," had had 
nearly the drive and impact of this First Movement. 

The Andante con moto (in A-flat major) is the most irregular of 
the four movements. It is not so much a theme with variations as free 
thoughts upon segments of a theme with certain earmarks and recur- 
rences of the variation form hovering in the background. The first 
setting forth of the melody cries heresy by requiring 48 bars. The first 
strain begins regularly enough, but, instead of closing on the tonic 
A-flat, hangs suspended. The wood winds echo this last phrase and 
carry it to a cadence which is pointedly formal as the strings echo it 
at the nineteenth bar. Formal but not legitimate. A close at the eighth 
bar would have been regular, and this is not a movement of regular 
phrase lengths. Regularity is not established until the end of the 
movement when this phrase closes upon its eighth bar at last! The 

[Hi 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-EIGHT-FIFTY-NINE 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining Tuesday evening concerts in 
Sanders Theatre, Cambridge will be as follows: 

December 1 CLAUDE FRANK, Piano 

January 5 

February 2 RUGGIERO RICCI, Violin 

March 8 
April 12 



Tickets for each concert at the Subscription Office, 
Symphony Hall, CO 6-1492 



BALDWIN PIANO 



RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



SANDERS THEATRE 



CAMBRIDGE 

[15] 



whole andante is one of the delayed cadences. The second strain of 
the melody pauses upon the dominant and proceeds with an outburst 
into C major, repeats in this key to pause at the same place and dream 
away at leisure into E-flat. The two sections of melody recur regularly 
with varying ornamental accompaniment in the strings, but again the 
questioning pauses bring in enchanting whispered vagaries, such as 
a fugato for flutes, oboes and clarinets, or a pianissimo dalliance by 
the violins upon a strand of accompaniment. The movement finds 
a sudden fortissimo close. 

The third movement (allegro, with outward appearance of a scherzo) 
begins pianissimo with a phrase the rhythm of which crystallizes into 
the principal element, in fortissimo. The movement restores the 
C minor of the first and some of its rhythmic drive. But here the 
power of impulsion is light and springy. In the first section of the 
Trio in C major (the only part of the movement which is literally 
repeated) the basses thunder a theme which is briefly developed, 
fugally and otherwise. The composer begins what sounds until its 
tenth bar like a da capo. But this is in no sense a return, as the hearer 
soon realizes. The movement has changed its character, lost its steely 
vigor and taken on a light, skimming, mysterious quality. It evens off 
into a pianissimo where the suspense of soft drum beats prepares a 
new disclosure, lightly establishing (although one does not realize this 
until the disclosure comes) the quadruple beat. The bridge of mystery 
leads, with a sudden tension, into the tremendous outburst of the 
Finale, chords proclaiming C major with all of the power an orchestra 
of 1807 could muster — which means that trombones, piccolo and 
contra-bassoon appeared for the first time in a symphony. The Finale 
follows the formal line of custom, with a second section in the 
dominant, the prescribed development section, and a fairly close 
recapitulation. But as completely as the first movement (which like- 
wise outwardly conforms), it gives a new function to a symphony — 
a new and different character to music itself. Traditional preconcep- 
tions are swept away in floods of sound, joyous and triumphant. Ait 
the end of the development the riotous chords cease and in the sudden 
silence the scherzo, in what is to be a bridge passage, is recalled. Again 
measures of wonderment fall into the sense of a coda as the oboe brings 
the theme to a gentle resolution. This interruption was a stroke o£ 
genius which none could deny, even the early malcontents who 
denounced the movement as vulgar and blatant — merely because they 
had settled back for a rondo and found something else instead. The 
Symphony which in all parts overrode disputation did so nowhere 
more unanswerably than in the final coda with its tumultuous C major. 

[copyrighted] 

[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Bach Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) 

Barber Medea's Dance of Vengeance 

Adagio for Strings 

Beethoven Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 

Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 
Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 
Symphony No. 9 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Berlioz "L'Enfance du Christ" 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 

Bloch "Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 

Brahms Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 
Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) 

Debussy "The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 

"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 

Dukas The Apprentice Sorceror 

Elgar Introduction and Allegro 

Franck Symphony No. 1 in D minor 

Ibert "Escales" (Ports of Call) 

d'Indy Symphony on a Mountain Air 

( Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 

Martinu 

Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 

Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 

Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



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"Fantaisies Symphoniques" 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) 

Symphony No. 6 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" 
"Mother Goose" Suite 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) 
"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures 
Symphony No. 4 
Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) 
Serenade for Strings 

Excerpts, "Tannhauser," Tristan," 
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Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) 



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A child, responds 



TONE 




Nothing so stimulates a child's inborn love of 
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r BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIG 





SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959- i960 

Sanders Theatre, Cambridge {Harvard University} 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN. Associate Conductor 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger * 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



PERSONNEL 

Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 

E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Mover 
Kauko Kahiia 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 

Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
CD. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallowell Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[1] 



wLvkcb/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rca Victor records exclusively 



4 LIVING STEREO fe 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



[»] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE-SIXTY 



Second Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, December i, at 8:30 o'clock 



Bach *Brandenburg Concerto No. 6, in B-flat major, for Strings 

I. Allegro 

II. Adagio ma non tanto 
III. Allegro 

Mozart Piano Concerto No. 24, in C minor, K. 491 

I. (Allegro) 

II. Larghetto 

III. Allegretto 

(First performance by this Orchestra) 

INTERMISSION 

Mendelssohn Symphony No. 3, in A minor, "Scottish," Op. 56 

I. Andante con moto; Allegro un poco agitato 

II. Vivace non troppo 

III. Adagio 

IV. Allegro vivacissimo; Allegro maestoso assai 

(Played without pause) 



SOLOIST 

CLAUDE FRANK 



BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[3] 



BRANDENBURG CONCERTO IN B-FLAT MAJOR, NO. 6 

FOR 2 VlOLE DA BRACCIA, 2 VlOLE DA GAMBA, CELLO, 
VlOLONE AND CEMBALO 

By Johann Sebastian Bach 
Born in Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died in Leipzig, July 28, 1750 



Bach wrote the last of his set of Brandenburg Concertos in six individual parts, 
and it has been accordingly performed by six string players (2 violas and 2 cellos 
concertanti, additional cello with bass, and continuo). In the present performances 
the parts are given to a string orchestra. 

Hpo the brilliance of the Third Brandenburg Concerto, where the 
•*■ incisive tone of the violins predominates, Bach has opposed in his 
other string concerto, the Sixth, only the lower and darker register of 
the string instruments, the characteristic color of the violas prevailing 
in a close and constant duet. The lively course of the first allegro is 
relieved by a broadly melodic adagio in E-flat. Here the two viola parts 
are emphasized, for the gambas (cellos) in this movement are silent. 
The single cello part provides a sustaining legato, blending with the 
usual bass accompaniment until it takes up the principal melody near 
the end. The last movement, in 12-8 time, restores the original key and 
vigorous interplay of voices. The Concerto, according to the observa- 
tion of Sir Hubert Parry, "is a kind of mysterious counterpart to the 



CAMBRIDGE CIVIC 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

VICTOR MANUSEVITCH, Music Director 

SANDERS THEATRE 
Sunday, December 13, 1959 • 8:30 P.M. 

Program 

Haydn: Symphony No. 49 in F minor, "La Passione" 

Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-flat major, K. 271 

Soloist: Evelyn Crochet 

Schumann: Concertstuck for Four Horns and Orchestra, Op. 86 
French Horns : David Battey 
Ralph Pottle 
Jeanne Paella 
Roland Pandolphi 

Brahms: Tragic Overture, Op. 81 

Admission: $2.00, $1.50, $1.00 
Single tickets will be on sale at the Coop and also at the door. 



[4] 



BROADCASTS by the 


BOSTON 


SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 


Wint 

The Saturday eve 


er Season 


, 1959-1960 


sning concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the 


5 following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


*WCRB-AM 


1330 


kc 


Boston 


*WCRB-FM 


102.5 


mc 


Boston 


**WXHR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Boston 


**WTAG-FM 


96.1 


mc 


Worcester 


**WNHC-FM 


99.1 


mc 


New Haven 


**WQXR-AM 


1560 


kc 


New York 


**WQXR-FM 


96.3 


mc 


New York 


**WFIL-FM 


102.1 


mc 


Philadelphia 


**WFMZ-FM 


100.7 


mc 


Allentown, Pa. 


**WFLY-FM 


92.3 


mc 


Troy, N. Y. 


**WITH-FM 


104.3 


mc 


Baltimore 


**WNBF-FM 


98.1 


mc 


Binghamton, N. Y. 


**WGR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


**WRRA-FM 


103.7 


mc 


Ithaca, N. Y. 


**WJTN-FM 


93.3 


mc 


Jamestown, N. Y. 


**WHDL-FM 


95.7 


mc 


Olean, N. Y. 


**WROC-FM 


97.9 


mc 


Rochester, N. Y. 


**WSYR-FM 


94.5 


mc 


Syracuse, N. Y. 


**WRUN-FM 


105.7 


mc 


Utica, N. Y. 


**WSNJ-FM 


98.9 


mc 


Bridgeton, N. J. 


The Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter Season will 


be broadcast live 


on the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


WXHR-FM 


96.9 


mc 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 


by transcription at 8 p.m 


. on th 


e Monday evening following 


the performances 


on the 


following stations: 


*WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


*WBCN-FM 


104.1 


mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 


mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 


mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 


mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


*WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albany 


The Concerts of 


the Tuesday 


Sanders Theatre series will 


be broadcast by the following stations: 


WGBH-FM 


89.7 


mc 


Boston 


WGBH-TV 


Channel 2 


Boston 


WAMC-FM 


90.7 


mc 


Albanv 


WENH-TV 


Channel 11 


Durham, N. H. 


The Sunday afte 


rnoon 


and Tuesday evening concerts at 


Symphony Hall will be 


broadcast live on Station WXHR- 


FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 






* - Stereophonic Broad 


cast 




** - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[5] 



Third Concerto; as the singular grouping of two violas, two viole 
da gamba and a cello and bass, prefigures. The colour is weird and 
picturesque throughout, and the subject matter such as befits the 
unusual group of instruments employed." 

The "viola da braccia" which Bach specified was, as Charles Sanford 
Terry has pointed out in his invaluable book, Bach's Orchestra, nothing 
more than the ordinary viola of his time. The name survived to dis- 
tinguish the "arm viol" from the "leg viol," the "viola da gamba."* 
The "viola da gamba," the last survivor of the family of viols, was an 
obsolescent instrument in Bach's day, although good players upon it 
were still to be found. 

In May of the year 1718, Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen, travelling 
to Carlsbad to take the waters, was attended by some of his musical 
retinue — five musicians and a clavicembalo, under the surveillance of 
his Kapellmeister, Bach. He may have encountered there, in friendly 
rivalry, another musical prince, Christian Ludwig, Margraf of Brand- 
enburg, youngest son of the Great Elector by a second wife. This 
dignitary, a young bachelor passionately devoted to music, boasted his 
own orchestra, and was extravagantly addicted to collecting a library 
of concertos. Charmed with Bach's talent, he immediately commis- 
sioned him to write a brace of concertos. Bach did so — at his leisure; 
and in three years' time sent him the six concertos which have perpetu- 
ated this prince's name. The letter of dedication, dated March (or May) 
24, 1721, was roundly phrased in courtly French periods, addressed 
"A son altesse royale, Monseigneur Cretien Louis Marggraf de Brand- 
enbourg," and signed with appropriate humility and obedient servi- 
tude: "J ean Sebastian Bach" (all proving either that Bach was an 
impeccable French scholar, or that he had one conveniently at hand). 
The Margraf does not seem to have troubled to have had them per- 
formed (the manuscript at least shows no marks of usage); cataloguing 

* The gamba was for centuries a gentleman's instrument. It will be remembered that Sir Toby 
Belch said of Sir Andrew Aguecheek in "Twelfth Night": "He plays o' the viol-de-gamboy, 
and speaks three or four languages word for word without book." 



In this relatively democratic age, almost anyone can have 
an account — checking, trust or savings — with Cambridge 
Trust Company. To the aristocracy of music lovers, how- 
ever, the bank's services are offered with enthusiasm, and 
in the hope that there will be no discords. 

CAMBRIDGE TRUST COMPANY 

Harvard Square 
Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 



[6] 



his library he did not bother to specify the name of Bach beside Bres- 
cianello, Vivaldi, Venturini, or Valentiri, and after his death they were 
knocked down in a job lot of a hundred concertos, or another of seventy- 
seven concertos, at about four groschen apiece.* 

There are those in later times who are angered at reading of the 
lordly casualness of the high-born toward composers. One might point 
out that Bach in this case very likely took his prince's airs as in the 
order of things, that his service brought an assured subsistence and 
artistic freedom which was not unuseful to him. In this case, Bach 
composed as he wished, presumably collected his fee, and was careful 
to keep his own copy of the scores, for performance at Cothen. He was 
hardly the loser by the transaction, and he gave value received in a 
treasure which posterity agrees in calling the most striking development 
of the concerto grosso form until that time. The discerning Albert 
Schweitzer calls them "the purest products of Bach's polyphonic style. 
Neither on the organ nor on the clavier could he have worked out the 
architecture of a movement with such vitality; the orchestra alone 
permits him absolute freedom in the leading and grouping of the 
obbligato voices. . . . One has only to go through these scores, in which 
Bach has marked all the nuances with the utmost care, to realize that 
the plastic pursuit of the musical idea is not in the least formal, but 
alive from beginning to end. Bach takes up the ground-idea of the old 
concerto, which develops the work out of the alternation of a larger 
body of tone — the tutti — and a smaller one — the concertino. Only 
with him the formal principle becomes a living one. It is not now a 
question merely of the alternation of the tutti and the concertino; the 
various tone-groups interpenetrate and react on each other, separate 
from each other, unite again, and all with an incomprehensible artistic 
inevitability. The concerto is really the evolution and the vicissitudes 
of the theme. We really seem to see before us what the philosophy of 

* The manuscripts came into the possession of J. P. Kirnberger, and subsequently his pupil, 
the Princess Amalie, sister of Frederick the Great. They ultimately came, with this lady's 
library, to the Royal Library in Berlin. 



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all ages conceives as the fundamental mystery of things — that self- 
unfolding of the idea in which it creates its own opposite in order to 
overcome it, creates another, which again it overcomes, and so on and 
on until it finally returns to itself, having meanwhile traversed the whole 
of existence. We have the same impression of incomprehensible neces- 
sity and mysterious contentment when we pursue the theme of one of 
these concertos, from its entry in the tutti through its enigmatic struggle 
with its opposite, to the moment when it enters into possession of itself 
again in the final tutti." 

[copyrighted] 



PIANO CONCERTO NO. 24, in C minor, K. 491 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This Concerto was composed in March, 1786. 

The orchestration consists of flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani and strings. 

The present performance is the first by this Orchestra. 

Of Mozart's twenty-seven concertos for piano there are two in the 
minor tonality: this one and the Concerto in D minor, K. 466 
(numbered 20, and composed in the year previous). The minor mode 
was often for Mozart a signal for serious, even tragic matters. 

Einstein wrote that Mozart here "evidently needed to indulge in an 
explosion of dark, tragic, passionate emotion." The composer's motive 
is of course pure conjecture. The plain and astonishing fact is that 
Mozart, tied up with many duties, absorbed in the preparations for 
Figaro (this was the Figaro year), turned out not a casual piece in the 
entertainment pattern, but what is generally considered his most 
independent and challenging, his most prodigious work in this form. 
It is his ultimate venture, his furthest exploration of the piano con- 



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[8] 



certo; for the three which were to follow were to be a further refine- 
ment on what he had done. If Mozart could be said ever to have 
ignored his public in a concerto and followed completely his own 
inner promptings, it was here. The first audience must have been 
dismayed when instead of the usual diatonic opening subject they were 
presented with a tortuous, chromatic succession of phrases with upward 
skips of diminished sevenths. This was a new and strange tonal world, 
and not a gracious one. Their dismay would not have been lessened 
when the whole orchestra proclaimed the theme with dire emphasis. 
A soft theme introduced by the woodwinds gives only momentary 
relief, for the first theme sweeps it away. The piano enters with a new 
theme, still in C minor, but is drawn into the ubiquitous theme, adding 
an octave to the wide interval. The theme dominates the movement, 
the soloist (as in the D minor Concerto) adding to the excitement with 
agitating scale passages. It is a less stormy opening movement than 
that of the D minor Concerto, but it is more vivid, more subtle, and 
more deeply felt. Although the cadenza brings a long coda, ending 
pianissimo, there is no assuagement, and the serenity of a major mode 
is imperative. Nothing could be more serene than the melody of the 
Larghetto. The three elements — piano, strings and winds — are com- 
bined each way with wondrous results. In treating the wind choir, 




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The New England 
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A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 
James Aliferis, President 



Wed., Dec. 2 • 8:30 p.m. 

CHAMBER SINGERS 

James Aliferis, Conductor 

Faculty Soloists: 

James Pappoutsakis, Flute 

Alfred Zighera, Viola da gamba 

Melville Smith, Harpsichord 

Sixteenth century English, German, 

French and Italian madrigals 

Odes of Horace by Randall Thompson 

Part-songs by Ralph Vaughan Williams 

J. S. Bach : Sonata No. 6 for flute and 

harpsichord and Sonata No. 2 for 

viola da gamba and harpsichord 

L. Couperin pieces for solo harpsichord 

Jordan Hall 



Tickets without charge at Box Office 

or by writing to the Dean, enclosing 

self -addressed stamped envelope. 



290 Huntington Ave., Boston 15 



[9] 



the composer obviously gloried in having a full quota, clarinets and 
oboes included, and he made the most of them (the trumpets and 
drums had no place here but are mustered in the other movements). 
The final Allegretto brings no happy ending as the finale of the 
D minor does. It begins and ends in C minor, traversing many keys. 
It is a series of variations on two subjects, the second of which opens 
the way for astonishing chromatic development — a chromaticism 
which serves for thematic individualization, modulation and transition 
equal in skill to the manipulations in the G minor Symphony which 
would come two years later. These variations defy description — they 
are surely one of Mozart's highest achievements in the form. 

This concerto combines range, intensive direction and extraordinary 
adventurousness. It speaks to the nineteenth century, and was a 
favorite with Beethoven. Under the immediate spell of a performance, 
one is strongly moved to give it some sort of crown — the crown, let us 
say, for the ultimate point, as Mozart through his life sought to bring 
the orchestra and his own instrument into ever closer communion. 

[copyrighted] 



CLAUDE FRANK 

Claude Frank was born in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1925, and has 
made the United States his home, having lived here since 1941. He 
was a student in the conducting department of the Berkshire Music 
Center in the summer of 1947 under the direction of Serge Kousse- 
vitzky. In the following year he joined the faculty at Bennington 
College in Vermont. He has served as assistant conductor of the 
Dessoff Choir. However, through the years his attention was increas- 
ingly taken by his development as pianist. He studied with Artur 
Schnabel for ten years and later joined the faculty of Rudolf Serkin's 
school at Marlboro, Vermont, taking part in the Marlboro Music 
Festival. It was under the advice of both Schnabel and Serkin that he 
devoted himself principally to the piano. He has toured Europe as 
well as America in recitals and appearances with orchestra. 



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[10] 



SYMPHONY NO. 3 IN A MINOR, "SCOTTISH," Op. 56 

By Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 

Born in Berlin, February 3, 1809; died in Leipzig, November 4, 1847 



This symphony was finished January 20, 1842, and first performed at the Gewand- 
haus concerts in Leipzig on March 3 following, the composer conducting. The first 
performance in this country was by the Philharmonic Society in New York, George 
Loder conducting, November 22, 1845. The first performance in Boston was by the 
Academy of Music at the Melodeon, November 14, 1846, G. J. Webb conducting. 

The instrumentation includes 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. 

The score is inscribed as "composed for and dedicated to Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria of England." It was published in 1843. 

IN the spring of 1829, Felix Mendelssohn, promising pianist and 
composer of twenty, visited England, played with the Philharmonic 
Orchestra in London and conducted it, was entertained by delightful 
people, and enjoyed himself thoroughly. In July he undertook a tour 
of Scotland with his friend Carl Klingemann. The people and the 
landscape interested him. He wrote of the Highlanders with their 
"long, red beards, tartan plaids, bonnets and feathers, naked knees, and 
their bagpipes in their hands." The moorlands intrigued him too, and 
when fogs and rains permitted, the sketchbook was brought out and put 
to good use. Mendelssohn was an insatiable tourist, and if the camera 
had been invented would surely have otherwise committed landscapes 
to memory. 

He wrote home of the Hebrides and the Cave of Fingal — also of the 
Palace of Holyrood, then a picturesque ruin, in which Mary of Scotland 
had dwelt. "In the evening twilight we went today to the palace where 
Queen Mary lived and loved; a little room is shown there with a wind- 
ing staircase leading up to the door; up this way they came and found 
Rizzio in that little room, pulled him out, and three rooms off there is 
a dark corner, where they murdered him. The chapel close to it is now 
roofless, grass and ivy grow there, and at that broken altar Mary was 
crowned Queen of Scotland. Everything around is broken and mould- 
ering, and the bright sky shines in. I believe I found today in that old 
chapel the beginning of my Scottish Symphony." There follow sixteen 



&eoltan=is>ktmter <0rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[»] 



measures which were to open the introduction of the first movement. 
These measures have also been attributed to the incident that, returning 
to the inn at Edinburgh, Mendelssohn there listened to a plaintive 
Scotch air sung by the landlord's daughter. 

In this way Mendelssohn carried out of Scotland two scraps of melody 
that were to be put to good use — this one and the opening measures of 
the "Fingal's Cave" Overture. Smaller works for piano, and for voice, 
were also suggested by Scotland. 

It would be a mistake, of course, to look for any thing . like definite 
description in this score, or for that matter in any symphony of 
Mendelssohn. He did not even publish it with a specific title, although 
he so referred to it in his letters. There have been attempts to prove 
the symphony Scottish in character. George Hogarth, who was beside 
Mendelssohn as he attended the "competition of Pipers" at Edinburgh, 
testified that "he was greatly interested by the war tunes of the different 
clans, and the other specimens of the music of the country. ... In this 
symphony, though composed long afterwards, he embodied some of 
his reminiscences of a period to which he always looked back with 
pleasure. The delightful manner in which he has reproduced some of 
the most characteristic features of the national music — solemn, pathetic, 
gay, warlike — is familiar to every amateur." 

The trouble with Mr. Hogarth's statement is that most hearers, cer- 
tainly the German ones, have not followed him so far. An enthusiastic 
Britisher would tend to make much of such thematic resemblances; but, 
after all, a folkish tune in the British Isles or Germany can have much 
in common, and by the time Mendelssohn has in his own way developed 
through a dozen measures the quasi jig-like 6-8 of the first movement 
or the theme of the scherzo in which one can possibly discern "national 
character," any truly Scottish jauntiness seems to have departed. Ger- 
man writers, in a day given to imaginative flights, went far afield from 
the Scottish scene. Ambrose was reminded by the "violent conflicts" 
in the Finale (which someone else likened to the gathering of clans) of 
"a roaring lion with which we might fancy a young Paladin in knightly 
combat. . . . And then the airy, elfish gambols of the Scherzo — we 
cannot help it, we invent a whole fairy tale of our own to fit it, a tale 



SCHOENHOFS, INC. *"*g»*°oks 

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[12] 



of the genuine old German stamp, something like the Sleeping Beauty 
of the Woods, or Cinderella, or Schneewittchen" 

It is probably nearer the truth that the thoughts of the young German 
were swarming with musical images in the summer of 1829, images 
which took on a passing shape, a superficial trait or two from what he 
heard in a strange land. An indefatigable sight-seer, he must have found 
the raucous drones produced by brawny males in skirts less a matter 
for musical inspiration or suggestion than an exotic curiosity. It took 
an islander such as Chorley to find and stress characteristic Scottish 
intervals in the Scherzo of the symphony. Mendelssohn, who took 
pleasure in affixing a picturesque name to a symphony, particularly in 
the light chatter of his letters, probably had no serious descriptive 
intentions. He hated "to explain" his music, so it is reported, and 
would turn off the elaborate word pictures of others with a joke. When 
Schubring went into a transport of fantasy over the "Meeresstille" 
Overture, its composer answered that his own mental picture was an 
old man sitting in the stern of the boat and helping matters by blowing 
into the sail. "Notes," wrote Mendelssohn in a letter from Italy, "have 
as definite a meaning as words, perhaps even a more definite one." But 
that meaning, precluding words, would also preclude anything so 
concrete as a particular landscape or nation. 

In the winter of 1830-31, while he was enjoying himself in Rome 
and Naples, themes which had occurred to him on the earlier journey 
had grown into rounded and extended form. The Fin gal's Cave Over- 
ture then occupied him, and two symphonies "which," he wrote, "are 
rattling around in my head." But the Italian Symphony took prece- 
dence over the other, and even when that was in a fairly perfected 
condition, the Scottish Symphony seemed to elude him. He had good 
intentions of presently "taking hold" of it, but the Italian sunshine 
scattered his thoughts. "Who can wonder that I find it difficult to 
return to my misty Scotch mood?" The "schottische Nebelstimmung' 
was to bear fruit in the by no means uncheerful minor cast of the music. 
Another score, the Reformation Symphony, also in an unfinished 
state, was in his portmanteau at this time. This, with his earlier C 
minor Symphony and the later " Lob ge sang," were to comprise all of 
his works in this form. 



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[13] 



He carried the Italian, Scottish, and Reformation symphonies about 
with him for years, endlessly reconsidering, polishing, touching up, 
before he was ready to take the irrevocable step of publication. Had 
the symphonies been numbered in the order of their composition, they 
would have been as follows: first, the C minor (1824), second the 
Reformation (1830-32), third the Italian (1833), fourth the Song of 
Praise (1840), and last the Scottish (1842). But the Italian and Refor- 
mation symphonies were withheld from publication until after his 
death, and thus attained the numbering Fourth and Fifth. By this 
circumstance the "Lobgesang" was published second in order, the 
Scottish third, and they were so numbered. 

Mendelssohn at last dated the manuscript of his Scottish Symphony 
as completed January 20, 1842, and on March 3 made it publicly 
known, conducting it at a Leipzig Gewandhaus concert. It was several 
times repeated there, and played in Berlin, where Mendelssohn then 
dwelt in the service of Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia. In June, 
Mendelssohn visited England again and conducted the work at a 
Philharmonic Concert (June 13), when it was much applauded. The 
audience at this time was not informed of any connection between the 
"new symphony" and Scotland. Mendelssohn, summoned to an audi- 
ence with Queen Victoria, played to her and the Prince Consort, and 
asked her to sing in return. Compliments were interchanged — in all 
sincerity, for the royal couple were delighted with their German visitor, 
and he, in his turn, wrote that she had sung "really quite faultlessly, 
and with agreeable feeling and expression." Mendelssohn asked the 
permission of the British Sovereign to dedicate his symphony to her, 
"for the English name would suit the Scottish piece charmingly." 



"The several movements of this symphony," according to instructions 
printed in the original edition, "must follow each other immediately 
and not be separated by the usual pauses" (each movement, however, 
closes upon its tonic chord). 

The main body of the first movement, like the slow introduction, is 
in A minor, a lively 6-8 rhythm opening with its first theme given to 
the strings and oboes pianissimo. A transitional passage assai animato 
introduces the second theme in E minor, played by the clarinet while 
the first violins combine the first theme with the new one. There is the 
usual procedure of development, restatement and coda, and, to close, 
a repetition of a few measures from the introduction. 

The second movement, vivace non troppo, in F major 2-4, is in effect 
a scherzo and was so named in the earlier edition, although, like each 
movement in this symphony, it follows the sonata form. The second 
subject is but briefly developed. 

[M] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining Tuesday evening concerts in 
Sanders Theatre, Cambridge will be as follows: 

JANUARY 5 

FEBRUARY 2 
RUGGIERO RICCI, Violin 

MARCH 8 

APRIL 12 



Tickets for each concert at the Subscription Office, 
Symphony Hall, CO 6-1492 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



SANDERS THEATRE • CAMBRIDGE 

[15] 



The third movement, adagio, in A major 2-4, discloses its first theme 
in the tenth measure as the first violins play cantabile. A march-like 
passage introduced by the wood winds intervenes before the second 
theme in E major is introduced by the first violins with pizzicato 
accompaniment. 

The Finale, allegro vivacissimo 2-2, restores the tonality of A minor. 
The first theme is at once introduced by the violins over violas, bassoons 
and horns, and the second (in E minor) by oboes and clarinets after a 
transitional episode for the full orchestra. The movement is developed 
at length and closes with a sonorous allegro maestoso assai, A major 6-8. 
This Finale was once compared to "a gathering of the clans," perhaps 
on account of the tempo indication allegro guerriero which stood on 
the earlier edition but which was later changed. 

[copyrighted] 



■Gs 



Subscribers 1 Exhibition 



The annual exhibition of paintings by subscribers 
to the Boston and Cambridge concerts of the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, and by members and Friends 
of the Orchestra, will take place from December 
22 to January 2. 

Paintings should be delivered to Symphony Hall 
on Monday or Tuesday, December 14 or IS. 
Application blanks may be had at the Friends' 
Office, or in the evenings at the Box Office. 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Brandenburg Concerto's (Complete) 
Medea's Dance of Vengeance 
Adagio for Strings 

Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 
Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 
Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 
Symphony No. 9 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

"L'Enfance du Christ" 
"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 

"Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 

Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 

Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) 

"The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 
"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 

The Apprentice Sorceror 
Introduction and Allegro 
Symphony No. 1 in D minor 
"Escales" (Ports of Call) 
Symphony on a Mountain Air 
( Henriot- Schweitzer) 

Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 



Bach 
Barber 

Beethoven 



Berlioz 

Bloch 
Brahms 



Debussy 



Dukas 
Elgar 
Franck 
Ibert 

D'iNDY 



Martinu 
Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 



Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 



Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



LM-2182, 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 

LM 

LM- 

LM- 
LM- 



Wagner 
Walton 



"Fantaisies Symphoniques" 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 

(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) LM- 

Symphony No. 6 LM 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts LM 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot- Schweitzer) LM 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) LM 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) LM 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" LM 

"Mother Goose" Suite LM 

Piano Concerto (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) LM 

"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" LM 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) LM 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures LM 

Symphony No. 4 LM 

Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) LM 

Serenade for Strings LM 

Excerpts (Eileen Farrell) LM- 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) LM 



219S* 

2197 

2105 

2015 
2233* 

■1997 

6066* 

1992* 

■6053 

2228* 

2109 

■2097 
1959 

•2274* 

•2030 

•2111* 

•1984* 

■2282* 

■2292* 

-2105* 

■2131* 

■2111* 

■2271* 

-1760 

■2083 

2221* 
2314* 

2073 

2083 

2110 
2197 
2314* 

2237* 

■1984* 
2292* 

2271* 

-1760 

•2292* 

■2344 

■2043 
•1953 
■2239* 
■2105* 

2255* 

■2109 



* Also a stereophonic recording. 




At the request of the BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



160 BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON 



ftriftw 



BALDWIN GRAND PIANOS • ACROSONIC VERTICAL PIANOS • HOWARD SPINET PIANOS 
HAMILTON STUDIO PIANOS • BALDWIN ELECTRONIC ORGANS • ORGA-SONIC SPINET ORGANS 



BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 



'till 



X 



milium 



<s///" 



V — 



H 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 
1959-1960 

Sanders Theatre, Cambridge [Harvard University] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



PERSONNEL 

Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 
Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT 


BULLETIN 


with 


historical and 


descriptive 


notes 


by 




John N. Burk 







The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallowell Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[1] 



yVlwkcA/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rga Victor records exclusively 



q UVlNGlsTfttOfcE 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



M 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE- SIXTY 



Third Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, January 5, at 8:30 o'clock 



AARON COPLAND, Guest Conductor 

Purcell Fantasias for Strings 

No. 2, in B-flat major 

No. 4, in C minor 

Fantasia on One Note, in F major 

Haydn Symphony in C minor, No. 95 

I. Allegro 

II. Andante cantabile 

III. Minuet; Trio 

IV. Finale: Vivace 

Schuman New England Triptych; Three Pieces 

for Orchestra after William Billings 

INTERMISSION 

Diamond ,. Rounds for String Orchestra 

Copland First Symphony 

I. Prelude 
II. Scherzo 
III. Finale 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 

[3] 



THREE FANTASIAS FOR STRINGS 
By Henry Purcell 

Born in London circa 1659; died at Dean's Yard, Westminster, November 21, 1695 



These Fantasias were composed in four string parts in 1680.* Three of them, 
including the Fantasia on One Note, were performed at a Berkshire Festival concert 
under Dr. Munch on July 12, 1952. 

Henry Purcell, who, in the space of his thirty-odd years gave 
England music which is still considered unsurpassed in that 
country, lived in a period shortly after the Golden Age of Elizabeth 
and her madrigalists, many years before the era of Pope, Handel, and 
Dr. Samuel Johnson. When Purcell composed his brace of Fantasias 
(sometimes called "fancies") in 1680, these three notables were within 
a few years of being born. This was the England of Samuel Pepys and 
Dryden. In Italy, Corelli (whose music Purcell may not have known) 
was in the ascendant, Domenico Scarlatti was unborn, and Vivaldi was 
an infant in Venice. The British King (Charles II) preferred the 
French music of the Court of Louis XIV, where Lully was in power. 
Couperin was a boy of twelve, and Rameau was not to be born for 
three years. The influence of the seventeenth century instrumentalists 
of Italy was just coming into favor and soon touched Purcell, but not 
yet in his Fantasias, which are innocent of a figured bass, and are 
developed in the close, sinuous manner of vocal counterpoint. These 
Fantasias, according to Philip Heseltine in a preface to the score of 

* Purcell composed his "Fantazias" in three, four, five, six and seven string parts. The 
manuscript has survived in an album which is preserved in the British Museum. 

The autograph Fantasias of Purcell consist of three in three parts, nine in four parts, 
one in five parts (which is the Fantasia on One Note), and two more in six and seven parts 
which are labelled "In Nomines." Blank pages between these categories suggests the com- 
poser's intention of later adding to them. 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
FOR OUR RADIO LISTENERS 



The increasing size of our radio audience has prompted 
a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
1960 is $4.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 
Hall. 



[4] 



BROADCASTS by the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Winter Season, 1959-1960 



The Saturday evening concerts of the Winter Season will 
be broadcast live on the following stations: 



WGBH-FM 
*WCRB-AM 
*WCRB-FM 
**WXHR-FM 
**WTAG-FM 
**WNHC-FM 
**WQXR-AM 
**WQXR-FM 
**WFIL-FM 
**WFMZ-FM 
**WFLY-FM 
**WITH-FM 
**WNBF-FM 
**WGR-FM 
**WRRA-FM 
**WJTN-FM 
**WHDL-FM 
**WROC-FM 
**WSYR-FM 
**WRUN-FM 
**WSNJ-FM 



89.7 mc Boston 

1330 kc Boston 

102.5 mc Boston 

96.9 mc Boston 

96.1 mc Worcester 

99.1 mc New Haven 

1560 kc New York 

96.3 mc New York 

102.1 mc Philadelphia 

100.7 mc Allentown, Pa. 

92.3 mc Troy, N. Y. 

104.3 mc Baltimore 

98.1 mc Binghamton, N. Y. 

96.9 mc Buffalo, N. Y. 

103.7 mc Ithaca, N. Y. 

93.3 mc Jamestown, N. Y. 

95.7 mc Olean, N. Y. 

97.9 mc Rochester, N. Y. 

94.5 mc Syracuse, N. Y. 

105.7 mc Utica, N. Y. 

98.9 mc Bridgeton, N. J. 



The Friday afternoon concerts of the Winter Season will 

be broadcast live on the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WXHR-FM 96.9 mc Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 
by transcription at 8 p.m. on the Monday evening following 
the performances on the following stations: 



*WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


*WBCN-FM 


104.1 mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


105.9 mc 


Hartford 


WMTW-FM 


94.9 mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


*WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


Albany 



The Concerts of the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 
be broadcast by the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WGBH-TV Channel 2 Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

WENH-TV Channel 11 Durham, N. H. 

The Sunday afternoon and Tuesday evening concerts at 
Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 
FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 



* - Stereophonic Broadcast 



** - Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[5] 



thirteen of the Fantasias as edited by Andre Mangeot,* "are essentially 
in the tradition of the Elizabethan polyphonists, despite their startling 
originality. They are the last heirs of the sixteenth century, rather 
than the ancestors of the eighteenth. They stand at the end of a great 
period of English instrumental music, the crowning glory of a century 
and a half of rapid and continuous development. The music belongs 
to a time before the art of writing had become all top and bottom, 
before it had been corrupted by that most bestial invention, the figured 
bass " 

The nine Fantasias in four parts have the inscription "Here begineth 
ye 4-part Fantazias." The four voices are without continuo and were 
probably intended for a consort of viols, two treble, one tenor and one 
bass. The music is quite suitable, however, for a modern string quartet. 
The Fantasia on One Note adds a viola part to the quartet, this part 
consisting of a repetition of the drone-note on the dominant around 
which the other voices are woven. 

A. Eaglefield Hull has written as follows about the Fantasias in 
Cobbett's Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music: 

"For what object Purcell intended the fantasias is not precisely 
known. A good deal of his music was written for the sheer pleasure 
of home performance amongst his friends. Pepys and Evelyn are wit- 
nesses to this laudable custom. There were many, in those troublous 
times, 'who choose rather to fiddle at home than to go out and be 
knocked on the head abroad.' But Purcell's elaborate plan points to 
some more important aim. They may have been written to the order 
of the king — the dates on many of them point to a close application — 
or for special performance in one or other of the first public concert- 
rooms which were opened in that very year, 1680. On the other hand, 
it is possible that these works have never been heard at all until their 
recent performance in 1927. 

"Be this as it may, the artistic value of these fantasias is very great. 

* This edition is used in the present performances. 



In this relatively democratic age, almost anyone can have 
an account — checking, trust or savings — with Cambridge 
Trust Company. To the aristocracy of music lovers, how- 
ever, the bank's services are offered with enthusiasm, and 
in the hope that there will be no discords. 

CAMBRIDGE TRUST COMPANY 

Harvard Square 
Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 



[6] 



They are cast in the form of the Elizabethan Fancy. A theme is given 
out, and the parts enter in close imitation. This is carried on for a 
time, when another theme enters, and is treated similarly. Most of 
these fantasias, or fancies, are in different sections, which are joined 
on without a break, and the speed generally changes twice. Purcell 
usually marks the speed in English, thus: 'Trio I, moderate, quick, 
drag'; 'Trio II, moderate, brisk, slow'; and so on. 

"The longest fantasia in its entirety is only seventy-three bars; many 
of them are only forty or fifty. The themes themselves are always 
distinguished, and the workmanship is exquisite, the harmony and 
polyphony being of the finest. The final brisk movement is often of 
the nature of a jolly hornpipe. There are many bold points, justifiably 
brought about by the imitation, which is always continuous. Purcell 
here took up the old tradition of the Elizabethan polyphonists, and 
leapt over the new harmonic period, then just setting in, to the thought 
of the present day. His polyphonic procedure in this respect might 
well have been taken for the model of the so-called linear counterpoint 
of twentieth-century composers. 

"The pieces possess many marvellous passages. At times one might 
be listening to the sweet polyphony of Byrd; at others to the hard, 
rasping counterpoint of Heinrich Kaminski or Busoni. Certain pas- 
sages have the poetry of Schumann, others the rhythmical vigour of 
Beethoven, or the hearer suddenly finds himself amongst a shower of 
intricate scholastic fireworks, equalled only by Bach in his Kunst der 
Fuge. The surprises in rhythm and cadence are as charming as they 
are continual; and it is difficult to imagine that the transposition from 
the viols to modern string instruments has done the pieces any harm 
at all, especially as the slightly different compass of the instruments 
enables crossing of parts to be avoided altogether by a transposition 
to a key one tone higher. Messrs. Heseltine and Mangeot have indeed 
made the world a precious gift by bringing these treasures to light, 
and making them available to chamber music parties." [copyrighted! 



BRIGG3 & BRIGGS, INC. 

"For All Your Musical Needs" 



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[7] 



SYMPHONY IN C MINOR, NO. 95 

By Franz Joseph Haydn 

Born in Rohrau, Lower Austria, March 31, 1732; died in Vienna, May 31, 1809 



This symphony was composed in 1791 and first performed probably in the same 
year in London. 

The orchestration calls for flute, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani 
and strings. 

^t^he twelve symphonies which Haydn, in his mellow sixties, wrote 
■*• for London have been roundly and justly praised as the final word 
in the symphonic form as the Eighteenth Century had learned to 
view it through an advance to an incredible point of perfection under 
Haydn and Mozart. Dr. Karl Geiringer, the foremost living biographer 
of Haydn, went further and declared: "The whole Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, beginning with Beethoven and ending with Brahms, was able to 
draw rich inspiration from Haydn's last thirteen symphonies" (he here 
includes No. 92 — the "Oxford"). The following table, listing the 
most recent performances at the Friday and Saturday concerts of this 
Orchestra, may show in some cases due recognition, in others undue 
neglect. A listing of the LP recordings at this moment will indicate 
the growing popular apprehension of the Haydn treasury in the last 
few years. 







Number of 

performances 

Fri.-Sat. concerts 


Date of last 
performance 


Conductor 


Number 

of LP 

recordings 


93- ] 


mD 


1 




Nov. 


16, 1900 


Gericke 


4 


94>J 


n G ("Surprise") 


14 




Feb. 


24' *95 6 


Monteux 


12 


95' ] 


n C minor 


9 




Jan. 


4' 1952 


Ansermet 


3 


96,] 


mD ("Miracle") 


(Not performed] 








5 


97' ] 


mC 


6 




Jan. 


6, 1945 


Szell 


3 


98, 


in B flat 


2 




Apr. 


22, 1948 


Koussevitzky 


2 


99'. 


in E flat 


6 




Nov. 


19, 1948 


Burgin 


5 


100, j 


in G ("Military") 


5 




Jan. 


i' !954 


Munch 


16 


101, ] 


m D minor ("Clock") 


4 




Nov. 


8' 1957 


Munch 


11 


102, i 


nBflat 


13 




Apr. 


25' x 95 8 


Burgin 


6 


103,1 


m E flat ("Drum Roll") 


7 




Dec. 


!5' !95° 


Munch 


5 


104,] 


m D ("London") 


17 




Jan. 


9' *959 


Shaw 


9 



As the third in order among the twelve Salomon symphonies, the 
Symphony in C minor was among the first set of six which Haydn 



&eoltan=i§>kimter dHgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[8] 



composed for his first visit to London in 1791. Except for the "Clock" 
Symphony, No. 101, in D minor, this is the only one of the twelve in a 
minor key. It is also the only "London" Symphony which dispenses 
with an introduction. The symphony opens with a theme concise and 
dramatic. After several pages of expository development, a second 
theme effectually dispels any ominous suggestion in a bright and lilting 
E-flat major. The tune might well have dropped from an opera of 
Mozart, Haydn's revered colleague, the news of whose death was 
destined to sadden him in London before the year had ended. The 
working out begins with a return of the initial subject, passing through 
several minor keys, but the brighter subject soon dominates the scene, 
and the rather brief movement closes in C major. 

The slow movement is a melody in E-flat major, 6-8 time, with 
variations. The strings give out the simple theme and dominate until 
the exceedingly beautiful variation in E-flat minor has ended. In the 
final variation the woodwinds and horns at last assert themselves, while 
the violins weave an ornamental figure in thirty-second notes. A grace- 
ful coda, almost Beethovenesque, ends the movement, which once 
brought the remark from H. T. Parker that here "sentiment joins 
fingertips with elegance." 

The minuet, in C minor, is brilliant and fully scored. Its trio, in the 
tonic major, presents a graceful and undulating discourse in running 
eighth notes from the solo cello over a light accompaniment of 
plucked strings. 

The finale, vivace, is an engaging movement with contrapuntal 
interplay. Its C major takes possession for once and all — indeed, when 
all is said, the minor mode has played no more than an episodic part. 
The symphony is more concise than most of the composer's later ones. 
"The total effect," wrote Tovey, "is so spacious that you would never 
guess that it is one of Haydn's tersest works." 

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[9] 



NEW ENGLAND TRIPTYCH 

Three Pieces for Orchestra (after William Billings) 

By William Howard Schuman 

Born August 4, 1910, in New York City 



William Schuman composed his New England Triptych in the spring of 1956. 
The score was commissioned by Andre Kostelanetz, who conducted the first per- 
formance on October 28, 1956, in a concert of the Symphony Orchestra of the 
University of Miami. 

The following instruments are used: 3 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English 
horn, 2 clarinets, E-flat clarinet and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 
3 trombones and tuba, timpani, percussion and strings. 

npHE following information was furnished by the composer for early 
■** performances of the New England Triptych: 
William Billings (1746-1800) is a major figure in the history of 
American music. The works of this dynamic composer capture the 
spirit of sinewy ruggedness, deep religiosity and patriotic fervor that 
we associate with the Revolutionary period. Despite the undeniable 
crudities and technical shortcomings of his music, its appeal, even 
today, is forceful and moving. I am not alone among American com- 
posers who feel an identity with Billings and it is this sense of identity 
which accounts for my use of his music as a point of departure. These 
pieces do not constitute a "fantasy" on themes of Billings, nor "varia- 
tions" on his themes, but rather a fusion of style and musical language. 

I. Be Glad Then, America 

Billings' text for this anthem includes the following lines: 

Yea, the Lord will answer 
And say unto his people — behold! 
I will send you corn and wine and oil 
And ye shall be satisfied therewith. 

Be glad then, America, 
Shout and rejoice, 
Fear not, O land, 
Be glad and rejoice. 
Hallelujah! 

A timpani solo begins the short introduction which is developed 



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predominantly in the strings. This music is suggestive of the "Halle- 
lujah" heard at the end of the piece. Trombones and trumpets begin 
the main section, a free and varied setting of the words "Be Glad 
Then, America, Shout and Rejoice." The timpani lead to a middle 
fugal section stemming from the words "And Ye Shall be Satisfied." 
The music gains momentum and combined themes lead to a climax. 
There follows a free adaptation of the "Hallelujah" music with which 
Billings concludes his original choral piece and a final reference to 
the "Shout and Rejoice" music. 

II. When Jesus Wept 

When Jesus wept, the falling tear 
In mercy flowed, beyond all bound; 
When Jesus groaned, a trembling fear 
Seized all the guilty world around. 

The setting of the above text is in the form of a round. Here, 
Billings' music is used in its original form, as well as in new settings 
with contrapuntal embellishments and melodic extensions. 

III. Chester 

This music, composed as a church hymn, was subsequently adopted 
by the Continental Army as a marching song and enjoyed great popu- 
larity. The orchestral piece derives from the spirit both of the hymn 
and the marching song. The original words, with one of the verses 
especially written for its use by the Continental Army, follow: 

Let tyrants shake their iron rods, 
And slavery clank her galling chains. 
We fear them not, we trust in God, 
New England's God forever reigns. 

The foe comes on with haughty stride, 
Our troops advance with martial noise; 
Their vet'rans flee before our youth, 
And gen'rals yield to beardless boys. 

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ROUNDS FOR STRING ORCHESTRA 

By David Diamond 

Born in Rochester, New York, July 9, 1915 



"Rounds for String Orchestra" was composed in June and July, 1944, by com- 
mission for Dimitri Mitropoulos, and was first performed by this conductor and 
the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, November 24 of that year. It was performed 
by the New England Conservatory Orchestra, Malcolm Holmes conducting, in Jordan 
Hall, December 12, 1945. It was performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
April 5-6, 1946. 

At the very outset of the first movement, so the composer explains, 
"the different string choirs enter in strict canonic fashion as an 
introduction for the main subject, which is played by the violas and 
soon restated by the cellos and basses. The Adagio is an expressive 
lyric movement, acting as a resting-point between the two fast move- 
ments. The last movement again makes use of characteristic canonic 
devices, though it may more specifically be analyzed as a kind of fugal 
movement cast in rondo form. The rhythmic device which opens the 
first movement is again utilized in the last movement as a kind of 
counter-subject for the principal thematic ideas, so helping to 'round' 
out the entire work and unify the entire formal structure." 

Mr. Willi Apel, whose "Harvard Dictionary of Music" is invaluable 
when a precise but adequate definition of a musical form is required, 
has this to say about the round: "Common name for a circle canon, 
i.e., a canon in which each singer returns from the conclusion of the 
melody to its beginning, repeating it ad libitum. The result of a 
three-voice round is indicated in the following scheme: 



a b c 

a b 

a 



a b c 
c a b: 
b c a 



It appears that the melody of a round always consists of sections of 
equal length which are so designed as to make good harmony with each 
other. . . . The earliest and most famous round is the Sumer-canon 
of the thirteenth century which is designated as rota (wheel). The 



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rondellus of the thirteenth century was much the same thing, possibly 
lacking the initial imitation, i.e., with all the voices starting simul- 
taneously (after the repeat sign). . . . Rounds enjoyed an extreme 
popularity in England, particularly in that variety known as catch." 

• • 

David Diamond studied with Andre de Riboupierre at the Cleveland 
Institute of Music (1928-1929), with Bernard Rogers at the Eastman 
School of Music (1930-1934), at the New Music School of New York 
for the two years following, and later with Roger Sessions and with 
Paul Boepple in New York, and with Nadia Boulanger at Fontaine- 
bleau and Paris. He has had two Guggenheim fellowships and other 
awards. 

Peggy Glanville-Hicks has thus characterized David Diamond in 
Grove's Dictionary: 

"Diamond's music has a notable emotional impetus, and such 
dissonance as there is in his style is almost continually present in his 
monochrome harmonic colour scheme: it is seldom used as a dynamic 
contrast. Structurally and stylistically Diamond's works are all very 
similar, from the earlier to the later pieces. His expression is per- 
sonal, lyric-romantic and intense, and has not changed much, or passed 
through very divergent working methods, in spite of his many and 
varied teachers. His expressive equilibrium appears to be set and his 
technical command fully accomplished." 

Mr. Diamond's six symphonies date from 1940 to 1954 (the Fifth is 
not yet completed*). He has written orchestral works of lesser propor- 
tions, choral works (mostly a cappella), ballets, music in chamber 
combinations. Recent works are a Sinfonia Concertante and Ahavah 
for narrator and orchestra. He has written incidental music for 
Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet and The Tempest, Tennessee Wil- 
liams' The Rose Tattoo, and music for documentary films. 

The following works by David Diamond have been performed by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra: 

1944 (Oct. 13) Symphony No. 2 (First performance) 

1946 (April 5) Rounds for String Orchestra 

1948 (Jan. 23) Symphony No. 4 (First performance; conducted by Leonard 
Bernstein) 

1950 (July 30) "Timon of Athens," A Symphonic Portrait (after Shakespeare) 

(Berkshire Festival Concert; conducted by Leonard Bernstein) 

1950 (Nov. 30) Symphony No. 3 (First performance) 

1957 (Mar. 8) Symphony No. 6 (First performance) 



* The Fifth Symphony was completed in 1957. 

[copyrighted] 

[13] 



FIRST SYMPHONY 

By Aaron Copland 

Born in Brooklyn, New York, November 14, 1900 



Aaron Copland composed his first symphony, which he called his Organ Sym- 
phony, in Paris in 1924. It was first performed on January 11, 1925, by the Symphony 
Society of New York under the direction of Walter Damrosch. A performance by 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra followed on February 20. He rescored the work, 
omitting the organ, and this version was published in 1931 and first performed by 
L'Orchestre de la Suisse Romande in December of that year under the direction of 
Ernest Ansermet in a program of contemporary American composers. The first 
American performance of the revised work was by the Orchestra in Chicago, 
Frederick Stock conductor, January 18, 1934. It was performed by the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra on February 15, 1935. 

The orchestration of the revised version is as follows: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes 
and English horn, 2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, alto 
saxophone, 8 horns, 5 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, kettledrums, side drum, 
tambourine, wood block, cymbals, bass drum, gong, xylophone, glockenspiel, celesta, 
piano, 2 harps and strings. 

Mr. Copland dedicated the original score to Mile. Nadia Boulanger. 

The following description of the symphony, furnished by the com- 
poser when his Organ Symphony was first played, is still applicable 
since the revision involves changes only in instrumentation: 

"The three movements of the symphony are loosely connected by a 
recurrent motto based on the tones of the minor triad. Unlike most 
musical mottoes, however, it is not immediately recognizable as such. 



AARON COPLAND TO TOUR 
WITH THIS ORCHESTRA 

Charles Munch has invited Aaron 
Copland to join the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra as guest conductor on the 
Orchestra's Far Eastern tour which will 
open on May 1 in Osaka, Japan. Mr. 
Copland will share the conducting re- 
sponsibilities on the six- to eight-week 
tour with Dr. Munch, the Orchestra's 
Music Director, and Associate Conductor 
Richard Burgin. The tour, the Orches- 
tra's third foreign trip, will be made 
under the President's Special Interna- 
tional Program for Cultural Presenta- 
tions administered by the American 
National Theatre and Academy. 



The New England 
Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 
James Aliferis, President 



Tuesday and Wednesday, 
January 12 and 13 

Workshop Performances 

of 

"THE MARRIAGE OF FIGARO" 

An opera in four acts by 

MOZART 

Staged, directed and accompanied by 

BORIS GOLDOVSKY 

No tickets required 



290 Huntington Ave., Boston 15 



[14] 



At first, it plays a seemingly inconsequential part as mere accompani- 
ment, but as the work progresses its real significance is made clear. 

"The first movement (Andante, 6-8) is quite short and bears no 
relation to the traditional first movement of a symphony. It is rather 
an introductory reverie with some incidental material for solo instru- 
ments of the orchestra. Its formal structure is very simple; there is but 
one theme (solo flute with lower strings accompanying and with clarinet 
entering at the ninth measure). 

II. Scherzo (Molto Allegro, 3-4 time). "In the first section of the 
Scherzo two themes are exposed, the first by the oboe, the second — of 
a more sustained character — by the woodwind, with imitations by the 
strings. A climax for the full orchestra is gradually effected, giving free 
play to what was originally the oboe theme. This is suddenly inter- 
rupted by the motto announced by a solo horn and imitated by a 
trumpet. A repetition by a bassoon and flute leads to the middle sec- 
tion, Moderato 4-4. This is set forth by the strings and saxophone, with 
occasional references by the clarinet to the first theme of the movement. 
Suddenly, without warning, the brass bursts in, and the repetition of 
the first section is engendered in slightly modified form. A short coda 
brings the movement to a close, fortissimo. 

SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining Tuesday evening concerts in 
Sanders Theatre, Cambridge will be as follows: 

FEBRUARY 2 
RUGGIERO RICCI, Violin 

MARCH 8 

APRIL 12 



Tickets for each concert at the Subscription Office, 
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[»5l 



III. "The Finale (Lento, Allegro Moderato, 4-4) corresponds to 
the usual first movement of a symphony, being cast approximately in 
sonata form. Without any introduction, the first theme is given out in 
unison by the violas. The first three notes of this theme are the first 
three notes of the motto. This motive is immediately worked up into 
a stretto by all the strings, then by trumpets and trombones, and finally 
by all the brass, tutti forza. The entrance of the kettledrum brings with 
it the second, more vigorous theme, played by violins and violas on the 
G string over a double-bass pizzicato accompaniment, which is nothing 
more than the motto used as basso ostinato. There follows an episode, 
fortissimo, for the full orchestra, based on a fragment of the second 
theme. This brings a sudden quieting down, when, over the same 
relentless basso ostinato, there is a contrapuntal interweaving of themes 
by oboe, English horn and violas. A gradual crescendo brings to a 
climax the exposition section, the second theme being chanted fortis- 
simo, against the motto in augmentation in trumpets and trombones. 

"What might be termed the development section begins in the full 
orchestra. As counterpoint the solo violin evolves from the motto a new, 
vivacious theme which later plays an important part. The development 
is not very long. It merges imperceptibly into the recapitulation, which 
in this case is merely a final simultaneous announcement of the four 
main elements of the Finale. The symphony ends with a brief coda." 

[copyrighted] 



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[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1936 



Bach Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) 

Barber Medea's Dance of Vengeance 

Adagio for Strings 

Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 
Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 
Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 
Symphony No. 9 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

"L'Enfance du Christ" 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 

Symphony No. 1 

"Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 

Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 

Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) 

"The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 
"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 

The Apprentice Sorceror 
Introduction and Allegro 
Symphony No. 1 in D minor 
Symphony No. 2 
"Escales" (Ports of Call) 
Symphony on a Mountain Air 
(Henriot- Schweitzer) 
Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 



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"Fantaisies Symphoniques" 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
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Symphony No. 6 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" 

"Mother Goose" Suite 

Piano Concerto (Henriot- Schweitzer) 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) 
"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) 
"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures 
Symphony No. 4 
Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) 
Serenade for Strings 
Excerpts (Eileen Farrell) 
Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) 



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SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 

Sanders Theatre, Cambridge [Harvard University] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



PERSONNEL 

Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 
Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barvvicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Alien M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 

Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[1] 



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his dedication and 
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THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
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Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



l«] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Fourth Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, February 2, at 8:30 o'clock 



Schubert ^Symphony in B minor, "Unfinished" 

I. Allegro moderato 
II. Andante con moto 

Mahler Adagio from the Tenth Symphony (Posthumous) 

Mendelssohn Scherzo in G minor from the String Octet, Op. 20 

(arranged for orchestra by the composer) 

INTERMISSION 

Sibelius Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, in D minor, Op. 47 

I. Allegro moderato 
II. Adagio di molto 
III. Allegro ma non tan to 



SOLOIST 

RUGGIERO RICCI 



BALDWIN PIANO # RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[Si 



SYMPHONY IN B MINOR, "UNFINISHED" 

By Franz Schubert 

Born in Lichtenthal, near Vienna, January 31, 1797; 
died in Vienna, November 19, 1828 



This Symphony, sometimes listed as No. 8,* was composed in 1822 (it was begun 
October 30), and first performed thirty-seven years after the composer's death. It 
was conducted by Herbeck at a concert of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 
Vienna, December 17, 1865. 

The orchestration: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones, timpani and strings. 



"That incomparable song of sorrow which we wrong 
every time we call it 'Unfinished.'" — Alfred Einstein. 

npHE bare facts of Schubert's "Unfinished" Symphony are soon told. 
■*■ It was on April 10, 1823, some months after he had composed the 
two movements, that his friend Johann Baptist Jenger put up his 
name for honorary membership of the Styrian Music Society at Graz 
on the grounds that "although still young, he has already proved by 
his compositions that he will some day rank high as a composer." 

* This on the basis that it was the last to be found although it was composed before the great 
C major Symphony. The posthumous C major has been variously numbered 7, 8, 9, or 10 by 
those who have variously accepted or rejected the so-called "Gastein Symphony," which has 
been believed by some to be a lost symphony, and the fragmentary sections for a symphony 
in E (1821), which Felix Weingartner filled out into a full score. Fortunately the "Unfinished" 
Symphony, easily identified by its name and key, can be left numberless. 



PROGRAM BULLETINS 
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a plan whereby anyone interested may receive the program 
bulletin each week on the basis of a magazine subscription. 

The programs will be sent by first class mail each 
Thursday preceding the Friday and Saturday concerts. 

The subscription for the balance of the season 1959- 
1960 is $3.00. Address the Program Office, Symphony 
Hall. 



[4] 



BROADCASTS by the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Winter Season, 1959-1960 



The Saturday evening concerts of the Winter Season will 
be broadcast live on the following stations: 



WGBH-FM 


89.7 


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Boston 




•WCRB-AM 


1330 


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••WROC-FM 


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Friday afternoon concerts 


of the Winter 


Season 



will 
be broadcast live on the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WXHR-FM 96.9 mc Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

The Concerts of the Friday-Saturday series will be broadcast 
by transcription at 8 P.M. on the Monday evening following 
the performances on the following stations: 



*WGBH-FM 


89.7 mc 


Boston 


•WBCN-FM 


104.1 mc 


Boston 


WXCN-FM 


101.5 mc 


Providence 


WHCN-FM 


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WMTW-FM 


94.9 mc 


Mount Washington, N. H. 


♦WAMC-FM 


90.7 mc 


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The Concerts of the Tuesday Sanders Theatre series will 

be broadcast by the following stations: 

WGBH-FM 89.7 mc Boston 

WGBH-TV Channel 2 Boston 

WAMC-FM 90.7 mc Albany 

WENH-TV Channel 11 Durham, N. H. 

The Sunday afternoon and Tuesday evening concerts at 
Symphony Hall will be broadcast live on Station WXHR- 
FM, 96.9 mc, Boston. 

*- Stereophonic Broadcast ••-Affiliates of WQXR, New York 



[5] 



Schubert gratefully accepted his election to the Styrian Music Society 
with the following communication: 

May it be the reward for my devotion to the art of music that I shall 
one day be fully worthy of this signal honor. In order that I may also 
express in musical terms my lively sense of gratitude, I shall take the 
liberty, at the earliest opportunity, of presenting your honorable 
Society with one of my symphonies in full score. 

Alfred Einstein in his invaluable book, Schubert, a Musical Portrait, 
has deduced that Schubert presented the already composed symphony 
to Anselm Hiittenbrenner, the director of the Society, in gratitude on 
receiving from him the diploma of membership, rather than to the 
Society itself. Mr. Einstein further believed "it is also quite unthink- 
able that Schubert with all his tact and discretion would ever have 
presented the Society with an unfinished fragment." From then on, 
as records indicate, Schubert neither spoke nor thought about it again. 
Anselm who, like his brother Joseph, had done much to promote a 
recognition of Schubert, and had attempted (unsuccessfully) to produce 
his friend's latest opera Alfonso and Estrella at Graz in this year, seems 
to have done nothing at all about the Symphony. It lay stuffed away 
and unregarded among his papers for many years, whence it might well 
have been lost and never known to the world. In 1865, in his old age, 
and thirty-seven years after Schubert's death, he delivered it to Johann 
Herbeck for performance by the "Friends of Music Society" in Vienna. 

The world, discovering some forty-three years post facto a "master- 
piece," which, for all its qualities, is but half a symphony, has indulged 
in much conjecture. Did Schubert break off after the second movement 
on account of sudden failure of inspiration, or because he was careless 
of the work (which he certainly seems to have been) and did not realize 
the degree of lyric rapture which he had captured in those two move- 
ments? Or perhaps it was because he realized after a listless attempt at 
a scherzo that what he had written was no typical symphonic opening 
movement and contrasting slow movement, calling for the relief of a 



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[6] 



lively close, but rather the rounding out of a particular mood into its 
full-moulded expression — a thing of beauty and completeness in itself. 
The Schubert who wrote the "Unfinished" Symphony was in no condi- 
tion of obedience to precept. He found his own law of balance by the 
inner need of his subject. There were indeed a few bars of a third 
movement. Professor Tovey found the theme for the projected scherzo 
"magnificent," but was distrustful of what the finale might have been, 
for Schubert's existing finales, with the possible exception of three, he 
considered entirely unworthy of such a premise. There are others who 
find little promise in the fragment of a scherzo before the manuscript 
breaks off and are doubtful whether any finale could have maintained 
the level of the two great movements with their distinctive mood and 
superb craft. 

A theory was propounded by Dr. T. C. L. Pritchard in the English 
magazine, Music Review, of February, 1942, that the symphony was 
completed and that Anselm Hiittenbrenner, in whose hands the manu- 
script lay for many years, may have lost the last pages and hesitated to 
let his carelessness be known to the world. Maurice Brown, in his 
admirable "Critical Biography" of Schubert (1958), disposes of this by 
noting that there are blank pages at the end of the manuscript. He 
further points out that the composer's sketches for the symphony in 
piano score, which went on Schubert's death, with many other manu- 
scripts, to his brother Ferdinand, consist, as does the full score, of two 
movements and the beginning of a scherzo. Hiittenbrenner could not 
have seen this sketch. The double evidence of sketch and score cor- 
respondingly broken off seems to preclude a completed full score, nor 
would Schubert have been likely to set aside and so promptly forget 
a completed symphony at this time. His cavalier dismissal of the 
uncompleted score from his thoughts is astonishing enough. 

Why Schubert did not finish his symphony, writes Mr. Brown, must 
remain "one of the great enigmas of music." 

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ADAGIO FROM THE TENTH SYMPHONY (Posthumous) 

By Gustav Mahler 
Born in Kalischt, Bohemia, July 7, i860; died in Vienna, May 18, 1911 



Mahler left at his death sketches, partly realized in full score, of a Tenth Sym- 
phony. In 1924, thirteen years later, his widow, then Mrs. Alma Maria Mahler, had 
these sketches published complete in facsimile. Two movements, the first (Adagio) 
and the third (Purgatorio) were prepared for performance by Ernst Krenek and first 
performed in Vienna October 12, 1924 under Franz Schalk.* These two movements 
as published by the Associated Music Publishers were introduced in this country on 
December 6, 1949 by the Erie Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Fritz 
Mahler, the composer's nephew. The Adagio was introduced to the Boston Sym- 
phony concerts by Richard Burgin, December 11-12, 1953. 

The orchestra required consists of 3 flutes and piccolo, 3 oboes, 3 clarinets, 
3 bassoons, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, cymbals, gong, 
harp and strings. 

npHE movement opens andante pianissimo, in what is to be the 

■■■ prevailing key — F-sharp major. There is a fifteen-measure melody 
for the violas alone. The mood is at once established as gentle, 
meditative, but intensely felt. There follows a section slightly slower 
(adagio), but with the inner animation of multi-voices. The first 
violins, accompanied by divided strings and winds, sing another long 
melody of similar character. The movement is to become an alterna- 
tion of these adagio and andante sections, an alternation, too, of a 
full-voiced style and a single-voiced, the unaccompanied violas return- 
ing twice. The movement keeps its character and rhythm throughout, 
and takes the form of a continuously unfolding melodic line, the self- 
perpetuating themes maintaining a change in contour, finding varia- 
tion in a rich complex of voice weaving and in a succession of orches- 
tral colorings wherein Mahler's familiar mastery is unabated. There is 
an undercurrent of dark bass and places where the voice leading and 
harmony develop a sort of anguish of discord. The general sombre 

* An earlier performance mentioned in Hull's Dictionary in Prague under Zemlinski apparently 
did not take piace and a statement in Baker's Dictionary that Franz Mikorey "completed from 
Mahler's sketches that composer's Tenth Symphony, produced as 'Symphonia Engiadina,' " in 
1913, is surely apocryphal. Mr. Krenek's account of his part in the restoration is quoted on 
page 25 of this Bulletin. 






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[8] 



quality of the music is relieved occasionally by trills in the wood-winds 
or high strings, or pizzicatos to sharpen the persistent rhythm of the 
accompaniment. After tumultuous arpeggios from the harp and strings, 
dissonant chordst bring the peak of tension and then cease, leaving an 
unearthly high note from the flutes, violins and trumpet. There fol- 
lows a gentle subsidence, the orchestra now becoming light and lumi- 
nous, the melody spare, tenuous and lingering, as if this were a farewell 
to life, a true sequel to the Finale of Das Lied von der Erde and of the 
Ninth Symphony. It is barely possible that Mahler may have first 
intended this movement as the closing one. In his manuscript as repro- 
duced in facsimile, there was at first no number at the head. The 
sketches for the other movements, of which there are four, show a 
different order than the final one, which is indicated by a later correc- 
tion in blue pencil, the five movements thus finally indicated in Roman 
numerals. Over the word "Adagio," Mahler has blue penciled "I." 

The facsimile is an interesting revelation* of Mahler in the very 
process of musical creation. His first draft of each movement is in 
sketch form, written usually on four or five staves with the instru- 
mentation sometimes indicated, sometimes not, where the composer 
may have been either still unclear in his intentions or clear enough not 



t The climactic chord is also the ultimate reach of Mahler's harmonic ventures. Nicolas 
Slonimsky, asked to analyze it, obliges with the following report: "The harmonic climax of 
the first movement is a tremendous chord (C sharp, G sharp, B, D, F, A, C, E, G) , which 
may be described as the ultra-tonal chord of the diminished 19th. It is ultra-tonal because it 
goes beyond the bounds of a single tonality ; its formation, in thirds, encompasses the interval 
of a diminished 19th, or a diminished fifth and two octaves. (It is interesting to note that in 
preserving this tertian formation, Mahler still adheres to the tenets of traditional chord- 
building.) In medieval theory, the tritone (which is enharmonically synonymous with either 
a diminished fifth or an augmented fourth) was called Diabolus in Musica, and one may 
speculate whether Mahler consciously selected a climactic chord derived from a tritone, seeing 
that he was preoccupied with the Devil during the composition of his last unfinished sym- 
phony. Strauss, in his symphonic poem, Also Sprach Zarathustra, uses a similar extended 
tritone between the extremes of the low and high registers for the ending." 

* Adolf Weissmann, describing the facsimile on the occasion of the first performance in 
Vienna, used a different word: "self -denudation" ( Selbstentblossung ) . He reminds us that 
there was no finality in Mahler the orchestrator. 



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to need a later self-reminder. The Adagio, after being sketched at full 
length, is rewritten in full score (with some change, particularly in the 
order of sections). The second movement and the opening of the 
third (Purgatorio) are the only other portions in open score. The plan 
of the symphony was finally as follows: the Adagio, a first Scherzo, the 
Purgatorio as a sort of interlude, a second Scherzo, and a Finale, the 
order of the two Scherzos ultimately reversed, according to the evidence 
of the composer's blue pencil. 

The two Scherzos, so-called, have little of the meaning of the word 
except in their tempi; the shadow of death haunts each movement. 
At the head of the second, he has written, "The Devil dances it with 
me. Madness seizes me, accursed that I am — annihilates me, so that 
I cease to exist, so that I forget to be. . . ." The manuscript shows 
signs of having been written in great haste and excitement. Words 
scribbled in at other points are a further sign of Mahler's frenetic state 
of mind — words it would seem that were never intended for the public 
eye. Yet the completed Adagio is a score accomplished in full detail 
and definition by the controlling hand of the master. We may reason- 
ably suppose that the remainder of the symphony, had the composer 
lived to work it out and complete the parts still "under construction," 
would have been as well shaped and ordered. 

Mahler's widow tells us in a foreword to the published facsimile that 
she kept these sketches for a long while as her "precious right to protect 
as my own the treasure of the Tenth Symphony." She may well have 
felt a personal privacy in this score for at the end the composer has 
addressed words to her: "AlmschH—fiir dich lebenl—fiir dich sterben!" 
and at the end of the fourth movement: "Du allein weissest was es 
bedeutet. Ach! Ach! Lebwohl mein Saitenspiel!" She continues, "But 
now I feel it my duty to make known to the world the last thoughts 
of the master.* The great structure of these symphonic movements 
arises now for all to see. There are unfinished walls; scaffolding con- 
ceals the architecture, although the whole, the plain, is plainly recog- 
nizable; the orchestra [Kapelle] of the Adagio gleams forth in wonder- 

* Adolf Weissmann has stated that Mahler did not wish his "Unfinished Symphony" to be 
made known; Egon Wellesz has stated (in Grove's Supplement) that he wished the sketches 
to be destroyed. 



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[10] 



ful clarity and beside it the slender tower of the Purgatorio-Scherzo. 
Many will read these pages as a book of magic; others will stand before 
the magic signs lacking the key; no one will be able to draw from them 
or comprehend their full strength. The basic sentiment of the Tenth 
Symphony is the certainty of death, the suffering of death, the con- 
tempt of death. I was a witness to an experience which became a source 
of one of these movements [this would be the Purgatorio, which ends 
with a harp glissando and the beat of a muffled gong]. One winter 
day in 1907, Gustav Mahler and I stood at the window of our hotel in 
New York. Far below us there was a funeral service. A fireman who 
had lost his life while performing his duty of rescue was being carried 
to the grave. A great crowd of people accompanied the hero. There 
was a distant murmur and then there was quiet. A speaker stepped 
out from the crowd. We could not hear him but there was music 
playing, and suddenly we heard the short, hollow beat of a drum. In 
alarm I looked at Gustav Mahler. There were tears in his eyes — his 
face was distorted by emotion." 

[copyrighted] 



SCHERZO IN G MINOR, FROM THE OCTET, Op. 20 

(Arranged for Orchestra by the composer) 
By Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 
Born in Hamburg, February 3, 1809; died in Leipzig, November 4, 1847 



Mendelssohn composed his String Octet in 1825, and made an orchestration of 
the Scherzo for London in 1829. He used pairs of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, 
horns and trumpets, with timpani and strings. 

The Octet was performed by the string sections of this Orchestra November 7, 
1885, and again on November 26, 1920. The Scherzo in its orchestral form was 
introduced by Adrian Boult as guest conductor, January 11, 1935, and under 
Koussevitzky, November 13, 1936. 



I 



n April, 1829, tne youthful Mendelssohn bade a tender good-by to 
his father and his sister Rebecka at Hamburg, and sailed for 



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England. It was the first stretch of a period of extended traveling, 
in which he was not only to give concerts, but to see the world, and 
"form his character and manners." The twenty-year-old Berliner, after 
recovering from an exhausting voyage and seeing the sights of London 
under the tutelage of Moscheles, made his first public appearance 
before the London Philharmonic Society at the Argyll rooms on May 
25. Old John Cramer "led him to the piano as if he were a young 
lady," reports Moscheles. Felix also conducted his "First" Symphony 
in C minor (which he had composed in 1824), substituting, however, 
the Scherzo from his String Octet for the minuet and trio. He had 
made an orchestral score of the Scherzo for the occasion. He was 
received with great enthusiasm (much to the gratification of the 
aspiring musician, whose music had had a mixed reception recently 
in Berlin) and the Scherzo "was obstinately encored against his wish" 
(again according to Moscheles). Mendelssohn afterwards presented the 
score of the Symphony to the Society. The orchestrated Scherzo was 
acquired by Novello and Co., and first published by them in 1911. 
The Scherzo, "sempre pianissimo e leggiero," is a score of character- 
istically delicate point and grace. 

The Octet itself was written by the sixteen-year-old Mendelssohn in 
1825. The sympathetic and understanding Fanny gives her impressions 
of her brother's early Scherzo: 

"Only to me did he tell what he had in mind. The whole piece 
should be played staccato and pianissimo: The peculiar tremulous 
shuddering, the light flashing mordents, all is new, strange, and yet so 
interesting, so intimate, that one feels near the world of ghosts, lightly 
borne aloft; yes, one might take in hand a broomstick, to follow better 
the aerial crowd. At the end, the first violin nutters upward, light as 
a feather — and all vanishes away." 

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CONCERTO IN D MINOR for Violin and Orchestra, Op. 47 

By Jean Sibelius 

Born in Tavastehus (Hameenlinna), Finland, December 8, 1865; 
died in Jarvenpaa, September 20, 1957 



The violin concerto was composed in 1903, subjected to a considerable revision, 
and in its later form first played on October 19, 1905, by Karl Halir in Berlin, when 
Richard Strauss conducted; it was printed in the same year. Maud Powell was the 
pioneer of the work in this country, playing it first at a New York Philharmonic 
concert, November 30, 1906, with Theodore Thomas in Chicago, January 25, 1907, 
and with the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Dr. Muck, April 20, 1907. Miss 
Powell again played the concerto on March 9, 1912. Since then Richard Burgin has 
been the soloist at performances under Dr. Koussevitzky on March 1, 1929, February 
28, 1930, and February 16, 1934. Jascha Heifetz was the soloist on November 23, 1934. 

The concerto is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 
2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings. 

It is dedicated to Franz von Vecsey. 

Sibelius, who in his youth studied the violin and played it on occa- 
sion in public before he devoted his efforts entirely to composition, 
turned once in his life to the concerto as a form. He first intended his 
Violin Concerto for the virtuoso Willy Burmester, who had been 
concert-master of the orchestra of Kajanus at Helsinki. Whatever the 
reason may have been, Burmester played the Concerto of Tchaikovsky 
instead, and Viktor Novacek played the new work in Helsinki on 
February 8, 1904, Sibelius conducting. Karl Teodor Flodin, a promi- 
nent critic who was for years the well-meaning mentor of Sibelius, 
objected that, having the choice between an orchestral work with an 
integral obbligato violin part and a traditional display piece, Sibelius 
had leaned toward the latter alternative. Sibelius, so Harold E. John- 
son tells us, accordingly revised his score in the direction of orchestral 
interest. The version performed by Karl Halir in Berlin, and so pub- 
lished, lies gratefully under the soloist's fingers and favors his musician- 
ship, but it is not the sort of music chosen by a violinist primarily 
concerned with exhibiting his technical prowess. 

The concerto, which followed closely upon the Second Symphony, 



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has been called by Cecil Gray an example of the "cosmopolitan Swedish 
traditionalism" which was a recurring trait of the early Sibelius, and 
which was distinct from the "romantic Finnish nationalism" which 
shaped his tone poems. If this Swedish "passivity" is in many ways a 
weakness, as compared to the "originality and sturdy independence" 
of the true Finn, whereof the composer gave plentiful expression else- 
where, nevertheless the assimilative Sibelius, accepting European tradi- 
tions, could be a "source of strength" by giving them "a fresh lease of 
life and energy." "Just as the primary quality of the magnificent Town 
Hall at Stockholm of Ragnar Ostberg consists in its eclecticism of style, 
its triumphant revivification and revitalization of southern European 
architectural motives, so in such works as the Violin Concerto, the 
String Quartet, the 'In Memoriam' of Sibelius one finds a similar 
rejuvenation of languishing classical motives, an infusion of fresh life 
and vigor into effete traditions, which is primarily attributable to his 
strain of northern adaptability and Swedish eclecticism. 

"The form is simple and concise throughout, besides being distinctly 
original. The exposition in the first movement, for example, is tripar- 
tite instead of dual as usual, and the cadenza precedes the development 
section, which is at the same time a recapitulation; the slow second 
movement consists chiefly in the gradual unfolding, like a flower, of 



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James Dixon and the CONSERVATORY SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 



Piston Concertino for Piano and Orchestra 

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a long, sweet, cantabile melody first presented by the solo instrument 
and then by the orchestra; and the last movement is almost entirely 
made up of the alternation of two main themes. This variety, com- 
bined with simplicity and concision, of formal structure, constitutes 
one of the chief attractions of the work. 

"It might perhaps be added that the Concerto has occasionally a 
perceptibly national flavour. Some of the thematic material, indeed, 
notably the B -flat minor episode in the first movement and the second 
subject of the last, with the characteristic falling fourth in both, is 
strikingly akin in idiom to Finnish folk-songs of a certain type. Need- 
less to say, however, there is no suggestion here of any deliberate 
employment of local colour; the resemblance is no doubt entirely 
unconscious and unintentional." 

I. Allegro moderato, D minor, various rhythms. This movement is 
somewhat in the nature of an improvisation. The traditional two 
themes are to be recognized clearly, but they are treated in a rhapsodic 
rather than formal manner. The first chief theme, given to the solo 
violin at the beginning, over an accompaniment of violins, divided and 
muted, is of a dark and mournful character. It is treated rhapsodically 
until an unaccompanied passage for the solo violin leads to a climax. 

SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining Tuesday evening concerts in 
Sanders Theatre, Cambridge will be as follows 



MARCH 8 
APRIL 12 



Tickets for each concert at the Subscription Office, 
Symphony Hall, CO 6-1492 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



SANDERSTHEATRE • CAMBRIDGE 

[»5] 



A short orchestral tutti brings in the announcement by the solo instru- 
ment of the more tranquil second theme. After the development of 
this motive, there is a long tutti passage; then the solo violin, having 
had an unaccompanied cadenza, states again the dark first theme. The 
second one reappears, but in altered rhythm. The movement ends in 
a brilliant climax. The time taken by the solo violin in this movement 
to develop the themes without orchestral aid deserves attention. 

II. Adagio di molto, B-flat major, 4-4. A contemplative romanza, 
which includes a first section based on the melody sung by the solo 
violin after a short prelude, and a contrasting middle section. The 
latter begins, after an orchestral passage, with a motive given to the 
solo instrument. There is elaborate passage-work used as figuration 
against the melodious first theme, now for the orchestra. The solo 
violin has the close of this melody. There is a short conclusion section. 

III. Allegro, ma non tanto, D major, 3-4. The first theme of this 
aggressive rondo is given to the solo violin. The development leaps to 
a climax. The second theme — it is of a resolute nature — is given to 
the orchestra with the melody in violins and violoncellos. The move- 
ment is built chiefly on these two motives. A persistent and striking- 
rhythmic figure is coupled with equally persistent harmonic pedal- 
points. 

[copyrighted] 



RUGGIERO RICCI 



Ruggiero Ricci was born in San Francisco, July 24, 1920. He was 
first taught to play the violin by his father when he was five years 
old, and a year later became the pupil of Louis Persinger, his principal 
teacher. At eight he appeared in public, playing Mendelssohn's Violin 
Concerto, and in the next year gave concerts in New York. At twelve 
he made a tour of Europe. After serving with the Air Force during 
the war, he returned to civilian life as a constantly active virtuoso. 
He has played in the Middle and Far East as a good will envoy of the 
United States. He has played often in Europe and several times toured 
Latin America. 

Mr. Ricci plays an instrument made in 1734 by Joseph Guarnerius del 
Gesu of Cremona. It once belonged to the late Bronislav Huberman. 



Q^> 



[16] 



"The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the very 
greatest instruments of artistic utterance ever developed 
by any civilization on earth/' 

— John M. Conly, High Fidelity Magazine. 



The eminence of the Orchestra was shown in 1952 
when the Congress for Cultural Freedom invited it to 
perform in Europe. In 1956, at the invitation of the 
United States Government and again at no expense to 
the Orchestra, concerts were given in Moscow and Lenin- 
grad as part of the Orchestra's second foreign tour. This 
spring, again at the invitation of and financed by the 
Government, the Orchestra will be heard in Japan and 
the Far East. 

The Orchestra could not have developed into "one of 
the very greatest instruments of artistic utterance" without 
the generous support of those who have a proud affection 
for it. 

Many find their pride and affection expressed through 
membership in the Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. Your membership in the Friends will be 
welcomed. 



THE FRIENDS 

of the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Symphony Hall Boston 15 




At the request of the BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



160 BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON 



Wtaii 



BALDWIN GRAND PIANOS • ACROSONIC VERTICAL PIANOS • HOWARD SPINET PIANO! 
HAMILTON STUDIO PIANOS • BALDWIN ELECTRONIC ORGANS • ORGA-SONIC SPINET ORGA1 




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ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

i 959 - i 960 
Sanders Theatre, Cambridge [Harvard University] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 

Louis Berger 

John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean de Vergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\> Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger Voisin 
Armando Gh it alia 
Andre* Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 

Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT 


BULLETIN 


with 


historical and 


descriptive 


notes 


by 




John N. Burk 







The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[1] 



~frUvkcb/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rca Victor records exclusively 



4 Wing stereo b | 



TH£ NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN - 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular LP.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



©rcaVIctor @ 



[*] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE- SIXTY 



Fifth Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, March 8, at 8:30 o'clock 



Mozart Symphony No. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 

I. Adagio; Allegro 
II. Andante 

III. Minuetto; Trio 

IV. Finale: Allegro 

Beethoven Suite from "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus," 

Ballet, Op. 43 
Overture 

Adagio 

(Cello Solo: Samuel Mayes; Harp: Bernard Zighera; 

Flute: Doriot Anthony Dwyer; Clarinet: Gino Cioffi; 

Bassoon: Sherman Walt) 

Finale: Allegretto 

INTERMISSION 

Honegger *Symphony No. 2, for String Orchestra 

I. Molto moderato 
II. Adagio mesto 
III. Vivace, non troppo 

Wagner Excerpts from Act III, "Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg" 

Introduction — Dance of the Apprentices — 
Procession of the Mastersingers 



BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[Jl 



SYMPHONY NO. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 

By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



The symphony was completed June 26, 1788. 

The orchestration includes: 1 flute, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 
timpani and strings. 

Certain great works of art have come down to us surrounded with 
mystery as to the how and why of their being. Such are Mozart's 

last three symphonies, which he composed in a single summer — the 
lovely E-flat, the impassioned G minor, and the serene "Jupiter" 
(June 26, July 25 and August 10, 1788). We find no record that they 
were commissioned, at a time when Mozart was hard pressed for 
money, no mention of them by him, and no indication of a per- 
formance in the three years that remained of his life. What prompted 
the young Mozart, who, by the nature of his circumstances always 
composed with a fee or a performance in view, to take these three 
rarefied flights into a new beauty of technical mastery, a new develop- 
ment and splendor of the imagination, leaving far behind the thirty- 
eight (known) symphonies which preceded? 

Speculation on such mysteries are these, although likely to lead to 
irresponsible conclusions, is hard to resist. The pioneering arrogance 
of such later Romantics as Beethoven with his Eroica or last quartets, 
Wagner with his Ring or Tristan, Schubert with his great C major 
Symphony, was different. Custom then permitted a composer to 
pursue his musical thoughts to unheard-of ends, leaving the capacities 
of living performers and the comprehensions of living listeners far 
behind. In Mozart's time, this sort of thing was simply not done. 



Anita Davis-Chase Announces 

MYRA HESS 

SYMPHONY HALL 
SUN. AFT.. MARCH 20 at 3 P.M. 

Check payable to Symphony Hall and self-addressed stamped envelope 
must accompany mail orders. 

Address envelope: Hess Concert, Symphony Hall Box Office, Boston. 
Tickets: $4.30, $3.75, $3.20, $2.65, $2.10, $1.55 (tax incl.) 

STEINWAY PIANO 



[4] 



ff The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the very 
greatest instruments of artistic utterance ever developed 
by any civilization on earth. ff 

— John M. Conly, High Fidelity Magazine. 



The eminence of the Orchestra was shown in 1952 
when the Congress for Cultural Freedom invited it to 
perform in Europe. In 1956, at the invitation of the 
United States Government and again at no expense to 
the Orchestra, concerts were given in Moscow and Lenin- 
grad as part of the Orchestra's second foreign tour. This 
spring, again at the invitation of and financed by the 
Government, the Orchestra will be heard in Japan and 
the Far East. 

The Orchestra could not have developed into 'one of 
the very greatest instruments of artistic utterance" without 
the generous support of those who have a proud affection 
for it. 

Many find their pride and affection expressed through 
membership in the Friends of the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra. Your membership in the Friends will be 
welcomed. 



THE FRIENDS 

of the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Symphony Hall Boston 15 



[5] 



Mozart was too pressed by the problems of livelihood to dwell upon 
musical dreamings with no other end than his own inner satisfaction. 
He had no other choice than to cut his musical cloth to occasion, and 
even in this outwardly quiet and routine, inwardly momentous sum- 
mer, he continued to write potboilers — arias, trios, piano sonatas 
"for beginners," a march — various pieces written by order of a patron, 
or to favor some singer or player. 

Perhaps what is most to be marvelled at in the composer Mozart 
— a marvel even exceeding the incredible exploits of a later, "Roman- 
tic" century — is his success in not being limited by the strait-jacket 
of petty commissions. From the operas where, in an elaborate pro- 
duction his name appeared in small type on the posters (if at all) 
to the serenades for private parties, he gave in return for his small fees 
music whose undying beauties his patrons did not remotely suspect. 
Shortly after his death the three symphonies in question appeared in 
publication, and were performed, their extraordinary qualities re- 
ceived with amazement, disapproval in some quarters, and an en- 
thusiasm which increased from year to year. The three great sym- 
phonies (destined to be his last) were closed secrets to his friends who 
beheld the famous but impecunious young man of thirty-two adding 
three more to the thirty-odd symphonies he had been turning out 
with entire facility from the age of eight. 

Some have conjectured that Mozart was spurred to this triumphant 
assertion of his powers by the excitement attendant upon the produc- 
tion of Don Giovanni in Vienna in May, 1788, following its more 
highly successful production at Prague in the previous October. Others 
have found in the more clouded brightness of the G minor Symphony 
the despondency of a family man harassed by debts, pursued by his 
landlord. Mozart was indeed in bad financial straits that summer. His 
operas brought him nothing more than a small initial fee, and the 
demand for him as pianist had fallen off. His diminished activities 
were scantily rewarded, and the incoming florins were far from enough 



In this relatively democratic age, almost anyone can have 
an account — checking, trust or savings — with Cambridge 
Trust Company. To the aristocracy of music lovers, how- 
ever, the bank's services are offered with enthusiasm, and 
in the hope that there will be no discords. 

CAMBRIDGE TRUST COMPANY 

Harvard Square 
Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 



[6] 



to keep him in a fine coat and proper coach for his evenings with the 
high-born, and still provide adequate lodgings for him and his ailing 
Constanze. 

Unfortunately for the theory that Mozart wrote his G minor* Sym- 
phony when dominated by his financial distress, he finished his en- 
tirely gay E-flat symphonyf on the very eve of writing the second of his 
"begging" letters to Herr Michael Puchberg, friend, fellow Mason, 
amateur musician, and merchant. The first letter asked for the loan 
of 2,000 florins: "At all events, I beg you to lend me a couple of hun- 
dred gulden, because my landlord in the Landstrasse was so pressing 
that I was obliged to pay him on the spot (in order to avoid anything 
unpleasant) which caused me great embarrassment." Puchberg sent 
the two hundred, and Mozart, answering on June 27, and asking for 
more money, is careful to impress his creditor with his industrious in- 
tentions: "I have worked more during the ten days I have lived here 
than in two months in my former apartment; and if dismal thoughts 
did not so often intrude (which I strive forcibly to dismiss), I should 
be very well off here, for I live agreeably, comfortably, and above all, 
cheaply." Mozart was telling the strict truth about his ten busy days: 
listed under the date June 22 is a trio, and under June 26 a march, 
piano sonata, the adagio and fugue for strings, together with a piece 
of more doubtful bread-winning powers (from which the "dismal 
thoughts" are quite absent) — the Symphony in E-flat. 

Mozart had recently acquired his position as "Chamber Composer" 
to the Emperor Joseph II. But the post, which had been held by 
the Chevalier Gluck until his death the year before, was as unre- 
munerative as it was high-sounding. Mozart's emperor was glad to 
pare the salary of two thousand florins he had paid to Gluck to less 
than half — the equivalent of two hundred dollars — in Mozart's case. 

* Koechel lists only one other symphony by Mozart in a minor key — the early symphony 
in G minor, No. 183 (1773). 

t Save four poignant dissonances at the climax of the introduction. 



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He expected little in return — no exquisite symphonies or operas to set 
Austria afire — a fresh set of minuets, waltzes, or country dances for 
each imperial masked ball in the winter season was quite sufficient. 
Hence the oft-quoted line which Mozart is supposed to have sent back 
with one of the imperial receipts: "Too much for what I do — not 
enough for what I can do." 



Mozart uses no oboes in his E-flat symphony, only one flute, and 
clarinets, bassoons, horns, and trumpets in twos. Jahn finds the blend- 
ing of clarinets with horns and bassoons productive of "a full, mellow 
tone" requisite for his special purpose, while "the addition of the flutes 
[flute] gives it clearness and light, and trumpets endow it with bril- 
liancy and freshness." The delicate exploitation of the clarinets is in 
many parts evident, particularly in the trio of the minuet, where the 
first carries the melody and the second complements it with arpeggios 
in the deeper register. 

[copyrighted] 



The New England 
Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 
James Aliferis, President 



Wednesday, March 16 
8:30 P.M. 

JORDAN HALL 

CHAMBER SINGERS 

Lorna Cooke deVaron 

Conducting 

LOU HARRISON 

Mass to the Glory of God 

F. COUPERIN 
Troisieme Lecon de Tenebres 

DANIEL PINKHAM 

The Reproaches 

(First Performance) 

Madrigals by Hindemith, Lassus, 
Des Pres, Monteverdi, Andreisson 

No tickets required 



290 Huntington Aye., Boston 15 



[8] 




BOSTON 

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SUITE from "DIE GESCHoPFE DES PROMETHEUS," 

Ballet, Op. 43 
By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



Composed in the year 1800, Beethoven's ballet was first performed in March, 1801 
^probably March 28th), at the Imperial Court Theater in Vienna. 

The first performance of the Overture at the concerts of this Orchestra was on 
December 28, 1888. The most recent was November 2, 1945. Nine numbers from the 
Ballet were presented as an instrumental suite by Mr. Gericke, December 12, 1888. 
Mr. Monteux conducted the Adagio (No. 5), together with the Overture, October 24, 
1919. Richard Burgin conducted six movements on February 22-23, 1952. 

The overture is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 
2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. No. 5 adds a harp to the instruments used. 

Salvatore Vigano, Milanese dancer and designer of ballets in the 
late eighteenth century, decided in the year 1800 to pay a tribute to 
Maria Theresa and ordered Beethoven to provide music for a ballet 
"Die Geschopfe des Prometheus." Beethoven had recently dedicated 
his septet to this consort of the Emperor Franz of Austria. And yet he 
was not an obvious choice for such a commission. At the age of thirty 
he had attracted considerable attention as a composer for piano and 
chamber combinations, but he had written nothing of orchestral 
proportions excepting two piano concertos and a single symphony. 
Certainly he had not proved himself an effective writer of music for 
the theater (Beethoven had made a youthful attempt at a ballet as a 
youth of twenty at Bonn, the "Ritterballet" which could hardly have 
commended him in Vienna). 

But Beethoven was ambitious to compose for the stage, and coveted 
recognition in high quarters. He may well have considered himsell 
fortunate in being singled out by the celebrated Salvatore Vigano 
(1768-1821), a leader in his profession. Vigano had made his mark 
in Vienna when he came there in 1793 with his wife, the beautiful, 



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much admired Spanish dancer, Maria Medina. Under this impulse 
the vogue of the ballet was reinstated in Vienna in the i7go's. There 
was another ballet master in the reign of Leopold II: Muzarelli, and a 
deadly rivalry developed between the two Italians. The public, which 
always delighted in such a warfare, took sides as sharply as in a modern 
political campaign. The slogan of Signor Vigano was the cultivation 
of natural beauty and significance as against the artificial posturing of 
which he accused his opponent. Perhaps his cause was enhanced by 
the undisputed attractiveness of his wife. "Two or three pages of spicy 
matter might be compiled," writes Alexander Wheelock Thayer, "upon 
the beautiful Mme. Vigano's lavish display of the Venus-like graces 
and charms of her exquisite form." But the sober chronicler of 
Beethoven has refrained from such an excursion. 

In any case, there was no question of the Spanish dazzler when 
Beethoven undertook "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus." Fraulein 
Cassentini had succeeded her as prima ballerina and duly took part in 
this ballet. The title has been variously translated as the "creatures," 
the "creations," and the "men" of Prometheus, for want of any word 
which will adequately render "Geschopfe/' The following description 
of the piece is all that has come down to us save for the sixteen musical 
numbers which Beethoven provided: 

"The foundation of this allegorical ballet is the fable of Prometheus. 
The philosophers of Greece allude to Prometheus as a lofty soul who 
drove the people of his time from ignorance, refined them by means 
of science and the arts, and gave them manners, customs, and morals. 
As a result of that conception, two statues that have been brought 
to life are introduced in this ballet; and these, through the might 
of harmony, are made sensitive to all the passions of human life. 
Prometheus leads them to Parnassus, in order that Apollo, the god of 
the fine arts, may enlighten them. Apollo gives them as teachers 
Amphion, Arion, and Orpheus to instruct them in music, Melpomene 
to teach them tragedy, Thalia for comedy, Terpsichore and Pan for 
the shepherd's dance, and Bacchus for the heroic dance, of which he 
was the originator." 

The ballet made a pronounced success and survived numerous per- 
formances — for reasons probably other than the delights of the music 
itself. The Overture has an introduction, adagio, and a lively main 



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[10] 



section, allegro con brio. The swift string figure that runs through it 
was probably what caused William F. Apthorp to call it "a companion 
piece to Mozart's Overture to Figaro." When the early biographers 
of Beethoven reproached him with having written an overture in a 
gay and transparent style on so serious a subject they surely took too 
little account of what was expected in this species of divertissement. 

The Adagio here played is the fifth number, and opened Act II in 
the stage production (after a few bars andante). It begins with chords 
for the harp, a curiosity in that this instrument appears nowhere else 
in Beethoven's music. The winds have the introductory matter over a 
light string pedal. The solo cello brings in the Andante quasi alle- 
gretto with a cadenza, and returns several times as a connecting voice. 

The sixteenth and last movement is an Allegretto, a series of short 
variations on the theme familiar in the finale of the Eroica Symphony. 
The theme is identical, but the variations different. The theme must 
have been a favorite one with Beethoven, for he used it four times in 
all; in a contradance, in the Variations and Fugue for piano solo, Op. 
35 (1802) and in the Eroica (1804). Since the date of the contradance 
is not known, it is impossible to tell whether its use in Prometheus 
(composed in 1800) was the first. There is another theme (in G major) 
which likewise appears as a contradance (No. 11 in the same set of 12, 
without opus number). Prometheus ends with a brilliant allegro molto 
and a presto. 

[copyrighted] 



ENTR'ACTE 
ANOTHER BOOK ON MOZART 



The following review of "Mozart and His Times'* by Erich Schenk 
is intended to establish a custom in these pages of drawing attention 
to any new book on a musical subject which seems to be of special 
interest or importance * 

* Mozart and His Times by Erich Schenk was published by Alfred A. Knopf on October 26 
in an English translation by Richard and Clara Winston. The book has 452 pages, with good 
illustrations. 



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A ny new book on the thoroughly covered subject of Mozart faces 
-**- one question: "Why?" Mr. Schenk anticipates this in his 
Foreword: "This book is a reply to the prevailing opinion that our 
knowledge of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's life is complete and that 
to this chronicle nothing new can be added." The author, who holds 
the chair of musicology at the University of Vienna, has supported his 
answer with a full-length biography which actually adds something 
"new." This, like every biography of Mozart, is based on the letters. 
Strangely enough, writers have taken the letters pretty much on their 
face value while applying their scholarship to the music itself in books 
from one to six volumes. It is true that Mozart in his letters has 
unwittingly told his own story in a direct and intimate way that makes 
any literary virtuosity rather superfluous. The fact remains that there 
are gaps in the letters, particularly in the later ones, and that there 
are numberless references to people and happenings which, familiar 
to the recipient, remain strange to the present-day reader. Mr. Schenk 
has obviously delved into every archive in Vienna and has similarly 
penetrated Salzburg, Paris, and Prague, and come up with information 
to enliven some well-trodden paths. The record and identity of 
Mozart's friends, colleagues or patrons are amplified in many cases. 
An example is the "mysterious" stranger referred to by Jahn as "a 
tall, thin, grave-looking man, dressed from head to toe in grey" who 
brought Mozart the anonymous commission for the Requiem. He has 
been referred to repeatedly since as the "steward" of Count Walsegg. 
Mr. Schenk identifies the man as "Anton Leitgeb, son of the mayor 
of Vienna, Andreas Leitgeb, and owner of a gypsum factory at 
Schottwien near Count Walsegg's estate. The Count may often have 
turned to him for help in legal matters. Leitgeb is known to have 
been an active music-lover who played several instruments and partic- 
ipated in the Count's musicales. As long as he lived he refused to say 
anything about his mission to Mozart. Leitgeb's portrait which has 
been recently discovered . . . shows a grave countenance, cold, calcu- 
lating eyes, thin lips pursed haughtily." Count Giuseppe Affligio, the 
Viennese impresario who refused to produce La finta semplice by the 
thirteen-year-old Mozart, later suffered bankruptcy, was found running 



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[12] 



a gambling table in Milan, made his way to Barcelona and a new for- 
tune in the theatre. In 1779 he was convicted of forgery in Florence 
and condemned to life servitude in the galleys. These are among many 
instances where the story is filled out with background. 

Mozart's "Times" in the title refers to his social surroundings in 
Salzburg, Paris or Vienna and, wisely, does not treat such world events 
as wars and revolutions. Mozart's exclusively musical life was scarcely 
touched by these except for an occasional momentary inconvenience. 
Schenk digs up some interesting points. He attributes the first plan 
for The Marriage of Figaro not to Mozart but to Schikaneder, who 
had offered to the newly established National Theatre in Vienna his 
own translation of Beaumarchais's play. "The work was rehearsed, 
but at the last moment was cancelled on direct orders from the 
Emperor." He corrects other statements that have been repeated from 
book to book. Anecdotes, also much repeated, which are traceable to 
a single unreliable source can, of course, do no more than come up 
for speculative judgment. He accepts the tale that Mozart composed 
the overture to Don Giovanni on the night before the first performance. 
As for the rumor that Mozart "was offered an appointment by the 
King of Prussia and refused it only out of consideration for Vienna 
and the Emperor Joseph," he concludes that it "is based on no evidence 
whatsoever." He believes that the estrangement between father and 
son through the Vienna decade has been much exaggerated. He has 
consulted modern medical opinion on several points, and believes 
that Mozart in his last months suffered from "uremic irritation of 
the brain." 

Emily Anderson's three-volume translation of the letters has good 
but inadequate footnotes. Schenk's book has few footnotes, for it is 
in effect a prodigious annotation of the letters. A reader of the 
letters would be in clover with Schenk at his right hand. 

j. N. B. 



j£2te> 



BOCA GRANDE PALM BEACH 



IoC^maw&x^ 



The Ritz Carlton Hotel 

Pretty Clothes for All Occasions 

MANCHESTER WATCH HILL 



SYMPHONY FOR STRING ORCHESTRA 

By Arthur Honegger 

Born in Le Havre, March 10, 1892; died in Paris, November 27, 1955 



The Symphonie pour Orchestra a Cordes is dated 1941. It was published in 1942 
with a dedication to Paul Sacher* and has been performed by him in Zurich and 
other Swiss cities. The first American performance was by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, December 27, 1946, Charles Munch conducting as guest. Serge Kousse- 
vitzky conducted it in the Friday and Saturday series, October 31 and November 1, 
1947, and again on October 8, 1948. 

At the end of the printed score is written, "Paris, October, 1941." 
Willi Reich, writing from Basel for the Christian Science Monitor, 
May 19, 1945, remarked that the Symphony for Strings "embodies 
much of the mood of occupied Paris, to which the composer remained 
faithful under all difficulties." 

The first movement opens with an introductory Molto moderato, pp, 
with a viola figure and a premonition in the violins of things to come. 
The main Allegro brings full exposition and development. The intro- 
ductory tempo and material returns in the course of the movement for 
development on its own account and again briefly before the end. 

The slow movement begins with a gentle accompaniment over which 
the violins set forth the melody proper. The discourse is intensified to 
ff, and gradually subsides. 

The finale, 6/8, starts off with a lively, rondo-like theme in duple 
rhythm, which is presently replaced by another in the rhythmic signa- 
ture. The movement moves on a swift impulsion, passes through a 
tarantella phase, and attains a presto coda, wherein the composer 
introduces a chorale in an ad libitum trumpet part, doubling the first 
violins (a procedure unprecedented in a piece for string orchestra). 
The chorale theme is the composer's own. 

* Paul Sacher is the conductor of the orchestra of the Collegium Musicum Zurich, founded in 
1941. It was for him and his orchestra that many important works have been composed. 

[copyrighted] 



&eoltan=g>kmner <^rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[Hi 



EXCERPTS FROM ACT III, "DIE MEISTERSINGER 

VON NURNBERG" 
By Richard Wagner 

Born in Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died in Venice, February 13, 1883 



"Die Meistersinger von Number g" was first sketched by Wagner as a possible opera 
subject at Dresden in 1845. He wrote the libretto in Paris in 1861, and completed 
the score in 1867. The first performance of the opera was at the Royal Court Theatre 
in Munich, June 21, 1868. 

The Introduction to the third act was last performed in this series December 17, 
1948; the two excerpts January 23-24, 1953. 

The Introduction to the Third Act of "Die Meistersinger" is music 
of Hans Sachs in revery, for the composer is preparing his hearers 
to behold the master cobbler seated alone in his study musing over a 
book. The Introduction opens with a fine contemplative theme, first 
given to the cellos. Wagner himself has explained his purpose: "The 
opening theme for the cellos has already been heard in the third 
strophe of Sachs' cobbler-song in Act II. There is expressed the bitter 
cry of the man who has determined to renounce his personal happiness, 
yet who shows the world a cheerful, resolute exterior. That smothered 

SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The remaining Tuesday evening concert' in 
Sanders Theatre, Cambridge will be as follows: 

APRIL 12 



Tickets for each concert at the Subscription Office, 
Symphony Hall, CO 6-1492 

BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS 

SANDERSTHBATRE • CAMBRIDGE 

[15] 



cry was understood [in the Second Act] by Eva, and so deeply did it 
pierce her heart that she was moved to escape, if only to hear this 
cheerful-seeming song no longer. Now, in the Introduction to Act III, 
this motive is played alone by the cellos, and developed in the other 
strings till it dies away in resignation; but forthwith, and as from out 
the distance, the horns intone the solemn song wherewith Hans Sachs 
greeted Luther and the Reformation, which had won the poet such 
incomparable popularity. After the first strophe the strings again take 
single phrases of the cobbler's song, very softly and much slower, as 
though the man were turning his gaze from his handiwork heaven- 
wards, and lost in tender musings. Then, with increased sonority, the 
horns pursue the master's hymn, with which Hans Sachs, at the end of 
the Act, is greeted by the populace of Nuremberg. Next reappears the 
strings' first motive, with grandiose expression of the anguish of a 
deeply stirred soul; calmed and allayed, it attains the utmost serenity 
of a blest and peaceful resignation." 

The final scene depicts a meadow with the gaily decorated platform 
from which the judges will hear the contest. A lively Landler, danced 
in couples by the apprentices and their girls, is interrupted by the 
arrival and majestic entrance of the Mastersingers. 

[copyrighted] 



Bequests made by will 

to the 

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 

will help to 
perpetuate a great musical tradition. 

Such bequests are exempt from estate taxes. 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) 
Medea's Dance of Vengeance 
Adagio for Strings 

Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 
Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 
Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 
Symphony No. 9 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

"L'Enfance du Christ" 
"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 

Symphony No. 1 
"Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 

Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 

Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) 

"The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 
"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 
The Apprentice Sorceror 
Introduction and Allegro 
Symphony No. 1 in D minor 
Symphony No. 2 
"Escales" (Ports of Call) 
Symphony on a Mountain Air 
( Henriot-Schweitzer) 
Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 



Bach 

Barber 

Beethoven 



Berlioz 

Blackwood 

Bloch 

Brahms 



Debussy 



Dukas 

Elgar 

Franck 

Haieff 

Ibert 

d'Indy 



LM-2182, 
LM 
LM 

LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 

LM 
LM 

LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 



Mahler 

Martinu 
Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 



Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 

Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



Wagner 
Walton 



"Kindertotenlieder" and "Lieder eines fahrenden 

Gesellen" (Maureen Forrester) LM 

"Fantaisies Symphoniques" LM 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies LM 

Violin Concerto (Heifetz) LM 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 

(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) LM 

Symphony No. 6 LM 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts LM 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) LM 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) LM 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" LM 

"Mother Goose" Suite LM 

Piano Concerto (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM- 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) LM 

"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" LM 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) LM 
"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures LM 

Symphony No. 4 LM 

Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) LM 

Serenade for Strings LM 

Violin Concerto (Szeryng) LM 

Excerpts (Eileen Farrell) LM- 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) LM 



2198* 

-2197 
-2105 

-2015 
-2233* 
-1997 
-6066* 
-1992* 
6053 
-2228* 
.2352* 
-2109 

-2097 
-1959 
-2274* 

-2030 
-2111* 

-1984 : 
-2282* 

-2292* 
-2105* 
-2131* 
2352* 
2111* 

2271 
•1760 

2371* 

2083 

2221* 
2314* 

2073 

2083 

2110 
2197 
2314* 

2237* 

■1984* 
2292* 
2271* 

■1760 
2292* 

■2344 

2043 

■1953 

•2239* 

-2105* 

2363* 

2255* 

2109 



* Also a stereophonic recording. 




At the request of the BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



160 BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON 

BALDWIN GRAND PIANOS • ACROSONIC VERTICAL PIANOS 
HAMILTON STUDIO PIANOS • BALDWIN ELECTRONIC ORGANS 




• HOWARD SPINET PIANOS 
> ORGA-SONIC SPINET ORGANS 



' 





BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 





SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 
Sanders Theatre, Cambridge [Harvard University] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhap6 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean deVergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 

E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 

Sherman Walt 

Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 
Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
CD. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallowell Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[1] 



yVLvkcb/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rga Victor records exclusively 



$ living \ stereo fc 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular LP.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



®RCA\^CTOR 



[»] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE- SIXTY 



Sixth Program 



TUESDAY EVENING, April 12, at 8:30 o'clock 



Handel Suite for Orchestra, from "The Water Music" 

(Arranged by Sir Hamilton Harty) 
I. Allegro 
II. Air 

III. Bourree 

IV. Hornpipe 

V. Andante espressivo 
VI. Allegro deciso 

Piston *Symphony No. 6 

I. Fluendo espressivo 
II. Leggerissimo vivace 

III. Adagio sereno 

IV. Allegro energico 

INTERMISSION 

Brahms *Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo 
II. Adagio non troppo 

III. Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino 

IV. Allegro con spirito 



BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RFXORDS 



[Si 



THE HARVARD 
GLEE CLUB 

Elliot Forbes, Conductor 

presents 

A Concert of Music for 

MALE VOICES 
WED., APRIL 13 

8:30 p.m. 
PAINE HALL, CAMBRIDGE 

and coming . . . 
A SPRING CONCERT 

by the 
Harvard Glee Club 

Radcliffe Choral Society 

Elliot Forbes, Conductor 

Music by 

BACH 

LASSO 

SWEELINCK 

STRAVINSKY 

WALTER PISTON 

(Conducted by the composer) 

with members of the Harvard-Radcliffe 
Orchestra, prepared by Michael Senturia 

FRIDAY, APRIL 29 

8:30 p.m. 

Sanders Theatre, Cambridge 

Tickets for both concerts on sale 
at the Harvard Cooperative Society 
or the Harvard Glee Club, Holden 
Chapel, Cambridge 38, KIrkland 
7-8990, KIrkland 7-4115. 



THE BERKSHIRE MUSIC CENTER 

Particulars about the 1960 session of 
the Berkshire Music Center at Tangle- 
wood, Charles Munch director, are now- 
announced. The Orchestra's school, 
which is held concurrently with the 
Berkshire Festival at Tanglewood, will 
open on July 3 and extend through the 
Festival season to August 14. 

The Music Center will have a newly 
organized Department of Listening and 
Analysis under the direction of Profes- 
sor G. Wallace Woodworth with the 
assistance of Florence Dunn. It is the 
work of this Department to provide 
guidance to students, amateurs, teachers 
— all interested listeners — for the in- 
dividual study of music through daily 
attendance at rehearsals, and at their 
culmination in the more than fifty con- 
certs during the Festival season. This 
Department will also provide for coach- 
ing in chamber music and for independ- 
ent study. 

Pierre Monteux, Gregor Piatigorsky, 
and Leonard Bernstein are "advisers" 
in Instrumental Music. The Orchestral 
Conducting Division of this department 
is headed by Eleazar de Carvalho. The 
Orchestral Playing and Chamber Music 
sections of this department are headed 
by Richard Burgin, and William Kroll. 
leader of the Kroll String Quartet. 
Twenty-three members of the Orchestra 
and violinist Ruth Posselt instruct in 
this department. 

The Opera Department will be re- 
sumed this year under the direction of 
Boris Goldovsky, who returns to Tangle- 
wood after a year's leave of absence. 
The Department of Choral Music will 
again be headed by Hugh Ross, con- 
ductor of the Schola Cantorum of New 
York, and his faculty will include Mrs. 
Lorna Cooke de Varon, head of the 
Choral Department of the New England 
Conservatory of Music and Alfred Nash 
Patterson, conductor of the Chorus Pro 
Musica of Boston. 

The Department of Composition will 
continue under the direction of Aaron 
Copland, who will be assisted by Luciano 
Berio (sponsored by the Koussevitzky 
Music Foundation) and the members of 
the Lenox Quartet. 



[4] 



SUITE FOR ORCHESTRA (from the WATER MUSIC) 

By George Frideric Handel 

Born in Halle, February 23, 1685; died in London, April 14, 1759 

Arranged by Sir Hamilton Harty* 



Handel's Water Music was probably composed and performed in parts in 1715 
and 1717. The original autograph has been lost. A suite from the music was 
published by John Walsh in 1720, and another version, differently arranged, in 
1740. The full suite of 20 movements was published in the Samuel Arnold edition 
(1785-1797), and appeared in the complete works as edited by Chrysander. 

A suite from the Chrysander edition was performed on a swan boat in the Public 
Garden, Richard Burgin conducting members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
as an event of the Boston Arts Festival on June 20, 1958, and again on June 21, 1959. 

Sir Hamilton Harty, arranging a suite of six movements in 1918, and then per- 
forming it at the Halle Concerts, has scored it for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 
clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings (published in 1922). 
The Suite was introduced at these concerts December 22, 1949, repeated April 17, 
1953, and March 7, 1958. Suites from the Water Music, derived from Chrysander, 
have been performed by this Orchestra December 11, 1885, October 21, 1887, Decem- 
ber 21, 1900, and March 18, 1927. 

In Handel's time, parties on the Thames were a favorite recreation 
of Londoners in the summer season. R. A. Streatfeild has described 
the custom in his Life of Handel (1909) : "The River Thames was 
then, far more than now, one of the main highways of London. It was 
still Spenser's 'silver Thames,' and on a summer's day it must have 
presented a picture of life and gaiety very different from its present 
melancholy and deserted aspect. It was peopled by an immense fleet 
of boats devoted solely to passenger traffic, which were signalled by 
passing wayfarers from numerous piers between Blackfriars and 
Putney, just as one now signals a hansom or taxicab. Besides the 
humble boats that plied for hire, there were plenty of private barges 
fitted up with no little luxury and manned by liveried servants. The 

* Born at Hillsborough, County Down, Ireland, December 4, 1879 ; died February 19, 1941. 



In this relatively democratic age, almost anyone can have 
an account — checking, trust or savings — with Cambridge 
Trust Company. To the aristocracy of music lovers, how- 
ever, the bank's services are offered with enthusiasm, and 
in the hope that there will be no discords. 

CAMBRIDGE TRUST COMPANY 

Harvard Square 
Member Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 



[5] 



manners and customs of the boatmen were peculiar, and their wit- 
combats, carried on in the rich and expressive vernacular of Billings- 
gate, were already proverbial . . . George I liked the River. When the 
Court was at Whitehall water parties to Richmond or Hampton Court 
were of frequent occurrence, and as often as not the royal barge was 
accompanied by an attendant boat laden with musicians."* 

Handel, serving as Kapellmeister to Georg Ludwig, Elector of Han- 
over, obtained leave of absence to visit England in 1712. He not only 
overstayed his leave, but came under the open patronage of the reign- 
ing Queen Anne, between whom and Georg there was no love lost. 
Handel, while thus still bound to the House of Hanover, composed 
his Ode to Queen Anne, and his Te Deum and Jubilate for the hated 
Peace of Utrecht. When the Queen died in 1714, Georg was crowned 
George I of England and Handel's position became suddenly pre- 
carious. He was pointedly ignored by the new monarch and so deprived 
of his principal opportunities for social recognition and consequent 
income. But the continuing ostracism of the illustrious Handel would 
have been likewise a true deprivation to George himself, for he had 
brought with him from Germany a passion for music which was more 
enduring than his dislike of a dead queen. It was obviously a question 
of a propitious moment, and Handel had friends ready to do their 

* Samuel Pepys, in his diary of an earlier date, reveals how transportation by water was 
common practice. He wrote (August 23, 1662) : "So we fairly walked it to White Hall, and 
through my Lord's lodgings we got into White Hall garden, and so to the Bowling-greene, and 
up to the top of the new Banqueting House there, over the Thames, which was a most pleas- 
ant place as any I could have got ; and all the show consisted chiefly in the number of boats 
and barges ; and two pageants, one of a King, and another of a Queen, with her Maydes of 
Honour sitting at her feet very prettily ; and they tell me the Queen is Sir Richard Ford's 
daughter. Anon come the King and Queen in a barge under a canopy, with 1000 barges and 
boats I know, for we could see no water for them, nor discern the King nor Queen. And so 
they landed at White Hall Bridge, and the great guns on the other side went off." 



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tactful part when that moment should come. There are three legends 
circumstantially related at the time, each claiming the achievement of 
this act of grace. The Water Music is connected with two of them. 

One of Handel's true friends was Francesco Geminiani, violinist 
and composer for the violin, two years younger than himself. Geminiani, 
so the story goes, was asked to play one of his concertos at Court, and 
replying, admitted a rubato in his style so incorrigible that no one 
could be trusted to accompany him and not be thrown off but Handel 
himself. Handel was accordingly asked, and accordingly reinstated. 

But Handel had other colleagues equally ready to claim the credit 
for the good deed of his restoration. One was the Baron von Kiel- 
mansegger, Royal Master of the Horse to King George, and his wife 
who was the natural daughter of the King's father by the Countess 
von Platen.* 

According to Mainwaring, Handel's first biographer, in 1760, the 
year after his death, Kielmansegger took advantage of a projected 
water party by the King and his retinue on the Thames from White- 
hall to Limehouse on August 22, 1715. He quietly arranged for Handel 
to compose and conduct music on a barge within convenient hearing 
distance, but out of sight. The King was so pleased that he inquired 
as to the composer of the delightful open air music drifting across the 
water, and accepted him on the spot. 

* This unprepossessing couple had made their way in the monarch's wake to England, and 
were there heartily disliked. The Baroness was "the King's principal favorite," in the circum- 
spect language of Felix Borowski (in the notes of the Chicago Orchestra), "whose code of 
morality did not rest on a higher plane than that of her husband." Others have spoken more 
freely about the relation to her half brother of this truly Hogarthian specimen of that lax 
era. Thackeray, in "The Four Georges," described her as "a large-sized noblewoman . . . 
denominated the Elephant," and Horace Walpole as a boy was terrified by her girth: "Two 
fierce black eyes, large and rolling beneath two lofty, arched eyebrows, two acres of cheeks 
spread with crimson, an ocean of neck that overflowed and was not distinguished from the 
lower part of her jaw, and no part restrained by stays — no wonder that a child dreaded 
such an ogress I" 

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[7] 



SYMPHONY NO. 6 

By Walter Piston 

Born in Rockland, Maine, January 20, 1894 



Walter Piston's Sixth Symphony was commissioned by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra and the Koussevitzky Music Foundation for this Orchestra's anniversary 
season and is dedicated to the memory of Serge and Natalie Koussevitzky. 

The following orchestration is called for: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes and English 
horn, 2 clarinets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trum- 
pets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, bass drum, triangle, snare drum, military drum, 
tambourine, cymbals, tarn tarn, 2 harps, and strings. 

IN answer to a request for information about his new Symphony, the 
composer has sent the following interesting communication: 

"It is known that no two orchestras sound alike, and that the same 
orchestra sounds differently under different conductors. The composer 
of orchestral music must be aware of this, and his mental image of the 
sound of his written notes has to admit a certain flexibility. This 
image is in a sense a composite resulting from all his experience in 
hearing orchestral sound, whether produced by one or two instruments 
or by the entire orchestra in tutti. 

"While writing my Sixth Symphony, I came to realize that this was 
a rather special situation in that I was writing for one designated 
orchestra, one that I had grown up with, and that I knew intimately. 
Each note set down sounded in the mind with extraordinary clarity, 
as though played immediately by those who were to perform the work. 
On several occasions it seemed as though the melodies were being 
written by the instruments themselves as I followed along. I refrained 
from playing even a single note of this symphony on the piano. 

"Little need be said in advance about the symphony. Indeed, I 
could wish that my music be first heard without the distraction of 
preliminary explanation. The headings listed in the program are 
indicative of the general character of each movement. The first move- 
ment is flowing and expressive, in sonata form; the second a scherzo, 
light and fast; the third a serene adagio, theme one played by solo 
cello, theme two by the flute; and the fourth an energetic finale with 
two contrasting themes. The symphony was composed with no intent 
other than to make music to be played and listened to. 

"I take this occasion to express my immense indebtedness to the 
members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and to the conductors 
Serge Koussevitzky, Richard Burgin, and Charles Munch, for the many 
superb performances of my music." [copyrighted] 



BOCA GRANDE PALM BEACH 



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The Ritz Carlton Hotel 
Pretty Clothes for All Occasions 

MANCHESTER WATCH HILL 



[8] 



ENTR'ACTE 

OF ORCHESTRAL CONDUCTORS 

By Nicolas Slonimsky 
("Christian Science Monitor," January 23, i960) 



Among the arts of musical performance, conducting is the most 
elusive. A conductor does not play an instrument, emits no 
sounds (vocally active conductors are the products of irrepressible 
temperament), does not dance (choreographically inclined conductors 
are frowned upon by purists), and in general is not supposed to do 
anything but express music with his hands, with or without the aid 
of a baton. 

It would seem then that any reasonably gifted musical amateur 
could conduct. There are symphony-goers who derive a vicarious satis- 
faction from prodding the orchestra by making rhythmic noises and 
gently stamping their feet during the performance of a familiar piece 
of music. If placed in front of an orchestra, such a person could pre- 
sumably beat time without upsetting the players too badly. After all, 
experienced orchestral musicians will play the music no matter what 
the conductor does. 

Ideally, conductors must know every note in the score and be able 
to manage a large ensemble of players and singers with authority and 
accuracy. They must be able not only to set the right tempo and indi- 
cate the proper nuances as the mood of the music changes, but to create 
an inspiring tonal picture of the entire score drawn in true artistic 
proportions. 

Legends about the fantastic memory, the state of constant musical 
vigilance and an unfailing sense of pitch have been built around such 
names as that of Arturo Toscanini, but anecdotes about incompetent 
conductors are even more abundant. Such anecdotes may be divided 
into several categories, illustrating a wide range of failure, from 
innocuous simplicity to overweening arrogance. 

Polite Conductor. A conductor who stood on the podium for a very 
long time, until the concertmaster whispered to him: "Go ahead! 



Ueoltan=is>{umter (^rgatt Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 

[9] 




LENOX, MASSACHUSETTS 

TANGLEWOOD I960 

The 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The Berkshire Festival 

Twenty-third Season 
(July 6 - August 14) 

CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 



The Berkshire Music Center 

Eighteenth Season 
(July 3 - August 14) 

CHARLES MUNCH, Director 



[io] 



Start!" to which the conductor replied softly: "After you, Herr Kon- 
zertmeister, after you!" 

Lost Conductor. While accompanying a violin concerto, the con- 
ductor lost his place during the soloist's cadenza, and kept inquiring 
anxiously: "Where are we?" until the concertmaster informed him 
sotto voce: "In Carnegie Hall." 

Arrogant Conductor. During the rehearsals, he kept demanding 
more attention from the orchestra, until one of the players lost his 
patience and observed darkly: "You'd better stop badgering us, or 
else we will follow your beat at the concert, and that will be a real 
disaster!" 



Conniving Conductor Hoist by his own Petard. He deliberately 
wrote in a wrong note into the part of a horn-player. When the orches- 
tra reached the passage in question at the rehearsal, the conductor 
stopped, and imperiously addressed the supposed culprit: "This is a 
B natural, not a B-flat!" "Yes, some fool did put in a flat here," 
replied the other, "but I know the piece, and I played a B natural all 
right." 

Surprised Conductor. During a rehearsal, the drummer became 
annoyed by the conductor's antics, and hit the bass drum mightily. 




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Thursday, April 21 
8:30 P.M. 

ROBERT BRINK, Violin 
ALLEN BARKER, Piano 



Wednesday, April 27 

8:30 P.M. 

ARTIST'S DIPLOMA DEBUT 

RECITAL by 

DAVID BEYER, Pianist 



Friday, April 29 

8:30 P.M. 

ARTIST'S DIPLOMA DEBUT 

RECITAL by 

REGINALD HACHEY, Pianist 

All concerts in Jordan Hall 
No tickets required 



["I 



The conductor was startled, and shouted indignantly: "Who did that?" 
Prematurely Departing Conductor. A conductor who is in the habit 
of running off the podium with the final chord for dramatic effect. 
He miscalculated the number of chords at the end of a symphony and 
ran off the stage two chords too early. The musicians banged out the 
chords lustily after him, while he was running toward the wings. 

Absorbed Conductor. Hans von Biilow, himself a great conductor, 
said that there are two types of conductors: those who have their 
scores in their heads, and those who have their heads in their scores. 



The true art of conducting has a long and honorable history. It goes 
back to the singing preceptor who stood in front of his chorus and 
indicated the pitch by traditionally accepted hand signals. With the 
development of instrumental ensembles, the conductor's functions 
were performed by the maestro presiding at the harpsichord. Very 
often he was also the arranger of the music, and had to supply the 
harmony from the figured bass in the score. 

At some later time, the first violinist, or the concertmaster (in Eng- 
land he is called Leader) assumed the conductorial mantle. Giving an 
upbeat with his bow, he would get things started, and would continue 
to lead by determined movements of the head. 

Then finally came the era of a non-playing conductor. Early con- 
ductors beat time with a roll of paper, and it was not until the 19th 
century was well on its way that conductors began to wield a baton. 
The custom was for conductors to face the audience; this was, of course, 
very polite, but not very efficient. Eventually, conductors had to turn 
their backs to the public and "face the music." 

Technique and inspiration have to be balanced in fine proportion 
to secure perfection in orchestral playing. Simplicity of gesture and 
clarity of interpretation are imperative for a satisfactory performance. 
When the famous German conductor Hans Richter was asked the 
secret of the perfection of his orchestral concerts, he replied: "My 
upbeat equals precisely my downbeat." 



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[12] 



LIST OF WORKS 

Performed in the Cambridge Series 
DURING THE SEASON 1959-1960 



Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 6, in B-flat major, for Strings 

II December 1 
Beethoven Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I November 3 
Suite from "Die Geschopfe des Prometheus," Ballet, Op. 43 

V March 8 
Brahms Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

VI April 12 

Copland Party Scene and Finale from the Opera, 

"The Tender Land" 

I November 3 

First Symphony 

III January 5 

Diamond .Rounds for String Orchestra 

III January 5 

Handel Suite for Orchestra, from "The Water Music" 

(Arranged by Sir Hamilton Harty) 
VI April 12 

Haydn Symphony in C minor, No. 95 

III January 5 
Honegger Symphony No. 2, for String Orchestra 

V March 8 
Mahler Adagio from the Tenth Symphony (Posthumous) 

IV February 2 
Mendelssohn Symphony No. 3, in A minor, "Scottish," Op. 56 

II December 1 
Scherzo in G minor from the Octet, Op. 20 

(Arranged for orchestra by the composer) 

IV February 2 

Mozart Symphony No. 38, in D major, "Prague," K. 504 

I November 3 
Piano Concerto No. 24, in C minor, K. 491 
Soloist: CLAUDE FRANK II December 1 

(First performance by this Orchestra) 

Symphony No. 39, in E-flat major, K. 543 

V March 8 
Piston Symphony No. 6 

VI April 6 

Purcell Fantasias for Strings 

III January 5 

Schubert Symphony in B minor, "Unfinished" 

IV February 2 

Schuman New England Triptych; Three Pieces for Orchestra 

after William Billings 
III January 5 

Sibelius Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, in D minor, Op. 47 

Soloist: RUGGIERO RICCI IV February 2 

Wagner . . Excerpts from Act III, "Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg" 

V March 8 
Aaron Copland conducted the concert on January 5. 

[-13] 



SYMPHONY NO. 2, IN D MAJOR, Op. 73 

By Johannes Brahms 

Born in Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died in Vienna, April 3, 1897 



The Second Symphony was composed in 1877, and first performed in Vienna on 
December 30 of the same year. A performance followed at Leipzig on January 10, 
1878, Brahms conducting. Joachim conducted it at the Rhine Festival in Dusseldorf, 
and the composer led the symphony in his native Hamburg, in the same year. 
France first heard it at a popular concert in Paris, November 21, 1880. The first 
American performance was given by Theodore Thomas in New York, October 3, 
1878. The Harvard Musical Association introduced it to Boston on January 9, 1879. 
It was then that John S. D wight committed himself to the much quoted opinion 
that "Sterndale Bennett could have written a better symphony." Georg Henschel 
included this symphony in the orchestra's first season (February 24, 1882) . 

The orchestration: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 
3 trombones, tuba, timpani, strings. 

T ooking back over the eighty years which have passed since Brahms' 
•*— ' Second Symphony was performed for the first time, one finds good 
support for the proposition that music found disturbingly "modern" 
today can become universally popular tomorrow. This symphony, 
surely the most consistently melodious, the most thoroughly engaging 
of the four, was once rejected by its hearers as a disagreeable concoc- 
tion of the intellect, by all means to be avoided. 

In Leipzig, when the Second Symphony was introduced in 1880, even 
Dorffel, the most pro-Brahms of the critics there, put it down as "not 
distinguished by inventive power"! It was a time of considerable anti- 
Brahms agitation in Central Europe, not unconnected with the Brahms- 
versus- Wagner feud. There were also repercussions in America. When 
in the first season of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (February 24, 
1882) Georg Henschel conducted the Second Symphony, the critics fell 
upon it to a man. They respected Mr. Henschel's authority in the 
matter because he was an intimate friend of Brahms. For Brahms they 
showed no respect at all. The Transcript called it "wearisome," 
"turgid"; the Traveler, "evil-sounding," "artificial," lacking "a sense of 
the beautiful," an "unmitigated bore." The Post called it "as cold- 
blooded a composition, so to speak, as was ever created." The critic of 
the Traveler made the only remark one can promptly agree with: "If 
Brahms really had anything to say in it, we have not the faintest idea 
what it is." This appalling blindness to beauty should not be held 



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[»4] 



Seventy-fifth Season 

BOSTON 

POP 




ARTHUR FIEDLER, Conductor 
Harry Ellis Dickson, Assistant Conductor 



Opening Night 
Tuesday, April 26 



The Pops will be given every night except 
on Mondays, through July 2. 

Tickets will be on sale at the Box Office 
two weeks in advance of each concert. 

(CO 6-1492) 

SYMPHONY HALL BOSTON 



[15] 



against Boston in particular, for although a good part of the audience 
made a bewildered departure after the second movement, the coura- 
geous believers in Mr. Henschel's good intentions remained to the end, 
and from these there was soon to develop a devout and determined type 
known as the "Boston Brahmin." New York was no more enlightened, 
to judge by this astonishing suggestion in the Post of that city (in 
November, 1887): "The greater part of the Symphony was antiquated 
before it was written. Why not play instead Rubinstein's Dramatic 
Symphony, which is shamefully neglected here and any one movement 
of which contains more evidence of genius than all of Brahms' sym- 
phonies put together?" 

Many years had to pass before people would exactly reverse their 
opinion and look upon Brahms' Second for what it is — bright-hued 
throughout, every theme singing smoothly and easily, every develop- 
ment both deftly integrated and effortless, a masterpiece of delicate 
tonal poetry in beautiful articulation. To these qualities the world at 
large long remained strangely impervious, and another legend grew up: 
Brahms' music was "obscure," "intellectual," to be apprehended only 
by the chosen few. 

What the early revilers of Brahms failed to understand was that the 
"obscurity" they so often attributed to him really lay in their own non- 
comprehending selves. Their jaws would have dropped could they 
have known that these "obscure" symphonies would one day become 
(next to Beethoven's) the most generally beloved — the most enduringly 
popular of all. [copyrighted] 



The Trustees, Dr. Munch, and the members of the Orchestra 
express their sincere thanks to those of you who have 
already joined the FRIENDS for this season. 

It is our earnest hope that those who have not as yet joined 
the FRIENDS for this season will do so now. 

Your membership will mean much towards the support of 
the Orchestra. 

Sincerely, 

Henry A. Laughlin 

Chairman, Friends of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 



[16] 



19604961 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

\s 

A Series of Six 

TUESDAY EVENING CONCERTS 

at 8:30 

October 18 December 20 March 14 

November 15 January 31 April 11 

\s 

Applications are now being accepted at the 
Subscription Office in Symphony Hall. 



THOMAS D. PERRY, JR., Manager 
Symphony Hall, Boston, Mass. 




At the request of the BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



160 BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON 



j&tfturin 



BALDWIN GRAND PIANOS • ACROSONIC VERTICAL PIANOS • HOWARD SPINET PIANOS • 
HAMILTON STUDIO PIANOS • BALDWIN ELECTRONIC ORGANS • ORGA-SONIC SPINET ORGANS • 



Miscellaneous Programs 





BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
HENRY LEE HIGGINSON 




SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 

MUNSON- WILLIAMS-PROCTOR INSTITUTE 
GREAT ARTISTS SERIES 

Roland E. Chesley, General Manager 

Monday Evening, October 19, 1959 at 8:40 
Stanley Theatre, Utica, N. Y. 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon P.otenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 

Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean deVergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 
E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Mover 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 

John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
CD. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 
Vice-Presiden t 
Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 

Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallo well Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 

Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burkat Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 

[1] 



wLvkck/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
on rca Victor records exclusively 



4 UVlNG STfRfO|S 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
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Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



I>] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE -SIXTY 



MONDAY EVENING, October 19, at 8:40 o'clock 



Program 

Mozart Symphony in D major, "Prague," No. 38 (K. 504) 

I. Adagio; Allegro 
II. Andante 
III. Finale: Presto 



Copland Party Scene and Finale from the Opera, 

"The Tender Land" 



INTERMISSION 

Beethoven *Symphony No. 5, in C minor, Op. 67 

I. Allegro con brio 
II. Andante con moto 

III. ^Allegro; Trio 

IV. I Allegro 



MUNSON-WILLIAMS-PROCTOR INSTITUTE 
GREAT ARTISTS SERIES 

Roland E. Chesley, General Manager 



BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[3] 



SYMPHONY IN D MAJOR (K. No. 504) 
By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 



This symphony had its first performance at Prague, January 19, 1787. 
It is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani and 
strings. The trumpets and drums are not used in the slow movement. 

The last symphony which Mozart composed before his famous final 
three of 1788 (the E-flat, G minor, and "Jupiter" symphonies) was 
the Symphony in D major, called the "Prague" Symphony, which had 
its first performance in that city early in 1787. Mozart may not have 
composed it especially for Prague, but when he went there from 
Vienna on a sudden invitation, the new score was ready in his port- 
folio for the first of two performances in the Bohemian capital. 

"Prague is indeed a very beautiful and agreeable place," wrote 
Mozart on his arrival there. And he had good cause to be gratified 
with the more than friendly reception which he found awaiting him. 
Figaro, produced there in the previous season, had been an immense 
success, and its tunes were sung and whistled on all sides. A bid was 
to come for another opera, and Don Giovanni was to be written and 
produced there within a year, and to cause another furore of enthu- 
siasm. The composer of Figaro, as might be expected, was applauded 
loud and long at the two concerts of his visit in 1787, and after the 
D major symphony at the first of them, he could not appease the 
audience until he had improvised upon the piano for half an hour. 
At length a voice shouted the word Figaro! and Mozart, interrupting 
the phrase he had begun to play, captured all hearts by improvising 
variations from the air "Non piii andrai." 

Writing on January 15 to his friend Gottfried von Jacquin, Mozart 
related how a round of entertainment mostly connected with music- 
making was awaiting him. On the evening of his arrival, he went with 
Count Canal to the "Breitfeld Ball, where the flower of the Prague 
beauties assemble. You ought to have been there, my dear friend; I 
think I see you running, or rather limping, after all those pretty 
creatures, married and single. I neither danced nor flirted with any 
of them — the former because I was too tired, and the latter from my 
natural bashfulness. I saw, however, with the greatest pleasure, all 
these people flying about with such delight to the music of my Figaro, 
transformed into quadrilles and waltzes; for here nothing is talked of 
but Figaro, nothing played but Figaro, nothing whistled or sung but 
Figaro, no opera so crowded as Figaro, nothing but Figaro — very 
flattering to me, certainly." 

Franz Niemetschek, a Bohemian who wrote a biography of Mozart 
in 1798, said of the concert of January 19: "The symphonies which 
he chose for this occasion are true masterpieces of instrumental com- 

[4] 



position, full of surprising transitions. They have a swift and fiery 
bearing, so that they at once tune the soul to the expectation of some- 
thing superior. This is especially true of the great symphony in D 
major, which is still a favorite of the Prague public, although it has 
been heard here nearly a hundred times." 

The Symphony in D major is noteworthy by the absence of a minuet 
(in his earlier symphonies, Mozart was often content with three move- 
ments). Still more unusual is the slow introduction to the first move- 
ment. Haydn, and Beethoven after him, were inclined to such intro- 
ductions, but Mozart usually preferred to begin at once with his lively 
first theme. The exceptions, which occurred in succession through 
Mozart's last years, were the "Linz" Symphony in C major (K. 425), 
the introduction to Michael Haydn's Symphony in G major (K. 444), 
the "Prague" Symphony, and the famous E-flat Symphony (K. 543) 
which followed. 

Remembering that this Symphony was composed between Figaro 
and Don Giovanni, commentators have noted a likeness in the chief 
theme of the allegro to the first theme of the Overture to Don Gio- 
vanni. Erich Blom goes even further in associating the Symphony 
with the opera that followed: "The portentous and extended slow 
introduction of the 'Prague' Symphony is charged with the graver 
aspects of Don Giovanni; the half-close leading to the allegro is 



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practically identical with that at a similar juncture in the great sextet 
of the opera, and an ominous figure in the finale almost makes one 
think of the stone guest appearing among a riot of mirth, though the 
grace and the laughter of Susanna are there too. The slow movement 
makes us dream of the idyllic summer-night stillness in Count Alma- 
viva's invitingly artificial garden. The wonder of the Symphony is, 
however, that in spite of the variety of the visions it may suggest 
to the hearer, it is a perfect whole. Every structural part and every 
thematic feature is exquisitely proportioned. No separate incident is 
allowed to engage attention independently of the scheme in which it 
is assigned its function, even where it is as incredibly beautiful as the 
second subject of the first movement, which is surreptitiously intro- 
duced by a passage that is apparently merely transitional, or as engag- 
ingly spritely as the second subject of the finale with its bubbling 
bassoon accompaniment." 

The symphonies through the Salzburg period are a record of growth 
from season to season within the cramping limitations of the occasions 
they were written for. The last six, through the Vienna decade, are a 
more striking record of growth, not because they are more widely 
spaced, but because they are quite free of limitations and restraints 
of performance. The "Linz" Symphony shows no sign of regard for 
limited abilities, and the "Prague" Symphony, although presumably 
addressed to a better orchestra, must have been found mercilessly 
exacting by the players in that city. This symphony, like the last 
three symphonies of two years later, seems to be an idealization by 
the composer who until then had never been able to break loose from 
the immediate contingencies of performances. He ranges freely, he 
indulges his fantasy, finds new musical images. He assigns to the 
players parts requiring an instant agility, an attack, ensemble, a 
refinement of phrasing which he must have known they did not 
possess. Nor did it apparently bother him that most of the fine points 
of the "Prague" Symphony would surely drift past the ears of its first 
audience. The "Prague" Symphony, technically speaking, is at last 
the full symphonic Mozart. The discourse throughout has a new 
degree of pliancy in chromaticism and modulation, in the combination 
of motives. The melodic line is continuous, never yielding to episodes 
or cadences, but rather generating them. Nor is it broken by the 
constant alternation of strings and winds within a phrase, for they 
are integrated as never before. The over-all color of orchestral sound, 
the variation of rhythmic stress, the overlapping of parts — these are 
all the craftsman's devices in presenting a pervasive melodic wea 
which only Mozart could conjure up. 

[copyrighted] 

[6] 



SUITE FROM "THE TENDER LAND" 
By Aaron Copland 

Born in Brooklyn, N.Y., November 14, 1900 



The opera The Tender Land was commissioned by Richard Rodgers and Oscar 
Hammerstein II on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the League of Composers, 
and composed between 1952 and 1954. The text is by Horace Everett. The opera 
had its first performance by the New York City Opera Company under the direction 
of Thomas Schippers at the New York City Center, April 1, 1954. It was performed 
by the opera department of the Berkshire Music Center at Tanglewood on August 
2 and 3, 1954 and (revised from a two- into a three-act opera) by the Oberlin Con- 
servatory on May 20 and 21, 1955. Two choruses from The Tender Land were 
performed at the benefit concert, "Tanglewood on Parade," on August 8, 1957, the 
composer conducting. Choral portions were presented at Brandeis University, again 
under the composer's direction, on June 8, 1957. 

The suite requires 3 flutes and piccolo, oboe and English horn, 2 clarinets and 
bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, harp, 
piano, and strings. 

(The orchestral suite was arranged for a larger orchestra than that used in the 
opera by the addition of piccolo, 2 horns, 2 trombones and tuba.) 

\ n interview by Howard Taubman in the New York Times (March 
-**• 28, 1954) anticipates the first performance with an explanation by 
the composer of how he came to write the opera. "I've been wanting 
to do an opera ever since The Second Hurricane, but couldn't get a 
libretto." Mr. Copland revealed that he had long since jotted down 
possible themes in a notebook even before he had found a likely 
libretto. At length he had come across a book, Let Us Now Praise 
Famous Men, by James Agee and Walker Evans. The book consisted 
of photographs taken in a rural area of Alabama. A picture of an old 
woman with a young one made a special impression upon Mr. Cop- 
land. "There was something so full of living and understanding in 
the face of the older woman," he said, "and something so open and 
eager in the face of the younger one, that I began to think that here 
was the basis of an idea." It was therefore at his suggestion and under 
his advice that Horace Everett worked out his libretto. 

The plot w r as related to the New York Herald Tribune by Mr. Cop- 
land in advance of the first performance. 

"The opera takes place in the mid '30s, in June, spring harvest time. 
It's about a farm family — a mother, a daughter who's just about to 
graduate from high school, a younger sister of ten, and a grandfather. 



&eoltan=^>kmner <0rgan Company 

Designers of the instruments for: 

THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA 

Joseph S. Whiteford, President and Tonal Director 



[7] 



There's big doings in the works — no-one in the family has ever 
graduated before, and a whopping party is planned for the occasion. 

"Then two drifters come along asking for odd jobs. The grand- 
father is reluctant to give them any, and the mother is alarmed because 
she's heard reports of two young men molesting the young girls of the 
neighborhood. Nevertheless, the fellows are told they can sleep in the 
shed for the night. 

"The graduation party itself begins at the opening of the second 
act. The heroine, who by a genuine coincidence has the same name 
— Laurie — as the gal in Rodgers 8c Hammerstein's Oklahoma!, has, 
naturally, fallen in love with one of the drifters. And they prove it 
by singing a twelve-minute love duet. That, I can tell you, is revolu- 
tionary. After all, love duets are a sort of rarity in modern opera, and 
twelve minutes is a long time. 

"But about their budding love affair there is something of a com- 
plication. You see, she associates him with freedom, with getting away 
from home, and he associates her with settling down. Martin (that's 
the hero's name) asks Laurie to run away with him, and she, of course, 
accepts. But in the middle of the night, after a long discussion with 
his fellow hobo, Top, he decides that his kind of roving life is not for 
Laurie, so he silently steals off. 

"When Laurie discovers that she's been jilted, she decides to leave 
home, anyway, and at the conclusion of the opera the mother sings a 
song — a song of acceptance that is the key to the opera. In it she looks 
to her younger daughter as the continuation of the family cycle that is 
the whole reason for their existence." 

The Party Scene is, as indicated, music from the Act II graduation 
party, especially the square dance material from that act. 

The Finale is an exact transcription for orchestra of the vocal 
quintet that concludes Act I of the opera. 

Horace Everett's text of the Quintet ("The Promise of Living") is 

as follows: 

The promise of living 
With hope and thanksgiving 
Is born of our loving 
Our friends and our labor. 

The promise of growing 
With faith and with knowing 
Is born of our sharing 
Our love with our neighbor 



The promise of living 
The promise of growing 
Ts hnrn of our sin airier 



Is born of our singing 
In joy and thanksgiving. 

(Copyright by Boosey and Hawkes) 
[copyrighted] 



[8] 



ENTR'ACTE 

"DOORS TO THE NEW MUSICAL WORLD" 

By Harold Rogers 

Reprinted from the 50th Anniversary Edition of 
The Christian Science Monitor, Boston, October 18, 1958 



What is the most troublesome problem facing music-lovers today? 
It is their inability, for the greater part, to understand the 
music of their own time. 

There are those, of course, who have no desire to understand. 
("How they can call it music is beyond me! What I like is something 
melodious, something harmonious — you know, something you can 
sing or whistle. But this modern stuff is just so much noise!") 

And there are others who find themselves frustrated in an honest 
desire to understand. ("I try to listen to it, but it escapes me. I wish 
I had the key to it, because 1 don't like the feeling of being left out. 
But I must admit that it doesn't make sense to me. Is there any hope?") 

Yes, there is hope for everyone who has a sincere desire to cross the 
threshold into the music of our time. As the mysteries of the spirit 
are opened to us by our knocking at the door, so are the lesser mysteries 
of music. The door will open to him who keeps knocking. 

Here's how it happened in my own experience. Ten years ago I 
heard the Schonberg quartets played by the Juilliard String Quartet 
at Tanglewood. I knew, of course, that Schonberg was one of the 
two greatest influences on the music of our century, the other being 
Stravinsky. I had more than a desire, I had a need to understand 
Schonberg. 

Yet during the first half of the concert I couldn't fight down a certain 
intellectual abhorrence of the music. I felt it sterile, cerebral, manu- 
factured by mathematical formulae — a negation of all the good and 
beautiful things that music had ever stood for. As for an emotional 
response I had none — neither negative nor positive. 

During the next two or three years I continued to listen to music of 
the Schonberg school, especially to the writings of Webern and Berg. 
Alban Berg's "Wozzeck," for instance, was the principal work that 
enabled me to step from the side of traditionalism over the threshold 
into the truly avant-garde, for in this work Berg combined Schonberg's 
theories with traditional forms. 

Then I received the recordings of the Schonberg quartets for review. 
Reluctantly I placed them on the phonograph, expecting to relive the 
experience I had with them at Tanglewood. 

[9] 



What I experienced, however, was something entirely different. 
I found the music speaking to me in strange, exotic ways. In short, 
it was speaking to me emotionally. At last the door had opened! 

What, in brief, did Schonberg and Stravinsky do for contemporary 
music? 

Schonberg began working in the post-Wagnerian school of chromatic 
harmony; and while still a young man he felt that our tonal harmonic 
system, that which had prevailed for centuries and which still prevails, 
had said all that it could be made to say. So he decided to leave the 
realms of tonality and to explore the realms of a tonality — or a system of 
music which broke completely with the established system of harmony. 

He devised what he called "a technique for composing with 12 
tones," a technique too complicated to explain in a short article. But 
his system has since attracted hundreds of young composers into his 
ranks. Some have used his technique in its strictest terms; others have 
modified it in their own various w T ays. Schonberg's explorations have 
thus resulted in the most difficult kind of music for uninitiated listeners 
to understand. 

Stravinsky, while still a young man, created "Le Sacre du Printemps," 
a work that will remain the most important musical milestone in the 
first half of the 20th century; for with its fearless methods of combining 
melodies, as well as its extraordinary polyrhythmic structure (superim- 
posing various rhythms one upon another), Stravinsky gave the signal 
to other composers that anything was possible. He at once became a 
leader who has since attracted more followers than has Schonberg. 



Here are several points to bear in mind while seeking an under- 
standing of contemporary music: 

1. The amount of dissonance is not what determines the worth or 
worthlessness of a piece of music. Dissonance has always been an 
integral part of our harmonic system; it is plentiful, for example, in 
the works of Bach, Beethoven, and Wagner. 

True, it is more abundant in contemporary music. Our ears have 
become educated to accept the amount of dissonance used by older 
composers; we must give our ears time and exercise to feel at home 
with the dissonance of todav. 

Remember, too, that dissonance is not necessarily discord. A discord 
may be thought of as a mistake, as when a child plays notes that have 
not been set down by the composer. Dissonance is the intentional use 
of conflicting tones for an emotional or dramatic effect.* 



* The composer of tonal music sees it as a comparatively simple equation : Dissonance is 
tension — motion — conflict; Consonance is relaxation — rest — resolution. Yet these terms are 
always relative — in their context. The unprepared dominant seventh chord, for instance, has 
completely lost the terrors it once held for the critics of Monteverdi's day, in the early L7th 
century — 4>ut functionally it is still a dissonance. — Ed. 

[lO] 




LENOX, MASSACHUSETTS 

TANGLEWOOD I960 

The 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



The Berkshire Festival 

Twenty-third Season 
CHARLES MUNCH, Conductor 



The Berkshire Music Center 

Eighteenth Season 
CHARLES MUNCH, Director 



To receive further announcements, write to 
Festival Office, Symphony Hall, Boston 



E»3 



The value of a piece of music is not to be determined by its school, 
its idiom, or its dissonance content. It is determined by the quality 
of its inspiration. The inspired composer will eventually be heard, 
regardless of the system he employs. 

2. We will find the road easier if we do not expect contemporary 
music to sound like the music we already know and appreciate. Music 
has been defined as "ordered sound," and sound may be ordered in 
many different ways. Oriental music is no less music because it is not 
ordered according to Western systems. In like manner, modern music 
is no less music because it is not ordered according to older traditions. 

3. Music is an emotional language. We cannot expect to respond 
to the poetry of a new musical language without first learning the 
language, any more than we can respond to poems written in Polish 
or Hungarian without first learning those languages. 

4. Willingness to listen several times to a difficult piece is very 
helpful. Repetition educates the ear to heretofore unaccustomed com- 
binations of tones. 

5. The desire to understand and the patience to keep listening — 
these qualities of thought will always make the way easier until the 
door swings wide on the new musical world. 



SYMPHONY NO. 5, IN C MINOR, Op. 67 

By Ludwig van Beethoven 

Born in Bonn, December i6(?), 1770; died in Vienna, March 26, 1827 



The Fifth Symphony was completed near the end of the year 1807, and first 
performed at the Theater an der Wien, Vienna, December 22, 1808, Beethoven 
conducting. The parts were published in April, 1809, and the score in March, 1826. 
The dedication is to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count Rasumovsky. 

The Symphony is scored for 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons 
and double-bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani and strings (the 
piccolo, trombones and double-bassoon, here making their first appearance in a 
symphony of Beethoven, are used only in the Finale). 

Qomething in the direct, impelling drive of the first movement of the 
^ C minor symphony commanded the general attention when it was 
new, challenged the skeptical, and soon forced its acceptance. Goethe 
heard it with grumbling disapproval, according to Mendelssohn, but 
was astonished and impressed in spite of himself. Lesueur, hidebound 
professor at the Conservatoire, was talked by Berlioz into breaking his 
vow never to listen to another note of Beethoven, and found his prej- 
udices and resistances quite swept away. A less plausible tale reports 

[12] 



Maria Malibran as having been thrown into convulsions by this sym- 
phony. The instances could be multiplied. There was no gainsaying 
that forthright, sweeping storminess. 

Even if the opening movement could have been denied, the tender 
melodic sentiment of the Andante was more than enough to offset 
conservative objections to "waywardness" in the development, and 
the lilting measures of the scherzo proper were more than enough to 
compensate the "rough" and puzzling Trio. The joyous, marchlike 
theme of the finale carried the symphony on its crest to popular 
success, silencing at length the objections of those meticulous musi- 
cians who found that movement "commonplace" and noisy. Certain 
of the purists, such as Louis Spohr, were outraged at hearing the 
disreputable tones of trombones and piccolo in a symphony. But 
Spohr could not resist Beethoven's uncanny touch in introducing a 
reminiscence of the scherzo before the final coda. Even Berlioz, who 
was usually with Beethoven heart and soul, felt called upon to make 
a half-apology for the elementary finale theme. It seemed to him that 
the repetitiousness of the finale inevitably lessened the interest. After 
the magnificent first entrance of the theme, the major tonality so 
miraculously prepared for in the long transitional passage, all that 
could follow seemed to him lessened by comparison, and he was forced 
to take refuge in the simile of a row of even columns, of which the 
nearest looms largest. 

It has required the weathering of time to show the Beethoven of 
the Fifth Symphony to be in no need of apologies, to be greater than 
his best champions suspected. Some of his most enthusiastic conduc- 
tors in the century past seem to have no more than dimly perceived 
its broader lines, misplaced its accents, under or over shot the mark 
when they attempted those passages which rely upon the understand- 
ing and dramatic response of the interpreter. Wagner castigated those 
who hurried over the impressive, held E-flat in the second bar, who 
sustained it no longer than the "usual duration of a forte bow stroke." 
Even many years later, Arthur Nikisch was taken to task for over- 
prolonging those particular holds. Felix Weingartner, as recently as 
1906, in his "On the Performance of the Symphonies of Beethoven," 
felt obliged to warn conductors against what would now be considered 
unbelievable liberties, such as adding horns in the opening measures 
of the symphony. He also told them to take the opening eighth notes 
in tempo, and showed how the flowing contours of the movement must 
not be obscured by false accentuation. 

Those — and there is no end of them — who have attempted to 
describe the first movement have looked upon the initial four-note 
figure with its segregating hold, and have assumed that Beethoven used 
this fragment, which is nothing more than a rhythm and an interval, 

[13] 



in place of a theme proper, relying upon the slender and little used 

"second theme" for such matters as melodic continuity. Weingartner 

and others after him have exposed this fallacy, and what might be 

called the enlightened interpretation of this movement probably began 

with the realization that Beethoven never devised a first movement 

more conspicuous for graceful symmetry and even, melodic flow. An 

isolated tile cannot explain a mosaic, and the smaller the tile unit, 

the more smooth and delicate of line will be the complete picture. 

Just so does Beethoven's briefer "motto" build upon itself to produce 

long and regular melodic periods. Even in its first bare statement, the 

"motto" belongs conceptually to an eight-measure period, broken for 

the moment as the second fermata is held through an additional bar. 

The movement is regular in its sections, conservative in its tonalities. 

The composer remained, for the most part, within formal boundaries. 

The orchestra was still the orchestra of Haydn, until, to swell the 

jubilant outburst of the finale, Beethoven resorted to his trombones. 

The innovation, then, was in the character of the musical thought. 

The artist worked in materials entirely familiar, but what he had to 

say was astonishingly different from anything that had been said before. 

As Sir George Grove has put it, he "introduced a new physiognomy 

into the world of music." No music, not even the "Eroica," had had 

nearly the drive and impact of this First Movement. 

The Andante con moto (in A-flat major) is the most irregular of 
the four movements. It is not so much a theme with variations as free 
thoughts upon segments of a theme with certain earmarks and recur- 
rences of the variation form hovering in the background. The first 
setting forth of the melody cries heresy by requiring 48 bars. The first 
strain begins regularly enough, but, instead of closing on the tonic 
A-flat, hangs suspended. The wood winds echo this last phrase and 
carry it to a cadence which is pointedly formal as the strings echo it 
at the nineteenth bar. Formal but not legitimate. A close at the eighth 
bar would have been regular, and this is not a movement of regular 
phrase lengths. Regularity is not established until the end of the 
movement when this phrase closes upon its eighth bar at last! The 
whole andante is one of the delayed cadences. The second strain of 
the melody pauses upon the dominant and proceeds with an outburst 
into C major, repeats in this key to pause at the same place and dream 
away at leisure into E-flat. The two sections of melody recur regularly 
with varying ornamental accompaniment in the strings, but again the 
questioning pauses bring in enchanting whispered vagaries, such as 
a fugato for flutes, oboes and clarinets, or a pianissimo dalliance by 
the violins upon a strand of accompaniment. The movement finds 
a sudden fortissimo close. 

The third movement (allegro, with outward appearance of a scherzo) 

[14] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



SCHEDULE OF CONCERTS 

Winter Season 1959-1960 



OCTOBER 



2-3 

6 

9-10 

'3 
16-17 

19 
20 

21 
22 

23 
24 
25 

3°-3 * 



Boston 

Boston 

Boston 

Providence 

Boston 

Utica 

Syracuse 

Rochester 

Toledo 

Detroit 

Ann Arbor 

Ann Arbor 

Boston 



(Fri.-Sat. I) 
(Tues. A) 
(Fri.-Sat. II) 

(I) 
(Fri.-Sat. Ill) 



(I) 

(II) 

(Fri.-Sat. IV) 



NOVEMBER 



J 3- 



3 

5 

6-7 

8 
10 

14 
16 

J 7 

18 

*9 
20 
21 

24 
27-28 



Cambridge 

Boston 

Boston 

Boston 

Boston 

Boston 

Northampton 

New Haven 

New York 

Englewood 

Brooklyn 

New York 

Providence 

Boston 



(I) 
(Rehearsal I) 

(Fri.-Sat. V) 

(Sun. a) 

(Tues. B) 

(Fri.-Sat. VI) 



(Wed. I) 

(I) 
(Sat. I) 

(II) 
(Fri.-Sat. VII) 



DECEMBER 

1 Cambridge 

4-5 Boston 

8 Boston 

10 Boston 

11-J2 Boston 

16 New York 

17 Washington 

1 8 Brooklyn 

19 New York 
22 Boston 

24. 26 Boston 

29 Providence 

JANUARY 

i-2 Boston 

5 Cambridge 

6 Boston 
8-9 Boston 

10 Boston 



(II) 

(Fri.-Sat. VIII) 

(Tues. C) 

(Rehearsal II) 

(Fri.-Sat. IX) 

(Wed. II) 

(I) 

(II) 

(Sat. II) 

(Tues. D) 

fThurs.-Sat.X) 

(III) 



(Fri.-Sat. XI) 

mi) 

(Rehearsal III) 
(Fri.-Sat. XII) 
(Sun. b) 



12 Boston 
15-16 Boston 

19 Newark 

20 New York 

2 1 Baltimore 

22 Brooklyn 

23 New York 
29-30 Boston 

31 Boston 

FEBRUARY 

2 Cambridge 
5-6 Boston 

9 Boston 

1 1 Boston 

12-13 Boston 

15 Storrs 

16 New London 

17 New York 

18 Washington 

19 Brooklyn 

20 New York 
23 Providence 
25 Boston 

26-27 Boston 

28 Boston 

MARCH 

1 Boston 

4-5 Boston 

8 Cambridge 

10 Boston 

11-12 Boston 

1 3 Boston 
15 Boston 

18-19 Boston 

2 1 Hartford 

22 New Haven 

23 New York 

24 Philadelphia 

25 Brooklyn 

26 New York 

APRIL 

1-2 Boston 

3 Boston 

5 Providence 

8-9 Boston 

1 2 Cambridge 

13 Boston 
14, 16 Boston 

19 Boston 

22-23 Boston 



(Tues. E) 
(Fri.-Sat. XIII) 

(Wed. Ill) 

(III) 

(Sat. Ill) 
(Fri.-Sat. XIV) 
(Sun. c) 



(IV) 

(Fri.-Sat. XV) 
(Tues. F) 
(Rehearsal IV) 
(Fri.-Sat. XVI) 



(Wed. IV) 

(II) 

(IV) 

(Sat. IV) 

(IV) 

(Rehearsal V) 

(Fri.-Sat. XVII) 

(Sun. d) 

(Tues. G) 
(Fri.-Sat. XVIII) 
(V) 

(Rehearsal VI) 
(Fri.-Sat. XIX) 
(Sun. e) 
(Tues. H) 
(Fri.-Sat. XX) 



(Wed. V) 

(V) 

(Sat. V) 



(Fri.-Sat. XXI) 

(Sun. f) 

(V) 

(Fri.-Sat. XXII) 

(VI) 

(Rehearsal VII) 

(Thurs.-Sat. XXIII) 

(Tues. I) 

(Fri.-Sat. XXIV) 

[15] 



begins pianissimo with a phrase the rhythm of which crystallizes into 
the principal element, in fortissimo. The movement restores the 
C minor of the first and some of its rhythmic drive. But here the 
power of impulsion is light and springy. In the first section of the 
Trio in C major (the only part of the movement which is literally 
repeated) the basses thunder a theme which is briefly developed, 
fugally and otherwise. The composer begins what sounds until its 
tenth bar like a da capo. But this is in no sense a return, as the hearer 
soon realizes. The movement has changed its character, lost its steely 
vigor and taken on a light, skimming, mysterious quality. It evens off 
into a pianissimo where the suspense of soft drum beats prepares a 
new disclosure, lightly establishing (although one does not realize this 
until the disclosure comes) the quadruple beat. The bridge of mystery 
leads, with a sudden tension, into the tremendous outburst of the 
Finale, chords proclaiming C major with all of the power an orchestra 
of 1807 could muster — which means that trombones, piccolo and 
contra-bassoon appeared for the first time in a symphony. The Finale 
follows the formal line of custom, with a second section in the 
dominant, the prescribed development section, and a fairly close 
recapitulation. But as completely as the first movement (which like- 
wise outwardly conforms), it gives a new function to a symphony — 
a new and different character to music itself. Traditional preconcep- 
tions are swept away in floods of sound, joyous and triumphant. At 
the end of the development the riotous chords cease and in the sudden 
silence the scherzo, in what is to be a bridge passage, is recalled. Again 
measures of wonderment fall into the sense of a coda as the oboe brings 
the theme to a gentle resolution. This interruption was a stroke of 
genius which none could deny, even the early malcontents who 
denounced the movement as vulgar and blatant — merely because they 
had settled back for a rondo and found something else instead. The 
Symphony which in all parts overrode disputation did so nowhere 
more unanswerably than in the final coda with its tumultuous C major. 

[copyrighted] 



.&=> 



[16] 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 



RCA Victor Records released since April 1956 

Bach Brandenburg Concertos (Complete) 

Barber Medea's Dance of Vengeance 

Adagio for Strings 

Beethoven Overtures: "Fidelio" (4) ; "Coriolan" 

Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" 
Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" 
Symphony No. 9 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Berlioz "L'Enfance du Christ" 

"Harold in Italy" (Primrose) 

Bloch "Schelomo" (Piatigorsky) 

Brahms Symphony No. 1 

Symphony No. 2; "Tragic" Overture 
Piano Concerto No. 1 (Graffman) 

Debussy "The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" 

"La Mer" 

"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" 
Three Images 

Dukas The Apprentice Sorceror 

Elgar Introduction and Allegro 

Franck Symphony No. 1 in D minor 

Ibert "Escales" (Ports of Call) 

d'Indy Symphony on a Mountain Air 

( Henriot- Schweitzer ) 

Khatchaturian Violin Concerto (Kogan-Monteux) 



Martinu 
Mendelssohn 

Mozart 

Piston 
Prokofieff 

Rachmaninoff 
Ravel 

Saint-Saens 

Schubert 
Tchaikovsky 



Wagner 



LM-2182, 
LM 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 

LM 

LM- 
LM 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 
LM- 
LM- 
LM- 

LM- 

LM- 

LM- 

LM- 
LM- 



Walton 



"Fantaisies Symphoniques" 

"Italian" and "Reformation" Symphonies 
Violin Concerto (Heifetz) 

Clarinet Concerto; Clarinet Quintet 
(Goodman, Boston Symphony String Quartet) LM 

Symphony No. 6 LM 

Romeo and Juliet, Excerpts LM 

Piano Concerto No. 2 (Henriot-Schweitzer) LM 

Violin Concerto No. 2 (Heifetz) LM 

Piano Concerto No. 3 (Janis) LM 

"Bolero," "La Valse," "Rapsodie Espagnole" LM 

"Mother Goose" Suite LM 

Havanaise (Kogan-Monteux) LM 

"Omphale's Spinning Wheel" LM 

Symphony in C major (Posthumous) LM 

"Francesca da Rimini"; "Romeo and Juliet" 

Overtures LM 

Symphony No. 4 LM 

Symphony No. 5 (Monteux) LM 

Serenade for Strings LM 

Excerpts, "Tannhauser," Tristan," 

"The Ring" (Eileen Farrell) LM 

Cello Concerto (Piatigorsky) LM 



2198 
2197 
2105 

2015 
2233 
1997 
6066 
1992 

6053 
2228 

2109 

2097 
1959 
2274 

2030 
2111 
1984 
2282 

2292 
2105 
2131 
2111 

2271 

1760 

2083 

2221 
■2314 

■2073 

■2083 

•2110 
•2197 
•2314 

•2237 

•1984 
2292 

■1760 
•2292 

2344 

2043 
1953 
2239 
2105 

2255 
2109 



She teaches science 

- at the piano 




In all the current concern over educa- 
tion, one great rock of strength has been 
overlooked. It is the contribution that 
America's 300,000 piano instructors 
have made to the total teaching strength 
and cultural advance of our nation. 

For millions of children, the first ex- 
posure to pure intellectual discipline has 
come through piano study. According 
to a New York Times article, children 
who enjoy music rate higher scholasti- 
cally, have a more active imagination 



CINCINNATI, OHIO 



and greater qualities of leadership. 

New teaching methods make piano 
study a source of fun as well as satisfac- 
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FAMOUS ARTISTS SERIES 

1959-1960 




The Boston Symphony Orchestra 

Charles Munch, Conductor 



LINCOLN AUDITORIUM 
TUESDAY, OCTOBER 20, 1959 



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(2) 



PROGRAM NOTES 

SUITE from "THE TENDER LAND" 
By Aaron Copland 

The opera "The Tender Land" was commissioned by Richard Rodgers and 
Oscar Hammerstein II on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the League of 
Composers, and composed between 1952 and 1954. The text is by Horace Everett. 
The opera had its first performance by the New York City Opera Company under 
the dircetion of Thomas Schippers at the New York City Center, April 1, 1954. 
It was performed by the opera department of the Berkshire Music Center at 
Tanglewood on August 2 and 3, 1954, and (revised from a two into a three-act 
opera) by the Oberlin Conservatory on May 20 and 21, 1955. Two choruses from 
"The Tender Land" were performed at the benefit concert, "Tanglewood on 
Parade," on August 8, 1957, the composer conducting. Choral portions were pre- 
sented at Brandeis University, again under the composer's direction, June 8, 1957. 

The suite requires 3 flutes and piccolo, oboe and English horn, 2 clarinets 
and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, 
harp, piano and strings. 



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PROGRAM NOTES 

"SCHELOMO" ("Solomon") 

Hebrew Rhapsody for 

Violoncello and Orchestra 

By Ernest Bloch 

Born at Geneva, Switzerland, 

July 24, 1880 

Ernest Bloch composed his 
"Schelomo" early in 1916 at his home 
in Geneva. The Rhapsody had its first 
performance at a concert of the So- 
ciety of Friends of Music in Carnegie 
Hall, New York, Hans Kindler soloist, 
May 13, 1917. The first performance 
by the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
was on April 13, 1923, Jean Bedetti, 
'cellist; the most recent, January 27, 
1939, Gregor Piatigorsky, 'cellist. 

The piece is scored for 3 flutes and 
piccolo, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clar- 
inets and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons 
and contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trum- 

( Continued on page 6) 




Tues., Nov. 10 BETTE DAVIS, GARY MERRILL 

"The World of Carl Sandburg" 
Thurs., Nov. 12 GLENN GOULD, Pianist 

Mon., Nov. 23 MARIA TALLCHIEF 

and ANDRE EGLEVSKY, and 
The ROCHESTER CIVIC ORCHESTRA 

Thurs., Dec. 17 RICHARD TUCKER, Tenor 

Sat., Feb .20 The TAMBURITZANS 

Tues., April 5 SEGOVIA, Guitarist 



Extra Events (Not on Series) 

Wed., March 16 VIENNA ON PARADE 

The New York 

CITY CENTER OPERA CO. 

performing 

"The Ballad of Baby Doe" 



Tues., March 22 




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If you have already ordered tickets, 

we will take care of your order when the tickets are printed. 

RESERVATIONS SHOULD BE MADE NOW! 



i 



PROGRAM NOTES 

(Continued from page 4) 

pets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, snare 
drum, bass drum, tambourin, cymbals, 
tam-tam, celesta, 2 harps and strings. 
The score was published in 1918. 

A vivid and sympathetic description 
of "Schelomo" was contributed by 
Guida M. Gatti to La Critica Musicale. 
Written as long ago as 1920, it has 
never been superseded, and is here 
quoted in the translation of Theodore 
Baker: 

"The Hebrew rhapsody for solo 
violoncello with orchestra bears the 
name of the great king Schelomo 
(Solomon). In this, without taking 
thought for development and formal 
consistency, without the fetters of a 
text requiring interpretation, he has 
given free course to his fancy; the 
multiplex figure of the founder of the 
Great Temple lent itself, after setting 
it upon a lofty throne, and chiseling 
its lineaments, to the creation of a 

(Continued on page 14) 



The Colossal Canadian ! 

GLENN GOULD 

pianist 

Thursday, November 12th 




Tickets, $3.60, $3.00, $2.40, $1.80 
Famous Artists, GR 1-0462 



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Rochester 
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conducted by 
Paul White 

Mon., Nov. 23 

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FAMOUS ARTISTS SERIES 

Murray Bernthal, producer 

presents 
the 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgix, Associate Conductor 



PROGRAM 

I. The Tender Land Copland 

Orchestral suite from the opera 

Party Scene and Finale 
Program continued on page 11 



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PROGRAM CONTINUED 



II. SCHF.LOMO Block 

Hebrew rhapsody for 'cello and orchestra 

Soloist, Samuel Mayes 

Samuel Mayes joined this orchestra in 1948 as principal 'cellist. He has 
appeared as solo 'cellist in Strauss' Don Quixote, the Brahms Double Con- 
certo, Kabalevsky's Concerto and others. 

Program continued on page 13 





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PROGRAM CONTINUED 

III. Symphony No. 2, D Major Brahms 

Allegro non troppo 

Adagio non troppo 

Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino 

Allegro con spirito 






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Adapted & Directed by 
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Based on the works of 
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Tickets, $4., $3.60, $3., $2.40 
Lincoln Aud., Tues., Nov. 10 



• 



PROGRAM NOTES 

(Continued from page 6) 

phantasmagorical entourage of per- 
sons and scenes in rapid and kaleido- 
scopic succession. The violoncello, with 
its ample breadth of phrasing, now 
melodic and with moments of superb 
lyricism, now declamatory and with 
robustly dramatic lights and shades, 
lends itself to a reincarnation of Solo- 
mon in all his glory, surrounded by 
his thousand wives and concubines, 
with his multitude of slaves and war- 
riors behind him. His voice resounds 
in the devotional silence, and the sen- 
tences of his wisdom sink into the 
heart as the seed into a fertile soil: 
'Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, 
all is vanity. What profit hath a man 
of all his labor which he taketh under 
the sun ? One generation passeth 
away, and another generation cometh: 
but the earth abideth for ever . . . 
He that increaseth knowledge increas- 
eth sorrow'." 

Ernest Bloch died in Portland, Ore., 
July 15, 1959. 



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PROGRAM NOTES 

SYMPHONY No. 2, in D MAJOR, Op. 73 

By Johannes Brahms 

Born in Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died in Vienna, April 3, 1897 



The Second Symphony was composed in 1877, and first performed in Vienna 
on December 30 of the same year. A performance followed at Leipzig on January 
10, 1878, Brahms conducting. Joachim conducted it at the Rhine Festival in 
Dusseldorf, and the composer led the symphony in his native Hamburg, in the 
same year. France first heard it at a popular concert in Paris, November 21, 1880. 
The first American performance was given by Theodore Thomas in New York, 
October 3, 1878. The Harvard Musical Association introduced it to Boston on 
January 9, 1879. It was then that John S. Dwight committed himself to the much 
quoted opinion that "Sterndale Bennett could have written a better symphony." 
Georg Henschel included this symphony in the orchestra's first season (Feb., 1882). 

The most recent performances were on April 18-19, 1958, when Richard 
Burgin conducted. 

Program Notes by John N. Burk 



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Seventy-Ninth Season, 12j?~60 
EASTMAN THEATRE ROCHESTER 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Charles Munch, Music Director 

Wednesday Evening, October 21, at 8:15 

Program 

BACH ^Brandenburg Concerto No . 6 , 

in B flat major, for Strings 

I. Allegro 
II. Adagio ma non tanto 
III. Allegro 

COPLAND Party Scene and Finale from the 

Opera, "The Tender Land 11 

INTERMISSION 

BRAHMS .... ^Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo 
II. Adagio non troppo 
III. Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino 
IV. Allegro con spirito 



Baldwin Piano *RCA Victor Records 



THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART 

FOUNDED BY EDWARD DRUMMOND LIBBEY 



BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

CHARLES MUNCH, CONDUCTING 



OCTOBER 22, 1959, 8:30 P.M. 



PROGRAM 



SYMPHONY NO. 38 IN D MAJOR (K. 504) Mozart 

(1756-1791) 

Adagio; Allegro 
Andante 
Finale: Presto 

Mozart completed this work in December, 1786 in Vienna, and it 
was given its first performance in the Bohemian capital of Prague 
during the composer's visit to that city in January of 1787. The 
work has since been known as the Prague Symphony. Concert 
patrons in that city had been enraptured by performances of 
Mozart's opera The Marriage of Figaro in the preceding season 
and welcomed this new symphony with wild enthusiasm such as 
Mozart had not experienced in Vienna. 

The Adagio introduction, though commonly found in Haydn's 
symphonies, is a rarity in Mozart. This one is grave, ominous, 
somewhat dissonant. The Andante movement, in Sonata-form, 
presents the opposition and interplay of two lovely themes vexed 
with harmonic and rhythmic portent. The Finale, a Sonata-Rondo, 
has an elevation and sure-footed artfulness, delightful, piquant and 
sophisticated, reminiscent of the Figaro which preceded it. 



PARTY SCENE AND FINALE 

from the Opera, The Tender Land Copland 

(1900- ) 

The Opera The Tender Land was commissioned by Richard 
Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II on the occasion of the 30th 
anniversary of the League of Composers, and composed between 
1952 and 1954. The text is by Horace Everett. The opera was first 
performed at the New York City Center, in 1954, under the baton 
of Thomas Schippers. 

In the opera, Laurie, the lovely young daughter in a farm family, 
is about to graduate from high school, and since she is the first 
member of her family ever to graduate, a whopping party is 
planned for the occasion. To complicate affairs, Laurie falls in love 
with a young drifter who has stopped at the farm to do odd jobs 
for awhile. To her, this young man represents the freedom for 
which she longs. To him, a settled life has little appeal. He finally 
decides to leave without her. Laurie, however, determines to leave 
home anyway, and the mother sings a song of acceptance that is 



the key to the meaning of the opera. In this song, she looks to her 
youngest daughter, who remains at home, as the continuation of 
the family cycle that is the whole reason for her existence. 

The orchestral suite was arranged for a larger orchestra than that 
used in the opera by the addition of piccolo, 2 horns, 2 trombones 
and tuba. 

The Party Scene is music from the Act II graduation party, espe- 
cially the square dance material. 

The Finale is an exact transcription for orchestra of the vocal quin- 
tet that concludes Act I of the opera. The quintet is titled The 
Promise of Living. 



INTERMIS SION 



SYMPHONY NO. 5 IN C MINOR, OP. 67 Beethoven 

(1770-1827) 

Allegro con brio 
Andante con moto 
Allegro; Trio 
Allegro 

This symphony was first performed in 1808 at the Theater an der 
Wien, Vienna. Probably no other work of music has been sub- 
jected to so much romantic fantasy at the hands of the pretender- 
scholars as has this tightly constructed work, although no real 
evidence has ever been uncovered to indicate a connection between 
this music and any programmatic content. 

The initial four-note motive of the first movement gives rise to the 
succeeding three themes and leads to one of the most concentrated 
works in the literature of music. 

The Andante is a set of variations, suave and lyric for the most 
part, though rising to a high climax on occasion. 

The third movement, really a scherzo has a disconcerting quality 
and an air of foreboding. In a remarkable transition passage which 
leads from this movement into the finale, the foreboding air is 
gradually dissolved into the mood of triumph suggested by the 
finale. 

The final movement has a force and majesty which result from the 
joyful, clearcut themes, the forthright harmonic schemes and power- 
ful rhythmic drive. 



CHAMBER MUSIC IN THE GREAT GALLERY 



Evenings of superb chamber music performed amid magnificent paint- 
ings, recreating the informal and intimate manner of old world musi- 
cales. Meet your friends over coffee at intermission. 

Series subscriptions are still available at a cost less than that of a single 
admission to the three remaining concerts of the series: 



CAMERA CONCERTI November 13 

NETHERLANDS STRING QUARTET January 15 

TRIO DI BOLZANO March 2 

Adult Subscriptions: $8.00. Student Subscriptions: $4.00. 
Make checks payable to the TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART. 



COMING GALLERY EXHIBITIONS 

ONE HUNDRED GREAT DRAWINGS: 

One Hundred great 17th century Dutch and Flemish drawings 
will be on view from November 15 through December 20. These 
drawings from the private collection of Sir Bruce Ingram, London, 
England, present a comprehensive survey of the greatest period 
of artistic achievement in the Low Countries. The studies are 
mainly from everyday life. This outstanding exhibition includes 
drawings by Brueghel, van Dyck, Rembrandt, the Ruisdaels, Aver- 
camp and a large number of works by the "Little Masters". 



Seventy-Ninth Season, 1959-60 
MASONIC AUDITORIUM DETROI1 

Boston Symphony Orchestra 
Charles Munch, Music Director 

Friday Evening, October 23, at 8:20 

Program 

MOZART Symphony No. 38, in D major, 

"Prague," K. 504 

I. Adagio; Allegro 
II. Andante 
III. Finale: Presto 

COPLAND Party Scene and Finale from the 

Opera, "The Tender Land" 

INTERMISSION 

BRAHMS ... . ^Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo 
II. Adagio non troppo 
III. Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino 
IV. Allegro con spirito 



Baldwin Piano *RCA Victor Records 



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SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 



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FOUNDED IN 1881 BY 
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SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON 

1959-1960 

Hill Auditorium [University of Michigan], Ann Arbor 

EIGHTY-FIRST ANNUAL CHORAL UNION CONCERT SERIES, OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 

AUSPICES UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

(Seventy-ninth Season, 1959-1960) 
CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 

RICHARD BURGIN, Associate Conductor 
PERSONNEL 



Violins 

Richard Burgin 

Concert-master 
Alfred Krips 
George Zazofsky 
Rolland Tapley 
Joseph Silverstein 
Vladimir Resnikoff 
Harry Dickson 
Gottfried Wilfinger 
Einar Hansen 
Joseph Leibovici 
Emil Kornsand 
Roger Shermont 
Minot Beale 
Herman Silberman 
Stanley Benson 
Leo Panasevich 
Sheldon Rotenberg 
Fredy Ostrovsky 
Noah Bielski 

Clarence Knudson 
Pierre Mayer 
Manuel Zung 
Samuel Diamond 
William Marshall 
Leonard Moss 
William Waterhouse 
Alfred Schneider 
Victor Manusevitch 
Laszlo Nagy 
Ayrton Pinto 
Michel Sasson 
Lloyd Stonestreet 
Saverio Messina 
Melvin Bryant 

Violas 

Joseph de Pasquale 
Jean Cauhape 
Eugen Lehner 
Albert Bernard 
George Humphrey 
Jerome Lipson 
Robert Karol 
Reuben Green 
Bernard Kadinoff 
Vincent Mauricci 
John Fiasca 
Earl Hedberg 



Cellos 

Samuel Mayes 
Alfred Zighera 

Jacobus Langendoen 
Mischa Nieland 

Karl Zeise 
Martin Hoherman 
Bernard Parronchi 
Richard Kapuscinski 

Robert Ripley 
Winifred Winograd 
Louis Berger 
John Sant Ambrogio 

Basses 

Georges Moleux 
Henry Freeman 

Irving Frankel 
Henry Portnoi 

Henri Girard 
John Barwicki 

Leslie Martin 
Ortiz Walton 

Flutes 

Doriot Anthony Dwyer 

James Pappoutsakis 
Phillip Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George Madsen 

Oboes 

Ralph Gomberg 

Jean deVergie 
John Holmes 

English Horn 
Louis Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino Cioffi 
Manuel Valerio 

Pasquale Cardillo 

E\) Clarinet 

Bass Clarinet 
Rosario Mazzeo 



Bassoons 
Sherman Walt 
Ernst Panenka 
Theodore Brewster 

Contra Bassoon 
Richard Plaster 

Horns 

James Stagliano 
Charles Yancich 

Harry Shapiro 
Harold Meek 
Paul Keaney 
Osbourne McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger Voisin 
Armando Ghitalla 
Andre Come 
Gerard Goguen 

Trombones 
William Gibson 
William Moyer 
Kauko Kahila 
Josef Orosz 

Tuba 
K. Vinal Smith 

Timpani 

Everett Firth 
Harold Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles Smith 
Harold Thompson 
Arthur Press 

Harps 

Bernard Zighera 
Olivia Luetcke 

Piano 
Bernard Zighera 

Library 

Victor Alpert 
William Shisler 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON, 1959-1960 



Boston Symphony Orchestra 

CHARLES MUNCH, Music Director 
Richard Burgin, Associate Conductor 



CONCERT BULLETIN 

with historical and descriptive notes by 
John N. Burk 



The TRUSTEES of the 
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc. 



Henry B. Cabot 
Jacob J. Kaplan 
Richard C. Paine 

Talcott M. Banks 
Theodore P. Ferris 
Francis W. Hatch 
Harold D. Hodgkinson 
C. D. Jackson 
E. Morton Jennings, Jr. 



President 

Vice-President 

Treasurer 

Henry A. Laughlin 
John T. Noonan 
Palfrey Perkins 
Charles H. Stockton 
Raymond S. Wilkins 
Oliver Wolcott 



TRUSTEES EMERITUS 
Philip R. Allen M. A. DeWolfe Howe 

N. Penrose Hallowell Lewis Perry 

Edward A. Taft 



Thomas D. Perry, Jr., Manager 
Norman S. Shirk James J. Brosnahan 

Assistant Manager Business Administrator 

Leonard Burk at Rosario Mazzeo 

Music Administrator Personnel Manager 



SYMPHONY HALL 



BOSTON 15 
[1] 



iMwkck/ 



his dedication and 
interpretive powers are movingly 
revealed in finest living stereo 
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4 UVING . STfRfO \C 



THE NINTH SYMPHONY 
OF BEETHOVEN 




Other recent albums by Charles Munch and the Boston Symphony in Living Stereo 
and regular L.P.: Berlioz: Harold in Italy; Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 ("Eroica") 



[*] 



SEVENTY-NINTH SEASON • NINETEEN HUNDRED FIFTY-NINE - SIXTY 



First Program 



SATURDAY EVENING, October 24, at 8:30 o'clock 



Bach *Brandenburg Concerto No. 6, in B-flat major, for Strings 

I. Allegro 

II. Adagio ma non tanto 
III. Allegro 



Bloch *"Schelomo" (Solomon), Hebrew Rhapsody for 

Cello and Orchestra 



INTERMISSION 

Brahms *Symphony No. 2, in D major, Op. 73 

I. Allegro non troppo 
II. Adagio non troppo 

III. Allegretto grazioso, quasi andantino 

IV. Allegro con spirito 



SOLOIST 

SAMUEL MAYES 



BALDWIN PIANO *RCA VICTOR RECORDS 



[31 



BRANDENBURG CONCERTO IN B-FLAT MAJOR, NO. 6 

FOR 2 VlOLE DA BRACCIA, 2 VlOLE DA GAMBA, CELLO, 
VlOLONE AND CEMBALO 

By Johann Sebastian Bach 
Born in Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died in Leipzig, July 28, 1750 



Bach wrote the last of his set of Brandenburg Concertos in six individual parts, 
and it has been accordingly performed by six string players (2 violas and 2 cellos 
concertanti, additional cello with bass, and continuo). In the present performances 
the parts are given to a string orchestra. 

npo the brilliance of the Third Brandenburg Concerto, where the 
■*■ incisive tone of the violins predominates, Bach has opposed in his 
other string concerto, the Sixth, only the lower and darker register of 
the string instruments, the characteristic color of the violas prevailing 
in a close and constant duet. The lively course of the first allegro is 
relieved by a broadly melodic adagio in E-flat. Here the two viola parts 
are emphasized, for the gambas (cellos) in this movement are silent. 
The single cello part provides a sustaining legato, blending with the 
usual bass accompaniment until it takes up the principal melody near 
the end. The last movement, in 12-8 time, restores the original key and 
vigorous interplay of voices. The Concerto, according to the observa- 
tion of Sir Hubert Parry, "is a kind of mysterious counterpart to the 
Third Concerto; as the singular grouping of two violas, two viole 
da gamba and a cello and bass, prefigures. The colour is weird and 
picturesque throughout, and the subject matter such as befits the 
unusual group of instruments employed." 

The "viola da braccia" which Bach specified was, as Charles Sanford 
Terry has pointed out in his invaluable book, Bach's Orchestra, nothing 
more than the ordinary viola of his time. The name survived to dis- 
tinguish the "arm viol" from the "leg viol," the "viola da gamba."* 
The "viola da gamba," the last survivor of the family of viols, was an 
obsolescent instrument in Bach's day, although good players upon it 
were still to be found. 

In May of the year 1718, Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen, travelling 
to Carlsbad to take the waters, was attended by some of his musical 
retinue — five musicians and a clavicembalo, under the surveillance of 
his Kapellmeister, Bach. He may have encountered there, in friendly 
rivalry, another musical prince, Christian Ludwig, Margraf of Brand- 
enburg, youngest son of the Great Elector by a second wife. This 



* The gamba was for centuries a gentleman's instrument. It will be remembered that Sir Toby 
Belch said of Sir Andrew Aguecheek in "Twelfth Night" : "He plays o' the viol-de-gamboy, 
and speaks three or four languages word for word without book." 

[4] 



dignitary, a young bachelor passionately devoted to music, boasted his 
own orchestra, and was extravagantly addicted to collecting a library 
of concertos. Charmed with Bach's talent, he immediately commis- 
sioned him to write a brace of concertos. Bach did so — at his leisure; 
and in three years' time sent him the six concertos which have perpetu- 
ated this prince's name. The letter of dedication, dated March (or May) 
24, 1721, was roundly phrased in courtly French periods, addressed 
"A son altesse royale, Monseigneur Cretien Louis Marggraf de Brand- 
enbourg," and signed with appropriate humility and obedient servi- 
tude: "J ean Sebastian Bach" (all proving either that Bach was an 
impeccable French scholar, or that he had one conveniently at hand). 
The Margraf does not seem to have troubled to have had them per- 
formed (the manuscript at least shows no marks of usage); cataloguing 
his library he did not bother to specify the name of Bach beside Bres- 
cianello, Vivaldi, Venturini, or Valentiri, and after his death they were 
knocked down in a job lot of a hundred concertos, or another of seventy- 
seven concertos, at about four groschen apiece.* 

There are those in later times who are angered at reading of the 
lordly casualness of the high-born toward composers. One might point 

* The manuscripts came into the possession of J. P. Kirnberger, and subsequently his pupil, 
the Princess Amalie, sister of Frederick the Great. They ultimately came, with this lady's 
library, to the Royal Library in Berlin. 



The New England Conservatory 

A COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

James Aliferis, President 



BACHELOR AND MASTER OF MUSIC 

In All Fields 

ARTIST'S DIPLOMA 

In Applied Music 



Performing Organizations 

SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA • CHAMBER ORCHESTRA 

SYMPHONIC WIND ENSEMBLE • OPERA 

ORATORIO CHORUS • A CAPPELLA CHOIR 

CHAMBER SINGERS 



Member, New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 

Charter Member, National Association of Schools of Music 

For information regarding admission and scholarships, write to the Dean. 

290 HUNTINGTON AVENUE BOSTON 15, MASSACHUSETTS 



[5] 



out that Bach in this case very likely took his prince's airs as in the 
order of things, that his service brought an assured subsistence and 
artistic freedom which was not unuseful to him. In this case, Bach 
composed as he wished, presumably collected his fee, and was careful 
to keep his own copy of the scores, for performance at Cothen. He was 
hardly the loser by the transaction, and he gave value received in a 
treasure which posterity agrees in calling the most striking development 
of the concerto grosso form until that time. The discerning Albert 
Schweitzer calls them "the purest products of Bach's polyphonic style. 
Neither on the organ nor on the clavier could he have worked out the 
architecture of a movement with such vitality; the orchestra alone 
permits him absolute freedom in the leading and grouping of the 
obbligato voices. . . . One has only to go through these scores, in which 
Bach has marked all the nuances with the utmost care, to realize that 
the plastic pursuit of the musical idea is not in the least formal, but 
alive from beginning to end. Bach takes up the ground-idea of the old 
concerto, which develops the work out of the alternation of a larger 
body of tone — the tutti — and a smaller one — the concertino. Only 
with him the formal principle becomes a living one. It is not now a 
question merely of the alternation of the tutti and the concertino; the 
various tone-groups interpenetrate and react on each other, separate 
from each other, unite again, and all with an incomprehensible artistic 
inevitability. The concerto is really the evolution and the vicissitudes 
of the theme. We really seem to see before us what the philosophy of 
all ages conceives as the fundamental mystery of things — that self- 
unfolding of the idea in which it creates its own opposite in order to 
overcome it, creates another, which again it overcomes, and so on and 
on until it finally returns to itself, having meanwhile traversed the whole 
of existence. We have the same impression of incomprehensible neces- 
sity and mysterious contentment when we pursue the theme of one of 
these concertos, from its entry in the tutti through its enigmatic struggle 
with its opposite, to the moment when it enters into possession of itself 
again in the final tutti." 

[copyrighted] 



s^> 



[6] 



"SCHELOMO" ("SOLOMON ), Hebrew Rhapsody for 

Violoncello and Orchestra 

By Ernest Bloch 

Born in Geneva, Switzerland, July 24, 1880; died in Portland, Oregon, July 15, 1959 



Ernest Bloch composed his "Schelomo" early in 1916 at his home in Geneva. The 
Rhapsody had its first performance at a concert of the Society of the Friends of 
Music in Carnegie Hall, New York, Hans Kindler soloist, May 13, 1917. The first 
performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra was on April 13, 1923, Jean Bedetti, 
cellist. 

The piece is scored for 3 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets and 
bass clarinet, 2 bassoons and contra-bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, 
timpani, snare drum, bass drum, tambourin, cymbals, tam-tam, celesta, 2 harps and 
strings. The score was published in 1918. 

A vivid and sympathetic description of "Schelomo" was contributed 
**' by Guido M. Gatti to La Critica Musicale. Written as long ago 
as 1920, it has never been superseded, and is here quoted in the trans- 
lation of Theodore Baker: 

"The Hebrew rhapsody for solo violoncello with orchestra bears the 
name of the great king Schelomo (Solomon). In this, without taking 
thought for development and formal consistency, without the fetters 
of a text requiring interpretation, he has given free course to his fancy; 
the multiplex figure of the founder of the Great Temple lent itself, 
after setting it upon a lofty throne, and chiseling its lineaments, to the 
creation of a phantasmagorical entourage of persons and scenes in rapid 
and kaleidoscopic succession. The violoncello, with its ample breadth 
of phrasing, now melodic and with moments of superb lyricism, now 
declamatory and with robustly dramatic lights and shades, lends itself 
to a reincarnation of Solomon in all his glory, surrounded by his 
thousand wives and concubines, with his multitude of slaves and 
warriors behind him. His voice resounds in the devotional silence, and 
the sentences of his wisdom sink into the heart as the seed into a fertile 
soil: 'Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, all is vanity. What profit 
hath a man of all his labor which he taketh under the sun? One gen- 
eration passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth 
abideth for ever. . . . He that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.' 
At times the sonorous voice of the violoncello is heard predominant 
amid a breathless and fateful obscurity throbbing with persistent 
rhythms; again, it blends in a phantasmagorical paroxysm of poly- 
chromatic tones shot through with silvery clangors and frenzies of 
exultation. And anon one finds oneself in the heart of a dream-world, 
in an Orient of fancy, where men and women of every race and tongue 
are holding arguments or hurling maledictions; and now and again we 
hear the mournful accents of the prophetic seer, under the influence 
of which all bow down and listen reverently. The entire discourse of 
the soloist, vocal rather than instrumental, seems like musical expres- 
sion intimately conjoined with the Talmudic prose. The pauses, the 

[7] 



repetitions of entire passages, the leaps of a double octave, the chro- 
matic progressions, all find their analogues in the Book of Ecclesiastes 
— in the versicles, in the fairly epigraphic reiteration of the admoni- 
tions ('and all is vanity and vexation of spirit'), in the unexpected shifts 
from one thought to another, in certain crescendi of emotion that end 
in explosions ol anger or grief uncontrolled." 

• • 

The music of Ernest Bloch was first heard at the concerts of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra when the composer conducted his "Three 
Jewish Poems" March 23 and 24, 1917. Two of the Three Psalms which 
he set tor soprano and orchestra were sung by Mme. Povla Frijsh, 
November 14, 1919. His orchestral poems, Winter, Spring were per- 
formed April 29, 1921; his Suite for Viola and Orchestra, December 11, 
1925 and November 10, 1944; his Concerto Grosso No. 1 for String 
Orchestra, December 24, 1925; Four Episodes for Chamber Orchestra, 
December 29, 1927; and America, December 21, 1928. America was 
repeated in the following year; the Three Jewish Poems has had per- 
formances in 1926, 1927 and 1936. On March 17-18, 1939, the composer 
conducted his Macbeth interludes, Three Jewish Poems, and America. 
His Violin Concerto was performed January 5, 1940; Baal Shem, Febru- 
ary 2, 1951; Concerto Symphonique, November 28, 1952; Concerto 
Grosso No. 2, October 9, 1953. 

"Schelomo" belongs to a period in Bloch's artistic career which was 
devoted to Hebrew subjects. In addition to the Psalms and the "Three 
Jewish Poems," there was the Symphony "Israel" of 1918. Subsequently 
the composer turned to subjects less objectively racial in character, but 
usually either quite abstract in form or pictorial in suggestion. The 
rhapsody America, with choral finale, expressed Bloch's conscious 
identity with this country through long residence and sympathy. In 
recent years the composer turned once more to the treasure of the 
Hebraic musical tradition for his subjects. 

[copyrighted] 

SAMUEL MAYES 

Samuel Mayes joined this Orchestra as Principal Cello in 1948 and 
played in Boccherini's Concerto in B-flat in that season. He has 
since appeared in Strauss' Don Quixote (1950), Kabalevsky's Concerto 
(1953), and with Zino Francescatti in Brahms' Double Concerto (1956). 
Born in St. Louis, Mr. Mayes is the grandson of a Cherokee Indian. 
At the age of four, he studied cello with Max Steindel of the St. Louis 
Orchestra and appeared as soloist with that Orchestra at the age of 
eight. Entering the Curtis Institute at twelve, he studied with Felix 
Salmond. At eighteen, he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra and 
shared its first desk three years later. 

[8] 



ENTR'ACTE 

WORDS ABOUT MUSIC 



"What any music / like expresses for me Is not thoughts too indefinite 
to clothe in words, but too definite. If you asked me what I thought on 
the occasion in question, I answer — the song itself precisely as it stands." 

— Felix Mendelssohn 

After being lifted by the current of a first-rate piece of music, one 
can be quite at a loss when asked "What was it like?" If it resem- 
bles certain other, more familiar works, it is to that extent unoriginal; 
to describe it in technical terms is to give no more than the bare bones 
of notation. The actual life in the piece, that quality which sets it 
apart from any other, simply eludes verbal description. The point of 
course is that music is the language of sensuous tones with no other 
than sensuous appeal, a language quite self-sufficient and impervious 
to any verbal encroachment. Mendelssohn was more clear-sighted than 
some other composers in realizing that his art, the most precise of all 
in its own terms, is the most elusive in any other terms. This plain 
truth about music has not in the least deterred a host of writers and 
expounders. 

If music is a language, it is a language contrived quite within its 
own domain, and apart from all other human experience. It has had 
two natural origins only — the human pulse and the human voice. 
It is pulse refined into exact rhythm and varied from that point; voice 
focused into a pitch and given a scale. From these two rudimentary 
properties of our physiology artists have built the whole complex of 
music, further elaborating the vocal line by transferring it to instru- 
ments to give it more variety in range, color, intensity, tempo. Physi- 
cally speaking, then, music is nothing else than a succession of sensuous 
tones in exact placement. It is a language of pure artifice, constructed 
on elements contrived within its own isolated world. Unlike any other 
art, it has no demonstrable correspondence with everyday life (the 
chance sounds of nature have been of little use to the composer). 
It is an abstraction which simply cannot depict life as do the 
descriptive or delineative arts. 

This bit of physical logic would leave us in the absurd position of 
considering such a score as Beethoven's Fifth Svmphony as nothing 
more than a succession of agreeable sounds, cleverly put together. 
We know that that Symphony gives us infinitely more than this by 
conveying in a peculiarly deep and complete way the character, the 
personality, what for want of any adequate phrase may be called the 
visionary spirit of a great artist. How this miracle takes place solely 
through an agglomeration of tones no prudent man will attempt to 
explain. 

[9] 



We naturally assume that emotional experience underlies emotional 
expression. We read of Beethoven's love affairs and think of his early 
slow movements, we connect his tragic deafness with poignant pages 
in his late works. We observe how he conquered his deafness in the 
inner world of his musical imagination, and think of his triumphant 
finales. No doubt these are basic indications. But any further attempt 
to particularize, to associate a work of art with the immediate circum- 
stances of a great artist's life is never convincing. An artist's whole 
nature is involved in the process of his creative imagination. We 
cannot look directly into his heart, but we can perceive the reflected 
image which is the music in hand, and we know that this music is 
more comprehensive than any momentary trouble or pleasure. 

Nothing could be more mistaken than to assume that Mozart com- 
posed the tragic slow movement of his G minor Quintet in distress 
because his infant child was dying, or that Beethoven composed the 
Adagio of his Hammerklavier Sonata in agony over his nephew, or 
that Tchaikovsky wrote his last symphony in a pessimistic mood. 
Personal tragic experience is painful and a depressant — great tragic 
music is an assertion of confident mastery. It is genuinely felt, but it 
is fiction, like any art. These composers, functioning at the top of 
their bent, must have felt elation, and our reaction when we exclaim 
over the beauty of the music, must be a paler reflection of that elation. 
Each of these composers knew tragedy; the sense of tragedy became a 
part of his emotional nature as artist, and so enriched the scope of 
his art. Undoubtedly his musical function, strong and sure, lifted him 
above his immediate troubles and proved him an enviable man, happy 
in his art. Beethoven's music throughout his life is an assertion of 
confidant power, particularly in his final movements which in his 
middle years sound like a triumphant resolution of conflicting moods; 
in his final works there is often a quieter serenity. The late J. W. N. 
Sullivan,* who has come as close as anyone to elucidating the true 
nature of the composing Beethoven, has stressed his musical "person- 
ality" as "a slowly developed synthetic whole." Elsewhere he writes: 
"One of the most significant facts for the understanding of Beethoven 
is that his work shows an organic development up till the very end. 
The older Beethoven lived, the more and more profound was what he 
had to say. The greatest music Beethoven ever wrote is to be found 
in the last string quartets, and the music of every decade before the 
final period has greater music than its predecessor. Such sustained 
development, in the case of an artist who reaches years of maturity, 
is a rare and important phenomenon. Bach, for instance, who may be 
likened to Beethoven for the seriousness and maturity of his mind, 
lost himself at the end in the arid labyrinths of pure technique. 

* "Beethoven: His Spiritual Development" (1936). 
[IP] 



Wagner, as the fever in his blood grew less, had nothing to express 
at the end but exhaustion and ineffectual longing. Beethoven's music 
continually developed because it was the expression of an attitude 
towards life that had within it the possibility of indefinite growth." 

Great music can be more than a synthesis of the composer's emo- 
tional experience — his imagination can carry him into the unknown. 
The unearthly "Ewig" with which Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde 
dies away, Brahms' Alto Rhapsody, with its entirely different contralto 
color and orchestral color — there are no end of instances where a 
unique mood is attained. Many places in the later Beethoven belong 
to the world of music and nothing outside of it. 

When Beethoven wrote "appassionato" into a score, or Wagner 
"ausdrucksvoll," each composer was merely giving the performer a 
go-ahead sign. He knew that more than the single word would do 
absolutely nothing to convey the music as he felt it. He could only 
hope that the performer would search his own musical soul and so 
respond to the composer's expressive intent. 

If a writer tries to tell us with his best literary skill what Beethoven 
really felt and eloquently expressed in tones, he of course gets nowhere. 
If, having sat before that succession of sounds which is called Beetho- 
ven's Fifth Symphony, he tells us that the four movements are in turn 
"forceful," "affecting," "propulsive," "exultant," the adjectives seem 
lame and vaguely approximate. They fall short because this particular 
art of directed sensation can be far more vivid than any other. The 
words are really alien because the emotional experience of tones is 
not quite like any other experience in our emotional life. We have 
been in a sound world which has no counterpart, a narrative art which 
narrates in sound and sound only. What is called "joyfulness" in 
music is not like the household variety of felicity, but is apt to be 
closely related to the swift pulse of the dance (music's only blood 
sister in the arts). Musical "pathos" has only a distant connection with 
actual grief. A falling half-tone or a minor third affects us as pathetic 
by pure musical association. The magic of the minor mode is not only 
untranslatable, but unaccountable. A scherzo is unlike any other piece 
of wit. 

The very fact that music has no proper descriptive vocabulary of 
its own, that we are forced to borrow from terms in the other arts, 
is proof of its apartness. One speaks of the "color" of instruments, 
harmonies are "dark" or "luminous," the "texture" of a score is 
"thick" or "transparent," tone quality is "hard" or "velvety," form is 
"architecture," grace notes are "ornaments." A composer works from 
an orchestral "palette" upon an orchestral "canvas." 

If borrowed words are ineffectual, figures of speech are downright 
misleading. When we read what E. T. A. Hoffman wrote about 



Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, we have the impression of a virtuoso 
of literary fantasy highly enjoying himself; when we read what Berlioz 
wrote, we have the impression of a musican who has been genuinely 
transported by the music, but who, undertaking to tell us how 
Beethoven felt, succeeds only in imparting his own personal raptures. 
Over the held E-flat at the opening of the Fifth Symphony, Beethoven 
gives us one sign — the "eyebrow" and dot of a simple fermata. But 
Wagner writes of this note: "The life-blood of the note must be 
squeezed out of it to the last drop, with force enough to arrest the 
waves of the sea, and lay bare the ground of the ocean; to stop the 
clouds in their courses, dispel the mists, and reveal the pure blue sky, 
and the burning face of the sun himself." If he were not Wagner he 
could merely have said: "Lean on it." The laconic Beethoven has 
proved wiser than the hyperbolic Wagner, for every conductor since 
has rightly consulted his own dramatic sense in this particular passage. 
Sir George Grove, usually a sober-minded musician, hardly helps our 
understanding of the music when he calls the second theme in E-flat 
(for the horns) "the sweet protest of a woman against the fury of her 
oppressor" (this "fury" was the opening subject). We hardly need to 
be told by him that the oboe solo before